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Sample records for kinases c-kit egf-r

  1. Receptor tyrosine kinase (c-Kit) inhibitors: a potential therapeutic target in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Abbaspour Babaei, Maryam; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Saleem, Mohammad; Huri, Hasniza Zaman; Ahmadipour, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    c-Kit, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is involved in intracellular signaling, and the mutated form of c-Kit plays a crucial role in occurrence of some cancers. The function of c-Kit has led to the concept that inhibiting c-Kit kinase activity can be a target for cancer therapy. The promising results of inhibition of c-Kit for treatment of cancers have been observed in some cancers such as gastrointestinal stromal tumor, acute myeloid leukemia, melanoma, and other tumors, and these results have encouraged attempts toward improvement of using c-Kit as a capable target for cancer therapy. This paper presents the findings of previous studies regarding c-Kit as a receptor tyrosine kinase and an oncogene, as well as its gene targets and signaling pathways in normal and cancer cells. The c-Kit gene location, protein structure, and the role of c-Kit in normal cell have been discussed. Comprehending the molecular mechanism underlying c-Kit-mediated tumorogenesis is consequently essential and may lead to the identification of future novel drug targets. The potential mechanisms by which c-Kit induces cellular transformation have been described. This study aims to elucidate the function of c-Kit for future cancer therapy. In addition, it has c-Kit inhibitor drug properties and their functions have been listed in tables and demonstrated in schematic pictures. This review also has collected previous studies that targeted c-Kit as a novel strategy for cancer therapy. This paper further emphasizes the advantages of this approach, as well as the limitations that must be addressed in the future. Finally, although c-Kit is an attractive target for cancer therapy, based on the outcomes of treatment of patients with c-Kit inhibitors, it is unlikely that Kit inhibitors alone can lead to cure. It seems that c-Kit mutations alone are not sufficient for tumorogenesis, but do play a crucial role in cancer occurrence. PMID:27536065

  2. Receptor tyrosine kinase (c-Kit) inhibitors: a potential therapeutic target in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Abbaspour Babaei, Maryam; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Saleem, Mohammad; Huri, Hasniza Zaman; Ahmadipour, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    c-Kit, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is involved in intracellular signaling, and the mutated form of c-Kit plays a crucial role in occurrence of some cancers. The function of c-Kit has led to the concept that inhibiting c-Kit kinase activity can be a target for cancer therapy. The promising results of inhibition of c-Kit for treatment of cancers have been observed in some cancers such as gastrointestinal stromal tumor, acute myeloid leukemia, melanoma, and other tumors, and these results have encouraged attempts toward improvement of using c-Kit as a capable target for cancer therapy. This paper presents the findings of previous studies regarding c-Kit as a receptor tyrosine kinase and an oncogene, as well as its gene targets and signaling pathways in normal and cancer cells. The c-Kit gene location, protein structure, and the role of c-Kit in normal cell have been discussed. Comprehending the molecular mechanism underlying c-Kit-mediated tumorogenesis is consequently essential and may lead to the identification of future novel drug targets. The potential mechanisms by which c-Kit induces cellular transformation have been described. This study aims to elucidate the function of c-Kit for future cancer therapy. In addition, it has c-Kit inhibitor drug properties and their functions have been listed in tables and demonstrated in schematic pictures. This review also has collected previous studies that targeted c-Kit as a novel strategy for cancer therapy. This paper further emphasizes the advantages of this approach, as well as the limitations that must be addressed in the future. Finally, although c-Kit is an attractive target for cancer therapy, based on the outcomes of treatment of patients with c-Kit inhibitors, it is unlikely that Kit inhibitors alone can lead to cure. It seems that c-Kit mutations alone are not sufficient for tumorogenesis, but do play a crucial role in cancer occurrence. PMID:27536065

  3. c-kit protein, a transmembrane kinase: identification in tissues and characterization.

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, S; Brown, K; Qiu, F H; Besmer, P

    1988-01-01

    The proto-oncogene c-kit encodes a transmembrane kinase which is related to the receptors for colony-stimulating factor type 1 and platelet-derived growth factor, as well as to the immunoglobulin superfamily. Antibodies specific for the kinase domain of the P80 gag-kit protein of the Hardy-Zuckerman 4 feline sarcoma virus were prepared. These kit-specific antibodies were used to identify and characterize the c-kit protein in cat brain tissue. The c-kit protein product displays an autophosphorylating activity in immune complex kinase assays, and, in turn, this activity was used to identify the c-kit protein in different tissues. In cat brain, a single 145-kilodalton (kDa) glycoprotein was detected. Its N-linked carbohydrates were found to be sensitive to digestion with the endoglycosidases (neuraminidase, endoglycosidase F, and endoglycosidase H), indicating hybrid and/or complex and high-mannose structures. A partial purification of the c-kit protein was achieved by wheat germ agglutinin affinity chromatography, and the autophosphorylating activity of the partially purified c-kit protein was characterized and found to be specific for tyrosine. The kit antibodies cross-react with the murine c-kit protein product, and variant c-kit proteins in different mouse tissues were identified, with sizes of about 145 kDa (brain), 160 kDa (spleen), and 150 kDa (testis). Images PMID:2463468

  4. Imatinib Analogs as Potential Agents for PET Imaging of Bcr-Abl/c-KIT Expression at a Kinase Level

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhenghong; Maxwell, David S.; Sun, Duoli; Bhanu Prasad, Basvoju A.; Pal, Ashutosh; Wang, Shimei; Balatoni, Julius; Ghosh, Pradip; Lim, Seok T.; Volgin, Andrei; Shavrin, Aleksander; Alauddin, Mian M.; Gelovani, Juri G.; Bornmann, William G.

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized two series of imatinib mesylate (STI-571) analogs to develop a Bcr-Abl and c-KIT receptor-specific labeling agent for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to measure Bcr-Abl and c-KIT expression levels in a mouse model. The methods of molecular modeling, synthesis of STI-571 and its analogs, in vitro kinase assays, and radiolabeling are described. Molecular modeling revealed that these analogs bind the same Bcr-Abl and c-KIT binding sites as those bound by STI-571. The analogs potently inhibit the tyrosine kinase activity of Bcr-Abl and c-KIT, similarly to STI-571. [18F]-labeled STI-571 was prepared with high specific activity (75 GBq/μmol) by nucleophilic displacement and an average radiochemical yield of 12%. [131I]-labeled STI-571 was prepared with high purity (>95%) and an average radiochemical yield of 23%. The uptake rates of [18F]-STI-571 in K562 cells expressing Abl and in U87WT cells overexpressing c-KIT were significantly higher than those in the U87 cell and could be inhibited by STI-71 (confirming the specificity of uptake). PET scans of K562 and U87WT tumor-bearing mice with [18F]-STI-571 as a contrast agent showed visible tumor uptake and tumor-to-non-target contrast. PMID:24280068

  5. A survival Kit for pancreatic beta cells: stem cell factor and c-Kit receptor tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhi-Chao; Riopel, Matthew; Popell, Alex; Wang, Rennian

    2015-04-01

    The interactions between c-Kit and its ligand, stem cell factor (SCF), play an important role in haematopoiesis, pigmentation and gametogenesis. c-Kit is also found in the pancreas, and recent studies have revealed that c-Kit marks a subpopulation of highly proliferative pancreatic endocrine cells that may harbour islet precursors. c-Kit governs and maintains pancreatic endocrine cell maturation and function via multiple signalling pathways. In this review we address the importance of c-Kit signalling within the pancreas, including its profound role in islet morphogenesis, islet vascularisation, and beta cell survival and function. We also discuss the impact of c-Kit signalling in pancreatic disease and the use of c-Kit as a potential target for the development of cell-based and novel drug therapies in the treatment of diabetes.

  6. Discovery of Aryl Aminoquinazoline Pyridones as Potent, Selective, and Orally Efficacious Inhibitors of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase c-Kit

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Essa; Tasker, Andrew; White, Ryan D.; Kunz, Roxanne K.; Human, Jason; Chen, Ning; Bürli, Roland; Hungate, Randall; Novak, Perry; Itano, Andrea; Zhang, Xuxia; Yu, Violeta; Nguyen, Yen; Tudor, Yanyan; Plant, Matthew; Flynn, Shaun; Xu, Yang; Meagher, Kristin L.; Whittington, Douglas A.; Ng, Gordon Y.

    2008-12-09

    Inhibition of c-Kit has the potential to treat mast cell associated fibrotic diseases. We report the discovery of several aminoquinazoline pyridones that are potent inhibitors of c-Kit with greater than 200-fold selectivity against KDR, p38, Lck, and Src. In vivo efficacy of pyridone 16 by dose-dependent inhibition of histamine release was demonstrated in a rodent pharmacodynamic model of mast cell activation.

  7. The Three Receptor Tyrosine Kinases c-KIT, VEGFR2 and PDGFRα, Closely Spaced at 4q12, Show Increased Protein Expression in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jansson, Sara; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Grabau, Dorthe Aamand; Falck, Anna-Karin; Fernö, Mårten; Aaltonen, Kristina; Rydén, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Background Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous subgroup of breast cancer with poor prognosis and no targeted therapy available. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are emerging targets in anticancer therapy and many RTK-inhibiting drugs are currently being developed. The aim of this study was to elucidate if there is a correlation between the protein expression of three RTKs c-KIT, VEGFR2 and PDGFRα, their gene copy number, and prognosis in TNBC compared to non-TNBC. Methods Tumor tissue samples from patients diagnosed with primary breast cancer were stained with immunohistochemistry (IHC) for protein assessment, and with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for gene copy number determination. Breast cancer mortality (BCM), measured from the date of surgery to death, was used as endpoint. Results The cohort included 464 patients, out of which 34 (7.3%) had a TNBC. High expression of the three RTKs was more common in TNBC compared to non-TNBC: c-KIT 49% vs. 10% (P<0.001), PDGFRα 32% vs. 19% (P = 0.07) and VEGFR2 32% vs. 6% (P<0.001). The odds ratio (OR) of c-KIT, VEGFR2 and PDGFRα positivity, adjusted for tumor characteristics, was 6.8, 3.6 and 1.3 times higher for TNBC than for non-TNBC. 73.5% of the TNBC had high expression of at least one of the three investigated receptors, compared to 30.0% of the non-TNBC (P<0.001). Survival analysis showed no significant difference in BCM for TNBC patients with high vs. low c-KIT, PDGFRα or VEGFR2 protein expression. 193 (42%) tumors were evaluated with FISH. No correlation was seen between increased gene copy number and TNBC, or between increased gene copy number and high protein expression of the RTK. Conclusion c-KIT, VEGFR2 and PDGFRα show higher protein expression in TNBC compared to non-TNBC. Further investigation clarifying the importance of these RTKs in TNBC is encouraged, as they are possible targets for anticancer therapy. PMID:25025175

  8. EGF-R small inhibitors and anti-EGF-R antibodies: advantages and limits of a new avenue in anticancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Caraglia, Michele; Marra, Monica; Meo, Giuseppina; Addeo, Santolo R; Tagliaferri, Pierosandro; Budillon, Alfredo

    2006-06-01

    Cellular receptors for the Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF-R) are members of the ErbB receptor family and are considered important targets for the experimental treatment of human cancer. Monoclonal antibodies as well as small tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been developed and have undergone extensive evaluation in preclinical and clinical studies based on the general idea that EGF-R plays a critical role on the growth and survival of human tumors. This assumption has been derived by the successful development of BCR/ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors in human chronic myeloid leukemia as well as on the activity of therapy with monoclonal antibodies (mAb) in breast cancer and lymphoproliferative diseases. It is now becoming clear that factors regulating sensitivity to kinase inhibitors may differ from monoclonal antibodies and that the molecules targeted by interfering drugs must be prioritaire for growth and survival of those specific tumors in order to achieve valuable results. In this article, we will describe the signal transduction pathways regulated by EGF-R and the principal pharmacological and biotechnological agents directed against EGF-R. We will discuss the significance of targeting the EGF-R driven survival pathways and the compensatory intracellular survival mechanisms that counteract the specific EGF-R inhibition and are the cause of the poor clinical results derived from study based on the use of these agents. We will describe new multipotent TKIs that target also other members of ErbB family (i.e. ErbB2) blocking one of the compensatory mechanism that can be triggered in cancer cells. Moreover, we will report new patent on bispecific mAbs that bind EGF-R and immune effectors in order to increase the immunological function of this agent that could be the basis of the different clinical results achieved with the use of TKI and mAbs. Finally, we will propose a pharmacological model able to make cancer cells dependent on EGF-R for their survival and

  9. Candidate ligand for the c-kit transmembrane kinase receptor: KL, a fibroblast derived growth factor stimulates mast cells and erythroid progenitors.

    PubMed Central

    Nocka, K; Buck, J; Levi, E; Besmer, P

    1990-01-01

    The c-kit proto-oncogene encodes a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor for an unidentified ligand and is allelic with the murine white-spotting locus (W). W mutations affect melanogenesis, gametogenesis and hematopoiesis during development and in adult life. Cellular targets of W mutations in hematopoiesis include distinct cell populations in the erythroid and mast cell lineages as well as stem cells. In the absence of interleukin-3 (IL-3) mast cells derived from normal mice but not from W mutant mice can be maintained by co-culture with 3T3 fibroblasts. Based on the defective proliferative response of W mast cells in the 3T3 fibroblast co-culture system it had been proposed that fibroblasts produce the c-kit ligand. We have used a mast cell proliferation assay to purify a 30 kd protein, designated KL, from conditioned medium of Balb/3T3 fibroblasts to apparent homogeneity. KL stimulates the proliferation of normal bone marrow derived mast cells but not mast cells from W mice, although both normal and mutant mast cells respond similarly to IL-3. Connective tissue-type mast cells derived from the peritoneal cavity of normal mice were found to express a high level of c-kit protein on their surface and to proliferate in response to KL. The effect of KL on erythroid progenitor cells was investigated as well. In combination with erythropoietin, KL was found to stimulate early erythroid progenitors (BFU-E) from fetal liver and spleen cells but not from bone marrow cells of adult mice and from fetal liver cells of W/W mice.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. PMID:1698611

  10. Discovery of N-(3-((1-Isonicotinoylpiperidin-4-yl)oxy)-4-methylphenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)benzamide (CHMFL-KIT-110) as a Selective, Potent, and Orally Available Type II c-KIT Kinase Inhibitor for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GISTs).

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Liu, Feiyang; Wang, Beilei; Zou, Fengming; Chen, Cheng; Liu, Xiaochuan; Wang, Aoli; Qi, Shuang; Wang, Wenchao; Qi, Ziping; Zhao, Zheng; Hu, Zhenquan; Wang, Wei; Wang, Li; Zhang, Shanchun; Wang, Yuexiang; Liu, Jing; Liu, Qingsong

    2016-04-28

    c-KIT kinase is a validated drug discovery target for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Clinically used c-KIT kinase inhibitors, i.e., Imatinib and Sunitinib, bear other important targets such as ABL or FLT3 kinases. Here we report our discovery of a more selective c-KIT inhibitor, compound 13 (CHMFL-KIT-110), which completely abolished ABL and FLT3 kinase activity. KinomeScan selectivity profiling (468 kinases) of 13 exhibited a high selectivity (S score (1) = 0.01). 13 displayed great antiproliferative efficacy against GISTs cell lines GIST-T1 and GIST-882 (GI50: 0.021 and 0.043 μM, respectively). In the cellular context, it effectively affected c-KIT-mediated signaling pathways and induced apoptosis as well as cell cycle arrest. In addition, 13 possessed acceptable bioavailability (36%) and effectively suppressed the tumor growth in GIST-T1 cell inoculated xenograft model without apparent toxicity. 13 currently is undergoing extensive preclinical evaluation and might be a potential drug candidate for GISTs. PMID:27077705

  11. Discovery of N-((1-(4-(3-(3-((6,7-Dimethoxyquinolin-3-yl)oxy)phenyl)ureido)-2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)piperidin-4-yl)methyl)propionamide (CHMFL-KIT-8140) as a Highly Potent Type II Inhibitor Capable of Inhibiting the T670I "Gatekeeper" Mutant of cKIT Kinase.

    PubMed

    Li, Binhua; Wang, Aoli; Liu, Juan; Qi, Ziping; Liu, Xiaochuan; Yu, Kailin; Wu, Hong; Chen, Cheng; Hu, Chen; Wang, Wenchao; Wu, Jiaxin; Hu, Zhenquan; Ye, Ling; Zou, Fengming; Liu, Feiyang; Wang, Beilei; Wang, Li; Ren, Tao; Zhang, Shaojuan; Bai, Mingfeng; Zhang, Shanchun; Liu, Jing; Liu, Qingsong

    2016-09-22

    cKIT kinase inhibitors, e.g., imatinib, could induce drug-acquired mutations such as cKIT T670I that rendered drug resistance after chronic treatment. Through a type II kinase inhibitor design approach we discovered a highly potent type II cKIT kinase inhibitor compound 35 (CHMFL-KIT-8140), which potently inhibited both cKIT wt (IC50 = 33 nM) and cKIT gatekeeper T670I mutant (IC50 = 99 nM). Compound 35 displayed strong antiproliferative effect against GISTs cancer cell lines GIST-T1 (cKIT wt, GI50 = 4 nM) and GIST-5R (cKIT T670I, GI50 = 26 nM). In the cellular context it strongly inhibited c-KIT mediated signaling pathways and induced apoptosis. In the BaF3-TEL-cKIT-T670I isogenic cell inoculated xenograft mouse model, 35 exhibited dose dependent tumor growth suppression efficacy and 100 mg/kg dosage provided 47.7% tumor growth inhibition (TGI) without obvious toxicity. We believe compound 35 would be a good pharmacological tool for exploration of the cKIT-T670I mutant mediated pathology in GISTs. PMID:27545040

  12. Involvement of Phospholipase Cγ1 in Mouse Egg Activation Induced by a Truncated Form of the C-kit Tyrosine Kinase Present in Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Sette, Claudio; Bevilacqua, Arturo; Geremia, Raffaele; Rossi, Pellegrino

    1998-01-01

    Microinjection of a truncated form of the c-kit tyrosine kinase present in mouse spermatozoa (tr-kit) activates mouse eggs parthenogenetically, and tr-kit– induced egg activation is inhibited by preincubation with an inhibitor of phospholipase C (PLC) (Sette, C., A. Bevilacqua, A. Bianchini, F. Mangia, R. Geremia, and P. Rossi. 1997. Development [Camb.]. 124:2267–2274). Co-injection of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins containing the src-homology (SH) domains of the γ1 isoform of PLC (PLCγ1) competitively inhibits tr-kit– induced egg activation. A GST fusion protein containing the SH3 domain of PLCγ1 inhibits egg activation as efficiently as the whole SH region, while a GST fusion protein containing the two SH2 domains is much less effective. A GST fusion protein containing the SH3 domain of the Grb2 adaptor protein does not inhibit tr-kit–induced egg activation, showing that the effect of the SH3 domain of PLCγ1 is specific. Tr-kit–induced egg activation is also suppressed by co-injection of antibodies raised against the PLCγ1 SH domains, but not against the PLCγ1 COOH-terminal region. In transfected COS cells, coexpression of PLCγ1 and tr-kit increases diacylglycerol and inositol phosphate production, and the phosphotyrosine content of PLCγ1 with respect to cells expressing PLCγ1 alone. These data indicate that tr-kit activates PLCγ1, and that the SH3 domain of PLCγ1 is essential for tr-kit–induced egg activation. PMID:9722617

  13. Src-like-adaptor protein (SLAP) differentially regulates normal and oncogenic c-Kit signaling.

    PubMed

    Kazi, Julhash U; Agarwal, Shruti; Sun, Jianmin; Bracco, Enrico; Rönnstrand, Lars

    2014-02-01

    The Src-like-adaptor protein (SLAP) is an adaptor protein sharing considerable structural homology with Src. SLAP is expressed in a variety of cells and regulates receptor tyrosine kinase signaling by direct association. In this report, we show that SLAP associates with both wild-type and oncogenic c-Kit (c-Kit-D816V). The association involves the SLAP SH2 domain and receptor phosphotyrosine residues different from those mediating Src interaction. Association of SLAP triggers c-Kit ubiquitylation which, in turn, is followed by receptor degradation. Although SLAP depletion potentiates c-Kit downstream signaling by stabilizing the receptor, it remains non-functional in c-Kit-D816V signaling. Ligand-stimulated c-Kit or c-Kit-D816V did not alter membrane localization of SLAP. Interestingly oncogenic c-Kit-D816V, but not wild-type c-Kit, phosphorylates SLAP on residues Y120, Y258 and Y273. Physical interaction between c-Kit-D816V and SLAP is mandatory for the phosphorylation to take place. Although tyrosine-phosphorylated SLAP does not affect c-Kit-D816V signaling, mutation of these tyrosine sites to phenylalanine can restore SLAP activity. Taken together the data demonstrate that SLAP negatively regulates wild-type c-Kit signaling, but not its oncogenic counterpart, indicating a possible mechanism by which the oncogenic c-Kit bypasses the normal cellular negative feedback control.

  14. Oncogenic c-kit transcript is a target for binase.

    PubMed

    Mitkevich, Vladimir A; Petrushanko, Irina Y; Kretova, Olga V; Zelenikhin, Pavel V; Prassolov, Vladimir S; Tchurikov, Nickolai A; Ilinskaya, Olga N; Makarov, Alexander A

    2010-07-01

    Mutational activation of c-Kit receptor tyrosine kinase is common in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). One such activating point mutation is the N822K replacement in the c-Kit protein. Here we investigate the selective cytotoxic effect of binase--RNase from Bacillus intermedius--on FDC-P1-N822K cells. These cells were derived from myeloid progenitor FDC-P1 cells, in which ectopic expression of N822K c-kit gene induces interleukin-3 independent growth. In order to determine whether the sensitivity of these cells to binase is caused by the expression of c-kit oncogene, the cytotoxicity of the RNase was studied in the presence of selective inhibitor of mutated c-Kit imatinib (Gleevec). Inhibition of mutated c-Kit protein leads to the loss of cell sensitivity to the apoptotic effect of binase, while the latter still decreases the amount of cellular RNA. Using green fluorescent protein as an expression marker for the c-Kit oncoprotein, we demonstrate that the elimination of c-Kit is the key factor in selective cytotoxicity of binase. Quantitative RT-PCR with RNA samples isolated from the binase-treated FDC-P1-N822K cells shows that binase treatment results in 41% reduction in the amount of с-kit mRNA. This indicates that the transcript of the activated mutant c-kit is the target for toxic action of binase. Thus, the combination of inhibition of oncogenic protein with the destruction of its mRNA is a promising approach to eliminating malignant cells.

  15. Signaling from the Human Melanocortin 1 Receptor to ERK1 and ERK2 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Involves Transactivation of cKIT

    PubMed Central

    Herraiz, Cecilia; Journé, Fabrice; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa; Ghanem, Ghanem; Jiménez-Cervantes, Celia; García-Borrón, José C.

    2011-01-01

    Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), a Gs protein-coupled receptor expressed in melanocytes, is a major determinant of skin pigmentation, phototype and cancer risk. Upon stimulation by αMSH, MC1R triggers the cAMP and ERK1/ERK2 MAPK pathways. In mouse melanocytes, ERK activation by αMSH binding to Mc1r depends on cAMP, and melanocytes are considered a paradigm for cAMP-dependent ERK activation. However, human MC1R variants associated with red hair, fair skin [red hair color (RHC) phenotype], and increased skin cancer risk display reduced cAMP signaling but activate ERKs as efficiently as wild type in heterologous cells, suggesting independent signaling to ERKs and cAMP in human melanocytes. We show that MC1R signaling activated the ERK pathway in normal human melanocytes and melanoma cells expressing physiological levels of endogenous RHC variants. ERK activation was comparable for wild-type and mutant MC1R and was independent on cAMP because it was neither triggered by stimulation of cAMP synthesis with forskolin nor blocked by the adenylyl cyclase inhibitor 2′,5′-dideoxyadenosine. Stimulation of MC1R with αMSH did not lead to protein kinase C activation and ERK activation was unaffected by protein kinase C inhibitors. Conversely, pharmacological interference, small interfering RNA studies, expression profiles, and functional reconstitution experiments showed that αMSH-induced ERK activation resulted from Src tyrosine kinase-mediated transactivation of the stem cell factor receptor, a receptor tyrosine kinase essential for proliferation, differentiation, and survival of melanocyte precursors, thus demonstrating a functional link between the stem cell factor receptor and MC1R. Moreover, this transactivation phenomenon is unique because it is unaffected by natural mutations impairing canonical MC1R signaling through the cAMP pathway. PMID:21084381

  16. Imatinib in pulmonary arterial hypertension: c-Kit inhibition.

    PubMed

    Farha, Samar; Dweik, Raed; Rahaghi, Franck; Benza, Raymond; Hassoun, Paul; Frantz, Robert; Torres, Fernando; Quinn, Deborah A; Comhair, Suzy; Erzurum, Serpil; Asosingh, Kewal

    2014-09-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease characterized by severe remodeling of the pulmonary artery resulting in increased pulmonary artery pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy and, ultimately, failure. Bone marrow-derived progenitor cells play a critical role in vascular homeostasis and have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of PAH. A proliferation of c-Kit(+) hematopoietic progenitors and mast cells has been noted in the remodeled vessels in PAH. Imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets c-Kit, has been shown to be beneficial for patients with PAH. Here we hypothesize that the clinical benefit of imatinib in PAH could be related to c-Kit inhibition of progenitor cell mobilization and maturation into mast cells. As a corollary to the phase 3 study using imatinib in PAH, blood samples were collected from 12 patients prior to starting study drug (baseline) and while on treatment at weeks 4 and 24. Eight were randomized to imatinib and 4 to placebo. Circulating c-Kit(+) and CD34(+)CD133(+) hematopoietic progenitors as well as biomarkers of mast cell numbers and activation were measured. Circulating CD34(+)CD133(+) and c-Kit(+) progenitor cells as well as c-Kit(+)/CD34(+)CD133(+) decreased with imatinib therapy (all P < 0.05). In addition, total tryptase, a marker of mast cell load, dropped with imatinib therapy (P = 0.02) and was related to pulmonary vascular resistance (R = 0.7, P = 0.02). The findings support c-Kit inhibition as a potential mechanism of action of imatinib in PAH and suggest that tryptase is a potential biomarker of response to therapy. PMID:25621158

  17. Expression of c-kit protein in cancer vs. normal breast tissue

    PubMed Central

    Jazayeri, Seyed Nematollah; Nateghi, Jamal

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study There are at least four main signal transduction pathways within human cells which are activated by interaction of an extracellular ligand with its corresponding receptors. One of them is activation of protein kinase. Actually, any of these proteins at any level of the signaling cascade in a human cell can undergo mutation and cause irregular cellular proliferation and finally result in cancer. C-kit is alternatively called stem cell factor receptor (SCFR) or CD117. It appears that lack of c-kit expression accompanies progression of some tumors, e.g. lung, breast, GIST. The aim of this study was to evaluate C-kit protein expression level within cancer cases. Material and methods Sixty specimens of breast cancer and 60 non-cancerous breast tissue specimens were evaluated by IHC for C-kit presentation. We used positive GIST slides as controls. Epi-info ver 6.04 (CDC, WHO) was used for analysis. Results C-kit was negative in all breast cancer specimens. C-kit was negative in 47 (78%) of 60 non-cancerous breast tissue specimens, but was positive in 13 (22%) of them (p < 0.0001). Conclusions There is a reduction in C-kit expression with malignant transformation of breast epithelium. C-kit is believed to play a role in breast carcinogenesis. However, we should follow patients with normal or benign breast tissue to indicate any correlation between C-kit presentation and breast cancer development. PMID:23788899

  18. Activated c-Kit receptor in the heart promotes cardiac repair and regeneration after injury

    PubMed Central

    Di Siena, S; Gimmelli, R; Nori, S L; Barbagallo, F; Campolo, F; Dolci, S; Rossi, P; Venneri, M A; Giannetta, E; Gianfrilli, D; Feigenbaum, L; Lenzi, A; Naro, F; Cianflone, E; Mancuso, T; Torella, D; Isidori, A M; Pellegrini, M

    2016-01-01

    The role of endogenous c-Kit receptor activation on cardiac cell homeostasis and repair remains largely unexplored. Transgenic mice carrying an activating point mutation (TgD814Y) in the kinase domain of the c-Kit gene were generated. c-KitTgD814Y receptor was expressed in the heart during embryonic development and postnatal life, in a similar timing and expression pattern to that of the endogenous gene, but not in the hematopoietic compartment allowing the study of a cardiac-specific phenotype. c-KitTgD814Y mutation produced a constitutive active c-Kit receptor in cardiac tissue and cells from transgenic mice as demonstrated by the increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT, which are the main downstream molecular effectors of c-Kit receptor signaling. In adult transgenic hearts, cardiac morphology, size and total c-Kit+ cardiac cell number was not different compared with wt mice. However, when c-KitTgD814Y mice were subjected to transmural necrotic heart damage by cryoinjury (CI), all transgenic survived, compared with half of wt mice. In the sub-acute phase after CI, transgenic and wt mice showed similar heart damage. However, 9 days after CI, transgenic mice exhibited an increased number of c-Kit+CD31+ endothelial progenitor cells surrounding the necrotic area. At later follow-up, a consistent reduction of fibrotic area, increased capillary density and increased cardiomyocyte replenishment rate (as established by BrdU incorporation) were observed in transgenic compared with wt mice. Consistently, CD45−c-Kit+ cardiac stem cells isolated from transgenic c-KitTgD814Y mice showed an enhanced endothelial and cardiomyocyte differentiation potential compared with cells isolated from the wt. Constitutive activation of c-Kit receptor in mice is associated with an increased cardiac myogenic and vasculogenic reparative potential after injury, with a significant improvement of survival. PMID:27468693

  19. Activated c-Kit receptor in the heart promotes cardiac repair and regeneration after injury.

    PubMed

    Di Siena, S; Gimmelli, R; Nori, S L; Barbagallo, F; Campolo, F; Dolci, S; Rossi, P; Venneri, M A; Giannetta, E; Gianfrilli, D; Feigenbaum, L; Lenzi, A; Naro, F; Cianflone, E; Mancuso, T; Torella, D; Isidori, A M; Pellegrini, M

    2016-01-01

    The role of endogenous c-Kit receptor activation on cardiac cell homeostasis and repair remains largely unexplored. Transgenic mice carrying an activating point mutation (TgD814Y) in the kinase domain of the c-Kit gene were generated. c-Kit(TgD814Y) receptor was expressed in the heart during embryonic development and postnatal life, in a similar timing and expression pattern to that of the endogenous gene, but not in the hematopoietic compartment allowing the study of a cardiac-specific phenotype. c-Kit(TgD814Y) mutation produced a constitutive active c-Kit receptor in cardiac tissue and cells from transgenic mice as demonstrated by the increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT, which are the main downstream molecular effectors of c-Kit receptor signaling. In adult transgenic hearts, cardiac morphology, size and total c-Kit(+) cardiac cell number was not different compared with wt mice. However, when c-Kit(TgD814Y) mice were subjected to transmural necrotic heart damage by cryoinjury (CI), all transgenic survived, compared with half of wt mice. In the sub-acute phase after CI, transgenic and wt mice showed similar heart damage. However, 9 days after CI, transgenic mice exhibited an increased number of c-Kit(+)CD31(+) endothelial progenitor cells surrounding the necrotic area. At later follow-up, a consistent reduction of fibrotic area, increased capillary density and increased cardiomyocyte replenishment rate (as established by BrdU incorporation) were observed in transgenic compared with wt mice. Consistently, CD45(-)c-Kit(+) cardiac stem cells isolated from transgenic c-Kit(TgD814Y) mice showed an enhanced endothelial and cardiomyocyte differentiation potential compared with cells isolated from the wt. Constitutive activation of c-Kit receptor in mice is associated with an increased cardiac myogenic and vasculogenic reparative potential after injury, with a significant improvement of survival. PMID:27468693

  20. Hiding inside? Intracellular expression of non-glycosylated c-kit protein in cardiac progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Huilin; Drummond, Christopher A; Fan, Xiaoming; Haller, Steven T; Liu, Jiang; Malhotra, Deepak; Tian, Jiang

    2016-05-01

    Cardiac progenitor cells including c-kit(+) cells and cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) play important roles in cardiac repair and regeneration. CDCs were reported to contain only small subpopulations of c-kit(+) cells and recent publications suggested that depletion of the c-kit(+) subpopulation of cells has no effect on regenerative properties of CDCs. However, our current study showed that the vast majority of CDCs from murine heart actually express c-kit, albeit, in an intracellular and non-glycosylated form. Immunostaining and flow cytometry showed that the fluorescent signal indicative of c-kit immunostaining significantly increased when cell membranes were permeabilized. Western blots further demonstrated that glycosylation of c-kit was increased during endothelial differentiation in a time dependent manner. Glycosylation inhibition by 1-deoxymannojirimycin hydrochloride (1-DMM) blocked c-kit glycosylation and reduced expression of endothelial cell markers such as Flk-1 and CD31 during differentiation. Pretreatment of these cells with a c-kit kinase inhibitor (imatinib mesylate) also attenuated Flk-1 and CD31 expression. These results suggest that c-kit glycosylation and its kinase activity are likely needed for these cells to differentiate into an endothelial lineage. In vivo, we found that intracellular c-kit expressing cells are located in the wall of cardiac blood vessels in mice subjected to myocardial infarction. In summary, our work demonstrated for the first time that c-kit is not only expressed in CDCs but may also directly participate in CDC differentiation into an endothelial lineage.

  1. The alpha subunit of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor interacts with c-Kit and inhibits c-Kit signaling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Cárcamo, Juan M; Golde, David W

    2006-08-01

    The cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) regulates hematopoiesis and the function of mature host defense cells through the GM-CSF receptor (GMR), which is composed of alpha (alphaGMR) and beta (betaGMR) subunits. Stem cell factor is another important hematopoietic cytokine that signals through c-Kit, a receptor tyrosine kinase, and regulates hematopoietic stem cell maintenance and erythroid development. Like other cytokine receptors, GMR and c-Kit are generally deemed as independent adaptor molecules capable of transducing cytokine-specific signals. We found that the alphaGMR directly interacts with c-Kit and that the interaction is mediated by the cytoplasmic domains. Furthermore, alphaGMR inhibited c-Kit auto-phosphorylation induced by the ligand stem cell factor. Consistent with the inhibitory effect, the expression of alphaGMR was suppressed in cells whose viability was dependent on c-Kit signaling. In contrast, the alternatively spliced alpha2 isoform of the alphaGMR could not inhibit c-Kit signaling, providing a rationale for the existence of the alpha2 isoform. Our results suggest that in addition to having the commonly appreciated roles in cytokine signal transduction, the receptors alphaGMR and c-Kit could interact to coordinate their signal initiation.

  2. Synthesis and biological evaluation of di-aryl urea derivatives as c-Kit inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ravez, Séverine; Arsenlis, Stéphane; Barczyk, Amélie; Dupont, Anthony; Frédérick, Raphaël; Hesse, Stéphanie; Kirsch, Gilbert; Depreux, Patrick; Goossens, Laurence

    2015-11-15

    Inhibition of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) continued to be a successful approach for the treatment of many types of human cancers and many potent small molecules kinase inhibitors have been discovered the last decade. In the present study, we describe the synthesis of thienopyrimidine derivatives and their pharmacological evaluation against nine kinases (EGFR, PDGFR-ß, c-Kit, c-Met, Src, Raf, VEGFR-1, -2 and -3). Most of the synthesized compounds showed from moderate to potent activities against c-Kit with IC50 values in the nanomolar range. Among them, 4-anilino(urea)thienopyrimidine analogs showed selectivity and potent c-Kit inhibition with IC50 values less than 6 nM. Docking simulation was performed for the most promising compound 9 into the c-Kit active site to determine the potential binding mode. This study reveal that the 4-anilino(urea)thienopyrimidine is an interesting scaffold to design novel potent and selective c-Kit inhibitors which may make promising candidates for cancers where c-Kit receptors are overexpressed.

  3. The SCF/c-KIT system in the male: Survival strategies in fertility and cancer.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Henrique J; Figueira, Marília I; Correia, Sara; Vaz, Cátia V; Socorro, Sílvia

    2014-12-01

    Maintaining the delicate balance between cell survival and death is of the utmost importance for the proper development of germ cells and subsequent fertility. On the other hand, the fine regulation of tissue homeostasis by mechanisms that control cell fate is a factor that can prevent carcinogenesis. c-KIT is a type III receptor tyrosine kinase activated by its ligand, stem cell factor (SCF). c-KIT signaling plays a crucial role in cell fate decisions, specifically controlling cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis. Indeed, deregulating the SCF/c-KIT system by attenuation or overactivation of its signaling strength is linked to male infertility and cancer, and rebalancing its activity via c-KIT inhibitors has proven beneficial in treating human tumors that contain gain-of-function mutations or overexpress c-KIT. This review addresses the roles of SCF and c-KIT in the male reproductive tract, and discusses the potential application of c-KIT target therapies in disorders of the reproductive system. PMID:25359157

  4. C-kit signaling promotes proliferation and invasion of colorectal mucinous adenocarcinoma in a murine model

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jun; Yang, Shu; Shen, Ping; Sun, Haimei; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Yaxi; Wu, Bo; Ji, Fengqing; Yan, Jihong; Xue, Hong; Zhou, Deshan

    2015-01-01

    It was reported that the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family often highly expressed in several mucinous carcinomas. In the present study, we established a murine model of colorectal mucinous adenocardinoma (CRMAC) by treating C57 mice [both wild type (WT) and loss-of-function c-kit mutant type (Wads−/−)] with AOM+DSS for 37 weeks and found that c-kit, a member of RTK family, clearly enhanced the tumor cell proliferation by decreasing p53 and increasing cyclin D1 through AKT pathway. Significantly, c-kit strongly promoted tumor cell invasiveness by increasing ETV4, which induced MMP7 expression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via ERK pathway. In vitro up- or down-regulating c-kit activation in human colorectal cancer HCT-116 cells further consolidated these results. In conclusion, our data suggested that the c-kit signaling obviously promoted proliferation and invasion of CRMAC. Therefore, targeting the c-kit signaling and its downstream molecules might provide the potential strategies for treatment of patients suffering from CRMAC in the future. PMID:26356816

  5. Silencing of c-kit with small interference RNA attenuates inflammation in a murine model of allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Wang, Tao; Dong, Jia-Jia; Liao, Zeng-Lin; Wen, Fu-Qiang

    2012-07-01

    Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by the inflammation of the airways due to infiltration and activation of several inflammatory cells that produce cytokines. c-kit, a proto-oncogene that encodes a tyrosine kinase receptor, has been found to be associated with allergic inflammation. The aim of the present study was to assess whether silencing of c-kit with small interference RNA (siRNA) would attenuate inflammation in allergic asthma. A mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma was treated with systemic administration of anti-c-kit siRNA to inhibit the expression of the c-kit gene. siRNAs were injected through the vena caudalis. We measured inflammatory response in both anti-c-kit siRNA-treated and control mice. Systemic administration of siRNA could effectively inhibit the expression of the c-kit gene and reduce the infiltration of inflammatory cells (eosinophils and lymphocytes) into the lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In addition, we found that c-kit siRNA can decrease the production of the T-helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines, interleukin 4 (IL-4) and IL-5, but has no influence on IFN-γ generation. These results show that inhibition of c-kit expression with siRNA can reduce the inflammatory response in allergic asthma.

  6. Antagonism of Stem Cell Factor/c-kit Signaling Attenuates Neonatal Chronic Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Young, Karen C; Torres, Eneida; Hehre, Dorothy; Wu, Shu; Suguihara, Cleide; Hare, Joshua M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence suggests that c-kit positive cells are present in the remodeled pulmonary vasculature bed of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Whether stem cell factor (SCF)/ c-kit regulated pathways potentiate pulmonary vascular remodeling is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that attenuated c-kit signaling would decrease chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling by decreasing pulmonary vascular cell mitogenesis. Methods Neonatal FVB/NJ mice treated with non-immune IgG (PL), or c-kit neutralizing antibody (ACK2) as well as c-kit mutant mice (WBB6F1- Kit W− v/ +) and their congenic controls, were exposed to normoxia (FiO2=0.21) or hypoxia (FiO2=0.12) for two weeks. Following this exposure, right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), pulmonary vascular cell proliferation and remodeling were evaluated. Results As compared to chronically hypoxic controls, c-kit mutant mice had decreased RVSP, RVH, pulmonary vascular remodeling and proliferation. Consistent with these findings, administration of ACK2 to neonatal mice with chronic hypoxia-induced PH decreased RVSP, RVH, pulmonary vascular cell proliferation and remodeling. This attenuation in PH was accompanied by decreased extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) 1/2 activation. Conclusion SCF/c-kit signaling may potentiate chronic hypoxia-induced vascular remodeling by modulating ERK activation. Inhibition of c-kit activity may be a potential strategy to alleviate PH. PMID:26705118

  7. Evaluation of the relationship between c-Kit expression and mean platelet volume in classic Kaposi's sarcoma*

    PubMed Central

    Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Bedir, Recep; Cure, Erkan; Cure, Medine Cumhur; Yuce, Suleyman; Dilek, Nursel

    2016-01-01

    Background c-Kit is a proto-oncogene that encodes tyrosine kinase receptor (CD117). Mean platelet volume (MPV) is a useful marker, providing information on platelet function and diameter. Objective To investigate c-Kit expression and intensity in patients with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and to investigate the relation between Ki-67 proliferation and MPV. Methods A total of 32 patients, diagnosed with classic cutaneous KS, were included in this study. We reevaluated the histopathological reports with the preparations, confirmed the diagnosis and then determined the patients' histopathological stages. c-Kit expression and Ki-67 proliferation were investigated immunohistochemically in KS cases, while MPV in all cases was checked. Results Although c-Kit expression was detected in 22 cases (68.8%), it was not expressed in 10 cases (31.2%). We detected 8 cases with + (25%), 6 with ++ (18.8%) and 8 with +++ (25%). Ki-67 expression was 5.0% (min-max 1.0-20.0). Relapse was observed in 5 cases (15.6%) out of 32. There was positive correlation between c-Kit expression and MPV (rs=0.598, p<0.001), and between c-Kit intensity and MPV (rs=0.588, p<0.001). Conclusion c-Kit is highly positive in KS. c-Kit positivity indicates a high risk of tumor growth, invasion and relapse. Furthermore, c-Kit expression stimulates megakaryocytes to release young and large thrombocytes into the periphery. Thus, high MPV, c-Kit expression and immunostaining intensity indicate high invasion and relapse in KS subjects. PMID:27579736

  8. Disruption of c-Kit Signaling in Kit(W-sh/W-sh) Growing Mice Increases Bone Turnover.

    PubMed

    Lotinun, Sutada; Krishnamra, Nateetip

    2016-01-01

    c-Kit tyrosine kinase receptor has been identified as a regulator of bone homeostasis. The c-Kit loss-of-function mutations in WBB6F1/J-Kit(W/W-v) mice result in low bone mass. However, these mice are sterile and it is unclear whether the observed skeletal phenotype is secondary to a sex hormone deficiency. In contrast, C57BL/6J-Kit(W-sh)/(W-sh) (W(sh)/W(sh)) mice, which carry an inversion mutation affecting the transcriptional regulatory elements of the c-Kit gene, are fertile. Here, we showed that W(sh)/W(sh) mice exhibited osteopenia with elevated bone resorption and bone formation at 6- and 9-week-old. The c-Kit W(sh) mutation increased osteoclast differentiation, the number of committed osteoprogenitors, alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization. c-Kit was expressed in both osteoclasts and osteoblasts, and c-Kit expression was decreased in W(sh)/W(sh)osteoclasts, but not osteoblasts, suggesting an indirect effect of c-Kit on bone formation. Furthermore, the osteoclast-derived coupling factor Wnt10b mRNA was increased in W(sh)/W(sh) osteoclasts. Conditioned medium from W(sh)/W(sh) osteoclasts had elevated Wnt10b protein levels and induced increased alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization in osteoblast cultures. Antagonizing Wnt10b signaling with DKK1 or Wnt10b antibody inhibited these effects. Our data suggest that c-Kit negatively regulates bone turnover, and disrupted c-Kit signaling couples increased bone resorption with bone formation through osteoclast-derived Wnt 10 b. PMID:27527615

  9. Disruption of c-Kit Signaling in KitW-sh/W-sh Growing Mice Increases Bone Turnover

    PubMed Central

    Lotinun, Sutada; Krishnamra, Nateetip

    2016-01-01

    c-Kit tyrosine kinase receptor has been identified as a regulator of bone homeostasis. The c-Kit loss-of-function mutations in WBB6F1/J-KitW/W-v mice result in low bone mass. However, these mice are sterile and it is unclear whether the observed skeletal phenotype is secondary to a sex hormone deficiency. In contrast, C57BL/6J-KitW-sh/W-sh (Wsh/Wsh) mice, which carry an inversion mutation affecting the transcriptional regulatory elements of the c-Kit gene, are fertile. Here, we showed that Wsh/Wsh mice exhibited osteopenia with elevated bone resorption and bone formation at 6- and 9-week-old. The c-Kit Wsh mutation increased osteoclast differentiation, the number of committed osteoprogenitors, alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization. c-Kit was expressed in both osteoclasts and osteoblasts, and c-Kit expression was decreased in Wsh/Wshosteoclasts, but not osteoblasts, suggesting an indirect effect of c-Kit on bone formation. Furthermore, the osteoclast-derived coupling factor Wnt10b mRNA was increased in Wsh/Wsh osteoclasts. Conditioned medium from Wsh/Wsh osteoclasts had elevated Wnt10b protein levels and induced increased alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization in osteoblast cultures. Antagonizing Wnt10b signaling with DKK1 or Wnt10b antibody inhibited these effects. Our data suggest that c-Kit negatively regulates bone turnover, and disrupted c-Kit signaling couples increased bone resorption with bone formation through osteoclast-derived Wnt 10 b. PMID:27527615

  10. Inhibition of c-Kit signaling is associated with reduced heat and cold pain sensitivity in humans.

    PubMed

    Ceko, Marta; Milenkovic, Nevena; le Coutre, Philipp; Westermann, Jörg; Lewin, Gary R

    2014-07-01

    The tyrosine kinase receptor c-Kit is critically involved in the modulation of nociceptive sensitivity in mice. Ablation of the c-Kit gene results in hyposensitivity to thermal pain, whereas activation of c-Kit produces hypersensitivity to noxious heat, without altering sensitivity to innocuous mechanical stimuli. In this study, we investigated the role of c-Kit signaling in human pain perception. We hypothesized that subjects treated with Imatinib or Nilotinib, potent inhibitors of tyrosine kinases including c-Kit but also Abl1, PDFGFRα, and PDFGFRβ, that are used to treat chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), would experience changes in thermal pain sensitivity. We examined 31 asymptomatic CML patients (14 male and 17 female) receiving Imatinib/Nilotinib treatment and compared them to 39 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (12 male and 27 female). We used cutaneous heat and cold stimulation to test normal and noxious thermal sensitivity, and a grating orientation task to assess tactile acuity. Thermal pain thresholds were significantly increased in the Imatinib/Nilotinib-treated group, whereas innocuous thermal and tactile thresholds were unchanged compared to those in the control group. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the biological effects of c-Kit inhibition are comparable in mice and humans in that c-Kit activity is required to regulate thermal pain sensitivity but does not affect innocuous thermal and mechanical sensation. The effect on experimental heat pain observed in our study is comparable to those of several common analgesics; thus modulation of the c-Kit pathway can be used to specifically modulate noxious heat and cold sensitivity in humans.

  11. C-Kit-Negative Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor in the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ho Seok; Hyeon, Ji Yeon; Shin, Ok-Ran

    2015-01-01

    C-kit-negative gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are uncommon, and there have been few reports about the diagnosis and treatment of c-kit-negative GISTs in the stomach. We report the case of a patient who was diagnosed with a huge and atypical GIST in the stomach. The GIST was completely resected and finally diagnosed as c-kit-negative GIST based on immunohistochemical staining of tumor cells, which were negative for CD117 and CD34 and positive for Discovered on GIST-1 (DOG1). C-kit-negative GISTs could be treated by complete resection and/or imatinib, which is the same treatment for c-kit-positive GISTs. PMID:26819809

  12. Detection of C-KIT (CD117) molecule in benign and malignant salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Andreadis, Dimitrios; Epivatianos, Apostolos; Poulopoulos, Athanasios; Nomikos, Alexandros; Papazoglou, Georgios; Antoniades, Demetrios; Barbatis, Calypso

    2006-01-01

    C-KIT (CD117), a tyrosine kinase receptor, is involved in the growth and development of normal tissues and some types of neoplasms. In the present study we analysed the expression of this molecule in salivary gland tumours. Archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of 40 benign and 57 malignant salivary gland tumours were retrieved and retrospectively studied immunohistochemically using a polyclonal C-KIT antibody in an Envision/HRP technique. In addition five samples of chronic submandibular sialadenitis, five normal minor salivary glands and parotid or submandibular gland tissue adjacent to benign tumour were also studied. C-KIT expression was observed in cases of adenoid cystic, acinic cell polymorphous low grade, epithelial-myoepithelial, carcinosarcoma and basal cell adenocarcinomas, as in luminal cells of pleomorphic adenomas, in serous acinar and only in intercalated and a small number of striated ductal cells of inflammatory salivary gland tissue, whereas normal salivary lobules were generally negative except a weak positivity of intercalated cells. Contrary to other reports, this study suggests that, C-KIT protein does not appear to be an exclusively specific marker for benign or malignant salivary gland neoplasms, but may be useful in differential diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma from polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. Furthermore its expression in serous acinar cells in sialadenitis and intercalated ductal cells in normal and inflammatory lesions may indicate a possible participation in pathogenesis of both neoplastic and non-neoplastic salivary gland diseases.

  13. C-kit expression in human osteosarcoma and in vitro assays

    PubMed Central

    Miiji, Luciana NO; Petrilli, Antonio S; Di Cesare, Sebastian; Odashiro, Alexandre N; Burnier, Miguel N; de Toledo, Silvia R; Garcia, Reynaldo Jesus; Alves, Maria Teresa S

    2011-01-01

    Biologic agents targeting oncogenes have encourage researchs trying to correlate the role of tyrosine kinase in the pathogenesis of tumours. Osteosarcoma is a high grade aggressive neoplasm with poor survival. Our aim was to investigate c-kit immunoexpression, its prognostic relevance for patients with osteosarcoma, and the effect of imatinib mesylate (STI571) on proliferation and invasion of the human osteosarcoma cell line.A retrospective immu-nohistochemical study was performed on archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens from 52 patients with high-grade primary osteosarcoma of extremities treated at the Pediatric Oncology Institute (IOP, GRAAC) and archived in the Department of Pathology, Federal University of São Paulo. Only pre-chemotherapy specimens were analyzed. Strongly stained cytoplasm and membrane cells were taken as positive. Human osteosarcoma cells from line MG-63 were incubated and the inhibitory effect of imatinib mesylate (STI571) on cell proliferation and invasion was studied. In 24 cases (46.15%), c-kit was expressed by the cells and c-kit-positive tumors exhibited lower necrosis post-chemotherapy. No correlation was found between c-kit expression and overall and disease-free survival. Imatinib mesylate decreased the rates of cell growth of osteosarcoma cells in low doses and invasion in high doses C-kit-positive tumors had worse response to chemotherapy and imatinib mesylate can play a role in blocking or decreasing the rate of growth of osteosarcoma cells, but not the invasive capacity of these neoplastic cells. These data suggested that imatinib mesylate could be a therapeutic target of strategies against osteosarcoma tumors. Further studies are necessary to confirm this indication. PMID:22135725

  14. Expression of c-kit, a proto-oncogene of the murine W locus, in cerebella of normal and neurological mutant mice: immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization analysis.

    PubMed

    Takeda, H; Yoshiki, A; Nishikawa, S; Nishikawa, S; Kunisada, T; Sakakura, T; Amanuma, H; Kusakabe, M

    1992-10-01

    The c-kit proto-oncogene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase and is allelic with the murine white-spoting (W) locus. Although no apparent defects in the brain have been reported in W mutant mice, brain tissue, especially cerebellum, shows a high level of c-kit transcription. In the present study, sites of c-kit expression in the cerebellum were exained by immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization techniques. Immunohistochemistry with a monoclonal antibody against c-Kit protein revealed that the c-Kit protein was localized close to the Purkinje cell soma in the region facing the granular cell layer. Similar distribution of the c-Kit protein was observed in cerebella of mutant mice in which the Purkinje cell (pcd) or the granular cell layer (weaver) is missing. These data suggest that the c-Kit protein is produced not by the Purkinje cell nor by the granular cell but by the cells present in the molecular layer and that the protein is then transported to the region around the Purkinje cell soma. This interpretation was supported by in situ hybridization analysis: cells containing the c-kit transcripts were found only in the molecular layer, while the granular and Purkinje cells were negative.

  15. A human monoclonal antibody targeting the stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit) blocks tumor cell signaling and inhibits tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Lebron, Maria B; Brennan, Laura; Damoci, Christopher B; Prewett, Marie C; O'Mahony, Marguerita; Duignan, Inga J; Credille, Kelly M; DeLigio, James T; Starodubtseva, Marina; Amatulli, Michael; Zhang, Yiwei; Schwartz, Kaben D; Burtrum, Douglas; Balderes, Paul; Persaud, Kris; Surguladze, David; Loizos, Nick; Paz, Keren; Kotanides, Helen

    2014-09-01

    Stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit) exerts multiple biological effects on target cells upon binding its ligand stem cell factor (SCF). Aberrant activation of c-Kit results in dysregulated signaling and is implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous cancers. The development of more specific and effective c-Kit therapies is warranted given its essential role in tumorigenesis. In this study, we describe the biological properties of CK6, a fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody against the extracellular region of human c-Kit. CK6 specifically binds c-Kit receptor with high affinity (EC 50 = 0.06 nM) and strongly blocks its interaction with SCF (IC 50 = 0.41 nM) in solid phase assays. Flow cytometry shows CK6 binding to c-Kit on the cell surface of human small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), melanoma, and leukemia tumor cell lines. Furthermore, exposure to CK6 inhibits SCF stimulation of c-Kit tyrosine kinase activity and downstream signaling pathways such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein kinase B (AKT), in addition to reducing tumor cell line growth in vitro. CK6 treatment significantly decreases human xenograft tumor growth in NCI-H526 SCLC (T/C% = 57) and Malme-3M melanoma (T/C% = 58) models in vivo. The combination of CK6 with standard of care chemotherapy agents, cisplatin and etoposide for SCLC or dacarbazine for melanoma, more potently reduces tumor growth (SCLC T/C% = 24, melanoma T/C% = 38) compared with CK6 or chemotherapy alone. In summary, our results demonstrate that CK6 is a c-Kit antagonist antibody with tumor growth neutralizing properties and are highly suggestive of potential therapeutic application in treating human malignancies harboring c-Kit receptor. PMID:24921944

  16. Interstitial cells of Cajal in the human fetal small bowel as shown by c-kit immunohistochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Wester, T; Eriksson, L; Olsson, Y; Olsen, L

    1999-01-01

    Background—Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) express the tyrosine kinase receptor c-kit, which is required for their development and spontaneous pacemaker activity in the bowel. From murine models it has been proposed that ICCs do not develop until after birth, but more recent findings indicate that c-kit is expressed early in the embryonic period. The temporal development of ICCs in the human gut remains unknown. 
Aim—To investigate ICCs in the human fetal small bowel using c-kit immunohistochemistry. 
Subjects—Small bowel specimens were obtained at post mortem examination of 16 fetuses and nine neonates, eight of whom were premature, born at gestational ages of 13 to 41 weeks, without gastrointestinal disorders. 
Methods—Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on material fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin. The specimens were exposed to antibodies raised against c-kit (an ICC marker) and neurone specific enolase (a general neuronal marker). The ABC complex method was used to visualise binding of antibodies to the corresponding antigens. 
Results—c-kit immunoreactive cells were visualised from 13 weeks of gestation. The immunoreactivity was mainly localised in association with the myenteric plexus. From about 17-18 weeks of gestation, the ICCs formed a layer along the myenteric plexus, whereas this layer appeared to be disrupted at 13-16 weeks of gestation. 
Conclusions—ICCs are c-kit immunoreactive at least from a gestational age of 13 weeks in the human fetal small intestine. From 17-18 weeks of gestation until birth, they form a continuous layer around the myenteric ganglia. 

 Keywords: interstitial cells of Cajal; c-kit; myenteric plexus; human; fetal; development PMID:9862827

  17. HEMCAM, an adhesion molecule expressed by c-kit+ hemopoietic progenitors

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    We have characterized the adhesion molecule HEMCAM, which is expressed by hemopoietic progenitors of embryonic bone marrow. HEMCAM belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and consists of the V-V-C2-C2-C2 Ig domains. There are three mRNA splice variants. One has a short cytoplasmic tail; another has a long tail; while the third seems to lack transmembrane and cytoplasmic regions. Except for the NH2-terminal sequence, HEMCAM is identical to gicerin, a molecular involved in neurite outgrowth and Wilm's kidney tumor progression in the chicken and it is significantly homologous with MUC18 a molecule involved in melanoma progression and metastasis in human beings. In the bone marrow the HEMCAM+ cell population contains c-kit+ subsets. HEMCAM+ cells coexpressing the receptor tyrosine kinase c-kit give rise to T cells at a frequency of 0.17 when injected intrathymically in congenic animals. As HEMCAM+, c-kit+ cells differentiate into myeloid and erythroid CFU's the double-positive cell population seems to contain precursors for multiple lineages. HEMCAM promotes cell-cell adhesion of transfected cells. Cross-linking of murine HEMCAM leads to cell spreading of T- lymphocyte progenitors adhering to the vascular adhesion molecules, PECAM-1 and VCAM-1. Thus, HEMCAM is likely to be involved in cellular adhesion and homing processes. PMID:8978830

  18. cKit+ cardiac progenitors of neural crest origin

    PubMed Central

    Hatzistergos, Konstantinos E.; Takeuchi, Lauro M.; Saur, Dieter; Seidler, Barbara; Dymecki, Susan M.; Mai, Jia Jia; White, Ian A.; Balkan, Wayne; Kanashiro-Takeuchi, Rosemeire M.; Schally, Andrew V.; Hare, Joshua M.

    2015-01-01

    The degree to which cKit-expressing progenitors generate cardiomyocytes in the heart is controversial. Genetic fate-mapping studies suggest minimal contribution; however, whether or not minimal contribution reflects minimal cardiomyogenic capacity is unclear because the embryonic origin and role in cardiogenesis of these progenitors remain elusive. Using high-resolution genetic fate-mapping approaches with cKitCreERT2/+ and Wnt1::Flpe mouse lines, we show that cKit delineates cardiac neural crest progenitors (CNCkit). CNCkit possess full cardiomyogenic capacity and contribute to all CNC derivatives, including cardiac conduction system cells. Furthermore, by modeling cardiogenesis in cKitCreERT2-induced pluripotent stem cells, we show that, paradoxically, the cardiogenic fate of CNCkit is regulated by bone morphogenetic protein antagonism, a signaling pathway activated transiently during establishment of the cardiac crescent, and extinguished from the heart before CNC invasion. Together, these findings elucidate the origin of cKit+ cardiac progenitors and suggest that a nonpermissive cardiac milieu, rather than minimal cardiomyogenic capacity, controls the degree of CNCkit contribution to myocardium. PMID:26438843

  19. In silico exploration of c-KIT inhibitors by pharmaco-informatics methodology: pharmacophore modeling, 3D QSAR, docking studies, and virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Prashant; Bari, Sanjay

    2016-02-01

    c-KIT is a component of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor family, classified as type-III receptor tyrosine kinase. c-KIT has been reported to be involved in, small cell lung cancer, other malignant human cancers, and inflammatory and autoimmune diseases associated with mast cells. Available c-KIT inhibitors suffer from tribulations of growing resistance or cardiac toxicity. A combined in silico pharmacophore and structure-based virtual screening was performed to identify novel potential c-KIT inhibitors. In the present study, five molecules from the ZINC database were retrieved as new potential c-KIT inhibitors, using Schrödinger's Maestro 9.0 molecular modeling suite. An atom-featured 3D QSAR model was built using previously reported c-KIT inhibitors containing the indolin-2-one scaffold. The developed 3D QSAR model ADHRR.24 was found to be significant (R2 = 0.9378, Q2 = 0.7832) and instituted to be sufficiently robust with good predictive accuracy, as confirmed through external validation approaches, Y-randomization and GH approach [GH score 0.84 and Enrichment factor (E) 4.964]. The present QSAR model was further validated for the OECD principle 3, in that the applicability domain was calculated using a "standardization approach." Molecular docking of the QSAR dataset molecules and final ZINC hits were performed on the c-KIT receptor (PDB ID: 3G0E). Docking interactions were in agreement with the developed 3D QSAR model. Model ADHRR.24 was explored for ligand-based virtual screening followed by in silico ADME prediction studies. Five molecules from the ZINC database were obtained as potential c-KIT inhibitors with high in -silico predicted activity and strong key binding interactions with the c-KIT receptor.

  20. Molecular bases of dominant negative and loss of function mutations at the murine c-kit/white spotting locus: W37, Wv, W41 and W.

    PubMed Central

    Nocka, K; Tan, J C; Chiu, E; Chu, T Y; Ray, P; Traktman, P; Besmer, P

    1990-01-01

    The proto-oncogene c-kit encodes a transmembrane tyrosine protein kinase receptor for an unknown ligand and is allelic with the murine white-spotting locus (W). Mutations at the W locus affect various aspects of hematopoiesis, the proliferation and migration of primordial germ cells and melanoblasts during development. The original W mutation and W37 are severe lethal mutations when homozygous. In the heterozygous state the W mutation has a weak phenotype while W37 has dominant characteristics. Wv and W41 are weak W mutations with dominant characteristics. We have characterized the molecular basis of these four W mutations and determined their effects on mast cell differentiation by using a fibroblast/mast cell co-culture assay. We show that W37, Wv and W41 are the result of missense mutations in the kinase domain of the c-kit coding sequence (W37 E----K at position 582; Wv T----M position 660 and W41 V----M position 831), which affect the c-kit associated tyrosine kinase to varying degrees. The c-kit protein products in homozygous mutant mast cells are expressed normally, although the 160 kd cell membrane form of the c-kitW37 protein displays accelerated turnover characteristics. The W mutation is the result of a 78 amino acid deletion which includes the transmembrane domain of the c-kit protein. A 125 kd c-kit protein was detected in homozygous W/W mast cells which lacks kinase activity and is not expressed on the cell surface.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:1693331

  1. Screening of candidate G-quadruplex ligands for the human c-KIT promotorial region and their effects in multiple in-vitro models

    PubMed Central

    Zorzan, Eleonora; Ros, Silvia Da; Musetti, Caterina; Shahidian, Lara Zorro; Ramos Coelho, Nuno Filipe; Bonsembiante, Federico; Létard, Sébastien; Gelain, Maria Elena; Palumbo, Manlio; Dubreuil, Patrice; Giantin, Mery; Sissi, Claudia; Dacasto, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Stabilization of G-quadruplex (G4) structures in promoters is a novel promising strategy to regulate gene expression at transcriptional and translational levels. c-KIT proto-oncogene encodes for a tyrosine kinase receptor. It is involved in several physiological processes, but it is also dysregulated in many diseases, including cancer. Two G-rich sequences able to fold into G4, have been identified in c-KIT proximal promoter, thus representing suitable targets for anticancer intervention. Herein, we screened an “in house” library of compounds for the recognition of these G4 elements and we identified three promising ligands. Their G4-binding properties were analyzed and related to their antiproliferative, transcriptional and post-transcriptional effects in MCF7 and HGC27 cell lines. Besides c-KIT, the transcriptional analysis covered a panel of oncogenes known to possess G4 in their promoters. From these studies, an anthraquinone derivative (AQ1) was found to efficiently downregulate c-KIT mRNA and protein in both cell lines. The targeted activity of AQ1 was confirmed using c-KIT–dependent cell lines that present either c-KIT mutations or promoter engineered (i.e., α155, HMC1.2 and ROSA cells). Present results indicate AQ1 as a promising compound for the target therapy of c-KIT-dependent tumors, worth of further and in depth molecular investigations. PMID:26942875

  2. Organizational and expressional uniqueness of a testis-specific mRNA transcript of protooncogene c-kit receptor in water buffalo Bubalus bubalis.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Jyoti; Premi, Sanjay; Garg, Lalit C; Ali, Sher

    2006-09-01

    Protooncogene c-kit receptor is implicated with spermatogenesis, melanogenesis, and hematopoeisis, and undergoes tissue/stage specific alternate splicing. We have isolated 2973-bp full-length cDNA sequence (CDS) of this gene from testis and other tissues of water buffalo Bubalus bubalis. Upon comparison, the c-kit sequences showed tissue specific nucleotide changes resulting in novel truncated peptides. These peptides lacked intracellular and/or transmembrane domains in all the tissues except testis. Other alternately spliced tissue-specific transcripts were also detected, which are the integral parts of the open reading frame and have been reported in other mammals. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences revealed unique tyrosine kinase domain in buffalo. Copy number calculation and expressional analysis of c-kit using real-time PCR established its single copy status and highest expression (137-177 folds) in testis compared to that (least) in liver. c-kit expression was detected in semen samples although 10 times lesser compared to that in testis. The highest expression of c-kit in testis and the presence of mRNA transcript in sperms substantiate its predominant role in spermatogenesis. This study establishes unequivocal involvement of an autosomal gene c-kit receptor in testicular function.

  3. Expression of human tyrosine kinase-negative epidermal growth factor receptor amplifies signaling through endogenous murine epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Hack, N; Sue-A-Quan, A; Mills, G B; Skorecki, K L

    1993-12-15

    Recent findings have suggested that certain ligand-dependent responses to EGF may be propagated in a manner that is not dependent on the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R, Campos-Gonzalez, R., and Glenney, J. R., Jr. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 14535-14538) or, alternatively, that these responses may occur through the interaction of the human tyrosine kinase-deficient EGF-R with an as yet unidentified kinase (Selva, E., Raden, D. L., and Davis, R. J. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 2250-2254). These conclusions represent a significant departure from our current understanding of signal transduction by receptor tyrosine kinases. Therefore we examined the effect of expression of tyrosine kinase-negative human EGF receptor in murine NIH-3T3-2.2 cells on the EGF-dependent phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP-2) kinase. In parental cells (NIH-3T3-2.2) that express low levels of endogenous murine EGF-R, there was no demonstrable EGF-dependent coupling to MAP-2 kinase. In NIH-3T3-2.2 cells transfected with tyrosine kinase-negative human EGF-R, there was unexpected EGF-dependent phosphorylation of MAP-2 kinase. Analysis of the tyrosine kinase-negative human EGF-R in these cells revealed significant tyrosine phosphorylation of the EGF-R. A low level of endogenous murine EGF-R present in these cells were also phosphorylated on tyrosine residues and displayed autokinase activity. Similar results were obtained using an unrelated cell line (B82L cells), in which EGF-dependent phosphorylation of MAP-2 kinase was previously attributed to signal propagation through a tyrosine kinase-negative human EGF-R (Campos-Gonzalez, R., and Glenney, J. R., Jr. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 14535-14538). Taken together, these results suggest that the tyrosine kinase-negative human EGF-R are able to amplify the response to activation of low levels of endogenous murine EGF-R, thus leading to EGF-dependent phosphorylation of MAP-2 kinase in cells

  4. Dominant negative and loss of function mutations of the c-kit (mast/stem cell growth factor receptor) proto-oncogene in human piebaldism

    SciTech Connect

    Spritz, R.A.; Giebel, L.B.; Holmes, S.A. )

    1992-02-01

    Piebaldism is an autosomal dominant disorder of melanocyte development and is characterized by congenital white parches of skin and hair from which melanocytes are completely absent. A similar disorder of the mouse, 'dominant white spotting' (W), results from mutations of the c-kit proto-oncogene, which encodes the cellular tyrosine kinases receptor for the mast/stem cell growth factor. The authors have identified c-kit gene mutations in three patients with piebaldism. A missense substitution (Phe[r arrow]Leu) at codon 584, within the tyrosine kinases domain, is associated with a severe piebald phenotype, whereas two different frameshifts, within codons 561 and 642, are both associated with a variable and relatively mild piebald phenotype. This is consistent with a possible 'dominant negative' effect of missense c-kit polypeptides on the function of the dimeric receptor.

  5. Changes in c-Kit expression levels during the course of radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Feng; Hu, Wei; Zhang, Bicheng; Xu, Jing; Shui, Yongjie; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Ren, Xiaoqiu; Chen, Xiaozhong; Shen, Li; Wei, Qichun

    2016-01-01

    In the era of intensity-modulated radiotherapy, distant metastasis is currently the main cause of treatment failure for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Additional therapeutic strategies are required to control the metastasis and improve survival. One strategy is targeted therapy, for example against c-Kit. In the current study, the frequency of c-Kit expression was determined immunohistochemically in 106 NPC patients. c-Kit expression changes during the course of radiation therapy were detected in 41 cases via weekly biopsy. Twelve cases (11.3%) had c-Kit expression scores of 3+ and 16 (15.1%) had scores of 2+. Thus, c-Kit overexpression (2+ or 3+) was observed in 28 (26.4%) patients. There were 35 (33.0%) and 43 (40.6%) patients with c-Kit expression scores of 1+ and 0, respectively. Furthermore, a trend of decreased c-Kit expression was observed after commencing radiotherapy according to the 41 NPC patients who were biopsied weekly. Therefore, c-Kit overexpression was identified to be common in NPC, and evaluating c-Kit as a therapeutic target for metastatic NPC via c-Kit overexpression subsequent to first line treatment may be of interest. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate a trend of decreased c-Kit expression during the course of radiotherapy.

  6. SOCS36E, a novel Drosophila SOCS protein, suppresses JAK/STAT and EGF-R signalling in the imaginal wing disc.

    PubMed

    Callus, Bernard A; Mathey-Prevot, Bernard

    2002-07-18

    We have cloned a novel SOCS gene from Drosophila, socs36E, which is most homologous to the mammalian socs-5 gene. Socs36E is expressed zygotically, predominantly during embryogenesis, in a highly dynamic pattern. In vivo expression of SOCS36E in transgenic flies results in several adult phenotypes. Engrailed-GAL4 directed expression causes loss of the wing anterior cross vein, humeral outgrowths, absence of halteres and eye pigmentation defects. Expression of SOCS36E under apterous-GAL4 control resulted in outstretched wings. Full penetrance of these phenotypes required the presence of the SH2 and SOCS-box domains of SOCS36E. The observed phenotypes were consistent with defects in JAK/STAT or EGF-R signalling and were exacerbated in flies heterozygous for either the d-jak (hopscotch), d-stat (stat92E) or d-egf-r (der) genes. Conversely, inactivating one copy of the d-cbl gene, a negative regulator of the d-EGF-R, partially rescued the wing phenotypes. These genetic interactions imply that SOCS36E can suppress activities of the JAK/STAT and EGF-R signalling pathways in the wing disc and suggest that SOCS36E interacts with multiple pathways in vivo.

  7. Cyclic AMP and c-KIT Signaling in Familial Testicular Germ Cell Tumor Predisposition

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Monalisa F.; Horvath, Anelia; Bornstein, Ethan R.; Almeida, Madson Q.; Xekouki, Paraskevi; Faucz, Fabio R.; Gourgari, Evgenia; Nadella, Kiran; Remmers, Elaine F.; Quezado, Martha; de Alexandre, Rodrigo Bertollo; Kratz, Christian P.; Nesterova, Maria; Greene, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Familial testicular germ cell tumors (FTGCTs) are hypothesized to result from the combined interaction of multiple low-penetrance genes. We reported inactivating germline mutations of the cAMP-binding phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A) as modifiers of FTGCT risk. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the KITLG gene, the ligand for the cKIT tyrosine kinase receptor, as strong modifiers of susceptibility to both familial and sporadic testicular germ cell tumors. Design: We studied 94 patients with FTGCTs and 50 at-risk male relatives from 63 unrelated kindreds, in whom the PDE11A gene had been sequenced by investigating the association between KITLG genome-wide association study single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs3782179 and rs4474514 and FTGCT risk in these patients and in 692 controls. We also examined cAMP and c-KIT signaling in testicular tissues and cell lines and extended the studies to 2 sporadic cases, one with a PDE11A defect and one without, as a comparison. Results: We found a higher frequency of the KITLG risk alleles in FTGCT patients who also had a PDE11A sequence variant, compared with those with a wild-type PDE11A sequence. In NTERA-2 and Tcam-2 cells transfected with the mutated forms of PDE11A (R52T, F258Y, Y727C, R804H, V820M, R867G, and M878V), cAMP levels were significantly higher, and the relative phosphodiesterase activity was lower than in the wild-type cells. KITLG expression was consistently increased in the presence of PDE11A-inactivating defects, both at the RNA and protein levels, in familial testicular germ cell tumors. The 2 sporadic cases that were studied, one with a PDE11A defect and another without, agreed with the data in FTGTCT and in the cell lines. Conclusions: Patients with FTGCT and PDE11A defects also carry KITLG risk alleles more frequently. There may be an interaction between cAMP and c-KIT signaling in predisposition to testicular germ cell tumors. PMID:23771924

  8. Targeting c-kit receptor in neuroblastomas and colorectal cancers using stem cell factor (SCF)-based recombinant bacterial toxins.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Swati; Pardo, Alessa; Rosinke, Reinhard; Batra, Janendra K; Barth, Stefan; Verma, Rama S

    2016-01-01

    Autocrine activation of c-kit (KIT receptor tyrosine kinase) has been postulated to be a potent oncogenic driver in small cell lung cancer, neuroblastoma (NB), and poorly differentiated colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Although targeted therapy involving tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as imatinib mesylate is highly effective for gastrointestinal stromal tumor carrying V560G c-kit mutation, it does not show much potential for targeting wild-type KIT (WT-KIT). Our study demonstrates the role of stem cell factor (SCF)-based toxin conjugates for targeting WT-KIT-overexpressing malignancies such as NBs and CRCs. We constructed SCF-based recombinant bacterial toxins by genetically fusing mutated form of natural ligand SCF to receptor binding deficient forms of Diphtheria toxin (DT) or Pseudomonas exotoxin A (ETA') and evaluated their efficacy in vitro. Efficient targeting was achieved in all receptor-positive neuroblastoma (IMR-32 and SHSY5Y) and colon cancer cell lines (COLO 320DM, HCT 116, and DLD-1) but not in receptor-negative breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7) thereby proving specificity. While dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity was observed in both neuroblastoma cell lines, COLO 320DM and HCT 116 cells, only an anti-proliferative effect was observed in DLD-1 cells. We prove that these novel targeting agents have promising potential as KIT receptor tyrosine kinase targeting system.

