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Sample records for kinases c-kit egf-r

  1. Receptor tyrosine kinase (c-Kit) inhibitors: a potential therapeutic target in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Abbaspour Babaei, Maryam; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Saleem, Mohammad; Huri, Hasniza Zaman; Ahmadipour, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    c-Kit, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is involved in intracellular signaling, and the mutated form of c-Kit plays a crucial role in occurrence of some cancers. The function of c-Kit has led to the concept that inhibiting c-Kit kinase activity can be a target for cancer therapy. The promising results of inhibition of c-Kit for treatment of cancers have been observed in some cancers such as gastrointestinal stromal tumor, acute myeloid leukemia, melanoma, and other tumors, and these results have encouraged attempts toward improvement of using c-Kit as a capable target for cancer therapy. This paper presents the findings of previous studies regarding c-Kit as a receptor tyrosine kinase and an oncogene, as well as its gene targets and signaling pathways in normal and cancer cells. The c-Kit gene location, protein structure, and the role of c-Kit in normal cell have been discussed. Comprehending the molecular mechanism underlying c-Kit-mediated tumorogenesis is consequently essential and may lead to the identification of future novel drug targets. The potential mechanisms by which c-Kit induces cellular transformation have been described. This study aims to elucidate the function of c-Kit for future cancer therapy. In addition, it has c-Kit inhibitor drug properties and their functions have been listed in tables and demonstrated in schematic pictures. This review also has collected previous studies that targeted c-Kit as a novel strategy for cancer therapy. This paper further emphasizes the advantages of this approach, as well as the limitations that must be addressed in the future. Finally, although c-Kit is an attractive target for cancer therapy, based on the outcomes of treatment of patients with c-Kit inhibitors, it is unlikely that Kit inhibitors alone can lead to cure. It seems that c-Kit mutations alone are not sufficient for tumorogenesis, but do play a crucial role in cancer occurrence. PMID:27536065

  2. Evaluation of the kinase domain of c-KIT in canine cutaneous mast cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Joshua D; Kiupel, Matti; Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, Vilma

    2006-01-01

    Background Mutations in the c-KIT proto-oncogene have been implicated in the progression of several neoplastic diseases, including gastrointestinal stromal tumors and mastocytosis in humans, and cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs) in canines. Mutations in human mastocytosis patients primarily occur in c-KIT exon 17, which encodes a portion of its kinase domain. In contrast, deletions and internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations are found in the juxtamembrane domain of c-KIT in approximately 15% of canine MCTs. In addition, ITD c-KIT mutations are significantly associated with aberrant KIT protein localization in canine MCTs. However, some canine MCTs have aberrant KIT localization but lack ITD c-KIT mutations, suggesting that other mutations or other factors may be responsible for aberrant KIT localization in these tumors. Methods In order to characterize the prevalence of mutations in the phospho-transferase portion of c-KIT's kinase domain in canine MCTs exons 16–20 of 33 canine MCTs from 33 dogs were amplified and sequenced. Additionally, in order to determine if mutations in c-KIT exon 17 are responsible for aberrant KIT localization in MCTs that lack juxtamembrane domain c-KIT mutations, c-KIT exon 17 was amplified and sequenced from 18 canine MCTs that showed an aberrant KIT localization pattern but did not have ITD c-KIT mutations. Results No mutations or polymorphisms were identified in exons 16–20 of any of the MCTs examined. Conclusion In conclusion, mutations in the phospho-transferase portion of c-KIT's kinase domain do not play an important role in the progression of canine cutaneous MCTs, or in the aberrant localization of KIT in canine MCTs. PMID:16579858

  3. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Induce Down-Regulation of c-Kit by Targeting the ATP Pocket

    PubMed Central

    Descarpentries, Clotilde; Frisan, Emilie; Adam, Kevin; Verdier, Frederique; Floquet, Célia; Dubreuil, Patrice; Lacombe, Catherine; Fontenay, Michaela; Mayeux, Patrick; Kosmider, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    The stem cell factor receptor (SCF) c-Kit plays a pivotal role in regulating cell proliferation and survival in many cell types. In particular, c-Kit is required for early amplification of erythroid progenitors, while it must disappear from cell surface for the cell entering the final steps of maturation in an erythropoietin-dependent manner. We initially observed that imatinib (IM), an inhibitor targeting the tyrosine kinase activity of c-Kit concomitantly down-regulated the expression of c-Kit and accelerated the Epo-driven differentiation of erythroblasts in the absence of SCF. We investigated the mechanism by which IM or related masitinib (MA) induce c-Kit down-regulation in the human UT-7/Epo cell line. We found that the down-regulation of c-Kit in the presence of IM or MA was inhibited by a pre-incubation with methyl-β-cyclodextrin suggesting that c-Kit was internalized in the absence of ligand. By contrast to SCF, the internalization induced by TKI was independent of the E3 ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl. Furthermore, c-Kit was degraded through lysosomal, but not proteasomal pathway. In pulse-chase experiments, IM did not modulate c-Kit synthesis or maturation. Analysis of phosphotyrosine peptides in UT-7/Epo cells treated or not with IM show that IM did not modify overall tyrosine phosphorylation in these cells. Furthermore, we showed that a T670I mutation preventing the full access of IM to the ATP binding pocket, did not allow the internalization process in the presence of IM. Altogether these data show that TKI-induced internalization of c-Kit is linked to a modification of the integrity of ATP binding pocket. PMID:23637779

  4. The receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit controls IL-33 receptor signaling in mast cells.

    PubMed

    Drube, Sebastian; Heink, Sylvia; Walter, Sabine; Löhn, Tobias; Grusser, Mandy; Gerbaulet, Alexander; Berod, Luciana; Schons, Julia; Dudeck, Anne; Freitag, Jenny; Grotha, Stefan; Reich, Daniela; Rudeschko, Olga; Norgauer, Johannes; Hartmann, Karin; Roers, Axel; Kamradt, Thomas

    2010-05-13

    Members of the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) family are of importance for host defense and inflammation. Here we report that the TIR-family member interleukin-33R (IL-33R) cross-activates the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit in human and murine mast cells. The IL-33R-induced activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2), protein kinase B (PKB), and Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) depends on c-Kit and is required to elicit optimal effector functions. Costimulation with the c-Kit ligand stem cell factor (SCF) is necessary for IL-33-induced cytokine production in primary mast cells. The structural basis for this cross-activation is the complex formation between c-Kit, IL-33R, and IL-1R accessory protein (IL-1RAcP). We found that c-Kit and IL-1RAcP interact constitutively and that IL-33R joins this complex upon ligand binding. Our findings support a model in which signals from seemingly disparate receptors are integrated for full cellular responses.

  5. A transforming mutation enhances the activity of the c-Kit soluble tyrosine kinase domain.

    PubMed Central

    Lam, L P; Chow, R Y; Berger, S A

    1999-01-01

    An activating mutation (DY814) located in the catalytic domain of the c-Kit receptor has been found in mastocytomas from human, mouse and rat. We evaluated the enzymic properties of purified wild-type (WT) and DY814 tyrosine kinase domains expressed in Pichia pastoris. A linker encoding the Flag epitope was fused to c-Kit cDNA species, enabling affinity purification of the proteins with anti-Flag antibodies. Yeast lysates expressing DY814 contained multiple tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins, whereas WT lysates had no detectable tyrosine phosphorylation. Purification of the WT and mutant kinases in the presence of vanadate demonstrated that both enzymes undergo autophosphorylation. Kinetic analyses of WT and DY814 kinases indicated that at 20 nM enzyme concentration the mutation increases the specific activity 10-fold and decreases the apparent Km for ATP 9-fold. WT activity displayed a hyperbolic dependence on enzyme concentration, consistent with a requirement for dimerization or aggregation for activity. This activity was also enhanced by anti-Flag antibodies. In contrast, the dependence of DY814 activity on enzyme concentration was primarily linear and only marginally enhanced by anti-Flag antibodies. Gel-filtration analysis showed that the WT kinase migrated as a monomer, whereas the DY814 mutant migrated as a dimer. These results indicate that this point mutation promotes dimerization of the c-Kit kinase, potentially contributing to its transforming potential in mast cells. PMID:9931308

  6. PI3 kinase is indispensable for oncogenic transformation by the V560D mutant of c-Kit in a kinase-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Lindblad, Oscar; Kazi, Julhash U; Rönnstrand, Lars; Sun, Jianmin

    2015-11-01

    Oncogenic mutants of c-Kit are often found in mastocytosis, gastrointestinal stromal tumors and acute myeloid leukemia. The activation mechanism of the most commonly occurring mutation, D816V in exon 17 of c-Kit, has been well-studied while other mutations remain fairly uncharacterized in this respect. In this study, we show that the constitutive activity of the exon 11 mutant V560D is weaker than the D816V mutant. Phosphorylation of downstream signaling proteins induced by the ligand for c-Kit, stem cell factor, was stronger in c-Kit/V560D expressing cells than in cells expressing c-kit/D816V. Although cells expressing c-Kit/V560D showed increased ligand-independent proliferation and survival compared to wild-type c-Kit-expressing cells, these biological effects were weaker than in c-Kit/D816V-expressing cells. In contrast to cells expressing wild-type c-Kit, cells expressing c-Kit/V560D were independent of Src family kinases for downstream signaling. However, the independence of Src family kinases was not due to a Src-like kinase activity that c-Kit/D816V displayed. Point mutations that selectively block the association of PI3 kinase with c-Kit/V560D inhibited ligand-independent activation of the receptor, while inhibition of the kinase activity of PI3 kinase with pharmacological inhibitors did not affect the kinase activity of the receptor. This suggests a lipid kinase-independent key role of PI3 kinase in c-Kit/V560D-mediated oncogenic signal transduction. Thus, PI3 kinase is an attractive therapeutic target in malignancies induced by c-Kit mutations independent of its lipid kinase activity.

  7. Niche anchorage and signaling through membrane-bound Kit-ligand/c-kit receptor are kinase independent and imatinib insensitive.

    PubMed

    Tabone-Eglinger, Séverine; Calderin-Sollet, Zuleika; Pinon, Perrine; Aebischer, Nicole; Wehrle-Haller, Monique; Jacquier, Marie-Claude; Boettiger, David; Wehrle-Haller, Bernhard

    2014-10-01

    Kit ligand (KitL) and its tyrosine kinase receptor c-kit are critical for germ cells, melanocytes, mastocytes, and hematopoietic stem cells. Alternative splicing of KitL generates membrane-bound KitL (mb-KitL) or soluble KitL, providing survival or cell migration, respectively. Here we analyzed whether c-kit can function both as an adhesion and signaling receptor to mb-KitL presented by the environmental niche. At contacts between fibroblasts and MC/9 mast cells, mb-KitL, and c-kit formed ligand/receptor clusters that formed stable complexes, which resisted dissociation by c-kit blocking mAbs and provided cell anchorage under physiological shear stresses. Clusters recruited tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins and induced spatially restricted F-actin polymerization. Mutational analysis of c-kit demonstrated kinase-independent mb-KitL/c-kit clustering, anchorage, F-actin polymerization, and Tyr567-dependent cluster phosphorylation. Kinase inhibition of c-kit by imatinib reduced cluster coalescence, but allowed cluster phosphorylation and F-actin polymerization, which required PI3K recruitment and a newly identified juxtamembrane residue. Synergies between integrin and c-kit-mediated spreading and adhesion of MC/9 cells were studied in vitro on immobilized-KitL/fibronectin surfaces. While c-kit blocking antibodies prevented spreading, imatinib blocked spreading induced by soluble- but not immobilized KitL. Thus, "mechanical" activation of c-kit provides signaling, niche-anchorage, and synergies with integrin-mediated adhesion, which is independent of kinase function and resistant to c-kit kinase inhibitors.-

  8. An anticancer C-Kit kinase inhibitor is reengineered to make it more active and less cardiotoxic

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Ariel; Sanguino, Angela; Peng, Zhenghong; Ozturk, Eylem; Chen, Jianping; Crespo, Alejandro; Wulf, Sarah; Shavrin, Aleksander; Qin, Chaoping; Ma, Jianpeng; Trent, Jonathan; Lin, Yvonne; Han, Hee-Dong; Mangala, Lingegowda S.; Bankson, James A.; Gelovani, Juri; Samarel, Allen; Bornmann, William; Sood, Anil K.; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    Targeting kinases is central to drug-based cancer therapy but remains challenging because the drugs often lack specificity, which may cause toxic side effects. Modulating side effects is difficult because kinases are evolutionarily and hence structurally related. The lack of specificity of the anticancer drug imatinib enables it to be used to treat chronic myeloid leukemia, where its target is the Bcr-Abl kinase, as well as a proportion of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), where its target is the C-Kit kinase. However, imatinib also has cardiotoxic effects traceable to its impact on the C-Abl kinase. Motivated by this finding, we made a modification to imatinib that hampers Bcr-Abl inhibition; refocuses the impact on the C-Kit kinase; and promotes inhibition of an additional target, JNK, a change that is required to reinforce prevention of cardiotoxicity. We established the molecular blueprint for target discrimination in vitro using spectrophotometric and colorimetric assays and through a phage-displayed kinase screening library. We demonstrated controlled inhibitory impact on C-Kit kinase in human cell lines and established the therapeutic impact of the engineered compound in a novel GIST mouse model, revealing a marked reduction of cardiotoxicity. These findings identify the reengineered imatinib as an agent to treat GISTs with curbed side effects and reveal a bottom-up approach to control drug specificity. PMID:18060038

  9. Computational Analysis of the Binding Specificity of Gleevec to Abl, c-Kit, Lck, and c-Src Tyrosine Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yen-Lin; Roux, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    Gleevec, a well-known cancer therapeutic agent, is an effective inhibitor of several tyrosine kinases, including Abl and c-Kit. But it displays less potency to inhibit closely homologous tyrosine kinases, such as Lck and c-Src. Because many structural features of the binding site are highly conserved in these highly homologous kinases, the molecular determinants responsible for the binding specificity of Gleevec remain poorly understood. To address this issue, free energy perturbation molecular dynamics (FEP/MD) simulations with explicit solvent was used to compute the binding affinity of Gleevec to Abl, c-Kit, Lck, and c-Src. The results of the FEP/MD calculations are in good agreement with experiments, enabling a detailed and quantitative dissection of the absolute binding free energy in terms of various thermodynamic contributions affecting the binding specificity of Gleevec to the kinases. Dominant binding free energy contributions arises from the van der Waals dispersive interaction, compensating about two-third of the unfavorable free energy penalty associated with the loss of translational, rotational, and conformational freedom of the ligand upon binding. In contrast, the contributions from electrostatic and repulsive interactions nearly cancel out due to solvent effects. Furthermore, the calculations show the importance of the conformation of the activation loop. Among the kinases examined, Abl provides the most favorable binding environment for Gleevec via optimal protein-ligand interactions and a small free energy cost for loss of the translational, rotational, and conformational freedom upon ligand binding. The FEP/MD calculations additionally reveal that Lck and c-Src provide similar non-binding interactions with the bound-Gleevec, but the former pays less entropic penalty for the ligand losing its translational, rotational, and conformational motions to bind, examining the empirically observed differential binding affinities of Gleevec between the two

  10. The PI3-kinase isoform p110δ is essential for cell transformation induced by the D816V mutant of c-Kit in a lipid-kinase-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Sun, J; Mohlin, S; Lundby, A; Kazi, J U; Hellman, U; Påhlman, S; Olsen, J V; Rönnstrand, L

    2014-11-13

    PI3-kinase has a crucial role in transformation mediated by the oncogenic c-Kit mutant D816V. In this study, we demonstrate that the c-Kit/D816V-mediated cell survival is dependent on an intact direct binding of PI3-kinase to c-Kit. However, mutation of this binding site had little effect on the PI3-kinase activity in the cells, suggesting that c-Kit/D816V-mediated cell survival is dependent on PI3-kinase but not its kinase activity. Furthermore, inhibition of the lipid kinase activity of PI3-kinase led only to a slight inhibition of cell survival. Knockdown of the predominant PI3-kinase isoform p110δ in c-Kit/D816V-expressing Ba/F3 cells led to reduced cell transformation both in vitro and in vivo without affecting the overall PI3-kinase activity. This suggests that p110δ has a lipid-kinase-independent role in c-Kit/D816V-mediated cell transformation. We furthermore demonstrate that p110δ is phosphorylated at residues Y524 and S1039 and that phosphorylation requires an intact binding site for PI3-kinase in c-Kit/D816V. Overexpression of p110δ carrying the Y523F and S1038A mutations significantly reduced c-Kit/D816V-mediated cell survival and proliferation. Taken together, our results demonstrate an important lipid-kinase-independent role of p110δ in c-Kit/D816V-mediated cell transformation. This furthermore suggests that p110δ could be a potential diagnostic factor and selective therapeutic target for c-Kit/D816V-expressing malignancies.

  11. A survival Kit for pancreatic beta cells: stem cell factor and c-Kit receptor tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhi-Chao; Riopel, Matthew; Popell, Alex; Wang, Rennian

    2015-04-01

    The interactions between c-Kit and its ligand, stem cell factor (SCF), play an important role in haematopoiesis, pigmentation and gametogenesis. c-Kit is also found in the pancreas, and recent studies have revealed that c-Kit marks a subpopulation of highly proliferative pancreatic endocrine cells that may harbour islet precursors. c-Kit governs and maintains pancreatic endocrine cell maturation and function via multiple signalling pathways. In this review we address the importance of c-Kit signalling within the pancreas, including its profound role in islet morphogenesis, islet vascularisation, and beta cell survival and function. We also discuss the impact of c-Kit signalling in pancreatic disease and the use of c-Kit as a potential target for the development of cell-based and novel drug therapies in the treatment of diabetes.

  12. c-Kit-kinase induces a cascade of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in normal human melanocytes in response to mast cell growth factor and stimulates mitogen-activated protein kinase but is down-regulated in melanomas.

    PubMed Central

    Funasaka, Y; Boulton, T; Cobb, M; Yarden, Y; Fan, B; Lyman, S D; Williams, D E; Anderson, D M; Zakut, R; Mishima, Y

    1992-01-01

    The proto-oncogene c-Kit, a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase, is an important regulator of cell growth whose constitutively active oncogenic counterpart, v-kit, induces sarcomas in cats. Mutations in murine c-kit that reduce the receptor tyrosine kinase activity cause deficiencies in the migration and proliferation of melanoblasts, hematopoietic stem cells, and primordial germ cells. We therefore investigated whether c-Kit regulates normal human melanocyte proliferation and plays a role in melanomas. We show that normal human melanocytes respond to mast cell growth factor (MGF), the Kit-ligand that stimulates phosphorylation of tyrosyl residues in c-Kit and induces sequential phosphorylation of tyrosyl residues in several other proteins. One of the phosphorylated intermediates in the signal transduction pathway was identified as an early response kinase (mitogen-activated protein [MAP] kinase). Dephosphorylation of a prominent 180-kDa protein suggests that MGF also activates a phosphotyrosine phosphatase. In contrast, MGF did not induce proliferation, the cascade of protein phosphorylations, or MAP kinase activation in the majority of cells cultured from primary nodular and metastatic melanomas that grow independently of exogenous factors. In the five out of eight human melanoma lines expressing c-kit mRNAs, c-Kit was not constitutively activated. Therefore, although c-Kit-kinase is a potent growth regulator of normal human melanocytes, its activity is not positively associated with malignant transformation. Images PMID:1372524

  13. Inhibition of c-kit tyrosine kinase by imatinib mesylate induces apoptosis in mast cells in rheumatoid synovia: a potential approach to the treatment of arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Juurikivi, A; Sandler, C; Lindstedt, K; Kovanen, P; Juutilainen, T; Leskinen, M; Maki, T; Eklund, K

    2005-01-01

    Background: Mast cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of arthritis, but elucidation of their precise role has been hampered by a lack of efficient and selective inhibitors of their function. Objective: To elucidate the role of mast cells in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to assess whether apoptosis of cultured and synovial tissue mast cells can be induced by inhibiting mast cell growth factor receptor, c-kit tyrosine kinase. Methods and results: Double staining with tumour necrosis factor (TNF) α and tryptase antibodies showed the presence of TNFα positive mast cells in human rheumatoid synovial tissue. Selective activation of mast cells by anti-IgE resulted in production of TNFα in synovial tissue cultures. Inhibition of the c-kit tyrosine kinase with imatinib mesylate (1.0–10 µmol/l) induced profound apoptosis in cultured mast cells as judged by typical apoptotic morphology, increased number of apoptotic nucleosomes, and activation of caspases 8 and 9. Importantly, imatinib also induced apoptosis of mast cells in explant cultures of synovial tissue obtained from patients with RA as judged by a TUNEL assay. Inhibition of c-kit tyrosine kinase was accompanied by significant reduction of TNFα production in synovial tissue cultures. Conclusion: Mast cells may have a role in the pathogenesis of RA, and inhibition of c-kit may be a new means of inhibiting mast cell activity and of abrogating the contribution of mast cells to synovial inflammation in RA. PMID:16014680

  14. Discovery of Aryl Aminoquinazoline Pyridones as Potent, Selective, and Orally Efficacious Inhibitors of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase c-Kit

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Essa; Tasker, Andrew; White, Ryan D.; Kunz, Roxanne K.; Human, Jason; Chen, Ning; Bürli, Roland; Hungate, Randall; Novak, Perry; Itano, Andrea; Zhang, Xuxia; Yu, Violeta; Nguyen, Yen; Tudor, Yanyan; Plant, Matthew; Flynn, Shaun; Xu, Yang; Meagher, Kristin L.; Whittington, Douglas A.; Ng, Gordon Y.

    2008-12-09

    Inhibition of c-Kit has the potential to treat mast cell associated fibrotic diseases. We report the discovery of several aminoquinazoline pyridones that are potent inhibitors of c-Kit with greater than 200-fold selectivity against KDR, p38, Lck, and Src. In vivo efficacy of pyridone 16 by dose-dependent inhibition of histamine release was demonstrated in a rodent pharmacodynamic model of mast cell activation.

  15. Discovery of Dual Inhibitors for Wild Type and D816V Mutant of c-KIT Kinase through Virtual and Biochemical Screening of Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Park, Hwangseo; Lee, Soyoung; Hong, Sungwoo

    2016-02-26

    Although stem cell factor receptor (c-KIT) kinase is responsible for various malignant human cancers, the presence of constitutively active gain-of-function mutants has made it difficult to discover new anticancer agents using c-KIT as the target protein. To identify the common inhibitors of wild-type c-KIT and the most abundant gain-of-function mutant (D816V), the virtual screening of natural products was performed for the two target proteins in parallel with the scoring function improved by implementing a sophisticated solvation free energy term. As a result, four common inhibitors of natural origin are found with biochemical potencies ranging from low micromolar to submicromolar levels. The results of extensive docking simulations show that although the natural-product inhibitors establish weaker hydrophobic interactions with the D816V mutant than with the wild type, they exhibit a little higher inhibitory activity for the former than the latter by strengthening the hydrogen-bond interactions to a sufficient extent. Of the four natural-product inhibitors, (Z)-6-hydroxy-2-(4-methoxybenzylidene)benzofuran-3(2H)-one (3) is anticipated to serve as a new molecular core for the structure-activity relationship studies to optimize the biochemical potencies because it exhibits good inhibitory activity against both the wild type and D816V mutant despite its low molecular weight (268.3 amu).

  16. Immunohistochemical and mutational analysis of PDGF and PDGFR in desmoid tumours: is there a role for tyrosine kinase inhibitors in c-kit-negative desmoid tumours?

    PubMed

    Liegl, B; Leithner, A; Bauernhofer, T; Windhager, R; Guelly, C; Regauer, S; Beham, A

    2006-12-01

    To determine the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) alpha and beta status of desmoid tumours. Desmoid tumours are rare monoclonal neoplasms that appear to have no metastatic potential. Surgical resection and radiotherapy in the event of a positive surgical margin is the first-line treatment. Recurrences are frequent. Treatment results using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, anti-oestrogen compounds and other agents such as Imatinib mesylate have been published. Therapy with Imatinib has been proposed as a therapeutic option, although in most reports desmoid tumours are reported to be c-kit-. We performed immunohistochemical analysis on 124 archived samples (85 patients) of desmoid tumours using antibodies to PDGFalpha, PDGFbeta, PDGFRalpha and PDGFRbeta. All desmoid tumours showed immunoreactivity with antibodies to PDGFalpha and PDGFRalpha, whereas with antibodies to PDGFbeta and PDGFRbeta no specific reaction could be detected. Mutational analysis of PDGFRalpha (exons 11, 12, 17 and 18) and PDGFRbeta (exon 12) on frozen material from 14 patients was performed, but no mutations leading to amino acid changes in the mature protein were identified. The absence of an activating mutation in a protooncogene does not exclude the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors through other possible mechanisms, and these might be a therapeutic option for patients with desmoid tumours in whom established local and systemic approaches fail to control the disease.

  17. BRAF, KIT and NRAS mutations and expression of c-KIT, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phosphorylated AKT in Japanese melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Satomi; Funasaka, Yoko; Watanabe, Atsushi; Takizawa, Toshihiro; Kawana, Seiji; Saeki, Hidehisa

    2015-05-01

    To clarify the status of gene mutation and activation of growth signal in melanoma of Japanese patients in vivo, we analyzed the mutation of BRAF exon 15, NRAS exon 2, and KIT exons 9, 11, 13, 17 and 18 in melanoma cells obtained by laser capture microdissection, and performed direct sequencing in 20 cases of acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) and 17 cases of superficial spreading melanoma (SSM). In the study of the mutation of BRAF, pyrosequencing was also done. To examine the cell proliferation signaling, immunohistochemistry for phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK), phosphorylated AKT (phosphorylated AKT) and c-KIT was done. The mutation of BRAF p.V600E was detected in 13 cases of ALM (65.0%) and 12 cases of SSM (70.6%). No NRAS mutation was found in all cases. The mutation in exons 9, 11, and 18 of KIT was detected in nine cases. The mutation of BRAF and KIT showed no correlation with clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, tumor thickness, ulceration and histology. pERK and pAKT was observed in small population of melanoma cells and there was no correlation with gene mutation. Our results indicate that the mutations of BRAF and KIT exist in Japanese melanoma patients, however, the cell growth signaling may be regulated by not only these mutated genes, but by other unknown regulatory factors, which may affect the prognosis of melanoma.

  18. C-KIT signaling in cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Stankov, Karmen; Popovic, Stevan; Mikov, Momir

    2014-01-01

    Tumor progression is strongly associated with the activity of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and their intracellular signal transduction pathways, which regulate several cell functions including proliferation, apoptosis, motility, adhesion and angiogenesis. Detailed structural and functional studies of RTKs, including the stem cell factor receptor c-KIT, revealed the complexity of these receptor systems and contributed to development of targeted clinical approaches with relevance in both prognosis and therapy. C-KIT signaling network has been the subject of intense research and pharmaceutical strategies to identify novel target-based approaches for cancer treatment. Evidence that c-KIT signaling promotes cell proliferation and survival, along with the frequency in which this pathway is aberrantly activated in cancer, support the current efforts to identify approaches for its efficient inhibition. C-KIT mutations are associatied with several human malignancies, such as gastrointestinal stromal tumors, acute myeloid leukemia, mast cell leukemia, and melanoma. Novel therapies are developed that target some of the identified genetic defects. It is therefore anticipated that newly-identified genetic markers will acquire a predictive value, that is, the ability to predict differential efficacy of a therapy. This review describes the evolving understanding of c-KIT/SCF axis and their downstream signaling in cancer, and the strategies for c-KIT-directed targeted cancer therapy.

  19. Involvement of Phospholipase Cγ1 in Mouse Egg Activation Induced by a Truncated Form of the C-kit Tyrosine Kinase Present in Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Sette, Claudio; Bevilacqua, Arturo; Geremia, Raffaele; Rossi, Pellegrino

    1998-01-01

    Microinjection of a truncated form of the c-kit tyrosine kinase present in mouse spermatozoa (tr-kit) activates mouse eggs parthenogenetically, and tr-kit– induced egg activation is inhibited by preincubation with an inhibitor of phospholipase C (PLC) (Sette, C., A. Bevilacqua, A. Bianchini, F. Mangia, R. Geremia, and P. Rossi. 1997. Development [Camb.]. 124:2267–2274). Co-injection of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins containing the src-homology (SH) domains of the γ1 isoform of PLC (PLCγ1) competitively inhibits tr-kit– induced egg activation. A GST fusion protein containing the SH3 domain of PLCγ1 inhibits egg activation as efficiently as the whole SH region, while a GST fusion protein containing the two SH2 domains is much less effective. A GST fusion protein containing the SH3 domain of the Grb2 adaptor protein does not inhibit tr-kit–induced egg activation, showing that the effect of the SH3 domain of PLCγ1 is specific. Tr-kit–induced egg activation is also suppressed by co-injection of antibodies raised against the PLCγ1 SH domains, but not against the PLCγ1 COOH-terminal region. In transfected COS cells, coexpression of PLCγ1 and tr-kit increases diacylglycerol and inositol phosphate production, and the phosphotyrosine content of PLCγ1 with respect to cells expressing PLCγ1 alone. These data indicate that tr-kit activates PLCγ1, and that the SH3 domain of PLCγ1 is essential for tr-kit–induced egg activation. PMID:9722617

  20. Acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor in A431 squamous cell carcinoma xenografts is mediated by c-Kit pathway transduction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lixia; Yang, Xiaokun; Zhao, Bei; Cai, Zhen

    2015-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor inhibitors (EGFRIs), the first targeted cancer therapy, are currently an essential treatment for many advance-stage epithelial cancers. These agents have the superior ability to target cancers cells and better safety profile compared to conventional chemotherapies. However, all responding patients eventually developed acquired resistance to EGFRIs and the mechanisms of acquired resistance invariably develops. In the current study, we reported the tumor xenografts of the human A431 squamous cell carcinoma, after 25-week consecutive therapy with EGFR inhibitor (gefitinib) that developed resistance as a result of c-Kit overexpression. Moreover, combined therapeutic inhibition of EGFR and c-Kit may abrogate this acquired mechanism of drug resistance due to an enhanced apoptotic effect in gefitinib-resistant xenograft model. Taken together, the results suggest that at least in the A431 xenograft model displaying acquired resistance to gefitinib can emerge in vivo, at least in part, by mechanisms involving the c-Kit overexpression.

  1. Radotinib induces high cytotoxicity in c-KIT positive acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Heo, Sook-Kyoung; Noh, Eui-Kyu; Kim, Jeong Yi; Jo, Jae-Cheol; Choi, Yunsuk; Koh, SuJin; Baek, Jin Ho; Min, Young Joo; Kim, Hawk

    2017-03-18

    Previously, we reported that radotinib, a BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, induced cytotoxicity in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. However, the effects of radotinib in the subpopulation of c-KIT-positive AML cells were unclear. We observed that low-concentration radotinib had more potent cytotoxicity in c-KIT-positive cells than c-KIT-negative cells from AML patients. To address this issue, cell lines with high c-KIT expression, HEL92.1.7, and moderate c-KIT expression, H209, were selected. HEL92.1.7 cells were grouped into intermediate and high c-KIT expression populations. The cytotoxicity of radotinib against the HEL92.1.7 cell population with intermediate c-KIT expression was not different from that of the population with high c-KIT expression. When H209 cells were grouped into c-KIT expression-negative and c-KIT expression-positive populations, radotinib induced cytotoxicity in the c-KIT-positive population, but not the c-KIT-negative population. Thus, radotinib induces cytotoxicity in c-KIT-positive cells, regardless of the c-KIT expression intensity. Therefore, radotinib induces significant cytotoxicity in c-KIT-positive AML cells, suggesting that radotinib is a potential target agent for the treatment of c-KIT-positive malignancies including AML.

  2. c-Kit signaling determines neointimal hyperplasia in arteriovenous fistulae.

    PubMed

    Skartsis, Nikolaos; Martinez, Laisel; Duque, Juan Camilo; Tabbara, Marwan; Velazquez, Omaida C; Asif, Arif; Andreopoulos, Fotios; Salman, Loay H; Vazquez-Padron, Roberto I

    2014-11-01

    Stenosis of arteriovenous (A-V) fistulae secondary to neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) compromises dialysis delivery, which worsens patients' quality of life and increases medical costs associated with the maintenance of vascular accesses. In the present study, we evaluated the role of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit in A-V fistula neointima formation. Initially, c-Kit was found in the neointima and adventitia of human brachiobasilic fistulae, whereas it was barely detectable in control veins harvested at the time of access creation. Using the rat A-V fistula model to study venous vascular remodeling, we analyzed the spatial and temporal pattern of c-Kit expression in the fistula wall. Interestingly, c-Kit immunoreactivity increased with time after anastomosis, which concurred with the accumulation of cells in the venous intima. In addition, c-Kit expression in A-V fistulae was positively altered by chronic kidney failure conditions. Both blockade of c-Kit with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) and inhibition of stem cell factor production with a specific short hairpin RNA prevented NIH in the outflow vein of experimental fistulae. In agreement with these data, impaired c-Kit activity compromised the development of NIH in A-V fistulae created in c-KitW/Wv mutant mice. These results suggest that targeting of the c-Kit signaling pathway may be an effective approach to prevent postoperative NIH in A-V fistulae.

  3. c-Kit signaling determines neointimal hyperplasia in arteriovenous fistulae

    PubMed Central

    Skartsis, Nikolaos; Martinez, Laisel; Duque, Juan Camilo; Tabbara, Marwan; Velazquez, Omaida C.; Asif, Arif; Andreopoulos, Fotios; Salman, Loay H.

    2014-01-01

    Stenosis of arteriovenous (A-V) fistulae secondary to neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) compromises dialysis delivery, which worsens patients' quality of life and increases medical costs associated with the maintenance of vascular accesses. In the present study, we evaluated the role of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit in A-V fistula neointima formation. Initially, c-Kit was found in the neointima and adventitia of human brachiobasilic fistulae, whereas it was barely detectable in control veins harvested at the time of access creation. Using the rat A-V fistula model to study venous vascular remodeling, we analyzed the spatial and temporal pattern of c-Kit expression in the fistula wall. Interestingly, c-Kit immunoreactivity increased with time after anastomosis, which concurred with the accumulation of cells in the venous intima. In addition, c-Kit expression in A-V fistulae was positively altered by chronic kidney failure conditions. Both blockade of c-Kit with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) and inhibition of stem cell factor production with a specific short hairpin RNA prevented NIH in the outflow vein of experimental fistulae. In agreement with these data, impaired c-Kit activity compromised the development of NIH in A-V fistulae created in c-KitW/Wv mutant mice. These results suggest that targeting of the c-Kit signaling pathway may be an effective approach to prevent postoperative NIH in A-V fistulae. PMID:25186298

  4. Discovery of amido-benzisoxazoles as potent c-Kit inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, Roxanne K.; Rumfelt, Shannon; Chen, Ning; Zhang, Dawei; Tasker, Andrew S.; Bürli, Roland; Hungate, Randall; Yu, Violeta; Nguyen, Yen; Whittington, Douglas A.; Meagher, Kristin L.; Plant, Matthew; Tudor, Yanyan; Schrag, Michael; Xu, Yang; Ng, Gordon Y.; Hu, Essa

    2010-01-12

    Deregulation of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit is associated with an increasing number of human diseases, including certain cancers and mast cell diseases. Interference of c-Kit signaling with multi-kinase inhibitors has been shown clinically to successfully treat gastrointestinal stromal tumors and mastocytosis. Targeted therapy of c-Kit activity may provide therapeutic advantages against off-target effects for non-oncology applications. A new structural class of c-Kit inhibitors is described, including in vitro c-Kit potency, kinase selectivity, and the observed binding mode.

  5. Orai1 mediates tumor-promoting store-operated Ca(2+) entry in human gastrointestinal stromal tumors via c-KIT and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Hao, Jiaqi; Zhang, Yijian; Yang, Ziyi; Cao, Yang; Lu, Wei; Shu, Yijun; Jiang, Lin; Hu, Yunping; Lv, Wenjie; Liu, Yingbin; Dong, Ping

    2017-02-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors originate from interstitial cells of Cajal, the pacemaker cells of the gut. Ca(2+) regulates the pacemaker activity of interstitial cells of Cajal. Store-operated Ca(2+) entry mediates the majority of Ca(2+) entry in most cancer cells and may be a factor in regulating intracellular Ca(2+) in interstitial cells of Cajal and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Therefore, a blockade of this mechanism may affect the progression of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Orai1 is the pore subunit of store-operated Ca(2+) channels. Here, we reported that Orai1 was overexpressed in gastrointestinal stromal tumor tissues and was positively correlated with a high-risk grade in gastrointestinal stromal tumor patients. Furthermore, upon Orai1 silencing, the functional store-operated Ca(2+) entry in gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells was decreased, indicating that the function of store-operated Ca(2+) entry was mediated by Orai1. Inhibition of Orai1-mediated store-operated Ca(2+) entry by Orai1 silencing or store-operated Ca(2+) entry blockers (SKF-96365 and 2-aminoethyl diphenylborate) induced obvious cell proliferation suppression, cell-cycle distribution, and apoptosis stimulation in GIST-T1 cells. Conversely, Orai1 overexpression increased store-operated Ca(2+) entry and cell proliferation in GIST882 cells. In addition, we found that activation of c-KIT and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway participated in the oncogenic functions of Orai1-mediated store-operated Ca(2+) entry in gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells. These results revealed that Orai1-mediated store-operated Ca(2+) entry is critical for gastrointestinal stromal tumor cell proliferation via c-KIT and ERK signaling pathway activation. Orai1-mediated store-operated Ca(2+) entry plays an oncogenic role and may be a novel prognostic factor and therapeutic target for patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

  6. Juxtamembrane mutant V560GKit is more sensitive to Imatinib (STI571) compared with wild-type c-kit whereas the kinase domain mutant D816VKit is resistant.

    PubMed

    Frost, Michelle J; Ferrao, Petranel T; Hughes, Timothy P; Ashman, Leonie K

    2002-10-01

    Imatinib (Glivec; STI571) is an ATP-competitive kinase inhibitor of c-Abl, BCR/ABL, c-Kit, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor. Overexpression or constitutive activation of Kit by mutations have been associated with various malignancies. Mutations in the intracellular juxtamembrane region of Kit (e.g., V560G) are common in gastrointestinal stromal tumors and have been linked to poor prognosis. Mutations in the kinase domain of Kit (e.g., D816V) have been detected in mastocytosis, acute myeloid leukemia, and germ-cell tumors. To determine the sensitivity of Kit mutants to Imatinib in the same cellular background, wild-type Kit (WTKit), V560GKit and D816VKit were expressed in FDC-P1 cells. Growth of FDC(WTKit) was inhibited by Imatinib with GI50 (a concentration of drug at which 50% inhibition of growth occurs) of 0.1-0.2 microM but FDC(V560GKit) were more sensitive to Imatinib with a GI50 of 0.01-0.025 microM and FDC(D816VKit) were resistant to Imatinib with a GI50 greater than 5 microM. The naturally occurring isoforms of c-Kit did not differ in their sensitivity to Imatinib. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis indicated that 1 microM Imatinib reduced phosphorylation of WTKit and completely blocked phosphorylation of V560GKit but did not affect D816VKit phosphorylation. In signaling studies, addition of stem cell factor (SCF) induced phosphorylation of ERK and Akt by WTKit, and ERK, Akt and STAT3 by V560GKit, which were all blocked by Imatinib. Imatinib also blocked the constitutive activation of Akt and STAT3 by V560GKit but had no affect on the constitutive activation of ERK, Akt, and STAT3 by D816VKit. Overall, these findings demonstrate the increased susceptibility of the Kit juxtamembrane mutant, V560G, and the resistance of the kinase domain mutant, D816V, to Imatinib compared with WTKit.

  7. Analysing c-kit internalization using a functional c-kit-EGFP chimera containing the fluorochrome within the extracellular domain.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Thomas; Seipel, Petra; Coutinho, Sunita; Urschel, Susanne; Schwarz, Kathleen; Miething, Cornelius; Serve, Hubert; Peschel, Christian; Duyster, Justus

    2002-07-04

    In order to investigate activation and internalization of c-kit we created a functional c-kit-EGFP chimera by inserting EYFP (enhanced yellow fluorescent protein) within the extracellular domain of c-kit immediately downstream of the signal sequence, SS-EYFP-kit. This location was chosen because the C-terminal fusion of EGFP to c-kit unexpectedly caused constitutive activation of the c-kit tyrosine kinase. As analysed in fixed cells and by real time imaging in vivo, SCF induced activation led to internalization of the fusion construct and translocation to punctate structures resembling vesicles. Analysis of the internalization process by time lapse imaging revealed high mobility and discontinuous movement of these vesicles and their predominantly radial tracks. Two subsets of vesicles were observed: Traffic of the majority of vesicles was directed from the periphery to the center of the cell and most likely represents the internalization of activated receptor molecules via the endosomal pathway. However, some vesicular structures were observed to move towards the periphery of the cell and probably contain newly synthesized protein to replace internalized receptor molecules. The calculated velocity of moving vesicles ranged from 0.05 to 0.2 microm per se. Vesicle formation upon SCF induced dimerization of the receptor was strictly dependent on kinase activity of c-kit. Treatment of cells with phenylarsine oxide, an agent blocking receptor internalization, prior to SCF stimulation resulted in abrogation of the translocation of the chimera to vesicles whereas accumulation of vesicles was observed when cells were treated with proteasome inhibitors. Cholesterol depletion of the cell membrane by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin resulted in dose dependent reduction of receptor internalization indicating that c-kit may be present in lipid rafts or that intact lipid rafts are required for efficient internalization of the receptor. Using the induction of vesicular structures as a

  8. Differential activity of c-KIT splice forms is controlled by extracellular peptide insert length.

    PubMed

    Phung, Bengt; Steingrímsson, Eiríkur; Rönnstrand, Lars

    2013-11-01

    Understanding receptor activation is important for disease intervention. Activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-KIT is involved in numerous diseases including melanoma, mastocytosis, multiple myeloma and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. To better understand the regulation of activation, we studied the two c-KIT isoforms, c-KIT(-) and c-KIT(+), which differ by a tetrapeptide insert GNNK, located in the extracellular juxtamembrane domain of the c-KIT(+) isoform. This region is important for regulating receptor activation. Here we show that the consecutive elimination of one amino acid at a time from the GNNK tetrapeptide insert gradually increases receptor tyrosine phosphorylation, ubiquitination, internalization and downstream MAP kinase-ERK activation. Successively decreasing the insert length progressively improves cell survival during drug treatment. Our results indicate that the length of the tetrapeptide fine-tunes receptor activity, thus providing deeper insight into c-KIT activation.

  9. c-Kit Receptor Signaling Regulates Islet Vasculature, β-Cell Survival, and Function In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhi-Chao; Popell, Alex; Li, Jinming; Silverstein, Jenna; Oakie, Amanda; Yee, Siu-Pok; Wang, Rennian

    2015-11-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit plays an integral role in maintaining β-cell mass and function. Although c-Kit receptor signaling promotes angiogenesis in multiple cell types, its role in islet vasculature is unknown. This study examines the effects of c-Kit-mediated vascular endothelial growth factor isoform A (VEGF-A) and islet vascularization on β-cell function and survival using in vitro cell culture and in vivo mouse models. In cultured INS-1 cells and primary islets, c-Kit regulates VEGF-A expression via the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Juvenile mice with mutated c-Kit (c-Kit(Wv/+)) showed impaired islet vasculature and β-cell dysfunction, while restoring c-Kit expression in β-cells of c-Kit(Wv/+) mice rescued islet vascular defects through modulation of the Akt/mTOR/VEGF-A pathway, indicating that c-Kit signaling in β-cells is a required regulator for maintaining normal islet vasculature. Furthermore, β-cell-specific c-Kit overexpression (c-KitβTg) in aged mice showed significantly increased islet vasculature and β-cell function, but, when exposed to a long-term high-fat diet, c-Kit signaling in c-KitβTg mice induced substantial vascular remodeling, which resulted in increased islet inflammatory responses and β-cell apoptosis. These results suggest that c-Kit-mediated VEGF-A action in β-cells plays a pivotal role in maintaining islet vascularization and function.

  10. Nociceptive tuning by stem cell factor/c-Kit signaling.

    PubMed

    Milenkovic, Nevena; Frahm, Christina; Gassmann, Max; Griffel, Carola; Erdmann, Bettina; Birchmeier, Carmen; Lewin, Gary R; Garratt, Alistair N

    2007-12-06

    The molecular mechanisms regulating the sensitivity of sensory circuits to environmental stimuli are poorly understood. We demonstrate here a central role for stem cell factor (SCF) and its receptor, c-Kit, in tuning the responsiveness of sensory neurons to natural stimuli. Mice lacking SCF/c-Kit signaling displayed profound thermal hypoalgesia, attributable to a marked elevation in the thermal threshold and reduction in spiking rate of heat-sensitive nociceptors. Acute activation of c-Kit by its ligand, SCF, resulted in a reduced thermal threshold and potentiation of heat-activated currents in isolated small-diameter neurons and thermal hyperalgesia in mice. SCF-induced thermal hyperalgesia required the TRP family cation channel TRPV1. Lack of c-Kit signaling during development resulted in hypersensitivity of discrete mechanoreceptive neuronal subtypes. Thus, c-Kit can now be grouped with a small family of receptor tyrosine kinases, including c-Ret and TrkA, that control the transduction properties of sensory neurons.

  11. Bone-induced c-kit expression in prostate cancer: a driver of intraosseous tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Mainetti, Leandro E; Zhe, Xiaoning; Diedrich, Jonathan; Saliganan, Allen D; Cho, Won Jin; Cher, Michael L; Heath, Elisabeth; Fridman, Rafael; Kim, Hyeong-Reh Choi; Bonfil, R Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Loss of BRCA2 function stimulates prostate cancer (PCa) cell invasion and is associated with more aggressive and metastatic tumors in PCa patients. Concurrently, the receptor tyrosine kinase c-kit is highly expressed in skeletal metastases of PCa patients and induced in PCa cells placed into the bone microenvironment in experimental models. However, the precise requirement of c-kit for intraosseous growth of PCa and its relation to BRCA2 expression remain unexplored. Here, we show that c-kit expression promotes migration and invasion of PCa cells. Alongside, we found that c-kit expression in PCa cells parallels BRCA2 downregulation. Gene rescue experiments with human BRCA2 transgene in c-kit-transfected PCa cells resulted in reduction of c-kit protein expression and migration and invasion, suggesting a functional significance of BRCA2 downregulation by c-kit. The inverse association between c-kit and BRCA2 gene expressions in PCa cells was confirmed using laser capture microdissection in experimental intraosseous tumors and bone metastases of PCa patients. Inhibition of bone-induced c-kit expression in PCa cells transduced with lentiviral short hairpin RNA reduced intraosseous tumor incidence and growth. Overall, our results provide evidence of a novel pathway that links bone-induced c-kit expression in PCa cells to BRCA2 downregulation and supports bone metastasis.

  12. Bone-induced c-kit expression in prostate cancer: a driver of intraosseous tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Mainetti, Leandro E.; Zhe, Xiaoning; Diedrich, Jonathan; Saliganan, Allen D.; Cho, Won Jin; Cher, Michael L.; Heath, Elisabeth; Fridman, Rafael; Kim, Hyeong-Reh Choi; Bonfil, R. Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Loss of BRCA2 function stimulates prostate cancer (PCa) cell invasion and is associated with more aggressive and metastatic tumors in PCa patients. Concurrently, the receptor tyrosine kinase c-kit is highly expressed in skeletal metastases of PCa patients and induced in PCa cells placed into the bone microenvironment in experimental models. However, the precise requirement of c-kit for intraosseous growth of PCa and its relation to BRCA2 expression remain unexplored. Here, we show that c-kit expression promotes migration and invasion of PCa cells. Alongside, we found that c-kit expression in PCa cells parallels BRCA2 downregulation. Gene rescue experiments with human BRCA2 transgene in c-kit-transfected PCa cells resulted in reduction of c-kit protein expression and migration and invasion, suggesting a functional significance of BRCA2 downregulation by c-kit. The inverse association between c-kit and BRCA2 gene expressions in PCa cells was confirmed using laser capture microdissection in experimental intraosseous tumors and bone metastases of PCa patients. Inhibition of bone-induced c-kit expression in PCa cells transduced with lentiviral short hairpin RNA reduced intraosseous tumor incidence and growth. Overall, our results provide evidence of a novel pathway that links bone-induced c-kit expression in PCa cells to BRCA2 downregulation and supports bone metastasis. PMID:24798488

  13. Activated c-Kit receptor in the heart promotes cardiac repair and regeneration after injury

    PubMed Central

    Di Siena, S; Gimmelli, R; Nori, S L; Barbagallo, F; Campolo, F; Dolci, S; Rossi, P; Venneri, M A; Giannetta, E; Gianfrilli, D; Feigenbaum, L; Lenzi, A; Naro, F; Cianflone, E; Mancuso, T; Torella, D; Isidori, A M; Pellegrini, M

    2016-01-01

    The role of endogenous c-Kit receptor activation on cardiac cell homeostasis and repair remains largely unexplored. Transgenic mice carrying an activating point mutation (TgD814Y) in the kinase domain of the c-Kit gene were generated. c-KitTgD814Y receptor was expressed in the heart during embryonic development and postnatal life, in a similar timing and expression pattern to that of the endogenous gene, but not in the hematopoietic compartment allowing the study of a cardiac-specific phenotype. c-KitTgD814Y mutation produced a constitutive active c-Kit receptor in cardiac tissue and cells from transgenic mice as demonstrated by the increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT, which are the main downstream molecular effectors of c-Kit receptor signaling. In adult transgenic hearts, cardiac morphology, size and total c-Kit+ cardiac cell number was not different compared with wt mice. However, when c-KitTgD814Y mice were subjected to transmural necrotic heart damage by cryoinjury (CI), all transgenic survived, compared with half of wt mice. In the sub-acute phase after CI, transgenic and wt mice showed similar heart damage. However, 9 days after CI, transgenic mice exhibited an increased number of c-Kit+CD31+ endothelial progenitor cells surrounding the necrotic area. At later follow-up, a consistent reduction of fibrotic area, increased capillary density and increased cardiomyocyte replenishment rate (as established by BrdU incorporation) were observed in transgenic compared with wt mice. Consistently, CD45−c-Kit+ cardiac stem cells isolated from transgenic c-KitTgD814Y mice showed an enhanced endothelial and cardiomyocyte differentiation potential compared with cells isolated from the wt. Constitutive activation of c-Kit receptor in mice is associated with an increased cardiac myogenic and vasculogenic reparative potential after injury, with a significant improvement of survival. PMID:27468693

  14. Hiding inside? Intracellular expression of non-glycosylated c-kit protein in cardiac progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Huilin; Drummond, Christopher A; Fan, Xiaoming; Haller, Steven T; Liu, Jiang; Malhotra, Deepak; Tian, Jiang

    2016-05-01

    Cardiac progenitor cells including c-kit(+) cells and cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) play important roles in cardiac repair and regeneration. CDCs were reported to contain only small subpopulations of c-kit(+) cells and recent publications suggested that depletion of the c-kit(+) subpopulation of cells has no effect on regenerative properties of CDCs. However, our current study showed that the vast majority of CDCs from murine heart actually express c-kit, albeit, in an intracellular and non-glycosylated form. Immunostaining and flow cytometry showed that the fluorescent signal indicative of c-kit immunostaining significantly increased when cell membranes were permeabilized. Western blots further demonstrated that glycosylation of c-kit was increased during endothelial differentiation in a time dependent manner. Glycosylation inhibition by 1-deoxymannojirimycin hydrochloride (1-DMM) blocked c-kit glycosylation and reduced expression of endothelial cell markers such as Flk-1 and CD31 during differentiation. Pretreatment of these cells with a c-kit kinase inhibitor (imatinib mesylate) also attenuated Flk-1 and CD31 expression. These results suggest that c-kit glycosylation and its kinase activity are likely needed for these cells to differentiate into an endothelial lineage. In vivo, we found that intracellular c-kit expressing cells are located in the wall of cardiac blood vessels in mice subjected to myocardial infarction. In summary, our work demonstrated for the first time that c-kit is not only expressed in CDCs but may also directly participate in CDC differentiation into an endothelial lineage.

  15. c-Kit expression in somatosensory nuclei of lower medulla oblongata.

    PubMed

    Pop, Elena; Mărdărescu, Mariana; Lazăr, M; Rusu, M C; Ion, Daniela Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Protein kinase signal-transduction pathways play critical roles in regulating nociception. The c-kit receptor contributes to pain regulation in the spinal cord and is present on both peripheral and central terminals. Expression of c-kit was demonstrated in human trigeminal and spinal ganglia. However, the brainstem expression of c-kit was overlooked. We aimed to evaluate it by immunohistochemistry, on eight samples of human lower medulla oblongata. We used two clones of CD117/c-kit antibodies, from different manufacturers, and neurofilament antibodies. Positive expression of CD117/c-kit was found within the spinal trigeminal nucleus, the gracilis, cuneate, and lateral cuneate nuclei, and within the olivary complex. CD117/c-kit positive interstitial networks of these nuclei were positively labeled with neurofilaments. CD117/c-kit labeled the olivary neurons, but not the magnocellular neurons of the trigeminal, gracilis and cuneate nuclei. c-kit interstitial systems of brainstem could play so an important role for the functional status along the somatosensory neural circuits.

  16. Expression and function of c-kit in hemopoietic progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    The expression and function of a receptor tyrosine kinase, c-kit, in the adult bone marrow of the mouse were investigated by using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the extracellular domain of murine c-kit. In adult C57BL/6 mouse, 7.8% of total bone marrow cells express c-kit on their surface. Half of the c-kit+ cells do not express lineage markers including Mac-1, Gr-1, TER-119, and B220, while the remainder coexpress myeloid lineage markers such as Mac-1 and Gr-1. After c-kit+ cells were removed from the bone marrow cell preparation, hemopoietic progenitor cells reactive to IL-3, GM-CSF, or M-CSF and also those which give rise to spleen colonies in irradiated recipients disappeared almost completely. Thus, most hemopoietic progenitors in the adult bone marrow express c-kit. To investigate whether or not c-kit has any role in the hemopoiesis of adult bone marrow, we took the advantage of one of the anti-c-kit mAbs that can antagonize the function of c-kit. As early as two days after the injection of 1 milligram of an antagonistic antibody, ACK2, almost all hemopoietic progenitor cells disappeared from the bone marrow, which eventually resulted in the absence of mature myeloid and erythroid cells in the bone marrow. These results provide direct evidence that c-kit is an essential molecule for constitutive intramarrow hemopoiesis, especially for the self-renewal of hemopoietic progenitor cells at various stages of differentiation. PMID:1711568

  17. Synthesis and biological evaluation of di-aryl urea derivatives as c-Kit inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ravez, Séverine; Arsenlis, Stéphane; Barczyk, Amélie; Dupont, Anthony; Frédérick, Raphaël; Hesse, Stéphanie; Kirsch, Gilbert; Depreux, Patrick; Goossens, Laurence

    2015-11-15

    Inhibition of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) continued to be a successful approach for the treatment of many types of human cancers and many potent small molecules kinase inhibitors have been discovered the last decade. In the present study, we describe the synthesis of thienopyrimidine derivatives and their pharmacological evaluation against nine kinases (EGFR, PDGFR-ß, c-Kit, c-Met, Src, Raf, VEGFR-1, -2 and -3). Most of the synthesized compounds showed from moderate to potent activities against c-Kit with IC50 values in the nanomolar range. Among them, 4-anilino(urea)thienopyrimidine analogs showed selectivity and potent c-Kit inhibition with IC50 values less than 6 nM. Docking simulation was performed for the most promising compound 9 into the c-Kit active site to determine the potential binding mode. This study reveal that the 4-anilino(urea)thienopyrimidine is an interesting scaffold to design novel potent and selective c-Kit inhibitors which may make promising candidates for cancers where c-Kit receptors are overexpressed.

  18. The SCF/c-KIT system in the male: Survival strategies in fertility and cancer.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Henrique J; Figueira, Marília I; Correia, Sara; Vaz, Cátia V; Socorro, Sílvia

    2014-12-01

    Maintaining the delicate balance between cell survival and death is of the utmost importance for the proper development of germ cells and subsequent fertility. On the other hand, the fine regulation of tissue homeostasis by mechanisms that control cell fate is a factor that can prevent carcinogenesis. c-KIT is a type III receptor tyrosine kinase activated by its ligand, stem cell factor (SCF). c-KIT signaling plays a crucial role in cell fate decisions, specifically controlling cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis. Indeed, deregulating the SCF/c-KIT system by attenuation or overactivation of its signaling strength is linked to male infertility and cancer, and rebalancing its activity via c-KIT inhibitors has proven beneficial in treating human tumors that contain gain-of-function mutations or overexpress c-KIT. This review addresses the roles of SCF and c-KIT in the male reproductive tract, and discusses the potential application of c-KIT target therapies in disorders of the reproductive system.

  19. Signaling of c-kit in dendritic cells influences adaptive immunity

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Prabir; Krishnamoorthy, Nandini; Oriss, Timothy B.; Ray, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    The binding of the receptor tyrosine kinase, c-kit, to its ligand, stem cell factor (SCF), mediates numerous biological functions. Important roles for c-kit in hematopoiesis, melanogenesis, erythropoiesis, spermatogenesis, and carcinogenesis are well documented. Similarly, activation of granulocytes, mast cells, and of eosinophils in particular, by c-kit ligation has long been known to result in degranulation with concomitant release of pro-inflammatory mediators, including cytokines. However, recent work from a number of laboratories, including our own, highlights previously unappreciated functions for c-kit in immunologic processes. These novel findings strongly suggest that signaling through the c-kit–SCF axis could have a significant impact on the pathogenesis of diseases associated with an immunologic component. In our own studies, c-kit upregulation on dendritic cells via T helper (Th)2- and Th17-inducing stimuli led to c-kit activation and immune skewing toward these T helper subsets and away from Th1 responses. Others have shown that dendritic cell treatment with inhibitors of c-kit activation, such as imatinib mesylate (Gleevec), favored breaking of T-cell tolerance, skewing of responses toward production of Th1 cytokines, and activation of natural killer cells. These data all indicate that deeper understanding of, and ability to control, the c-kit–SCF axis could lead to improved treatment modalities aimed at redirecting unwanted and/or deleterious immune responses in a wide variety of conditions. PMID:20146711

  20. Hormonal regulation of c-KIT receptor and its ligand: implications for human infertility?

    PubMed

    Figueira, Marília I; Cardoso, Henrique J; Correia, Sara; Maia, Cláudio J; Socorro, Sílvia

    2014-09-01

    The c-KIT, a tyrosine kinase receptor, and its ligand the stem cell factor (SCF) play an important role in the production of male and female gametes. The interaction of SCF with c-KIT is required for germ cell survival and growth, and abnormalities in the activity of the SCF/c-KIT system have been associated with human infertility. Recently, it was demonstrated that gonadotropic and sex steroid hormones, among others, regulate the expression of SCF and c-KIT in testicular and ovarian cells. Therefore, the hormonal (de)regulation of SCF/c-KIT system in the testis and ovary may be a cause underpinning infertility. In the present review, we will discuss the effects of hormones modulating the expression levels of SCF and c-KIT in the human gonads. In addition, the implications of hormonal regulation of SCF/c-KIT system for germ cell development and fertility will be highlighted. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  1. Analysis of c-kit expression in small cell lung cancer: prevalence and prognostic implications.

    PubMed

    Camps, Carlos; Sirera, Rafael; Bremnes, Roy M; Garde, Javier; Safont, María José; Blasco, Ana; Berrocal, Alfonso; Sánchez, José Javier; Calabuig, Consuelo; Martorell, Miguel

    2006-06-01

    c-kit, a growth factor receptor with tyrosine kinase activity, plays an important role in the biology of cancer. Its expression has been documented in several malignancies. We performed a retrospective study in 85 patients diagnosed with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) to determine the prevalence and role of c-kit as a possible prognostic marker in this lung cancer malignancy. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from patient charts. c-kit, analyzed as immunohistochemical expression in paraffin-embedded tumour tissues, was observed in 60% of patients. All patients were former or present smokers. At diagnosis, 46% of the patients had limited disease (LD) and 54% extended disease (ED). c-kit expression was observed in 59% of LD and 61% of ED patients (p=0.4). Patients received a median of 4 cycles first-line combination chemotherapy (platinum and etoposide). In LD patients, time to progression (TTP) was 11.5 months in c-kit (+) versus 5.9 in c-kit (-) patients (p=0.14), and median survival 15.4 and 12.8 months, respectively (p=0.33). In the ED group, TTP was 5.5 months in c-kit (+) versus 3.8 in c-kit (-) patients (p=0.34), whereas median survival was 6.3 and 7.9 months, respectively (p=0.45). With the limited number of patients in mind, our findings tended towards an association between c-kit expression and survival in the LD group.

  2. The C-kit receptor-mediated signal transduction and tumor-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jing; Wu, Yan-Ling; Chen, Bing-Jia; Zhang, Wen; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    As an important member of tyrosine kinase family, c-kit receptor causes specific expression of certain genes, regulates cell differentiation and proliferation, resists cell apoptosis, and plays a key role in tumor occurrence, development, migration and recurrence through activating the downstream signaling molecules following interaction with stem cell factor (SCF). The abnormality of SCF/c-kit signaling pathway is closely related to some certain tumors. The discovery of c-kit receptor-targeted drugs has promoted clinical-related cancer's diagnosis and treatment. In this paper, we review recent research progress on c-kit receptor-mediated signal transduction and its potential therapeutic application as a target in tumor-related diseases.

  3. The C-Kit Receptor-Mediated Signal Transduction and Tumor-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jing; Wu, Yan-Ling; Chen, Bing-Jia; Zhang, Wen; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    As an important member of tyrosine kinase family, c-kit receptor causes specific expression of certain genes, regulates cell differentiation and proliferation, resists cell apoptosis, and plays a key role in tumor occurrence, development, migration and recurrence through activating the downstream signaling molecules following interaction with stem cell factor (SCF). The abnormality of SCF/c-kit signaling pathway is closely related to some certain tumors. The discovery of c-kit receptor-targeted drugs has promoted clinical-related cancer's diagnosis and treatment. In this paper, we review recent research progress on c-kit receptor-mediated signal transduction and its potential therapeutic application as a target in tumor-related diseases. PMID:23678293

  4. A potencial theranostic agent for EGF-R expression tumors: (177)Lu-DOTA-nimotuzumab.

    PubMed

    Calzada, Victoria; Zhang, Xiuli; Fernandez, Marcelo; Diaz-Miqueli, Arlhee; Iznaga-Escobar, Normando; Deutscher, Susan L; Balter, Henia; Quinn, Thomas P; Cabral, Pablo

    2012-10-01

    In this work Nimotuzumab (monoclonal antibody, recognizes the EGF-R) was radiolabeled with (177)Lu as a potential cancer therapy radiopharmaceutical. In-vitro cell binding studies and in-vivo biodistribution and imaging studies were performed to determine the radiochemical stability, targeting specificity and pharmacokinetics of the (177)Lu-labeled antibody. Nimotuzumab was derivatized with DOTA-NHS at room temperature for 2 hours. DOTA-Nimotuzumab was radiolabeled with (177)LuCl3 (15 MBq/mg) at 37°C for 1 h. The radiochemical purity was assessed by ITLC, silica gel and by RP-HPLC. Binding specificity studies were performed with EGF-R positive A431 human epithelial carcinoma and EGF-R negative MDA-MB-435 breast carcinoma cells. Biodistribution studies were performed in healthy female CD-1 mice at 1 h, 4 h, 24 h, and A431 xenografted nude mice at 10 min, 1 h, 4 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 96 h. SPECT-CT imaging studies were performed in A431 xenografted mice at 24 h post injection. DOTA-Nimotuzumab was efficiently labeled with (177) LuCl(3) at 37°C. The in vitro stability of labeled product was optimal over 24 h in buffered saline and mouse serum. Specific recognition of EGF-R by (177)Lu-DOTA-Nimotuzumab was observed in A431 cell binding studies. Biodistribution studies demonstrated increasing tumor uptake of (177)Lu-DOTA-Nimotuzumab over time, with tumor to muscle ratios of 6.26, 10.68, and 18.82 at 4 h, 24 h, and 96 h post injection. Imaging of A431 xenografted mice showed high uptake in the tumor. (177)Lu-DOTA-Nimotuzumab has the potential to be a promising therapy agent, which may be useful in the treatment of patients with EGF-R positive cancer.

  5. C-kit signaling promotes proliferation and invasion of colorectal mucinous adenocarcinoma in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jun; Yang, Shu; Shen, Ping; Sun, Haimei; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Yaxi; Wu, Bo; Ji, Fengqing; Yan, Jihong; Xue, Hong; Zhou, Deshan

    2015-09-29

    It was reported that the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family often highly expressed in several mucinous carcinomas. In the present study, we established a murine model of colorectal mucinous adenocardinoma (CRMAC) by treating C57 mice [both wild type (WT) and loss-of-function c-kit mutant type (Wads-/-)] with AOM+DSS for 37 weeks and found that c-kit, a member of RTK family, clearly enhanced the tumor cell proliferation by decreasing p53 and increasing cyclin D1 through AKT pathway. Significantly, c-kit strongly promoted tumor cell invasiveness by increasing ETV4, which induced MMP7 expression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via ERK pathway. In vitro up- or down-regulating c-kit activation in human colorectal cancer HCT-116 cells further consolidated these results. In conclusion, our data suggested that the c-kit signaling obviously promoted proliferation and invasion of CRMAC. Therefore, targeting the c-kit signaling and its downstream molecules might provide the potential strategies for treatment of patients suffering from CRMAC in the future.

  6. c-kit plays a critical role in induction of intravenous tolerance in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Safavi, Farinaz; Li, Hongmei; Gonnella, Patricia; Mari, Elisabeth Rose; Rasouli, Javad; Zhang, Guang Xian; Rostami, Abdolmohamad

    2015-03-01

    c-kit (CD117) is a tyrosine kinase receptor found in various types of immune cells. It has been shown that c-kit plays a role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis, an inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the CNS. Recent data have suggested an immunoregulatory effect of c-kit. We therefore examined the role of c-kit in autoantigen-induced i.v. tolerance in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Our results show that induction of intravenous tolerance against EAE in B6 mice is characterized by increased numbers of CD117(+) cells and altered mast cell-associated molecules in the periphery and in the CNS. W(-sh) (c-kit-deficient) mice were resistant to i.v autoantigen-induced tolerance, with increased proinflammatory cytokine production in the periphery. I.v. autoantigen in WT mice suppressed the production of proinflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and IL-6 and up-regulated the expression of FoxP3, a transcription factor of Tregs; however, in W(-sh) mice, IFN-γ and IL-6 were increased with a failure of FoxP3 induction upon i.v. autoantigen injection and is thus a mechanism for resistance to i.v. tolerance induction in these mice. We conclude that c-kit signaling has a regulatory role in i.v. tolerance and could be a target for potential immunotherapy in autoimmune disorders.

  7. Development and biological evaluation of potent and selective c-KIT(D816V) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soyoung; Lee, Hyunseung; Kim, Jinhee; Lee, Suhyun; Kim, Soo Jung; Choi, Byong-Seok; Hong, Soon-Sun; Hong, Sungwoo

    2014-08-14

    The c-KIT tyrosine kinase has emerged as a potential therapeutic target for an array of diseases. However, there exists a drug resistance that is caused by mutations in c-KIT; therefore, c-KIT remains as a clinical challenge due to limited effective treatment options for therapies. For example, the acquired activating point mutation D816V significantly impairs the efficacy of targeted cancer therapies. Understanding the mechanisms of drug resistance at the molecular level will aid in designing and developing particular inhibitors with the potential to overcome these resistance mutations. We undertake a structure-based de novo design of 7-azaindole as the molecular core using the modified scoring function. This approach led to an identification of new c-KIT inhibitors over 100-fold specific for the D816V mutant relative to the wild-type c-KIT with nanomolar inhibitory activity. More importantly, these compounds potently inhibit clinically relevant D816V mutations of c-KIT in biochemical and cellular studies.

  8. Malignant phyllodes tumours show stromal overexpression of c-myc and c-kit.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Elinor J; Poulsom, Richard; Hunt, F Toby; Jeffery, Rosemary; Elia, George; Ellis, Ian O; Ellis, Paul; Tomlinson, Ian P M; Hanby, Andrew M

    2003-05-01

    Phyllodes tumours are fibroepithelial neoplasms of the breast, the stroma of which can undergo malignant progression to sarcoma. The frequency of malignant lesions varies in different series from 5% to 30%. The aim of this study was to elucidate potential molecular mechanisms in the progression to malignancy in phyllodes tumours. c-myc and c-kit were studied at the protein, RNA(c-myc only) and DNA level. We chose to study c-myc as we have previously shown that Wnt signalling is important in benign, but not malignant, phyllodes tumours. If c-myc is constitutively activated in malignant tumours, this may provide an explanation for why the Wnt pathway is no longer important in these tumours. c-kit is a membrane-bound tyrosine kinase receptor and overexpression is characteristic of gastrointestinal stromal tumours. A previous report suggested that this may also be the case in malignant phyllodes tumours, and we wished to confirm this. We assessed expression of c-myc and c-kit in 30 phyllodes tumours (10 malignant) using in situ hybridization (c-myc) and immunohistochemistry (c-myc and c-kit). 9/10 malignant tumours showed c-myc expression in the stroma, compared to 7/20 benign tumours (p = 0.006, Fisher's exact test). Stromal c-kit expression was found in 5/10 malignant tumours, compared to 1/20 benign tumours (p = 0.008, Fisher's exact test). One tumour had high-level amplification of c-myc, but we found no evidence of mutations of c-kit. We hypothesize that the overexpression of c-myc may drive stromal proliferation in malignant phyllodes tumours, and that c-kit overexpression contributes to the growth of these lesions. c-kit may also be a new therapeutic target in these tumours. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. RanBPM (RanBP9) regulates mouse c-Kit receptor level and is essential for normal development of bone marrow progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Satyendra; Klarmann, Kimberly D.; Coppola, Vincenzo; Keller, Jonathan R.; Tessarollo, Lino

    2016-01-01

    c-Kit is a tyrosine kinase receptor important for gametogenesis, hematopoiesis, melanogenesis and mast cell biology. Dysregulation of c-Kit function is oncogenic and its expression in the stem cell niche of a number of tissues has underlined its relevance for regenerative medicine and hematopoietic stem cell biology. Yet, very little is known about the mechanisms that control c-Kit protein levels. Here we show that the RanBPM/RanBP9 scaffold protein binds to c-Kit and is necessary for normal c-Kit protein expression in the mouse testis and subset lineages of the hematopoietic system. RanBPM deletion causes a reduction in c-Kit protein but not its mRNA suggesting a posttranslational mechanism. This regulation is specific to the c-Kit receptor since RanBPM reduction does not affect other membrane proteins examined. Importantly, in both mouse hematopoietic system and testis, RanBPM deficiency causes defects consistent with c-Kit loss of expression suggesting that RanBPM is an important regulator of c-Kit function. The finding that this regulatory mechanism is also present in human cells expressing endogenous RanBPM and c-Kit suggests a potential new strategy to target oncogenic c-Kit in malignancies. PMID:27835883

  10. Increased c-kit (CD117) expression in malignant mammary phyllodes tumors.

    PubMed

    Tse, Gary M K; Putti, Thomas C; Lui, Philip C W; Lo, Anthony W I; Scolyer, Richard A; Law, Bonita K B; Karim, Rooshdiya; Lee, C Soon

    2004-07-01

    Mammary phyllodes tumors are uncommon stromal neoplasms, and are divided into benign, borderline and malignant groups basing on histologic criteria. While benign phyllodes tumors may recur, borderline phyllodes tumors show higher propensity to recur locally and rarely metastasize, and malignant phyllodes tumors show even higher chances of local recurrences or distant metastases. c-kit is a proto-oncogene that encodes a tyrosine kinase receptor (CD117) and is a marker for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). With the advent of therapeutic agent targeted at this receptor for GIST, we investigated 179 phyllodes tumors (101 benign, 50 borderline, 28 malignant) for c-kit expression using immunohistochemistry. The staining was compared to the degree of malignancy, and to the degree of stromal cellularity, mitotic activity, nuclear pleomorphism and stromal overgrowth. The overall positive rate for c-kit was 29% (52/179) and 17% (17/101), 24% (12/50) and 46% (13/28), respectively, for benign, borderline malignant and frank malignant phyllodes and the differences between all categories were significant (chi2=13.844, P=0.001). In mammary phyllodes tumors, there was increasing c-kit expression with increasing degree of malignancy, up to 46% in malignant cases. This provides strong evidence that c-kit receptor mediated tyrosine kinase involvement in the pathogenesis of phyllodes tumors, and the therapeutic agent, STI571, Glivec, may be a potentially useful drug for its management. Copyright 2004 USCAP, Inc.

  11. The c-kit signaling pathway is involved in the development of persistent pain

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan-Gang; Gracias, Neilia G.; Drobish, Julie; Vasko, Michael R.; Gereau, Robert W.; Chen, Zhou-Feng

    2009-01-01

    Protein kinase signal transduction pathways play critical roles in regulating nociception. Here we show that c-kit, a tyrosine kinase receptor, is expressed in lamina I and II layer of the dorsal horn. Moreover, the superficial c-kit+ fibers originate from the DRG, and c-kit in lamina II inner layer comes from the intrinsic expression of the spinal cord. KitW-v mice, which contain a hypomorphic mutation, exhibited normal acute pain in most pain behavior tests. In formalin test, the first phase was not affected, whereas the second phase pain response of KitW-v mice was significantly reduced relative to wild-type littermates. KitW-v mice also showed abnormal neuropathic pain, notably in the contralateral side of nerve injury. The expression and release of CGRP and substance P was not altered by the c-kit mutation. Together, these results implicate c-kit-mediated signaling transduction in the development of persistent pain. PMID:19443120

  12. Antagonism of Stem Cell Factor/c-kit Signaling Attenuates Neonatal Chronic Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Young, Karen C; Torres, Eneida; Hehre, Dorothy; Wu, Shu; Suguihara, Cleide; Hare, Joshua M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence suggests that c-kit positive cells are present in the remodeled pulmonary vasculature bed of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Whether stem cell factor (SCF)/ c-kit regulated pathways potentiate pulmonary vascular remodeling is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that attenuated c-kit signaling would decrease chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling by decreasing pulmonary vascular cell mitogenesis. Methods Neonatal FVB/NJ mice treated with non-immune IgG (PL), or c-kit neutralizing antibody (ACK2) as well as c-kit mutant mice (WBB6F1- Kit W− v/ +) and their congenic controls, were exposed to normoxia (FiO2=0.21) or hypoxia (FiO2=0.12) for two weeks. Following this exposure, right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), pulmonary vascular cell proliferation and remodeling were evaluated. Results As compared to chronically hypoxic controls, c-kit mutant mice had decreased RVSP, RVH, pulmonary vascular remodeling and proliferation. Consistent with these findings, administration of ACK2 to neonatal mice with chronic hypoxia-induced PH decreased RVSP, RVH, pulmonary vascular cell proliferation and remodeling. This attenuation in PH was accompanied by decreased extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) 1/2 activation. Conclusion SCF/c-kit signaling may potentiate chronic hypoxia-induced vascular remodeling by modulating ERK activation. Inhibition of c-kit activity may be a potential strategy to alleviate PH. PMID:26705118

  13. A screen for dominant mutations applied to components in the Drosophila EGF-R pathway

    PubMed Central

    Guichard, Annabel; Srinivasan, Shaila; Zimm, Georgianna; Bier, Ethan

    2002-01-01

    The Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) controls many critical cell fate choices throughout development. Several proteins collaborate to promote localized EGF-R activation, such as Star and Rhomboid (Rho), which act sequentially to ensure the maturation and processing of inactive membrane-bound EGF ligands. To gain insights into the mechanisms underlying Rho and Star function, we developed a mutagenesis scheme to isolate novel overexpression activity (NOVA) alleles. In the case of rho, we isolated a dominant neomorphic allele, which interferes with Notch signaling, as well as a dominant-negative allele, which produces RNA interference-like flip-back transcripts that reduce endogenous rho expression. We also obtained dominant-negative and neomorphic Star mutations, which have phenotypes similar to those of rho NOVA alleles, as well as dominant-negative Egf-r alleles. The isolation of dominant alleles in several different genes suggests that NOVA mutagenesis should be widely applicable and emerge as an effective tool for generating dominant mutations in genes of unknown function. PMID:11904431

  14. Inhibition of c-Kit, VEGFR-2 (KDR), and ABCG2 by analogues of OSI-930.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jay P; Kuang, Ye-Hong; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Korlipara, Vijaya L

    2011-11-01

    The quinoline domain of OSI-930, a dual inhibitor of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) c-Kit and KDR, was modified in an effort to further understand the SAR of OSI-930, and the binding site characteristics of c-Kit and KDR. A series of 16 compounds with heteroatom substituted pyridyl and phenyl ring systems was synthesized and evaluated against a panel of kinases including c-Kit and KDR. Aminopyridyl derivative 6 was found to be the most active member of the series with 91% and 57% inhibition of c-Kit at 10μM and 1μM, respectively and 88% and 50% inhibition of KDR at 10μM and 1μM, respectively. The target compounds were also tested for their ability to inhibit efflux of mitoxantrone through inhibition of ATP dependent ABCG2 pump. Nitropyridyl derivative 5 and o-nitrophenyl derivative 7 exhibited complete inhibition of the ABCG2 pump with IC(50) values of 13.67μM and 16.67μM, respectively.