  9. Targeting c-kit receptor in neuroblastomas and colorectal cancers using stem cell factor (SCF)-based recombinant bacterial toxins.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Swati; Pardo, Alessa; Rosinke, Reinhard; Batra, Janendra K; Barth, Stefan; Verma, Rama S

    2016-01-01

    Autocrine activation of c-kit (KIT receptor tyrosine kinase) has been postulated to be a potent oncogenic driver in small cell lung cancer, neuroblastoma (NB), and poorly differentiated colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Although targeted therapy involving tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as imatinib mesylate is highly effective for gastrointestinal stromal tumor carrying V560G c-kit mutation, it does not show much potential for targeting wild-type KIT (WT-KIT). Our study demonstrates the role of stem cell factor (SCF)-based toxin conjugates for targeting WT-KIT-overexpressing malignancies such as NBs and CRCs. We constructed SCF-based recombinant bacterial toxins by genetically fusing mutated form of natural ligand SCF to receptor binding deficient forms of Diphtheria toxin (DT) or Pseudomonas exotoxin A (ETA') and evaluated their efficacy in vitro. Efficient targeting was achieved in all receptor-positive neuroblastoma (IMR-32 and SHSY5Y) and colon cancer cell lines (COLO 320DM, HCT 116, and DLD-1) but not in receptor-negative breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7) thereby proving specificity. While dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity was observed in both neuroblastoma cell lines, COLO 320DM and HCT 116 cells, only an anti-proliferative effect was observed in DLD-1 cells. We prove that these novel targeting agents have promising potential as KIT receptor tyrosine kinase targeting system. PMID:26428235

  10. Extended molecular dynamics of a c-kit promoter quadruplex

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Barira; Stadlbauer, Petr; Krepl, Miroslav; Koca, Jaroslav; Neidle, Stephen; Haider, Shozeb; Sponer, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    The 22-mer c-kit promoter sequence folds into a parallel-stranded quadruplex with a unique structure, which has been elucidated by crystallographic and NMR methods and shows a high degree of structural conservation. We have carried out a series of extended (up to 10 μs long, ∼50 μs in total) molecular dynamics simulations to explore conformational stability and loop dynamics of this quadruplex. Unfolding no-salt simulations are consistent with a multi-pathway model of quadruplex folding and identify the single-nucleotide propeller loops as the most fragile part of the quadruplex. Thus, formation of propeller loops represents a peculiar atomistic aspect of quadruplex folding. Unbiased simulations reveal μs-scale transitions in the loops, which emphasizes the need for extended simulations in studies of quadruplex loops. We identify ion binding in the loops which may contribute to quadruplex stability. The long lateral-propeller loop is internally very stable but extensively fluctuates as a rigid entity. It creates a size-adaptable cleft between the loop and the stem, which can facilitate ligand binding. The stability gain by forming the internal network of GA base pairs and stacks of this loop may be dictating which of the many possible quadruplex topologies is observed in the ground state by this promoter quadruplex. PMID:26245347

  11. Intranasal sirna targeting c-kit reduces airway inflammation in experimental allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Chen, Hui; Li, Ya-Ming; Wang, Sheng-Yu; Diao, Xin; Liu, Kai-Ge

    2014-01-01

    Allergic asthma is characterized by airway inflammation caused by infiltration and activation of inflammatory cells that produce cytokines. Many studies have revealed that c-kit, a proto-oncogene, and its ligand, stem cell factor (SCF), play an important role in the development of asthmatic inflammation. Intranasal small interference RNA (siRNA) nanoparticles targeting specific viral gene could inhibit airway inflammation. In this study, we assessed whether silencing of c-kit with intranasal small interference RNA could reduce inflammation in allergic asthma. A mouse model of experimental asthma was treated with intranasal administration of anti-c-kit siRNA to inhibit the expression of the c-kit gene. We assessed the inflammatory response in both anti-c-kit siRNA-treated and control mice. Local administration of siRNA effectively inhibited the expression of the c-kit gene and reduced airway mucus secretion and the infiltration of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Moreover, c-kit siRNA reduced the production of SCF, interleukin-4 (IL-4), and IL-5, but had no effect on interferon-γ (IFN-γ) generation. These results show that intranasal siRNA nanoparticles targeting c-kit can decrease the inflammatory response in experimental allergic asthma.

  12. Identification of C-Kit-Positive Interstitial Cells in the Dog Lower Urinary Tract and Relationship with Smooth Muscle and Nerves. Hypotheses for a Likely Pacemaker Role.

    PubMed Central

    Arrighi, Silvana; Bosi, Giampaolo; Groppetti, Debora; Cremonesi, Fausto

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to give an evidence of the likely presence of interstitial cells in the canine lower urinary tract and to study their possible interactions with the musculature and the intramural innervation. Cryosections of normal canine bladder and urethra were immunofluorescently labelled with c-kit, a transmembrane, tyrosine kinase growth factor receptor, known to be expressed on the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) of the gut. The relationship with antiactin positive smooth muscle cells and PGP9.5-positive intramural innervation was also investigated by confocal microscopy. Anti-c-kit labelling demonstrated a network of elongated and branched c-kit positive cells, which were located in interstitial spaces, oriented in parallel to the smooth muscle bundles that form the bladder muscular layer, irrespective of dog sex. Cells with a similar localization were also PAS- and NADPH-diaphorase-positive. A contact between c-kit immunofluorescent cells and intramural innervation was demonstrated, too. The roles of interstitial cells might include regulation of smooth muscle activity of the bladder detrusor, integrating neuronal signals during urine storage and voiding. PMID:20706651

  13. A New Method to Stabilize C-Kit Expression in Reparative Cardiac Mesenchymal Cells.

    PubMed

    Wysoczynski, Marcin; Dassanayaka, Sujith; Zafir, Ayesha; Ghafghazi, Shahab; Long, Bethany W; Noble, Camille; DeMartino, Angelica M; Brittian, Kenneth R; Bolli, Roberto; Jones, Steven P

    2016-01-01

    Cell therapy improves cardiac function. Few cells have been investigated more extensively or consistently shown to be more effective than c-kit sorted cells; however, c-kit expression is easily lost during passage. Here, our primary goal was to develop an improved method to isolate c-kit(pos) cells and maintain c-kit expression after passaging. Cardiac mesenchymal cells (CMCs) from wild-type mice were selected by polystyrene adherence properties. CMCs adhering within the first hours are referred to as rapidly adherent (RA); CMCs adhering subsequently are dubbed slowly adherent (SA). Both RA and SA CMCs were c-kit sorted. SA CMCs maintained significantly higher c-kit expression than RA cells; SA CMCs also had higher expression endothelial markers. We subsequently tested the relative efficacy of SA vs. RA CMCs in the setting of post-infarct adoptive transfer. Two days after coronary occlusion, vehicle, RA CMCs, or SA CMCs were delivered percutaneously with echocardiographic guidance. SA CMCs, but not RA CMCs, significantly improved cardiac function compared to vehicle treatment. Although the mechanism remains to be elucidated, the more pronounced endothelial phenotype of the SA CMCs coupled with the finding of increased vascular density suggest a potential pro-vasculogenic action. This new method of isolating CMCs better preserves c-kit expression during passage. SA CMCs, but not RA CMCs, were effective in reducing cardiac dysfunction. Although c-kit expression was maintained, it is unclear whether maintenance of c-kit expression per se was responsible for improved function, or whether the differential adherence property itself confers a reparative phenotype independently of c-kit. PMID:27536657

  14. c-kit positive cells and networks in tooth germs of human midterm fetuses.

    PubMed

    Didilescu, Andreea Cristiana; Pop, Florinel; Rusu, Mugurel Constantin

    2013-12-01

    Numerous studies have attempted to characterize the dental pulp stem cells. However, studies performed on prenatal human tissues have not been performed to evaluate the in situ characterization and topography of progenitor cells. We aimed to perform such a study using of antibodies for CD117/c-kit and multiplex antibody for Ki67+ caspase 3. Antibodies were applied on samples dissected from five human midterm fetuses. Positive CD117/c-kit labeling was found in mesenchymal derived tissues, such as the dental follicle and the dental papilla. The epithelial tissues, that is, dental lamina, enamel organ and oral epithelia, also displayed isolated progenitor cells which were CD117/c-kit positive. Interestingly, CD117/c-kit positive cells of mesenchymal derived tissues extended multiple prolongations building networks; the most consistent of such networks were those of the dental follicle and the perivascular networks of the dental papilla. However, the mantle of the dental papilla was also positive for CD117/c-kit positive stromal networks. The CD117/c-kit cell populations building networks appeared mostly with a Ki67 negative phenotype. The results suggest that CD117/c-kit progenitor cells of the prenatal tooth germ tissues might be involved in intercellular signaling.

  15. Deletion of the c-kit protooncogene in the human developmental defect piebald trait

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischman, R.A.; Stastny, V.; Zneimer, S. ); Saltman, D.L. )

    1991-12-01

    The protooncogene c-kit is critical for development of hematopoietic stem cells, germ cells, and melanoblasts in the mouse. Homozygous mutations of this gene in the mouse cause anemia, infertility, and albinism, whereas heterozygous mutant mice usually exhibit only a white forehead blaze and depigmentation of the ventral body, tail, and feet. The heterozygous mouse phenotype is very similar to human piebald trait, which is characterized by a congenital white hair forelock and ventral and extremity depigmentation. To investigate the possibility that alterations in the human c-kit gene may be a cause of piebald trait, DNA from seven unrelated affected individuals was examined by Southern blot analysis. One subject, although cytogenetically normal, has a heterozygous deletion of the c-kit protooncogene. This deletion encompasses the entire coding region for c-kit and also involves the closely linked gene for platelet-derived growth factor receptor {alpha}. These findings provide molecular evidence mapping piebald trait to the c-kit locus on chromosome 4. Although the authors cannot exclude the involvement of other closely linked genes, the demonstration of a genomic c-kit deletion in one subject with piebald trait and the marked concordance of the human and mouse phenotypes provide strong evidence for the role of c-kit in the development of human melanocytes and in the pathogenesis of piebald trait.

  16. Expression of Epidermal c-Kit+ of Vitiligo Lesions Is Related to Responses to Excimer Laser

    PubMed Central

    Park, Oun Jae; Han, Ji Su; Lee, Sang Hyung; Park, Chan-Sik; Won, Chong Hyun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background The survival and growth of melanocytes are controlled by the binding of stem cell factor to its cell surface receptor c-kit+ (CD117). We have observed that c-kit+ melanocytes existed in some lesions of vitiligo, while Melan A+ cells were absent. Objective To verify possible relation between c-kit+ expression and treatment response in non-segmental vitiligo lesions Methods Skin biopsies were done from the center of the 47 lesions from the 47 patients with non-segmental vitiligo. Expression of c-kit+ and Melan A, and amounts of melanin in the epidermis were assessed in each lesion, and treatment responses to excimer laser were evaluated. Results Thirty-five of the 47 lesions (74.5%) had c-kit+ phenotypes. There was significant difference of c-kit staining value between good responders in 3 months of excimer laser treatment (average of 24 sessions) and the others. Conclusion c-Kit expression in vitiliginous epidermis may be related to better treatment responses to excimer laser. PMID:27489428

  17. Resident c-kit+ cells in the heart are not cardiac stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Nishat; Zhang, Lu; Yan, Jianyun; Chen, Jiqiu; Cai, Weibin; Razzaque, Shegufta; Jeong, Dongtak; Sheng, Wei; Bu, Lei; Xu, Mingjiang; Huang, Guo-Ying; Hajjar, Roger J.; Zhou, Bin; Moon, Anne; Cai, Chen-Leng

    2015-01-01

    Identifying a bona fide population of cardiac stem cells (CSCs) is a critical step for developing cell-based therapies for heart failure patients. Previously, cardiac c-kit+ cells were reported to be CSCs with a potential to become myocardial, endothelial and smooth muscle cells in vitro and after cardiac injury. Here we provide further insights into the nature of cardiac c-kit+ cells. By targeting the c-kit locus with multiple reporter genes in mice, we find that c-kit expression rarely co-localizes with the expression of the cardiac progenitor and myogenic marker Nkx2.5, or that of the myocardial marker, cardiac troponin T (cTnT). Instead, c-kit predominantly labels a cardiac endothelial cell population in developing and adult hearts. After acute cardiac injury, c-kit+ cells retain their endothelial identity and do not become myogenic progenitors or cardiomyocytes. Thus, our work strongly suggests that c-kit+ cells in the murine heart are endothelial cells and not CSCs. PMID:26515110

  18. A New Method to Stabilize C-Kit Expression in Reparative Cardiac Mesenchymal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wysoczynski, Marcin; Dassanayaka, Sujith; Zafir, Ayesha; Ghafghazi, Shahab; Long, Bethany W.; Noble, Camille; DeMartino, Angelica M.; Brittian, Kenneth R.; Bolli, Roberto; Jones, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    Cell therapy improves cardiac function. Few cells have been investigated more extensively or consistently shown to be more effective than c-kit sorted cells; however, c-kit expression is easily lost during passage. Here, our primary goal was to develop an improved method to isolate c-kitpos cells and maintain c-kit expression after passaging. Cardiac mesenchymal cells (CMCs) from wild-type mice were selected by polystyrene adherence properties. CMCs adhering within the first hours are referred to as rapidly adherent (RA); CMCs adhering subsequently are dubbed slowly adherent (SA). Both RA and SA CMCs were c-kit sorted. SA CMCs maintained significantly higher c-kit expression than RA cells; SA CMCs also had higher expression endothelial markers. We subsequently tested the relative efficacy of SA vs. RA CMCs in the setting of post-infarct adoptive transfer. Two days after coronary occlusion, vehicle, RA CMCs, or SA CMCs were delivered percutaneously with echocardiographic guidance. SA CMCs, but not RA CMCs, significantly improved cardiac function compared to vehicle treatment. Although the mechanism remains to be elucidated, the more pronounced endothelial phenotype of the SA CMCs coupled with the finding of increased vascular density suggest a potential pro-vasculogenic action. This new method of isolating CMCs better preserves c-kit expression during passage. SA CMCs, but not RA CMCs, were effective in reducing cardiac dysfunction. Although c-kit expression was maintained, it is unclear whether maintenance of c-kit expression per se was responsible for improved function, or whether the differential adherence property itself confers a reparative phenotype independently of c-kit. PMID:27536657

  19. Stem cell factor (SCF) protects osteoblasts from oxidative stress through activating c-Kit-Akt signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Lei; Wu, Zhong; Yin, Gang; Liu, Haifeng; Guan, Xiaojun; Zhao, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Jianguang; Zhu, Jianguo

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • SCF receptor c-Kit is functionally expressed in primary and transformed osteoblasts. • SCF protects primary and transformed osteoblasts from H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • SCF activation of c-Kit in osteoblasts, required for its cyto-protective effects. • c-Kit mediates SCF-induced Akt activation in cultured osteoblasts. • Akt activation is required for SCF-regulated cyto-protective effects in osteoblasts. - Abstract: Osteoblasts regulate bone formation and remodeling, and are main target cells of oxidative stress in the progression of osteonecrosis. The stem cell factor (SCF)-c-Kit pathway plays important roles in the proliferation, differentiation and survival in a range of cell types, but little is known about its functions in osteoblasts. In this study, we found that c-Kit is functionally expressed in both osteoblastic-like MC3T3-E1 cells and primary murine osteoblasts. Its ligand SCF exerted significant cyto-protective effects against hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). SCF activated its receptor c-Kit in osteoblasts, which was required for its cyto-protective effects against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Pharmacological inhibition (by Imatinib and Dasatinib) or shRNA-mediated knockdown of c-Kit thus inhibited SCF-mediated osteoblast protection. Further investigations showed that protection by SCF against H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was mediated via activation of c-Kit-dependent Akt pathway. Inhibition of Akt activation, through pharmacological or genetic means, suppressed SCF-mediated anti-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} activity in osteoblasts. In summary, we have identified a new SCF-c-Kit-Akt physiologic pathway that protects osteoblasts from H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced damages, and might minimize the risk of osteonecrosis caused by oxidative stress.

  20. Efficient c-kit Receptor-Targeted Gene Transfer to Primary Human CD34-Selected Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Qiu; Oliver, Peter; Huang, Weitao; Good, David; La Russa, Vincent; Zhang, Zili; Cork, John R.; Veith, Robert Woody; Theodossiou, Chris; Kolls, Jay K.; Schwarzenberger, Paul

    2001-01-01

    We have previously reported effective gene transfer with a targeted molecular conjugate adenovirus vector through the c-kit receptor in hematopoietic progenitor cell lines. However, a c-kit-targeted recombinant retroviral vector failed to transduce cells, indicating the existence of significant differences for c-kit target gene transfer between these two viruses. Here we demonstrate that conjugation of an adenovirus to a c-kit-retargeted retrovirus vector enables retroviral transduction. This finding suggests the requirement of endosomalysis for successful c-kit-targeted gene transfer. Furthermore, we show efficient gene transfer to, and high transgene expression (66%) in, CD34-selected, c-kit+ human peripheral blood stem cells using a c-kit-targeted adenovirus vector. These findings may have important implications for future vector development in c-kit-targeted stem cell gene transfer. PMID:11581407

  1. c-KIT and c-KIT ligand (SCF) in synovial sarcoma (SS): an mRNA expression analysis in 23 cases

    PubMed Central

    Tamborini, E; Papini, D; Mezzelani, A; Riva, C; Azzarelli, A; Sozzi, G; Pierotti, M A; Pilotti, S

    2001-01-01

    In a previous immunophenotypic molecular-based analysis it was shown that bcl2 over-expression characterizes the SS gene profile in addition to the non-random translocations. Here we show that the over-expression of an additional potentially antiapoptotic gene, the c-KIT gene, is associated with this tumour. Interestingly, whereas bcl2 over-expression appears to be restricted to the spindle cell tumoral component, c-kit mainly involves the epithelial component of biphasic SS. Twenty-three primary and metastatic samples from 21 patients were analysed by immunophenotyping (23/23), immunoprecipitations and Western blotting (3/23), and RT-PCR (23/23). Ten cases were biphasic and 13 monophasic in sub-type. Twelve, 10 and 1 case carried the SYT-SSX1, SYT-SSX2 and SYT-SSX4 fusion transcript, respectively. Co-presence of both c-Kit and SCF mRNA was observed in almost all cases (20/23), suggesting the occurrence of an autocrine loop. Immunophenotyping, confirmed by biochemical analyses, showed a modulation of c-Kit expression which was faint in the spindle and strong in the epithelial component, respectively. The study was complemented by c-Met/HGF receptor/ligand expression and c-Met protein analysis with results superimposable to those already reported. Since in each tumour, epithelial and spindle cell components harbour the same type of translocation t(X;18) the present findings suggest a shifting of the anti-apoptotic role from BCL2 to c-KIT gene during the transition from the uncommitted spindle to the differentiated epithelial cells. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11487273

  2. Id-1 expression induces androgen-independent prostate cancer cell growth through activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R).

    PubMed

    Ling, Ming-Tat; Wang, Xianghong; Lee, Davy T; Tam, P C; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Wong, Yong-Chuan

    2004-04-01

    The failure of prostate cancer treatment is largely due to the development of androgen independence, since the androgen depletion therapy remains the front-line option for this cancer. Previously, we reported that over-expression of the helix-loop-helix protein Id-1 was associated with progression of prostate cancer and ectopic expression of Id-1 induced serum-independent proliferation in prostate cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated if exogenous Id-1 expression in the androgen sensitive LNCaP cells had any effect on androgen-dependent cell growth and studied the molecular mechanisms involved. Using stable Id-1 transfectants, we found that expression of Id-1 was able to reduce androgen-stimulated growth and S phase fraction of the cell cycle in LNCaP cells, indicating that Id-1 may be involved in the development of androgen independence in these cells. The Id-1-induced androgen-independent prostate cancer cell growth was correlated with up-regulation of EGF-R (epidermal growth factor-receptor) and PSA (prostate specific antigen) expression, as confirmed by western blotting analysis and luciferase assays. In contrast, down-regulation of Id-1 in androgen-independent DU145 cells by its antisense oligonucleotides resulted in suppression of EGF-R expression at both transcriptional and protein levels. In addition, the results from immunohistochemistry study showed that Id-1 expression was significantly elevated in hormone refractory prostate cancer tissues when compared with the hormone-dependent tumours. Our results suggest that up-regulation of Id-1 in prostate cancer cells may be one of the mechanisms responsible for developing androgen independence and this process may be regulated through induction of EGF-R expression. Inactivation of Id-1 may provide a potential therapeutic strategy leading to inhibition of androgen-independent prostate cancer cell growth.

  3. Esculetin Downregulates the Expression of AML1-ETO and C-Kit in Kasumi-1 Cell Line by Decreasing Half-Life of mRNA.

    PubMed

    Sawney, Sharad; Arora, Rashi; Aggarwal, Kamal K; Saluja, Daman

    2015-01-01

    One of the most frequent genetic aberrations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is chromosomal translocation between AML1/RUNX1 on chromosome 21 and ETO gene on chromosome 8 resulting in the expression of chimeric oncogene AML1-ETO. Although patients with t(8;21) translocation have good prognosis, 5-year survival is observed only in 50% of the cases. AML1-ETO translocation is usually accompanied by overexpression of mutant C-Kit, a tyrosine kinase, which contributes to uncontrolled proliferation of premature blood cells leading to relapse and poor prognosis. We illustrate the potential use of esculetin on leukemic cell line, Kasumi-1, bearing t(8;21) translocation and mutated C-Kit gene. Esculetin decreases the expression of AML1-ETO at both protein and transcript level within 24 hours of treatment. Half-life of AML1-ETO mRNA was reduced from 7 hours to 1.5 hours. Similarly half-life of C-Kit mRNA was reduced to 2 hours from 5 hours in esculetin treated cells. Esculetin also perturbed the expression of ectopically expressed AML1-ETO in U937 cells. The decreased expression of AML1-ETO chimeric gene was associated with increased expression of LAT1 and RUNX3 genes, targets of AML1. We envisage that discovery of a drug candidate which could target both these mutated genes would be a considerable breakthrough for future application.

  4. Esculetin Downregulates the Expression of AML1-ETO and C-Kit in Kasumi-1 Cell Line by Decreasing Half-Life of mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Sawney, Sharad; Arora, Rashi; Aggarwal, Kamal K.; Saluja, Daman

    2015-01-01

    One of the most frequent genetic aberrations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is chromosomal translocation between AML1/RUNX1 on chromosome 21 and ETO gene on chromosome 8 resulting in the expression of chimeric oncogene AML1-ETO. Although patients with t(8;21) translocation have good prognosis, 5-year survival is observed only in 50% of the cases. AML1-ETO translocation is usually accompanied by overexpression of mutant C-Kit, a tyrosine kinase, which contributes to uncontrolled proliferation of premature blood cells leading to relapse and poor prognosis. We illustrate the potential use of esculetin on leukemic cell line, Kasumi-1, bearing t(8;21) translocation and mutated C-Kit gene. Esculetin decreases the expression of AML1-ETO at both protein and transcript level within 24 hours of treatment. Half-life of AML1-ETO mRNA was reduced from 7 hours to 1.5 hours. Similarly half-life of C-Kit mRNA was reduced to 2 hours from 5 hours in esculetin treated cells. Esculetin also perturbed the expression of ectopically expressed AML1-ETO in U937 cells. The decreased expression of AML1-ETO chimeric gene was associated with increased expression of LAT1 and RUNX3 genes, targets of AML1. We envisage that discovery of a drug candidate which could target both these mutated genes would be a considerable breakthrough for future application. PMID:25861270

  5. Growth control of genetically modified cells using an antibody/c-Kit chimera.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Etsuji; Kawahara, Masahiro; Ueda, Hiroshi; Nagamune, Teruyuki

    2012-05-01

    Gene therapy has been regarded as an innovative potential treatment against serious congenital diseases. However, applications of gene therapy remain limited, partly because its clinical success depends on therapeutic gene-transduced cells acquiring a proliferative advantage. To address this problem, we have developed the antigen-mediated genetically modified cell amplification (AMEGA) system, which uses chimeric receptors to enable the selective proliferation of gene-transduced cells. In this report, we describe mimicry of c-Kit signaling and its application to the AMEGA system. We created an antibody/c-Kit chimera in which the extracellular domain of c-Kit is replaced with an anti-fluorescein single-chain Fv antibody fragment and the extracellular D2 domain of the erythropoietin receptor. A genetically modified mouse pro-B cell line carrying this chimera showed selective expansion in the presence of fluorescein-conjugated BSA (BSA-FL) as a growth inducer. By further engineering the transmembrane domain of the chimera to reduce interchain interaction we attained stricter ligand-dependency. Since c-Kit is an important molecule in the expansion of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), this antibody/c-Kit chimera could be a promising tool for gene therapy targeting HSCs.

  6. C-kit overexpression correlates with KIT gene copy numbers increases in phyllodes tumors of the breast.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junjun; Liu, Xiaozhen; Feng, Xiaolong; Liu, Jian; Lv, Shuhua; Zhang, Wei; Niu, Yun

    2015-01-01

    We determined c-kit expression in the stroma and epithelia of benign, borderline, and malignant phyllodes tumors (PTs), respectively, as well as the relationship between c-kit expression in stromal elements and KIT gene copy number variations (CNVs). To assess c-kit expression and KIT CNVs, 348 PT cases were studied: 120 (34.4 %) benign cases, 115 (33.1 %) borderline cases, and 113 (32.5 %) malignant cases. All of these cases were evaluated for c-kit (CD117) expression using immunohistochemistry. Forty-two cases (29 c-kit-positive in the stromal cells cases and 13 negative cases) were investigated for KIT gene CNVs via genomic polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The overall rate of c-kit positivity in the stroma was 46.8 %, as well as 24.2, 53.1, and 64.6 %, respectively, in PTs of three different grades. However, in the majority of cases, the epithelia were c-kit positive (98.2 %), and the positivity was 100, 99.1, and 95 % in PTs of three different grades, respectively. There was a significant change in the expression of c-kit in the stroma and epithelia according to grade (P < 0.001, P = 0.014). From the genomic PCR results, we can confirm that c-kit positivity in the stroma is directly correlated with KIT gene copy numbers increases (P = 0.003, P = 0.041). We demonstrated that c-kit expression in the stroma of PTs is positively associated with malignancy. c-Kit epithelial positivity was inversely correlated with PTs malignancy. c-Kit overexpression in the stroma was related to KIT gene copy numbers increases. PMID:25534827

  7. Restoration of spermatogenesis after transplantation of c-Kit positive testicular cells in the fowl

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transplantation of male germ line cells into sterilized recipients has been used in mammals for conventional breeding as well as for transgenesis. This study presents an improvement in the approach for germ cell transplantation between fowl males by using an enriched subpopulation of c-Kit positive ...

  8. Core binding factor acute myeloid leukaemia and c-KIT mutations.

    PubMed

    Riera, Ludovica; Marmont, Filippo; Toppino, Daniela; Frairia, Chiara; Sismondi, Francesca; Audisio, Ernesta; Di Bello, Cristiana; D'Ardia, Stefano; Di Celle, Paola Francia; Messa, Emanuela; Inghirami, Giorgio; Vitolo, Umberto; Pich, Achille

    2013-05-01

    Core binding factor (CBF) acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) represents 5-8% of all AMLs and has a relatively favourable prognosis. However, activating c-KIT mutations are reported to be associated with higher risk of relapse and shorter survival. To verify the incidence and prognostic value of c-KIT mutations in CBF AML, we retrospectively analysed bone marrow samples of 23 consecutive adult patients with de novo CBF AML [14 inv(16) and 9 t(8;21)] treated at a single institution from 2000 to 2011. All patients received standard induction chemotherapy with cytarabine, idarubicin and etoposide; 13 underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation. c-KIT mutations in exons 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14 and 17 were assessed by PCR amplification in combination with direct sequencing. c-KIT mutations (3 in exon 10 and 4 in exon 17) were detected in 7/23 (30.4%) patients, 3 with t(8;21) and 4 with inv(16). No difference in c-KIT mutation status was observed between cases with inv(16) or t(8;21) alone and cases with additional cytogenetic abnormalities. No association between gender, age, white blood cell and platelet count, peripheral blood and bone marrow blast cells at diagnosis, achievement of complete remission, cytogenetic risk groups and Wilms tumour gene 1 (WT1) levels was found. On the contrary, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) values were higher in mutated than in non-mutated patients (p=0.01). Overall survival (OS) rates were longer in CBF compared to the other types of AML and disease-free survival (DFS) was longer in inv(16) than in t(8;21) AML. OS and DFS were similar in mutated and non-mutated CBF AML patients. Our results confirm a better prognosis for CBF AML than all other AML categories, and for inv(16) than t(8;21) AML. However, no prognostic value for c-KIT mutational status was found in our series. The association between LDH levels and c-KIT mutation would indicate a more active proliferation for mutated CBF AML. PMID:23467883

  9. Silencing c-Kit expression in human DCs suppresses Th2, Th17 response but enhances Th1 response

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bin; Yang, Qin; Huang, Qianchuan; Yan, Hongbo; Sun, Ting; Tong, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are integral to the differentiation of T helper cells into T helper type 1 TH1, TH2 and TH17 subsets. RNA interference (RNAi), which causes the degradation of any RNA in a sequence specific manner, is a posttranscriptional gene silencing mechanism. Targeting the c-Kit in DCs has been used as an approach to enhance antitumor immunity. Here, we shwed that transfection of DCs with siRNA specific for c-Kit gene can significantly knock down c-Kit. When exposed to TNF-α, immature DCs transfected with c-Kit siRNA can differentiate into mature DCs without reducing viability or IL-12p70 production. The c-Kit siRNA-treated DCs exhibited an increased allostimulatory capacity in a lymphocyte proliferation assay. Furthermore, c-Kit siRNA-transfected DCs enhanced TH1 responses by increasing IFN-γ and decreasing IL-4 production, and much stronger cytotoxic activity was observed when DCs were co-transfected with c-Kit siRNA and an endogenous tumor antigen in vitro. Our findings indicate that silencing the c-Kit gene in DCs with siRNA may offer a potential approach to enhance antitumor immunotherapy. PMID:26550451

  10. Expression of protooncogene c-kit and its ligand stem cell factor (SCF) in gastric carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hassan, S; Kinoshita, Y; Kawanami, C; Kishi, K; Matsushima, Y; Ohashi, A; Funasaka, Y; Okada, A; Maekawa, T; He-Yao, W; Chiba, T

    1998-01-01

    We examined 13 human gastric carcinoma cell lines for the expression of both c-kit and stem cell factor (SCF). Expression of mRNAs was detected by both Northern blot analysis and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and expression of translated proteins was detected by western blotting. Using RT-PCR we confirmed the expression of c-kit in five (ECC12, TMK1, MKN7, GCIY, and HGC27) cell lines. Northern blot analysis showed coexpression of both c-kit and SCF in ECC12 and expression of SCF in five other (MKN74, MKN1 OKAJIMA, KATOIII, and TMK1) cell lines. SCF stimulated both tyrosine phosphorylation of c-kit and growth of ECC12, whereas it did not stimulate those of GCIY. The sizes of c-kit transcript and protein in GCIY were slightly smaller than those of the reported ones, suggesting the presence of a biologically inactive truncated form of c-kit in GCIY. The present study suggests that c-kit/SCF system might play an important role in the carcinogenesis and tumor growth of ECC12 and that the truncated form of c-kit in GCIY might not be associated with malignant transformation. PMID:9508539

  11. c-KIT receptor expression is strictly associated with the biological behaviour of thyroid nodules

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A large amount of information has been collected on the molecular tumorigenesis of thyroid cancer. A low expression of c-KIT gene has been reported during the transformation of normal thyroid epithelium to papillary carcinoma suggesting a possible role of the gene in the differentiation of thyroid tissue rather than in the proliferation. The initial presentation of thyroid carcinoma is through a nodule and the best way nowadays to evaluate it is by fine-needle aspiration (FNA). However many thyroid FNAs are not definitively benign or malignant, yielding an indeterminate or suspicious diagnosis which ranges from 10 to 25% of FNAs. BRAF mutational analysis is commonly used to assess the malignancy of thyroid nodules but unfortunately it still leaves indeterminate diagnoses. The development of molecular initial diagnostic tests for evaluating a thyroid nodule is needed in order to define optimal surgical approach for patients with uncertain diagnosis pre- and intra-operatively. Methods In this study we extracted RNA from 82 FNA smears, 46 malignant and 36 benign at the histology, in order to evaluate by quantitative Real Time PCR the expression levels of c-KIT gene. Results We have found a highly preferential decrease rather than increase in transcript of c-KIT in malignant thyroid lesions compared to the benign ones. To explore the diagnostic utility of c-KIT expression in thyroid nodules, its expression values were divided in four arbitrarily defined classes, with class I characterized by the complete silencing of the gene. Class I and IV represented the two most informative groups, with 100% of the samples found malignant or benign respectively. The molecular analysis was proven by ROC (receiver operating characteristic) analysis to be highly specific and sensitive improving the cytological diagnostic accuracy of 15%. Conclusion We propose the use of BRAF test (after uncertain cytological diagnosis) to assess the malignancy of thyroid nodules at first

  12. Mast cell-deficient W-sash c-kit mutant Kit W-sh/W-sh mice as a model for investigating mast cell biology in vivo.

    PubMed

    Grimbaldeston, Michele A; Chen, Ching-Cheng; Piliponsky, Adrian M; Tsai, Mindy; Tam, See-Ying; Galli, Stephen J

    2005-09-01

    Mice carrying certain mutations in the white spotting (W) locus (ie, c-kit) exhibit reduced c-kit tyrosine kinase-dependent signaling that results in mast cell deficiency and other phenotypic abnormalities. The c-kit mutations in Kit(W/W-v) mice impair melanogenesis and result in anemia, sterility, and markedly reduced levels of tissue mast cells. In contrast, Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice, bearing the W-sash (W(sh)) inversion mutation, have mast cell deficiency but lack anemia and sterility. We report that adult Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice had a profound deficiency in mast cells in all tissues examined but normal levels of major classes of other differentiated hematopoietic and lymphoid cells. Unlike Kit(W/W-v) mice, Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice had normal numbers of TCR gammadelta intraepithelial lymphocytes in the intestines and did not exhibit a high incidence of idiopathic dermatitis, ulcers, or squamous papillomas of the stomach, but like Kit(W/W-v) mice, they lacked interstitial cells of Cajal in the gut and exhibited bile reflux into the stomach. Systemic or local reconstitution of mast cell populations was achieved in nonirradiated adult Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice by intravenous, intraperitoneal, or intradermal injection of wild-type bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells but not by transplantation of wild-type bone marrow cells. Thus, Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice represent a useful model for mast cell research, especially for analyzing mast cell function in vivo. PMID:16127161

  13. Identification of a cKit+ Colonic Crypt Base Secretory Cell That Supports Lgr5+ Stem Cells in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberg, Michael E.; Nusse, Ysbrand; Kalisky, Tomer; Lee, John J.; Dalerba, Piero; Scheeren, Ferenc; Lobo, Neethan; Kulkarni, Subhash; Sim, Sopheak; Qian, Dalong; Beachy, Philip A.; Pasricha, Pankaj J.; Quake, Stephen R.; Clarke, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Paneth cells contribute to the small intestinal niche of Lgr5+ stem cells. Although the colon also contains Lgr5+ stem cells, it does not contain Paneth cells. We investigated the existence of colonic Paneth-like cells that have a distinct transcriptional signature and support Lgr5+ stem cells. Methods We used multicolor fluorescence-activated cell sorting to isolate different subregions of colon crypts, based on known markers, from dissociated colonic epithelium of mice. We performed multiplexed single-cell gene expression analysis with quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction followed by hierarchical clustering analysis to characterize distinct cell types. We used immunostaining and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses with in vivo administration of a Notch inhibitor and in vitro organoid cultures to characterize different cell types. Results Multicolor fluorescence-activated cell sorting could isolate distinct regions of colonic crypts. Four major epithelial subtypes or transcriptional states were revealed by gene expression analysis of selected populations of single cells. One of these, the goblet cells, contained a distinct cKit/CD117+ crypt base subpopulation that expressed Dll1, Dll4, and epidermal growth factor, similar to Paneth cells, which were also marked by cKit. In the colon, cKit+ goblet cells were interdigitated with Lgr5+ stem cells. In vivo, this colonic cKit+ population was regulated by Notch signaling; administration of a γ-secretase inhibitor to mice increased the number of cKit+ cells. When isolated from mouse colon, cKit+ cells promoted formation of organoids from Lgr5+ stem cells, which expressed Kitl/stem cell factor, the ligand for cKit. When organoids were depleted of cKit+ cells using a toxin-conjugated antibody, organoid formation decreased. Conclusions cKit marks small intestinal Paneth cells and a subset of colonic goblet cells that are regulated by Notch signaling and support Lgr5+stem

  14. Analysis of POU5F1, c-Kit, PLAP, AP2γ and SALL4 in gonocytes of patients with cryptorchidism.

    PubMed

    Vigueras-Villaseñor, Rosa María; Cortés-Trujillo, Lucero; Chávez-Saldaña, Margarita; Vázquez, Francisco García; Carrasco-Daza, Daniel; Cuevas-Alpuche, Osvaldo; Rojas-Castañeda, Julio César

    2015-10-01

    Cryptorchidism is a risk factor for the development of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs). The most common type of TGCT in cryptorchidism is seminoma. The intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified (ITGCNU) is a histological pattern preceding the development of seminomas and non-seminomas. It was suggested that in patients with cryptorchidism, the gonocytes remained undifferentiated with pluripotent abilities expressing proteins like POU domain class 5 transcription factor 1 (POU5F1), tyrosine kinase receptor c-Kit, placental-like alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), the transcription factor AP2γ and sal-like protein 4 (SALL4) that confer to the gonocytes this ability and therefore make them susceptible to develop ITGCNU. The aim of the present study was to determine if the gonocytes of patients with cryptorchidism express POU5F1, c-Kit, PLAP, AP2γ and SALL4 proteins after their differentiation period. Based on this, we evaluated samples of testicular tissue from newborns to 16-year old subjects with or without cryptorchidism in search of POU5F1, c-Kit, PLAP, AP2γ and SALL4 using immunocytochemical method, the results of which were validated by RT-PCR. The results showed that control subjects witnessed a down-regulation in the expression of these five proteins in the first year of life, which eventually disappeared. On the other hand, it was determined that 21.6% (8/37) of the patients with cryptorchidism continued to express, at least, one of the proteins analyzed in this study after the second year of life. And only 5.4% (2/37) of the patients were positive to the five markers. These data sustain the proposed hypothesis that in cryptorchid patients, ITGCNU arises from gonocytes that fail in their differentiation process to spermatogonia with conservation of the proteins (POU5F1, c-Kit, PLAP, AP2γ and SALL4) that maintain pluripotency and undifferentiated characteristics and which are responsible for making the gonocytes susceptible to malignancy. However, we

  15. Female Adnexal Tumor of Probable Wolffian Origin (FATWO) With Recurrence 3 Years Postsurgery: C-kit Gene Analysis and a Possibility of a New Molecular Targeted Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Syriac, Susanna; Durie, Nicole; Kesterson, Joshua; Lele, Shashrikant; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette

    2016-01-01

    Summary This is the case report of a 38-year-old woman who presented with a mass of the right broad ligament that was diagnosed as a female adnexal tumor of probable Wollfian origin (FATWO). The patient was treated with a simple mass excision. Three years after the excision, the patient presented with uterine bleeding. A total abdominal hysterectomy was advised. Intraoperative histologic consultation showed a poorly differentiated tumor on the surface of the left ovary. After extensive immunohistochemistry analysis and after reviewing the histology slides from the primary tumor, the final diagnosis was concluded to be recurrent FATWO on the surface of the ovary. C-kit immunohistochemistry was found to be strongly positive. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of C-kit genes on exons 9, 11, 13, and 17 and of PDGFR gene on exons 12 and 18 showed no mutational changes. Owing to the limited options in treating recurrent disease and the lack of prognostic factors for recurrence or metastasis, the patient was started on 400 mg of imatinib mesylate therapy for 6 months. In addition, the patient is undergoing continuous follow-up by computed tomographic imaging every 6 months. As chemotherapy and radiation therapy for recurrent or metastatic FATWO are most often unsuccessful, a molecular targeted therapy, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitor, could be considered. However, collective data are needed from multiple centers to determine its effectiveness in these patients. PMID:21464731

  16. Intratumoral CD3+ T-lymphocytes immunoexpression and its association with c-Kit, angiogenesis, and overall survival in malignant canine mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Maria Isabel; Pires, Isabel; Dias, Marlene; Prada, Justina; Gregório, Hugo; Lobo, Luis; Queiroga, Felisbina

    2015-01-01

    In this study 80 malignant CMT were submitted to immunohistochemical detection of CD3, c-kit, VEGF, and CD31, together with clinicopathological parameters of tumor aggressiveness. CD3+ T-cells and c-kit overexpression revealed a positive correlation with VEGF (r = 0.503, P < 0.0001; r = 0.284, P = 0.023 for CD3 and c-kit, resp.) and CD31 (r = 0.654, P < 0.0001; r = 0.365, P = 0.003 for CD3 and c-kit, resp.). A significant association (P = 0.039) and a positive correlation (r = 0.263, P = 0.039) between CD3 and c-kit were also observed. High CD3/VEGF, c-kit/VEGF, and CD3/c-kit tumors were associated with elevated grade of malignancy (P < 0.0001 for all groups), presence of intravascular emboli (P < 0.0001 for CD3/VEGF and CD3/c-kit; P = 0.002 for c-kit/VEGF), and presence of lymph node metastasis (P < 0.0001 for all groups). Tumors with high CD3/VEGF (P = 0.006), c-kit/VEGF (P < 0.0001), and CD3/c-kit (P = 0.002) were associated with poor prognosis. Interestingly high c-kit/VEGF tumors retained their significance by multivariate analysis arising as independent prognostic factor. PMID:26346272

  17. Isolation of c-Kit+ human amniotic fluid stem cells from second trimester.

    PubMed

    Pozzobon, Michela; Piccoli, Martina; Schiavo, Andrea Alex; Atala, Anthony; De Coppi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS) cells have been described as an appealing source of stem cells because of their (1) fetal, non-embryonic origin, (2) easy access during pregnancy overcoming the ethical issues related both to the use of human embryonic cells and to the postnatal tissue biopsy with donor site morbidity, and (3) their undemanding ability to be expanded. We and others have demonstrated the broad differentiation potential and here we describe the established protocol we developed to obtain c-Kit+ human AFS cells, starting from second trimester amniocentesis samples.

  18. Postsurgical radiation therapy for gastric carcinosarcoma with c-kit expression: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gohongi, Takeshi; Iida, Hiroyuki; Gunji, Naoto; Orii, Kazuo; Ogata, Takesaburo

    2015-03-01

    Gastric carcinosarcomas are rare morphologically biphasic tumors, consisting of carcinoma and sarcoma components, with a poor clinical course. Here we report the case of a 70-year-old man with advanced Borrmann type III carcinosarcoma arising from the upper body of the stomach with extensive lymph node metastasis who underwent a total, but palliative, gastrectomy. Histology showed the tumor consisted of a biphasic structure of tubular adenocarcinoma and spindle cell sarcoma. Immunohistochemistry revealed sarcoma cells expressing c-kit (CD117) and CD34, which are criteria for gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Nine months after the surgical operation, tumor metastases had extended to the hepatohilar, retroperitoneal and mediastinal lymph nodes. Radiation therapy of 50 Gy markedly decreased the size of each of these nodes and reduced the risk of respiratory complications and jaundice. However, the patient died of respiratory failure due to bronchopneumonia with multiple lung metastases 22 mo after resection. Autopsy revealed severe necrosis in most of the lymph nodes with tumor metastases. Radiation therapy combined with gastrectomy should be considered to improve survival in patients with gastric carcinosarcomas that express c-kit.

  19. A novel mutation in the c-KIT protooncogene in a family with piebaldism

    SciTech Connect

    Larizza, L.; Riva, P.; Milani, N.; Gandolfi, P.

    1994-09-01

    Human piebaldism is a dominant disorder (MIN No. 17289) caused by impaired migration of melanoblasts from the neural crest to the epidermis during embryonic development. Mutations in the c-KIT gene which encodes the tyrosinkinase (TK) receptor of SCF have been causally related to the disease. Significantly six out of the seven point mutations so far reported in piebaldic patients are clustered in the I{degrees} TK domain of the gene. We studied an Italian family in which the piebald trait had been transmitted through at least six generations, which includes 39 affected and 1 healthy member, and sequencing of the I{degrees} TK domain exons failed to reveal any alteration in this critical region. Conversely, exon 19 in the II{degrees} TK domain showed an SSCP pattern which differed in the piebaldic from healthy family members and controls. Direct sequencing of exon 19 showed a 12 base deletion (AACACGCACCTG) leading the lack of 4 amino acids (gln, his, ala, pro) in the receptor protein. This is the first mutation in the II{degrees} TK domain of the c-KIT gene. Like point mutations in the I{degrees} TK domain, it causes a full clinical phenotype, whereas frameshift and whole gene mutations underlie a mild phenotype. Sequence analysis evidenced a direct repeat motif (CTG) at both deletion junctions and deletion 3{prime} end. This suggests that a {open_quotes}slipped mispairing{close_quotes} mechanism at DNA replication may be involved in the deletion.

  20. c-Kit and stem cell factor regulate PANC-1 cell differentiation into insulin- and glucagon-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuexiu; Li, Jinming; Saleem, Saira; Yee, Siu-Pok; Hardikar, Anandwardhan A; Wang, Rennian

    2010-09-01

    Recent evidence has shown that stem cell factor (SCF) and its receptor, c-Kit, have an important role in pancreatic islet development by promoting islet cell differentiation and proliferation. In this study, we examined the role of c-Kit and SCF in the differentiation and proliferation of insulin- and glucagon-producing cells using a human pancreatic duct cell line (PANC-1). Our study showed that increased expression of endocrine cell markers (such as insulin and glucagon) and transcription factors (such as PDX-1 and PAX-6) coincided with a decrease in CK19(+) and c-Kit(+) cells (P<0.001) during PANC-1 cell differentiation, determined by immunofluorescence and qRT-PCR. Cells cultured with exogenous SCF showed an increase in insulin(+) (26%) and glucagon(+) (35%) cell differentiation (P<0.01), an increase in cell proliferation (P<0.05) and a decrease in cell apoptosis (P<0.01). siRNA knockdown of c-Kit resulted in a decrease in endocrine cell differentiation with a reduction in PDX-1 and insulin mRNA, as well as the number of cells immunostaining for PDX-1 and insulin. Taken together, these results show that c-Kit/SCF interactions are involved in mediating islet-like cluster formation and islet-like cell differentiation in a human pancreatic duct cell line.

  1. Fibroblast Growth Factor-9 Activates c-Kit Progenitor Cells and Enhances Angiogenesis in the Infarcted Diabetic Heart

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Dinender; Wang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that fibroblast growth factor-9 (FGF-9) would enhance angiogenesis via activating c-kit positive stem cells in the infarcted nondiabetic and diabetic heart. In brief, animals were divided into three groups: Sham, MI, and MI+FGF-9. Two weeks following MI or sham surgery, our data suggest that treatment with FGF-9 significantly diminished vascular apoptosis compared to the MI group in both C57BL/6 and db/db mice (p < 0.05). Additionally, the number of c-kit+ve/SM α-actin+ve cells and c-kit+ve/CD31+ve cells were greatly enhanced in the MI+FGF-9 groups relative to the MI suggesting FGF-9 enhances c-Kit cell activation and their differentiation into vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells, respectively (p < 0.05). Histology shows that the total number of vessels were quantified for all groups and our data suggest that the FGF-9 treated groups had significantly more vessels than their MI counterparts (p < 0.05). Finally, echocardiographic data suggests a significant improvement in left ventricular output, as indicated by fractional shortening and ejection fraction in both nondiabetic and diabetic animals treated with FGF-9 (p < 0.05). Overall, our data suggests FGF-9 has the potential to attenuate vascular cell apoptosis, activate c-Kit progenitor cells, and enhance angiogenesis and neovascularization in C57BL/6 and db/db mice leading to improved cardiac function. PMID:26682010

  2. CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells have hematopoietic properties in the mouse aorta-gonad-mesonephros region

    SciTech Connect

    Nobuhisa, Ikuo

    2012-04-01

    Long-term reconstituting hematopoietic stem cells first arise from the aorta of the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region in a mouse embryo. We have previously reported that in cultures of the dispersed AGM region, CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup +} cells possess the ability to reconstitute multilineage hematopoietic cells, but investigations are needed to show that this is not a cultured artifact and to clarify when and how this population is present. Based on the expression profile of CD45 and c-Kit in freshly dissociated AGM cells from embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5) to E12.5 and aorta cells in the AGM from E13.5 to E15.5, we defined six cell populations (CD45{sup -}c-Kit{sup -}, CD45{sup -}c-Kit{sup low}, CD45{sup -}c-Kit{sup high}, CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high}, CD45{sup high}c-Kit{sup high}, and CD45{sup high}c-Kit{sup very} {sup low}). Among these six populations, CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells were most able to form hematopoietic cell colonies, but their ability decreased after E11.5 and was undetectable at E13.5 and later. The CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells showed multipotency in vitro. We demonstrated further enrichment of hematopoietic activity in the Hoechst dye-effluxing side population among the CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells. Here, we determined that CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells arise from the lateral plate mesoderm using embryonic stem cell-derived differentiation system. In conclusion, CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells are the major hematopoietic cells of mouse AGM.

  3. Imatinib mesylate treatment in a dog with gastrointestinal stromal tumors with a c-kit mutation.

    PubMed

    Irie, Mitsuhiro; Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Ohtake, Yuzo; Suzuki, Hitomi; Nagata, Nao; Miyoshi, Takuma; Kagawa, Yumiko; Yamagami, Tetsushi

    2015-11-01

    A 13-year-old spayed mixed-breed dog was diagnosed with a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) after histopathological examination of an abdominal mass. Five months after surgical resection of the tumor, we detected the recurrence of GIST with multiple disseminated abdominal lesions. A sequence analysis of cDNA obtained from a biopsy of the recurrent tumors revealed a mutation within exon 9 of the c-kit gene (1523A>T, Asn(508)Ile), which has been shown to cause ligand-independent phosphorylation of the KIT protein in GISTs and canine mast cell tumors (MCTs). Upon detection of the recurrent tumors, we initiated treatment with imatinib mesylate (10 mg/kg, q 24 hr). After 2 months, the dog achieved complete remission. Our findings indicate that canine GIST, and possibly MCT, may be responsive to molecular-targeted therapy.

  4. Altered expression of mast cell chymase and tryptase and of c-Kit in human cutaneous scar tissue.

    PubMed

    Hermes, B; Feldmann-Böddeker, I; Welker, P; Algermissen, B; Steckelings, M U; Grabbe, J; Henz, B M

    2000-01-01

    In order to explore a possible involvement of mast cells during human wound healing, we studied sections from scars (4-369-d-old) (N = 20) and normal skin (N = 10) for mast-cell-specific tryptase and chymase by enzyme histochemistry, for the stem cell factor receptor c-Kit and the melanosomal marker TA99 by immunohistochemistry, and for simultaneous c-Kit expression and avidin fluorescence by double staining. Enzyme activities and mRNA expression were also studied in tissue extracts. Chymase-reactive mast cell numbers as well as chymase activity and mRNA expression were reduced in all scars, whereas overall numbers of tryptase-reactive cells did not differ from normal skin, although tryptase activity and mRNA expression were increased in scar extracts. In contrast, numbers of c-Kit positive cells were significantly increased in old scars, and in the mid and lower dermis of all scars. A marked reduction of c-Kit reactivity was noted, however, in avidin-positive dermal mast cells and in epidermal basal cells, despite unchanged numbers of melanosome-positive cells, with an associated overall decrease of c-Kit mRNA in scar extracts. These data thus show that numbers of resident mast cells are very low in human cutaneous scars, suggesting massive mediator release from these cells into fresh wounds. Downregulation of stem cell factor receptors may also prevent these cells from increasing in number even in old scars. Instead, scar tissue is populated by a mast cell subpopulation that is chymase-, avidin-, tryptase +, c-Kit +, reflecting most probably an increased immigration and/or proliferation of immature mast cells and their precursors.

  5. C-kit(+) cells isolated from developing kidneys are a novel population of stem cells with regenerative potential.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Erika B; Gomes, Samirah A; Dulce, Raul A; Premer, Courtney; Rodrigues, Claudia O; Kanashiro-Takeuchi, Rosemeire M; Oskouei, Behzad; Carvalho, Decio A; Ruiz, Phillip; Reiser, Jochen; Hare, Joshua M

    2013-08-01

    The presence of tissue specific precursor cells is an emerging concept in organ formation and tissue homeostasis. Several progenitors are described in the kidneys. However, their identity as a true stem cell remains elusive. Here, we identify a neonatal kidney-derived c-kit(+) cell population that fulfills all of the criteria as a stem cell. These cells were found in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop and exhibited clonogenicity, self-renewal, and multipotentiality with differentiation capacity into mesoderm and ectoderm progeny. Additionally, c-kit(+) cells formed spheres in nonadherent conditions when plated at clonal density and expressed markers of stem cells, progenitors, and differentiated cells. Ex vivo expanded c-kit(+) cells integrated into several compartments of the kidney, including tubules, vessels, and glomeruli, and contributed to functional and morphological improvement of the kidney following acute ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Together, these findings document a novel neonatal rat kidney c-kit(+) stem cell population that can be isolated, expanded, cloned, differentiated, and used for kidney repair following acute kidney injury. These cells have important biological and therapeutic implications.

  6. Internal associations and dynamic expression of c-kit and nanog genes in ventricular remodelling induced by adriamycin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhen; Li, Shuo; Liu, Lingling; Guo, Zhikun; Wang, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the dynamic expression of the c-kit and nanog genes in rats with left ventricular remodelling induced by adriamycin (ADR), and explore its internal association and mechanism of action. Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into a normal control group and a heart failure model group. Heart failure was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of ADR (4 mg/kg) weekly for six weeks. The normal control group was given the same amount of saline. At the eighth week, rat cardiac function was examined to demonstrate the formation of heart failure. The rat hearts were harvested frozen and sectioned, and the expression levels of the nanog and c-kit genes in the myocardial tissue samples were detected using immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Hematoxylin and eosin staining demonstrated various pathological changes in the myocardial cells in the heart failure model group, whereas myocardial infarction was not observed in the normal control group. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence demonstrated that nanog-positive cells were predominantly expressed in the vascular endothelium, with a few myocardial cells and stem cells in normal myocardium. The expression levels of c-kit and nanog in the myocardium of the rats with heart failure decreased significantly. c-kit-positive cells clustered together in the epicardium and its vicinity, and c-kit expression significantly decreased in the myocardium of rats with heart failure, as compared with normal rats. In both groups, some cells co-expressed both the c-kit and nanog genes. The RT-PCR results demonstrated that the expression levels of the two genes in the heart failure model group were significantly lower compared with those in the normal control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, the c-kit- and nanog-positive stem cells decreased in the myocardium of the rats with left ventricular remodelling induced by ADR

  7. Human Peripheral Blood Eosinophils Express a Functional c-kit Receptor for Stem Cell Factor that Stimulates Very Late Antigen 4 (VLA-4)–mediated Cell Adhesion to Fibronectin and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (VCAM-1)

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Qian; Austen, K. Frank; Friend, Daniel S.; Heidtman, Matthew; Boyce, Joshua A.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated mature peripheral blood eosinophils for their expression of the surface tyrosine kinase, c-kit, the receptor for the stromal cell–derived cytokine, stem cell factor (SCF). Cytofluorographic analysis revealed that c-kit was expressed on the purified peripheral blood eosinophils from 8 of 8 donors (4 nonatopic and 4 atopic) (mean channel fluorescence intensity 2.0– 3.6-fold, average 2.8 ± 0.6-fold, greater than the negative control). The uniform and selective expression of c-kit by eosinophils was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis of peripheral blood buffy coats. The functional integrity of c-kit was demonstrated by the capacity of 100 ng/ml (5 nM) of recombinant human (rh) SCF to increase eosinophil adhesion to 3, 10, and 30 μg/ml of immobilized FN40, a 40-kD chymotryptic fragment of plasma fibronectin, in 15 min by 7.7 ± 1.4-, 5.3 ± 3.3-, and 5.4 ± 0.2-fold, respectively, and their adhesion to 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 μg/ml vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), by 12.7 ± 9.2-, 3.8 ± 2.5-, and 1.7 ± 0.6-fold, respectively. The SCF-stimulated adhesion occurred without concomitant changes in surface integrin expression, thereby indicating an avidity-based mechanism. rhSCF (100 ng/ml, 5 nM) was comparable to rh eotaxin (200 ng/ml, 24 nM) in stimulating adhesion. Cell adhesion to FN40 was completely inhibited with antibodies against the α4 and β1 integrin subunits, revealing that the SCF/c-kit adhesion effect was mediated by a single integrin heterodimer, very late antigen 4 (VLA-4). Thus, SCF represents a newly recognized stromal ligand for the activation of eosinophils for VLA-4–mediated adhesion, which could contribute to the exit of these cells from the blood, their tissue localization, and their prominence in inflammatory lesions. PMID:9221761

  8. Testis tissue explantation cures spermatogenic failure in c-Kit ligand mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Takuya; Yokonishi, Tetsuhiro; Komeya, Mitsuru; Katagiri, Kumiko; Kubota, Yoshinobu; Matoba, Shogo; Ogonuki, Narumi; Ogura, Atsuo; Yoshida, Shosei; Ogawa, Takehiko

    2012-01-01

    Male infertility is most commonly caused by spermatogenic defects or insufficiencies, the majority of which are as yet cureless. Recently, we succeeded in cultivating mouse testicular tissues for producing fertile sperm from spermatogonial stem cells. Here, we show that one of the most severe types of spermatogenic defect mutant can be treated by the culture method without any genetic manipulations. The Sl/Sld mouse is used as a model of such male infertility. The testis of the Sl/Sld mouse has only primitive spermatogonia as germ cells, lacking any sign of spermatogenesis owing to mutations of the c-kit ligand (KITL) gene that cause the loss of membrane-bound-type KITL from the surface of Sertoli cells. To compensate for the deficit, we cultured testis tissues of Sl/Sld mice with a medium containing recombinant KITL and found that it induced the differentiation of spermatogonia up to the end of meiosis. We further discovered that colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) enhances the effect of KITL and promotes spermatogenesis up to the production of sperm. Microinsemination of haploid cells resulted in delivery of healthy offspring. This study demonstrated that spermatogenic impairments can be treated in vitro with the supplementation of certain factors or substances that are insufficient in the original testes. PMID:22984182

  9. "String theory" of c-kit(pos) cardiac cells: a new paradigm regarding the nature of these cells that may reconcile apparently discrepant results.

    PubMed

    Keith, Matthew C L; Bolli, Roberto

    2015-03-27

    Although numerous preclinical investigations have consistently demonstrated salubrious effects of c-kit(pos) cardiac cells administered after myocardial infarction, the mechanism of action remains highly controversial. We and others have found little or no evidence that these cells differentiate into mature functional cardiomyocytes, suggesting paracrine effects. In this review, we propose a new paradigm predicated on a comprehensive analysis of the literature, including studies of cardiac development; we have (facetiously) dubbed this conceptual construct "string theory" of c-kit(pos) cardiac cells because it reconciles multifarious and sometimes apparently discrepant results. There is strong evidence that, during development, the c-kit receptor is expressed in different pools of cardiac progenitors (some capable of robust cardiomyogenesis and others with little or no contribution to myocytes). Accordingly, c-kit positivity, in itself, does not define the embryonic origins, lineage capabilities, or differentiation capacities of specific cardiac progenitors. C-kit(pos) cells derived from the first heart field exhibit cardiomyogenic potential during development, but these cells are likely depleted shortly before or after birth. The residual c-kit(pos) cells found in the adult heart are probably of proepicardial origin, possess a mesenchymal phenotype (resembling bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells), and are capable of contributing significantly only to nonmyocytic lineages (fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells). If these 2 populations (first heart field and proepicardium) express different levels of c-kit, the cardiomyogenic potential of first heart field progenitors might be reconciled with recent results of c-kit(pos) cell lineage tracing studies. The concept that c-kit expression in the adult heart identifies epicardium-derived, noncardiomyogenic precursors with a mesenchymal phenotype helps to explain the beneficial effects of c-kit

  10. "String theory" of c-kit(pos) cardiac cells: a new paradigm regarding the nature of these cells that may reconcile apparently discrepant results.

    PubMed

    Keith, Matthew C L; Bolli, Roberto

    2015-03-27

    Although numerous preclinical investigations have consistently demonstrated salubrious effects of c-kit(pos) cardiac cells administered after myocardial infarction, the mechanism of action remains highly controversial. We and others have found little or no evidence that these cells differentiate into mature functional cardiomyocytes, suggesting paracrine effects. In this review, we propose a new paradigm predicated on a comprehensive analysis of the literature, including studies of cardiac development; we have (facetiously) dubbed this conceptual construct "string theory" of c-kit(pos) cardiac cells because it reconciles multifarious and sometimes apparently discrepant results. There is strong evidence that, during development, the c-kit receptor is expressed in different pools of cardiac progenitors (some capable of robust cardiomyogenesis and others with little or no contribution to myocytes). Accordingly, c-kit positivity, in itself, does not define the embryonic origins, lineage capabilities, or differentiation capacities of specific cardiac progenitors. C-kit(pos) cells derived from the first heart field exhibit cardiomyogenic potential during development, but these cells are likely depleted shortly before or after birth. The residual c-kit(pos) cells found in the adult heart are probably of proepicardial origin, possess a mesenchymal phenotype (resembling bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells), and are capable of contributing significantly only to nonmyocytic lineages (fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells). If these 2 populations (first heart field and proepicardium) express different levels of c-kit, the cardiomyogenic potential of first heart field progenitors might be reconciled with recent results of c-kit(pos) cell lineage tracing studies. The concept that c-kit expression in the adult heart identifies epicardium-derived, noncardiomyogenic precursors with a mesenchymal phenotype helps to explain the beneficial effects of c-kit

  11. C-Kit Promotes Growth and Migration of Human Cardiac Progenitor Cells via the PI3K-AKT and MEK-ERK Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Al-Maqtari, Tareq; Cao, Pengxiao; Keith, Matthew C. L.; Wysoczynski, Marcin; Zhao, John; Moore IV, Joseph B.; Bolli, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    A recent phase I clinical trial (SCIPIO) has shown that autologous c-kit+ cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) improve cardiac function and quality of life when transplanted into patients with ischemic heart disease. Although c-kit is widely used as a marker of resident CPCs, its role in the regulation of the cellular characteristics of CPCs remains unknown. We hypothesized that c-kit plays a role in the survival, growth, and migration of CPCs. To test this hypothesis, human CPCs were grown under stress conditions in the presence or absence of SCF, and the effects of SCF-mediated activation of c-kit on CPC survival/growth and migration were measured. SCF treatment led to a significant increase in cell survival and a reduction in cell death under serum depletion conditions. In addition, SCF significantly promoted CPC migration in vitro. Furthermore, the pro-survival and pro-migratory effects of SCF were augmented by c-kit overexpression and abrogated by c-kit inhibition with imatinib. Mechanistically, c-kit activation in CPCs led to activation of the PI3K and the MAPK pathways. With the use of specific inhibitors, we confirmed that the SCF/c-kit-dependent survival and chemotaxis of CPCs are dependent on both pathways. Taken together, our findings suggest that c-kit promotes the survival/growth and migration of human CPCs cultured ex vivo via the activation of PI3K and MAPK pathways. These results imply that the efficiency of CPC homing to the injury site as well as their survival after transplantation may be improved by modulating the activity of c-kit. PMID:26474484

  12. Polymer microfiber meshes facilitate cardiac differentiation of c-kit(+) human cardiac stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kan, Lijuan; Thayer, Patrick; Fan, Huimin; Ledford, Benjamin; Chen, Miao; Goldstein, Aaron; Cao, Guohua; He, Jia-Qiang

    2016-09-10

    Electrospun microfiber meshes have been shown to support the proliferation and differentiation of many types of stem cells, but the phenotypic fate of c-kit(+) human cardiac stem cells (hCSCs) have not been explored. To this end, we utilized thin (~5µm) elastomeric meshes consisting of aligned 1.7µm diameter poly (ester-urethane urea) microfibers as substrates to examine their effect on hCSC viability, morphology, proliferation, and differentiation relative to cells cultured on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). The results showed that cells on microfiber meshes displayed an elongated morphology aligned in the direction of fiber orientation, lower proliferation rates, but increased expressions of genes and proteins majorly associated with cardiomyocyte phenotype. The early (NK2 homeobox 5, Nkx2.5) and late (cardiac troponin I, cTnI) cardiomyocyte genes were significantly increased on meshes (Nkx=2.5 56.2±13.0, cTnl=2.9±0.56,) over TCPS (Nkx2.5=4.2±0.9, cTnl=1.6±0.5, n=9, p<0.05 for both groups) after differentiation. In contrast, expressions of smooth muscle markers, Gata6 and myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC), were decreased on meshes. Immunocytochemical analysis with cardiac antibody exhibited the similar pattern of above cardiac differentiation. We conclude that aligned microfiber meshes are suitable for guiding cardiac differentiation of hCSCs and may facilitate stem cell-based therapies for treatment of cardiac diseases. PMID:27481582

  13. Spectroscopic probing of recognition of the G-quadruplex in c-kit promoter by small-molecule natural products.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaojie; Lin, Sen; Yuan, Gu

    2012-05-01

    The c-kit oncogene plays important roles in cell growth and proliferation which is associated with many human tumors. In this study, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy were used to evaluate the formation and recognition of the G-quadruplex by d(AGGGAGGGCGCTGGGAGGAGGG) in the promoter region of the c-kit oncogene. Among the twelve small natural molecules studied, three crescent-shaped small molecules (chelerythrine, jatrorrhizine and berberine, named as P1-P3) and one flexible cyclic small molecule (fangchinoline, named as P4) were found to bind to the G-quadruplex with high affinities. The melting experiments demonstrate that P1-P4 can significantly enhance the stability of the G-quadruplex with the ordering of P1≈P4>P3>P2. Further insight into the binding mode of small molecules with the G-quadruplex by Autodock3 analysis reveals that P1-P3 prefer the end-stacking mode with the G-quadruplex through π-π interaction and P4 prefers to insert into the groove outside the G-tetrads. Thus, our research finds that four ligands (P1-P4) from small natural molecules have high affinity to, and can significantly enhance the stability of the G-quadruplex in the promoter region of the c-kit oncogene. PMID:22405847

  14. Suppression of c-Kit signaling induces adult neurogenesis in the mouse intestine after myenteric plexus ablation with benzalkonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Tamada, Hiromi; Kiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis rarely occurs in the enteric nervous system (ENS). In this study, we demonstrated that, after intestinal myenteric plexus (MP) ablation with benzalkonium chloride (BAC), adult neurogenesis in the ENS was significantly induced in c-kit loss-of-function mutant mice (W/W(v)). Almost all neurons and fibers in the MP disappeared after BAC treatment. However, 1 week after ablation, substantial penetration of nerve fibers from the non-damaged area was observed in the MP, longitudinal muscle and subserosal layers in both wildtype and W/W(v) mice. Two weeks after BAC treatment, in addition to the penetrating fibers, a substantial number of ectopic neurons appeared in the subserosal and longitudinal muscle layers of W/W(v) mice, whereas only a few ectopic neurons appeared in wildtype mice. Such ectopic neurons expressed either excitatory or inhibitory intrinsic motor neuron markers and formed ganglion-like structures, including glial cells, synaptic vesicles and basal lamina. Furthermore, oral administration of imatinib, an inhibitor of c-Kit and an anticancer agent for gastrointestinal stromal tumors, markedly induced appearance of ectopic neurons after BAC treatment, even in wildtype mice. These results suggest that adult neurogenesis in the ENS is negatively regulated by c-Kit signaling in vivo. PMID:27572504

  15. Suppression of c-Kit signaling induces adult neurogenesis in the mouse intestine after myenteric plexus ablation with benzalkonium chloride

    PubMed Central

    Tamada, Hiromi; Kiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis rarely occurs in the enteric nervous system (ENS). In this study, we demonstrated that, after intestinal myenteric plexus (MP) ablation with benzalkonium chloride (BAC), adult neurogenesis in the ENS was significantly induced in c-kit loss-of-function mutant mice (W/Wv). Almost all neurons and fibers in the MP disappeared after BAC treatment. However, 1 week after ablation, substantial penetration of nerve fibers from the non-damaged area was observed in the MP, longitudinal muscle and subserosal layers in both wildtype and W/Wv mice. Two weeks after BAC treatment, in addition to the penetrating fibers, a substantial number of ectopic neurons appeared in the subserosal and longitudinal muscle layers of W/Wv mice, whereas only a few ectopic neurons appeared in wildtype mice. Such ectopic neurons expressed either excitatory or inhibitory intrinsic motor neuron markers and formed ganglion-like structures, including glial cells, synaptic vesicles and basal lamina. Furthermore, oral administration of imatinib, an inhibitor of c-Kit and an anticancer agent for gastrointestinal stromal tumors, markedly induced appearance of ectopic neurons after BAC treatment, even in wildtype mice. These results suggest that adult neurogenesis in the ENS is negatively regulated by c-Kit signaling in vivo. PMID:27572504

  16. Protein kinase D1 drives pancreatic acinar cell reprogramming and progression to intraepithelial neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Geou-Yarh; Döppler, Heike; Braun, Ursula B.; Panayiotou, Richard; Scotti Buzhardt, Michele; Radisky, Derek C.; Crawford, Howard C.; Fields, Alan P.; Murray, Nicole R.; Wang, Q. Jane; Leitges, Michael; Storz, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The transdifferentiation of pancreatic acinar cells to a ductal phenotype (acinar-to-ductal metaplasia, ADM) occurs after injury or inflammation of the pancreas and is a reversible process. However, in the presence of activating Kras mutations or persistent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) signalling, cells that underwent ADM can progress to pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and eventually pancreatic cancer. In transgenic animal models, ADM and PanINs are initiated by high-affinity ligands for EGF-R or activating Kras mutations, but the underlying signalling mechanisms are not well understood. Here, using a conditional knockout approach, we show that protein kinase D1 (PKD1) is sufficient to drive the reprogramming process to a ductal phenotype and progression to PanINs. Moreover, using 3D explant culture of primary pancreatic acinar cells, we show that PKD1 acts downstream of TGFα and Kras, to mediate formation of ductal structures through activation of the Notch pathway.

  17. Adult c-kit(pos) cardiac stem cells are necessary and sufficient for functional cardiac regeneration and repair.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Georgina M; Vicinanza, Carla; Smith, Andrew J; Aquila, Iolanda; Leone, Angelo; Waring, Cheryl D; Henning, Beverley J; Stirparo, Giuliano Giuseppe; Papait, Roberto; Scarfò, Marzia; Agosti, Valter; Viglietto, Giuseppe; Condorelli, Gianluigi; Indolfi, Ciro; Ottolenghi, Sergio; Torella, Daniele; Nadal-Ginard, Bernardo

    2013-08-15

    The epidemic of heart failure has stimulated interest in understanding cardiac regeneration. Evidence has been reported supporting regeneration via transplantation of multiple cell types, as well as replication of postmitotic cardiomyocytes. In addition, the adult myocardium harbors endogenous c-kit(pos) cardiac stem cells (eCSCs), whose relevance for regeneration is controversial. Here, using different rodent models of diffuse myocardial damage causing acute heart failure, we show that eCSCs restore cardiac function by regenerating lost cardiomyocytes. Ablation of the eCSC abolishes regeneration and functional recovery. The regenerative process is completely restored by replacing the ablated eCSCs with the progeny of one eCSC. eCSCs recovered from the host and recloned retain their regenerative potential in vivo and in vitro. After regeneration, selective suicide of these exogenous CSCs and their progeny abolishes regeneration, severely impairing ventricular performance. These data show that c-kit(pos) eCSCs are necessary and sufficient for the regeneration and repair of myocardial damage. PMID:23953114

  18. Induction of mast cell proliferation, maturation, and heparin synthesis by the rat c-kit ligand, stem cell factor

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, M.; Takeishi, Takashi; Geissler, E.N. ); Thompson, H.; Metcalfe, D.D. ); Langley, K.E.; Zsebo, K.M.; Galli, S.J. )

    1991-07-15

    The authors investigated the effects of a newly recognized multifunctional growth factor, the c-kit ligand stem cell factor (SCF), on mouse mast cell proliferation and phenotype. Recombinant rat SCF{sup 164} (rrSCF{sup 164}) induced the development of large numbers of dermal mast cells in normal mice in vivo. Many of these mast cells had features of connective tissue-type mast cells (CTMC), in that they were reactive both with the heparin-binding fluorescent dye berberine sulfate and with safranin. In vitro, rrSCF{sup 164} induced the proliferation of cloned interleukin 3 (IL-3)-dependent mouse mast cells and primary populations of IL-3-dependent, bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (BMCMC), which represent immature mast cells, and purified peritoneal mast cells, which represent a type of mature CTMC> BMCMC maintained in rrSCF{sup 164} not only proliferated but also matured. These findings identify SCF as a single cytokine that can induce immature, IL-3-dependent mast cells to mature and to acquire multiple characteristics of CTMC. These findings also directly demonstrate that SCF can regulate the development of a cellular lineage expressing c-kit through effects on both proliferation and maturation.