  15. Disruption of c-Kit Signaling in KitW-sh/W-sh Growing Mice Increases Bone Turnover

    PubMed Central

    Lotinun, Sutada; Krishnamra, Nateetip

    2016-01-01

    c-Kit tyrosine kinase receptor has been identified as a regulator of bone homeostasis. The c-Kit loss-of-function mutations in WBB6F1/J-KitW/W-v mice result in low bone mass. However, these mice are sterile and it is unclear whether the observed skeletal phenotype is secondary to a sex hormone deficiency. In contrast, C57BL/6J-KitW-sh/W-sh (Wsh/Wsh) mice, which carry an inversion mutation affecting the transcriptional regulatory elements of the c-Kit gene, are fertile. Here, we showed that Wsh/Wsh mice exhibited osteopenia with elevated bone resorption and bone formation at 6- and 9-week-old. The c-Kit Wsh mutation increased osteoclast differentiation, the number of committed osteoprogenitors, alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization. c-Kit was expressed in both osteoclasts and osteoblasts, and c-Kit expression was decreased in Wsh/Wshosteoclasts, but not osteoblasts, suggesting an indirect effect of c-Kit on bone formation. Furthermore, the osteoclast-derived coupling factor Wnt10b mRNA was increased in Wsh/Wsh osteoclasts. Conditioned medium from Wsh/Wsh osteoclasts had elevated Wnt10b protein levels and induced increased alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization in osteoblast cultures. Antagonizing Wnt10b signaling with DKK1 or Wnt10b antibody inhibited these effects. Our data suggest that c-Kit negatively regulates bone turnover, and disrupted c-Kit signaling couples increased bone resorption with bone formation through osteoclast-derived Wnt 10 b. PMID:27527615

  16. C-KIT-positive undifferentiated tumor of the liver: A case report

    PubMed Central

    CHU, HYUN HEE; CHO, BAIK HWAN; SONG, JI SOO; KIM, KYUNG MI; MOON, WOO SUNG

    2014-01-01

    With recent advances in cancer stem cell analysis, it has been postulated that the transformation of hepatic stem and progenitor cells underlies the development of certain liver cancers. Human C-KIT is a transmembrane type III receptor protein with intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity that has been proposed as a marker for human embryonic stem cells. In addition, human C-KIT functions in maintaining the undifferentiated state of stem cells, and has been identified as a marker for human hematopoietic and hepatic stem/progenitor cells. The present study identified an unusual case of a C-KIT-positive hepatic tumor with an undifferentiated stem cell phenotype distinct from existing descriptions of liver tumors. A 69-year-old male with Ampulla of Vater (AoV) cancer was admitted to the hospital for the treatment of a hepatic mass that was incidentally detected during evaluation of AoV cancer. Microscopically, the hepatic tumor was composed of solidly packed small, round and uniform undifferentiated cells, which resembled that of a small-blue-round-cell tumor. The immunophenotype of neoplastic cells (C-KIT+/EpCAM+/E-cadherin+/keratin 7−/keratin 19−/α-fetoprotein−/albumin−) supported primitive stem cell features with no hepatic or biliary phenotypes. Polymerase chain reaction and direct DNA sequencing revealed no C-KIT mutations. It is suggested that this tumor may have originated from transformed C-KIT+/EpCAM+/E-cadherin+ cells, which are more primitive and undifferentiated than bipotential hepatic progenitor cells. PMID:25202388

  17. Bone Marrow-Derived c-kit+ Cells Attenuate Neonatal Hyperoxia-Induced Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Shalini; Suguihara, Cleide; Drummond, Shelley; Chatzistergos, Konstantinos; Klim, Jammie; Torres, Eneida; Huang, Jian; Hehre, Dorothy; Rodrigues, Claudia O.; McNiece, Ian K.; Hare, Joshua M.; Young, Karen C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that bone marrow (BM)-derived stem cells have therapeutic efficacy in neonatal hyperoxia-induced lung injury (HILI). c-kit, a tyrosine kinase receptor that regulates angiogenesis, is expressed on several populations of BM-derived cells. Preterm infants exposed to hyperoxia have decreased lung angiogenesis. Here we tested the hypothesis that administration of BM-derived c-kit+ cells would improve angiogenesis in neonatal rats with HILI. To determine whether intratracheal (IT) administration of BM-derived c-kit+ cells attenuates neonatal HILI, rat pups exposed to either normobaric normoxia (21% O2) or hyperoxia (90% O2) from postnatal day (P) 2 to P15 were randomly assigned to receive either IT BM-derived green fluorescent protein (GFP)+ c-kit− cells (PL) or BM-derived GFP+ c-kit+ cells on P8. The effect of cell therapy on lung angiogenesis, alveolarization, pulmonary hypertension, vascular remodeling, cell proliferation, and apoptosis was determined at P15. Cell engraftment was determined by GFP immunostaining. Compared to PL, the IT administration of BM-derived c-kit+ cells to neonatal rodents with HILI improved alveolarization as evidenced by increased lung septation and decreased mean linear intercept. This was accompanied by an increase in lung vascular density, a decrease in lung apoptosis, and an increase in the secretion of proangiogenic factors. There was no difference in pulmonary vascular remodeling or the degree of pulmonary hypertension. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that 1% of total lung cells were GFP+ cells. IT administration of BM-derived c-kit+ cells improves lung alveolarization and angiogenesis in neonatal HILI, and this may be secondary to an improvement in the lung angiogenic milieu. PMID:23759597

  18. Inhibition of c-Kit signaling is associated with reduced heat and cold pain sensitivity in humans.

    PubMed

    Ceko, Marta; Milenkovic, Nevena; le Coutre, Philipp; Westermann, Jörg; Lewin, Gary R

    2014-07-01

    The tyrosine kinase receptor c-Kit is critically involved in the modulation of nociceptive sensitivity in mice. Ablation of the c-Kit gene results in hyposensitivity to thermal pain, whereas activation of c-Kit produces hypersensitivity to noxious heat, without altering sensitivity to innocuous mechanical stimuli. In this study, we investigated the role of c-Kit signaling in human pain perception. We hypothesized that subjects treated with Imatinib or Nilotinib, potent inhibitors of tyrosine kinases including c-Kit but also Abl1, PDFGFRα, and PDFGFRβ, that are used to treat chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), would experience changes in thermal pain sensitivity. We examined 31 asymptomatic CML patients (14 male and 17 female) receiving Imatinib/Nilotinib treatment and compared them to 39 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (12 male and 27 female). We used cutaneous heat and cold stimulation to test normal and noxious thermal sensitivity, and a grating orientation task to assess tactile acuity. Thermal pain thresholds were significantly increased in the Imatinib/Nilotinib-treated group, whereas innocuous thermal and tactile thresholds were unchanged compared to those in the control group. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the biological effects of c-Kit inhibition are comparable in mice and humans in that c-Kit activity is required to regulate thermal pain sensitivity but does not affect innocuous thermal and mechanical sensation. The effect on experimental heat pain observed in our study is comparable to those of several common analgesics; thus modulation of the c-Kit pathway can be used to specifically modulate noxious heat and cold sensitivity in humans.

  19. Repression of c-Kit by p53 is mediated by miR-34 and is associated with reduced chemoresistance, migration and stemness.

    PubMed

    Siemens, Helge; Jackstadt, Rene; Kaller, Markus; Hermeking, Heiko

    2013-09-01

    The c-Kit receptor tyrosine kinase is commonly over-expressed in different types of cancer. p53 activation is known to result in the down-regulation of c-Kit. However, the underlying mechanism has remained unknown. Here, we show that the p53-induced miR-34 microRNA family mediates repression of c-Kit by p53 via a conserved seed-matching sequence in the c-Kit 3'-UTR. Ectopic miR-34a resulted in a decrease in Erk signaling and transformation, which was dependent on the down-regulation of c-Kit expression. Furthermore, ectopic expression of c-Kit conferred resistance of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells to treatment with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), whereas ectopic miR-34a sensitized the cells to 5-FU. After stimulation with c-Kit ligand/stem cell factor (SCF) Colo320 CRC cells displayed increased migration/invasion, whereas ectopic miR-34a inhibited SCF-induced migration/invasion. Activation of a conditional c-Kit allele induced several stemness markers in DLD-1 CRC cells. In primary CRC samples elevated c-Kit expression also showed a positive correlation with markers of stemness, such as Lgr5, CD44, OLFM4, BMI-1 and β-catenin. On the contrary, activation of a conditional miR-34a allele in DLD-1 cells diminished the expression of c-Kit and several stemness markers (CD44, Lgr5 and BMI-1) and suppressed sphere formation. MiR-34a also suppressed enhanced sphere-formation after exposure to SCF. Taken together, our data establish c-Kit as a new direct target of miR-34 and demonstrate that this regulation interferes with several c-Kit-mediated effects on cancer cells. Therefore, this regulation may be potentially relevant for future diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

  20. Aberrant expressions of c-KIT and DOG-1 in mucinous and nonmucinous colorectal carcinomas and relation to clinicopathologic features and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Foda, Abd Al-Rahman Mohammad; Mohamed, Mie Ali

    2015-10-01

    c-KIT and DOG-1 are 2 highly expressed proteins in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Few studies had investigated c-KIT, but not DOG-1, expression in colorectal carcinoma (CRC). This study aims to investigate expressions of c-KIT and DOG-1 in colorectal mucinous carcinoma and nonmucinous carcinoma using manual tissue microarray technique. In this work, we studied tumor tissue specimens from 150 patients with colorectal mucinous (MA) and nonmucinous adenocarcinoma (NMA). High-density manual tissue microarrays were constructed using modified mechanical pencil tip technique, and immunohistochemistry for c-KIT and DOG-1 was done. We found that aberrant c-KIT expression was detected in 12 cases (8%); 6 cases (4%) showed strong expression. Aberrant DOG-1 expression was detected in 15 cases (10%); among them, only 4 cases (2.7%) showed strong expression. Nonmucinous adenocarcinoma showed a significantly high expression of c-KIT, but not DOG-1, than MA. Aberrant c-KIT and DOG-1 expressions were significantly unrelated but were associated with excessive microscopic abscess formation. Neither c-KIT nor DOG-1 expression showed a significant impact on disease-free survival or overall survival. In conclusion, aberrant c-KIT and DOG-1 expressions in CRC are rare events, either in NMA or MA. Nonmucinous adenocarcinoma showed a significantly higher expression of c-KIT, but not DOG-1, than MA. The expressions of both in CRC are significantly unrelated but are associated with microscopic abscess formation. Neither c-KIT nor DOG-1 expression showed a significant impact on disease-free survival or overall survival. So, c-KIT and DOG-1 immunostaining is not a cost-effective method of identifying patients with CRC who may benefit from treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

  1. Transcription Factor SCL Is Required for c-kit Expression and c-Kit Function in Hemopoietic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Krosl, Gorazd; He, Gang; Lefrancois, Martin; Charron, Frédéric; Roméo, Paul-Henri; Jolicoeur, Paul; Kirsch, Ilan R.; Nemer, Mona; Hoang, Trang

    1998-01-01

    In normal hemopoietic cells that are dependent on specific growth factors for cell survival, the expression of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor SCL/Tal1 correlates with that of c-Kit, the receptor for Steel factor (SF) or stem cell factor. To address the possibility that SCL may function upstream of c-kit, we sought to modulate endogenous SCL function in the CD34+ hemopoietic cell line TF-1, which requires SF, granulocyte/macrophage colony–stimulating factor, or interleukin 3 for survival. Ectopic expression of an antisense SCL cDNA (as-SCL) or a dominant negative SCL (dn-SCL) in these cells impaired SCL DNA binding activity, and prevented the suppression of apoptosis by SF only, indicating that SCL is required for c-Kit–dependent cell survival. Consistent with the lack of response to SF, the level of c-kit mRNA and c-Kit protein was significantly and specifically reduced in as-SCL– or dn-SCL– expressing cells. c-kit mRNA, c-kit promoter activity, and the response to SF were rescued by SCL overexpression in the antisense or dn-SCL transfectants. Furthermore, ectopic c-kit expression in as-SCL transfectants is sufficient to restore cell survival in response to SF. Finally, enforced SCL in the pro–B cell line Ba/F3, which is both SCL and c-kit negative is sufficient to induce c-Kit and SF responsiveness. Together, these results indicate that c-kit, a gene that is essential for the survival of primitive hemopoietic cells, is a downstream target of the transcription factor SCL. PMID:9687522

  2. Loss of c-KIT expression in thyroid cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Panebianco, Federica; Tantillo, Elena; La Ferla, Marco; Menicagli, Michele; Aretini, Paolo; Apollo, Alessandro; Naccarato, Antonio Giuseppe; Marchetti, Ivo; Mazzanti, Chiara Maria

    2017-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most frequent histologic type of thyroid tumor. Few studies investigated the role of c-KIT expression in thyroid tumors, suggesting a role for this receptor and its ligand in differentiation and growth control of thyroid epithelium and a receptor loss following malignant transformation. We investigated and correlated c-KIT expression levels and two known markers of thyrocytes differentiation, PAX8 and TTF-1, in malignant and benign cytological thyroid samples. Moreover, we performed functional studies on human papillary thyroid carcinoma cell line to associated c-KIT expression to thyrocytes differentiation and tumor proliferation. c-KIT and PAX8 expression resulted higher in benign samples compared to the malignant ones, and the expression levels of these two genes were significantly correlated to each other. We also observed that c-KIT overexpression led to an increase of PAX8 expression level together with a decrease of proliferation. Furthermore, c-KIT overexpressing cells showed a regression of typical morphological features of malignancy. Taken together these results suggest that c-KIT could be involved in the differentiation of thyroid cells and in tumor progression. PMID:28301608

  3. Loss of c-KIT expression in thyroid cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Franceschi, Sara; Lessi, Francesca; Panebianco, Federica; Tantillo, Elena; La Ferla, Marco; Menicagli, Michele; Aretini, Paolo; Apollo, Alessandro; Naccarato, Antonio Giuseppe; Marchetti, Ivo; Mazzanti, Chiara Maria

    2017-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most frequent histologic type of thyroid tumor. Few studies investigated the role of c-KIT expression in thyroid tumors, suggesting a role for this receptor and its ligand in differentiation and growth control of thyroid epithelium and a receptor loss following malignant transformation. We investigated and correlated c-KIT expression levels and two known markers of thyrocytes differentiation, PAX8 and TTF-1, in malignant and benign cytological thyroid samples. Moreover, we performed functional studies on human papillary thyroid carcinoma cell line to associated c-KIT expression to thyrocytes differentiation and tumor proliferation. c-KIT and PAX8 expression resulted higher in benign samples compared to the malignant ones, and the expression levels of these two genes were significantly correlated to each other. We also observed that c-KIT overexpression led to an increase of PAX8 expression level together with a decrease of proliferation. Furthermore, c-KIT overexpressing cells showed a regression of typical morphological features of malignancy. Taken together these results suggest that c-KIT could be involved in the differentiation of thyroid cells and in tumor progression.

  4. Adult c-Kit(+) progenitor cells are necessary for maintenance and regeneration of olfactory neurons.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Bradley J; Goss, Garrett M; Hatzistergos, Konstantinos E; Rangel, Erika B; Seidler, Barbara; Saur, Dieter; Hare, Joshua M

    2015-01-01

    The olfactory epithelium houses chemosensory neurons, which transmit odor information from the nose to the brain. In adult mammals, the olfactory epithelium is a uniquely robust neuroproliferative zone, with the ability to replenish its neuronal and non-neuronal populations due to the presence of germinal basal cells. The stem and progenitor cells of these germinal layers, and their regulatory mechanisms, remain incompletely defined. Here we show that progenitor cells expressing c-Kit, a receptor tyrosine kinase marking stem cells in a variety of embryonic tissues, are required for maintenance of the adult neuroepithelium. Mouse genetic fate-mapping analyses show that embryonically, a c-Kit(+) population contributes to olfactory neurogenesis. In adults under conditions of normal turnover, there is relatively sparse c-Kit(+) progenitor cell (ckPC) activity. However, after experimentally induced neuroepithelial injury, ckPCs are activated such that they reconstitute the neuronal population. There are also occasional non-neuronal cells found to arise from ckPCs. Moreover, the selective depletion of the ckPC population, utilizing temporally controlled targeted diphtheria toxin A expression, results in failure of neurogenesis after experimental injury. Analysis of this model indicates that most ckPCs reside among the globose basal cell populations and act downstream of horizontal basal cells, which can serve as stem cells. Identification of the requirement for olfactory c-Kit-expressing progenitors in olfactory maintenance provides new insight into the mechanisms involved in adult olfactory neurogenesis. Additionally, we define an important and previously unrecognized site of adult c-Kit activity.

  5. Phosphorylation of the activation loop tyrosine 823 in c-Kit is crucial for cell survival and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shruti; Kazi, Julhash U; Rönnstrand, Lars

    2013-08-02

    The receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit, also known as the stem cell factor receptor, plays a key role in several developmental processes. Activating mutations in c-Kit lead to alteration of these cellular processes and have been implicated in many human cancers such as gastrointestinal stromal tumors, acute myeloid leukemia, testicular seminomas and mastocytosis. Regulation of the catalytic activity of several kinases is known to be governed by phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in the activation loop of the kinase domain. However, in the case of c-Kit phosphorylation of Tyr-823 has been demonstrated to be a late event that is not required for kinase activation. However, because phosphorylation of Tyr-823 is a ligand-activated event, we sought to investigate the functional consequences of Tyr-823 phosphorylation. By using a tyrosine-to-phenylalanine mutant of tyrosine 823, we investigated the impact of Tyr-823 on c-Kit signaling. We demonstrate here that Tyr-823 is crucial for cell survival and proliferation and that mutation of Tyr-823 to phenylalanine leads to decreased sustained phosphorylation and ubiquitination of c-Kit as compared with the wild-type receptor. Furthermore, the mutated receptor was, upon ligand-stimulation, quickly internalized and degraded. Phosphorylation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl was transient, followed by a substantial reduction in phosphorylation of downstream signaling molecules such as Akt, Erk, p38, Shc, and Gab2. Thus, we propose that activation loop tyrosine 823 is crucial for activation of both the MAPK and PI3K pathways and that its disruption leads to a destabilization of the c-Kit receptor and decreased survival of cells.

  6. Activating c-KIT mutations confer oncogenic cooperativity and rescue RUNX1/ETO-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in human primary CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, C; Quagliano-Lo Coco, I; Yildiz, Ö; Chen-Wichmann, L; Weber, H; Syzonenko, T; Döring, C; Brendel, C; Ponnusamy, K; Kinner, A; Brandts, C; Henschler, R; Grez, M

    2015-02-01

    The RUNX1/ETO (RE) fusion protein, which originates from the t(8;21) chromosomal rearrangement, is one of the most frequent translocation products found in de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In RE leukemias, activated forms of the c-KIT tyrosine kinase receptor are frequently found, thereby suggesting oncogenic cooperativity between these oncoproteins in the development and maintenance of t(8;21) malignancies. In this report, we show that activated c-KIT cooperates with a C-terminal truncated variant of RE, REtr, to expand human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors ex vivo. CD34+ cells expressing both oncogenes resemble the AML-M2 myeloblastic cell phenotype, in contrast to REtr-expressing cells which largely undergo granulocytic differentiation. Oncogenic c-KIT amplifies REtr-depended clonogenic growth and protects cells from exhaustion. Activated c-KIT reverts REtr-induced DNA damage and apoptosis. In the presence of activated c-KIT, REtr-downregulated DNA-repair genes are re-expressed leading to an enhancement of DNA-repair efficiency via homologous recombination. Together, our results provide new mechanistic insight into REtr and c-KIT oncogenic cooperativity and suggest that augmented DNA repair accounts for the increased chemoresistance observed in t(8;21)-positive AML patients with activated c-KIT mutations. This cell-protective mechanism might represent a new therapeutic target, as REtr cells with activated c-KIT are highly sensitive to pharmacological inhibitors of DNA repair.

  7. The stem cell factor (SCF)/c-KIT system in carcinogenesis of reproductive tissues: What does the hormonal regulation tell us?

    PubMed

    Figueira, Marília I; Cardoso, Henrique J; Correia, Sara; Maia, Cláudio J; Socorro, Sílvia

    2017-10-01

    The tyrosine kinase receptor c-KIT and its ligand, the stem cell factor (SCF) are expressed in several tissues of male and female reproductive tract, playing an important role in the regulation of basic biological processes. The activation of c-KIT by SCF controls, cell survival and death, cell differentiation and migration. Also, the SCF/c-KIT system has been implicated in carcinogenesis of reproductive tissues due to its altered expression pattern or overactivation in consequence of gain-of-functions mutations. Over the years, it has also been shown that hormones, the primary regulators of reproductive function and causative agents in the case of hormone-dependent cancers, are also able to control the SCF/c-KIT tissue levels. Therefore, it is liable to suppose that disturbed SCF/c-KIT expression driven by (de)regulated hormone actions can be a relevant step towards carcinogenesis. The present review describes the SCF and c-KIT expression in cancers of reproductive tissues, discussing the implications of the hormonal regulation of the SCF/c-KIT system in cancer development. Understanding the relationship between hormonal imbalance and the SCF/c-KIT expression and activity would be relevant in the context of novel therapeutic approaches in reproductive cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A human monoclonal antibody targeting the stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit) blocks tumor cell signaling and inhibits tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Lebron, Maria B; Brennan, Laura; Damoci, Christopher B; Prewett, Marie C; O'Mahony, Marguerita; Duignan, Inga J; Credille, Kelly M; DeLigio, James T; Starodubtseva, Marina; Amatulli, Michael; Zhang, Yiwei; Schwartz, Kaben D; Burtrum, Douglas; Balderes, Paul; Persaud, Kris; Surguladze, David; Loizos, Nick; Paz, Keren; Kotanides, Helen

    2014-09-01

    Stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit) exerts multiple biological effects on target cells upon binding its ligand stem cell factor (SCF). Aberrant activation of c-Kit results in dysregulated signaling and is implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous cancers. The development of more specific and effective c-Kit therapies is warranted given its essential role in tumorigenesis. In this study, we describe the biological properties of CK6, a fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody against the extracellular region of human c-Kit. CK6 specifically binds c-Kit receptor with high affinity (EC 50 = 0.06 nM) and strongly blocks its interaction with SCF (IC 50 = 0.41 nM) in solid phase assays. Flow cytometry shows CK6 binding to c-Kit on the cell surface of human small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), melanoma, and leukemia tumor cell lines. Furthermore, exposure to CK6 inhibits SCF stimulation of c-Kit tyrosine kinase activity and downstream signaling pathways such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein kinase B (AKT), in addition to reducing tumor cell line growth in vitro. CK6 treatment significantly decreases human xenograft tumor growth in NCI-H526 SCLC (T/C% = 57) and Malme-3M melanoma (T/C% = 58) models in vivo. The combination of CK6 with standard of care chemotherapy agents, cisplatin and etoposide for SCLC or dacarbazine for melanoma, more potently reduces tumor growth (SCLC T/C% = 24, melanoma T/C% = 38) compared with CK6 or chemotherapy alone. In summary, our results demonstrate that CK6 is a c-Kit antagonist antibody with tumor growth neutralizing properties and are highly suggestive of potential therapeutic application in treating human malignancies harboring c-Kit receptor.

  9. A human monoclonal antibody targeting the stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit) blocks tumor cell signaling and inhibits tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Lebron, Maria B; Brennan, Laura; Damoci, Christopher B; Prewett, Marie C; O’Mahony, Marguerita; Duignan, Inga J; Credille, Kelly M; DeLigio, James T; Starodubtseva, Marina; Amatulli, Michael; Zhang, Yiwei; Schwartz, Kaben D; Burtrum, Douglas; Balderes, Paul; Persaud, Kris; Surguladze, David; Loizos, Nick; Paz, Keren; Kotanides, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit) exerts multiple biological effects on target cells upon binding its ligand stem cell factor (SCF). Aberrant activation of c-Kit results in dysregulated signaling and is implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous cancers. The development of more specific and effective c-Kit therapies is warranted given its essential role in tumorigenesis. In this study, we describe the biological properties of CK6, a fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody against the extracellular region of human c-Kit. CK6 specifically binds c-Kit receptor with high affinity (EC50 = 0.06 nM) and strongly blocks its interaction with SCF (IC50 = 0.41 nM) in solid phase assays. Flow cytometry shows CK6 binding to c-Kit on the cell surface of human small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), melanoma, and leukemia tumor cell lines. Furthermore, exposure to CK6 inhibits SCF stimulation of c-Kit tyrosine kinase activity and downstream signaling pathways such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein kinase B (AKT), in addition to reducing tumor cell line growth in vitro. CK6 treatment significantly decreases human xenograft tumor growth in NCI-H526 SCLC (T/C% = 57) and Malme-3M melanoma (T/C% = 58) models in vivo. The combination of CK6 with standard of care chemotherapy agents, cisplatin and etoposide for SCLC or dacarbazine for melanoma, more potently reduces tumor growth (SCLC T/C% = 24, melanoma T/C% = 38) compared with CK6 or chemotherapy alone. In summary, our results demonstrate that CK6 is a c-Kit antagonist antibody with tumor growth neutralizing properties and are highly suggestive of potential therapeutic application in treating human malignancies harboring c-Kit receptor. PMID:24921944

  10. Genetic aberrations in primary esophageal melanomas: molecular analysis of c-KIT, PDGFR, KRAS, NRAS and BRAF in a series of 10 cases.

    PubMed

    Langer, Rupert; Becker, Karen; Feith, Marcus; Friess, Helmut; Höfler, Heinz; Keller, Gisela

    2011-04-01

    We present a series of 10 primary esophageal melanomas of Caucasian patients characterized clinicopathologically and on the molecular level. Mutation analysis for c-Kit (exons 9, 11, 13 and 17), PDGFR (exons 12, 14 and 18), NRAS and KRAS were determined using PCR and direct sequencing. Analysis of the V600E mutation of BRAF was performed using mutation-specific PCR. Expression of c-Kit and PDGFR-A was additionally determined using immunohistochemistry. One tumor harbored a missense mutation in the c-Kit (p.F504L) and in the KRAS gene (p.G12S). A different c-Kit mutation (c.1507_1508 ins TTGCCT) was detected in another case. A third case had a V600E BRAF mutation. Using immunohistochemistry, c-Kit expression could be detected in all cases. The two cases with c-Kit mutations showed high c-Kit expression. None of the tumors showed a PDGFR mutation or expression or a NRAS mutation. We conclude that molecular analysis can identify targets for a specific therapy such as tyrosin kinase inhibitors as additional treatment option in these highly malignant tumors.

  11. In silico exploration of c-KIT inhibitors by pharmaco-informatics methodology: pharmacophore modeling, 3D QSAR, docking studies, and virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Prashant; Bari, Sanjay

    2016-02-01

    c-KIT is a component of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor family, classified as type-III receptor tyrosine kinase. c-KIT has been reported to be involved in, small cell lung cancer, other malignant human cancers, and inflammatory and autoimmune diseases associated with mast cells. Available c-KIT inhibitors suffer from tribulations of growing resistance or cardiac toxicity. A combined in silico pharmacophore and structure-based virtual screening was performed to identify novel potential c-KIT inhibitors. In the present study, five molecules from the ZINC database were retrieved as new potential c-KIT inhibitors, using Schrödinger's Maestro 9.0 molecular modeling suite. An atom-featured 3D QSAR model was built using previously reported c-KIT inhibitors containing the indolin-2-one scaffold. The developed 3D QSAR model ADHRR.24 was found to be significant (R2 = 0.9378, Q2 = 0.7832) and instituted to be sufficiently robust with good predictive accuracy, as confirmed through external validation approaches, Y-randomization and GH approach [GH score 0.84 and Enrichment factor (E) 4.964]. The present QSAR model was further validated for the OECD principle 3, in that the applicability domain was calculated using a "standardization approach." Molecular docking of the QSAR dataset molecules and final ZINC hits were performed on the c-KIT receptor (PDB ID: 3G0E). Docking interactions were in agreement with the developed 3D QSAR model. Model ADHRR.24 was explored for ligand-based virtual screening followed by in silico ADME prediction studies. Five molecules from the ZINC database were obtained as potential c-KIT inhibitors with high in -silico predicted activity and strong key binding interactions with the c-KIT receptor.

  12. Dasatinib inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in the KASUMI-1 cell line bearing the t(8;21)(q22;q22) and the N822K c-kit mutation.

    PubMed

    Mpakou, Vassiliki E; Kontsioti, Frieda; Papageorgiou, Sotiris; Spathis, Aris; Kottaridi, Christine; Girkas, Kostas; Karakitsos, Petros; Dimitriadis, George; Dervenoulas, Ioannis; Pappa, Vasiliki

    2013-02-01

    Activating mutations of the c-kit gene are frequently found in CBF (core binding factor) leukemias. We evaluated the effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib in leukemic cell lines bearing or not c-kit mutations. Our data demonstrate that in the AML Kasumi-1 cell line, bearing the N822K c-kit mutation, dasatinib is a potent suppressor of c-kit and Src kinase activity and inhibits the phosphorylation of their downstream target AKT, possibly through the Src-mediated VEGF/VEGFR receptor type 2 pathway. Dasatinib also effectively blocks proliferation and induces apoptosis through caspase-3 activation in Kasumi-1 cells. These data further encourage the integration of dasatinib in the treatment of CBF AML with c-kit mutations in the context of clinical trials, which are eagerly anticipated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The activation loop tyrosine 823 is essential for the transforming capacity of the c-Kit oncogenic mutant D816V.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, S; Kazi, J U; Mohlin, S; Påhlman, S; Rönnstrand, L

    2015-08-27

    Oncogenic c-Kit mutations have been shown to display ligand-independent receptor activation and cell proliferation. A substitution of aspartate to valine at amino acid 816 (D816V) is one of the most commonly found oncogenic c-Kit mutations and is found in >90% of cases of mastocytosis and less commonly in germ-cell tumors, core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemia and mucosal melanomas. The mechanisms by which this mutation leads to constitutive activation and transformation are not fully understood. Previous studies have shown that the D816V mutation causes a structural change in the activation loop (A-loop), resulting in weaker binding of the A-loop to the juxtamembrane domain. In this paper, we have investigated the role of Y823, the only tyrosine residue in the A-loop, and its role in oncogenic transformation by c-Kit/D816V by introducing the Y823F mutation. Although dispensable for the kinase activity of c-Kit/D816V, the presence of Y823 was crucial for cell proliferation and survival. Furthermore, mutation of Y823 selectively downregulates the Ras/Erk and Akt pathways as well as the phosphorylation of STAT5 and reduces the transforming capacity of the D816V/c-Kit in vitro. We further show that mice injected with cells expressing c-Kit/D816V/Y823F display significantly reduced tumor size as well as tumor weight compared with controls. Finally, microarray analysis, comparing Y823F/D816V cells with cells expressing c-Kit/D816V, demonstrate that mutation of Y823 causes upregulation of proapoptotic genes, whereas genes of survival pathways are downregulated. Thus, phosphorylation of Y823 is not necessary for kinase activation, but essential for the transforming ability of the c-Kit/D816V mutant.

  14. p130Cas alters the differentiation potential of mammary luminal progenitors by deregulating c-Kit activity.

    PubMed

    Tornillo, Giusy; Elia, Angela Rita; Castellano, Isabella; Spadaro, Michela; Bernabei, Paola; Bisaro, Brigitte; Camacho-Leal, Maria Del Pilar; Pincini, Alessandra; Provero, Paolo; Sapino, Anna; Turco, Emilia; Defilippi, Paola; Cabodi, Sara

    2013-07-01

    It has recently been proposed that defective differentiation of mammary luminal progenitors predisposes to basal-like breast cancer. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved are still unclear. Here, we describe that the adaptor protein p130Cas is a crucial regulator of mouse mammary epithelial cell (MMEC) differentiation. Using a transgenic mouse model, we show that forced p130Cas overexpression in the luminal progenitor cell compartment results in the expansion of luminal cells, which aberrantly display basal cell features and reduced differentiation in response to lactogenic stimuli. Interestingly, MMECs overexpressing p130Cas exhibit hyperactivation of the tyrosine kinase receptor c-Kit. In addition, we demonstrate that the constitutive c-Kit activation alone mimics p130Cas overexpression, whereas c-Kit downregulation is sufficient to re-establish proper differentiation of p130Cas overexpressing cells. Overall, our data indicate that high levels of p130Cas, via abnormal c-Kit activation, promote mammary luminal cell plasticity, thus providing the conditions for the development of basal-like breast cancer. Consistently, p130Cas is overexpressed in human triple-negative breast cancer, further suggesting that p130Cas upregulation may be a priming event for the onset of basal-like breast cancer.

  15. Screening of candidate G-quadruplex ligands for the human c-KIT promotorial region and their effects in multiple in-vitro models

    PubMed Central

    Zorzan, Eleonora; Ros, Silvia Da; Musetti, Caterina; Shahidian, Lara Zorro; Ramos Coelho, Nuno Filipe; Bonsembiante, Federico; Létard, Sébastien; Gelain, Maria Elena; Palumbo, Manlio; Dubreuil, Patrice; Giantin, Mery; Sissi, Claudia; Dacasto, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Stabilization of G-quadruplex (G4) structures in promoters is a novel promising strategy to regulate gene expression at transcriptional and translational levels. c-KIT proto-oncogene encodes for a tyrosine kinase receptor. It is involved in several physiological processes, but it is also dysregulated in many diseases, including cancer. Two G-rich sequences able to fold into G4, have been identified in c-KIT proximal promoter, thus representing suitable targets for anticancer intervention. Herein, we screened an “in house” library of compounds for the recognition of these G4 elements and we identified three promising ligands. Their G4-binding properties were analyzed and related to their antiproliferative, transcriptional and post-transcriptional effects in MCF7 and HGC27 cell lines. Besides c-KIT, the transcriptional analysis covered a panel of oncogenes known to possess G4 in their promoters. From these studies, an anthraquinone derivative (AQ1) was found to efficiently downregulate c-KIT mRNA and protein in both cell lines. The targeted activity of AQ1 was confirmed using c-KIT–dependent cell lines that present either c-KIT mutations or promoter engineered (i.e., α155, HMC1.2 and ROSA cells). Present results indicate AQ1 as a promising compound for the target therapy of c-KIT-dependent tumors, worth of further and in depth molecular investigations. PMID:26942875

  16. A promising hypothesis of c-KIT methylation/ expression paradox in c-KIT (+) squamous cell carcinoma of uterine cervix ----- CTCF transcriptional repressor regulates c-KIT proto-oncogene expression.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shih-Wen; Chao, Wan-Ru; Ruan, Alexandra; Wang, Po-Hui; Lin, Jau-Chen; Han, Chih-Ping

    2015-11-25

    We recently reported one interesting case showing mutation-free c-KIT proto-oncogene overexpression and paradoxical hypermethylation in 54 cases of primary squamous cell carcinoma of uterine cervix (SCC). However, its molecular mechanisms still remain unknown. We propose the hypothesis that increased methylation at the CpG islands on the promoter near the first exon region might interfere with the binding of CTCF repressor with c-KIT promoter that regulates c-KIT proto-oncogene expression in such case. Further studies focusing on the status of epigenetic modifications of mutation-free c-KIT (+) tumors are encouraged.

  17. Dominant negative and loss of function mutations of the c-kit (mast/stem cell growth factor receptor) proto-oncogene in human piebaldism

    SciTech Connect

    Spritz, R.A.; Giebel, L.B.; Holmes, S.A. )

    1992-02-01

    Piebaldism is an autosomal dominant disorder of melanocyte development and is characterized by congenital white parches of skin and hair from which melanocytes are completely absent. A similar disorder of the mouse, 'dominant white spotting' (W), results from mutations of the c-kit proto-oncogene, which encodes the cellular tyrosine kinases receptor for the mast/stem cell growth factor. The authors have identified c-kit gene mutations in three patients with piebaldism. A missense substitution (Phe[r arrow]Leu) at codon 584, within the tyrosine kinases domain, is associated with a severe piebald phenotype, whereas two different frameshifts, within codons 561 and 642, are both associated with a variable and relatively mild piebald phenotype. This is consistent with a possible 'dominant negative' effect of missense c-kit polypeptides on the function of the dimeric receptor.

  18. Decoupling the Functional Pleiotropy of Stem Cell Factor by Tuning c-Kit Signaling.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chia Chi M; Chhabra, Akanksha; Starkl, Philipp; Schnorr, Peter-John; Wilmes, Stephan; Moraga, Ignacio; Kwon, Hye-Sook; Gaudenzio, Nicolas; Sibilano, Riccardo; Wehrman, Tom S; Gakovic, Milica; Sockolosky, Jonathan T; Tiffany, Matthew R; Ring, Aaron M; Piehler, Jacob; Weissman, Irving L; Galli, Stephen J; Shizuru, Judith A; Garcia, K Christopher

    2017-03-09

    Most secreted growth factors and cytokines are functionally pleiotropic because their receptors are expressed on diverse cell types. While important for normal mammalian physiology, pleiotropy limits the efficacy of cytokines and growth factors as therapeutics. Stem cell factor (SCF) is a growth factor that acts through the c-Kit receptor tyrosine kinase to elicit hematopoietic progenitor expansion but can be toxic when administered in vivo because it concurrently activates mast cells. We engineered a mechanism-based SCF partial agonist that impaired c-Kit dimerization, truncating downstream signaling amplitude. This SCF variant elicited biased activation of hematopoietic progenitors over mast cells in vitro and in vivo. Mouse models of SCF-mediated anaphylaxis, radioprotection, and hematopoietic expansion revealed that this SCF partial agonist retained therapeutic efficacy while exhibiting virtually no anaphylactic off-target effects. The approach of biasing cell activation by tuning signaling thresholds and outputs has applications to many dimeric receptor-ligand systems.

  19. Mast cells rescue implantation defects caused by c-kit deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Woidacki, K; Popovic, M; Metz, M; Schumacher, A; Linzke, N; Teles, A; Poirier, F; Fest, S; Jensen, F; Rabinovich, G A; Maurer, M; Zenclussen, A C

    2013-01-01

    Various physiologically relevant processes are regulated by the interaction of the receptor tyrosine kinase (c-Kit) and its ligand stem cell factor (SCF), with SCF known to be the most important growth factor for mast cells (MCs). In spite of their traditional role in allergic disorders and innate immunity, MCs have lately emerged as versatile modulators of a variety of physiologic and pathologic processes. Here we show that MCs are critical for pregnancy success. Uterine MCs presented a unique phenotype, accumulated during receptivity and expanded upon pregnancy establishment. KitW-sh/W-sh mice, whose MC deficiency is based on restricted c-Kit gene expression, exhibited severely impaired implantation, which could be completely rescued by systemic or local transfer of wild-type bone marrow-derived MCs. Transferred wild-type MCs favored normal implantation, induced optimal spiral artery remodeling and promoted the expression of MC proteases, transforming growth factor-β and connective tissue growth factor. MCs contributed to trophoblast survival, placentation and fetal growth through secretion of the glycan-binding protein galectin-1. Our data unveil unrecognized roles for MCs at the fetomaternal interface with critical implications in reproductive medicine. PMID:23328669

  20. C-kit mutations in gastrointestinal stromal tumours.

    PubMed

    Morey, Adrienne L; Wanigesekera, G David; Hawkins, Nicholas J; Ward, Robyn L

    2002-08-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs), once assumed to be of smooth muscle origin, generally express CD117 and CD34, similar to the interstitial cells of Cajal. Assessment of malignant potential in GISTs is problematic, especially on small biopsies. Some recent data indicate that mutations in the juxtamembrane domain (exon 11) of the c-kit (CD117) proto-oncogene may be associated with a worse prognosis. In this study, the frequency of c-kit exon 11 mutations has been determined in a series of 18 gut stromal tumours. Immunophenotype was assessed by immunoperoxidase stains for smooth muscle actin, desmin, S100, CD34 and CD117, and each tumour classified as being of low, uncertain (intermediate) or high malignant potential based on standard histological criteria. DNA from each tumour was extracted from fresh (n = 5) or formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (n= 13) tissues using the direct lysis method. Exon 11 was amplified by PCR and sequencing of both sense and antisense strands was performed on two occasions using an ABI 377 sequencer. Mutations in exon 11 were detected in three of 14 confirmed GISTs, two being point mutations at codon 560 and one a 3-bp deletion resulting in the in-frame deletion of glutamine at codon 561. All three tumours were of high or intermediate malignant potential histologically. Three other 'high risk' primary GISTs and a metastatic GIST deposit were negative for exon 11 mutations. Data on this relatively small cohort of Australian patients indicate that c-kit exon 11 mutation analysis does not correlate well with histological assessment of malignant potential, and cannot be regarded as a reliable objective marker for poor prognosis in GISTs.

  1. Kit and c-kit mutations in mastocytosis: a short overview with special reference to novel molecular and diagnostic concepts.

    PubMed

    Féger, Frédéric; Ribadeau Dumas, Antoine; Leriche, Laurence; Valent, Peter; Arock, Michel

    2002-02-01

    Mastocytosis is a heterogeneous group of hematopoietic disorders characterized by abnormal growth and accumulation of mast cells (MC) in one or more organs. Clinical symptoms occur as a result of the release of chemical mediators and/or of pathologic infiltration of MC in various tissues. Although the initial events leading to mastocytosis have not yet been unraveled, acquired alterations in the c-kit gene coding for the receptor of stem cell factor (SCF), a major cytokine involved in MC growth, have been described in a significant number of patients. Of particular interest are point mutations resulting in a constitutively activated SCF receptor. Such mutations are probably involved in the abnormal (SCF-independent) proliferation of MC in these patients. New therapeutic strategies may be envisaged to inhibit the deregulated kinase activity of these mutant forms of c-kit.

  2. Antibody preparation and identification of the Cashmere goat c-kit protein in the testes.

    PubMed

    Wu, S C L; Luo, F H; Kong, Q F; Wu, Y J

    2014-07-02

    The c-kit protein plays a major role in the regulation of germ cell development. Its expression and distribution in rodent testes have been widely reported. However, research regarding c-kit expression in domestic animals is scarce, and the expression pattern and distribution of c-kit in germ cells have not been clearly defined. In this study, a specific antigenic region for goat c-kit was designed, and a c-kit polyclonal antibody was prepared. This antibody was then applied in a study evaluating c-kit expression in Cashmere goat tissues. A Western blot analysis showed that three forms of c-kit were expressed in goat testes: precursor, mature, and soluble c-kit. Fluorescent immunohistochemical analyses showed that c-kit was primarily expressed in the spermatogonia and spermatocytes of goat testes. These results not only clarify the expression and localization of c-kit in the goat testis, but also accelerate further research regarding the function of c-kit in goat spermatogenesis.

  3. Changes in c-Kit expression levels during the course of radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Feng; Hu, Wei; Zhang, Bicheng; Xu, Jing; Shui, Yongjie; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Ren, Xiaoqiu; Chen, Xiaozhong; Shen, Li; Wei, Qichun

    2016-01-01

    In the era of intensity-modulated radiotherapy, distant metastasis is currently the main cause of treatment failure for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Additional therapeutic strategies are required to control the metastasis and improve survival. One strategy is targeted therapy, for example against c-Kit. In the current study, the frequency of c-Kit expression was determined immunohistochemically in 106 NPC patients. c-Kit expression changes during the course of radiation therapy were detected in 41 cases via weekly biopsy. Twelve cases (11.3%) had c-Kit expression scores of 3+ and 16 (15.1%) had scores of 2+. Thus, c-Kit overexpression (2+ or 3+) was observed in 28 (26.4%) patients. There were 35 (33.0%) and 43 (40.6%) patients with c-Kit expression scores of 1+ and 0, respectively. Furthermore, a trend of decreased c-Kit expression was observed after commencing radiotherapy according to the 41 NPC patients who were biopsied weekly. Therefore, c-Kit overexpression was identified to be common in NPC, and evaluating c-Kit as a therapeutic target for metastatic NPC via c-Kit overexpression subsequent to first line treatment may be of interest. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate a trend of decreased c-Kit expression during the course of radiotherapy. PMID:27699010

  4. Embryonic RNA expression patterns of the c-kit receptor and its cognate ligand suggest multiple functional roles in mouse development.

    PubMed Central

    Keshet, E; Lyman, S D; Williams, D E; Anderson, D M; Jenkins, N A; Copeland, N G; Parada, L F

    1991-01-01

    Mutations at the dominant white spotting (W) and Steel (Sl) loci in mouse exert deleterious effects on three migratory cell lineages (primordial germ cells, melanocytes and hematopoietic stem cells) resulting in loss of pigmentation, reduced fertility and anemia. The W locus encodes the c-kit protein tyrosine kinase (TK) receptor. More recently, the Sl locus has been shown to encode a ligand for c-kit, which is variously known as mast cell growth factor (MGF), stem cell growth factor and c-kit ligand. Here we report an in situ hybridization analysis comparing the expression profiles of MGF and c-kit transcripts during mouse embryogenesis. The data are consistent with the c-kit receptor-ligand complex providing a homing mechanism during stem cell migration in early development and in stem cell proliferation, differentiation, or survival in late development. In the nervous system, an unexpected and complex pattern of expression is uncovered that suggests involvement of the W and Sl gene products in the organization of the neural tube and brain. Images PMID:1714375

  5. Associations of epithelial c-kit expression in phyllodes tumours of the breast.

    PubMed

    Tawasil, John; Go, Edna May L; Tsang, Julia Y S; Ni, Yun-Bi; Ko, Chun-Wai; Tse, Gary M

    2015-10-01

    Mammary phyllodes tumours (PT) are rare biphasic neoplasms but have important clinical significance. Both epithelial and stromal components participate in PT development. Despite a number of studies on stromal c-kit in PT, little is known about the role of its epithelial expression. To further evaluate the stromal and epithelial expression of c-kit in a cohort of patients with PT. Expression of c-kit in both epithelial and stromal components was examined and correlated with histological features in PT. Stromal c-kit expression was associated positively with stromal cellularity (median expression=10.0, 30.0 and 50.0 from mild to severe cellularity; p=0.019). Conversely, a significant negative trend between epithelial c-kit expression with stromal pleomorphism (median expression=55.0, 30.0 and 2.5 from mild to severe pleomorphism; p=0.043) and mitosis (median expression=70.0 and 20.0 for low and high mitosis respectively; p=0.003); and a trend of negative correlation with increased PT grade was found. Despite these reverse associations, epithelial and stromal c-kit expressions were positively correlated with each other. Notably, the correlation of stromal c-kit expression with malignant histological features appeared to be stronger in cases with low epithelial c-kit expression but not in those with high epithelial c-kit expression. This study demonstrated the association of epithelial c-kit expression with stromal histological features and stromal c-kit. Interestingly, epithelial c-kit expression affected the strength of the correlation of stromal c-kit with these histological features. These findings provide further evidence of the interaction between the epithelial and stromal components in PT. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Differential expression of c-kit in mouse undifferentiated and differentiating type A spermatogonia.

    PubMed

    Schrans-Stassen, B H; van de Kant, H J; de Rooij, D G; van Pelt, A M

    1999-12-01

    The proto-oncogene c-kit is encoded at the white-spotting locus and in the mouse mutations at this locus affect the precursor cells of melanocytes, hematopoietic cells, and germ cells. c-kit is expressed in type A spermatogonia, but whether or not c-kit is present both in undifferentiated and differentiating type A spermatogonia or only in the latter cell type is still a matter of debate. Using the vitamin A-deficient mouse model, we studied messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression in undifferentiated and differentiating type A spermatogonia. Furthermore, we quantified the immuno-positive type A spermatogonia in the epithelial stages VI, VII, IX/X, and XII in normal mice to correlate c-kit expression in type A spermatogonia with the differentiation of these cells. Our results show that in the VAD situation undifferentiated type A spermatogonia express little c-kit mRNA. The A spermatogonia with a larger nucleus expressed c-Kit protein, whereas the A spermatogonia with a smaller one did not. After induction of differentiation of these cells into type A1 spermatogonia, c-kit mRNA was enhanced. The percentage of A spermatogonia expressing c-Kit protein did not change during this process, suggesting that A spermatogonia, which are committed to differentiate express c-kit. Under normal circumstances in epithelial stage VI 16%+/-2% (mean +/- SD), in VII 45%+/-15%, in IX/X 78%+/-14% and in XII 90%+/-1.9% of the type A spermatogonia were c-kit positive, suggesting that Aaligned spermatogonia gradually change from c-Kit negative to c-Kit positive cells before their differentiation into A1 spermatogonia. It is concluded that c-kit can be used as a marker for differentiation of undifferentiated into differentiating type A spermatogonia.

  7. C-kit as a prognostic and therapeutic marker in canine cutaneous mast cell tumours: From laboratory to clinic.

    PubMed

    Gil da Costa, Rui M

    2015-07-01

    Cutaneous mast cell tumours (MCTs) are some of the most common canine neoplasms and their variable and often aggressive biological behaviour makes them particularly challenging for the veterinary practitioner. Over the years, scientists have accumulated a wealth of knowledge on these tumours and developed better prognostic markers and targeted therapies, mostly focused on inhibiting c-kit, a protein that plays a major role in the biopathology of MCTs. Masitinib and toceranib, targeted inhibitors of c-kit and other receptor tyrosine-kinases (RTKs), offer the promise of improving the outcome of patients with aggressive MCTs. Much of the available knowledge on MCTs is dispersed, making it difficult for practitioners to benefit when consulting a pathologist or making therapeutic decisions. This article seeks to bring together current knowledge on the biopathology of MCTs, reviewing prognostic markers and their applications, and the development of c-kit inhibitors in the context of the basic cellular, molecular and pathological features of MCTs. Future perspectives following recent biopathological data and experimental therapeutic approaches are also addressed.

  8. Spatial and temporal expression of c-Kit in the development of the murine submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuejiu; Qi, Senrong; Wang, Jinsong; Xia, Dengsheng; Qin, Lizheng; Zheng, Zongmei; Wang, Liping; Zhang, Chunmei; Jin, Luyuan; Ding, Gang; Wang, Songlin; Fan, Zhipeng

    2014-08-01

    The c-Kit pathway is important in the development of many mammalian cells and organs and is indispensable for the development of hematopoiesis, melanocytes, and primordial germ cells. Loss-of-function mutations in c-Kit lead to perinatal death in mouse embryos. Previously, c-Kit has been used as one of salivary epithelial stem or progenitor cell markers in mouse, its specific temporo-spatial expression pattern and function in developing murine submandibular gland (SMG) is still unclear. Here we used quantitative real-time PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry analysis to detect c-Kit expression during the development of the murine SMG. We found that c-Kit was expressed in the epithelia of developing SMGs from embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5; initial bud stage) to postnatal day 90 (P90; when the SMG is completely mature). c-Kit expression in the end bud epithelium increased during prenatal development and then gradually decreased after birth until its expression was undetectable in mature acini at P30. Moreover, c-Kit was expressed in the SMG primordial cord at the initial bud, pseudoglandular, canacular, and terminal end bud stages. c-Kit was also expressed in the presumptive ductal cells adjacent to the developing acini. By the late terminal end bud stage on P14, c-Kit expression could not be detected in ductal cells. However, c-Kit expression was detected in ductal cells at P30, and its expression had increased dramatically at P90. Taken together, these findings describe the spatial and temporal expression pattern of c-Kit in the developing murine SMG and suggest that c-Kit may play roles in epithelial histo-morphogenesis and in ductal progenitor cell homeostasis in the SMG.

  9. c-Kit proto-oncogene expression in endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ercan; Celik, Onder; Simsek, Yavuz; Turkcuoglu, Ilgin; Celik, Ebru; Gül, Mehmet; Hascalik, Seyma; Aydin, Nasuhi Engin; Aydin, Engin

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the expression of c-kit (CD117) in endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer. Expression of c-kit in 10 normal endometrium, 18 simple endometrial hyperplasia, 16 complex endometrial hyperplasia (10 cases with atypia and 6 cases without atypia), and 6 endometrial cancer were investigated by immunohistochemistry. c-Kit expression decreased as the lesion progressed to endometrial cancer. Immunostaining was mostly focal and weak in the normal endometrium and was mostly diffuse and strong in the simple and complex endometrial hyperplasia. Simple and complex hyperplastic endometrial tissues express diffuse cytoplasmic staining for c-kit and the expression decreases with the progression of the lesion.

  10. The Role of c-KIT in Tumorigenesis: Evaluation in Canine Cutaneous Mast Cell Tumors1

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Joshua D; Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, Vilma; Kaneene, John B; Miller, RoseAnn; Resau, James H; Kiupel, Matti

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The c-KIT proto-oncogene has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neoplastic diseases, including gastrointestinal stromal tumors and mastocytosis in humans, and mast cell tumors (MCTs) in canines. Cutaneous MCTs are common neoplasms in dogs and have a variable biologic behavior. The goal of this study was to define the prognostic significance of c-KIT mutations identified in canine MCTs and the associations between c-KIT mutations, KIT localization, and KIT expression levels. Microdissection and polymerase chain reaction were performed on 60 MCTs to identify c-KIT mutations. Anti-KIT antibodies were used for immunohistochemical evaluation of KIT localization. Forty-two MCTs were included in a tissue microarray, and KIT expression was quantified using immunofluorescence. Canine MCTs with c-KIT mutations were significantly associated with an increased incidence of recurrent disease and death. c-KIT mutations were also significantly associated with aberrant protein localization; however, the level of KIT expression did not correlate with either c-KIT mutations or changes in protein localization. Considering the high prevalence of canine MCTs and the central role of c-KIT in the tumorigenesis of certain tumors, canine MCTs are an excellent model for characterizing the role of c-KIT in neoplastic diseases and is a potential target for novel therapeutic agents in clinical trials. PMID:16611403

  11. The role of c-KIT in tumorigenesis: evaluation in canine cutaneous mast cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Webster, Joshua D; Yuzbasiyan-Gurkan, Vilma; Kaneene, John B; Miller, RoseAnn; Resau, James H; Kiupel, Matti

    2006-02-01

    The c-KIT proto-oncogene has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neoplastic diseases, including gastrointestinal stromal tumors and mastocytosis in humans, and mast cell tumors (MCTs) in canines. Cutaneous MCTs are common neoplasms in dogs and have a variable biologic behavior. The goal of this study was to define the prognostic significance of c-KIT mutations identified in canine MCTs and the associations between c-KIT mutations, KIT localization, and KIT expression levels. Microdissection and polymerase chain reaction were performed on 60 MCTs to identify c-KIT mutations. Anti-KIT antibodies were used for immunohistochemical evaluation of KIT localization. Forty-two MCTs were included in a tissue microarray, and KIT expression was quantified using immunofluorescence. Canine MCTs with c-KIT mutations were significantly associated with an increased incidence of recurrent disease and death. c-KIT mutations were also significantly associated with aberrant protein localization; however, the level of KIT expression did not correlate with either c-KIT mutations or changes in protein localization. Considering the high prevalence of canine MCTs and the central role of c-KIT in the tumorigenesis of certain tumors, canine MCTs are an excellent model for characterizing the role of c-KIT in neoplastic diseases and is a potential target for novel therapeutic agents in clinical trials.

  12. Pharmacological inhibitors of c-KIT block mutant c-KIT mediated migration of melanocytes and melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Posch, Christian; Moslehi, Homayoun; Sanlorenzo, Martina; Green, Gary; Vujic, Igor; Panzer-Grümayer, Renate; Rappersberger, Klemens; Ortiz-Urda, Susana

    2016-07-19

    Mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase c-KIT (KIT) are frequent oncogenic alterations in melanoma and are predominantly detected in tumors of acral, mucosal, and chronically sun-damaged skin. Research indicates that melanocytes with aberrant KIT signaling can be found in the distant periphery of the primary tumor; However, it is hitherto unknown whether KIT might confer a migratory advantage, thereby enabling genetically abnormal cells to populate a distal area. In this study, we investigated the role of mutant KIT in melanocyte- and melanoma cell migration using KIT mutant lines as well as genetically manipulated murine and primary human melanocytes. Our results revealed that melanocytes, stably transduced with mutant KIT closed a gap inflicted on cell monolayers faster than wild-type controls. Similarly, KIT mutant human melanoma lines were able to populate a larger area in a 3D in vitro skin model compared to KIT wild type and BRAF mutant lines. Genomic profiling revealed that genes associated with increased cell-dispersal of KIT mutant variants were linked to a statistically significant up-regulation of 60 migratory genes (z-score 1.334; p=0.0001). In addition, in vivo experiments harnessing a mouse xenograft model of early melanoma development demonstrated rapid lateral migration of KIT mutant cells compared to respective controls. The specific kinase inhibitors imatinib and nilotinib, could abrogate this migratory advantage in vitro and in vivo. Our work suggests that KIT inhibition might help to target migratory active, KIT mutant melanoma cells, thus representing a potential strategy to reduce spread and local recurrence.

  13. Pharmacological inhibitors of c-KIT block mutant c-KIT mediated migration of melanocytes and melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Posch, Christian; Moslehi, Homayoun; Sanlorenzo, Martina; Green, Gary; Vujic, Igor; Panzer-Grümayer, Renate; Rappersberger, Klemens; Ortiz-Urda, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase c-KIT (KIT) are frequent oncogenic alterations in melanoma and are predominantly detected in tumors of acral, mucosal, and chronically sun-damaged skin. Research indicates that melanocytes with aberrant KIT signaling can be found in the distant periphery of the primary tumor; However, it is hitherto unknown whether KIT might confer a migratory advantage, thereby enabling genetically abnormal cells to populate a distal area. In this study, we investigated the role of mutant KIT in melanocyte- and melanoma cell migration using KIT mutant lines as well as genetically manipulated murine and primary human melanocytes. Our results revealed that melanocytes, stably transduced with mutant KIT closed a gap inflicted on cell monolayers faster than wild-type controls. Similarly, KIT mutant human melanoma lines were able to populate a larger area in a 3D in vitro skin model compared to KIT wild type and BRAF mutant lines. Genomic profiling revealed that genes associated with increased cell-dispersal of KIT mutant variants were linked to a statistically significant up-regulation of 60 migratory genes (z-score 1.334; p=0.0001). In addition, in vivo experiments harnessing a mouse xenograft model of early melanoma development demonstrated rapid lateral migration of KIT mutant cells compared to respective controls. The specific kinase inhibitors imatinib and nilotinib, could abrogate this migratory advantage in vitro and in vivo. Our work suggests that KIT inhibition might help to target migratory active, KIT mutant melanoma cells, thus representing a potential strategy to reduce spread and local recurrence. PMID:27322141

  14. Targeting c-kit receptor in neuroblastomas and colorectal cancers using stem cell factor (SCF)-based recombinant bacterial toxins.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Swati; Pardo, Alessa; Rosinke, Reinhard; Batra, Janendra K; Barth, Stefan; Verma, Rama S

    2016-01-01

    Autocrine activation of c-kit (KIT receptor tyrosine kinase) has been postulated to be a potent oncogenic driver in small cell lung cancer, neuroblastoma (NB), and poorly differentiated colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Although targeted therapy involving tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as imatinib mesylate is highly effective for gastrointestinal stromal tumor carrying V560G c-kit mutation, it does not show much potential for targeting wild-type KIT (WT-KIT). Our study demonstrates the role of stem cell factor (SCF)-based toxin conjugates for targeting WT-KIT-overexpressing malignancies such as NBs and CRCs. We constructed SCF-based recombinant bacterial toxins by genetically fusing mutated form of natural ligand SCF to receptor binding deficient forms of Diphtheria toxin (DT) or Pseudomonas exotoxin A (ETA') and evaluated their efficacy in vitro. Efficient targeting was achieved in all receptor-positive neuroblastoma (IMR-32 and SHSY5Y) and colon cancer cell lines (COLO 320DM, HCT 116, and DLD-1) but not in receptor-negative breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7) thereby proving specificity. While dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity was observed in both neuroblastoma cell lines, COLO 320DM and HCT 116 cells, only an anti-proliferative effect was observed in DLD-1 cells. We prove that these novel targeting agents have promising potential as KIT receptor tyrosine kinase targeting system.

  15. Extended molecular dynamics of a c-kit promoter quadruplex

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Barira; Stadlbauer, Petr; Krepl, Miroslav; Koca, Jaroslav; Neidle, Stephen; Haider, Shozeb; Sponer, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    The 22-mer c-kit promoter sequence folds into a parallel-stranded quadruplex with a unique structure, which has been elucidated by crystallographic and NMR methods and shows a high degree of structural conservation. We have carried out a series of extended (up to 10 μs long, ∼50 μs in total) molecular dynamics simulations to explore conformational stability and loop dynamics of this quadruplex. Unfolding no-salt simulations are consistent with a multi-pathway model of quadruplex folding and identify the single-nucleotide propeller loops as the most fragile part of the quadruplex. Thus, formation of propeller loops represents a peculiar atomistic aspect of quadruplex folding. Unbiased simulations reveal μs-scale transitions in the loops, which emphasizes the need for extended simulations in studies of quadruplex loops. We identify ion binding in the loops which may contribute to quadruplex stability. The long lateral-propeller loop is internally very stable but extensively fluctuates as a rigid entity. It creates a size-adaptable cleft between the loop and the stem, which can facilitate ligand binding. The stability gain by forming the internal network of GA base pairs and stacks of this loop may be dictating which of the many possible quadruplex topologies is observed in the ground state by this promoter quadruplex. PMID:26245347

  16. c-Kit immunoexpression delineates a putative endothelial progenitor cell population in developing human lungs.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takaya; Suzuki, Satoshi; Fujino, Naoya; Ota, Chiharu; Yamada, Mitsuhiro; Suzuki, Takashi; Yamaya, Mutsuo; Kondo, Takashi; Kubo, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    Expression of c-Kit and its ligand, stem cell factor (SCF), in developing human lung tissue was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Twenty-eight human fetal lungs [age range 13 to 38 gestational wk (GW)] and 12 postnatal lungs (age range 1-79 yr) were evaluated. We identified c-Kit(+) cells in the lung mesenchyme as early as 13 GW. These mesenchymal c-Kit(+) cells in the lung did not express mast cell tryptase or α-smooth muscle actin. However, these cells did express CD34, VEGFR2, and Tie-2, indicating their endothelial lineage. Three-dimensional reconstructions of confocal laser scanning images revealed that c-Kit(+) cells displayed a closed-end tube formation that did not contain hematopoietic cells. From the pseudoglandular phase to the canalicular phase, c-Kit(+) cells appeared to continuously proliferate, to connect with central pulmonary vessels, and finally, to develop the lung capillary plexus. The spatial distribution of c-Kit- and SCF-positive cells was also demonstrated, and these cells were shown to be in close association. Our results suggest that c-Kit expression in early fetal lungs marks a progenitor population that is restricted to endothelial lineage. This study also suggests the potential involvement of c-Kit signaling in lung vascular development.

  17. Intranasal sirna targeting c-kit reduces airway inflammation in experimental allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Chen, Hui; Li, Ya-Ming; Wang, Sheng-Yu; Diao, Xin; Liu, Kai-Ge

    2014-01-01

    Allergic asthma is characterized by airway inflammation caused by infiltration and activation of inflammatory cells that produce cytokines. Many studies have revealed that c-kit, a proto-oncogene, and its ligand, stem cell factor (SCF), play an important role in the development of asthmatic inflammation. Intranasal small interference RNA (siRNA) nanoparticles targeting specific viral gene could inhibit airway inflammation. In this study, we assessed whether silencing of c-kit with intranasal small interference RNA could reduce inflammation in allergic asthma. A mouse model of experimental asthma was treated with intranasal administration of anti-c-kit siRNA to inhibit the expression of the c-kit gene. We assessed the inflammatory response in both anti-c-kit siRNA-treated and control mice. Local administration of siRNA effectively inhibited the expression of the c-kit gene and reduced airway mucus secretion and the infiltration of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Moreover, c-kit siRNA reduced the production of SCF, interleukin-4 (IL-4), and IL-5, but had no effect on interferon-γ (IFN-γ) generation. These results show that intranasal siRNA nanoparticles targeting c-kit can decrease the inflammatory response in experimental allergic asthma.

  18. The roles of testicular c-kit positive cells in de novo morphogenesis of testis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Man; Zhou, Hai; Zheng, Chunxing; Xiao, Jun; Zuo, Erwei; Liu, Wujuan; Xie, Da; Shi, Yufang; Wu, Chunlian; Wang, Hongyan; Li, Dangsheng; Li, Jinsong

    2014-08-04

    C-kit positive (c-kit(+)) cells are usual tissue-specific stem cells. However, in postnatal testis, undifferentiated spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are c-kit negative (c-kit(-)) and activation of c-kit represents the start of SSC differentiation, leaving an intriguing question whether other c-kit(+) cells exist and participate in the postnatal development of testis. To this end, a feasible system for testicular reconstitution, in which a specific type of cells can be manipulated, is needed. Here, we first establish de novo morphogenesis of testis by subcutaneous injection of testicular cells from neonatal testes into the backs of nude mice. We observe testicular tissue formation and spermatogenesis from all injected sites. Importantly, functional spermatids can be isolated from these testicular tissues. Using this system, we systemically analyze the roles of c-kit(+) cells in testicular reconstitution and identify a small population of cells (c-kit(+):CD140a(+):F4/80(+)), which express typical markers of macrophages, are critical for de novo morphogenesis of testis. Interestingly, we demonstrate that these cells are gradually replaced by peripheral blood cells of recipient mice during the morphogenesis of testis. Thus, we develop a system, which may mimic the complete developmental process of postnatal testis, for investigating the testicular development and spermatogenesis.

  19. miR-137 downregulates c-kit expression in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanping; Dong, Xiaolong; Chu, Guoming; Lai, Guangrui; Zhang, Bijun; Wang, Leitong; Zhao, Yanyan

    2017-02-16

    The oncogene c-kit plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the mechanism of microRNAs targeting c-kit in AML has not been determined in detail. Moreover, the role miR-137 in tumor cell proliferation remains controversial. The aim of this work was to verify whether miR-137 targets c-kit and to research the biological effects of restoring miR-137 expression in leukemia cells. We found that miR-137 binds specifically to the 3'-UTR of c-kit and suppresses the expression and activities of c-kit. There is a negative correlation between miR-137 and c-kit expression in both patients and cell lines determined by screening large clinical samples. We found that miR-137 can inhibit proliferation, promote apoptosis, and induce differentiation of c-kit+ AML cells. We determined that miR-137 can participate in the leukemogenesis by regulating c-kit, which could be used as a therapeutic target for acute myeloid leukemia.

  20. Human and murine amniotic fluid c-Kit+Lin- cells display hematopoietic activity.

    PubMed

    Ditadi, Andrea; de Coppi, Paolo; Picone, Olivier; Gautreau, Laetitia; Smati, Rim; Six, Emmanuelle; Bonhomme, Delphine; Ezine, Sophie; Frydman, René; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina; André-Schmutz, Isabelle

    2009-04-23

    We have isolated c-Kit(+)Lin(-) cells from both human and murine amniotic fluid (AF) and investigated their hematopoietic potential. In vitro, the c-Kit(+)Lin(-) population in both species displayed a multilineage hematopoietic potential, as demonstrated by the generation of erythroid, myeloid, and lymphoid cells. In vivo, cells belonging to all 3 hematopoietic lineages were found after primary and secondary transplantation of murine c-Kit(+)Lin(-) cells into immunocompromised hosts, thus demonstrating the ability of these cells to self-renew. Gene expression analysis of c-Kit(+) cells isolated from murine AF confirmed these results. The presence of cells with similar characteristics in the surrounding amnion indicates the possible origin of AF c-Kit(+)Lin(-) cells. This is the first report showing that cells isolated from the AF do have hematopoietic potential; our results support the idea that AF may be a new source of stem cells for therapeutic applications.

  1. Downregulation of Fas activity rescues early onset of diabetes in c-Kit(Wv/+) mice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhi-Chao; Riopel, Matthew; Li, Jinming; Donnelly, Lisa; Wang, Rennian

    2013-03-15

    c-Kit and its ligand stem cell factor (SCF) are important for β-cell survival and maturation; meanwhile, interactions between the Fas receptor (Fas) and Fas ligand are capable of triggering β-cell apoptosis. Disruption of c-Kit signaling leads to severe loss of β-cell mass and function with upregulation of Fas expression in c-Kit(Wv/+) mouse islets, suggesting that there is a critical balance between c-Kit and Fas activation in β-cells. In the present study, we investigated the interrelationship between c-Kit and Fas activation that mediates β-cell survival and function. We generated double mutant, c-Kit(Wv/+);Fas(lpr/lpr) (Wv(-/-)), mice to study the physiological and functional role of Fas with respect to β-cell function in c-Kit(Wv/+) mice. Isolated islets from these mice and the INS-1 cell line were used. We observed that islets in c-Kit(Wv/+) mice showed a significant increase in β-cell apoptosis along with upregulated p53 and Fas expression. These results were verified in vitro in INS-1 cells treated with SCF or c-Kit siRNA combined with a p53 inhibitor and Fas siRNA. In vivo, Wv(-/-) mice displayed improved β-cell function, with significantly enhanced insulin secretion and increased β-cell mass and proliferation compared with Wv(+/+) mice. This improvement was associated with downregulation of the Fas-mediated caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway and upregulation of the cFlip/NF-κB pathway. These findings demonstrate that a balance between the c-Kit and Fas signaling pathways is critical in the regulation of β-cell survival and function.

  2. Identification of C-kit-positive interstitial cells in the dog lower urinary tract and relationship with smooth muscle and nerves. Hypotheses for a likely pacemaker role.

    PubMed

    Arrighi, Silvana; Bosi, Giampaolo; Groppetti, Debora; Cremonesi, Fausto

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to give an evidence of the likely presence of interstitial cells in the canine lower urinary tract and to study their possible interactions with the musculature and the intramural innervation. Cryosections of normal canine bladder and urethra were immunofluorescently labelled with c-kit, a transmembrane, tyrosine kinase growth factor receptor, known to be expressed on the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) of the gut. The relationship with antiactin positive smooth muscle cells and PGP9.5-positive intramural innervation was also investigated by confocal microscopy. Anti-c-kit labelling demonstrated a network of elongated and branched c-kit positive cells, which were located in interstitial spaces, oriented in parallel to the smooth muscle bundles that form the bladder muscular layer, irrespective of dog sex. Cells with a similar localization were also PAS- and NADPH-diaphorase-positive. A contact between c-kit immunofluorescent cells and intramural innervation was demonstrated, too. The roles of interstitial cells might include regulation of smooth muscle activity of the bladder detrusor, integrating neuronal signals during urine storage and voiding.

  3. Stimulatory Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on cKit+ Cardiac Stem Cells Are Mediated by SDF1/CXCR4 and SCF/cKit Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Hatzistergos, Konstantinos E; Saur, Dieter; Seidler, Barbara; Balkan, Wayne; Breton, Matthew; Valasaki, Krystalenia; Takeuchi, Lauro M; Landin, Ana Marie; Khan, Aisha; Hare, Joshua M

    2016-09-30

    Culture-expanded cells originating from cardiac tissue that express the cell surface receptor cKit are undergoing clinical testing as a cell source for heart failure and congenital heart disease. Although accumulating data support that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) enhance the efficacy of cardiac cKit(+) cells (CSCs), the underlying mechanism for this synergistic effect remains incompletely understood. To test the hypothesis that MSCs stimulate endogenous CSCs to proliferate, migrate, and differentiate via the SDF1/CXCR4 and stem cell factor/cKit pathways. Using genetic lineage-tracing approaches, we show that in the postnatal murine heart, cKit(+) cells proliferate, migrate, and form cardiomyocytes, but not endothelial cells. CSCs exhibit marked chemotactic and proliferative responses when cocultured with MSCs but not with cardiac stromal cells. Antagonism of the CXCR4 pathway with AMD3100 (an SDF1/CXCR4 antagonist) inhibited MSC-induced CSC chemotaxis but stimulated CSC cardiomyogenesis (P<0.0001). Furthermore, MSCs enhanced CSC proliferation via the stem cell factor/cKit and SDF1/CXCR4 pathways (P<0.0001). Together these findings show that MSCs exhibit profound, yet differential, effects on CSC migration, proliferation, and differentiation and suggest a mechanism underlying the improved cardiac regeneration associated with combination therapy using CSCs and MSCs. These findings have important therapeutic implications for cell-based therapy strategies that use mixtures of CSCs and MSCs. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Targeted expression of a dominant-negative EGF-R in the kidney reduces tubulo-interstitial lesions after renal injury.

    PubMed

    Terzi, F; Burtin, M; Hekmati, M; Federici, P; Grimber, G; Briand, P; Friedlander, G

    2000-07-01

    The role of EGF in the evolution of renal lesions after injury is still controversial. To determine whether the EGF expression is beneficial or detrimental, we generated transgenic mice expressing a COOH-terminal-truncated EGF-R under the control of the kidney-specific type 1 gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase promoter. As expected, the transgene was expressed exclusively at the basolateral membrane of proximal tubular cells. Under basal conditions, transgenic mice showed normal renal morphology and function. Infusion of EGF to transgenic animals revealed that the mutant receptor behaved in a dominant-negative manner and prevented EGF-signaled EGF-R autophosphorylation. We next evaluated the impact of transgene expression on the development of renal lesions in two models of renal injury. After 75% reduction of renal mass, tubular dilations were less severe in transgenic mice than in wild-type animals. After prolonged renal ischemia, tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis were reduced in transgenic mice as compared with wild-type mice. The beneficial effect of the transgene included a reduction of tubular cell proliferation, interstitial collagen accumulation, and mononuclear cell infiltration. In conclusion, functional inactivation of the EGF-R in renal proximal tubular cells reduced tubulo-interstitial lesions after renal injury. These data suggest that blocking the EGF pathway may be a therapeutic strategy to reduce the progression of chronic renal failure.

  5. Zinc-finger transcription factor Slug contributes to the function of the stem cell factor c-kit signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Losada, Jesus; Sánchez-Martín, Manuel; Rodríguez-García, Arancha; Sánchez, Maria Luz; Orfao, Alberto; Flores, Teresa; Sánchez-García, Isidro

    2002-08-15

    The stem cell factor c-kit signaling pathway (SCF/c-kit) has been previously implicated in normal hematopoiesis, melanogenesis, and gametogenesis through the formation and migration of c-kit(+) cells. These biologic functions are also determinants in epithelial-mesenchymal transitions during embryonic development governed by the Snail family of transcription factors. Here we show that the activation of c-kit by SCF specifically induces the expression of Slug, a Snail family member. Slug mutant mice have a cell-intrinsic defect with pigment deficiency, gonadal defect, and impairment of hematopoiesis. Kit(+) cells derived from Slug mutant mice exhibit migratory defects similar to those of c-kit(+) cells derived from SCF and c-kit mutant mice. Endogenous Slug is expressed in migratory c-kit(+) cells purified from control mice but is not present in c-kit(+) cells derived from SCF mutant mice or in bone marrow cells from W/W(v) mice, though Slug is present in spleen c-kit(+) cells of W/W(v) (mutants expressing c-kit with reduced surface expression and activity). SCF-induced migration was affected in primary c-kit(+) cells purified from Slug-/- mice, providing evidence for a role of Slug in the acquisition of c-kit(+) cells with ability to migrate. Slug may thus be considered a molecular target that contributes to the biologic specificity to the SCF/c-kit signaling pathway, opening up new avenues for stem cell mobilization.

  6. New Role of Adult Lung c-kit+ Cells in a Mouse Model of Airway Hyperresponsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Cappetta, Donato; Urbanek, Konrad; Esposito, Grazia; Matteis, Maria; Sgambato, Manuela; Tartaglione, Gioia; Rossi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Structural changes contribute to airway hyperresponsiveness and airflow obstruction in asthma. Emerging evidence points to the involvement of c-kit+ cells in lung homeostasis, although their potential role in asthma is unknown. Our aim was to isolate c-kit+ cells from normal mouse lungs and to test whether these cells can interfere with hallmarks of asthma in an animal model. Adult mouse GFP-tagged c-kit+ cells, intratracheally delivered in the ovalbumin-induced airway hyperresponsiveness, positively affected airway remodeling and improved airway function. In bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of cell-treated animals, a reduction in the number of inflammatory cells and in IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 release, along with an increase of IL-10, was observed. In MSC-treated mice, the macrophage polarization to M2-like subset may explain, at least in part, the increment in the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. After in vitro stimulation of c-kit+ cells with proinflammatory cytokines, the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and TGFβ were upregulated. These data, together with the increased apoptosis of inflammatory cells in vivo, indicate that c-kit+ cells downregulate immune response in asthma by influencing local environment, possibly by cell-to-cell contact combined to paracrine action. In conclusion, intratracheally administered c-kit+ cells reduce inflammation, positively modulate airway remodeling, and improve function. These data document previously unrecognized properties of c-kit+ cells, able to impede pathophysiological features of experimental airway hyperresponsiveness. PMID:28090152

  7. Deletion of the c-kit protooncogene in the human developmental defect piebald trait

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischman, R.A.; Stastny, V.; Zneimer, S. ); Saltman, D.L. )

    1991-12-01

    The protooncogene c-kit is critical for development of hematopoietic stem cells, germ cells, and melanoblasts in the mouse. Homozygous mutations of this gene in the mouse cause anemia, infertility, and albinism, whereas heterozygous mutant mice usually exhibit only a white forehead blaze and depigmentation of the ventral body, tail, and feet. The heterozygous mouse phenotype is very similar to human piebald trait, which is characterized by a congenital white hair forelock and ventral and extremity depigmentation. To investigate the possibility that alterations in the human c-kit gene may be a cause of piebald trait, DNA from seven unrelated affected individuals was examined by Southern blot analysis. One subject, although cytogenetically normal, has a heterozygous deletion of the c-kit protooncogene. This deletion encompasses the entire coding region for c-kit and also involves the closely linked gene for platelet-derived growth factor receptor {alpha}. These findings provide molecular evidence mapping piebald trait to the c-kit locus on chromosome 4. Although the authors cannot exclude the involvement of other closely linked genes, the demonstration of a genomic c-kit deletion in one subject with piebald trait and the marked concordance of the human and mouse phenotypes provide strong evidence for the role of c-kit in the development of human melanocytes and in the pathogenesis of piebald trait.

  8. c-kit positive cells and networks in tooth germs of human midterm fetuses.

    PubMed

    Didilescu, Andreea Cristiana; Pop, Florinel; Rusu, Mugurel Constantin

    2013-12-01

    Numerous studies have attempted to characterize the dental pulp stem cells. However, studies performed on prenatal human tissues have not been performed to evaluate the in situ characterization and topography of progenitor cells. We aimed to perform such a study using of antibodies for CD117/c-kit and multiplex antibody for Ki67+ caspase 3. Antibodies were applied on samples dissected from five human midterm fetuses. Positive CD117/c-kit labeling was found in mesenchymal derived tissues, such as the dental follicle and the dental papilla. The epithelial tissues, that is, dental lamina, enamel organ and oral epithelia, also displayed isolated progenitor cells which were CD117/c-kit positive. Interestingly, CD117/c-kit positive cells of mesenchymal derived tissues extended multiple prolongations building networks; the most consistent of such networks were those of the dental follicle and the perivascular networks of the dental papilla. However, the mantle of the dental papilla was also positive for CD117/c-kit positive stromal networks. The CD117/c-kit cell populations building networks appeared mostly with a Ki67 negative phenotype. The results suggest that CD117/c-kit progenitor cells of the prenatal tooth germ tissues might be involved in intercellular signaling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Expression of Epidermal c-Kit+ of Vitiligo Lesions Is Related to Responses to Excimer Laser

    PubMed Central

    Park, Oun Jae; Han, Ji Su; Lee, Sang Hyung; Park, Chan-Sik; Won, Chong Hyun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background The survival and growth of melanocytes are controlled by the binding of stem cell factor to its cell surface receptor c-kit+ (CD117). We have observed that c-kit+ melanocytes existed in some lesions of vitiligo, while Melan A+ cells were absent. Objective To verify possible relation between c-kit+ expression and treatment response in non-segmental vitiligo lesions Methods Skin biopsies were done from the center of the 47 lesions from the 47 patients with non-segmental vitiligo. Expression of c-kit+ and Melan A, and amounts of melanin in the epidermis were assessed in each lesion, and treatment responses to excimer laser were evaluated. Results Thirty-five of the 47 lesions (74.5%) had c-kit+ phenotypes. There was significant difference of c-kit staining value between good responders in 3 months of excimer laser treatment (average of 24 sessions) and the others. Conclusion c-Kit expression in vitiliginous epidermis may be related to better treatment responses to excimer laser. PMID:27489428

  10. The Mobilization and Recruitment of C-Kit+ Cells Contribute to Wound Healing after Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Takemoto, Yoshihiro; Li, Tao-Sheng; Kubo, Masayuki; Ohshima, Mako; Kurazumi, Hiroshi; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Enoki, Tadahiko; Murata, Tomoaki; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2012-01-01

    Delayed wound healing is a serious clinical problem in patients after surgery. A recent study has demonstrated that bone marrow-derived c-kit-positive (c-kit+) cells play important roles in repairing and regenerating various tissues and organs. To examine the hypothesis that surgical injury induces the mobilization and recruitment of c-kit+ cells to accelerate wound healing. Mice were subjected to a left pneumonectomy. The mobilization of c-kit+ cells was monitored after surgery. Using green fluorescent protein (GFP+) bone marrow-transplanted chimera mice, we investigated further whether the mobilized c-kit+ cells were recruited to effect wound healing in a skin puncture model. The group with left pneumonectomies increased the c-kit+ and CD34+ stem cells in peripheral blood 24 h after surgery. At 3 days after surgery, the skin wound size was observed to be significantly smaller, and the number of bone marrow-derived GFP+ cells and GFP+/c-kit+ cells in the wound tissue was significantly greater in mice that had received pneumonectomies, as compared with those that had received a sham operation. Furthermore, some of these GFP+ cells were positively expressed specific markers of macrophages (F4/80), endothelial cells (CD31), and myofibroblasts (αSMA). The administration of AMD3100, an antagonist of a stromal-cell derived factor (SDF)-1/CXCR4 signaling pathway, reduced the number of GFP+ cells in wound tissue and completely negated the accelerated wound healing. Surgical injury induces the mobilization and recruitment of c-kit+ cells to contribute to wound healing. Regulating c-kit+ cells may provide a new approach that accelerates wound healing after surgery. PMID:23155375

  11. Stem cell factor (SCF) protects osteoblasts from oxidative stress through activating c-Kit-Akt signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Lei; Wu, Zhong; Yin, Gang; Liu, Haifeng; Guan, Xiaojun; Zhao, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Jianguang; Zhu, Jianguo

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • SCF receptor c-Kit is functionally expressed in primary and transformed osteoblasts. • SCF protects primary and transformed osteoblasts from H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • SCF activation of c-Kit in osteoblasts, required for its cyto-protective effects. • c-Kit mediates SCF-induced Akt activation in cultured osteoblasts. • Akt activation is required for SCF-regulated cyto-protective effects in osteoblasts. - Abstract: Osteoblasts regulate bone formation and remodeling, and are main target cells of oxidative stress in the progression of osteonecrosis. The stem cell factor (SCF)-c-Kit pathway plays important roles in the proliferation, differentiation and survival in a range of cell types, but little is known about its functions in osteoblasts. In this study, we found that c-Kit is functionally expressed in both osteoblastic-like MC3T3-E1 cells and primary murine osteoblasts. Its ligand SCF exerted significant cyto-protective effects against hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). SCF activated its receptor c-Kit in osteoblasts, which was required for its cyto-protective effects against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Pharmacological inhibition (by Imatinib and Dasatinib) or shRNA-mediated knockdown of c-Kit thus inhibited SCF-mediated osteoblast protection. Further investigations showed that protection by SCF against H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was mediated via activation of c-Kit-dependent Akt pathway. Inhibition of Akt activation, through pharmacological or genetic means, suppressed SCF-mediated anti-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} activity in osteoblasts. In summary, we have identified a new SCF-c-Kit-Akt physiologic pathway that protects osteoblasts from H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced damages, and might minimize the risk of osteonecrosis caused by oxidative stress.

  12. A New Method to Stabilize C-Kit Expression in Reparative Cardiac Mesenchymal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wysoczynski, Marcin; Dassanayaka, Sujith; Zafir, Ayesha; Ghafghazi, Shahab; Long, Bethany W.; Noble, Camille; DeMartino, Angelica M.; Brittian, Kenneth R.; Bolli, Roberto; Jones, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    Cell therapy improves cardiac function. Few cells have been investigated more extensively or consistently shown to be more effective than c-kit sorted cells; however, c-kit expression is easily lost during passage. Here, our primary goal was to develop an improved method to isolate c-kitpos cells and maintain c-kit expression after passaging. Cardiac mesenchymal cells (CMCs) from wild-type mice were selected by polystyrene adherence properties. CMCs adhering within the first hours are referred to as rapidly adherent (RA); CMCs adhering subsequently are dubbed slowly adherent (SA). Both RA and SA CMCs were c-kit sorted. SA CMCs maintained significantly higher c-kit expression than RA cells; SA CMCs also had higher expression endothelial markers. We subsequently tested the relative efficacy of SA vs. RA CMCs in the setting of post-infarct adoptive transfer. Two days after coronary occlusion, vehicle, RA CMCs, or SA CMCs were delivered percutaneously with echocardiographic guidance. SA CMCs, but not RA CMCs, significantly improved cardiac function compared to vehicle treatment. Although the mechanism remains to be elucidated, the more pronounced endothelial phenotype of the SA CMCs coupled with the finding of increased vascular density suggest a potential pro-vasculogenic action. This new method of isolating CMCs better preserves c-kit expression during passage. SA CMCs, but not RA CMCs, were effective in reducing cardiac dysfunction. Although c-kit expression was maintained, it is unclear whether maintenance of c-kit expression per se was responsible for improved function, or whether the differential adherence property itself confers a reparative phenotype independently of c-kit. PMID:27536657

  13. Radiolabeling and biological evaluation of DOTA-Ph-Al derivative conjugated to anti-EGFR antibody ior egf/r3 for targeted tumor imaging and therapy.

    PubMed

    Pnwar, Puja; Iznaga-Escobar, Normando; Mishra, Pushpa; Srivastava, Vibha; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Chandra, Ramesh; Mishra, Anil K

    2005-08-01

    An appropriate bifunctional chelating agent namely DOTA-Ph-Al was developed for the conjugation with biological vectors (anti EGFr antibody). We hereby report the synthesis of p-bromoacetamidobenzyl derivative of DOTA and its conjugation to monoclonal antibody anti-EGFR ior egf/r3. Immunoconjugate was prepared by conjugation of p-bromoacetamidobenzyl derivative of DOTA with ior egf/r3. Modified antibody was purified by size exclusion chromatography. DOTA-Ph-Al-ior egf/r3 exhibited quantitative 99mTc-labeling (>96%) with specific activity 10-20 mCi/mg of protein and 90Y-labeling with specific activity 2-5 mCi/mg. Immunoreactivity was determined by flow cytometry. Receptor ligand assay on murine cell line EAT and human tumor cell line U-87MG showed Kd = 2.87 nM and 4.86 nM respectively. The stability in serum indicated that 99mTc remained bound to antibodies up to 24h and 98% 90Y was associated with the mAb for five days. Biodistribution characteristics of Ab-conjugate radiolabeled to 99mTc and 90Y radionuclide was examined in BALB/c mice grafted with EAT and athymic mice with U-87MG cell line demonstrated high tumor uptake with 5.5 +/- 1.3 and 7.85 +/- 1.2%ID/g at four and 24 h for 99mTc- DOTA-Ph-AI-ior egf/r3 in EAT tumors after post injection respectively. Maximal radiotracer uptake peaked 17.6 +/- 2.5%ID/g in EAT tumor and 12.89 +/- 0.66% ID/g in U-87MG tumor at 48h for 90Y. The drug excreted through renal routes as the activity in the kidneys was 13.42 +/- 0.33%ID/g at 1 h and 4.51 +/- 1.2%ID/g at 4 h for 99mTc- DOTA-Ph-Al-ior egf/r3.

  14. Estrogens down-regulate the stem cell factor (SCF)/c-KIT system in prostate cells: Evidence of antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects.

    PubMed

    Figueira, Marília I; Correia, Sara; Vaz, Cátia V; Cardoso, Henrique J; Gomes, Inês M; Marques, Ricardo; Maia, Cláudio J; Socorro, Sílvia

    2016-01-01

    The development of prostate cancer (PCa) is intimately associated with the hormonal environment, and the sex steroids estrogens have been implicated in prostate malignancy. However, if some studies identified estrogens as causative agents of PCa, others indicated that these steroids have a protective role counteracting prostate overgrowth. The tyrosine kinase receptor c-KIT and its ligand, the stem cell factor (SCF), have been associated with the control of cell proliferation/apoptosis and prostate carcinogenesis, and studies show that estrogens regulate their expression in different tissues, though, in the case of prostate this remains unknown. The present study aims to evaluate the role of 17β-estradiol (E2) in regulating the expression of SCF/c-KIT in human prostate cell lines and rat prostate, and to investigate the consequent effects on prostate cell proliferation and apoptosis. qPCR, Western Blot, and immuno(cito)histochemistry analysis showed that E2-treatment decreased the expression of SCF and c-KIT both in human prostate cells and rat prostate. Furthermore, the diminished expression of SCF/c-KIT was underpinned by the diminished prostate weight and reduced proliferation index. On the other hand, the results of TUNEL labelling, the increased activity of caspase-3, and the augmented expression of caspase-8 and Fas system in the prostate of E2-treated animals indicated augmented apoptosis in response to E2. The obtained results demonstrated that E2 down-regulated the expression of SCF/c-KIT system in prostate cells, which was associated with antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects. Moreover, these findings support the protective role of estrogens in PCa and open new perspectives on the application of estrogen-based therapies.

  15. Canine and human gastrointestinal stromal tumors display similar mutations in c-KIT exon 11

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are common mesenchymal neoplasms in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and dogs. Little is known about the pathogenesis of these tumors. This study evaluated the role of c-KIT in canine GISTs; specifically, we investigated activating mutations in exons 8, 9, 11, 13, and 17 of c-KIT and exons 12, 14, and 18 of platelet-derived growth factor receptor, alpha polypeptide (PDGFRA), all of which have been implicated in human GISTs. Methods Seventeen canine GISTs all confirmed to be positive for KIT immunostaining were studied. Exons 8, 9, 11, 13 and 17 of c-KIT and exons 12, 14, and 18 of PDGFRA, were amplified from DNA isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples. Results Of these seventeen cases, six amplicons of exon 11 of c-KIT showed aberrant bands on gel electrophoresis. Sequencing of these amplicons revealed heterozygous in-frame deletions in six cases. The mutations include two different but overlapping six base pair deletions. Exons 8, 9, 13, and 17 of c-KIT and exons 12, 14, and 18 of PDGFRA had no abnormalities detected by electrophoresis and sequencing did not reveal any mutations, other than synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in exon 11 of c-KIT and exons 12 and 14 of PDGFRA. Conclusions The deletion mutations detected in canine GISTs are similar to those previously found in the juxtamembrane domain of c-KIT in canine cutaneous mast cell tumors in our laboratory as well as to those reported in human GISTs. Interestingly, none of the other c-KIT or PDGFRA exons showed any abnormalities in our cases. This finding underlines the critical importance of c-KIT in the pathophysiology of canine GISTs. The expression of KIT and the identification of these activating mutations in c-KIT implicate KIT in the pathogenesis of these tumors. Our results indicate that mutations in c-KIT may be of prognostic significance and that targeting KIT may be a rational approach to treatment of these

  16. Stem cell factor/c-Kit signalling in normal and androgenetic alopecia hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Randall, Valerie A; Jenner, Tracey J; Hibberts, Nigel A; De Oliveira, Isabel O; Vafaee, Tayyebeh

    2008-04-01

    Androgens stimulate many hair follicles to alter hair colour and size via the hair growth cycle; in androgenetic alopecia tiny, pale hairs gradually replace large, pigmented ones. Since stem cell factor (SCF) is important in embryonic melanocyte migration and maintaining adult rodent pigmentation, we investigated SCF/c-Kit signalling in human hair follicles to determine whether this was altered in androgenetic alopecia. Quantitative immunohistochemistry detected three melanocyte-lineage markers and c-Kit in four focus areas: the epidermis, infundibulum, hair bulb (where pigment is formed) and mid-follicle outer root sheath (ORS). Colocalisation confirmed melanocyte c-Kit expression; cultured follicular melanocytes also exhibited c-Kit. Few ORS cells expressed differentiated melanocyte markers or c-Kit, but NKI/beteb antibody, which also recognises early melanocyte-lineage antigens, identified fourfold more cells, confirmed by colocalisation. Occasional similar bulbar cells were seen. Melanocyte distribution, concentration and c-Kit expression were unaltered in balding follicles. Androgenetic alopecia cultured dermal papilla cells secreted less SCF, measured by ELISA, than normal cells. This identifies three types of melanocyte-lineage cells in human follicles. The c-Kit expression by dendritic, pigmenting, bulbar melanocytes and rounded, differentiated, non-pigmenting ORS melanocytes implicate SCF in maintaining pigmentation and migration into regenerating hair bulbs. Less differentiated, c-Kit-independent cells in the mid-follicle ORS stem cell niche and occasionally in the bulb, presumably a local reserve for long scalp hair growth, implicate other factors in activating stem cells. Androgens appear to reduce alopecia hair colour by inhibiting dermal papilla SCF production, impeding bulbar melanocyte pigmentation. These results may facilitate new treatments for hair colour changes in hirsutism, alopecia or greying.

  17. Analysis of c-KIT exon 11 mutations in canine gastrointestinal stromal tumours.

    PubMed

    Takanosu, M; Amano, S; Kagawa, Y

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the type and frequency of c-KIT exon 11 mutations in canine gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) and investigate the association between the c-KIT mutation status and KIT immunohistochemical staining pattern. Mutations in exon 11 of c-KIT were examined in 46 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded canine GISTs using PCR of genomic DNA and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) of cDNA. Exon 11 c-KIT mutations were detected in 15/46 (32.6%) cases by conventional PCR and 34/46 (73.9%) cases by RT-PCR; the mutation detection rate was significantly higher for RT-PCR (P = 0.004, Fisher's exact test). Ten different mutations, including deletion, internal tandem duplication and point mutations, were identified by RT-PCR. Immunohistochemistry was performed using an anti-KIT antibody; diffuse KIT staining was detected in the tumour cell cytoplasm in 32/46 (69.6%) cases and partial or stippled cytoplasmic staining of KIT was observed in 14/46 (30.4%) cases. Neither pattern was significantly associated with c-KIT exon 11 mutation status (P = 1.000, chi-square test). These data indicate that c-KIT exon 11 mutations occur frequently in canine GISTs, similar to human GISTs; however, there is no association between c-KIT mutations and the KIT expression pattern in canine GISTs. This study suggests that RT-PCR is more sensitive than conventional PCR for the detection of c-KIT mutations in canine GISTs.

  18. Stem cell factor (SCF) protects osteoblasts from oxidative stress through activating c-Kit-Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Wu, Zhong; Yin, Gang; Liu, Haifeng; Guan, Xiaojun; Zhao, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Jianguang; Zhu, Jianguo

    2014-12-12

    Osteoblasts regulate bone formation and remodeling, and are main target cells of oxidative stress in the progression of osteonecrosis. The stem cell factor (SCF)-c-Kit pathway plays important roles in the proliferation, differentiation and survival in a range of cell types, but little is known about its functions in osteoblasts. In this study, we found that c-Kit is functionally expressed in both osteoblastic-like MC3T3-E1 cells and primary murine osteoblasts. Its ligand SCF exerted significant cyto-protective effects against hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂). SCF activated its receptor c-Kit in osteoblasts, which was required for its cyto-protective effects against H₂O₂. Pharmacological inhibition (by Imatinib and Dasatinib) or shRNA-mediated knockdown of c-Kit thus inhibited SCF-mediated osteoblast protection. Further investigations showed that protection by SCF against H₂O₂ was mediated via activation of c-Kit-dependent Akt pathway. Inhibition of Akt activation, through pharmacological or genetic means, suppressed SCF-mediated anti-H₂O₂ activity in osteoblasts. In summary, we have identified a new SCF-c-Kit-Akt physiologic pathway that protects osteoblasts from H₂O₂-induced damages, and might minimize the risk of osteonecrosis caused by oxidative stress.

  19. c-KIT and PDGFRA in breast phyllodes tumours: overexpression without mutations?

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, S; Silva, A O e; Milanezi, F; Ricardo, S; Leitão, D; Amendoeira, I; Schmitt, F C

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To study the immunoexpression and mutational status of c-KIT and PDGFRA in a series of benign and malignant phyllodes tumours of the breast. Material/methods: Nineteen phyllodes tumours (13 benign and six malignant) were analysed by immunohistochemistry for the expression of c-KIT and PDGFRA. Direct sequencing of exons 9, 11, 13, and 17 of the c-KIT gene and exons 12 and 18 of PDGFRA was performed to check the mutational status of these two genes. Results: c-KIT expression was found in 12 of the 19 cases (six of the 13 benign cases and all six malignant ones) and PDGFRA expression was seen in two of the 19 cases (one benign and one malignant case); the 2415 C>T alteration in exon 17 of the c-KIT gene was found in two cases (both benign); the intronic insertion IVS17-50insT and the 2866 G>T alteration in the coding region of exon 18 of the PDGFRA gene were also found in two cases (one malignant and one benign). However, the activating mutations described for these genes in gastrointestinal stromal tumours were not present. Conclusion: c-KIT expression is a frequent finding in phyllodes tumours, particularly in malignant cases; however, no activating mutations similar to those described for gastrointestinal stromal tumours were found. The PDGFRA does not seem to be an alternative pathway to tumour development in phyllodes tumours because neither expression nor activating mutations were noteworthy. PMID:15452163

  20. c-KIT and PDGFRA in breast phyllodes tumours: overexpression without mutations?

    PubMed

    Carvalho, S; e Silva, A O; Milanezi, F; Ricardo, S; Leitão, D; Amendoeira, I; Schmitt, F C

    2004-10-01

    To study the immunoexpression and mutational status of c-KIT and PDGFRA in a series of benign and malignant phyllodes tumours of the breast. Nineteen phyllodes tumours (13 benign and six malignant) were analysed by immunohistochemistry for the expression of c-KIT and PDGFRA. Direct sequencing of exons 9, 11, 13, and 17 of the c-KIT gene and exons 12 and 18 of PDGFRA was performed to check the mutational status of these two genes. c-KIT expression was found in 12 of the 19 cases (six of the 13 benign cases and all six malignant ones) and PDGFRA expression was seen in two of the 19 cases (one benign and one malignant case); the 2415 C>T alteration in exon 17 of the c-KIT gene was found in two cases (both benign); the intronic insertion IVS17-50insT and the 2866 G>T alteration in the coding region of exon 18 of the PDGFRA gene were also found in two cases (one malignant and one benign). However, the activating mutations described for these genes in gastrointestinal stromal tumours were not present. c-KIT expression is a frequent finding in phyllodes tumours, particularly in malignant cases; however, no activating mutations similar to those described for gastrointestinal stromal tumours were found. The PDGFRA does not seem to be an alternative pathway to tumour development in phyllodes tumours because neither expression nor activating mutations were noteworthy.

  1. A variant c-KIT mutation, D816H, fundamental to the sequential development of an ovarian mixed germ cell tumor and systemic mastocytosis with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sarah G; Bunting, Silvia T; Saxe, Debra; Olson, Thomas; Keller, Frank G

    2017-04-01

    An activating point mutation of the c-KIT tyrosine kinase receptor gene, D816H, has been described in germ cell tumors (GCTs). We report an adolescent diagnosed with an ovarian mixed GCT and systemic mastocytosis with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (SM-CMML). The teratoma and dysgerminoma differed by copy number aberrations via single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray, but were inclusive of the same c-KIT D816H point mutation (c.2446G>C) also identified in blood and bone marrow mast cells. These findings indicate not only a clonal origin of the GCT and hematologic malignancy, but also suggest a rare KIT mutation may be playing a fundamental role in malignancy development.

  2. c-KIT and c-KIT ligand (SCF) in synovial sarcoma (SS): an mRNA expression analysis in 23 cases

    PubMed Central

    Tamborini, E; Papini, D; Mezzelani, A; Riva, C; Azzarelli, A; Sozzi, G; Pierotti, M A; Pilotti, S

    2001-01-01

    In a previous immunophenotypic molecular-based analysis it was shown that bcl2 over-expression characterizes the SS gene profile in addition to the non-random translocations. Here we show that the over-expression of an additional potentially antiapoptotic gene, the c-KIT gene, is associated with this tumour. Interestingly, whereas bcl2 over-expression appears to be restricted to the spindle cell tumoral component, c-kit mainly involves the epithelial component of biphasic SS. Twenty-three primary and metastatic samples from 21 patients were analysed by immunophenotyping (23/23), immunoprecipitations and Western blotting (3/23), and RT-PCR (23/23). Ten cases were biphasic and 13 monophasic in sub-type. Twelve, 10 and 1 case carried the SYT-SSX1, SYT-SSX2 and SYT-SSX4 fusion transcript, respectively. Co-presence of both c-Kit and SCF mRNA was observed in almost all cases (20/23), suggesting the occurrence of an autocrine loop. Immunophenotyping, confirmed by biochemical analyses, showed a modulation of c-Kit expression which was faint in the spindle and strong in the epithelial component, respectively. The study was complemented by c-Met/HGF receptor/ligand expression and c-Met protein analysis with results superimposable to those already reported. Since in each tumour, epithelial and spindle cell components harbour the same type of translocation t(X;18) the present findings suggest a shifting of the anti-apoptotic role from BCL2 to c-KIT gene during the transition from the uncommitted spindle to the differentiated epithelial cells. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11487273

  3. Growth control of genetically modified cells using an antibody/c-Kit chimera.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Etsuji; Kawahara, Masahiro; Ueda, Hiroshi; Nagamune, Teruyuki

    2012-05-01

    Gene therapy has been regarded as an innovative potential treatment against serious congenital diseases. However, applications of gene therapy remain limited, partly because its clinical success depends on therapeutic gene-transduced cells acquiring a proliferative advantage. To address this problem, we have developed the antigen-mediated genetically modified cell amplification (AMEGA) system, which uses chimeric receptors to enable the selective proliferation of gene-transduced cells. In this report, we describe mimicry of c-Kit signaling and its application to the AMEGA system. We created an antibody/c-Kit chimera in which the extracellular domain of c-Kit is replaced with an anti-fluorescein single-chain Fv antibody fragment and the extracellular D2 domain of the erythropoietin receptor. A genetically modified mouse pro-B cell line carrying this chimera showed selective expansion in the presence of fluorescein-conjugated BSA (BSA-FL) as a growth inducer. By further engineering the transmembrane domain of the chimera to reduce interchain interaction we attained stricter ligand-dependency. Since c-Kit is an important molecule in the expansion of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), this antibody/c-Kit chimera could be a promising tool for gene therapy targeting HSCs. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Resveratrol Improves Cell Cycle Arrest in Chronic Prostatitis Rats, by C-kit/SCF Suppression.

    PubMed

    He, Yi; Zeng, Huizhi; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Jiashu; Zeng, Xiaona; Gong, Fengtao; Liu, Qi; Yang, Bo

    2017-08-01

    Chronic prostatitis (CP) with complex pathogenesis is difficult for treatment. c-kit has been associated with the control of cell proliferation of prostate cells. This study aims to evaluate the role of resveratrol, an activator of Sirt1, in regulating the expression of c-kit in CP and investigate the consequent effects on cell cycle. Rat model of CP was established through subcutaneous injections of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine and subsequently treated with resveratrol. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to identify the histopathological changes in prostates. Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining examined the expression level of c-kit, stem cell factor (SCF), Sirt1, and cell cycle-associated proteins. The model group exhibited severe diffuse chronic inflammation, characterized by leukocyte infiltration and papillary frond protrusion into the gland cavities, and a notable increase in prostatic epithelial height. Gland lumen diameter was also significantly smaller; the activity of c-kit/SCF in the CP rats was increased significantly compared to the control group. Meanwhile, the cell cycle proteins are dysregulated significantly in CP rats. Resveratrol treatment significantly improved these factors by Sirt1 activation. Dysregulation of cell cycle was involved in the pathological processes of CP, which was improved after resveratrol treatment by the downregulation of c-kit/SCF by activating Sirt1.

  5. Generation of Functional Blood Vessels from a Single c-kit+ Adult Vascular Endothelial Stem Cell

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Shentong; Wei, Jing; Pentinmikko, Nalle; Leinonen, Hannele; Salven, Petri

    2012-01-01

    In adults, the growth of blood vessels, a process known as angiogenesis, is essential for organ growth and repair. In many disorders including cancer, angiogenesis becomes excessive. The cellular origin of new vascular endothelial cells (ECs) during blood vessel growth in angiogenic situations has remained unknown. Here, we provide evidence for adult vascular endothelial stem cells (VESCs) that reside in the blood vessel wall endothelium. VESCs constitute a small subpopulation within CD117+ (c-kit+) ECs capable of undergoing clonal expansion while other ECs have a very limited proliferative capacity. Isolated VESCs can produce tens of millions of endothelial daughter cells in vitro. A single transplanted c-kit-expressing VESC by the phenotype lin−CD31+CD105+Sca1+CD117+ can generate in vivo functional blood vessels that connect to host circulation. VESCs also have long-term self-renewal capacity, a defining functional property of adult stem cells. To provide functional verification on the role of c-kit in VESCs, we show that a genetic deficit in endothelial c-kit expression markedly decreases total colony-forming VESCs. In vivo, c-kit expression deficit resulted in impaired EC proliferation and angiogenesis and retardation of tumor growth. Isolated VESCs could be used in cell-based therapies for cardiovascular repair to restore tissue vascularization after ischemic events. VESCs also provide a novel cellular target to block pathological angiogenesis and cancer growth. PMID:23091420

  6. Inhibition of c-Kit signaling by diosmetin isolated from Chrysanthemum morifolium.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seong Jin; Jung, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Hojeong; Jeong, Daeyoung; Choi, Gildon; Park, Woo-Kyu; Kong, Jae Yang; Jin, Mu-Hyun; Cho, Heeyeong

    2014-02-01

    The interaction of stem cell factor (SCF) with its cognate receptor c-Kit is closely associated with the survival and maturation of melanocytes. To investigate novel depigmentation agents, we screened 2,000 plant extracts for c-Kit inhibitors to identify active small molecules by using time-resolved fluorescence enzyme assays. For the active extracts identified as inhibitors of c-Kit enzyme, we evaluated the effects of the active extracts and isolated flavonoids on c-Kit phosphorylation in MO7e/melanocytes. Anti-melanogenic activity was also examined in melanocytes and melanoderm model. The flavonoids such as diosmetin, apigenin, acacetin and luteolin isolated from Chrysanthemum morifolium were found to be active in inhibiting c-Kit both at enzyme and cellular levels. In addition, these flavonoids attenuated SCF-induced proliferation of human primary melanocytes without toxicity and suppressed ultraviolet (UV) B irradiation-mediated melanin synthesis significantly. Among the active flavonoids, diosmetin was found to inhibit SCF-induced melanogenesis in a human melanoderm model. These results strongly suggest that C. morifolium extract and diosmetin have potential to suppress SCF-/UVB-induced melanogenesis, and could be developed as anti-pigmentation agents.

  7. Tumor stem cells (CD271, c-kit, SOX10) in Melanomas: prognostic and outcome implications.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Amr; Gonzalez, Raul S; Lawson, Diane; Wang, Jason; Cohen, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma cells that express stem cell marker CD271 are shown to form tumors when transplanted into nude or immunodeficient mice. These tumors have a higher metastatic potential and worse prognosis than melanomas resulting from transplantation of CD271-negative cells. We studied stem cell markers (CD271, c-kit, SOX1O) in melanomas, correlating their presence with prognostic factors and outcome. A total of 82 melanomas in tissue microarrays were immunostained for CD271, c-kit, and SOX10. Results were correlated with clinicopathologic prognostic parameters (Breslow depth of invasion, Clark level, sentinel lymph node status, and pathologic stage) and outcome (recurrence, metastases, and death). Of the 82 melanomas, CD271 was expressed in 18 (21%), c-kit in 47 (57%), and SOX10 in all (100%). CD271 does show correlation with metastases (P=0.05). c-kit is associated with favorable prognostic parameters [Breslow depth (P<0.001) and pathologic stage (P=0.02)] and with improved outcome [recurrence (P=0.03) and metastases (P=0.004)]. Although SOX10 is a good diagnostic marker, it cannot be used for prognosis because it is expressed in all the melanomas studied. In conclusion, CD271 expression in melanomas is associated with increased frequency of metastases, and c-kit immunoreactivity is associated with favorable prognostic parameters and improved outcome.

  8. [Influence of c-kit RNA interference mediated by AdMax adenovirus upon gastrointestinal stromal tumor in nude mice].

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian-bao; Shi, Han-ping; Huang, Wen-sheng; Lin, Wei-hao; Dong, Wen-guang

    2011-03-01

    To investigate a novel therapeutic regiment for gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) based on c-kit RNA interference (RNAi) under the mediation of AdMax adenovirus. c-kit shRNA, whose lateral sides were decorated with restriction endonuclease sequences, was designed. The joining of c-kit shRNA and PDC316-EGFP-U6 was catalyzed by T4 DNA ligase to construct PDC316-EGFP-U6-C-KIT. Homologous recombination of AdEGFP-U6-C-KIT was performed with AdMax system. Heterotopic transplantation of GIST in nude mice was established. AdEGFP-U6-C-KIT was intratumorally injected in experimental group while blank admax adenovirus AdEGFP-U6 in control group. The volume, inhibition ratio of tumor and CD117 expression of graft tumor were compared between test and control groups. The length of c-kit shRNA was around 50 bp in agarose electrophoresis. Gene sequencing revealed the designed c-kit RNAi sequence in PDC316-EGFP-U6-C-KIT. After transfection with AdEGFP-U6-C-KIT, 293 cells presented green fluorescence. The physical and infective titer of AdEGFP-U6-C-KIT was 5 × 10(11)vp/ml and 5.67 × 10(7) pfu/ml respectively. At the end of test, the mean volume of graft tumor was significantly smaller in test group than in control group [(75 ± 23) vs (989 ± 31) mm(3), P = 0.000]. The inhibition ratio of tumor was 59.6% in test group. Two cases (20%) in test group and 10 (100%) in control group had a positive expression of CD117 (P = 0.001). c-kit RNAi mediated by Admax vector system can inhibit effectively the expression of c-kit gene and the growth of GIST in nude mice.

  9. Esculetin Downregulates the Expression of AML1-ETO and C-Kit in Kasumi-1 Cell Line by Decreasing Half-Life of mRNA.

    PubMed

    Sawney, Sharad; Arora, Rashi; Aggarwal, Kamal K; Saluja, Daman

    2015-01-01

    One of the most frequent genetic aberrations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is chromosomal translocation between AML1/RUNX1 on chromosome 21 and ETO gene on chromosome 8 resulting in the expression of chimeric oncogene AML1-ETO. Although patients with t(8;21) translocation have good prognosis, 5-year survival is observed only in 50% of the cases. AML1-ETO translocation is usually accompanied by overexpression of mutant C-Kit, a tyrosine kinase, which contributes to uncontrolled proliferation of premature blood cells leading to relapse and poor prognosis. We illustrate the potential use of esculetin on leukemic cell line, Kasumi-1, bearing t(8;21) translocation and mutated C-Kit gene. Esculetin decreases the expression of AML1-ETO at both protein and transcript level within 24 hours of treatment. Half-life of AML1-ETO mRNA was reduced from 7 hours to 1.5 hours. Similarly half-life of C-Kit mRNA was reduced to 2 hours from 5 hours in esculetin treated cells. Esculetin also perturbed the expression of ectopically expressed AML1-ETO in U937 cells. The decreased expression of AML1-ETO chimeric gene was associated with increased expression of LAT1 and RUNX3 genes, targets of AML1. We envisage that discovery of a drug candidate which could target both these mutated genes would be a considerable breakthrough for future application.

  10. Esculetin Downregulates the Expression of AML1-ETO and C-Kit in Kasumi-1 Cell Line by Decreasing Half-Life of mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Sawney, Sharad; Arora, Rashi; Aggarwal, Kamal K.; Saluja, Daman

    2015-01-01

    One of the most frequent genetic aberrations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is chromosomal translocation between AML1/RUNX1 on chromosome 21 and ETO gene on chromosome 8 resulting in the expression of chimeric oncogene AML1-ETO. Although patients with t(8;21) translocation have good prognosis, 5-year survival is observed only in 50% of the cases. AML1-ETO translocation is usually accompanied by overexpression of mutant C-Kit, a tyrosine kinase, which contributes to uncontrolled proliferation of premature blood cells leading to relapse and poor prognosis. We illustrate the potential use of esculetin on leukemic cell line, Kasumi-1, bearing t(8;21) translocation and mutated C-Kit gene. Esculetin decreases the expression of AML1-ETO at both protein and transcript level within 24 hours of treatment. Half-life of AML1-ETO mRNA was reduced from 7 hours to 1.5 hours. Similarly half-life of C-Kit mRNA was reduced to 2 hours from 5 hours in esculetin treated cells. Esculetin also perturbed the expression of ectopically expressed AML1-ETO in U937 cells. The decreased expression of AML1-ETO chimeric gene was associated with increased expression of LAT1 and RUNX3 genes, targets of AML1. We envisage that discovery of a drug candidate which could target both these mutated genes would be a considerable breakthrough for future application. PMID:25861270

  11. c-Kit expression and mutations in phyllodes tumors of the breast.

    PubMed

    Bose, Prithviraj; Dunn, S Terence; Yang, Jian; Allen, Richard; El-Khoury, Christian; Tfayli, Arafat

    2010-11-01

    Phyllodes tumors (PTs) represent uncommon fibroepithelial lesions of the breast that express c-Kit and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha, similar to gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). 'Activating' mutations in these genes underlie responsiveness of GISTs to imatinib. Standard treatment for breast PTs is wide local excision, with no role for targeted therapies. c-Kit (CD117) expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry in 17 cases of breast PTs. Fourteen of these cases were also subjected to KIT mutation analysis by dideoxynucleotide sequencing. Five out of 17 (29%) tumors showed weak stromal staining for CD117. No previously described 'activating' mutations were found in exons 9, 11, 13, or 17 of the KIT gene. A silent germline point mutation was found in exon 17 of one case. These data do not suggest a pathogenetic role for KIT in breast PTs. Inhibition of c-Kit signaling is unlikely to be helpful in this condition.

  12. Snapshots of mammary gland interstitial cells: methylene-blue vital staining and c-kit immunopositivity.

    PubMed

    Popescu, L M; Andrei, F; Hinescu, M E

    2005-01-01

    We show here that methylene-blue supravital staining of specimens from normal human mammary gland reveals (selectively) interstitial (stromal) cells, with 2-3 long (20-80 microm), thin, moniliform processes. Such cells appear c-kit/CD117 positive, either by immunohistochemistry (IHC) or immunofluorescence (IF). Since these features (affinity for methylene blue, c-kit positivity, and characteristic processes) define archetypal interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in light microscopy, our results suggest the existence of Cajal-like cells in the interstitium of human normal mammary gland.

  13. C-kit overexpression correlates with KIT gene copy numbers increases in phyllodes tumors of the breast.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junjun; Liu, Xiaozhen; Feng, Xiaolong; Liu, Jian; Lv, Shuhua; Zhang, Wei; Niu, Yun

    2015-01-01

    We determined c-kit expression in the stroma and epithelia of benign, borderline, and malignant phyllodes tumors (PTs), respectively, as well as the relationship between c-kit expression in stromal elements and KIT gene copy number variations (CNVs). To assess c-kit expression and KIT CNVs, 348 PT cases were studied: 120 (34.4 %) benign cases, 115 (33.1 %) borderline cases, and 113 (32.5 %) malignant cases. All of these cases were evaluated for c-kit (CD117) expression using immunohistochemistry. Forty-two cases (29 c-kit-positive in the stromal cells cases and 13 negative cases) were investigated for KIT gene CNVs via genomic polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The overall rate of c-kit positivity in the stroma was 46.8 %, as well as 24.2, 53.1, and 64.6 %, respectively, in PTs of three different grades. However, in the majority of cases, the epithelia were c-kit positive (98.2 %), and the positivity was 100, 99.1, and 95 % in PTs of three different grades, respectively. There was a significant change in the expression of c-kit in the stroma and epithelia according to grade (P < 0.001, P = 0.014). From the genomic PCR results, we can confirm that c-kit positivity in the stroma is directly correlated with KIT gene copy numbers increases (P = 0.003, P = 0.041). We demonstrated that c-kit expression in the stroma of PTs is positively associated with malignancy. c-Kit epithelial positivity was inversely correlated with PTs malignancy. c-Kit overexpression in the stroma was related to KIT gene copy numbers increases.

  14. Expression of c-kit and Slug correlates with invasion and metastasis of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yaling; Liang, Xinhua; Zheng, Min; Zhu, Zhiyu; Zhu, Guiquan; Yang, Jing; Chen, Yu

    2010-04-01

    The overexpression of c-kit seems to be frequent and specific in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), however, there is little information on correlation between c-kit expression and the invasion and metastasis. Recently, the data showed that Slug, a transcription factor of epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMT), is a molecular target that contributes to the biological specificity of c-kit signaling pathway. In this study, the expression of c-kit and Slug was evaluated in two ACC cell lines and 121 patients with ACC. The results of real-time RT-PCR and Western blot showed that ACC-2 and ACC-M cell lines expressed c-kit and Slug mRNA and protein. The immunohistochemical assay in patients demonstrated that positive expression of c-kit and Slug was observed in 108/121 (89.26%) and 87/121 (71.90%) of cases, respectively, and that c-kit and Slug expression was significantly associated with tumor site, TNM stage, histological pattern, perineural invasion, local regional recurrence and distant metastasis of patients with ACC (P<0.05). Furthermore, there was a significant association between the positive expression of c-kit and that of Slug (P=0.046). These findings indicated that c-kit/Slug pathway might participate in the invasion and metastasis of salivary ACC.

  15. Restoration of spermatogenesis after transplantation of c-Kit positive testicular cells in the fowl

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transplantation of male germ line cells into sterilized recipients has been used in mammals for conventional breeding as well as for transgenesis. This study presents an improvement in the approach for germ cell transplantation between fowl males by using an enriched subpopulation of c-Kit positive ...

  16. Enrichment in c-Kit+ enhances mesodermal and neural differentiation of human chorionic placental cells.

    PubMed

    Resca, E; Zavatti, M; Bertoni, L; Maraldi, T; De Biasi, S; Pisciotta, A; Nicoli, A; La Sala, G B; Guillot, P V; David, A L; Sebire, N J; De Coppi, P; De Pol, A

    2013-07-01

    Human term placenta (HTP) has attracted increasing attention as an alternative source of stem cells for regenerative medicine since the amniochorionic membrane harbors stem cells populations that are easily accessible, abundantly available without ethical objections. In the chorionic side of HTP we found a progenitor perivascular "niche" in which rare cells co-express Oct-4 and c-Kit. We investigated the stem cell characteristics and differentiation potential of a chorionic derived population enriched in c-Kit(+) cells and compared this to the unenriched population. Cells, isolated from the chorion of HTP, were expanded and enriched in c-Kit(+) cells (Chorionic Stem Cells-CSC). Histological staining, immunofluorescence, Western blot and flow cytometry were used to verify the stem cells characteristics of the populations and to compare the differentiation capability towards mesodermal and neural lineages in vitro. The expression of the pluripotent marker Oct-4 was greater in the CSCs compared to the unselected cells (Chorionic Cell-CC) but both Oct-4 and c-Kit expression decreased during passages. After differentiation, CSC displayed stronger chondrogenic and osteogenic potential and a greater adipogenic forming capacity compared to unselected ones. CSC differentiated better into immature oligodendrocytes while CC showed a neuronal progenitor differentiation potential. Moreover, both populations were able to differentiate in hepatogenic lineage. CSC display improved Oct-4 expression and a high differentiation potential into mesodermal lineages and oligodendrocytes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The proto-oncogene C-KIT maps to canid B-chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Graphodatsky, Alexander S; Kukekova, Anna V; Yudkin, Dmitry V; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Vorobieva, Nadezhda V; Beklemisheva, Violetta R; Perelman, Polina L; Graphodatskaya, Daria A; Trut, Lyudmila N; Yang, Fengtang; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Acland, Gregory M; Aguirre, Gustavo D

    2005-01-01

    Plant and animal karyotypes sometimes contain variable elements, that are referred to as additional or B-chromosomes. It is generally believed that B-chromosomes lack major genes and represent parasitic and selfish elements of a genome. Here we report, for the first time, the localization of a gene to B-chromosomes of mammals: red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and two subspecies of raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides). Identification of the proto-oncogene C-KIT on B-chromosomes of two Canidae species that diverged from a common ancestor more than 12.5 million years ago argues against the current view of B-chromosomes. Analyses of fox B-chromosomal C-KIT gene from a flow-sorted fox B-chromosome-specific library revealed the presence of intron-exon boundaries and high identity between sequenced regions of canine and fox B-chromosomal C-KIT copies. Identification of C-KIT gene on all B-chromosomes of two canid species provides new insight into the origin and evolution of supernumeraries and their potential role in the genome.

  18. Characterization of functional ion channels in human cardiac c-kit+ progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Ying; Li, Gang; Che, Hui; Sun, Hai-Ying; Li, Xin; Au, Wing-Kuk; Xiao, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Yan; Li, Gui-Rong

    2014-05-01

    Cardiac progenitor cells play an important role in cardiac repair and regeneration; however, their cellular biology and electrophysiology are not understood. The present study characterizes the functional ion channels in human cardiac c-kit(+) progenitor cells using whole-cell patch voltage-clamp, RT-PCR, and Western blots. We found that several ionic currents were present in human cardiac c-kit(+) progenitor cells, including a large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) current (BKCa) in 86 % of cells, an inwardly rectifying K(+) current (I Kir) in 84 % of cells, a transient outward K(+) current (I to) in 47 % of cells, a voltage-gated tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na(+) current (I Na,TTX) in 61 % of cells. Molecular identities of these ionic currents were determined with RT-PCR and Western-blot analysis. KCa.1.1 (for BKCa), Kir2.1 (for I Kir), Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 (for I to), Nav1.3 and Nav1.6 (for I Na.TTX) were abundantly expressed in human cardiac c-kit(+) progenitor cells, which do not resemble cardiomyocytes at all. These results demonstrate for the first time that four types of ionic currents including BKCa, I to, I Kir, and I Na.TTX, are heterogeneously present in human cardiac c-kit(+) cells, which may be involved in regulating cellular physiology.

  19. Amplification of a novel c-Kit activating mutation Asn(822)-Lys in the Kasumi-1 cell line: a t(8;21)-Kit mutant model for acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Beghini, Alessandro; Magnani, Ivana; Ripamonti, Carla B; Larizza, Lidia

    2002-01-01

    A subset of AML-M2/M4Eo patients has been shown to carry c-kit mutations suggesting that myelomonoblastic leukemia cells, disrupting core binding factor through t(8;21) or inv(16) chromosomal rearrangements, have a common differentiation stage suitable to c-kit mutation. In rare core binding factor leukemia patients an increased dosage of a mutated Asp816(Tyr/Val) kit allele is achieved through nonrandom duplication of chromosome 4 where the c-kit gene is located. The c-kit gene was studied in the core binding factor leukemia cell line Kasumi-1 with t(8;21) by fluorescence in situ hybridization and mutation analysis. The dosage of Asn822(Lys) mutated allele was evaluated by fluorescence semiquantitative PCR. The correct membrane homing of KIT receptor and its activating status was analysed by immunofluorescence and Western blotting respectively. We identified in the Kasumi-1 cell line a novel Asn822(Lys) ligand-independent c-kit activating mutation and demonstrated by semiquantitative PCR that the mutated allele is about fivefold amplified compared to the normal allele. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization analysis revealed that c-kit amplification maps to minute 4cen-q11 derived marker chromosome, often carrying duplicated signals, which are unequally distributed in the cell population. The Asn822(Lys) mutation affects a highly conserved codon within the tyrosine kinase activation loop leading, likewise the Asp(816) mutants, to constitutive ligand-independent activation of the KIT receptor. Results obtained point to the Kasumi-1 cell line as powerful in-vitro model for further investigation of altered KIT signal transduction pathways in acute myeloid leukemia with core binding factor rearrangements and a useful tool for pharmacological therapeutic targeting.

  20. Core binding factor acute myeloid leukaemia and c-KIT mutations.

    PubMed

    Riera, Ludovica; Marmont, Filippo; Toppino, Daniela; Frairia, Chiara; Sismondi, Francesca; Audisio, Ernesta; Di Bello, Cristiana; D'Ardia, Stefano; Di Celle, Paola Francia; Messa, Emanuela; Inghirami, Giorgio; Vitolo, Umberto; Pich, Achille

    2013-05-01

    Core binding factor (CBF) acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) represents 5-8% of all AMLs and has a relatively favourable prognosis. However, activating c-KIT mutations are reported to be associated with higher risk of relapse and shorter survival. To verify the incidence and prognostic value of c-KIT mutations in CBF AML, we retrospectively analysed bone marrow samples of 23 consecutive adult patients with de novo CBF AML [14 inv(16) and 9 t(8;21)] treated at a single institution from 2000 to 2011. All patients received standard induction chemotherapy with cytarabine, idarubicin and etoposide; 13 underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation. c-KIT mutations in exons 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14 and 17 were assessed by PCR amplification in combination with direct sequencing. c-KIT mutations (3 in exon 10 and 4 in exon 17) were detected in 7/23 (30.4%) patients, 3 with t(8;21) and 4 with inv(16). No difference in c-KIT mutation status was observed between cases with inv(16) or t(8;21) alone and cases with additional cytogenetic abnormalities. No association between gender, age, white blood cell and platelet count, peripheral blood and bone marrow blast cells at diagnosis, achievement of complete remission, cytogenetic risk groups and Wilms tumour gene 1 (WT1) levels was found. On the contrary, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) values were higher in mutated than in non-mutated patients (p=0.01). Overall survival (OS) rates were longer in CBF compared to the other types of AML and disease-free survival (DFS) was longer in inv(16) than in t(8;21) AML. OS and DFS were similar in mutated and non-mutated CBF AML patients. Our results confirm a better prognosis for CBF AML than all other AML categories, and for inv(16) than t(8;21) AML. However, no prognostic value for c-KIT mutational status was found in our series. The association between LDH levels and c-KIT mutation would indicate a more active proliferation for mutated CBF AML.

  1. Functional TRPV2 and TRPV4 channels in human cardiac c-kit(+) progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Che, Hui; Xiao, Guo-Sheng; Sun, Hai-Ying; Wang, Yan; Li, Gui-Rong

    2016-06-01

    The cellular physiology and biology of human cardiac c-kit(+) progenitor cells has not been extensively characterized and remains an area of active research. This study investigates the functional expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) and possible roles for this ion channel in regulating proliferation and migration of human cardiac c-kit(+) progenitor cells. We found that genes coding for TRPV2 and TRPV4 channels and their proteins are significantly expressed in human c-kit(+) cardiac stem cells. Probenecid, an activator of TRPV2, induced an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(2+) i ), an effect that may be attenuated or abolished by the TRPV2 blocker ruthenium red. The TRPV4 channel activator 4α-phorbol 12-13-dicaprinate induced Ca(2+) i oscillations, which can be inhibited by the TRPV4 blocker RN-1734. The alteration of Ca(2+) i by probenecid or 4α-phorbol 12-13-dicprinate was dramatically inhibited in cells infected with TRPV2 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) or TRPV4 shRNA. Silencing TRPV2, but not TRPV4, significantly reduced cell proliferation by arresting cells at the G0/G1 boundary of the cell cycle. Cell migration was reduced by silencing TRPV2 or TRPV4. Western blot revealed that silencing TRPV2 decreased expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, pERK1/2 and pAkt, whereas silencing TRPV4 only reduced pAkt expression. Our results demonstrate for the first time that functional TRPV2 and TRPV4 channels are abundantly expressed in human cardiac c-kit(+) progenitor cells. TRPV2 channels, but not TRPV4 channels, participate in regulating cell cycle progression; moreover, both TRPV2 and TRPV4 are involved in migration of human cardiac c-kit(+) progenitor cells. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  2. Cardiomyogenesis in the Developing Heart Is Regulated by c-kit-Positive Cardiac Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-Martins, João; Ogórek, Barbara; Cappetta, Donato; Matsuda, Alex; Signore, Sergio; D'Amario, Domenico; Kostyla, James; Steadman, Elisabeth; Ide-Iwata, Noriko; Sanada, Fumihiro; Iaffaldano, Grazia; Ottolenghi, Sergio; Hosoda, Toru; Leri, Annarosa; Kajstura, Jan; Anversa, Piero; Rota, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Embryonic and fetal myocardial growth is characterized by a dramatic increase in myocyte number, but whether the expansion of the myocyte compartment is dictated by activation and commitment of resident cardiac stem cells (CSCs), division of immature myocytes or both is currently unknown. Objectives In this study, we tested whether prenatal cardiac development is controlled by activation and differentiation of CSCs and whether division of c-kit-positive CSCs in the mouse heart is triggered by spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations. Results We report that embryonic-fetal c-kit-positive CSCs are self-renewing, clonogenic and multipotent in vitro and in vivo. The growth and commitment of c-kit-positive CSCs is responsible for the generation of the myocyte progeny of the developing heart. The close correspondence between values computed by mathematical modeling and direct measurements of myocyte number at E9, E14, E19 and one day after birth strongly suggests that the organogenesis of the embryonic heart is dependent on a hierarchical model of cell differentiation regulated by resident CSCs. The growth promoting effects of c-kit-positive CSCs are triggered by spontaneous oscillations in intracellular Ca2+, mediated by IP3 receptor activation, which condition asymmetric stem cell division and myocyte lineage specification. Conclusions Myocyte formation derived from CSC differentiation is the major determinant of cardiac growth during development. Division of c-kit-positive CSCs in the mouse is promoted by spontaneous Ca2+ spikes, which dictate the pattern of stem cell replication and the generation of a myocyte progeny at all phases of prenatal life and up to one day after birth. PMID:22275487

  3. Imatinib Spares cKit-Expressing Prostate Neuroendocrine Tumors, whereas Kills Seminal Vesicle Epithelial-Stromal Tumors by Targeting PDGFR-β.

    PubMed

    Jachetti, Elena; Rigoni, Alice; Bongiovanni, Lucia; Arioli, Ivano; Botti, Laura; Parenza, Mariella; Cancila, Valeria; Chiodoni, Claudia; Festinese, Fabrizio; Bellone, Matteo; Tardanico, Regina; Tripodo, Claudio; Colombo, Mario P

    2017-02-01

    Prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in males worldwide. Indeed, advanced and metastatic disease characterized by androgen resistance and often associated with neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation remains incurable. Using the spontaneous prostate cancer TRAMP model, we have shown that mast cells (MCs) support in vivo the growth of prostate adenocarcinoma, whereas their genetic or pharmacologic targeting favors prostate NE cancer arousal. Aiming at simultaneously targeting prostate NE tumor cells and MCs, both expressing the cKit tyrosine kinase receptor, we have tested the therapeutic effect of imatinib in TRAMP mice. Imatinib-treated TRAMP mice experience a partial benefit against prostate adenocarcinoma, because of inhibition of supportive MCs. However, they show an unexpected outgrowth of prostate NE tumors, likely because of defective signaling pathway downstream of cKit receptor. Also unexpected but very effective was the inhibition of epithelial-stromal tumors of the seminal vesicles achieved by imatinib treatment. These tumors normally arise in the seminal vesicles of TRAMP mice, independently of the degree of prostatic glandular lesions, and resemble phyllodes tumors found in human prostate and seminal vesicles, and in breast. In both mice and in patients, these tumors are negative for cKit but express PDGFR-β, another tyrosine kinase receptor specifically inhibited by imatinib. Our results imply a possible detrimental effect of imatinib in prostate cancer patients but suggest a promising therapeutic application of imatinib in the treatment of recurrent or metastatic phyllodes tumors. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(2); 365-75. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Antiproliferation effect of imatinib mesylate on MCF7, T-47D tumorigenic and MCF 10A nontumorigenic breast cell lines via PDGFR-β, PDGF-BB, c-Kit and SCF genes

    PubMed Central

    Kadivar, Ali; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Akbari Javar, Hamid; Karimi, Benyamin; Sedghi, Reihaneh; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Recent cancer molecular therapies are targeting main functional molecules to control applicable process of cancer cells. Attractive targets are established by receptor tyrosine kinases, such as platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs) and c-Kit as mostly irregular signaling, which is due to either over expression or mutation that is associated with tumorigenesis and cell proliferation. Imatinib mesylate is a selective inhibitor of receptor tyrosine kinase, including PDGFR-β and c-Kit. In this research, we studied how imatinib mesylate would exert effect on MCF7 and T-47D breast cancer and MCF 10A epithelial cell lines, the gene and protein expression of PDGFR-β, c-Kit and their relevant ligands platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB and stem cell factor (SCF). The MTS assay was conducted in therapeutic relevant concentration of 2–10 µM for 96, 120 and 144 h treatment. In addition, apoptosis induction and cytostatic activity of imatinib mesylate were investigated with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling TUNEL and cell cycle assays, respectively, in a time-dependent manner. Comparative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis were conducted to evaluate the expression and regulation of imatinib target genes and proteins. Our finding revealed that imatinib mesylate antiproliferation effect, apoptosis induction and cytostatic activity were significantly higher in breast cancer cell lines compared to MCF 10A. This effect might be due to the expression of PDGFR-β, PDGF-BB, c-Kit and SCF, which was expressed by all examined cell lines, except the T-47D cell line which was not expressed c-Kit. However, examined gene and proteins expressed more in cancer cell lines. Therefore, imatinib mesylate was more effective on them. It is concluded that imatinib has at least two potential targets in both examined breast cancer cell lines and can be a promising drug for targeted therapy to treat breast cancer. PMID:28260860

  5. MicroRNA-193b regulates c-Kit proto-oncogene and represses cell proliferation in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiao-ning; Lin, Ji; Gao, Li; Li, Yong-hui; Wang, Li-li; Yu, Li

    2011-09-01

    Mutations and/or overexpression of c-Kit proto-oncogene frequently occur in subsets of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and contribute to abnormal cell proliferation and poor outcomes. We showed that c-Kit expression was subject to post-transcriptional regulation by microRNA (miRNA)-193b. Notably, miR-193b was significantly down-regulated in the examined AML cells and its levels were inversely correlated with c-Kit levels. Restoration of miR-193b expression in AML cells resulted in distinctly reduced c-Kit expression and inhibited cell growth. These data reveal a role for miR-193b dysregulation in myeloid leukemogenesis and the therapeutic promise of regulating miR-193b expression for c-Kit-positive AML.

  6. c-KIT receptor expression is strictly associated with the biological behaviour of thyroid nodules

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A large amount of information has been collected on the molecular tumorigenesis of thyroid cancer. A low expression of c-KIT gene has been reported during the transformation of normal thyroid epithelium to papillary carcinoma suggesting a possible role of the gene in the differentiation of thyroid tissue rather than in the proliferation. The initial presentation of thyroid carcinoma is through a nodule and the best way nowadays to evaluate it is by fine-needle aspiration (FNA). However many thyroid FNAs are not definitively benign or malignant, yielding an indeterminate or suspicious diagnosis which ranges from 10 to 25% of FNAs. BRAF mutational analysis is commonly used to assess the malignancy of thyroid nodules but unfortunately it still leaves indeterminate diagnoses. The development of molecular initial diagnostic tests for evaluating a thyroid nodule is needed in order to define optimal surgical approach for patients with uncertain diagnosis pre- and intra-operatively. Methods In this study we extracted RNA from 82 FNA smears, 46 malignant and 36 benign at the histology, in order to evaluate by quantitative Real Time PCR the expression levels of c-KIT gene. Results We have found a highly preferential decrease rather than increase in transcript of c-KIT in malignant thyroid lesions compared to the benign ones. To explore the diagnostic utility of c-KIT expression in thyroid nodules, its expression values were divided in four arbitrarily defined classes, with class I characterized by the complete silencing of the gene. Class I and IV represented the two most informative groups, with 100% of the samples found malignant or benign respectively. The molecular analysis was proven by ROC (receiver operating characteristic) analysis to be highly specific and sensitive improving the cytological diagnostic accuracy of 15%. Conclusion We propose the use of BRAF test (after uncertain cytological diagnosis) to assess the malignancy of thyroid nodules at first

  7. Prolonged expression of the c-kit receptor in germ cells of intersex fetal testes.

    PubMed

    Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Jørgensen, N; Müller, J; Skakkebaek, N E

    1996-02-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) and its receptor Kit encoded by the c-kit proto-oncogene are crucial for the development and migration of primordial germ cells in rodents. The expression of Kit has been examined immunohistochemically in gonads obtained from five specimens of fetal tissues with intersex conditions which included 45,X/46,XY mosaicism; androgen insensitivity syndrome; and 46,XY/iso(p)Y mosaicism. Individuals with such disorders of sexual differentiation and Y-chromosome material carry a very high risk of developing testicular neoplasms. Fetal testicular germ cells of the intersex subjects expressed Kit at a later developmental age than controls, in which no Kit protein was detectable beyond the 15th week of gestation. This finding may indicate a disturbance of the chronology of germ cell development, or it may suggest a change of the regulation of c-kit expression in subjects with disorders of gonadal development.

  8. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor: analysis of outcome and correlation with c-kit status in Indian population.

    PubMed

    Cyriac, S; Rajendranath, R; Sagar, T G

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to analyse the outcome and genotypic pattern of metastatic GIST patients which is largely unknown in India. The present study was a retrospective analysis of 24 patients of metastatic GIST. The case records were analysed for clinical profile, treatment response and prognostic factors. The archival samples were retrieved for c-kit mutation analysis in all but 5 patients for mutation analysis. The median age of the study population was 56 years. At a median follow up of 29 months, the PFS was 45% at 2 years. Activating c-kit mutations were detected in 10 cases (52.6%). 80% of the mutations were located in Exon 11. The outcome of metastatic GIST patients has definitely improved from a virtually incurable state to a disease where median OS has reached 60 months. The genotype of Indian patients with GIST may be different from the western population which needs to be confirmed in a larger study.

  9. Characterization of G4-G4 Crosstalk in the c-KIT Promoter Region.

    PubMed

    Rigo, Riccardo; Sissi, Claudia

    2017-08-22

    The proximal promoter of c-KIT contains a peculiar domain that consists of three short G-rich sequences that are close together and can fold into noncanonical DNA secondary structures called G-quadruplexes (G4). Here, we focused on a sequence containing two consecutive G4 (kit2 and kit*). By electrophoretic, surface plasmon resonance, and spectroscopic techniques, we demonstrated that they retain the ability to fold into G4 upon being inserted into the extended sequence. Here, we highlighted the occurrence of crosstalk between the two forming units. This previously unexplored G4-G4 interaction modulates both the conformation and the stability of the overall arrangement of the c-KIT promoter. It is not supported by stacking of single nucleotides but refers to a G4-G4 interaction surface surrounded by a two-nucleotides loop that might represent a reliable unprecedented target for anticancer therapy.

  10. c-kit(+) cells: the tell-tale heart of cardiac regeneration?

    PubMed

    Nigro, Patrizia; Perrucci, Gianluca Lorenzo; Gowran, Aoife; Zanobini, Marco; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Pompilio, Giulio

    2015-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world. Although ongoing therapeutic strategies ameliorate symptoms and prolong life for patients with cardiovascular diseases, they do not solve the critical issue related to the loss of cardiac tissue. Accordingly, stem/progenitor cell therapy has emerged as a paramount approach for cardiac repair and regeneration. In this regard, c-kit(+) cells have animated much interest and controversy. These cells are self-renewing, clonogenic, and multipotent and display a noteworthy potential to differentiate into all cardiovascular lineages. However, their functional contribution to cardiomyocyte turnover is one of the centrally debated issues concerning their regenerative potential. Regardless, plentiful preclinical and clinical studies have been conducted which provide evidence for the capacity of c-kit(+) cells to improve cardiac function. The purpose of this review is to give a comprehensive, impartial, critical description and evaluation of the literature on c-kit(+) cells from bench to bedside in order to address their true potential, benefits and controversies.

  11. c-Kit expression in desmoid fibromatosis. Comparative immunohistochemical evaluation of two commercial antibodies.

    PubMed

    Lucas, David R; al-Abbadi, Mousa; Tabaczka, Pamela; Hamre, Merlin R; Weaver, Donald W; Mott, Michael J

    2003-03-01

    To determine the frequency of c-Kit staining in desmoids and optimize an assay for clinical use, we stained 19 desmoids from various sites at various dilutions with 2 commonly used rabbit polyclonal, anti-c-Kit antibodies (A4502, DAKO, Carpinteria, CA; C-19, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA), with and without heat-induced epitope retrieval (HIER) in citrate buffer. Approdpriate external and internal control samples were evaluated for each test condition. At dilutions of 1:50 both antibodies stained substantial numbers of desmoids: with/without HIER, A4502, 89%/63%; C-19, 37%/74%. The staining was cytoplasmic without cell membrane accentuation. However, background stromal staining and nonspecific staining of endothelium and smooth and striated muscle were problematic with both antibodies at 1:50. At higher dilutions, C-19 stained no desmoid; however, diminished staining of external and internal control samples made it unreliable. A4502 similarly stained many fewer desmoids at higher dilutions. However, it retained strong staining of both external and internal control samples and showed much less nonspecific staining. Best results were achieved at 1:250 without HIER; only weak focal staining was present in 1 desmoid. With a simple immunohistochemical method optimized for clinical use, desmoid can be regarded as a c-Kit-negative tumor.

  12. Bradykinin regulates cell growth and migration in cultured human cardiac c-Kit+ progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Wang, Yan; Li, Gui-Rong

    2017-02-14

    Bradykinin is a well-known endogenous vasoactive peptide. The present study investigated the bradykinin receptor expression in human cardiac c-Kit+ progenitor cells and the potential role of bradykinin in regulating cell cycling progression and mobility. It was found that mRNA and protein of bradykinin type 2 receptors, but not bradykinin type 1 receptors, were abundant in cultured human cardiac c-Kit+ progenitor cells. Bradykinin (1-10 nM) stimulated cell growth and migration in a concentration-dependent manner. The increase of cell proliferation was related to promoting G0/G1 transition into G2/M and S phase. Western blots revealed that bradykinin significantly increased pAkt and pERK1/2 as well as cyclin D1, which were countered by HOE140 (an antagonist of bradykinin type 2 receptors) or by silencing bradykinin type 2 receptors. The increase of pAkt, pERK1/2 and cyclin D1 by bradykinin was prevented by the PI3K inhibitor Ly294002, the PLC inhibitors U73122 and neomycin, and/or the PKC inhibitor chelerythrine and the MAPK inhibitor PD98059. Our results demonstrate the novel information that bradykinin promotes cell cycling progression and migration in human cardiac c-Kit+ progenitor cells via activating PI3K, PLC, PKC, cyclin D1, pERK1/2, and pAkt.

  13. Stage-specific Localization and Expression of c-kit in the Adult Human Testis

    PubMed Central

    Unni, Sreepoorna K.; Modi, Deepak N.; Pathak, Shilpa G.; Dhabalia, Jayesh V.; Bhartiya, Deepa

    2009-01-01

    The c-kit receptor (KIT) and its ligand, stem cell factor (SCF), represent one of the key regulators of testicular formation, development, and function and have been extensively studied in various animal models. The present study was undertaken to characterize the pattern of localization and expression of c-kit in normal adult human testis. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that KIT is expressed in the cytoplasm of spermatogonia, acrosomal granules of spermatids, and Leydig cells. Interestingly, a rather heterogenous pattern of expression of the protein along the basement membrane was observed. Intense protein localization in spermatogonia was detected in stages I–III, whereas low expression was observed in stages IV–VI of the seminiferous epithelium, indicating that the expression of the molecule was stage specific. In situ hybridization studies revealed that the transcripts of the gene were also localized in a similar non-uniform pattern. To the best of our knowledge, such a stage-specific expression of KIT has not been reported previously in the human testis. The results of the present study may expand current knowledge about the c-kit/SCF system in human spermatogenesis. (J Histochem Cytochem 57:861–869, 2009) PMID:19435714

  14. Mast Cell-Deficient W-sash c-kit Mutant KitW-sh/W-sh Mice as a Model for Investigating Mast Cell Biology in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Grimbaldeston, Michele A.; Chen, Ching-Cheng; Piliponsky, Adrian M.; Tsai, Mindy; Tam, See-Ying; Galli, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    Mice carrying certain mutations in the white spotting (W) locus (ie, c-kit) exhibit reduced c-kit tyrosine kinase-dependent signaling that results in mast cell deficiency and other phenotypic abnormalities. The c-kit mutations in KitW/W-v mice impair melanogenesis and result in anemia, sterility, and markedly reduced levels of tissue mast cells. In contrast, KitW-sh/W-sh mice, bearing the W-sash (Wsh) inversion mutation, have mast cell deficiency but lack anemia and sterility. We report that adult KitW-sh/W-sh mice had a profound deficiency in mast cells in all tissues examined but normal levels of major classes of other differentiated hematopoietic and lymphoid cells. Unlike KitW/W-v mice, KitW-sh/W-sh mice had normal numbers of TCRγδ intraepithelial lymphocytes in the intestines and did not exhibit a high incidence of idiopathic dermatitis, ulcers, or squamous papillomas of the stomach, but like KitW/W-v mice, they lacked interstitial cells of Cajal in the gut and exhibited bile reflux into the stomach. Systemic or local reconstitution of mast cell populations was achieved in nonirradiated adult KitW-sh/W-sh mice by intravenous, intraperitoneal, or intradermal injection of wild-type bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells but not by transplantation of wild-type bone marrow cells. Thus, KitW-sh/W-sh mice represent a useful model for mast cell research, especially for analyzing mast cell function in vivo. PMID:16127161

  15. Identification of a cKit+ Colonic Crypt Base Secretory Cell That Supports Lgr5+ Stem Cells in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberg, Michael E.; Nusse, Ysbrand; Kalisky, Tomer; Lee, John J.; Dalerba, Piero; Scheeren, Ferenc; Lobo, Neethan; Kulkarni, Subhash; Sim, Sopheak; Qian, Dalong; Beachy, Philip A.; Pasricha, Pankaj J.; Quake, Stephen R.; Clarke, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Paneth cells contribute to the small intestinal niche of Lgr5+ stem cells. Although the colon also contains Lgr5+ stem cells, it does not contain Paneth cells. We investigated the existence of colonic Paneth-like cells that have a distinct transcriptional signature and support Lgr5+ stem cells. Methods We used multicolor fluorescence-activated cell sorting to isolate different subregions of colon crypts, based on known markers, from dissociated colonic epithelium of mice. We performed multiplexed single-cell gene expression analysis with quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction followed by hierarchical clustering analysis to characterize distinct cell types. We used immunostaining and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses with in vivo administration of a Notch inhibitor and in vitro organoid cultures to characterize different cell types. Results Multicolor fluorescence-activated cell sorting could isolate distinct regions of colonic crypts. Four major epithelial subtypes or transcriptional states were revealed by gene expression analysis of selected populations of single cells. One of these, the goblet cells, contained a distinct cKit/CD117+ crypt base subpopulation that expressed Dll1, Dll4, and epidermal growth factor, similar to Paneth cells, which were also marked by cKit. In the colon, cKit+ goblet cells were interdigitated with Lgr5+ stem cells. In vivo, this colonic cKit+ population was regulated by Notch signaling; administration of a γ-secretase inhibitor to mice increased the number of cKit+ cells. When isolated from mouse colon, cKit+ cells promoted formation of organoids from Lgr5+ stem cells, which expressed Kitl/stem cell factor, the ligand for cKit. When organoids were depleted of cKit+ cells using a toxin-conjugated antibody, organoid formation decreased. Conclusions cKit marks small intestinal Paneth cells and a subset of colonic goblet cells that are regulated by Notch signaling and support Lgr5+stem

  16. GM-CSF Inhibits c-Kit and SCF Expression by Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Barroeta Seijas, Amairelys Belen; Simonetti, Sonia; Vitale, Sara; Runci, Daniele; Quinci, Angela Caterina; Soriani, Alessandra; Criscuoli, Mattia; Filippi, Irene; Naldini, Antonella; Sacchetti, Federico Maria; Tarantino, Umberto; Oliva, Francesco; Piccirilli, Eleonora; Santoni, Angela; Di Rosa, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF), the ligand of c-kit, is a key cytokine for hematopoiesis. Hematopoietic precursors express c-kit, whereas differentiated cells of hematopoietic lineage are negative for this receptor, with the exception of NK cells, mast cells, and a few others. While it has long been recognized that dendritic cells (DCs) can express c-kit, several questions remain concerning the SCF/c-kit axis in DCs. This is particularly relevant for DCs found in those organs wherein SCF is highly expressed, including the bone marrow (BM). We characterized c-kit expression by conventional DCs (cDCs) from BM and demonstrated a higher proportion of c-kit+ cells among type 1 cDC subsets (cDC1s) than type 2 cDC subsets (cDC2s) in both humans and mice, whereas similar levels of c-kit expression were observed in cDC1s and cDC2s from mouse spleen. To further study c-kit regulation, DCs were generated with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) from mouse BM, a widely used protocol. CD11c+ cells were purified from pooled non-adherent and slightly adherent cells collected after 7 days of culture, thus obtaining highly purified BM-derived DCs (BMdDCs). BMdDCs contained a small fraction of c-kit+ cells, and by replating them for 2 days with GM-CSF, we obtained a homogeneous population of c-kit+ CD40hi MHCIIhi cells. Not only did BMdDCs express c-kit but they also produced SCF, and both were striking upregulated if GM-CSF was omitted after replating. Furthermore, a small but significant reduction in BMdDC survival was observed upon SCF silencing. Incubation of BMdDCs with SCF did not modulate antigen presentation ability of these cells, nor it did regulate their membrane expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4. We conclude that the SCF/c-kit-mediated prosurvival circuit may have been overlooked because of the prominent use of GM-CSF in DC cultures in vitro, including those human DC cultures destined for the clinics. We speculate that DCs more prominently rely

  17. GM-CSF Inhibits c-Kit and SCF Expression by Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Barroeta Seijas, Amairelys Belen; Simonetti, Sonia; Vitale, Sara; Runci, Daniele; Quinci, Angela Caterina; Soriani, Alessandra; Criscuoli, Mattia; Filippi, Irene; Naldini, Antonella; Sacchetti, Federico Maria; Tarantino, Umberto; Oliva, Francesco; Piccirilli, Eleonora; Santoni, Angela; Di Rosa, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF), the ligand of c-kit, is a key cytokine for hematopoiesis. Hematopoietic precursors express c-kit, whereas differentiated cells of hematopoietic lineage are negative for this receptor, with the exception of NK cells, mast cells, and a few others. While it has long been recognized that dendritic cells (DCs) can express c-kit, several questions remain concerning the SCF/c-kit axis in DCs. This is particularly relevant for DCs found in those organs wherein SCF is highly expressed, including the bone marrow (BM). We characterized c-kit expression by conventional DCs (cDCs) from BM and demonstrated a higher proportion of c-kit(+) cells among type 1 cDC subsets (cDC1s) than type 2 cDC subsets (cDC2s) in both humans and mice, whereas similar levels of c-kit expression were observed in cDC1s and cDC2s from mouse spleen. To further study c-kit regulation, DCs were generated with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) from mouse BM, a widely used protocol. CD11c(+) cells were purified from pooled non-adherent and slightly adherent cells collected after 7 days of culture, thus obtaining highly purified BM-derived DCs (BMdDCs). BMdDCs contained a small fraction of c-kit(+) cells, and by replating them for 2 days with GM-CSF, we obtained a homogeneous population of c-kit(+) CD40(hi) MHCII(hi) cells. Not only did BMdDCs express c-kit but they also produced SCF, and both were striking upregulated if GM-CSF was omitted after replating. Furthermore, a small but significant reduction in BMdDC survival was observed upon SCF silencing. Incubation of BMdDCs with SCF did not modulate antigen presentation ability of these cells, nor it did regulate their membrane expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4. We conclude that the SCF/c-kit-mediated prosurvival circuit may have been overlooked because of the prominent use of GM-CSF in DC cultures in vitro, including those human DC cultures destined for the clinics. We speculate that DCs more

  18. Analysis of POU5F1, c-Kit, PLAP, AP2γ and SALL4 in gonocytes of patients with cryptorchidism.

    PubMed

    Vigueras-Villaseñor, Rosa María; Cortés-Trujillo, Lucero; Chávez-Saldaña, Margarita; Vázquez, Francisco García; Carrasco-Daza, Daniel; Cuevas-Alpuche, Osvaldo; Rojas-Castañeda, Julio César

    2015-10-01

    Cryptorchidism is a risk factor for the development of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs). The most common type of TGCT in cryptorchidism is seminoma. The intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified (ITGCNU) is a histological pattern preceding the development of seminomas and non-seminomas. It was suggested that in patients with cryptorchidism, the gonocytes remained undifferentiated with pluripotent abilities expressing proteins like POU domain class 5 transcription factor 1 (POU5F1), tyrosine kinase receptor c-Kit, placental-like alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), the transcription factor AP2γ and sal-like protein 4 (SALL4) that confer to the gonocytes this ability and therefore make them susceptible to develop ITGCNU. The aim of the present study was to determine if the gonocytes of patients with cryptorchidism express POU5F1, c-Kit, PLAP, AP2γ and SALL4 proteins after their differentiation period. Based on this, we evaluated samples of testicular tissue from newborns to 16-year old subjects with or without cryptorchidism in search of POU5F1, c-Kit, PLAP, AP2γ and SALL4 using immunocytochemical method, the results of which were validated by RT-PCR. The results showed that control subjects witnessed a down-regulation in the expression of these five proteins in the first year of life, which eventually disappeared. On the other hand, it was determined that 21.6% (8/37) of the patients with cryptorchidism continued to express, at least, one of the proteins analyzed in this study after the second year of life. And only 5.4% (2/37) of the patients were positive to the five markers. These data sustain the proposed hypothesis that in cryptorchid patients, ITGCNU arises from gonocytes that fail in their differentiation process to spermatogonia with conservation of the proteins (POU5F1, c-Kit, PLAP, AP2γ and SALL4) that maintain pluripotency and undifferentiated characteristics and which are responsible for making the gonocytes susceptible to malignancy. However, we

  19. Intratumoral CD3+ T-Lymphocytes Immunoexpression and Its Association with c-Kit, Angiogenesis, and Overall Survival in Malignant Canine Mammary Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Maria Isabel; Pires, Isabel; Dias, Marlene; Prada, Justina; Gregório, Hugo; Lobo, Luis; Queiroga, Felisbina

    2015-01-01

    In this study 80 malignant CMT were submitted to immunohistochemical detection of CD3, c-kit, VEGF, and CD31, together with clinicopathological parameters of tumor aggressiveness. CD3+ T-cells and c-kit overexpression revealed a positive correlation with VEGF (r = 0.503, P < 0.0001; r = 0.284, P = 0.023 for CD3 and c-kit, resp.) and CD31 (r = 0.654, P < 0.0001; r = 0.365, P = 0.003 for CD3 and c-kit, resp.). A significant association (P = 0.039) and a positive correlation (r = 0.263, P = 0.039) between CD3 and c-kit were also observed. High CD3/VEGF, c-kit/VEGF, and CD3/c-kit tumors were associated with elevated grade of malignancy (P < 0.0001 for all groups), presence of intravascular emboli (P < 0.0001 for CD3/VEGF and CD3/c-kit; P = 0.002 for c-kit/VEGF), and presence of lymph node metastasis (P < 0.0001 for all groups). Tumors with high CD3/VEGF (P = 0.006), c-kit/VEGF (P < 0.0001), and CD3/c-kit (P = 0.002) were associated with poor prognosis. Interestingly high c-kit/VEGF tumors retained their significance by multivariate analysis arising as independent prognostic factor. PMID:26346272

  20. Development of c-kit immunopositive interstitial cells of Cajal in the human stomach

    PubMed Central

    Radenkovic, Goran; Savic, Vojin; Mitic, Dejan; Grahovac, Srdjan; Bjelakovic, Marija; Krstic, Miljan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) include several types of specialized cells within the musculature of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Some types of ICC act as pacemakers in the GIT musculature, whereas others are implicated in the modulation of enteric neurotransmission. Kit immunohistochemistry reliably identifies the location of these cells and provides information on changes in ICC distribution and density. Human stomach specimens were obtained from 7 embryos and 28 foetuses without gastrointestinal disorders. The specimens were 7–27 weeks of gestational age, and both sexes are represented in the sample. The specimens were exposed to anti-c-kit antibodies to investigate ICC differentiation. Enteric plexuses were immunohistochemically examined by using anti-neuron specific enolase and the differentiation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) was studied with anti-α smooth muscle actin and anti-desmin antibodies. By week 7, c-kit-immunopositive precursors formed a layer in the outer stomach wall around myenteric plexus elements. Between 9 and 11 weeks some of these precursors differentiated into ICC. ICC at the myenteric plexus level differentiated first, followed by those within the muscle layer: between SMC, at the circular and longitudinal layers, and within connective tissue septa enveloping muscle bundles. In the fourth month, all subtypes of c-kit-immunoreactivity ICC which are necessary for the generation of slow waves and their transfer to SMC have been developed. These results may help elucidate the origin of ICC and the aetiology and pathogenesis of stomach motility disorders in neonates and young children that are associated with absence or decreased number of these cells. PMID:19298525

  1. mTOR, VEGF, PDGFR, and c-kit signaling pathway activation in Kaposi sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Darcy A; Busarla, Satya Vara Prasad; Gimbel, Devon C; Sohani, Aliyah R; Nazarian, Rosalynn M

    2017-07-01

    Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a locally progressive, intermediate-grade vascular neoplasm with no known cure, high recurrence rates, and potential for wide dissemination. Low efficacy and high toxicity limit current therapeutic options for advanced disease. Activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and c-kit signaling pathways has been implicated in KS pathogenesis and may suggest a role for targeted inhibitors. KS cases were retrospectively retrieved (N=274), most (90%) associated with human immunodeficiency virus. Tissue microarray slides were stained with human herpes virus-8, Friend leukemia integration 1 transcription factor, CD117 (c-kit), phospho-S6 (pS6), PDGF receptor-β, VEGF, and phospho-mTOR. Both intensity and extent of staining were scored. Multiplying these scores for each core yielded total staining H-scores. Human herpes virus-8 was positive in 87% and Friend leukemia integration 1 transcription factor in 95.7% of cases. Most were also VEGF+ (97.6%), pS6+ (95.7%), CD117+ (92.5%), and PDGFRB+ (87.4%). Approximately half (55.6%) were phospho-mTOR+. There was no significant difference in staining among patients with low (<500 cells/mm(3)) or preserved CD4 T-cell counts. Immunohistochemistry confirms upregulation of the mTOR, PDGF, VEGF, and c-kit pathways in a large cohort of KS samples. Of proteins tested, pS6, downstream of mTOR, demonstrated the highest proportion of strong positivity (67.1%). These results support the possibility of using targeted inhibitors in KS. Overexpression was independent of CD4 count, suggesting that even patients with low counts may be targeted therapy candidates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Intestinal Lin- c-Kit+ NKp46- CD4- population strongly produces IL-22 upon IL-1β stimulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngae; Kumagai, Yutaro; Jang, Min Seong; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Yang, Bo-Gie; Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, You-Me; Akira, Shizuo; Jang, Myoung Ho

    2013-05-15

    Small intestinal innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) regulate intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis and help to prevent pathogenic bacterial infections by producing IL-22. In a global gene-expression analysis comparing small intestinal ILCs (Lin(-)c-Kit(+)Sca-1(-) cells) with non-ILCs (Lin(-)c-Kit(-)Sca-1(-) cells), we found that Lin(-)c-Kit(+)Sca-1(-) cells highly expressed the mRNAs for Il22, antimicrobial peptides, Csf2rb2 (Il3r), mast cell proteases, and Rorc. We then subdivided the Lin(-)c-Kit(+)Sca-1(-) cells into three groups--Lin(-)c-Kit(+)NKp46(-)CD4(-), Lin(-)c-Kit(+)NKp46(-)CD4(+) (CD4(+) LTi-like cells), and Lin(-)c-Kit(+)NKp46(+) (NKp46(+) ILC22 cells)--and showed that the Lin(-)c-Kit(+)NKp46(-)CD4(-) cells produced the highest level of IL-22 protein after IL-1β, IL-23, or IL-1β and IL-23 stimulation. In addition, we showed that the majority of the Lin(-)c-Kit(+)NKp46(-)CD4(-) population was IL-7Rα(+)CD34(-)β7(int) cells, and IL-7Rα(-) cells could be divided into three subsets (CD34(+)β7(int), CD34(-)β7(int), and CD34(int)β7(hi) cells). The IL-7Rα(+)CD34(-)β7(int) cells strongly expressed the transcripts for Il17f and Il22 after costimulation with IL-1β and IL-23. The IL-7Rα(-)CD34(+)β7(int) and IL-7Rα(-)CD34(int)β7(hi) cells predominantly expressed the transcripts for mast cell proteases and differentiated almost entirely into mast cells after 1 wk in culture medium supplemented with a cytokine mixture, whereas the IL-7Rα(-)CD34(-)β7(int) cells highly expressed α-defensins and showed no differentiation. Taken together, these findings indicate that the IL-7Rα(-)CD34(+)β7(int) and IL-7Rα(-)CD34(int)β7(hi) populations are mast cell progenitors, and the IL-7Rα(+)CD34(-)β7(int) (CD4(-) LTi-like cells) and IL-7Rα(-)CD34(-)β7(int) populations within Lin(-)c-Kit(+)NKp46(-)CD4(-) cells may control intestinal homeostasis and provide intestinal protection by producing high levels of IL-22 and α-defensins, respectively.