  19. Potential Involvement of the Stem Cell Factor Receptor c-kit in Alopecia Areata and Androgenetic Alopecia: Histopathological, Immunohistochemical, and Semiquantitative Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafuzzaman, Md.; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Shibata, Noriyuki; Hirayama, Takeshi Thomas; Kobayashi, Makio

    2010-01-01

    Alopecia areata (AAR) and androgenetic alopecia (AGA) are two major forms of alopecia based on altered hair growth condition. In general, the cell cycle is regulated by several mechanisms including the stem cell factor/c-kit signaling. To assess a role for stem cell activity in alopecia, we performed histopathological, immunohistochemical, and semiquantitative analyses of c-kit as well as Ki-67 in scalp biopsy specimens obtained from 14 patients with AAR, 18 patients with AGA, and 6 age-matched control subjects, using the specific antibodies. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded skin sections were examined. Immunoreactivities for Ki-67 and c-kit were localized in keratinocytes and melanocytes in the outermost layer of hair follicles. The mean length of hair follicles was significantly shorter in the AAR and AGA groups than in the control group. The mean number of Ki-67-immunoreactive cells per follicle was significantly reduced in the AAR and AGA groups as compared with the control group. The mean number of c-kit-immunoreactive cells per follicle was significantly increased in the AAR and AGA groups as compared with the control group. Our results indicate that c-kit is upregulated in the hair follicle cells in these forms of alopecia, and suggest that the upregulation reflects a negative feedback mechanism in response to possible downregulation of the ligand stem cell factor. PMID:20300219

  20. A G-Rich Sequence within the c-kit Oncogene Promoter Forms a Parallel G-Quadruplex Having Asymmetric G-Tetrad Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Shang-Te Danny; Varnai, Peter; Bugaut, Anthony; Reszka, Anthony P.; Neidle, Stephen; Balasubramanian, Shankar

    2011-01-01

    Guanine-rich DNA sequences with the ability to form quadruplex structures are enriched in the promoter regions of protein-coding genes, particularly those of proto-oncogenes. G-quadruplexes are structurally polymorphic and their folding topologies can depend on the sample conditions. We report here on a structural study using solution state NMR spectroscopy of a second G-quadruplex-forming motif (c-kit2) that has been recently identified in the promoter region of the c-kit oncogene. In the presence of potassium ions, c-kit2 exists as an ensemble of structures that share the same parallel-stranded propeller-type conformations. Subtle differences in structural dynamics have been identified using hydrogen–deuterium exchange experiments by NMR spectroscopy, suggesting the coexistence of at least two structurally similar but dynamically distinct substates, which undergo slow interconversion on the NMR timescale. PMID:19705869

  1. A G-rich sequence within the c-kit oncogene promoter forms a parallel G-quadruplex having asymmetric G-tetrad dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shang-Te Danny; Varnai, Peter; Bugaut, Anthony; Reszka, Anthony P; Neidle, Stephen; Balasubramanian, Shankar

    2009-09-23

    Guanine-rich DNA sequences with the ability to form quadruplex structures are enriched in the promoter regions of protein-coding genes, particularly those of proto-oncogenes. G-quadruplexes are structurally polymorphic and their folding topologies can depend on the sample conditions. We report here on a structural study using solution state NMR spectroscopy of a second G-quadruplex-forming motif (c-kit2) that has been recently identified in the promoter region of the c-kit oncogene. In the presence of potassium ions, c-kit2 exists as an ensemble of structures that share the same parallel-stranded propeller-type conformations. Subtle differences in structural dynamics have been identified using hydrogen-deuterium exchange experiments by NMR spectroscopy, suggesting the coexistence of at least two structurally similar but dynamically distinct substates, which undergo slow interconversion on the NMR timescale. PMID:19705869

  2. TAK1 and IKK2, novel mediators of SCF-induced signaling and potential targets for c-Kit-driven diseases.

    PubMed

    Drube, Sebastian; Weber, Franziska; Göpfert, Christiane; Loschinski, Romy; Rothe, Mandy; Boelke, Franziska; Diamanti, Michaela A; Löhn, Tobias; Ruth, Julia; Schütz, Dagmar; Häfner, Norman; Greten, Florian R; Stumm, Ralf; Hartmann, Karin; Krämer, Oliver H; Dudeck, Anne; Kamradt, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    NF-κB activation depends on the IKK complex consisting of the catalytically active IKK1 and 2 subunits and the scaffold protein NEMO. Hitherto, IKK2 activation has always been associated with IκBα degradation, NF-κB activation, and cytokine production. In contrast, we found that in SCF-stimulated primary bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs), IKK2 is alternatively activated. Mechanistically, activated TAK1 mediates the association between c-Kit and IKK2 and therefore facilitates the Lyn-dependent IKK2 activation which suffices to mediate mitogenic signaling but, surprisingly, does not result in NF-κB activation. Moreover, the c-Kit-mediated and Lyn-dependent IKK2 activation is targeted by MyD88-dependent pathways leading to enhanced IKK2 activation and therefore to potentiated effector functions. In neoplastic cells, expressing constitutively active c-Kit mutants, activated TAK1 and IKKs do also not induce NF-κB activation but mediate uncontrolled proliferation, resistance to apoptosis and enables IL-33 to mediate c-Kit-dependent signaling. Together, we identified the formation of the c-Kit-Lyn-TAK1 signalosome which mediates IKK2 activation. Unexpectedly, this IKK activation is uncoupled from the NF-κB-machinery but is critical to modulate functional cell responses in primary-, and mediates uncontrolled proliferation and survival of tumor-mast cells. Therefore, targeting TAK1 and IKKs might be a novel approach to treat c-Kit-driven diseases. PMID:26353931

  3. miR-21 Reduces Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Apoptosis in c-kit+ Cardiac Stem Cells In Vitro through PTEN/PI3K/Akt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Long, Xianping; Zhao, Ranzun; Wang, Zhenglong; Liu, Zhijiang

    2016-01-01

    The low survival rate of cardiac stem cells (CSCs) in the infarcted myocardium hampers cell therapy for ischemic cardiomyopathy. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) and one of its target proteins, PTEN, contribute to the survival and proliferation of many cell types, but their prosurvival effects in c-kit+ CSC remain unclear. Thus, we hypothesized that miR-21 reduces hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced apoptosis in c-kit+ CSC and estimated the contribution of PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling to this oxidative circumstance. miR-21 mimics efficiently reduced H2O2-induced apoptosis in c-kit+ CSC, as evidenced by the downregulation of the proapoptosis proteins caspase-3 and Bax and upregulation of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2. In addition, the gain of function of miR-21 in c-kit+ CSC downregulated the protein level of PTEN although its mRNA level changed slightly; in the meantime, miR-21 overexpression also increased phospho-Akt (p-Akt). The antiapoptotic effects of miR-21 were comparable with Phen (bpV), the selective inhibitor of PTEN, while miR-21 inhibitor or PI3K's inhibitor LY294002 efficiently attenuated the antiapoptotic effect of miR-21. Taken together, these results indicate that the anti-H2O2-induced apoptosis effect of miR-21 in c-kit+ CSC is contributed by PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling. miR-21 could be a potential molecule to facilitate the c-kit+ CSC therapy in ischemic myocardium. PMID:27803763

  4. C-Kit expression in the gallbladder of guinea pig with chronic calculous cholecystitis and the effect of Artemisia capillaris Thunb on interstitial cells of Cajal

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Hua; Wang, Fang; Wang, Changmiao

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): To study the c-Kit expression in the gallbladder of cholesterol lithogenic guinea pig model and the effect of Artemisia capillaris Thunb on interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs). Materials and Methods: A total of 45 guinea pigs were randomly assigned into three groups: the control group (guinea pigs fed a standard diet, normal group); the model group (guinea pigs fed a cholesterol gallstone-inducing diet); and the Chinese medicine group (guinea pigs fed the cholesterol gallstone-inducing diet and treated with A. capillaris through intragastric administration, therapy group). Each group had 15 guinea pigs. The gallbladders of the guinea pigs were harvested after 8 weeks. C-Kit expression was detected using an immunohistochemistry staining, real-time PCR, and Western blot analyses. The effect of A. capillaris on ICCs was evaluated by muscle strip contraction experiments. Results: C-Kit expression significantly decreased in the gallbladder of model group, but increased in the Chinese medicine group. The Contractility of guinea pig gallbladder muscle strip significantly improved in the Chinese medicine group. Conclusion: Our results indicated that A. capillaris improves gallbladder impairment by up-regulating c-Kit expression, and it also can improve the contractile response of in vitro guinea pig gallbladder muscle strips.

  5. Loss of c-Kit and bone marrow failure upon conditional removal of the GATA-2 C-terminal zinc finger domain in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan S; Jin, Jin; Liang, Xiaoxuan; Matatall, Katie A; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Huiyuan; Ullrich, Stephen E; King, Katherine Y; Sun, Shao-Cong; Watowich, Stephanie S

    2016-09-01

    Heterozygous mutations in the transcriptional regulator GATA-2 associate with multilineage immunodeficiency, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The majority of these mutations localize in the zinc finger (ZnF) domains, which mediate GATA-2 DNA binding. Deregulated hematopoiesis with GATA-2 mutation frequently develops in adulthood, yet GATA-2 function in the bone marrow remains unresolved. To investigate this, we conditionally deleted the GATA-2 C-terminal ZnF (C-ZnF) coding sequences in adult mice. Upon Gata2 C-ZnF deletion, we observed rapid peripheral cytopenia, bone marrow failure, and decreased c-Kit expression on hematopoietic progenitors. Transplant studies indicated GATA-2 has a cell-autonomous role in bone marrow hematopoiesis. Moreover, myeloid lineage populations were particularly sensitive to Gata2 hemizygosity, while molecular assays indicated GATA-2 regulates c-Kit expression in multilineage progenitor cells. Enforced c-Kit expression in Gata2 C-ZnF-deficient hematopoietic progenitors enhanced myeloid colony activity, suggesting GATA-2 sustains myelopoiesis via a cell intrinsic role involving maintenance of c-Kit expression. Our results provide insight into mechanisms regulating hematopoiesis in bone marrow and may contribute to a better understanding of immunodeficiency and bone marrow failure associated with GATA-2 mutation.

  6. Sensitive detection of the c-KIT c.1430G>T mutation by mutant-specific polymerase chain reaction in feline mast cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Takanosu, M; Sato, M; Kagawa, Y

    2014-06-01

    Here, we describe the establishment of mutant-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of a c-KIT c.1430G>T mutation in feline mast cell tumours. Several mutations in feline c-KIT have been identified, with the c.1430G>T mutation accounting for a significant portion of feline mast cell tumour mutations. The c.1430G>T mutation in c-KIT exon 9 was detected in 15.7% (11 of 70) of samples by mutant-specific PCR but in only 7.1% (5 of 70) by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in the genomic DNA isolated from 70 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections or cells collected by fine needle aspiration. Mutant-specific PCR showed remarkably higher detection rate than did PCR-RFLP. DNA sequence analysis did not always yield identical results to those of mutant-specific PCR, suggesting heterogeneity of tumour cells. Mutant-specific PCR is a valid and efficient screening tool for detection of the c-KIT c.1430G>T point mutation in feline mast cell tumours compared with PCR-RFLP and sequencing analysis.

  7. C-Kit expression in the gallbladder of guinea pig with chronic calculous cholecystitis and the effect of Artemisia capillaris Thunb on interstitial cells of Cajal

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Hua; Wang, Fang; Wang, Changmiao

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): To study the c-Kit expression in the gallbladder of cholesterol lithogenic guinea pig model and the effect of Artemisia capillaris Thunb on interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs). Materials and Methods: A total of 45 guinea pigs were randomly assigned into three groups: the control group (guinea pigs fed a standard diet, normal group); the model group (guinea pigs fed a cholesterol gallstone-inducing diet); and the Chinese medicine group (guinea pigs fed the cholesterol gallstone-inducing diet and treated with A. capillaris through intragastric administration, therapy group). Each group had 15 guinea pigs. The gallbladders of the guinea pigs were harvested after 8 weeks. C-Kit expression was detected using an immunohistochemistry staining, real-time PCR, and Western blot analyses. The effect of A. capillaris on ICCs was evaluated by muscle strip contraction experiments. Results: C-Kit expression significantly decreased in the gallbladder of model group, but increased in the Chinese medicine group. The Contractility of guinea pig gallbladder muscle strip significantly improved in the Chinese medicine group. Conclusion: Our results indicated that A. capillaris improves gallbladder impairment by up-regulating c-Kit expression, and it also can improve the contractile response of in vitro guinea pig gallbladder muscle strips. PMID:27635195

  8. TNF, acting through inducibly expressed TNFR2, drives activation and cell cycle entry of c-Kit+ cardiac stem cells in ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Al-Lamki, Rafia S; Lu, Wanhua; Wang, Jun; Yang, Jun; Sargeant, Timothy J; Wells, Richard; Suo, Chenqu; Wright, Penny; Goddard, Martin; Huang, Qunhua; Lebastchi, Amir H; Tellides, George; Huang, Yingqun; Min, Wang; Pober, Jordan S; Bradley, John R

    2013-09-01

    TNF, signaling through TNFR2, has been implicated in tissue repair, a process that in the heart may be mediated by activated resident cardiac stem cells (CSCs). The objective of our study is to determine whether ligation of TNFR2 can induce activation of resident CSCs in the setting of ischemic cardiac injury. We show that in human cardiac tissue affected by ischemia heart disease (IHD), TNFR2 is expressed on intrinsic CSCs, identified as c-kit(+)/CD45(-)/VEGFR2(-) interstitial round cells, which are activated as determined by entry to cell cycle and expression of Lin-28. Wild-type mouse heart organ cultures subjected to hypoxic conditions both increase cardiac TNF expression and show induced TNFR2 and Lin-28 expression in c-kit(+) CSCs that have entered cell cycle. These CSC responses are enhanced by exogenous TNF. TNFR2(-/-) mouse heart organ cultures subjected to hypoxia increase cardiac TNF but fail to induce CSC activation. Similarly, c-kit(+) CSCs isolated from mouse hearts exposed to hypoxia or TNF show induction of Lin-28, TNFR2, cell cycle entry, and cardiogenic marker, α-sarcomeric actin (α-SA), responses more pronounced by hypoxia in combination with TNF. Knockdown of Lin-28 by siRNA results in reduced levels of TNFR2 expression, cell cycle entry, and diminished expression of α-SA. We conclude that hypoxia-induced c-kit(+) CSC activation is mediated by TNF/TNFR2/Lin-28 signaling. These observations suggest that TNFR2 signaling in resident c-kit(+) CSCs induces cardiac repair, findings which provide further understanding of the unanticipated harmful effects of TNF blockade in human IHD.

  9. Successful treatment of c-kit-positive metastatic Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma (ACC) with a combination of curcumin plus imatinib: A case report.

    PubMed

    Demiray, M; Sahinbas, H; Atahan, S; Demiray, H; Selcuk, D; Yildirim, I; Atayoglu, A T

    2016-08-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive malignant neoplasm of the secretory glands. Conventional chemotherapy has poor effectiveness against metastatic ACC. Thus, a novel effective therapy is needed against metastatic ACC. A majority of ACCs (up to 94%) express c-kit. Imatinib is monoclonal antibody with specific activity against c-kit but has not been found to be effective in treating patients with ACC in which c-kit is overexpressed and activated. The NF-κB and mTOR pathways have been shown that ubiquitously and concurrently activated, indicating that the inhibition of these pathways may represent a novel treatment approach for patients with ACC. Curcumin has been shown to inhibit NF-κB and NF-κB-related pathways. 43-year-old patient was diagnosed ACC from submandibular salivary gland. After complete resection of tumor adjuvant radiotherapy was initiated. Seven years later multiple lung metastases were detected and ACC was confirmed by re-biopsy. First-line chemotherapy failed. NF-κB and c-kit were overexpressed in the metastatic specimens. Therefore, we treated the patient with metastatic chemoresistant ACC with imatinib 400mg/day and intravenous curcumin 225mg/m(2) twice a week plus oral bioavailable curcumin Arantal(®) 2×84mg/day. At 24 months, we observed near complete anatomic and complete metabolic response. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with a c-kit-positive ACC that is successfully treated with the combination of imatinib and curcumin in an integrative approach. PMID:27515884

  10. Comparative proteomic analysis of primary mouse liver c-Kit-(CD45/TER119)- stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    He, Yu-Fei; Liu, Yin-Kun; Lu, Hao-Jie; Chen, Jun; Yang, Peng-Yuan

    2007-11-01

    Liver stem/progenitor cells play a key role in liver development and maybe also in liver cancer development. In our previous study a population of c-Kit-(CD45/TER119)- liver stem/progenitor cells in mouse fetal liver, was successfully sorted with large amount (10(6)-10(7)) by using immuno-magnetic microbeads. In this study, the sorted liver stem/progenitor cells were used for proteomic study. Proteins of the sorted liver stem/progenitor cells and unsorted fetal liver cells were investigated using two-dimensional electrophoresis. A two-dimensional proteome map of liver stem/progenitor cells was obtained for the first time. Proteins that exhibited significantly upregulation in liver stem/progenitor cells were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting and peptide sequencing. Nineteen protein spots corresponding to 12 different proteins were identified as showing significant upregulation in liver stem/progenitor cells and seem to play important roles in such cells in cell metabolism, cell cycle regulation, and stress. An interesting finding is that most of the upregulated proteins were overexpressed in various cancers (11 of 12, including 6 in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)) and involved in cancer development as reported in previous studies. Some of the identified proteins were validated by real-time PCR, Western blotting, and immunostaining. Taken together, the data presented provide a significant new protein-level insight into the biology of liver stem/progenitor cells, a key population of cells that might be also involved in liver cancer development.

  11. Receptor Tyrosine Kinase and Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Mirshafiey, Abbas; Ghalamfarsa, Ghasem; Asghari, Babak

    2014-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are essential components of signal transduction pathways that mediate cell-to-cell communication and their function as relay points for signaling pathways. They have a key role in numerous processes that control cellular proliferation and differentiation, regulate cell growth and cellular metabolism, and promote cell survival and apoptosis. Recently, the role of RTKs including TCR, FLT-3, c-Kit, c-Fms, PDGFR, ephrin, neurotrophin receptor, and TAM receptor in autoimmune disorder, especially rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis has been suggested. In multiple sclerosis pathogenesis, RTKs and their tyrosine kinase enzymes are selective important targets for tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) agents. TKIs, compete with the ATP binding site of the catalytic domain of several tyrosine kinases, and act as small molecules that have a favorable safety profile in disease treatment. Up to now, the efficacy of TKIs in numerous animal models of MS has been demonstrated, but application of these drugs in human diseases should be tested in future clinical trials. PMID:25337443

  12. Overexpression of angiopoietin-1 increases CD133+/c-kit+ cells and reduces myocardial apoptosis in db/db mouse infarcted hearts.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Heng; Li, Lanfang; Chen, Jian-Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Hematopoietic progenitor CD133(+)/c-kit(+) cells have been shown to be involved in myocardial healing following myocardial infarction (MI). Previously we demonstrated that angiopoietin-1(Ang-1) is beneficial in the repair of diabetic infarcted hearts. We now investigate whether Ang-1 affects CD133(+)/c-kit(+) cell recruitment to the infarcted myocardium thereby mediating cardiac repair in type II (db/db) diabetic mice. db/db mice were administered either adenovirus Ang-1 (Ad-Ang-1) or Ad-β-gal systemically immediately after ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Overexpression of Ang-1 resulted in a significant increase in CXCR-4/SDF-1α expression and promoted CD133(+)/c-kit(+), CD133(+)/CXCR-4(+) and CD133(+)/SDF-1α(+) cell recruitment into ischemic hearts. Overexpression of Ang-1 led to significant increases in number of CD31(+) and smooth muscle-like cells and VEGF expression in bone marrow (BM). This was accompanied by significant decreases in cardiac apoptosis and fibrosis and an increase in myocardial capillary density. Ang-1 also upregulated Jagged-1, Notch3 and apelin expression followed by increases in arteriole formation in the infarcted myocardium. Furthermore, overexpression of Ang-1 resulted in a significant improvement of cardiac functional recovery after 14 days of ischemia. Our data strongly suggest that Ang-1 attenuates cardiac apoptosis and promotes cardiac repair by a mechanism involving in promoting CD133(+)/c-kit(+) cells and angiogenesis in diabetic db/db mouse infarcted hearts. PMID:22558265

  13. c-Kit+ progenitors generate vascular cells for tissue-engineered grafts through modulation of the Wnt/Klf4 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Campagnolo, Paola; Tsai, Tsung-Neng; Hong, Xuechong; Kirton, John Paul; So, Po-Wah; Margariti, Andriana; Di Bernardini, Elisabetta; Wong, Mei Mei; Hu, Yanhua; Stevens, Molly M.; Xu, Qingbo

    2015-01-01

    The development of decellularised scaffolds for small diameter vascular grafts is hampered by their limited patency, due to the lack of luminal cell coverage by endothelial cells (EC) and to the low tone of the vessel due to absence of a contractile smooth muscle cells (SMC). In this study, we identify a population of vascular progenitor c-Kit+/Sca-1- cells available in large numbers and derived from immuno-privileged embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We also define an efficient and controlled differentiation protocol yielding fully to differentiated ECs and SMCs in sufficient numbers to allow the repopulation of a tissue engineered vascular graft. When seeded ex vivo on a decellularised vessel, c-Kit+/Sca-1-derived cells recapitulated the native vessel structure and upon in vivo implantation in the mouse, markedly reduced neointima formation and mortality, restoring functional vascularisation. We showed that Krüppel-like transcription factor 4 (Klf4) regulates the choice of differentiation pathway of these cells through β-catenin activation and was itself regulated by the canonical Wnt pathway activator lithium chloride. Our data show that ESC-derived c-Kit+/Sca-1-cells can be differentiated through a Klf4/β-catenin dependent pathway and are a suitable source of vascular progenitors for the creation of superior tissue-engineered vessels from decellularised scaffolds. PMID:25985152

  14. Enhanced Prediction of Src Homology 2 (SH2) Domain Binding Potentials Using a Fluorescence Polarization-derived c-Met, c-Kit, ErbB, and Androgen Receptor Interactome*

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Kin K.; Hause, Ronald J.; Barkinge, John L.; Ciaccio, Mark F.; Chuu, Chih-Pin; Jones, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Many human diseases are associated with aberrant regulation of phosphoprotein signaling networks. Src homology 2 (SH2) domains represent the major class of protein domains in metazoans that interact with proteins phosphorylated on the amino acid residue tyrosine. Although current SH2 domain prediction algorithms perform well at predicting the sequences of phosphorylated peptides that are likely to result in the highest possible interaction affinity in the context of random peptide library screens, these algorithms do poorly at predicting the interaction potential of SH2 domains with physiologically derived protein sequences. We employed a high throughput interaction assay system to empirically determine the affinity between 93 human SH2 domains and phosphopeptides abstracted from several receptor tyrosine kinases and signaling proteins. The resulting interaction experiments revealed over 1000 novel peptide-protein interactions and provided a glimpse into the common and specific interaction potentials of c-Met, c-Kit, GAB1, and the human androgen receptor. We used these data to build a permutation-based logistic regression classifier that performed considerably better than existing algorithms for predicting the interaction potential of several SH2 domains. PMID:24728074

  15. Identification of a point mutation in the catalytic domain of the protooncogene c-kit in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients who have mastocytosis with an associated hematologic disorder.

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, H; Worobec, A S; Oh, C K; Chowdhury, B A; Tannenbaum, S; Suzuki, Y; Metcalfe, D D

    1995-01-01

    Both stem cells and mast cells express c-kit and proliferate after exposure to c-kit ligand. Mutations in c-kit may enhance or interfere with the ability of c-kit receptor to initiate the intracellular pathways resulting in cell proliferation. These observations suggested to us that mastocytosis might in some patients result from mutations in c-kit. cDNA synthesized from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with indolent mastocytosis, mastocytosis with an associated hematologic disorder, aggressive mastocytosis, solitary mastocytoma, and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia unassociated with mastocytosis was thus screened for a mutation of c-kit. This analysis revealed that four of four mastocytosis patients with an associated hematologic disorder with predominantly myelodysplastic features had an A-->T substitution at nt 2468 of c-kit mRNA that causes an Asp-816-->Val substitution. One of one patient examined who had mastocytosis with an associated hematologic disorder had the corresponding mutation in genomic DNA. Identical or similar amino acid substitutions in mast cell lines result in ligand-independent autophosphorylation of the c-kit receptor. This mutation was not identified in the patients within the other disease categories or in 67 of 67 controls. The identification of the point mutation Asp816Val in c-kit in patients with mastocytosis with an associated hematologic disorder provides insight not only into the pathogenesis of this form of mastocytosis but also into how hematopoiesis may become dysregulated and may serve to provide a means of confirming the diagnosis, assessing prognosis, and developing intervention strategies. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7479840

  16. Establishment of a novel high-affinity IgE receptor-positive canine mast cell line with wild-type c-kit receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Amagai, Yosuke; Tanaka, Akane; Ohmori, Keitaro; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2008-02-15

    Much is known regarding participations of mast cells with innate and acquired immunity by secreting various cytokines and chemical mediators. However, details of mast cell biology still remain unclear. In this study, we successfully established a novel growth factor-independent mast cell line (MPT-1) derived from canine mast cell tumor. MPT-1 cells manifested factor-independent proliferation as floating cells containing a large amount of histamine, as well as chymase-like dog mast cell protease 3, in cytosolic granules. Particularly, MPT-1 cells expressed high-affinity IgE receptors (Fc{epsilon}RI) and wild-type c-kit receptors. Degranulation of MPT-1 cells was induced not only by stimulation with calcium ionophore but also by cross-linkage of the surface IgE. Given that MPT-1 is the first mast cell line with Fc{epsilon}RI which has no c-kit mutations, MPT-1 cells may provide great contribution for investigation of IgE-mediated activation mechanisms of mast cells, leading to development of effective treatment for allergic disorders.

  17. Enforced differentiation of Dnmt3a-null bone marrow leads to failure with c-Kit mutations driving leukemic transformation

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Hamza; Mallaney, Cates; Kothari, Alok; Ostrander, Elizabeth L.; Eultgen, Elizabeth; Martens, Andrew; Miller, Christopher A.; Hundal, Jasreet; Klco, Jeffery M.

    2015-01-01

    Genome sequencing studies of patient samples have implicated the involvement of various components of the epigenetic machinery in myeloid diseases, including the de novo DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A. We have recently shown that Dnmt3a is essential for hematopoietic stem cell differentiation. Here, we investigated the effect of loss of Dnmt3a on hematopoietic transformation by forcing the normally quiescent hematopoietic stem cells to divide in vivo. Mice transplanted with Dnmt3a-null bone marrow in the absence of wild-type support cells succumbed to bone marrow failure (median survival, 328 days) characteristic of myelodysplastic syndromes with symptoms including anemia, neutropenia, bone marrow hypercellularity, and splenomegaly with myeloid infiltration. Two out of 25 mice developed myeloid leukemia with >20% blasts in the blood and bone marrow. Four out of 25 primary mice succumbed to myeloproliferative disorders, some of which progressed to secondary leukemia after long latency. Exome sequencing identified cooperating c-Kit mutations found only in the leukemic samples. Ectopic introduction of c-Kit variants into a Dnmt3a-deficient background produced acute leukemia with a short latency (median survival, 67 days). Our data highlight crucial roles of Dnmt3a in normal and malignant hematopoiesis and suggest that a major role for this enzyme is to facilitate developmental progression of progenitor cells at multiple decision checkpoints. PMID:25416276

  18. NCR1+ cells appear early in GALT development of the ovine foetus and acquire a c-kit+ phenotype towards the end of gestation.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Line; Åkesson, Caroline Piercey; Aleksandersen, Mona; Boysen, Preben; Press, Charles McL; Drouet, Françoise; Storset, Anne K; Espenes, Arild

    2016-01-01

    The amount, distribution and phenotype of ovine NCR1+ cells were investigated during developing GALT from day 70 of gestation. Antibodies against CD3 and CD79 were used to identify the compartments of GALT, and the localization of NCR1+ cells were correlated within these structures. Markers CD34 and c-kit, in addition to Ki67, were used to investigate possible origin and the stage of development of the NCR1+ cells. NCR1+ cells were present as single cells in the subepithelial tissue as early as 70 days of gestation, and were predominantly present in the T cell rich IFAs and domes as these intestinal wall compartments developed. While NCR1+ cells proliferated more intensively at mid-gestation (70-104 days), the number of NCR1+ cells also expressing c-kit, increased at the end of gestation. In conclusion, NCR1+ cells appeared early in T cell areas of the gut and displayed a phenotype consistent with intermediate stages of cNK cells and/or a subpopulation of ILC22.

  19. SCF/c-kit signaling is required in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced migration and differentiation of hair follicle melanocytes for epidermal pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Weiming; Yang, Ke; Lei, Mingxing; Yan, Hongtao; Tang, Hui; Bai, Xiufeng; Yang, Guihong; Lian, Xiaohua; Wu, Jinjin

    2015-05-01

    Hair follicle melanocyte stem cells (McSCs) are responsible for hair pigmentation and also function as a major melanocyte reservoir for epidermal pigmentation. However, the molecular mechanism promoting McSCs for epidermal pigmentation remains elusive. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) mimics key signaling involved in melanocyte growth, migration and differentiation. We therefore investigated the molecular basis for the contribution of hair follicle McSCs to epidermal pigmentation using the TPA induction model. We found that repetitive TPA treatment of female C57BL/6 mouse dorsal skin induced epidermal pigmentation by increasing the number of epidermal melanocytes. Particularly, TPA treatment induced McSCs to initiate proliferation, exit the stem cell niche and differentiate. We also demonstrated that TPA promotes melanoblast migration and differentiation in vitro. At the molecular level, TPA treatment induced robust expression of stem cell factor (SCF) in keratinocytes and c-kit in melanoblasts and melanocytes. Administration of ACK2, a neutralizing antibody against the Kit receptor, suppressed mouse epidermal pigmentation, decreased the number of epidermal melanocytes, and inhibited melanoblast migration. Taken together, our data demonstrate that TPA promotes the expansion, migration and differentiation of hair follicle McSCs for mouse epidermal pigmentation. SCF/c-kit signaling was required for TPA-induced migration and differentiation of hair follicle melanocytes. Our findings may provide an excellent model to investigate the signaling mechanisms regulating epidermal pigmentation from mouse hair follicle McSCs, and a potential therapeutic option for skin pigmentation disorders.

  20. The Transcription Factor Ehf Is Involved in TGF-β-Induced Suppression of FcεRI and c-Kit Expression and FcεRI-Mediated Activation in Mast Cells.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Susumu; Nakano, Nobuhiro; Honjo, Asuka; Hara, Mutsuko; Maeda, Keiko; Nishiyama, Chiharu; Kitaura, Jiro; Ohtsuka, Yoshikazu; Okumura, Ko; Ogawa, Hideoki; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2015-10-01

    FcεRI, which is composed of α, β, and γ subunits, plays an important role in IgE-mediated allergic responses. TGF-β1 has been reported to suppress FcεRI and stem cell factor receptor c-Kit expression on mast cell surfaces and to suppress mast cell activation induced by cross-linking of FcεRI. However, the molecular mechanism by which these expressions and activation are suppressed by TGF-β1 remains unclear. In this study, we found that the expression of Ets homologous factor (Ehf), a member of the Ets family transcriptional factors, is upregulated by TGF-β/Smad signaling in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). Forced expression of Ehf in BMMCs repressed the transcription of genes encoding FcεRIα, FcεRIβ, and c-Kit, resulting in a reduction in cell surface FcεRI and c-Kit expression. Additionally, forced expression of Ehf suppressed FcεRI-mediated degranulation and cytokine production. Ehf inhibited the promoter activity of genes encoding FcεRIα, FcεRIβ, and c-Kit by binding to these gene promoters. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of Gata1, Gata2, and Stat5b were lower in BMMCs stably expressing Ehf compared with control cells. Because GATA-1 and GATA-2 are positive regulators of FcεRI and c-Kit expression, decreased expression of GATAs may be also involved in the reduction of FcεRI and c-Kit expression. Decreased expression of Stat5 may contribute to the suppression of cytokine production by BMMCs. In part, mast cell response to TGF-β1 was mimicked by forced expression of Ehf, suggesting that TGF-β1 suppresses FcεRI and c-Kit expression and suppresses FcεRI-mediated activation through upregulation of Ehf.

  1. mRNA Expression of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor-{beta} and C-KIT: Correlation With Pathologic Response to Cetuximab-Based Chemoradiotherapy in Patients With Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Erben, Philipp Horisberger, Karoline; Muessle, Benjamin; Mueller, Martin Christian; Treschl, Anne; Ernst, Thomas; Kaehler, Georg; Stroebel, Philipp; Wenz, Frederik; Kienle, Peter; Post, Stefan; Hochhaus, Andreas; Willeke, Frank; Hofheinz, Ralf-Dieter

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: Deviant expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-{beta} (PDGFR{beta}) and c-kit was shown in patients with colorectal cancer. In the present study, mRNA expression of PDGFR{beta} and c-kit in 33 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer undergoing preoperative chemoradiotherapy with cetuximab/capecitabine/irinotecan in correlation with the tumor regression rate was investigated. Methods and Materials: Pretherapeutic biopsy cores and tumor material from the resected specimens were collected in parallel with normal rectal mucosa. The expression levels of PDGFR{beta} and c-kit were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Tumors were classified as good responders (tumor regression grade [TRG], 2-3) or poor responders (TRG, 0-1). Results: The TRG evaluation of the resected specimen was TRG 0-1 in 11 and TRG 2-3 in 22. The median normalized ratios in the pretreatment mucosa vs. tumor biopsy cores was as follows: PDGFR{beta} ratio of 15.2 vs. 49.5 (p <0.0001) and c-kit ratio of 0.94 vs. 0.67 (p = 0.014). The same tendency was observed for the median PDGFR{beta} ratios after chemoradiotherapy completion: 34.2 vs. 170.0 (p <0.0001). The PDGFR{beta} and c-kit mRNA expression values in the pretreatment tumor biopsy cores were lower than the values in the resected specimens: PDGFR{beta} ratio 49.5 vs. 170.0 (p = 0.0002) and c-kit ratio 0.67 vs. 1.1 (p = 0.0003). Nevertheless, no correlation was seen between the pretherapeutic PDGFR{beta} and c-kit mRNA expression and the pathologic regression rate. Conclusion: Cetuximab-based chemoradiotherapy increased PDGFR{beta} levels even further compared with the pretreatment samples and deserves further investigation.

  2. Continuous cadmium exposure from weaning to maturity induces downregulation of ovarian follicle development-related SCF/c-kit gene expression and the corresponding changes of DNA methylation/microRNA pattern.

    PubMed

    Weng, Shaozheng; Wang, Wenxiang; Li, Yuchen; Li, Hong; Lu, Xiaoli; Xiao, Shihua; Wu, Tingting; Xie, Meimei; Zhang, Wenchang

    2014-03-21

    Cadmium (Cd) impairs ovary structure and function in mature animals. However, the influence of Cd on follicle development from weaning to maturity is obscure. In the current study, 21-day-old Wistar rats were administered Cd chloride at doses of 0, 0.5, 2.0 and 8.0 mg/kg body weight once a day for eight weeks by gavage. After administration, a significant decrease in ovarian wet weight, ovarian/body weight ratios, and primordial follicles, in addition to an increase in atresic follicles, were observed. Transmission electron microscopy and TUNEL assay confirmed the increase of follicle apoptosis as Cd concentration increased. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting showed a significantly decreased expression of follicle development-related factors, stem cell factor (SCF) and c-kit. Bisulfite sequencing suggested that the total methylation percentages of SCF/c-kit promoter region were not obvious change after Cd exposure. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed a significantly increased expression of miR-193, miR-221 and miR-222, which regulate c-kit, in the 2.0 mg/kg and 8.0 mg/kg treatment groups. Overall, this study proved that Cd administration from weaning to maturity could damage follicle development, suggesting that SCF/c-kit might play an important role in this effect. In addition, microRNAs might play a role in c-kit protein downregulation.

  3. c-kit+ Cardiac stem cells alleviate post-myocardial infarction left ventricular dysfunction despite poor engraftment and negligible retention in the recipient heart.

    PubMed

    Hong, Kyung U; Guo, Yiru; Li, Qian-Hong; Cao, Pengxiao; Al-Maqtari, Tareq; Vajravelu, Bathri N; Du, Junjie; Book, Michael J; Zhu, Xiaoping; Nong, Yibing; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Bolli, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Although transplantation of c-kit+ cardiac stem cells (CSCs) has been shown to alleviate left ventricular (LV) dysfunction induced by myocardial infarction (MI), the number of exogenous CSCs remaining in the recipient heart following transplantation and their mechanism of action remain unclear. We have previously developed a highly sensitive and accurate method to quantify the absolute number of male murine CSCs in female recipient organs after transplantation. In the present study, we used this method to monitor the number of donor CSCs in the recipient heart after intracoronary infusion. Female mice underwent a 60-min coronary occlusion followed by reperfusion; 2 days later, 100,000 c-kit+/lin- syngeneic male mouse CSCs were infused intracoronarily. Only 12.7% of the male CSCs present in the heart immediately (5 min) after infusion were still present in the heart at 24 h, and their number declined rapidly thereafter. By 35 days after infusion, only ∼ 1,000 male CSCs were found in the heart. Significant numbers of male CSCs were found in the lungs and kidneys, but only in the first 24 h. The number of CSCs in the lungs increased between 5 min and 24 h after infusion, indicating recirculation of CSCs initially retained in other organs. Despite the low retention and rapid disappearance of CSCs from the recipient heart, intracoronary delivery of CSCs significantly improved LV function at 35 days (Millar catheter). These results suggest that direct differentiation of CSCs alone cannot account for the beneficial effects of CSCs on LV function; therefore, paracrine effects must be the major mechanism. The demonstration that functional improvement is dissociated from survival of transplanted cells has major implications for our understanding of cell therapy. In addition, this new quantitative method of stem cell measurement will be useful in testing approaches of enhancing CSC engraftment and survival after transplantation.

  4. Identification of novel lymphoid tissues in murine intestinal mucosa where clusters of c-kit+ IL-7R+ Thy1+ lympho-hemopoietic progenitors develop

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    We have revealed that about one and a half thousand tiny clusters, filled with one thousand closely packed lymphocytes, can be found throughout the murine small and large intestinal mucosa. They are located in crypt lamina propria (cryptopatches; CP) and can be first detected at 14-17 d after birth. A large fraction of lymphocytes in CP expresses c-kit, IL-7R, Thy1 and a lymphocyte function-associated antigen, LFA-1, whereas most of them remain CD3-, TCR alpha beta-, TCR gamma delta-, sIgM-, and B220-. The population size of IL-2R alpha+, HSA+ and Pgp-1+ subsets is variable (20-50%) and the composition of CD8+, Ly-1+, and CD4+ subsets is smaller but also variable (3-20%). In the small intestine, CP do not contain cells undergoing apoptosis nor cells bearing RAG-1 molecules, but do contain dendritic stromal cells bearing CD11c/CD18 molecules. The frequency of DNA replicating cells in CP is higher than that in Peyer's patches (PP), is lower than that in the thymic cortex and is almost comparable with that in the thymic medulla. The numbers of CP remain the same in aged mice (> 114 wk) but double after estrogen treatment even though the thymi are attenuated sharply in both conditions. Thus, with respect to histogenesis, lymphocyte composition and tissue level of cellular behavior, neither PP, isolated lymphoid follicles, peripheral LNs, nor thymus are identical with CP. Finally, CP are virtually absent in lamina propria of IL-7R-deficient mice that display a profound reduction in thymic and peripheral lymphoid cellularity. By contrast, CP are present in germ- free mice and in athymic (nu/nu), SCID, TCR beta x delta-/-, RAG-2-/-, PP-deficient (aly/aly), stem cell factor (Sl/Sld) and c-kit (W/Wv) mutant mice. Taking all of these results together, CP are the first identification of gut-associated murine lymphoid tissues where the generation of IL-7-dependent lympho-hematopoietic progenitors for T and/or B cell descendants may start to take place at the age of

  5. Biological effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors on three canine mast cell tumor cell lines with various KIT statuses.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Y; Fujino, Y; Fukushima, K; Watanabe, M; Nakagawa, T; Ohno, K; Sasaki, N; Sugano, S; Tsujimoto, H

    2012-02-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) can be important in the treatment of canine mast cell tumor (cMCT). Meanwhile, some TKIs have been identified as substrates for ABCB1. The inhibitory effect of four TKIs (axitinib, imatinib, masitinib, and vatalanib) for proliferation and phosphorylation of c-Kit receptor as well as the expression and function of ABCB1 were investigated in three cMCT cell lines (HRMC, VIMC1, and CMMC1). The IC(50) values of the TKIs in HRMC, the only cell line with wild-type KIT, were clearly higher than those in CMMC1 and VIMC1. In HRMC and CMMC1, both the growth and phosphorylation of c-Kit receptor were suppressed proportionally by the TKIs. VIMC1 required higher concentrations for the inhibition of c-Kit receptor phosphorylation than those in cell growth. The treatment with cyclosporine increased the effects of the TKIs on VIMC1 since ABCB1 was expressed in VIMC1. The results indicated that cMCT cell lines harboring wild-type KIT had lower sensitivity to TKIs. The growth of VIMC1 was seemingly reduced by TKIs through the inhibition of other tyrosine kinases than c-Kit receptor. There was little influence of ABCB1 on TKI effects to the proliferation of VIMC1. These results will be helpful to understand the different sensitivity to TKIs in cMCT patients. PMID:21480930

  6. Comparative analysis of BRAF, NRAS and c-KIT mutation status between tumor tissues and autologous tumor cell-lines of stage III/IV melanoma.

    PubMed

    Knol, Anne-Chantal; Pandolfino, Marie-Christine; Vallée, Audrey; Nguyen, Frédérique; Lella, Virginie; Khammari, Amir; Denis, Marc; Puaux, Anne-Laure; Dréno, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, advances in molecular biology have provided evidence of the genotypic heterogeneity of melanoma. We analysed BRAF, NRAS and c-KIT alterations in tissue samples from 63 stage III/IV melanoma patients and autologous cell-lines, using either allele-specific or quantitative PCR. The expression of BRAF V600E protein was also investigated using an anti-BRAF antibody in the same tissue samples. 81% of FFPE samples and tumor cell-lines harboured a genetic alteration in either BRAF (54%) or NRAS (27%) oncogenes. There was a strong concordance (100%) between tissue samples and tumor cell-lines. The BRAF V600E mutant-specific antibody showed high sensitivity (96%) and specificity (100%) for detecting the presence of a BRAF V600E mutation. The correlation was of 98% between PCR and immunohistochemistry results for BRAF mutation. These results suggest that BRAF and NRAS mutation status of tumor cells is not affected by culture conditions.

  7. Establishment of an orthotopic transplantation tumor model in nude mice using a drug-resistant human ovarian cancer cell line with a high expression of c-Kit.

    PubMed

    Yi, Cunjian; Zhang, Lei; Li, Li; Liu, Xiangqiong; Ling, Shengrong; Zhang, Fayun; Liang, Wei

    2014-12-01

    The resistance of ovarian cancer to platinum-based chemotherapy is a critical issue in the clinical setting. The present study aimed to establish animal models to replicate this clinical condition, as well as to investigate the resistance mechanisms of ovarian cancer. A cisplatin (DDP)-resistant human ovarian cancer cell line, SKOV3/DDP, was screened, validated and injected subcutaneously into the neck of female nude mice. Following tumor establishment, the tumor was collected and cut into small sections, which were subsequently implanted into the ovaries of other nude mice. The growth of the orthotopic tumors was observed and the tumor-bearing mice were sacrificed and dissected. The orthotopic and metastatic tumor tissues were collected, sectioned, stained with hematoxylin and eosin and analyzed. In the present study, 16 nude mice underwent orthotopic transplantation surgery and a tumor model was successfully established in 14/16 of the mice, with an in situ tumor formation rate of 87.5%. Following euthanasia, a laparotomy demonstrated the tumor formation at the site of transplantation, as well as varying degrees of metastasis to additional organs and tissues. Therefore, the present study successfully established an orthotopic tumor transplantation model in nude mice using a c-Kit-positive DDP-resistant human ovarian cancer cell line. This model may represent a useful tool for investigating the resistance mechanism of ovarian cancer, as well as evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic strategies.

  8. Expression of migration-related genes is progressively upregulated in murine Lineage-Sca-1+c-Kit+ population from the fetal to adult stages of development

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) follow a genetically programmed pattern of migration during development. Extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules, as well as chemokines and their receptors, are important in adult HSC migration. However, little is known about the role these molecules play at earlier developmental stages. Methods We have analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) array the expression pattern of extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules as well as chemokines and chemokine receptors in Lineage-Sca-1+c-Kit+ (LSK) cells at different stages of development, in order to characterize the role played by these molecules in LSK. Data were represented by volcano plots to show the differences in expression pattern at the time points studied. Results Our results show marked changes in the expression pattern of extracellular matrix, adhesion molecules, chemokines and their receptors with developmental age, particularly in later stages of development. Ten molecules were significantly increased among the LSK populations studied. Our screen identified the upregulation of Col4a1, as well as molecules involved in its degradation (Mmp2, Timp2), with development. Other genes identified were Sell, Tgfbi, and Entpd1. Furthermore, we show that the expression of the chemokines Ccl4, Ccl9, Il18 and the chemokine receptor Cxcr4 increases in LSK cells during development. Conclusions Several genes are upregulated in the LSK population in their transition to the bone marrow microenvironment, increasing at later stages of development. This gene pattern should be emulated by embryonic stem cell-derived hematopoietic progenitors in order to improve their properties for clinical applications such as engraftment. PMID:20637061

  9. Long noncoding RNA H19 mediates melatonin inhibition of premature senescence of c-kit(+) cardiac progenitor cells by promoting miR-675.

    PubMed

    Cai, Benzhi; Ma, Wenya; Bi, Chongwei; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Lai; Han, Zhenbo; Huang, Qi; Ding, Fengzhi; Li, Yuan; Yan, Gege; Pan, Zhenwei; Yang, Baofeng; Lu, Yanjie

    2016-08-01

    Melatonin, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland, possesses multiple biological activities such as antitumor, antioxidant, and anti-ischemia. C-kit(+) cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) have emerged as a promising tool for the treatment of heart diseases. However, the senescence of CPCs due to pathological stimuli leads to the decline of CPCs' functions and regenerative potential. This study was conducted to demonstrate whether melatonin antagonizes the senescence of CPCs in response to oxidative stress. Here, we found that the melatonin treatment markedly inhibited the senescent characteristics of CPCs after exposed to sublethal concentration of H2 O2 , including the increase in senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal)-positive CPCs, senescence-associated heterochromatin loci (SAHF), secretory IL-6 level, and the upregulation of p53 and p21 proteins. Senescence-associated proliferation reduction was also attenuated by melatonin in CPCs. Luzindole, the melatonin membrane receptor blocker, may block the melatonin-mediated suppression of premature senescence in CPCs. Interestingly, we found that long noncoding RNA H19 and its derived miR-675 were downregulated by H2 O2 in CPCs, but melatonin treatment could counter this alteration. Furthermore, knockdown of H19 or miR-675 blocked antisenescence actions of melatonin on H2 O2 -treated CPCs. It was further verified that H19-derived miR-675 targeted at the 3'UTR of USP10, which resulted in the downregulation of p53 and p21 proteins. In summary, melatonin antagonized premature senescence of CPCs via H19/miR-675/USP10 pathway, which provides new insights into pharmacological actions and potential applications of melatonin on the senescence of CPCs.

  10. Annexin A8 Identifies a Subpopulation of Transiently Quiescent c-Kit Positive Luminal Progenitor Cells of the Ductal Mammary Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias, Juan Manuel; Cairney, Claire J.; Ferrier, Roderick K.; McDonald, Laura; Soady, Kelly; Kendrick, Howard; Pringle, Marie-Anne; Morgan, Reginald O.; Martin, Finian; Smalley, Matthew J.; Blyth, Karen; Stein, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that Annexin A8 (ANXA8) is strongly associated with the basal-like subgroup of breast cancers, including BRCA1-associated breast cancers, and poor prognosis; while in the mouse mammary gland AnxA8 mRNA is expressed in low-proliferative isolated pubertal mouse mammary ductal epithelium and after enforced involution, but not in isolated highly proliferative terminal end buds (TEB) or during pregnancy. To better understand ANXA8’s association with this breast cancer subgroup we established ANXA8’s cellular distribution in the mammary gland and ANXA8’s effect on cell proliferation. We show that ANXA8 expression in the mouse mammary gland was strong during pre-puberty before the expansion of the rudimentary ductal network and was limited to a distinct subpopulation of ductal luminal epithelial cells but was not detected in TEB or in alveoli during pregnancy. Similarly, during late involution its expression was found in the surviving ductal epithelium, but not in the apoptotic alveoli. Double-immunofluorescence (IF) showed that ANXA8 positive (+ve) cells were ER-alpha negative (−ve) and mostly quiescent, as defined by lack of Ki67 expression during puberty and mid-pregnancy, but not terminally differentiated with ∼15% of ANXA8 +ve cells re-entering the cell cycle at the start of pregnancy (day 4.5). RT-PCR on RNA from FACS-sorted cells and double-IF showed that ANXA8+ve cells were a subpopulation of c-kit +ve luminal progenitor cells, which have recently been identified as the cells of origin of basal-like breast cancers. Over expression of ANXA8 in the mammary epithelial cell line Kim-2 led to a G0/G1 arrest and suppressed Ki67 expression, indicating cell cycle exit. Our data therefore identify ANXA8 as a potential mediator of quiescence in the normal mouse mammary ductal epithelium, while its expression in basal-like breast cancers may be linked to ANXA8’s association with their specific cells of origin. PMID:25803307

  11. Tyrosine kinase blockers: new hope for successful cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Pytel, Dariusz; Sliwinski, Tomasz; Poplawski, Tomasz; Ferriola, Deborah; Majsterek, Ireneusz

    2009-01-01

    Tyrosine kinases (TKs) are attractive targets for cancer therapy, as quite often their abnormal signaling has been linked with tumor development and growth. Constitutive activated TKs stimulate multiple signaling pathways responsible for DNA repair, apoptosis, and cell proliferation. During the last few years, thorough analysis of the mechanism underlying tyrosine kinase's activity led to novel cancer therapy using TKs blockers. These drugs are remarkably effective in the treatment of various human tumors including head and neck, gastric, prostate and breast cancer and leukemias. The most successful example of kinase blockers is Imatinib (Imatinib mesylate, Gleevec, STI571), the inhibitor of Bcr/Abl oncoprotein, which has become a first-line therapy for chronic myelogenous leukemia. The introduction of STI571 for the treatment of leukemia in clinical oncology has had a dramatic impact on how this disease is currently managed. Others kinase inhibitors used recently in cancer therapy include Dasatinib (BMS-354825) specific for ABL non-receptor cytoplasmic kinase, Gefitinib (Iressa), Erlotinib (OSI-774, Tarceva) and Sunitinib (SU 11248, Sutent) specific for VEGF receptor kinase, AMN107 (Nilotinib) and INNO-406 (NS-187) specific for c-KIT kinase. The following TK blockers for treatment of various human tumors are in clinical development: Lapatinib (Lapatinib ditosylate, Tykerb, GW-572016), Canertinib (CI-1033), Zactima (ZD6474), Vatalanib (PTK787/ZK 222584), Sorafenib (Bay 43-9006, Nexavar), and Leflunomide (SU101, Arava). Herein, we discuss the chemistry, biological activity and clinical potential of new drugs with tyrosine kinase blockers for cancer treatment.

  12. Activation of the neu tyrosine kinase induces the fos/jun transcription factor complex, the glucose transporter and ornithine decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    We have studied the ability of the neu tyrosine kinase to induce a signal for the activation of cell growth-regulated genes. Serum-starved NIH 3T3 cells expressing an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF- R)/neu construct encoding a hybrid receptor protein were stimulated with EGF and the activation of the neu tyrosine kinase and stimulation of growth factor inducible genes were followed at the mRNA, protein, and activity levels, and compared to the corresponding responses in the neu proto-oncogene and oncogene expressing cells. Induction of the expression of jun mRNAs was an immediate early effect of EGF stimulation, followed by a marked increase in the biosynthesis of the fos/jun transcription factor complex and an increased transcription factor activity as measured by a recombinant transcription unit using chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assays. In distinction, elevated AP- 1/PEA-1 activity in the absence of a significant increase in jun and fos expression was characteristic of the neu oncogene-expressing cells. The glucose transporter mRNA increased at 2 h of EGF stimulation and was associated with enhanced glucose transport of the EGF-treated cells. An increase of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) mRNA and activity followed these changes. In contrast, serum-starved, EGF-treated neu proto-oncogene- and oncogene-expressing cells showed constitutively low and high glucose transporter and ODC activities, respectively. These findings demonstrate that the chimeric EGF-R/neu receptor is capable of activating the expression of both immediate early genes and biochemical activities associated with cell growth stimulation. PMID:2572601

  13. Mutation D816V Alters the Internal Structure and Dynamics of c-KIT Receptor Cytoplasmic Region: Implications for Dimerization and Activation Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Laine, Elodie; Chauvot de Beauchêne, Isaure; Perahia, David; Auclair, Christian; Tchertanov, Luba

    2011-01-01

    The type III receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) KIT plays a crucial role in the transmission of cellular signals through phosphorylation events that are associated with a switching of the protein conformation between inactive and active states. D816V KIT mutation is associated with various pathologies including mastocytosis and cancers. D816V-mutated KIT is constitutively active, and resistant to treatment with the anti-cancer drug Imatinib. To elucidate the activating molecular mechanism of this mutation, we applied a multi-approach procedure combining molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, normal modes analysis (NMA) and binding site prediction. Multiple 50-ns MD simulations of wild-type KIT and its mutant D816V were recorded using the inactive auto-inhibited structure of the protein, characteristic of type III RTKs. Computed free energy differences enabled us to quantify the impact of D816V on protein stability in the inactive state. We evidenced a local structural alteration of the activation loop (A-loop) upon mutation, and a long-range structural re-organization of the juxta-membrane region (JMR) followed by a weakening of the interaction network with the kinase domain. A thorough normal mode analysis of several MD conformations led to a plausible molecular rationale to propose that JMR is able to depart its auto-inhibitory position more easily in the mutant than in wild-type KIT and is thus able to promote kinase mutant dimerization without the need for extra-cellular ligand binding. Pocket detection at the surface of NMA-displaced conformations finally revealed that detachment of JMR from the kinase domain in the mutant was sufficient to open an access to the catalytic and substrate binding sites. PMID:21698178

  14. Receptor Tyrosine Kinase and Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors: New Hope for Success in Multiple Sclerosis Therapy.

    PubMed

    Mirshafiey, Abbas; Ghalamfarsa, Ghasem; Asghari, Babak; Azizi, Gholamreza

    2014-07-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are essential components of signal transduction pathways that mediate cell-to-cell communication and their function as relay points for signaling pathways. They have a key role in numerous processes that control cellular proliferation and differentiation, regulate cell growth and cellular metabolism, and promote cell survival and apoptosis. Recently, the role of RTKs including TCR, FLT-3, c-Kit, c-Fms, PDGFR, ephrin, neurotrophin receptor, and TAM receptor in autoimmune disorder, especially rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis has been suggested. In multiple sclerosis pathogenesis, RTKs and their tyrosine kinase enzymes are selective important targets for tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) agents. TKIs, compete with the ATP binding site of the catalytic domain of several tyrosine kinases, and act as small molecules that have a favorable safety profile in disease treatment. Up to now, the efficacy of TKIs in numerous animal models of MS has been demonstrated, but application of these drugs in human diseases should be tested in future clinical trials.

  15. Activated leukemic oncogenes AML1-ETO and c-kit: role in development of acute myeloid leukemia and current approaches for their inhibition.

    PubMed

    Rulina, A V; Spirin, P V; Prassolov, V S

    2010-12-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a malignant blood disease caused by different mutations that enhance the proliferative activity and survival of blood cells and affect their differentiation and apoptosis. The most frequent disorders in AML are translocations between chromosomes 21 and 8 leading to production of a chimeric oncogene, AML1-ETO, and hyperexpression of the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT. Mutations in these genes often occur jointly. The presence in cells of two activated oncogenes is likely to trigger their malignization. The current approaches for treatment of oncologic diseases (bone marrow transplantation, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy) have significant shortcomings, and thus many laboratories are intensively developing new approaches against leukemias. Inhibiting expression of activated leukemic oncogenes based on the principle of RNA interference seems to be a promising approach in this field.

  16. Pravastatin Improves Function in Hibernating Myocardium by Mobilizing CD133+ and cKit+ Bone Marrow Progenitor Cells and Promoting Myocytes to Reenter the Growth Phase of the Cardiac Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Gen; Iyer, Vijay; Cimato, Thomas; Canty, John M.

    2009-01-01

    HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors have been reported to increase circulating bone marrow progenitor cells (BMPCs) and variably improve global function in heart failure. The potential role of improved perfusion vs. direct effects of statins on cardiac myocytes has not been established. We chronically instrumented swine with an LAD stenosis to produce chronic hibernating myocardium with regional contractile dysfunction in the absence of heart failure. Hemodynamics, function, perfusion and histopathology were assessed in pigs treated for five-weeks with pravastatin (n=12) vs. untreated controls (n=10). Regional LAD wall thickening was depressed under baseline conditions (LAD 3.7±0.3 vs. 6.6 ±0.3 in remote regions, p<0.01). It remained unchanged in untreated animals but increased from 3.8±0.6 to 5.2±0.5 mm after pravastatin (p<0.01). There was no increase in myocardial perfusion at rest or during vasodilation. Pravastatin mobilized circulating CD133+/cKit+ BMPCs and increased myocardial tissue levels (LAD CD133+ cells from 140±33 to 884±167 cells/106myocyte nuclei and cKit+ cells from 223±49 to 953±123 cells/106myocyte nuclei). Pravastatin increased myocytes in mitosis (phospho-histone-H3; 9±5 to 43±7 nuclei/106myocyte nuclei, p<0.05) and the growth phase of the cell cycle (Ki67; 410±82 to 1261±235 nuclei/106myocyte nuclei, p<0.05) in diseased but not normal hearts. As a result, pravastatin increased LAD myocyte nuclear density from 830±41 to 1027±55 nuclei/mm2 (p<0.05). These data indicate that, in the absence of impaired endothelial function and heart failure, dysfunctional hibernating myocardium improves after pravastatin. This effect is independent of myocardial perfusion and related to mobilization of CD133+/cKit+ BMPCs which stimulate myocyte proliferation resulting in quantitative increases in myocyte nuclear density. PMID:19096024

  17. Pleuro-pulmonary solitary fibrous tumors: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular study of 88 cases confirming the prognostic value of de Perrot staging system and p53 expression, and evaluating the role of c-kit, BRAF, PDGFRs (alpha/beta), c-met, and EGFR.

    PubMed

    Schirosi, Laura; Lantuejoul, Sylvie; Cavazza, Alberto; Murer, Bruno; Yves Brichon, Pierre; Migaldi, Mario; Sartori, Giuliana; Sgambato, Alessandro; Rossi, Giulio

    2008-11-01

    Pleuro-pulmonary solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a relatively uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm of uncertain histogenesis, unknown molecular features, and unpredictable clinical behavior. Although complete resection is universally accepted as the most important single prognostic factor, some clinicopathologic characteristics (gross appearance, tumor size, mitotic index, tumor necrosis, hypercellularity, and pleomorphism) are related to patient outcome, and a staging system based on these parameters with practical therapeutical implications has been recently proposed by de Perrot et al. Here, 88 pleuro-pulmonary SFTs were collected and clinicopathologic characteristics including de Perrot classification, patients' follow-up, p53 expression, and several "targetable" kinases [c-kit, v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1, platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)-alpha/beta, c-met, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)] were retrospectively analyzed. Fifty-two cases (59%) had at least 1 clinicopathologic feature related to malignancy, whereas mortality and recurrences occurred in 10.2% and 18.2% of the cases, respectively. de Perrot staging and high p53 expression were significantly related to the conventional clinicopathologic prognostic features as well as to overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) (P<0.001). At multivariate analysis, high p53 expression and tumor necrosis were the only parameters significantly associated with OS and DFS (P=0.017 and P=0.012, respectively). Immunohistochemical expression was frequently detected for PDGFR-alpha (97.7%), PDGFR-beta (86.5%), and hepatocyte growth factor receptor (96.6%), whereas missense mutations were only identified in 2 cases both involving PDGFR-beta (exons 18 and 20). We conclude that de Perrot stratification of SFT is a reliable prognostic indicator and merits consideration in view of its suggestions for the management of these tumors in daily practice. p53 expression may represent a

  18. The Relevance of CD117-Immunocytochemistry Staining Patterns to Mutational Exon-11 in c-kit Detected by PCR from Fine-Needle Aspirated Canine Mast Cell Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sailasuta, A.; Ketpun, D.; Piyaviriyakul, P.; Theerawatanasirikul, S.; Theewasutrakul, P.; Rungsipipat, A.

    2014-01-01

    Canine cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCT) are the lethal skin tumors. The biological behavior of the MCT cells is quite varied and unpredictable. Almost MCT dogs usually require a rapid diagnosis and therapy. However, MCT diagnosis and prognosis are still dependent on histopathology which is rather inconvenient, time-consuming, painful, and harmful for some cases. Indeed, MCT can be easily accessible using fine-needle aspiration (FNA). In this study, our biopsy specimens were classified as low- and high-grade MCT based on the novel 2-tier histopathologic grading system. We have demonstrated the usage of fine-needle aspirated MCT cells (FNA-MCT cells) from these specimens as a primary cell source to study the distribution of CD117-immunocytochemistry (CD117-ICC) staining patterns and the frequency of internal tandem duplication- (ITD-) mutant exon-11 of c-kit. The result has substantially shown that there were three staining patterns identified in the cells. Only paranuclear pattern was significantly increased in the cells from high-grade MCT. Altogether, the ITD-mutant exon-11 was also detectable only in these cells. Therefore, the result has supported our hypothesis that there was an increased opportunity to observe a higher CD117-ICC staining pattern and exon-11 mutation in high-grade MCT; even these two parameters may not precisely indicate a histopathological grade. PMID:24701365

  19. Combined targeting of BCL-2 and BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase eradicates chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells.

    PubMed

    Carter, Bing Z; Mak, Po Yee; Mu, Hong; Zhou, Hongsheng; Mak, Duncan H; Schober, Wendy; Leverson, Joel D; Zhang, Bin; Bhatia, Ravi; Huang, Xuelin; Cortes, Jorge; Kantarjian, Hagop; Konopleva, Marina; Andreeff, Michael

    2016-09-01

    BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are effective against chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but they rarely eliminate CML stem cells. Disease relapse is common upon therapy cessation, even in patients with complete molecular responses. Furthermore, once CML progresses to blast crisis (BC), treatment outcomes are dismal. We hypothesized that concomitant targeting of BCL-2 and BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase could overcome these limitations. We demonstrate increased BCL-2 expression at the protein level in bone marrow cells, particularly in Lin(-)Sca-1(+)cKit(+) cells of inducible CML in mice, as determined by CyTOF mass cytometry. Further, selective inhibition of BCL-2, aided by TKI-mediated MCL-1 and BCL-XL inhibition, markedly decreased leukemic Lin(-)Sca-1(+)cKit(+) cell numbers and long-term stem cell frequency and prolonged survival in a murine CML model. Additionally, this combination effectively eradicated CD34(+)CD38(-), CD34(+)CD38(+), and quiescent stem/progenitor CD34(+) cells from BC CML patient samples. Our results suggest that BCL-2 is a key survival factor for CML stem/progenitor cells and that combined inhibition of BCL-2 and BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase has the potential to significantly improve depth of response and cure rates of chronic-phase and BC CML. PMID:27605552

  20. How tyrosine kinase inhibitors impair metabolism and endocrine system function: a systematic updated review.

    PubMed

    Breccia, Massimo; Molica, Matteo; Alimena, Giuliana

    2014-12-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) advent has deeply changed the outcome of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients, with improved rates of response and overall survival. However, for this success some patients paid the price of a number of peculiar side effects, the so-called off-target side effects, specific for each one TKI. These effects are due to non-selective inhibition of other tyrosine kinase receptors, such as PDGFR, c-KIT, Src, VEGF. Consequences of this inhibition, some metabolic changes during the treatment with TKIs are reported. Aim of present review is to report metabolic changes and potential mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis related to imatinib, second (nilotinib and dasatinib) and third generation (bosutinib and ponatinib) TKIs.

  1. How tyrosine kinase inhibitors impair metabolism and endocrine system function: a systematic updated review.

    PubMed

    Breccia, Massimo; Molica, Matteo; Alimena, Giuliana

    2014-12-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) advent has deeply changed the outcome of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients, with improved rates of response and overall survival. However, for this success some patients paid the price of a number of peculiar side effects, the so-called off-target side effects, specific for each one TKI. These effects are due to non-selective inhibition of other tyrosine kinase receptors, such as PDGFR, c-KIT, Src, VEGF. Consequences of this inhibition, some metabolic changes during the treatment with TKIs are reported. Aim of present review is to report metabolic changes and potential mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis related to imatinib, second (nilotinib and dasatinib) and third generation (bosutinib and ponatinib) TKIs. PMID:25449685

  2. Next generation sequencing analysis of platinum refractory advanced germ cell tumor sensitive to Sunitinib (Sutent®) a VEGFR2/PDGFRβ/c-kit/ FLT3/RET/CSF1R inhibitor in a phase II trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Germ cell tumors (GCT) are the most common solid tumors in adolescent and young adult males (age 15 and 35 years) and remain one of the most curable of all solid malignancies. However a subset of patients will have tumors that are refractory to standard chemotherapy agents. The management of this refractory population remains challenging and approximately 400 patients continue to die every year of this refractory disease in the United States. Methods Given the preclinical evidence implicating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling in the biology of germ cell tumors, we hypothesized that the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) inhibitor sunitinib (Sutent) may possess important clinical activity in the treatment of this refractory disease. We proposed a Phase II efficacy study of sunitinib in seminomatous and non-seminomatous metastatic GCT’s refractory to first line chemotherapy treatment (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00912912). Next generation targeted exome sequencing using HiSeq 2000 (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) was performed on the tumor sample of the unusual responder. Results Five patients are enrolled into this Phase II study. Among them we report here the clinical course of a patient (Patient # 5) who had an exceptional response to sunitinib. Next generation sequencing to understand this patient’s response to sunitinib revealed RET amplification, EGFR and KRAS amplification as relevant aberrations. Oncoscan MIP array were employed to validate the copy number analysis that confirmed RET gene amplification. Conclusion Sunitinib conferred clinical benefit to this heavily pre-treated patient. Next generation sequencing of this ‘exceptional responder’ identified the first reported case of a RET amplification as a potential basis of sensitivity to sunitinib (VEGFR2/PDGFRβ/c-kit/ FLT3/RET/CSF1R inhibitor) in a patient with refractory germ cell tumor. Further characterization of GCT patients using

  3. Oncoprotein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2001-02-27

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  4. Inhibitory effects of homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 on the aorta-gonad-mapharsen hematopoiesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtsu, Naoki; Nobuhisa, Ikuo; Mochita, Miyuki; Taga, Tetsuya . E-mail: taga@kaiju.medic.kumamoto-u.ac.jp

    2007-01-01

    Definitive hematopoiesis starts in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region of the mouse embryo. Our previous studies revealed that STAT3, a gp130 downstream transcription factor, is required for AGM hematopoiesis and that homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) phosphorylates serine-727 of STAT3. HIPK2 is a serine/threonine kinase known to be involved in transcriptional repression and apoptosis. In the present study, we examined the role of HIPK2 in hematopoiesis in mouse embryo. HIPK2 transcripts were found in fetal hematopoietic tissues such as the mouse AGM region and fetal liver. In cultured AGM cells, HIPK2 protein was detected in adherent cells. Functional analyses of HIPK2 were carried out by introducing wild-type and mutant HIPK2 constructs into AGM cultures. Production of CD45{sup +} hematopoietic cells was suppressed by forced expression of HIPK2 in AGM cultures. This suppression required the kinase domain and nuclear localization signals of HIPK2, but the kinase activity was dispensable. HIPK2-overexpressing AGM-derived nonadherent cells did not form cobblestone-like colonies in cultures with stromal cells. Furthermore, overexpression of HIPK2 in AGM cultures impeded the expansion of CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup +} cells, which exhibit the immature hematopoietic progenitor phenotype. These data indicate that HIPK2 plays a negative regulatory role in AGM hematopoiesis in the mouse embryo.

  5. High-throughput analysis of genome-wide receptor tyrosine kinase expression in human cancers identifies potential novel drug targets.

    PubMed

    Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Schwäble, Joachim; Steffen, Björn; Tidow, Nicola; Brandt, Burkhardt; Becker, Kerstin; Schulze-Bahr, Eric; Halfter, Hartmut; Vogt, Ulf; Metzger, Ralf; Schneider, Paul M; Büchner, Thomas; Brandts, Christian; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Serve, Hubert

    2004-02-15

    Novel high-throughput analyses in molecular biology allow sensitive and rapid identification of disease-related genes and drug targets. We have used quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR reactions (n = 23000) to analyze expression of all human receptor tyrosine kinases (n = 56) in malignant tumors (n = 313) of different origins and normal control samples (n = 58). The different tumor types expressed very different numbers of receptor tyrosine kinases: whereas brain tumors and testicular cancer expressed 50 receptor tyrosine kinases, acute myeloid leukemia (AML) samples expressed only 20 different ones. Specimens of similar tumor origin exhibited characteristic receptor tyrosine kinase expression patterns and were grouped together in hierarchical cluster analyses. When we focused on specific tumor entities, receptor tyrosine kinases were identified that were disease and/or stage specific. Leukemic blasts from AML bone marrow samples differed significantly in receptor tyrosine kinase expression compared with normal bone marrow and purified CD34+ cells. Among the differentially expressed receptor tyrosine kinases, we found FLT3, c-kit, CSF1 receptor, EPHB6, leukocyte tyrosine kinase, and ptk7 to be highly overexpressed in AML samples. Whereas expression changes of some of these were associated with altered differentiation patterns (e.g., CSF1 receptor), others, such as FLT3, were genuinely overexpressed in leukemic blasts. These data and the associated database (http://medweb.uni-muenster.de/institute/meda/research/) provide a comprehensive view of receptor tyrosine kinase expression in human cancer. This information can assist in the definition of novel drug targets.

  6. Two Kinase Family Dramas

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Thomas A.; Hurley, James H.

    2007-01-01

    In this issue, Lietha and colleagues (2007) report the structure of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and reveal how FAK maintains an autoinhibited state. Together with the structure of another tyrosine kinase, ZAP-70 (Deindl et al., 2007), this work highlights the diversity of mechanisms that nature has evolved within the kinase superfamily to regulate their activity through autoinhibition. PMID:17574014

  7. Prokaryotic Diacylglycerol Kinase and Undecaprenol Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Van Horn, Wade D.; Sanders, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Prokaryotic diacylglycerol kinase (DAGK) and undecaprenol kinase (UDPK) are the lone members of a family of multispan membrane enzymes that are very small, lack relationships to any other family of proteins—including water soluble kinases, and that exhibit an unusual structure and active site architecture. Escherichia coli DAGK plays an important role in recycling diacylglycerol produced as a byproduct of biosynthesis of molecules located in the periplasmic space. UDPK seems to play an analogous role in Gram-positive bacteria, where its importance is evident by the fact that UDPK is essential for biofilm formation by the oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans. DAGK has also long served as a model system for studies of membrane protein biocatalysis, folding, stability, and structure. This review explores our current understanding of the microbial physiology, enzymology, structural biology, and folding of the prokaryotic diacylglycerol kinase family, which is based on over 40 years of studies. PMID:22224599

  8. The Secretory Pathway Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Sreelatha, Anju; Kinch, Lisa N.; Tagliabracci, Vincent S.

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a nearly universal post-translation modification involved in a plethora of cellular events. Even though phosphorylation of extracellular proteins had been observed, the identity of the kinases that phosphorylate secreted proteins remained a mystery until recently. Advances in genome sequencing and genetic studies have paved the way for the discovery of a new class of kinases that localize within the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and the extracellular space. These novel kinases phosphorylate proteins and proteoglycans in the secretory pathway and appear to regulate various extracellular processes. Mutations in these kinases cause human disease, thus underscoring the biological importance of phosphorylation within the secretory pathway. PMID:25862977

  9. Pim1 serine/threonine kinase regulates the number and functions of murine hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    An, Ningfei; Lin, Ying-Wei; Mahajan, Sandeep; Kellner, Joshua N; Wang, Yong; Li, Zihai; Kraft, Andrew S; Kang, Yubin

    2013-06-01

    The genes and pathways that govern the functions and expansion of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are not completely understood. In this study, we investigated the roles of serine/threonine Pim kinases in hematopoiesis in mice. We generated PIM1 transgenic mice (Pim1-Tx) overexpressing human PIM1 driven by vav hematopoietic promoter/regulatory elements. Compared to wild-type littermates, Pim1-Tx mice showed enhanced hematopoiesis as demonstrated by increased numbers of Lin(-) Sca-1 (+) c-Kit (+) (LSK) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and cobblestone area forming cells, higher BrdU incorporation in long-term HSC population, and a better ability to reconstitute lethally irradiated mice. We then extended our study using Pim1(-/-), Pim2(-/-), Pim3(-/-) single knockout (KO) mice. HSCs from Pim1(-/-) KO mice showed impaired long-term hematopoietic repopulating capacity in secondary and competitive transplantations. Interestingly, these defects were not observed in HSCs from Pim2(-/-) or Pim3(-/-) KO mice. Limiting dilution competitive transplantation assay estimated that the frequency of LSKCD34(-) HSCs was reduced by approximately 28-fold in Pim1(-/-) KO mice compared to wild-type littermates. Mechanistic studies demonstrated an important role of Pim1 kinase in regulating HSC cell proliferation and survival. Finally, our polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array and confirmatory real-time PCR (RT-PCR) studies identified several genes including Lef-1, Pax5, and Gata1 in HSCs that were affected by Pim1 deletion. Our data provide the first direct evidence for the important role of Pim1 kinase in the regulation of HSCs. Our study also dissects out the relative role of individual Pim kinase in HSC functions and regulation. PMID:23495171

  10. The Rac GTPase effector p21-activated kinase is essential for hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell migration and engraftment.

    PubMed

    Dorrance, Adrienne M; De Vita, Serena; Radu, Maria; Reddy, Pavankumar N G; McGuinness, Meaghan K; Harris, Chad E; Mathieu, Ronald; Lane, Steven W; Kosoff, Rachelle; Milsom, Michael D; Chernoff, Jonathan; Williams, David A

    2013-03-28

    The p21-activated kinases (Paks) are serine/threonine kinases that are major effectors of the Rho guanosine 5'\\x{2011}triphosphatase, Rac, and Cdc42. Rac and Cdc42 are known regulators of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) function, however, a direct role for Paks in HSPCs has yet to be elucidated. Lin(-)Sca1(+)c-kit(+) (LSK) cells from wild-type mice were transduced with retrovirus expressing Pak inhibitory domain (PID), a well-characterized inhibitor of Pak activation. Defects in marrow homing and in vitro cell migration, assembly of the actin cytoskeleton, proliferation, and survival were associated with engraftment failure of PID-LSK. The PID-LSK demonstrated decreased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), whereas constitutive activation of ERK in these cells led to rescue of hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation in vitro and partial rescue of Pak-deficient HSPC homing and engraftment in vivo. Using conditional knock-out mice, we demonstrate that among group A Paks, Pak2(-/-) HSPC show reduced homing to the bone marrow and altered cell shape similar to PID-LSK cells in vitro and are completely defective in HSPC engraftment. These data demonstrate that Pak proteins are key components of multiple engraftment-associated HSPC functions and play a direct role in activation of ERK in HSPCs, and that Pak2 is specifically essential for HSPC engraftment.

  11. Hymenoptera Anaphylaxis and C-kit Mutations: An Unexpected Association.

    PubMed

    Bonadonna, Patrizia; Bonifacio, Massimiliano; Lombardo, Carla; Zanotti, Roberta

    2015-08-01

    Clinical manifestations of mastocytosis in adults comprise signs and symptoms linked to mast cell (MC) activation, including anaphylaxis. Depending on MC burden, adults can be diagnosed with systemic mastocytosis, when the WHO criteria are fulfilled, or with other clonal MC disorders, characterized by MC mediator symptoms and demonstration of activating KIT mutations and/or expression of CD25 on MCs. There is a specific link between mastocytosis and hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA): the reported frequency of HVA in mastocytosis is 20-50 % and raises to 60-80 % in patients affected by indolent systemic mastocytosis without skin lesions. The presentation of HVA characterized by severe hypotension in the absence of urticarial or angioedema is typical in patient with an underlying MC disorder, even in the presence of normal baseline serum tryptase levels.

  12. The Dtk receptor tyrosine kinase, which binds protein S, is expressed during hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Crosier, P S; Freeman, S A; Orlic, D; Bodine, D M; Crosier, K E

    1996-02-01

    Dtk (Tyro 3/Sky/Rse/Brt/Tif) belongs to a recently recognized subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases that also includes Ufo (Axl/Ark) and Mer (Eyk). Ligands for Dtk and Ufo have been identified as protein S and the related molecule Gas6, respectively. This study examined expression of Dtk during ontogeny of the hematopoietic system and compared the pattern of expression with that of Ufo. Both receptors were abundantly expressed in differentiating embryonic stem cells, yolk sac blood islands, para-aortic splanchnopleural mesoderm, fractionated AA4+ fetal liver cells, and fetal thymus from day 14 until birth. Although Ufo was expressed at moderate levels in adult bone marrow, expression of Dtk in this tissue was barely detectable. In adult bone marrow subpopulations fractionated using counterflow centrifugal elutriation, immunomagnetic bead selection for lineage-depletion and FACS sorting for c-kit expression, very low levels of Dtk and/or Ufo were detected in some cell fractions. These results suggest that Dtk and Ufo are likely to be involved in the regulation of hematopoiesis, particularly during the embryonic stages of blood cell development.

  13. Phosphatidylinositol kinase from rabbit reticulocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Tuazon, P.T.; Heng, A.B.W.; Traugh, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (PI) kinase was isolated from the postribosomal supernatant of rabbit reticulocytes. This activity was identified by the formation of a product that comigrated with phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PIP) when purified PI was phosphorylated in the presence of (/sup 32/P)ATP and Mg/sup 2 +/. Three major peaks of PI kinase activity were resolved by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. The first peak eluted at 50-100 mM NaCl together with several serine protein kinases, casein kinase (CK) I and protease activated kinase (PAK) I and II. The PI kinase was subsequently separated from the protein kinases by chromatography on phosphocellulose. The second peak eluted at 125-160 mM NaCl and contained another lipid kinase activity that produced a product which comigrated with phosphatidic acid on thin layer chromatography. The third peak, which eluted at 165-200 mM NaCl, partly comigrated with casein kinase (CK) II and an active protein kinase(s) which phosphorylated mixed histone and histone I. CK II and the histone kinase activities were also separated by chromatography on phosphocelluslose. The different forms of PI kinase were characterized and compared with respect to substrate and salt requirements.

  14. Microbial Protein-tyrosine Kinases*

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Joseph D.; Wong, Dennis; Av-Gay, Yossef

    2014-01-01

    Microbial ester kinases identified in the past 3 decades came as a surprise, as protein phosphorylation on Ser, Thr, and Tyr amino acids was thought to be unique to eukaryotes. Current analysis of available microbial genomes reveals that “eukaryote-like” protein kinases are prevalent in prokaryotes and can converge in the same signaling pathway with the classical microbial “two-component” systems. Most microbial tyrosine kinases lack the “eukaryotic” Hanks domain signature and are designated tyrosine kinases based upon their biochemical activity. These include the tyrosine kinases termed bacterial tyrosine kinases (BY-kinases), which are responsible for the majority of known bacterial tyrosine phosphorylation events. Although termed generally as bacterial tyrosine kinases, BY-kinases can be considered as one family belonging to the superfamily of prokaryotic protein-tyrosine kinases in bacteria. Other members of this superfamily include atypical “odd” tyrosine kinases with diverse mechanisms of protein phosphorylation and the “eukaryote-like” Hanks-type tyrosine kinases. Here, we discuss the distribution, phylogeny, and function of the various prokaryotic protein-tyrosine kinases, focusing on the recently discovered Mycobacterium tuberculosis PtkA and its relationship with other members of this diverse family of proteins. PMID:24554699

  15. Visualizing autophosphorylation in histidine kinases.

    PubMed

    Casino, Patricia; Miguel-Romero, Laura; Marina, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is the most widespread regulatory mechanism in signal transduction. Autophosphorylation in a dimeric sensor histidine kinase is the first step in two-component signalling, the predominant signal-transduction device in bacteria. Despite being the most abundant sensor kinases in nature, the molecular bases of the histidine kinase autophosphorylation mechanism are still unknown. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that autophosphorylation can occur in two directions, cis (intrasubunit) or trans (intersubunit) within the dimeric histidine kinase. Here, we present the crystal structure of the complete catalytic machinery of a chimeric histidine kinase. The structure shows an asymmetric histidine kinase dimer where one subunit is caught performing the autophosphorylation reaction. A structure-guided functional analysis on HK853 and EnvZ, two prototypical cis- and trans-phosphorylating histidine kinases, has allowed us to decipher the catalytic mechanism of histidine kinase autophosphorylation, which seems to be common independently of the reaction directionality.

  16. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Linn, Anning

    1996-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK.

  17. Plant 5-Methylthioribose Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Guranowski, Andrzej

    1983-01-01

    Activity of 5-methylthioribose kinase, the enzyme which catalyzes the ATP-dependent formation of 1-phospho-5-methylthioribose, has been revealed in the extracts from various higher plant species. Almost 2,000-fold-purified enzyme has been obtained from yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L. cv Topaz) seed extract. Molecular weight of the native enzyme is 70,000 as judged by gel filtration. The lupin 5-methylthioribose kinase exhibits a strict requirement for divalent metal ions. Among the ions tested, only Mg2+ and Mn2+ acted as cofactors. The curve of kinase initial velocity versus pH reaches plateau at pH 10 to 10.5. The Km values calculated for 5-methylthioribose and ATP are 4.3 and 8.3 micromolar, respectively. Among nucleoside triphosphates tested as potential phosphate donors, only dATP could substitute in the reaction for ATP. 5-Isobutylthioribose, an analog of 5-methylthioribose, proved to be the γ-ATP-phosphate acceptor, too. The compound inhibits competitively synthesis of 1-phospho-5-methylthioribose (Ki = 1.4 micromolar). Lupin 5-methylthioribose kinase is completely and irreversibly inhibited by the antisulfhydryl reagent, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. As in bacteria (Ferro, Barrett, Shapiro 1978 J Biol Chem 253: 6021-6025), the enzyme may be involved in a new, alternative pathway of methionine synthesis in plant tissues. PMID:16662931

  18. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, M.; Hibi, M.; Lin, A.

    1997-02-25

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE is disclosed. The polypeptide has serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences. The method of detection of JNK is also provided. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites. 44 figs.

  19. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2004-03-16

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  20. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning; Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit

    2003-02-04

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  1. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1998-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  2. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1999-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  3. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning; Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit

    2005-03-08

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  4. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1997-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  5. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1997-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  6. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit; Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2005-01-25

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  7. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Lin, Anning

    1999-11-30

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  8. Cyclin-dependent kinases.

    PubMed

    Malumbres, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are protein kinases characterized by needing a separate subunit - a cyclin - that provides domains essential for enzymatic activity. CDKs play important roles in the control of cell division and modulate transcription in response to several extra- and intracellular cues. The evolutionary expansion of the CDK family in mammals led to the division of CDKs into three cell-cycle-related subfamilies (Cdk1, Cdk4 and Cdk5) and five transcriptional subfamilies (Cdk7, Cdk8, Cdk9, Cdk11 and Cdk20). Unlike the prototypical Cdc28 kinase of budding yeast, most of these CDKs bind one or a few cyclins, consistent with functional specialization during evolution. This review summarizes how, although CDKs are traditionally separated into cell-cycle or transcriptional CDKs, these activities are frequently combined in many family members. Not surprisingly, deregulation of this family of proteins is a hallmark of several diseases, including cancer, and drug-targeted inhibition of specific members has generated very encouraging results in clinical trials. PMID:25180339

  9. Redox Regulation of Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Thu H.; Carroll, Kate S.

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases represent one of the largest families of genes found in eukaryotes. Kinases mediate distinct cellular processes ranging from proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis. Ligand-mediated activation of receptor kinases can lead to the production of endogenous H2O2 by membrane-bound NADPH oxidases. In turn, H2O2 can be utilized as a secondary messenger in signal transduction pathways. This review presents an overview of the molecular mechanisms involved in redox regulation of protein kinases and its effects on signaling cascades. In the first half, we will focus primarily on receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), whereas the latter will concentrate on downstream non-receptor kinases involved in relaying stimulant response. Select examples from the literature are used to highlight the functional role of H2O2 regarding kinase activity, as well as the components involved in H2O2 production and regulation during cellular signaling. In addition, studies demonstrating direct modulation of protein kinases by H2O2 through cysteine oxidation will be emphasized. Identification of these redox-sensitive residues may help uncover signaling mechanisms conserved within kinase subfamilies. In some cases, these residues can even be exploited as targets for the development of new therapeutics. Continued efforts in this field will further basic understanding of kinase redox regulation, and delineate the mechanisms involved in physiologic and pathological H2O2 responses. PMID:23639002

  10. Map kinases in fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Xu, J R

    2000-12-01

    MAP kinases in eukaryotic cells are well known for transducing a variety of extracellular signals to regulate cell growth and differentiation. Recently, MAP kinases homologous to the yeast Fus3/Kss1 MAP kinases have been identified in several fungal pathogens and found to be important for appressorium formation, invasive hyphal growth, and fungal pathogenesis. This MAP kinase pathway also controls diverse growth or differentiation processes, including conidiation, conidial germination, and female fertility. MAP kinases homologous to yeast Slt2 and Hog1 have also been characterized in Candida albicans and Magnaporthe grisea. Mutants disrupted of the Slt2 homologues have weak cell walls, altered hyphal growth, and reduced virulence. The Hog1 homologues are dispensable for growth but are essential for regulating responses to hyperosmotic stress in C. albicans and M. grisea. Overall, recent studies have indicated that MAP kinase pathways may play important roles in regulating growth, differentiation, survival, and pathogenesis in fungal pathogens. PMID:11273677

  11. Functions of the Lyn tyrosine kinase in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Src family kinases such as Lyn are important signaling intermediaries, relaying and modulating different inputs to regulate various outputs, such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration and metabolism. Intriguingly, Lyn can mediate both positive and negative signaling processes within the same or different cellular contexts. This duality is exemplified by the B-cell defect in Lyn−/− mice in which Lyn is essential for negative regulation of the B-cell receptor; conversely, B-cells expressing a dominant active mutant of Lyn (Lynup/up) have elevated activities of positive regulators of the B-cell receptor due to this hyperactive kinase. Lyn has well-established functions in most haematopoietic cells, viz. progenitors via influencing c-kit signaling, through to mature cell receptor/integrin signaling, e.g. erythrocytes, platelets, mast cells and macrophages. Consequently, there is an important role for this kinase in regulating hematopoietic abnormalities. Lyn is an important regulator of autoimmune diseases such as asthma and psoriasis, due to its profound ability to influence immune cell signaling. Lyn has also been found to be important for maintaining the leukemic phenotype of many different liquid cancers including acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) and B-cell lymphocytic leukaemia (BCLL). Lyn is also expressed in some solid tumors and here too it is establishing itself as a potential therapeutic target for prostate, glioblastoma, colon and more aggressive subtypes of breast cancer. Lay Abstract To relay information, a cell uses enzymes that put molecular markers on specific proteins so they interact with other proteins or move to specific parts of the cell to have particular functions. A protein called Lyn is one of these enzymes that regulate information transfer within cells to modulate cell growth, survival and movement. Depending on which type of cell and the source of the information input, Lyn can

  12. Adenylate kinase complements nucleoside diphosphate kinase deficiency in nucleotide metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Q; Inouye, M

    1996-01-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase is a ubiquitous nonspecific enzyme that evidently is designed to catalyze in vivo ATP-dependent synthesis of ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates from the corresponding diphosphates. Because Escherichia coli contains only one copy of ndk, the structural gene for this enzyme, we were surprised to find that ndk disruption yields bacteria that are still viable. These mutant cells contain a protein with a small amount NDP kinase activity. The protein responsible for this activity was purified and identified as adenylate kinase. This enzyme, also called myokinase, catalyzes the reversible ATP-dependent synthesis of ADP from AMP. We found that this enzyme from E. coli as well as from higher eukaryotes has a broad substrate specificity displaying dual enzymatic functions. Among the nucleoside monophosphate kinases tested, only adenylate kinase was found to have NDP kinase activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of NDP kinase activity associated with adenylate kinase. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8650159

  13. Focal adhesion kinase

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Rebecca L; Baggerly, Keith A; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N; Kang, Yu; Sanguino, Angela M; Thanapprapasr, Duangmani; Dalton, Heather J; Bottsford-Miller, Justin; Zand, Behrouz; Akbani, Rehan; Diao, Lixia; Nick, Alpa M; DeGeest, Koen; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Coleman, Robert L; Lutgendorf, Susan; Sood, Anil K

    2014-01-01

    This investigation describes the clinical significance of phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) at the major activating tyrosine site (Y397) in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells and tumor-associated endothelial cells. FAK gene amplification as a mechanism for FAK overexpression and the effects of FAK tyrosine kinase inhibitor VS-6062 on tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis were examined. FAK and phospho-FAKY397 were quantified in tumor (FAK-T; pFAK-T) and tumor-associated endothelial (FAK-endo; pFAK-endo) cell compartments of EOCs using immunostaining and qRT-PCR. Associations between expression levels and clinical variables were evaluated. Data from The Cancer Genome Atlas were used to correlate FAK gene copy number and expression levels in EOC specimens. The in vitro and in vivo effects of VS-6062 were assayed in preclinical models. FAK-T and pFAK-T overexpression was significantly associated with advanced stage disease and increased microvessel density (MVD). High MVD was observed in tumors with elevated endothelial cell FAK (59%) and pFAK (44%). Survival was adversely affected by FAK-T overexpression (3.03 vs 2.06 y, P = 0.004), pFAK-T (2.83 vs 1.78 y, P < 0.001), and pFAK-endo (2.33 vs 2.17 y, P = 0.005). FAK gene copy number was increased in 34% of tumors and correlated with expression levels (P < 0.001). VS-6062 significantly blocked EOC and endothelial cell migration as well as endothelial cell tube formation in vitro. VS-6062 reduced mean tumor weight by 56% (P = 0.005), tumor MVD by 40% (P = 0.0001), and extraovarian metastasis (P < 0.01) in orthotopic EOC mouse models. FAK may be a unique therapeutic target in EOC given the dual anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic potential of FAK inhibitors. PMID:24755674

  14. Bivalent Inhibitors of Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Gower, Carrie M.; Chang, Matthew E. K.; Maly, Dustin J.

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases are key players in a large number of cellular signaling pathways. Dysregulated kinase activity has been implicated in a number of diseases, and members of this enzyme family are of therapeutic interest. However, due to the fact that most inhibitors interact with the highly conserved ATP-binding sites of kinases, it is a significant challenge to develop pharmacological agents that target only one of the greater than 500 kinases present in humans. A potential solution to this problem is the development of bisubstrate and bivalent kinase inhibitors, in which an active site-directed moiety is tethered to another ligand that targets a location outside of the ATP-binding cleft. Because kinase signaling specificity is modulated by regions outside of the ATP-binding site, strategies that exploit these interactions have the potential to provide reagents with high target selectivity. This review highlights examples of kinase interaction sites that can potentially be exploited by bisubstrate and bivalent inhibitors. Furthermore, an overview of efforts to target these interactions with bisubstrate and bivalent inhibitors is provided. Finally, several examples of the successful application of these reagents in a cellular setting are described. PMID:24564382

  15. Isolation of chloroplastic phosphoglycerate kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Macioszek, J.; Anderson, L.E. ); Anderson, J.B. )

    1990-09-01

    We report here a method for the isolation of high specific activity phosphoglycerate kinase (EC 2.7.2.3) from chloroplasts. The enzyme has been purified over 200-fold from pea (Pisum sativum L.) stromal extracts to apparent homogeneity with 23% recovery. Negative cooperativity is observed with the two enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase/glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.13) couple restored from the purified enzymes when NADPH is the reducing pyridine nucleotide, consistent with earlier results obtained with crude chloroplastic extracts. Michaelis Menten kinetics are observed when 3-phosphoglycerate is held constant and phosphoglycerate kinase is varied, which suggests that phosphoglycerate kinase-bound 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate may be the preferred substrate for glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase in the chloroplast.

  16. Protein Crystals of Raf Kinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This image shows crystals of the protein raf kinase grown on Earth (photo a) and on USML-2 (photo b). The space-grown crystals are an order of magnitude larger. Principal Investigator: Dan Carter of New Century Pharmaceuticals

  17. Tyrosine kinase gene rearrangements in epithelial malignancies.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Alice T; Hsu, Peggy P; Awad, Mark M; Engelman, Jeffrey A

    2013-11-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements that lead to oncogenic kinase activation are observed in many epithelial cancers. These cancers express activated fusion kinases that drive the initiation and progression of malignancy, and often have a considerable response to small-molecule kinase inhibitors, which validates these fusion kinases as 'druggable' targets. In this Review, we examine the aetiologic, pathogenic and clinical features that are associated with cancers harbouring oncogenic fusion kinases, including anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), ROS1 and RET. We discuss the clinical outcomes with targeted therapies and explore strategies to discover additional kinases that are activated by chromosomal rearrangements in solid tumours.

  18. Tyrosine kinase gene rearrangements in epithelial malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Alice T.; Hsu, Peggy P.; Awad, Mark M.; Engelman, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements that lead to oncogenic kinase activation are observed in many epithelial cancers. These cancers express activated fusion kinases that drive the initiation and progression of malignancy, and often have a considerable response to small-molecule kinase inhibitors, which validates these fusion kinases as ‘druggable’ targets. In this Review, we examine the aetiologic, pathogenic and clinical features that are associated with cancers harbouring oncogenic fusion kinases, including anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), ROS1 and RET. We discuss the clinical outcomes with targeted therapies and explore strategies to discover additional kinases that are activated by chromosomal rearrangements in solid tumours. PMID:24132104

  19. Novel Role for p110β PI 3-Kinase in Male Fertility through Regulation of Androgen Receptor Activity in Sertoli Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guillermet-Guibert, Julie; Smith, Lee B.; Halet, Guillaume; Whitehead, Maria A.; Pearce, Wayne; Rebourcet, Diane; León, Kelly; Crépieux, Pascale; Nock, Gemma; Strömstedt, Maria; Enerback, Malin; Chelala, Claude; Graupera, Mariona; Carroll, John; Cosulich, Sabina; Saunders, Philippa T. K.; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Vanhaesebroeck, Bart

    2015-01-01

    The organismal roles of the ubiquitously expressed class I PI3K isoform p110β remain largely unknown. Using a new kinase-dead knockin mouse model that mimics constitutive pharmacological inactivation of p110β, we document that full inactivation of p110β leads to embryonic lethality in a substantial fraction of mice. Interestingly, the homozygous p110β kinase-dead mice that survive into adulthood (maximum ~26% on a mixed genetic background) have no apparent phenotypes, other than subfertility in females and complete infertility in males. Systemic inhibition of p110β results in a highly specific blockade in the maturation of spermatogonia to spermatocytes. p110β was previously suggested to signal downstream of the c-kit tyrosine kinase receptor in germ cells to regulate their proliferation and survival. We now report that p110β also plays a germ cell-extrinsic role in the Sertoli cells (SCs) that support the developing sperm, with p110β inactivation dampening expression of the SC-specific Androgen Receptor (AR) target gene Rhox5, a homeobox gene critical for spermatogenesis. All extragonadal androgen-dependent functions remain unaffected by global p110β inactivation. In line with a crucial role for p110β in SCs, selective inactivation of p110β in these cells results in male infertility. Our study is the first documentation of the involvement of a signalling enzyme, PI3K, in the regulation of AR activity during spermatogenesis. This developmental pathway may become active in prostate cancer where p110β and AR have previously been reported to functionally interact. PMID:26132308

  20. EBI-907, a novel BRAF(V600E) inhibitor, has potent oral anti-tumor activity and a broad kinase selectivity profile.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiayin; Lu, Biao; Liu, Dong; Shen, Ru; Yan, Yinfa; Yang, Liuqing; Zhang, Minsheng; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Guoqing; Cao, Hu; Fu, Beibei; Gong, Aishen; Sun, Qiming; Wan, Hong; Zhang, Lianshan; Tao, Weikang; Cao, Jingsong

    2016-01-01

    The oncogenic mutation of BRAF(V600E) has been found in approximately 8% of all human cancers, including more than 60% of melanoma and 10% of colorectal cancers. The clinical proof of concept in treating BRAF(V600E)-driving melanoma patients with the BRAF inhibitors has been well established. We have sought to identify and develop novel BRAF(V600E) inhibitors with more favorable profiles. Our chemistry effort has led to the discovery of EBI-907 as a novel BRAF(V600E) inhibitor with potent anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. In a LanthaScreen BRAF(V600E) kinase assay, EBI-907 showed an IC50 of 4.8 nM, which is >10 -fold more potent than Vemurafenib (IC50 = 58.5 nM). In addition, EBI-907 showed a broader kinase selectivity profile, with potent activity against a number of important oncogenic kinases including FGFR1-3, RET, c-Kit, and PDGFRb. Concomitant with such properties, EBI-907 exhibits potent and selective cytotoxicity against a broader range of BRAF(V600E)-dependent cell lines including certain colorectal cancer cell lines with innate resistance to Vemurafenib. In BRAF(V600E)-dependent human Colo-205 and A375 tumor xenograft mouse models, EBI-907 caused a marked tumor regression in a dose-dependent manner, with superior efficacy to Vemurafenib. Our results also showed that combination with EGFR or MEK inhibitor enhanced the potency of EBI-907 in cell lines with innate or acquired resistance to BRAF inhibition alone. Our findings present EBI-907 as a potent and promising BRAF inhibitor, which might be useful in broader indications. PMID:26810733

  1. EBI-907, a novel BRAF(V600E) inhibitor, has potent oral anti-tumor activity and a broad kinase selectivity profile.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiayin; Lu, Biao; Liu, Dong; Shen, Ru; Yan, Yinfa; Yang, Liuqing; Zhang, Minsheng; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Guoqing; Cao, Hu; Fu, Beibei; Gong, Aishen; Sun, Qiming; Wan, Hong; Zhang, Lianshan; Tao, Weikang; Cao, Jingsong

    2016-01-01

    The oncogenic mutation of BRAF(V600E) has been found in approximately 8% of all human cancers, including more than 60% of melanoma and 10% of colorectal cancers. The clinical proof of concept in treating BRAF(V600E)-driving melanoma patients with the BRAF inhibitors has been well established. We have sought to identify and develop novel BRAF(V600E) inhibitors with more favorable profiles. Our chemistry effort has led to the discovery of EBI-907 as a novel BRAF(V600E) inhibitor with potent anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. In a LanthaScreen BRAF(V600E) kinase assay, EBI-907 showed an IC50 of 4.8 nM, which is >10 -fold more potent than Vemurafenib (IC50 = 58.5 nM). In addition, EBI-907 showed a broader kinase selectivity profile, with potent activity against a number of important oncogenic kinases including FGFR1-3, RET, c-Kit, and PDGFRb. Concomitant with such properties, EBI-907 exhibits potent and selective cytotoxicity against a broader range of BRAF(V600E)-dependent cell lines including certain colorectal cancer cell lines with innate resistance to Vemurafenib. In BRAF(V600E)-dependent human Colo-205 and A375 tumor xenograft mouse models, EBI-907 caused a marked tumor regression in a dose-dependent manner, with superior efficacy to Vemurafenib. Our results also showed that combination with EGFR or MEK inhibitor enhanced the potency of EBI-907 in cell lines with innate or acquired resistance to BRAF inhibition alone. Our findings present EBI-907 as a potent and promising BRAF inhibitor, which might be useful in broader indications.

  2. Discovering the first tyrosine kinase

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Tony

    2015-01-01

    In the middle of the 20th century, animal tumor viruses were heralded as possible models for understanding human cancer. By the mid-1970s, the molecular basis by which tumor viruses transform cells into a malignant state was beginning to emerge as the first viral genomic sequences were reported and the proteins encoded by their transforming genes were identified and characterized. This was a time of great excitement and rapid progress. In 1978, prompted by the discovery from Ray Erikson’s group that the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) v-Src–transforming protein had an associated protein kinase activity specific for threonine, my group at the Salk Institute set out to determine whether the polyomavirus middle T-transforming protein had a similar kinase activity. Here, I describe the experiments that led to the identification of a kinase activity associated with middle T antigen and our serendipitous discovery that this activity was specific for tyrosine in vitro, and how this in turn led to the fortuitous observation that the v-Src–associated kinase activity was also specific for tyrosine. Our finding that v-Src increased the level of phosphotyrosine in cellular proteins in RSV-transformed cells confirmed that v-Src is a tyrosine kinase and transforms cells by phosphorylating proteins on tyrosine. My colleague Bart Sefton and I reported these findings in the March issue of PNAS in 1980. Remarkably, all of the experiments in this paper were accomplished in less than one month. PMID:26130799

  3. Coordinate regulation of IkappaB kinases by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 and NF-kappaB-inducing kinase.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, S; DiDonato, J A; Lin, A

    1998-12-01

    IkappaB kinases (IKKalpha and IKKbeta) are key components of the IKK complex that mediates activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB in response to extracellular stimuli such as inflammatory cytokines, viral and bacterial infection, and UV irradiation. Although NF-kappaB-inducing kinase (NIK) interacts with and activates the IKKs, the upstream kinases for the IKKs still remain obscure. We identified mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1) as an immediate upstream kinase of the IKK complex. MEKK1 is activated by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 and can potentiate the stimulatory effect of TNF-alpha on IKK and NF-kappaB activation. The dominant negative mutant of MEKK1, on the other hand, partially blocks activation of IKK by TNF-alpha. MEKK1 interacts with and stimulates the activities of both IKKalpha and IKKbeta in transfected HeLa and COS-1 cells and directly phosphorylates the IKKs in vitro. Furthermore, MEKK1 appears to act in parallel to NIK, leading to synergistic activation of the IKK complex. The formation of the MEKK1-IKK complex versus the NIK-IKK complex may provide a molecular basis for regulation of the IKK complex by various extracellular signals.

  4. Modelling the 2-kinase domain of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase on adenylate kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, L; Vertommen, D; Depiereux, E; Hue, L; Rider, M H; Feytmans, E

    1997-01-01

    Simultaneous multiple alignment of available sequences of the bifunctional enzyme 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase revealed several segments of conserved residues in the 2-kinase domain. The sequence of the kinase domain was also compared with proteins of known three-dimensional structure. No similarity was found between the kinase domain of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase and 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase. This questions the modelling of the 2-kinase domain on bacterial 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase that has previously been proposed [Bazan, Fletterick and Pilkis (1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86, 9642-9646]. However, sequence similarities were found between the 2-kinase domain and several nucleotide-binding proteins, the most similar being adenylate kinase. A structural model of the 2-kinase domain based on adenylate kinase is proposed. It accommodates all the results of site-directed mutagenesis studies carried out to date on residues in the 2-kinase domain. It also allows residues potentially involved in catalysis and/or substrate binding to be predicted. PMID:9032445

  5. A phase I trial of the aurora kinase inhibitor, ENMD-2076, in patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Yee, Karen W L; Chen, Hsiao-Wei T; Hedley, David W; Chow, Sue; Brandwein, Joseph; Schuh, Andre C; Schimmer, Aaron D; Gupta, Vikas; Sanfelice, Deborah; Johnson, Tara; Le, Lisa W; Arnott, Jamie; Bray, Mark R; Sidor, Carolyn; Minden, Mark D

    2016-10-01

    ENMD-2076 is a novel, orally-active molecule that inhibits Aurora A kinase, as well as c-Kit, FLT3 and VEGFR2. A phase I study was conducted to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) and toxicities of ENMD-2076 in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). Patients received escalating doses of ENMD-2076 administered orally daily [225 mg (n = 7), 375 mg (n = 6), 325 mg (n = 9), or 275 mg (n = 5)]. Twenty-seven patients were treated (26 AML; 1 CMML-2). The most common non-hematological toxicities of any grade, regardless of association with drug, were fatigue, diarrhea, dysphonia, dyspnea, hypertension, constipation, and abdominal pain. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) consisted of grade 3 fatigue, grade 3 typhilitis, grade 3 syncope and grade 3 QTc prolongation). Of the 16 evaluable patients, one patient achieved a complete remission with incomplete count recovery (CRi), three experienced a morphologic leukemia-free state (MLFS) with a major hematologic improvement in platelets (HI-P), and 5 other patients had a reduction in marrow blast percentage (i.e. 11-65 %). The RP2D in this patient population is 225 mg orally once daily. PMID:27406088

  6. Evolutionary Ancestry of Eukaryotic Protein Kinases and Choline Kinases.

    PubMed

    Lai, Shenshen; Safaei, Javad; Pelech, Steven

    2016-03-01

    The reversible phosphorylation of proteins catalyzed by protein kinases in eukaryotes supports an important role for eukaryotic protein kinases (ePKs) in the emergence of nucleated cells in the third superkingdom of life. Choline kinases (ChKs) could also be critical in the early evolution of eukaryotes, because of their function in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, which is unique to eukaryotic membranes. However, the genomic origins of ePKs and ChKs are unclear. The high degeneracy of protein sequences and broad expansion of ePK families have made this fundamental question difficult to answer. In this study, we identified two class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases with high similarities to consensus amino acid sequences of human protein-serine/threonine kinases. Comparisons of primary and tertiary structures supported that ePKs and ChKs evolved from a common ancestor related to glutaminyl aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, which may have been one of the key factors in the successful of emergence of ancient eukaryotic cells from bacterial colonies.

  7. KID, a Kinase Inhibitor Database project.

    PubMed

    Collin, O; Meijer, L

    1999-01-01

    The Kinase Inhibitor Database is a small specialized database dedicated to the gathering of information on protein kinase inhibitors. The database is accessible through the World Wide Web system and gives access to structural and bibliographic information on protein kinase inhibitors. The data in the database will be collected and submitted by researchers working in the kinase inhibitor field. The submitted data will be checked by the curator of the database before entry.

  8. Assessing Kinase Activity in Plants with In-Gel Kinase Assays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengcheng; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-01-01

    The in-gel protein kinase assay is a powerful method to measure the protein phosphorylation activity of specific protein kinases. Any protein substrate can be embedded in polyacrylamide gels where they can be phosphorylated by protein kinases that are separated in the gel under denaturing conditions and then renatured. The kinase activity can be visualized in situ in the gels by autoradiography. This method has been used to compare the activities of protein kinases in parallel samples or to identify their potential substrates. Here, we describe in detail an in-gel kinase assay to measure the activity of some protein kinases in plants.

  9. Receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition causes simultaneous bone loss and excess bone formation within growing bone in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Nurmio, Mirja; Joki, Henna; Kallio, Jenny; Maeaettae, Jorma A.; Vaeaenaenen, H. Kalervo; Toppari, Jorma; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Laitala-Leinonen, Tiina

    2011-08-01

    During postnatal skeletal growth, adaptation to mechanical loading leads to cellular activities at the growth plate. It has recently become evident that bone forming and bone resorbing cells are affected by the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor imatinib mesylate (STI571, Gleevec (registered)) . Imatinib targets PDGF, ABL-related gene, c-Abl, c-Kit and c-Fms receptors, many of which have multiple functions in the bone microenvironment. We therefore studied the effects of imatinib in growing bone. Young rats were exposed to imatinib (150 mg/kg on postnatal days 5-7, or 100 mg/kg on postnatal days 5-13), and the effects of RTK inhibition on bone physiology were studied after 8 and 70 days (3-day treatment), or after 14 days (9-day treatment). X-ray imaging, computer tomography, histomorphometry, RNA analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate bone modeling and remodeling in vivo. Imatinib treatment eliminated osteoclasts from the metaphyseal osteochondral junction at 8 and 14 days. This led to a resorption arrest at the growth plate, but also increased bone apposition by osteoblasts, thus resulting in local osteopetrosis at the osteochondral junction. The impaired bone remodelation observed on day 8 remained significant until adulthood. Within the same bone, increased osteoclast activity, leading to bone loss, was observed at distal bone trabeculae on days 8 and 14. Peripheral quantitative computer tomography (pQCT) and micro-CT analysis confirmed that, at the osteochondral junction, imatinib shifted the balance from bone resorption towards bone formation, thereby altering bone modeling. At distal trabecular bone, in turn, the balance was turned towards bone resorption, leading to bone loss. - Research Highlights: > 3-Day imatinib treatment. > Causes growth plate anomalies in young rats. > Causes biomechanical changes and significant bone loss at distal trabecular bone. > Results in loss of osteoclasts at osteochondral junction.

  10. Characterization and response of newly developed high-grade glioma cultures to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella, Paula; Howley, Rachel; Doolan, Padraig; Clarke, Colin; Madden, Stephen F.; Clynes, Martin; Farrell, Michael; Amberger-Murphy, Verena

    2012-03-10

    High-grade gliomas (HGG), are the most common aggressive brain tumours in adults. Inhibitors targeting growth factor signalling pathways in glioma have shown a low clinical response rate. To accurately evaluate response to targeted therapies further in vitro studies are necessary. Growth factor pathway expression using epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mutant EGFR (EGFRvIII), platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), C-Kit and C-Abl together with phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression and downstream activation of AKT and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (P70S6K) was analysed in 26 primary glioma cultures treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib. Response to TKIs was assessed using 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC{sub 50}). Response for each culture was compared with the EGFR/PDGFR immunocytochemical pathway profile using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Erlotinib response was not strongly associated with high expression of the growth factor pathway components. PTEN expression did not correlate with response to any of the three TKIs. Increased EGFR expression was associated with gefitinib response; increased PDGFR-{alpha} expression was associated with imatinib response. The results of this in vitro study suggest gefitinib and imatinib may have therapeutic potential in HGG tumours with a corresponding growth factor receptor expression profile. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-responders had low EGFR expression, high PDGFR-{beta}, and a low proliferation rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PTEN is not indicative of response to a TKI. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Erlotinib response was not associated with expression of the proteins examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imatinib-response correlated with expression of PDGFR-{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gefitinib response correlated with increased expression of EGFR.

  11. Src kinase regulation by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Roskoski, Robert . E-mail: biocrr@lsuhsc.edu

    2005-05-27

    Src and Src-family protein-tyrosine kinases are regulatory proteins that play key roles in cell differentiation, motility, proliferation, and survival. The initially described phosphorylation sites of Src include an activating phosphotyrosine 416 that results from autophosphorylation, and an inhibiting phosphotyrosine 527 that results from phosphorylation by C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) and Csk homologous kinase. Dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine 527 increases Src kinase activity. Candidate phosphotyrosine 527 phosphatases include cytoplasmic PTP1B, Shp1 and Shp2, and transmembrane enzymes include CD45, PTP{alpha}, PTP{epsilon}, and PTP{lambda}. Dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine 416 decreases Src kinase activity. Thus far PTP-BL, the mouse homologue of human PTP-BAS, has been shown to dephosphorylate phosphotyrosine 416 in a regulatory fashion. The platelet-derived growth factor receptor protein-tyrosine kinase mediates the phosphorylation of Src Tyr138; this phosphorylation has no direct effect on Src kinase activity. The platelet-derived growth factor receptor and the ErbB2/HER2 growth factor receptor protein-tyrosine kinases mediate the phosphorylation of Src Tyr213 and activation of Src kinase activity. Src kinase is also a substrate for protein-serine/threonine kinases including protein kinase C (Ser12), protein kinase A (Ser17), and CDK1/cdc2 (Thr34, Thr46, and Ser72). Of the three protein-serine/threonine kinases, only phosphorylation by CDK1/cdc2 has been demonstrated to increase Src kinase activity. Although considerable information on the phosphoprotein phosphatases that catalyze the hydrolysis of Src phosphotyrosine 527 is at hand, the nature of the phosphatases that mediate the hydrolysis of phosphotyrosine 138 and 213, and phosphoserine and phosphothreonine residues has not been determined.

  12. Protein Kinase A: A Master Kinase of Granulosa Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Pawan; Little-Ihrig, Lynda; Chandran, Uma; Law, Nathan C.; Hunzicker-Dunn, Mary; Zeleznik, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Activation of protein kinase A (PKA) by follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) transduces the signal that drives differentiation of ovarian granulosa cells (GCs). An unresolved question is whether PKA is sufficient to initiate the complex program of GC responses to FSH. We compared signaling pathways and gene expression profiles of GCs stimulated with FSH or expressing PKA-CQR, a constitutively active mutant of PKA. Both FSH and PKA-CQR stimulated the phosphorylation of proteins known to be involved in GC differentiation including CREB, ß-catenin, AKT, p42/44 MAPK, GAB2, GSK-3ß, FOXO1, and YAP. In contrast, FSH stimulated the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase but PKA-CQR did not. Microarray analysis revealed that 85% of transcripts that were up-regulated by FSH were increased to a comparable extent by PKA-CQR and of the transcripts that were down-regulated by FSH, 76% were also down-regulated by PKA-CQR. Transcripts regulated similarly by FSH and PKA-CQR are involved in steroidogenesis and differentiation, while transcripts more robustly up-regulated by PKA-CQR are involved in ovulation. Thus, PKA, under the conditions of our experimental approach appears to function as a master upstream kinase that is sufficient to initiate the complex pattern of intracellular signaling pathway and gene expression profiles that accompany GC differentiation. PMID:27324437

  13. Endocytosis of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Lai Kuan

    2013-01-01

    Endocytosis is the major regulator of signaling from receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). The canonical model of RTK endocytosis involves rapid internalization of an RTK activated by ligand binding at the cell surface and subsequent sorting of internalized ligand-RTK complexes to lysosomes for degradation. Activation of the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity of RTKs results in autophosphorylation, which is mechanistically coupled to the recruitment of adaptor proteins and conjugation of ubiquitin to RTKs. Ubiquitination serves to mediate interactions of RTKs with sorting machineries both at the cell surface and on endosomes. The pathways and kinetics of RTK endocytic trafficking, molecular mechanisms underlying sorting processes, and examples of deviations from the standard trafficking itinerary in the RTK family are discussed in this work. PMID:23637288

  14. Oncoprotein protein kinase antibody kit

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2008-12-23

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  15. Mevalonate kinase deficiency: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Favier, Leslie A; Schulert, Grant S

    2016-01-01

    Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) is a recessively inherited autoinflammatory disorder with a spectrum of manifestations, including the well-defined clinical phenotypes of hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome and mevalonic aciduria. Patients with MKD have recurrent attacks of hyperinflammation associated with fever, abdominal pain, arthralgias, and mucocutaneous lesions, and more severely affected patients also have dysmorphisms and central nervous system anomalies. MKD is caused by mutations in the gene encoding mevalonate kinase, with the degree of residual enzyme activity largely determining disease severity. Mevalonate kinase is essential for the biosynthesis of nonsterol isoprenoids, which mediate protein prenylation. Although the precise pathogenesis of MKD remains unclear, increasing evidence suggests that deficiency in protein prenylation leads to innate immune activation and systemic hyperinflammation. Given the emerging understanding of MKD as an autoinflammatory disorder, recent treatment approaches have largely focused on cytokine-directed biologic therapy. Herein, we review the current genetic and pathologic understanding of MKD, its various clinical phenotypes, and the evolving treatment approach for this multifaceted disorder. PMID:27499643

  16. Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 1 Protects against Nickel-induced Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Mongan, Maureen; Tan, Zongqing; Chen, Liang; Peng, Zhimin; Dietsch, Maggie; Su, Bing; Leikauf, George; Xia, Ying

    2008-01-01

    Nickel compounds are environmental and occupational hazards that pose serious health problems and are causative factors of acute lung injury. The c-jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are regulated through a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) 3 kinase-MAP2 kinase cascade and have been implicated in nickel toxicity. In this study, we used genetically modified cells and mice to investigate the involvement of two upstream MAP3Ks, MAP3K1 and 2, in nickel-induced JNK activation and acute lung injury. In mouse embryonic fibroblasts, levels of JNK activation and cytotoxicity induced by nickel were similar in the Map3k2-null and wild-type cells but were much lower in the Map3k1/Map3k2 double-null cells. Conversely, the levels of JNK activation and cytotoxicity were unexpectedly much higher in the Map3k1-null cells. In adult mouse tissue, MAP3K1 was widely distributed but was abundantly expressed in the bronchiole epithelium of the lung. Accordingly, MAP3K1 ablation in mice resulted in severe nickel-induced acute lung injury and reduced survival. Based on these findings, we propose a role for MAP3K1 in reducing JNK activation and protecting the mice from nickel-induced acute lung injury. PMID:18467339

  17. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in Drosophila Development

    PubMed Central

    Sopko, Richelle; Perrimon, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation plays a significant role in a wide range of cellular processes. The Drosophila genome encodes more than 20 receptor tyrosine kinases and extensive studies in the past 20 years have illustrated their diverse roles and complex signaling mechanisms. Although some receptor tyrosine kinases have highly specific functions, others strikingly are used in rather ubiquitous manners. Receptor tyrosine kinases regulate a broad expanse of processes, ranging from cell survival and proliferation to differentiation and patterning. Remarkably, different receptor tyrosine kinases share many of the same effectors and their hierarchical organization is retained in disparate biological contexts. In this comprehensive review, we summarize what is known regarding each receptor tyrosine kinase during Drosophila development. Astonishingly, very little is known for approximately half of all Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinases. PMID:23732470

  18. Protein Kinase D family kinases: roads start to segregate.

    PubMed

    Wille, Christoph; Seufferlein, Thomas; Eiseler, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Highly invasive pancreatic tumors are often recognized in late stages due to a lack of clear symptoms and pose major challenges for treatment and disease management. Broad-band Protein Kinase D (PKD) inhibitors have recently been proposed as additional treatment option for this disease. PKDs are implicated in the control of cancer cell motility, angiogenesis, proliferation and metastasis. In particular, PKD2 expression is elevated in pancreatic cancer, whereas PKD1 expression is comparably lower. In our recent study we report that both kinases control PDAC cell invasive properties in an isoform-specific, but opposing manner. PKD1 selectively mediates anti-migratory/anti-invasive features by preferential regulation of the actin-regulatory Cofilin-phosphatase Slingshot1L (SSH1L). PKD2, on the other hand enhances invasion and angiogenesis of PDAC cells in 3D-ECM cultures and chorioallantois tumor models by stimulating expression and secretion of matrix-metalloproteinase 7 and 9 (MMP7/9). MMP9 also enhances PKD2-mediated tumor angiogenesis releasing extracellular matrix-bound VEGF-A. We thus suggest high PKD2 expression and loss of PKD1 may be beneficial for tumor cells to enhance their matrix-invading abilities. In our recent study we demonstrate for the first time PKD1 and 2 isoform-selective effects on pancreatic cancer cell invasion, in-vitro and in-vivo, defining isoform-specific regulation of PKDs as a major future issue. PMID:24847910

  19. Tec family kinases in inflammation and disease.

    PubMed

    Horwood, Nicole J; Urbaniak, Ania M; Danks, Lynett

    2012-04-01

    Over the last decade, the Tec family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases (Btk, Tec, Bmx, Itk, and Rlk) have been shown to play a key role in inflammation and bone destruction. Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) has been the most widely studied due to the critical role of this kinase in B-cell development and recent evidence showing that blocking Btk signaling is effective in ameliorating lymphoma progression and experimental arthritis. This review will examine the role of TFK in myeloid cell function and the potential of targeting these kinases as a therapeutic intervention in autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:22449071

  20. Protein kinase profiling assays: a technology review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuren; Ma, Haiching

    2015-11-01

    Protein kinases have become one of the most intensively pursued classes of drug targets for many diseases such as cancers and inflammatory diseases. Kinase profiling work seeks to understand general selectivity trends of lead compounds across the kinome, which help with target selection, compound prioritization, and potential implications in toxicity. Under the current drug discovery process, screening of compounds against comprehensive panels of kinases and their mutants has become the standard approach. Many screening assays and technologies which are compatible for high-throughput screening (HTS) against kinases have been extensively pursued and developed.

  1. Sensitive kinase assay linked with phosphoproteomics for identifying direct kinase substrates.

    PubMed

    Xue, Liang; Wang, Wen-Horng; Iliuk, Anton; Hu, Lianghai; Galan, Jacob A; Yu, Shuai; Hans, Michael; Geahlen, Robert L; Tao, W Andy

    2012-04-10

    Our understanding of the molecular control of many disease pathologies requires the identification of direct substrates targeted by specific protein kinases. Here we describe an integrated proteomic strategy, termed kinase assay linked with phosphoproteomics, which combines a sensitive kinase reaction with endogenous kinase-dependent phosphoproteomics to identify direct substrates of protein kinases. The unique in vitro kinase reaction is carried out in a highly efficient manner using a pool of peptides derived directly from cellular kinase substrates and then dephosphorylated as substrate candidates. The resulting newly phosphorylated peptides are then isolated and identified by mass spectrometry. A further comparison of these in vitro phosphorylated peptides with phosphopeptides derived from endogenous proteins isolated from cells in which the kinase is either active or inhibited reveals new candidate protein substrates. The kinase assay linked with phosphoproteomics strategy was applied to identify unique substrates of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), a protein-tyrosine kinase with duel properties of an oncogene and a tumor suppressor in distinctive cell types. We identified 64 and 23 direct substrates of Syk specific to B cells and breast cancer cells, respectively. Both known and unique substrates, including multiple centrosomal substrates for Syk, were identified, supporting a unique mechanism that Syk negatively affects cell division through its centrosomal kinase activity. PMID:22451900

  2. A novel viral thymidylate kinase with dual kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Guevara-Hernandez, Eduardo; Arvizu-Flores, Aldo A; Lugo-Sanchez, Maria E; Velazquez-Contreras, Enrique F; Castillo-Yañez, Francisco J; Brieba, Luis G; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R

    2015-10-01

    Nucleotide phosphorylation is a key step in DNA replication and viral infections, since suitable levels of nucleotide triphosphates pool are required for this process. Deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) is produced either by de novo or salvage pathways, which is further phosphorylated to deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP). Thymidyne monophosphate kinase (TMK) is the enzyme in the junction of both pathways, which phosphorylates dTMP to yield deoxythymidine diphosphate (dTDP) using adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a phosphate donor. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genome contains an open reading frame (ORF454) that encodes a thymidine kinase and TMK domains in a single polypeptide. We overexpressed the TMK ORF454 domain (TMKwssv) and its specific activity was measured with dTMP and dTDP as phosphate acceptors. We found that TMKwssv can phosphorylate dTMP to yield dTDP and also is able to use dTDP as a substrate to produce dTTP. Kinetic parameters K M and k cat were calculated for dTMP (110 μM, 3.6 s(-1)), dTDP (251 μM, 0.9 s(-1)) and ATP (92 μM, 3.2 s(-1)) substrates, and TMKwssv showed a sequential ordered bi-bi reaction mechanism. The binding constants K d for dTMP (1.9 μM) and dTDP (10 μM) to TMKwssv were determined by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry. The affinity of the nucleotidic analog stavudine monophosphate was in the same order of magnitude (K d 3.6 μM) to the canonical substrate dTMP. These results suggest that nucleotide analogues such as stavudine could be a suitable antiviral strategy for the WSSV-associated disease.

  3. Measuring the Activity of Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2: A Kinase Involved in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byoung Dae; Li, Xiaojie; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the LRRK2 (Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2) gene are the most common cause of autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease. LRRK2 has multiple functional domains including a kinase domain. The kinase activity of LRRK2 is implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Developing an assay to understand the mechanisms of LRRK2 kinase activity is important for the development of pharmacologic and therapeutic applications. Here, we describe how to measure in vitro LRRK2 kinase activity and its inhibition. PMID:21960214

  4. Pyridopyrimidine analogues as novel adenosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zheng, G Z; Lee, C; Pratt, J K; Perner, R J; Jiang, M Q; Gomtsyan, A; Matulenko, M A; Mao, Y; Koenig, J R; Kim, K H; Muchmore, S; Yu, H; Kohlhaas, K; Alexander, K M; McGaraughty, S; Chu, K L; Wismer, C T; Mikusa, J; Jarvis, M F; Marsh, K; Kowaluk, E A; Bhagwat, S S; Stewart, A O

    2001-08-20

    A novel series of pyridopyrimidine analogues 9 was identified as potent adenosine kinase inhibitors based on the SAR and computational studies. Substitution of the C7 position of the pyridopyrimidino core with C2' substituted pyridino moiety increased the in vivo potency and enhanced oral bioavailability of these adenosine kinase inhibitors.

  5. Multifunctional Abl kinases in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Aaditya; Wang, Jun; Pendergast, Ann Marie

    2016-01-01

    The Abelson tyrosine kinases were initially identified as drivers of leukemia in mice and humans. The Abl family kinases Abl1 and Abl2 regulate diverse cellular processes during development and normal homeostasis, and their functions are subverted during inflammation, cancer and other pathologies. Abl kinases can be activated by multiple stimuli leading to cytoskeletal reorganization required for cell morphogenesis, motility, adhesion and polarity. Depending on the cellular context, Abl kinases regulate cell survival and proliferation. Emerging data support important roles for Abl kinases in pathologies linked to inflammation. Among these are neurodegenerative diseases and inflammatory pathologies. Unexpectedly, Abl kinases have also been identified as important players in mammalian host cells during microbial pathogenesis. Thus, the use of Abl kinase inhibitors might prove to be effective in the treatment of pathologies beyond leukemia and solid tumors. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and in the accompanying poster, we highlight the emerging roles of Abl kinases in the regulation of cellular processes in normal cells and diverse pathologies ranging from cancer to microbial pathogenesis.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: pyruvate kinase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... National (UK) Information Centre for Metabolic Diseases National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD): Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency Genetic Testing Registry (1 link) Pyruvate kinase deficiency of red cells Scientific articles on PubMed (1 link) PubMed OMIM (1 link) ...

  7. Selective regulation of MAP kinase signaling by an endomembrane phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase.

    PubMed

    Cappell, Steven D; Dohlman, Henrik G

    2011-04-29

    Multiple MAP kinase pathways share components yet initiate distinct biological processes. Signaling fidelity can be maintained by scaffold proteins and restriction of signaling complexes to discreet subcellular locations. For example, the yeast MAP kinase scaffold Ste5 binds to phospholipids produced at the plasma membrane and promotes selective MAP kinase activation. Here we show that Pik1, a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase that localizes primarily to the Golgi, also regulates MAP kinase specificity but does so independently of Ste5. Pik1 is required for full activation of the MAP kinases Fus3 and Hog1 and represses activation of Kss1. Further, we show by genetic epistasis analysis that Pik1 likely regulates Ste11 and Ste50, components shared by all three MAP kinase pathways, through their interaction with the scaffold protein Opy2. These findings reveal a new regulator of signaling specificity functioning at endomembranes rather than at the plasma membrane. PMID:21388955

  8. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors and Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Abruzzese, Elisabetta; Trawinska, Malgorzata Monika; Perrotti, Alessio Pio; De Fabritiis, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The management of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) during pregnancy has become recently a matter of continuous debate. The introduction of the Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs) in clinical practice has dramatically changed the prognosis of CML patients; in fact, patients diagnosed in chronic phase can reasonably expect many years of excellent disease control and good quality of life, as well as a normal life expectancy, including the necessity to address issues relating to fertility and pregnancy. Physicians are frequently being asked for advice regarding the need for, and/or the appropriateness of, stopping treatment in order to conceive. In this report, we will review the data published in terms of fertility, conception, pregnancy, pregnancy outcome and illness control for TKI treated CML patients, as well as how to manage a planned and/or unplanned pregnancy. PMID:24804001

  9. Optochemical Activation of Kinase Function in Live Cells

    PubMed Central

    Karginov, Andrei V.; Hahn, Klaus M.; Deiters, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Summary Manipulation of protein kinase activity is widely used to dissect signaling pathways controlling physiological and pathological processes. Common methods often cannot provide the desired spatial and temporal resolution in control of kinase activity. Regulation of kinase activity by photocaged kinase inhibitors has been successfully used to achieve tight temporal and local control, but inhibitors are limited to inactivation of kinases, and often do not provide the desired specificity. Here we report detailed methods for light-mediated activation of kinases in living cells using engineered rapamycin-regulated kinases (RapR-kinases) in conjunction with a photocaged analog of rapamycin. PMID:24718793

  10. Insulin-induced Drosophila S6 kinase activation requires phosphoinositide 3-kinase and protein kinase B.

    PubMed Central

    Lizcano, Jose M; Alrubaie, Saif; Kieloch, Agnieszka; Deak, Maria; Leevers, Sally J; Alessi, Dario R

    2003-01-01

    An important mechanism by which insulin regulates cell growth and protein synthesis is through activation of the p70 ribosomal S6 protein kinase (S6K). In mammalian cells, insulin-induced PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) activation, generates the lipid second messenger PtdIns(3,4,5) P (3), which is thought to play a key role in triggering the activation of S6K. Although the major components of the insulin-signalling pathway are conserved in Drosophila, recent studies suggested that S6K activation does not require PI3K in this system. To investigate further the role of dPI3K (Drosophila PI3K) in dS6K (Drosophila S6K) activation, we examined the effect of two structurally distinct PI3K inhibitors on insulin-induced dS6K activation in Kc167 and S2 Drosophila cell lines. We found that both inhibitors prevented insulin-stimulated phosphorylation and activation of dS6K. To investigate further the role of the dPI3K pathway in regulating dS6K activation, we also used dsRNAi (double-stranded RNA-mediated interference) to decrease expression of dPI3K and the PtdIns(3,4,5) P (3) phosphatase dPTEN ( Drosophila phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) in Kc167 and S2 cells. Knock-down of dPI3K prevented dS6K activation, whereas knock-down of dPTEN, which would be expected to increase PtdIns(3,4,5) P (3) levels, stimulated dS6K activity. Moreover, when the expression of the dPI3K target, dPKB (Drosophila protein kinase B), was decreased to undetectable levels, we found that insulin could no longer trigger dS6K activation. This observation provides the first direct demonstration that dPKB is required for insulin-stimulated dS6K activation. We also present evidence that the amino-acid-induced activation of dS6K in the absence of insulin, thought to be mediated by dTOR (Drosophila target of rapamycin), which is unaffected by the inhibition of dPI3K by wortmannin. The results of the present study support the view that, in Drosophila cells, dPI3K and dPKB, as well d

  11. Low prevalence of K-RAS, EGF-R and BRAF mutations in sinonasal adenocarcinomas. Implications for anti-EGFR treatments.

    PubMed

    Franchi, Alessandro; Innocenti, Duccio Rossi Degli; Palomba, Annarita; Miligi, Lucia; Paiar, Fabiola; Franzese, Ciro; Santucci, Marco

    2014-07-01

    We have previously shown that a subset of sinonasal intestinal-type adenocarcinomas (ITAC) shows activation of the epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGFR) pathway. In this study we examine the status of the EGFR, KRAS and BRAF genes in a series of sinonasal intestinal (ITAC) and non-intestinal type adenocarcinomas (non-ITAC). Eighteen ITACs and 12 non-ITACs were studied immunohistochemically for EGFR expression. Point mutations were analyzed for EGFR exons 19 and 21, KRAS exon 2 and BRAF exon 15 by direct sequencing. Non-ITACs showed significantly higher expression of EGFR (p = 0.015). Mutation analysis revealed one ITAC with EGFR and one ITAC with KRAS mutation, while two non-ITACs presented mutation of BRAF. We conclude that a subset of sinonasal adenocarcinomas shows overexpression of EGFR, while activating mutations of the signaling cascade downstream of EGFR are rare, suggesting that these tumors could be good candidates for anti-EGFR therapies.

  12. Epidermal growth factor receptor distribution in burn wounds. Implications for growth factor-mediated repair.

    PubMed Central

    Wenczak, B A; Lynch, J B; Nanney, L B

    1992-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) along with several related peptide growth factors has been shown both in vivo and in vitro to accelerate events associated with epidermal wound repair. EGF and transforming growth factor alpha act by binding to a common EGF receptor tyrosine kinase thereby initiating a series of events which ultimately regulate cell proliferation. This study examined the immunohistochemical localization of EGF receptor (EGF-R) in burn wound margins, adjacent proliferating epithelium, and closely associated sweat ducts, sebaceous glands, and hair follicles. Tissue specimens removed during surgical debridement were obtained from full and partial thickness burn wounds in 32 patients with total body surface area burns ranging from 2 to 88%. In the early postburn period (days 2-4), prominent staining for EGF-R was found in undifferentiated, marginal keratinocytes, adjacent proliferating, hypertrophic epithelium, and both marginal and nonmarginal hair follicles, sweat ducts, and sebaceous glands. During the late postburn period (days 5-16), EGF-R was depleted along leading epithelial margins; however, immunoreactive EGF-R remained intensely positive in the hypertrophic epithelium and all skin appendages. Increased detection of immunoreactive EGF-R and the presence of [125I]EGF binding in the hypertrophic epithelium correlated positively with proliferating cell nuclear antigen distributions. Thus, the presence of EGF-R in the appropriate keratinocyte populations suggests a functional role for this receptor during wound repair. Dynamic modulation in EGF receptor distribution during the temporal sequence of repair provides further evidence that an EGF/transforming growth factor alpha/EGF-R-mediated pathway is activated during human wound repair. Images PMID:1361495

  13. Soybean nodule autoregulation receptor kinase phosphorylates two kinase-associated protein phosphatases in vitro.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, Akira; Hirani, Tripty A; Oakes, Marie; Kereszt, Attila; Kobe, Bostjan; Djordjevic, Michael A; Gresshoff, Peter M

    2008-09-12

    The NARK (nodule autoregulation receptor kinase) gene, a negative regulator of cell proliferation in nodule primordia in several legumes, encodes a receptor kinase that consists of an extracellular leucine-rich repeat and an intracellular serine/threonine protein kinase domain. The putative catalytic domain of NARK was expressed and purified as a maltose-binding or a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The recombinant NARK proteins showed autophosphorylation activity in vitro. Several regions of the NARK kinase domain were shown by mass spectrometry to possess phosphoresidues. The kinase-inactive protein K724E failed to autophosphorylate, as did three other proteins corresponding to phenotypically detected mutants defective in whole plant autoregulation of nodulation. A wild-type NARK fusion protein transphosphorylated a kinase-inactive mutant NARK fusion protein, suggesting that it is capable of intermolecular autophosphorylation in vitro. In addition, Ser-861 and Thr-963 in the NARK kinase catalytic domain were identified as phosphorylation sites through site-directed mutagenesis. The genes coding for the kinase-associated protein phosphatases KAPP1 and KAPP2, two putative interacting components of NARK, were isolated. NARK kinase domain phosphorylated recombinant KAPP proteins in vitro. Autophosphorylated NARK kinase domain was, in turn, dephosphorylated by both KAPP1 and KAPP2. Our results suggest a model for signal transduction involving NARK in the control of nodule development.

  14. Regulation of GATA-binding protein 2 levels via ubiquitin-dependent degradation by Fbw7: involvement of cyclin B-cyclin-dependent kinase 1-mediated phosphorylation of THR176 in GATA-binding protein 2.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Tomomi; Kitagawa, Kyoko; Ohhata, Tatsuya; Sakai, Satoshi; Uchida, Chiharu; Shibata, Kiyoshi; Minegishi, Naoko; Yumimoto, Kanae; Nakayama, Keiichi I; Masumoto, Kazuma; Katou, Fuminori; Niida, Hiroyuki; Kitagawa, Masatoshi

    2015-04-17

    A GATA family transcription factor, GATA-binding protein 2 (GATA2), participates in cell growth and differentiation of various cells, such as hematopoietic stem cells. Although its expression level is controlled by transcriptional induction and proteolytic degradation, the responsible E3 ligase has not been identified. Here, we demonstrate that F-box/WD repeat-containing protein 7 (Fbw7/Fbxw7), a component of Skp1, Cullin 1, F-box-containing complex (SCF)-type E3 ligase, is an E3 ligase for GATA2. GATA2 contains a cell division control protein 4 (Cdc4) phosphodegron (CPD), a consensus motif for ubiquitylation by Fbw7, which includes Thr(176). Ectopic expression of Fbw7 destabilized GATA2 and promoted its proteasomal degradation. Substitution of threonine 176 to alanine in GATA2 inhibited binding with Fbw7, and the ubiquitylation and degradation of GATA2 by Fbw7 was suppressed. The CPD kinase, which mediates the phosphorylation of Thr(176), was cyclin B-cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1). Moreover, depletion of endogenous Fbw7 stabilized endogenous GATA2 in K562 cells. Conditional Fbw7 depletion in mice increased GATA2 levels in hematopoietic stem cells and myeloid progenitors at the early stage. Increased GATA2 levels in Fbw7-conditional knock-out mice were correlated with a decrease in a c-Kit high expressing population of myeloid progenitor cells. Our results suggest that Fbw7 is a bona fide E3 ubiquitin ligase for GATA2 in vivo.

  15. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia caused by pyruvate kinase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hammer, S G; Lewan, R B

    1988-01-01

    We report an infant with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia due to pyruvate kinase deficiency. The initial approach involved rapid evaluation, phototherapy, and close monitoring of serum bilirubin levels. Follow-up included maintenance on folic acid, monitoring blood counts, and educating the parents about the course of pyruvate kinase deficiency, especially aplastic crisis. We suggest that the informed family practitioner can manage neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and pyruvate kinase deficiency with referrals at critical times to pediatric or surgical specialists. The practitioner must be able to recognize quickly the need for exchange transfusion for severe jaundice and for blood transfusions or splenectomy when significant anemia or aplastic crisis occurs.

  16. Functional analysis of anomeric sugar kinases.

    PubMed

    Conway, Louis P; Voglmeir, Josef

    2016-09-01

    Anomeric sugar kinases perform fundamental roles in the metabolism of carbohydrates. Under- or overexpression of these enzymes, or mutations causing functional impairments can give rise to diseases such as galactosaemia and so the study of this class of kinase is of critical importance. In addition, anomeric sugar kinases which are naturally promiscuous, or have been artificially made so, may find application in the synthesis of libraries of drug candidates (for example, antibiotics), and natural or unnatural oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates. In this review, we provide an overview of the biological functions of these enzymes, the tools which have been developed to investigate them, and the current frontiers in their study. PMID:27351442

  17. Mammary tumor growth and metastasis are reduced in c-Kit mutant Sash mice.

    PubMed

    He, Licai; Zhu, Zhenfeng; Chen, Shang; Wang, Yongping; Gu, Haihua

    2016-06-01

    Besides its well-known function in allergic response, mast cell, one of the key immune cells present in tumor microenvironment, plays important roles in cancer progression. However, the functional role of mast cells in breast cancer development and metastasis is not well understood. To test the involvement of mast cells in breast cancer, we examined the effects of loss of mast cells on mammary tumor development by crossing the well-known mast cell deficient mouse strain sash (Kit(W-sh/W-sh) ) with the mammary tumor transgenic mouse strain MMTV-Polyoma Middle T antigen (PyMT). Although mammary tumor onset was not affected in the absence of mast cells, mammary growth and metastasis were reduced in PyMT/Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice compared with PyMT/wild-type mice (WT). Histological and immunofluorescent analyses showed that tumors from PyMT/Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice showed largely differentiated morphology with reduced angiogenesis compared with MMTV-PyMT/WT mice. Our results suggest that mast cells may promote breast cancer growth and metastasis. Agents that can block mast cells growth are potential new therapies to treat metastatic breast cancer. PMID:26992445

  18. [Localization and functions of c-kit positive cells in the urinary tract].

    PubMed

    Gil, Krzysztof; Urbanowicz, Wiesław; Thor, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) play an important role in the regulation of gut motility as they are responsible for the slow wave activity of smooth muscle. There is strong evidence that several subpopulations of ICC are present in the wall of the urinary tract. This review presents the currently available literature on the localization and proposed functions of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in the urinary tract.

  19. Defective bone repair in mast cell deficient mice with c-Kit loss of function.

    PubMed

    Behrends, D A; Cheng, L; Sullivan, M B; Wang, M H; Roby, G B; Zayed, N; Gao, C; Henderson, J E; Martineau, P A

    2014-01-01

    KitW-sh mice carry an inactivating mutation in the gene encoding the receptor for stem cell factor, which is expressed at high levels on the surface of haematopoietic precursor cells. The mutation results in mast cell deficiency, a variety of defects in innate immunity and poorly defined abnormalities in bone. The present study was designed to characterise healing of a cortical window defect in skeletally mature KitW-sh mice using high-resolution micro computed tomographic imaging and histological analyses. The cortical bone defect healed completely in all wild type mice but failed to heal in about half of the KitW-sh mice by 12 weeks post-operative. Defective healing was associated with premature and excessive expression of TRAP positive cells embedded in fibrous marrow but with little change in ALP activity. Immuno-histochemical analyses revealed reduced CD34 positive vascular endothelial cells and F4/80 positive macrophages at 1 and 2 weeks post-operative. Impaired bone healing in the KitW-sh mice was therefore attributed to altered catabolic activity, impaired re-vascularisation and compromised replacement of woven with compact bone. PMID:25284141

  20. Rac-1 and Raf-1 kinases, components of distinct signaling pathways, activate myotonic dystrophy protein kinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, M.; Wang, W.; Walch, E. T.; Dunne, P. W.; Epstein, H. F.

    2000-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK) is a serine-threonine protein kinase encoded by the myotonic dystrophy (DM) locus on human chromosome 19q13.3. It is a close relative of other kinases that interact with members of the Rho family of small GTPases. We show here that the actin cytoskeleton-linked GTPase Rac-1 binds to DMPK, and coexpression of Rac-1 and DMPK activates its transphosphorylation activity in a GTP-sensitive manner. DMPK can also bind Raf-1 kinase, the Ras-activated molecule of the MAP kinase pathway. Purified Raf-1 kinase phosphorylates and activates DMPK. The interaction of DMPK with these distinct signals suggests that it may play a role as a nexus for cross-talk between their respective pathways and may partially explain the remarkable pleiotropy of DM.

  1. The Crystal Structure of Cancer Osaka Thyroid Kinase Reveals an Unexpected Kinase Domain Fold*

    PubMed Central

    Gutmann, Sascha; Hinniger, Alexandra; Fendrich, Gabriele; Drückes, Peter; Antz, Sylvie; Mattes, Henri; Möbitz, Henrik; Ofner, Silvio; Schmiedeberg, Niko; Stojanovic, Aleksandar; Rieffel, Sebastien; Strauss, André; Troxler, Thomas; Glatthar, Ralf; Sparrer, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are important cellular effectors in innate immune responses and play a major role in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Cancer Osaka thyroid (COT) kinase, also known as mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 8 (MAP3K8) and tumor progression locus 2 (Tpl-2), is a serine-threonine (ST) kinase and is a key regulator in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages. Due to its pivotal role in immune biology, COT kinase has been identified as an attractive target for pharmaceutical research that is directed at the discovery of orally available, selective, and potent inhibitors for the treatment of autoimmune disorders and cancer. The production of monomeric, recombinant COT kinase has proven to be very difficult, and issues with solubility and stability of the enzyme have hampered the discovery and optimization of potent and selective inhibitors. We developed a protocol for the production of recombinant human COT kinase that yields pure and highly active enzyme in sufficient yields for biochemical and structural studies. The quality of the enzyme allowed us to establish a robust in vitro phosphorylation assay for the efficient biochemical characterization of COT kinase inhibitors and to determine the x-ray co-crystal structures of the COT kinase domain in complex with two ATP-binding site inhibitors. The structures presented in this study reveal two distinct ligand binding modes and a unique kinase domain architecture that has not been observed previously. The structurally versatile active site significantly impacts the design of potent, low molecular weight COT kinase inhibitors. PMID:25918157

  2. The Crystal Structure of Cancer Osaka Thyroid Kinase Reveals an Unexpected Kinase Domain Fold.

    PubMed

    Gutmann, Sascha; Hinniger, Alexandra; Fendrich, Gabriele; Drückes, Peter; Antz, Sylvie; Mattes, Henri; Möbitz, Henrik; Ofner, Silvio; Schmiedeberg, Niko; Stojanovic, Aleksandar; Rieffel, Sebastien; Strauss, André; Troxler, Thomas; Glatthar, Ralf; Sparrer, Helmut

    2015-06-12

    Macrophages are important cellular effectors in innate immune responses and play a major role in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Cancer Osaka thyroid (COT) kinase, also known as mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 8 (MAP3K8) and tumor progression locus 2 (Tpl-2), is a serine-threonine (ST) kinase and is a key regulator in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages. Due to its pivotal role in immune biology, COT kinase has been identified as an attractive target for pharmaceutical research that is directed at the discovery of orally available, selective, and potent inhibitors for the treatment of autoimmune disorders and cancer. The production of monomeric, recombinant COT kinase has proven to be very difficult, and issues with solubility and stability of the enzyme have hampered the discovery and optimization of potent and selective inhibitors. We developed a protocol for the production of recombinant human COT kinase that yields pure and highly active enzyme in sufficient yields for biochemical and structural studies. The quality of the enzyme allowed us to establish a robust in vitro phosphorylation assay for the efficient biochemical characterization of COT kinase inhibitors and to determine the x-ray co-crystal structures of the COT kinase domain in complex with two ATP-binding site inhibitors. The structures presented in this study reveal two distinct ligand binding modes and a unique kinase domain architecture that has not been observed previously. The structurally versatile active site significantly impacts the design of potent, low molecular weight COT kinase inhibitors.

  3. Crystal structures of two aminoglycoside kinases bound with a eukaryotic protein kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Fong, Desiree H; Xiong, Bing; Hwang, Jiyoung; Berghuis, Albert M

    2011-05-09

    Antibiotic resistance is recognized as a growing healthcare problem. To address this issue, one strategy is to thwart the causal mechanism using an adjuvant in partner with the antibiotic. Aminoglycosides are a class of clinically important antibiotics used for the treatment of serious infections. Their usefulness has been compromised predominantly due to drug inactivation by aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes, such as aminoglycoside phosphotransferases or kinases. These kinases are structurally homologous to eukaryotic Ser/Thr and Tyr protein kinases and it has been shown that some can be inhibited by select protein kinase inhibitors. The aminoglycoside kinase, APH(3')-IIIa, can be inhibited by CKI-7, an ATP-competitive inhibitor for the casein kinase 1. We have determined that CKI-7 is also a moderate inhibitor for the atypical APH(9)-Ia. Here we present the crystal structures of CKI-7-bound APH(3')-IIIa and APH(9)-Ia, the first structures of a eukaryotic protein kinase inhibitor in complex with bacterial kinases. CKI-7 binds to the nucleotide-binding pocket of the enzymes and its binding alters the conformation of the nucleotide-binding loop, the segment homologous to the glycine-rich loop in eukaryotic protein kinases. Comparison of these structures with the CKI-7-bound casein kinase 1 reveals features in the binding pockets that are distinct in the bacterial kinases and could be exploited for the design of a bacterial kinase specific inhibitor. Our results provide evidence that an inhibitor for a subset of APHs can be developed in order to curtail resistance to aminoglycosides.

  4. Nonnucleoside inhibitors of adenosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Gomtsyan, Arthur; Lee, Chih-Hung

    2004-01-01

    Adenosine (ADO) is an endogenous inhibitory neuromodulator that increases nociceptive thresholds in response to tissue trauma and inflammation. Adenosine kinase (AK) is a key intracellular enzyme regulating intra- and extracellular concentrations of ADO. AK inhibition selectively amplifies extracellular ADO levels at cell and tissue sites where accelerated release of ADO occurs. AK inhibitors have been shown to provide effective antinociceptive, antiinflammatory and anticonvulsant activity in animal models, thus suggesting their potential therapeutic utility for pain, inflammation, epilepsy and possibly other central and peripheral nervous system diseases associated with cellular trauma and inflammation. This beneficial outcome may potentially lack nonspecific effects associated with the systemic administration of ADO receptor agonists. Until recently all of the reported AK inhibitors contained adenosine-like structural motif. The present review will discuss design, synthesis and analgesic and antiinflammatory properties of the novel nonnucleoside AK inhibitors that do not have close structural resemblance with the natural substrate ADO. Two classes of the nonnucleoside AK inhibitors are built on pyridopyrimidine and alkynylpyrimidine cores.

  5. Ocular Toxicity of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Mary Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To review common tyrosine kinase inhibitors, as well as their ocular side effects and management. Data Sources A comprehensive literature search was conducted using cINahl®, Pubmed, and cochrane databases for articles published since 2004 with the following search terms: ocular toxicities, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, ophthalmology, adverse events, eye, and vision. Data Synthesis Tyrosine kinase inhibitors can cause significant eye toxicity. Conclusions Given the prevalence of new tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapies and the complexity of possible pathogenesis of ocular pathology, oncology nurses can appreciate the occurrence of ocular toxicities and the role of nursing in the management of these problems. Implications for Nursing Knowledge of the risk factors and etiology of ocular toxicity of targeted cancer therapies can guide nursing assessment, enhance patient education, and improve care management. Including a review of eye symptoms and vision issues in nursing assessment can enhance early detection and treatment of ocular toxicity. PMID:26906134

  6. Characterization of protein kinases from Blepharisma intermedium.

    PubMed

    Beyer, J

    1975-12-01

    Three protein kinases (EC 2.7.1.37) were detected in Blepharisma and partially purified. The enzymes were most active with histone as substrate protein. The stability of the bond between phosphate and protein acceptor showed the characteristics of seryl- or threonylphosphate. Protein kinase I was solubilized by ultrasonication or freezing and thawing, while the enzymes II and III were readily solubilized by mild homogenization. Protein II and III were noticeably activated by cAMP and cGMP, while protein kinase I was inhibited by cAMP. Associated with protein kinase II and III activity was the ability to bind labeled cAMP. The following molecular weights were determined: 90000 for enzyme I, 280000 for enzyme II, and 95000 for enzyme III. Various apparent Michaelis constants were estimated.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: mevalonate kinase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... cytoskeleton), gene activity (expression), and protein production and modification. Most MVK gene mutations that cause mevalonate kinase ... What are the different ways in which a genetic condition can be inherited? More about Inheriting Genetic ...

  8. A Molecular Brake in the Kinase Hinge Region Regulates the Activity of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Chen,H.; Ma, J.; Li, W.; Eliseenkova, A.; Xu, C.; Neubert, T.; Miller, W.; Mohammadi, M.

    2007-01-01

    Activating mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) cause cancer and skeletal disorders. Comparison of the crystal structures of unphosphorylated and phosphorylated wild-type FGFR2 kinase domains with those of seven unphosphorylated pathogenic mutants reveals an autoinhibitory 'molecular brake' mediated by a triad of residues in the kinase hinge region of all FGFRs. Structural analysis shows that many other RTKs, including PDGFRs, VEGFRs, KIT, CSF1R, FLT3, TEK, and TIE, are also subject to regulation by this brake. Pathogenic mutations activate FGFRs and other RTKs by disengaging the brake either directly or indirectly.

  9. Identifying Kinase Substrates via a Heavy ATP Kinase Assay and Quantitative Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Müller, André C.; Giambruno, Roberto; Weißer, Juliane; Májek, Peter; Hofer, Alexandre; Bigenzahn, Johannes W.; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Jessen, Henning J.; Bennett, Keiryn L.

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based in vitro kinase screens play an essential role in the discovery of kinase substrates, however, many suffer from biological and technical noise or necessitate genetically-altered enzyme-cofactor systems. We describe a method that combines stable γ-[18O2]-ATP with classical in vitro kinase assays within a contemporary quantitative proteomic workflow. Our approach improved detection of known substrates of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase ABL1; and identified potential, new in vitro substrates. PMID:27346722

  10. Kinase inhibitor profiling reveals unexpected opportunities to inhibit disease-associated mutant kinases

    PubMed Central

    Duong-Ly, Krisna C.; Devarajan, Karthik; Liang, Shuguang; Horiuchi, Kurumi Y.; Wang, Yuren; Ma, Haiching; Peterson, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Small-molecule kinase inhibitors have typically been designed to inhibit wild-type kinases rather than the mutant forms that frequently arise in diseases such as cancer. Mutations can have serious clinical implications by increasing kinase catalytic activity or conferring therapeutic resistance. To identify opportunities to repurpose inhibitors against disease-associated mutant kinases, we conducted a large-scale functional screen of 183 known kinase inhibitors against 76 recombinant, mutant kinases. The results revealed lead compounds with activity against clinically important mutant kinases including ALK, LRRK2, RET, and EGFR as well as unexpected opportunities for repurposing FDA-approved kinase inhibitors as leads for additional indications. Furthermore, using T674I PDGFRα as an example, we show how single-dose screening data can provide predictive structure-activity data to guide subsequent inhibitor optimization. This study provides a resource for the development of inhibitors against numerous disease-associated mutant kinases and illustrates the potential of unbiased profiling as an approach to compound-centric inhibitor development. PMID:26776524

  11. Twitchin kinase interacts with MAPKAP kinase 2 in Caenorhabditis elegans striated muscle

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, Yohei; Qadota, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Miho; Choe, Heejoo (Helen); Benian, Guy M.