  3. Postsurgical radiation therapy for gastric carcinosarcoma with c-kit expression: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Gohongi, Takeshi; Iida, Hiroyuki; Gunji, Naoto; Orii, Kazuo; Ogata, Takesaburo

    2015-01-01

    Gastric carcinosarcomas are rare morphologically biphasic tumors, consisting of carcinoma and sarcoma components, with a poor clinical course. Here we report the case of a 70-year-old man with advanced Borrmann type III carcinosarcoma arising from the upper body of the stomach with extensive lymph node metastasis who underwent a total, but palliative, gastrectomy. Histology showed the tumor consisted of a biphasic structure of tubular adenocarcinoma and spindle cell sarcoma. Immunohistochemistry revealed sarcoma cells expressing c-kit (CD117) and CD34, which are criteria for gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Nine months after the surgical operation, tumor metastases had extended to the hepatohilar, retroperitoneal and mediastinal lymph nodes. Radiation therapy of 50 Gy markedly decreased the size of each of these nodes and reduced the risk of respiratory complications and jaundice. However, the patient died of respiratory failure due to bronchopneumonia with multiple lung metastases 22 mo after resection. Autopsy revealed severe necrosis in most of the lymph nodes with tumor metastases. Radiation therapy combined with gastrectomy should be considered to improve survival in patients with gastric carcinosarcomas that express c-kit. PMID:25759557

  4. Celastrol Induces Cell Apoptosis and Inhibits the Expression of the AML1-ETO/C-KIT Oncoprotein in t(8;21) Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xianjun; Ruan, Xuzhi; Zhang, Jingxuan; Zhao, Qun

    2016-04-30

    Resistance to chemotherapy is a major challenge to improving overall survival in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). Therefore, the development of innovative therapies and the identification of more novel agents for AML are urgently needed. Celastrol, a compound extracted from the Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook, exerts anticancer activity. We investigated the effect of celastrol in the t(8;21) AML cell lines Kasumi-1 and SKNO-1. We demonstrated that inhibition of cell proliferation activated caspases and disrupted mitochondrial function. In addition, we found that celastrol downregulated the AML1-ETO fusion protein, therefore downregulating C-KIT kinases and inhibiting AKT, STAT3 and Erk1/2. These findings provide clear evidence that celastrol might provide clinical benefits to patients with t(8;21) leukemia.

  5. Mapping the binding site of a large set of quinazoline type EGF-R inhibitors using molecular field analyses and molecular docking studies.

    PubMed

    Hou, Tingjun; Zhu, Lili; Chen, Lirong; Xu, Xiaojie

    2003-01-01

    In the current work, three-dimensional QSAR studies for one large set of quinazoline type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) inhibitors were conducted using two types of molecular field analysis techniques: comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA). These compounds belonging to six different structural classes were randomly divided into a training set of 122 compounds and a test set of 13 compounds. The statistical results showed that the 3D-QSAR models derived from CoMFA were superior to those generated from CoMSIA. The most optimal CoMFA model after region focusing bears significant cross-validated r(2)(cv) of 0.60 and conventional r(2) of 0.92. The predictive power of the best CoMFA model was further validated by the accurate estimation to these compounds in the external test set, and the mean agreement of experimental and predicted log(IC(50)) values of the inhibitors is 0.6 log unit. Separate CoMFA models were conducted to evaluate the influence of different partial charges (Gasteiger-Marsili, Gasteiger-Hückel, MMFF94, ESP-AM1, and MPA-AM1) on the statistical quality of the models. The resulting CoMFA field map provides information on the geometry of the binding site cavity and the relative weights of various properties in different site pockets for each of the substrates considered. Moreover, in the current work, we applied MD simulations combined with MM/PBSA (Molecular mechanics/Possion-Boltzmann Surface Area) to determine the correct binding mode of the best inhibitor for which no ligand-protein crystal structure was present. To proceed, we define the following procedure: three hundred picosecond molecular dynamics simulations were first performed for the four binding modes suggested by DOCK 4.0 and manual docking, and then MM/PBSA was carried out for the collected snapshots. The most favorable binding mode identified by MM/PBSA has a binding free energy about 10 kcal/mol more

  6. Phase II trial of dasatinib for recurrent or metastatic c-KIT expressing adenoid cystic carcinoma and for nonadenoid cystic malignant salivary tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wong, S. J.; Karrison, T.; Hayes, D. N.; Kies, M. S.; Cullen, K. J.; Tanvetyanon, T.; Argiris, A.; Takebe, N.; Lim, D.; Saba, N. F.; Worden, F. P.; Gilbert, J.; Lenz, H. J.; Razak, A. R. A.; Roberts, J. D.; Vokes, E. E.; Cohen, E. E. W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a subtype of malignant salivary gland tumors (MSGT), in which 90% of cases express cKIT. Dasatinib is a potent and selective inhibitor of five oncogenic protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs)/kinase families including cKIT. We conducted a phase II study to determine the antitumor activity of dasatinib in ACC and non-ACC MSGT. Patients and methods In a two-stage design, patients with progressive, recurrent/metastatic ACC (+cKIT) and non-ACC MSGT (separate cohort) were treated with dasatinib 70 mg p.o. b.i.d. Response was assessed every 8 weeks using RECIST. Results Of 54 patients: 40 ACC, 14 non-ACC (1, ineligible excluded); M:F = 28 : 26, median age 56 years (range 20–82 years), ECOG performance status 0 : 1 : 2 = 24 : 28 : 2, prior radiation: 44, prior chemotherapy: 21. The most frequent adverse events (AEs) (as % of patients, worst grade 2 or higher) were: fatigue (28%), nausea (19%), headache (15%), lymphopenia (7%), dyspnea (11%), alanine aminotransferase increased (7%), anorexia (7%), vomiting (7%), alkaline phosphatase increased (6%), diarrhea (6%), neutropenia (6%), and noncardiac chest pain (6%). No grade 4 AE occurred, 15 patients experienced a grade 3 AE, primarily dyspnea (5) and fatigue (4), and cardiac toxicity (1 prolonged QTc). Among ACC patients, best response to dasatinib: 1 patient (2.5%) had partial response, 20 patients (50%) had stable disease (SD) (3–14 months), 12 patients (30%) had PD, 2 withdrew, 3 discontinued therapy due to AE, and 2 died before cycle 2. Median progression-free survival was 4.8 months. Median overall survival was 14.5 months. For 14 assessable non-ACC patients, none had objective response, triggering early stopping rule. Seven had SD (range 1–7 months), 4 PD, 2 discontinued therapy due to AE, and 1 died before cycle 2. Conclusion Although there was only one objective response, dasatinib is well tolerated, with tumor stabilization achieved by 50% of ACC patients. Dasatinib

  7. Phase II trial of dasatinib for recurrent or metastatic c-KIT expressing adenoid cystic carcinoma and for nonadenoid cystic malignant salivary tumors.

    PubMed

    Wong, S J; Karrison, T; Hayes, D N; Kies, M S; Cullen, K J; Tanvetyanon, T; Argiris, A; Takebe, N; Lim, D; Saba, N F; Worden, F P; Gilbert, J; Lenz, H J; Razak, A R A; Roberts, J D; Vokes, E E; Cohen, E E W

    2016-02-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a subtype of malignant salivary gland tumors (MSGT), in which 90% of cases express cKIT. Dasatinib is a potent and selective inhibitor of five oncogenic protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs)/kinase families including cKIT. We conducted a phase II study to determine the antitumor activity of dasatinib in ACC and non-ACC MSGT. In a two-stage design, patients with progressive, recurrent/metastatic ACC (+cKIT) and non-ACC MSGT (separate cohort) were treated with dasatinib 70 mg p.o. b.i.d. Response was assessed every 8 weeks using RECIST. Of 54 patients: 40 ACC, 14 non-ACC (1, ineligible excluded); M:F = 28 : 26, median age 56 years (range 20-82 years), ECOG performance status 0 : 1 : 2 = 24 : 28 : 2, prior radiation: 44, prior chemotherapy: 21. The most frequent adverse events (AEs) (as % of patients, worst grade 2 or higher) were: fatigue (28%), nausea (19%), headache (15%), lymphopenia (7%), dyspnea (11%), alanine aminotransferase increased (7%), anorexia (7%), vomiting (7%), alkaline phosphatase increased (6%), diarrhea (6%), neutropenia (6%), and noncardiac chest pain (6%). No grade 4 AE occurred, 15 patients experienced a grade 3 AE, primarily dyspnea (5) and fatigue (4), and cardiac toxicity (1 prolonged QTc). Among ACC patients, best response to dasatinib: 1 patient (2.5%) had partial response, 20 patients (50%) had stable disease (SD) (3-14 months), 12 patients (30%) had PD, 2 withdrew, 3 discontinued therapy due to AE, and 2 died before cycle 2. Median progression-free survival was 4.8 months. Median overall survival was 14.5 months. For 14 assessable non-ACC patients, none had objective response, triggering early stopping rule. Seven had SD (range 1-7 months), 4 PD, 2 discontinued therapy due to AE, and 1 died before cycle 2. Although there was only one objective response, dasatinib is well tolerated, with tumor stabilization achieved by 50% of ACC patients. Dasatinib demonstrated no activity in non-ACC MSGT. © The Author 2015

  8. Integrated pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling and allometric scaling for optimizing the dosage regimen of the monoclonal ior EGF/r3 antibody.

    PubMed

    Duconge, Jorge; Castillo, Rubén; Crombet, Tania; Alvarez, Daniel; Matheu, Janet; Vecino, Gloria; Alonso, Katia; Beausoleil, Irene; Valenzuela, Carmen; Becquer, Maria A; Fernández-Sánchez, Eduardo

    2004-02-01

    The multiple-dose strategy with the monoclonal ior EGF/r3 antibody, in xenograft bearing nude mice, was supported upon the basis of its integrated pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship, according to both the temporal (K(e0)=0.0015+/-0.000035h(-1)) and the time-independent sensitivity (C(50%)(ss), 9.23+/-0.17microg/ml; C(max,eff)(ss), 12.5microg/ml) components of its tumor growth delay action. This relationship was consistent with a sigmoidal E(max) pharmacodynamic model postulating a hypothetical effect compartment that permits us to estimate an effective steady-state concentration range (7.5-12microg/ml). Using this information we calculated both the cumulative and non-cumulative dosage regimens to compare their response patterns with respect to the control group. It follows that the differences in the estimated tumor growth inhibition ratio were statistically significant between the control group and either of the treated ones (P<0.05). The median survival time in treated mice under non-cumulative regimen (72+/-10 days), predicted an increase in this parameter as compared to the control one (55+/-6 days). Finally, using the allometric paradigm, the empiric power equation for dose scaling across mammalian species allowed the calculation of the dosage schedule for further clinical trial. The estimated maintenance dose in human (70kg) was 200mg/m(2) to be given weekly, and the corresponding loading dose was 600mg/m(2).

  9. Characterization of GIST/GIPACT tumors by inmunohistochemistry and exon 11 analysis of c-kit by PCR.

    PubMed

    Bernet, L; Zuñiga, A; Cano, R

    2003-10-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST/GIPACT) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract and are characterized by the constant immunohistochemical expression of CD117. In recent years, sporadic and germ line mutations in the c-kit gene have been described in GIST/GIPACT tumors, resulting in a constitutive activation of the gene. The most prevalent mutation is located in exon 11 of the c-kit gene, involved in the transcription of the juxta-membrane domain of the c-kit protein. There are conflicting reports with respect to the association between exon 11 mutations and the biological behavior of GIST/GIPACT tumors. This work studies eight patients with tumors diagnosed as GIST/GIPACT, both morphologically and immunohistochemically for CD117, CD34, a-smooth muscle actin, desmin and S-100 protein primary antibodies. The DNA of the eight cases was also studied by PCR for mutation of exon 11 of the c-kit gene. All cases were CD117 positive, but only two showed mutation of exon 11. These last two cases did not show morphological characteristics of malignancy. The most aggressive case, with early death of the patient, did not show the mutation. In conclusion, there was no correlation between the mutation of exon 11 of the c-kit gene and the malignant behavior of GIST/GIPACT tumors in our series.

  10. CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells have hematopoietic properties in the mouse aorta-gonad-mesonephros region

    SciTech Connect

    Nobuhisa, Ikuo

    2012-04-01

    Long-term reconstituting hematopoietic stem cells first arise from the aorta of the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region in a mouse embryo. We have previously reported that in cultures of the dispersed AGM region, CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup +} cells possess the ability to reconstitute multilineage hematopoietic cells, but investigations are needed to show that this is not a cultured artifact and to clarify when and how this population is present. Based on the expression profile of CD45 and c-Kit in freshly dissociated AGM cells from embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5) to E12.5 and aorta cells in the AGM from E13.5 to E15.5, we defined six cell populations (CD45{sup -}c-Kit{sup -}, CD45{sup -}c-Kit{sup low}, CD45{sup -}c-Kit{sup high}, CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high}, CD45{sup high}c-Kit{sup high}, and CD45{sup high}c-Kit{sup very} {sup low}). Among these six populations, CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells were most able to form hematopoietic cell colonies, but their ability decreased after E11.5 and was undetectable at E13.5 and later. The CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells showed multipotency in vitro. We demonstrated further enrichment of hematopoietic activity in the Hoechst dye-effluxing side population among the CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells. Here, we determined that CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells arise from the lateral plate mesoderm using embryonic stem cell-derived differentiation system. In conclusion, CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells are the major hematopoietic cells of mouse AGM.

  11. Imatinib mesylate treatment in a dog with gastrointestinal stromal tumors with a c-kit mutation.

    PubMed

    Irie, Mitsuhiro; Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Ohtake, Yuzo; Suzuki, Hitomi; Nagata, Nao; Miyoshi, Takuma; Kagawa, Yumiko; Yamagami, Tetsushi

    2015-11-01

    A 13-year-old spayed mixed-breed dog was diagnosed with a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) after histopathological examination of an abdominal mass. Five months after surgical resection of the tumor, we detected the recurrence of GIST with multiple disseminated abdominal lesions. A sequence analysis of cDNA obtained from a biopsy of the recurrent tumors revealed a mutation within exon 9 of the c-kit gene (1523A>T, Asn(508)Ile), which has been shown to cause ligand-independent phosphorylation of the KIT protein in GISTs and canine mast cell tumors (MCTs). Upon detection of the recurrent tumors, we initiated treatment with imatinib mesylate (10 mg/kg, q 24 hr). After 2 months, the dog achieved complete remission. Our findings indicate that canine GIST, and possibly MCT, may be responsive to molecular-targeted therapy.

  12. Fetal microchimerism persists at high levels in c-kit stem cells in sensitized mothers.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Partha; Dart, Melanie L; Schumacher, Steve M; Burlingham, William J

    2010-10-01

    We previously showed that fetal and maternal exposure to non-inherited maternal antigens (NIMA) during gestation and nursing resulted in lifelong tolerance to NIMA in some offspring. This NIMA-specific tolerance was mediated by regulatory T cells (Tregs) and was correlated with the level of multi-lineage maternal microchimerism (Mc) indicating a causative link between Mc and Treg development. To determine if transfer of fetal cells into mothers resulted in a similar tolerance to fetal cells, we used qPCR to detect rare fetal derived cells and a delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) assay to detect fetal alloantigen-specific effector and regulatory T cells in mothers. We found that 5/8 B6 mothers of H2(b/d) offspring were sensitized to the alloantigens H2(d) and HY, indicating a dominance of alloantigen-specific effector T cells. Though these sensitized mothers did not have detectable fetal Mc (FMc) in any of the organs tested, they had very high levels of fetus-derived c-kit(+) stem cells in their bone marrow. The remaining 3/8 B6 mothers that were not sensitized to the fetal antigens had detectable FMc found mostly in heart, lungs and liver, and in 2/3, we could detect alloantigen-specific regulatory T cells. This data indicates that, as in NIMA-specific tolerance, tolerance in multiparous females to inherited paternal antigens (IPA) expressed by the fetus is associated with the presence of fetal Mc in differentiated cell subsets. Surprisingly, robust lin(-)c-kit(+) bone marrow cell fetal Mc can occur in sensitized mothers. This suggests a continuous source of allospecific priming, coupled with active elimination of mature IPA-expressing lin(+) cells by effector T cells of the maternal host.

  13. Structure-based de novo design and identification of D816V mutant-selective c-KIT inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Park, Hwangseo; Lee, Soyoung; Lee, Suhyun; Hong, Sungwoo

    2014-07-14

    To identify potent and selective inhibitors of D816V, the most common gain-of-function c-KIT mutant, we carried out structure-based de novo design using 7-azaindole as the core and the scoring function improved by implementing an accurate solvation free energy term. This approach led to the identification of new c-KIT inhibitors specific for the D816V mutant. The 3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-7-azaindole scaffold was optimized and represents a lead structure for the design of the potent and specific inhibitors of the D816V mutant. The results of molecular dynamics simulations indicate that hydrogen bonding interactions between the 7-azadindole moiety and the backbone groups of Cys673 are the most significant determinant for the potency and selectivity of c-KIT inhibitors.

  14. Effect of disruption of Akt-1 of lin(-)c-kit(+) stem cells on myocardial performance in infarcted heart.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Andy; Stabila, Joan; McGonnigal, Beth; Yano, Naohiro; Yang, Mao-Jing; Tseng, Yi-Tang; Davol, Pamela A; Lum, Lawrence G; Padbury, James F; Zhao, Ting C

    2010-09-01

    We have demonstrated an important role of bone marrow-derived stem cells in preservation of myocardial function. We investigated whether Akt-1 of lin(-)c-kit(+) stem cells preserves ventricular function following myocardial infarction (MI). Isolated lin(-)c-kit(+) cells were conjugated with anti-c-kit heteroconjugated to anti-vascular cell adhesion molecule to facilitate the attachment of stem cells into damaged tissues. Female severe combined immunodeficient mice were used as recipients. MI was created by ligation of the left descending artery. After 48 h, animals were divided into four groups: (i) sham (n = 5): animals underwent thoracotomy without MI; (ii) MI (n = 5): animals underwent MI and received medium; (iii) MI + wild-type (Wt) stem cells (n = 6): MI animals received 5 x 10(5) Wt lin(-)c-kit(+) stem cells; (iv) MI + Akt-1(-/-) stem cells (n = 6): MI animals received 5 x 10(5) Akt-1(-/-) lin(-)c-kit(+) stem cells. Two weeks later, left ventricular function was measured in the Langendorff mode. The peripheral administration of Wt armed stem cells into MI animals restored ventricular function, which was absent in animals receiving Akt-1(-/-) cells. Real-time PCR indicates a decrease in SRY3, a Y chromosome marker in hearts receiving Akt-1(-/-) cells. An increase in angiogenic response was demonstrated in hearts receiving Wt stem cells but not Akt-1(-/-) stem cells. Our results demonstrate that the peripheral administration of Wt lin(-)c-kit(+) stem cells restores ventricular function and promotes angiogenic response following MI. These benefits were abrogated in MI mice receiving Akt-1(-/-) stem cells, suggesting the pivotal role of Akt-1 in mediating stem cells to protect MI hearts.

  15. Innate production of T(H)2 cytokines by adipose tissue-associated c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+) lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Moro, Kazuyo; Yamada, Taketo; Tanabe, Masanobu; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Ikawa, Tomokatsu; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Furusawa, Jun-Ichi; Ohtani, Masashi; Fujii, Hideki; Koyasu, Shigeo

    2010-01-28

    Innate immune responses are important in combating various microbes during the early phases of infection. Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes that, unlike T and B lymphocytes, do not express antigen receptors but rapidly exhibit cytotoxic activities against virus-infected cells and produce various cytokines. Here we report a new type of innate lymphocyte present in a novel lymphoid structure associated with adipose tissues in the peritoneal cavity. These cells do not express lineage (Lin) markers but do express c-Kit, Sca-1 (also known as Ly6a), IL7R and IL33R. Similar lymphoid clusters were found in both human and mouse mesentery and we term this tissue 'FALC' (fat-associated lymphoid cluster). FALC Lin(-)c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+) cells are distinct from lymphoid progenitors and lymphoid tissue inducer cells. These cells proliferate in response to IL2 and produce large amounts of T(H)2 cytokines such as IL5, IL6 and IL13. IL5 and IL6 regulate B-cell antibody production and self-renewal of B1 cells. Indeed, FALC Lin(-)c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+) cells support the self-renewal of B1 cells and enhance IgA production. IL5 and IL13 mediate allergic inflammation and protection against helminth infection. After helminth infection and in response to IL33, FALC Lin(-)c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+) cells produce large amounts of IL13, which leads to goblet cell hyperplasia-a critical step for helminth expulsion. In mice devoid of FALC Lin(-)c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+) cells, such goblet cell hyperplasia was not induced. Thus, FALC Lin(-)c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+) cells are T(H)2-type innate lymphocytes, and we propose that these cells be called 'natural helper cells'.

  16. IL-9 and c-Kit+ mast cells in allergic rhinitis during seasonal allergen exposure: effect of immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Nouri-Aria, Kayhan T; Pilette, Charles; Jacobson, Mikila R; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Durham, Stephen R

    2005-07-01

    Background IL-9 is an important stimulus for tissue infiltration by mast cells, a feature requiring concomitant activation of c-Kit. Objectives We assessed IL-9 expression and c-Kit + mast cells in the nasal mucosa of patients with allergic rhinitis during seasonal pollen exposure and observed the effects of allergen immunotherapy. Methods We studied 44 patients with seasonal rhinitis and asthma before and 2 years after a double-blind trial of grass pollen immunotherapy. Nasal mucosal IL-9 + cells and c-Kit + mast cells were assessed by means of immunochemistry. Cell types expressing IL-9 protein were determined by means of dual immunofluorescence. IL-9 mRNA-positive cells were assessed by means of in situ hybridization, and their phenotype was determined by using sequential immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Results Nasal mucosal c-Kit + mast cells were increased during the pollen season ( P = .0001). IL-9 mRNA-positive cells also tended to increase ( P = .1) and correlated with nasal EG2 + eosinophils ( r = 0.47, P = .05) and IL-5 mRNA-positive cells ( r = 0.54, P = .02). The cell sources of IL-9 included T cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, and mast cells. When compared with placebo, successful pollen immunotherapy markedly inhibited seasonal increases in nasal mucosal c-Kit + mast cells ( P = .001) and the seasonal expression of IL-9 mRNA-positive cells ( P = .06). Immunotherapy also inhibited IL-9 protein expression from nonendothelial cell sources ( P = .0007). Conclusion IL-9 is upregulated in the nasal mucosa during the pollen season and correlates with tissue infiltration by eosinophils. Successful pollen immunotherapy is associated with inhibition of seasonal increases in both nasal c-Kit + mast cells and eosinophils. This effect might be explained, at least in part, by the reduced local expression of IL-9.

  17. Expression of the c-Kit receptor in germ cells of the seminiferous epithelium in rats with hormonal imbalance.

    PubMed

    Misiakiewicz, Kamila; Kolasa, Agnieszka; Kondarewicz, Anna; Marchlewicz, Mariola; Wiszniewska, Barbara

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of pharmacologically induced hormonal imbalance in adult male rats treated with letrozole and rats exposed to soya isoflavones on the testicular morphology and c-Kit receptor (c-Kit-R) expression in germ cells. The study was conducted during all developmental periods: prenatal period, lactation, youth, and sexual maturity. Morphological and morphometrical analyses were performed on testicular section, and c-Kit-R was identified using immunohistochemistry. In addition, concentration of circulating steroids was measured in mature rats exposed to soya isoflavones. A significant reduction in testosterone level in rats exposed to soya isoflavones, and the sloughing of the premature germ cells into the lumen of the seminiferous tubules in the testes of both groups of rats were observed. Immunohistochemistry showed a decrease in c-Kit-R expression in germ cells of both experimental groups. Morphometric analysis indicated a decreased thickness of the layers occupied by c-Kit-R-positive spermatogonia, and a decreased diameter of the seminiferous tubules in the testes of both experimental groups of animals. In conclusion, the pharmacologically induced reduction of the estradiol level in adult rats and the diminished level of testosterone in rats exposed to soya isoflavones during the prenatal period, lactation and up to maturity caused similar morphological and functional changes associated with the decreased c-Kit-R expression in germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium. These findings demonstrate the importance of the estrogen/androgen balance for normal testicular morphology and spermatogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  18. Expression of c-Kit receptor mRNA and protein in the developing, adult and irradiated rodent testis.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Sridurga Mithra; Meistrich, Marvin L; McLaughlin, Eileen A; Roman, Shaun D; Warne, Sam; Mendis, Sirisha; Itman, Catherine; Loveland, Kate Lakoski

    2006-03-01

    Germ cell proliferation, migration and survival during all stages of spermatogenesis are affected by stem cell factor signalling through the c-Kit receptor, the expression and function of which are vital for normal male reproductive function. The present study comprehensively describes the c-Kit mRNA and protein cellular expression profiles in germ cells of the postnatal and adult rodent testis, revealing their significant elevation in synthesis at the onset of spermatogenesis. Real-time PCR analysis for both mice and rats matched the cellular mRNA expression profile where examined. Localization studies in normal mouse testes indicated that both c-Kit mRNA and protein are first detectable in differentiating spermatogonia. In addition, all spermatogonia isolated from 8-day-old mice displayed detectable c-Kit mRNA, but 30-50% of these lacked protein expression. The c-Kit mRNA and protein profile in normal rat testes indicated expression in gonocytes, in addition to differentiating spermatogonia. However, in the irradiated adult rat testes, in which undifferentiated spermatogonia are the only germ cell type, mRNA was also detected in the absence of protein. This persisted at 3 days and 1 and 2 weeks following treatment with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist to stimulate spermatogenesis recovery. By 4 weeks of GnRH antagonist treatment, accompanying the emergence of differentiating spermatogonia, both mRNA and protein were detected. Based on these observations, we propose that c-Kit mRNA and protein synthesis are regulated separately, possibly by influences linked to testis maturation and circulating hormone levels.

  19. c-kit+AT2R+ Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Subset Is a Superior Subset for Cardiac Protection after Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Du, Mingjun; Zhang, Wentian; Wang, Chenxi; Lian, Feng; Xue, Song

    2016-01-01

    Although the bone marrow mononuclear cell (BMMNC) is known as an ideal cell type for cell-based therapy for MI treatment, the effective subpopulation still remains unknown. Our study aimed at identifying the optimal subset of BMMNCs suited for cardiac regeneration. In this study, we observed that MI led to (i) a significant increase of the c-kit+AT2R+ BMMNC subpopulation in mice and (ii) a modest increase of AT2R+ BMMNCs in humans. c-kit+AT2R+ and c-kit+AT2R− BMMNC subpopulations were obtained from mice after MI. Then, we cocultured cardiac H9C2 cells with c-kit+AT2R+, c-kit+AT2R−, and unfractionated BMMNCs; finally, we found that the c-kit+AT2R+ subset is superior to the c-kit+AT2R− subset in improving cardiomyocyte protection in vitro. Of note, c-kit+AT2R+ BMMNCs showed a more robust migration capacity than c-kit+AT2R− and unfractionated BMMNCs in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, compared to c-kit+AT2R− and unfractionated BMMNCs, intravenous transplantation of c-kit+AT2R+ BMMNC resulted in smaller infarct size and lower levels of inflammatory reactions in heart tissue, leading to a higher global heart function improvement. In conclusion, our results indicate that the c-kit+AT2R+ BMMNC subpopulation exerts a protective effect against MI and shows promising therapeutic possibilities with regard to the treatment of ischemic heart disease. PMID:27429622

  20. C-kit is important for SOD1(G93A) mouse survival independent of mast cells.

    PubMed

    Staats, K A; Schönefeldt, S; Van Helleputte, L; Van Rillaer, M; Lampi, Y; Dooley, J; Van Den Bosch, L; Liston, A

    2015-08-20

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease leading to progressive and lethal paralysis. The disease process is multi-factorial and is characterized by selective motor neuron degeneration. Previous work demonstrated that the local concentration of various growth factors can influence motor neuron survival and disease progression. A potential role for c-kit, a growth factor receptor present in the spinal cord, in ALS is unknown. To dissect the role of c-kit in ALS we interbred SOD1(G93A) mice with kit(w-sh/w-sh) mice, which have a 70% decrease in c-kit expression in the spinal cord. kit(w-sh/w-sh) SOD1(G93A) mice have a reduced survival compared to SOD1(G93A) mice, while the amount of motor neurons at end stage is similar. By means of grip strength and nerve conductance analysis we show that kit(w-sh/w-sh) mice have diminished strength and slightly impaired compound muscle action potential latency, although the number of neurons is similar across genotypes. Decreasing kit gene expression in SOD1(G93A) mice is detrimental and our results imply that this effect is independent of mast cells, as tested by ketotifen administration. To conclude, our data expand on the protective role of growth factors in ALS, as decreasing c-kit by approximately 70% is detrimental in SOD1(G93A) mice.

  1. Enhanced Nox1 expression and oxidative stress resistance in c-kit-positive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Urata, Yoshishige; Goto, Shinji; Luo, Lan; Doi, Hanako; Kitajima, Yuriko; Masuda, Shinya; Ono, Yusuke; Li, Tao-Sheng

    2014-11-21

    Although stem cells are generally thought to be resistant to oxidative stress, the fact and in detail molecular mechanism are still to be clearly identified. We herein tried to understand the overall characterization of redox regulatory signaling in hematopoietic stem cells. We purified c-kit-positive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells from the bone marrow of healthy mice, and then evaluated their redox regulatory property. Compared to the c-kit-negative matured mononuclear cells, c-kit-positive stem/progenitor cells showed lower basic levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species, faster clearance of the accumulated intracellular reactive oxygen species, and higher resistant to oxidative stress. An overall view on the gene expression profile associated with redox regulation showed to be widely differed between cell types. We confirmed that the c-kit-positive stem/progenitor cells expressed significantly higher of Nox1 and catalase, but less of lactoperoxidase than these matured mononuclear cells. Our data suggests that stem cells keep specific redox regulatory property for defensing against oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Testis tissue explantation cures spermatogenic failure in c-Kit ligand mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takuya; Yokonishi, Tetsuhiro; Komeya, Mitsuru; Katagiri, Kumiko; Kubota, Yoshinobu; Matoba, Shogo; Ogonuki, Narumi; Ogura, Atsuo; Yoshida, Shosei; Ogawa, Takehiko

    2012-10-16

    Male infertility is most commonly caused by spermatogenic defects or insufficiencies, the majority of which are as yet cureless. Recently, we succeeded in cultivating mouse testicular tissues for producing fertile sperm from spermatogonial stem cells. Here, we show that one of the most severe types of spermatogenic defect mutant can be treated by the culture method without any genetic manipulations. The Sl/Sl(d) mouse is used as a model of such male infertility. The testis of the Sl/Sl(d) mouse has only primitive spermatogonia as germ cells, lacking any sign of spermatogenesis owing to mutations of the c-kit ligand (KITL) gene that cause the loss of membrane-bound-type KITL from the surface of Sertoli cells. To compensate for the deficit, we cultured testis tissues of Sl/Sl(d) mice with a medium containing recombinant KITL and found that it induced the differentiation of spermatogonia up to the end of meiosis. We further discovered that colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) enhances the effect of KITL and promotes spermatogenesis up to the production of sperm. Microinsemination of haploid cells resulted in delivery of healthy offspring. This study demonstrated that spermatogenic impairments can be treated in vitro with the supplementation of certain factors or substances that are insufficient in the original testes.

  3. Unexpected alteration of β-catenin and c-KIT expression by 5-FU and docetaxel in p16-positive squamous cell carcinoma compared to HPV-negative HNSCC cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Umbreit, Claudia; Aderhold, Christoph; Faber, Anne; Sommer, Jörg Ulrich; Sauter, Alexander; Hofheinz, Ralf-Dieter; Stern-Sträter, Jens; Hoermann, Karl; Schultz, Johannes David

    2013-06-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common type of cancer worldwide. In several tumour entities, the tyrosine kinase receptor c-KIT is associated with tumour transformation in the epithelial tissue in cases of aberrant expression. Furthermore, tumour development and dissemination are a result of dysregulated cellular pathways such as the WNT/β-catenin pathway. β-Catenin is a multifunctional protein within the canonical WNT signalling pathway and a pivotal factor for the stabilization of cell-cell interactions. In malignant tissues, β-catenin triggers tumour proliferation and progression. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression patterns of c-KIT and β-catenin in human papillomavirus-negative and p16-positive SCC and to evaluate the chemosensitivity of the tumour cells to the chemotherapeutical agents docetaxel and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). We incubated the tumour cell lines with docetaxel (5 μmol/ml) and 5-FU (1 μmol/ml) and detected β-catenin and c-KIT by immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) after 48, 72, 120, 192 and 240 h. We found a reliable trend towards decreased β-catenin expression levels in p16-positive and p16-negative tumour cell lines when incubated with docetaxel, in addition to induced apoptotic effect. At best, 5-FU had a slight influence on the alteration of the expression of β-catenin. Dose escalation of docetaxel and 5-FU had no statistically significant effect on the expression of β-catenin or c-KIT. In HPV-negative HNSCC, a reduced expression level of β-catenin and c-KIT was detected in an incubation period-dependent manner. p16-transformed SCC (CERV196) cells were characterized by a reduced susceptibility to docetaxel induced alteration of β-catenin expression. We were unable to confirm the clinically-substantiated increased chemosensitivity of p16-positive tumour cells in vitro. Extended studies and clinical trials are needed to investigate these findings further

  4. Human peripheral blood eosinophils express a functional c-kit receptor for stem cell factor that stimulates very late antigen 4 (VLA-4)-mediated cell adhesion to fibronectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Q; Austen, K F; Friend, D S; Heidtman, M; Boyce, J A

    1997-07-21

    We evaluated mature peripheral blood eosinophils for their expression of the surface tyrosine kinase, c-kit, the receptor for the stromal cell-derived cytokine, stem cell factor (SCF). Cytofluorographic analysis revealed that c-kit was expressed on the purified peripheral blood eosinophils from 8 of 8 donors (4 nonatopic and 4 atopic) (mean channel fluorescence intensity 2.0- 3. 6-fold, average 2.8 +/- 0.6-fold, greater than the negative control). The uniform and selective expression of c-kit by eosinophils was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis of peripheral blood buffy coats. The functional integrity of c-kit was demonstrated by the capacity of 100 ng/ml (5 nM) of recombinant human (rh) SCF to increase eosinophil adhesion to 3, 10, and 30 microg/ml of immobilized FN40, a 40-kD chymotryptic fragment of plasma fibronectin, in 15 min by 7.7 +/- 1.4-, 5.3 +/- 3.3-, and 5.4 +/- 0. 2-fold, respectively, and their adhesion to 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 microg/ml vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), by 12.7 +/- 9. 2-, 3.8 +/- 2.5-, and 1.7 +/- 0.6-fold, respectively. The SCF-stimulated adhesion occurred without concomitant changes in surface integrin expression, thereby indicating an avidity-based mechanism. rhSCF (100 ng/ml, 5 nM) was comparable to rh eotaxin (200 ng/ml, 24 nM) in stimulating adhesion. Cell adhesion to FN40 was completely inhibited with antibodies against the alpha4 and beta1 integrin subunits, revealing that the SCF/c-kit adhesion effect was mediated by a single integrin heterodimer, very late antigen 4 (VLA-4). Thus, SCF represents a newly recognized stromal ligand for the activation of eosinophils for VLA-4-mediated adhesion, which could contribute to the exit of these cells from the blood, their tissue localization, and their prominence in inflammatory lesions.

  5. Human Peripheral Blood Eosinophils Express a Functional c-kit Receptor for Stem Cell Factor that Stimulates Very Late Antigen 4 (VLA-4)–mediated Cell Adhesion to Fibronectin and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (VCAM-1)

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Qian; Austen, K. Frank; Friend, Daniel S.; Heidtman, Matthew; Boyce, Joshua A.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated mature peripheral blood eosinophils for their expression of the surface tyrosine kinase, c-kit, the receptor for the stromal cell–derived cytokine, stem cell factor (SCF). Cytofluorographic analysis revealed that c-kit was expressed on the purified peripheral blood eosinophils from 8 of 8 donors (4 nonatopic and 4 atopic) (mean channel fluorescence intensity 2.0– 3.6-fold, average 2.8 ± 0.6-fold, greater than the negative control). The uniform and selective expression of c-kit by eosinophils was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis of peripheral blood buffy coats. The functional integrity of c-kit was demonstrated by the capacity of 100 ng/ml (5 nM) of recombinant human (rh) SCF to increase eosinophil adhesion to 3, 10, and 30 μg/ml of immobilized FN40, a 40-kD chymotryptic fragment of plasma fibronectin, in 15 min by 7.7 ± 1.4-, 5.3 ± 3.3-, and 5.4 ± 0.2-fold, respectively, and their adhesion to 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 μg/ml vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), by 12.7 ± 9.2-, 3.8 ± 2.5-, and 1.7 ± 0.6-fold, respectively. The SCF-stimulated adhesion occurred without concomitant changes in surface integrin expression, thereby indicating an avidity-based mechanism. rhSCF (100 ng/ml, 5 nM) was comparable to rh eotaxin (200 ng/ml, 24 nM) in stimulating adhesion. Cell adhesion to FN40 was completely inhibited with antibodies against the α4 and β1 integrin subunits, revealing that the SCF/c-kit adhesion effect was mediated by a single integrin heterodimer, very late antigen 4 (VLA-4). Thus, SCF represents a newly recognized stromal ligand for the activation of eosinophils for VLA-4–mediated adhesion, which could contribute to the exit of these cells from the blood, their tissue localization, and their prominence in inflammatory lesions. PMID:9221761

  6. Small gastrointestinal stromal tumor in the stomach: identification of precursor for clinical gastrointestinal stromal tumor using c-kit and α-smooth muscle actin expression.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Tetuo; Nemoto, Yuta; Numata, Yoshiko; Hana, Kiyomi; Nakada, Norihiro; Ichinoe, Masaaki; Murakumo, Yoshiki; Okayasu, Isao

    2013-12-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the digestive tract. To find precursors for clinical GISTs of the stomach, small gastric stromal tumors of less than 3 cm were collected and examined immunohistochemically with analysis of the KIT mutation. Sixty-eight of 74 lesions were classified into 4 representative groups according to the expression of c-kit and α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA): group A, c-kit diffusely positive and αSMA negative (18 cases); group B, c-kit diffusely positive and αSMA focally positive (13); group C, c-kit focally positive and αSMA diffusely positive (27); and group D, c-kit negative and αSMA diffusely positive (10). Of the 4 groups, groups A and B of c-kit diffuse expression showed higher cellularity and labeling indices of p27(Kip1) and Ki-67 than did groups C and D of diffuse αSMA expression. Incidence of KIT exon 11 mutation in groups A and B was 86% (25/29), whereas that in groups C and D was 0% (0/20). Small gastric stromal tumors with c-kit diffuse expression were considered precursors for clinical GIST because they were significantly different from c-kit focally positive or negative tumors. The mutation of KIT is considered as an early event in tumorigenesis of GIST.

  7. The c-kit receptor, stem cell factor, and mast cells. What each is teaching us about the others.

    PubMed Central

    Galli, S. J.; Tsai, M.; Wershil, B. K.

    1993-01-01

    Many years ago, alert observers noticed among thousands of laboratory mice a few individuals that, unlike their littermates, exhibited areas of white spotting on their fur. No one could have predicted then that an effort to understand the basis for these abnormalities would ultimately contribute to the characterization of a receptor (c-kit) and a corresponding ligand (stem cell factor, SCF) that are critical not only to the migration and development of melanocytes, but also to hematopoiesis, gametogenesis, mast cell development, and, perhaps, development of the central nervous system. Nor could anyone have foretold then that this receptor and ligand would be shown to regulate the development of multiple distinct cellular lineages not only in mice, but also in humans and other primates, or that c-kit and its ligand would be found to influence the secretory function of cells bearing this receptor, as well as their development. Investigation of the effects of SCF on a single cell type, the mast cell, has produced the most complete picture of the spectrum of biological processes that can be regulated by interactions between c-kit and its ligand. This work shows that SCF critically regulates the migration and survival of mast cell precursors, promotes the proliferation of both immature and mature mast cells, enhances mast cell maturation, directly induces secretion of mast cell mediators, and can regulate the extent of mediator release in mast cells activated by IgE-dependent mechanisms. Indeed, SCF may well prove to be one of the most important of the factors influencing mast cell numbers, phenotype, and function in both health and disease. It now seems virtually certain that further studies of c-kit and SCF will produce important new insights into problems as diverse as the regulation of lineage commitment during normal hematopoiesis or the development and function of the central nervous system. And even though an effect on mast cell development was one of the last

  8. Keratose Hydrogels Promote Vascular Smooth Muscle Differentiation from C-kit Positive Human Cardiac Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Ledford, Benjamin T; Simmons, Jamelle; Chen, Miao; Fan, Huimin; Barron, Catherine; Liu, Zhongmin; Van Dyke, Mark; He, Jia-Qiang

    2017-03-28

    Stem cell-based therapies have demonstrated great potential for the treatment of cardiac diseases, e.g., myocardial infarction; however, low cell viability, low retention/engraftment, and uncontrollable in vivo differentiation after transplantation are still major limitations, which lead low therapeutic efficiency. Biomaterials provide a promising solution to overcome these issues due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, low/non-immunogenicity, and low/non-cytotoxicity. The present study aims to investigate the impacts of Keratose (KOS) hydrogel biomaterial on cellular viability, proliferation, and differentiation of c-kit+ human cardiac stem cells (hCSCs). Briefly, hCSCs were cultured on both KOS hydrogel-coated dishes and regular tissue culture dishes (Blank control). Cell viability, stemness, proliferation, cellular morphology, and cardiac lineage differentiation were compared between KOS hydrogel and the Blank control at different time points. We found that KOS hydrogel is effective in maintaining hCSCs without any observable toxic effects, although cell size and proliferation rate appeared smaller on the KOS hydrogel compared to the Blank control. To our surprise, KOS hydrogel significantly promoted vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) differentiation (~72%), while on the Blank control dishes, most of the hCSCs (~78%) became cardiomyocytes. Further, we also observed "endothelial cell tube-like" microstructures formed by differentiated VSMCs only on KOS hydrogel, suggesting a potential capability of the hCSC-derived VSMCs for in vitro angiogenesis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to discover the preferred differentiation of hCSCs toward VSMCs on KOS hydrogel. The underlying mechanism remains unknown. This innovative methodology may offer a new approach to generate a robust number of VSMCs simply by culturing hCSCs on KOS hydrogel, and the resulting VSMCs may be used in animal studies and clinical trials in

  9. Peripheral blood CD56(bright) NK cells respond to stem cell factor and adhere to its membrane-bound form after upregulation of c-kit.

    PubMed

    Pradier, Amandine; Tabone-Eglinger, Severine; Huber, Vincent; Bosshard, Carine; Rigal, Emmanuel; Wehrle-Haller, Bernhard; Roosnek, Eddy

    2014-02-01

    CD56(bright) NK cells express receptors for IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, and SCF. We found that human peripheral blood CD56(bright) NK cells responded to IL-2, IL-7, IL-15 by phosphorylating STAT-5, ERK, and Akt but did not respond to SCF. However, CD56(bright) NK cells in culture upregulated c-kit transcription three to fourfold, which led to a steady increase in c-kit and a concomitant acquisition of responsiveness to SCF. After 44 h, CD56(bright) NK cells had upregulated c-kit approximately 20-fold and phosphorylated ERK and Akt in response to SCF concentrations well below levels present in plasma. CD56(bright) NK cells cultured in IL-15 maintained c-kit transcription/expression at ex vivo levels and did not become responsive to SCF. Furthermore, SCF-responsive, CD56(bright) c-kit(high) NK cells swiftly downregulated c-kit and stopped responding to SCF after IL-15 stimulation. However, commitment of CD56(bright) NK cells to a c-kit-negative, SCF-unresponsive state did not occur, as after 5 days of culture, withdrawal of IL-15 restored c-kit to maximal levels and reestablished SCF-responsiveness. CD56(bright) NK cells that had upregulated c-kit firmly adhered to COS cells transfected with the membrane form of SCF. Furthermore, SCF signaling significantly increased the capacity of CD56(bright) NK cells to degranulate. Collectively, our data suggest that c-kit on human CD56(bright) NK cells is a functional receptor that is downregulated in peripheral blood, possibly to render CD56(bright) NK cells unresponsive to the SCF therein.

  10. C-Kit Promotes Growth and Migration of Human Cardiac Progenitor Cells via the PI3K-AKT and MEK-ERK Pathways.

    PubMed

    Vajravelu, Bathri N; Hong, Kyung U; Al-Maqtari, Tareq; Cao, Pengxiao; Keith, Matthew C L; Wysoczynski, Marcin; Zhao, John; Moore, Joseph B; Bolli, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    A recent phase I clinical trial (SCIPIO) has shown that autologous c-kit+ cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) improve cardiac function and quality of life when transplanted into patients with ischemic heart disease. Although c-kit is widely used as a marker of resident CPCs, its role in the regulation of the cellular characteristics of CPCs remains unknown. We hypothesized that c-kit plays a role in the survival, growth, and migration of CPCs. To test this hypothesis, human CPCs were grown under stress conditions in the presence or absence of SCF, and the effects of SCF-mediated activation of c-kit on CPC survival/growth and migration were measured. SCF treatment led to a significant increase in cell survival and a reduction in cell death under serum depletion conditions. In addition, SCF significantly promoted CPC migration in vitro. Furthermore, the pro-survival and pro-migratory effects of SCF were augmented by c-kit overexpression and abrogated by c-kit inhibition with imatinib. Mechanistically, c-kit activation in CPCs led to activation of the PI3K and the MAPK pathways. With the use of specific inhibitors, we confirmed that the SCF/c-kit-dependent survival and chemotaxis of CPCs are dependent on both pathways. Taken together, our findings suggest that c-kit promotes the survival/growth and migration of human CPCs cultured ex vivo via the activation of PI3K and MAPK pathways. These results imply that the efficiency of CPC homing to the injury site as well as their survival after transplantation may be improved by modulating the activity of c-kit.

  11. Estrogen-induced transcription factor EGR1 regulates c-Kit transcription in the mouse uterus to maintain uterine receptivity for embryo implantation.

    PubMed

    Park, Mira; Kim, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Yeon Sun; Yang, Seung Chel; Yoon, Jung Ah; Lyu, Sang Woo; Lim, Hyunjung Jade; Hong, Seok-Ho; Song, Haengseok

    2017-09-28

    Early growth response 1 (Egr1) is a key transcription factor that mediates the action of estrogen (E2) to establish uterine receptivity for embryo implantation. However, few direct target genes of EGR1 have been identified in the uterus. Here, we demonstrated that E2 induced EGR1-regulated transcription of c-Kit, which plays a crucial role in cell fate decisions. Spatiotemporal expression of c-Kit followed that of EGR1 in uteri of ovariectomized mice at various time points after E2 treatment. E2 activated ERK1/2 and p38 to induce EGR1, which then activated c-Kit expression in the uterus. EGR1 transfection produced rapid and transient induction of c-KIT in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, luciferase assays to measure c-Kit promoter activity confirmed that a functional EGR1 binding site(s) (EBS) was located within -1 kb of the c-Kit promoter. Site-directed mutagenesis and chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR for three putative EBS within -1 kb demonstrated that the EBS at -818/-805 was critical for EGR1-dependent c-Kit transcription. c-Kit expression was significantly increased in the uterus on day 4 and administration of Masitinib, a c-Kit inhibitor, effectively interfered with embryo implantation. Collectively, our results showed that estrogen induces transcription factor EGR1 to regulate c-Kit transcription for uterine receptivity for embryo implantation in the mouse uterus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. "String theory" of c-kit(pos) cardiac cells: a new paradigm regarding the nature of these cells that may reconcile apparently discrepant results.

    PubMed

    Keith, Matthew C L; Bolli, Roberto

    2015-03-27

    Although numerous preclinical investigations have consistently demonstrated salubrious effects of c-kit(pos) cardiac cells administered after myocardial infarction, the mechanism of action remains highly controversial. We and others have found little or no evidence that these cells differentiate into mature functional cardiomyocytes, suggesting paracrine effects. In this review, we propose a new paradigm predicated on a comprehensive analysis of the literature, including studies of cardiac development; we have (facetiously) dubbed this conceptual construct "string theory" of c-kit(pos) cardiac cells because it reconciles multifarious and sometimes apparently discrepant results. There is strong evidence that, during development, the c-kit receptor is expressed in different pools of cardiac progenitors (some capable of robust cardiomyogenesis and others with little or no contribution to myocytes). Accordingly, c-kit positivity, in itself, does not define the embryonic origins, lineage capabilities, or differentiation capacities of specific cardiac progenitors. C-kit(pos) cells derived from the first heart field exhibit cardiomyogenic potential during development, but these cells are likely depleted shortly before or after birth. The residual c-kit(pos) cells found in the adult heart are probably of proepicardial origin, possess a mesenchymal phenotype (resembling bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells), and are capable of contributing significantly only to nonmyocytic lineages (fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells). If these 2 populations (first heart field and proepicardium) express different levels of c-kit, the cardiomyogenic potential of first heart field progenitors might be reconciled with recent results of c-kit(pos) cell lineage tracing studies. The concept that c-kit expression in the adult heart identifies epicardium-derived, noncardiomyogenic precursors with a mesenchymal phenotype helps to explain the beneficial effects of c-kit

  13. Heterogeneity of internal tandem duplications in the c-kit of dogs with multiple mast cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Amagai, Y; Tanaka, A; Matsuda, A; Jung, K; Oida, K; Nishikawa, S; Jang, H; Matsuda, H

    2013-07-01

    Mast cell tumours are one of the most common neoplasms in dogs. Mutations in the proto-oncogene c-kit, especially internal tandem duplications of exon 11, are considered to play a crucial role in mast cell tumourigenesis. In this report, two cases that suffered from multiple mast cell tumours containing an internal tandem duplication in the primary lesion but not in the secondary lesions are described. This finding indicates the existence of heterogenous c-kit gene mutations in each site of multiple mast cell tumours. Additionally, these results raise the possibility that the contribution of internal tandem duplications in the malignant transformation of mast cells is quite limited. It is proposed that, for clinicians, genetic analysis of several regions of multiple mast cell tumours is necessary for predicting prognosis and tumour response to KIT inhibitors.

  14. Transplantation of Epigenetically Modified Adult Cardiac c-Kit+ Cells Retards Remodeling and Improves Cardiac Function in Ischemic Heart Failure Model.

    PubMed

    Zakharova, Liudmila; Nural-Guvener, Hikmet; Feehery, Lorraine; Popovic-Sljukic, Snjezana; Gaballa, Mohamed A

    2015-09-01

    Cardiac c-Kit+ cells have a modest cardiogenic potential that could limit their efficacy in heart disease treatment. The present study was designed to augment the cardiogenic potential of cardiac c-Kit+ cells through class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition and evaluate their therapeutic potency in the chronic heart failure (CHF) animal model. Myocardial infarction (MI) was created by coronary artery occlusion in rats. c-Kit+ cells were treated with mocetinostat (MOCE), a specific class I HDAC inhibitor. At 3 weeks after MI, CHF animals were retrogradely infused with untreated (control) or MOCE-treated c-Kit+ cells (MOCE/c-Kit+ cells) and evaluated at 3 weeks after cell infusion. We found that class I HDAC inhibition in c-Kit+ cells elevated the level of acetylated histone H3 (AcH3) and increased AcH3 levels in the promoter regions of pluripotent and cardiac-specific genes. Epigenetic changes were accompanied by increased expression of cardiac-specific markers. Transplantation of CHF rats with either control or MOCE/c-Kit+ cells resulted in an improvement in cardiac function, retardation of CHF remodeling made evident by increased vascularization and scar size, and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy reduction. Compared with CHF infused with control cells, infusion of MOCE/c-Kit+ cells resulted in a further reduction in left ventricle end-diastolic pressure and total collagen and an increase in interleukin-6 expression. The low engraftment of infused cells suggests that paracrine effects might account for the beneficial effects of c-Kit+ cells in CHF. In conclusion, selective inhibition of class I HDACs induced expression of cardiac markers in c-Kit+ cells and partially augmented the efficacy of these cells for CHF repair. The study has shown that selective class 1 histone deacetylase inhibition is sufficient to redirect c-Kit+ cells toward a cardiac fate. Epigenetically modified c-Kit+ cells improved contractile function and retarded remodeling of the congestive heart

  15. A novel gain of function mutant in C-kit gene and its tumorigenesis in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Chen-Guang; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Xie, Qiang; Feng, Fei; Ma, Da-Lie

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To transfect mutant C-kit cDNA at codon 579 into human embryonic kidney cell line to observe its role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). METHODS: Eukaryotic expression vectors of pcDNA3-Kit-NW and pcDNA3-Kit-W were constructed. Then pcDNA3-Kit-NW and pcDNA3-Kit-W plasmids were transfected into human embryonic kidney cell line by Lipofectamine. The resistant clone was screened by G418 filtration and identified by sequencing, Western blotting, and immunocytochemical staining. Human embryonic kidney cells were divided into three groups including pcDNA3-Kit-NW, pcDNA3-Kit-W, and vector control groups. Absorbency value with a wavelength of 574 nm was detected by MTT analysis. Mice were injected with three groups of cells. Volume, mass, and histological examinations of the tumors in different groups were measured and compared. RESULTS: The C-kit gene and mutant C-kit gene were successfully cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3. pcDNA3-Kit-NW and pcDNA3-Kit-W were successfully transfected into human embryonic kidney cell line and showed stable expression in this cell line. Cell proliferating activity had significant differences between pcDNA3-Kit-NW and pcDNA3, pcDNA3-Kit-NW and pcDNA3-Kit-W (P<0.05), respectively. Tumors were only observed in nude mice implanted with cells transfected with pcDNA3-Kit-NW. CONCLUSION: Mutation of C-kit gene increases the proliferation activity of human cells and plays an important role in the malignant transformation of GIST. PMID:16437655

  16. A clinicopathological review of 33 patients with vulvar melanoma identifies c-KIT as a prognostic marker

    PubMed Central

    HEINZELMANN-SCHWARZ, VIOLA A.; NIXDORF, SHERI; VALADAN, MEHRNAZ; DICZBALIS, MONICA; OLIVIER, JAKE; OTTON, GEOFF; FEDIER, ANDRÉ; HACKER, NEVILLE F.; SCURRY, JAMES P.

    2014-01-01

    Vulvar melanoma is the second most common vulvar cancer. Patients with vulvar melanoma usually present with the disease at a late stage and have a poor prognosis. The prognostic predictors reported in the literature are not unequivocal and the role of lichen sclerosus and c-KIT mutations in the aetiology of vulvar melanoma is unclear. Breslow staging currently seems to be the most adequate predictor of prognosis. We thus performed a clinicopathological and literature review to identify suitable predictors of prognosis and survival and investigated the expression of c-KIT (by immunohistochemistry) in patients with vulvar melanoma (n=33) from the Gynaecological Cancer Centres of the Royal Hospital for Women (Sydney, Australia) and John Hunter Hospital (Newcastle, Australia). Our series of 33 patients fitted the expected clinical profile of older women: delayed presentation, high stage, limited response to treatment and poor prognosis. We identified 3 patients (9.1%) with lichen sclerosus associated with melanoma in situ, although no lichen sclerosus was found in the areas of invasive melanoma. No patient had vulvar nevi. We identified a) Breslow’s depth, b) an absence of any of the pathological risk factors, such as satellitosis, in-transit metastasis, lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI) and dermal mitosis, c) removal of inguino-femoral lymph nodes, d) lateral margin of >1 cm, and e) c-KIT expression as valuable prognostic predictors for disease-free survival. We conclude that c-KIT expression is, apart from Breslow’s depth, another valuable predictor of prognosis and survival. Lichen sclerosus may be associated with vulvar melanoma. PMID:24535703

  17. Suppression of c-Kit signaling induces adult neurogenesis in the mouse intestine after myenteric plexus ablation with benzalkonium chloride

    PubMed Central

    Tamada, Hiromi; Kiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis rarely occurs in the enteric nervous system (ENS). In this study, we demonstrated that, after intestinal myenteric plexus (MP) ablation with benzalkonium chloride (BAC), adult neurogenesis in the ENS was significantly induced in c-kit loss-of-function mutant mice (W/Wv). Almost all neurons and fibers in the MP disappeared after BAC treatment. However, 1 week after ablation, substantial penetration of nerve fibers from the non-damaged area was observed in the MP, longitudinal muscle and subserosal layers in both wildtype and W/Wv mice. Two weeks after BAC treatment, in addition to the penetrating fibers, a substantial number of ectopic neurons appeared in the subserosal and longitudinal muscle layers of W/Wv mice, whereas only a few ectopic neurons appeared in wildtype mice. Such ectopic neurons expressed either excitatory or inhibitory intrinsic motor neuron markers and formed ganglion-like structures, including glial cells, synaptic vesicles and basal lamina. Furthermore, oral administration of imatinib, an inhibitor of c-Kit and an anticancer agent for gastrointestinal stromal tumors, markedly induced appearance of ectopic neurons after BAC treatment, even in wildtype mice. These results suggest that adult neurogenesis in the ENS is negatively regulated by c-Kit signaling in vivo. PMID:27572504

  18. Suppression of c-Kit signaling induces adult neurogenesis in the mouse intestine after myenteric plexus ablation with benzalkonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Tamada, Hiromi; Kiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-08-30

    Adult neurogenesis rarely occurs in the enteric nervous system (ENS). In this study, we demonstrated that, after intestinal myenteric plexus (MP) ablation with benzalkonium chloride (BAC), adult neurogenesis in the ENS was significantly induced in c-kit loss-of-function mutant mice (W/W(v)). Almost all neurons and fibers in the MP disappeared after BAC treatment. However, 1 week after ablation, substantial penetration of nerve fibers from the non-damaged area was observed in the MP, longitudinal muscle and subserosal layers in both wildtype and W/W(v) mice. Two weeks after BAC treatment, in addition to the penetrating fibers, a substantial number of ectopic neurons appeared in the subserosal and longitudinal muscle layers of W/W(v) mice, whereas only a few ectopic neurons appeared in wildtype mice. Such ectopic neurons expressed either excitatory or inhibitory intrinsic motor neuron markers and formed ganglion-like structures, including glial cells, synaptic vesicles and basal lamina. Furthermore, oral administration of imatinib, an inhibitor of c-Kit and an anticancer agent for gastrointestinal stromal tumors, markedly induced appearance of ectopic neurons after BAC treatment, even in wildtype mice. These results suggest that adult neurogenesis in the ENS is negatively regulated by c-Kit signaling in vivo.

  19. The use of COLD-PCR, DHPLC and GeneScanning for the highly sensitive detection of c-KIT somatic mutations in canine mast cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Gentilini, F; Mantovani, V; Turba, M E

    2015-09-01

    The conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/sequencing methods may be poorly suited for the detection of somatic mutations in canine mast cell tumour (MCT) samples owing to limited sensitivity. This study was aimed at establishing novel and more sensitive methods, assessing their limit of detection and comparing their sensitivity with conventional methods.Two different 'driver' somatic mutations of c-KIT, together with the wild-type counterparts, were cloned in plasmids to prepare standard samples with known concentrations of mutated alleles in a background of wild-type alleles; the plasmids standards were assayed using either conventional or novel, highly sensitive technique. Conventional PCR/sequencing showed a sensitivity of 50-20%. Conversely, all the novel methods obtained higher sensitivities allowed reaching as low as 2.5-1.2% of the mutated DNA.The study demonstrates that early conventional methods could likely have underestimated the prevalence of KIT mutations of MCTs, therefore affecting the assessment of their relevance in prognosis and tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment effectiveness.

  20. A431 cell variants lacking the blood group A antigen display increased high affinity epidermal growth factor-receptor number, protein-tyrosine kinase activity, and receptor turnover

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) of human A431 cells bears an antigenic determinant that is closely related to the human blood group A carbohydrate structure. Labeling studies with blood group A reactive anti-EGF-R monoclonal antibodies and various lectins revealed that A431 cultures are heterogeneous with respect to blood group A expression. We have isolated clonal variants of these cells that either express (A431A+ cells) or completely lack (A431A- cells) the blood group A specific N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc) residue. We show that this difference is due to the absence of a UDP-GalNAc:Gal transferase activity in A431A- cells. Subsequently, we have compared EGF-R functioning in these cell lines. Scatchard analysis of EGF- binding shows that in A431A- cells 6.3% of the EGF-R belongs to a high affinity subclass (Kd = 0.4 nM) while in A431A+ this subclass represents only 3.2% of the total receptor pool. The elevated level of high affinity receptors in A431A- cells is accompanied by a parallel increase in receptor protein- tyrosine kinase activity. In membrane preparations of A431A- cells, receptor autophosphorylation as well as phosphorylation of a tyrosine-containing peptide substrate is 2-3-fold higher as compared with A431A+ cells. In intact A431A-cells, the difference in receptor activity is measured as a 2-3-fold elevated level of receptor phosphorylation and a 2-3-fold higher abundance of phosphotyrosine in total cellular protein in A431A- cells. In addition, [35S]methionine pulse-chase experiments showed a ligand-independent increase in turnover of EGF-R in A431A- cells: the receptor's half life in these cells is 10 h as compared with 17 h in A431A+ cells. Our results suggest a possible involvement of GalNAc residue(s) in determining EGF-R affinity, protein-tyrosine kinase activity and turnover in A431 cells. Furthermore, our results indicate that high affinity EGF-R are the biologically active species with respect to protein-tyrosine kinase

  1. [Effect of 5-aza-CdR demethylation on expression of SHP-1 and C-kit genes in leukemia HL-60 cells].

    PubMed

    Meng, Zhen; Li, Ying-Hua; Wang, Dong-Mei; Luo, Jian-Min

    2014-12-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the expression level of SHP-1 and C-kit genes in acute leukemia HL-60 cells and effect of 5-aza-CdR demethylation on expression of SHP-1 and C-kit genes. RT-PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression level of SHP-1 and C-kit mRNA in HL-60 cells of the drug-treated group and control group.The methylation specific PCR (MSP) was applied to measure the methylation status of SHP-1 and C-kit genes in HL-60 cells.The results showed that after being treated with 5-aza-CdR, the recovery of SHP-1 gene expression was observed in HL-60 cells in which SHP-1 mRNA originally was not expressed. Meanwhile, the high expression level of C-kit mRNA in HL-60 cells was decreased. When HL-60 cells were treated with 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 µmol/L 5-aza-CdR, the demethylation effect was enhanced, the expression of SHP-1 mRNA displayed an ascending tendency, and the expression of C-kit mRNA showed an descending tendency in dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05) . It is concluded that the absence of SHP-1 mRNA expression in HL-60 cells and recovery of expression after treatment with 5-aza-CdR suggest that the hypermethylation of SHP-1 gene relates with pathogenesis of leukemia, and the abnormal increase of C-kit mRNA expression maybe exist in formation of leukemia. The effect of 5-aza-CdR on expression of SHP-1 and C-kit shows dose-dependency, the higher the 5-aza-CdR concentration, the higher the SHP-1 expression and the lower the C-kit expression, moreover, the effect of 5-aza-CdR shows time-dependency in specific concentration.The SHP-1 mRNA expression negatively correlates with C-kit mRNA expression, suggesting that the decrease or absence of SHP-1 expression in leukemia cells weakens the negative regulation on C-kit signaling pathway, thus plays a role in the formation of leukemia.

  2. Ano1 is a better marker than c-Kit for transcript analysis of single interstitial cells of Cajal in culture.

    PubMed

    Loera-Valencia, Raúl; Wang, Xuan-Yu; Wright, George W J; Barajas-López, Carlos; Huizinga, Jan D

    2014-12-01

    The interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) drive the slow wave-associated contractions in the small intestine. A commonly used marker for these cells is c-Kit, but another marker named Ano1 was recently described. This study uses single-cell RT-PCR, qPCR and immunohistochemistry to determine if Ano1 could be reliably used as a molecular marker for ICC in single-cell mRNA analysis. Here, we report on the relationship between the expression of c-Kit and Ano1 in single ICC in culture. We observed that Ano1 is expressed in more than 60% of the collected cells, whereas c-Kit is found only in 22% of the cells (n = 18). When we stained ICC primary cultures for c-KIT and ANO1 protein, we found complete co-localization in all the preparations. We propose that this difference is due to the regulation of c-Kit mRNA in culture. This regulation gives rise to low levels of its transcript, while Ano1 is expressed more prominently in culture on day 4. We also propose that Ano1 is more suitable for single-cell expression analysis as a marker for cell identity than c-Kit at the mRNA level. We hope this evidence will help to validate and increase the success of future studies characterizing single ICC expression patterns.

  3. TAK1 and IKK2, novel mediators of SCF-induced signaling and potential targets for c-Kit-driven diseases.

    PubMed

    Drube, Sebastian; Weber, Franziska; Göpfert, Christiane; Loschinski, Romy; Rothe, Mandy; Boelke, Franziska; Diamanti, Michaela A; Löhn, Tobias; Ruth, Julia; Schütz, Dagmar; Häfner, Norman; Greten, Florian R; Stumm, Ralf; Hartmann, Karin; Krämer, Oliver H; Dudeck, Anne; Kamradt, Thomas

    2015-10-06

    NF-κB activation depends on the IKK complex consisting of the catalytically active IKK1 and 2 subunits and the scaffold protein NEMO. Hitherto, IKK2 activation has always been associated with IκBα degradation, NF-κB activation, and cytokine production. In contrast, we found that in SCF-stimulated primary bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs), IKK2 is alternatively activated. Mechanistically, activated TAK1 mediates the association between c-Kit and IKK2 and therefore facilitates the Lyn-dependent IKK2 activation which suffices to mediate mitogenic signaling but, surprisingly, does not result in NF-κB activation. Moreover, the c-Kit-mediated and Lyn-dependent IKK2 activation is targeted by MyD88-dependent pathways leading to enhanced IKK2 activation and therefore to potentiated effector functions. In neoplastic cells, expressing constitutively active c-Kit mutants, activated TAK1 and IKKs do also not induce NF-κB activation but mediate uncontrolled proliferation, resistance to apoptosis and enables IL-33 to mediate c-Kit-dependent signaling. Together, we identified the formation of the c-Kit-Lyn-TAK1 signalosome which mediates IKK2 activation. Unexpectedly, this IKK activation is uncoupled from the NF-κB-machinery but is critical to modulate functional cell responses in primary-, and mediates uncontrolled proliferation and survival of tumor-mast cells. Therefore, targeting TAK1 and IKKs might be a novel approach to treat c-Kit-driven diseases.

  4. Bortezomib enhances the therapeutic efficacy of dasatinib by promoting c-KIT internalization-induced apoptosis in gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ying; Liang, Chao; Zhang, Bo; Ma, Jianjuan; He, Xuexin; Chen, Siyu; Zhang, Xianning; Chen, Wei

    2015-05-28

    Dasatinib-based therapy is often used as a second-line therapeutic strategy for imatinib-resistance gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs); however, acquired aberrant activation of dasatinib target proteins, such as c-KIT and PDGFRβ, attenuates the therapeutic efficiency of dasatinib. Combination therapy which inhibits the activation of dasatinib target proteins may enhance the cytotoxicity of dasatinib in GISTs. Bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, significantly inhibited cell viability and promoted apoptosis of dasatinib-treated GIST-T1 cells, whereas GIST-T1 cells showed little dasatinib cytotoxicity when treated with dasatinib alone, as the upregulation of c-KIT caused by dasatinib itself interfered with the inhibition of c-KIT and PDGFRβ phosphorylation by dasatinib. Bortezomib induced internalization and degradation of c-KIT by binding c-KIT to Cbl, an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, and the subsequent release of Apaf-1, which was originally bound to the c-KIT-Hsp90β-Apaf-1 complex, induced primary apoptosis in GIST-T1 cells. Combined treatment with bortezomib plus dasatinib caused cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase through inactivation of PDGFRβ and promoted bortezomib-induced apoptosis in GIST-T1 cells. Our data suggest that combination therapy exerts better efficiency for eradicating GIST cells and may be a promising strategy for the future treatment of GISTs.

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of 7-substituted-5,6-dihydrobenzo[c]acridine derivatives as new c-KIT promoter G-quadruplex binding ligands.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qian-Liang; Su, Hua-Fei; Wang, Ning; Liao, Sheng-Rong; Lu, Yu-Ting; Ou, Tian-Miao; Tan, Jia-Heng; Li, Ding; Huang, Zhi-Shu

    2017-04-21

    It has been shown that treatment of cancer cells with c-KIT G-quadruplex binding ligands can reduce their c-KIT expression levels thus inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing cell apoptosis. Herein, a series of new 7-substituted-5,6-dihydrobenzo[c]acridine derivatives were designed and synthesized. Subsequent biophysical evaluation demonstrated that the derivatives could effectively bind to and stabilize c-KIT G-quadruplex with good selectivity against duplex DNA. It was found that 12-N-methylated derivatives with a positive charge introduced at 12-position of 5,6-dihydrobenzo[c]acridine ring had similar binding affinity but lower stabilizing ability to c-KIT G-quadruplex DNA, compared with those of nonmethylated derivatives. Further molecular modeling studies showed possible binding modes of G-quadruplex with the ligands. RT-PCR assay and Western blot showed that compound 2b suppressed transcription and translation of c-KIT gene in K562 cells, which was consistent with the property of an effective G-quadruplex binding ligand targeting c-KIT oncogene promoter. Further biological evaluation showed that compound 2b could induce apoptosis through activation of the caspase-3 cascade pathway.

  6. Protein kinase D1 drives pancreatic acinar cell reprogramming and progression to intraepithelial neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Geou-Yarh; Döppler, Heike; Braun, Ursula B.; Panayiotou, Richard; Scotti Buzhardt, Michele; Radisky, Derek C.; Crawford, Howard C.; Fields, Alan P.; Murray, Nicole R.; Wang, Q. Jane; Leitges, Michael; Storz, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The transdifferentiation of pancreatic acinar cells to a ductal phenotype (acinar-to-ductal metaplasia, ADM) occurs after injury or inflammation of the pancreas and is a reversible process. However, in the presence of activating Kras mutations or persistent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) signalling, cells that underwent ADM can progress to pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and eventually pancreatic cancer. In transgenic animal models, ADM and PanINs are initiated by high-affinity ligands for EGF-R or activating Kras mutations, but the underlying signalling mechanisms are not well understood. Here, using a conditional knockout approach, we show that protein kinase D1 (PKD1) is sufficient to drive the reprogramming process to a ductal phenotype and progression to PanINs. Moreover, using 3D explant culture of primary pancreatic acinar cells, we show that PKD1 acts downstream of TGFα and Kras, to mediate formation of ductal structures through activation of the Notch pathway.

  7. [Demethylation effect of inhibitor As2O3 on expression of SHP-1 and C-kit genes in leukemia HL-60 cells].

    PubMed

    Meng, Zhen; Wang, Dong-Mei; Li, Ying-Hua; Liu, Xiao; Guo, Su-Qing; Luo, Jian-Min

    2013-06-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the expression level of SHP-1 and C-kit genes in acute leukemia HL-60 cells and effect of inhibitor As2O3 demethylation on SHP-1 and C-kit genes expression. RT-PCR was used to detect the expression level of SHP-1 and C-kit mRNA in drug-treated cell group and control group. The methylation specific PCR (MSP) was applied to measure the methylation status of SHP-1 gene in HL-60 cells. The results showed that after being treated with As2O3 the recovery of SHP-1 gene expression was observed in HL-60 cells in which SHP-1 mRNA originally did not expressed, meanwhile the expression level of C-kit mRNA in HL-60 cells with high expression decreased. When HL-60 cells were treated with As2O3 of 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 µmol/L, the demethylation effects was enhanced, the expression of SHP-1 mRNA displayed an ascending tendency, and expression of C-kit mRNA showed an descending tendency in dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the absence of SHP-1 mRNA expression in HL-60 cells and recovery of expression after treatment with As2O3 suggest the hypermethylation of SHP-1 gene related with pathogenesis of leukemia, and the abnormal increase of C-kit mRNA expression maybe exist in formation of leukemia. The effect of As2O3 on expression of SHP-1 and C-kit shows dose-dependency, the higher the As2O3 concentration, the higher the SHP-1 expression and the lower the C-kit expression, moreover, the effect of As2O3 shows time-dependency in specific concentration. The SHP-1 mRNA expression negatively relates with C-kit mRNA expression, suggesting that the decrease or absence of SHP-1 expression in leukemia cells weakens the negative regulation on C-kit signaling pathway, thus plays a role in the formation of leukemia.

  8. c-Kit identifies a subpopulation of mesenchymal stem cells in adipose tissue with higher telomerase expression and differentiation potential.

    PubMed

    Blazquez-Martinez, A; Chiesa, M; Arnalich, F; Fernandez-Delgado, J; Nistal, M; De Miguel, M P

    2014-01-01

    The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue is an easy to obtain source of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs). We and others have achieved significant but suboptimal therapeutic effects with ADSCs in various settings, mainly due to low rates of differentiation into specific cell types and with the downside of undesired side effects as a consequence of the undifferentiated ADSCs. These data prompted us to find new stem cell-specific markers for ADSCs and/or subpopulations with higher differentiation potential to specific lineages. We found a subpopulation of human ADSCs, marked by c-Kit positiveness, resides in a perivascular location, and shows higher proliferative activity and self-renewal capacity, higher telomerase activity and expression, higher in vitro adipogenic efficiency, a higher capacity for the maintenance of cardiac progenitors, and higher pancreatogenic and hepatogenic efficiency independently of CD105 expression. Our data suggests that the isolation of ADSC subpopulations with anti-c-Kit antibodies allows for the selection of a more homogeneous subpopulation with increased cardioprotective properties and increased adipogenic and endodermal differentiation potential, providing a useful tool for specific therapies in regenerative medicine applications.

  9. RNA-Mediated Reprogramming of Primary Adult Human Dermal Fibroblasts into c-kit(+) Cardiac Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Pratico, Elizabeth D; Feger, Bryan J; Watson, Michael J; Sullenger, Bruce A; Bowles, Dawn E; Milano, Carmelo A; Nair, Smita K

    2015-11-15

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Heart failure is a common, costly, and potentially fatal condition that is inadequately managed by pharmaceuticals. Cardiac repair therapies are promising alternative options. A potential cardiac repair therapy involves reprogramming human fibroblasts toward an induced cardiac progenitor-like state. We developed a clinically useful and safer reprogramming method by nonintegrative delivery of a cocktail of cardiac transcription factor-encoding mRNAs into autologous human dermal fibroblasts obtained from skin biopsies. Using this method, adult and neonatal dermal fibroblasts were reprogrammed into cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) that expressed c-kit, Isl-1, and Nkx2.5. Furthermore, these reprogrammed CPCs differentiated into cardiomyocytes (CMs) in vitro as judged by increased expression of cardiac troponin T, α-sarcomeric actinin, RyR2, and SERCA2 and displayed enhanced caffeine-sensitive calcium release. The ability to reprogram patient-derived dermal fibroblasts into c-kit(+) CPCs and differentiate them into functional CMs provides clinicians with a potential new source of CPCs for cardiac repair from a renewable source and an alternative therapy in the treatment of heart failure.

  10. Cytochrome P450s in human immune cells regulate IL-22 and c-Kit via an AHR feedback loop

    PubMed Central

    Effner, Renate; Hiller, Julia; Eyerich, Stefanie; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Brockow, Knut; Triggiani, Massimo; Behrendt, Heidrun; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten B.; Buters, Jeroen T. M.

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms how environmental compounds influence the human immune system are unknown. The environmentally sensitive transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) has immune-modulating functions and responds to small molecules. Cytochrome P4501 enzymes (CYP1) act downstream of the AHR and metabolize small molecules. However, it is currently unknown whether CYP1 activity is relevant for immune modulation. We studied the interdependence of CYP1 and AHR in human primary immune cells using pharmacological methods. CYP1 inhibition increased the expression levels of the stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit) and interleukin (IL)-22 but decreased IL-17. Single cell analyses showed that CYP1 inhibition especially promoted CD4+ helper T (Th) cells that co-express c-Kit and IL-22 simultaneously. The addition of an AHR antagonist reversed all these effects. In addition to T cells, we screened other human immune cells for CYP and found cell-specific fingerprints, suggesting that similar mechanisms are present in multiple immune cells. We describe a feedback loop yet unknown in human immune cells where CYP1 inhibition resulted in an altered AHR-dependent immune response. This mechanism relates CYP1-dependent metabolism of environmental small molecules to human immunity. PMID:28276465

  11. Induction of mast cell proliferation, maturation, and heparin synthesis by the rat c-kit ligand, stem cell factor

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, M.; Takeishi, Takashi; Geissler, E.N. ); Thompson, H.; Metcalfe, D.D. ); Langley, K.E.; Zsebo, K.M.; Galli, S.J. )

    1991-07-15

    The authors investigated the effects of a newly recognized multifunctional growth factor, the c-kit ligand stem cell factor (SCF), on mouse mast cell proliferation and phenotype. Recombinant rat SCF{sup 164} (rrSCF{sup 164}) induced the development of large numbers of dermal mast cells in normal mice in vivo. Many of these mast cells had features of connective tissue-type mast cells (CTMC), in that they were reactive both with the heparin-binding fluorescent dye berberine sulfate and with safranin. In vitro, rrSCF{sup 164} induced the proliferation of cloned interleukin 3 (IL-3)-dependent mouse mast cells and primary populations of IL-3-dependent, bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (BMCMC), which represent immature mast cells, and purified peritoneal mast cells, which represent a type of mature CTMC> BMCMC maintained in rrSCF{sup 164} not only proliferated but also matured. These findings identify SCF as a single cytokine that can induce immature, IL-3-dependent mast cells to mature and to acquire multiple characteristics of CTMC. These findings also directly demonstrate that SCF can regulate the development of a cellular lineage expressing c-kit through effects on both proliferation and maturation.

  12. In phyllodes tumour of the breast expression of c-kit but not of ALDH1A1 is associated with adverse clinico-pathological features.

    PubMed

    Chougule, Abhijit; Bal, Amanjit; Das, Ashim; Kohli, Pavneet Singh; Singh, Gurpreet

    2016-12-01

    Attempts at identification of an ideal prognostic/predictive biomarker in phyllodes tumour (PT) have not been fruitful so far. Studies evaluating c-kit expression in PT have shown contradictory results. Recently aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) was proposed as a stem cell marker for malignant PT but its expression has not been studied in benign and borderline tumours. We aimed to evaluate expression and prognostic significance of c-kit and ALDH1A1 in different grades of PT. Epithelial and stromal c-kit and ALDH1A1 expression were studied in 104 PT cases (86 primary and 18 recurrent tumours) and compared with different clinico-pathological features and recurrence rates. Stromal c-kit expression at 1 % cutoff correlated with increasing tumour grade, larger tumour size, hypercellularity, nuclear atypia, stromal overgrowth, infiltrative margins and mitotic count. These associations, however, were lost with higher (5 or 10 %) cutoffs. Conversely, decreased c-kit expression in the epithelial component correlated with increasing tumour grade, regardless of the cutoffs used. Stromal ALDH1A1 expression did not have significant associations with tumour grade or other adverse clinico-pathological features, regardless of different cutoffs. None of the cases showed significant epithelial ALDH1A1 expression. Expression of c-kit was associated with poorer overall survival (p = 0.011), while ALDH1A1 expression was associated with shorter recurrence-free survival (p = 0.036). In conclusion, c-kit expression was associated with higher tumour grade and adverse clinico-pathological features. However, these associations are cutoff dependent, partly explaining the variability in previously reported studies. ALDH1A1 expression did not have significant correlations with tumour grade and adverse clinico-pathological variables.

  13. Human C-kit+CD45- cardiac stem cells are heterogeneous and display both cardiac and endothelial commitment by single-cell qPCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Sandstedt, Joakim; Jonsson, Marianne; Dellgren, Göran; Lindahl, Anders; Jeppsson, Anders; Asp, Julia

    2014-01-03

    C-kit expressing cardiac stem cells have been described as multipotent. We have previously identified human cardiac C-kit+CD45- cells, but only found evidence of endothelial commitment. A small cardiac committed subpopulation within the C-kit+CD45- population might however be present. To investigate this at single-cell level, right and left atrial biopsies were dissociated and analyzed by FACS. Only right atrial biopsies contained a clearly distinguishable C-kit+CD45- population, which was single-cell sorted for qPCR. A minor portion of the sorted cells (1.1%) expressed early cardiac gene NKX2.5 while most of the cells (81%) expressed late endothelial gene VWF. VWF- cells were analyzed for a wider panel of genes. One group of these cells expressed endothelial genes (FLK-1, CD31) while another group expressed late cardiac genes (TNNT2, ACTC1). In conclusion, human C-kit+CD45- cells were predominantly localized to the right atrium. While most of these cells expressed endothelial genes, a minor portion expressed cardiac genes.

  14. Resveratrol improves smooth muscle carcinogenesis in the progression of chronic prostatitis via the downregulation of c-kit/SCF by activating Sirt1.

    PubMed

    He, Yi; Zeng, Huizhi; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Jiashu; Duan, Xingping; Liu, Qi; Yang, Bo

    2017-08-22

    Bladder smooth muscle cell death accompanied by hyperplasia and hypertrophy, as induced by inflammation, is the primary cause for poor bladder function. There are emerging evidences on the role of chronic inflammation as a factor involved in carcinogenesis and progression. We aim to determine the bladder smooth muscle pathological changes and dysfunction in chronic prostatitis (CP), to investigate whether resveratrol can improve the urinary dysfunction and the role of c-kit/SCF pathway, that has been associated with the smooth muscle carcinogenesis. Rat model of CP was established via subcutaneous injections of DPT vaccine and subsequently treated with resveratrol. H&E staining was performed to identify the histopathological changes in prostates and bladders. Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining examined the expression level of C-kit, stem cell factor (SCF), Sirt1, apoptosis associated proteins. the model group exhibited severe diffuse chronic inflammation, characterized by leukocyte infiltration and papillary frond protrusion into the gland cavities, and a notable increase in prostatic epithelial height. Meanwhile, bladder muscle arranged in disorder with fracture, and cells appeared atypia. The activity of C-kit/SCF was up-regulated, the carcinogenesis associated proteins are dysregulated significantly in CP rats. Resveratrol treatment significantly improved these factors by Sirt1 activation. activated c-kit/SCF and bladder muscle carcinogenesis were involved in the pathological processes of CP, which was improved after resveratrol treatment via the downregulation of c-kit/SCF by activating Sirt1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Stem cell factor gene transfer promotes cardiac repair after myocardial infarction via in situ recruitment and expansion of c-kit+ cells.

    PubMed

    Yaniz-Galende, Elisa; Chen, Jiqiu; Chemaly, Elie; Liang, Lifan; Hulot, Jean-Sebastien; McCollum, LaTronya; Arias, Teresa; Fuster, Valentin; Zsebo, Krisztina M; Hajjar, Roger J

    2012-11-09

    There is growing evidence that the myocardium responds to injury by recruiting c-kit(+) cardiac progenitor cells to the damage tissue. Even though the ability of exogenously introducing c-kit(+) cells to injured myocardium has been established, the capability of recruiting these cells through modulation of local signaling pathways by gene transfer has not been tested. To determine whether stem cell factor gene transfer mediates cardiac regeneration in a rat myocardial infarction model, through survival and recruitment of c-kit(+) progenitors and cell-cycle activation in cardiomyocytes, and explore the mechanisms involved. Infarct size, cardiac function, cardiac progenitor cells recruitment, fibrosis, and cardiomyocyte cell-cycle activation were measured at different time points in controls (n=10) and upon stem cell factor gene transfer (n=13) after myocardial infarction. We found a regenerative response because of stem cell factor overexpression characterized by an enhancement in cardiac hemodynamic function: an improvement in survival; a reduction in fibrosis, infarct size and apoptosis; an increase in cardiac c-kit(+) progenitor cells recruitment to the injured area; an increase in cardiomyocyte cell-cycle activation; and Wnt/β-catenin pathway induction. Stem cell factor gene transfer induces c-kit(+) stem/progenitor cell expansion in situ and cardiomyocyte proliferation, which may represent a new therapeutic strategy to reverse adverse remodeling after myocardial infarction.

  16. C-Kit non-mutated metastatic melanoma showing positive response to Nilotinib.

    PubMed

    Alkeraye, S; Dadban, A; Lok, C; Arnault, J P; Chaby, G

    2016-01-15

    Melanoma is an aggressive tumor with advanced disease characterized by widespread metastatic lesions and the tumor has traditionally been resistant to most forms of treatment. Indeed, metastatic melanoma has a very poor prognosis with a median survival time of 8-9 months and an estimated 3-year survival rate of less than 15%. Recent advances in our understanding of the genetic profile of melanoma cells and the molecular factors that drive malignant transformation have resulted in the identification of numerous new therapeutic targets. KIT is an established therapeutic target in cancers with activating mutations of KIT, such as gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), and considerable efficacy has been achieved with various small molecule inhibitors of KIT including imatinib mesylate. Nilotinib is an inhibitor of ligand-induced PDGFRα and PDFGRβ kinase activity and autophosphorylation of constitutively activated KIT harboring exon 13 or exon 11 mutations (IC50 values of 0.2 and 0.027 μmol/L, respectively), with efficacy comparable to that of imatinib. We report a case of non-kit mutated metastatic vaginal melanoma showing impressive response to nilotinib.

  17. Transcription factor-induced activation of cardiac gene expression in human c-kit+ cardiac progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Vajravelu, Bathri N.; Moktar, Afsoon; Cao, Pengxiao; Moore, Joseph B.; Bolli, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Although transplantation of c-kit+ cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) significantly alleviates post-myocardial infarction left ventricular dysfunction, generation of cardiomyocytes by exogenous CPCs in the recipient heart has often been limited. Inducing robust differentiation would be necessary for improving the efficacy of the regenerative cardiac cell therapy. We assessed the hypothesis that differentiation of human c-kit+ CPCs can be enhanced by priming them with cardiac transcription factors (TFs). We introduced five different TFs (Gata4, MEF2C, NKX2.5, TBX5, and BAF60C) into CPCs, either alone or in combination, and then examined the expression of marker genes associated with the major cardiac cell types using quantitative RT-PCR. When introduced individually, Gata4 and TBX5 induced a subset of myocyte markers. Moreover, Gata4 alone significantly induced smooth muscle cell and fibroblast markers. Interestingly, these gene expression changes brought by Gata4 were also accompanied by morphological changes. In contrast, MEF2C and NKX2.5 were largely ineffective in initiating cardiac gene expression in CPCs. Surprisingly, introduction of multiple TFs in different combinations mostly failed to act synergistically. Likewise, addition of BAF60C to Gata4 and/or TBX5 did not further potentiate their effects on cardiac gene expression. Based on our results, it appears that GATA4 is able to potentiate gene expression programs associated with multiple cardiovascular lineages in CPCs, suggesting that GATA4 may be effective in priming CPCs for enhanced differentiation in the setting of stem cell therapy. PMID:28355297

  18. Applications of tissue microarray technology in immunohistochemistry: a study on c-kit expression in small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Donati, Valentina; Faviana, Pinuccia; Dell'omodarme, Matteo; Prati, Maria Cristina; Camacci, Tiziano; De Ieso, Katia; Giannini, Riccardo; Lucchi, Marco; Mussi, Alfredo; Pingitore, Raffaele; Basolo, Fulvio; Fontanini, Gabriella

    2004-11-01

    Tissue microarray technology allows the immediate evaluation of molecular profiles of numerous different tissues, with savings of money and time. It was created for rapid, large-scale molecular studies, and the main concern regarding its possible broad acceptance is that the analysis of tissue microarrays instead of whole tissue sections may lead to false negative or positive results because of tissue heterogeneity. In the present study, we analyzed in 54 small cell lung cancers, by immunohistochemistry, the expression of the antigen c-kit, which seems to be important in these neoplasms' tumorigenesis, and compared the staining obtained on whole sections with that of the corresponding tissue microarrays. Although c-kit expression of the whole sections agreed with that of the corresponding biopsies in many cases, the correlation between whole sections and all the companion nonlost single cores or their mean value turned out to be highly significant only if the 36 double negatives (ie, both whole sections and companion tissue microarrays negative) were included (P <0.0001). In fact, if only cases positive to at least 1 of the tests (i.e. whole sections or corresponding tissue microarrays positive) were considered, the correlation was not significant (P=0.055). Tissue microarrays showed a good specificity (94.2% for all single cores and 92.3% for their mean value) but a rather poor sensitivity (respectively, 69.4% and 71.4%). Moreover, a high percentage (13.4%) of cores was lost, and this loss was not random. To sum up, in our experience, tissue microarray technology cannot be a substitute for whole sections in clinical diagnosis of individual cases.

  19. Transcription factor-induced activation of cardiac gene expression in human c-kit+ cardiac progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Al-Maqtari, Tareq; Hong, Kyung U; Vajravelu, Bathri N; Moktar, Afsoon; Cao, Pengxiao; Moore, Joseph B; Bolli, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Although transplantation of c-kit+ cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) significantly alleviates post-myocardial infarction left ventricular dysfunction, generation of cardiomyocytes by exogenous CPCs in the recipient heart has often been limited. Inducing robust differentiation would be necessary for improving the efficacy of the regenerative cardiac cell therapy. We assessed the hypothesis that differentiation of human c-kit+ CPCs can be enhanced by priming them with cardiac transcription factors (TFs). We introduced five different TFs (Gata4, MEF2C, NKX2.5, TBX5, and BAF60C) into CPCs, either alone or in combination, and then examined the expression of marker genes associated with the major cardiac cell types using quantitative RT-PCR. When introduced individually, Gata4 and TBX5 induced a subset of myocyte markers. Moreover, Gata4 alone significantly induced smooth muscle cell and fibroblast markers. Interestingly, these gene expression changes brought by Gata4 were also accompanied by morphological changes. In contrast, MEF2C and NKX2.5 were largely ineffective in initiating cardiac gene expression in CPCs. Surprisingly, introduction of multiple TFs in different combinations mostly failed to act synergistically. Likewise, addition of BAF60C to Gata4 and/or TBX5 did not further potentiate their effects on cardiac gene expression. Based on our results, it appears that GATA4 is able to potentiate gene expression programs associated with multiple cardiovascular lineages in CPCs, suggesting that GATA4 may be effective in priming CPCs for enhanced differentiation in the setting of stem cell therapy.

  20. A G-Rich Sequence within the c-kit Oncogene Promoter Forms a Parallel G-Quadruplex Having Asymmetric G-Tetrad Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Shang-Te Danny; Varnai, Peter; Bugaut, Anthony; Reszka, Anthony P.; Neidle, Stephen; Balasubramanian, Shankar

    2011-01-01

    Guanine-rich DNA sequences with the ability to form quadruplex structures are enriched in the promoter regions of protein-coding genes, particularly those of proto-oncogenes. G-quadruplexes are structurally polymorphic and their folding topologies can depend on the sample conditions. We report here on a structural study using solution state NMR spectroscopy of a second G-quadruplex-forming motif (c-kit2) that has been recently identified in the promoter region of the c-kit oncogene. In the presence of potassium ions, c-kit2 exists as an ensemble of structures that share the same parallel-stranded propeller-type conformations. Subtle differences in structural dynamics have been identified using hydrogen–deuterium exchange experiments by NMR spectroscopy, suggesting the coexistence of at least two structurally similar but dynamically distinct substates, which undergo slow interconversion on the NMR timescale. PMID:19705869

  1. miR-21 Reduces Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Apoptosis in c-kit(+) Cardiac Stem Cells In Vitro through PTEN/PI3K/Akt Signaling.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wenwen; Wang, Yan; Long, Xianping; Zhao, Ranzun; Wang, Zhenglong; Liu, Zhijiang; Cao, Song; Shi, Bei

    2016-01-01

    The low survival rate of cardiac stem cells (CSCs) in the infarcted myocardium hampers cell therapy for ischemic cardiomyopathy. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) and one of its target proteins, PTEN, contribute to the survival and proliferation of many cell types, but their prosurvival effects in c-kit(+) CSC remain unclear. Thus, we hypothesized that miR-21 reduces hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced apoptosis in c-kit(+) CSC and estimated the contribution of PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling to this oxidative circumstance. miR-21 mimics efficiently reduced H2O2-induced apoptosis in c-kit(+) CSC, as evidenced by the downregulation of the proapoptosis proteins caspase-3 and Bax and upregulation of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2. In addition, the gain of function of miR-21 in c-kit(+) CSC downregulated the protein level of PTEN although its mRNA level changed slightly; in the meantime, miR-21 overexpression also increased phospho-Akt (p-Akt). The antiapoptotic effects of miR-21 were comparable with Phen (bpV), the selective inhibitor of PTEN, while miR-21 inhibitor or PI3K's inhibitor LY294002 efficiently attenuated the antiapoptotic effect of miR-21. Taken together, these results indicate that the anti-H2O2-induced apoptosis effect of miR-21 in c-kit(+) CSC is contributed by PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling. miR-21 could be a potential molecule to facilitate the c-kit(+) CSC therapy in ischemic myocardium.

  2. TAK1 and IKK2, novel mediators of SCF-induced signaling and potential targets for c-Kit-driven diseases

    PubMed Central

    Göpfert, Christiane; Loschinski, Romy; Rothe, Mandy; Boelke, Franziska; Diamanti, Michaela A.; Löhn, Tobias; Ruth, Julia; Schütz, Dagmar; Häfner, Norman; Greten, Florian R.; Stumm, Ralf; Hartmann, Karin; Krämer, Oliver H.; Dudeck, Anne; Kamradt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    NF-κB activation depends on the IKK complex consisting of the catalytically active IKK1 and 2 subunits and the scaffold protein NEMO. Hitherto, IKK2 activation has always been associated with IκBα degradation, NF-κB activation, and cytokine production. In contrast, we found that in SCF-stimulated primary bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs), IKK2 is alternatively activated. Mechanistically, activated TAK1 mediates the association between c-Kit and IKK2 and therefore facilitates the Lyn-dependent IKK2 activation which suffices to mediate mitogenic signaling but, surprisingly, does not result in NF-κB activation. Moreover, the c-Kit-mediated and Lyn-dependent IKK2 activation is targeted by MyD88-dependent pathways leading to enhanced IKK2 activation and therefore to potentiated effector functions. In neoplastic cells, expressing constitutively active c-Kit mutants, activated TAK1 and IKKs do also not induce NF-κB activation but mediate uncontrolled proliferation, resistance to apoptosis and enables IL-33 to mediate c-Kit-dependent signaling. Together, we identified the formation of the c-Kit-Lyn-TAK1 signalosome which mediates IKK2 activation. Unexpectedly, this IKK activation is uncoupled from the NF-κB-machinery but is critical to modulate functional cell responses in primary-, and mediates uncontrolled proliferation and survival of tumor-mast cells. Therefore, targeting TAK1 and IKKs might be a novel approach to treat c-Kit-driven diseases. PMID:26353931

  3. [Bio-characteristics of c-kit+ human amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells and their differentiation into cardiomyocytes in vitro].

    PubMed

    Bai, Jing; Wang, Yiru; Liu, Lifeng; Chen, Jie; Wang, Yu

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the bio-characteristics of c-kit+ human amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HAFMSCs) and its capacity to differentiate into cardiomyocytes in vitro. Fifty samples of human amniotic fluid were obtained from amniocenteses or voluntary termination of pregnancy and were expanded in vitro. c-kit+ HAFMSCs were sorted by flow cytometry and were recultured in the same media. c-kit+ HAFMSCs were amplified and identified, then exposed to osteogenic, adipogenic, and myogenic media. The flow cytometry, and immunocytochemistry were used for identifying the cell phenotype, von Kossa staining for osteogenic differentiation, oil red O staining for adipogenic differentiation, and real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR for the expressions of NKx2.5, Tbx5, GATA-4, and alpha-MHC genes. After the selection procedure, the percentage of c-kit+ HAFMSCs was 3.07% +/- 1.03% of the total adherent cells. The cells expressed MSCs markers (CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105), and did not express hematopoietic stem cells markers (CD34, CD45). The cells were positive for human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-ABC, and negative for HLA-DR. They also expressed Oct-4, which characterized the undifferentiated stem cell state. The growth curves of c-kit+ HAMFSCs at passages 5, 10, and 15 were similar. Lipid droplet was observed by oil red O staining and calcium deposition by von Kossa staining in the cells at 21 days after adipogenic and osteogenic induction. The myocardium special gene expressions of Tbx5, Nkx2.5, GATA-4, and alpha-MHC were significantly stronger after myogenic induction than those before myogenic induction (P < 0.05). Selected c-kit+ HAFMSCs by flow cytometry is a group of pure MSCs, which has potential to differentiate into cardiomyocytes and can be used as seeding cells for myocardium regeneration treatment.

  4. Grafted c-kit(+)/SSEA1(-) eye-wall progenitor cells delay retinal degeneration in mice by regulating neural plasticity and forming new graft-to-host synapses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Chen, Zehua; Li, Zhengya; Zhao, Chen; Zeng, Yuxiao; Zou, Ting; Fu, Caiyun; Liu, Xiaoli; Xu, Haiwei; Yin, Zheng Qin

    2016-12-30

    Despite diverse pathogenesis, the common pathological change observed in age-related macular degeneration and in most hereditary retinal degeneration (RD) diseases is photoreceptor loss. Photoreceptor replacement by cell transplantation may be a feasible treatment for RD. The major obstacles to clinical translation of stem cell-based cell therapy in RD remain the difficulty of obtaining sufficient quantities of appropriate and safe donor cells and the poor integration of grafted stem cell-derived photoreceptors into the remaining retinal circuitry. Eye-wall c-kit(+)/stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 (SSEA1)(-) cells were isolated via fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and their self-renewal and differentiation potential were detected by immunochemistry and flow cytometry in vitro. After labeling with quantum nanocrystal dots and transplantation into the subretinal space of rd1 RD mice, differentiation and synapse formation by daughter cells of the eye-wall c-kit(+)/SSEA1(-) cells were evaluated by immunochemistry and western blotting. Morphological changes of the inner retina of rd1 mice after cell transplantation were demonstrated by immunochemistry. Retinal function of rd1 mice that received cell grafts was tested via flash electroretinograms and the light/dark transition test. Eye-wall c-kit(+)/SSEA1(-) cells were self-renewing and clonogenic, and they retained their proliferative potential through more than 20 passages. Additionally, eye-wall c-kit(+)/SSEA1(-) cells were capable of differentiating into multiple retinal cell types including photoreceptors, bipolar cells, horizontal cells, amacrine cells, Müller cells, and retinal pigment epithelium cells and of transdifferentiating into smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells in vitro. The levels of synaptophysin and postsynaptic density-95 in the retinas of eye-wall c-kit(+)/SSEA1(-) cell-transplanted rd1 mice were significantly increased at 4 weeks post transplantation. The c-kit(+)/SSEA1(-) cells were

  5. Evaluation of c-kit (CD 117) expression as a prognostic factor in testicular germ cell tumors: an Izmir Oncology Group (IZOG) study.

    PubMed

    Salman, Tarik; Yildiz, Elif; Yildiz, Ibrahim; Yavuzer, Dilek; Unlu, Mehtat; Varol, Umut; Akyol, Murat; Yildiz, Yasar; Bayoglu, Vedat; Kucukzeybek, Yksel; Alacacioglu, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Despite the successful use of targeted and molecular therapies in other cancers, little progress has been made in the management of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs). c-kit (CD 117) is a good target for cancer treatment and possesses an impressive role in the current oncological practice. We aimed to evaluate c-kit expression in early stage TGCTs as a prognostic factor. Patients with TGCTs who were referred to the Medical Oncology Clinic and underwent curative surgical operation were included in our study before starting chemo- therapy. Immunohistochemistry was performed on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded three-micrometer thick sections with CD 117 Rabbit Anti c-kit in vitro gene kit. Biochemically, we utilized AFP and β-HCG Immunlite 2000 device with solid phase chemiluminescent immunometric method, and LDH Roche models with the DP-standardized UV method. AFP 0-15 ng/ml, β-HCG < 0.1 mlu/ml and LDH 240-480 mg/dl were considered as normal values. Sixty-five patients were included in our study. Forty-one (63%) patients had non-seminoma tumors (NSGCTs) and 24 (37%) had seminoma. Statistically significant c-kit expression was found in patients with seminoma (p<0.0001). There was no difference between negative or positive c-kit expression in terms of clinicopathological characteristics, including preoperative serum levels of AFP, β-HCG, LDH, lymph node involvement, distant metastasis, and IGCCCG risk classification. No correlation was found between these parameters and 5-year progression free survival (PFS) rate except for tumor stage, presence of lymph node metastasis and IGCCCG score (p=0.001, p=0.04, and p=0.0001, respectively). Five-year PFS rate of patients with positive CD 117 was 72.2% (95% CI, 54.6-89.8), and 56.6% (95% CI, 31.2-82.1) for those without CD 117 expression involvement (p=0.12). So far, there has been no significant breakthrough in the treatment of cisplatin-refractory TGCTs in the era of targeted therapies. No prognostic importance of c-kit

  6. Loss of c-Kit and bone marrow failure upon conditional removal of the GATA-2 C-terminal zinc finger domain in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan S; Jin, Jin; Liang, Xiaoxuan; Matatall, Katie A; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Huiyuan; Ullrich, Stephen E; King, Katherine Y; Sun, Shao-Cong; Watowich, Stephanie S

    2016-09-01

    Heterozygous mutations in the transcriptional regulator GATA-2 associate with multilineage immunodeficiency, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The majority of these mutations localize in the zinc finger (ZnF) domains, which mediate GATA-2 DNA binding. Deregulated hematopoiesis with GATA-2 mutation frequently develops in adulthood, yet GATA-2 function in the bone marrow remains unresolved. To investigate this, we conditionally deleted the GATA-2 C-terminal ZnF (C-ZnF) coding sequences in adult mice. Upon Gata2 C-ZnF deletion, we observed rapid peripheral cytopenia, bone marrow failure, and decreased c-Kit expression on hematopoietic progenitors. Transplant studies indicated GATA-2 has a cell-autonomous role in bone marrow hematopoiesis. Moreover, myeloid lineage populations were particularly sensitive to Gata2 hemizygosity, while molecular assays indicated GATA-2 regulates c-Kit expression in multilineage progenitor cells. Enforced c-Kit expression in Gata2 C-ZnF-deficient hematopoietic progenitors enhanced myeloid colony activity, suggesting GATA-2 sustains myelopoiesis via a cell intrinsic role involving maintenance of c-Kit expression. Our results provide insight into mechanisms regulating hematopoiesis in bone marrow and may contribute to a better understanding of immunodeficiency and bone marrow failure associated with GATA-2 mutation.

  7. Roles of store-operated Ca2+ channels in regulating cell cycling and migration of human cardiac c-kit+ progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Che, Hui; Li, Gang; Sun, Hai-Ying; Xiao, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Yan; Li, Gui-Rong

    2015-11-15

    Cardiac c-kit(+) progenitor cells are important for maintaining cardiac homeostasis and can potentially contribute to myocardial repair. However, cellular physiology of human cardiac c-kit(+) progenitor cells is not well understood. The present study investigates the functional store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) channels and the potential role in regulating cell cycling and migration using confocal microscopy, RT-PCR, Western blot, coimmunoprecipitation, cell proliferation, and migration assays. We found that SOCE channels mediated Ca(2+) influx, and TRPC1, STIM1, and Orai1 were involved in the formation of SOCE channels in human cardiac c-kit(+) progenitor cells. Silencing TRPC1, STIM1, or Orai1 with the corresponding siRNA significantly reduced the Ca(2+) signaling through SOCE channels, decreased cell proliferation and migration, and reduced expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, and/or p-Akt. Our results demonstrate the novel information that Ca(2+) signaling through SOCE channels regulates cell cycling and migration via activating cyclin D1, cyclin E, and/or p-Akt in human cardiac c-kit(+) cells.

  8. Placental growth factor and soluble c-kit receptor dynamics characterize the cytokine signature of imatinib in prostate cancer and bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Paul; Wen, Sijin; Morita, Satoshi; Thall, Peter F

    2011-07-01

    To assess the hypothesis that the dynamics of plasma angiogenic and inflammatory cytokines after docetaxel chemotherapy with or without the c-kit/abl/platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) inhibitor imatinib mesylate for prostate cancer are associated with outcome, the kinetics of 17 plasma cytokines before versus after chemotherapy were assessed and associations with progression-free survival (PFS) examined. After adjusting for multiple tests, significantly different declines in placental growth factor (PIGF), soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR1), VEGF, and soluble c-kit were observed with docetaxel plus imatinib (n=41) compared to docetaxel alone (n=47). Based on a piecewise linear regression model for change in concentration of each cytokine as a function of the probability of change in p-PDGFR in vivo, only the dynamics of PIGF (P<0.0001) and soluble c-kit (P<0.0001) differed with imatinib therapy. In a Bayesian log-normal regression model for PFS, a rise in human matrix metalloproteinase 9 after docetaxel alone associated with a longer PFS. Distinct plasma angiogenic cytokines are modified by imatinib and partitioned by in vivo p-PDGFR dynamics after docetaxel chemotherapy for metastatic prostate cancer. Plasma PIGF and soluble c-kit kinetics are candidate biomarkers of imatinib effect. The predictive value of human matrix metalloproteinase 9 kinetics for docetaxel efficacy requires prospective validation.

  9. C-Kit expression in the gallbladder of guinea pig with chronic calculous cholecystitis and the effect of Artemisia capillaris Thunb on interstitial cells of Cajal

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Hua; Wang, Fang; Wang, Changmiao

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): To study the c-Kit expression in the gallbladder of cholesterol lithogenic guinea pig model and the effect of Artemisia capillaris Thunb on interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs). Materials and Methods: A total of 45 guinea pigs were randomly assigned into three groups: the control group (guinea pigs fed a standard diet, normal group); the model group (guinea pigs fed a cholesterol gallstone-inducing diet); and the Chinese medicine group (guinea pigs fed the cholesterol gallstone-inducing diet and treated with A. capillaris through intragastric administration, therapy group). Each group had 15 guinea pigs. The gallbladders of the guinea pigs were harvested after 8 weeks. C-Kit expression was detected using an immunohistochemistry staining, real-time PCR, and Western blot analyses. The effect of A. capillaris on ICCs was evaluated by muscle strip contraction experiments. Results: C-Kit expression significantly decreased in the gallbladder of model group, but increased in the Chinese medicine group. The Contractility of guinea pig gallbladder muscle strip significantly improved in the Chinese medicine group. Conclusion: Our results indicated that A. capillaris improves gallbladder impairment by up-regulating c-Kit expression, and it also can improve the contractile response of in vitro guinea pig gallbladder muscle strips. PMID:27635195

  10. Sensitive detection of the c-KIT c.1430G>T mutation by mutant-specific polymerase chain reaction in feline mast cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Takanosu, M; Sato, M; Kagawa, Y

    2014-06-01

    Here, we describe the establishment of mutant-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of a c-KIT c.1430G>T mutation in feline mast cell tumours. Several mutations in feline c-KIT have been identified, with the c.1430G>T mutation accounting for a significant portion of feline mast cell tumour mutations. The c.1430G>T mutation in c-KIT exon 9 was detected in 15.7% (11 of 70) of samples by mutant-specific PCR but in only 7.1% (5 of 70) by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in the genomic DNA isolated from 70 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections or cells collected by fine needle aspiration. Mutant-specific PCR showed remarkably higher detection rate than did PCR-RFLP. DNA sequence analysis did not always yield identical results to those of mutant-specific PCR, suggesting heterogeneity of tumour cells. Mutant-specific PCR is a valid and efficient screening tool for detection of the c-KIT c.1430G>T point mutation in feline mast cell tumours compared with PCR-RFLP and sequencing analysis.

  11. In adults with t(8;21)AML, posttransplant RUNX1/RUNX1T1-based MRD monitoring, rather than c-KIT mutations, allows further risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Wu, De-Pei; Liu, Qi-Fa; Qin, Ya-Zhen; Wang, Jing-Bo; Xu, Lan-Ping; Liu, Yan-Rong; Zhu, Hong-Hu; Chen, Jia; Dai, Min; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2014-09-18

    We asked whether minimal residual disease (MRD) determined by RUNX1/RUNX1T1 transcript levels could identify allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo- HSCT) t(8;21) (q22;q22) acute myeloid leukemia patients who are at high risk for relapse, together with the impact of c-KIT mutations. Ninety-two consecutive adult t(8;21) patients who received allo-HSCT in complete remission were enrolled. MRD status at 1, 2, and 3 months after HSCT identified relapse patients (P5.05, P < .001, P5.0001, respectively). The 2-year cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) and leukemia-free survival (LFS) was 32% vs 9% (P 5 .01) and 55% vs 70% (P 5 .12) for patients with and without c-KIT mutations, respectively. In multivariate analysis, MRD at the first 3 months after HSCT, rather than c-KIT mutations,was an independent factor for CIR (P5.001) and LFS(P5.001). In addition, 17 patients received donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) as interventional therapy for MRD, and the 2-year CIR and LFS for patients with or without DLI was 24% vs 87% (P5.001) and 64%vs 0%(P < .001), respectively. In conclusion, MRD monitoring early after transplant allows further rapid identification of t(8;21) patients at high risk of relapse and was more predictive of relapse risk than c-KIT mutations.

  12. A role for stem cell factor (SCF): c-kit interaction(s) in the intestinal tract response to Salmonella typhimurium infection

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Cholera toxin (CT) has been shown to induce stem cell factor (SCF) production in mouse ligated intestinal loops. Further, SCF interaction(s) with its receptor (c-kit) was shown to be important for the intestinal tract secretory response after CT exposure. In this study, we have investigated whether SCF production is induced in the intestinal tract after exposure to Salmonella typhimurium and whether this production could be an important intestinal tract response to Salmonella infection. Using a mouse ligated intestinal loop model, increased levels of SCF mRNA were detected at 2-4 h post-Salmonella challenge. Intestinal fluid obtained from Salmonella-challenged loops contained high levels of SCF by ELISA. Human and murine intestinal epithelial cell lines were also shown to have increased levels of SCF mRNA after exposure to Salmonella. Inhibition of Salmonella invasion of epithelial cells was shown to be one potentially important role for SCF:c-kit interactions in host defense to Salmonella infection. Pretreatment of human or murine intestinal cell lines with SCF resulted in a cellular state that was resistant to Salmonella invasion. Finally, mice having mutations in the white spotting (W) locus, which encodes the SCF-receptor (c-kit), were significantly more susceptible to oral Salmonella challenge than their control littermates. Taken together, the above results suggest that an important intestinal tract response to Salmonella infection is an enhanced production of SCF and its subsequent interactions with c-kit. PMID:8691142

  13. Growth of hormone-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells is promoted by constitutive caveolin-1 whose expression is lost in an EGF-R-mediated manner during development of tamoxifen resistance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Nicholas B P; Hutcheson, Iain R; Campbell, Lee; Gee, Julia; Taylor, Kathryn M; Nicholson, Robert I; Gumbleton, Mark

    2010-02-01

    Caveolin-1 displays both tumour-suppressor and tumour-promoter properties in breast cancer. Using characterised preclinical cell models for the transition of oestrogen-sensitive (WT-MCF-7 cells) to a tamoxifen-resistant (TAM-R cells) phenotype we examined the role caveolin-1 in the development of hormone-resistant breast cancer. The WT-MCF-7 cells showed abundant expression of caveolin-1 which potentiated oestrogen-receptor (ERalpha) signalling and promoted cell growth despite caveolin-1 mediating inhibition of ERK signalling. In TAM-R cells caveolin-1 expression was negligible, repressed by EGF-R/ERK signalling. Pharmacological inhibition of EGFR/ERK in TAM-R cells restored caveolin-1 and also resulted in the emergence of pools of phosphorylated caveolin-1. WT-MCF-7 cells exposed to tamoxifen for upto 12 weeks displayed increased caveolin-1 (peaking by week 2) followed (after week 8) by a marked decrease as the cells progress to develop a stable tamoxifen-resistant phenotype. The targeted down-regulation (siRNA) of caveolin-1 in WT-MCF-7 cells reduced growth but did not affect their sensitivity to tamoxifen, suggesting loss of caveolin-1 alone is not sufficient to confer tamoxifen-resistance. Hyperactivation of EGFR/ERK is a feature of tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells, a principal driver of cell growth. Recombinant expression of caveolin-1 in TAM-R cells did not affect EGFR/ERK activity, potentially due to mislocalisation of caveolin-1 through hyperactivation of the mTOR pathway or altered caveolin-1 phosphorylation. This work defines a novel role for caveolin-1 with implications for the clinical course of breast cancer and identifies caveolin-1 as a potential drug target for the treatment of early oestrogen-dependent breast cancers. Further, the loss of caveolin-1 may have benefit as a molecular signature for tamoxifen resistance.

  14. miR-21 increases c-kit+ cardiac stem cell proliferation in vitro through PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Long, Xianping; Zhao, Ranzun; Wang, Yan; Chen, Wenming; Xu, Guanxue; Sheng, Jin; Wang, Dongmei; Cao, Song

    2017-01-01

    The low survival rate of cardiac stem cells (CSCs) in the ischemic myocardium is one of the obstacles in ischemic cardiomyopathy cell therapy. The MicroRNA (miR)-21 and one of its target protein, the tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN), contributes to the proliferation of many kinds of tissues and cell types. It is reported that miR-21 promotes proliferation through PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway, but its effects on c-kit+ CSC remain unclear. The authors hypothesized that miR-21 promotes the proliferation in c-kit+ CSC, and evaluated the involvement of PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway in vitro. miR-21 up-regulation with miR-21 efficiently mimics accelerated cell viability and proliferation in c-kit+ CSC, which was evidenced by the CCK-8, EdU and cell cycle analyses. In addition, the over-expression of miR-21 in c-kit+ CSCs notably down-regulated the protein expression of PTEN although the mRNA level of PTEN showed little change. Gain-of-function of miR-21 also increased the phosphor-Akt (p-Akt) level. Phen, the selective inhibitor of PTEN, reproduced the pro-proliferation effects of miR-21, while PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, totally attenuated the pro-survival effect of miR-21. These results indicate that miR-21 is efficient in promoting proliferation in c-kit+ CSCs, which is contributed by the PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway. miR-21 holds the potential to facilitate CSC therapy in ischemic myocardium. PMID:28168101

  15. Effect of c-kit ligand, stem cell factor, on mediator release by human intestinal mast cells isolated from patients with inflammatory bowel disease and controls.

    PubMed Central

    Bischoff, S C; Schwengberg, S; Wordelmann, K; Weimann, A; Raab, R; Manns, M P

    1996-01-01

    The regulation of mediator release in human intestinal mast cells is largely unknown. Apart from IgE receptor crosslinking no secretagogues have been described so far. This study examined the effect of two cytokines (c-kit ligand and interleukin 3) and other agonists on human intestinal mast cell function. Cells were isolated from surgery specimens of 47 patients undergoing intestinal resection because of tumours or inflammatory bowel disease. Cell suspensions contained 3.6% mast cells (mean of 50 experiments). After preincubation without or with c-kit ligand or interleukin 3, cells were stimulated by IgE receptor crosslinking, C5a or formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). Histamine and sulphidoleukotriene release was measured in supernatants. The sequential stimulation of the cells with c-kit ligand and IgE receptor crosslinking induced the release of high amounts of histamine and leukotrienes, whereas each agonist by itself induced only marginal mediator release. Interleukin 3 induced no release by itself, but enhanced the IgE receptor dependent release, possibly by an indirect mechanism. No significant mediator release was seen in response to C5a and fMLP, even if the cells were pretreated with c-kit ligand. The mediator release, particularly that of leukotrienes, was higher in cells isolated from actively inflamed tissue from patients with inflammatory bowel disease compared with controls. In conclusion, it was found that, apart from IgE receptor crosslinking, c-kit ligand and interleukin 3 regulate mediator release in human intestinal mast cells. The enhancement of mediator release by cytokines may be of particular relevance in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases and food intolerance reactions. PMID:8566835

  16. TNF, acting through inducibly expressed TNFR2, drives activation and cell cycle entry of c-Kit+ cardiac stem cells in ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Al-Lamki, Rafia S; Lu, Wanhua; Wang, Jun; Yang, Jun; Sargeant, Timothy J; Wells, Richard; Suo, Chenqu; Wright, Penny; Goddard, Martin; Huang, Qunhua; Lebastchi, Amir H; Tellides, George; Huang, Yingqun; Min, Wang; Pober, Jordan S; Bradley, John R

    2013-09-01

    TNF, signaling through TNFR2, has been implicated in tissue repair, a process that in the heart may be mediated by activated resident cardiac stem cells (CSCs). The objective of our study is to determine whether ligation of TNFR2 can induce activation of resident CSCs in the setting of ischemic cardiac injury. We show that in human cardiac tissue affected by ischemia heart disease (IHD), TNFR2 is expressed on intrinsic CSCs, identified as c-kit(+)/CD45(-)/VEGFR2(-) interstitial round cells, which are activated as determined by entry to cell cycle and expression of Lin-28. Wild-type mouse heart organ cultures subjected to hypoxic conditions both increase cardiac TNF expression and show induced TNFR2 and Lin-28 expression in c-kit(+) CSCs that have entered cell cycle. These CSC responses are enhanced by exogenous TNF. TNFR2(-/-) mouse heart organ cultures subjected to hypoxia increase cardiac TNF but fail to induce CSC activation. Similarly, c-kit(+) CSCs isolated from mouse hearts exposed to hypoxia or TNF show induction of Lin-28, TNFR2, cell cycle entry, and cardiogenic marker, α-sarcomeric actin (α-SA), responses more pronounced by hypoxia in combination with TNF. Knockdown of Lin-28 by siRNA results in reduced levels of TNFR2 expression, cell cycle entry, and diminished expression of α-SA. We conclude that hypoxia-induced c-kit(+) CSC activation is mediated by TNF/TNFR2/Lin-28 signaling. These observations suggest that TNFR2 signaling in resident c-kit(+) CSCs induces cardiac repair, findings which provide further understanding of the unanticipated harmful effects of TNF blockade in human IHD. © AlphaMed Press.

  17. Effects of BMP4/SMAD signaling pathway on mouse primordial follicle growth and survival via up-regulation of Sohlh2 and c-kit.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiangyun; Zhang, Xiaoli; Mu, Yulan; Li, Yi; Hao, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) is essential for the development of primordial follicles, although its underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. By using cultured ovaries, the effects of BMP4 and the potential signal transduction pathways were investigated. Ovaries from 3-day-old female mouse pups were maintained in organ culture in the absence (control) or presence of BMP4 (100 ng/ml). At different culture time, the effects of BMP4 on primordial follicle growth and survival were assayed by follicle count and TUNEL labeling. The expression of phospho-SMAD1/5/8, Sohlh2, and c-kit were measured by immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, and Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry was also performed to determine the expression pattern of BMP4, pSMAD1/5/8, Sohlh2, and c-kit in vivo during ovarian development. The results showed treatments of ovaries with BMP4 resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) increase on the primordial-to-primary follicle transition. The oocytes of primordial follicles treated with BMP4 were also less likely to undergo apoptosis. BMP4 enhanced the phosphorylation of SMAD1/5/8 and up-regulated the expression of Sohlh2 and c-kit in primordial follicles. During ovarian development in vivo, Sohlh2, and c-kit exhibited similar expression patterns to BMP4 and pSMAD1/5/8 in primordial follicles. The present studies suggest that BMP4/SMAD signaling pathway initiate primordial follicle growth and prevented oocyte apoptosis via up-regulation of Sohlh2 and c-kit. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Cigarette smoke suppresses the surface expression of c-kit and FcεRI on mast cells.

    PubMed

    Givi, M E; Blokhuis, B R; Da Silva, C A; Adcock, I; Garssen, J; Folkerts, G; Redegeld, F A; Mortaz, E

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a multicomponent disease characterized by emphysema and/or chronic bronchitis. COPD is mostly associated with cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoke contains over 4,700 chemical compounds, including free radicals and LPS (a Toll-Like Receptor 4 agonist) at concentrations which may contribute to the pathogenesis of diseases like COPD. We have previously shown that short-term exposure to cigarette smoke medium (CSM) can stimulate several inflammatory cells via TLR4 and that CSM reduces the degranulation of bone-marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). In the current study, the effect of CSM on mast cells maturation and function was investigated. Coculturing of BMMC with CSM during the development of bone marrow progenitor cells suppressed the granularity and the surface expression of c-kit and Fc ε RI receptors. Stimulation with IgE/antigen resulted in decreased degranulation and release of Th1 and Th2 cytokines. The effects of CSM exposure could not be mimicked by the addition of LPS to the culture medium. In conclusion, this study shows that CSM may affect mast cell development and subsequent response to allergic activation in a TLR4-independent manner.

  19. 8-Cl-cAMP antagonizes mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and cell growth stimulation induced by epidermal growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Budillon, A; Gennaro, E Di; Caraglia, M; Barbarulo, D; Abbruzzese, A; Tagliaferri, P

    1999-01-01

    The growth factor-activated mitogenic pathways are often disregulated in tumour cells and, therefore, they can provide specific molecular targets for novel anti-tumour approaches. 8-Chloro-cAMP (8-Cl-cAMP), a synthetic cAMP analogue, is a novel anti-tumour agent that has recently undergone clinical evaluation. We investigated the effects of 8-CI-cAMP on the epidermal growth factor (EGF)/EGF receptor (EGF-R) signalling in human epidermoid cancer KB cells, which are responsive to the mitogenic stimulus of EGF. We found that the growth-promoting activity of EGF was completely abolished when EGF treatment was performed in combination with 8-CI-cAMP. The inhibition of the EGF-induced proliferation by 8-CI-cAMP was paralleled by the blockade of the EGF-stimulated activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), ERK-1 and ERK-2. Conversely, we found an increase of EGF-R expression and EGF-R tyrosine phosphorylation when KB cells were growth inhibited by 8-Cl-cAMP. Moreover, the activity of Raf-1 and MEK-1 protein kinases, the activators upstream MAPK in the phosphorylation cascade induced by EGF, was not modified in 8-Cl-cAMP-treated cells. We concluded that the impairment of KB cell response to EGF, induced by 8-Cl-cAMP, resides in the specific inhibition of MAPK/ERKs activity while the function of the upstream elements in the EGF-R signalling is preserved. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10584873

  20. Cadmium exposure in newborn rats ovary induces developmental disorders of primordial follicles and the differential expression of SCF/c-kit gene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenchang; Wu, Tingting; Zhang, Chenyun; Luo, Lingfeng; Xie, Meimei; Huang, Huiling

    2017-10-05

    Since the 1990s, the rising problem that gonad reproductive toxicity on adult female after exposing to cadmium (Cd), an environmental endocrine disruptor, has attracted high attention at home and abroad,and was systematically studied. Our research focuses on a further problem is that early cadmium exposure (during birth to before puberty) impact on development and function of ovarian cells and its possible mechanism. Our research focuses on the changes of ovarian cells growth and development after the newborn rat ovaries with cadmium exposure in vitro, and different expression of ovarian cells development-related factors, SCF/c-kit and changes of their DNA methylation status. We obtained ovaries from 4-day-old SD rats and cultured them in DMEM/F12 mixed with α-MEM media in vitro. Different doses of cadmium were designed as control, 0.5, 5, 10 and 50μM, and then the constituent ratio of ovarian follicle and follicular oocytes diameter were observed with microscope after 4-h exposure. We found that the increased constituent ratio of original follicle and decreased diameter of all levels of follicular oocytes(compared with control, with statistically significant differences, P<0.01).After the measurement of expression of SCF/c-kit by qRT-PCR and Western Blotting, the mRNA and protein expression of SCF/c-kit in ovarian were both decreased. We further found that the increased constituent ratio of growth follicle and increased diameter of oocytes under the treatment of adding SCF in cell culture media. Finally, MALDI-TOF-MS method showed DNA-low methylation status of SCF/c-kit promoter region after Cd exposure. Overall, we concluded that the exposure of cadimium (5-50μM) on newborn rats ovaries could inhibit follicle development.SCF/c-kit system might mediate follicle development damage caused by cadmium, which is associated with DNA hypomethylation of SCF/c-kit promoter region may be worthy of further study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. The role of stem cell factor (c-kit ligand) and inflammatory cytokines in pulmonary mast cell activation.

    PubMed

    Lukacs, N W; Kunkel, S L; Strieter, R M; Evanoff, H L; Kunkel, R G; Key, M L; Taub, D D

    1996-03-15

    Mast cells play a critical role in allergic airway responses via IgE-specific activation and release of potent inflammatory mediators. In the present study, we have isolated and characterized primary mast cell lines derived from the upper airways of normal mice. The primary mast cell lines were grown and maintained by incubation with interleukin-3 (IL-3) and stem cell factor (SCF) and shown to be c-kit (SCF receptor) positive by flow cytometry. Subsequently, we examined the proliferation of both airway and bone marrow derived mast cell lines in response to inflammatory and hematopoietic cytokines, including SCF, IL-1, IL-3, interferon-gamma, IL-4, and IL-10. The results from the pulmonary mast cell lines were compared with those from bone marrow derived mast cells. Pulmonary mast cell lines were capable of proliferating in response to IL-3, IL-4, IL-10, and SCF, whereas the combination of SCF with the other cytokines did not increase the response over SCF alone. In contrast, the bone marrow-derived mast cells proliferated strongest to SCF or IL-3, but only modestly to IL-4 and IL-10. Furthermore, the combination of SCF with IL-3, but not the other cytokines, exhibited an increase in bone marrow-derived mast cell proliferation. Cytokine-specific stimulation of histamine release in the airway-derived and bone marrow-derived mast cells showed parallel results. SCF was the only cytokine shown to induce substantial histamine release. However, when certain nonhistamine releasing cytokines were combined with SCF, a synergistic increase in histamine release was induced in upper airway, but not bone marrow-derived mast cells. The results of these studies suggest that cytokines differentially modulate induction of proliferation and degranulation of bone marrow and upper airway-derived mast cells and may further indicate a cytokine activational cascade in tissue mast cells.

  2. Physiological and hypoxic oxygen concentration differentially regulates human c-Kit+ cardiac stem cell proliferation and migration.

    PubMed

    Bellio, Michael A; Rodrigues, Claudia O; Landin, Ana Marie; Hatzistergos, Konstantinos E; Kuznetsov, Jeffim; Florea, Victoria; Valasaki, Krystalenia; Khan, Aisha; Hare, Joshua M; Schulman, Ivonne Hernandez

    2016-12-01

    Cardiac stem cells (CSCs) are being evaluated for their efficacy in the treatment of heart failure. However, numerous factors impair the exogenously delivered cells' regenerative capabilities. Hypoxia is one stress that contributes to inadequate tissue repair. Here, we tested the hypothesis that hypoxia impairs cell proliferation, survival, and migration of human CSCs relative to physiological and room air oxygen concentrations. Human endomyocardial biopsy-derived CSCs were isolated, selected for c-Kit expression, and expanded in vitro at room air (21% O2). To assess the effect on proliferation, survival, and migration, CSCs were transferred to physiological (5%) or hypoxic (0.5%) O2 concentrations. Physiological O2 levels increased proliferation (P < 0.05) but did not affect survival of CSCs. Although similar growth rates were observed in room air and hypoxia, a significant reduction of β-galactosidase activity (-4,203 fluorescent units, P < 0.05), p16 protein expression (0.58-fold, P < 0.001), and mitochondrial content (0.18-fold, P < 0.001) in hypoxia suggests that transition from high (21%) to low (0.5%) O2 reduces senescence and promotes quiescence. Furthermore, physiological O2 levels increased migration (P < 0.05) compared with room air and hypoxia, and treatment with mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned media rescued CSC migration under hypoxia to levels comparable to physiological O2 migration (2-fold, P < 0.05 relative to CSC media control). Our finding that physiological O2 concentration is optimal for in vitro parameters of CSC biology suggests that standard room air may diminish cell regenerative potential. This study provides novel insights into the modulatory effects of O2 concentration on CSC biology and has important implications for refining stem cell therapies. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Alopecia in IL-10-deficient Mouse Pups is c-Kit-Dependent and Can Be Triggered by Iron Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Vanderford, Deborah A.; Greer, Paula K.; Sharp, Julie M.; Chichlowski, Maciej; Rouse, D. Clayburn; Selim, M. Angelica; Hale, Laura P.

    2012-01-01

    Hair loss (alopecia) can result from a variety of metabolic, endocrine, immunologic, and environmental causes. This investigation was undertaken to determine the mechanisms underlying the sporadic development of alopecia in litters from C57BL/6 interleukin-10-deficient (Il10−/−) mice. All pups in affected litters demonstrated alopecia by postnatal days 17–19, with hair loss from their trunks but not from their head, base of tail, or feet. Histopathology revealed distorted hair follicles containing broken hair shafts and prominent dermal infiltrates containing increased numbers of activated mast cells. Hair re-growth began soon after weaning, suggesting that the alopecia was triggered by factors transmitted during lactation. Milk from Il10−/− dams induced macrophage secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in vitro regardless of whether or not their pups developed alopecia. Feeding dams a diet containing 3–6 ppm iron increased the percentage of litters with alopecia to 100% for pups with mast cells, with 0% alopecia in mast cell-deficient pups. When dams were fed diet containing 131 ppm iron, significantly lower hemoglobin and hematocrit values were observed in pups from litters with alopecia (71%; 5 of 7 litters) compared to litters without alopecia. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of c-kit that resulted in depletion of mast cells in pups prevented hair loss in at-risk litters. These studies demonstrate that maternal iron-restricted diets enhance the incidence of alopecia in IL-10-deficient mouse pups and suggest mast cells as potential effector cells. Further studies are indicated to further explore the mechanisms involved and to determine how mast cells may contribute to alopecia in humans. PMID:20100190

  4. Pure versus combined Merkel cell carcinomas: immunohistochemical evaluation of cellular proteins (p53, Bcl-2, and c-kit) reveals significant overexpression of p53 in combined tumors.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jonathan H; Fleming, Kirsten E; Ly, Thai Yen; Pasternak, Sylvia; Godlewski, Marek; Doucette, Steve; Walsh, Noreen M

    2015-09-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus is of oncogenic significance in approximately 80% of Merkel cell carcinomas. Morphological subcategories of the tumor differ in regard to viral status, the rare combined type being uniformly virus negative and the predominant pure type being mainly virus positive. Indications that different biological subsets of the tumor exist led us to explore this diversity. In an Eastern Canadian cohort of cases (75 patients; mean age, 76 years [range, 43-91]; male/female ratio, 43:32; 51 [68%] pure and 24 [34%] combined tumors), we semiquantitatively compared the immunohistochemical expression of 3 cellular proteins (p53, Bcl-2, and c-kit) in pure versus combined groups. Viral status was known in a subset of cases. The significant overexpression of p53 in the combined group (mean [SD], 153.8 [117.8] versus 121.6 [77.9]; P = .01) and the increased epidermal expression of this protein (p53 patches) in the same group lend credence to a primary etiologic role for sun damage in these cases. Expression of Bcl-2 and c-kit did not differ significantly between the 2 morphological groups. A relative increase in c-kit expression was significantly associated with a virus-negative status (median [interquartile range], 100 [60-115] versus 70 [0-100]; P = .03). Emerging data reveal divergent biological pathways in Merkel cell carcinoma, each with a characteristic immunohistochemical profile. Virus-positive tumors (all pure) exhibit high retinoblastoma protein and low p53 expression, whereas virus-negative cases (few pure and all combined) show high p53 and relatively high c-kit expression. The potential biological implications of this dichotomy call for consistent stratification of these tumors in future studies.

  5. Effects of sacral nerve stimulation with acupuncture on gut transit time and c-kit expression in colon of rats with slow transit constipation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y G; Shao, W J; Gu, Y F; Qiu, J F; Yuan, L; Li, G D

    2016-09-23

    Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is an alternative surgical approach to alleviate fecal incontinence and constipation. This study aimed to explore the effects and underlying mechanisms of SNS with acupuncture on gut transit time and colon c-kit protein expression in rats with slow transit constipation (STC). Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: blank control, SNS, Mosapride, sham SNS, and STC model control group. The STC model was established by subcutaneous injection of morphine. Each group was treated over a 15-day period. Gut transit time was measured 1 day before the treatment started and after 5, 10, and 15 days of treatment. After the 15-day treatment, animals were sacrificed and colonic tissues were collected for analysis of c-kit protein expression, using western blot analysis. We found significant differences in gut transit time in the SNS group compared with the Mosapride group after 5 (P = 0.001) and 10 (P = 0.004) days of treatment. After 15 days of treatment, there were no differences in gut transit time among the SNS, Mosapride, and blank control groups. However, significant differences were observed when comparing the SNS and Mosapride groups with the STC model and sham SNS groups. A decreased c-kit protein expression was observed in the STC model control, sham SNS, and Mosapride groups, compared with the SNS group (P = 0.001). Our data indicate that SNS can decrease gut transit time and increase the expression of c-kit protein in rats with STC to improve colon transit function.

  6. Mesenchymal stem cells promote a primitive phenotype CD34+c-kit+ in human cord blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells during ex vivo expansion.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pardo, Viviana M; Vernot, Jean Paul

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) and exogenously added cytokines on the proliferation, primitive cell subpopulation maintenance (including the c-kit+ marker) and clonogenic capacity of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). BM-MSC were collected from volunteer donors, isolated and characterized. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected from healthy full-term deliveries. UCB-CD34+ cells were cultured in the presence or absence of BM-MSC and/or cytokines for 3 and 7 days. CD34+ cell proliferation was evaluated using the CSFE method and cell phenotype was determined by CD34, c-kit, CD33, CD38, HLA-DR, cyCD22 and cyCD3 detection. Cell clonogenic ability was also assessed. Exogenously added SCF, TPO and FLT3L increased CD34+ cell proliferation in the presence or absence of BM-MSC, but with concomitant cell differentiation. Without any added cytokines, BM-MSC are able to increase the percentage of primitive progenitors as evaluated by c-kit expression and CFU-GEMM increase. Interestingly, this latter effect was dependent on both cell-cell interactions and secreted factors. A 7-day co-culture period will be optimal for obtaining an increased primitive HSC level. Including c-kit as a marker for primitive phenotype evaluation has shown the relevance of BM-MSC and their secreted factors on UCB-HSC stemness function. This effect could be dissociated from that of the addition of exogenous cytokines, which induced cellular differentiation instead.

  7. Overexpression of angiopoietin-1 increases CD133+/c-kit+ cells and reduces myocardial apoptosis in db/db mouse infarcted hearts.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Heng; Li, Lanfang; Chen, Jian-Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Hematopoietic progenitor CD133(+)/c-kit(+) cells have been shown to be involved in myocardial healing following myocardial infarction (MI). Previously we demonstrated that angiopoietin-1(Ang-1) is beneficial in the repair of diabetic infarcted hearts. We now investigate whether Ang-1 affects CD133(+)/c-kit(+) cell recruitment to the infarcted myocardium thereby mediating cardiac repair in type II (db/db) diabetic mice. db/db mice were administered either adenovirus Ang-1 (Ad-Ang-1) or Ad-β-gal systemically immediately after ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Overexpression of Ang-1 resulted in a significant increase in CXCR-4/SDF-1α expression and promoted CD133(+)/c-kit(+), CD133(+)/CXCR-4(+) and CD133(+)/SDF-1α(+) cell recruitment into ischemic hearts. Overexpression of Ang-1 led to significant increases in number of CD31(+) and smooth muscle-like cells and VEGF expression in bone marrow (BM). This was accompanied by significant decreases in cardiac apoptosis and fibrosis and an increase in myocardial capillary density. Ang-1 also upregulated Jagged-1, Notch3 and apelin expression followed by increases in arteriole formation in the infarcted myocardium. Furthermore, overexpression of Ang-1 resulted in a significant improvement of cardiac functional recovery after 14 days of ischemia. Our data strongly suggest that Ang-1 attenuates cardiac apoptosis and promotes cardiac repair by a mechanism involving in promoting CD133(+)/c-kit(+) cells and angiogenesis in diabetic db/db mouse infarcted hearts.

  8. Familial gastrointestinal stromal tumors, lentigines, and café-au-lait macules associated with germline c-kit mutation treated with imatinib.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Divya; Chandrashekar, Laxmisha; Larizza, Lidia; Colombo, Elisa A; Fontana, Laura; Gervasini, Cristina; Thappa, Devinder M; Rajappa, Medha; Rajendiran, Kalai Selvi; Sreenath, Gubbi Shamanna; Kate, Vikram

    2017-02-01

    Familial lentiginosis syndromes are characterized by a wide array of manifestations resulting from activation of molecular pathways which control growth, proliferation, and differentiation of a broad range of tissues. Familial gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are often accompanied by additional features like hyperpigmentation, mastocytosis, and dysphagia. They have been described with mutations in c-kit (most commonly), platelet-derived growth factor receptor A, neurofibromatosis-1, and succinate dehydrogenase genes. We report on molecular characterization and tumor histopathology of two siblings in whom lentigines and café-au-lait macules were present along with multifocal GIST. Immuhistochemical analysis of CD34 and CD117 was performed on GIST biopsy samples from both siblings, while c-kit mutational analysis was done by PCR and direct sequencing on DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes of all family members and from paraffin-embedded gastric biopsy specimens of affected siblings. Histopathology revealed positive expression of CD117 and CD34. Mutational analysis showed the germline c.1676T>C mutation in c-kit exon 11, (p.(Val559Ala)), in the peripheral blood of both siblings and a second exon 11 mutation, c.1669T>A (p.(Trp557Arg)) in the tumor biopsy of one of them. Initiation of imatinib treatment resulted in striking resolution of their hyperpigmentation and a stable gastrointestinal disease in one of them. A c-kit mutational test in familial GISTs is indicated before initiation of imatinib therapy, as it can help predict tumor response to treatment. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  9. The afatinib resistance of in vivo generated H1975 lung cancer cell clones is mediated by SRC/ERBB3/c-KIT/c-MET compensatory survival signaling

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Laurence; Roberts, Jane L.; Tavallai, Mehrad; Webb, Timothy; Leon, Daniel; Chen, Jesse; McGuire, William P.; Poklepovic, Andrew; Dent, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We generated afatinib resistant clones of H1975 lung cancer cells by transient exposure of established tumors to the drug and collected the re-grown tumors. Afatinib resistant H1975 clones did not exhibit any additional mutations in proto-oncogenes when compared to control clones. Afatinib resistant H1975 tumor clones expressed less PTEN than control clones and in afatinib resistant clones this correlated with increased basal SRC Y416, ERBB3 Y1289, AKT T308 and mTOR S2448 phosphorylation, decreased expression of ERBB1, ERBB2 and ERBB3 and increased total expression of c-MET, c-KIT and PDGFRβ. Afatinib resistant clones were selectively killed by knock down of [ERBB3 + c-MET + c-KIT] but not by the individual or doublet knock down combinations. The combination of the ERBB1/2/4 inhibitor afatinib with the SRC family inhibitor dasatinib killed afatinib resistant H1975 cells in a greater than additive fashion; other drugs used in combination with dasatinib such as sunitinib, crizotinib and amufatinib were less effective. [Afatinib + dasatinib] treatment profoundly inactivated ERBB3, AKT and mTOR in the H1975 afatinib resistant clones and increased ATG13 S318 phosphorylation. Knock down of ATG13, Beclin1 or eIF2α strong suppressed killing by [ERBB3 + c-MET + c-KIT] knock down, but were only modestly protective against [afatinib + dasatinib] lethality. Thus afatinib resistant H1975 NSCLC cells rely on ERBB1- and SRC-dependent hyper-activation of residual ERBB3 and elevated signaling, due to elevated protein expression, from wild type c-MET and c-KIT to remain alive. Inhibition of ERBB3 signaling via both blockade of SRC and ERBB1 results in tumor cell death. PMID:26934000

  10. All-trans-retinoic acid up-regulates CD38 but not c-Kit antigens on human marrow CD34+ cells without recruitment into cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Herault, O; Domenech, J; Degenne, M; Bremond, J L; Sensebe, L; Bernard, M C; Binet, C; Colombat, P

    1998-11-01

    Retinoids, especially all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), are well known for their differentiating activity on HL-60 cells. Moreover ATRA induces CD38 antigen overexpression on these cells. In this study we examined the effects of ATRA on purified normal CD34+ cells from adult human marrows incubated with ATRA (1 microM) or stem cell factor (SCF) after 7 d liquid cultures in serum-deprived medium. Before and after the incubation, CD34+ cells were studied by flow cytometry to evaluate the cell-surface expression of CD38 and c-Kit antigens and the cycle status of these cells using high-resolution analysis (DNA content v Ki-67 antigen expression) to clarify the functional meaning of antigenic variations. When compared with control cultures, ATRA-treated cells displayed changes in their immunophenotypic profile. Particularly relevant was the up-regulation of CD38 antigen with a mean (+/-SEM) fold increase of 21 +/- 0.1 (P=0.028) for geometric mean fluorescence intensity (GMFI), without modulation of c-Kit expression. SCF only down-regulated expression of c-Kit with a fold decrease of 4.6 +/- 0.9 for GMFI (P=0.043). Unlike SCF, ATRA did not induce CD34+ cells to entry into cell cycle despite increased levels of surface CD38 antigen. Moreover morphological and functional assays did not argue for an ATRA-induced maturation process. Contrary to steady-state cells, CD34+ cells treated with pharmacological doses of ATRA alone displayed CD38 over-expression without change in c-Kit levels and cycle status, suggesting an absence of maturation pressure.

  11. Effects of BKCa and Kir2.1 Channels on Cell Cycling Progression and Migration in Human Cardiac c-kit+ Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying-Ying; Li, Gang; Che, Hui; Sun, Hai-Ying; Xiao, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Yan; Li, Gui-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that a large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ current (BKCa), a voltage-gated TTX-sensitive sodium current (INa.TTX), and an inward rectifier K+ current (IKir) were heterogeneously present in most of human cardiac c-kit+ progenitor cells. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of these ion channels on cell cycling progression and migration of human cardiac c-kit+ progenitor cells with approaches of cell proliferation and mobility assays, siRNA, RT-PCR, Western blots, flow cytometry analysis, etc. It was found that inhibition of BKCa with paxilline, but not INa.TTX with tetrodotoxin, decreased both cell proliferation and migration. Inhibition of IKir with Ba2+ had no effect on cell proliferation, while enhanced cell mobility. Silencing KCa.1.1 reduced cell proliferation by accumulating the cells at G0/G1 phase and decreased cell mobility. Interestingly, silencing Kir2.1 increased the cell migration without affecting cell cycling progression. These results demonstrate the novel information that blockade or silence of BKCa channels, but not INa.TTX channels, decreases cell cycling progression and mobility, whereas inhibition of Kir2.1 channels increases cell mobility without affecting cell cycling progression in human cardiac c-kit+ progenitor cells. PMID:26390131

  12. Cutting edge: c-Kit signaling differentially regulates type 2 innate lymphoid cell accumulation and susceptibility to central nervous system demyelination in male and female SJL mice.

    PubMed

    Russi, Abigail E; Walker-Caulfield, Margaret E; Ebel, Mark E; Brown, Melissa A

    2015-06-15

    Multiple sclerosis preferentially affects women, and this sexual dimorphism is recapitulated in the SJL mouse model of multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In this study, we demonstrate that signaling through c-Kit exerts distinct effects on EAE susceptibility in male and female SJL mice. Previous studies in females show that Kit mutant (W/W(v)) mice are less susceptible to EAE than are wild-type mice. However, male W/W(v) mice exhibit exacerbated disease, a phenotype independent of mast cells and corresponding to a shift from a Th2- to a Th17-dominated T cell response. We demonstrate a previously undescribed deficit in c-Kit(+) type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in W/W(v) mice. ILC2s are also significantly reduced in EAE-susceptible wild-type females, indicating that both c-Kit signals and undefined male-specific factors are required for ILC2 function. We propose that deficiencies in Th2-promoting ILC2s remove an attenuating influence on the encephalitogenic T cell response and therefore increases disease susceptibility.

  13. c-Kit+ progenitors generate vascular cells for tissue-engineered grafts through modulation of the Wnt/Klf4 pathway.

    PubMed

    Campagnolo, Paola; Tsai, Tsung-Neng; Hong, Xuechong; Kirton, John Paul; So, Po-Wah; Margariti, Andriana; Di Bernardini, Elisabetta; Wong, Mei Mei; Hu, Yanhua; Stevens, Molly M; Xu, Qingbo

    2015-08-01

    The development of decellularised scaffolds for small diameter vascular grafts is hampered by their limited patency, due to the lack of luminal cell coverage by endothelial cells (EC) and to the low tone of the vessel due to absence of a contractile smooth muscle cells (SMC). In this study, we identify a population of vascular progenitor c-Kit+/Sca-1- cells available in large numbers and derived from immuno-privileged embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We also define an efficient and controlled differentiation protocol yielding fully to differentiated ECs and SMCs in sufficient numbers to allow the repopulation of a tissue engineered vascular graft. When seeded ex vivo on a decellularised vessel, c-Kit+/Sca-1-derived cells recapitulated the native vessel structure and upon in vivo implantation in the mouse, markedly reduced neointima formation and mortality, restoring functional vascularisation. We showed that Krüppel-like transcription factor 4 (Klf4) regulates the choice of differentiation pathway of these cells through β-catenin activation and was itself regulated by the canonical Wnt pathway activator lithium chloride. Our data show that ESC-derived c-Kit+/Sca-1-cells can be differentiated through a Klf4/β-catenin dependent pathway and are a suitable source of vascular progenitors for the creation of superior tissue-engineered vessels from decellularised scaffolds.

  14. Effects of BKCa and Kir2.1 Channels on Cell Cycling Progression and Migration in Human Cardiac c-kit+ Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Ying; Li, Gang; Che, Hui; Sun, Hai-Ying; Xiao, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Yan; Li, Gui-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that a large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ current (BKCa), a voltage-gated TTX-sensitive sodium current (INa.TTX), and an inward rectifier K+ current (IKir) were heterogeneously present in most of human cardiac c-kit+ progenitor cells. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of these ion channels on cell cycling progression and migration of human cardiac c-kit+ progenitor cells with approaches of cell proliferation and mobility assays, siRNA, RT-PCR, Western blots, flow cytometry analysis, etc. It was found that inhibition of BKCa with paxilline, but not INa.TTX with tetrodotoxin, decreased both cell proliferation and migration. Inhibition of IKir with Ba2+ had no effect on cell proliferation, while enhanced cell mobility. Silencing KCa.1.1 reduced cell proliferation by accumulating the cells at G0/G1 phase and decreased cell mobility. Interestingly, silencing Kir2.1 increased the cell migration without affecting cell cycling progression. These results demonstrate the novel information that blockade or silence of BKCa channels, but not INa.TTX channels, decreases cell cycling progression and mobility, whereas inhibition of Kir2.1 channels increases cell mobility without affecting cell cycling progression in human cardiac c-kit+ progenitor cells.

  15. Triple-negative breast cancer is associated with EGFR, CK5/6 and c-KIT expression in Malaysian women.

    PubMed

    Kanapathy Pillai, Shant Kishen; Tay, Annie; Nair, Suseela; Leong, Chee-Onn

    2012-09-26

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous subgroup of breast cancer characterized by the lack of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expressions. This subgroup of refractory disease tends to have aggressive clinical behavior, high frequency of metastasis and lack of response to current hormonal or targeted therapies. Despite numerous studies reporting the clinicopathological features of TNBC and its association with the basal-like phenotype in the Western population, only limited data are available in the Asian population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathological characteristics of TNBC and its association with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6) and mast/stem cell growth factor receptor (c-KIT or CD117) expression in Malaysian women. A total of 340 patients diagnosed with primary breast cancer between 2002 and 2006 in Malaysia were reviewed and analyzed. The incidence of TNBC was 12.4% (42/340). Bivariate analysis revealed that TNBC was strongly associated with a younger age, higher grade tumor and p53 expression. Further immunohistochemical analysis suggested that TNBC in Malaysian women was strongly associated with EGFR, CK5/6 and c-KIT expression with high a Ki-67 proliferation index. In conclusion, our study confirms the association of TNBC with basal-like marker expression (EGFR, CK5/6 and c-KIT) in Malaysian women, consistent with studies in other populations.