    2015-01-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, twitchin is a giant polypeptide located in muscle A-bands. The protein kinase of twitchin is autoinhibited by 45 residues upstream (NL) and 60 residues downstream (CRD) of the kinase catalytic core. Molecular dynamics simulation on a twitchin fragment revealed that the NL is released by pulling force. However, it is unclear how the CRD is removed. To identify proteins that may remove the CRD, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using twitchin kinase as bait. One interactor is MAK-1, C. elegans orthologue of MAPKAP kinase 2. MAPKAP kinase 2 is phosphorylated and activated by p38 MAP kinase. We demonstrate that the CRD of twitchin is important for binding to MAK-1. mak-1 is expressed in nematode body wall muscle, and antibodies to MAK-1 localize between and around Z-disk analogues and to the edge of A-bands. Whereas unc-22 mutants are completely resistant, mak-1 mutants are partially resistant to nicotine. MAK-1 can phosphorylate twitchin NL-Kin-CRD in vitro. Genetic data suggest the involvement of two other mak-1 paralogues and two orthologues of p38 MAP kinase. These results suggest that MAK-1 is an activator of twitchin kinase and that the p38 MAP kinase pathway may be involved in the regulation of twitchin. PMID:25851606

  12. Kinase-interacting substrate screening is a novel method to identify kinase substrates

    PubMed Central

    Amano, Mutsuki; Hamaguchi, Tomonari; Shohag, Md. Hasanuzzaman; Kozawa, Kei; Kato, Katsuhiro; Zhang, Xinjian; Yura, Yoshimitsu; Matsuura, Yoshiharu; Kataoka, Chikako; Nishioka, Tomoki

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases play pivotal roles in numerous cellular functions; however, the specific substrates of each protein kinase have not been fully elucidated. We have developed a novel method called kinase-interacting substrate screening (KISS). Using this method, 356 phosphorylation sites of 140 proteins were identified as candidate substrates for Rho-associated kinase (Rho-kinase/ROCK2), including known substrates. The KISS method was also applied to additional kinases, including PKA, MAPK1, CDK5, CaMK1, PAK7, PKN, LYN, and FYN, and a lot of candidate substrates and their phosphorylation sites were determined, most of which have not been reported previously. Among the candidate substrates for Rho-kinase, several functional clusters were identified, including the polarity-associated proteins, such as Scrib. We found that Scrib plays a crucial role in the regulation of subcellular contractility by assembling into a ternary complex with Rho-kinase and Shroom2 in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. We propose that the KISS method is a comprehensive and useful substrate screen for various kinases. PMID:26101221

  13. Redundant kinase activation and resistance of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Min; Fu, Li-Wu

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have shown dramatic effects against that tumors harboring EGFR activating mutations in the EGFR intracytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domain and resulted in cell apoptosis. Unfortunately, a number of patients ultimately developed resistance by multiple mechanisms. Thus, elucidation of the mechanism of resistance to EGFR-TKIs can provide strategies for blocking or reversing the situation. Recent studies suggested that redundant kinase activation plays pivotal roles in escaping from the effects of EGFR-TKIs. Herein, we aimed to characterize several molecular events involved in the resistance to EGFR-TKIs mediated by redundant kinase activation. PMID:25520855

  14. Non-ATP competitive protein kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Garuti, L; Roberti, M; Bottegoni, G

    2010-01-01

    Protein kinases represent an attractive target in oncology drug discovery. Most of kinase inhibitors are ATP-competitive and are called type I inhibitors. The ATP-binding pocket is highly conserved among members of the kinase family and it is difficult to find selective agents. Moreover, the ATP-competitive inhibitors must compete with high intracellular ATP levels leading to a discrepancy between IC50s measured by biochemical versus cellular assays. The non-ATP competitive inhibitors, called type II and type III inhibitors, offer the possibility to overcome these problems. These inhibitors act by inducing a conformational shift in the target enzyme such that the kinase is no longer able to function. In the DFG-out form, the phenylalanine side chain moves to a new position. This movement creates a hydrophobic pocket available for occupation by the inhibitor. Some common features are present in these inhibitors. They contain a heterocyclic system that forms one or two hydrogen bonds with the kinase hinge residue. They also contain a hydrophobic moiety that occupies the pocket formed by the shift of phenylalanine from the DFG motif. Moreover, all the inhibitors bear a hydrogen bond donor-acceptor pair, usually urea or amide, that links the hinge-binding portion to the hydrophobic moiety and interacts with the allosteric site. Examples of non ATP-competitive inhibitors are available for various kinases. In this review small molecules capable of inducing the DFG-out conformation are reported, especially focusing on structural feature, SAR and biological properties.

  15. Methods to Purify and Assay Secretory Pathway Kinases.

    PubMed

    Tagliabracci, Vincent S; Wen, Jianzhong; Xiao, Junyu

    2016-01-01

    Members of the four-jointed and VLK families of secretory pathway kinases appear to be responsible for the phosphorylation of secreted proteins and proteoglycans. These enzymes have been implicated in many biological processes and mutations in several of these kinases cause human diseases. Here, we describe methods to purify and assay two members of the four-jointed family of secretory kinases: the Fam20C protein kinase and the Fam20B proteoglycan kinase. PMID:27632012

  16. Lenvatinib and other tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of radioiodine refractory, advanced, and progressive thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lorusso, Loredana; Pieruzzi, Letizia; Biagini, Agnese; Sabini, Elena; Valerio, Laura; Giani, Carlotta; Passannanti, Paolo; Pontillo-Contillo, Benedetta; Battaglia, Valentina; Mazzeo, Salvatore; Molinaro, Eleonora; Elisei, Rossella

    2016-01-01

    Lenvatinib is a small oral molecule able to inhibit three of the extracellular and intracellular molecules involved in the modulation of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis: vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1–3, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1–4, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha. Since it is also able to inhibit the REarranged during Transfection oncogene and the protooncogene c-KIT, this drug can also be used to control tumor cell proliferation. The maximum tolerated dose, as demonstrated in Phase I studies, is 25 mg daily. The drug is rapidly absorbed with maximum concentrations achieved within 3 and 5 hours after administration in fasting and nonfasting treated patients, respectively. The most common adverse events, reported in Phase I study and confirmed in the subsequent Phase II and III studies, are hypertension, proteinuria, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, diarrhea, and stomatitis. In Phase I studies, efficacy of lenvatinib in solid tumors was demonstrated, and these encouraging results have led to the development of a Phase II study using lenvatinib in advance radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (DTCs) patients. Since an overall response rate of 50% was reported, this study also confirmed the efficacy of lenvatinib in DTCs patients with an acceptable toxicity profile. Recently, a Phase III study in patients with DTCs (SELECT study) demonstrated the lenvatinib efficacy in prolonging progression-free survival with respect to the placebo (18.3 vs 3.6 months; P<0.001). Although there was no statistically significant difference in the overall survival of the entire group, this result was observed when the analysis was restricted to both the follicular histotype and the group of senior patients (>65 years). The study confirmed that the most common side effects of this drug are hypertension, diarrhea, decreased appetite, weight loss, nausea, and proteinuria. In this review, we report the results of

  17. Ubiquitin-Mediated Degradation of Aurora Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Lindon, Catherine; Grant, Rhys; Min, Mingwei

    2016-01-01

    The Aurora kinases are essential regulators of mitosis in eukaryotes. In somatic cell divisions of higher eukaryotes, the paralogs Aurora kinase A (AurA) and Aurora kinase B (AurB) play non-overlapping roles that depend on their distinct spatiotemporal activities. These mitotic roles of Aurora kinases depend on their interactions with different partners that direct them to different mitotic destinations and different substrates: AurB is a component of the chromosome passenger complex that orchestrates the tasks of chromosome segregation and cytokinesis, while AurA has many known binding partners and mitotic roles, including a well-characterized interaction with TPX2 that mediates its role in mitotic spindle assembly. Beyond the spatial control conferred by different binding partners, Aurora kinases are subject to temporal control of their activation and inactivation. Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis is a critical route to irreversible inactivation of these kinases, which must occur for ordered transition from mitosis back to interphase. Both AurA and AurB undergo targeted proteolysis after anaphase onset as substrates of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) ubiquitin ligase, even while they continue to regulate steps during mitotic exit. Temporal control of Aurora kinase destruction ensures that AurB remains active at the midbody during cytokinesis long after AurA activity has been largely eliminated from the cell. Differential destruction of Aurora kinases is achieved despite the fact that they are targeted at the same time and by the same ubiquitin ligase, making these substrates an interesting case study for investigating molecular determinants of ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis in higher eukaryotes. The prevalence of Aurora overexpression in cancers and their potential as therapeutic targets add importance to the task of understanding the molecular determinants of Aurora kinase stability. Here, we review what is known about ubiquitin-mediated targeting

  18. Mediator kinase module and human tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Alison D.; Oldenbroek, Marieke; Boyer, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    Mediator is a conserved multi-subunit signal processor through which regulatory informatiosn conveyed by gene-specific transcription factors is transduced to RNA Polymerase II (Pol II). In humans, MED13, MED12, CDK8 and Cyclin C (CycC) comprise a four-subunit “kinase” module that exists in variable association with a 26-subunit Mediator core. Genetic and biochemical studies have established the Mediator kinase module as a major ingress of developmental and oncogenic signaling through Mediator, and much of its function in signal-dependent gene regulation derives from its resident CDK8 kinase activity. For example, CDK8-targeted substrate phosphorylation impacts transcription factor half-life, Pol II activity and chromatin chemistry and functional status. Recent structural and biochemical studies have revealed a precise network of physical and functional subunit interactions required for proper kinase module activity. Accordingly, pathologic change in this activity through altered expression or mutation of constituent kinase module subunits can have profound consequences for altered signaling and tumor formation. Herein, we review the structural organization, biological function and oncogenic potential of the Mediator kinase module. We focus principally on tumor-associated alterations in kinase module subunits for which mechanistic relationships as opposed to strictly correlative associations are established. These considerations point to an emerging picture of the Mediator kinase module as an oncogenic unit, one in which pathogenic activation/deactivation through component change drives tumor formation through perturbation of signal-dependent gene regulation. It follows that therapeutic strategies to combat CDK8-driven tumors will involve targeted modulation of CDK8 activity or pharmacologic manipulation of dysregulated CDK8-dependent signaling pathways. PMID:26182352

  19. Non-degradative Ubiquitination of Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Ball, K. Aurelia; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Lewinski, Mary K.; Guatelli, John; Verschueren, Erik; Krogan, Nevan J.; Jacobson, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence supports other regulatory roles for protein ubiquitination in addition to serving as a tag for proteasomal degradation. In contrast to other common post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, little is known about how non-degradative ubiquitination modulates protein structure, dynamics, and function. Due to the wealth of knowledge concerning protein kinase structure and regulation, we examined kinase ubiquitination using ubiquitin remnant immunoaffinity enrichment and quantitative mass spectrometry to identify ubiquitinated kinases and the sites of ubiquitination in Jurkat and HEK293 cells. We find that, unlike phosphorylation, ubiquitination most commonly occurs in structured domains, and on the kinase domain, ubiquitination is concentrated in regions known to be important for regulating activity. We hypothesized that ubiquitination, like other post-translational modifications, may alter the conformational equilibrium of the modified protein. We chose one human kinase, ZAP-70, to simulate using molecular dynamics with and without a monoubiquitin modification. In Jurkat cells, ZAP-70 is ubiquitinated at several sites that are not sensitive to proteasome inhibition and thus may have other regulatory roles. Our simulations show that ubiquitination influences the conformational ensemble of ZAP-70 in a site-dependent manner. When monoubiquitinated at K377, near the C-helix, the active conformation of the ZAP-70 C-helix is disrupted. In contrast, when monoubiquitinated at K476, near the kinase hinge region, an active-like ZAP-70 C-helix conformation is stabilized. These results lead to testable hypotheses that ubiquitination directly modulates kinase activity, and that ubiquitination is likely to alter structure, dynamics, and function in other protein classes as well. PMID:27253329

  20. Non-degradative Ubiquitination of Protein Kinases.

    PubMed

    Ball, K Aurelia; Johnson, Jeffrey R; Lewinski, Mary K; Guatelli, John; Verschueren, Erik; Krogan, Nevan J; Jacobson, Matthew P

    2016-06-01

    Growing evidence supports other regulatory roles for protein ubiquitination in addition to serving as a tag for proteasomal degradation. In contrast to other common post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, little is known about how non-degradative ubiquitination modulates protein structure, dynamics, and function. Due to the wealth of knowledge concerning protein kinase structure and regulation, we examined kinase ubiquitination using ubiquitin remnant immunoaffinity enrichment and quantitative mass spectrometry to identify ubiquitinated kinases and the sites of ubiquitination in Jurkat and HEK293 cells. We find that, unlike phosphorylation, ubiquitination most commonly occurs in structured domains, and on the kinase domain, ubiquitination is concentrated in regions known to be important for regulating activity. We hypothesized that ubiquitination, like other post-translational modifications, may alter the conformational equilibrium of the modified protein. We chose one human kinase, ZAP-70, to simulate using molecular dynamics with and without a monoubiquitin modification. In Jurkat cells, ZAP-70 is ubiquitinated at several sites that are not sensitive to proteasome inhibition and thus may have other regulatory roles. Our simulations show that ubiquitination influences the conformational ensemble of ZAP-70 in a site-dependent manner. When monoubiquitinated at K377, near the C-helix, the active conformation of the ZAP-70 C-helix is disrupted. In contrast, when monoubiquitinated at K476, near the kinase hinge region, an active-like ZAP-70 C-helix conformation is stabilized. These results lead to testable hypotheses that ubiquitination directly modulates kinase activity, and that ubiquitination is likely to alter structure, dynamics, and function in other protein classes as well.

  1. KinasePA: Phosphoproteomics data annotation using hypothesis driven kinase perturbation analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Pengyi; Patrick, Ellis; Humphrey, Sean J.; Ghazanfar, Shila; James, David E.; Jothi, Raja; Yang, Jean Yee Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based quantitative phosphoproteomics has become a key approach for proteome-wide profiling of phosphorylation in tissues and cells. Traditional experimental design often compares a single treatment with a control, whereas increasingly more experiments are designed to compare multiple treatments with respect to a control. To this end, the development of bioinformatic tools that can integrate multiple treatments and visualise kinases and substrates under combinatorial perturbations is vital for dissecting concordant and/or independent effects of each treatment. Here, we propose a hypothesis driven kinase perturbation analysis (KinasePA) to annotate and visualise kinases and their substrates that are perturbed by various combinatorial effects of treatments in phosphoproteomics experiments. We demonstrate the utility of KinasePA through its application to two large-scale phosphoproteomics datasets and show its effectiveness in dissecting kinases and substrates within signalling pathways driven by unique combinations of cellular stimuli and inhibitors. We implemented and incorporated KinasePA as part of the “directPA” R package available from the comprehensive R archive network (CRAN). Furthermore, KinasePA also has an interactive web interface that can be readily applied to annotate user provided phosphoproteomics data (http://kinasepa.pengyiyang.org). PMID:27145998

  2. Co-inhibition of polo-like kinase 1 and Aurora kinases promotes mitotic catastrophe

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingjing; Hong, Myung Jin; Chow, Jeremy P.H.; Man, Wing Yu; Mak, Joyce P.Y.; Ma, Hoi Tang; Poon, Randy Y.C.

    2015-01-01

    Mitosis is choreographed by a number of protein kinases including polo-like kinases and Aurora kinases. As these kinases are frequently dysregulated in cancers, small-molecule inhibitors have been developed for targeted anticancer therapies. Given that PLK1 and Aurora kinases possess both unique functions as well as co-regulate multiple mitotic events, whether pharmacological inhibition of these kinases together can enhance mitotic catastrophe remains an outstanding issue to be determined. Using concentrations of inhibitors that did not induce severe mitotic defects on their own, we found that both the metaphase arrest and mitotic slippage induced by inhibitors targeting Aurora A and Aurora B (MK-5108 and Barasertib respectively) were enhanced by a PLK1 inhibitor (BI 2536). We found that PLK1 is overexpressed in cells from nasopharyngeal carcinoma, a highly invasive cancer with poor prognosis, in comparison to normal nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells were more sensitive to BI 2536 as a single agent and co-inhibition with Aurora kinases than normal cells. These observations underscore the mechanism and potential benefits of targeting PLK1 and Aurora kinases to induce mitotic catastrophe in cancer cells. PMID:25871386

  3. Co-inhibition of polo-like kinase 1 and Aurora kinases promotes mitotic catastrophe.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingjing; Hong, Myung Jin; Chow, Jeremy P H; Man, Wing Yu; Mak, Joyce P Y; Ma, Hoi Tang; Poon, Randy Y C

    2015-04-20

    Mitosis is choreographed by a number of protein kinases including polo-like kinases and Aurora kinases. As these kinases are frequently dysregulated in cancers, small-molecule inhibitors have been developed for targeted anticancer therapies. Given that PLK1 and Aurora kinases possess both unique functions as well as co-regulate multiple mitotic events, whether pharmacological inhibition of these kinases together can enhance mitotic catastrophe remains an outstanding issue to be determined. Using concentrations of inhibitors that did not induce severe mitotic defects on their own, we found that both the metaphase arrest and mitotic slippage induced by inhibitors targeting Aurora A and Aurora B (MK-5108 and Barasertib respectively) were enhanced by a PLK1 inhibitor (BI 2536). We found that PLK1 is overexpressed in cells from nasopharyngeal carcinoma, a highly invasive cancer with poor prognosis, in comparison to normal nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells were more sensitive to BI 2536 as a single agent and co-inhibition with Aurora kinases than normal cells. These observations underscore the mechanism and potential benefits of targeting PLK1 and Aurora kinases to induce mitotic catastrophe in cancer cells. PMID:25871386

  4. Src family protein tyrosine kinases induce autoactivation of Bruton's tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, S; Fargnoli, J; Burkhardt, A L; Kut, S A; Saouaf, S J; Bolen, J B

    1995-01-01

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is tyrosine phosphorylated and enzymatically activated following ligation of the B-cell antigen receptor. These events are temporally regulated, and Btk activation follows that of various members of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases, thus raising the possibility that Src kinases participate in the Btk activation process. We have evaluated the mechanism underlying Btk enzyme activation and have explored the potential regulatory relationship between Btk and Src protein kinases. We demonstrate in COS transient-expression assays that Btk can be activated through intramolecular autophosphorylation at tyrosine 551 and that Btk autophosphorylation is required for Btk catalytic functions. Coexpression of Btk with members of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases, but not Syk, led to Btk tyrosine phosphorylation and activation. Using a series of point mutations in Blk (a representative Src protein kinase) and Btk, we show that Src kinases activate Btk through an indirect mechanism that requires membrane association of the Src enzymes as well as functional Btk SH3 and SH2 domains. Our results are compatible with the idea that Src protein tyrosine kinases contribute to Btk activation by indirectly stimulating Btk intramolecular autophosphorylation. PMID:7565679

  5. Src family protein tyrosine kinases induce autoactivation of Bruton's tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, S; Fargnoli, J; Burkhardt, A L; Kut, S A; Saouaf, S J; Bolen, J B

    1995-10-01

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is tyrosine phosphorylated and enzymatically activated following ligation of the B-cell antigen receptor. These events are temporally regulated, and Btk activation follows that of various members of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases, thus raising the possibility that Src kinases participate in the Btk activation process. We have evaluated the mechanism underlying Btk enzyme activation and have explored the potential regulatory relationship between Btk and Src protein kinases. We demonstrate in COS transient-expression assays that Btk can be activated through intramolecular autophosphorylation at tyrosine 551 and that Btk autophosphorylation is required for Btk catalytic functions. Coexpression of Btk with members of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases, but not Syk, led to Btk tyrosine phosphorylation and activation. Using a series of point mutations in Blk (a representative Src protein kinase) and Btk, we show that Src kinases activate Btk through an indirect mechanism that requires membrane association of the Src enzymes as well as functional Btk SH3 and SH2 domains. Our results are compatible with the idea that Src protein tyrosine kinases contribute to Btk activation by indirectly stimulating Btk intramolecular autophosphorylation. PMID:7565679

  6. KinasePA: Phosphoproteomics data annotation using hypothesis driven kinase perturbation analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pengyi; Patrick, Ellis; Humphrey, Sean J; Ghazanfar, Shila; James, David E; Jothi, Raja; Yang, Jean Yee Hwa

    2016-07-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based quantitative phosphoproteomics has become a key approach for proteome-wide profiling of phosphorylation in tissues and cells. Traditional experimental design often compares a single treatment with a control, whereas increasingly more experiments are designed to compare multiple treatments with respect to a control. To this end, the development of bioinformatic tools that can integrate multiple treatments and visualise kinases and substrates under combinatorial perturbations is vital for dissecting concordant and/or independent effects of each treatment. Here, we propose a hypothesis driven kinase perturbation analysis (KinasePA) to annotate and visualise kinases and their substrates that are perturbed by various combinatorial effects of treatments in phosphoproteomics experiments. We demonstrate the utility of KinasePA through its application to two large-scale phosphoproteomics datasets and show its effectiveness in dissecting kinases and substrates within signalling pathways driven by unique combinations of cellular stimuli and inhibitors. We implemented and incorporated KinasePA as part of the "directPA" R package available from the comprehensive R archive network (CRAN). Furthermore, KinasePA also has an interactive web interface that can be readily applied to annotate user provided phosphoproteomics data (http://kinasepa.pengyiyang.org).

  7. CDPKs are dual-specificity protein kinases and tyrosine autophosphorylation attenuates kinase activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs or CPKs) are classified as serine/threonine protein kinases but we made the surprising observation that soybean CDPK' and several Arabidopsis isoforms (AtCPK4 and AtCPK34) could also autophosphorylate on tyrosine residues. In studies with His6-GmCDPK', we ide...

  8. The SH2 domain of Abl kinases regulates kinase autophosphorylation by controlling activation loop accessibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamontanara, Allan Joaquim; Georgeon, Sandrine; Tria, Giancarlo; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Hantschel, Oliver

    2014-11-01

    The activity of protein kinases is regulated by multiple molecular mechanisms, and their disruption is a common driver of oncogenesis. A central and almost universal control element of protein kinase activity is the activation loop that utilizes both conformation and phosphorylation status to determine substrate access. In this study, we use recombinant Abl tyrosine kinases and conformation-specific kinase inhibitors to quantitatively analyse structural changes that occur after Abl activation. Allosteric SH2-kinase domain interactions were previously shown to be essential for the leukemogenesis caused by the Bcr-Abl oncoprotein. We find that these allosteric interactions switch the Abl activation loop from a closed to a fully open conformation. This enables the trans-autophosphorylation of the activation loop and requires prior phosphorylation of the SH2-kinase linker. Disruption of the SH2-kinase interaction abolishes activation loop phosphorylation. Our analysis provides a molecular mechanism for the SH2 domain-dependent activation of Abl that may also regulate other tyrosine kinases.

  9. Tyrosine kinase BMX phosphorylates phosphotyrosine-primed motif mediating the activation of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sen; Jiang, Xinnong; Gewinner, Christina A; Asara, John M; Simon, Nicholas I; Cai, Changmeng; Cantley, Lewis C; Balk, Steven P

    2013-05-28

    The nonreceptor tyrosine kinase BMX (bone marrow tyrosine kinase gene on chromosome X) is abundant in various cell types and activated downstream of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and the kinase Src, but its substrates are unknown. Positional scanning peptide library screening revealed a marked preference for a priming phosphorylated tyrosine (pY) in the -1 position, indicating that BMX substrates may include multiple tyrosine kinases that are fully activated by pYpY sites in the kinase domain. BMX phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) at Tyr⁵⁷⁷ subsequent to its Src-mediated phosphorylation at Tyr⁵⁷⁶. Loss of BMX by RNA interference or by genetic deletion in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) markedly impaired FAK activity. Phosphorylation of the insulin receptor in the kinase domain at Tyr¹¹⁸⁹ and Tyr¹¹⁹⁰, as well as Tyr¹¹⁸⁵, and downstream phosphorylation of the kinase AKT at Thr³⁰⁸ were similarly impaired by BMX deficiency. However, insulin-induced phosphorylation of AKT at Ser⁴⁷³ was not impaired in Bmx knockout MEFs or liver tissue from Bmx knockout mice, which also showed increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, possibly because of decreased abundance of the phosphatase PHLPP (PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase). Thus, by identifying the pYpY motif as a substrate for BMX, our findings suggest that BMX functions as a central regulator among multiple signaling pathways mediated by tyrosine kinases. PMID:23716717

  10. Protein kinase activators alter glial cholesterol esterification

    SciTech Connect

    Jeng, I.; Dills, C.; Klemm, N.; Wu, C.

    1986-05-01

    Similar to nonneural tissues, the activity of glial acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase is controlled by a phosphorylation and dephosphorylation mechanism. Manipulation of cyclic AMP content did not alter the cellular cholesterol esterification, suggesting that cyclic AMP is not a bioregulator in this case. Therefore, the authors tested the effect of phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on cellular cholesterol esterification to determine the involvement of protein kinase C. PMA has a potent effect on cellular cholesterol esterification. PMA depresses cholesterol esterification initially, but cells recover from inhibition and the result was higher cholesterol esterification, suggesting dual effects of protein kinase C. Studies of other phorbol analogues and other protein kinase C activators such as merezein indicate the involvement of protein kinase C. Oleoyl-acetyl glycerol duplicates the effect of PMA. This observation is consistent with a diacyl-glycerol-protein kinase-dependent reaction. Calcium ionophore A23187 was ineffective in promoting the effect of PMA. They concluded that a calcium-independent and protein C-dependent pathway regulated glial cholesterol esterification.

  11. Kinase cascades regulating entry into apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, P

    1997-01-01

    All cells are constantly exposed to conflicting environment cues that signal cell survival or cell death. Survival signals are delivered by autocrine or paracrine factors that actively suppress a default death pathway. In addition to survival factor withdrawal, cell death can be triggered by environmental stresses such as heat, UV light, and hyperosmolarity or by dedicated death receptors (e.g., FAS/APO-1 and tumor necrosis factor [TNF] receptors) that are counterparts of growth factor or survival receptors at the cell surface. One of the ways that cells integrate conflicting exogenous stimuli is by phosphorylation (or dephosphorylation) of cellular constituents by interacting cascades of serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinases (and phosphatases). Survival factors (e.g., growth factors and mitogens) activate receptor tyrosine kinases and selected mitogen-activated, cyclin-dependent, lipid-activated, nucleic acid-dependent, and cyclic AMP-dependent kinases to promote cell survival and proliferation, whereas environmental stress (or death factors such as FAS/APO-1 ligand and TNF-alpha) activates different members of these kinase families to inhibit cell growth and, under some circumstances, promote apoptotic cell death. Because individual kinase cascades can interact with one another, they are able to integrate conflicting exogenous stimuli and provide a link between cell surface receptors and the biochemical pathways leading to cell proliferation or cell death. PMID:9106363

  12. RTKdb: database of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase.

    PubMed

    Grassot, Julien; Mouchiroud, Guy; Perrière, Guy

    2003-01-01

    Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTK) are transmembrane receptors specifically found in metazoans. They represent an excellent model for studying evolution of cellular processes in metazoans because they encompass large families of modular proteins and belong to a major family of contingency generating molecules in eukaryotic cells: the protein kinases. Because tyrosine kinases have been under close scrutiny for many years in various species, they are associated with a wealth of information, mainly in mammals. Presently, most categories of RTK were identified in mammals, but in a near future other model species will be sequenced, and will bring us RTKs from other metazoan clades. Thus, collecting RTK sequences would provide a good starting point as a new model for comparative and evolutionary studies applying to multigene families. In this context, we are developing the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase database (RTKdb), which is the only database on tyrosine kinase receptors presently available. In this database, protein sequences from eight model metazoan species are organized under the format previously used for the HOVERGEN, HOBACGEN and NUREBASE systems. RTKdb can be accessed through the PBIL (Pôle Bioinformatique Lyonnais) World Wide Web server at http://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/RTKdb/, or through the FamFetch graphical user interface available at the same address.

  13. Src Kinase Regulation in Progressively Invasive Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weichen; Allbritton, Nancy; Lawrence, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Metastatic progression is a multistep process that involves tumor growth and survival, motility and invasion, and subsequent proliferation in an inappropriate environment. The Src protein tyrosine kinase has been implicated in many of the biochemical pathways that drive these behaviors. Although Src itself is only rarely mutated in human tumors, its aberrant activity has been noted in various cancers and suggested to serve as a barometer of metastatic potential. With these features in mind, we examined Src kinase regulation at the structural, enzymatic, and expression levels as a function of progressively invasive prostate cancer cell lines. Surprisingly, both total Src content and kinase activity decrease with increasing cell line aggressiveness, an observation that appears to be inconsistent with the well-documented role of Src in the signaling pathways that drive growth and invasion. However, we do observe a direct correlation between Src kinase specific activity (total Src kinase activity/total Src content) and metastatic aggressiveness, possibly suggesting that in highly aggressive cell lines, key signaling enzymes are globally recruited to drive the cancerous phenotype. In addition, although the expected enhanced phosphorylation of Src at Tyr-416 (activation site) is present in the most aggressive prostate cancer cell lines, unexpectedly high phosphorylation levels at the Tyr-527 inhibitory site are observed as well. The latter, rather than representative of inhibited enzyme, is more indicative of primed Src responsive to local phosphorylated binding partners. PMID:23145001

  14. Regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases by a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase cascade.

    PubMed Central

    Enslen, H; Tokumitsu, H; Stork, P J; Davis, R J; Soderling, T R

    1996-01-01

    Membrane depolarization of NG108 cells gives rapid (< 5 min) activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaM-KIV), as well as activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). To investigate whether the Ca2+-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK, JNK, and p38) might be mediated by the CaM kinase cascade, we have transfected PC12 cells, which lack CaM-KIV, with constitutively active mutants of CaM kinase kinase and/or CaM-KIV (CaM-KKc and CaM-KIVc, respectively). In the absence of depolarization, CaM-KKc transfection had no effect on Elk-dependent transcription of a luciferase reporter gene, whereas CaM-KIVc alone or in combination with CaM-KKc gave 7- to 10-fold and 60- to 80-fold stimulations, respectively, which were blocked by mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase phosphatase cotransfection. When epitope-tagged constructs of MAP kinases were co-transfected with CaM-KKc plus CaM-KIVc, the immunoprecipitated MAP kinases were activated 2-fold (ERK-2) and 7- to 10-fold (JNK-1 and p38). The JNK and p38 pathways were further investigated using specific c-Jun or ATF2-dependent transcriptional assays. We found that c-Jun/ATF2-dependent transcriptions were enhanced 7- to 10-fold by CaM-KIVc and 20- to 30-fold by CaM-KKc plus CaM-KIVc. In the case of the Jun-dependent transcription, this effect was not due to direct phosphorylation of c-Jun by activated CaM-KIV, since transcription was blocked by a dominant-negative JNK and by two MAP kinase phosphatases. Mutation of the phosphorylation site (Thr196) in CaM-KIV, which mediates its activation by CaM-KIV kinase, prevented activation of Elk-1, c-Jun, and ATF2 by the CaM kinase cascade. These results establish a new Ca2+-dependent mechanism for regulating MAP kinase pathways and resultant transcription. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8855261

  15. LKB1, the multitasking tumour suppressor kinase.

    PubMed

    Marignani, P A

    2005-01-01

    Mutations in the lkb1 gene are found in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), with loss of heterozygosity or somatic mutations at the lkb1 locus, suggesting the gene product, the serine/threonine kinase LKB1, may function as a tumour suppressor. Patients with PJS are at a greater risk of developing cancers of epithelial tissue origin. It is widely accepted that the presence of hamartomatous polyps in PJS does not in itself lead to the development of malignancy. The signalling mechanisms that lead to these PJS related malignancies are not well understood. However, it is evident from the recent literature that LKB1 is a multitasking kinase, with unlimited potential in orchestrating cell activity. Thus far, LKB1 has been found to play a role in chromatin remodelling, cell cycle arrest, Wnt signalling, cell polarity, and energy metabolism, all of which may require the tumour suppressor function of this kinase and/or its catalytic activity.

  16. MAP kinase pathways: The first twenty years

    PubMed Central

    Avruch, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The MAP kinases, discovered approximately twenty years ago, together with their immediate upstream regulators, are among the most highly studied signal transduction molecules. This body of work has shaped many aspects of our present views of signal transduction by protein kinases. The effort expended in this area reflects the extensive participation of these regulatory modules in the control of cell fate decisions, i.e., proliferation, differentiation and death, across all eukaryotic phylla and in all tissues of metazoans. The discovery of these kinases is reviewed, followed by a discussion of some of the features of this signaling module that account for its broad impact on cell function and its enormous interest to many investigators. PMID:17229475

  17. Exploring the scaffold universe of kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The scaffold concept was applied to systematically determine, analyze, and compare core structures of kinase inhibitors. From publicly available inhibitors of the human kinome, scaffolds and cyclic skeletons were systematically extracted and organized taking activity data, structural relationships, and retrosynthetic criteria into account. Scaffold coverage varied greatly across the kinome, and many scaffolds representing compounds with different activity profiles were identified. The majority of kinase inhibitor scaffolds were involved in well-defined yet distinct structural relationships, which had different consequences on compound activity. Scaffolds exclusively representing highly potent compounds were identified as well as structurally analogous scaffolds with very different degrees of promiscuity. Scaffold relationships presented herein suggest a variety of hypotheses for inhibitor design. Our detailed organization of the kinase inhibitor scaffold universe with respect to different activity and structural criteria, all scaffolds, and the original compound data assembled for our analysis are made freely available.

  18. Crystal structure of human nicotinamide riboside kinase.

    PubMed

    Khan, Javed A; Xiang, Song; Tong, Liang

    2007-08-01

    Nicotinamide riboside kinase (NRK) has an important role in the biosynthesis of NAD(+) as well as the activation of tiazofurin and other NR analogs for anticancer therapy. NRK belongs to the deoxynucleoside kinase and nucleoside monophosphate (NMP) kinase superfamily, although the degree of sequence conservation is very low. We report here the crystal structures of human NRK1 in a binary complex with the reaction product nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) at 1.5 A resolution and in a ternary complex with ADP and tiazofurin at 2.7 A resolution. The active site is located in a groove between the central parallel beta sheet core and the LID and NMP-binding domains. The hydroxyl groups on the ribose of NR are recognized by Asp56 and Arg129, and Asp36 is the general base of the enzyme. Mutation of residues in the active site can abolish the catalytic activity of the enzyme, confirming the structural observations. PMID:17698003

  19. Crystal Structure of Human Nicotinamide Riboside Kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Khan,J.; Xiang, S.; Tong, L.

    2007-01-01

    Nicotinamide riboside kinase (NRK) has an important role in the biosynthesis of NAD{sup +} as well as the activation of tiazofurin and other NR analogs for anticancer therapy. NRK belongs to the deoxynucleoside kinase and nucleoside monophosphate (NMP) kinase superfamily, although the degree of sequence conservation is very low. We report here the crystal structures of human NRK1 in a binary complex with the reaction product nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) at 1.5 {angstrom} resolution and in a ternary complex with ADP and tiazofurin at 2.7 {angstrom} resolution. The active site is located in a groove between the central parallel {beta} sheet core and the LID and NMP-binding domains. The hydroxyl groups on the ribose of NR are recognized by Asp56 and Arg129, and Asp36 is the general base of the enzyme. Mutation of residues in the active site can abolish the catalytic activity of the enzyme, confirming the structural observations.

  20. Structure of the human dimeric ATM kinase

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Wilson C. Y.; Li, Yinyin; Liu, Zhe; Gao, Yuanzhu; Zhang, Qinfen; Huen, Michael S. Y.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT DNA-double strand breaks activate the serine/threonine protein kinase ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) to initiate DNA damage signal transduction. This activation process involves autophosphorylation and dissociation of inert ATM dimers into monomers that are catalytically active. Using single-particle electron microscopy (EM), we determined the structure of dimeric ATM in its resting state. The EM map could accommodate the crystal structure of the N-terminal truncated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a closely related enzyme of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinase (PIKK) family, allowing for the localization of the N- and the C-terminal regions of ATM. In the dimeric structure, the actives sites are buried, restricting the access of the substrates to these sites. The unanticipated domain organization of ATM provides a basis for understanding its mechanism of inhibition. PMID:27097373

  1. Structure of the human dimeric ATM kinase.

    PubMed

    Lau, Wilson C Y; Li, Yinyin; Liu, Zhe; Gao, Yuanzhu; Zhang, Qinfen; Huen, Michael S Y

    2016-01-01

    DNA-double strand breaks activate the serine/threonine protein kinase ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) to initiate DNA damage signal transduction. This activation process involves autophosphorylation and dissociation of inert ATM dimers into monomers that are catalytically active. Using single-particle electron microscopy (EM), we determined the structure of dimeric ATM in its resting state. The EM map could accommodate the crystal structure of the N-terminal truncated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a closely related enzyme of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinase (PIKK) family, allowing for the localization of the N- and the C-terminal regions of ATM. In the dimeric structure, the actives sites are buried, restricting the access of the substrates to these sites. The unanticipated domain organization of ATM provides a basis for understanding its mechanism of inhibition. PMID:27097373

  2. Protein Kinases and Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, Syed Jafar; Rosas-Hernandez, Hector; Cuevas, Elvis; Lantz, Susan M.; Barger, Steven W.; Sarkar, Sumit; Paule, Merle G.; Ali, Syed F.; Imam, Syed Z.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the lack of new drug candidates for the treatment of major neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s disease has intensified the search for drugs that can be repurposed or repositioned for such treatment. Typically, the search focuses on drugs that have been approved and are used clinically for other indications. Kinase inhibitors represent a family of popular molecules for the treatment and prevention of various cancers, and have emerged as strong candidates for such repurposing because numerous serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases have been implicated in the pathobiology of Parkinson’s disease. This review focuses on various kinase-dependent pathways associated with the expression of Parkinson’s disease pathology, and evaluates how inhibitors of these pathways might play a major role as effective therapeutic molecules. PMID:27657053

  3. Kinase signaling in the spindle checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jungseog; Yu, Hongtao

    2009-06-01

    The spindle checkpoint is a cell cycle surveillance system that ensures the fidelity of chromosome segregation. In mitosis, it elicits the "wait anaphase" signal to inhibit the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome until all chromosomes achieve bipolar microtubule attachment and align at the metaphase plate. Because a single kinetochore unattached to microtubules activates the checkpoint, the wait anaphase signal is thought to be generated by this kinetochore and is then amplified and distributed throughout the cell to inhibit the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. Several spindle checkpoint kinases participate in the generation and amplification of this signal. Recent studies have begun to reveal the activation mechanisms of these checkpoint kinases. Increasing evidence also indicates that the checkpoint kinases not only help to generate the wait anaphase signal but also actively correct kinetochore-microtubule attachment defects. PMID:19228686

  4. A monoclonal antibody distinguishes two types of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Endemann, G C; Graziani, A; Cantley, L C

    1991-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody has been developed against the type II PtdIns 4-kinase from bovine brain. This antibody, 4C5G, causes greater than 90% inhibition of the type II PtdIns 4-kinase from bovine brain, rat brain and human erythrocytes. However, it fails to inhibit type III PtdIns 4-kinase from bovine brain or PtdIns 3-kinase from rat liver. These results suggest that type II and type III PtdIns 4-kinases are distinct gene products, and that 4C5G will be useful in studying the function of the type II PtdIns 4-kinase. PMID:1846531

  5. Measuring MAP kinase activity in immune complex assays.

    PubMed

    Cherkasova, Vera A

    2006-11-01

    I present an overview of published methods for measuring mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase activity on endogenous associated substrates, exogenously added substrates as well as determination of activation loop phosphorylation as a read-out of kinase activity in vivo. Detailed procedures for these assays are given for two MAP kinases (MAPKs) Fus3 and Kss1 and compared with other published protocols, including the protocols for Hog1 and Mpk1 MAPKs. Measuring kinase activity in immune complex assays can serve as an approach for identification of potential substrates of protein kinases as well as for detecting other kinase-associated proteins. PMID:16890454

  6. Pim kinases in cancer: diagnostic, prognostic and treatment opportunities.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Aparicio, Carmen; Carnero, Amancio

    2013-03-01

    PIM proteins belong to a family of ser/thr kinases composed of 3 members, PIM1, PIM2 and PIM3, with greatly overlapping functions. PIM kinases are mainly responsible for cell cycle regulation, antiapoptotic activity and the homing and migration of receptor tyrosine kinases mediated via the JAK/STAT pathway. PIM kinases have been found to be upregulated in many hematological malignancies and solid tumors. Although these kinases have been described as weak oncogenes, they are heavily targeted for anticancer drug discovery. The present review summarizes the discoveries made to date regarding PIM kinases as driving oncogenes in the process of tumorigenesis and their validation as drug targets. PMID:23041228

  7. X-Ray Crystal Structure of Bone Marrow Kinase in the X Chromosome: A Tec Family Kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Muckelbauer, Jodi; Sack, John S.; Ahmed, Nazia; Burke, James; Chang, ChiehYing Y.; Gao, Mian; Tino, Joseph; Xie, Dianlin; Tebben, Andrew J.

    2012-06-27

    Bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome, a member of the Tec family of tyrosine kinases, plays a role in both monocyte/macrophage trafficking as well as cytokine secretion. Although the structures of Tec family kinases Bruton's tyrosine kinase and IL-2-inducible T-cell kinase are known, the crystal structures of other Tec family kinases have remained elusive. We report the X-ray crystal structures of bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome in complex with dasatinib at 2.4 {angstrom} resolution and PP2 at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. The bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome structures reveal a typical kinase protein fold; with well-ordered protein conformation that includes an open/extended activation loop and a stabilized DFG-motif rendering the kinase in an inactive conformation. Dasatinib and PP2 bind to bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome in the ATP binding pocket and display similar binding modes to that observed in other Tec and Src protein kinases. The bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome structures identify conformational elements of the DFG-motif that could potentially be utilized to design potent and/or selective bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome inhibitors.

  8. Phosphorylation of varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein gpI by mammalian casein kinase II and casein kinase I

    SciTech Connect

    Grose, C.; Jackson, W. ); Traugh, J.A. )

    1989-09-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) glycoprotein gpI is the predominant viral glycoprotein within the plasma membranes of infected cells. This viral glycoprotein is phosphorylated on its polypeptide backbone during biosynthesis. In this report, the authors investigated the protein kinases which participate in the phosphorylation events. Under in vivo conditions, VZV gpI was phosphorylated on its serine and threonine residues by protein kinases present within lysates of either VZV-infected or uninfected cells. Because this activity was diminished by heparin, a known inhibitor of casein kinase II, isolated gpI was incubated with purified casein kinase II and shown to be phosphorylated in an in vitro assay containing ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP. The same glycoprotein was phosphorylated when ({sup 32}P)GTP was substituted for ({sup 32}P)ATP in the protein kinase assay. They also tested whether VZV gpI was phosphorylated by two other ubiquitous mammalian protein kinases--casein kinase I and cyclic AMP-dependent kinase--and found that only casein kinase I modified gpI. When the predicted 623-amino-acid sequence of gpI was examined, two phosphorylation sites known to be optimal for casein kinase II were observed. In summary, this study showed that VZV gpI was phosphorylated by each of two mammalian protein kinases (casein kinase I and casein kinase II) and that potential serine-threonine phosphorylation sites for each of these two kinases were present in the viral glycoprotein.

  9. Cloning and expression of the heterodimeric deoxyguanosine kinase/deoxyadenosine kinase of Lactobacillus acidophilus R-26.

    PubMed

    Ma, G T; Hong, Y S; Ives, D H

    1995-03-24

    Two uniquely paired deoxynucleoside kinases, deoxycytidine kinase/deoxyadenosine kinase (dCK/dAK) and deoxyguanosine kinase/deoxyadenosine kinase (dGK/dAK) are required, together with thymidine kinase (TK), for deoxynucleotide synthesis in Lactobacillus acidophilus R-26. Using polymerase chain reaction-generated probes based on N-terminal amino acid sequences, we have cloned tandem genes for 25- and 26-kDa polypeptides, whose derived amino acid sequences and size correspond to wild-type Lactobacillus enzyme subunits. Expression in Escherichia coli uses a single endogenous promoter and yields active dGK/dAK (approximately 3% of extracted protein) closely resembling wild-type dGK/dAK in specificity, kinetics, heterotropic activation, and end product inhibition. Alignment of cloned genes reveals 65% identity in their DNA sequences and 61% identity in derived amino acid sequences. Comparison with herpes-viral TKs reveals three conserved regions: glycine- and arginine-rich ATP-binding motifs and a D/E-R-S/H motif at the putative TK deoxynucleoside site. Greater homology, however, is seen upon multiple alignment of dGK with mammalian deoxycytidine kinases, yielding the consensus sequence-D/E-R-S-I/V-Y-x-D-.dGK also shares a sequence (-Y-D-P-T-I/L-E-D-S/Y-Y-) required for GTP hydrolysis by p21ras.

  10. Musk Kinase Activity is Modulated By A Serine Phosphorylation Site in The Kinase Loop

    PubMed Central

    Camurdanoglu, B. Z.; Hrovat, C.; Dürnberger, G.; Madalinski, M.; Mechtler, K.; Herbst, R.

    2016-01-01

    The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) forms when a motor neuron contacts a muscle fibre. A reciprocal exchange of signals initiates a cascade of signalling events that result in pre- and postsynaptic differentiation. At the centre of these signalling events stands muscle specific kinase (MuSK). MuSK activation, kinase activity and subsequent downstream signalling are crucial for NMJ formation as well as maintenance. Therefore MuSK kinase activity is tightly regulated to ensure proper NMJ development. We have identified a novel serine phosphorylation site at position 751 in MuSK that is increasingly phosphorylated upon agrin stimulation. S751 is also phosphorylated in muscle tissue and its phosphorylation depends on MuSK kinase activity. A phosphomimetic mutant of S751 increases MuSK kinase activity in response to non-saturating agrin concentrations . In addition, basal MuSK and AChR phosphorylation as well as AChR cluster size are increased. We believe that the phosphorylation of S751 provides a novel mechanism to relief the autoinhibition of the MuSK activation loop. Such a lower autoinhibition could foster or stabilize MuSK kinase activation, especially during stages when no or low level of agrin are present. Phosphorylation of S751 might therefore represent a novel mechanism to modulate MuSK kinase activity during prepatterning or NMJ maintenance. PMID:27666825

  11. Contribution of indazolinone tautomers to kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Anil; Verzal, Mary K; Villamil, Clara I; Stewart, Kent D; Abad-Zapatero, Cele; Oie, Tetsuro; Djuric, Stevan W

    2012-07-15

    The design and synthesis of indazolinone containing kinase inhibitors are reported. Regioisomers that showed profound potency variation in previously-reported isoindolinone and aminoindazole systems were surprisingly found to have similar potencies in the case of the indazolinone chemical series. An interpretation using differential hinge hydrogen bonding and tautomeric equilibrium of indazolinone ring system is supported by quantum mechanics calculations. The equipotent inhibition of a representative kinase (KDR) by regioisomeric indazolinones 4 and 5 is clear evidence that in case of the indazolinone hinge, both tautomers are equally favored, and should be considered in design of inhibitors.

  12. Cell signaling by receptor-tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Lemmon, Mark A.; Schlessinger, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Recent structural studies of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) have revealed unexpected diversity in the mechanisms of their activation by growth factor ligands. Strategies for inducing dimerization by ligand binding are surprisingly diverse, as are mechanisms that couple this event to activation of the intracellular tyrosine kinase domains. As our understanding of these details becomes increasingly sophisticated, it provides an important context for therapeutically countering the effects of pathogenic RTK mutations in cancer and other diseases. Much remains to be learned, however, about the complex signaling networks downstream from RTKs and how alterations in these networks are translated into cellular responses. PMID:20602996

  13. Purification and characterization of a casein kinase 2-type protein kinase from pea nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, H.; Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    Almost all the polyamine-stimulated protein kinase activity associated with the chromatin fraction of nuclei purified from etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) plumules is present in a single enzyme that can be extracted from chromatin by 0.35 molar NaCl. This protein kinase can be further purified over 2000-fold by salt fractionation and anion-exchange and casein-agarose column chromatography, after which it is more than 90% pure. The purified kinase has a specific activity of about 650 nanomoles per minute per milligram protein in the absence of polyamines, with either ATP or GTP as phosphoryl donor. Spermidine can stimulate its activity fourfold, with half-maximal activation at about 2 millimolar. Spermine and putrescine also stimulate activity, although somewhat less effectively. This kinase has a tetrameric alpha 2 beta 2 structure with a native molecular weight of 130,000, and subunit molecular weights of 36,000 for the catalytic subunit (alpha) and 29,000 for the regulatory subunit (beta). In western blot analyses, only the alpha subunit reacts strongly with polyclonal antibodies to a Drosophila casein kinase II. The pea kinase can use casein and phosvitin as artificial substrates, phosphorylating both the serine and threonine residues of casein. It has a pH optimum near 8.0, a Vmax of 1.5 micromoles per minute per milligram protein, and a Km for ATP of approximately 75 micromolar. Its activity can be almost completely inhibited by heparin at 5 micrograms per milliliter, but is relatively insensitive to concentrations of staurosporine, K252a, and chlorpromazine that strongly antagonize Ca(2+) -regulated protein kinases. These results are discussed in relation to recent findings that casein kinase 2-type kinases may phosphorylate trans-acting factors that bind to light-regulated promoters in plants.

  14. Identification and characterization of plant Haspin kinase as a histone H3 threonine kinase

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Haspin kinases are mitotic kinases that are well-conserved from yeast to human. Human Haspin is a histone H3 Thr3 kinase that has important roles in chromosome cohesion during mitosis. Moreover, phosphorylation of histone H3 at Thr3 by Haspin in fission yeast, Xenopus, and human is required for accumulation of Aurora B on the centromere, and the subsequent activation of Aurora B kinase activity for accurate chromosome alignment and segregation. Although extensive analyses of Haspin have been carried out in yeast and animals, the function of Haspin in organogenesis remains unclear. Results Here, we identified a Haspin kinase, designated AtHaspin, in Arabidopsis thaliana. The purified AtHaspin phosphorylated histone H3 at both Thr3 and Thr11 in vitro. Live imaging of AtHaspin-tdTomato and GFP-α-tubulin in BY-2 cells showed that AtHaspin-tdTomato localized on chromosomes during prometaphase and metaphase, and around the cell plate during cytokinesis. This localization of AtHaspin overlapped with that of phosphorylated Thr3 and Thr11 of histone H3 in BY-2 cells. AtHaspin-GFP driven by the native promoter was expressed in root meristems, shoot meristems, floral meristems, and throughout the whole embryo at stages of high cell division. Overexpression of a kinase domain mutant of AtHaspin decreased the size of the root meristem, which delayed root growth. Conclusions Our results indicated that the Haspin kinase is a histone H3 threonine kinase in A. thaliana. AtHaspin phosphorylated histone H3 at both Thr3 and Thr11 in vitro. The expression and dominant-negative analysis showed that AtHaspin may have a role in mitotic cell division during plant growth. Further analysis of coordinated mechanisms involving Haspin and Aurora kinases will shed new light on the regulation of chromosome segregation in cell division during plant growth and development. PMID:21527018

  15. Targeting cancer with small-molecular-weight kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Fabbro, Doriano; Cowan-Jacob, Sandra W; Möbitz, Henrik; Martiny-Baron, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Protein and lipid kinases fulfill essential roles in many signaling pathways that regulate normal cell functions. Deregulation of these kinase activities lead to a variety of pathologies ranging from cancer to inflammatory diseases, diabetes, infectious diseases, cardiovascular disorders, cell growth and survival. 518 protein kinases and about 20 lipid-modifying kinases are encoded by the human genome, and a much larger proportion of additional kinases are present in parasite, bacterial, fungal, and viral genomes that are susceptible to exploitation as drug targets. Since many human diseases result from overactivation of protein and lipid kinases due to mutations and/or overexpression, this enzyme class represents an important target for the pharmaceutical industry. Approximately one third of all protein targets under investigation in the pharmaceutical industry are protein or lipid kinases.The kinase inhibitors that have been launched, thus far, are mainly in oncology indications and are directed against a handful of protein and lipid kinases. With one exception, all of these registered kinase inhibitors are directed toward the ATP-site and display different selectivities, potencies, and pharmacokinetic properties. At present, about 150 kinase-targeted drugs are in clinical development and many more in various stages of preclinical development. Kinase inhibitor drugs that are in clinical trials target all stages of signal transduction from the receptor protein tyrosine kinases that initiate intracellular signaling, through second-messenger-dependent lipid and protein kinases, and protein kinases that regulate the cell cycle.This review provides an insight into protein and lipid kinase drug discovery with respect to achievements, binding modes of inhibitors, and novel avenues for the generation of second-generation kinase inhibitors to treat cancers.

  16. Contribution of casein kinase 2 and spleen tyrosine kinase to CFTR trafficking and protein kinase A-induced activity.

    PubMed

    Luz, Simão; Kongsuphol, Patthara; Mendes, Ana Isabel; Romeiras, Francisco; Sousa, Marisa; Schreiber, Rainer; Matos, Paulo; Jordan, Peter; Mehta, Anil; Amaral, Margarida D; Kunzelmann, Karl; Farinha, Carlos M

    2011-11-01

    Previously, the pleiotropic "master kinase" casein kinase 2 (CK2) was shown to interact with CFTR, the protein responsible for cystic fibrosis (CF). Moreover, CK2 inhibition abolished CFTR conductance in cell-attached membrane patches, native epithelial ducts, and Xenopus oocytes. CFTR possesses two CK2 phosphorylation sites (S422 and T1471), with unclear impact on its processing and trafficking. Here, we investigated the effects of mutating these CK2 sites on CFTR abundance, maturation, and degradation coupled to effects on ion channel activity and surface expression. We report that CK2 inhibition significantly decreased processing of wild-type (wt) CFTR, with no effect on F508del CFTR. Eliminating phosphorylation at S422 and T1471 revealed antagonistic roles in CFTR trafficking: S422 activation versus T1471 inhibition, as evidenced by a severe trafficking defect for the T1471D mutant. Notably, mutation of Y512, a consensus sequence for the spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) possibly acting in a CK2 context adjacent to the common CF-causing defect F508del, had a strong effect on both maturation and CFTR currents, allowing the identification of this kinase as a novel regulator of CFTR. These results reinforce the importance of CK2 and the S422 and T1471 residues for regulation of CFTR and uncover a novel regulation of CFTR by SYK, a recognized controller of inflammation.

  17. Role of Protein Kinase C, PI3-kinase and Tyrosine Kinase in Activation of MAP Kinase by Glucose and Agonists of G-protein Coupled Receptors in INS-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Böcker, Dietmar

    2001-01-01

    MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase (also called Erk 1/2) plays a crucial role in cell proliferation and differentiation. Its impact on secretory events is less well established. The interplay of protein kinase C (PKC), PI3-kinase nd cellular tyrosine kinase with MAP kinase activity using inhibitors and compounds such as glucose, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and agonists of G-protein coupled receptors like gastrin releasing peptide (GRP), oxytocin (OT) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) was investigated in INS-1 cells, an insulin secreting cell line. MAP kinase activity was determined by using a peptide derived from the EGF receptor as a MAP kinase substrate and [ P 32 ]ATP. Glucose as well as GRP, OT and GIP exhibited a time-dependent increase in MAP kinase activity with a maximum at time point 2.5 min. All further experiments were performed using 2.5 min incubations. The flavone PD 098059 is known to bind to the inactive forms of MEK1 (MAPK/ERK-Kinase) thus preventing activation by upstream activators. 20 μM PD 098059 ( IC 50 =51 μM) inhibited MAP kinase stimulated by either glucose, GRP, OT, GIP or PMA. Inhibiton (“downregulation”) of PKC by a long term (22h) pretreatment with 1 μM PMA did not influence MAP kinase activity when augmented by either of the above mentioned compound. To investigate whether PI3-kinase and cellular tyrosine kinase are involved in G-protein mediated effects on MAP kinase, inhibitors were used: 100 nM wortmannin (PI3-kinase inhibitor) reduced the effects of GRP, OT and GIP but not that of PMA; 100 μM genistein (tyrosine kinase inhibitor) inhibited the stimulatory effect of either above mentioned compound on MAP kinase activation. Inhibition of MAP kinase by 20 μM PD 098059 did not influence insulin secretion modulated by either compound (glucose, GRP, OT or GIP). [ H 3 ]Thymidine incorporation, however, was severely inhibited by PD 098059. Thus MAP kinase is important for INS-1 cell proliferation but

  18. Dual activators of Protein Kinase R (PKR) and Protein Kinase R Like Kinase (PERK) Identify Common and Divergent Catalytic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Jie; Sun, Hong; Cao, Peng; Fusco, Dahlene N.; Chung, Raymond T.; Chorev, Michael; Jin, Qi; Aktas, Bertal H.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical genetics has evolved into a powerful tool for studying gene function in normal- and patho-biology. PKR and PERK, two eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α) kinases, play critical roles in maintenance of cellular hemostasis, metabolic stability, and anti-viral defenses. Both kinases interact with and phosphorylate additional substrates including tumor suppressor p53 and nuclear protein 90. Loss of function of both kinases has been studied by reverse genetics and recently identified inhibitors. In contrast, activating probes for studying the role of catalytic activity of these kinases are not available. We identified a 3-(2,3-dihydrobenzo[b][1,4]dioxin-6-yl)-5,7-dihydroxy-4H-chromen-4-one (DHBDC) as specific dual activator of PKR and PERK by screening a chemical library of 20,000 small molecules in a dual luciferase surrogate eIF2α phosphorylation assay. We present here extensive biological characterization and preliminary structure-activity relationship of DHBDC, which phosphorylate eIF2α by activating PKR and PERK but no other eIF2α kinases. These agents also activate downstream effectors of eIF2α phosphorylation; inducing CHOP and suppressing cyclin D1 expression and inhibiting cancer cell proliferation, all in a manner dependent on PKR and PERK. Consistent with the role of eIF2α phosphorylation in viral infection, DHBDC inhibits proliferation of human hepatitis C virus. Finally, DHBDC induces phosphorylation of Ikβα, and activates NF-κB pathway. Surprisingly, activation of NF-κB pathway is dependent on PERK but independent of PKR activity. These data indicate that DHBDC is an invaluable probe for elucidating the role of PKR and PERK in normal- and patho-biology. PMID:23784735

  19. AGCVIII Kinases: at the crossroads of cellular signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AGCVIII kinases regulate diverse developmental and cellular processes in plants. As putative mediators of secondary messengers, AGCVIII kinases potentially integrate developmental and environmental cues into specific cellular responses through substrate phosphorylation. Here we discuss the functiona...

  20. Designing novel kinases using evolutionary sequence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mody, Areez; Weiner, Joan; Iyer, Lakshman; Ramanathan, Sharad

    2006-03-01

    Cellular pathways with new functions are thought to arise from the duplication and divergence of proteins in existing pathways. The MAP kinase pathways in eukaryotes provide one example of this. These pathways consist of the MAP kinase proteins which are responsible for evoking the correct response to external stimuli. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae these pathways detect pheromones, osmolar stresses and nutrient levels, leading the cell into dramatic changes of morphology. Despite being homologous to each other, the MAP kinase proteins show specificity of function. We investigate the nature of the amino acid sequences conferring this specificity. To this end, we i) search the sequences of similar proteins in other Eukaryote species, ii) make a study of simple theoretical models exploring the constraints felt by these protein segments and iii) experimentally construct, a large suite of hybrid proteins made of segments taken from the homologous proteins. These are then expressed in Yeast cells to see what function they are able to perform. Particularly we also ask whether it is possible to design a new kinase protein possessing new function and specificity.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: phosphoglycerate kinase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Phosphoglycerate kinase deficiency is a genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to break down the simple sugar glucose, which is the primary energy source for most cells. Researchers have described two major ...

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Serine/Threonine Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    PRISIC, SLADJANA; HUSSON, ROBERT N.

    2014-01-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome encodes 11 serine/threonine protein kinases (STPKs). A similar number of two-component systems are also present, indicating that these two signal transduction mechanisms are both important in the adaptation of this bacterial pathogen to its environment. The M. tuberculosis phosphoproteome includes hundreds of Ser- and Thr-phosphorylated proteins that participate in all aspects of M. tuberculosis biology, supporting a critical role for the STPKs in regulating M. tuberculosis physiology. Nine of the STPKs are receptor type kinases, with an extracytoplasmic sensor domain and an intracellular kinase domain, indicating that these kinases transduce external signals. Two other STPKs are cytoplasmic and have regulatory domains that sense changes within the cell. Structural analysis of some of the STPKs has led to advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which these STPKs are activated and regulated. Functional analysis has provided insights into the effects of phosphorylation on the activity of several proteins, but for most phosphoproteins the role of phosphorylation in regulating function is unknown. Major future challenges include characterizing the functional effects of phosphorylation for this large number of phosphoproteins, identifying the cognate STPKs for these phosphoproteins, and determining the signals that the STPKs sense. Ultimately, combining these STPK-regulated processes into larger, integrated regulatory networks will provide deeper insight into M. tuberculosis adaptive mechanisms that contribute to tuberculosis pathogenesis. Finally, the STPKs offer attractive targets for inhibitor development that may lead to new therapies for drug-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:25429354

  3. Kinase detection with gallium nitride based high electron mobility transistors

    PubMed Central

    Makowski, Matthew S.; Bryan, Isaac; Sitar, Zlatko; Arellano, Consuelo; Xie, Jinqiao; Collazo, Ramon; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2013-01-01

    A label-free kinase detection system was fabricated by the adsorption of gold nanoparticles functionalized with kinase inhibitor onto AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). The HEMTs were operated near threshold voltage due to the greatest sensitivity in this operational region. The Au NP/HEMT biosensor system electrically detected 1 pM SRC kinase in ionic solutions. These results are pertinent to drug development applications associated with kinase sensing. PMID:23918992

  4. Kinase detection with gallium nitride based high electron mobility transistors.

    PubMed

    Makowski, Matthew S; Bryan, Isaac; Sitar, Zlatko; Arellano, Consuelo; Xie, Jinqiao; Collazo, Ramon; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2013-07-01

    A label-free kinase detection system was fabricated by the adsorption of gold nanoparticles functionalized with kinase inhibitor onto AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). The HEMTs were operated near threshold voltage due to the greatest sensitivity in this operational region. The Au NP/HEMT biosensor system electrically detected 1 pM SRC kinase in ionic solutions. These results are pertinent to drug development applications associated with kinase sensing.

  5. Kinase detection with gallium nitride based high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makowski, Matthew S.; Bryan, Isaac; Sitar, Zlatko; Arellano, Consuelo; Xie, Jinqiao; Collazo, Ramon; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2013-07-01

    A label-free kinase detection system was fabricated by the adsorption of gold nanoparticles functionalized with kinase inhibitor onto AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). The HEMTs were operated near threshold voltage due to the greatest sensitivity in this operational region. The Au NP/HEMT biosensor system electrically detected 1 pM SRC kinase in ionic solutions. These results are pertinent to drug development applications associated with kinase sensing.

  6. Kinase activity profiling of gram-negative pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Hoogendijk, Arie J; Diks, Sander H; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; Van Der Poll, Tom; Wieland, Catharina W

    2011-01-01

    Pneumonia is a severe disease with high morbidity and mortality. A major causative pathogen is the Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae. Kinases play an integral role in the transduction of intracellular signaling cascades and regulate a diverse array of biological processes essential to immune cells. The current study explored signal transduction events during murine Gram-negative pneumonia using a systems biology approach. Kinase activity arrays enable the analysis of 1,024 consensus sequences of protein kinase substrates. Using a kinase activity array on whole lung lysates, cellular kinase activities were determined in a mouse model of K. pneumoniae pneumonia. Notable kinase activities also were validated with phospho-specific Western blots. On the basis of the profiling data, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling via p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p42) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) activity were reduced during infection, whereas v-src sarcoma (Schmidt-Ruppin A-2) viral oncogene homolog (avian) (SRC) activity generally was enhanced. AKT signaling was represented in both metabolic and inflammatory (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 [MKK], apoptosis signal-regulating kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5 [ASK] and v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 [b-RAF]) context. This study reaffirms the importance of classic inflammation pathways, such as MAPK and TGFβ signaling and reveals less known involvement of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), AKT and SRC signaling cassettes in pneumonia.

  7. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 Is Required for Regulation during Dark-Light Transition.

    PubMed

    Lee, Horim

    2015-07-01

    Plant growth and development are coordinately orchestrated by environmental cues and phytohormones. Light acts as a key environmental factor for fundamental plant growth and physiology through photosensory phytochromes and underlying molecular mechanisms. Although phytochromes are known to possess serine/threonine protein kinase activities, whether they trigger a signal transduction pathway via an intracellular protein kinase network remains unknown. In analyses of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK, also called MKK) mutants, the mkk3 mutant has shown both a hypersensitive response in plant hormone gibberellin (GA) and a less sensitive response in red light signaling. Surprisingly, light-induced MAPK activation in wild-type (WT) seedlings and constitutive MAPK phosphorylation in dark-grown mkk3 mutant seedlings have also been found, respectively. Therefore, this study suggests that MKK3 acts in negative regulation in darkness and in light-induced MAPK activation during dark-light transition. PMID:26082029

  8. Pyrrolopyridine inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK-2).

    PubMed

    Anderson, David R; Meyers, Marvin J; Vernier, William F; Mahoney, Matthew W; Kurumbail, Ravi G; Caspers, Nicole; Poda, Gennadiy I; Schindler, John F; Reitz, David B; Mourey, Robert J

    2007-05-31

    A new class of potent kinase inhibitors selective for mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAP-K2 or MK-2) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis has been prepared and evaluated. These inhibitors have IC50 values as low as 10 nM against the target and have good selectivity profiles against a number of kinases including CDK2, ERK, JNK, and p38. These MK-2 inhibitors have been shown to suppress TNFalpha production in U397 cells and to be efficacious in an acute inflammation model. The structure-activity relationships of this series, the selectivity for MK-2 and their activity in both in vitro and in vivo models are discussed. The observed selectivity is discussed with the aid of an MK-2/inhibitor crystal structure.

  9. Crystal Structure of the Protein Kinase Domain of Yeast AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Snf1

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph,M.; Amodeo, G.; Bai, Y.; Tong, L.

    2005-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master metabolic regulator, and is an important target for drug development against diabetes, obesity, and other diseases. AMPK is a hetero-trimeric enzyme, with a catalytic ({alpha}) subunit, and two regulatory ({beta} and {gamma}) subunits. Here we report the crystal structure at 2.2 Angstrom resolution of the protein kinase domain (KD) of the catalytic subunit of yeast AMPK (commonly known as SNF1). The Snf1-KD structure shares strong similarity to other protein kinases, with a small N-terminal lobe and a large C-terminal lobe. Two negative surface patches in the structure may be important for the recognition of the substrates of this kinase.

  10. The crystal structure of choline kinase reveals a eukaryotic protein kinase fold

    SciTech Connect

    Peisach, D.; Gee, P.; Kent, K.; Xu, Z.

    2010-03-08

    Choline kinase catalyzes the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of choline, the first committed step in the CDP-choline pathway for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine. The 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of a choline kinase from C. elegans (CKA-2) reveals that the enzyme is a homodimeric protein with each monomer organized into a two-domain fold. The structure is remarkably similar to those of protein kinases and aminoglycoside phosphotransferases, despite no significant similarity in amino acid sequence. Comparisons to the structures of other kinases suggest that ATP binds to CKA-2 in a pocket formed by highly conserved and catalytically important residues. In addition, a choline binding site is proposed to be near the ATP binding pocket and formed by several structurally flexible loops.

  11. Unraveling Kinase Activation Dynamics Using Kinase-Substrate Relationships from Temporal Large-Scale Phosphoproteomics Studies.

    PubMed

    Domanova, Westa; Krycer, James; Chaudhuri, Rima; Yang, Pengyi; Vafaee, Fatemeh; Fazakerley, Daniel; Humphrey, Sean; James, David; Kuncic, Zdenka

    2016-01-01

    In response to stimuli, biological processes are tightly controlled by dynamic cellular signaling mechanisms. Reversible protein phosphorylation occurs on rapid time-scales (milliseconds to seconds), making it an ideal carrier of these signals. Advances in mass spectrometry-based proteomics have led to the identification of many tens of thousands of phosphorylation sites, yet for the majority of these the kinase is unknown and the underlying network topology of signaling networks therefore remains obscured. Identifying kinase substrate relationships (KSRs) is therefore an important goal in cell signaling research. Existing consensus sequence motif based prediction algorithms do not consider the biological context of KSRs, and are therefore insensitive to many other mechanisms guiding kinase-substrate recognition in cellular contexts. Here, we use temporal information to identify biologically relevant KSRs from Large-scale In Vivo Experiments (KSR-LIVE) in a data-dependent and automated fashion. First, we used available phosphorylation databases to construct a repository of existing experimentally-predicted KSRs. For each kinase in this database, we used time-resolved phosphoproteomics data to examine how its substrates changed in phosphorylation over time. Although substrates for a particular kinase clustered together, they often exhibited a different temporal pattern to the phosphorylation of the kinase. Therefore, although phosphorylation regulates kinase activity, our findings imply that substrate phosphorylation likely serve as a better proxy for kinase activity than kinase phosphorylation. KSR-LIVE can thereby infer which kinases are regulated within a biological context. Moreover, KSR-LIVE can also be used to automatically generate positive training sets for the subsequent prediction of novel KSRs using machine learning approaches. We demonstrate that this approach can distinguish between Akt and Rps6kb1, two kinases that share the same linear consensus motif

  12. Unraveling Kinase Activation Dynamics Using Kinase-Substrate Relationships from Temporal Large-Scale Phosphoproteomics Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Rima; Yang, Pengyi; Vafaee, Fatemeh; Fazakerley, Daniel; Humphrey, Sean; James, David; Kuncic, Zdenka

    2016-01-01

    In response to stimuli, biological processes are tightly controlled by dynamic cellular signaling mechanisms. Reversible protein phosphorylation occurs on rapid time-scales (milliseconds to seconds), making it an ideal carrier of these signals. Advances in mass spectrometry-based proteomics have led to the identification of many tens of thousands of phosphorylation sites, yet for the majority of these the kinase is unknown and the underlying network topology of signaling networks therefore remains obscured. Identifying kinase substrate relationships (KSRs) is therefore an important goal in cell signaling research. Existing consensus sequence motif based prediction algorithms do not consider the biological context of KSRs, and are therefore insensitive to many other mechanisms guiding kinase-substrate recognition in cellular contexts. Here, we use temporal information to identify biologically relevant KSRs from Large-scale In Vivo Experiments (KSR-LIVE) in a data-dependent and automated fashion. First, we used available phosphorylation databases to construct a repository of existing experimentally-predicted KSRs. For each kinase in this database, we used time-resolved phosphoproteomics data to examine how its substrates changed in phosphorylation over time. Although substrates for a particular kinase clustered together, they often exhibited a different temporal pattern to the phosphorylation of the kinase. Therefore, although phosphorylation regulates kinase activity, our findings imply that substrate phosphorylation likely serve as a better proxy for kinase activity than kinase phosphorylation. KSR-LIVE can thereby infer which kinases are regulated within a biological context. Moreover, KSR-LIVE can also be used to automatically generate positive training sets for the subsequent prediction of novel KSRs using machine learning approaches. We demonstrate that this approach can distinguish between Akt and Rps6kb1, two kinases that share the same linear consensus motif

  13. Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Çakır, Birsen; Kılıçkaya, Ozan

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important mechanisms to control cellular functions in response to external and endogenous signals. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are universal signaling molecules in eukaryotes that mediate the intracellular transmission of extracellular signals resulting in the induction of appropriate cellular responses. MAPK cascades are composed of four protein kinase modules: MAPKKK kinases (MAPKKKKs), MAPKK kinases (MAPKKKs), MAPK kinases (MAPKKs), and MAPKs. In plants, MAPKs are activated in response to abiotic stresses, wounding, and hormones, and during plant pathogen interactions and cell division. In this report, we performed a complete inventory of MAPK cascades genes in Vitis vinifera, the whole genome of which has been sequenced. By comparison with MAPK, MAPK kinases, MAPK kinase kinases and MAPK kinase kinase kinase kinase members of Arabidopsis thaliana, we revealed the existence of 14 MAPKs, 5 MAPKKs, 62 MAPKKKs, and 7 MAPKKKKs in Vitis vinifera. We identified orthologs of V. vinifera putative MAPKs in different species, and ESTs corresponding to members of MAPK cascades in various tissues. This work represents the first complete inventory of MAPK cascades in V. vinifera and could help elucidate the biological and physiological functions of these proteins in V. vinifera. PMID:26257761

  14. The Roles of Protein Kinases in Learning and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giese, Karl Peter; Mizuno, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    In the adult mammalian brain, more than 250 protein kinases are expressed, but only a few of these kinases are currently known to enable learning and memory. Based on this information it appears that learning and memory-related kinases either impact on synaptic transmission by altering ion channel properties or ion channel density, or regulate…

  15. Problem-Solving Test: "In Vitro" Protein Kinase A Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2009-01-01

    Phosphorylation of proteins by protein kinases is an important mechanism in the regulation of protein activity. Among hundreds of protein kinases present in human cells, PKA, the first kinase discovered, belongs to the most important and best characterized group of these enzymes. The author presents an experiment that analyzes the "in vitro"…

  16. Protein kinase A and casein kinases mediate sequential phosphorylation events in the circadian negative feedback loop.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guocun; Chen, She; Li, Shaojie; Cha, Joonseok; Long, Chengzu; Li, Lily; He, Qiyang; Liu, Yi

    2007-12-15

    Regulation of circadian clock components by phosphorylation plays essential roles in clock functions and is conserved from fungi to mammals. In the Neurospora circadian negative feedback loop, FREQUENCY (FRQ) protein inhibits WHITE COLLAR (WC) complex activity by recruiting the casein kinases CKI and CKII to phosphorylate the WC proteins, resulting in the repression of frq transcription. On the other hand, CKI and CKII progressively phosphorylate FRQ to promote FRQ degradation, a process that is a major determinant of circadian period length. Here, by using whole-cell isotope labeling and quantitative mass spectrometry methods, we show that the WC-1 phosphorylation events critical for the negative feedback process occur sequentially-first by a priming kinase, then by the FRQ-recruited casein kinases. We further show that the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) is essential for clock function and inhibits WC activity by serving as a priming kinase for the casein kinases. In addition, PKA also regulates FRQ phosphorylation, but unlike CKI and CKII, PKA stabilizes FRQ, similar to the stabilization of human PERIOD2 (hPER2) due to the phosphorylation at the familial advanced sleep phase syndrome (FASPS) site. Thus, PKA is a key clock component that regulates several critical processes in the circadian negative feedback loop. PMID:18079175

  17. Comprehensive kinase profile of pacritinib, a nonmyelosuppressive Janus kinase 2 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Singer, Jack W; Al-Fayoumi, Suliman; Ma, Haiching; Komrokji, Rami S; Mesa, Ruben; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2016-01-01

    Pacritinib, potent inhibitor of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), JAK2V617F, and fms-like receptor tyrosine kinase 3, is in Phase III development in myelofibrosis. Among type 1 inhibitors, pacritinib shows a lack of myelosuppression at doses that both inhibit JAK2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway and demonstrate clinical efficacy. To elucidate these mechanisms and identify other disease targets, a kinome analysis screened 439 recombinant kinases at 100 nM pacritinib concentration. For kinases with >50% inhibition, pacritinib was titrated from 1 to 100 nM. JAK2, JAK2V617F, FLT3, colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor, and interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 achieved half-maximal inhibitory concentrations <50 nM. Pacritinib did not inhibit JAK1 (82% control at 100 nM). Lack of myelosuppression may stem from inhibiting JAK2 without affecting JAK1 and reducing hematopoietic inhibitory cytokines by suppressing interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 or colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor. The pacritinib kinome suggests therapeutic utility in acute myeloid leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, solid tumors, and inflammatory conditions. PMID:27574472

  18. Asymmetric Tyrosine Kinase Arrangements in Activation or Autophosphorylation of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    SciTech Connect

    J Bae; J Schlessinger

    2011-12-31

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) play important roles in the control of many cellular processes including cell proliferation, cell adhesion, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. Ligand-induced dimerization of RTKs leads to autophosphorylation and activation of RTKs. Structural studies have shown that while isolated ectodomains of several RTKs form symmetric dimers the isolated cytoplasmic kinase domains of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) form asymmetric dimers during their activation. Binding of one kinase molecule of EGFR to a second kinase molecule asymmetrically leads to stimulation of kinase activity and enhanced autophosphorylation. Furthermore, the structures of the kinase domain of FGFR1 and FGFR2 reveal the formation of asymmetric interfaces in the processes of autophosphorylation at their specific phosphotyrosine (pY) sites. Disruption of asymmetric dimer interface of EGFR leads to reduction in enzymatic activity and drastic reduction of autophosphorylation of FGFRs in ligandstimulated live cells. These studies demonstrate that asymmetric dimer formation is as a common phenomenon critical for activation and autophosphorylation of RTKs.