  16. Receptor Tyrosine Kinase and Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Mirshafiey, Abbas; Ghalamfarsa, Ghasem; Asghari, Babak

    2014-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are essential components of signal transduction pathways that mediate cell-to-cell communication and their function as relay points for signaling pathways. They have a key role in numerous processes that control cellular proliferation and differentiation, regulate cell growth and cellular metabolism, and promote cell survival and apoptosis. Recently, the role of RTKs including TCR, FLT-3, c-Kit, c-Fms, PDGFR, ephrin, neurotrophin receptor, and TAM receptor in autoimmune disorder, especially rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis has been suggested. In multiple sclerosis pathogenesis, RTKs and their tyrosine kinase enzymes are selective important targets for tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) agents. TKIs, compete with the ATP binding site of the catalytic domain of several tyrosine kinases, and act as small molecules that have a favorable safety profile in disease treatment. Up to now, the efficacy of TKIs in numerous animal models of MS has been demonstrated, but application of these drugs in human diseases should be tested in future clinical trials. PMID:25337443

  17. Role of acylglycerol kinase in LPA-induced IL-8 secretion and transactivation of epidermal growth factor-receptor in human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Kalari, Satish; Zhao, Yutong; Spannhake, Ernst Wm.; Berdyshev, Evgeny V.; Natarajan, Viswanathan

    2009-01-01

    LPA (lysophosphatidic acid) is a potent bioactive phospholipid, which regulates a number of diverse cellular responses through G protein-coupled LPA receptors. Intracellular LPA is generated by the phosphorylation of monoacylglycerol by acylglycerol kinase (AGK); however, the role of intracellular LPA in signaling and cellular responses remains to be elucidated. Here, we investigated signaling pathways of IL-8 secretion mediated by AGK and intracellular LPA in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEpCs). Expression of AGK in HBEpCs was detected by real-time PCR, and overexpressed AGK was mainly localized in mitochondria as determined by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Overexpression of lentiviral AGK wild type increased intracellular LPA production (∼1.8-fold), enhanced LPA-mediated IL-8 secretion, and stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGF-R). Furthermore, downregulation of native AGK by AGK small interfering RNA decreased intracellular LPA levels (∼2-fold) and attenuated LPA-induced p38 MAPK, JNK, and NF-κB activation, tyrosine phosphorylation of EGF-R, and IL-8 secretion. These results suggest that native AGK regulates LPA-mediated IL-8 secretion involving MAPKs, NF-κB, and transactivation of EGF-R. Thus AGK may play an important role in innate immunity and airway remodeling during inflammation. PMID:19112101

  18. [Effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitor Imatinib mesylate on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of Kasumi-1 leukemia cell line].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Hong; Rao, Qing; Wang, Min; Wang, Jian-Xiang

    2005-08-01

    To explore the effect of Imatinib mesylate on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of leukemic Kasumi-1 cells bearing c-kit mutation. Kasumi-1 cells were treated with Imatinib at different concentrations in culture. Cell proliferation was assayed by MTT assay, expressions of c-kit antigen, surface myeloid antigen and cell cycle by flow cytometry, cell apoptosis by annexin V staining and agarose gel electrophoresis. Western blot was used to analyze the level of c-kit protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Imatinib treatment caused a time- and dose-dependent inhibition of the cell proliferation, with a 72 h IC50 of 4.45 micromol/L. Imatinib treatment induced a decrease in the mean fluorescence value of c-kit antigen, a progressive decline in S-phase cell fraction and an increase in G0/G1 cells. Treatment with 5.00 micromol/L of imatinib for 72 h induced an increase in expression of myeloid surface protein CD11, CD13 and CD15, and for 24 h induced an increase in early apoptosis cells [from 9.04% to 86.84% (P < 0.05)]. The apoptosis ladder was observed on agarose gel electrophoresis on 5-day treatment. Tyrosine phosphorylation level of c-kit protein was decreased by Imatinib treatment. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor Imatinib mesylate treatment could inhibit proliferation of Kasumi-1 cells which bear a c-kit mutation, induce differentiation, apoptosis and G0/G1 cells accumulation.

  19. [The changes of hemodynamic parameters, pathology and c-kit mRNA expression in myocardium after acute myocardial infarction in rats].

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiqian; Long, Weifu; Wu, Wenchao; Jiang, Congxun; Liu, Xiaojing; Li, Liang

    2009-06-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the changes of hemodynamic parameters, pathology and c kit mRNA expression in myocardium after acute myocardial infarctionin (AMI) in rats, and to elucidate the relationship between these three kinds of changes. Sixty six adult male SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, Sham groups and ligation groups. The rat model of AMI was set up by ligating the left anterior descending artery. Hemodynamic parameters, pathological changes and c kit mRNA expression in myocardiam were examined. The results revealed that there were no statistically significant differences in hemodynamic parameters between normal group and Sham groups. Compared with the normal group, all ligation groups exhibited significantly decreased left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) and +/-dp/dtmax (P<0.01), and increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP, P<0.01). In the other ligation groups, compared with 6th hour group after ligation, there appeared striking increase of LVSP, LVEDP and +/-dp/dtmax (P<0.05). HE staining in myocardiam showed that there are necrosis and derangement at 24th hour group after ligation ,and a great number of inflammatory cells infiltration around the infarct zone at 3rd day group after ligation, and granulation tissue infiltrated into the infarct zone at 14th day group after ligation. In all five time points groups after ligation, the levels of c-kit mRNA expression were 0.99 fold, 1.06 fold, 1.46 fold, 1.91 fold and 2.67 fold, respectively, compared with Sham groups. The results suggest that cardiac stem cells in myocardium might contribute to the role of regenerating myocardium via self proliferation after acute myocardial infarction, but further investigation is still needed.

  20. Prevalence of exon 11 internal tandem duplications in the C-KIT proto-oncogene in Australian canine mast cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Tamlin, V S; Kessell, A E; Mccoy, R J; Dobson, E C; Smith, T S; Hebart, M; Brown, L; Mitrovic, D; Peaston, A E

    2017-10-01

    To measure the prevalence of internal tandem duplications (ITDs) in exon 11 of the proto-oncogene C-KIT in a sample of Australian cutaneous canine mast cell tumours (MCTs) drawn from general practice and to evaluate relationships between tumour mutation status and prognostic factors including signalment, tumour histological grade, tumour anatomical location and tumour size. C-KIT exon 11 ITDs were detected by PCR in DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded canine MCTs sourced from three veterinary diagnostic laboratories in Adelaide and Melbourne. Tumours were graded according to two different systems (Patnaik and Kiupel systems) by board-certified anatomical pathologists blinded to the PCR results. Relationships between tumour mutation status and prognostic factors were evaluated using a generalised binary logistic regression analysis. ITDs were identified in 13 of 74 cutaneous canine MCT samples, giving an overall prevalence of 17.6% (95% confidence interval: 8.9-26.2%). ITDs were detected in 10 of 18 Patnaik grade III MCTs (55.6%) and 11 of 22 Kiupel high-grade MCTs (50%). Wald chi-square analysis revealed that detection of tumour ITDs was significantly associated with both Patnaik's and Kiupel's histologic grading systems (each: P < 0.001). The presence of the ITDs in MCTs was not associated with signalment, tumour anatomical location or tumour size. The prevalence of C-KIT exon 11 ITDs in Australian canine MCTs is similar to the prevalence in overseas canine populations (overall prevalence in Australia approximately 18%). ITDs were more frequently identified in higher grade MCTs. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  1. Relationship of endothelial area with VEGF-A, COX-2, maspin, c-KIT, and DOG-1 immunoreactivity in liposarcomas versus non-lipomatous soft tissue tumors.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ioan; Gurzu, Simona; Turdean, Sabin; Ciortea, Diana; Sahlean, Danut Ioan; Golea, Mircea; Bara, Tivadar

    2015-01-01

    Soft tissue tumors are rare tumors that show a heterogeneous structure; thus far, their molecular behavior has not been elucidated. The aim of our study was to define the relationship between microvessel density (MVD), evaluated with CD31, and other immunohistochemical markers, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), CD34, maspin, DOG-1, and c-KIT. Immunostains were done in 55 cases consisting of benign and malignant tumors, such as liposarcomas, dermatofibrosarcomas, and tumors with histiocytic differentiation. Renal tubes were used as external control for VEGF, maspin, and DOG-1. Although DOG-1 is considered a specific marker for gastrointestinal tumors (GISTs), its positivity, correlated with c-KIT and VEGF immunoexpression, was also shown by dermatofibrosarcomas and tumors with histiocytic and lipomatous differentiation, suggesting its possible pro-angiogenic role. Maspin expression was observed in adipose tissue tumors only. Regarding angiogenesis, 31 of the 55 cases were VEGF-positive, such positivity being directly correlated with COX-2 and CD34 positivity as evaluated in the tumor cells and also with MVD. Although no significant differences in angiogenic activity were found between benign and malignant non-lipomatous tumors, the MVD was directly correlated with the histological type/grade of liposarcomas. Based on these aspects, we conclude that VEGF/COX-2-induced angiogenesis is specific for non-lipomatous tumors, whereas liposarcomas are dependent on the VEGF/maspin angiogenic pathway. The DOG-1/c-KIT/VEGF target may be used for further personalized therapy of soft tissue sarcomas. No data about DOG-1 and maspin positivity in liposarcomas have been published to date.

  2. A soluble CAR-SCF fusion protein improves adenoviral vector-mediated gene transfer to c-Kit-positive hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Akira; Okada, Takashi; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Hayakawa, Takao; Mizukami, Hiroaki; Kume, Akihiro; Takatoku, Masaaki; Komatsu, Norio; Hanazono, Yutaka; Ozawa, Keiya

    2003-11-01

    Although adenoviral vectors primarily derived from the adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) are widely used for many gene transfer applications, they cannot efficiently infect hematopoietic cells, since these cells do not express the coxsackie-adenoviral receptor (CAR). We have developed a soluble fusion protein that bridges adenoviral fibers and the c-Kit receptor to alter Ad5 tropism to immature hematopoietic cells. The CAR-SCF fusion protein consists of the extracellular domains of CAR and stem cell factor (SCF). The human megakaryoblastic leukemia cell lines UT-7 and M07e, human chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line K-562, and erythroleukemia cell line TF-1 were used to assess CAR-SCF-assisted Ad5-mediated gene transfer. Hematopoietic cell lines were infected with an Ad5 vector (Ad5-eGFP) or a fiber-mutant Ad5/F35 (Ad5/F35-eGFP) expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein gene in the presence or absence of CAR-SCF. Twenty-four hours after infection, more than 80% of M07e cells infected in the presence of CAR-SCF were eGFP-positive, compared with very few eGFP-positive cells following Ad5-eGFP infection in the absence of CAR-SCF. The enhancement of Ad5-eGFP infection by CAR-SCF was greater than that caused by Ad5/F35-eGFP (50%). The ability of CAR-SCF to enhance Ad5-eGFP infectivity was highly dependent on cellular c-Kit expression levels. Furthermore, CAR-SCF also enhanced Ad5-mediated gene transfer into human primary CD34(+) cells. The CAR-SCF fusion protein assists Ad5-mediated transduction to c-Kit(+) CAR(-) hematopoietic cells. The use of this fusion protein would enhance a utility of Ad5-mediated hematopoietic cell transduction strategies. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Amplifications of EGFR gene and protein expression of EGFR, Her-2/neu, c-kit, and androgen receptor in phyllodes tumor of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Jones, Timothy D; Zhang, Shaobo; Eble, John N; Bostwick, David G; Qian, Junqi; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Montironi, Rodolfo; Harris, John J; Cheng, Liang

    2007-02-01

    Phyllodes tumor of the prostate is a rare neoplasm with an unpredictable clinical behavior. It may undergo early recurrence with sarcomatous transformation or may even metastasize. Because targeted therapies have shown great success against several malignancies, there is hope that these same therapies may show similar promise in the treatment of other neoplasms. This study was undertaken to investigate both amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene by fluorescence in situ hybridization and the overexpression of EGFR, Her-2/neu, CD117 (c-kit), and androgen receptor by immunohistochemical staining in a series of 11 phyllodes tumors of the prostate. In the stromal elements, EGFR gene amplification was present in four of 11 tumors and polysomy chromosome 7 was present in two of 11 tumors. No amplification was present in the epithelial components. Only one of 11 tumors had polysomy of chromosome 7 in the epithelial components. Immunohistochemically, in the stromal components, EGFR expression was demonstrable in four of 11 tumors and androgen receptor was demonstrated in six of 10 tumors. Neither Her-2/neu nor c-kit expression was seen in the stromal components of any of the 11 tumors. In the epithelial components, EGFR expression was present in all 11 tumors with strong staining in the basal cell layers and weak or no staining in luminal epithelium; androgen receptor expression was seen in seven of 10 tumors; Her-2/neu was weakly positive in four of 11 tumors; and c-kit expression was present focally and weakly in two of 11 cases with only 2-5% of cells staining. The highest staining intensity and the highest percentage of positively staining cells were seen with EGFR immunostaining in both the stromal and epithelial (mainly basal cells) components. Androgen receptor staining showed the next highest staining intensity and percentage of positive cells in both components. Her-2/neu and c-kit were only weakly or infrequently expressed in the

  4. Enforced differentiation of Dnmt3a-null bone marrow leads to failure with c-Kit mutations driving leukemic transformation.

    PubMed

    Celik, Hamza; Mallaney, Cates; Kothari, Alok; Ostrander, Elizabeth L; Eultgen, Elizabeth; Martens, Andrew; Miller, Christopher A; Hundal, Jasreet; Klco, Jeffery M; Challen, Grant A

    2015-01-22

    Genome sequencing studies of patient samples have implicated the involvement of various components of the epigenetic machinery in myeloid diseases, including the de novo DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A. We have recently shown that Dnmt3a is essential for hematopoietic stem cell differentiation. Here, we investigated the effect of loss of Dnmt3a on hematopoietic transformation by forcing the normally quiescent hematopoietic stem cells to divide in vivo. Mice transplanted with Dnmt3a-null bone marrow in the absence of wildtype support cells succumbed to bone marrow failure (median survival, 328 days) characteristic of myelodysplastic syndromes with symptoms including anemia, neutropenia, bone marrow hypercellularity, and splenomegaly with myeloid infiltration. Two out of 25 mice developed myeloid leukemia with >20%blasts in the blood and bone marrow. Four out of 25 primary mice succumbed to myeloproliferative disorders, some of which progressed to secondary leukemia after long latency. Exome sequencing identified cooperating c-Kit mutations found only in the leukemic samples. Ectopic introduction of c-Kit variants into a Dnmt3a-deficient background produced acute leukemia with a short latency (median survival, 67 days). Our data highlight crucial roles of Dnmt3a in normal and malignant hematopoiesis and suggest that a major role for this enzyme is to facilitate developmental progression of progenitor cells at multiple decision checkpoints.

  5. Construction and quantitative evaluation of a dual specific promoter system for monitoring the expression status of Stra8 and c-kit genes.

    PubMed

    Dastpak, Mahtab; Matin, Maryam M; Farshchian, Moein; Arsenijevic, Yvan; Momeni-Moghaddam, Madjid; Sisakhtnezhad, Sajjad; Boozarpour, Sohrab; Bidkhori, Hamid Reza; Mirahmadi, Mahdi; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza

    2014-12-01

    Applications of genetic constructs with multiple promoters, which are fused with reporter genes and simultaneous monitoring of various events in cells, have gained special attention in recent years. Lentiviral vectors, with their distinctive characteristics, have been considered to monitor the developmental changes of cells in vitro. In this study, we constructed a novel lentiviral vector (FUM-M), containing two germ cell-specific promoters (Stra8 and c-kit), fused with ZsGreen and DsRed2 reporter genes, and evaluated its efficiency in different cells following treatments with retinoic acid and DMSO. Several cell lines (P19, GC-1 spg and HEK293T) were transduced with this vector, and functional capabilities of the promoters were verified by flow cytometry and quantitative RT-PCR. Our results indicate that FUM-M shows dynamic behavior in the presence and absence of extrinsic factors. A correlation was also observed between the function of promoters, present in the lentiviral construct and the endogenous level of the Stra8 and c-kit mRNAs in the cells. In conclusion, we recommend this strategy, which needs further optimization of the constructs, as a beneficial and practical way to screen chemical inducers involved in cellular differentiation toward germ-like cells.

  6. Establishment of a novel high-affinity IgE receptor-positive canine mast cell line with wild-type c-kit receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Amagai, Yosuke; Tanaka, Akane; Ohmori, Keitaro; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2008-02-15

    Much is known regarding participations of mast cells with innate and acquired immunity by secreting various cytokines and chemical mediators. However, details of mast cell biology still remain unclear. In this study, we successfully established a novel growth factor-independent mast cell line (MPT-1) derived from canine mast cell tumor. MPT-1 cells manifested factor-independent proliferation as floating cells containing a large amount of histamine, as well as chymase-like dog mast cell protease 3, in cytosolic granules. Particularly, MPT-1 cells expressed high-affinity IgE receptors (Fc{epsilon}RI) and wild-type c-kit receptors. Degranulation of MPT-1 cells was induced not only by stimulation with calcium ionophore but also by cross-linkage of the surface IgE. Given that MPT-1 is the first mast cell line with Fc{epsilon}RI which has no c-kit mutations, MPT-1 cells may provide great contribution for investigation of IgE-mediated activation mechanisms of mast cells, leading to development of effective treatment for allergic disorders.

  7. SCF/c-kit signaling is required in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced migration and differentiation of hair follicle melanocytes for epidermal pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Weiming; Yang, Ke; Lei, Mingxing; Yan, Hongtao; Tang, Hui; Bai, Xiufeng; Yang, Guihong; Lian, Xiaohua; Wu, Jinjin

    2015-05-01

    Hair follicle melanocyte stem cells (McSCs) are responsible for hair pigmentation and also function as a major melanocyte reservoir for epidermal pigmentation. However, the molecular mechanism promoting McSCs for epidermal pigmentation remains elusive. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) mimics key signaling involved in melanocyte growth, migration and differentiation. We therefore investigated the molecular basis for the contribution of hair follicle McSCs to epidermal pigmentation using the TPA induction model. We found that repetitive TPA treatment of female C57BL/6 mouse dorsal skin induced epidermal pigmentation by increasing the number of epidermal melanocytes. Particularly, TPA treatment induced McSCs to initiate proliferation, exit the stem cell niche and differentiate. We also demonstrated that TPA promotes melanoblast migration and differentiation in vitro. At the molecular level, TPA treatment induced robust expression of stem cell factor (SCF) in keratinocytes and c-kit in melanoblasts and melanocytes. Administration of ACK2, a neutralizing antibody against the Kit receptor, suppressed mouse epidermal pigmentation, decreased the number of epidermal melanocytes, and inhibited melanoblast migration. Taken together, our data demonstrate that TPA promotes the expansion, migration and differentiation of hair follicle McSCs for mouse epidermal pigmentation. SCF/c-kit signaling was required for TPA-induced migration and differentiation of hair follicle melanocytes. Our findings may provide an excellent model to investigate the signaling mechanisms regulating epidermal pigmentation from mouse hair follicle McSCs, and a potential therapeutic option for skin pigmentation disorders.

  8. A platinum(II) phenylphenanthroimidazole with an extended side-chain exhibits slow dissociation from a c-Kit G-quadruplex motif.

    PubMed

    Castor, Katherine J; Liu, Zhaomin; Fakhoury, Johans; Hancock, Mark A; Mittermaier, Anthony; Moitessier, Nicolas; Sleiman, Hanadi F

    2013-12-23

    A series of three platinum(II) phenanthroimidazoles each containing a protonable side-chain appended from the phenyl moiety through copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) were evaluated for their capacities to bind to human telomere, c-Myc, and c-Kit derived G-quadruplexes. The side-chain has been optimized to enable a multivalent binding mode to G-quadruplex motifs, which would potentially result in selective targeting. Molecular modeling, high-throughput fluorescence intercalator displacement (HT-FID) assays, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) studies demonstrate that complex 2 exhibits significantly slower dissociation rates compared to platinum phenanthroimidazoles without side-chains and other reported G-quadruplex binders. Complex 2 showed little cytotoxicity in HeLa and A172 cancer cell lines, consistent with the fact that it does not follow a telomere-targeting pathway. Preliminary mRNA analysis shows that 2 specifically interacts with the ckit promoter region. Overall, this study validates 2 as a useful molecular probe for c-Kit related cancer pathways.

  9. The Transcription Factor Ehf Is Involved in TGF-β-Induced Suppression of FcεRI and c-Kit Expression and FcεRI-Mediated Activation in Mast Cells.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Susumu; Nakano, Nobuhiro; Honjo, Asuka; Hara, Mutsuko; Maeda, Keiko; Nishiyama, Chiharu; Kitaura, Jiro; Ohtsuka, Yoshikazu; Okumura, Ko; Ogawa, Hideoki; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2015-10-01

    FcεRI, which is composed of α, β, and γ subunits, plays an important role in IgE-mediated allergic responses. TGF-β1 has been reported to suppress FcεRI and stem cell factor receptor c-Kit expression on mast cell surfaces and to suppress mast cell activation induced by cross-linking of FcεRI. However, the molecular mechanism by which these expressions and activation are suppressed by TGF-β1 remains unclear. In this study, we found that the expression of Ets homologous factor (Ehf), a member of the Ets family transcriptional factors, is upregulated by TGF-β/Smad signaling in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). Forced expression of Ehf in BMMCs repressed the transcription of genes encoding FcεRIα, FcεRIβ, and c-Kit, resulting in a reduction in cell surface FcεRI and c-Kit expression. Additionally, forced expression of Ehf suppressed FcεRI-mediated degranulation and cytokine production. Ehf inhibited the promoter activity of genes encoding FcεRIα, FcεRIβ, and c-Kit by binding to these gene promoters. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of Gata1, Gata2, and Stat5b were lower in BMMCs stably expressing Ehf compared with control cells. Because GATA-1 and GATA-2 are positive regulators of FcεRI and c-Kit expression, decreased expression of GATAs may be also involved in the reduction of FcεRI and c-Kit expression. Decreased expression of Stat5 may contribute to the suppression of cytokine production by BMMCs. In part, mast cell response to TGF-β1 was mimicked by forced expression of Ehf, suggesting that TGF-β1 suppresses FcεRI and c-Kit expression and suppresses FcεRI-mediated activation through upregulation of Ehf.

  10. Persistent cutaneous hyperpigmentation after tyrosine kinase inhibition with imatinib for GIST.

    PubMed

    Alexandrescu, Doru T; Dasanu, Constantin A; Farzanmehr, Haleh; Kauffman, Lisa

    2008-07-15

    Imatinib mesylate, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting the Bcr-Abl protein, c-kit (KIT) and the platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFR), is an important part of the therapeutic armamentarium used in chronic myelogenous leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. A multitude of dermatological toxicities occur with the clinical use of this drug, ranging from various acute rashes to Steven-Johnson syndrome. Hyperpigmentation of the skin is a less frequent side effect. This phenomenon may be linked to alterations in the c-kit signaling pathway, which plays an important role in melanogenesis. A similar cutaneous phenotypic expression is manifested in families carrying congenital tyrosine II domain mutations of c-kit. We present a unique case of long-term persistent hyperpigmentation that occurred after the treatment with imatinib and describe the possible pathogenetic mechanisms involved. Elucidation of the mechanisms of action of imatinib in the skin may open future directions for the treatment of pigmentary disorders.

  11. Continuous cadmium exposure from weaning to maturity induces downregulation of ovarian follicle development-related SCF/c-kit gene expression and the corresponding changes of DNA methylation/microRNA pattern.

    PubMed

    Weng, Shaozheng; Wang, Wenxiang; Li, Yuchen; Li, Hong; Lu, Xiaoli; Xiao, Shihua; Wu, Tingting; Xie, Meimei; Zhang, Wenchang

    2014-03-21

    Cadmium (Cd) impairs ovary structure and function in mature animals. However, the influence of Cd on follicle development from weaning to maturity is obscure. In the current study, 21-day-old Wistar rats were administered Cd chloride at doses of 0, 0.5, 2.0 and 8.0 mg/kg body weight once a day for eight weeks by gavage. After administration, a significant decrease in ovarian wet weight, ovarian/body weight ratios, and primordial follicles, in addition to an increase in atresic follicles, were observed. Transmission electron microscopy and TUNEL assay confirmed the increase of follicle apoptosis as Cd concentration increased. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting showed a significantly decreased expression of follicle development-related factors, stem cell factor (SCF) and c-kit. Bisulfite sequencing suggested that the total methylation percentages of SCF/c-kit promoter region were not obvious change after Cd exposure. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed a significantly increased expression of miR-193, miR-221 and miR-222, which regulate c-kit, in the 2.0 mg/kg and 8.0 mg/kg treatment groups. Overall, this study proved that Cd administration from weaning to maturity could damage follicle development, suggesting that SCF/c-kit might play an important role in this effect. In addition, microRNAs might play a role in c-kit protein downregulation.

  12. In vivo exit of c-kit+/CD49d(hi)/beta7+ mucosal mast cell precursors from the bone marrow following infection with the intestinal nematode Trichinella spiralis.

    PubMed

    Pennock, Joanne L; Grencis, Richard K

    2004-04-01

    We have used the parasite helminth Trichinella spiralis to study the generation and differentiation of mast cell progenitors in the bone marrow of mice, as this infection triggers an intestinal mastocytosis which correlates with parasite expulsion. C-kit+ mast cell progenitors have previously been defined by methylcellulose colony-forming units and by limiting dilution assays in vitro. In vivo experiments have demonstrated the essential requirement by mast cells for specific integrin expression. We have defined 2 c-kit+ populations in the bone marrow, one of which coexpresses CD49d/beta7 integrin, a marker essential for small intestine immigration. We have confirmed the phenotype of these cells by using antagonistic anti-c-kit antibody in vivo. Our data show that the loss of c-kit+/beta7+ cells from the bone marrow correlates with their appearance in the blood and precedes detection of mature mast cells in the gut by 3 days. This exit correlates with an increase in soluble stem cell factor (SCF) in the serum, suggesting that the c-kit/SCF interaction may be chemotactic or haptotactic in nature. This study shows that during infection the bone marrow environment generates mast cells destined for the intestinal mucosa before their exit into the periphery, indicating a clear interplay between infection site and hematopoietic tissue.

  13. Functional Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Arbiser, Jack L.; Govindarajan, Baskaran; Bai, Xianhe; Onda, Hiroaki; Kazlauskas, Andrius; Lim, So Dug; Amin, Mahul B.; Claesson-Welsh, Lena

    2002-01-01

    Tumors often exhibit activation of specific tyrosine kinases, which may allow targeting of therapy through inhibition of tyrosine kinase signaling. This strategy has been used successfully in the development of STI571 (gleevec), an inhibitor of bcr-abl tyrosine kinase that has been used successfully in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. STI571 also shows activity against c-kit and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFRβ) tyrosine kinase signaling, thus potentially expanding the number of tumors that may respond to it. We describe a simple and rapid method to assess functional activity of tyrosine kinase signaling that is broadly applicable to tumor types. As proof of principle, we have applied it to cells that serve as models of the autosomal-dominant tumor syndrome tuberous sclerosis (TS). We found that TS model cells derived from tuberin heterozygous mice and from a human renal angiomyolipoma are highly sensitive to PDGFR antagonists and that these cells express PDGFRβ. Given that PDGFRβ signaling is inhibited by STI571, we found that SV7tert human angiomyolipoma cells are sensitive to STI571. Thus, we describe a novel but simple method of determining the functional tyrosine kinase profile of a neoplastic cell and our results suggest that STI571 might be useful in the treatment of neoplasms commonly seen in patients with TS. PMID:12213705

  14. Expression of C-KIT, CD24, CD44s, and COX2 in benign and non-invasive apocrine lesions of the breast.

    PubMed

    Tramm, Trine; Kim, Jee-Yeon; Leibl, Sebastian; Moinfar, Farid; Tavassoli, Fattaneh A

    2016-09-01

    Benign apocrine metaplasia (AM) of the adult breast is a very common, but enigmatic lesion. It has been speculated that AM might be a precursor of malignancy or an indicator of a susceptibility of the breast tissue to develop neoplasia, mainly based on comparing the frequency of AM in breast cancer and non-breast cancer patients [1]. Studies using comparative genomic hybridization have supported this by showing similar molecular alterations in benign and malignant apocrine lesions [2]. Few studies, however, have compared expression of biomarkers involved in tumor progression in AM and progressively more advanced atypical apocrine lesions. The expression of C-KIT, COX2, CD24, and CD44s was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material of 9 AM, 20 apocrine ductal intraepithelial neoplasia (DIN1c-3) and 40 atypical apocrine lesions (not qualifying for DIN1c-3) and compared to expression of the same biomarkers in adjacent normal ductal epithelium. Of the 66 apocrine lesions, 62 (94 %) did not express C-KIT compared to 4/63 (6 %) of the normal glands (Fisher's exact, p < 0.001). COX2 was expressed in a significantly higher proportion of apocrine lesions than of normal glands (49 vs. 14 %, p < 0.001), and the number of apocrine lesions positive for CD24 was found to be higher with increasing aggressiveness of the lesions (Spearman, p < 0.001). In conclusion, benign and non-invasive proliferative apocrine lesions of the breast display immuno-phenotypical characteristics previously ascribed mainly to malignant transformation. This could lend support to the theory that AM is an early step towards malignant transformation, albeit associated with slow progression to carcinoma.

  15. Amyloid precursor protein cooperates with c-KIT mutation/overexpression to regulate cell apoptosis in AML1-ETO-positive leukemia via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guopan; Yin, Changxin; Jiang, Ling; Zheng, Zhongxin; Wang, Zhixiang; Wang, Chunli; Zhou, Hongsheng; Jiang, Xuejie; Liu, Qifa; Meng, Fanyi

    2016-09-01

    It has been reported that amyloid precursor protein (APP) promotes cell proliferation and metastasis in various types of solid cancers. In our previous study, we showed that APP is highly expressed and regulates leukemia cell migration in AML1‑ETO-positive (AE) leukemia. Whether APP is involved in the regulation of AE leukemia cell proliferation or apoptosis is unclear. In the present study we focused on the correlation of APP with c-KIT mutation/overexpression and cell proliferation and apoptosis in AE leukemia. APP and c-KIT expression detected by quantitative real-time (qPCR) method, and c-KIT mutations screened using PCR in bone marrow cells from 65 patients with AE leukemia before their first chemotherapy, were simultaneously assessed. Furthermore, the Kasumi-1 cell line was chosen as the cell model, and the APP gene was knocked down using siRNA technology. The correlation of cell cycle distribution and apoptosis and c-Kit expression with APP expression levels, as well as the regulation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway by APP were analyzed in the Kasumi-1 cell line. The results showed that peripheral white blood cell counts (P=0.008) and bone marrow cellularity (P=0.031), but not bone marrow blasts, were correlated with APP expression. Moreover, the patients with APP high expression had a significantly higher incidence of c-KIT mutations (P<0.001) and increased levels of c-KIT expression (P=0.001) and poorer disease outcome. In the Kasumi-1 cell line, as compared with the wild-type and negative control cells, cell apoptosis, both early (P<0.001) and late (P<0.001), was significantly increased when the APP gene was knocked down, concomitant with reduced levels of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and increased levels of caspase-3 and -9, however, no apparent change was observed in the cell cycle distribution (P>0.05). Moreover, the knockdown of APP markedly decreased c-KIT expression at both the transcription (as evidenced by qPCR analysis) and translation

  16. Identification of CHEK1, SLC26A4, c-KIT, TPO and TG as new biomarkers for human follicular thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Makhlouf, Anne-Marie; Chitikova, Zhanna; Pusztaszeri, Marc; Berczy, Margaret; Delucinge-Vivier, Celine; Triponez, Frederic; Meyer, Patrick; Philippe, Jacques; Dibner, Charna

    2016-07-19

    The search for preoperative biomarkers for thyroid malignancies, in particular for follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) diagnostics, is of utmost clinical importance. We thus aimed at screening for potential biomarker candidates for FTC. To evaluate dynamic alterations in molecular patterns as a function of thyroid malignancy progression, a comparative analysis was conducted in clinically distinct subgroups of FTC and poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) nodules. NanoString analysis of FFPE samples was performed in 22 follicular adenomas, 56 FTC and 25 PDTC nodules, including oncocytic and non-oncocytic subgroups. The expression levels of CHEK1, c-KIT, SLC26A4, TG and TPO were significantly altered in all types of thyroid carcinomas. Based on collective changes of these biomarkers which correlating among each other, a predictive score has been established, allowing for discrimination between benign and FTC samples with high sensitivity and specificity. Additional transcripts related to thyroid function, cell cycle, circadian clock, and apoptosis regulation were altered in the more aggressive oncocytic subgroups only, with expression levels correlating with disease progression. Distinct molecular patterns were observed for oncocytic and non-oncocytic FTCs and PDTCs. A predictive score correlation coefficient based on collective alterations of identified here biomarkers might help to improve the preoperative diagnosis of FTC nodules.

  17. Human Cord Blood-Derived CD133(+)/C-Kit(+)/Lin(-) Cells Have Bipotential Ability to Differentiate into Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Outgrowth Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Carlos; Kwon, Ja-Young; Maeng, Yong-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that mononuclear cells (MNCs) derived from bone marrow and cord blood can differentiate into mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or outgrowth endothelial cells (OECs). However, controversy exists as to whether MNCs have the pluripotent capacity to differentiate into MSCs or OECs or are a mixture of cell lineage-determined progenitors of MSCs or OECs. Here, using CD133(+)/C-kit(+)/Lin(-) mononuclear cells (CKL- cells) isolated from human umbilical cord blood using magnetic cell sorting, we characterized the potency of MNC differentiation. We first found that CKL- cells cultured with conditioned medium of OECs or MSCs differentiated into OECs or MSCs and this differentiation was also induced by cell-to-cell contact. When we cultured single CKL- cells on OEC- or MSC-conditioned medium, the cells differentiated morphologically and genetically into OEC- or MSC-like cells, respectively. Moreover, we confirmed that OECs or MSCs differentiated from CKL- cells had the ability to form capillary-like structures in Matrigel and differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. Finally, using microarray analysis, we identified specific factors of OECs or MSCs that could potentially be involved in the differentiation fate of CKL- cells. Together, these results suggest that cord blood-derived CKL- cells possess at least bipotential differentiation capacity toward MSCs or OECs.

  18. Human Cord Blood-Derived CD133+/C-Kit+/Lin− Cells Have Bipotential Ability to Differentiate into Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Outgrowth Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, Carlos; Kwon, Ja-Young

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that mononuclear cells (MNCs) derived from bone marrow and cord blood can differentiate into mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or outgrowth endothelial cells (OECs). However, controversy exists as to whether MNCs have the pluripotent capacity to differentiate into MSCs or OECs or are a mixture of cell lineage-determined progenitors of MSCs or OECs. Here, using CD133+/C-kit+/Lin− mononuclear cells (CKL− cells) isolated from human umbilical cord blood using magnetic cell sorting, we characterized the potency of MNC differentiation. We first found that CKL− cells cultured with conditioned medium of OECs or MSCs differentiated into OECs or MSCs and this differentiation was also induced by cell-to-cell contact. When we cultured single CKL− cells on OEC- or MSC-conditioned medium, the cells differentiated morphologically and genetically into OEC- or MSC-like cells, respectively. Moreover, we confirmed that OECs or MSCs differentiated from CKL− cells had the ability to form capillary-like structures in Matrigel and differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. Finally, using microarray analysis, we identified specific factors of OECs or MSCs that could potentially be involved in the differentiation fate of CKL− cells. Together, these results suggest that cord blood-derived CKL− cells possess at least bipotential differentiation capacity toward MSCs or OECs. PMID:28074098

  19. Comparative analysis of BRAF, NRAS and c-KIT mutation status between tumor tissues and autologous tumor cell-lines of stage III/IV melanoma.

    PubMed

    Knol, Anne-Chantal; Pandolfino, Marie-Christine; Vallée, Audrey; Nguyen, Frédérique; Lella, Virginie; Khammari, Amir; Denis, Marc; Puaux, Anne-Laure; Dréno, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, advances in molecular biology have provided evidence of the genotypic heterogeneity of melanoma. We analysed BRAF, NRAS and c-KIT alterations in tissue samples from 63 stage III/IV melanoma patients and autologous cell-lines, using either allele-specific or quantitative PCR. The expression of BRAF V600E protein was also investigated using an anti-BRAF antibody in the same tissue samples. 81% of FFPE samples and tumor cell-lines harboured a genetic alteration in either BRAF (54%) or NRAS (27%) oncogenes. There was a strong concordance (100%) between tissue samples and tumor cell-lines. The BRAF V600E mutant-specific antibody showed high sensitivity (96%) and specificity (100%) for detecting the presence of a BRAF V600E mutation. The correlation was of 98% between PCR and immunohistochemistry results for BRAF mutation. These results suggest that BRAF and NRAS mutation status of tumor cells is not affected by culture conditions.

  20. Establishment of an orthotopic transplantation tumor model in nude mice using a drug-resistant human ovarian cancer cell line with a high expression of c-Kit.

    PubMed

    Yi, Cunjian; Zhang, Lei; Li, Li; Liu, Xiangqiong; Ling, Shengrong; Zhang, Fayun; Liang, Wei

    2014-12-01

    The resistance of ovarian cancer to platinum-based chemotherapy is a critical issue in the clinical setting. The present study aimed to establish animal models to replicate this clinical condition, as well as to investigate the resistance mechanisms of ovarian cancer. A cisplatin (DDP)-resistant human ovarian cancer cell line, SKOV3/DDP, was screened, validated and injected subcutaneously into the neck of female nude mice. Following tumor establishment, the tumor was collected and cut into small sections, which were subsequently implanted into the ovaries of other nude mice. The growth of the orthotopic tumors was observed and the tumor-bearing mice were sacrificed and dissected. The orthotopic and metastatic tumor tissues were collected, sectioned, stained with hematoxylin and eosin and analyzed. In the present study, 16 nude mice underwent orthotopic transplantation surgery and a tumor model was successfully established in 14/16 of the mice, with an in situ tumor formation rate of 87.5%. Following euthanasia, a laparotomy demonstrated the tumor formation at the site of transplantation, as well as varying degrees of metastasis to additional organs and tissues. Therefore, the present study successfully established an orthotopic tumor transplantation model in nude mice using a c-Kit-positive DDP-resistant human ovarian cancer cell line. This model may represent a useful tool for investigating the resistance mechanism of ovarian cancer, as well as evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic strategies.

  1. Spectrometric study of the folding process of i-motif-forming DNA sequences upstream of the c-kit transcription initiation site.

    PubMed

    Bucek, Pavel; Gargallo, Raimundo; Kudrev, Andrei

    2010-12-17

    The c-kit oncogene shows a cytosine-rich DNA region upstream of the transcription initiation site which forms an i-motif structure at slightly acidic pH values (Bucek et al. [5]). In the present study, the pH-induced formation of i-motif - forming sequences 5'-CCC CTC CCT CGC GCC CGC CCG-3' (ckitC1, native), 5'-CCC TTC CCT TGT GCC CGC CCG-3' (ckitC2) and 5'-CCCTT CCC TTTTT CCC T CCC T-3' (ckitC3) was studied by spectroscopic techniques, such as UV molecular absorption and circular dichroism (CD), in tandem with two multivariate data analysis methods, the hard modelling-based matrix method and the soft modelling-based MCR-ALS approach. Use of the hard chemical modelling enabled us to propose the equilibrium model, which describes spectral changes as functions of solution acidity. Additionally, the intrinsic protonation constant, K(in), and the cooperativity parameters, ω(c), and ω(a), were calculated from the fitting procedure of the coupled CD and molecular absorption spectra. In the case of ckitC2 and ckitC3, the hard model correctly reproduced the spectral variations observed experimentally. The results indicated that folding was accompanied by a cooperative process, i.e. the enhancement of protonated structure stability upon protonation. In contrast, unfolding was accompanied by an anticooperative process. Finally, folding of the native sequence, ckitC1, seemed to follow a more complex mechanism.

  2. Long noncoding RNA H19 mediates melatonin inhibition of premature senescence of c-kit(+) cardiac progenitor cells by promoting miR-675.

    PubMed

    Cai, Benzhi; Ma, Wenya; Bi, Chongwei; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Lai; Han, Zhenbo; Huang, Qi; Ding, Fengzhi; Li, Yuan; Yan, Gege; Pan, Zhenwei; Yang, Baofeng; Lu, Yanjie

    2016-08-01

    Melatonin, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland, possesses multiple biological activities such as antitumor, antioxidant, and anti-ischemia. C-kit(+) cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) have emerged as a promising tool for the treatment of heart diseases. However, the senescence of CPCs due to pathological stimuli leads to the decline of CPCs' functions and regenerative potential. This study was conducted to demonstrate whether melatonin antagonizes the senescence of CPCs in response to oxidative stress. Here, we found that the melatonin treatment markedly inhibited the senescent characteristics of CPCs after exposed to sublethal concentration of H2 O2 , including the increase in senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal)-positive CPCs, senescence-associated heterochromatin loci (SAHF), secretory IL-6 level, and the upregulation of p53 and p21 proteins. Senescence-associated proliferation reduction was also attenuated by melatonin in CPCs. Luzindole, the melatonin membrane receptor blocker, may block the melatonin-mediated suppression of premature senescence in CPCs. Interestingly, we found that long noncoding RNA H19 and its derived miR-675 were downregulated by H2 O2 in CPCs, but melatonin treatment could counter this alteration. Furthermore, knockdown of H19 or miR-675 blocked antisenescence actions of melatonin on H2 O2 -treated CPCs. It was further verified that H19-derived miR-675 targeted at the 3'UTR of USP10, which resulted in the downregulation of p53 and p21 proteins. In summary, melatonin antagonized premature senescence of CPCs via H19/miR-675/USP10 pathway, which provides new insights into pharmacological actions and potential applications of melatonin on the senescence of CPCs.

  3. C-kit mutation screening in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia: adaptation of a Giemsa-stained bone-marrow smear DNA extraction technique.

    PubMed

    Court, E L; Davidson, K; Smith, M A; Inman, L; Marriott, S A; Smith, J G; Pallister, C J

    2001-01-01

    The scarcity of viable tissue samples for leukaemia research is widely recognised and currently restrictive. Archival bone-marrow smears present a valuable resource that can be exploited easily for mutational analysis. Here, a modified technique to extract DNA is described, and used subsequently for mutation/polymorphism screening of the stem-cell factor receptor proto-oncogene c-kit in 23 patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). The selected method was straightforward and used bone-marrow material scraped from periodic acid-Schiff, sudan black B and May-Grünwald/Giemsa-stained preparations, and treated initially with proteinase K prepared in digestion buffer to digest all proteinaceous matter. Following incubation, saturated sodium chloride was added and DNA extracted from the supernatant by phenol/chloroform/isoamyl alcohol treatment. Retrieved DNA was precipitated with ethanol at -20 degrees C overnight, washed with 95% ethanol, air-dried, resuspended using purite water and stored at -20 degrees C prior to use in mutational analysis. The extraction method described was compared with a commercial reagent for combined DNA, RNA and protein isolation using cryopreserved cells from 20 patients with AML. The quality of extracted DNA isolated by the two methods was comparable by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) techniques. Bone-marrow biopsies are performed regularly on each AML patient to monitor the disease; therefore, an extraction method using this resource could liberate a valuable source of DNA for study (e.g. molecular investigations, including mutation/polymorphism screening etc.). This would allow fresh and programme-frozen cells to be reserved for those investigations requiring intact, viable cells. The use of archived bone-marrow smears would permit vast increase in the scope for retrospective testing and large-scale analyses.

  4. p53 and c-kit (CD117) protein expression as prognostic indicators in breast phyllodes tumors: a tissue microarray study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Puay-Hoon; Jayabaskar, Thiyagarajan; Yip, George; Tan, Yen; Hilmy, Maryam; Selvarajan, Sathiyamoorthy; Bay, Boon-Huat

    2005-12-01

    Breast phyllodes tumors are fibroepithelial neoplasms whose clinical behavior is difficult to predict on histology. There is relatively scant data on the role of biological markers. In this study, we determined if p53 and CD117 (c-kit) protein expression was predictive of behavior in a series of 335 phyllodes tumors diagnosed at the Singapore General Hospital, using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays. Representative areas from 250 (75%) benign, 54 (16%) borderline and 31 (9%) malignant phyllodes tumors were selected for construction of tissue microarrays using the 2 mm punch. Immunohistochemistry for p53 and CD117 was carried out using the streptavidin-biotin method. Staining proportion and intensity of both epithelial and stromal elements were analyzed. p53 immunostaining was observed in the epithelium of 28 (10%) of 278 microarrays; myoepithelium of 53 (21%) of 251 microarrays; and stromal cells in 105 (36%) of 289 microarrays. CD117 immunohistochemical reactivity was noted in epithelial and stromal components of 175 (of 267, 66%) and 17 (of 273, 6%) microarrays, respectively. Stromal p53 and CD117 protein expression was associated with tumor grade (P < 0.05). Of 43 (13%) women who suffered recurrences during the follow-up period, CD117 stromal staining predicted recurrent disease (P<0.05), but p53 was not correlative. We conclude that tissue microarrays are a convenient method for evaluating immunostaining results of large numbers of phyllodes tumors. Although positive p53 stromal immunohistochemical detection may corroborate histologic malignancy, it is CD117 protein expression in phyllodes tumor stromal cells that may be of potential utility in predicting recurrent disease.

  5. Annexin A8 Identifies a Subpopulation of Transiently Quiescent c-Kit Positive Luminal Progenitor Cells of the Ductal Mammary Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias, Juan Manuel; Cairney, Claire J.; Ferrier, Roderick K.; McDonald, Laura; Soady, Kelly; Kendrick, Howard; Pringle, Marie-Anne; Morgan, Reginald O.; Martin, Finian; Smalley, Matthew J.; Blyth, Karen; Stein, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that Annexin A8 (ANXA8) is strongly associated with the basal-like subgroup of breast cancers, including BRCA1-associated breast cancers, and poor prognosis; while in the mouse mammary gland AnxA8 mRNA is expressed in low-proliferative isolated pubertal mouse mammary ductal epithelium and after enforced involution, but not in isolated highly proliferative terminal end buds (TEB) or during pregnancy. To better understand ANXA8’s association with this breast cancer subgroup we established ANXA8’s cellular distribution in the mammary gland and ANXA8’s effect on cell proliferation. We show that ANXA8 expression in the mouse mammary gland was strong during pre-puberty before the expansion of the rudimentary ductal network and was limited to a distinct subpopulation of ductal luminal epithelial cells but was not detected in TEB or in alveoli during pregnancy. Similarly, during late involution its expression was found in the surviving ductal epithelium, but not in the apoptotic alveoli. Double-immunofluorescence (IF) showed that ANXA8 positive (+ve) cells were ER-alpha negative (−ve) and mostly quiescent, as defined by lack of Ki67 expression during puberty and mid-pregnancy, but not terminally differentiated with ∼15% of ANXA8 +ve cells re-entering the cell cycle at the start of pregnancy (day 4.5). RT-PCR on RNA from FACS-sorted cells and double-IF showed that ANXA8+ve cells were a subpopulation of c-kit +ve luminal progenitor cells, which have recently been identified as the cells of origin of basal-like breast cancers. Over expression of ANXA8 in the mammary epithelial cell line Kim-2 led to a G0/G1 arrest and suppressed Ki67 expression, indicating cell cycle exit. Our data therefore identify ANXA8 as a potential mediator of quiescence in the normal mouse mammary ductal epithelium, while its expression in basal-like breast cancers may be linked to ANXA8’s association with their specific cells of origin. PMID:25803307

  6. Immunohistochemistry with apoptotic-antiapoptotic proteins (p53, p21, bax, bcl-2), c-kit, telomerase, and metallothionein as a diagnostic aid in benign, borderline, and malignant serous and mucinous ovarian tumors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In many tumors including ovarian cancer, cell proliferation and apoptosis are important in pathogenesis and there are many alterations in most of the genes related to the cell cycle. This study was designed to evaluate immunohistochemistry with apoptotic-antiapoptotic proteins (p53, p21, bax, and bcl-2), c-kit, telomerase, and metallothionein as a diagnostic aid in typing of benign, borderline, and malignant serous and mucinous ovarian tumors. Methods Total of 68 ovarian tumors, 25 benign [13 (19.1%) serous and12 (17.6%) mucinous], 16 borderline [9 (13.2%) serous and 7(10.3%) mucinous], and 27 malignant ovarian tumors [24 (35.3%) serous and 3 (4.4%) mucinous tumors] were included in the study. Immunohistochemical expression of p53, p21, bax, bcl–2, telomerase, c-kit, and metallothionein were evaluated. Results When all 68 cases were evaluated as benign, borderline, and malignant ovarian tumors without considering histopathological subtypes, the p53, p21, bax and metallothionein showed significantly higher staining scores in the borderline and malignant ones (p < 0.05). After evaluation of all 68 cases, the serous tumors showed significantly higher staining scores of p53, p21, c-kit, and metallothionein compared to the mucinous ones (p < 0.05). For differentiation of benign and borderline and malignant tumors combined, p53 was not used because all benign tumors has no staining, and p21, bax, and metallothionein was determined the significant predictors for borderline and malignant tumors combined (p < 0.05). For differentiation of borderline and malignant tumors, only p53 was determined the significant predictor for malignant tumors (p < 0.05). Conclusions In conclusion, p53, p21, bax, c-kit, and metallothionein may be helpful for the typing of ovarian tumors as benign, borderline and malignant or serous and mucinous. p53, p21, bax, c-kit, and metallothionein may have different roles in the pathogenesis of ovarian tumor types. p53 and

  7. Mutation D816V Alters the Internal Structure and Dynamics of c-KIT Receptor Cytoplasmic Region: Implications for Dimerization and Activation Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Laine, Elodie; Chauvot de Beauchêne, Isaure; Perahia, David; Auclair, Christian; Tchertanov, Luba

    2011-01-01

    The type III receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) KIT plays a crucial role in the transmission of cellular signals through phosphorylation events that are associated with a switching of the protein conformation between inactive and active states. D816V KIT mutation is associated with various pathologies including mastocytosis and cancers. D816V-mutated KIT is constitutively active, and resistant to treatment with the anti-cancer drug Imatinib. To elucidate the activating molecular mechanism of this mutation, we applied a multi-approach procedure combining molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, normal modes analysis (NMA) and binding site prediction. Multiple 50-ns MD simulations of wild-type KIT and its mutant D816V were recorded using the inactive auto-inhibited structure of the protein, characteristic of type III RTKs. Computed free energy differences enabled us to quantify the impact of D816V on protein stability in the inactive state. We evidenced a local structural alteration of the activation loop (A-loop) upon mutation, and a long-range structural re-organization of the juxta-membrane region (JMR) followed by a weakening of the interaction network with the kinase domain. A thorough normal mode analysis of several MD conformations led to a plausible molecular rationale to propose that JMR is able to depart its auto-inhibitory position more easily in the mutant than in wild-type KIT and is thus able to promote kinase mutant dimerization without the need for extra-cellular ligand binding. Pocket detection at the surface of NMA-displaced conformations finally revealed that detachment of JMR from the kinase domain in the mutant was sufficient to open an access to the catalytic and substrate binding sites. PMID:21698178

  8. Tyrosine Kinase Receptor Expression in Canine Liposarcoma.

    PubMed

    Avallone, G; Pellegrino, V; Roccabianca, P; Lepri, E; Crippa, L; Beha, G; De Tolla, L; Sarli, G

    2017-03-01

    The expression of tyrosine kinase receptors is attracting major interest in human and veterinary oncological pathology because of their role as targets for adjuvant therapies. Little is known about tyrosine kinase receptor (TKR) expression in canine liposarcoma (LP), a soft tissue sarcoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of the TKRs fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFRβ); their ligands, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB); and c-kit in canine LP. Immunohistochemical labeling was categorized as high or low expression and compared with the mitotic count and MIB-1-based proliferation index. Fifty canine LPs were examined, classified, and graded. Fourteen cases were classified as well differentiated, 7 as myxoid, 25 as pleomorphic, and 4 as dedifferentiated. Seventeen cases were grade 1, 26 were grade 2, and 7 were grade 3. A high expression of FGF2, FGFR1, PDGFB, and PDGFRβ was identified in 62% (31/50), 68% (34/50), 81.6% (40/49), and 70.8% (34/48) of the cases, respectively. c-kit was expressed in 12.5% (6/48) of the cases. Mitotic count negatively correlated with FGF2 ( R = -0.41; P < .01), being lower in cases with high FGF2 expression, and positively correlated with PDGFRβ ( R = 0.33; P < .01), being higher in cases with high PDGFRβ expression. No other statistically significant correlations were identified. These results suggest that the PDGFRβ-mediated pathway may have a role in the progression of canine LP and may thus represent a promising target for adjuvant cancer therapies.

  9. pH-Modulated Watson-Crick duplex-quadruplex equilibria of guanine-rich and cytosine-rich DNA sequences 140 base pairs upstream of the c-kit transcription initiation site.

    PubMed

    Bucek, Pavel; Jaumot, Joaquim; Aviñó, Anna; Eritja, Ramon; Gargallo, Raimundo

    2009-11-23

    Guanine-rich regions of DNA are sequences capable of forming G-quadruplex structures. The formation of a G-quadruplex structure in a region 140 base pairs (bp) upstream of the c-kit transcription initiation site was recently proposed (Fernando et al., Biochemistry, 2006, 45, 7854). In the present study, the acid-base equilibria and the thermally induced unfolding of the structures formed by a guanine-rich region and by its complementary cytosine-rich strand in c-kit were studied by means of circular dichroism and molecular absorption spectroscopies. In addition, competition between the Watson-Crick duplex and the isolated structures was studied as a function of pH value and temperature. Multivariate data analysis methods based on both hard and soft modeling were used to allow accurate quantification of the various acid-base species present in the mixtures. Results showed that the G-quadruplex and i-motif coexist with the Watson-Crick duplex over the pH range from 3.0 to 6.5, approximately, under the experimental conditions tested in this study. At pH 7.0, the duplex is practically the only species present.

  10. Tyrosine kinase receptors as molecular targets In pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas

    PubMed Central

    Cassol, Clarissa A.; Winer, Daniel; Liu, Wei; Guo, Miao; Ezzat, Shereen; Asa, Sylvia L.

    2016-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are neuroendocrine tumors shown to be responsive to multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. Despite growing knowledge regarding their genetic basis, the ability to predict behavior in these tumors remains challenging. There is also limited knowledge of their tyrosine kinase receptor expression and whether the clinical response observed to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor Sunitinib relates only to its anti-angiogenic properties or also due to a direct effect on tumor cells. To answer these questions, an in vitro model of sunitinib treatment of a pheochromocytoma cell line was created. Sunitinib targets (VEGFRs, PDGFRs, C-KIT), FGFRs and cell cycle regulatory proteins were investigated in human tissue microarrays. SDHB immunohistochemistry was used as a surrogate marker for the presence of succinate dehydrogenase mutations. The FGFR4 G388R SNP was also investigated. Sunitinib treatment in vitro decreases cell proliferation mainly by targeting cell cycle, DNA metabolism, and cell organization genes. FGFR1, -2 and -4, VEGFR2, PDGFRα and p16 were overexpressed in primary human pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. Discordant results were observed for VEGFR1, p27 and p21 (overexpressed in paragangliomas but underexpressed in pheochromoctyomas); PDGFRβ, Rb and Cyclin D1 (overexpressed in paragangliomas only) and FGFR3 (overexpressed in pheochromocytomas and underexpressed in paragangliomas). Low expression of C-KIT, p53, Aurora Kinase A and B was observed. Nuclear FGFR2 expression was associated with increased risk of metastasis (odds ratio [OR]=7.61; p=0.008), as was membranous PDGFRα (OR= 13.71, p=0.015), membranous VEGFR1 (OR=8.01; p=0.037), nuclear MIB1 (OR=1.26, p=0.008) and cytoplasmic p27 (OR=1.037, p=0.030). FGFR3, VEGFR2 and C-KIT levels were associated with decreased risk of metastasis. We provide new insights into the mechanistic actions of sunitinib in pheochromoctyomas and paragangliomas and support current

  11. Clinical Impact of Additional Cytogenetic Aberrations, cKIT and RAS Mutations, and Treatment Elements in Pediatric t(8;21)-AML: Results From an International Retrospective Study by the International Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Kim; Kaspers, Gertjan; Harrison, Christine J.; Beverloo, H. Berna; Reedijk, Ardine; Bongers, Mathilda; Cloos, Jacqueline; Pession, Andrea; Reinhardt, Dirk; Zimmerman, Martin; Creutzig, Ursula; Dworzak, Michael; Alonzo, Todd; Johnston, Donna; Hirsch, Betsy; Zapotocky, Michal; De Moerloose, Barbara; Fynn, Alcira; Lee, Vincent; Taga, Takashi; Tawa, Akio; Auvrignon, Anne; Zeller, Bernward; Forestier, Erik; Salgado, Carmen; Balwierz, Walentyna; Popa, Alexander; Rubnitz, Jeffrey; Raimondi, Susana; Gibson, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This retrospective cohort study aimed to determine the predictive relevance of clinical characteristics, additional cytogenetic aberrations, and cKIT and RAS mutations, as well as to evaluate whether specific treatment elements were associated with outcomes in pediatric t(8;21)-positive patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Patients and Methods Karyotypes of 916 pediatric patients with t(8;21)-AML were reviewed for the presence of additional cytogenetic aberrations, and 228 samples were screened for presence of cKIT and RAS mutations. Multivariable regression models were used to assess the relevance of anthracyclines, cytarabine, and etoposide during induction and overall treatment. End points were the probability of achieving complete remission, cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR), probability of event-free survival, and probability of overall survival. Results Of 838 patients included in final analyses, 92% achieved complete remission. The 5-year overall survival, event-free survival, and CIR were 74%, 58%, and 26%, respectively. cKIT mutations and RAS mutations were not significantly associated with outcome. Patients with deletions of chromosome arm 9q [del(9q); n = 104] had a lower probability of complete remission (P = .01). Gain of chromosome 4 (+4; n = 21) was associated with inferior CIR and survival (P < .01). Anthracycline doses greater than 150 mg/m2 and etoposide doses greater than 500 mg/m2 in the first induction course and high-dose cytarabine 3 g/m2 during induction were associated with better outcomes on various end points. Cumulative doses of cytarabine greater than 30 g/m2 and etoposide greater than 1,500 mg/m2 were associated with lower CIR rates and better probability of event-free survival. Conclusion Pediatric patients with t(8;21)-AML and additional del(9q) or additional +4 might not be considered at good risk. Patients with t(8;21)-AML likely benefit from protocols that have high doses of anthracyclines, etoposide, and

  12. Detecting protein–protein interactions based on kinase-mediated growth induction of mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Mabe, Satoru; Nagamune, Teruyuki; Kawahara, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Detection of protein–protein interactions (PPIs) is important for understanding numerous processes in mammalian cells; however, existing PPI detection methods often give significant background signals. Here, we propose a novel PPI-detection method based on kinase-mediated growth induction of mammalian cells. In this method, target proteins are fused to the intracellular domain of c-kit (c-kit ICD) and expressed in interleukin-3-dependent mammalian cells. The PPI induces dimerization and activation of c-kit ICDs, which leads to cell growth in the absence of interleukin-3. Using this system, we successfully detected the ligand-dependent homo-interaction of FKBPF36V and hetero-interaction of FKBP and FRBT2098L, as well as the constitutive interaction between MDM2 and a known peptide inhibitor. Intriguingly, cells expressing high-affinity peptide chimeras are selected from the mixture of the cell populations dominantly expressing low-affinity peptide chimeras. These results indicate that this method can detect PPIs with low background levels and is suitable for peptide inhibitor screening. PMID:25135216

  13. The prevalence and clinical profiles of FLT3-ITD, FLT3-TKD, NPM1, C-KIT, DNMT3A, and CEBPA mutations in a cohort of patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia from southwest China.

    PubMed

    Gou, Haimei; Zhou, Juan; Ye, Yuanxin; Hu, Xuejiao; Shang, Mengqiao; Zhang, Jingya; Zhao, Zhenzhen; Peng, Wu; Zhou, Yanhong; Zhou, Yi; Song, Xingbo; Lu, Xiaojun; Ying, Binwu

    2016-06-01

    While a substantial amount of data on gene mutations related to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) prognosis from western and other populations have been reported, these studies largely describe one or two genes. Additionally, in southwest China, only insufficient data exist regarding FLT3-ITD, FLT3-TKD, NPM1, C-KIT, DNMT3A, and CEBPA mutations have been widely used in clinical settings. Therefore, a comprehensive study about these mutations of clinical importance in the prognosis of AML in western China is necessary. In a cohort of 255 patients with de novo AML, we retrospectively analyzed the prevalence of the six gene mutations, and then we assessed the results in conjunction with clinical characteristics and treatment responses. As for the frequencies of these mutations, the NPM1 mutation occurred most frequently (17.7 %; 42/237), followed by the CEBPA mutation (15.0 %; 19/127) and the FLT3-ITD mutation (10.2 %; 25/244). The frequencies of the FLT3-TKD, DNMT3A, and C-KIT mutations were 3.7 % (9/234), 4.0 % (9/225) and 4.2 % (10/238), respectively. These mutations were closely related to clinical characteristics including FAB classification, gender and age, hemogram, blasts (%), fusion genes, and immunophenotypes. Additionally, a higher complete remission (CR) rate was found in NPM1-mutated patients. The occurrence of these mutations is variable among different countries and regions worldwide, which may provide clues to the etiology of AML. Besides, we identified new clinical characteristics that advance our understanding of these mutations and further clarify the involvement of these mutations in the development of leukemia.

  14. Expression of molecular targets for tyrosine kinase receptor antagonists in malignant endocrine pancreatic tumors.

    PubMed

    Fjällskog, Marie-Louise H; Lejonklou, Margareta H; Oberg, Kjell E; Eriksson, Barbro K; Janson, Eva T

    2003-04-01

    Molecular targeting with monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors is a novel approach to cancer treatment. We have examined the expression of molecular targets in patients with malignant endocrine pancreatic tumors, which is necessary to justify additional studies investigating the potential benefit from such treatment. Thirty-eight tumor tissues from malignant endocrine pancreatic tumors were examined with immunohistochemistry using specific polyclonal antibodies with regard to the expression pattern of platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs) alpha and beta, c-kit, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). All 38 tissue specimens expressed PDGFRalpha on tumor cells, and 21 of 37 specimens (57%) expressed PDGFRalpha in tumor stroma (1 specimen was nonevaluable). Twenty-eight samples (74%) stained positive for PDGFRbeta on tumor cells, and 36 of 37 samples (97%) stained positive for PDGFRbeta in the stroma (1 specimen was nonevaluable). Thirty-five tumor tissues (92%) stained positive for c-kit, and 21 (55%) stained positive for EGFR on tumor cells. No differences were seen between syndromes or between poorly differentiated or well-differentiated tumors. Previous treatment did not influence expression pattern. Receptor expression pattern varied considerably between individuals. We have found that tyrosine kinase receptors PDGFRs alpha and beta, EGFR, and c-kit are expressed in more than half of the patients with endocrine pancreatic tumors. Because these receptors represent molecular targets for STI571 and ZD1839 (tyrosine kinase inhibitors) and IMC-C225 (a monoclonal antibody), we propose that patients suffering from EPTs might benefit from this new treatment strategy. However, because of great variability in receptor expression pattern, all patients' individual receptor expression should be examined.

  15. The Relevance of CD117-Immunocytochemistry Staining Patterns to Mutational Exon-11 in c-kit Detected by PCR from Fine-Needle Aspirated Canine Mast Cell Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sailasuta, A.; Ketpun, D.; Piyaviriyakul, P.; Theerawatanasirikul, S.; Theewasutrakul, P.; Rungsipipat, A.

    2014-01-01

    Canine cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCT) are the lethal skin tumors. The biological behavior of the MCT cells is quite varied and unpredictable. Almost MCT dogs usually require a rapid diagnosis and therapy. However, MCT diagnosis and prognosis are still dependent on histopathology which is rather inconvenient, time-consuming, painful, and harmful for some cases. Indeed, MCT can be easily accessible using fine-needle aspiration (FNA). In this study, our biopsy specimens were classified as low- and high-grade MCT based on the novel 2-tier histopathologic grading system. We have demonstrated the usage of fine-needle aspirated MCT cells (FNA-MCT cells) from these specimens as a primary cell source to study the distribution of CD117-immunocytochemistry (CD117-ICC) staining patterns and the frequency of internal tandem duplication- (ITD-) mutant exon-11 of c-kit. The result has substantially shown that there were three staining patterns identified in the cells. Only paranuclear pattern was significantly increased in the cells from high-grade MCT. Altogether, the ITD-mutant exon-11 was also detectable only in these cells. Therefore, the result has supported our hypothesis that there was an increased opportunity to observe a higher CD117-ICC staining pattern and exon-11 mutation in high-grade MCT; even these two parameters may not precisely indicate a histopathological grade. PMID:24701365

  16. Next generation sequencing analysis of platinum refractory advanced germ cell tumor sensitive to Sunitinib (Sutent®) a VEGFR2/PDGFRβ/c-kit/ FLT3/RET/CSF1R inhibitor in a phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Subbiah, Vivek; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Mills, Gordon B; Shaw, Kenna R Mills; Bailey, Ann Marie; Rao, Priya; Ward, John F; Pagliaro, Lance C

    2014-08-01

    Germ cell tumors (GCT) are the most common solid tumors in adolescent and young adult males (age 15 and 35 years) and remain one of the most curable of all solid malignancies. However a subset of patients will have tumors that are refractory to standard chemotherapy agents. The management of this refractory population remains challenging and approximately 400 patients continue to die every year of this refractory disease in the United States. Given the preclinical evidence implicating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling in the biology of germ cell tumors, we hypothesized that the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) inhibitor sunitinib (Sutent) may possess important clinical activity in the treatment of this refractory disease. We proposed a Phase II efficacy study of sunitinib in seminomatous and non-seminomatous metastatic GCT's refractory to first line chemotherapy treatment (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00912912). Next generation targeted exome sequencing using HiSeq 2000 (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) was performed on the tumor sample of the unusual responder. Five patients are enrolled into this Phase II study. Among them we report here the clinical course of a patient (Patient # 5) who had an exceptional response to sunitinib. Next generation sequencing to understand this patient's response to sunitinib revealed RET amplification, EGFR and KRAS amplification as relevant aberrations. Oncoscan MIP array were employed to validate the copy number analysis that confirmed RET gene amplification. Sunitinib conferred clinical benefit to this heavily pre-treated patient. Next generation sequencing of this 'exceptional responder' identified the first reported case of a RET amplification as a potential basis of sensitivity to sunitinib (VEGFR2/PDGFRβ/c-kit/ FLT3/RET/CSF1R inhibitor) in a patient with refractory germ cell tumor. Further characterization of GCT patients using biomarkers for clinical response and patient

  17. Effect of the stop-flow technique on cardiac retention of c-kit positive human cardiac stem cells after intracoronary infusion in a porcine model of chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Keith, Matthew C L; Tokita, Yukichi; Tang, Xian-Liang; Ghafghazi, Shahab; Moore, Joseph B; Hong, Kyung U; Elmore, Julius B; Amraotkar, Alok R; Guo, Haixun; Ganzel, Brian L; Grubb, Kendra J; Flaherty, Michael P; Vajravelu, Bathri N; Wysoczynski, Marcin; Bolli, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    It is commonly thought that the optimal method for intracoronary administration of cells is to stop coronary flow during cell infusion, in order to prolong cell/vascular wall contact, enhance adhesion, and promote extravasation of cells into the interstitial space. However, occlusion of a coronary artery with a balloon involves serious risks of vascular damage and/or dissection, particularly in non-stented segments such as those commonly found in patients with heart failure. It remains unknown whether the use of the stop-flow technique results in improved donor cell retention. Acute myocardial infarction was produced in 14 pigs. One to two months later, pigs received 10 million indium-111 oxyquinoline (oxine)-labeled c-kit(pos) human cardiac stem cells (hCSCs) via intracoronary infusion with (n = 7) or without (n = 7) balloon inflation. Pigs received cyclosporine to prevent acute graft rejection. Animals were euthanized 24 h later and hearts harvested for radioactivity measurements. With the stop-flow technique, the retention of hCSCs at 24 h was 5.41 ± 0.80 % of the injected dose (n = 7), compared with 4.87 ± 0.62 % without coronary occlusion (n = 7), (P = 0.60). When cells are delivered intracoronarily in a clinically relevant porcine model of chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy, the use of the stop-flow technique does not result in greater myocardial cell retention at 24 h compared with non-occlusive infusion. These results have practical implications for the design of cell therapy trials. Our observations suggest that the increased risk of complications secondary to coronary manipulation and occlusion is not warranted.

  18. Combined Targeting of BCL-2 and BCR-ABL Tyrosine Kinase Eradicates Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Po Yee; Mu, Hong; Zhou, Hongsheng; Mak, Duncan H.; Schober, Wendy; Leverson, Joel D.; Zhang, Bin; Bhatia, Ravi; Huang, Xuelin; Cortes, Jorge; Kantarjian, Hagop; Konopleva, Marina

    2016-01-01

    BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are effective against chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but they rarely eliminate CML stem cells. Disease relapse is common upon therapy cessation, even in patients with complete molecular responses. Furthermore, once CML progresses to blast crisis (BC), treatment outcomes are dismal. We hypothesized that concomitant targeting of BCL-2 and BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase could overcome these limitations. We demonstrate increased BCL-2 expression at the protein level in bone marrow cells, particularly in Lin−Sca-1+cKit+ cells of inducible CML in mice as determined by CyTOF mass cytometry. Further, selective inhibition of BCL-2, aided by TKI-mediated MCL-1 and BCL-XL inhibition, markedly decreased leukemic Lin−Sca-1+cKit+ cell numbers and long-term stem cell frequency, and prolonged survival in a murine CML model. Additionally, this combination effectively eradicated CD34+CD38−, CD34+CD38+, and quiescent stem/progenitor CD34+ cells from BC CML patient samples. Our results suggest that BCL-2 is a key survival factor for CML stem/progenitor cells and that combined inhibition of BCL-2 and BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase has the potential to significantly improve depth of response and cure rates of chronic phase and BC CML. PMID:27605552

  19. Novel aspects of therapy with the dual Src and Abl kinase inhibitor bosutinib in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Keller-V Amsberg, Gunhild; Brümmendorf, Tim H

    2012-09-01

    The dual Src/Abl kinase inhibitor bosutinib (SKI-606) targets the tyrosine kinase brc-abl, the key enzyme in the development of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In clinical trials, bosutinib yielded promising results with regard to efficacy, tolerability and toxicity in first-, second- and third-line therapy of CML patients. Remarkably, bosutinib is able to overcome most imatinib-resistant BCR-ABL1-1 mutations except V299L and T315I. Mostly, low-to-moderate grade gastrointestinal toxicitis are the most common treatment-emergent adverse events observed under bosutinib. Unlike other tyrosine kinase inhibitors approved for CML treatment to date, bosutinib shows only minimal inhibitory activity against c-KIT and the PDGF receptor. This may be causative for its favorable hematologic toxicity profile. In this review, the authors give an overview on the mechanism of action and currently available preclinical and clinical data for bosutinib in CML.

  20. Functions and Mechanisms of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Torso Signaling: Lessons From Drosophila Embryonic Terminal Development

    PubMed Central

    Li, Willis X.

    2011-01-01

    The Torso receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) is required for cell fate specification in the terminal regions (head and tail) of the early Drosophila embryo. Torso contains a split tyrosine kinase domain and belongs to the type III subgroup of the RTK superfamily that also includes the platelet-derived growth factor receptors, stem cell or steel factor receptor c-Kit proto-oncoprotein, colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor. The Torso pathway has been a model system for studying RTK signal transduction. Genetic and biochemical studies of Torso signaling have provided valuable insights into the biological functions and mechanisms of RTK signaling during early Drosophila embryogenesis. PMID:15704136

  1. How tyrosine kinase inhibitors impair metabolism and endocrine system function: a systematic updated review.

    PubMed

    Breccia, Massimo; Molica, Matteo; Alimena, Giuliana

    2014-12-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) advent has deeply changed the outcome of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients, with improved rates of response and overall survival. However, for this success some patients paid the price of a number of peculiar side effects, the so-called off-target side effects, specific for each one TKI. These effects are due to non-selective inhibition of other tyrosine kinase receptors, such as PDGFR, c-KIT, Src, VEGF. Consequences of this inhibition, some metabolic changes during the treatment with TKIs are reported. Aim of present review is to report metabolic changes and potential mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis related to imatinib, second (nilotinib and dasatinib) and third generation (bosutinib and ponatinib) TKIs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Oncoprotein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2001-02-27

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  3. Protein kinase C modulates Aurora-kinase inhibition induced by CCT129202 in HMC-1⁵⁶⁰,⁸¹⁶ cell line.

    PubMed

    Tobío, Araceli; Alfonso, Amparo; Fernández-Araujo, Andrea; Alonso, Eva; Botana, Luis M

    2013-01-01

    The human mast cell line HMC-1⁵⁶⁰,⁸¹⁶ carries activating mutations in the proto-oncogene of c-kit that cause autophosphorylation and permanent c-kit receptor activation. The compound CCT129202 is a new and selective inhibitor of Aurora kinase A and B that decreases the viability of a variety of human tumor cell lines. The effect of Aurora kinase inhibition was assessed in the HMC-1⁵⁶⁰,⁸¹⁶ line in order to find a suitable tool for mastocytosis treatment. CCT129202 treatment induces a significant decrease in cell viability in HMC-1⁵⁶⁰,⁸¹⁶ cells after 48 hours of treatment. Moreover, caspase-3 and caspase-8 activation was induced after incubation of HMC-1⁵⁶⁰,⁸¹⁶ cells in the presence of CCT129202. It has been demonstrated that Protein Kinase C (PKC) plays a crucial role in mast cell activation as well as cell migration, adhesion and apoptotic cell death. Co-treatment of Ca²⁺-independent PKCs (δ ε and θ) inhibitor GF109203X with CCT129202, reduces caspase-3 activation which controls cell levels. In contrast, Go6976, an inhibitor of Ca²⁺-dependent PKCs, increases caspase-3 activation. Oppositely, GF109203X does not modify CCT129202-induced apoptosis through the caspase-8 pathway whereas Go6976 treatment abolishes the increase on caspase-8 activity due to CCT129202. This implies that Ca²⁺-independent PKC isoforms seems to be related with CCT129202-induced apoptosis through the caspase- 3 pathway, whereas Ca²⁺-dependent PKC isoforms are related with the CCT129202 effect on the caspase-8 pathway. Interestingly, CCT129202 cytotoxic effect remains even though Ca²⁺-dependent PKCs are inhibited, which shows that the Aurora kinase inhibitor effect is acting through the caspase-3 pathway. On the other hand, Ca²⁺-independent PKCs inhibition does not affect the final apoptotic CCT129202 effect because this seems to be mediated by the caspase-8 pathway. Moreover, CCT129202 does not affect PKCδ and Ca

  4. Inhibitory effects of homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 on the aorta-gonad-mapharsen hematopoiesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtsu, Naoki; Nobuhisa, Ikuo; Mochita, Miyuki; Taga, Tetsuya . E-mail: taga@kaiju.medic.kumamoto-u.ac.jp

    2007-01-01

    Definitive hematopoiesis starts in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region of the mouse embryo. Our previous studies revealed that STAT3, a gp130 downstream transcription factor, is required for AGM hematopoiesis and that homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) phosphorylates serine-727 of STAT3. HIPK2 is a serine/threonine kinase known to be involved in transcriptional repression and apoptosis. In the present study, we examined the role of HIPK2 in hematopoiesis in mouse embryo. HIPK2 transcripts were found in fetal hematopoietic tissues such as the mouse AGM region and fetal liver. In cultured AGM cells, HIPK2 protein was detected in adherent cells. Functional analyses of HIPK2 were carried out by introducing wild-type and mutant HIPK2 constructs into AGM cultures. Production of CD45{sup +} hematopoietic cells was suppressed by forced expression of HIPK2 in AGM cultures. This suppression required the kinase domain and nuclear localization signals of HIPK2, but the kinase activity was dispensable. HIPK2-overexpressing AGM-derived nonadherent cells did not form cobblestone-like colonies in cultures with stromal cells. Furthermore, overexpression of HIPK2 in AGM cultures impeded the expansion of CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup +} cells, which exhibit the immature hematopoietic progenitor phenotype. These data indicate that HIPK2 plays a negative regulatory role in AGM hematopoiesis in the mouse embryo.

  5. Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) induces human corpus cavernosum relaxation by inhibiting receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs): identification of new RTK targets.

    PubMed

    Gur, Serap; Sikka, Suresh C; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B; Abd Elmageed, Zakaria Y; Rezk, Bashir; Pankey, Edward; Kadowitz, Philip J; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) on human corpus cavernosum (HCC) smooth muscle tone. HCC were obtained from 18 erectile dysfunction (ED) patients undergoing penile prosthesis surgery. The effects of imatinib in HCC strips were investigated in the presence of various inhibitors. The human phosphoreceptor protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) array (Proteome Profiler Array) detected changes in receptor phosphorylation before and after imatinib. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize phosphorylated c-kit (CD117/stem cell factor) in HCC smooth muscle cells. Phenylephrine-induced contraction in HCC was significantly inhibited by imatinib (97.7% ± 2.3%). l-nitro-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) or guanylyl cyclase inhibitor [1H-1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) alone did not reverse the effect of imatinib, but suppressed this response in combination (18.0% ± 0.6%). The K(+) channel blockers (apamin and tetraethyl ammonium) decreased the imatinib-induced relaxation by 64% and 51%, respectively. PTK microarray analysis of 42 different phospho-receptor tyrosine kinases showed 14 were clearly activated in HCC. Imatinib treatment significantly inhibited phosphorylation of PTKs. A high level of CD117/c-kit-positive immunostaining was detected in untreated HCC smooth muscle, but not in treated HCC. Imatinib caused HCC smooth muscle relaxation in vitro mediated by nitric oxide/guanosine monophosphate signaling, involving the large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+)-channels (BK(Ca)) or by inhibiting the upregulated PTK pathway. These results suggest that imatinib may also benefit erectile dysfunction patients who are not responsive to phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Teaching resources. Protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Avrom

    2005-02-22

    This Teaching Resource provides lecture notes and slides for a class covering the structure and function of protein kinases and is part of the course "Cell Signaling Systems: A Course for Graduate Students." The lecture begins with a discussion of the genomics and evolutionary relationships among kinases and then proceeds to describe the structure-function relationships of specific kinases, the molecular mechanisms underlying substrate specificity, and selected issues in regulation of kinase activity.