  19. Comprehensive kinase profile of pacritinib, a nonmyelosuppressive Janus kinase 2 inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Jack W; Al-Fayoumi, Suliman; Ma, Haiching; Komrokji, Rami S; Mesa, Ruben; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2016-01-01

    Pacritinib, potent inhibitor of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), JAK2V617F, and fms-like receptor tyrosine kinase 3, is in Phase III development in myelofibrosis. Among type 1 inhibitors, pacritinib shows a lack of myelosuppression at doses that both inhibit JAK2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway and demonstrate clinical efficacy. To elucidate these mechanisms and identify other disease targets, a kinome analysis screened 439 recombinant kinases at 100 nM pacritinib concentration. For kinases with >50% inhibition, pacritinib was titrated from 1 to 100 nM. JAK2, JAK2V617F, FLT3, colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor, and interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 achieved half-maximal inhibitory concentrations <50 nM. Pacritinib did not inhibit JAK1 (82% control at 100 nM). Lack of myelosuppression may stem from inhibiting JAK2 without affecting JAK1 and reducing hematopoietic inhibitory cytokines by suppressing interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 or colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor. The pacritinib kinome suggests therapeutic utility in acute myeloid leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, solid tumors, and inflammatory conditions. PMID:27574472

  20. A Novel Mode of Protein Kinase Inhibition Exploiting Hydrophobic Motifs of Autoinhibited Kinases

    SciTech Connect

    S Eathiraj; R Palma; M Hirschi; E Volckova; E Nakuci; J Castro; C Chen; T Chan; D France; M Ashwell

    2011-12-31

    Protein kinase inhibitors with enhanced selectivity can be designed by optimizing binding interactions with less conserved inactive conformations because such inhibitors will be less likely to compete with ATP for binding and therefore may be less impacted by high intracellular concentrations of ATP. Analysis of the ATP-binding cleft in a number of inactive protein kinases, particularly in the autoinhibited conformation, led to the identification of a previously undisclosed non-polar region in this cleft. This ATP-incompatible hydrophobic region is distinct from the previously characterized hydrophobic allosteric back pocket, as well as the main pocket. Generalized hypothetical models of inactive kinases were constructed and, for the work described here, we selected the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) tyrosine kinase family as a case study. Initial optimization of a FGFR2 inhibitor identified from a library of commercial compounds was guided using structural information from the model. We describe the inhibitory characteristics of this compound in biophysical, biochemical, and cell-based assays, and have characterized the binding mode using x-ray crystallographic studies. The results demonstrate, as expected, that these inhibitors prevent activation of the autoinhibited conformation, retain full inhibitory potency in the presence of physiological concentrations of ATP, and have favorable inhibitory activity in cancer cells. Given the widespread regulation of kinases by autoinhibitory mechanisms, the approach described herein provides a new paradigm for the discovery of inhibitors by targeting inactive conformations of protein kinases.

  1. Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor in the preimplantation uterus and blastocyst of the western spotted skunk.

    PubMed

    Paria, B C; Das, S K; Mead, R A; Dey, S K

    1994-08-01

    The western spotted skunk is unique in that its blastocysts undergo a 180-220-day period of arrested development before implantation. We investigated the potential role of epidermal growth factor (EGF)-related growth factors in regulating uterine and embryonic development in this species by studying the status of EGF receptor (EGF-R) in these tissues during delayed implantation and resumption of embryonic development. The cell-specific distribution of EGF binding sites and the expression of EGF-R mRNA were assayed by autoradiography and Northern blot analysis, respectively. The size of EGF-R was determined by affinity cross-linking studies, and its bioactivity was examined by determining EGF-dependent subcellular protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity. EGF binding sites were localized in the uterine luminal and glandular epithelium, endometrial stroma, myometrium, and blood vessels during both stages of pregnancy. As examined by Northern blot hybridization, a cRNA probe specific to mouse EGF-R hybridized to poly(A)+ RNA of skunk uteri. Transcripts similar to those of mouse uterine EGF-R were identified. [125I]-EGF was cross-linked to a 170-kDa protein both in the uterus and in blastocysts collected during the delayed implantation and periimplantation periods. However, EGF-induced PTK activity was significantly elevated above background levels during the period of renewed embryonic development, but not during arrested embryonic development. The results suggest that EGF-related growth factors may play an important role in regulating embryonic development in this species and that a change in the number and/or functional status of the EGF-R may be a prerequisite for blastocyst activation and implantation in the spotted skunk.

  2. Trypanosoma cruzi: Oxidative stress induces arginine kinase expression.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Mariana R; Canepa, Gaspar E; Bouvier, Leon A; Pereira, Claudio A

    2006-12-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi arginine kinase is a key enzyme in cell energy management and is also involved in pH and nutritional stress response mechanisms. T. cruzi epimastigotes treated with hydrogen peroxide presented a time-dependent increase in arginine kinase expression, up to 10-fold, when compared with untreated parasites. Among other oxidative stress-generating compounds tested, only nifurtimox produced more than 2-fold increase in arginine kinase expression. Moreover, parasites overexpressing arginine kinase showed significantly increased survival capability during hydrogen peroxide exposure. These findings suggest the participation of arginine kinase in oxidative stress response systems. PMID:16725140

  3. In silico analysis reveals 75 members of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase gene family in rice.

    PubMed

    Rao, Kudupudi Prabhakara; Richa, Tambi; Kumar, Kundan; Raghuram, Badmi; Sinha, Alok Krishna

    2010-06-01

    Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinases (MAPKKKs) are important components of MAPK cascades, which are universal signal transduction modules and play important role in plant growth and development. In the sequenced Arabidopsis genome 80 MAPKKKs were identified and currently being analysed for its role in different stress. In rice, economically important monocot cereal crop only five MAPKKKs were identified so far. In this study using computational analysis of sequenced rice genome we have identified 75 MAPKKKs. EST hits and full-length cDNA sequences (from KOME or Genbank database) of 75 MAPKKKs supported their existence. Phylogenetic analyses of MAPKKKs from rice and Arabidopsis have classified them into three subgroups, which include Raf, ZIK and MEKK. Conserved motifs in the deduced amino acid sequences of rice MAPKKKs strongly supported their identity as members of Raf, ZIK and MEKK subfamilies. Further expression analysis of the MAPKKKs in MPSS database revealed that their transcripts were differentially regulated in various stress and tissue-specific libraries.

  4. Crystal structure of pyridoxal kinase from the Escherichia coli pdxK gene: implications for the classification of pyridoxal kinases.

    PubMed

    Safo, Martin K; Musayev, Faik N; di Salvo, Martino L; Hunt, Sharyn; Claude, Jean-Baptiste; Schirch, Verne

    2006-06-01

    The pdxK and pdxY genes have been found to code for pyridoxal kinases, enzymes involved in the pyridoxal phosphate salvage pathway. Two pyridoxal kinase structures have recently been published, including Escherichia coli pyridoxal kinase 2 (ePL kinase 2) and sheep pyridoxal kinase, products of the pdxY and pdxK genes, respectively. We now report the crystal structure of E. coli pyridoxal kinase 1 (ePL kinase 1), encoded by a pdxK gene, and an isoform of ePL kinase 2. The structures were determined in the unliganded and binary complexes with either MgATP or pyridoxal to 2.1-, 2.6-, and 3.2-A resolutions, respectively. The active site of ePL kinase 1 does not show significant conformational change upon binding of either pyridoxal or MgATP. Like sheep PL kinase, ePL kinase 1 exhibits a sequential random mechanism. Unlike sheep pyridoxal kinase, ePL kinase 1 may not tolerate wide variation in the size and chemical nature of the 4' substituent on the substrate. This is the result of differences in a key residue at position 59 on a loop (loop II) that partially forms the active site. Residue 59, which is His in ePL kinase 1, interacts with the formyl group at C-4' of pyridoxal and may also determine if residues from another loop (loop I) can fill the active site in the absence of the substrate. Both loop I and loop II are suggested to play significant roles in the functions of PL kinases.

  5. Identification of four plastid-localized protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Richter, Andreas S; Gartmann, Hans; Fechler, Mona; Rödiger, Anja; Baginsky, Sacha; Grimm, Bernhard

    2016-06-01

    In chloroplasts, protein phosphorylation regulates important processes, including metabolism, photosynthesis, gene expression, and signaling. Because the hitherto known plastid protein kinases represent only a fraction of existing kinases, we aimed at the identification of novel plastid-localized protein kinases that potentially phosphorylate enzymes of the tetrapyrrole biosynthesis (TBS) pathway. We screened publicly available databases for proteins annotated as putative protein kinase family proteins with predicted chloroplast localization. Additionally, we analyzed chloroplast fractions which were separated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation by mass spectrometry. We identified four new candidates for protein kinases, which were confirmed to be plastid localized by expression of GFP-fusion proteins in tobacco leaves. A phosphorylation assay with the purified kinases confirmed the protein kinase activity for two of them. PMID:27214872

  6. Protein kinase Czeta mediated Raf-1/extracellular-regulated kinase activation by daunorubicin.

    PubMed

    Mas, Véronique Mansat-De; Hernandez, Hélène; Plo, Isabelle; Bezombes, Christine; Maestre, Nicolas; Quillet-Mary, Anne; Filomenko, Rodolphe; Demur, Cécile; Jaffrézou, Jean-Pierre; Laurent, Guy

    2003-02-15

    In light of the emerging concept of a protective function of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway under stress conditions, we investigated the influence of the anthracycline daunorubicin (DNR) on MAPK signaling and its possible contribution to DNR-induced cytotoxicity. We show that DNR increased phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinases (ERKs) and stimulated activities of both Raf-1 and extracellular-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) within 10 to 30 minutes in U937 cells. ERK1 stimulation was completely blocked by either the mitogen-induced extracellular kinase (MEK) inhibitor PD98059 or the Raf-1 inhibitor 8-bromo-cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate). However, only partial inhibition of Raf-1 and ERK1 stimulation was observed with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (N-Ac). Moreover, the xanthogenate compound D609 that inhibits DNR-induced phosphatidylcholine (PC) hydrolysis and subsequent diacylglycerol (DAG) production, as well as wortmannin that blocks phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) stimulation, only partially inhibited Raf-1 and ERK1 stimulation. We also observed that DNR stimulated protein kinase C zeta (PKCzeta), an atypical PKC isoform, and that both D609 and wortmannin significantly inhibited DNR-triggered PKCzeta activation. Finally, we found that the expression of PKCzeta kinase-defective mutant resulted in the abrogation of DNR-induced ERK phosphorylation. Altogether, these results demonstrate that DNR activates the classical Raf-1/MEK/ERK pathway and that Raf-1 activation is mediated through complex signaling pathways that involve at least 2 contributors: PC-derived DAG and PI3K products that converge toward PKCzeta. Moreover, we show that both Raf-1 and MEK inhibitors, as well as PKCzeta inhibition, sensitized cells to DNR-induced cytotoxicity.

  7. Distinct roles for extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinases and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in the regulation of Mcl-1 synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, K M; Duronio, V

    2001-01-01

    Alterations in the expression of various Bcl-2 family members may act as one means by which a cell's survival may be regulated. The mechanism by which cytokines regulate expression of Bcl-2 family members was examined in the haemopoietic cell line TF-1. Cytokine-induced Mcl-1 protein expression was shown to be controlled through a pathway dependent upon phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase). The cytokine-induced increase in mRNA transcription was not dependent upon PI 3-kinase, thus dissociating the immediate-early transcription factors responsible for Mcl-1 transcription from the PI 3-kinase signalling pathway. In contrast, Mcl-1 mRNA levels were dependent upon MEK [mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinase kinase] activation, suggesting a role for the Ras/MEK/MAPK pathway in Mcl-1 transcription. Activation of PI 3-kinase was shown to be necessary to stimulate Mcl-1 protein translation. This was not due to any effect on prolonging the half-life of the protein. Finally, the lipid second messenger ceramide was shown to cause a reduction in Mcl-1 protein translation, probably via its ability to inhibit protein kinase B activation, providing further clues regarding the death-inducing effect of this lipid. PMID:11368774

  8. Cell cycle dependent regulation of deoxycytidine kinase, deoxyguanosine kinase, and cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase I activity in MOLT-4 cells.

    PubMed

    Fyrberg, A; Mirzaee, S; Lotfi, K

    2006-01-01

    Activation of nucleoside analogues is dependent on kinases and 5'-nucleotidases and the balance between the activity of these enzymes. The purpose of this study was to analyze deoxycytidine kinase, deoxyguanosine kinase, and 4 different 5'-nucleotidases during cell cycle progression in MOLT-4 cells. The activity of both kinases was cell cycle dependent and increased during proliferation while the activity of cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase I decreased. We could show that the kinase activity was higher than the total nucleotidase activity, which was unchanged or decreased during cell cycle progression. These data may be important in designing modern combination therapy with nucleoside analogues.

  9. SUMOylation regulates the SNF1 protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Simpson-Lavy, Kobi J; Johnston, Mark

    2013-10-22

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a major stress sensor of mammalian cells. AMPK's homolog in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the SNF1 protein kinase, is a central regulator of carbon metabolism that inhibits the Snf3/Rgt2-Rgt1 glucose sensing pathway and activates genes involved in respiration. We present evidence that glucose induces modification of the Snf1 catalytic subunt of SNF1 with the small ubiquitin-like modifier protein SUMO, catalyzed by the SUMO (E3) ligase Mms21. Our results suggest that SUMOylation of Snf1 inhibits its function in two ways: by interaction of SUMO attached to lysine 549 with a SUMO-interacting sequence motif located near the active site of Snf1, and by targeting Snf1 for destruction via the Slx5-Slx8 (SUMO-directed) ubiquitin ligase. These findings reveal another way SNF1 function is regulated in response to carbon source.

  10. Mechanism of regulation of receptor histidine kinases.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Hedda U; Dunin-Horkawicz, Stanislaw; Hornig, Nora; Hulko, Michael; Martin, Jörg; Schultz, Joachim E; Zeth, Kornelius; Lupas, Andrei N; Coles, Murray

    2012-01-11

    Bacterial transmembrane receptors regulate an intracellular catalytic output in response to extracellular sensory input. To investigate the conformational changes that relay the regulatory signal, we have studied the HAMP domain, a ubiquitous intracellular module connecting input to output domains. HAMP forms a parallel, dimeric, four-helical coiled coil, and rational substitutions in our model domain (Af1503 HAMP) induce a transition in its interhelical packing, characterized by axial rotation of all four helices (the gearbox signaling model). We now illustrate how these conformational changes are propagated to a downstream domain by fusing Af1503 HAMP variants to the DHp domain of EnvZ, a bacterial histidine kinase. Structures of wild-type and mutant constructs are correlated with ligand response in vivo, clearly associating them with distinct signaling states. We propose that altered recognition of the catalytic domain by DHp, rather than a shift in position of the phospho-accepting histidine, forms the basis for regulation of kinase activity.

  11. Molecular basis of MAP kinase regulation

    PubMed Central

    Peti, Wolfgang; Page, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs; ERK1/2, p38, JNK, and ERK5) have evolved to transduce environmental and developmental signals (growth factors, stress) into adaptive and programmed responses (differentiation, inflammation, apoptosis). Almost 20 years ago, it was discovered that MAPKs contain a docking site in the C-terminal lobe that binds a conserved 13-16 amino acid sequence known as the D- or KIM-motif (kinase interaction motif). Recent crystal structures of MAPK:KIM-peptide complexes are leading to a precise understanding of how KIM sequences contribute to MAPK selectivity. In addition, new crystal and especially NMR studies are revealing how residues outside the canonical KIM motif interact with specific MAPKs and contribute further to MAPK selectivity and signaling pathway fidelity. In this review, we focus on these recent studies, with an emphasis on the use of NMR spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry and small angle X-ray scattering to investigate these processes. PMID:24115095

  12. Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases: Function, structure, and inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Boura, Evzen Nencka, Radim

    2015-10-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases (PI4Ks) synthesize phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P), a key member of the phosphoinositide family. PI4P defines the membranes of Golgi and trans-Golgi network (TGN) and regulates trafficking to and from the Golgi. Humans have two type II PI4Ks (α and β) and two type III enzymes (α and β). Recently, the crystal structures were solved for both type II and type III kinase revealing atomic details of their function. Importantly, the type III PI4Ks are hijacked by +RNA viruses to create so-called membranous web, an extensively phosphorylated and modified membrane system dedicated to their replication. Therefore, selective and potent inhibitors of PI4Ks have been developed as potential antiviral agents. Here we focus on the structure and function of PI4Ks and their potential in human medicine.

  13. Factors influencing the inhibition of protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Brockhoff, Marielle; Hau, Jean-Christophe; Fontana, Patrizia; Zimmermann, Catherine; Pover, Alain De; Erdmann, Dirk; Chène, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    The protein kinase field is a very active research area in the pharmaceutical industry and many activities are ongoing to identify inhibitors of these proteins. The design of new chemical entities with improved pharmacological properties requires a deeper understanding of the factors that modulate inhibitor-kinase interactions. In this report, we studied the effect of two of these factors--the magnesium ion cofactor and the protein substrate--on inhibitors of the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor. Our results show that the concentration of magnesium ion influences the potency of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) competitive inhibitors, suggesting an explanation for the observation that such compounds retain their nanomolar potency in cells despite the presence of millimolar levels of ATP. We also showed that the peptidic substrate affects the potency of these inhibitors in a different manner, suggesting that the influence of this substrate on compound potency should be taken into consideration during drug discovery.

  14. Primary structure of maize chloroplast adenylate kinase.

    PubMed

    Schiltz, E; Burger, S; Grafmüller, R; Deppert, W R; Haehnel, W; Wagner, E

    1994-06-15

    This paper describes the sequence of adenylate kinase (Mg-ATP+AMP<-->Mg-ADP+ADP) from maize chloroplasts. This light-inducible enzyme is important for efficient CO2 fixation in the C4 cycle, by removing and recycling AMP produced in the reversible pyruvate phosphate dikinase reaction. The complete sequence was determined by analyzing peptides from cleavages with trypsin, AspN protease and CNBr and subcleavage of a major CNBr peptide with chymotrypsin. N-terminal Edman degradation and carboxypeptidase digestion established the terminal residues. Electrospray mass spectrometry confirmed the final sequence of 222 residues (M(r) = 24867) including one cysteine and one tryptophan. The sequence shows this enzyme to be a long-variant-type adenylate kinase, the nearest relatives being adenylate kinases from Enterobacteriaceae. Alignment of the sequence with the adenylate kinase from Escherichia coli reveals 44% identical residues. Since the E. coli structure has been published recently at 0.19-nm resolution with the inhibitor adenosine(5')pentaphospho(5')adenosine (Ap5A) [Müller, C. W. & Schulz, G. E. (1992) J. Mol. Biol. 224, 159-177], catalytically essential residues could be compared and were found to be mostly conserved. Surprisingly, in the nucleotide-binding Gly-rich loop Gly-Xaa-Pro-Gly-Xaa-Gly-Lys the middle Gly is replaced by Ala. This is, however, compensated by an Ile-->Val exchange in the nearest spatial neighborhood. A Thr-->Ala exchange explains the unusual tolerance of the enzyme for pyrimidine nucleotides in the acceptor site. PMID:8026505

  15. Molecular Imaging of the ATM Kinase Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Terence M.; Nyati, Shyam; Ross, Brian D.; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine/threonine kinase critical to the cellular DNA-damage response, including from DNA double-strand breaks. ATM activation results in the initiation of a complex cascade of events including DNA damage repair, cell cycle checkpoint control, and survival. We sought to create a bioluminescent reporter that dynamically and noninvasively measures ATM kinase activity in living cells and subjects. Methods and Materials: Using the split luciferase technology, we constructed a hybrid cDNA, ATM-reporter (ATMR), coding for a protein that quantitatively reports on changes in ATM kinase activity through changes in bioluminescence. Results: Treatment of ATMR-expressing cells with ATM inhibitors resulted in a dose-dependent increase in bioluminescence activity. In contrast, induction of ATM kinase activity upon irradiation resulted in a decrease in reporter activity that correlated with ATM and Chk2 activation by immunoblotting in a time-dependent fashion. Nuclear targeting improved ATMR sensitivity to both ATM inhibitors and radiation, whereas a mutant ATMR (lacking the target phosphorylation site) displayed a muted response. Treatment with ATM inhibitors and small interfering (si)RNA-targeted knockdown of ATM confirm the specificity of the reporter. Using reporter expressing xenografted tumors demonstrated the ability of ATMR to report in ATM activity in mouse models that correlated in a time-dependent fashion with changes in Chk2 activity. Conclusions: We describe the development and validation of a novel, specific, noninvasive bioluminescent reporter that enables monitoring of ATM activity in real time, in vitro and in vivo. Potential applications of this reporter include the identification and development of novel ATM inhibitors or ATM-interacting partners through high-throughput screens and in vivo pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies of ATM inhibitors in preclinical models.

  16. Association of Common Genetic Variants in Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ting-Ting; Qiao, Hong; Tong, Hui-Xin; Zhuang, Tian-Wei; Wang, Tong-Tong

    2016-01-01

    Background: A study has identified several novel susceptibility variants of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (MAP4K4) gene for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) within the German population. Among the variants, five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of MAP4K4 (rs1003376, rs11674694, rs2236935, rs2236936, and rs6543087) showed significant association with T2DM or diabetes-related quantitative traits. We aimed to evaluate whether common SNPs in the MAP4K4 gene were associated with T2DM in the Chinese population. Methods: Five candidate SNPs were genotyped in 996 patients newly diagnosed with T2DM and in 976 control subjects, using the SNPscan™ method. All subjects were recruited from the Second Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University from October 2010 to September 2013. We evaluated the T2DM risk conferred by individual SNPs and haplotypes using logistic analysis, and the association between the five SNPs and metabolic traits in the subgroups. Results: Of the five variants, SNP rs2236935T/C was significantly associated with T2DM in this study population (odds ratio = 1.293; 95% confidence interval: 1.034–1.619, P = 0.025). In addition, among the controls, rs1003376 was significantly associated with an increased body mass index (P = 0.045) and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (P = 0.037). Conclusions: MAP4K4 gene is associated with T2DM in a Chinese Han population, and MAP4K4 gene variants may contribute to the risk toward the development of T2DM. PMID:27174326

  17. Approach to asymptomatic creatine kinase elevation

    PubMed Central

    MOGHADAM-KIA, SIAMAK; ODDIS, CHESTER V.; AGGARWAL, ROHIT

    2016-01-01

    How to manage a patient who has an elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) level but no or insignificant muscle-related signs and symptoms is a clinical conundrum. The authors provide a systematic approach, including repeat testing after a period of rest, defining higher thresholds over which pursuing a diagnosis is worthwhile, and evaluating for a variety of nonneuromuscular causes. They also outline a workup for neuromuscular causes. PMID:26760521

  18. Creatine kinase in ischemic and inflammatory disorders.

    PubMed

    Kitzenberg, David; Colgan, Sean P; Glover, Louise E

    2016-12-01

    The creatine/phosphocreatine pathway plays a conserved and central role in energy metabolism. Compartmentalization of specific creatine kinase enzymes permits buffering of local high energy phosphates in a thermodynamically favorable manner, enabling both rapid energy storage and energy transfer within the cell. Augmentation of this metabolic pathway by nutritional creatine supplementation has been shown to elicit beneficial effects in a number of diverse pathologies, particularly those that incur tissue ischemia, hypoxia or oxidative stress. In these settings, creatine and phosphocreatine prevent depletion of intracellular ATP and internal acidification, enhance post-ischemic recovery of protein synthesis and promote free radical scavenging and stabilization of cellular membranes. The creatine kinase energy system is itself further regulated by hypoxic signaling, highlighting the existence of endogenous mechanisms in mammals that can enhance creatine metabolism during oxygen deprivation to promote tissue resolution and homeostasis. Here, we review recent insights into the creatine kinase pathway, and provide rationale for dietary creatine supplementation in human ischemic and inflammatory pathologies. PMID:27527620

  19. Diacylglycerol Kinase Inhibition and Vascular Function.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyehun; Allahdadi, Kyan J; Tostes, Rita C A; Webb, R Clinton

    2009-01-01

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs), a family of lipid kinases, convert diacylglycerol (DG) to phosphatidic acid (PA). Acting as a second messenger, DG activates protein kinase C (PKC). PA, a signaling lipid, regulates diverse functions involved in physiological responses. Since DGK modulates two lipid second messengers, DG and PA, regulation of DGK could induce related cellular responses. Currently, there are 10 mammalian isoforms of DGK that are categorized into five groups based on their structural features. These diverse isoforms of DGK are considered to activate distinct cellular functions according to extracellular stimuli. Each DGK isoform is thought to play various roles inside the cell, depending on its subcellular localization (nuclear, ER, Golgi complex or cytoplasm). In vascular smooth muscle, vasoconstrictors such as angiotensin II, endothelin-1 and norepinephrine stimulate contraction by increasing inositol trisphosphate (IP(3)), calcium, DG and PKC activity. Inhibition of DGK could increase DG availability and decrease PA levels, as well as alter intracellular responses, including calcium-mediated and PKC-mediated vascular contraction. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate a role of DGK in vascular function. Selective inhibition of DGK isoforms may represent a novel therapeutic approach in vascular dysfunction. PMID:21547002

  20. Phosphatidylinositol kinase activities in Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, Alba Marina; Gesumaría, María Celeste; Schoijet, Alejandra C; Alonso, Guillermo D; Flawiá, Mirtha M; Racagni, Graciela E; Machado, Estela E

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) metabolism through phosphatidylinositol kinase (PIKs) activities plays a central role in different signaling pathways. In Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease, PIKs have been proposed as target for drug design in order to combat this pathogen. In this work, we studied the classes of PI4K, PIPK and PI3K that could participate in signaling pathways in T. cruzi epimastigote forms. For this reason, we analyzed their enzymatic parameters and detailed responses to avowed kinase inhibitors (adenosine, sodium deoxycholate, wortmannin and LY294002) and activators (Ca(2+), phosphatidic acid, spermine and heparin). Our results suggest the presence and activity of a class III PI4K, a class I PIPK, a class III PI3K previously described (TcVps34) and a class I PI3K. Class I PI3K enzyme, here named TcPI3K, was cloned and expressed in a bacterial system, and their product was tested for kinase activity. The possible participation of TcPI3K in central cellular events of the parasite is also discussed. PMID:26493613

  1. Targeting receptor tyrosine kinases in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Asahiro; Gong, Jian; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Molecularly targeted therapeutic agents are constantly being developed and have been shown to be effective in various clinical trials. One group of representative targeted oncogenic kinases, the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), has been associated with gastric cancer development. Trastuzumab, an inhibitor of ERBB2, has been approved for the treatment of gastric cancer, although other receptor tyrosine kinases, such as epidermal growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, c-Met, IGF-1R and fibroblast growth factor receptor 2, are also activated in gastric cancer. The promising results of the trastuzumab clinical trial for gastric cancer resulted in the approval of trastuzumab-based therapy as a first-line treatment for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive patients. On the other hand, the trial examining bevacizumab in combination with conventional chemotherapy did not meet its primary goal of increasing the overall survival time of gastric cancer patients; however, a significantly higher response rate and a longer progression-free survival were observed in the bevacizumab arm of the trial. Other clinical trials, especially phase III trials that have tested drugs targeting RTKs, such as cetuximab, panitumumab, gefitinib, erlotinib, figitumumab, sorafenib, sunitinib and lapatinib, have shown that these drugs have modest effects against gastric cancer. This review summarizes the recent results from the clinical trials of molecularly targeted drugs and suggests that further improvements in the treatment of advanced gastric cancer can be achieved through the combination of conventional drugs with the new molecularly targeted therapies. PMID:24782606

  2. Conservation and early expression of zebrafish tyrosine kinases support the utility of zebrafish as a model for tyrosine kinase biology.

    PubMed

    Challa, Anil Kumar; Chatti, Kiranam

    2013-09-01

    Tyrosine kinases have significant roles in cell growth, apoptosis, development, and disease. To explore the use of zebrafish as a vertebrate model for tyrosine kinase signaling and to better understand their roles, we have identified all of the tyrosine kinases encoded in the zebrafish genome and quantified RNA expression of selected tyrosine kinases during early development. Using profile hidden Markov model analysis, we identified 122 zebrafish tyrosine kinase genes and proposed unambiguous gene names where needed. We found them to be organized into 39 nonreceptor and 83 receptor type, and 30 families consistent with human tyrosine kinase family assignments. We found five human tyrosine kinase genes (epha1, bmx, fgr, srm, and insrr) with no identifiable zebrafish ortholog, and one zebrafish gene (yrk) with no identifiable human ortholog. We also found that receptor tyrosine kinase genes were duplicated more often than nonreceptor tyrosine kinase genes in zebrafish. We profiled expression levels of 30 tyrosine kinases representing all families using direct digital detection at different stages during the first 24 hours of development. The profiling experiments clearly indicate regulated expression of tyrosine kinases in the zebrafish, suggesting their role during early embryonic development. In summary, our study has resulted in the first comprehensive description of the zebrafish tyrosine kinome. PMID:23234507

  3. Conservation and early expression of zebrafish tyrosine kinases support the utility of zebrafish as a model for tyrosine kinase biology.

    PubMed

    Challa, Anil Kumar; Chatti, Kiranam

    2013-09-01

    Tyrosine kinases have significant roles in cell growth, apoptosis, development, and disease. To explore the use of zebrafish as a vertebrate model for tyrosine kinase signaling and to better understand their roles, we have identified all of the tyrosine kinases encoded in the zebrafish genome and quantified RNA expression of selected tyrosine kinases during early development. Using profile hidden Markov model analysis, we identified 122 zebrafish tyrosine kinase genes and proposed unambiguous gene names where needed. We found them to be organized into 39 nonreceptor and 83 receptor type, and 30 families consistent with human tyrosine kinase family assignments. We found five human tyrosine kinase genes (epha1, bmx, fgr, srm, and insrr) with no identifiable zebrafish ortholog, and one zebrafish gene (yrk) with no identifiable human ortholog. We also found that receptor tyrosine kinase genes were duplicated more often than nonreceptor tyrosine kinase genes in zebrafish. We profiled expression levels of 30 tyrosine kinases representing all families using direct digital detection at different stages during the first 24 hours of development. The profiling experiments clearly indicate regulated expression of tyrosine kinases in the zebrafish, suggesting their role during early embryonic development. In summary, our study has resulted in the first comprehensive description of the zebrafish tyrosine kinome.

  4. Varicella-Zoster Virus Open Reading Frame 66 Protein Kinase and Its Relationship to Alphaherpesvirus US3 Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Erazo, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The varicella-zoster virus (VZV) open reading frame (ORF) 66 encodes a basophilic kinase orthologous to the US3 protein kinases found in all alphaherpesviruses. This review summarizes current information on the ORF66 kinase, and outlines apparent differences from other US3 kinases, as well as some of the conserved functions. One critical difference is the VZV ORF66 kinase targeting of the major regulatory VZV IE62 protein to control its nuclear import and assembly into the VZV virion, which is so far unprecedented in the alphaherpesviruses. However, ORF66 targets some cellular targets which are also targeted by US3 kinases of other herpesviruses, including the histone deacetylase-1 and 2 proteins, pathways that lead to changes in actin dynamics, and the targeting of substrates of protein kinase A, including the nuclear matrix protein matrin 3. PMID:20186610

  5. Characterization of irreversible kinase inhibitors by directly detecting covalent bond formation: a tool for dissecting kinase drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Klüter, Sabine; Simard, Jeffrey R; Rode, Haridas B; Grütter, Christian; Pawar, Vijaykumar; Raaijmakers, Hans C A; Barf, Tjeerd A; Rabiller, Matthias; van Otterlo, Willem A L; Rauh, Daniel

    2010-12-10

    Targeting protein kinases in cancer therapy with irreversible small-molecule inhibitors is moving to the forefront of kinase-inhibitor research and is thought to be an effective means of overcoming mutation-associated drug resistance in epidermal growth factor receptor kinase (EGFR). We generated a detection technique that allows direct measurements of covalent bond formation without relying on kinase activity, thereby allowing the straightforward investigation of the influence of steric clashes on covalent inhibitors in different resistant kinase mutants. The obtained results are discussed together with structural biology and biochemical studies of catalytic activity in both wild-type and gatekeeper mutated kinase variants to draw conclusions about the impact of steric hindrance and increased catalytic activity in drug-resistant kinase variants. PMID:21080395

  6. Pyruvate Kinase M2 Regulates Gene Transcription by Acting as A Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xueliang; Wang, Haizhen; Jenny, J. Yang; Liu, Xiaowei; Liu, Zhi-Ren

    2012-01-01

    Summary Pyruvate kinase isoform M2 (PKM2) is a glycolysis enzyme catalyzing conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to pyruvate with transferring a phosphate from PEP to ADP. We report here that PKM2 localizes to the cell nucleus. The levels of nuclear PKM2 correlate with cell proliferation. PKM2 activates transcription of MEK5 by phosphorylating stat3 at Y705. In vitro phosphorylation assays show that PKM2 is a protein kinase using PEP as phosphate donor. ADP competes with the protein substrate binding, indicating that the substrate may bind to the ADP site of PKM2. Our experiments suggest that PKM2 dimer is an active protein kinase, while the tetramer is an active pyruvate kinase. Expression a PKM2 mutant that exists as a dimer promotes cell proliferation, indicating that protein kinase activity of PKM2 plays a role in promoting cell proliferation. Our study reveals an important link between metabolism alteration and gene expression during tumor transformation and progression. PMID:22306293

  7. Cellular trafficking of the IL-1RI-associated kinase-1 requires intact kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Boel, Gaby-Fleur . E-mail: boel@mail.dife.de; Jurrmann, Nadine; Brigelius-Flohe, Regina

    2005-06-24

    Upon stimulation of cells with interleukin-1 (IL-1) the IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI) associated kinase-1 (IRAK-1) transiently associates to and dissociates from the IL-1RI and thereafter translocates into the nucleus. Here we show that nuclear translocation of IRAK-1 depends on its kinase activity since translocation was not observed in EL-4 cells overexpressing a kinase negative IRAK-1 mutant (EL-4{sup IRAK-1-K239S}). IRAK-1 itself, an endogenous substrate with an apparent molecular weight of 24 kDa (p24), and exogenous substrates like histone and myelin basic protein are phosphorylated by nuclear located IRAK-1. Phosphorylation of p24 cannot be detected in EL-4{sup IRAK-1-K239S} cells. IL-1-dependent recruitment of IRAK-1 to the IL-1RI and subsequent phosphorylation of IRAK-1 is a prerequisite for nuclear translocation of IRAK-1. It is therefore concluded that intracellular localization of IRAK-1 depends on its kinase activity and that IRAK-1 may also function as a kinase in the nucleus as shown by a new putative endogenous substrate.

  8. A-kinase Anchoring Protein 79/150 Recruits Protein Kinase C to Phosphorylate Roundabout Receptors.

    PubMed

    Samelson, Bret K; Gore, Bryan B; Whiting, Jennifer L; Nygren, Patrick J; Purkey, Alicia M; Colledge, Marcie; Langeberg, Lorene K; Dell'Acqua, Mark L; Zweifel, Larry S; Scott, John D

    2015-05-29

    Anchoring proteins direct protein kinases and phosphoprotein phosphatases toward selected substrates to control the efficacy, context, and duration of neuronal phosphorylation events. The A-kinase anchoring protein AKAP79/150 interacts with protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC), and protein phosphatase 2B (calcineurin) to modulate second messenger signaling events. In a mass spectrometry-based screen for additional AKAP79/150 binding partners, we have identified the Roundabout axonal guidance receptor Robo2 and its ligands Slit2 and Slit3. Biochemical and cellular approaches confirm that a linear sequence located in the cytoplasmic tail of Robo2 (residues 991-1070) interfaces directly with sites on the anchoring protein. Parallel studies show that AKAP79/150 interacts with the Robo3 receptor in a similar manner. Immunofluorescent staining detects overlapping expression patterns for murine AKAP150, Robo2, and Robo3 in a variety of brain regions, including hippocampal region CA1 and the islands of Calleja. In vitro kinase assays, peptide spot array mapping, and proximity ligation assay staining approaches establish that human AKAP79-anchored PKC selectively phosphorylates the Robo3.1 receptor subtype on serine 1330. These findings imply that anchored PKC locally modulates the phosphorylation status of Robo3.1 in brain regions governing learning and memory and reward.

  9. Src tyrosine kinase regulates the stem cell factor–induced breakdown of the blood–retinal barrier

    PubMed Central

    Im, Ji-Eun; Song, Sun-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Stem cell factor (SCF) has been recently acknowledged as a novel endothelial permeability factor. However, the mechanisms by which SCF-induced activation of the SCF cognate receptor, cKit, enhances endothelial permeability have not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the role of Src in SCF-induced breakdown of the blood–retinal barrier (BRB). Methods In vitro endothelial permeability and in vivo retinal vascular permeability assays were performed to investigate the role of Src in SCF-induced breakdown of the BRB. Immunofluorescence staining experiments were performed to analyze the cellular distribution of phosphorylated Src and vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin. Results SCF markedly reduced electric resistance across the human retinal vascular endothelial monolayer in vitro and enhanced extravasation of dyes in murine retinal vasculature in vivo. Inhibition of cKit activation using cKit mutant mice and chemical inhibitor substantially diminished the ability of SCF to increase endothelial permeability and retinal vascular leakage. In human retinal vascular endothelial cells, SCF induced strong phosphorylation of Src and distinct localization of phosphorylated Src in the plasma membrane. Inhibition of Src activation using chemical inhibitors abolished the SCF-induced hyperpermeability of human retinal vascular endothelial cells and retinal vascular leakage in mice. In addition, treatment with Src inhibitors restored junctional expression of VE-cadherin that disappeared in SCF-treated retinal endothelial cells and retinal vasculature. Conclusions These results showed the important role of Src in mediating SCF-induced breakdown of the BRB and retinal vascular leakage. Given that increased retinal vascular permeability is a common manifestation of various ocular diseases, the SCF/cKit/Src signaling pathway may be involved in the development of the hyperpermeable retinal vasculature in many ocular disorders. PMID:27746675

  10. Targeting the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway in hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Jabbour, Elias; Ottmann, Oliver G.; Deininger, Michael; Hochhaus, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway represents an important anticancer target because it has been implicated in cancer cell growth, survival, and motility. Recent studies show that PI3K may also play a role in the development of resistance to currently available therapies. In a broad range of cancers, various components of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling axis are genetically modified, and the pathway can be activated through many different mechanisms. The frequency of genetic alterations in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway, coupled with the impact in oncogenesis and disease progression, make this signaling axis an attractive target in anticancer therapy. A better understanding of the critical function of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway in leukemias and lymphomas has led to the clinical evaluation of novel rationally designed inhibitors in this setting. Three main categories of phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors have been developed so far: agents that target phosphoinositide 3-kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin (dual inhibitors), pan-phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors that target all class I isoforms, and isoform-specific inhibitors that selectively target the α, -β, -γ, or -δ isoforms. Emerging data highlight the promise of phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors in combination with other therapies for the treatment of patients with hematologic malignancies. Further evaluation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors in first-line or subsequent regimens may improve clinical outcomes. This article reviews the role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling in hematologic malignancies and the potential clinical utility of inhibitors that target this pathway. PMID:24425689

  11. Cytosolic rat brain synapsin I is a diacylglycerol kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, D W; Besterman, J M

    1991-01-01

    The phosphorylation of diacylglycerol (DG), a reaction catalyzed by DG kinase, may be critical in the termination of effector-induced signals mediated by protein kinase C. Synapsin I is a principal target of intracellular protein kinases and is thought to be involved in the release of neurotransmitter from axon terminals. We present several lines of evidence which indicate that rat brain synapsin, in addition to this role, may function as a DG kinase. Purified rat brain DG kinase was digested with trypsin, which produced three major fragments whose sequence was identical to three regions in synapsin I. Using a rabbit anti-synapsin polyclonal antiserum, the elution profile of synapsin immunoreactivity coincided exactly with that of DG kinase activity in column fractions from the final step in the DG kinase purification procedure. As is the case with synapsin, the purified enzyme was a strongly basic protein with an isoelectric point greater than 10.0. Finally, incubating the DG kinase with highly purified bacterial collagenase, an enzyme that partially degrades the proline- and glycine-rich synapsin, resulted in the simultaneous loss of DG kinase activity and synapsin immunoreactivity. We conclude that cytosolic rat brain synapsin is capable of functioning as a DG kinase. Images PMID:1648730

  12. The Structure of Lombricine Kinase: Implications for Phosphagen Conformational Changes

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, D. Jeffrey; Kirillova, Olga; Clark, Shawn A.; Davulcu, Omar; Fabiola, Felcy; Xie, Qing; Somasundaram, Thayumanasamy; Ellington, W. Ross; Chapman, Michael S.

    2012-05-29

    Lombricine kinase is a member of the phosphagen kinase family and a homolog of creatine and arginine kinases, enzymes responsible for buffering cellular ATP levels. Structures of lombricine kinase from the marine worm Urechis caupo were determined by x-ray crystallography. One form was crystallized as a nucleotide complex, and the other was substrate-free. The two structures are similar to each other and more similar to the substrate-free forms of homologs than to the substrate-bound forms of the other phosphagen kinases. Active site specificity loop 309-317, which is disordered in substrate-free structures of homologs and is known from the NMR of arginine kinase to be inherently dynamic, is resolved in both lombricine kinase structures, providing an improved basis for understanding the loop dynamics. Phosphagen kinases undergo a segmented closing on substrate binding, but the lombricine kinase ADP complex is in the open form more typical of substrate-free homologs. Through a comparison with prior complexes of intermediate structure, a correlation was revealed between the overall enzyme conformation and the substrate interactions of His{sup 178}. Comparative modeling provides a rationale for the more relaxed specificity of these kinases, of which the natural substrates are among the largest of the phosphagen substrates.

  13. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases and Mitogen Kinase Phosphatase 1: A Critical Interplay in Macrophage Biology

    PubMed Central

    Lloberas, Jorge; Valverde-Estrella, Lorena; Tur, Juan; Vico, Tania; Celada, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are necessary in multiple processes during the immune response or inflammation. This review emphasizes the critical role of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and mitogen kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) in the functional activities of macrophages. While the phosphorylation of MAPKs is required for macrophage activation or proliferation, MKP-1 dephosphorylates these kinases, thus playing a balancing role in the control of macrophage behavior. MKP-1 is a nuclear-localized dual-specificity phosphatase whose expression is regulated at multiple levels, including at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. The regulatory role of MKP-1 in the interplay between MAPK phosphorylation/dephosphorylation makes this molecule a critical regulator of macrophage biology and inflammation. PMID:27446931

  14. Tank binding kinase 1 is a centrosome-associated kinase necessary for microtubule dynamics and mitosis.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Smitha; Nguyen, Jonathan; Johnson, Joseph; Haura, Eric; Coppola, Domenico; Chellappan, Srikumar

    2015-12-10

    TANK Binding Kinase 1 (TBK1) is a non-canonical IκB kinase that contributes to KRAS-driven lung cancer. Here we report that TBK1 plays essential roles in mammalian cell division. Specifically, levels of active phospho-TBK1 increase during mitosis and localize to centrosomes, mitotic spindles and midbody, and selective inhibition or silencing of TBK1 triggers defects in spindle assembly and prevents mitotic progression. TBK1 binds to the centrosomal protein CEP170 and to the mitotic apparatus protein NuMA, and both CEP170 and NuMA are TBK1 substrates. Further, TBK1 is necessary for CEP170 centrosomal localization and binding to the microtubule depolymerase Kif2b, and for NuMA binding to dynein. Finally, selective disruption of the TBK1-CEP170 complex augments microtubule stability and triggers defects in mitosis, suggesting that TBK1 functions as a mitotic kinase necessary for microtubule dynamics and mitosis.

  15. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases and Mitogen Kinase Phosphatase 1: A Critical Interplay in Macrophage Biology.

    PubMed

    Lloberas, Jorge; Valverde-Estrella, Lorena; Tur, Juan; Vico, Tania; Celada, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are necessary in multiple processes during the immune response or inflammation. This review emphasizes the critical role of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and mitogen kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) in the functional activities of macrophages. While the phosphorylation of MAPKs is required for macrophage activation or proliferation, MKP-1 dephosphorylates these kinases, thus playing a balancing role in the control of macrophage behavior. MKP-1 is a nuclear-localized dual-specificity phosphatase whose expression is regulated at multiple levels, including at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. The regulatory role of MKP-1 in the interplay between MAPK phosphorylation/dephosphorylation makes this molecule a critical regulator of macrophage biology and inflammation. PMID:27446931

  16. ABC1K atypical kinases in plants; filling the organellar kinase void

    PubMed Central

    Lundquist, Peter K.; Davis, Jerrold I.; van Wijk, Klaas J.

    2014-01-01

    Surprisingly few protein kinases have been demonstrated in chloroplasts or mitochondria. Here we discuss the “activity of bc1 complex kinase” (ABC1K) protein family which we suggest locate in mitochondria and plastids, thus filling the kinase void. The ABC1Ks are atypical protein kinases and their ancestral function is the regulation of quinone synthesis. ABC1Ks have proliferated from 1–2 members in non-photosynthetic organisms to more than 16 members in algae and higher plants. In this review we reconstruct the evolutionary history of the ABC1K family, provide a functional domain analysis for angiosperms and a nomenclature for ABC1Ks in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), rice (Oryza sativa) and maize (Zea mays). Finally, we hypothesize that targets of ABC1Ks include enzymes of prenyl-lipid metabolism as well as components of the organellar gene expression machineries. PMID:22694836

  17. Protein kinase A signalling in Schistosoma mansoni cercariae and schistosomules.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Natasha L; Lawton, Scott P; Walker, Anthony J

    2016-06-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase/protein kinase A regulates multiple processes in eukaryotes by phosphorylating diverse cellular substrates, including metabolic and signalling enzymes, ion channels and transcription factors. Here we provide insight into protein kinase A signalling in cercariae and 24h in vitro cultured somules of the blood parasite, Schistosoma mansoni, which causes human intestinal schistosomiasis. Functional mapping of activated protein kinase A using anti-phospho protein kinase A antibodies and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed activated protein kinase A in the central and peripheral nervous system, oral-tip sensory papillae, oesophagus and excretory system of intact cercariae. Cultured 24h somules, which biologically represent the skin-resident stage of the parasite, exhibited similar activation patterns in oesophageal and nerve tissues but also displayed striking activation at the tegument and activation in a region resembling the germinal 'stem' cell cluster. The adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin, stimulated somule protein kinase A activation and produced a hyperkinesia phenotype. The biogenic amines, serotonin and dopamine known to be present in skin also induced protein kinase A activation in somules, whereas neuropeptide Y or [Leu(31),Pro(34)]-neuropeptide Y attenuated protein kinase A activation. However, neuropeptide Y did not block the forskolin-induced somule hyperkinesia. Bioinformatic investigation of potential protein associations revealed 193 medium confidence and 59 high confidence protein kinase A interacting partners in S. mansoni, many of which possess putative protein kinase A phosphorylation sites. These data provide valuable insight into the intricacies of protein kinase A signalling in S. mansoni and a framework for further physiological investigations into the roles of protein kinase A in schistosomes, particularly in the context of interactions between the parasite and the host. PMID:26777870

  18. Unveiling the Novel Dual Specificity Protein Kinases in Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Gunjan; Sajid, Andaleeb; Arulanandh, Mary Diana; Singhal, Anshika; Mattoo, Abid R.; Pomerantsev, Andrei P.; Leppla, Stephen H.; Maiti, Souvik; Singh, Yogendra

    2012-01-01

    Dual specificity protein kinases (DSPKs) are unique enzymes that can execute multiple functions in the cell, which are otherwise performed exclusively by serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinases. In this study, we have characterized the protein kinases Bas2152 (PrkD) and Bas2037 (PrkG) from Bacillus anthracis. Transcriptional analyses of these kinases showed that they are expressed in all phases of growth. In a serendipitous discovery, both kinases were found to be DSPKs. PrkD was found to be similar to the eukaryotic dual specificity Tyr phosphorylation-regulated kinase class of dual specificity kinases, which autophosphorylates on Ser, Thr, and Tyr residues and phosphorylates Ser and Thr residues on substrates. PrkG was found to be a bona fide dual specificity protein kinase that mediates autophosphorylation and substrate phosphorylation on Ser, Thr, and Tyr residues. The sites of phosphorylation in both of the kinases were identified through mass spectrometry. Phosphorylation on Tyr residues regulates the kinase activity of PrkD and PrkG. PrpC, the only known Ser/Thr protein phosphatase, was also found to possess dual specificity. Genistein, a known Tyr kinase inhibitor, was found to inhibit the activities of PrkD and PrkG and affect the growth of B. anthracis cells, indicating a possible role of these kinases in cell growth and development. In addition, the glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase was found to be phosphorylated by PrkD on Ser and Thr residues but not by PrkG. Thus, this study provides the first evidence of DSPKs in B. anthracis that belong to different classes and have different modes of regulation. PMID:22711536

  19. Mechanism of dual specificity kinase activity of DYRK1A.

    PubMed

    Walte, Agnes; Rüben, Katharina; Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth; Preisinger, Christian; Bamberg-Lemper, Simone; Hilz, Nikolaus; Bracher, Franz; Becker, Walter

    2013-09-01

    The function of many protein kinases is controlled by the phosphorylation of a critical tyrosine residue in the activation loop. Dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinases (DYRKs) autophosphorylate on this tyrosine residue but phosphorylate substrates on aliphatic amino acids. This study addresses the mechanism of dual specificity kinase activity in DYRK1A and related kinases. Tyrosine autophosphorylation of DYRK1A occurred rapidly during in vitro translation and did not depend on the non-catalytic domains or other proteins. Expression in bacteria as well as in mammalian cells revealed that tyrosine kinase activity of DYRK1A is not restricted to the co-translational autophosphorylation in the activation loop. Moreover, mature DYRK1A was still capable of tyrosine autophosphorylation. Point mutants of DYRK1A and DYRK2 lacking the activation loop tyrosine showed enhanced tyrosine kinase activity. A series of structurally diverse DYRK1A inhibitors was used to pharmacologically distinguish different conformational states of the catalytic domain that are hypothesized to account for the dual specificity kinase activity. All tested compounds inhibited substrate phosphorylation with higher potency than autophosphorylation but none of the tested inhibitors differentially inhibited threonine and tyrosine kinase activity. Finally, the related cyclin-dependent kinase-like kinases (CLKs), which lack the activation loop tyrosine, autophosphorylated on tyrosine both in vitro and in living cells. We propose a model of DYRK autoactivation in which tyrosine autophosphorylation in the activation loop stabilizes a conformation of the catalytic domain with enhanced serine/threonine kinase activity without disabling tyrosine phosphorylation. The mechanism of dual specificity kinase activity probably applies to related serine/threonine kinases that depend on tyrosine autophosphorylation for maturation. PMID:23809146

  20. Simultaneous detection of kinase and phosphatase activities of polynucleotide kinase using molecular beacon probes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Changbei; Fang, Hefei; Wang, Kemin; Xia, Kun; Chen, Hanchun; He, Hailun; Zeng, Weimin

    2013-12-15

    Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of DNA by polynucleotide kinase (PNK) has an important role in DNA damage repair, replication, and recombination. Traditionally, it is assayed by denaturing gel electrophoresis and autoradiography, which are tedious and not sensitive. We report on the development of a sensitive and simple method for PNK assay based on DNA ligation using a molecular beacon. Enzyme activity of PNK is measured down to a limit of 0.002 unit/ml. The method not only provides a universal platform for simultaneous monitoring of kinase and phosphatase activities, but also shows great potential in biological research, drug discovery, and clinical diagnostics.

  1. Macro creatine kinase type 1: a cause of spuriously elevated serum creatine kinase associated with leukoencephalopathy in a child.

    PubMed

    Bodensteiner, John B

    2014-07-01

    Macro creatine kinase type 1 is a complex formed by the creatine kinase isoenzyme BB and monoclonal IgG and occurs in about 1% of patients studied. First identified as a cause of spurious elevation of the total serum creatine kinase in patients suspected of myocardial infarction, the test has been largely replaced by the measurement of troponin levels. We present a child with delayed milestones and persistently elevated total serum creatine kinase measurements (∼ 1000-4000 IU) normal electromyogram and brisk myotatic reflexes. Creatine kinase isoenzymes and brain imaging showed the presence of macro creatine kinase type 1 and extensive signal abnormality of the cerebral white matter. Macro creatine kinase type 1 has been associated with several conditions though it has not been described in association with leukoencephalopathy or in patients this young. Macro creatine kinase type 1 can be a cause of elevated total creatine kinase in patients without primary muscle disease. The significance of the relationship of the macro creatine kinase to the leukoencephalopathy in this patient is unknown.

  2. Kinase active Misshapen regulates Notch signaling in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Abhinava K; Sachan, Nalani; Mutsuddi, Mousumi; Mukherjee, Ashim

    2015-11-15

    Notch signaling pathway represents a principal cellular communication system that plays a pivotal role during development of metazoans. Drosophila misshapen (msn) encodes a protein kinase, which is related to the budding yeast Ste20p (sterile 20 protein) kinase. In a genetic screen, using candidate gene approach to identify novel kinases involved in Notch signaling, we identified msn as a novel regulator of Notch signaling. Data presented here suggest that overexpression of kinase active form of Msn exhibits phenotypes similar to Notch loss-of-function condition and msn genetically interacts with components of Notch signaling pathway. Kinase active form of Msn associates with Notch receptor and regulate its signaling activity. We further show that kinase active Misshapen leads to accumulation of membrane-tethered form of Notch. Moreover, activated Msn also depletes Armadillo and DE-Cadherin from adherens junctions. Thus, this study provides a yet unknown mode of regulation of Notch signaling by Misshapen. PMID:26431585

  3. High quality, small molecule-activity datasets for kinase research.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajan; Schürer, Stephan C; Muskal, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Kinases regulate cell growth, movement, and death. Deregulated kinase activity is a frequent cause of disease. The therapeutic potential of kinase inhibitors has led to large amounts of published structure activity relationship (SAR) data. Bioactivity databases such as the Kinase Knowledgebase (KKB), WOMBAT, GOSTAR, and ChEMBL provide researchers with quantitative data characterizing the activity of compounds across many biological assays. The KKB, for example, contains over 1.8M kinase structure-activity data points reported in peer-reviewed journals and patents. In the spirit of fostering methods development and validation worldwide, we have extracted and have made available from the KKB 258K structure activity data points and 76K associated unique chemical structures across eight kinase targets. These data are freely available for download within this data note. PMID:27429748

  4. High quality, small molecule-activity datasets for kinase research

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rajan; Schürer, Stephan C.; Muskal, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Kinases regulate cell growth, movement, and death. Deregulated kinase activity is a frequent cause of disease. The therapeutic potential of kinase inhibitors has led to large amounts of published structure activity relationship (SAR) data. Bioactivity databases such as the Kinase Knowledgebase (KKB), WOMBAT, GOSTAR, and ChEMBL provide researchers with quantitative data characterizing the activity of compounds across many biological assays. The KKB, for example, contains over 1.8M kinase structure-activity data points reported in peer-reviewed journals and patents. In the spirit of fostering methods development and validation worldwide, we have extracted and have made available from the KKB 258K structure activity data points and 76K associated unique chemical structures across eight kinase targets. These data are freely available for download within this data note. PMID:27429748

  5. The secret life of kinases: functions beyond catalysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation participates in the regulation of all fundamental biological processes, and protein kinases have been intensively studied. However, while the focus was on catalytic activities, accumulating evidence suggests that non-catalytic properties of protein kinases are essential, and in some cases even sufficient for their functions. These non-catalytic functions include the scaffolding of protein complexes, the competition for protein interactions, allosteric effects on other enzymes, subcellular targeting, and DNA binding. This rich repertoire often is used to coordinate phosphorylation events and enhance the specificity of substrate phosphorylation, but also can adopt functions that do not rely on kinase activity. Here, we discuss such kinase independent functions of protein and lipid kinases focussing on kinases that play a role in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and motility. PMID:22035226

  6. RAF protein-serine/threonine kinases: Structure and regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Roskoski, Robert

    2010-08-27

    Research highlights: {yields} The formation of unique side-to-side RAF dimers is required for full kinase activity. {yields} RAF kinase inhibitors block MEK activation in cells containing oncogenic B-RAF. {yields} RAF kinase inhibitors can lead to the paradoxical increase in RAF kinase activity. -- Abstract: A-RAF, B-RAF, and C-RAF are a family of three protein-serine/threonine kinases that participate in the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signal transduction cascade. This cascade participates in the regulation of a large variety of processes including apoptosis, cell cycle progression, differentiation, proliferation, and transformation to the cancerous state. RAS mutations occur in 15-30% of all human cancers, and B-RAF mutations occur in 30-60% of melanomas, 30-50% of thyroid cancers, and 5-20% of colorectal cancers. Activation of the RAF kinases requires their interaction with RAS-GTP along with dephosphorylation and also phosphorylation by SRC family protein-tyrosine kinases and other protein-serine/threonine kinases. The formation of unique side-to-side RAF dimers is required for full kinase activity. RAF kinase inhibitors are effective in blocking MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 activation in cells containing the oncogenic B-RAF Val600Glu activating mutation. RAF kinase inhibitors lead to the paradoxical increase in RAF kinase activity in cells containing wild-type B-RAF and wild-type or activated mutant RAS. C-RAF plays a key role in this paradoxical increase in downstream MEK-ERK activation.

  7. The Arabidopsis CDPK-SnRK superfamily of protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Hrabak, Estelle M; Chan, Catherine W M; Gribskov, Michael; Harper, Jeffrey F; Choi, Jung H; Halford, Nigel; Kudla, Jorg; Luan, Sheng; Nimmo, Hugh G; Sussman, Michael R; Thomas, Martine; Walker-Simmons, Kay; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Harmon, Alice C

    2003-06-01

    The CDPK-SnRK superfamily consists of seven types of serine-threonine protein kinases: calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPKs), CDPK-related kinases (CRKs), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase kinases (PPCKs), PEP carboxylase kinase-related kinases (PEPRKs), calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs), calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CCaMKs), and SnRKs. Within this superfamily, individual isoforms and subfamilies contain distinct regulatory domains, subcellular targeting information, and substrate specificities. Our analysis of the Arabidopsis genome identified 34 CDPKs, eight CRKs, two PPCKs, two PEPRKs, and 38 SnRKs. No definitive examples were found for a CCaMK similar to those previously identified in lily (Lilium longiflorum) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) or for a CaMK similar to those in animals or yeast. CDPKs are present in plants and a specific subgroup of protists, but CRKs, PPCKs, PEPRKs, and two of the SnRK subgroups have been found only in plants. CDPKs and at least one SnRK have been implicated in decoding calcium signals in Arabidopsis. Analysis of intron placements supports the hypothesis that CDPKs, CRKs, PPCKs and PEPRKs have a common evolutionary origin; however there are no conserved intron positions between these kinases and the SnRK subgroup. CDPKs and SnRKs are found on all five Arabidopsis chromosomes. The presence of closely related kinases in regions of the genome known to have arisen by genome duplication indicates that these kinases probably arose by divergence from common ancestors. The PlantsP database provides a resource of continuously updated information on protein kinases from Arabidopsis and other plants.

  8. Plant protein kinase substrates identification using protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shisong; Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma P

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases regulate signaling pathways by phosphorylating their targets. They play critical roles in plant signaling networks. Although many important protein kinases have been identified in plants, their substrates are largely unknown. We have developed and produced plant protein microarrays with more than 15,000 purified plant proteins. Here, we describe a detailed protocol to use these microarrays to identify plant protein kinase substrates via in vitro phosphorylation assays on these arrays. PMID:25930701

  9. Bioorthogonal Chemical Activation of Kinases in Living Systems

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Selective manipulation of protein kinases under living conditions is highly desirable yet extremely challenging, particularly in a gain-of-function fashion. Here we employ our recently developed bioorthogonal cleavage reaction as a general strategy for intracellular activation of individual kinases. Site-specific incorporation of trans-cyclooctene-caged lysine in place of the conserved catalytic lysine, in conjunction with the cleavage partner dimethyl-tetrazine, allowed efficient lysine decaging with the kinase activity chemically rescued in living systems. PMID:27280167

  10. MAPKAP kinases - MKs - two's company, three's a crowd.

    PubMed

    Gaestel, Matthias

    2006-02-01

    Downstream of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), three structurally related MAPK-activated protein kinases (MAPKAPKs or MKs) - MK2, MK3 and MK5 - signal to diverse cellular targets. Although there is no known common function for all three MKs, these kinases are involved in important processes: MKs regulate gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level, control cytoskeletal architecture and cell-cycle progression, and are implicated in inflammation and cancer.

  11. Dual-histidine kinases in basidiomycete fungi.

    PubMed

    Lavín, José L; Sarasola-Puente, Vanessa; Ramírez, Lucía; Pisabarro, Antonio G; Oguiza, José A

    2014-02-01

    Dual-histidine kinases (HKs) are complex hybrid HKs containing in a single polypeptide two HK transmitter modules (T) and two-response regulator received domains (R) that are combined in a TRTR geometry. In fungi, this protein family is limited to some particular species of the phylum Basidiomycota and absent in the other phyla. This study extends the investigation of dual-HKs to 80 fully sequenced genomes of basidiomycetes, analyzing their distribution, domain architecture and phylogenetic relationships. Moreover, similarly to dual-HKs of basidiomycetes, several species of bacteria were found that contain hybrid HKs with a TRTR domain architecture encoded in a single gene. PMID:24581805

  12. Drosophila melanogaster deoxyribonucleoside kinase activates gemcitabine

    SciTech Connect

    Knecht, Wolfgang; Mikkelsen, Nils Egil; Clausen, Anders Ranegaard; Willer, Mette; Gojkovic, Zoran

    2009-05-01

    Drosophila melanogaster multisubstrate deoxyribonucleoside kinase (Dm-dNK) can additionally sensitize human cancer cell lines towards the anti-cancer drug gemcitabine. We show that this property is based on the Dm-dNK ability to efficiently phosphorylate gemcitabine. The 2.2 A resolution structure of Dm-dNK in complex with gemcitabine shows that the residues Tyr70 and Arg105 play a crucial role in the firm positioning of gemcitabine by extra interactions made by the fluoride atoms. This explains why gemcitabine is a good substrate for Dm-dNK.

  13. Rho kinases in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Loirand, Gervaise; Guérin, Patrice; Pacaud, Pierre

    2006-02-17

    Rho kinases (ROCKs) are the first and the best-characterized effectors of the small G-protein RhoA. In addition to their effect on actin organization, or through this effect, ROCKs have been found to regulate a wide range of fundamental cell functions such as contraction, motility, proliferation, and apoptosis. Abnormal activation of the RhoA/ROCK pathway has been observed in major cardiovascular disorders such as atherosclerosis, restenosis, hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, and cardiac hypertrophy. This review, based on recent molecular, cellular, and animal studies, focuses on the current understanding of ROCK signaling and its roles in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology.

  14. Conformation-specific inhibitors of Raf kinases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolun; Schleicher, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery linking B-Raf mutations to human tumors in 2002, significant advances in the development of Raf inhibitors have been made, leading to the recent approval of two Raf inhibitor drugs. This chapter includes a brief introduction to B-Raf as a validated target and focuses on the three different binding modes observed with Raf small-molecule inhibitors. These various binding modes lock the Raf kinase in different conformations that impact the toxicity profiles of the inhibitors. Possible solutions to mitigate the side effects caused by inhibitor-induced dimerization are also discussed.

  15. Myopathy and parkinsonism in phosphoglycerate kinase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sotiriou, Evangelia; Greene, Paul; Krishna, Sindu; Hirano, Michio; DiMauro, Salvatore

    2010-05-01

    A 25-year-old man with exertional myoglobinuria had no evidence of hemolytic anemia, but he had severe parkinsonism that was responsive to levodopa. Phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) activity was markedly decreased in muscle, and molecular analysis of the PGK1 gene identified the p.T378P mutation that was recently reported in a patient with isolated myopathy. This case reinforces the concept that PGK deficiency is a clinically heterogeneous disorder and raises the question of a relationship between PGK deficiency and idiopathic juvenile Parkinson disease. PMID:20151463

  16. 21 CFR 862.1650 - Pyruvate kinase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862... to pyruvate kinase deficiency or of acute leukemias. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1650 - Pyruvate kinase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862... to pyruvate kinase deficiency or of acute leukemias. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1650 - Pyruvate kinase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862... to pyruvate kinase deficiency or of acute leukemias. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  19. Liver specific pyruvate kinase in pheasants Phasianus colchicus.

    PubMed

    Guderley, H; Jacques, L

    1987-01-01

    While in chickens, the existence of a liver form of pyruvate kinase is controversial, the liver form of pyruvate kinase in pheasants, murres and puffins is electrophoretically distinct from that in muscle, brain, kidney, lung and small intestine. Although the forms in lungs, muscle, heart, brain and small intestine could not be reliably separated by electrophoresis, the functional characteristics of the lung and muscle forms of pyruvate kinase in the pheasant are distinct and can be classified as K and M isozymes respectively. Our data suggest that these birds possess at least three distinct isozymes of pyruvate kinase. PMID:3609446

  20. Cytoskeletal protein kinases: titin and its relations in mechanosensing.

    PubMed

    Gautel, Mathias

    2011-07-01

    Titin, the giant elastic ruler protein of striated muscle sarcomeres, contains a catalytic kinase domain related to a family of intrasterically regulated protein kinases. The most extensively studied member of this branch of the human kinome is the Ca(2+)-calmodulin (CaM)-regulated myosin light-chain kinases (MLCK). However, not all kinases of the MLCK branch are functional MLCKs, and about half lack a CaM binding site in their C-terminal autoinhibitory tail (AI). A unifying feature is their association with the cytoskeleton, mostly via actin and myosin filaments. Titin kinase, similar to its invertebrate analogue twitchin kinase and likely other "MLCKs", is not Ca(2+)-calmodulin-activated. Recently, local protein unfolding of the C-terminal AI has emerged as a common mechanism in the activation of CaM kinases. Single-molecule data suggested that opening of the TK active site could also be achieved by mechanical unfolding of the AI. Mechanical modulation of catalytic activity might thus allow cytoskeletal signalling proteins to act as mechanosensors, creating feedback mechanisms between cytoskeletal tension and tension generation or cellular remodelling. Similar to other MLCK-like kinases like DRAK2 and DAPK1, TK is linked to protein turnover regulation via the autophagy/lysosomal system, suggesting the MLCK-like kinases have common functions beyond contraction regulation. PMID:21416260

  1. In Vitro Characterization of Derrone as an Aurora Kinase Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Nhung Thi My; Phuong, Thuong Thien; Nguyen, Trang Thi Nhu; Tran, Yen Thi Hai; Nguyen, Anh Thi Ngoc; Nguyen, Thanh Lai; Bui, Khanh Thi Van

    2016-06-01

    Among mitotic kinases, Aurora kinases are the most widely studied, since their expression is restricted to mitosis. They play a key role in chromosome segregation and cell polyploidy. Aurora kinases are important therapeutic targets, and several research groups have directed their efforts toward the identification of kinase inhibitors. The aim of this study is to screen and characterize Aurora kinase inhibitors from natural substances extracted from plants that are used in the Vietnamese pharmacopoeia. We have characterized in vitro Derrone, extracted from Erythrina orientalis L. MURR, as a novel Aurora kinase inhibitor. This compound exhibited an ability to inhibit the phosphorylation of histone H3 at ser10 both in kinase assay and at the cellular level. The compound was more effective against Aurora kinase B, with a lower IC50 value as compared to Aurora A. Moreover, it impaired the mitotic spindle checkpoint and led to endoreduplication in cancer cells, a phenomenon caused by an Aurora B inhibitor. Interestingly, using the xCelligence system and real-time cell analysis (RTCA) software, we set up a comparison of cell proliferation profiles between cancer cells treated with Derrone and VX680-a well-known Aurora kinase inhibitor-and we found that these profiles exhibited considerable similarity in cell morphology, growth, and death. Additionally, Derrone significantly inhibited the formation and growth of MCF7 tumor spheroids. PMID:26983907

  2. Expression of herpes virus thymidine kinase in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, M S; Selker, E U; Lin, B; Roberts, C J; Luo, Z; Vaught-Alexander, D; Margolin, B S

    1997-01-01

    The expression of thymidine kinase in fungi, which normally lack this enzyme, will greatly aid the study of DNA metabolism and provide useful drug-sensitive phenotypes. The herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase gene ( tk ) was expressed in Neurospora crassa. tk was expressed as a fusion to N.crassa arg-2 regulatory sequences and as a hygromycin phosphotransferase-thymidine kinase fusion gene under the control of cytomegalovirus and SV40 sequences. Only strains containing tk showed thymidine kinase enzyme activity. In strains containing the arg-2 - tk gene, both the level of enzyme activity and the level of mRNA were reduced by growth in arginine medium, consistent with control through arg-2 regulatory sequences. Expression of thymidine kinase in N.crassa facilitated radioactive labeling of replicating DNA following addition of [3H]thymidine or [14C]thymidine to the growth medium. Thymidine labeling of DNA enabled demonstration that hydroxyurea can be used to block replication and synchronize the N.crassa mitotic cycle. Strains expressing thymidine kinase were also more sensitive than strains lacking thymidine kinase to anticancer and antiviral nucleoside drugs that are activated by thymidine kinase, including 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine, 1-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodouridine and trifluorothymidine. Finally, expression of thymidine kinase in N. crassa enabled incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine into DNA at levels sufficient to separate newly replicated DNA from old DNA using equilibrium centrifugation. PMID:9171090

  3. 21 CFR 862.1650 - Pyruvate kinase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862... to pyruvate kinase deficiency or of acute leukemias. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  4. Developing irreversible inhibitors of the protein kinase cysteinome

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qingsong; Sabnis, Yogesh; Zhao, Zheng; Zhang, Tinghu; Buhrlage, Sara J.; Jones, Lyn H.; Gray, Nathanael S.

    2013-01-01

    Protein kinases are a large family of approximately 530 highly conserved enzymes that transfer a γ-phosphate group from ATP to a variety of amino acid residues such as tyrosine, serine and threonine which serves as a ubiquitous mechanism for cellular signal transduction. The clinical success of a number of kinase-directed drugs and the frequent observation of disease causing mutations in protein kinases suggest that a large number of kinases may represent therapeutically relevant targets. To-date the majority of clinical and preclinical kinase inhibitors are ATP-competitive, non-covalent inhibitors that achieve selectivity through recognition of unique features of particular protein kinases. Recently there has been renewed interest in the development of irreversible inhibitors that form covalent bonds with cysteine or other nucleophilic residues in the ATP-binding pocket. Irreversible kinase inhibitors have a number of potential advantages including prolonged pharmacodynamics, suitability for rational design, high potency and ability to validate pharmacological specificity through mutation of the reactive cysteine residue. Here we review recent efforts to develop cysteine-targeted irreversible protein kinase inhibitors and discuss their modes of recognizing the ATP-binding pocket and their biological activity profiles. In addition, we provided an informatics assessment of the potential ‘kinase-cysteinome’ and discuss strategies for the efficient development of new covalent inhibitors. PMID:23438744

  5. Diversity, classification and function of the plant protein kinase superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Lehti-Shiu, Melissa D.; Shiu, Shin-Han

    2012-01-01

    Eukaryotic protein kinases belong to a large superfamily with hundreds to thousands of copies and are components of essentially all cellular functions. The goals of this study are to classify protein kinases from 25 plant species and to assess their evolutionary history in conjunction with consideration of their molecular functions. The protein kinase superfamily has expanded in the flowering plant lineage, in part through recent duplications. As a result, the flowering plant protein kinase repertoire, or kinome, is in general significantly larger than other eukaryotes, ranging in size from 600 to 2500 members. This large variation in kinome size is mainly due to the expansion and contraction of a few families, particularly the receptor-like kinase/Pelle family. A number of protein kinases reside in highly conserved, low copy number families and often play broadly conserved regulatory roles in metabolism and cell division, although functions of plant homologues have often diverged from their metazoan counterparts. Members of expanded plant kinase families often have roles in plant-specific processes and some may have contributed to adaptive evolution. Nonetheless, non-adaptive explanations, such as kinase duplicate subfunctionalization and insufficient time for pseudogenization, may also contribute to the large number of seemingly functional protein kinases in plants. PMID:22889912

  6. Structural and mechanistic insights into Mps1 kinase activation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Yang, Yuting; Gao, Yuefeng; Xu, Quanbin; Wang, Feng; Zhu, Songcheng; Old, William; Resing, Katheryn; Ahn, Natalie; Lei, Ming; Liu, Xuedong

    2010-11-05

    Mps1 is one of the several essential kinases whose activation is required for robust mitotic spindle checkpoint signalling. The activity of Mps1 is tightly regulated and increases dramatically during mitosis or in response to spindle damage. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying Mps1 regulation, we determined the crystal structure of the kinase domain of Mps1. The 2.7-{angstrom}-resolution crystal structure shows that the Mps1 kinase domain adopts a unique inactive conformation. Intramolecular interactions between the key Glu residue in the {alpha}C helix of the N-terminal lobe and the backbone amides in the catalytic loop lock the kinase in the inactive conformation. Autophosphorylation appears to be a priming event for kinase activation. We identified Mps1 autophosphorylation sites in the activation and the P+1 loops. Whereas activation loop autophosphorylation enhances kinase activity, autophosphorylation at the P+1 loop (T686) is associated with the active kinase. Mutation of T686 autophosphorylation site impairs both autophosphorylation and transphosphorylation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that phosphorylation of T676 may be a priming event for phosphorylation at T686. Finally, we identified two critical lysine residues in the loop between helices {alpha}EF and {alpha}F that are essential for substrate recruitment and maintaining high levels of kinase activity. Our studies reveal critical biochemical mechanisms for Mps1 kinase regulation.

  7. Recent advances in designing substrate-competitive protein kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Han, Ki-Cheol; Kim, So Yeon; Yang, Eun Gyeong

    2012-01-01

    Protein kinases play central roles in cellular signaling pathways and their abnormal phosphorylation activity is inseparably linked with various human diseases. Therefore, modulation of kinase activity using potent inhibitors is an attractive strategy for the treatment of human disease. While most protein kinase inhibitors in clinical development are mainly targeted to the highly conserved ATP-binding sites and thus likely promiscuously inhibit multiple kinases including kinases unrelated to diseases, protein substrate-competitive inhibitors are more selective and expected to be promising therapeutic agents. Most substrate-competitive inhibitors mimic peptides derived from substrate proteins, or from inhibitory domains within kinases or inhibitor proteins. In addition, bisubstrate inhibitors are generated by conjugating substrate-competitive peptide inhibitors to ATP-competitive inhibitors to improve affinity and selectivity. Although structural information on protein kinases provides invaluable guidance in designing substrate-competitive inhibitors, other strategies including bioinformatics, computational modeling, and high-throughput screening are often employed for developing specific substrate-competitive kinase inhibitors. This review focuses on recent advances in the design and discovery of substrate-competitive inhibitors of protein kinases.

  8. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibition: An Approach to Drug Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitzki, Alexander; Gazit, Aviv

    1995-03-01

    Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) regulate cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and signaling processes in the cells of the immune system. Uncontrolled signaling from receptor tyrosine kinases and intracellular tyrosine kinases can lead to inflammatory responses and to diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis, and psoriasis. Thus, inhibitors that block the activity of tyrosine kinases and the signaling pathways they activate may provide a useful basis for drug development. This article summarizes recent progress in the development of PTK inhibitors and demonstrates their potential use in the treatment of disease.

  9. Nuclear localization of Lyn tyrosine kinase mediated by inhibition of its kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Kikuko; Nakayama, Yuji; Togashi, Yuuki; Obata, Yuuki; Kuga, Takahisa; Kasahara, Kousuke; Fukumoto, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2008-11-01

    Src-family kinases, cytoplasmic enzymes that participate in various signaling events, are found at not only the plasma membrane but also subcellular compartments, such as the nucleus, the Golgi apparatus and late endosomes/lysosomes. Lyn, a member of the Src-family kinases, is known to play a role in DNA damage response and cell cycle control in the nucleus. However, it is still unclear how the localization of Lyn to the nucleus is regulated. Here, we investigated the mechanism of the distribution of Lyn between the cytoplasm and the nucleus in epitheloid HeLa cells and hematopoietic THP-1 cells. Lyn was definitely detected in purified nuclei by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting analyses. Nuclear accumulation of Lyn was enhanced upon treatment of cells with leptomycin B (LMB), an inhibitor of Crm1-mediated nuclear export. Moreover, Lyn mutants lacking the sites for lipid modification were highly accumulated in the nucleus upon LMB treatment. Intriguingly, inhibition of the kinase activity of Lyn by SU6656, Csk overexpression, or point mutation in the ATP-binding site induced an increase in nuclear Lyn levels. These results suggest that Lyn being imported into and rapidly exported from the nucleus preferentially accumulates in the nucleus by inhibition of the kinase activity and lipid modification.

  10. Nonmuscle Myosin IIA Regulates Platelet Contractile Forces Through Rho Kinase and Myosin Light-Chain Kinase.

    PubMed

    Feghhi, Shirin; Tooley, Wes W; Sniadecki, Nathan J

    2016-10-01

    Platelet contractile forces play a major role in clot retraction and help to hold hemostatic clots against the vessel wall. Platelet forces are produced by its cytoskeleton, which is composed of actin and nonmuscle myosin filaments. In this work, we studied the role of Rho kinase, myosin light-chain kinase, and myosin in the generation of contractile forces by using pharmacological inhibitors and arrays of flexible microposts to measure platelet forces. When platelets were seeded onto microposts, they formed aggregates on the tips of the microposts. Forces produced by the platelets in the aggregates were measured by quantifying the deflection of the microposts, which bent in proportion to the force of the platelets. Platelets were treated with small molecule inhibitors of myosin activity: Y-27632 to inhibit the Rho kinase (ROCK), ML-7 to inhibit myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK), and blebbistatin to inhibit myosin ATPase activity. ROCK inhibition reduced platelet forces, demonstrating the importance of the assembly of actin and myosin phosphorylation in generating contractile forces. Similarly, MLCK inhibition caused weaker platelet forces, which verifies that myosin phosphorylation is needed for force generation in platelets. Platelets treated with blebbistatin also had weaker forces, which indicates that myosin's ATPase activity is necessary for platelet forces. Our studies demonstrate that myosin ATPase activity and the regulation of actin-myosin assembly by ROCK and MLCK are needed for the generation of platelet forces. Our findings illustrate and explain the importance of myosin for clot compaction in hemostasis and thrombosis. PMID:27548633

  11. Protein kinase C directly phosphorylates the insulin receptor in vitro and reduces its protein-tyrosine kinase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Bollag, G E; Roth, R A; Beaudoin, J; Mochly-Rosen, D; Koshland, D E

    1986-01-01

    The beta subunit of purified insulin receptor is phosphorylated on a serine residue by purified preparations of protein kinase C (ATP: protein phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.37). This phosphorylation is inhibited by antibodies to protein kinase C and stimulated by phospholipids, diacylglycerol, and Ca2+. The phosphorylation of the receptor by protein kinase C does not affect its insulin-binding activity but does inhibit by 65% the receptor's intrinsic tyrosine-specific protein kinase activity (ATP: protein-tyrosine O-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.112). These results indicate that activators of protein kinase C, such as phorbol esters, desensitize cells to insulin by direct protein kinase C action on the insulin receptor. Images PMID:3526339

  12. Src-homology 3 domain of protein kinase p59fyn mediates binding to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, K V; Janssen, O; Kapeller, R; Raab, M; Cantley, L C; Rudd, C E

    1993-01-01

    The Src-related tyrosine kinase p59fyn(T) plays an important role in the generation of intracellular signals from the T-cell antigen receptor TCR zeta/CD3 complex. A key question concerns the nature and the binding sites of downstream components that interact with this Src-related kinase. p59fyn(T) contains Src-homology 2 and 3 domains (SH2 and SH3) with a capacity to bind to intracellular proteins. One potential downstream target is phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase). In this study, we demonstrate that anti-CD3 and anti-Fyn immunoprecipitates possess PI 3-kinase activity as assessed by TLC and HPLC. Both free and receptor-bound p59fyn(T) were found to bind to the lipid kinase. Further, our results indicate that Src-related kinases have developed a novel mechanism to interact with PI 3-kinase. Precipitation using GST fusion proteins containing Fyn SH2, SH3, and SH2/SH3 domains revealed that PI 3-kinase bound principally to the SH3 domain of Fyn. Fyn SH3 bound directly to the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase as expressed in a baculoviral system. Anti-CD3 crosslinking induced an increase in the detection of Fyn SH3-associated PI 3-kinase activity. Thus PI 3-kinase is a target of SH3 domains and is likely to play a major role in the signals derived from the TCR zeta/CD3-p59fyn complex. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8394019

  13. The carboxy-terminal tail of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 is required for the kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Klyuyeva, Alla; Tuganova, Alina; Popov, Kirill M

    2005-10-18

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 (PDK2) is a prototypical mitochondrial protein kinase that regulates the activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Recent structural studies have established that PDK2 consists of a catalytic core built of the B and K domains and the relatively long amino and carboxyl tails of unknown function. Here, we show that the carboxy-terminal truncation variants of PDK2 display a greatly diminished capacity for phosphorylation of holo-PDC. This effect is due largely to the inability of the transacetylase component of PDC to promote the phosphorylation reaction catalyzed by the truncated PDK2 variants. Furthermore, the truncated forms of PDK2 bind poorly to the lipoyl-bearing domain(s) provided by the transacetylase component. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that the carboxyl tails of PDK isozymes contribute to the lipoyl-bearing domain-binding site of the kinase molecule. We also show that the carboxyl tails derived from isozymes PDK1, PDK3, and PDK4 are capable of supporting the kinase activity of the kinase core derived from PDK2 as well as binding of the respective PDK2 chimeras to the lipoyl-bearing domain. Furthermore, the chimera carrying the carboxyl tail of PDK3 displays a stronger response to the addition of the transacetylase component along with a better binding to the lipoyl-bearing domain, suggesting that, at least in part, the differences in the amino acid sequences of the carboxyl tails account for the differences between PDK isozymes. PMID:16216081

  14. Purification and characterization of echinoderm casein kinase II. Regulation by protein kinase C.

    PubMed Central

    Sanghera, J S; Charlton, L A; Paddon, H B; Pelech, S L

    1992-01-01

    Casein kinase II (CKII) is one of several protein kinases that become activated before germinal-vesicle breakdown in maturing sea-star oocytes. Echinoderm CKII was purified over 11,000-fold with a recovery of approximately 10% by sequential fractionation of the oocyte cytosol on tyrosine-agarose, heparin-agarose, casein-agarose and MonoQ. The purified enzyme contained 45, 38 and 28 kDa polypeptides, which corresponded to its alpha, alpha' and beta subunits respectively. The beta-subunit was autophosphorylated on one major tryptic peptide on serine residues, whereas the alpha'-subunit incorporated phosphate into at least two tryptic peptides primarily on threonine residues. Western-blotting analysis of sea-star oocyte extracts with two different anti-peptide antibodies that recognized conserved regions of the alpha-subunit indicated that the protein levels of the alpha- and alpha'-subunits of CKII were unchanged during oocyte maturation. The purified CKII was partly inactivated (by 25%) by preincubation with protein-serine/threonine phosphatase 2A, but protein-tyrosine phosphatases had no effect. The beta-subunit of CKII was phosphorylated on a serine residue(s) up to 0.54 mol of P/mol of beta-subunit by purified protein kinase C, and this correlated with a 1.5-fold enhancement of its phosphotransferase activity with phosvitin as a substrate. CKII was not a substrate for the maturation-activated myelin basic protein kinase p44mpk from sea-star oocytes, nor for cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase. These studies point to possible regulation of CKII by protein phosphorylation. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:1590772

  15. The early evolution of the phosphagen kinases--insights from choanoflagellate and poriferan arginine kinases.

    PubMed

    Conejo, Maria; Bertin, Matt; Pomponi, Shirley A; Ellington, W Ross

    2008-01-01

    Arginine kinase (AK) is a member of a large family of phosphoryl transfer enzymes called phosphagen (guanidino) kinases. AKs are present in certain protozoans, sponges, cnidarians, and both lophotrochozoan and ecdysozoan protostomes. Another phosphagen kinase, creatine kinase (CK), is found in sponges, cnidarians, and both deuterostome and protostome groups but does not appear to be present in protozoans. To probe the early evolution of phosphagen kinases, we have amplified the cDNAs for AKs from three choanoflagellates and from the hexactinellid sponge Aphrocallistes beatrix and the demosponges Suberites fuscus and Microciona prolifera. Phylogenetic analysis using maximum likelihood of these choanoflagellate and sponge AKs with other AK sequences revealed that the AK from the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis clusters with the AK from the glass sponge Aphrocallistes and is part of a larger cluster containing AKs from the demosponges Suberites and Microciona as well as basal and protostome invertebrates. In contrast, AKs from Codonosiga gracilis and Monosiga ovata form a distinct cluster apart from all other AK sequences. tBLASTn searches of the recently released M. brevicollis genome database showed that this species has three unique AK genes-one virtually identical to the M. brevicollis cDNA and the other two showing great similarity to C. gracilis and M. ovata AKs. Three distinct AK genes are likely present in choanoflagellates. Two of these AKs display extensive similarity to both CKs and an AK from sponges. Previous work has shown CK evolved from an AK-like ancestor prior to the divergence of sponges. The present results provide evidence suggesting that the initial gene duplication event(s) leading to the CK lineage may have occurred before the divergence of the choanoflagellate and animal lineages. PMID:18064398

  16. Rho-associated kinase, a novel serine/threonine kinase, as a putative target for small GTP binding protein Rho.

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, T; Amano, M; Yamamoto, T; Chihara, K; Nakafuku, M; Ito, M; Nakano, T; Okawa, K; Iwamatsu, A; Kaibuchi, K

    1996-01-01

    The small GTP binding protein Rho is implicated in cytoskeletal responses to extracellular signals such as lysophosphatidic acid to form stress fibers and focal contacts. Here we have purified a Rho-interacting protein with a molecular mass of approximately 164 kDa (p164) from bovine brain. This protein bound to GTPgammaS (a non-hydrolyzable GTP analog).RhoA but not to GDP.RhoA or GTPgammaS.RhoA with a mutation in the effector domain (RhoAA37).p164 had a kinase activity which was specifically stimulated by GTPgammaS.RhoA. We obtained the cDNA encoding p164 on the basis of its partial amino acid sequences and named it Rho-associated kinase (Rho-kinase). Rho-kinase has a catalytic domain in the N-terminal portion, a coiled coil domain in the middle portion and a zinc finger-like motif in the C-terminal portion. The catalytic domain shares 72% sequence homology with that of myotonic dystrophy kinase and the coiled coil domain contains a Rho-interacting interface. When COS7 cells were cotransfected with Rho-kinase and activated RhoA, some Rho-kinase was recruited to membranes. Thus it is likely that Rho-kinase is a putative target serine/threonine kinase for Rho and serves as a mediator of the Rho-dependent signaling pathway. Images PMID:8641286

  17. Structures of human Bruton's tyrosine kinase in active and inactive conformations suggest a mechanism of activation for TEC family kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Marcotte, Douglas J.; Liu, Yu-Ting; Arduini, Robert M.; Hession, Catherine A.; Miatkowski, Konrad; Wildes, Craig P.; Cullen, Patrick F.; Hong, Victor; Hopkins, Brian T.; Mertsching, Elisabeth; Jenkins, Tracy J.; Romanowski, Michael J.; Baker, Darren P.; Silvian, Laura F.

    2010-11-15

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a member of the TEC family of kinases, plays a crucial role in B-cell maturation and mast cell activation. Although the structures of the unphosphorylated mouse BTK kinase domain and the unphosphorylated and phosphorylated kinase domains of human ITK are known, understanding the kinase selectivity profiles of BTK inhibitors has been hampered by the lack of availability of a high resolution, ligand-bound BTK structure. Here, we report the crystal structures of the human BTK kinase domain bound to either Dasatinib (BMS-354825) at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution or to 4-amino-5-(4-phenoxyphenyl)-7H-pyrrolospyrimidin- 7-yl-cyclopentane at 1.6 {angstrom} resolution. This data provides information relevant to the development of small molecule inhibitors targeting BTK and the TEC family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases. Analysis of the structural differences between the TEC and Src families of kinases near the Trp-Glu-Ile motif in the N-terminal region of the kinase domain suggests a mechanism of regulation of the TEC family members.

  18. Coated vesicles contain a phosphatidylinositol kinase.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C R; Fishman, J B; Fine, R E

    1985-09-15

    When coated vesicles (CVs) are incubated with [gamma-32P]ATP, radioactivity is rapidly incorporated into a compound identified by thin layer chromatography as phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate. This activity has been identified in CVs isolated from bovine brain as well as from rat liver and chick embryo skeletal muscle. Phosphatidylinositol (PI) kinase is not separated from CVs during agarose electrophoresis, which produces CVs of greater than 95% purity, indicating that the activity present does not derive from contamination. The specific activity of these highly purified CVs was demonstrated to be approximately twice that of synaptic plasma membranes, further ruling out contamination from this source. The PI kinase remains associated with the vesicle upon removal of clathrin and its associated proteins and is solubilized by nonionic detergents, suggesting it is an integral membrane protein. We have been unable to demonstrate the formation of significant amounts of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in any of our CV preparations. In the presence of exogenous PI, activity is stimulated, with maximal phosphorylation occurring at 0.1 mM. The enzyme appears to be maximally stimulated by 200 mM MgCl2 and 1 mM ATP and is most active at pH 7.25. Calculations indicate that, under optimal conditions, approximately 25 molecules of PIP are produced per CV within 60 s, suggesting that these structures may play an important role in cellular PI metabolism. PMID:2863269

  19. Mechanosensing Controlled Directly by Tyrosine Kinases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Lieu, Zi Zhao; Wolfenson, Haguy; Hameed, Feroz M; Bershadsky, Alexander D; Sheetz, Michael P

    2016-09-14

    To understand how cells form tissues, we need to understand how the tyrosine kinases are involved in controlling cell mechanics, whether they act directly as parts of mechanosensing machines or indirectly. Cells test the critical parameter of matrix rigidity by locally contracting ("pinching") matrices and measuring forces, and the depletion of contractile units causes transformation. We report here that knocking down the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), AXL, and ROR2, alters rigidity sensing and increases the magnitude or duration of local contraction events, respectively. Phospho-AXL and ROR2 localize to contraction units and bind major contractile components, tropomyosin 2.1 (AXL), myosin IIA (AXL), and filamin A (ROR2). At a molecular level, phosphorylated AXL localizes to active myosin filaments and phosphorylates tropomyosin at a tyrosine critical for adhesion formation. ROR2 binding of ligand is unnecessary, but binding filamin A helps function. Thus, AXL and ROR2 alter rigidity sensing and consequently morphogenic processes by directly controlling local mechanosensory contractions without ligands. PMID:27559755

  20. Thermodynamic study of yeast phosphoglycerate kinase.

    PubMed

    Hu, C Q; Sturtevant, J M

    1987-01-13

    Enthalpies of binding of MgADP, MgATP, and 3-phosphoglycerate to yeast phosphoglycerate kinase have been determined by flow calorimetry at 9.95-32.00 degrees C. Combination of these data with published dissociation constants [Scopes, R.K. (1978) Eur. J. Biochem. 91, 119-129] yielded the following thermodynamic parameters for the binding of 3-phosphoglycerate at 25 degrees C: delta Go = -6.76 +/- 0.11 kcal mol-1, delta H = 3.74 +/- 0.08 kcal mol-1, delta So = 35.2 +/- 0.6 cal K-1 mol-1, and delta Cp = 0.12 +/- 0.32 kcal K-1 mol-1. The thermal unfolding of phosphoglycerate kinase in the absence and presence of the ligands listed above was studied by differential scanning calorimetry. The temperature of half-completion, t 1/2, of the denaturation and the denaturational enthalpy are increased by the binding of the ligands, the increase in t 1/2 being a manifestation of Le Chatelier's principle and that in enthalpy reflecting the enthalpy of dissociation of the ligand. Only one denaturational peak was observed under all conditions, and in contrast with the case of yeast hexokinase [Takahashi, K., Casey, J.L., & Sturtevant, J.M. (1981) Biochemistry 20, 4693-4697], no definitive evidence for the unfolding of more than one domain was obtained. PMID:3548815

  1. Mechanism of Focal Adhesion Kinase Mechanosensing

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Sebastian; Bullerjahn, Jakob Tómas; Bronowska, Agnieszka; Gräter, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    Mechanosensing at focal adhesions regulates vital cellular processes. Here, we present results from molecular dynamics (MD) and mechano-biochemical network simulations that suggest a direct role of Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) as a mechano-sensor. Tensile forces, propagating from the membrane through the PIP2 binding site of the FERM domain and from the cytoskeleton-anchored FAT domain, activate FAK by unlocking its central phosphorylation site (Tyr576/577) from the autoinhibitory FERM domain. Varying loading rates, pulling directions, and membrane PIP2 concentrations corroborate the specific opening of the FERM-kinase domain interface, due to its remarkably lower mechanical stability compared to the individual alpha-helical domains and the PIP2-FERM link. Analyzing downstream signaling networks provides further evidence for an intrinsic mechano-signaling role of FAK in broadcasting force signals through Ras to the nucleus. This distinguishes FAK from hitherto identified focal adhesion mechano-responsive molecules, allowing a new interpretation of cell stretching experiments. PMID:26544178

  2. Bimodal lipid substrate dependence of phosphatidylinositol kinase.

    PubMed

    Ganong, B R

    1990-07-24

    Phosphatidylinositol (PI) kinase activity was solubilized from rat liver microsomes and partially purified by chromatography on hydroxyapatite and Reactive Green 19-Superose. Examination of the ATP dependence using a mixed micellar assay gave a Km of 120 microM. The dependence of reaction rate on PI was more complicated. PI kinase bound a large amount of Triton X-100, and as expected for a micelle-associated enzyme utilizing a micelle-associated lipid substrate, the reaction rate was dependent on the micellar mole fraction, PI/(PI + Triton X-100), with a Km of 0.02 (unitless). Activity showed an additional dependence on bulk PI concentration at high micelle dilution. These results demonstrated two kinetically distinguishable steps leading to formation of a productive PI/enzyme(/ATP) complex. The rate of the first step, which probably represents exchange of PI from the bulk micellar pool into enzyme-containing micelles, depends on bulk PI concentration. The rate of the second step, association of PI with enzyme within a single micelle, depends on the micellar mole fraction of PI. Depression of the apparent Vmax at low ionic strength suggested that electrostatic repulsion between negatively charged PI/Triton X-100 mixed micelles inhibits PI exchange, consistent with a model in which intermicellar PI exchange depends on micellar collisions.

  3. Kinome profiling of Arabidopsis using arrays of kinase consensus substrates

    PubMed Central

    Ritsema, Tita; Joore, Jos; van Workum, Wilbert; Pieterse, Corné MJ

    2007-01-01

    Background Kinome profiling aims at the parallel analysis of kinase activities in a cell. Novel developed arrays containing consensus substrates for kinases are used to assess those kinase activities. The arrays described in this paper were already used to determine kinase activities in mammalian systems, but since substrates from many organisms are present we decided to test these arrays for the determination of kinase activities in the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Kinome profiling using Arabidopsis cell extracts resulted in the labelling of many consensus peptides by kinases from the plant, indicating the usefulness of this kinome profiling tool for plants. Method development showed that fresh and frozen plant material could be used to make cell lysates containing active kinases. Dilution of the plant extract increased the signal to noise ratio and non-radioactive ATP enhances full development of spot intensities. Upon infection of Arabidopsis with an avirulent strain of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, we could detect differential kinase activities by measuring phosphorylation of consensus peptides. Conclusion We show that kinome profiling on arrays with consensus substrates can be used to monitor kinase activities in plants. In a case study we show that upon infection with avirulent P. syringae differential kinase activities can be found. The PepChip can for example be used to purify (unknown) kinases that play a role in P. syringae infection. This paper shows that kinome profiling using arrays of consensus peptides is a valuable new tool to study signal-transduction in plants. It complements the available methods for genomics and proteomics research. PMID:17295910

  4. Rho kinase acts as a downstream molecule to participate in protein kinase Cε regulation of vascular reactivity after hemorrhagic shock in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Zhu, Yu; Zang, Jia-tao; Peng, Xiao-yong; Lan, Dan; Yang, Guang-ming; Xu, Jing; Liu, Liang-ming

    2014-09-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that Rho kinase and protein kinase C (PKC) played important parts in the regulation of vascular reactivity after shock. Using superior mesenteric arteries (SMAs) from hemorrhagic shock rats and hypoxia-treated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), relationship of PKCε regulation of vascular reactivity to Rho kinase, as well as the signal transduction after shock, was investigated. The results showed that inhibition of Rho kinase with the Rho kinase-specific inhibitor Y-27632 antagonized the PKCε-specific agonist carbachol and highly expressed PKCε-induced increase of vascular reactivity in SMAs and VSMCs, whereas inhibition of PKCε with its specific inhibitory peptide did not antagonize the Rho kinase agonist (U-46619)-induced increase of vascular reactivity in SMAs and VSMCs. Activation of PKCε or highly expressed PKCε upregulated the activity of Rho kinase and the phosphorylation of PKC-dependent phosphatase inhibitor 17 (CPI-17), zipper interacting protein kinase (ZIPK), and integrin-linked kinase (ILK), whereas activation of Rho kinase increased only CPI-17 phosphorylation. The specific neutralization antibodies of ZIPK and ILK antagonized PKCε-induced increases in the activity of Rho kinase, but CPI-17 neutralization antibody did not antagonize this effect. These results suggested that Rho kinase takes part in the regulation of PKCε on vascular reactivity after shock. Rho kinase is downstream of PKCε. Protein kinase Cε activates Rho kinase via ZIPK and ILK; CPI-17 is downstream of Rho kinase.

  5. Genome-wide identification and analysis of expression profiles of maize mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangpei; Lv, Wei; Zhang, Dan; Jiang, Shanshan; Zhang, Shizhong; Li, Dequan

    2013-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are highly conserved signal transduction model in animals, yeast and plants. Plant MAPK cascades have been implicated in development and stress responses. Although MAPKKKs have been investigated in several plant species including Arabidopsis and rice, no systematic analysis has been conducted in maize. In this study, we performed a bioinformatics analysis of the entire maize genome and identified 74 MAPKKK genes. Phylogenetic analyses of MAPKKKs from maize, rice and Arabidopsis have classified them into three subgroups, which included Raf, ZIK and MEKK. Evolutionary relationships within subfamilies were also supported by exon-intron organizations and the conserved protein motifs. Further expression analysis of the MAPKKKs in microarray databases revealed that MAPKKKs were involved in important signaling pathways in maize different organs and developmental stages. Our genomics analysis of maize MAPKKK genes provides important information for evolutionary and functional characterization of this family in maize.

  6. Identification and functional analysis of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) genes in canola (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yun; Wang, Chen; Yang, Bo; Jiang, Yuan-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling cascades, consisting of three types of reversibly phosphorylated kinases (MAPKKK, MAPKK, and MAPK), are involved in important processes including plant immunity and hormone responses. The MAPKKKs comprise the largest family in the MAPK cascades, yet only a few of these genes have been associated with physiological functions, even in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Canola (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oilseed crops in China and worldwide. To explore MAPKKK functions in biotic and abiotic stress responses in canola, 66 MAPKKK genes were identified and 28 of them were cloned. Phylogenetic analysis of these canola MAPKKKs with homologous genes from representative species classified them into three groups (A–C), comprising four MAPKKKs, seven ZIKs, and 17 Raf genes. A further 15 interaction pairs between these MAPKKKs and the downstream BnaMKKs were identified through a yeast two-hybrid assay. The interactions were further validated through bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analysis. In addition, by quantitative real-time reverse transcription–PCR, it was further observed that some of these BnaMAPKKK genes were regulated by different hormone stimuli, abiotic stresses, or fungal pathogen treatments. Interestingly, two novel BnaMAPKKK genes, BnaMAPKKK18 and BnaMAPKKK19, which could elicit hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death when transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, were successfully identified. Moreover, it was found that BnaMAPKKK19 probably mediated cell death through BnaMKK9. Overall, the present work has laid the foundation for further characterization of this important MAPKKK gene family in canola. PMID:24604738

  7. Identification and functional analysis of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) genes in canola (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Sun, Yun; Wang, Chen; Yang, Bo; Wu, Feifei; Hao, Xueyu; Liang, Wanwan; Niu, Fangfang; Yan, Jingli; Zhang, Hanfeng; Wang, Boya; Deyholos, Michael K; Jiang, Yuan-Qing

    2014-05-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling cascades, consisting of three types of reversibly phosphorylated kinases (MAPKKK, MAPKK, and MAPK), are involved in important processes including plant immunity and hormone responses. The MAPKKKs comprise the largest family in the MAPK cascades, yet only a few of these genes have been associated with physiological functions, even in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Canola (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oilseed crops in China and worldwide. To explore MAPKKK functions in biotic and abiotic stress responses in canola, 66 MAPKKK genes were identified and 28 of them were cloned. Phylogenetic analysis of these canola MAPKKKs with homologous genes from representative species classified them into three groups (A-C), comprising four MAPKKKs, seven ZIKs, and 17 Raf genes. A further 15 interaction pairs between these MAPKKKs and the downstream BnaMKKs were identified through a yeast two-hybrid assay. The interactions were further validated through bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analysis. In addition, by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR, it was further observed that some of these BnaMAPKKK genes were regulated by different hormone stimuli, abiotic stresses, or fungal pathogen treatments. Interestingly, two novel BnaMAPKKK genes, BnaMAPKKK18 and BnaMAPKKK19, which could elicit hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death when transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, were successfully identified. Moreover, it was found that BnaMAPKKK19 probably mediated cell death through BnaMKK9. Overall, the present work has laid the foundation for further characterization of this important MAPKKK gene family in canola. PMID:24604738

  8. Chemoproteomic characterization of protein kinase inhibitors using immobilized ATP.

    PubMed

    Duncan, James S; Haystead, Timothy A J; Litchfield, David W

    2012-01-01

    Protein kinase inhibitors have emerged as indispensable tools for the elucidation of the biological functions of specific signal transduction pathways and as promising candidates for molecular-targeted therapy. However, because many protein kinase inhibitors are ATP-competitive inhibitors targeting the catalytic site of specific protein kinases, the large number of protein kinases that are encoded within eukaryotic genomes and the existence of many other cellular proteins that bind ATP result in the prospect of off-target effects for many of these compounds. Many of the potential off-target effects remain unrecognized because protein kinase inhibitors are often developed and tested primarily on the basis of in vitro assays using purified components. To overcome this limitation, we describe a systematic approach to characterize ATP-competitive protein kinase inhibitors employing ATP-sepharose to capture the purine-binding proteome from cell extracts. Protein kinase inhibitors can be used in competition experiments to prevent binding of specific cellular proteins to ATP-sepharose or to elute bound proteins from ATP-sepharose. Collectively, these strategies can enable validation of interactions between a specific protein kinase and an inhibitor in complex mixtures and can yield the identification of inhibitor targets.

  9. Regulation of tomato Prf by Pto-like protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Mucyn, Tatiana S; Wu, Ai-Jiuan; Balmuth, Alexi L; Arasteh, Julia Maryam; Rathjen, John P

    2009-04-01

    Tomato Prf encodes a nucleotide-binding domain shared by Apaf-1, certain R proteins, and CED-4 fused to C-terminal leucine-rich repeats (NBARC-LRR) protein that is required for bacterial immunity to Pseudomonas syringae and sensitivity to the organophosphate fenthion. The signaling pathways involve two highly related protein kinases. Pto kinase mediates direct recognition of the bacterial effector proteins AvrPto or AvrPtoB. Fen kinase is required for fenthion sensitivity and recognition of bacterial effectors related to AvrPtoB. The role of Pto and its association with Prf has been characterized but Fen is poorly described. We show that, similar to Pto, Fen requires N-myristoylation and kinase activity for signaling and interacts with the N-terminal domain of Prf. Thus, the mechanisms of activation of Prf by the respective protein kinases are similar. Prf-Fen interaction is underlined by coregulatory mechanisms in which Prf negatively regulates Fen, most likely by controlling kinase activity. We further characterized negative regulation of Prf by Pto, and show that regulation is mediated by the previously described negative regulatory patch. Remarkably, the effectors released negative regulation of Prf in a manner dependent on Pto kinase activity. The data suggest a model in which Prf associates generally with Pto-like kinases in tightly regulated complexes, which are activated by effector-mediated disruption of negative regulation. Release of negative regulation may be a general feature of activation of NBARC-LRR proteins by cognate effectors.

  10. Brd4 shields chromatin from ATM kinase signaling storms.

    PubMed

    Choi, Serah; Bakkenist, Christopher J

    2013-09-17

    Upon activation, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase rapidly phosphorylates hundreds of proteins, setting off chaotic signaling storms from areas of damaged chromatin. Recent work by Kaidi and Jackson and Floyd et al. advance our knowledge of the mechanisms that initiate or limit ATM kinase signaling storms at chromatin. PMID:24045152

  11. Purine inhibitors of protein kinases, G proteins and polymerases

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Nathanael S.; Schultz, Peter; Kim, Sung-Hou; Meijer, Laurent

    2001-07-03

    The present invention relates to purine analogs that inhibit, inter alia, protein kinases, G-proteins and polymerases. In addition, the present invention relates to methods of using such purine analogs to inhibit protein kinases, G-proteins, polymerases and other cellular processes and to treat cellular proliferative diseases.

  12. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase: the key switch mechanism in insulin signalling.

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, P R; Withers, D J; Siddle, K

    1998-01-01

    Insulin plays a key role in regulating a wide range of cellular processes. However, until recently little was known about the signalling pathways that are involved in linking the insulin receptor with downstream responses. It is now apparent that the activation of class 1a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) is necessary and in some cases sufficient to elicit many of insulin's effects on glucose and lipid metabolism. The lipid products of PI 3-kinase act as both membrane anchors and allosteric regulators, serving to localize and activate downstream enzymes and their protein substrates. One of the major ways these lipid products of PI 3-kinase act in insulin signalling is by binding to pleckstrin homology (PH) domains of phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase (PDK) and protein kinase B (PKB) and in the process regulating the phosphorylation of PKB by PDK. Using mechanisms such as this, PI 3-kinase is able to act as a molecular switch to regulate the activity of serine/threonine-specific kinase cascades important in mediating insulin's effects on endpoint responses. PMID:9677303

  13. Brd4 Shields Chromatin from ATM Kinase Signaling Storms

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Serah; Bakkenist, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Upon activation, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase rapidly phosphorylates hundreds of proteins, setting off chaotic signaling storms from areas of damaged chromatin. Recent work by Kaidi and Jackson and Floyd et al. advance our knowledge of the mechanisms that initiate or limit ATM kinase signaling storms at chromatin. PMID:24045152

  14. Multiple regulatory domains on the Byr2 protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Tu, H; Barr, M; Dong, D L; Wigler, M

    1997-01-01

    Byr2 protein kinase, a homolog of mammalian mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEKK) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae STE11, is required for pheromone-induced sexual differentiation in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Byr2 functions downstream of Ste4, Ras1, and the membrane-associated receptor-coupled heterotrimeric G-protein alpha subunit, Gpa1. Byr2 has a distinctive N-terminal kinase regulatory domain and a characteristic C-terminal kinase catalytic domain. Ste4 and Ras1 interact with the regulatory domain of Byr2 directly. Here, we define the domains of Byr2 that bind Ste4 and Ras1 and show that the Byr2 regulatory domain binds to the catalytic domain in the two-hybrid system. Using Byr2 mutants, we demonstrate that these direct physical interactions are all required for proper signaling. In particular, the physical association between Byr2 regulatory and catalytic domains appears to result in autoinhibition, the loss of which results in kinase activation. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Shk1, the S. pombe homolog of the STE20 protein kinase, can directly antagonize the Byr2 intramolecular interaction, possibly by phosphorylating Byr2. PMID:9315645

  15. 21 CFR 862.1650 - Pyruvate kinase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pyruvate kinase test system. 862.1650 Section 862.1650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1650 Pyruvate kinase test system....

  16. Activation of AMP-kinase by Policosanol Requires Peroxisomal Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Subhashis; Ghoshal, Sarbani

    2011-01-01

    Policosanol, a well-defined mixture of very long chain primary alcohols that is available as a nutraceutical product, has been reported to lower blood cholesterol levels. The present studies demonstrate that policosanol promotes the phosphorylation of AMP-kinase and HMG-CoA reductase in hepatoma cells and in mouse liver after intragastric administration, providing a possible means by which policosanol might lower blood cholesterol levels. Treatment of hepatoma cells with policosanol produced a 2.5-fold or greater increase in the phosphorylation of AMP-kinase and HMG-CoA reductase, and increased the phosphorylation of Ca++/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase (CaMKK), an upstream AMP-kinase kinase. Intra-gastric administration of policosanol to mice similarly increased the phosphorylation of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase and AMP-kinase by greater than 2-fold. siRNA-mediated suppression of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase, fatty acyl-CoA synthetase 4, and acyl-CoA acetyltransferase expression in hepatoma cells prevented the phosphorylation of AMP-kinase and HMG-CoA reductase by policosanol, indicating that metabolism of these very long chain alcohols to activated fatty acids is necessary for the suppression of cholesterol synthesis, presumably by increasing cellular AMP levels. Subsequent peroxisomal β-oxidation probably augments this effect. PMID:21359855

  17. Allosteric activation of apicomplexan calcium-dependent protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Jessica R; Knockenhauer, Kevin E; Markus, Benedikt M; Mandelbaum, Joseph; Ramek, Alexander; Shan, Yibing; Shaw, David E; Schwartz, Thomas U; Ploegh, Hidde L; Lourido, Sebastian

    2015-09-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) comprise the major group of Ca2+-regulated kinases in plants and protists. It has long been assumed that CDPKs are activated, like other Ca2+-regulated kinases, by derepression of the kinase domain (KD). However, we found that removal of the autoinhibitory domain from Toxoplasma gondii CDPK1 is not sufficient for kinase activation. From a library of heavy chain-only antibody fragments (VHHs), we isolated an antibody (1B7) that binds TgCDPK1 in a conformation-dependent manner and potently inhibits it. We uncovered the molecular basis for this inhibition by solving the crystal structure of the complex and simulating, through molecular dynamics, the effects of 1B7-kinase interactions. In contrast to other Ca2+-regulated kinases, the regulatory domain of TgCDPK1 plays a dual role, inhibiting or activating the kinase in response to changes in Ca2+ concentrations. We propose that the regulatory domain of TgCDPK1 acts as a molecular splint to stabilize the otherwise inactive KD. This dependence on allosteric stabilization reveals a novel susceptibility in this important class of parasite enzymes.

  18. Bacterial tyrosine kinases: evolution, biological function and structural insights

    PubMed Central

    Grangeasse, Christophe; Nessler, Sylvie; Mijakovic, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is a major mechanism in the regulation of fundamental signalling events in all living organisms. Bacteria have been shown to possess a versatile repertoire of protein kinases, including histidine and aspartic acid kinases, serine/threonine kinases, and more recently tyrosine and arginine kinases. Tyrosine phosphorylation is today recognized as a key regulatory device of bacterial physiology, linked to exopolysaccharide production, virulence, stress response and DNA metabolism. However, bacteria have evolved tyrosine kinases that share no resemblance with their eukaryotic counterparts and are unique in exploiting the ATP/GTP-binding Walker motif to catalyse autophosphorylation and substrate phosphorylation on tyrosine. These enzymes, named BY-kinases (for Bacterial tYrosine kinases), have been identified in a majority of sequenced bacterial genomes, and to date no orthologues have been found in Eukarya. The aim of this review was to present the most recent knowledge about BY-kinases by focusing primarily on their evolutionary origin, structural and functional aspects, and emerging regulatory potential based on recent bacterial phosphoproteomic studies. PMID:22889913

  19. Biochemical and cellular effects of c-Src kinase-selective pyrido[2, 3-d]pyrimidine tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kraker, A J; Hartl, B G; Amar, A M; Barvian, M R; Showalter, H D; Moore, C W

    2000-10-01

    Increased expression or activity of c-Src tyrosine kinase has been associated with the transformed phenotype in tumor cells and with progression of neoplastic disease. A number of pyrido[2, 3-d]pyrimidines have been characterized biochemically and in cells as part of an assessment of their potential as anti-tumor agents. The compounds were ATP-competitive inhibitors of c-Src kinase with IC(50) values < 10 nM and from 6 to >100-fold selectivity for c-Src tyrosine kinase relative to basic fibroblast growth factor receptor (bFGFr) tyrosine kinase, platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFr) tyrosine kinase, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr) tyrosine kinase. The compounds yielded IC(50) values < 5 nM against Lck. Human colon tumor cell growth in culture was inhibited, as was colony formation in soft agar at concentrations < 1 microM. Phosphorylation of the c-Src cellular substrates paxillin, p130(cas), and Stat3 was also inhibited at concentrations < 1 microM. Autophosphorylation of EGFr tyrosine kinase or PDGFr tyrosine kinase was not inhibited by c-Src inhibitors, thus showing the selective nature of the compounds in cells. In a mitogenesis assay measuring thymidine incorporation stimulated by specific mitogens, the c-Src tyrosine kinase inhibitors reduced incorporated thymidine in a manner consistent with previously reported roles of c-Src in mitogenic signaling. Progression through the cell cycle was inhibited at G(2)/M in human colon tumor cells treated with two of the c-Src-selective compounds, which is also consistent with earlier reports describing a requirement for active c-Src tyrosine kinase for G(2) to M phase progression. The compounds described here are selective inhibitors of c-Src tyrosine kinase and have antiproliferative effects in tumor cells consistent with inhibition of c-Src.

  20. Leishmania Infection Engages Non-Receptor Protein Kinases Differentially to Persist in Infected Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Naixin; Kima, Peter E.

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinases play important roles in the regulation of cellular activities. In cells infected by pathogens, there is an increasing appreciation that dysregulated expression of protein kinases promotes the success of intracellular infections. In Leishmania-infected cells, expression and activation of protein kinases, such as the mitogen-activated protein kinases, kinases in the PI3-kinase signaling pathway, and kinases in the NF-κB-signaling pathway, are modulated in some manner. Several recent reviews have discussed our current understanding of the roles of these kinases in Leishmania infections. Apart from the kinases in the pathways enumerated above, there are other host cell protein kinases that are activated during the Leishmania infection of mammalian cells whose roles also appear to be significant. This review discusses recent observations on the Abl family of protein kinases and the protein kinase regulated by RNA in Leishmania infections. PMID:27148265

  1. Leishmania Infection Engages Non-Receptor Protein Kinases Differentially to Persist in Infected Hosts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Naixin; Kima, Peter E

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinases play important roles in the regulation of cellular activities. In cells infected by pathogens, there is an increasing appreciation that dysregulated expression of protein kinases promotes the success of intracellular infections. In Leishmania-infected cells, expression and activation of protein kinases, such as the mitogen-activated protein kinases, kinases in the PI3-kinase signaling pathway, and kinases in the NF-κB-signaling pathway, are modulated in some manner. Several recent reviews have discussed our current understanding of the roles of these kinases in Leishmania infections. Apart from the kinases in the pathways enumerated above, there are other host cell protein kinases that are activated during the Leishmania infection of mammalian cells whose roles also appear to be significant. This review discusses recent observations on the Abl family of protein kinases and the protein kinase regulated by RNA in Leishmania infections.

  2. Structure of the kinase domain of Gilgamesh from Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Han, Ni; Chen, CuiCui; Shi, Zhubing; Cheng, Dianlin

    2014-04-01

    The CK1 family kinases regulate multiple cellular aspects and play important roles in Wnt/Wingless and Hedgehog signalling. The kinase domain of Drosophila Gilgamesh isoform I (Gilgamesh-I), a homologue of human CK1-γ, was purified and crystallized. Crystals of methylated Gilgamesh-I kinase domain with a D210A mutation diffracted to 2.85 Å resolution and belonged to space group P43212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 52.025, c = 291.727 Å. The structure of Gilgamesh-I kinase domain, which was determined by molecular replacement, has conserved catalytic elements and an active conformation. Structural comparison indicates that an extended loop between the α1 helix and the β4 strand exists in the Gilgamesh-I kinase domain. This extended loop may regulate the activity and function of Gilgamesh-I. PMID:24699734

  3. [The role of Gilgamesh protein kinase in Drosophila melanogaster spermatogenesis].

    PubMed

    Nerusheva, O O; Dorogova, N V; Gubanova, N V; Omel'ianchuk, L V

    2008-09-01

    The cellular function of the gilgamesh mutation (89B9-12) of casein kinase gene in Drosophila spermatogenesis was studied. It was demonstrated that the sterility resulting from this mutation is connected with the abnormalities in spermatid individualization. A phylogenetic study of the protein sequences of casein kinases 1 from various organisms was conducted. The Gilgamesh protein was shown to be phylogenetically closer to the cytoplasmic casein kinase family, represented by the YCK3, YCK2, and YCK1 proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and animal gamma-casein kinases. It is known that these yeast casein kinases are involved in vesicular trafficking, which, in turn, is related in its genetic control to the cell membrane remodeling during spermatid individualization. Thus, the data of phylogenetic analysis fit well the results obtained by studying the mutation phenotype. PMID:18846817

  4. Structure of the kinase domain of Gilgamesh from Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ni; Chen, CuiCui; Shi, Zhubing; Cheng, Dianlin

    2014-01-01

    The CK1 family kinases regulate multiple cellular aspects and play important roles in Wnt/Wingless and Hedgehog signalling. The kinase domain of Drosophila Gilgamesh isoform I (Gilgamesh-I), a homologue of human CK1-γ, was purified and crystallized. Crystals of methylated Gilgamesh-I kinase domain with a D210A mutation diffracted to 2.85 Å resolution and belonged to space group P43212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 52.025, c = 291.727 Å. The structure of Gilgamesh-I kinase domain, which was determined by molecular replacement, has conserved catalytic elements and an active conformation. Structural comparison indicates that an extended loop between the α1 helix and the β4 strand exists in the Gilgamesh-I kinase domain. This extended loop may regulate the activity and function of Gilgamesh-I. PMID:24699734

  5. Arginine kinase from Myzostoma cirriferum, a basal member of annelids.

    PubMed

    Yano, Daichi; Mimura, Sayo; Uda, Kouji; Suzuki, Tomohiko

    2016-08-01

    We assembled a phosphagen kinase gene from the Expressed Sequence Tags database of Myzostoma cirriferum, a basal member of annelids. The assembled gene sequence was synthesized using an overlap extension polymerase chain reaction method and was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme (355 residues) exhibited monomeric behavior on a gel filtration column and showed strong activity only for l-arginine. Thus, the enzyme was identified as arginine kinase (AK). The two-substrate kinetic parameters were obtained and compared with other AKs. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of phosphagen kinases indicated that the Myzostoma AK gene lineage differed from that of the polychaete Sabellastarte spectabilis AK, which is a dimer of creatine kinase (CK) origin. It is likely that the Myzostoma AK gene lineage was lost at an early stage of annelid evolution and that Sabellastarte AK evolved secondarily from the CK gene. This work contributes to our understanding of the evolution of phosphagen kinases of annelids with marked diversity.

  6. Tyrosine kinase signaling and the emergence of multicellularity.

    PubMed

    Miller, W Todd

    2012-06-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation is an essential element of signal transduction in multicellular animals. Although tyrosine kinases were originally regarded as specific to the metazoan lineage, it is now clear that they evolved prior to the split between unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes (≈600million years ago). Genome analyses of choanoflagellates and other protists show an abundance of tyrosine kinases that rivals the most complex animals. Some of these kinases are orthologs of metazoan enzymes (e.g., Src), but others display unique domain compositions not seen in any metazoan. Biochemical experiments have highlighted similarities and differences between the unicellular and multicellular tyrosine kinases. In particular, it appears that the complex systems of kinase autoregulation may have evolved later in the metazoan lineage. PMID:22480439

  7. Activation Domain-dependent Degradation of Somatic Wee1 Kinase*

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Laura; Simanski, Scott; Squire, Christopher; Smith, Anthony; Cartzendafner, Jeff; Cavett, Valerie; Caldwell Busby, Jennifer; Sato, Trey; Ayad, Nagi G.

    2010-01-01

    Cell cycle progression is dependent upon coordinate regulation of kinase and proteolytic pathways. Inhibitors of cell cycle transitions are degraded to allow progression into the subsequent cell cycle phase. For example, the tyrosine kinase and Cdk1 inhibitor Wee1 is degraded during G2 and mitosis to allow mitotic progression. Previous studies suggested that the N terminus of Wee1 directs Wee1 destruction. Using a chemical mutagenesis strategy, we report that multiple regions of Wee1 control its destruction. Most notably, we find that the activation domain of the Wee1 kinase is also required for its degradation. Mutations in this domain inhibit Wee1 degradation in somatic cell extracts and in cells without affecting the overall Wee1 structure or kinase activity. More broadly, these findings suggest that kinase activation domains may be previously unappreciated sites of recognition by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. PMID:20038582

  8. Tyrosine kinase signaling and the emergence of multicellularity.

    PubMed

    Miller, W Todd

    2012-06-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation is an essential element of signal transduction in multicellular animals. Although tyrosine kinases were originally regarded as specific to the metazoan lineage, it is now clear that they evolved prior to the split between unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes (≈600million years ago). Genome analyses of choanoflagellates and other protists show an abundance of tyrosine kinases that rivals the most complex animals. Some of these kinases are orthologs of metazoan enzymes (e.g., Src), but others display unique domain compositions not seen in any metazoan. Biochemical experiments have highlighted similarities and differences between the unicellular and multicellular tyrosine kinases. In particular, it appears that the complex systems of kinase autoregulation may have evolved later in the metazoan lineage.

  9. Feedback Regulation of Kinase Signaling Pathways by AREs and GREs

    PubMed Central

    Vlasova-St. Louis, Irina; Bohjanen, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    In response to environmental signals, kinases phosphorylate numerous proteins, including RNA-binding proteins such as the AU-rich element (ARE) binding proteins, and the GU-rich element (GRE) binding proteins. Posttranslational modifications of these proteins lead to a significant changes in the abundance of target mRNAs, and affect gene expression during cellular activation, proliferation, and stress responses. In this review, we summarize the effect of phosphorylation on the function of ARE-binding proteins ZFP36 and ELAVL1 and the GRE-binding protein CELF1. The networks of target mRNAs that these proteins bind and regulate include transcripts encoding kinases and kinase signaling pathways (KSP) components. Thus, kinase signaling pathways are involved in feedback regulation, whereby kinases regulate RNA-binding proteins that subsequently regulate mRNA stability of ARE- or GRE-containing transcripts that encode components of KSP. PMID:26821046

  10. PDK2: the missing piece in the receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathway puzzle.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lily Q; Liu, Feng

    2005-08-01

    Activation of members of the protein kinase AGC (cAMP dependent, cGMP dependent, and protein kinase C) family is regulated primarily by phosphorylation at two sites: a conserved threonine residue in the activation loop and a serine/threonine residue in a hydrophobic motif (HM) near the COOH terminus. Although phosphorylation of these kinases in the activation loop has been found to be mediated by phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1), the kinase(s) that catalyzes AGC kinase phosphorylation in the HM remains uncharacterized. So far, at least 10 kinases have been suggested to function as an HM kinase or the so-called "PDK2," including mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-activated protein kinase-2 (MK2), integrin-linked kinase (ILK), p38 MAP kinase, protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha), PKCbeta, the NIMA-related kinase-6 (NEK6), the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the double-stranded DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNK-PK), and the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene product. However, whether any or all of these kinases act as a physiological HM kinase remains to be established. Nonetheless, available data suggest that multiple systems may be used in cells to regulate the activation of the AGC family kinases. It is possible that, unlike activation loop phosphorylation, phosphorylation of the HM site in the different AGC family kinases is mediated by distinct kinases. In addition, phosphorylation of the AGC family kinase at the HM site could be cell type, signaling pathway, and substrate specific. Identification and characterization of the bonafide HM kinase(s) will be essential to verify these hypotheses. PMID:16014356

  11. Hybrid and Rogue Kinases Encoded in the Genomes of Model Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Rakshambikai, Ramaswamy; Gnanavel, Mutharasu; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy

    2014-01-01

    The highly modular nature of protein kinases generates diverse functional roles mediated by evolutionary events such as domain recombination, insertion and deletion of domains. Usually domain architecture of a kinase is related to the subfamily to which the kinase catalytic domain belongs. However outlier kinases with unusual domain architectures serve in the expansion of the functional space of the protein kinase family. For example, Src kinases are made-up of SH2 and SH3 domains in addition to the kinase catalytic domain. A kinase which lacks these two domains but retains sequence characteristics within the kinase catalytic domain is an outlier that is likely to have modes of regulation different from classical src kinases. This study defines two types of outlier kinases: hybrids and rogues depending on the nature of domain recombination. Hybrid kinases are those where the catalytic kinase domain belongs to a kinase subfamily but the domain architecture is typical of another kinase subfamily. Rogue kinases are those with kinase catalytic domain characteristic of a kinase subfamily but the domain architecture is typical of neither that subfamily nor any other kinase subfamily. This report provides a consolidated set of such hybrid and rogue kinases gleaned from six eukaryotic genomes–S.cerevisiae, D. melanogaster, C.elegans, M.musculus, T.rubripes and H.sapiens–and discusses their functions. The presence of such kinases necessitates a revisiting of the classification scheme of the protein kinase family using full length sequences apart from classical classification using solely the sequences of kinase catalytic domains. The study of these kinases provides a good insight in engineering signalling pathways for a desired output. Lastly, identification of hybrids and rogues in pathogenic protozoa such as P.falciparum sheds light on possible strategies in host-pathogen interactions. PMID:25255313

  12. An X-ray structural study of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase: A eukaryotic serine kinase with a prokaryotic histidine-kinase fold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steussy, Calvin Nicklaus, Jr.

    2001-07-01

    Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase is an enzyme that controls the flow of glucose through the eukaryotic cell and contributes to the pathology of diabetes mellitus. Early work on this kinase demonstrated that it has an amino acid sequence much like bacterial histidine kinases, but an activity similar to that of modern serine/threonine kinases. This project utilized the techniques of X-ray crystallography to determine molecular structure of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 2. The structure was phased using selenium substituted for sulfur in methionine residues, and data at multiple wavelengths was collected at the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratories. PDK 2 was found to fold into a two-domain monomer that forms a dimer through two beta sheets in the C-terminal domain. The N-terminal domain is an alpha-helical bundle while the C-terminal domain is an alpha/beta sandwich. The fold of the C-terminal domain is very similar to that of the prokaryotic histidine kinases, indicating that they share a common ancestor. The catalytic mechanism, however, has evolved to use general base catalysis to activate the serine substrate, rather than the direct nucleophilic attack by the imidazole sidechain used in the prokaryotic kinases. Thus, the structure of the protein echoes its prokaryotic ancestor, while the chemical mechanism has adapted to a serine substrate. The electrostatic surface of PDK2 leads to the suggestion that the lipoyl domain of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, an important associated structure, may bind in the cleft formed between the N- and C-terminal domains. In addition, a network of hydrogen bonds directly connects the nucleotide binding pocket to the dimer interface, suggesting that there may be some interaction between dimer formation and ATP binding or ADP release.

  13. Breast tumor kinase (protein tyrosine kinase 6) regulates heregulin-induced activation of ERK5 and p38 MAP kinases in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ostrander, Julie Hanson; Daniel, Andrea R; Lofgren, Kristopher; Kleer, Celina G; Lange, Carol A

    2007-05-01

    Total tyrosine kinase activity is often elevated in both cytosolic and membrane fractions of malignant breast tissue and correlates with a decrease in disease-free survival. Breast tumor kinase (Brk; protein tyrosine kinase 6) is a soluble tyrosine kinase that was cloned from a metastatic breast tumor and found to be overexpressed in a majority of breast tumors. Herein, we show that Brk is overexpressed in 86% of invasive ductal breast tumors and coexpressed with ErbB family members in breast cancer cell lines. Additionally, the ErbB ligand, heregulin, activates Brk kinase activity. Knockdown of Brk by stable expression of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in T47D breast cancer cells decreases proliferation and blocks epidermal growth factor (EGF)- and heregulin-induced activation of Rac GTPase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 5, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) but not Akt, ERK1/2, or c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase. Furthermore, EGF- and heregulin-induced cyclin D1 expression is dependent on p38 signaling and inhibited by Brk shRNA knockdown. The myocyte enhancer factor 2 transcription factor target of p38 MAPK and ERK5 signaling is also sensitive to altered Brk expression. Finally, heregulin-induced migration of T47D cells requires p38 MAPK activity and is blocked by Brk knockdown. These results place Brk in a novel signaling pathway downstream of ErbB receptors and upstream of Rac, p38 MAPK, and ERK5 and establish the ErbB-Brk-Rac-p38 MAPK pathway as a critical mediator of breast cancer cell migration.

  14. Peptide reporters of kinase activity in whole cell lysates

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ding; Sylvester, Juliesta E.; Parker, Laurie L.; Zhou, Guangchang; Kron, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Kinase assays are used to screen for small-molecule inhibitors that may show promise as targeted pharmaceutical therapies. Using cell lysates instead of purified kinases provides a more accurate estimate of inhibitor sensitivity and selectivity in a biological setting. This review summarizes the range of homogeneous (solution-phase) and heterogeneous (solid-supported) formats available for using peptide substrates to monitor kinase activities in cell lysates. With a focus on heterogeneous kinase assays, the peptide substrate Abltide is used as a model to optimize presentation geometries and the modular arrangement of short sequences for kinase recognition. We present results from peptides immobilized on two- and three-dimensional surfaces such as hydrogels on 96-well plates and glass slides, and fluorescent Luminex beads. We discuss methods to increase assay sensitivity using chemifluorescent ELISAs, antibody-based recognition, and label-free mass spectrometry. Monitoring the activity of specific kinases in cell lysates presents challenges that can be overcome by manipulating peptide substrates to optimize assay conditions. In particular, signal-to-background ratios were improved by 1) adding long branched hydrophilic linkers between the substrate and the surface, 2) changing the orientation of peptides relative to the surface, and 3) including peptide ligands in cis or in trans to recruit kinases to the surface. By improving the accessibility of immobilized peptide substrates to kinases in solution, the apparent rate of phosphorylation increased and assays were more sensitive to changes in endogenous kinase activities. These strategies can be generalized to improve the reactivity of most peptide substrates used in heterogeneous kinase assays with cell lysates. PMID:20593469

  15. The molecular basis of targeting protein kinases in cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Jung; Nussinov, Ruth

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we provide an overview of targeted anticancer therapies with small molecule kinase inhibitors. First, we discuss why a single constitutively active kinase emanating from a variety of aberrant genetic alterations is capable of transforming a normal cell, leading it to acquire the hallmarks of a cancer cell. To draw attention to the fact that kinase inhibition in targeted cancer therapeutics differs from conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy, we exploit a conceptual framework explaining why suppressed kinase activity will selectively kill only the so-called oncogene 'addicted' cancer cell, while sparing the healthy cell. Second, we introduce the protein kinase superfamily in light of its common active conformation with precisely positioned structural elements, and the diversified auto-inhibitory conformations among the kinase families. Understanding the detailed activation mechanism of individual kinases is essential to relate the observed oncogenic alterations to the elevated constitutively active state, to identify the mechanism of consequent drug resistance, and to guide the development of the next-generation inhibitors. To clarify the vital importance of structural guidelines in studies of oncogenesis, we explain how somatic mutations in EGFR result in kinase constitutive activation. Third, in addition to the common theme of secondary (acquired) mutations that prevent drug binding from blocking a signaling pathway which is hijacked by the aberrant activated kinase, we discuss scenarios of drug resistance and relapse by compensating lesions that bypass the inactivated pathway in a vertical or horizontal fashion. Collectively, these suggest that the future challenge of cancer therapy with small molecule kinase inhibitors will rely on the discovery of distinct combinations of optimized drugs to target individual subtypes of different cancers.

  16. Inhibition of phosphoglycerate kinase by salicylates.

    PubMed

    Larsson-Raźnikiewicz, M; Wiksell, E

    1978-03-14

    A kinetic analysis has been performed on the inhibition of the yeast phosphoglycerate kinase (APT:3-phospho-D-glycerate 1-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.2.3) reaction by 2-hydroxybenzoate (salicylate) and two of its iododerivatives, 2-hydroxy-5-iodobenzoate and 2-hydroxy-3,5-diiodobenzoate. The results give evidence that the salicylates mimic the nucleotide binding at the catalytic centre. The enzyme has an affinity for salicylate that dramatically increases for each iodine atom introduced to the benzene ring. Parabolic inhibition give evidence for two inhibitor binding sites per enzyme molecule. The two Ki values are 10 and 180 mM for salicylate, 0.60 and 13 mM for iodosalicylate and 0.064 and 0.70 mM for diiodosalicylate. The 2'-OH of the nucleotide substrate appears to be important for the catalytic events. PMID:343818

  17. The Immunomodulatory Functions of Diacylglycerol Kinase ζ

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Brenal K.; Kambayashi, Taku

    2016-01-01

    The generation of diacylglycerol (DAG) is critical for promoting immune cell activation, regulation, and function. Diacylglycerol kinase ζ (DGKζ) serves as an important negative regulator of DAG by enzymatically converting DAG into phosphatidic acid (PA) to shut down DAG-mediated signaling. Consequently, the loss of DGKζ increases DAG levels and the duration of DAG-mediated signaling. However, while the enhancement of DAG signaling is thought to augment immune cell function, the loss of DGKζ can result in both immunoactivation and immunomodulation depending on the cell type and function. In this review, we discuss how different immune cell functions can be selectively modulated by DGKζ. Furthermore, we consider how targeting DGKζ can be potentially beneficial for the resolution of human diseases by either promoting immune responses important for protection against infection or cancer or dampening immune responses in immunopathologic conditions such as allergy and septic shock.

  18. Erythrocyte pyruvate kinase deficiency: 2015 status report

    PubMed Central

    Zanella, Alberto; Neufeld, Ellis J.; Morton, D. Holmes; Eber, Stefan; Yaish, Hassan; Glader, Bertil

    2015-01-01

    Over the last several decades, our understanding of the genetic variation, pathophysiology, and complications of the hemolytic anemia associated with red cell pyruvate kinase deficiency (PKD) has expanded. Nonetheless, there remain significant gaps in our knowledge with regard to clinical care and monitoring. Treatment remains supportive with phototherapy and/or exchange transfusion in the newborn period, regular or intermittent red cell transfusions in children and adults, and splenectomy to decrease transfusion requirements and/or anemia related symptoms. In this article, we review the clinical diversity of PKD, the current standard of treatment and for supportive care, the complications observed, and future treatment directions.Am. J. Hematol. 90:825–830, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26087744

  19. The Immunomodulatory Functions of Diacylglycerol Kinase ζ

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Brenal K.; Kambayashi, Taku

    2016-01-01

    The generation of diacylglycerol (DAG) is critical for promoting immune cell activation, regulation, and function. Diacylglycerol kinase ζ (DGKζ) serves as an important negative regulator of DAG by enzymatically converting DAG into phosphatidic acid (PA) to shut down DAG-mediated signaling. Consequently, the loss of DGKζ increases DAG levels and the duration of DAG-mediated signaling. However, while the enhancement of DAG signaling is thought to augment immune cell function, the loss of DGKζ can result in both immunoactivation and immunomodulation depending on the cell type and function. In this review, we discuss how different immune cell functions can be selectively modulated by DGKζ. Furthermore, we consider how targeting DGKζ can be potentially beneficial for the resolution of human diseases by either promoting immune responses important for protection against infection or cancer or dampening immune responses in immunopathologic conditions such as allergy and septic shock. PMID:27656643

  20. Targeting WEE1 Kinase in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Christopher J; Backos, Donald S; Reigan, Philip

    2016-10-01

    WEE1 kinase plays a crucial role in the G2-M cell-cycle checkpoint arrest for DNA repair before mitotic entry. Normal cells repair damaged DNA during G1 arrest; however, cancer cells often have a deficient G1-S checkpoint and depend on a functional G2-M checkpoint for DNA repair. WEE1 is expressed at high levels in various cancer types including breast cancers, leukemia, melanoma, and adult and pediatric brain tumors. Many of these cancers are treated with DNA-damaging agents; therefore, targeting WEE1 for inhibition and compromising the G2-M checkpoint presents an opportunity to potentiate therapy. In this review we summarize the current WEE1 inhibitors, the potential for further inhibitor development, and the challenges in the clinic for the WEE1 inhibitor strategy. PMID:27427153

  1. Inherent formulation issues of kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Herbrink, M; Schellens, J H M; Beijnen, J H; Nuijen, B

    2016-10-10

    The small molecular Kinase Inhibitor (smKI) drug class is very promising and rapidly expanding. All of these drugs are administered orally. The clear relationship between structure and function has led to drugs with a general low intrinsic solubility. The majority of the commercial pharmaceutical formulations of the smKIs are physical mixtures that are limited by the low drug solubility of a salt form. This class of drugs is therefore characterized by an impaired and variable bioavailability rendering them costly and their therapies suboptimal. New formulations are sparingly being reported in literature and patents. The presented data suggests that continued research into formulation design can help to develop more efficient and cost-effective smKI formulation. Moreover, it may also be of help in the future design of the formulations of new smKIs.

  2. Animal models of antimuscle specific kinase myasthenia

    PubMed Central

    Richman, David P.; Nishi, Kayoko; Ferns, Michael J.; Schnier, Joachim; Pytel, Peter; Maselli, Ricardo A.; Agius, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Antimuscle specific kinase (anti-MuSK) myasthenia (AMM) differs from antiacetylcholine receptor myasthenia gravis in exhibiting more focal muscle involvement (neck, shoulder, facial, and bulbar muscles) with wasting of the involved, primarily axial, muscles. AMM is not associated with thymic hyperplasia and responds poorly to anticholinesterase treatment. Animal models of AMM have been induced in rabbits, mice, and rats by immunization with purified xenogeneic MuSK ectodomain, and by passive transfer of large quantities of purified serum IgG from AMM patients into mice. The models have confirmed the pathogenic role of the MuSK antibodies in AMM and have demonstrated the involvement of both the presynaptic and postsynaptic components of the neuromuscular junction. The observations in this human disease and its animal models demonstrate the role of MuSK not only in the formation of this synapse but also in its maintenance. PMID:23252909

  3. The Immunomodulatory Functions of Diacylglycerol Kinase ζ.

    PubMed

    Singh, Brenal K; Kambayashi, Taku

    2016-01-01

    The generation of diacylglycerol (DAG) is critical for promoting immune cell activation, regulation, and function. Diacylglycerol kinase ζ (DGKζ) serves as an important negative regulator of DAG by enzymatically converting DAG into phosphatidic acid (PA) to shut down DAG-mediated signaling. Consequently, the loss of DGKζ increases DAG levels and the duration of DAG-mediated signaling. However, while the enhancement of DAG signaling is thought to augment immune cell function, the loss of DGKζ can result in both immunoactivation and immunomodulation depending on the cell type and function. In this review, we discuss how different immune cell functions can be selectively modulated by DGKζ. Furthermore, we consider how targeting DGKζ can be potentially beneficial for the resolution of human diseases by either promoting immune responses important for protection against infection or cancer or dampening immune responses in immunopathologic conditions such as allergy and septic shock. PMID:27656643

  4. Receptor tyrosine kinase targeting in multicellular spheroids.

    PubMed

    Breslin, Susan; O'Driscoll, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    While growing cells as a monolayer is the traditional method for cell culture, the incorporation of multicellular spheroids into experimental design is becoming increasingly popular. This is due to the understanding that cells grown as spheroids tend to replicate the in vivo situation more reliably than monolayer cells. Thus, the use of multicellular spheroids may be more clinically relevant than monolayer cell cultures. Here, we describe methods for multicellular 3D spheroid generation that may be used to provide samples for receptor tyrosine kinase (and other protein) detection. Methods described include the forced-floating poly-HEMA method, the hanging-drop method, and the use of ECM to form multicellular 3D spheroids. PMID:25319898

  5. The Immunomodulatory Functions of Diacylglycerol Kinase ζ.

    PubMed

    Singh, Brenal K; Kambayashi, Taku

    2016-01-01

    The generation of diacylglycerol (DAG) is critical for promoting immune cell activation, regulation, and function. Diacylglycerol kinase ζ (DGKζ) serves as an important negative regulator of DAG by enzymatically converting DAG into phosphatidic acid (PA) to shut down DAG-mediated signaling. Consequently, the loss of DGKζ increases DAG levels and the duration of DAG-mediated signaling. However, while the enhancement of DAG signaling is thought to augment immune cell function, the loss of DGKζ can result in both immunoactivation and immunomodulation depending on the cell type and function. In this review, we discuss how different immune cell functions can be selectively modulated by DGKζ. Furthermore, we consider how targeting DGKζ can be potentially beneficial for the resolution of human diseases by either promoting immune responses important for protection against infection or cancer or dampening immune responses in immunopathologic conditions such as allergy and septic shock.

  6. Structural investigation of protein kinase C inhibitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barak, D.; Shibata, M.; Rein, R.

    1991-01-01

    The phospholipid and Ca2+ dependent protein kinase (PKC) plays an essential role in a variety of cellular events. Inhibition of PKC was shown to arrest growth in tumor cell cultures making it a target for possible antitumor therapy. Calphostins are potent inhibitors of PKC with high affinity for the enzyme regulatory site. Structural characteristics of calphostins, which confer the inhibitory activity, are investigated by comparing their optimized structures with the existing models for PKC activation. The resulting model of inhibitory activity assumes interaction with two out of the three electrostatic interaction sites postulated for activators. The model shows two sites of hydrophobic interaction and enables the inhibitory activity of gossypol to be accounted for.

  7. Complexity of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signal Processing

    PubMed Central

    Volinsky, Natalia; Kholodenko, Boris N.

    2013-01-01

    Our knowledge of molecular mechanisms of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling advances with ever-increasing pace. Yet our understanding of how the spatiotemporal dynamics of RTK signaling control specific cellular outcomes has lagged behind. Systems-centered experimental and computational approaches can help reveal how overlapping networks of signal transducers downstream of RTKs orchestrate specific cell-fate decisions. We discuss how RTK network regulatory structures, which involve the immediate posttranslational and delayed transcriptional controls by multiple feed forward and feedback loops together with pathway cross talk, adapt cells to the combinatorial variety of external cues and conditions. This intricate network circuitry endows cells with emerging capabilities for RTK signal processing and decoding. We illustrate how mathematical modeling facilitates our understanding of RTK network behaviors by unraveling specific systems properties, including bistability, oscillations, excitable responses, and generation of intricate landscapes of signaling activities. PMID:23906711

  8. Antibodies directed against receptor tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    FAUVEL, Bénédicte; Yasri, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 30 therapeutic monoclonal antibodies have already been approved for cancers and inflammatory diseases, and monoclonal antibodies continue to be one of the fastest growing classes of therapeutic molecules. Because aberrant signaling by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) is a commonly observed factor in cancer, most of the subclasses of RTKs are being extensively studied as potential targets for treating malignancies. The first two RTKs that have been targeted by antibody therapy, with five currently marketed antibodies, are the growth factor receptors EGFR and HER2. However, due to systemic side effects, refractory patients and the development of drug resistance, these treatments are being challenged by emerging therapeutics. This review examines current monoclonal antibody therapies against RTKs. After an analysis of agents that have already been approved, we present an analysis of antibodies in clinical development that target RTKs. Finally, we highlight promising RTKs that are emerging as new oncological targets for antibody-based therapy. PMID:24859229

  9. The extended protein kinase C superfamily.

    PubMed Central

    Mellor, H; Parker, P J

    1998-01-01

    Members of the mammalian protein kinase C (PKC) superfamily play key regulatory roles in a multitude of cellular processes, ranging from control of fundamental cell autonomous activities, such as proliferation, to more organismal functions, such as memory. However, understanding of mammalian PKC signalling systems is complicated by the large number of family members. Significant progress has been made through studies based on comparative analysis, which have defined a number of regulatory elements in PKCs which confer specific location and activation signals to each isotype. Further studies on simple organisms have shown that PKC signalling paradigms are conserved through evolution from yeast to humans, underscoring the importance of this family in cellular signalling and giving novel insights into PKC function in complex mammalian systems. PMID:9601053

  10. Pachastrissamine (jaspine B) and its stereoisomers inhibit sphingosine kinases and atypical protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Yoshimitsu, Yuji; Oishi, Shinya; Miyagaki, Jun; Inuki, Shinsuke; Ohno, Hiroaki; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2011-09-15

    Sphingosine kinases (SphKs) are oncogenic enzymes that regulate the critical balance between ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate. Much effort has been dedicated to develop inhibitors against these enzymes. Naturally occurring pachastrissamine (jaspine B) and all its stereoisomers were prepared and evaluated for their inhibitory effects against SphKs. All eight stereoisomers exhibited moderate to potent inhibitory activity against SphK1 and SphK2. Inhibitory effects were profiled against protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms by in vitro experiments. Atypical PKCs (PKCζ and PKCι) were inhibited by several pachastrissamine stereoisomers. The improved activity over N,N-dimethylsphingosine suggests that the cyclic scaffold in pachastrissamines facilitates potential favorable interactions with SphKs and PKCs.

  11. 4-Anilino-6-phenyl-quinoline inhibitors of mitogen activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2).

    PubMed

    Olsson, Henric; Sjö, Peter; Ersoy, Oguz; Kristoffersson, Anna; Larsson, Joakim; Nordén, Bo

    2010-08-15

    A class of inhibitors of mitogen activated protein kinase-activated kinase 2 (MK2) was discovered via high-throughput screening. This compound class demonstrates activity against the enzyme with sub-microM IC(50) values, and suppresses LPS-induced TNFalpha levels in THP-1 cells. MK2 inhibition kinetic measurements indicated mixed binding approaching non-ATP competitive inhibition.

  12. Updated rice kinase database RKD 2.0: enabling transcriptome and functional analysis of rice kinase genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein kinases catalyze the transfer of a phosphate moiety from a phosphate donor to the substrate molecule, thus, playing critical roles in cell signaling and metabolism. Although plant genomes contain more than 1,000 genes that encode kinases, knowledge is limited about the precise roles for the...

  13. Choline phosphate potentiates sphingosine-1-phosphate-induced Raf-1 kinase activation dependent of Ras--phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael; Han, Sang Seop

    2002-04-01

    In NIH3T3 cells, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) caused a significant increase of Raf-1 kinase activity as early as 2 min. Interestingly, choline phosphate (ChoP) produced synergistic increase of S1P-stimulated Raf-1 kinase activation in the presence of ATP while showing additive effect in the absence of ATP. However, Raf-1 kinase activation induced by S1P decreased in the presence of ATP when applied alone. The overexpression of N-terminal fragment of Raf-1 (RfI) to inhibit Raf--Ras interaction caused the inhibition of S1P-induced Raf-1 kinase activation. Also, wortmannin, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, exhibited inhibitory effects on S1P-induced activation of Raf-1 kinase. In addition, we demonstrated that the chemical antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine attenuated Raf-1 activation induced by S1P, suggesting that H(2)O(2) may be required for the signalling pathway leading to Raf-1 activation. This H(2)O(2)-induced Raf-1 kinase activation was also blocked by inhibition of Ras--PI3K signalling pathway using alpha-hydroxyfarnesylphosphonic acid and wortmannin. Taken together, these results indicate that S1P-induced Raf-1 kinase activation is mediated by H(2)O(2) stimulation of Ras--PI3K pathway, and is enhanced by ChoP in the presence of ATP.

  14. Transphosphorylation of E. coli proteins during production of recombinant protein kinases provides a robust system to characterize kinase specificity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein kinase specificity is of fundamental importance to pathway regulation and signal transduction. Here, we report a convenient system to monitor the activity and specificity of recombinant protein kinases expressed in E.coli. We apply this to the study of the cytoplasmic domain of the plant rec...

  15. Conformational Dynamics and Allostery in Pyruvate Kinase.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Katherine A; Zhu, Shaolong; Liuni, Peter; Peng, Fen; Kessans, Sarah A; Wilson, Derek J; Dobson, Renwick C J

    2016-04-22

    Pyruvate kinase catalyzes the final step in glycolysis and is allosterically regulated to control flux through the pathway. Two models are proposed to explain how Escherichia coli pyruvate kinase type 1 is allosterically regulated: the "domain rotation model" suggests that both the domains within the monomer and the monomers within the tetramer reorient with respect to one another; the "rigid body reorientation model" proposes only a reorientation of the monomers within the tetramer causing rigidification of the active site. To test these hypotheses and elucidate the conformational and dynamic changes that drive allostery, we performed time-resolved electrospray ionization mass spectrometry coupled to hydrogen-deuterium exchange studies followed by mutagenic analysis to test the activation mechanism. Global exchange experiments, supported by thermostability studies, demonstrate that fructose 1,6-bisphosphate binding to the allosteric domain causes a shift toward a globally more dynamic ensemble of conformations. Mapping deuterium exchange to peptides within the enzyme highlight site-specific regions with altered conformational dynamics, many of which increase in conformational flexibility. Based upon these and mutagenic studies, we propose an allosteric mechanism whereby the binding of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate destabilizes an α-helix that bridges the allosteric and active site domains within the monomeric unit. This destabilizes the β-strands within the (β/α)8-barrel domain and the linked active site loops that are responsible for substrate binding. Our data are consistent with the domain rotation model but inconsistent with the rigid body reorientation model given the increased flexibility at the interdomain interface, and we can for the first time explain how fructose 1,6-bisphosphate affects the active site. PMID:26879751

  16. Combined Cancer Immunotherapy Against Aurora Kinase A.

    PubMed

    Kaštánková, Iva; Poláková, Ingrid; Dušková, Martina; Šmahel, Michal

    2016-05-01

    Aurora kinase A (AURKA) is a centrosomal protein that is overexpressed in a number of human malignancies and can contribute to tumor progression. As we used this protein as a target of DNA immunization, we increased its immunogenicity by the addition of the PADRE helper epitope and decreased its potential oncogenicity by mutagenesis of the kinase domain. For in vitro analysis of induced immune responses in mice, we identified the Aurka(220-228) nonapeptide representing an H-2Kb epitope. As DNA vaccination against the Aurka self-antigen by a gene gun did not show any antitumor effect, we combined DNA immunization with anti-CD25 treatment that depletes mainly regulatory T cells. Whereas 1 anti-CD25 dose injected before DNA vaccination did not enhance the activation of Aurka-specific splenocytes, 3 doses administered on days of immunizations augmented about 10-fold immunity against Aurka. However, an opposite effect was found for antitumor immunity-only 1 anti-CD25 dose combined with DNA vaccination reduced tumor growth. Moreover, the administration of 3 doses of anti-CD25 antibody alone accelerated tumor growth. Analysis of tumor-infiltrating cells showed that 3 anti-CD25 doses not only efficiently depleted regulatory T cells but also activated helper T cells and CD3(-)CD25(+) cells. Next, we found that blockade of the PD-1 receptor initiated 1 week after the first immunization was necessary for significant inhibition of tumor growth with therapeutic DNA vaccination against Aurka combined with depletion of CD25 cells. Our results suggest that combined cancer immunotherapy should be carefully evaluated to achieve the optimal antitumor effect. PMID:27070447

  17. Photoinduced structural changes to protein kinase A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozinek, Sarah C.; Thomas, Robert J.; Brancaleon, Lorenzo

    2014-03-01

    The importance of porphyrins in organisms is underscored by the ubiquitous biological and biochemical functions that are mediated by these compounds and by their potential biomedical and biotechnological applications. Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) is the precursor to heme and has biomedical applications such as its use as a photosensitizer in phototherapy and photodetection of cancer. Among other applications, our group has demonstrated that low-irradiance exposure to laser irradiation of PPIX, Fe-PPIX, or meso-tetrakis (4-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrin (TSPP) non-covalently docked to a protein causes conformational changes in the polypeptide. Such approach can have remarkable consequences in the study of protein structure/function relationship and can be used to prompt non-native protein properties. Therefore we have investigated protein kinase A (PKA), a more relevant protein model towards the photo-treatment of cancer. PKA's enzymatic functions are regulated by the presence of cyclic adenosine monophosphate for intracellular signal transduction involved in, among other things, stimulation of transcription, tumorigenesis in Carney complex and migration of breast carcinoma cells. Since phosphorylation is a necessary step in some cancers and inflammatory diseases, inhibiting the protein kinase, and therefore phosphorylation, may serve to treat these diseases. Changes in absorption, steady-state fluorescence, and fluorescence lifetime indicate: 1) both TSPP and PPIX non-covalently bind to PKA where they maintain photoreactivity; 2) absorptive photoproduct formation occurs only when PKA is bound to TSPP and irradiated; and 3) PKA undergoes secondary structural changes after irradiation with either porphyrin bound. These photoinduced changes could affect the protein's enzymatic and signaling capabilities.