  7. Two Kinase Family Dramas

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Thomas A.; Hurley, James H.

    2007-01-01

    In this issue, Lietha and colleagues (2007) report the structure of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and reveal how FAK maintains an autoinhibited state. Together with the structure of another tyrosine kinase, ZAP-70 (Deindl et al., 2007), this work highlights the diversity of mechanisms that nature has evolved within the kinase superfamily to regulate their activity through autoinhibition. PMID:17574014

  8. A novel anticancer diarylurea derivative HL-40 as a multi-kinases inhibitor with good pharmacokinetics in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yu-Yin; Zhao, Cui-Rong; Wang, Rui-Qi; Li, Wen-Bao; Qu, Xian-Jun

    2015-02-01

    HL-40, N-(4-(1-(4-chlorine indazole)) phenyl)-N-(4-chloro-3-three fluorine methyl phenyl) urea, is a novel diarylurea derivative. In this study, we investigated the kinases activities and binding constants, pharmacokinetics of HL-40, and then evaluated its anticancer efficacy by both in vitro and in vivo methods. Enzyme activities assays in vitro were employed to identify eight candidate kinase targets. The competition binding assays against eight candidate kinases suggested that HL-40 showed strong affinity to c-Kit, PDGFRβ and FLT3. The pharmacokinetic studies in Wistar rats showed that HL-40 could maintain high compound concentration and long residence time in the blood circulation. HL-40 possessed strong inhibition activities against 12 human cancer cells. Meanwhile, HL-40 effectively delayed the growth of cancer xenografts without significant toxicity to mice. Based on these in vitro and in vivo results, we suggested that HL-40 might be developed as a potential multi-kinases inhibitor for cancer treatment.

  9. Rejuvenation of human cardiac progenitor cells with Pim-1 kinase.

    PubMed

    Mohsin, Sadia; Khan, Mohsin; Nguyen, Jonathan; Alkatib, Monique; Siddiqi, Sailay; Hariharan, Nirmala; Wallach, Kathleen; Monsanto, Megan; Gude, Natalie; Dembitsky, Walter; Sussman, Mark A

    2013-10-25

    Myocardial function is enhanced by adoptive transfer of human cardiac progenitor cells (hCPCs) into a pathologically challenged heart. However, advanced age, comorbidities, and myocardial injury in patients with heart failure constrain the proliferation, survival, and regenerative capacity of hCPCs. Rejuvenation of senescent hCPCs will improve the outcome of regenerative therapy for a substantial patient population possessing functionally impaired stem cells. Reverse phenotypic and functional senescence of hCPCs by ex vivo modification with Pim-1. C-kit-positive hCPCs were isolated from heart biopsy samples of patients undergoing left ventricular assist device implantation. Growth kinetics, telomere lengths, and expression of cell cycle regulators showed significant variation between hCPC isolated from multiple patients. Telomere length was significantly decreased in hCPC with slow-growth kinetics concomitant with decreased proliferation and upregulation of senescent markers compared with hCPC with fast-growth kinetics. Desirable youthful characteristics were conferred on hCPCs by genetic modification using Pim-1 kinase, including increases in proliferation, telomere length, survival, and decreased expression of senescence markers. Senescence characteristics of hCPCs are ameliorated by Pim-1 kinase resulting in rejuvenation of phenotypic and functional properties. hCPCs show improved cellular properties resulting from Pim-1 modification, but benefits were more pronounced in hCPC with slow-growth kinetics relative to hCPC with fast-growth kinetics. With the majority of patients with heart failure presenting advanced age, infirmity, and impaired regenerative capacity, the use of Pim-1 modification should be incorporated into cell-based therapeutic approaches to broaden inclusion criteria and address limitations associated with the senescent phenotype of aged hCPC.

  10. Molecular Dynamics Simulations Show That Conformational Selection Governs the Binding Preferences of Imatinib for Several Tyrosine Kinases*

    PubMed Central

    Aleksandrov, Alexey; Simonson, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Tyrosine kinases transmit cellular signals through a complex mechanism, involving their phosphorylation and switching between inactive and active conformations. The cancer drug imatinib binds tightly to several homologous kinases, including Abl, but weakly to others, including Src. Imatinib specifically targets the inactive, so-called “DFG-out” conformation of Abl, which differs from the preferred, “DFG-in” conformation of Src in the orientation of a conserved Asp-Phe-Gly (DFG) activation loop. However, recent x-ray structures showed that Src can also adopt the DFG-out conformation and uses it to bind imatinib. The Src/Abl-binding free energy difference can thus be decomposed into two contributions. Contribution i measures the different protein-imatinib interactions when either kinase is in its DFG-out conformation. Contribution ii depends on the ability of imatinib to select or induce this conformation, i.e. on the relative stabilities of the DFG-out and DFG-in conformations of each kinase. Neither contribution has been measured experimentally. We use molecular dynamics simulations to show that contribution i is very small, 0.2 ± 0.6 kcal/mol; imatinib interactions are very similar in the two kinases, including long range electrostatic interactions with the imatinib positive charge. Contribution ii, deduced using the experimental binding free energy difference, is much larger, 4.4 ± 0.9 kcal/mol. Thus, conformational selection, easy in Abl, difficult in Src, underpins imatinib specificity. Contribution ii has a simple interpretation; it closely approximates the stability difference between the DFG-out and DFG-in conformations of apo-Src. Additional calculations show that conformational selection also governs the relative binding of imatinib to the kinases c-Kit and Lck. These results should help clarify the current framework for engineering kinase signaling. PMID:20200154

  11. Protein Kinases and Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anna M.; Messing, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    Although drugs of abuse have different chemical structures and interact with different protein targets, all appear to usurp common neuronal systems that regulate reward and motivation. Addiction is a complex disease that is thought to involve drug-induced changes in synaptic plasticity due to alterations in cell signaling, gene transcription, and protein synthesis. Recent evidence suggests that drugs of abuse interact with and change a common network of signaling pathways that include a subset of specific protein kinases. The best studied of these kinases are reviewed here and include extracellular signal-regulated kinase, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5, protein kinase C, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and Fyn tyrosine kinase. These kinases have been implicated in various aspects of drug addiction including acute drug effects, drug self-administration, withdrawal, reinforcement, sensitization, and tolerance. Identifying protein kinase substrates and signaling pathways that contribute to the addicted state may provide novel approaches for new pharma-cotherapies to treat drug addiction. PMID:18991950

  12. Enhancement of myocardial regeneration through genetic engineering of cardiac progenitor cells expressing Pim-1 kinase.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Kimberlee M; Cottage, Christopher T; Wu, Weitao; Din, Shabana; Gude, Natalie A; Avitabile, Daniele; Quijada, Pearl; Collins, Brett L; Fransioli, Jenna; Sussman, Mark A

    2009-11-24

    Despite numerous studies demonstrating the efficacy of cellular adoptive transfer for therapeutic myocardial regeneration, problems remain for donated cells with regard to survival, persistence, engraftment, and long-term benefits. This study redresses these concerns by enhancing the regenerative potential of adoptively transferred cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) via genetic engineering to overexpress Pim-1, a cardioprotective kinase that enhances cell survival and proliferation. Intramyocardial injections of CPCs overexpressing Pim-1 were given to infarcted female mice. Animals were monitored over 4, 12, and 32 weeks to assess cardiac function and engraftment of Pim-1 CPCs with echocardiography, in vivo hemodynamics, and confocal imagery. CPCs overexpressing Pim-1 showed increased proliferation and expression of markers consistent with cardiogenic lineage commitment after dexamethasone exposure in vitro. Animals that received CPCs overexpressing Pim-1 also produced greater levels of cellular engraftment, persistence, and functional improvement relative to control CPCs up to 32 weeks after delivery. Salutary effects include reduction of infarct size, greater number of c-kit(+) cells, and increased vasculature in the damaged region. Myocardial repair is significantly enhanced by genetic engineering of CPCs with Pim-1 kinase. Ex vivo gene delivery to enhance cellular survival, proliferation, and regeneration may overcome current limitations of stem cell-based therapeutic approaches.

  13. High fat diet induced obesity alters ovarian phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase signaling gene expression.

    PubMed

    Nteeba, J; Ross, J W; Perfield, J W; Keating, A F

    2013-12-01

    Insulin regulates ovarian phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3 K) signaling, important for primordial follicle viability and growth activation. This study investigated diet-induced obesity impacts on: (1) insulin receptor (Insr) and insulin receptor substrate 1 (Irs1); (2) PI3K components (Kit ligand (Kitlg), kit (c-Kit), protein kinase B alpha (Akt1) and forkhead transcription factor subfamily 3 (Foxo3a)); (3) xenobiotic biotransformation (microsomal epoxide hydrolase (Ephx1), Cytochrome P450 isoform 2E1 (Cyp2e1), Glutathione S-transferase (Gst) isoforms mu (Gstm) and pi (Gstp)) and (4) microRNA's 184, 205, 103 and 21 gene expression. INSR, GSTM and GSTP protein levels were also measured. Obese mouse ovaries had decreased Irs1, Foxo3a, Cyp2e1, MiR-103, and MiR-21 but increased Kitlg, Akt1, and miR-184 levels relative to lean littermates. These results support that diet-induced obesity potentially impairs ovarian function through aberrant gene expression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. High fat diet induced obesity alters ovarian phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase signaling gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Nteeba, J.; Ross, J.W.; Perfield, J.W.; Keating, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    Insulin regulates ovarian phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling, important for primordial follicle viability and growth activation. This study investigated diet-induced obesity impacts on: 1) insulin receptor (Insr) and insulin receptor substrate 1 (Irs1); 2) PI3K components (Kit ligand (Kitlg), kit (c-Kit), protein kinase B alpha (Akt1) and forkhead transcription factor subfamily 3 (Foxo3a)); 3) xenobiotic biotransformation (microsomal epoxide hydrolase (Ephx1), Cytochrome P450 isoform 2E1 (Cyp2e1), Glutathione S-transferase (Gst) isoforms mu (Gstm) and pi (Gstp)) and 4) microRNA’s 184, 205, 103 and 21 gene expression. INSR, GSTM and GSTP protein levels were also measured. Obese mouse ovaries had decreased Irs1, Foxo3a, Cyp2e1, MiR-103, and MiR-21 but increased Kitlg, Akt1, and miR-184 levels relative to lean littermates. These results support that diet-induced obesity potentially impairs ovarian function through aberrant gene expression. PMID:23954404

  15. Effective and selective inhibition of chronic myeloid leukemia primitive hematopoietic progenitors by the dual Src/Abl kinase inhibitor SKI-606

    PubMed Central

    Konig, Heiko; Holyoake, Tessa L.

    2008-01-01

    Imatinib mesylate (imatinib) is highly effective in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) but is less effective in eliminating CML stem cells. We investigated whether SKI-606, a potent Bcr-Abl and Src kinase inhibitor without anti-PDGF or c-Kit activity, could effectively target primitive CML progenitors. CML and normal progenitors were cultured with SKI-606 or imatinib. SKI-606 effectively inhibited Bcr-Abl kinase activity in CML CD34+ cells and inhibited Src phosphorylation more potently than imatinib. However, SKI-606 and imatinib resulted in similar suppression of CML primitive and committed progenitor proliferation and growth in CFC and LTC-IC assays. Exposure to either agent alone or in combination resulted in only modest increase in apoptosis. Evaluation of downstream signaling pathways indicated that Akt and STAT5 activity was not changed, but a delayed increase in MAPK activity was seen at high concentrations of SKI-606. SKI-606 inhibited normal progenitor proliferation to a lesser extent than imatinib. SKI-606 effectively inhibits Bcr-Abl and Src kinase activity and inhibits CML progenitor growth with relatively little effect on normal progenitors. However, SKI-606 does not demonstrate increased ability to eliminate primitive CML progenitors by apoptosis compared with imatinib, emphasizing the need for additional strategies besides Bcr-Abl kinase inhibition for curative therapy of CML. PMID:18056843

  16. Effective and selective inhibition of chronic myeloid leukemia primitive hematopoietic progenitors by the dual Src/Abl kinase inhibitor SKI-606.

    PubMed

    Konig, Heiko; Holyoake, Tessa L; Bhatia, Ravi

    2008-02-15

    Imatinib mesylate (imatinib) is highly effective in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) but is less effective in eliminating CML stem cells. We investigated whether SKI-606, a potent Bcr-Abl and Src kinase inhibitor without anti-PDGF or c-Kit activity, could effectively target primitive CML progenitors. CML and normal progenitors were cultured with SKI-606 or imatinib. SKI-606 effectively inhibited Bcr-Abl kinase activity in CML CD34(+) cells and inhibited Src phosphorylation more potently than imatinib. However, SKI-606 and imatinib resulted in similar suppression of CML primitive and committed progenitor proliferation and growth in CFC and LTC-IC assays. Exposure to either agent alone or in combination resulted in only modest increase in apoptosis. Evaluation of downstream signaling pathways indicated that Akt and STAT5 activity was not changed, but a delayed increase in MAPK activity was seen at high concentrations of SKI-606. SKI-606 inhibited normal progenitor proliferation to a lesser extent than imatinib. SKI-606 effectively inhibits Bcr-Abl and Src kinase activity and inhibits CML progenitor growth with relatively little effect on normal progenitors. However, SKI-606 does not demonstrate increased ability to eliminate primitive CML progenitors by apoptosis compared with imatinib, emphasizing the need for additional strategies besides Bcr-Abl kinase inhibition for curative therapy of CML.

  17. [Tyrosine kinase inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Robert, Jacques

    2011-11-01

    Membrane receptors with tyrosine kinase activity and cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases have emerged as important potential targets in oncology. Starting from basic structures such as anilino-quinazoline, numerous compounds have been synthesised, with the help of tyrosine kinase crystallography, which has allowed to optimise protein-ligand interactions. The catalytic domains of all kinases present similar three-dimensional structures, which explains that it may be difficult to identify molecules having a high specificity for a given tyrosine kinase. Some tyrosine kinase inhibitors are relatively specific for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) such as géfitinib and erlotinib; other are mainly active against platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and the receptor KIT, such as imatinib or nilotinib, and other against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors involved in angiogenesis, such as sunitinib and sorafenib. The oral formulation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors is well accepted by the patients but may generate sometimes compliance problems requiring pharmacokinetic monitoring. This chemical family is in full expansion and several dozens of compounds have entered clinical trials.

  18. MAPKAP kinase-2; a novel protein kinase activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Stokoe, D; Campbell, D G; Nakielny, S; Hidaka, H; Leevers, S J; Marshall, C; Cohen, P

    1992-01-01

    A novel protein kinase, which was only active when phosphorylated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase), has been purified 85,000-fold to homogeneity from rabbit skeletal muscle. This MAP kinase activated protein kinase, termed MAPKAP kinase-2, was distinguished from S6 kinase-II (MAPKAP kinase-1) by its response to inhibitors, lack of phosphorylation of S6 peptides and amino acid sequence. MAPKAP kinase-2 phosphorylated glycogen synthase at Ser7 and the equivalent serine (*) in the peptide KKPLNRTLS*VASLPGLamide whose sequence is similar to the N terminus of glycogen synthase. MAPKAP kinase-2 was resolved into two monomeric species of apparent molecular mass 60 and 53 kDa that had similar specific activities and substrate specificities. Peptide sequences of the 60 and 53 kDa species were identical, indicating that they are either closely related isoforms or derived from the same gene. MAP kinase activated the 60 and 53 kDa forms of MAPKAP kinase-2 by phosphorylating the first threonine residue in the sequence VPQTPLHTSR. Furthermore, Mono Q chromatography of extracts from rat phaeochromocytoma and skeletal muscle demonstrated that two MAP kinase isoforms (p42mapk and p44mapk) were the only enzymes in these cells that were capable of reactivating MAPKAP kinase-2. These results indicate that MAP kinase activates at least two distinct protein kinases, suggesting that it represents a point at which the growth factor-stimulated protein kinase cascade bifurcates. Images PMID:1327754

  19. Orphan kinases turn eccentric

    PubMed Central

    Mikolcevic, Petra; Rainer, Johannes; Geley, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    PCTAIRE kinases (PCTK) are a highly conserved, but poorly characterized, subgroup of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK). They are characterized by a conserved catalytic domain flanked by N- and C-terminal extensions that are involved in cyclin binding. Vertebrate genomes contain three highly similar PCTAIRE kinases (PCTK1,2,3, a.k.a., CDK16,17,18), which are most abundant in post-mitotic cells in brain and testis. Consistent with this restricted expression pattern, PCTK1 (CDK16) has recently been shown to be essential for spermatogenesis. PCTAIREs are activated by cyclin Y (CCNY), a highly conserved single cyclin fold protein. By binding to N-myristoylated CCNY, CDK16 is targeted to the plasma membrane. Unlike conventional cyclin-CDK interactions, binding of CCNY to CDK16 not only requires the catalytic domain, but also domains within the N-terminal extension. Interestingly, phosphorylation within this domain blocks CCNY binding, providing a novel means of cyclin-CDK regulation. By using these functional characteristics, we analyzed “PCTAIRE” sequence containing protein kinase genes in genomes of various organisms and found that CCNY and CCNY-dependent kinases are restricted to eumetazoa and possibly evolved along with development of a central nervous system. Here, we focus on the structure and regulation of PCTAIREs and discuss their established functions. PMID:22895054

  20. Conserved herpesvirus protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Gershburg, Edward; Pagano, Joseph S.

    2008-01-01

    Conserved herpesviral protein kinases (CHPKs) are a group of enzymes conserved throughout all subfamilies of Herpesviridae. Members of this group are serine/threonine protein kinases that are likely to play a conserved role in viral infection by interacting with common host cellular and viral factors; however along with a conserved role, individual kinases may have unique functions in the context of viral infection in such a way that they are only partially replaceable even by close homologues. Recent studies demonstrated that CHPKs are crucial for viral infection and suggested their involvement in regulation of numerous processes at various infection steps (primary infection, nuclear egress, tegumentation), although the mechanisms of this regulation remain unknown. Notwithstanding, recent advances in discovery of new CHPK targets, and studies of CHPK knockout phenotypes have raised their attractiveness as targets for antiviral therapy. A number of compounds have been shown to inhibit the activity of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded UL97 protein kinase and exhibit a pronounced antiviral effect, although the same compounds are inactive against Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-encoded protein kinase BGLF4, illustrating the fact that low homology between the members of this group complicates development of compounds targeting the whole group, and suggesting that individualized, structure-based inhibitor design will be more effective. Determination of CHPK structures will greatly facilitate this task. PMID:17881303

  1. The Dtk receptor tyrosine kinase, which binds protein S, is expressed during hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Crosier, P S; Freeman, S A; Orlic, D; Bodine, D M; Crosier, K E

    1996-02-01

    Dtk (Tyro 3/Sky/Rse/Brt/Tif) belongs to a recently recognized subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases that also includes Ufo (Axl/Ark) and Mer (Eyk). Ligands for Dtk and Ufo have been identified as protein S and the related molecule Gas6, respectively. This study examined expression of Dtk during ontogeny of the hematopoietic system and compared the pattern of expression with that of Ufo. Both receptors were abundantly expressed in differentiating embryonic stem cells, yolk sac blood islands, para-aortic splanchnopleural mesoderm, fractionated AA4+ fetal liver cells, and fetal thymus from day 14 until birth. Although Ufo was expressed at moderate levels in adult bone marrow, expression of Dtk in this tissue was barely detectable. In adult bone marrow subpopulations fractionated using counterflow centrifugal elutriation, immunomagnetic bead selection for lineage-depletion and FACS sorting for c-kit expression, very low levels of Dtk and/or Ufo were detected in some cell fractions. These results suggest that Dtk and Ufo are likely to be involved in the regulation of hematopoiesis, particularly during the embryonic stages of blood cell development.

  2. Inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3 mitigates the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Lung; Lento, William E; Castle, Katherine D; Chao, Nelson J; Kirsch, David G

    2014-05-01

    Exposure to a nuclear accident or radiological attack can cause death from acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which results from radiation injury to vital organs such as the hematopoietic system. However, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved any medical countermeasures for this specific purpose. With growing concern over nuclear terrorism, there is an urgent need to develop small molecule deliverables that mitigate mortality from ARS. One emerging modulator of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) activity is glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3). The inhibition of GSK-3 has been shown to augment hematopoietic repopulation in mouse models of bone marrow transplantation. In this study, we performed an in vitro screen using irradiated bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) to test the effects of four GSK-3 inhibitors: CHIR99021; 6-Bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (BIO); SB415286; and SB216763. This screen showed that SB216763 significantly increased the frequency of c-Kit(+) Lin(-) Sca1(+) (KLS) cells and hematopoietic colony-forming cells in irradiated BM-MNCs. Importantly, administration of a single dose of SB216763 to C57BL/6J mice by subcutaneous injection 24 h after total-body irradiation significantly improved hematopoietic recovery and mitigated hematopoietic ARS. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the GSK-3 inhibitor SB216763 is an effective medical countermeasure against acute radiation injury of the hematopoietic system.

  3. Inhibiting Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Mitigates the Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Lung; Lento, William E.; Castle, Katherine D.; Chao, Nelson J.; Kirsch, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to a nuclear accident or radiological attack can cause death from acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which results from radiation injury to vital organs such as the hematopoietic system. However, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved any medical countermeasures for this specific purpose. With growing concern over nuclear terrorism, there is an urgent need to develop small molecule deliverables that mitigate mortality from ARS. One emerging modulator of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) activity is glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3). The inhibition of GSK-3 has been shown to augment hematopoietic repopulation in mouse models of bone marrow transplantation. In this study, we performed an in vitro screen using irradiated bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) to test the effects of four GSK-3 inhibitors: CHIR99021; 6-Bromoindirubin-3′-oxime (BIO); SB415286; and SB216763. This screen showed that SB216763 significantly increased the frequency of c-Kit+ Lin− Sca1+ (KLS) cells and hematopoietic colony-forming cells in irradiated BM-MNCs. Importantly, administration of a single dose of SB216763 to C57BL/6J mice by subcutaneous injection 24 h after total-body irradiation significantly improved hematopoietic recovery and mitigated hematopoietic ARS. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the GSK-3 inhibitor SB216763 is an effective medical countermeasure against acute radiation injury of the hematopoietic system. PMID:24720754

  4. Phosphorylation of the Yeast Choline Kinase by Protein Kinase C

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mal-Gi; Kurnov, Vladlen; Kersting, Michael C.; Sreenivas, Avula; Carman, George M.

    2005-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae CKI1-encoded choline kinase catalyzes the committed step in phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the Kennedy pathway. The enzyme is phosphorylated on multiple serine residues, and some of this phosphorylation is mediated by protein kinase A. In this work, we examined the hypothesis that choline kinase is also phosphorylated by protein kinase C. Using choline kinase as a substrate, protein kinase C activity was dose- and time-dependent, and dependent on the concentrations of choline kinase (Km = 27 μg/ml) and ATP (Km = 15 μM). This phosphorylation, which occurred on a serine residue, was accompanied by a 1.6-fold stimulation of choline kinase activity. The synthetic peptide SRSSS25QRRHS (Vmax/Km = 17.5 mM-1 μmol min-1 mg-1) that contains the protein kinase C motif for Ser25 was a substrate for protein kinase C. A Ser25 to Ala (S25A) mutation in choline kinase resulted in a 60% decrease in protein kinase C phosphorylation of the enzyme. Phosphopeptide mapping analysis of the S25A mutant enzyme confirmed that Ser25 was a protein kinase C target site. In vivo, the S25A mutation correlated with a decrease (55%) in phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the Kennedy pathway whereas an S25D phosphorylation site mimic correlated with an increase (44%) in phosphatidylcholine synthesis. Whereas the S25A (protein kinase C site) mutation did not affect the phosphorylation of choline kinase by protein kinase A, the S30A (protein kinase A site) mutation caused a 46% reduction in enzyme phosphorylation by protein kinase C. A choline kinase synthetic peptide (SQRRHS30LTRQ) containing Ser30 was a substrate (Vmax/Km = 3.0 mM−1 μmol min−1 mg−1) for protein kinase C. Comparison of phosphopeptide maps of the wild type and S30A mutant choline kinase enzymes phosphorylated by protein kinase C confirmed that Ser30 was also a target site for protein kinase C. PMID:15919656

  5. PAK family kinases

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhuo-shen; Manser, Ed

    2012-01-01

    The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are a family of Ser/Thr protein kinases that are represented by six genes in humans (PAK 1–6), and are found in all eukaryotes sequenced to date. Genetic and knockdown experiments in frogs, fish and mice indicate group I PAKs are widely expressed, required for multiple tissue development, and particularly important for immune and nervous system function in the adult. The group II PAKs (human PAKs 4–6) are more enigmatic, but their restriction to metazoans and presence at cell-cell junctions suggests these kinases emerged to regulate junctional signaling. Studies of protozoa and fungal PAKs show that they regulate cell shape and polarity through phosphorylation of multiple cytoskeletal proteins, including microtubule binding proteins, myosins and septins. This chapter discusses what we know about the regulation of PAKs and their physiological role in different model organisms, based primarily on gene knockout studies. PMID:23162738

  6. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Linn, Anning

    1996-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK.

  7. Pantothenate - kinase associated neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Alpana; Khare, Shruti; Srivastav, Vipul

    2012-04-01

    Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation is a group of disorders, the commonest of which is PKAN (Pantothenate kinase associated neurodegeneration). We present here, a case of 18 year old boy with progressive dementia, pyramidal and extrapyramidal involvement, dysarthria, seizures and myoclonus. The patient was diagnosed as PKAN (formerly Hallervorden Spatz disease) after "eye of tiger" appearance on neuro-imaging.

  8. Visualizing autophosphorylation in histidine kinases.

    PubMed

    Casino, Patricia; Miguel-Romero, Laura; Marina, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is the most widespread regulatory mechanism in signal transduction. Autophosphorylation in a dimeric sensor histidine kinase is the first step in two-component signalling, the predominant signal-transduction device in bacteria. Despite being the most abundant sensor kinases in nature, the molecular bases of the histidine kinase autophosphorylation mechanism are still unknown. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that autophosphorylation can occur in two directions, cis (intrasubunit) or trans (intersubunit) within the dimeric histidine kinase. Here, we present the crystal structure of the complete catalytic machinery of a chimeric histidine kinase. The structure shows an asymmetric histidine kinase dimer where one subunit is caught performing the autophosphorylation reaction. A structure-guided functional analysis on HK853 and EnvZ, two prototypical cis- and trans-phosphorylating histidine kinases, has allowed us to decipher the catalytic mechanism of histidine kinase autophosphorylation, which seems to be common independently of the reaction directionality.

  9. Kinase Inhibitors from Marine Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Skropeta, Danielle; Pastro, Natalie; Zivanovic, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Protein kinases play a critical role in cell regulation and their deregulation is a contributing factor in an increasing list of diseases including cancer. Marine sponges have yielded over 70 novel compounds to date that exhibit significant inhibitory activity towards a range of protein kinases. These compounds, which belong to diverse structural classes, are reviewed herein, and ordered based upon the kinase that they inhibit. Relevant synthetic studies on the marine natural product kinase inhibitors have also been included. PMID:22073013

  10. Secondary kinase reactions catalyzed by yeast pyruvate kinase.

    PubMed

    Leblond, D J; Robinson, J L

    1976-06-07

    1. Yeast pyruvate kinase (EC 2.7.1.40) catalyzes, in addition to the primary, physiologically important reaction, three secondary kinase reactions, the ATP-dependent phosphorylations of fluoride (fluorokinase), hydroxylamine (hydroxylamine kinase) and glycolate (glycolate kinase). 2. These reactions are accelerated by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, the allosteric activator of the primary reaction. Wth Mg2+ as the required divalent cation, none of these reactions are observed in the absence of fructose-biphosphate. With Mn2+, fructose-bisphosphate is required for the glycolate kinase reaction, but merely stimulates the other reactions. 3. The effect of other divalent cations and pH on three secondary kinase reactions was also examined. 4. Results are compared with those obtained from muscle pyruvate kinase and the implications of the results for the mechanism of the yeast enzyme are discussed.

  11. LIM-kinase1.

    PubMed

    Stanyon, C A; Bernard, O

    1999-01-01

    LIM-kinase1 (LIMK1) is a serine-only protein kinase that contains LIM and PDZ protein-protein interaction domains which is highly expressed in neurons. Overexpression of LIMK1 in cultured cells results in accumulation of filamentous (F-) actin. LIMK1 phosphorylates cofilin, an actin depolymerisation factor, which is then unable to bind and depolymerise F-actin. Rac-GTP enhances phosphorylation of LIMK1 and cofilin, which leads to accumulation of F-actin, while Rac-GDP and PMA reduce these effects. LIMK1 is therefore a key component of a signal transduction network that connects extracellular stimuli to changes in cytoskeletal structure. Control of cell morphology and mobility via LIMK1 activity may provide novel approaches to cancer therapy.

  12. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, M.; Hibi, M.; Lin, A.

    1997-02-25

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE is disclosed. The polypeptide has serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences. The method of detection of JNK is also provided. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites. 44 figs.

  13. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2004-03-16

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  14. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Lin, Anning

    1999-11-30

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  15. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1998-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  16. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit; Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2005-01-25

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  17. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning; Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit

    2003-02-04

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  18. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1997-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  19. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning; Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit

    2005-03-08

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  20. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1999-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  1. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1997-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  2. Cyclin-dependent kinases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are protein kinases characterized by needing a separate subunit - a cyclin - that provides domains essential for enzymatic activity. CDKs play important roles in the control of cell division and modulate transcription in response to several extra- and intracellular cues. The evolutionary expansion of the CDK family in mammals led to the division of CDKs into three cell-cycle-related subfamilies (Cdk1, Cdk4 and Cdk5) and five transcriptional subfamilies (Cdk7, Cdk8, Cdk9, Cdk11 and Cdk20). Unlike the prototypical Cdc28 kinase of budding yeast, most of these CDKs bind one or a few cyclins, consistent with functional specialization during evolution. This review summarizes how, although CDKs are traditionally separated into cell-cycle or transcriptional CDKs, these activities are frequently combined in many family members. Not surprisingly, deregulation of this family of proteins is a hallmark of several diseases, including cancer, and drug-targeted inhibition of specific members has generated very encouraging results in clinical trials. PMID:25180339

  3. Protein Kinase Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 (MAP4K4) Promotes Obesity-induced Hyperinsulinemia.

    PubMed

    Roth Flach, Rachel J; Danai, Laura V; DiStefano, Marina T; Kelly, Mark; Menendez, Lorena Garcia; Jurczyk, Agata; Sharma, Rohit B; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Jason K; Bortell, Rita; Alonso, Laura C; Czech, Michael P

    2016-07-29

    Previous studies revealed a paradox whereby mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) acted as a negative regulator of insulin sensitivity in chronically obese mice, yet systemic deletion of Map4k4 did not improve glucose tolerance. Here, we report markedly reduced glucose-responsive plasma insulin and C-peptide levels in whole body Map4k4-depleted mice (M4K4 iKO) as well as an impaired first phase of insulin secretion from islets derived from M4K4 iKO mice ex vivo After long-term high fat diet (HFD), M4K4 iKO mice pancreata also displayed reduced β cell mass, fewer proliferating β cells and reduced islet-specific gene mRNA expression compared with controls, although insulin content was normal. Interestingly, the reduced plasma insulin in M4K4 iKO mice exposed to chronic (16 weeks) HFD was not observed in response to acute HFD challenge or short term treatment with the insulin receptor antagonist S961. Furthermore, the improved insulin sensitivity in obese M4K4 iKO mice was abrogated by high exogenous insulin over the course of a euglycemic clamp study, indicating that hypoinsulinemia promotes insulin sensitivity in chronically obese M4K4 iKO mice. These results demonstrate that protein kinase Map4k4 drives obesity-induced hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in part by promoting insulin secretion from β cells in mice. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Protein Kinase Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 (MAP4K4) Promotes Obesity-induced Hyperinsulinemia*

    PubMed Central

    Roth Flach, Rachel J.; Danai, Laura V.; DiStefano, Marina T.; Kelly, Mark; Menendez, Lorena Garcia; Jurczyk, Agata; Sharma, Rohit B.; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Jason K.; Bortell, Rita; Alonso, Laura C.; Czech, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies revealed a paradox whereby mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) acted as a negative regulator of insulin sensitivity in chronically obese mice, yet systemic deletion of Map4k4 did not improve glucose tolerance. Here, we report markedly reduced glucose-responsive plasma insulin and C-peptide levels in whole body Map4k4-depleted mice (M4K4 iKO) as well as an impaired first phase of insulin secretion from islets derived from M4K4 iKO mice ex vivo. After long-term high fat diet (HFD), M4K4 iKO mice pancreata also displayed reduced β cell mass, fewer proliferating β cells and reduced islet-specific gene mRNA expression compared with controls, although insulin content was normal. Interestingly, the reduced plasma insulin in M4K4 iKO mice exposed to chronic (16 weeks) HFD was not observed in response to acute HFD challenge or short term treatment with the insulin receptor antagonist S961. Furthermore, the improved insulin sensitivity in obese M4K4 iKO mice was abrogated by high exogenous insulin over the course of a euglycemic clamp study, indicating that hypoinsulinemia promotes insulin sensitivity in chronically obese M4K4 iKO mice. These results demonstrate that protein kinase Map4k4 drives obesity-induced hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in part by promoting insulin secretion from β cells in mice. PMID:27226575

  5. Redox Regulation of Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Thu H.; Carroll, Kate S.

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases represent one of the largest families of genes found in eukaryotes. Kinases mediate distinct cellular processes ranging from proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis. Ligand-mediated activation of receptor kinases can lead to the production of endogenous H2O2 by membrane-bound NADPH oxidases. In turn, H2O2 can be utilized as a secondary messenger in signal transduction pathways. This review presents an overview of the molecular mechanisms involved in redox regulation of protein kinases and its effects on signaling cascades. In the first half, we will focus primarily on receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), whereas the latter will concentrate on downstream non-receptor kinases involved in relaying stimulant response. Select examples from the literature are used to highlight the functional role of H2O2 regarding kinase activity, as well as the components involved in H2O2 production and regulation during cellular signaling. In addition, studies demonstrating direct modulation of protein kinases by H2O2 through cysteine oxidation will be emphasized. Identification of these redox-sensitive residues may help uncover signaling mechanisms conserved within kinase subfamilies. In some cases, these residues can even be exploited as targets for the development of new therapeutics. Continued efforts in this field will further basic understanding of kinase redox regulation, and delineate the mechanisms involved in physiologic and pathological H2O2 responses. PMID:23639002

  6. A high-throughput radiometric kinase assay

    PubMed Central

    Duong-Ly, Krisna C.; Peterson, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant kinase signaling has been implicated in a number of diseases. While kinases have become attractive drug targets, only a small fraction of human protein kinases have validated inhibitors. Screening libraries of compounds against a kinase or kinases of interest is routinely performed during kinase inhibitor development to identify promising scaffolds for a particular target and to identify kinase targets for compounds of interest. Screening of more focused compound libraries may also be conducted in the later stages of inhibitor development to improve potency and optimize selectivity. The dot blot kinase assay is a robust, high-throughput kinase assay that can be used to screen a number of small molecule compounds against one kinase of interest or several kinases. Here, a protocol for a dot blot kinase assay used for measuring insulin receptor kinase activity is presented. This protocol can be readily adapted for use with other protein kinases. PMID:26501904

  7. Aurora Kinases Throughout Plant Development.

    PubMed

    Weimer, Annika K; Demidov, Dmitri; Lermontova, Inna; Beeckman, Tom; Van Damme, Daniël

    2016-01-01

    Aurora kinases are evolutionarily conserved key mitotic determinants in all eukaryotes. Yeasts contain a single Aurora kinase, whereas multicellular eukaryotes have at least two functionally diverged members. The involvement of Aurora kinases in human cancers has provided an in-depth mechanistic understanding of their roles throughout cell division in animal and yeast models. By contrast, understanding Aurora kinase function in plants is only starting to emerge. Nevertheless, genetic, cell biological, and biochemical approaches have revealed functional diversification between the plant Aurora kinases and suggest a role in formative (asymmetric) divisions, chromatin modification, and genome stability. This review provides an overview of the accumulated knowledge on the function of plant Aurora kinases as well as some major challenges for the future.

  8. Functions of the Lyn tyrosine kinase in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Src family kinases such as Lyn are important signaling intermediaries, relaying and modulating different inputs to regulate various outputs, such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration and metabolism. Intriguingly, Lyn can mediate both positive and negative signaling processes within the same or different cellular contexts. This duality is exemplified by the B-cell defect in Lyn−/− mice in which Lyn is essential for negative regulation of the B-cell receptor; conversely, B-cells expressing a dominant active mutant of Lyn (Lynup/up) have elevated activities of positive regulators of the B-cell receptor due to this hyperactive kinase. Lyn has well-established functions in most haematopoietic cells, viz. progenitors via influencing c-kit signaling, through to mature cell receptor/integrin signaling, e.g. erythrocytes, platelets, mast cells and macrophages. Consequently, there is an important role for this kinase in regulating hematopoietic abnormalities. Lyn is an important regulator of autoimmune diseases such as asthma and psoriasis, due to its profound ability to influence immune cell signaling. Lyn has also been found to be important for maintaining the leukemic phenotype of many different liquid cancers including acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) and B-cell lymphocytic leukaemia (BCLL). Lyn is also expressed in some solid tumors and here too it is establishing itself as a potential therapeutic target for prostate, glioblastoma, colon and more aggressive subtypes of breast cancer. Lay Abstract To relay information, a cell uses enzymes that put molecular markers on specific proteins so they interact with other proteins or move to specific parts of the cell to have particular functions. A protein called Lyn is one of these enzymes that regulate information transfer within cells to modulate cell growth, survival and movement. Depending on which type of cell and the source of the information input, Lyn can

  9. MAP kinase and pain

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Ru-Rong; Gereau, Robert W.; Malcangio, Marzia; Strichartz, Gary R.

    2008-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are important for intracellular signal transduction and play critical roles in regulating neural plasticity and inflammatory responses. The MAPK family consists of three major members: extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which represent three separate signaling pathways. Accumulating evidence shows that all three MAPK pathways contribute to pain sensitization after tissue and nerve injury via distinct molecular and cellular mechanisms. Activation (phosphorylation) of MAPKs under different persistent pain conditions results in the induction and maintenance of pain hypersensitivity via non-transcriptional and transcriptional regulation. In particular, ERK activation in spinal cord dorsal horn neurons by nociceptive activity, via multiple neurotransmitter receptors, and using different second messenger pathways plays a critical role in central sensitization by regulating the activity of glutamate receptors and potassium channels and inducing gene transcription. ERK activation in amygdala neurons is also required for inflammatory pain sensitization. After nerve injury, ERK, p38, and JNK are differentially activated in spinal glial cells (microglia vs astrocytes), leading to the synthesis of proinflammatory/pronociceptive mediators, thereby enhancing and prolonging pain. Inhibition of all three MAPK pathways has been shown to attenuate inflammatory and neuropathic pain in different animal models. Development of specific inhibitors for MAPK pathways to target neurons and glial cells may lead to new therapies for pain management. Although it is well documented that MAPK pathways can increase pain sensitivity via peripheral mechanisms, this review will focus on central mechanisms of MAPKs, especially ERK. PMID:19150373

  10. Acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase.

    PubMed

    Ferry, James G

    2011-01-01

    Most of the methane produced in nature derives from the methyl group of acetate, the major end product of anaerobes decomposing complex plant material. The acetate is derived from the metabolic intermediate acetyl-CoA via the combined activities of phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase. In Methanosarcina species, the enzymes function in the reverse direction to activate acetate to acetyl-CoA prior to cleavage into a methyl and carbonyl group of which the latter is oxidized providing electrons for reduction of the former to methane. Thus, phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase have a central role in the conversion of complex organic matter to methane by anaerobic microbial food chains. Both enzymes have been purified from Methanosarcina thermophila and characterized. Both enzymes from M. thermophila have also been produced in Escherichia coli permitting crystal structures and amino acid variants, the kinetic and biochemical studies of which have lead to proposals for catalytic mechanisms. The high identity of both enzymes to paralogs in the domain Bacteria suggests ancient origins and common mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-oncogenic activity of signalling-defective epidermal growth factor receptor mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Redemann, N; Holzmann, B; von Rüden, T; Wagner, E F; Schlessinger, J; Ullrich, A

    1992-01-01

    Overexpression and autocrine activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) cause transformation of cultured cells and correlate with tumor progression in cancer patients. Dimerization and transphosphorylation are crucial events in the process by which receptors with tyrosine kinase activity generate normal and transforming cellular signals. Interruption of this process by inactive receptor mutants offers the potential to inhibit ligand-induced cellular responses. Using recombinant retroviruses, we have examined the effects of signalling-incompetent EGF-R mutants on the growth-promoting and transforming potential of ligand-activated, overexpressed wild-type EGF-R and the v-erbB oncogene product. Expression of a soluble extracellular EGF-R domain had little if any effect on the growth and transformation of NIH 3T3 cells by either tyrosine kinase. However, both a kinase-negative EGF-R point mutant (HERK721A) and an EGF-R lacking 533 C-terminal amino acids efficiently inhibited wild-type EGF-R-mediated, de novo DNA synthesis and cell transformation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, coexpression with the v-erbBES4 oncogene product in NIH 3T3 cells resulted in transphosphorylation of the HERK721A mutant receptor and reduced soft-agar colony growth but had no effect in a focus formation assay. These results demonstrate that signalling-defective receptor tyrosine kinase mutants differentially interfere with oncogenic signals generated by either overexpressed EGF-R or the retroviral v-erbBES4 oncogene product. Images PMID:1346334

  12. Arginine vasopressin stimulates mesangial cell proliferation by activating the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, P M; Mikhailova, M; Bedolla, R; Kreisberg, J I

    2001-06-01

    The potent vasoconstrictor arginine vasopressin (AVP) is also a mitogen for mesangial cells. Treatment with AVP decreased transit time through the cell cycle. AVP-stimulated mesangial cell growth by activating both the Ras mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) cell signaling pathways. Both the selective PI3K inhibitor LY-294002 and the MAPK kinase (MEK) inhibitor PD-98059 inhibited AVP-stimulated mesangial cell proliferation. However, LY-294002 was more potent, indicating an important role for PI3K activation in AVP-stimulated mesangial cell proliferation. AVP appeared to exert its effect on MAPK and PI3K activation, as well as on cell proliferation, by activating the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R). Pretreatment with the tyrphostin-derived EGF-R antagonist AG-1478 inhibited mesangial cell proliferation as well as the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 or p42/p44(MAPK)), and p70S6 kinase, a downstream effector of PI3K, providing evidence that MAPK and PI3K activation, respectively, occurred downstream of EGF-R activation. Treatment with rapamycin, an inhibitor of the p70S6 kinase activator mTOR, also resulted in growth inhibition, further suggesting the importance of the PI3K signaling pathway in AVP-induced proliferation. AVP treatment appeared to transactivate EGF-R by inducing tyrosine phosphorylation of the Ca(2+)/protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, Pyk2, leading to Pyk2/c-Src association and c-Src activation. This was followed by association of c-Src with EGF-R and EGF-R activation. These data suggested that AVP-stimulated Pyk2 tyrosine phosphorylation to activate c-Src, thereby leading to EGF-R transactivation.

  13. Phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase associates with an insulin receptor substrate-1 serine kinase distinct from its intrinsic serine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Cengel, K A; Kason, R E; Freund, G G

    1998-01-01

    Serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) has been proposed as a counter-regulatory mechanism in insulin and cytokine signalling. Here we report that IRS-1 is phosphorylated by a wortmannin insensitive phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI 3-kinase)-associated serine kinase (PAS kinase) distinct from PI 3-kinase serine kinase. We found that PI 3-kinase immune complexes contain 5-fold more wortmannin-insensitive serine kinase activity than SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP2) and IRS-1 immune complexes. Affinity chromatography of cell lysates with a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein for the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase showed that PAS kinase associated with the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase. This interaction required unoccupied SH2 domain(s) but did not require the PI 3-kinase p110 subunit binding domain. In terms of function, PAS kinase phosphorylated IRS-1 and, after insulin stimulation, PAS kinase phosphorylated IRS-1 in PI 3-kinase-IRS-1 complexes. Phosphopeptide mapping showed that insulin-dependent in vivo sites of IRS-1 serine phosphorylation were comparable to those of PAS kinase phosphorylated IRS-1. More importantly, PAS kinase-dependent phosphorylation of IRS-1 reduced by 4-fold the ability of IRS-1 to act as an insulin receptor substrate. Taken together, these findings indicate that: (a) PAS kinase is distinct from the intrinsic serine kinase activity of PI 3-kinase, (b) PAS kinase associates with the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase through SH2 domain interactions, and (c) PAS kinase is an IRS-1 serine kinase that can reduce the ability of IRS-1 to serve as an insulin receptor substrate. PMID:9761740

  14. Understanding the Polo Kinase machine.

    PubMed

    Archambault, V; Lépine, G; Kachaner, D

    2015-09-10

    The Polo Kinase is a central regulator of cell division required for several events of mitosis and cytokinesis. In addition to a kinase domain (KD), Polo-like kinases (Plks) comprise a Polo-Box domain (PBD), which mediates protein interactions with targets and regulators of Plks. In all organisms that contain Plks, one Plk family member fulfills several essential functions in the regulation of cell division, and here we refer to this conserved protein as Polo Kinase (Plk1 in humans). The PBD and the KD are capable of both cooperation and mutual inhibition in their functions. Crystal structures of the PBD, the KD and, recently, a PBD-KD complex have helped understanding the inner workings of the Polo Kinase. In parallel, an impressive array of molecular mechanisms has been found to mediate the regulation of the protein. Moreover, the targeting of Polo Kinase in the development of anti-cancer drugs has yielded several molecules with which to chemically modulate Polo Kinase to study its biological functions. Here we review our current understanding of the protein function and regulation of Polo Kinase as a fascinating molecular device in control of cell division.

  15. P21 activated kinases

    PubMed Central

    Rane, Chetan K; Minden, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    The p21 activated kinases (Paks) are well known effector proteins for the Rho GTPases Cdc42 and Rac. The Paks contain 6 members, which fall into 2 families of proteins. The first family consists of Paks 1, 2, and 3, and the second consists of Paks 4, 5, and 6. While some of the Paks are ubiquitously expressed, others have more restrictive tissue specificity. All of them are found in the nervous system. Studies using cell culture, transgenic mice, and knockout mice, have revealed important roles for the Paks in cytoskeletal organization and in many aspects of cell growth and development. This review discusses the basic structures of the Paks, and their roles in cell growth, development, and in cancer. PMID:24658305

  16. ERK kinases modulate the activation of PI3 kinase related kinases (PIKKs) in DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaozeng; Yan, Judy; Tang, Damu

    2013-12-01

    DNA damage response (DDR) is the critical surveillance mechanism in maintaining genome integrity. The mechanism activates checkpoints to prevent cell cycle progression in the presence of DNA lesions, and mediates lesion repair. DDR is coordinated by three apical PI3 kinase related kinases (PIKKs), including ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR), and DNA-PKcs (the catalytic subunit of the DNA dependent protein kinase). These kinases are activated in response to specific DNA damage or lesions, resulting in checkpoint activation and DNA lesion repair. While it is clear that the pathways of ATM, ATR, and DNA-PK are the core components of DDR, there is accumulating evidence revealing the involvement of other cellular pathways in regulating DDR; this is in line with the concept that in addition to being a nuclear event DDR is also a cellular process. One of these pathways is the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway. ERK is a converging point of multiple signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Adding to this list of pathways is the recent development of ERK in DDR. The ERK kinases (ERK1 and ERK2) contribute to the proper execution of DDR in terms of checkpoint activation and the repair of DNA lesions. This review summarizes the contributions of ERK to DDR with emphasis on the relationship of ERK kinases with the activation of ATM, ATR, and DNA-PKcs.

  17. A critical role of Src family kinase in SDF-1/CXCR4-mediated bone-marrow progenitor cell recruitment to the ischemic heart.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Min; Huang, Kai; Zhou, Junlan; Yan, Dewen; Tang, Yao-Liang; Zhao, Ting C; Miller, Richard J; Kishore, Raj; Losordo, Douglas W; Qin, Gangjian

    2015-04-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor CXCR4 and its ligand stromal-cell derived factor 1 (SDF-1) play a crucial role in directing progenitor cell (PC) homing to ischemic tissue. The Src family protein kinases (SFK) can be activated by, and serve as effectors of, G proteins. In this study we sought to determine whether SFK play a role in SDF-1/CXCR4-mediated PC homing. First, we investigated whether SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling activates SFK. Bone-marrow mononuclear cells (BM MNCs) were isolated from WT and BM-specific CXCR4-KO mice and treated with SDF-1 and/or CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100. SDF-1 treatment rapidly induced phosphorylation (activation) of hematopoietic Src (i.e., Lyn, Fgr, and Hck) in WT cells but not in AMD3100-treated cells or CXCR4-KO cells. Then, we investigated whether SFK are involved in SDF-1/CXCR4-mediated PC chemotaxis. In a combined chemotaxis and endothelial-progenitor-cell (EPC) colony assay, Src inhibitor SU6656 dose-dependently inhibited the SDF-1-induced migration of colony-forming EPCs. Next, we investigated whether SFK play a role in SDF-1/CXCR4-mediated BM PC homing to the ischemic heart. BM MNCs from CXCR4BAC:eGFP reporter mice were i.v. injected into WT and SDF-1BAC:SDF1-RFP transgenic mice following surgically-induced myocardial infarction (MI). eGFP(+) MNCs and eGFP(+)c-kit(+) PCs that were recruited in the infarct border zone in SDF-1BAC:SDF1-RFP recipients were significantly more than that in WT recipients. Treatments of mice with SU6656 significantly reduced eGFP(+) and eGFP(+)c-kit(+) cell recruitment in both WT and SDF-1BAC:RFP recipients and abrogated the difference between the two groups. Remarkably, PCs isolated from BM-specific C-terminal Src kinase (CSK)-KO (Src activated) mice were recruited more efficiently than PCs from WT PCs in the WT recipients. In conclusion, SFK are activated by SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling and play an essential role in SDF-1/CXCR4-mediated BM PC chemotactic response and ischemic cardiac recruitment.

  18. NAK is an IkappaB kinase-activating kinase.

    PubMed

    Tojima, Y; Fujimoto, A; Delhase, M; Chen, Y; Hatakeyama, S; Nakayama, K; Kaneko, Y; Nimura, Y; Motoyama, N; Ikeda, K; Karin, M; Nakanishi, M

    2000-04-13

    Phosphorylation of IkappaB by the IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex is a critical step leading to IkappaB degradation and activation of transcription factor NF-kappaB. The IKK complex contains two catalytic subunits, IKKalpha and IKKbeta, the latter being indispensable for NF-kappaB activation by pro-inflammatory cytokines. Although IKK is activated by phosphorylation of the IKKbeta activation loop, the physiological IKK kinases that mediate responses to extracellular stimuli remain obscure. Here we describe an IKK-related kinase, named NAK (NF-kappaB-activating kinase), that can activate IKK through direct phosphorylation. NAK induces IkappaB degradation and NF-kappaB activity through IKKbeta. Endogenous NAK is activated by phorbol ester tumour promoters and growth factors, whereas catalytically inactive NAK specifically inhibits activation of NF-kappaB by protein kinase C-epsilon (PKCepsilon). Thus, NAK is an IKK kinase that may mediate IKK and NF-kappaB activation in response to growth factors that stimulate PKCepsilon activity.

  19. Neuronal migration and protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Ohshima, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    The formation of the six-layered structure of the mammalian cortex via the inside-out pattern of neuronal migration is fundamental to neocortical functions. Extracellular cues such as Reelin induce intracellular signaling cascades through the protein phosphorylation. Migrating neurons also have intrinsic machineries to regulate cytoskeletal proteins and adhesion properties. Protein phosphorylation regulates these processes. Moreover, the balance between phosphorylation and dephosphorylation is modified by extracellular cues. Multipolar-bipolar transition, radial glia-guided locomotion and terminal translocation are critical steps of radial migration of cortical pyramidal neurons. Protein kinases such as Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) involve these steps. In this review, I shall give an overview the roles of protein kinases in neuronal migration. PMID:25628530

  20. Isolation of chloroplastic phosphoglycerate kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Macioszek, J.; Anderson, L.E. ); Anderson, J.B. )

    1990-09-01

    We report here a method for the isolation of high specific activity phosphoglycerate kinase (EC 2.7.2.3) from chloroplasts. The enzyme has been purified over 200-fold from pea (Pisum sativum L.) stromal extracts to apparent homogeneity with 23% recovery. Negative cooperativity is observed with the two enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase/glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.13) couple restored from the purified enzymes when NADPH is the reducing pyridine nucleotide, consistent with earlier results obtained with crude chloroplastic extracts. Michaelis Menten kinetics are observed when 3-phosphoglycerate is held constant and phosphoglycerate kinase is varied, which suggests that phosphoglycerate kinase-bound 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate may be the preferred substrate for glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase in the chloroplast.

  1. CUL3 and protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Thibaud; Kleiss, Charlotte; Sumara, Izabela

    2013-01-01

    Posttranslational mechanisms drive fidelity of cellular processes. Phosphorylation and ubiquitination of substrates represent very common, covalent, posttranslational modifications and are often co-regulated. Phosphorylation may play a critical role both by directly regulating E3-ubiquitin ligases and/or by ensuring specificity of the ubiquitination substrate. Importantly, many kinases are not only critical regulatory components of these pathways but also represent themselves the direct ubiquitination substrates. Recent data suggest the role of CUL3-based ligases in both proteolytic and non-proteolytic regulation of protein kinases. Our own recent study identified the mitotic kinase PLK1 as a direct target of the CUL3 E3-ligase complex containing BTB-KELCH adaptor protein KLHL22.1 In this study, we aim at gaining mechanistic insights into CUL3-mediated regulation of the substrates, in particular protein kinases, by analyzing mechanisms of interaction between KLHL22 and PLK1. We find that kinase activity of PLK1 is redundant for its targeting for CUL3-ubiquitination. Moreover, CUL3/KLHL22 may contact 2 distinct motifs within PLK1 protein, consistent with the bivalent mode of substrate targeting found in other CUL3-based complexes. We discuss these findings in the context of the existing knowledge on other protein kinases and substrates targeted by CUL3-based E3-ligases. PMID:24067371

  2. Benzimidazole derivatives as kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Garuti, Laura; Roberti, Marinella; Bottegoni, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Benzimidazole is a common kinase inhibitor scaffold and benzimidazole-based compounds interact with enzymes by multiple binding modes. In some cases, the benzimidazole acts as part of the hinge-binding motif, in others it has a scaffolding role without evidence for direct hinge binding. Several of these compounds are ATP-competitive inhibitors and show high selectivity by exploiting unique structural properties that distinguish one kinase from the majority of other kinases. However, the high specificity for a single target is not always sufficient. Thus another approach, called multi-target therapy, has been developed over the last few years. The simultaneous inhibition of various kinases may be useful because the disease is attacked at several relevant targets. Moreover, if a kinase becomes drug-resistant, a multitargeted drug can act on the other kinases. Some benzimidazole derivatives are multi-target inhibitors. In this article benzimidazole inhibitors are reported with their mechanisms of action, structure-activity relationship (SAR) and biological properties.

  3. The protein kinase C family.

    PubMed

    Azzi, A; Boscoboinik, D; Hensey, C

    1992-09-15

    Protein kinase C represents a structurally homologous group of proteins similar in size, structure and mechanism of activation. They can modulate the biological function of proteins in a rapid and reversible manner. Protein kinase C participates in one of the major signal transduction systems triggered by the external stimulation of cells by various ligands including hormones, neurotransmitters and growth factors. Hydrolysis of membrane inositol phospholipids by phospholipase C or of phosphatidylcholine, generates sn-1,2-diacylglycerol, considered the physiological activator of this kinase. Other agents, such as arachidonic acid, participate in the activation of some of these proteins. Activation of protein kinase C by phorbol esters and related compounds is not physiological and may be responsible, at least in part, for their tumor-promoting activity. The cellular localization of the different calcium-activated protein kinases, their substrate and activator specificity are dissimilar and thus their role in signal transduction is unlike. A better understanding of the exact cellular function of the different protein kinase C isoenzymes requires the identification and characterization of their physiological substrates.

  4. Epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation is implicated in IL-6-induced proliferation and ERK1/2 activation in non-transformed prostate epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Poncet, Nadège; Guillaume, Johann; Mouchiroud, Guy

    2011-03-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that can be activated by molecules other than its cognate ligands. This form of crosstalk called transactivation is frequently observed in both physiological and pathological cellular responses, yet it involves various mechanisms. Using the RWPE-1 cell line as a model of non-transformed prostate epithelial progenitor cells, we observed that interleukin-6 (IL-6) is able to promote cell proliferation and ERK1/2 activation provided that EGF-R kinase activity is not impaired. Treatment with GM6001, a general matrix metalloprotease inhibitor, indicated that IL-6 activates EGF-R through cleavage and release of membrane-anchored EGF-R ligands. Several inhibitors were used to test implication of "a disintegrin and metalloprotease" ADAM10 and ADAM17. GW280264X that targets both ADAM10 and ADAM17 blocked IL-6-induced proliferation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation with same potency as GM6001. However, ADAM10 inhibitor GI254023X and ADAM17 inhibitor TAPI-2 were less efficient in inhibiting response of RWPE-1 cells to IL-6, indicating possible cooperation of ADAM17 with ADAM10 or other metalloproteases. Accordingly, our findings suggest that IL-6 stimulates shedding of EGF-R ligands and transactivation of EGF-R in normal prostate epithelial cells, which may be an important mechanism to promote cell proliferation in inflammatory prostate.

  5. KRN951, a highly potent inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, has antitumor activities and affects functional vascular properties.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kazuhide; Taguchi, Eri; Miura, Toru; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Takahashi, Kazumi; Bichat, Francis; Guilbaud, Nicolas; Hasegawa, Kazumasa; Kubo, Kazuo; Fujiwara, Yasunari; Suzuki, Rika; Kubo, Kinya; Shibuya, Masabumi; Isae, Toshiyuki

    2006-09-15

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a key role in tumor angiogenesis by stimulating the proangiogenic signaling of endothelial cells via activation of VEGF receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinases. Therefore, VEGFRs are an attractive therapeutic target for cancer treatment. In the present study, we show that a quinoline-urea derivative, KRN951, is a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor for VEGFRs with antitumor angiogenesis and antigrowth activities. KRN951 potently inhibited VEGF-induced VEGFR-2 phosphorylation in endothelial cells at in vitro subnanomolar IC50 values (IC50 = 0.16 nmol/L). It also inhibited ligand-induced phosphorylation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFR-beta) and c-Kit (IC50 = 1.72 and 1.63 nmol/L, respectively). KRN951 blocked VEGF-dependent, but not VEGF-independent, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and proliferation of endothelial cells. In addition, it inhibited VEGF-mediated migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Following p.o. administration to athymic rats, KRN951 decreased the microvessel density within tumor xenografts and attenuated VEGFR-2 phosphorylation levels in tumor endothelium. It also displayed antitumor activity against a wide variety of human tumor xenografts, including lung, breast, colon, ovarian, pancreas, and prostate cancer. Furthermore, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) analysis revealed that a significant reduction in tumor vascular hyperpermeability was closely associated with the antitumor activity of KRN951. These findings suggest that KRN951 is a highly potent, p.o. active antiangiogenesis and antitumor agent and that DCE-MRI would be useful in detecting early responses to KRN951 in a clinical setting. KRN951 is currently in phase I clinical development for the treatment of patients with advanced cancer.

  6. Novel Role for p110β PI 3-Kinase in Male Fertility through Regulation of Androgen Receptor Activity in Sertoli Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guillermet-Guibert, Julie; Smith, Lee B.; Halet, Guillaume; Whitehead, Maria A.; Pearce, Wayne; Rebourcet, Diane; León, Kelly; Crépieux, Pascale; Nock, Gemma; Strömstedt, Maria; Enerback, Malin; Chelala, Claude; Graupera, Mariona; Carroll, John; Cosulich, Sabina; Saunders, Philippa T. K.; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Vanhaesebroeck, Bart

    2015-01-01

    The organismal roles of the ubiquitously expressed class I PI3K isoform p110β remain largely unknown. Using a new kinase-dead knockin mouse model that mimics constitutive pharmacological inactivation of p110β, we document that full inactivation of p110β leads to embryonic lethality in a substantial fraction of mice. Interestingly, the homozygous p110β kinase-dead mice that survive into adulthood (maximum ~26% on a mixed genetic background) have no apparent phenotypes, other than subfertility in females and complete infertility in males. Systemic inhibition of p110β results in a highly specific blockade in the maturation of spermatogonia to spermatocytes. p110β was previously suggested to signal downstream of the c-kit tyrosine kinase receptor in germ cells to regulate their proliferation and survival. We now report that p110β also plays a germ cell-extrinsic role in the Sertoli cells (SCs) that support the developing sperm, with p110β inactivation dampening expression of the SC-specific Androgen Receptor (AR) target gene Rhox5, a homeobox gene critical for spermatogenesis. All extragonadal androgen-dependent functions remain unaffected by global p110β inactivation. In line with a crucial role for p110β in SCs, selective inactivation of p110β in these cells results in male infertility. Our study is the first documentation of the involvement of a signalling enzyme, PI3K, in the regulation of AR activity during spermatogenesis. This developmental pathway may become active in prostate cancer where p110β and AR have previously been reported to functionally interact. PMID:26132308

  7. EBI-907, a novel BRAFV600E inhibitor, has potent oral anti-tumor activity and a broad kinase selectivity profile

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiayin; Lu, Biao; Liu, Dong; Shen, Ru; Yan, Yinfa; Yang, Liuqing; Zhang, Minsheng; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Guoqing; Cao, Hu; Fu, Beibei; Gong, Aishen; Sun, Qiming; Wan, Hong; Zhang, Lianshan; Tao, Weikang; Cao, Jingsong

    2016-01-01

    abstract The oncogenic mutation of BRAFV600E has been found in approximately 8% of all human cancers, including more than 60% of melanoma and 10% of colorectal cancers. The clinical proof of concept in treating BRAFV600E-driving melanoma patients with the BRAF inhibitors has been well established. We have sought to identify and develop novel BRAFV600E inhibitors with more favorable profiles. Our chemistry effort has led to the discovery of EBI-907 as a novel BRAFV600E inhibitor with potent anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. In a LanthaScreen BRAFV600E kinase assay, EBI-907 showed an IC50 of 4.8 nM, which is >10 -fold more potent than Vemurafenib (IC50 = 58.5 nM). In addition, EBI-907 showed a broader kinase selectivity profile, with potent activity against a number of important oncogenic kinases including FGFR1-3, RET, c-Kit, and PDGFRb. Concomitant with such properties, EBI-907 exhibits potent and selective cytotoxicity against a broader range of BRAFV600E-dependent cell lines including certain colorectal cancer cell lines with innate resistance to Vemurafenib. In BRAFV600E-dependent human Colo-205 and A375 tumor xenograft mouse models, EBI-907 caused a marked tumor regression in a dose-dependent manner, with superior efficacy to Vemurafenib. Our results also showed that combination with EGFR or MEK inhibitor enhanced the potency of EBI-907 in cell lines with innate or acquired resistance to BRAF inhibition alone. Our findings present EBI-907 as a potent and promising BRAF inhibitor, which might be useful in broader indications. PMID:26810733

  8. TNF and MAP kinase signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sabio, Guadalupe; Davis, Roger J.

    2014-01-01

    The binding of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) to cell surface receptors engages multiple signal transduction pathways, including three groups of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases: extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERKs); the cJun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs); and the p38 MAP kinases. These MAP kinase signalling pathways induce a secondary response by increasing the expression of several inflammatory cytokines (including TNFα) that contribute to the biological activity of TNFα. MAP kinases therefore function both upstream and down-stream of signalling by TNFα receptors. Here we review mechanisms that mediate these actions of MAP kinases during the response to TNFα. PMID:24647229

  9. Proteolytic susceptibility of creatine kinase isozymes and arginine kinase.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Altan; Grossman, Steven H

    2003-07-11

    The time course and dose-response to proteolysis of three dimeric isozymes of creatine kinase, CK-MM (muscle), CK-BB (brain), and CK-MB (heart) and the homologous monomer, arginine kinase were compared. Chymotrypsin and trypsin cause a rapid and significant loss of intact CK-BB, but limited hydrolysis of CK-MM. After 1h of hydrolysis by chymotrypsin, 80% of CK-MM is intact as judged by quantification of monomers after electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate. While 50% of the intact monomers of CK-MB remain under these conditions, no CK-BB monomers are detected. These results indicate that treatment with chymotrypsin leads to a CK-MB devoid of the B-subunit. When treated with trypsin for 1h, CK-MM is totally resistant to hydrolysis and all CK-BB is highly degraded. However, CK-MB exhibits approximately 90% intact monomers, indicating survival of intact B-subunit in CK-MB. This suggests that heterodimerization of a B-subunit with an M-subunit may have a protective effect against hydrolysis by trypsin. In view of the considerably larger number of potentially tryptic sensitive sites on the muscle isozyme, the resistance of CK-MM and susceptibility of CK-BB dimers to trypsin implies that differences in subunit tertiary structure are a factor in proteolysis of the homodimeric isozymes. Arginine kinase is rapidly degraded by trypsin, but is minimally affected by chymotrypsin. The finding that both a monomeric (arginine kinase) and dimeric (CK-BB) phosphagen kinase are highly susceptible to proteolysis by trypsin indicates that quaternary structure is not, in and of itself, an advantage in resistance to proteolysis. Since both arginine kinase and muscle creatine kinase are resistant to chymotryptic hydrolysis, it seems unlikely that in general, the increased packing density, which may result from dimerization can account for the stability of CK-MM towards trypsin.

  10. Overcoming Resistance to Inhibitors of the Akt Protein Kinase by Modulation of the Pim Kinase Pathway

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    kinase . This grant proposal will explore the resistance to small molecule AKT protein kinase inhibitors mediated by the... molecule AKT protein kinase inhibitors is potentially mediated by the Pim-1 protein kinase , and that unique Pim protein kinase inhibitors that can in...application is essential for the development of this combined chemotherapeutic strategy. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Small Molecule AKT Inhibitors ,

  11. Use of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib in a patient with von Hippel-Lindau disease: targeting angiogenic factors in pheochromocytoma and other von Hippel-Lindau disease-related tumors.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Camilo; Cabanillas, Maria E; Santarpia, Libero; Jonasch, Eric; Kyle, Karen L; Lano, Elizabeth A; Matin, Surena F; Nunez, Rodolfo F; Perrier, Nancy D; Phan, Alexandria; Rich, Thereasa A; Shah, Beejal; Williams, Michelle D; Waguespack, Steven G

    2009-02-01

    von Hippel-Lindau disease is characterized by highly vascularized tumors of multiple organs. We present a patient with von Hippel-Lindau disease with multiple renal and pancreatic tumors and a malignant pheochromocytoma infiltrative of the sacrum and associated with lymph nodule metastases. The pheochromocytoma expressed high protein level of vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor-beta receptor. The patient presented with a poor performance status, severe pelvic pain, weight loss, and manifestations of catecholamine excess. Treatment against malignant pheochromocytoma with surgery, chemotherapy, or participation in clinical trials was not feasible because of the patient's poor performance status, the presence of multiple tumors, and the extension of the pheochromocytoma into the bones. Patient was treated with sunitinib, a potent tyrosine kinase inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, RET, c-KIT, and FLT-3 receptors. Six months of treatment with sunitinib was associated with normalization of the patient's performance status and blood pressure, absence of symptoms of catecholamine excess, weight gain, disappearance of pain, shrinkage of each of the tumors (50% in the largest renal tumor, 38% in the largest islet cell tumor, 21% in the pelvic malignant pheochromocytoma), and reduction of plasma normetanephrines and chromogranin A. This study provides evidence that targeting tyrosine kinase receptors such as the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway and the platelet-derived growth factor-beta receptor may have value in the treatment of VHL-related tumors including pheochromocytoma.

  12. Discovering the first tyrosine kinase

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Tony

    2015-01-01

    In the middle of the 20th century, animal tumor viruses were heralded as possible models for understanding human cancer. By the mid-1970s, the molecular basis by which tumor viruses transform cells into a malignant state was beginning to emerge as the first viral genomic sequences were reported and the proteins encoded by their transforming genes were identified and characterized. This was a time of great excitement and rapid progress. In 1978, prompted by the discovery from Ray Erikson’s group that the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) v-Src–transforming protein had an associated protein kinase activity specific for threonine, my group at the Salk Institute set out to determine whether the polyomavirus middle T-transforming protein had a similar kinase activity. Here, I describe the experiments that led to the identification of a kinase activity associated with middle T antigen and our serendipitous discovery that this activity was specific for tyrosine in vitro, and how this in turn led to the fortuitous observation that the v-Src–associated kinase activity was also specific for tyrosine. Our finding that v-Src increased the level of phosphotyrosine in cellular proteins in RSV-transformed cells confirmed that v-Src is a tyrosine kinase and transforms cells by phosphorylating proteins on tyrosine. My colleague Bart Sefton and I reported these findings in the March issue of PNAS in 1980. Remarkably, all of the experiments in this paper were accomplished in less than one month. PMID:26130799

  13. Discovering the first tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Tony

    2015-06-30

    In the middle of the 20th century, animal tumor viruses were heralded as possible models for understanding human cancer. By the mid-1970s, the molecular basis by which tumor viruses transform cells into a malignant state was beginning to emerge as the first viral genomic sequences were reported and the proteins encoded by their transforming genes were identified and characterized. This was a time of great excitement and rapid progress. In 1978, prompted by the discovery from Ray Erikson's group that the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) v-Src-transforming protein had an associated protein kinase activity specific for threonine, my group at the Salk Institute set out to determine whether the polyomavirus middle T-transforming protein had a similar kinase activity. Here, I describe the experiments that led to the identification of a kinase activity associated with middle T antigen and our serendipitous discovery that this activity was specific for tyrosine in vitro, and how this in turn led to the fortuitous observation that the v-Src-associated kinase activity was also specific for tyrosine. Our finding that v-Src increased the level of phosphotyrosine in cellular proteins in RSV-transformed cells confirmed that v-Src is a tyrosine kinase and transforms cells by phosphorylating proteins on tyrosine. My colleague Bart Sefton and I reported these findings in the March issue of PNAS in 1980. Remarkably, all of the experiments in this paper were accomplished in less than one month.

  14. WNK kinases and essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chou-Long; Kuo, Elizabeth; Toto, Robert D

    2008-03-01

    The present review summarizes recent literature and discusses the potential roles of WNKs in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. WNKs (with-no-lysine [K]) are a recently discovered family of serine-threonine protein kinases with unusual protein kinase domains. The role of WNK kinases in the control of blood pressure was first revealed by the findings that mutations of two members, WNK1 and WNK4, cause Gordon's syndrome. Laboratory studies have revealed that WNK kinases play important roles in the regulation of sodium and potassium transport. Animal models have been created to unravel the pathophysiology of sodium transport disorders caused by mutations of the WNK4 gene. Potassium deficiency causes sodium retention and increases hypertension prevalence. The expression of WNK1 is upregulated by potassium deficiency, raising the possibility that WNK1 may contribute to salt-sensitive essential hypertension associated with potassium deficiency. Associations of polymorphisms of WNK genes with essential hypertension in the general population have been reported. Mutations of WNK1 and WNK4 cause hypertension at least partly by increasing renal sodium retention. The role of WNK kinases in salt-sensitive hypertension within general hypertension is suggested, but future work is required to firmly establish the connection.

  15. Endothelial Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 Is Critical for Lymphatic Vascular Development and Function

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chang-An; Danai, Laura V.; Yawe, Joseph C.; Gujja, Sharvari; Edwards, Yvonne J. K.

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying lymphatic vascular development and function are not well understood. Recent studies have suggested a role for endothelial cell (EC) mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) in developmental angiogenesis and atherosclerosis. Here, we show that constitutive loss of EC Map4k4 in mice causes postnatal lethality due to chylothorax, suggesting that Map4k4 is required for normal lymphatic vascular function. Mice constitutively lacking EC Map4k4 displayed dilated lymphatic capillaries, insufficient lymphatic valves, and impaired lymphatic flow; furthermore, primary ECs derived from these animals displayed enhanced proliferation compared with controls. Yeast 2-hybrid analyses identified the Ras GTPase-activating protein Rasa1, a known regulator of lymphatic development and lymphatic endothelial cell fate, as a direct interacting partner for Map4k4. Map4k4 silencing in ECs enhanced basal Ras and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) activities, and primary ECs lacking Map4k4 displayed enhanced lymphatic EC marker expression. Taken together, these results reveal that EC Map4k4 is critical for lymphatic vascular development by regulating EC quiescence and lymphatic EC fate. PMID:27044870

  16. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Anish; Rajan, Arun; Giaccone, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS ‘Driver mutations’ are essential for carcinogenesis as well as tumor progression as they confer a selective growth advantage to cancer cells. Identification of driver mutations in growth related protein kinases, especially tyrosine kinases have led to clinical development of an array of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in various malignancies, including lung cancer. Inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor and anaplastic lymphoma kinase tyrosine kinases have proven to be of meaningful clinical benefit, while inhibition of several other tyrosine kinases have been of limited clinical benefit, thus far. An improved understanding of tyrosine kinase biology has also led to faster drug development, identification of resistance mechanisms and ways to overcome resistance. In this review, we discuss the clinical data supporting the use and practical aspects of management of patients on epidermal growth factor receptor and anaplastic lymphoma kinase tyrosine kinase inhibitors. PMID:22520981

  17. A phase I trial of the aurora kinase inhibitor, ENMD-2076, in patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Yee, Karen W L; Chen, Hsiao-Wei T; Hedley, David W; Chow, Sue; Brandwein, Joseph; Schuh, Andre C; Schimmer, Aaron D; Gupta, Vikas; Sanfelice, Deborah; Johnson, Tara; Le, Lisa W; Arnott, Jamie; Bray, Mark R; Sidor, Carolyn; Minden, Mark D

    2016-10-01

    ENMD-2076 is a novel, orally-active molecule that inhibits Aurora A kinase, as well as c-Kit, FLT3 and VEGFR2. A phase I study was conducted to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) and toxicities of ENMD-2076 in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). Patients received escalating doses of ENMD-2076 administered orally daily [225 mg (n = 7), 375 mg (n = 6), 325 mg (n = 9), or 275 mg (n = 5)]. Twenty-seven patients were treated (26 AML; 1 CMML-2). The most common non-hematological toxicities of any grade, regardless of association with drug, were fatigue, diarrhea, dysphonia, dyspnea, hypertension, constipation, and abdominal pain. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) consisted of grade 3 fatigue, grade 3 typhilitis, grade 3 syncope and grade 3 QTc prolongation). Of the 16 evaluable patients, one patient achieved a complete remission with incomplete count recovery (CRi), three experienced a morphologic leukemia-free state (MLFS) with a major hematologic improvement in platelets (HI-P), and 5 other patients had a reduction in marrow blast percentage (i.e. 11-65 %). The RP2D in this patient population is 225 mg orally once daily.

  18. Differential regulation of rice mitogen activated protein kinase kinase (MKK) by abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kundan; Rao, Kudupudi Prabhakara; Sharma, Pallavi; Sinha, Alok Krishna

    2008-10-01

    Mitogen activated protein kinase cascade plays a crucial role in various biotic and abiotic stresses, hormones, cell division and developmental processes. MAP kinase kinase being integral part of this cascade performs an important function of integrating upstream signals to mitogen activated protein kinase for further appropriate cellular responses. We here report cloning of five MAP kinase kinase members from Oryza sativa indica cultivar var. Pusa Basmati 1, namely MAP kinase kinases 1, 3, 4, 6 and 10-2. All these members, except MKK10-2 possess fully canonical motif structures of MAP kinase kinase. The deduced amino acid sequence showed changes at certain position within japonica and indica variety of rice. Analysis of transcript regulation by quantitative real time PCR revealed that these five members are differentially regulated by cold, heat, salinity and drought stresses. MAP kinase kinases 4 and 6 are strongly regulated by cold and salt stresses while MAP kinase kinase 1 is regulated by salt and drought stresses. MAP kinase kinase 10-2 is regulated only by cold stress. The study provides the indication of involvement of specific MAP kinase kinase in different abiotic stress signaling and also possible cross talks that exist during the signaling processes.

  19. [Kinase inhibitors against hematological malignancies].

    PubMed

    Tojo, Arinobu

    2014-06-01

    Dysregulation of protein phosphorylation, especially on tyrosine residues, plays a crucial role in development and progression of hematological malignancies. Since remarkable success in imatinib therapy of CML and Ph+ALL, extensive efforts have made to explore candidate molecular targets and next breakthrough drugs. Now that next generation ABL kinase inhibitors are available for CML, the therapeutic algorithm has been revolutionized. As for AML and lymphoid malignancies, many kinase inhibitors targeting FLT3, BTK and aurora-A are on early and late clinical trials, and a number of promising drugs including ibrutinib are picked up for further evaluation.

  20. Cyclic-GMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits the Ras/Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Suhasini, M; Li, H; Lohmann, S M; Boss, G R; Pilz, R B

    1998-12-01

    Agents which increase the intracellular cyclic GMP (cGMP) concentration and cGMP analogs inhibit cell growth in several different cell types, but it is not known which of the intracellular target proteins of cGMP is (are) responsible for the growth-suppressive effects of cGMP. Using baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, which are deficient in cGMP-dependent protein kinase (G-kinase), we show that 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)guanosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate and 8-bromoguanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate inhibit cell growth in cells stably transfected with a G-kinase Ibeta expression vector but not in untransfected cells or in cells transfected with a catalytically inactive G-kinase. We found that the cGMP analogs inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and nuclear translocation of MAP kinase in G-kinase-expressing cells but not in G-kinase-deficient cells. Ras activation by EGF was not impaired in G-kinase-expressing cells treated with cGMP analogs. We show that activation of G-kinase inhibited c-Raf kinase activation and that G-kinase phosphorylated c-Raf kinase on Ser43, both in vitro and in vivo; phosphorylation of c-Raf kinase on Ser43 uncouples the Ras-Raf kinase interaction. A mutant c-Raf kinase with an Ala substitution for Ser43 was insensitive to inhibition by cGMP and G-kinase, and expression of this mutant kinase protected cells from inhibition of EGF-induced MAP kinase activity by cGMP and G-kinase, suggesting that Ser43 in c-Raf is the major target for regulation by G-kinase. Similarly, B-Raf kinase was not inhibited by G-kinase; the Ser43 phosphorylation site of c-Raf is not conserved in B-Raf. Activation of G-kinase induced MAP kinase phosphatase 1 expression, but this occurred later than the inhibition of MAP kinase activation. Thus, in BHK cells, inhibition of cell growth by cGMP analogs is strictly dependent on G-kinase and G-kinase activation inhibits the Ras/MAP kinase pathway (i) by

  1. Evolutionary Ancestry of Eukaryotic Protein Kinases and Choline Kinases*

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Shenshen; Safaei, Javad

    2016-01-01

    The reversible phosphorylation of proteins catalyzed by protein kinases in eukaryotes supports an important role for eukaryotic protein kinases (ePKs) in the emergence of nucleated cells in the third superkingdom of life. Choline kinases (ChKs) could also be critical in the early evolution of eukaryotes, because of their function in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, which is unique to eukaryotic membranes. However, the genomic origins of ePKs and ChKs are unclear. The high degeneracy of protein sequences and broad expansion of ePK families have made this fundamental question difficult to answer. In this study, we identified two class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases with high similarities to consensus amino acid sequences of human protein-serine/threonine kinases. Comparisons of primary and tertiary structures supported that ePKs and ChKs evolved from a common ancestor related to glutaminyl aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, which may have been one of the key factors in the successful of emergence of ancient eukaryotic cells from bacterial colonies. PMID:26742849

  2. Characterization of PDZ-binding kinase, a mitotic kinase

    PubMed Central

    Gaudet, Suzanne; Branton, Daniel; Lue, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    hDlg, the human homologue of the Drosophila Discs-large (Dlg) tumor suppressor protein, is known to interact with the tumor suppressor protein APC and the human papillomavirus E6 transforming protein. In a two-hybrid screen, we identified a 322-aa serine/threonine kinase that binds to the PDZ2 domain of hDlg. The mRNA for this PDZ-binding kinase, or PBK, is most abundant in placenta and absent from adult brain tissue. The protein sequence of PBK has all the characteristic protein kinase subdomains and a C-terminal PDZ-binding T/SXV motif. In vitro, PBK binds specifically to PDZ2 of hDlg through its C-terminal T/SXV motif. PBK and hDlg are phosphorylated at mitosis in HeLa cells, and the mitotic phosphorylation of PBK is required for its kinase activity. In vitro, cdc2/cyclin B phosphorylates PBK. This evidence shows how PBK could link hDlg or other PDZ-containing proteins to signal transduction pathways regulating the cell cycle or cellular proliferation. PMID:10779557

  3. Structure of the pseudokinase-kinase domains from protein kinase TYK2 reveals a mechanism for Janus kinase (JAK) autoinhibition.

    PubMed

    Lupardus, Patrick J; Ultsch, Mark; Wallweber, Heidi; Bir Kohli, Pawan; Johnson, Adam R; Eigenbrot, Charles

    2014-06-03

    Janus kinases (JAKs) are receptor-associated multidomain tyrosine kinases that act downstream of many cytokines and interferons. JAK kinase activity is regulated by the adjacent pseudokinase domain via an unknown mechanism. Here, we report the 2.8-Å structure of the two-domain pseudokinase-kinase module from the JAK family member TYK2 in its autoinhibited form. We find that the pseudokinase and kinase interact near the kinase active site and that most reported mutations in cancer-associated JAK alleles cluster in or near this interface. Mutation of residues near the TYK2 interface that are analogous to those in cancer-associated JAK alleles, including the V617F and "exon 12" JAK2 mutations, results in increased kinase activity in vitro. These data indicate that JAK pseudokinases are autoinhibitory domains that hold the kinase domain inactive until receptor dimerization stimulates transition to an active state.

  4. Kinase signalling in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Kathryn R; Jones, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in numerous signal transduction pathways and aberrant activity of specific kinases have been identified in multiple cell and mouse models of Huntington's disease (HD), as well as in human HD brain. The balance and integration of a network of kinase signalling pathways is paramount for the regulation of a wide range of cellular and physiological processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, inflammation, neuronal plasticity and apoptosis. Unbalanced activity within these pathways provides a potential mechanism for many of the pathological phenotypes associated with HD, such as transcriptional dysregulation, inflammation and ultimately neurodegeneration. The characterisation of aberrant kinase signalling regulation in HD has been inconsistent and may be a result of failure to consider integration between multiple signalling pathways, as well as alterations that may occur over time with both age and disease progression. Collating the information about the effect of mHTT on signalling pathways demonstrates that it has wide ranging effects on multiple pro- and anti-apoptotic kinases, resulting in the dysregulation of numerous complex interactions within a dynamic network.

  5. Case report: pyruvate kinase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Rothman, J M

    1995-09-01

    Pyruvate kinase deficiency is a rare cause of congenital hemolytic anemia. Despite a paucity of reports, splenectomy resulted in successful outcomes for two siblings with this disorder. The sisters were diagnosed at birth with profound jaundice and congenital nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: mevalonate kinase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... shape, leading to a reduction of mevalonate kinase enzyme activity. Despite this shortage (deficiency) of mevalonate kinase activity, ... who have less than 1 percent of normal enzyme activity usually develop MVA. Learn more about the gene ...

  7. Degradation of Activated Protein Kinases by Ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhimin; Hunter, Tony

    2009-01-01

    Protein kinases are important regulators of intracellular signal transduction pathways and play critical roles in diverse cellular functions. Once a protein kinase is activated, its activity is subsequently downregulated through a variety of mechanisms. Accumulating evidence indicates that the activation of protein kinases commonly initiates their downregulation via the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. Failure to regulate protein kinase activity or expression levels can cause human diseases. PMID:19489726

  8. Receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition causes simultaneous bone loss and excess bone formation within growing bone in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Nurmio, Mirja; Joki, Henna; Kallio, Jenny; Maeaettae, Jorma A.; Vaeaenaenen, H. Kalervo; Toppari, Jorma; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Laitala-Leinonen, Tiina

    2011-08-01

    During postnatal skeletal growth, adaptation to mechanical loading leads to cellular activities at the growth plate. It has recently become evident that bone forming and bone resorbing cells are affected by the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor imatinib mesylate (STI571, Gleevec (registered)) . Imatinib targets PDGF, ABL-related gene, c-Abl, c-Kit and c-Fms receptors, many of which have multiple functions in the bone microenvironment. We therefore studied the effects of imatinib in growing bone. Young rats were exposed to imatinib (150 mg/kg on postnatal days 5-7, or 100 mg/kg on postnatal days 5-13), and the effects of RTK inhibition on bone physiology were studied after 8 and 70 days (3-day treatment), or after 14 days (9-day treatment). X-ray imaging, computer tomography, histomorphometry, RNA analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate bone modeling and remodeling in vivo. Imatinib treatment eliminated osteoclasts from the metaphyseal osteochondral junction at 8 and 14 days. This led to a resorption arrest at the growth plate, but also increased bone apposition by osteoblasts, thus resulting in local osteopetrosis at the osteochondral junction. The impaired bone remodelation observed on day 8 remained significant until adulthood. Within the same bone, increased osteoclast activity, leading to bone loss, was observed at distal bone trabeculae on days 8 and 14. Peripheral quantitative computer tomography (pQCT) and micro-CT analysis confirmed that, at the osteochondral junction, imatinib shifted the balance from bone resorption towards bone formation, thereby altering bone modeling. At distal trabecular bone, in turn, the balance was turned towards bone resorption, leading to bone loss. - Research Highlights: > 3-Day imatinib treatment. > Causes growth plate anomalies in young rats. > Causes biomechanical changes and significant bone loss at distal trabecular bone. > Results in loss of osteoclasts at osteochondral junction.

  9. Characterization and response of newly developed high-grade glioma cultures to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella, Paula; Howley, Rachel; Doolan, Padraig; Clarke, Colin; Madden, Stephen F.; Clynes, Martin; Farrell, Michael; Amberger-Murphy, Verena

    2012-03-10

    High-grade gliomas (HGG), are the most common aggressive brain tumours in adults. Inhibitors targeting growth factor signalling pathways in glioma have shown a low clinical response rate. To accurately evaluate response to targeted therapies further in vitro studies are necessary. Growth factor pathway expression using epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mutant EGFR (EGFRvIII), platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), C-Kit and C-Abl together with phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression and downstream activation of AKT and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (P70S6K) was analysed in 26 primary glioma cultures treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib. Response to TKIs was assessed using 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC{sub 50}). Response for each culture was compared with the EGFR/PDGFR immunocytochemical pathway profile using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Erlotinib response was not strongly associated with high expression of the growth factor pathway components. PTEN expression did not correlate with response to any of the three TKIs. Increased EGFR expression was associated with gefitinib response; increased PDGFR-{alpha} expression was associated with imatinib response. The results of this in vitro study suggest gefitinib and imatinib may have therapeutic potential in HGG tumours with a corresponding growth factor receptor expression profile. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-responders had low EGFR expression, high PDGFR-{beta}, and a low proliferation rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PTEN is not indicative of response to a TKI. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Erlotinib response was not associated with expression of the proteins examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imatinib-response correlated with expression of PDGFR-{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gefitinib response correlated with increased expression of EGFR.

  10. Comprehensive assay of kinase catalytic activity reveals features of kinase inhibitor selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Anastassiadis, Theonie; Deacon, Sean W.; Devarajan, Karthik; Ma, Haiching; Peterson, Jeffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Small-molecule protein kinase inhibitors are central tools for elucidating cellular signaling pathways and are promising therapeutic agents. Due to evolutionary conservation of the ATP-binding site, most kinase inhibitors that target this site promiscuously inhibit multiple kinases. Interpretation of experiments utilizing these compounds is confounded by a lack of data on the comprehensive kinase selectivity of most inhibitors. Here we profiled the activity of 178 commercially available kinase inhibitors against a panel of 300 recombinant protein kinases using a functional assay. Quantitative analysis revealed complex and often unexpected kinase-inhibitor interactions, with a wide spectrum of promiscuity. Many off-target interactions occur with seemingly unrelated kinases, revealing how large-scale profiling can be used to identify multi-targeted inhibitors of specific, diverse kinases. The results have significant implications for drug development and provide a resource for selecting compounds to elucidate kinase function and for interpreting the results of experiments that use them. PMID:22037377

  11. The receptor kinase family: primary structure of rhodopsin kinase reveals similarities to the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, W; Inglese, J; Palczewski, K; Onorato, J J; Caron, M G; Lefkowitz, R J

    1991-01-01

    Light-dependent deactivation of rhodopsin as well as homologous desensitization of beta-adrenergic receptors involves receptor phosphorylation that is mediated by the highly specific protein kinases rhodopsin kinase (RK) and beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (beta ARK), respectively. We report here the cloning of a complementary DNA for RK. The deduced amino acid sequence shows a high degree of homology to beta ARK. In a phylogenetic tree constructed by comparing the catalytic domains of several protein kinases, RK and beta ARK are located on a branch close to, but separate from the cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C subfamilies. From the common structural features we conclude that both RK and beta ARK are members of a newly delineated gene family of guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor kinases that may function in diverse pathways to regulate the function of such receptors. Images PMID:1656454

  12. Protein Kinase A: A Master Kinase of Granulosa Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Pawan; Little-Ihrig, Lynda; Chandran, Uma; Law, Nathan C.; Hunzicker-Dunn, Mary; Zeleznik, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Activation of protein kinase A (PKA) by follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) transduces the signal that drives differentiation of ovarian granulosa cells (GCs). An unresolved question is whether PKA is sufficient to initiate the complex program of GC responses to FSH. We compared signaling pathways and gene expression profiles of GCs stimulated with FSH or expressing PKA-CQR, a constitutively active mutant of PKA. Both FSH and PKA-CQR stimulated the phosphorylation of proteins known to be involved in GC differentiation including CREB, ß-catenin, AKT, p42/44 MAPK, GAB2, GSK-3ß, FOXO1, and YAP. In contrast, FSH stimulated the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase but PKA-CQR did not. Microarray analysis revealed that 85% of transcripts that were up-regulated by FSH were increased to a comparable extent by PKA-CQR and of the transcripts that were down-regulated by FSH, 76% were also down-regulated by PKA-CQR. Transcripts regulated similarly by FSH and PKA-CQR are involved in steroidogenesis and differentiation, while transcripts more robustly up-regulated by PKA-CQR are involved in ovulation. Thus, PKA, under the conditions of our experimental approach appears to function as a master upstream kinase that is sufficient to initiate the complex pattern of intracellular signaling pathway and gene expression profiles that accompany GC differentiation. PMID:27324437

  13. Aurora kinases: novel therapy targets in cancers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Anqun; Gao, Keyu; Chu, Laili; Zhang, Rui; Yang, Jing; Zheng, Junnian

    2017-01-29

    Aurora kinases, a family of serine/threonine kinases, consisting of Aurora A (AURKA), Aurora B (AURKB) and Aurora C (AURKC), are essential kinases for cell division via regulating mitosis especially the process of chromosomal segregation. Besides regulating mitosis, Aurora kinases have been implicated in regulating meiosis. The deletion of Aurora kinases could lead to failure of cell division and impair the embryonic development. Overexpression or gene amplification of Aurora kinases has been clarified in a number of cancers. And a growing number of studies have demonstrated that inhibition of Aurora kinases could potentiate the effect of chemotherapies. For the past decades, a series of Aurora kinases inhibitors (AKIs) developed effectively repress the progression and growth of many cancers both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that Aurora kinases could be a novel therapeutic target. In this review, we'll first briefly present the structure, localization and physiological functions of Aurora kinases in mitosis, then describe the oncogenic role of Aurora kinases in tumorigenesis, we shall finally discuss the outcomes of AKIs combination with conventional therapy.

  14. Receptor tyrosine kinases in carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Pei-Ying

    2016-11-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are cell surface glycoproteins with enzymatic activity involved in the regulation of various important functions. In all-important physiological functions including differentiation, cell-cell interactions, survival, proliferation, metabolism, migration and signaling these receptors are the key players of regulation. Additionally, mutations of RTKs or their overexpression have been described in many human cancers and are being explored as a novel avenue for a new therapeutic approach. Some of the deregulated RTKs observed to be significantly affected in cancers included vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor, fibroblast growth factor receptor, RTK-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) and the platelet-derived growth factor receptor. These deregulated RTKs offer attractive possibilities for the new anticancer therapeutic approach involving specific targeting by monoclonal antibodies as well as kinase. The present review aimed to highlight recent perspectives of RTK ROR1 in cancer.

  15. Oncoprotein protein kinase antibody kit

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2008-12-23

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  16. Mevalonate kinase deficiency: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Favier, Leslie A; Schulert, Grant S

    2016-01-01

    Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) is a recessively inherited autoinflammatory disorder with a spectrum of manifestations, including the well-defined clinical phenotypes of hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome and mevalonic aciduria. Patients with MKD have recurrent attacks of hyperinflammation associated with fever, abdominal pain, arthralgias, and mucocutaneous lesions, and more severely affected patients also have dysmorphisms and central nervous system anomalies. MKD is caused by mutations in the gene encoding mevalonate kinase, with the degree of residual enzyme activity largely determining disease severity. Mevalonate kinase is essential for the biosynthesis of nonsterol isoprenoids, which mediate protein prenylation. Although the precise pathogenesis of MKD remains unclear, increasing evidence suggests that deficiency in protein prenylation leads to innate immune activation and systemic hyperinflammation. Given the emerging understanding of MKD as an autoinflammatory disorder, recent treatment approaches have largely focused on cytokine-directed biologic therapy. Herein, we review the current genetic and pathologic understanding of MKD, its various clinical phenotypes, and the evolving treatment approach for this multifaceted disorder. PMID:27499643

  17. Nucleotide selectivity of antibiotic kinases.

    PubMed

    Shakya, Tushar; Wright, Gerard D

    2010-05-01

    Antibiotic kinases, which include aminoglycoside and macrolide phosphotransferases (APHs and MPHs), pose a serious threat to currently used antimicrobial therapies. These enzymes show structural and functional homology with Ser/Thr/Tyr kinases, which is suggestive of a common ancestor. Surprisingly, recent in vitro studies using purified antibiotic kinase enzymes have revealed that a number are able to utilize GTP as the antibiotic phospho donor, either preferentially or exclusively compared to ATP, the canonical phosphate donor in most biochemical reactions. To further explore this phenomenon, we examined three enzymes, APH(3')-IIIa, APH(2'')-Ib, and MPH(2')-I, using a competitive assay that mimics in vivo nucleotide triphosphate (NTP) concentrations and usage by each enzyme. Downstream analysis of reaction products by high-performance liquid chromatography enabled the determination of partitioning of phosphate flux from NTP donors to antibiotics. Using this ratio along with support from kinetic analysis and inhibitor studies, we find that under physiologic concentrations of NTPs, APH(3')-IIIa exclusively uses ATP, MPH(2')-I exclusively uses GTP, and APH(2'')-Ib is able to use both species with a preference for GTP. These differences reveal likely different pathways in antibiotic resistance enzyme evolution and can be exploited in selective inhibitor design to counteract resistance.

  18. The Role of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKAPKs) in Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Moens, Ugo; Kostenko, Sergiy; Sveinbjørnsson, Baldur

    2013-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are implicated in several cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, cell survival, cell motility, metabolism, stress response and inflammation. MAPK pathways transmit and convert a plethora of extracellular signals by three consecutive phosphorylation events involving a MAPK kinase kinase, a MAPK kinase, and a MAPK. In turn MAPKs phosphorylate substrates, including other protein kinases referred to as MAPK-activated protein kinases (MAPKAPKs). Eleven mammalian MAPKAPKs have been identified: ribosomal-S6-kinases (RSK1-4), mitogen- and stress-activated kinases (MSK1-2), MAPK-interacting kinases (MNK1-2), MAPKAPK-2 (MK2), MAPKAPK-3 (MK3), and MAPKAPK-5 (MK5). The role of these MAPKAPKs in inflammation will be reviewed. PMID:24705157

  19. Aurora kinase inhibitors as anticancer molecules.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Hiroshi; Sen, Subrata

    2010-01-01

    Aurora kinase family of serine/threonine kinases are important regulators of mitosis that are frequently over expressed in human cancers and have been implicated in oncogenic transformation including development of chromosomal instability in cancer cells. In humans, among the three members of the kinase family, Aurora-A, -B and -C, only Aurora-A and -B are expressed at detectable levels in all somatic cells undergoing mitotic cell division and have been characterized in greater detail for their involvement in cellular pathways relevant to the development of cancer associated phenotypes. Aurora-A and -B are being investigated as potential targets for anticancer therapy. Development of inhibitors against Aurora kinases as anticancer molecules gained attention because of the facts that aberrant expression of these kinases leads to chromosomal instability and derangement of multiple tumor suppressor and oncoprotein regulated pathways. Preclinical studies and early phase I and II clinical trials of multiple Aurora kinase inhibitors as targeted anticancer drugs have provided encouraging results. This article discusses functional involvement of Aurora kinase-A and -B in the regulation of cancer relevant cellular phenotypes together with findings on some of the better characterized Aurora kinase inhibitors in modulating the functional interactions of Aurora kinases. Future possibilities about developing next generation Aurora kinase inhibitors and their clinical utility as anticancer therapeutic drugs are also discussed.

  20. Protein kinase C-associated kinase can activate NFkappaB in both a kinase-dependent and a kinase-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Moran, Stewart T; Haider, Khaleda; Ow, Yongkai; Milton, Peter; Chen, Luojing; Pillai, Shiv

    2003-06-13

    Protein kinase C-associated kinase (PKK, also known as RIP4/DIK) activates NFkappaB when overexpressed in cell lines and is required for keratinocyte differentiation in vivo. However, very little is understood about the factors upstream of PKK or how PKK activates NFkappaB. Here we show that certain catalytically inactive mutants of PKK can activate NFkappaB, although to a lesser degree than wild type PKK. The deletion of specific domains of wild type PKK diminishes the ability of this enzyme to activate NFkappaB; the same deletions made on a catalytically inactive PKK background completely ablate NFkappaB activation. PKK may be phosphorylated by two specific mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases, MEKK2 and MEKK3, and this interaction may in part be mediated through a critical activation loop residue, Thr184. Catalytically inactive PKK mutants that block phorbol ester-induced NFkappaB activation do not interfere with, but unexpectedly enhance, the activation of NFkappaB by these two mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases. Taken together, these data indicate that PKK may function in both a kinase-dependent as well as a kinase-independent manner to activate NFkappaB.

  1. Kinases Involved in Both Autophagy and Mitosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Xin

    2017-08-31

    Both mitosis and autophagy are highly regulated dynamic cellular processes and involve various phosphorylation events catalysed by kinases, which play vital roles in almost all physiological and pathological conditions. Mitosis is a key event during the cell cycle, in which the cell divides into two daughter cells. Autophagy is a process in which the cell digests its own cellular contents. Although autophagy regulation has mainly been studied in asynchronous cells, increasing evidence indicates that autophagy is in fact tightly regulated in mitosis. Here in this review, we will discuss kinases that were originally identified to be involved in only one of either mitosis or autophagy, but were later found to participate in both processes, such as CDKs (cyclin-dependent kinases), Aurora kinases, PLK-1 (polo-like kinase 1), BUB1 (budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 1), MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases), mTORC1 (mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1), AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase), PI3K (phosphoinositide-3 kinase) and protein kinase B (AKT). By focusing on kinases involved in both autophagy and mitosis, we will get a more comprehensive understanding about the reciprocal regulation between the two key cellular events, which will also shed light on their related therapeutic investigations.

  2. Aurora Kinase inhibitors as Anticancer Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Hiroshi; Sen, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    Aurora kinase family of serine/threonine kinases are important regulators of mitosis that are frequently over expressed in human cancers and have been implicated in oncogenic transformation including development of chromosomal instability in cancer cells. In humans, among the three members of the kinase family, Aurora-A, -B and -C, only Aurora-A and -B are expressed in detectable levels in somatic cells undergoing mitotic cell division and have been characterized in greater detail for their involvement in cellular pathways relevant to the development of cancer associated phenotypes. Aurora-A and -B are being investigated as potential targets for anticancer therapy. Development of inhibitors against Aurora kinases as anticancer molecules gained attention because of the facts that aberrant expression of these kinases lead to chromosomal instability and derangement of multiple tumor suppressor and oncoprotein regulated pathways. Pre-clinical studies and early phase I and II clinical trials of multiple Aurora kinase inhibitors as targeted anticancer drugs have provided encouraging results. This article discusses functional involvement of Aurora kinase-A and -B in the regulation of cancer relevant cellular phenotypes together with findings on some of the better characterized Aurora kinase inhibitors in modulating the functional interactions of Aurora kinases. Future possibilities about developing next generation Aurora kinase inhibitors and their clinical utility as anticancer therapeutic drugs are also discussed. PMID:20863917

  3. Immunochemical characterization of rat brain protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, K.P.; Huang, F.L.

    1986-11-05

    Polyclonal antibodies against rat brain protein kinase C (the Ca/sup 2 +//phospholipid-dependent enzyme) were raised in goat. These antibodies can neutralize completely the kinase activity in purified enzyme preparation as well as that in the crude homogenate. Immunoblot analysis of the purified and the crude protein kinase C preparations revealed a major immunoreactive band of 80 kDa. The antibodies also recognize the same enzyme from other rat tissues. Neuronal tissues (cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hypothalamus, and retina) and lymphoid organs (thymus and spleen) were found to be enriched in protein kinase C, whereas lung, kidney, liver, heart, and skeletal muscle contained relatively low amounts of this kinase. Limited proteolysis of the purified rat brain protein kinase C with trypsin results in an initial degradation of the kinase into two major fragments of 48 and 38 kDa. Both fragments are recognized by the antibodies. However, further digestion of the 48-kDa fragment to 45 kDa and the 38-kDa fragment to 33 kDa causes a loss of the immunoreactivity. Upon incubation of the cerebellar extract with Ca/sup 2 +/, the 48-kDa fragment was also identified as a major proteolytic product of protein kinase C. Proteolytic degradation of protein kinase C converts the Ca/sup 2 +//phospholipid-dependent kinase to an independent form without causing a large impairment of the binding of (/sup 3/H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate. The two major proteolytic fragments were separated by ion exchange chromatography and one of them (45-48 kDa) was identified as a protein kinase and the other (33-38 kDa) as a phorbol ester-binding protein. These results demonstrate that rat brain protein kinase C is composed of two functionally distinct units, namely, a protein kinase and a Ca/sup 2 +/-independent/phospholipid-dependent phorbol ester-binding protein.

  4. Association of protein kinase Cmu with type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase and type I phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, K; Toker, A; Wong, K; Marignani, P A; Johannes, F J; Cantley, L C

    1998-09-04

    Protein kinase Cmu (PKCmu), also named protein kinase D, is an unusual member of the PKC family that has a putative transmembrane domain and pleckstrin homology domain. This enzyme has a substrate specificity distinct from other PKC isoforms (Nishikawa, K., Toker, A., Johannes, F. J., Songyang, Z., and Cantley, L. C. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 952-960), and its mechanism of regulation is not yet clear. Here we show that PKCmu forms a complex in vivo with a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase and a phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase. A region of PKCmu between the amino-terminal transmembrane domain and the pleckstrin homology domain is shown to be involved in the association with the lipid kinases. Interestingly, a kinase-dead point mutant of PKCmu failed to associate with either lipid kinase activity, indicating that autophosphorylation may be required to expose the lipid kinase interaction domain. Furthermore, the subcellular distribution of the PKCmu-associated lipid kinases to the particulate fraction depends on the presence of the amino-terminal region of PKCmu including the predicted transmembrane region. These results suggest a novel model in which the non-catalytic region of PKCmu acts as a scaffold for assembly of enzymes involved in phosphoinositide synthesis at specific membrane locations.

  5. Protein kinase C-associated kinase (PKK), a novel membrane-associated, ankyrin repeat-containing protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Haider, K; Ponda, M; Cariappa, A; Rowitch, D; Pillai, S

    2001-06-15

    A novel murine membrane-associated protein kinase, PKK (protein kinase C-associated kinase), was cloned on the basis of its physical association with protein kinase Cbeta (PKCbeta). The regulated expression of PKK in mouse embryos is consistent with a role for this kinase in early embryogenesis. The human homolog of PKK has over 90% identity to its murine counterpart, has been localized to chromosome 21q22.3, and is identical to the PKCdelta-interacting kinase, DIK (Bahr, C., Rohwer, A., Stempka, L., Rincke, G., Marks, F., and Gschwendt, M. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 36350-36357). PKK comprises an N-terminal kinase domain and a C-terminal region containing 11 ankyrin repeats. PKK exhibits protein kinase activity in vitro and associates with cellular membranes. PKK exists in three discernible forms at steady state: an underphosphorylated form of 100 kDa; a soluble, cytosolic, phosphorylated form of 110 kDa; and a phosphorylated, detergent-insoluble form of 112 kDa. PKK is initially synthesized as an underphosphorylated soluble 100-kDa protein that is quantitatively converted to a detergent-soluble 110-kDa form. This conversion requires an active catalytic domain. Although PKK physically associates with PKCbeta, it does not phosphorylate this PKC isoform. However, PKK itself may be phosphorylated by PKCbeta. PKK represents a developmentally regulated protein kinase that can associate with membranes. The functional significance of its association with PKCbeta remains to be ascertained.

  6. MAP kinase activator from insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle is a protein threonine/tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Nakielny, S; Cohen, P; Wu, J; Sturgill, T

    1992-01-01

    A 'MAP kinase activator' was purified several thousand-fold from insulin-stimulated rabbit skeletal muscle, which resembled the 'activator' from nerve growth factor-stimulated PC12 cells in that it could be inactivated by incubation with protein phosphatase 2A, but not by protein tyrosine phosphatases and its apparent molecular mass was 45-50 kDa. In the presence of MgATP, 'MAP kinase activator' converted the normal 'wild-type' 42 kDa MAP kinase from an inactive dephosphorylated form to the fully active diphosphorylated species. Phosphorylation occurred on the same threonine and tyrosine residues which are phosphorylated in vivo in response to growth factors or phorbol esters. A mutant MAP kinase produced by changing a lysine at the active centre to arginine was phosphorylated in an identical manner by the 'MAP kinase activator', but no activity was generated. The results demonstrate that 'MAP kinase activator' is a protein kinase (MAP kinase kinase) and not a protein that stimulates the autophosphorylation of MAP kinase. MAP kinase kinase is the first established example of a protein kinase that can phosphorylate an exogenous protein on threonine as well as tyrosine residues. Images PMID:1318193

  7. Using Bioluminescent Kinase Profiling Strips to Identify Kinase Inhibitor Selectivity and Promiscuity.

    PubMed

    Zegzouti, Hicham; Hennek, Jacquelyn; Goueli, Said A

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of a kinase inhibitor throughout drug discovery and development is predicated upon its selectivity towards the target of interest. Thus, profiling the compound against a broad panel of kinases is important for providing a better understanding of its activity and for obviating any off-target activities that can result in undesirable consequences. To assess the selectivity and potency of an inhibitor against multiple kinases, it is desirable to use a universal assay that can monitor the activity of all classes of kinases regardless of the nature of their substrates. The luminescent ADP-Glo kinase assay is a universal platform that measures kinase activity by quantifying the amount of the common kinase reaction product ADP. Here we present a method using standardized kinase profiling systems for inhibitor profiling studies based on ADP detection by luminescence. The kinase profiling systems are sets of kinases organized by family, presented in multi-tube strips containing eight enzymes, each with corresponding substrate strips, and standardized for optimal kinase activity. We show that using the kinase profiling strips we could quickly and easily generate multiple selectivity profiles using small or large kinase panels, and identify compound promiscuity within the kinome.

  8. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in Drosophila Development

    PubMed Central

    Sopko, Richelle; Perrimon, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation plays a significant role in a wide range of cellular processes. The Drosophila genome encodes more than 20 receptor tyrosine kinases and extensive studies in the past 20 years have illustrated their diverse roles and complex signaling mechanisms. Although some receptor tyrosine kinases have highly specific functions, others strikingly are used in rather ubiquitous manners. Receptor tyrosine kinases regulate a broad expanse of processes, ranging from cell survival and proliferation to differentiation and patterning. Remarkably, different receptor tyrosine kinases share many of the same effectors and their hierarchical organization is retained in disparate biological contexts. In this comprehensive review, we summarize what is known regarding each receptor tyrosine kinase during Drosophila development. Astonishingly, very little is known for approximately half of all Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinases. PMID:23732470

  9. Pathway illuminated: visualizing protein kinase C signaling.

    PubMed

    Violin, Jonathan D; Newton, Alexandra C

    2003-12-01

    Protein kinase C has been at the center of cell signaling since the discovery 25 years ago that it transduces signals that promote phospholipid hydrolysis. In recent years, the use of genetically encoded fluorescent reporters has enabled studies of the regulation of protein kinase C signaling in living cells. Advances in imaging techniques have unveiled unprecedented detail of the signal processing mechanics of protein kinase C, from the second messengers calcium and diacylglycerol that regulate protein kinase C activity, to the locations and kinetics of different protein kinase C isozymes, to the spatial and temporal dynamics of substrate phosphorylation by this key enzyme. This review discusses how fluorescence imaging studies have illuminated the fidelity with which protein kinase C transduces rapidly changing extracellular information into intracellular phosphorylation signals.

  10. Primary breast cancer cell culture yields intra-tumor heterogeneous subpopulations expressing exclusive patterns of receptor tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Esparza-López, José; Ramos-Elías, Pier A; Castro-Sánchez, Andrea; Rocha-Zavaleta, Leticia; Escobar-Arriaga, Elizabeth; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; León-Rodríguez, Eucario; Medina-Franco, Heriberto; Ibarra-Sánchez, María de Jesus

    2016-09-20

    It has become evident that intra-tumor heterogeneity of breast cancer impact on several biological processes such as proliferation, migration, cell death and also might contribute to chemotherapy resistance. The expression of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs) has not been analyzed in the context of intra-tumor heterogeneity in a primary breast cancer cell culture. Several subpopulations were isolated from the MBCDF (M serial-breast cancer ductal F line) primary breast cancer cells and were successfully maintained in culture and divided in two groups according to their morphology and RTKs expression pattern, and correlated with biological processes like proliferation, migration, anchorage-independent cell growth, and resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Subpopulations were isolated from MBCDF primary breast cancer cell culture by limiting dilution. RTKs and hormone receptors were examined by Western blot. Proliferation was measure by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay). Cell viability was evaluated by Crystal Violet. Migration was assessed using Boyden chambers. Anchorage-independent cell growth was evaluated by colony formation in soft agar. Several subpopulations were isolated from the MBCDF breast cancer cells that were divided into two groups according to their morphology. Analysis of RTKs expression pattern showed that HER1, HER3, c-Met and VEGFR2 were expressed exclusively in cells from group 1, but not in cells from group 2. PDGFR was expressed only in cells from group 2, but not in cells from group 1. HER2, HER4, c-Kit, IGF1-R were expressed in all subpopulations. Biological processes correlated with the RTKs expression pattern. Group 2 subpopulations present the highest rate of cell proliferation, migration and anchorage-independent cell growth. Analysis of susceptibility to chemotherapy drugs and TKIs showed that only Paclitaxel and Imatinib behaved differently between groups

  11. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Cantley, Lewis C

    2002-05-31

    Phosphorylated lipids are produced at cellular membranes during signaling events and contribute to the recruitment and activation of various signaling components. The role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), which catalyzes the production of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate, in cell survival pathways; the regulation of gene expression and cell metabolism; and cytoskeletal rearrangements are highlighted. The PI3K pathway is implicated in human diseases including diabetes and cancer, and understanding the intricacies of this pathway may provide new avenues for therapuetic intervention.

  12. How do kinases transfer phosphoryl groups?

    PubMed

    Matte, A; Tari, L W; Delbaere, L T

    1998-04-15

    Understanding how phosphoryl transfer is accomplished by kinases, a ubiquitous group of enzymes, is central to many biochemical processes. Qualitative analysis of the crystal structures of enzyme-substrate complexes of kinases reveals structural features of these enzymes important to phosphoryl transfer. Recently determined crystal structures which mimic the transition state complex have added new insight into the debate as to whether kinases use associative or dissociative mechanisms of catalysis.

  13. Spatial gradients in kinase cascade regulation.

    PubMed

    Kazmierczak, B; Lipniacki, T

    2010-11-01

    The spatiotemporal kinetics of proteins and other substrates regulate cell fate and signaling. In this study, we consider a reaction-diffusion model of interaction of membrane receptors with a two-step kinase cascade. The receptors activate the 'up-stream' kinase, which may diffuse over cell volume and activate the 'down-stream' kinase, which is also diffusing. Both kinase species and receptors are inactivated by uniformly distributed phosphatases. The positive feedback, key to the considered dynamics, arises since the up-stream kinase activates the receptors. Such a mutual interaction is characteristic for immune cell receptors. Based on the proposed model, we demonstrated that cell sensitivity (measured as a critical value of phosphatase activity at which cell maybe activated) increases with decreasing motility of receptor-interacting kinases and with increasing polarity of receptors distribution. These two effects are cooperating, the effect of receptors localisation close to one pole of the cell grows with the decreasing kinase diffusion and vanishes in the infinite diffusion limit. As the cell sensitivity increases with decreasing diffusion of receptor-interacting kinase, the overall activity of the down-stream kinase increases with its diffusion. In conclusion, the analysis of the proposed model shows that, for the fixed substrate interaction rates, spatial distribution of the surface receptors together with the motility of intracellular kinases control cell signalling and sensitivity to extracellular signals. The increase of the cell sensitivity can be achieved by (i) localisation of receptors in a small subdomain of the cell membrane, (ii) lowering the motility of receptor-interacting kinase, (iii) increasing the motility of down-stream kinases which distribute the signal over the whole cell.

  14. Phosphorylation and activation of p40 tyrosine kinase by casein kinase-1.

    PubMed

    Vila, J; Payne, D M; Zioncheck, T F; Harrison, M L; Itarte, E; Weber, M J

    1990-05-07

    Because examination of regulatory trans-phosphorylations can help elucidate the cellular functions of tyrosyl protein kinases, we have investigated the effects of phosphorylation by casein kinase-1 on the activity of the p40 tyrosyl protein kinase. We find that casein kinase-1 can phosphorylate the p40 tyrosyl kinase on serine and threonine residues, in part on a unique tryptic peptide. The phosphorylation induces a substantial increase in the tyrosyl protein kinase activity of p40, in contrast to most instances in which serine/threonine phosphorylation inhibits activity of tyrosyl protein kinases. These findings raise the possibility that p40 might be part of a protein phosphorylation network in which casein kinase-1 participates.

  15. Tyrosine kinases in inflammatory dermatologic disease

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua, Ricardo T.; Fiorentino, David; Chung, Lorinda; Robinson, William H.

    2010-01-01

    Tyrosine kinases are enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues on protein substrates. They are key components of signaling pathways that drive an array of cellular responses including proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. Specific tyrosine kinases have recently been identified as critical to the pathogenesis of several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Small-molecule inhibitors of tyrosine kinases are emerging as a novel class of therapy that may provide benefit in certain patient subsets. In this review, we highlight tyrosine kinase signaling implicated in inflammatory dermatologic diseases, evaluate strategies aimed at inhibiting these aberrant signaling pathways, and discuss prospects for future drug development. PMID:20584561

  16. MST kinases in development and disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian MST kinase family, which is related to the Hippo kinase in Drosophila melanogaster, includes five related proteins: MST1 (also called STK4), MST2 (also called STK3), MST3 (also called STK24), MST4, and YSK1 (also called STK25 or SOK1). MST kinases are emerging as key signaling molecules that influence cell proliferation, organ size, cell migration, and cell polarity. Here we review the regulation and function of these kinases in normal physiology and pathologies, including cancer, endothelial malformations, and autoimmune disease. PMID:26370497

  17. Diacylglycerol kinases in membrane trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Shuwei; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) belong to a family of cytosolic kinases that regulate the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol (DAG), converting it into phosphatidic acid (PA). There are 10 known mammalian DGK isoforms, each with a different tissue distribution and substrate specificity. These differences allow regulation of cellular responses by fine-tuning the delicate balance of cellular DAG and PA. DGK isoforms are best characterized as mediators of signal transduction and immune function. However, since recent studies reveal that DAG and PA are also involved in the regulation of endocytic trafficking, it is therefore anticipated that DGKs also plays an important role in membrane trafficking. In this review, we summarize the literature discussing the role of DGK isoforms at different stages of endocytic trafficking, including endocytosis, exocytosis, endocytic recycling, and transport from/to the Golgi apparatus. Overall, these studies contribute to our understanding of the involvement of PA and DAG in endocytic trafficking, an area of research that is drawing increasing attention in recent years. PMID:27057419

  18. Receptor-like kinases from Arabidopsis form a monophyletic gene family related to animal receptor kinases

    PubMed Central

    Shiu, Shin-Han; Bleecker, Anthony B.

    2001-01-01

    Plant receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are proteins with a predicted signal sequence, single transmembrane region, and cytoplasmic kinase domain. Receptor-like kinases belong to a large gene family with at least 610 members that represent nearly 2.5% of Arabidopsis protein coding genes. We have categorized members of this family into subfamilies based on both the identity of the extracellular domains and the phylogenetic relationships between the kinase domains of subfamily members. Surprisingly, this structurally defined group of genes is monophyletic with respect to kinase domains when compared with the other eukaryotic kinase families. In an extended analysis, animal receptor kinases, Raf kinases, plant RLKs, and animal receptor tyrosine kinases form a well supported group sharing a common origin within the superfamily of serine/threonine/tyrosine kinases. Among animal kinase sequences, Drosophila Pelle and related cytoplasmic kinases fall within the plant RLK clade, which we now define as the RLK/Pelle family. A survey of expressed sequence tag records for land plants reveals that mosses, ferns, conifers, and flowering plants have similar percentages of expressed sequence tags representing RLK/Pelle homologs, suggesting that the size of this gene family may have been close to the present-day level before the diversification of land plant lineages. The distribution pattern of four RLK subfamilies on Arabidopsis chromosomes indicates that the expansion of this gene family is partly a consequence of duplication and reshuffling of the Arabidopsis genome and of the generation of tandem repeats. PMID:11526204

  19. Dominant Mutations of Drosophila Map Kinase Kinase and Their Activities in Drosophila and Yeast Map Kinase Cascades

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Y. M.; Tsuda, L.; Inoue, Y. H.; Irie, K.; Adachi-Yamada, T.; Hata, M.; Nishi, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Nishida, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Eight alleles of Dsor1 encoding a Drosophila homologue of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase were obtained as dominant suppressors of the MAP kinase kinase kinase D-raf. These Dsor1 alleles themselves showed no obvious phenotypic consequences nor any effect on the viability of the flies, although they were highly sensitive to upstream signals and strongly interacted with gain-of-function mutations of upstream factors. They suppressed mutations for receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs); torso (tor), sevenless (sev) and to a lesser extent Drosophila EGF receptor (DER). Furthermore, the Dsor1 alleles showed no significant interaction with gain-of-function mutations of DER. The observed difference in activity of the Dsor1 alleles among the RTK pathways suggests Dsor1 is one of the components of the pathway that regulates signal specificity. Expression of Dsor1 in budding yeast demonstrated that Dsor1 can activate yeast MAP kinase homologues if a proper activator of Dsor1 is coexpressed. Nucleotide sequencing of the Dsor1 mutant genes revealed that most of the mutations are associated with amino acid changes at highly conserved residues in the kinase domain. The results suggest that they function as suppressors due to increased reactivity to upstream factors. PMID:9136016

  20. Novel library of selenocompounds as kinase modulators.

    PubMed

    Plano, Daniel; Ibáñez, Elena; Calvo, Alfonso; Palop, Juan Antonio; Sanmartín, Carmen

    2011-07-27

    Although the causes of cancer lie in mutations or epigenic changes at the genetic level, their molecular manifestation is the dysfunction of biochemical pathways at the protein level. The 518 protein kinases encoded by the human genome play a central role in various diseases, a fact that has encouraged extensive investigations on their biological function and three dimensional structures. Selenium (Se) is an important nutritional trace element involved in different physiological functions with antioxidative, antitumoral and chemopreventive properties. The mechanisms of action for selenocompounds as anticancer agents are not fully understood, but kinase modulation seems to be a possible pathway. Various organosulfur compounds have shown antitumoral and kinase inhibition effects but, in many cases, the replacement of sulfur by selenium improves the antitumoral effect of compounds. Although Se atom possesses a larger atomic volume and nucleophilic character than sulfur, Se can also formed interactions with aminoacids of the catalytic centers of proteins. So, we propose a novel chemical library that includes organoselenium compounds as kinase modulators. In this study thirteen selenocompounds have been evaluated at a concentration of 3 or 10 µM in a 24 kinase panel using a Caliper LabChip 3000 Drug Discover Platform. Several receptor (EGFR, IGFR1, FGFR1…) and non-receptor (Abl) kinases have been selected, as well as serine/threonine/lipid kinases (AurA, Akt, CDKs, MAPKs…) implicated in main cancer pathways: cell cycle regulation, signal transduction, angiogenesis regulation among them. The obtained results showed that two compounds presented inhibition values higher than 50% in at least four kinases and seven derivatives selectively inhibited one or two kinases. Furthermore, three compounds selectively activated IGF-1R kinase with values ranging from -98% to -211%. In conclusion, we propose that the replacement of sulfur by selenium seems to be a potential and

  1. Protein kinase biochemistry and drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Phillip A; Murray, Brion W

    2011-12-01

    Protein kinases are fascinating biological catalysts with a rapidly expanding knowledge base, a growing appreciation in cell regulatory control, and an ascendant role in successful therapeutic intervention. To better understand protein kinases, the molecular underpinnings of phosphoryl group transfer, protein phosphorylation, and inhibitor interactions are examined. This analysis begins with a survey of phosphate group and phosphoprotein properties which provide context to the evolutionary selection of phosphorylation as a central mechanism for biological regulation of most cellular processes. Next, the kinetic and catalytic mechanisms of protein kinases are examined with respect to model aqueous systems to define the elements of catalysis. A brief structural biology overview further delves into the molecular basis of catalysis and regulation of catalytic activity. Concomitant with a prominent role in normal physiology, protein kinases have important roles in the disease state. To facilitate effective kinase drug discovery, classic and emerging approaches for characterizing kinase inhibitors are evaluated including biochemical assay design, inhibitor mechanism of action analysis, and proper kinetic treatment of irreversible inhibitors. As the resulting protein kinase inhibitors can modulate intended and unintended targets, profiling methods are discussed which can illuminate a more complete range of an inhibitor's biological activities to enable more meaningful cellular studies and more effective clinical studies. Taken as a whole, a wealth of protein kinase biochemistry knowledge is available, yet it is clear that a substantial extent of our understanding in this field remains to be discovered which should yield many new opportunities for therapeutic intervention.

  2. An atlas of human kinase regulation.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, David; Jonikas, Mindaugas; Lawrence, Robert T; El Debs, Bachir; Selkrig, Joel; Typas, Athanasios; Villén, Judit; Santos, Silvia Dm; Beltrao, Pedro

    2016-12-01

    The coordinated regulation of protein kinases is a rapid mechanism that integrates diverse cues and swiftly determines appropriate cellular responses. However, our understanding of cellular decision-making has been limited by the small number of simultaneously monitored phospho-regulatory events. Here, we have estimated changes in activity in 215 human kinases in 399 conditions derived from a large compilation of phosphopeptide quantifications. This atlas identifies commonly regulated kinases as those that are central in the signaling network and defines the logic relationships between kinase pairs. Co-regulation along the conditions predicts kinase-complex and kinase-substrate associations. Additionally, the kinase regulation profile acts as a molecular fingerprint to identify related and opposing signaling states. Using this atlas, we identified essential mediators of stem cell differentiation, modulators of Salmonella infection, and new targets of AKT1. This provides a global view of human phosphorylation-based signaling and the necessary context to better understand kinase-driven decision-making. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  3. Fetal anaemia due to pyruvate kinase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Gilsanz, F; Vega, M A; Gómez-Castillo, E; Ruiz-Balda, J A; Omeñaca, F

    1993-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase deficiency was diagnosed in an infant by umbilical vessel sampling at 30 weeks' gestation. Although three previous hydropic siblings had been stillborn or died in the neonatal period, this infant survived with transfusion dependent haemolytic anaemia. Prompt fetal diagnosis of pyruvate kinase deficiency is feasible and allows better management of hydrops fetalis due to this disorder. PMID:8285758

  4. Measuring the Activity of Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2: A Kinase Involved in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byoung Dae; Li, Xiaojie; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the LRRK2 (Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2) gene are the most common cause of autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease. LRRK2 has multiple functional domains including a kinase domain. The kinase activity of LRRK2 is implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Developing an assay to understand the mechanisms of LRRK2 kinase activity is important for the development of pharmacologic and therapeutic applications. Here, we describe how to measure in vitro LRRK2 kinase activity and its inhibition. PMID:21960214

  5. Discovery of Type II Inhibitors of TGFβ-Activated Kinase 1 (TAK1) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 2 (MAP4K2)

    DOE PAGES

    Tan, Li; Nomanbhoy, Tyzoon; Gurbani, Deepak; ...

    2014-07-17

    Here, we developed a pharmacophore model for type II inhibitors that was used to guide the construction of a library of kinase inhibitors. Kinome-wide selectivity profiling of the library resulted in the identification of a series of 4-substituted 1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridines that exhibited potent inhibitory activity against two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), TAK1 (MAP3K7) and MAP4K2, as well as pharmacologically well interrogated kinases such as p38α (MAPK14) and ABL. Further investigation of the structure–activity relationship (SAR) resulted in the identification of potent dual TAK1 and MAP4K2 inhibitors such as 1 (NG25) and 2 as well as MAP4K2 selective inhibitors such as 16more » and 17. Some of these inhibitors possess good pharmacokinetic properties that will enable their use in pharmacological studies in vivo. Lastly, a 2.4 Å cocrystal structure of TAK1 in complex with 1 confirms that the activation loop of TAK1 assumes the DFG-out conformation characteristic of type II inhibitors.« less

  6. Defective bone repair in mast cell deficient mice with c-Kit loss of function.

    PubMed

    Behrends, D A; Cheng, L; Sullivan, M B; Wang, M H; Roby, G B; Zayed, N; Gao, C; Henderson, J E; Martineau, P A

    2014-10-06

    KitW-sh mice carry an inactivating mutation in the gene encoding the receptor for stem cell factor, which is expressed at high levels on the surface of haematopoietic precursor cells. The mutation results in mast cell deficiency, a variety of defects in innate immunity and poorly defined abnormalities in bone. The present study was designed to characterise healing of a cortical window defect in skeletally mature KitW-sh mice using high-resolution micro computed tomographic imaging and histological analyses. The cortical bone defect healed completely in all wild type mice but failed to heal in about half of the KitW-sh mice by 12 weeks post-operative. Defective healing was associated with premature and excessive expression of TRAP positive cells embedded in fibrous marrow but with little change in ALP activity. Immuno-histochemical analyses revealed reduced CD34 positive vascular endothelial cells and F4/80 positive macrophages at 1 and 2 weeks post-operative. Impaired bone healing in the KitW-sh mice was therefore attributed to altered catabolic activity, impaired re-vascularisation and compromised replacement of woven with compact bone.

  7. Aurora Kinase Inhibitors: Current Status and Outlook.

    PubMed

    Bavetsias, Vassilios; Linardopoulos, Spiros

    2015-01-01

    The Aurora kinase family comprises of cell cycle-regulated serine/threonine kinases important for mitosis. Their activity and protein expression are cell cycle regulated, peaking during mitosis to orchestrate important mitotic processes including centrosome maturation, chromosome alignment, chromosome segregation, and cytokinesis. In humans, the Aurora kinase family consists of three members; Aurora-A, Aurora-B, and Aurora-C, which each share a conserved C-terminal catalytic domain but differ in their sub-cellular localization, substrate specificity, and function during mitosis. In addition, Aurora-A and Aurora-B have been found to be overexpressed in a wide variety of human tumors. These observations led to a number of programs among academic and pharmaceutical organizations to discovering small molecule Aurora kinase inhibitors as anti-cancer drugs. This review will summarize the known Aurora kinase inhibitors currently in the clinic, and discuss the current and future directions.

  8. WNK Kinases in Development and Disease.

    PubMed

    Rodan, Aylin R; Jenny, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    WNK (With-No-Lysine (K)) kinases are serine-threonine kinases characterized by an atypical placement of a catalytic lysine within the kinase domain. Mutations in human WNK1 or WNK4 cause an autosomal dominant syndrome of hypertension and hyperkalemia, reflecting the fact that WNK kinases are critical regulators of renal ion transport processes. Here, the role of WNKs in the regulation of ion transport processes in vertebrate and invertebrate renal function, cellular and organismal osmoregulation, and cell migration and cerebral edema will be reviewed, along with emerging literature demonstrating roles for WNKs in cardiovascular and neural development, Wnt signaling, and cancer. Conserved roles for these kinases across phyla are emphasized. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Aurora Kinase Inhibitors: Current Status and Outlook

    PubMed Central

    Bavetsias, Vassilios; Linardopoulos, Spiros

    2015-01-01

    The Aurora kinase family comprises of cell cycle-regulated serine/threonine kinases important for mitosis. Their activity and protein expression are cell cycle regulated, peaking during mitosis to orchestrate important mitotic processes including centrosome maturation, chromosome alignment, chromosome segregation, and cytokinesis. In humans, the Aurora kinase family consists of three members; Aurora-A, Aurora-B, and Aurora-C, which each share a conserved C-terminal catalytic domain but differ in their sub-cellular localization, substrate specificity, and function during mitosis. In addition, Aurora-A and Aurora-B have been found to be overexpressed in a wide variety of human tumors. These observations led to a number of programs among academic and pharmaceutical organizations to discovering small molecule Aurora kinase inhibitors as anti-cancer drugs. This review will summarize the known Aurora kinase inhibitors currently in the clinic, and discuss the current and future directions. PMID:26734566

  10. Protein Kinases in Zucchini (Characterization of Calcium-Requiring Plasma Membrane Kinases).

    PubMed Central

    Verhey, S. D.; Gaiser, J. C.; Lomax, T. L.

    1993-01-01

    Using an in situ phosphorylation assay with zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L. cv Dark Green) seedling tissue, we have identified numerous polypeptides that are capable of acting as protein kinases. Total protein preparations from different organs contain different kinase profiles, but all are within the range of 55 to 70 kD. At least four kinases are associated with highly purified plasma membranes from etiolated zucchini hypocotyls. The major phosphorylated polypeptides from plasma membranes range in apparent molecular mass from 58 to 68 kD. The plasma membrane kinases are activated by micromolar concentrations of calcium and phosphorylate serine, and, to a lesser extent, threonine residues. These characteristics are similar to those of a soluble calcium-dependent protein kinase that has been purified to homogeneity from soybean suspension cultures. Three of the zucchini plasma membrane kinases share antigenic epitopes with the soluble soybean kinase. The presence of kinase activity at different apparent molecular masses may be indicative of separate kinases with similar characteristics. The zucchini hypocotyl protein kinases are not removed from plasma membrane vesicles by 0.5 M NaCl/5 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetate or by detergent concentrations below the critical micelle concentration of two types of detergent. This indicates that the plasma membrane protein kinases are tightly associated with the membrane in zucchini seedlings. PMID:12231949

  11. KinasePhos: a web tool for identifying protein kinase-specific phosphorylation sites.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsien-Da; Lee, Tzong-Yi; Tzeng, Shih-Wei; Horng, Jorng-Tzong

    2005-07-01

    KinasePhos is a novel web server for computationally identifying catalytic kinase-specific phosphorylation sites. The known phosphorylation sites from public domain data sources are categorized by their annotated protein kinases. Based on the profile hidden Markov model, computational models are learned from the kinase-specific groups of the phosphorylation sites. After evaluating the learned models, the model with highest accuracy was selected from each kinase-specific group, for use in a web-based prediction tool for identifying protein phosphorylation sites. Therefore, this work developed a kinase-specific phosphorylation site prediction tool with both high sensitivity and specificity. The prediction tool is freely available at http://KinasePhos.mbc.nctu.edu.tw/.

  12. Cediranib, an Oral Inhibitor of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor Kinases, Is an Active Drug in Recurrent Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Peritoneal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matulonis, Ursula A.; Berlin, Suzanne; Ivy, Percy; Tyburski, Karin; Krasner, Carolyn; Zarwan, Corrine; Berkenblit, Anna; Campos, Susana; Horowitz, Neil; Cannistra, Stephen A.; Lee, Hang; Lee, Julie; Roche, Maria; Hill, Margaret; Whalen, Christin; Sullivan, Laura; Tran, Chau; Humphreys, Benjamin D.; Penson, Richard T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Angiogenesis is important for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) growth, and blocking angiogenesis can lead to EOC regression. Cediranib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) -1, VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3, and c-kit. Patients and Methods We conducted a phase II study of cediranib for recurrent EOC or peritoneal or fallopian tube cancer; cediranib was administered as a daily oral dose, and the original dose was 45 mg daily. Because of toxicities observed in the first 11 patients, the dose was lowered to 30 mg. Eligibility included ≤ two lines of chemotherapy for recurrence. End points included response rate (via Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [RECIST] or modified Gynecological Cancer Intergroup CA-125), toxicity, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Results Forty-seven patients were enrolled; 46 were treated. Clinical benefit rate (defined as complete response [CR] or partial response [PR], stable disease [SD] > 16 weeks, or CA-125 nonprogression > 16 weeks), which was the primary end point, was 30%; eight patients (17%; 95% CI, 7.6% to 30.8%) had a PR, six patients (13%; 95% CI, 4.8% to 25.7%) had SD, and there were no CRs. Eleven patients (23%) were removed from study because of toxicities before two cycles. Grade 3 toxicities (> 20% of patients) included hypertension (46%), fatigue (24%), and diarrhea (13%). Grade 2 hypothyroidism occurred in 43% of patients. Grade 4 toxicities included CNS hemorrhage (n = 1), hypertriglyceridemia/hypercholesterolemia/elevated lipase (n = 1), and dehydration/elevated creatinine (n = 1). No bowel perforations or fistulas occurred. Median PFS was 5.2 months, and median OS has not been reached; median follow-up time is 10.7 months. Conclusion Cediranib has activity in recurrent EOC, tubal cancer, and peritoneal cancer with predictable toxicities observed with other TKIs. PMID:19826113

  13. A Phase II Study of the Oral VEGF Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Vatalanib (PTK787/ZK222584) in Myelodysplastic Syndrome: Cancer and Leukemia Group B Study 10105 (Alliance)

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pankaj; Mulkey, Flora; Hasserjian, Robert P.; Sanford, Ben L.; Vij, Ravi; Hurd, David D.; Odenike, Olatoyosi M.; Bloomfield, Clara D.; Owzar, Kouros; Stone, Richard M.; Larson, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Angiogenesis is implicated in the pathophysiology and progression of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Vatalanib (PTK787/ZK222584; Novartis and Schering AG) inhibits receptor tyrosine kinases of vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet derived growth factor and c-Kit. We examined whether vatalanib induces hematological responses in MDS and/or delays progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or death. Methods Two cohorts were studied. Vatalanib 1250 mg orally was given once daily (cohort 1) or 750–1250 mg once daily in an intra-patient dose escalating schedule (cohort 2) in 28-day cycles to 155 patients with MDS; 142 patients were evaluable for response and 153 for toxicity. Results The median age was 70.5 years; 51% had low risk (International Prognostic Scoring System {IPSS} Low/Intermediate-1) and 32% had high risk (IPSS Intermediate-2/High) MDS. Hematological improvement was achieved in 7/142 (5%) patients; all 7 were among the 47 patients able to remain on vatalanib for at least 3 months (hematological improvement achieved in 15% of these 47 patients). For patients with low risk and high risk MDS, respectively, median progression-free survivals were 15 and 6 months, median times to transformation to AML were 28 and 6 months, and median overall survivals were 36 and 10 months. The most frequent non-hematological adverse events grade ≥2 were fatigue, nausea or vomiting, dizziness, anorexia, ataxia, diarrhea, and pain. Two deaths (one intra-cerebral hemorrhage and one sudden death) were possibly related to vatalanib. Conclusions Vatalanib induces improvement in blood counts in a small proportion of MDS patients. Clinical applicability is limited by side effects. PMID:23700288

  14. Diacylglycerol kinase is phosphorylated in vivo upon stimulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and serine/threonine kinases, including protein kinase C-epsilon.

    PubMed Central

    Schaap, D; van der Wal, J; van Blitterswijk, W J; van der Bend, R L; Ploegh, H L

    1993-01-01

    In signal transduction, diacylglycerol (DG) kinase attenuates levels of the second messenger DG by converting it to phosphatidic acid. A previously cloned full-length human 86 kDa DG kinase cDNA was expressed as fusion protein in Escherichia coli, to aid in the generation of DG-kinase-specific monoclonal antibodies suitable for immunoprecipitation experiments. To investigate whether phosphorylation of DG kinase is a possible mechanism for its regulation, COS-7 cells were transiently transfected with the DG kinase cDNA and phosphorylation of the expressed DG kinase was induced by various stimuli. Activation of both cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C (PKC) resulted in phosphorylation of DG kinase on serine residues in vivo, and both kinases induced this phosphorylation within the same tryptic phosphopeptide, suggesting that they may exert similar control over DG kinase. No phosphorylation was observed upon ionomycin treatment, intended to activate Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinases. Co-transfections of DG kinase with either PKC-alpha or PKC-epsilon cDNA revealed that both protein kinases, when stimulated, are able to phosphorylate DG kinase. For PKC-epsilon, DG kinase is the first in vivo substrate identified. Stimulation with epidermal growth factor (EGF) of COS-7 cells transfected with both DG kinase and EGF-receptor cDNA results mainly in phosphorylation of DG kinase on tyrosine. Since the EGF receptor has an intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity, this finding implies that DG kinase may be a direct substrate for the activated EGF receptor. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7679574

  15. NDP kinase reactivity towards 3TC nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Kreimeyer, A; Schneider, B; Sarfati, R; Faraj, A; Sommadossi, J P; Veron, M; Deville-Bonne, D

    2001-05-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase is usually considered as the enzyme responsible for the last step of the cellular phosphorylation pathway leading to the synthesis of biologically active triphospho-derivatives of nucleoside analogs used in antiviral therapies and in particular in the treatment of AIDS. NDP kinase lacks specificity for the nucleobase and can use as substrate both ribo- or 2'-deoxyribonucleotides. However, only nucleoside analogs with a sugar moiety in the D-configuration (e.g. 3'-deoxy-3'-azidothymidine (AZT), 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (d4T)) have so far been analyzed as substrates of NDP kinase. In contrast, beta-L-2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine (3TC), also called lamivudine, is a nucleoside analog that is now widely used in AIDS therapy and has a sugar moiety in the L-configuration. Using protein fluorescence to monitor the phosphotransfer between the enzyme and the nucleotide derivative at the presteady state, we have studied the reactivity of 3TC triphosphate and of other L-dideoxynucleotides with NDP kinase. We found that L-dideoxynucleoside triphosphates have a poor affinity for NDP kinase and that the catalytic efficiency of the phosphorylation of L-dideoxyderivatives is very low as compared with their D-enantiomers. We discuss these results using a computer model of 3TC diphosphate bound to the NDP kinase active site. NDP kinase may not seem to be the major enzyme phosphorylating 3TC-DP, in contrast to current opinion.

  16. Polo-like kinase-activating kinases: Aurora A, Aurora B and what else?

    PubMed

    Archambault, Vincent; Carmena, Mar

    2012-04-15

    The events of cell division are regulated by a complex interplay between kinases and phosphatases. Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), polo-like kinases (Plks) and Aurora kinases play central roles in this process. Polo kinase (Plk1 in humans) regulates a wide range of events in mitosis and cytokinesis. To ensure the accuracy of these processes, polo activity itself is subject to complex regulation. Phosphorylation of polo in its T loop (or activation loop) increases its kinase activity several-fold. It has been shown that Aurora A kinase, with its co-factor Bora, activates Plk1 in G(2), and that this is essential for recovery from cell cycle arrest induced by DNA damage. In a recent article published in PLoS Biology, we report that Drosophila polo is activated by Aurora B kinase at centromeres, and that this is crucial for polo function in regulating chromosome dynamics in prometaphase. Our results suggest that this regulatory pathway is conserved in humans. Here, we propose a model for the collaboration between Aurora B and polo in the regulation of kinetochore attachment to microtubules in early mitosis. Moreover, we suggest that Aurora B could also function to activate Polo/Plk1 in cytokinesis. Finally, we discuss recent findings and open questions regarding the activation of polo and polo-like kinases by different kinases in mitosis, cytokinesis and other processes.

  17. [Kinase-Glo luminescent kinase assay for in vitro determination of PKA activity].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Wu, Yan-lin; Liu, Qian; Chen, Chen; Qin, Yuan-yuan; Wu, Gui-yan; Gao, Hua

    2012-07-01

    To establish a simple, convenient and harmless non-radioactive method of determining protein kinase A (PKA) activity in vitro. Human PKAα cDNA was amplified from total RNA of HEK293 cells using RT-PCR method and then cloned into pGEX-6p-1 vector. In vitro purified GST-PKAα protein was identified by Western blot analysis. Finally, a non-radioactive method, Kinase-Glo luminescent kinase assay, was employed to determine the kinase activity of purified GST-PKAα. After the optimization of the induction conditions, we purified GST-PKAα protein successfully. We then determined GST-PKAα activity using Kinase-Glo luminescent kinase assay. We also further confirmed the kinase activity of GST-PKAα using H-89, a specific PKA inhibitor, and determined its IC(50); value (35.2±3.97) nmol/L which is consistent with reported value. The non-radioactive Kinase-Glo luminescent kinase assay is a simple, convenient and harmless method of determining the kinase activity of PKA. This method is effective for pre-clinical high-throughput screening of PKA inhibitor, discovering novel target proteins of PKA and investigating PKA phosphorylation sites in target proteins.

  18. Human Gastric Cancer Kinase Profile and Prognostic Significance of MKK4 Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chew-Wun; Li, Anna F.-Y.; Chi, Chin-Wen; Huang, Chen Lung; Shen, King-Han; Liu, Wing-Yiu; Lin, Wen-chang

    2000-01-01

    Alterations of protein tyrosine kinase are often associated with uncontrolled cell growth and tumor progression. Knowledge of the overall expression pattern of tyrosine kinases should prove beneficial in understanding the signaling pathways involved in gastric cancer oncogenesis and in providing possible biomarkers for gastric cancer progression. To establish a general tyrosine-kinase expression profile, degenerated polymerase chain reaction primers designed from the consensus catalytic kinase motifs were used to amplify protein tyrosine kinase molecules from gastric cancer tissues. We observed more than 50 tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases from matching pairs of gastric cancer tissue and normal mucosa. Based on this new kinase profile information, we selected the MKK4 gene for further immunohistochemical studies. Statistical analysis of MKK4 protein expression and clinicopathological features indicated that MKK4 kinase expression could serve as a significant prognostic factor for relapse-free survival and for overall survival. We demonstrated a simple and sensitive method for establishing protein tyrosine-kinase expression profiles of human gastric cancer tissues as well as for discovering novel and useful clinical biomarkers from such kinase expression profiles. PMID:10854223

  19. Differential AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Recognition Mechanism of Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Kinase Isoforms.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Yuya; Kawaguchi, Yoshinori; Fujimoto, Tomohito; Kanayama, Naoki; Magari, Masaki; Tokumitsu, Hiroshi

    2016-06-24

    Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ) is a known activating kinase for AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In vitro, CaMKKβ phosphorylates Thr(172) in the AMPKα subunit more efficiently than CaMKKα, with a lower Km (∼2 μm) for AMPK, whereas the CaMKIα phosphorylation efficiencies by both CaMKKs are indistinguishable. Here we found that subdomain VIII of CaMKK is involved in the discrimination of AMPK as a native substrate by measuring the activities of various CaMKKα/CaMKKβ chimera mutants. Site-directed mutagenesis analysis revealed that Leu(358) in CaMKKβ/Ile(322) in CaMKKα confer, at least in part, a distinct recognition of AMPK but not of CaMKIα.

  20. Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Hartig, Monika B; Prokisch, Holger; Meitinger, Thomas; Klopstock, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a hereditary progressive disorder and the most frequent form of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). PKAN patients present with a progressive movement disorder, dysarthria, cognitive impairment and retinitis pigmentosa. In magnetic resonance imaging, PKAN patients exhibit the pathognonomic "eye of the tiger" sign in the globus pallidus which corresponds to iron accumulation and gliosis as shown in neuropathological examinations. The discovery of the disease causing mutations in PANK2 has linked the disorder to coenzyme A (CoA) metabolism. PANK2 is the only one out of four PANK genes encoding an isoform which localizes to mitochondria. At least two other NBIA genes (PLA2G6, C19orf12) encode proteins that share with PANK2 a mitochondrial localization and all are suggested to play a role in lipid homeostasis. With no causal therapy available for PKAN until now, only symptomatic treatment is possible. A multi-centre retrospective study with bilateral pallidal deep brain stimulation in patients with NBIA revealed a significant improvement of dystonia. Recently, studies in the PANK Drosophila model "fumble" revealed improvement by the compound pantethine which is hypothesized to feed an alternate CoA biosynthesis pathway. In addition, pilot studies with the iron chelator deferiprone that crosses the blood brain barrier showed a good safety profile and some indication of efficacy. An adequately powered randomized clinical trial will start in 2012. This review summarizes clinical presentation, neuropathology and pathogenesis of PKAN.

  1. MAP kinase pathway gene copy alterations in NRAS/BRAF wild-type advanced melanoma.

    PubMed

    Orouji, Elias; Orouji, Azadeh; Gaiser, Timo; Larribère, Lionel; Gebhardt, Christoffer; Utikal, Jochen

    2016-05-01

    Recent therapeutic advances have improved melanoma patientś clinical outcome. Novel therapeutics targeting BRAF, NRAS and cKit mutant melanomas are widely used in clinical practice. However therapeutic options in NRAS(wild-type) /BRAF(wild-type) /cKit(wild-type) melanoma patients are limited. Our study shows that gene copy numbers of members of the MAPK signaling pathway vary in different melanoma subgroups. NRAS(wild-type) /BRAF(wild-type) melanoma metastases are characterized by significant gains of MAP2K1 (MEK1) and MAPK3 (ERK1) gene loci. These additional gene copies could lead to an activation of the MAPK signaling pathway via a gene-dosage effect. Our results suggest that downstream analyses of the pMEK and pERK expression status in NRAS(wild-type) /BRAF(wild-type) melanoma patients identify patients that could benefit from targeted therapies with MEK and ERK inhibitors.

  2. CBL CONTROLS EGF RECEPTOR FATE BY REGULATING EARLY ENDOSOME FUSION#

    PubMed Central

    Visser Smit, Gina D.; Place, Trenton L.; Cole, Sara L.; Clausen, Kathryn A.; Vemuganti, Soumya; Zhang, Guojuan; Koland, John G.; Lill, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Residues 1-434 of the ubiquitin ligase Cbl control epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) signaling by enhancing receptor ubiquitination, downregulation, and lysosomal degradation. Cbl 1-434 comprises a tyrosine kinase-binding domain, linker region, RING finger (RF), and a subset of the RF tail amino acids 420-436. Using full-length alanine substitution mutants, we demonstrate that the Cbl RF tail regulates biochemically distinct EGF-R endocytosis checkpoints: 1) Cbl- and ubiquitin-dependent degradation of hSprouty2 upstream of EGF-R ubiquitination (compromised by Cbl V431A); and 2) Cbl- and EGF-R-dependent dephosphorylation or degradation of the endosomal trafficking regulator Hrs (compromised by Cbl F434A). Deregulated Hrs phosphorylation correlates with the inhibition of both early endosome fusion and EGF-R degradation. This is the first evidence that Cbl can regulate receptor fate by controlling the fusion of sorting endosomes. We postulate that it does so by modulating the generation and loss of tyrosine phosphorylated Hrs. PMID:20029031

  3. CDPKs are dual-specificity protein kinases and tyrosine autophosphorylation attenuates kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Oh, Man-Ho; Wu, Xia; Kim, Hyoung Seok; Harper, Jeffrey F; Zielinski, Raymond E; Clouse, Steven D; Huber, Steven C

    2012-11-30

    Although calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs or CPKs) are classified as serine/threonine protein kinases, autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues was observed for soybean CDPKβ and several Arabidopsis isoforms (AtCPK4 and AtCPK34). We identified Ser-8, Thr-17, Tyr-24 (in the kinase domain), Ser-304, and Ser-358 as autophosphorylation sites of His(6)-GmCDPKβ. Overall autophosphorylation increased kinase activity with synthetic peptides, but autophosphorylation of Tyr-24 appears to attenuate kinase activity based on studies with the Y24F directed mutant. While much remains to be done, it is clear that several CDPKs are dual-specificity kinases, which raises the possibility that phosphotyrosine signaling may play a role in Ca(2+)/CDPK-mediated processes. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Rac-1 and Raf-1 kinases, components of distinct signaling pathways, activate myotonic dystrophy protein kinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, M.; Wang, W.; Walch, E. T.; Dunne, P. W.; Epstein, H. F.

    2000-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK) is a serine-threonine protein kinase encoded by the myotonic dystrophy (DM) locus on human chromosome 19q13.3. It is a close relative of other kinases that interact with members of the Rho family of small GTPases. We show here that the actin cytoskeleton-linked GTPase Rac-1 binds to DMPK, and coexpression of Rac-1 and DMPK activates its transphosphorylation activity in a GTP-sensitive manner. DMPK can also bind Raf-1 kinase, the Ras-activated molecule of the MAP kinase pathway. Purified Raf-1 kinase phosphorylates and activates DMPK. The interaction of DMPK with these distinct signals suggests that it may play a role as a nexus for cross-talk between their respective pathways and may partially explain the remarkable pleiotropy of DM.

  5. Archaeal Shikimate Kinase, a New Member of the GHMP-Kinase Family

    PubMed Central

    Daugherty, Matthew; Vonstein, Veronika; Overbeek, Ross; Osterman, Andrei

    2001-01-01

    Shikimate kinase (EC 2.7.1.71) is a committed enzyme in the seven-step biosynthesis of chorismate, a major precursor of aromatic amino acids and many other aromatic compounds. Genes for all enzymes of the chorismate pathway except shikimate kinase are found in archaeal genomes by sequence homology to their bacterial counterparts. In this study, a conserved archaeal gene (gi|1500322 in Methanococcus jannaschii) was identified as the best candidate for the missing shikimate kinase gene by the analysis of chromosomal clustering of chorismate biosynthetic genes. The encoded hypothetical protein, with no sequence similarity to bacterial and eukaryotic shikimate kinases, is distantly related to homoserine kinases (EC 2.7.1.39) of the GHMP-kinase superfamily. The latter functionality in M. jannaschii is assigned to another gene (gi|1591748), in agreement with sequence similarity and chromosomal clustering analysis. Both archaeal proteins, overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity, displayed activity of the predicted type, with steady-state kinetic parameters similar to those of the corresponding bacterial kinases: Km,shikimate = 414 ± 33 μM, Km,ATP = 48 ± 4 μM, and kcat = 57 ± 2 s−1 for the predicted shikimate kinase and Km,homoserine = 188 ± 37 μM, Km,ATP = 101 ± 7 μM, and kcat = 28 ± 1 s−1 for the homoserine kinase. No overlapping activity could be detected between shikimate kinase and homoserine kinase, both revealing a >1,000-fold preference for their own specific substrates. The case of archaeal shikimate kinase illustrates the efficacy of techniques based on reconstruction of metabolism from genomic data and analysis of gene clustering on chromosomes in finding missing genes. PMID:11114929

  6. Crystal Structures of Two Aminoglycoside Kinases Bound with a Eukaryotic Protein Kinase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jiyoung; Berghuis, Albert M.

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is recognized as a growing healthcare problem. To address this issue, one strategy is to thwart the causal mechanism using an adjuvant in partner with the antibiotic. Aminoglycosides are a class of clinically important antibiotics used for the treatment of serious infections. Their usefulness has been compromised predominantly due to drug inactivation by aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes, such as aminoglycoside phosphotransferases or kinases. These kinases are structurally homologous to eukaryotic Ser/Thr and Tyr protein kinases and it has been shown that some can be inhibited by select protein kinase inhibitors. The aminoglycoside kinase, APH(3′)-IIIa, can be inhibited by CKI-7, an ATP-competitive inhibitor for the casein kinase 1. We have determined that CKI-7 is also a moderate inhibitor for the atypical APH(9)-Ia. Here we present the crystal structures of CKI-7-bound APH(3′)-IIIa and APH(9)-Ia, the first structures of a eukaryotic protein kinase inhibitor in complex with bacterial kinases. CKI-7 binds to the nucleotide-binding pocket of the enzymes and its binding alters the conformation of the nucleotide-binding loop, the segment homologous to the glycine-rich loop in eurkaryotic protein kinases. Comparison of these structures with the CKI-7-bound casein kinase 1 reveals features in the binding pockets that are distinct in the bacterial kinases and could be exploited for the design of a bacterial kinase specific inhibitor. Our results provide evidence that an inhibitor for a subset of APHs can be developed in order to curtail resistance to aminoglycosides. PMID:21573013

  7. Dynamics driven allostery in protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Kornev, Alexandr P.; Taylor, Susan S.

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases have very dynamic structures and their functionality strongly depends on their dynamic state. Active kinases reveal a dynamic pattern with residues clustering into semirigid communities that move in µs-ms timescale. Previously detected hydrophobic spines serve as connectors between communities. Communities do not follow the traditional subdomain structure of the kinase core or its secondary structure elements. Instead they are organized around main functional units. Integration of the communities depends on the assembly of the hydrophobic spine and phosphorylation of the activation loop. Single mutations can significantly disrupt the dynamic infrastructure and thereby interfere with long distance allosteric signaling that propagates throughout the whole molecule. Dynamics is proposed to be the underlying mechanism for allosteric regulation in protein kinases. PMID:26481499