  18. Venus Kinase Receptors: Prospects in Signaling and Biological Functions of These Invertebrate Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Dissous, Colette; Morel, Marion; Vanderstraete, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Venus kinase receptors (VKRs) form a family of invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) initially discovered in the parasitic platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni. VKRs are single transmembrane receptors that contain an extracellular venus fly trap structure similar to the ligand-binding domain of G protein-coupled receptors of class C, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain close to that of insulin receptors. VKRs are found in a large variety of invertebrates from cnidarians to echinoderms and are highly expressed in larval stages and in gonads, suggesting a role of these proteins in embryonic and larval development as well as in reproduction. VKR gene silencing could demonstrate the function of these receptors in oogenesis as well as in spermatogenesis in S. mansoni. VKRs are activated by amino acids and are highly responsive to arginine. As many other RTKs, they form dimers when activated by ligands and induce intracellular pathways involved in protein synthesis and cellular growth, such as MAPK and PI3K/Akt/S6K pathways. VKRs are not present in vertebrates or in some invertebrate species. Questions remain open about the origin of this little-known RTK family in evolution and its role in emergence and specialization of Metazoa. What is the meaning of maintenance or loss of VKR in some phyla or species in terms of development and physiological functions? The presence of VKRs in invertebrates of economical and medical importance, such as pests, vectors of pathogens, and platyhelminth parasites, and the implication of these RTKs in gametogenesis and reproduction processes are valuable reasons to consider VKRs as interesting targets in new programs for eradication/control of pests and infectious diseases, with the main advantage in the case of parasite targeting that VKR counterparts are absent from the vertebrate host kinase panel. PMID:24860549

  19. Phosphorylation of Human Choline Kinase Beta by Protein Kinase A: Its Impact on Activity and Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ching Ching; Few, Ling Ling; Konrad, Manfred; See Too, Wei Cun

    2016-01-01

    Choline kinase beta (CKβ) is one of the CK isozymes involved in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine. CKβ is important for normal mitochondrial function and muscle development as the lack of the ckβ gene in human and mice results in the development of muscular dystrophy. In contrast, CKα is implicated in tumorigenesis and has been extensively studied as an anticancer target. Phosphorylation of human CKα was found to regulate the enzyme’s activity and its subcellular location. This study provides evidence for CKβ phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA). In vitro phosphorylation of CKβ by PKA was first detected by phosphoprotein staining, as well as by in-gel kinase assays. The phosphorylating kinase was identified as PKA by Western blotting. CKβ phosphorylation by MCF-7 cell lysate was inhibited by a PKA-specific inhibitor peptide, and the intracellular phosphorylation of CKβ was shown to be regulated by the level of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), a PKA activator. Phosphorylation sites were located on CKβ residues serine-39 and serine-40 as determined by mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis. Phosphorylation increased the catalytic efficiencies for the substrates choline and ATP about 2-fold, without affecting ethanolamine phosphorylation, and the S39D/S40D CKβ phosphorylation mimic behaved kinetically very similar. Remarkably, phosphorylation drastically increased the sensitivity of CKβ to hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) inhibition by about 30-fold. These findings suggest that CKβ, in concert with CKα, and depending on its phosphorylation status, might play a critical role as a druggable target in carcinogenesis. PMID:27149373

  20. Protein-tyrosine Phosphatase and Kinase Specificity in Regulation of SRC and Breast Tumor Kinase* ♦

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Gaofeng; Aleem, Saadat; Yang, Ming; Miller, W. Todd; Tonks, Nicholas K.

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant evidence to the contrary, the view that phosphatases are “nonspecific” still pervades the field. Systems biology approaches to defining how signal transduction pathways are integrated at the level of whole organisms also often downplay the contribution of phosphatases, defining them as “erasers” that serve merely to restore the system to its basal state. Here, we present a study that counteracts the idea of “nonspecific phosphatases.” We have characterized two structurally similar and functionally related kinases, BRK and SRC, which are regulated by combinations of activating autophosphorylation and inhibitory C-terminal sites of tyrosine phosphorylation. We demonstrated specificity at the level of the kinases in that SRMS phosphorylated the C terminus of BRK, but not SRC; in contrast, CSK is the kinase responsible for C-terminal phosphorylation of SRC, but not BRK. For the phosphatases, we observed that RNAi-mediated suppression of PTP1B resulted in opposing effects on the activity of BRK and SRC and have defined the mechanisms underlying this specificity. PTP1B inhibited BRK by directly dephosphorylating the Tyr-342 autophosphorylation site. In contrast, PTP1B potentiated SRC activity, but not by dephosphorylating SRC itself directly; instead, PTP1B regulated the interaction between CBP/PAG and CSK. SRC associated with, and phosphorylated, the transmembrane protein CBP/PAG at Tyr-317, resulting in CSK recruitment. We identified PAG as a substrate of PTP1B, and dephosphorylation abolished recruitment of the inhibitory kinase CSK. Overall, these findings illustrate how the combinatorial effects of PTKs and PTPs may be integrated to regulate signaling, with both classes of enzymes displaying exquisite specificity. PMID:25897081

  1. Venus kinase receptors: prospects in signaling and biological functions of these invertebrate kinases.

    PubMed

    Dissous, Colette; Morel, Marion; Vanderstraete, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Venus kinase receptors (VKRs) form a family of invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) initially discovered in the parasitic platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni. VKRs are single transmembrane receptors that contain an extracellular venus fly trap structure similar to the ligand-binding domain of G protein-coupled receptors of class C, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain close to that of insulin receptors. VKRs are found in a large variety of invertebrates from cnidarians to echinoderms and are highly expressed in larval stages and in gonads, suggesting a role of these proteins in embryonic and larval development as well as in reproduction. VKR gene silencing could demonstrate the function of these receptors in oogenesis as well as in spermatogenesis in S. mansoni. VKRs are activated by amino acids and are highly responsive to arginine. As many other RTKs, they form dimers when activated by ligands and induce intracellular pathways involved in protein synthesis and cellular growth, such as MAPK and PI3K/Akt/S6K pathways. VKRs are not present in vertebrates or in some invertebrate species. Questions remain open about the origin of this little-known RTK family in evolution and its role in emergence and specialization of Metazoa. What is the meaning of maintenance or loss of VKR in some phyla or species in terms of development and physiological functions? The presence of VKRs in invertebrates of economical and medical importance, such as pests, vectors of pathogens, and platyhelminth parasites, and the implication of these RTKs in gametogenesis and reproduction processes are valuable reasons to consider VKRs as interesting targets in new programs for eradication/control of pests and infectious diseases, with the main advantage in the case of parasite targeting that VKR counterparts are absent from the vertebrate host kinase panel.

  2. Glycogen synthase kinase 3β suppresses polyglutamine aggregation by inhibiting Vaccinia-related kinase 2 activity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunju; Ryu, Hye Guk; Kim, Sangjune; Lee, Dohyun; Jeong, Young-Hun; Kim, Kyong-Tai

    2016-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by an abnormal expansion of polyglutamine repeats in the N-terminal of huntingtin. The amount of aggregate-prone protein is controlled by various mechanisms, including molecular chaperones. Vaccinia-related kinase 2 (VRK2) is known to negatively regulate chaperonin TRiC, and VRK2-facilitated degradation of TRiC increases polyQ protein aggregation, which is involved in HD. We found that VRK2 activity was negatively controlled by glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). GSK3β directly bound to VRK2 and inhibited the catalytic activity of VRK2 in a kinase activity-independent manner. Furthermore, GSK3β increased the stability of TRiC and decreased the formation of HttQ103-GFP aggregates by inhibiting VRK2. These results indicate that GSK3β signaling may be a regulatory mechanism of HD progression and suggest targets for further therapeutic trials for HD. PMID:27377031

  3. Identification of human cyclin-dependent kinase 8, a putative protein kinase partner for cyclin C.

    PubMed

    Tassan, J P; Jaquenoud, M; Léopold, P; Schultz, S J; Nigg, E A

    1995-09-12

    Metazoan cyclin C was originally isolated by virtue of its ability to rescue Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells deficient in G1 cyclin function. This suggested that cyclin C might play a role in cell cycle control, but progress toward understanding the function of this cyclin has been hampered by the lack of information on a potential kinase partner. Here we report the identification of a human protein kinase, K35 [cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8)], that is likely to be a physiological partner of cyclin C. A specific interaction between K35 and cyclin C could be demonstrated after translation of CDKs and cyclins in vitro. Furthermore, cyclin C could be detected in K35 immunoprecipitates prepared from HeLa cells, indicating that the two proteins form a complex also in vivo. The K35-cyclin C complex is structurally related to SRB10-SRB11, a CDK-cyclin pair recently shown to be part of the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme of S. cerevisiae. Hence, we propose that human K35(CDK8)-cyclin C might be functionally associated with the mammalian transcription apparatus, perhaps involved in relaying growth-regulatory signals.

  4. Insulin accelerates inter-endosomal GLUT4 traffic via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase B.

    PubMed

    Foster, L J; Li, D; Randhawa, V K; Klip, A

    2001-11-23

    Insulin enhances plasmalemmal-directed traffic of glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4), but it is unknown whether insulin regulates GLUT4 traffic through endosomal compartments. In L6 myoblasts expressing Myc-tagged GLUT4, insulin markedly stimulated the rate of GLUT4myc recycling. In myoblasts stimulated with insulin to maximize surface GLUT4myc levels, we followed the rates of surface-labeled GLUT4myc endocytosis and chased its intracellular distribution in space and time using confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Surface-labeled GLUT4myc internalized rapidly (t(12) 3 min), reaching the early endosome by 2 min and the transferrin receptor-rich, perinuclear recycling endosome by 20 min. Upon re-addition of insulin, the t(12) of GLUT4 disappearance from the plasma membrane was unchanged (3 min), but strikingly, GLUT4myc reached the recycling endosome by 10 and left by 20 min. This effect of insulin was blocked by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 or by transiently transfected dominant-negative phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase B mutants. In contrast, insulin did not alter the rate of arrival of rhodamine-labeled transferrin at the recycling endosome. These results reveal a heretofore unknown effect of insulin to accelerate inter-endosomal travel rates of GLUT4 and identify the recycling endosome as an obligatory stage in insulin-dependent GLUT4 recycling.

  5. Structures of Down syndrome kinases, DYRKs, reveal mechanisms of kinase activation and substrate recognition.

    PubMed

    Soundararajan, Meera; Roos, Annette K; Savitsky, Pavel; Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Kettenbach, Arminja N; Olsen, Jesper V; Gerber, Scott A; Eswaran, Jeyanthy; Knapp, Stefan; Elkins, Jonathan M

    2013-06-01

    Dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation-regulated kinases (DYRKs) play key roles in brain development, regulation of splicing, and apoptosis, and are potential drug targets for neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. We present crystal structures of one representative member of each DYRK subfamily: DYRK1A with an ATP-mimetic inhibitor and consensus peptide, and DYRK2 including NAPA and DH (DYRK homology) box regions. The current activation model suggests that DYRKs are Ser/Thr kinases that only autophosphorylate the second tyrosine of the activation loop YxY motif during protein translation. The structures explain the roles of this tyrosine and of the DH box in DYRK activation and provide a structural model for DYRK substrate recognition. Phosphorylation of a library of naturally occurring peptides identified substrate motifs that lack proline in the P+1 position, suggesting that DYRK1A is not a strictly proline-directed kinase. Our data also show that DYRK1A wild-type and Y321F mutant retain tyrosine autophosphorylation activity. PMID:23665168

  6. Kinase-independent function of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) in the replication of damaged DNA.

    PubMed

    Speroni, Juliana; Federico, María Belén; Mansilla, Sabrina F; Soria, Gastón; Gottifredi, Vanesa

    2012-05-01

    The checkpoint kinases Chk1 and ATR are broadly known for their role in the response to the accumulation of damaged DNA. Because Chk1 activation requires its phosphorylation by ATR, it is expected that ATR or Chk1 down-regulation should cause similar alterations in the signals triggered by DNA lesions. Intriguingly, we found that Chk1, but not ATR, promotes the progression of replication forks after UV irradiation. Strikingly, this role of Chk1 is independent of its kinase-domain and of its partnership with Claspin. Instead, we demonstrate that the ability of Chk1 to promote replication fork progression on damaged DNA templates relies on its recently identified proliferating cell nuclear antigen-interacting motif, which is required for its release from chromatin after DNA damage. Also supporting the importance of Chk1 release, a histone H2B-Chk1 chimera, which is permanently immobilized in chromatin, is unable to promote the replication of damaged DNA. Moreover, inefficient chromatin dissociation of Chk1 impairs the efficient recruitment of the specialized DNA polymerase η (pol η) to replication-associated foci after UV. Given the critical role of pol η during translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), these findings unveil an unforeseen facet of the regulation by Chk1 of DNA replication. This kinase-independent role of Chk1 is exclusively associated to the maintenance of active replication forks after UV irradiation in a manner in which Chk1 release prompts TLS to avoid replication stalling.

  7. Kinase-independent function of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) in the replication of damaged DNA

    PubMed Central

    Speroni, Juliana; Federico, María Belén; Mansilla, Sabrina F.; Soria, Gastón; Gottifredi, Vanesa

    2012-01-01

    The checkpoint kinases Chk1 and ATR are broadly known for their role in the response to the accumulation of damaged DNA. Because Chk1 activation requires its phosphorylation by ATR, it is expected that ATR or Chk1 down-regulation should cause similar alterations in the signals triggered by DNA lesions. Intriguingly, we found that Chk1, but not ATR, promotes the progression of replication forks after UV irradiation. Strikingly, this role of Chk1 is independent of its kinase-domain and of its partnership with Claspin. Instead, we demonstrate that the ability of Chk1 to promote replication fork progression on damaged DNA templates relies on its recently identified proliferating cell nuclear antigen-interacting motif, which is required for its release from chromatin after DNA damage. Also supporting the importance of Chk1 release, a histone H2B-Chk1 chimera, which is permanently immobilized in chromatin, is unable to promote the replication of damaged DNA. Moreover, inefficient chromatin dissociation of Chk1 impairs the efficient recruitment of the specialized DNA polymerase η (pol η) to replication-associated foci after UV. Given the critical role of pol η during translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), these findings unveil an unforeseen facet of the regulation by Chk1 of DNA replication. This kinase-independent role of Chk1 is exclusively associated to the maintenance of active replication forks after UV irradiation in a manner in which Chk1 release prompts TLS to avoid replication stalling. PMID:22529391

  8. Regulation of cyclin D-dependent kinase 4 (cdk4) by cdk4-activating kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Kato, J Y; Matsuoka, M; Strom, D K; Sherr, C J

    1994-01-01

    The accumulation of assembled holoenzymes composed of regulatory D-type cyclins and their catalytic partner, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (cdk4), is rate limiting for progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle in mammalian fibroblasts. Both the synthesis and assembly of D-type cyclins and cdk4 depend upon serum stimulation, but even when both subunits are ectopically overproduced, they do not assemble into complexes in serum-deprived cells. When coexpressed from baculoviral vectors in intact Sf9 insect cells, cdk4 assembles with D-type cyclins to form active protein kinases. In contrast, recombinant D-type cyclin and cdk4 subunits produced in insect cells or in bacteria do not assemble as efficiently into functional holoenzymes when combined in vitro but can be activated in the presence of lysates obtained from proliferating mammalian cells. Assembly of cyclin D-cdk4 complexes in coinfected Sf9 cells facilitates phosphorylation of cdk4 on threonine 172 by a cdk-activating kinase (CAK). Assembly can proceed in the absence of this modification, but cdk4 mutants which cannot be phosphorylated by CAK remain catalytically inactive. Therefore, formation of the cyclin D-cdk4 complex and phosphorylation of the bound catalytic subunit are independently regulated, and in addition to the requirement for CAK activity, serum stimulation is required to promote assembly of the complexes in mammalian cells. Images PMID:8139570

  9. Structures of Down Syndrome Kinases, DYRKs, Reveal Mechanisms of Kinase Activation and Substrate Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Soundararajan, Meera; Roos, Annette K.; Savitsky, Pavel; Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Kettenbach, Arminja N.; Olsen, Jesper V.; Gerber, Scott A.; Eswaran, Jeyanthy; Knapp, Stefan; Elkins, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation-regulated kinases (DYRKs) play key roles in brain development, regulation of splicing, and apoptosis, and are potential drug targets for neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. We present crystal structures of one representative member of each DYRK subfamily: DYRK1A with an ATP-mimetic inhibitor and consensus peptide, and DYRK2 including NAPA and DH (DYRK homology) box regions. The current activation model suggests that DYRKs are Ser/Thr kinases that only autophosphorylate the second tyrosine of the activation loop YxY motif during protein translation. The structures explain the roles of this tyrosine and of the DH box in DYRK activation and provide a structural model for DYRK substrate recognition. Phosphorylation of a library of naturally occurring peptides identified substrate motifs that lack proline in the P+1 position, suggesting that DYRK1A is not a strictly proline-directed kinase. Our data also show that DYRK1A wild-type and Y321F mutant retain tyrosine autophosphorylation activity. PMID:23665168

  10. Diacylglycerol kinase regulation of protein kinase D during oxidative stress-induced intestinal cell injury

    SciTech Connect

    Song Jun; Li Jing; Mourot, Joshua M.; Mark Evers, B.; Chung, Dai H.

    2008-10-17

    We recently demonstrated that protein kinase D (PKD) exerts a protective function during oxidative stress-induced intestinal epithelial cell injury; however, the exact role of DAG kinase (DGK){zeta}, an isoform expressed in intestine, during this process is unknown. We sought to determine the role of DGK during oxidative stress-induced intestinal cell injury and whether DGK acts as an upstream regulator of PKD. Inhibition of DGK with R59022 compound or DGK{zeta} siRNA transfection decreased H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced RIE-1 cell apoptosis as measured by DNA fragmentation and increased PKD phosphorylation. Overexpression of kinase-dead DGK{zeta} also significantly increased PKD phosphorylation. Additionally, endogenous nuclear DGK{zeta} rapidly translocated to the cytoplasm following H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment. Our findings demonstrate that DGK is involved in the regulation of oxidative stress-induced intestinal cell injury. PKD activation is induced by DGK{zeta}, suggesting DGK is an upstream regulator of oxidative stress-induced activation of the PKD signaling pathway in intestinal epithelial cells.

  11. Kinase-independent function of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) in the replication of damaged DNA.

    PubMed

    Speroni, Juliana; Federico, María Belén; Mansilla, Sabrina F; Soria, Gastón; Gottifredi, Vanesa

    2012-05-01

    The checkpoint kinases Chk1 and ATR are broadly known for their role in the response to the accumulation of damaged DNA. Because Chk1 activation requires its phosphorylation by ATR, it is expected that ATR or Chk1 down-regulation should cause similar alterations in the signals triggered by DNA lesions. Intriguingly, we found that Chk1, but not ATR, promotes the progression of replication forks after UV irradiation. Strikingly, this role of Chk1 is independent of its kinase-domain and of its partnership with Claspin. Instead, we demonstrate that the ability of Chk1 to promote replication fork progression on damaged DNA templates relies on its recently identified proliferating cell nuclear antigen-interacting motif, which is required for its release from chromatin after DNA damage. Also supporting the importance of Chk1 release, a histone H2B-Chk1 chimera, which is permanently immobilized in chromatin, is unable to promote the replication of damaged DNA. Moreover, inefficient chromatin dissociation of Chk1 impairs the efficient recruitment of the specialized DNA polymerase η (pol η) to replication-associated foci after UV. Given the critical role of pol η during translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), these findings unveil an unforeseen facet of the regulation by Chk1 of DNA replication. This kinase-independent role of Chk1 is exclusively associated to the maintenance of active replication forks after UV irradiation in a manner in which Chk1 release prompts TLS to avoid replication stalling. PMID:22529391

  12. Aurora Kinases and Potential Medical Applications of Aurora Kinase Inhibitors: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gavriilidis, Paschalis; Giakoustidis, Alexandros; Giakoustidis, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Aurora kinases (AKs) represent a novel group of serine/threonine kinases. They were originally described in 1995 by David Glover in the course of studies of mutant alleles characterized with unusual spindle pole configuration in Drosophila melanogaster. Thus far, three AKs A, B, and C have been discovered in human healthy and neoplastic cells. Each one locates in different subcellular locations and they are all nuclear proteins. AKs are playing an essential role in mitotic events such as monitoring of the mitotic checkpoint, creation of bipolar mitotic spindle and alignment of centrosomes on it, also regulating centrosome separation, bio-orientation of chromosomes and cytokinesis. Any inactivation of them can have catastrophic consequences on mitotic events of spindle formation, alignment of centrosomes and cytokinesis, resulting in apoptosis. Overexpression of AKs has been detected in diverse solid and hematological cancers and has been linked with a dismal prognosis. After discovery and identification of the first aurora kinase inhibitor (AKI) ZM447439 as a potential drug for targeted therapy in cancer treatment, approximately 30 AKIs have been introduced in cancer treatment. PMID:26345296

  13. The Energy Landscape Analysis of Cancer Mutations in Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Anshuman; Verkhivker, Gennady M.

    2011-01-01

    The growing interest in quantifying the molecular basis of protein kinase activation and allosteric regulation by cancer mutations has fueled computational studies of allosteric signaling in protein kinases. In the present study, we combined computer simulations and the energy landscape analysis of protein kinases to characterize the interplay between oncogenic mutations and locally frustrated sites as important catalysts of allostetric kinase activation. While structurally rigid kinase core constitutes a minimally frustrated hub of the catalytic domain, locally frustrated residue clusters, whose interaction networks are not energetically optimized, are prone to dynamic modulation and could enable allosteric conformational transitions. The results of this study have shown that the energy landscape effect of oncogenic mutations may be allosteric eliciting global changes in the spatial distribution of highly frustrated residues. We have found that mutation-induced allosteric signaling may involve a dynamic coupling between structurally rigid (minimally frustrated) and plastic (locally frustrated) clusters of residues. The presented study has demonstrated that activation cancer mutations may affect the thermodynamic equilibrium between kinase states by allosterically altering the distribution of locally frustrated sites and increasing the local frustration in the inactive form, while eliminating locally frustrated sites and restoring structural rigidity of the active form. The energy landsape analysis of protein kinases and the proposed role of locally frustrated sites in activation mechanisms may have useful implications for bioinformatics-based screening and detection of functional sites critical for allosteric regulation in complex biomolecular systems. PMID:21998754

  14. Regulation of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase by MAP kinase.

    PubMed

    Graves, L M; Guy, H I; Kozlowski, P; Huang, M; Lazarowski, E; Pope, R M; Collins, M A; Dahlstrand, E N; Earp, H S; Evans, D R

    2000-01-20

    The de novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides is required for mammalian cells to proliferate. The rate-limiting step in this pathway is catalysed by carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS II), part of the multifunctional enzyme CAD. Here we describe the regulation of CAD by the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade. When phosphorylated by MAP kinase in vitro or activated by epidermal growth factor in vivo, CAD lost its feedback inhibition (which is dependent on uridine triphosphate) and became more sensitive to activation (which depends upon phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate). Both these allosteric regulatory changes favour biosynthesis of pyrimidines for growth. They were accompanied by increased epidermal growth factor-dependent phosphorylation of CAD in vivo and were prevented by inhibition of MAP kinase. Mutation of a consensus MAP kinase phosphorylation site abolished the changes in CAD allosteric regulation that were stimulated by growth factors. Finally, consistent with an effect of MAP kinase signalling on CPS II activity, epidermal growth factor increased cellular uridine triphosphate and this increase was reversed by inhibition of MAP kinase. Hence these studies may indicate a direct link between activation of the MAP kinase cascade and de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. PMID:10659854

  15. Advances in kinase targeting: current clinical use and clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Rask-Andersen, Mathias; Zhang, Jin; Fabbro, Doriano; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2014-11-01

    Phosphotransferases, also known as kinases, are the most intensively studied protein drug target category in current pharmacological research, as evidenced by the vast number of kinase-targeting agents enrolled in active clinical trials. This development has emerged following the great success of small-molecule, orally available protein kinase inhibitors for the treatment of cancer, starting with the introduction of imatinib (Gleevec®) in 2003. The pharmacological utility of kinase-targeting has expanded to include treatment of inflammatory diseases, and rapid development is ongoing for kinase-targeted therapies in a broad array of indications in ophthalmology, analgesia, central nervous system (CNS) disorders, and the complications of diabetes, osteoporosis, and otology. In this review we highlight specifically the kinase drug targets and kinase-targeting agents being explored in current clinical trials. This analysis is based on a recent estimate of all established and clinical trial drug mechanisms of action, utilizing private and public databases to create an extensive dataset detailing aspects of more than 3000 approved and experimental drugs. PMID:25312588

  16. A novel nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, Srm: cloning and targeted disruption.

    PubMed Central

    Kohmura, N; Yagi, T; Tomooka, Y; Oyanagi, M; Kominami, R; Takeda, N; Chiba, J; Ikawa, Y; Aizawa, S

    1994-01-01

    We have isolated a novel nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, Srm, that maps to the distal end of chromosome 2. It has SH2, SH2', and SH3 domains and a tyrosine residue for autophosphorylation in the kinase domain but lacks an N-terminal glycine for myristylation and a C-terminal tyrosine which, when phosphorylated, suppresses kinase activity. These are structural features of the recently identified Tec family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases. The Srm N-terminal unique domain, however, lacks the structural characteristics of the Tec family kinases, and the sequence similarity is highest to Src in the SH region. The expression of two transcripts is rather ubiquitous and changes according to tissue and developmental stage. Mutant mice were generated by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells but displayed no apparent phenotype as in mutant mice expressing Src family kinases. These results suggest that Srm constitutes a new family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases that may be redundant in function. Images PMID:7935409

  17. Unconventional Functions of Mitotic Kinases in Kidney Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hascoet, Pauline; Chesnel, Franck; Le Goff, Cathy; Le Goff, Xavier; Arlot-Bonnemains, Yannick

    2015-01-01

    Human tumors exhibit a variety of genetic alterations, including point mutations, translocations, gene amplifications and deletions, as well as aneuploid chromosome numbers. For carcinomas, aneuploidy is associated with poor patient outcome for a large variety of tumor types, including breast, colon, and renal cell carcinoma. The Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a heterogeneous carcinoma consisting of different histologic types. The clear renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common subtype and represents 85% of the RCC. Central to the biology of the ccRCC is the loss of function of the Von Hippel–Lindau gene, but is also associated with genetic instability that could be caused by abrogation of the cell cycle mitotic spindle checkpoint and may involve the Aurora kinases, which regulate centrosome maturation. Aneuploidy can also result from the loss of cell–cell adhesion and apical–basal cell polarity that also may be regulated by the mitotic kinases (polo-like kinase 1, casein kinase 2, doublecortin-like kinase 1, and Aurora kinases). In this review, we describe the “non-mitotic” unconventional functions of these kinases in renal tumorigenesis. PMID:26579493

  18. Structure of the intact ATM/Tel1 kinase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuejuan; Chu, Huanyu; Lv, Mengjuan; Zhang, Zhihui; Qiu, Shuwan; Liu, Haiyan; Shen, Xuetong; Wang, Weiwu; Cai, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein is an apical kinase that orchestrates the multifaceted DNA-damage response. Normally, ATM kinase is in an inactive, homodimer form and is transformed into monomers upon activation. Besides a conserved kinase domain at the C terminus, ATM contains three other structural modules, referred to as FAT, FATC and N-terminal helical solenoid. Here we report the first cryo-EM structure of ATM kinase, which is an intact homodimeric ATM/Tel1 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We show that two monomers directly contact head-to-head through the FAT and kinase domains. The tandem N-terminal helical solenoid tightly packs against the FAT and kinase domains. The structure suggests that ATM/Tel1 dimer interface and the consecutive HEAT repeats inhibit the binding of kinase substrates and regulators by steric hindrance. Our study provides a structural framework for understanding the mechanisms of ATM/Tel1 regulation as well as the development of new therapeutic agents. PMID:27229179

  19. RhoA/Rho-Kinase in the Cardiovascular System.

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Sunamura, Shinichiro; Satoh, Kimio

    2016-01-22

    Twenty years ago, Rho-kinase was identified as an important downstream effector of the small GTP-binding protein, RhoA. Thereafter, a series of studies demonstrated the important roles of Rho-kinase in the cardiovascular system. The RhoA/Rho-kinase pathway is now widely known to play important roles in many cellular functions, including contraction, motility, proliferation, and apoptosis, and its excessive activity induces oxidative stress and promotes the development of cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, the important role of Rho-kinase has been demonstrated in the pathogenesis of vasospasm, arteriosclerosis, ischemia/reperfusion injury, hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, and heart failure. Cyclophilin A is secreted by vascular smooth muscle cells and inflammatory cells and activated platelets in a Rho-kinase-dependent manner, playing important roles in a wide range of cardiovascular diseases. Thus, the RhoA/Rho-kinase pathway plays crucial roles under both physiological and pathological conditions and is an important therapeutic target in cardiovascular medicine. Recently, functional differences between ROCK1 and ROCK2 have been reported in vitro. ROCK1 is specifically cleaved by caspase-3, whereas granzyme B cleaves ROCK2. However, limited information is available on the functional differences and interactions between ROCK1 and ROCK2 in the cardiovascular system in vivo. Herein, we will review the recent advances about the importance of RhoA/Rho-kinase in the cardiovascular system.

  20. Discovery of selective RIO2 kinase small molecule ligand.

    PubMed

    Varin, Thibault; Godfrey, Alexander G; Masquelin, Thierry; Nicolaou, Christos A; Evans, David A; Vieth, Michal

    2015-10-01

    We report the discovery and initial optimization of diphenpyramide and several of its analogs as hRIO2 kinase ligands. One of these analogs is the most selective hRIO2 ligand reported to date. Diphenpyramide is a Cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 inhibitor that was used as an anti-inflammatory agent. The RIO2 kinase affinity of diphenpyramide was discovered by serendipity while profiling of 13 marketed drugs on a large 456 kinase assay panel. The inhibition values also suggested a relative selectivity of diphenpyramide for RIO2 against the other kinases in the panel. Subsequently three available and eight newly synthesized analogs were assayed, one of which showed a 10 fold increased hRIO2 binding affinity. Additionally, this compound shows significantly better selectivity over assayed kinases, when compared to currently known RIO2 inhibitors. As RIO2 is involved in the biosynthesis of the ribosome and cell cycle regulation, our selective ligand may be useful for the delineation of the biological role of this kinase. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Inhibitors of Protein Kinases. PMID:25891899

  1. PIM kinase (and Akt) biology and signaling in tumors

    PubMed Central

    Warfel, Noel A.; Kraft, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    The initiation and progression of human cancer is frequently linked to the uncontrolled activation of survival kinases. Two such pro-survival kinases that are commonly amplified in cancer are PIM and Akt. These oncogenic proteins are serine/threonine kinases that regulate tumorigenesis by phosphorylating substrates that control the cell cycle, cellular metabolism, proliferation, and survival. Growing evidence suggests that cross-talk exists between the PIM and Akt kinases, indicating that they control partially overlapping survival signaling pathways that are critical to the initiation, progression, and metastatic spread of many types of cancer. The PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is activated in many human tumors, and it is well established as a promising anticancer target. Likewise, based on the role of PIM kinases in normal and tumor tissues, it is clear that this family of kinases represents an interesting target for anticancer therapy. Pharmacological inhibition of PIM has the potential to significantly influence the efficacy of standard and targeted therapies. This review focuses on the regulation of PIM kinases, their role in tumorigenesis, and the biological impact of their interaction with the Akt signaling pathway on the efficacy of cancer therapy. PMID:25749412

  2. Recent developments of protein kinase inhibitors as potential AD therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Tell, Volkmar; Hilgeroth, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Present Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapies suffer from inefficient effects on AD symptoms like memory or cognition, especially in later states of the disease. Used acteylcholine esterase inhibitors or the NMDA receptor antagonist memantine address one target structure which is involved in a complex, multifactorial disease progression. So the benefit for patients is presently poor. A more close insight in the AD progression identified more suggested target structures for drug development. Strategies of AD drug development concentrate on novel target structures combined with the established ones dedicated for combined therapy regimes, preferably by the use of one drug which may address two target structures. Protein kinases have been identified as promising target structures because they are involved in AD progression pathways like pathophysiological tau protein phosphorylations and amyloid β toxicity. The review article will shortly view early inhibitors of single protein kinases like glycogen synthase kinase (gsk3) β and cyclin dependent kinase 5. Novel inhibitors will be discussed which address novel AD relevant protein kinases like dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A). Moreover, multitargeting inhibitors will be presented which target several protein kinases and those which are suspected in influencing other AD relevant processes. Such a multitargeting is the most promising strategy to effectively hamper the multifactorial disease progression and thus gives perspective hopes for a future better patient benefit. PMID:24312003

  3. Regulation of Btk by Src family tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed Central

    Afar, D E; Park, H; Howell, B W; Rawlings, D J; Cooper, J; Witte, O N

    1996-01-01

    Loss of function of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) results in X-linked immunodeficiencies characterized by a broad spectrum of signaling defects, including those dependent on Src family kinase-linked cell surface receptors. A gain-of-function mutant, Btk*, induces the growth of fibroblasts in soft agar and relieves the interleukin-5 dependence of a pre-B-cell line. To genetically define Btk signaling pathways, we used a strategy to either activate or inactivate Src family kinases in fibroblasts that express Btk*. The transformation potential of Btk* was dramatically increased by coexpression with a partly activated c-Src mutant (E-378 --> G). This synergy was further potentiated by deletion of the Btk Src homology 3 domain. Downregulation of Src family kinases by the C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) suppressed Btk* activation and biological potency. In contrast, kinase-inactive Csk (K-222 --> R), which functioned as a dominant negative molecule, synergized with Btk* in biological transformation. Activation of Btk* correlated with increased phosphotyrosine on transphosphorylation and autophosphorylation sites. These findings suggest that the Src and Btk kinase families form specific signaling units in tissues in which both are expressed. PMID:8668162

  4. Recent developments of protein kinase inhibitors as potential AD therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Tell, Volkmar; Hilgeroth, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Present Alzheimer’s disease (AD) therapies suffer from inefficient effects on AD symptoms like memory or cognition, especially in later states of the disease. Used acteylcholine esterase inhibitors or the NMDA receptor antagonist memantine address one target structure which is involved in a complex, multifactorial disease progression. So the benefit for patients is presently poor. A more close insight in the AD progression identified more suggested target structures for drug development. Strategies of AD drug development concentrate on novel target structures combined with the established ones dedicated for combined therapy regimes, preferably by the use of one drug which may address two target structures. Protein kinases have been identified as promising target structures because they are involved in AD progression pathways like pathophysiological tau protein phosphorylations and amyloid β toxicity. The review article will shortly view early inhibitors of single protein kinases like glycogen synthase kinase (gsk3) β and cyclin dependent kinase 5. Novel inhibitors will be discussed which address novel AD relevant protein kinases like dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A). Moreover, multitargeting inhibitors will be presented which target several protein kinases and those which are suspected in influencing other AD relevant processes. Such a multitargeting is the most promising strategy to effectively hamper the multifactorial disease progression and thus gives perspective hopes for a future better patient benefit. PMID:24312003

  5. LRRK2 and ubiquitination: implications for kinase inhibitor therapy

    PubMed Central

    Melrose, Heather L.

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic mutations and risk variants in LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat kinase 2) represent the most common genetic cause of familial and sporadic PD (Parkinson's disease). LRRK2 protein is widely expressed throughout the brain and the periphery. Structurally, LRRK2 contains several functional domains, including a dual enzymatic core consisting of a kinase and GTPase domain. Disease-linked variants are found in both these enzymatic domains as well as in the COR [C-terminal of ROC (Ras of complex proteins)] and WD40 protein–protein binding domain. The kinase domain is widely believed to be linked to toxicity, and thus the thrust of pharmaceutical effort has focused on developing LRRK2 kinase inhibitors. However, recent data have suggested that inhibition of LRRK2 activity results in reduced LRRK2 levels and peripheral side effects, which are similar to those observed in homozygous LRRK2-knockout and LRRK2 kinase-dead rodent models. In a recent issue of the Biochemical Journal, a study led by Nichols reveals that dephosphorylation of LRRK2 cellular phosphorylation sites (Ser910/Ser935/Ser955/Ser973) triggers its ubiquitination and subsequent degradation and thus may account for the loss of function phenotypes observed in peripheral tissues in LRRK2-knockout/kinase-dead or inhibitor-treated rodents and primates. Albeit negative from a kinase inhibitor standpoint, the data open new avenues for LRRK2 biology and therapeutic approaches to counteract LRRK2 toxicity. PMID:26341487

  6. Characterization of Novel Src Family Kinase Inhibitors to Attenuate Microgliosis

    PubMed Central

    Manocha, Gunjan D.; Puig, Kendra L.; Austin, Susan A.; Seyb, Kathleen; Glicksman, Marcie A.; Combs, Colin K.

    2015-01-01

    Microgliosis is a major hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain pathology. Aβ peptide is hypothesized to act as a stimulus for microglia leading to activation of non-receptor tyrosine kinases and subsequent secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, the signaling pathways mediating microglial activation may be important therapeutic targets of anti-inflammatory therapy for AD. Four novel compounds were chosen after high throughput screening kinase activity assays determined them as potential Lyn kinase inhibitors. Their kinase inhibitory and anti-inflammatory effect on Aβ-stimulated activation was assessed using the murine microglial cell line, BV2. Cells were treated with the compounds to determine effects on active, phosphorylated levels of Src family kinases, Src and Lyn, as well as MAP kinases ERK, JNK and p38. Only one compound, LDDN-0003499, produced a dose dependent decrease in basal levels of active, phosphorylated Src and Lyn in the BV2 cells. LDDN-0003499 treatment also attenuated the Aβ-stimulated increase in active, phosphorylated levels of Lyn/Src and TNFα and IL-6 secretion. This study identifies a novel small molecule Src family tyrosine kinase inhibitor with anti-inflammatory effects in response to Aβ stimulation of microglia. Further in vitro/in vivo characterization of LDDN-0003499 as well as structural modification may provide a new tool for attenuating microglial-mediated brain inflammatory conditions such as that occurring in AD. PMID:26161952

  7. Structure of the intact ATM/Tel1 kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuejuan; Chu, Huanyu; Lv, Mengjuan; Zhang, Zhihui; Qiu, Shuwan; Liu, Haiyan; Shen, Xuetong; Wang, Weiwu; Cai, Gang

    2016-05-01

    The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein is an apical kinase that orchestrates the multifaceted DNA-damage response. Normally, ATM kinase is in an inactive, homodimer form and is transformed into monomers upon activation. Besides a conserved kinase domain at the C terminus, ATM contains three other structural modules, referred to as FAT, FATC and N-terminal helical solenoid. Here we report the first cryo-EM structure of ATM kinase, which is an intact homodimeric ATM/Tel1 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We show that two monomers directly contact head-to-head through the FAT and kinase domains. The tandem N-terminal helical solenoid tightly packs against the FAT and kinase domains. The structure suggests that ATM/Tel1 dimer interface and the consecutive HEAT repeats inhibit the binding of kinase substrates and regulators by steric hindrance. Our study provides a structural framework for understanding the mechanisms of ATM/Tel1 regulation as well as the development of new therapeutic agents.

  8. Indolinones as promising scaffold as kinase inhibitors: a review.

    PubMed

    Prakash, C R; Raja, S

    2012-02-01

    Kinases are probably the most important signaling enzymes, which represent about 20% of the druggable genome. Currently, more than 150 kinases are known. So, kinase inhibition therapy has become a very important area of drug research since most of our diseases are related to intra or intercellular signaling by kinases. Indole alkaloids are extensively studied for their biological activities in several pharmaceutical areas, including, for example, antitumor. Among this chemical family, indolinone displays very promising antitumor properties by inhibiting various kinase families. These small molecules have a low molecular weight and most of them bind to protein kinases competing with ATP for the ATP-binding site. This review focuses on the indolinone based drugs approved for the treatment of cancer, drugs under clinical trial and then chemical diversity of various synthetic analogues of indolinone and their metabolites as various kinase inhibitors. This review also focused on structural activity relationship (SAR), mechanisms of action and biological targets through which indolinone and its derivatives display their antitumor activity. PMID:22372601

  9. Systematic deletion analysis of fission yeast protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Bimbó, Andrea; Jia, Yonghui; Poh, Siew Lay; Karuturi, R Krishna Murthy; den Elzen, Nicole; Peng, Xu; Zheng, Liling; O'Connell, Matthew; Liu, Edison T; Balasubramanian, Mohan K; Liu, Jianhua

    2005-04-01

    Eukaryotic protein kinases are key molecules mediating signal transduction that play a pivotal role in the regulation of various biological processes, including cell cycle progression, cellular morphogenesis, development, and cellular response to environmental changes. A total of 106 eukaryotic protein kinase catalytic-domain-containing proteins have been found in the entire fission yeast genome, 44% (or 64%) of which possess orthologues (or nearest homologues) in humans, based on sequence similarity within catalytic domains. Systematic deletion analysis of all putative protein kinase-encoding genes have revealed that 17 out of 106 were essential for viability, including three previously uncharacterized putative protein kinases. Although the remaining 89 protein kinase mutants were able to form colonies under optimal growth conditions, 46% of the mutants exhibited hypersensitivity to at least 1 of the 17 different stress factors tested. Phenotypic assessment of these mutants allowed us to arrange kinases into functional groups. Based on the results of this assay, we propose also the existence of four major signaling pathways that are involved in the response to 17 stresses tested. Microarray analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between the expression signature and growth phenotype of kinase mutants tested. Our complete microarray data sets are available at http://giscompute.gis.a-star.edu.sg/~gisljh/kinome. PMID:15821139

  10. Variable intron/exon structure in the oligochaete lombricine kinase gene.

    PubMed

    Doumen, Chris

    2012-09-01

    Lombricine kinase is an annelid enzyme that belongs to the phosphagen kinase family of which creatine kinase and arginine kinase are the typical representatives. The enzymes play important roles in the cellular energy metabolism of animals. Biochemical, physiological and molecular information with respect to lombricine kinase is limited compared to other phosphagen kinases. This study presents data on the cDNA sequences of lombricine kinase from two smaller oligochaetes, Enchytraeus sp. and Stylaria sp. The deduced amino acid sequences are analyzed and compared with other selected phosphagen kinases. The intron/exon structure of the lombricine kinase gene was determined for these two species as well as two additional oligochaetes, Lumbriculus variegatus and Tubifex tubifex, and compared with available data for annelid phosphagen kinases. The data indicate the existence of a variable organization of the proposed 8-intron/9-exon gene structure. The results provide further insights in the evolution and position of these enzymes within the phosphagen kinase family. PMID:22705027

  11. The Chromosomal Passenger Complex Activates Polo Kinase at Centromeres

    PubMed Central

    Carmena, Mar; Pinson, Xavier; Platani, Melpi; Salloum, Zeina; Xu, Zhenjie; Clark, Anthony; MacIsaac, Fiona; Ogawa, Hiromi; Eggert, Ulrike; Glover, David M.; Archambault, Vincent; Earnshaw, William C.

    2012-01-01

    The coordinated activities at centromeres of two key cell cycle kinases, Polo and Aurora B, are critical for ensuring that the two sister kinetochores of each chromosome are attached to microtubules from opposite spindle poles prior to chromosome segregation at anaphase. Initial attachments of chromosomes to the spindle involve random interactions between kinetochores and dynamic microtubules, and errors occur frequently during early stages of the process. The balance between microtubule binding and error correction (e.g., release of bound microtubules) requires the activities of Polo and Aurora B kinases, with Polo promoting stable attachments and Aurora B promoting detachment. Our study concerns the coordination of the activities of these two kinases in vivo. We show that INCENP, a key scaffolding subunit of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), which consists of Aurora B kinase, INCENP, Survivin, and Borealin/Dasra B, also interacts with Polo kinase in Drosophila cells. It was known that Aurora A/Bora activates Polo at centrosomes during late G2. However, the kinase that activates Polo on chromosomes for its critical functions at kinetochores was not known. We show here that Aurora B kinase phosphorylates Polo on its activation loop at the centromere in early mitosis. This phosphorylation requires both INCENP and Aurora B activity (but not Aurora A activity) and is critical for Polo function at kinetochores. Our results demonstrate clearly that Polo kinase is regulated differently at centrosomes and centromeres and suggest that INCENP acts as a platform for kinase crosstalk at the centromere. This crosstalk may enable Polo and Aurora B to achieve a balance wherein microtubule mis-attachments are corrected, but proper attachments are stabilized allowing proper chromosome segregation. PMID:22291575

  12. Hemogenic endothelial cell specification requires c-kit, notch signaling, and p27-mediated cell-cycle control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delineating the mechanism or mechanisms that regulate the specification of hemogenic endothelial cells from primordial endothelium is critical for optimizing their derivation from human stem cells for clinical therapies. We previously determined that retinoic acid (RA) is required for hemogenic spec...

  13. Calcium-Dependent Signaling and Kinases in Apicomplexan Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Billker, Oliver; Lourido, Sebastian; Sibley, L. David

    2009-01-01

    Summary Calcium controls many critical events in the complex life cycles of apicomplexan parasites including protein secretion, motility, and development. Calcium levels are normally tightly regulated and rapid release of calcium into the cytosol activates a family of calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), which are normally characteristic of plants. CDPKs present in apicomplexans have acquired a number of unique domain structures likely reflecting their diverse functions. Calcium regulation in parasites is closely linked to signaling by cyclic nucleotides and their associated kinases. This review summarizes the pivotal roles that calcium-and cyclic nucleotide-dependent kinases play in unique aspects of parasite biology. PMID:19527888

  14. Regulated protein kinases and phosphatases in cell cycle decisions

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Bela; Kapuy, Orsolya; Domingo-Sananes, Maria Rosa; Tyson, John J

    2013-01-01

    Many aspects of cell physiology are controlled by protein kinases and phosphatases, which together determine the phosphorylation state of targeted substrates. Some of these target proteins are themselves kinases or phosphatases or other components of a regulatory network characterized by feedback and feed-forward loops. In this review we describe some common regulatory motifs involving kinases, phosphatases, and their substrates, focusing particularly on bistable switches involved in cellular decision processes. These general principles are applied to cell cycle transitions, with special emphasis on the roles of regulated phosphatases in orchestrating progression from one phase to the next of the DNA replication-division cycle. PMID:20678910

  15. Targeting Tyrosine Kinases and Autophagy in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Tyrosine kinases play significant roles in tumor progression and therapy resistance. Inhibitors of tyrosine kinases are on the forefront of targeted therapy. For prostate cancer, tyrosine kinases play an additional role in the development of castration-resistant disease state, the most troubling aspect of prostate cancinogenesis which presently defies any effective treatment. Among the 30 or so tyrosine kinases expressed in a typical prostate cancer cell, nearly one third of them have been implicated in prostate carcinogenesis. Interestingly, most of them channel signals through a trio of non-receptor tyrosine kinases, Src/Etk/FAK, referred here as Src tyrosine kinase complex. This complex has been shown to play a significant role in the aberrant activation of androgen receptor (AR) mediated by growth factors (e.g., epidermal growth factor (EGF)), cytokines (interleukin (IL)-6), chemokines (IL-8), and neurokines (gastrin-releasing peptide). These factors are induced and released from the prostate cancer to the stromal cells upon androgen withdrawal. The Src kinase complex has the ability to phosphorylate androgen receptor, resulting in the nuclear translocation and stabilization of un-liganded androgen receptor. Indeed, tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting Src can inhibit androgen-independent growth of prostate cancer cells in vitro and in preclinical xenograft model. While effective in inducing growth arrest and inhibiting metastasis of castration-resistant tumors, Src inhibitors rarely induce a significant level of apoptosis. This is also reflected by the general ineffectiveness of tyrosine kinase inhibitors as monotherapy in clinical trials. One of the underlying causes of apoptosis resistance is “autophagy,” which is induced by tyrosine kinase inhibitors and by androgen withdrawal. Autophagy is a self-digesting process to regenerate energy by removal of long-lived proteins and retired organelles to provide a survival mechanism to cells encountering stresses

  16. Second-generation inhibitors of Bruton tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingjing; Liu, Christina; Tsui, Stella T; Liu, Delong

    2016-01-01

    Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a critical effector molecule for B cell development and plays a major role in lymphoma genesis. Ibrutinib is the first-generation BTK inhibitor. Ibrutinib has off-target effects on EGFR, ITK, and Tec family kinases, which explains the untoward effects of ibrutinib. Resistance to ibrutinib was also reported. The C481S mutation in the BTK kinase domain was reported to be a major mechanism of resistance to ibrutinib. This review summarizes the clinical development of novel BTK inhibitors, ACP-196 (acalabrutinib), ONO/GS-4059, and BGB-3111. PMID:27590878

  17. Endogenous protein phosphorylation and protein kinase activity in winged bean.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, K; Singh, M

    1997-10-01

    In winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) protein kinases (E.C. 2.7.1.37) were found in all tissues studied. There was a significant increase in kinase activity during seed development, with a concomitant enhancement in the phosphorylation of a number of polypeptides; this was reversed in germinating seed cotyledons. Protein phosphorylation was apparently correlated with the increase in the protein content of the developing seed and the growing axis. At least three distinct autophosphorylating proteins could be distinguished in the developing seeds after SDS-PAGE, indicating the presence of different types of protein kinases in winged bean.

  18. Activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is required for transcriptional activity of F-type 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase: assessment of the role of protein kinase B and p70 S6 kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández de Mattos , S; de los Pinos E, E; Joaquin, M; Tauler, A

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the F isoform of6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase(6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase) is transcriptionally regulated by growth factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) pathway in the regulation of 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase gene expression. We have completed studies using chemical inhibitors and expression vectors for the proteins involved in this signalling cascade. Treatment of cells with LY 294002, an inhibitor of PI 3-kinase, blocked the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent stimulation of 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase gene transcription. Transient transfection of a constitutively active PI 3-kinase was sufficient to activate transcription from the F-type 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase promoter. In contrast, co-transfection with a dominant-negative form of PI 3-kinase completely abrogated the stimulation by EGF, and down-regulated the basal promoter activity. In an attempt to determine downstream proteins that lie between PI 3-kinase and 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase gene expression, the overexpression of a constitutively active form of protein kinase B (PKB) was sufficient to activate 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase gene expression, even in the presence of either a dominant-negative form of PI 3-kinase or LY 294002. The over-expression of p70/p85 ribosomal S6 kinase or the treatment with its inhibitor rapamycin did not affect 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase transcription. We conclude that PI 3-kinase is necessary for the transcriptional activity of F-type 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase, and that PKB is a downstream effector of PI 3-kinase directly involved in the regulation of 6PF2K/Fru-2,6-BPase gene expression. PMID:10861211

  19. Novel cinnoline-based inhibitors of LRRK2 kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Albert W; Adler, Marc; Aubele, Danielle L; Bowers, Simeon; Franzini, Maurizio; Goldbach, Erich; Lorentzen, Colin; Neitz, R Jeffrey; Probst, Gary D; Quinn, Kevin P; Santiago, Pam; Sham, Hing L; Tam, Danny; Truong, Anh P; Ye, Xiaocong M; Ren, Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity is a therapeutic approach that may lead to new treatments for PD. Herein we report the discovery of a series of cinnoline-3-carboxamides that are potent against both wild-type and mutant LRRK2 kinase activity in biochemical assays. These compounds are also shown to be potent inhibitors in a cellular assay and to have good to excellent CNS penetration. PMID:23219325

  20. Structural Studies of Archaealthermophilic Adenylate Kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Konisky, J.

    2002-07-10

    Through this DOE-sponsored program Konisky has studied the evolution and molecular biology of microbes that live in extreme environments. The emphasis of this work has been the determination of the structural features of thermophilic enzymes that allow them to function optimally at near 100 C. The laboratory has focused on a comparative study of adenylate kinase (ADK), an enzyme that functions to interconvert adenine nucleotides. Because of the close phylogenetic relatedness of members of the Methanococci, differences in the structure of their ADKs will be dominated by structural features that reflect contributions to their optimal temperature for activity, rather than differences due to phylogenetic divergence. We have cloned, sequenced and modeled the secondary structure for several methanococcal ADKs. Using molecular modeling threading approaches that are based on the solved structure for the porcine ADK, we have also proposed a general low resolution three dimensional structure for each of the methanococcal enzymes. These analyses have allowed us to propose structural features that confer hyperthermoactivity to those enzymes functioning in the hyperthermophilic members of the Methanococci. Using protein engineering methodologies, we have tested our hypotheses by examining the effects of selective structural changes on thermoactivity. Despite possessing between 68-81% sequence identity, the methanococcal AKs had significantly different stability against thermal denaturation, with melting points ranging from 69-103 C. The construction of several chimerical AKs by linking regions of the MVO and MJA AKs demonstrated the importance of cooperative interactions between amino- and carboxyl-terminal regions in influencing thermostability. Addition of MJA terminal fragments to the MVO AK increased thermal stability approximately 20 C while maintaining 88% of the mesophilic sequence. Further analysis using structural models suggested that hydrophobic interactions are

  1. Sensitivity and kinase activity of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 19 and others to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Furuyama, Kazuto; Harada, Taishi; Iwama, Eiji; Shiraishi, Yoshimasa; Okamura, Kyoko; Ijichi, Kayo; Fujii, Akiko; Ota, Keiichi; Wang, Shuo; Li, Heyan; Takayama, Koichi; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2013-05-01

    The presence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) somatic mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer patients is associated with response to treatment with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as gefitinib and erlotinib. More than 100 mutations in the kinase domain of EGFR have been identified. In particular there are many variations of deletion mutations in exon 19. In this study, using yellow fluorescent protein-tagged fragments of the EGFR intracellular domain, we examined the differences in sensitivity to gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib between several exon 19 mutants and other common EGFR mutations. We also used serum of patients undergoing treatment with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors in this system. In addition, we examined the relative kinase activity of these mutants by measuring relative fluorescent intensity after immunofluorescence staining. We found that both sensitivity to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors and relative kinase activity differed among several EGFR mutations found in the same region of the kinase domain. This study underscores the importance of reporting the clinical outcome of treatment in relation to different EGFR mutations.

  2. Detailed search for protein kinase(s) involved in plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity regulation of yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Renata R; Castanheira, Diogo; Teixeira, Janaina A; Bouillet, Leoneide E M; Ribeiro, Erica M C; Trópia, Maria M J; Alvarez, Florencia; Correa, Lygia F M; Mota, Bruno E F; Conceição, Luis Eduardo F R; Castro, Ieso M; Brandão, Rogelio L

    2015-03-01

    This study displays a screening using yeast strains deficient in protein kinases known to exist in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. From 95 viable single mutants, 20 mutants appear to be affected in the glucose-induced extracellular acidification. The mutants that are unaffected in calcium signaling were tested for their sensitivity to hygromycin B. Furthermore, we verified whether the remaining mutants produced enzymes that are appropriately incorporated at plasma membrane. Finally, we measure the kinetic properties of the enzyme in purified plasma membranes from glucose-starved as well as glucose-fermenting cells. We confirmed the kinase Ptk2 involvement in H(+)-ATPase regulation (increase of affinity for ATP). However, the identification of the kinase(s) responsible for phosphorylation that leads to an increase in Vmax appears to be more complex. Complementary experiments were performed to check how those protein kinases could be related to the control of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase and/or the potential membrane. In summary, our results did not permit us to identify the protein kinase(s) involved in regulating the catalytic efficiency of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. Therefore, our results indicate that the current regulatory model based on the phosphorylation of two different sites located in the C-terminus tail of the enzyme could be inappropriate.

  3. Parallel regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 (MKK3) and MKK6 in Gq-signaling cascade.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, J; Tsujimoto, G; Kaziro, Y; Itoh, H

    2001-06-29

    Heterotrimeric G protein G(q) stimulates the activity of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in mammalian cells. To investigate the signaling mechanism whereby alpha and betagamma subunits of G(q) activate p38 MAPK, we introduced kinase-deficient mutants of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 (MKK3), MKK4, and MKK6 into human embryonal kidney 293 cells. The activation of p38 MAPK by Galpha(q) and Gbetagamma was blocked by kinase-deficient MKK3 and MKK6 but not by kinase-deficient MKK4. In addition, Galpha(q) and Gbetagamma stimulated MKK3 and MKK6 activities. The MKK3 and MKK6 activations by Galpha(q), but not by Gbetagamma, were dependent on phospholipase C and c-Src. Galpha(q) stimulated MKK3 in a Rac- and Cdc42-dependent manner and MKK6 in a Rho-dependent manner. On the other hand, Gbetagamma activated MKK3 in a Rac- and Cdc42-dependent manner and MKK6 in a Rho-, Rac-, and Cdc42-dependent manner. Gbetagamma-induced MKK3 and MKK6 activations were dependent on a tyrosine kinase other than c-Src. These results suggest that Galpha(q) and Gbetagamma stimulate the activity of p38 MAPK by regulating MKK3 and MKK6 through parallel signaling pathways.

  4. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signals activation of p70 S6 kinase in situ through site-specific p70 phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Q P; Andrabi, K; Klippel, A; Kozlowski, M T; Williams, L T; Avruch, J

    1995-01-01

    The p70 S6 kinase is activated by insulin and mitogens through multisite phosphorylation of the enzyme. One set of activating phosphorylations occurs in a putative autoinhibitory domain in the noncatalytic carboxyl-terminal tail. Deletion of this tail yields a variant (p70 delta CT104) that nevertheless continues to be mitogen regulated. Coexpression with a recombinant constitutively active phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase (EC 2.7.1.137) gives substantial activation of both full-length p70 and p70 delta CT104 but not Rsk. Activation of p70 delta CT104 by PI 3-kinase and inhibition by wortmannin are each accompanied by parallel and selective changes in the phosphorylation of p70 Thr-252. A Thr or Ser at this site, in subdomain VIII of the catalytic domain just amino-terminal to the APE motif, is necessary for p70 40S kinase activity. The inactive ATP-binding site mutant K123M p70 delta CT104 undergoes phosphorylation of Thr-252 in situ but does not undergo direct phosphorylation by the active PI 3-kinase in vitro. PI 3-kinase provides a signal necessary for the mitogen activation of the p70 S6 kinase, which directs the site-specific phosphorylation of Thr-252 in the p70 catalytic domain, through a distinctive signal transduction pathway. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7777579

  5. Involvement of Protein Kinase D1 in Signal Transduction from the Protein Kinase C Pathway to the Tyrosine Kinase Pathway in Response to Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone*

    PubMed Central

    Higa-Nakamine, Sayomi; Maeda, Noriko; Toku, Seikichi; Yamamoto, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    The receptor for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) belongs to the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), and its stimulation activates extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK). We found that the transactivation of ErbB4 was involved in GnRH-induced ERK activation in immortalized GnRH neurons (GT1–7 cells). We found also that GnRH induced the cleavage of ErbB4. In the present study, we examined signal transduction for the activation of ERK and the cleavage of ErbB4 after GnRH treatment. Both ERK activation and ErbB4 cleavage were completely inhibited by YM-254890, an inhibitor of Gq/11 proteins. Down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) markedly decreased both ERK activation and ErbB4 cleavage. Experiments with two types of PKC inhibitors, Gö 6976 and bisindolylmaleimide I, indicated that novel PKC isoforms but not conventional PKC isoforms were involved in ERK activation and ErbB4 cleavage. Our experiments indicated that the novel PKC isoforms activated protein kinase D (PKD) after GnRH treatment. Knockdown and inhibitor experiments suggested that PKD1 stimulated the phosphorylation of Pyk2 by constitutively activated Src and Fyn for ERK activation. Taken together, it is highly possible that PKD1 plays a critical role in signal transduction from the PKC pathway to the tyrosine kinase pathway. Activation of the tyrosine kinase pathway may be involved in the progression of cancer. PMID:26338704

  6. Cyclin-dependent kinases in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Boxem, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Cell division is an inherent part of organismal development, and defects in this process can lead to developmental abnormalities as well as cancerous growth. In past decades, much of the basic cell-cycle machinery has been identified, and a major challenge in coming years will be to understand the complex interplay between cell division and multicellular development. Inevitably, this requires the use of more complex multicellular model systems. The small nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is an excellent model system to study the regulation of cell division in a multicellular organism, and is poised to make important contributions to this field. The past decade has already seen a surge in cell-cycle research in C. elegans, yielding information on the function of many basic cell-cycle regulators, and making inroads into the developmental control of cell division. This review focuses on the in vivo roles of cyclin-dependent kinases in C. elegans, and highlights novel findings implicating CDKs in coupling development to cell-cycle progression. PMID:16759361

  7. Hybrid histidine kinases in pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Defosse, Tatiana A; Sharma, Anupam; Mondal, Alok K; Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Calderone, Richard; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; Courdavault, Vincent; Clastre, Marc; Papon, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    Histidine kinases (HK) sense and transduce via phosphorylation events many intra- and extracellular signals in bacteria, archaea, slime moulds and plants. HK are also widespread in the fungal kingdom, but their precise roles in the regulation of physiological processes remain largely obscure. Expanding genomic resources have recently given the opportunity to identify uncharacterised HK family members in yeasts and moulds and now allow proposing a complex classification of Basidiomycota, Ascomycota and lower fungi HK. A growing number of genetic approaches have progressively provided new insight into the role of several groups of HK in prominent fungal pathogens. In particular, a series of studies have revealed that members of group III HK, which occur in the highest number of fungal species and contain a unique N-terminus region consisting of multiple HAMP domain repeats, regulate morphogenesis and virulence in various human, plant and insect pathogenic fungi. This research field is further supported by recent shape-function studies providing clear correlation between structural properties and signalling states in group III HK. Since HK are absent in mammals, these represent interesting fungal target for the discovery of new antifungal drugs.

  8. Hybrid histidine kinases in pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Defosse, Tatiana A; Sharma, Anupam; Mondal, Alok K; Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Calderone, Richard; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; Courdavault, Vincent; Clastre, Marc; Papon, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    Histidine kinases (HK) sense and transduce via phosphorylation events many intra- and extracellular signals in bacteria, archaea, slime moulds and plants. HK are also widespread in the fungal kingdom, but their precise roles in the regulation of physiological processes remain largely obscure. Expanding genomic resources have recently given the opportunity to identify uncharacterised HK family members in yeasts and moulds and now allow proposing a complex classification of Basidiomycota, Ascomycota and lower fungi HK. A growing number of genetic approaches have progressively provided new insight into the role of several groups of HK in prominent fungal pathogens. In particular, a series of studies have revealed that members of group III HK, which occur in the highest number of fungal species and contain a unique N-terminus region consisting of multiple HAMP domain repeats, regulate morphogenesis and virulence in various human, plant and insect pathogenic fungi. This research field is further supported by recent shape-function studies providing clear correlation between structural properties and signalling states in group III HK. Since HK are absent in mammals, these represent interesting fungal target for the discovery of new antifungal drugs. PMID:25560420

  9. Putative modifier genes in mevalonate kinase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Marcuzzi, Annalisa; Vozzi, Diego; Girardelli, Martina; Tricarico, Paola Maura; Knowles, Alessandra; Crovella, Sergio; Vuch, Josef; Tommasini, Alberto; Piscianz, Elisa; Bianco, Anna Monica

    2016-04-01

    Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) is an autosomal recessive auto‑inflammatory disease, caused by impairment of the mevalonate pathway. Although the molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated, there is clinical evidence suggesting that other regulatory genes may be involved in determining the phenotype. The identification of novel target genes may explain non‑homogeneous genotype‑phenotype correlations, and provide evidence in support of the hypothesis that novel regulatory genes predispose or amplify deregulation of the mevalonate pathway in this orphan disease. In the present study, DNA samples were obtained from five patients with MKD, which were then analyzed using whole exome sequencing. A missense variation in the PEX11γ gene was observed in homozygosis in P2, possibly correlating with visual blurring. The UNG rare gene variant was detected in homozygosis in P5, without correlating with a specific clinical phenotype. A number of other variants were found in the five analyzed DNA samples from the MKD patients, however no correlation with the phenotype was established. The results of the presents study suggested that further analysis, using next generation sequencing approaches, is required on a larger sample size of patients with MKD, who share the same MVK mutations and exhibit 'extreme' clinical phenotypes. As MVK mutations may be associated with MKD, the identification of specific modifier genes may assist in providing an earlier diagnosis.

  10. Protein kinase A alterations in adrenocortical tumors.

    PubMed

    Espiard, S; Ragazzon, B; Bertherat, J

    2014-11-01

    Stimulation of the cAMP pathway by adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) is essential for adrenal cortex maintenance, glucocorticoid and adrenal androgens synthesis, and secretion. Various molecular and cellular alterations of the cAMP pathway have been observed in endocrine tumors. Protein kinase A (PKA) is a central key component of the cAMP pathway. Molecular alterations of PKA subunits have been observed in adrenocortical tumors. PKA molecular defects can be germline in hereditary disorders or somatic in sporadic tumors. Heterozygous germline inactivating mutations of the PKA regulatory subunit RIα gene (PRKAR1A) can be observed in patients with ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome (CS) due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). PRKAR1A is considered as a tumor suppressor gene. Interestingly, these mutations can also be observed as somatic alterations in sporadic cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas. Germline gene duplication of the catalytic subunits Cα (PRKACA) has been observed in patients with PPNAD. Furthermore, exome sequencing revealed recently activating somatic mutations of PRKACA in about 40% of cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas. In vitro and in vivo functional studies help in the progress to understand the mechanisms of adrenocortical tumors development due to PKA regulatory subunits alterations. All these alterations are observed in benign oversecreting tumors and are mimicking in some way cAMP pathway constitutive activation. On the long term, unraveling these alterations will open new strategies of pharmacological treatment targeting the cAMP pathway in adrenal tumors and cortisol-secretion disorders. PMID:25105543

  11. Protein kinase inhibitors against malignant lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    D’Cruz, Osmond J; Uckun, Fatih M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Tyrosine kinases (TKs) are intimately involved in multiple signal transduction pathways regulating survival, activation, proliferation and differentiation of lymphoid cells. Deregulation or overexpression of specific oncogenic TKs is implicated in maintaining the malignant phenotype in B-lineage lymphoid malignancies. Several novel targeted TK inhibitors (TKIs) have recently emerged as active in the treatment of relapsed or refractory B-cell lymphomas that inhibit critical signaling pathways, promote apoptotic mechanisms or modulate the tumor microenvironment. Areas covered In this review, the authors summarize the clinical outcomes of newer TKIs in various B-cell lymphomas from published and ongoing clinical studies and abstracts from major cancer and hematology conferences. Expert opinion Multiple clinical trials have demonstrated that robust antitumor activity can be obtained with TKIs directed toward specific oncogenic TKs that are genetically deregulated in various subtypes of B-cell lymphomas. Clinical success of targeting TKIs is dependent upon on identifying reliable molecular and clinical markers associated with select cohorts of patients. Further understanding of the signaling pathways should stimulate the identification of novel molecular targets and expand the development of new therapeutic options and individualized therapies. PMID:23496343

  12. [Protein kinase C activation induces platelet apoptosis].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Li; Chen, Meng-Xing; Zhang, Ming-Yi; Dai, Ke-Sheng

    2013-10-01

    Platelet apoptosis elucidated by either physical or chemical compound or platelet storage occurs wildly, which might play important roles in controlling the numbers and functions of circulated platelets, or in the development of some platelet-related diseases. However, up to now, a little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of platelet apoptosis. Protein kinase C (PKC) is highly expressed in platelets and plays central roles in regulating platelet functions. Although there is evidence indicating that PKC is involved in the regulation of apoptosis of nucleated cells, it is still unclear whether PKC plays a role in platelet apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PKC in platelet apoptosis. The effects of PKC on mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, and caspase-3 activation of platelets were analyzed by flow cytometry and Western blot. The results showed that the ΔΨm depolarization in platelets was induced by PKC activator in time-dependent manner, and the caspase-3 activation in platelets was induced by PKC in concentration-dependent manner. However, the platelets incubated with PKC inhibitor did not results in ΔΨm depolarization and PS exposure. It is concluded that the PKC activation induces platelet apoptosis through influencing the mitochondrial functions and activating caspase 3. The finds suggest a novel mechanism for PKC in regulating platelet numbers and functions, which has important pathophysiological implications for thrombosis and hemostasis.

  13. Transcriptional regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ji Yun; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Park, Keun-Gyu; Lee, In-Kyu

    2012-10-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) activity is crucial to maintains blood glucose and ATP levels, which largely depends on the phosphorylation status by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) isoenzymes. Although it has been reported that PDC is phosphorylated and inactivated by PDK2 and PDK4 in metabolically active tissues including liver, skeletal muscle, heart, and kidney during starvation and diabetes, the precise mechanisms by which expression of PDK2 and PDK4 are transcriptionally regulated still remains unclear. Insulin represses the expression of PDK2 and PDK4 via phosphorylation of FOXO through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Several nuclear hormone receptors activated due to fasting or increased fat supply, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, glucocorticoid receptors, estrogen-related receptors, and thyroid hormone receptors, also participate in the up-regulation of PDK2 and PDK4; however, the endogenous ligands that bind those nuclear receptors have not been identified. It has been recently suggested that growth hormone, adiponectin, epinephrine, and rosiglitazone also control the expression of PDK4 in tissue-specific manners. In this review, we discuss several factors involved in the expressional regulation of PDK2 and PDK4, and introduce current studies aimed at providing a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the development of metabolic diseases such as diabetes. PMID:23130316

  14. [Determination of riboflavin kinase activity in yeast].

    PubMed

    Shavlovsky, G M; Kashchenko, V E

    1975-01-01

    It is established that the main reason of the riboflavin kinase (RFK, EC 2.7.1.26) low specific activity in the cell-free extracts of the yeast Pichia guillermondii Wickerham ATCC 9058 is the presence of alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1), effectively destructing flaven mononucleotide. By chromatography of the cell-free extracts of P. guillermondii on DEAE-Sephadex A-50, CM-Sphadex C-50, CM-cellulose, Sephadexes G-75 and G-100 RFK and alkaline phosphatase may be separated completely. Any of these procedures results in a several times increase of the RFK activity as compared with the initial preparation. One failed to obtain a similar effect by fractionation of the extracts with amminium sulphate and by hydroxylapatite chromatography. A simple method is developed for determining the activity of RFK in the cell-free extracts of yeast on the basis of negative adsorption of this enzyme on DEAE-Sephadex A-50. A selective inhibition of alkaline phosphatase by ions Be2+ and F- yields a less satisfactory result. The data are presented on the PFK activity of certain species of flavinogenic (Pichia guillermondii, Torulopsis camdida) and non-flavinogenic (Pichia ohmeri, Candida utilis, Saccharomyces cervisiae) yeast. PMID:174262

  15. Regulation of Macropinocytosis by Diacylglycerol Kinase ζ.

    PubMed

    Ard, Ryan; Mulatz, Kirk; Pomoransky, Julia L; Parks, Robin J; Trinkle-Mulcahy, Laura; Bell, John C; Gee, Stephen H

    2015-01-01

    Macropinosomes arise from the closure of plasma membrane ruffles to bring about the non-selective uptake of nutrients and solutes into cells. The morphological changes underlying ruffle formation and macropinosome biogenesis are driven by actin cytoskeleton rearrangements under the control of the Rho GTPase Rac1. We showed previously that Rac1 is activated by diacylglycerol kinase ζ (DGKζ), which phosphorylates diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidic acid. Here, we show DGKζ is required for optimal macropinocytosis induced by growth factor stimulation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Time-lapse imaging of live cells and quantitative analysis revealed DGKζ was associated with membrane ruffles and nascent macropinosomes. Macropinocytosis was attenuated in DGKζ-null cells, as determined by live imaging and vaccinia virus uptake experiments. Moreover, macropinosomes that did form in DGKζ-null cells were smaller than those found in wild type cells. Rescue of this defect required DGKζ catalytic activity, consistent with it also being required for Rac1 activation. A constitutively membrane bound DGKζ mutant substantially increased the size of macropinosomes and potentiated the effect of a constitutively active Rac1 mutant on macropinocytosis. Collectively, our results suggest DGKζ functions in concert with Rac1 to regulate macropinocytosis.

  16. Regulation of Macropinocytosis by Diacylglycerol Kinase ζ

    PubMed Central

    Pomoransky, Julia L.; Parks, Robin J.; Trinkle-Mulcahy, Laura; Bell, John C.; Gee, Stephen H.

    2015-01-01

    Macropinosomes arise from the closure of plasma membrane ruffles to bring about the non-selective uptake of nutrients and solutes into cells. The morphological changes underlying ruffle formation and macropinosome biogenesis are driven by actin cytoskeleton rearrangements under the control of the Rho GTPase Rac1. We showed previously that Rac1 is activated by diacylglycerol kinase ζ (DGKζ), which phosphorylates diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidic acid. Here, we show DGKζ is required for optimal macropinocytosis induced by growth factor stimulation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Time-lapse imaging of live cells and quantitative analysis revealed DGKζ was associated with membrane ruffles and nascent macropinosomes. Macropinocytosis was attenuated in DGKζ-null cells, as determined by live imaging and vaccinia virus uptake experiments. Moreover, macropinosomes that did form in DGKζ-null cells were smaller than those found in wild type cells. Rescue of this defect required DGKζ catalytic activity, consistent with it also being required for Rac1 activation. A constitutively membrane bound DGKζ mutant substantially increased the size of macropinosomes and potentiated the effect of a constitutively active Rac1 mutant on macropinocytosis. Collectively, our results suggest DGKζ functions in concert with Rac1 to regulate macropinocytosis. PMID:26701304

  17. Therapeutic drug monitoring and tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Herviou, Pauline; Thivat, Emilie; Richard, Damien; Roche, Lucie; Dohou, Joyce; Pouget, Mélanie; Eschalier, Alain; Durando, Xavier; Authier, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic activity of drugs can be optimized by establishing an individualized dosage, based on the measurement of the drug concentration in the serum, particularly if the drugs are characterized by an inter-individual variation in pharmacokinetics that results in an under- or overexposure to treatment. In recent years, several tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been developed to block intracellular signaling pathways in tumor cells. These oral drugs are candidates for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) due to their high inter-individual variability for therapeutic and toxic effects. Following a literature search on PubMed, studies on TKIs and their pharmacokinetic characteristics, plasma quantification and inter-individual variability was studied. TDM is commonly used in various medical fields, including cardiology and psychiatry, but is not often applied in oncology. Plasma concentration monitoring has been thoroughly studied for imatinib, in order to evaluate the usefulness of TDM. The measurement of plasma concentration can be performed by various analytical techniques, with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry being the reference method. This method is currently used to monitor the efficacy and tolerability of imatinib treatments. Although TDM is already being used for imatinib, additional studies are required in order to improve this practice with the inclusion of other TKIs. PMID:27446421

  18. Extending Thymidine Kinase Activity to the Catalytic Repertoire of Human Deoxycytidine Kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, Saugata; Sabini, Eliszbetta; Ort, Stephan; Konrad, Manfred; Lavie, Arnon

    2009-03-04

    Salvage of nucleosides in the cytosol of human cells is carried out by deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) and thymidine kinase 1 (TK1). Whereas TK1 is only responsible for thymidine phosphorylation, dCK is capable of converting dC, dA, and dG into their monophosphate forms. Using structural data on dCK, we predicted that select mutations at the active site would, in addition to making the enzyme faster, expand the catalytic repertoire of dCK to include thymidine. Specifically, we hypothesized that steric repulsion between the methyl group of the thymine base and Arg104 is the main factor preventing the phosphorylation of thymidine by wild-type dCK. Here we present kinetic data on several dCK variants where Arg104 has been replaced by select residues, all performed in combination with the mutation of Asp133 to an alanine. We show that several hydrophobic residues at position 104 endow dCK with thymidine kinase activity. Depending on the exact nature