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Sample records for kinematically complete study

  1. Kinematically complete chemical reaction dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trippel, S.; Stei, M.; Otto, R.; Hlavenka, P.; Mikosch, J.; Eichhorn, C.; Lourderaj, U.; Zhang, J. X.; Hase, W. L.; Weidemüller, M.; Wester, R.

    2009-11-01

    Kinematically complete studies of molecular reactions offer an unprecedented level of insight into the dynamics and the different mechanisms by which chemical reactions occur. We have developed a scheme to study ion-molecule reactions by velocity map imaging at very low collision energies. Results for the elementary nucleophilic substitution (SN2) reaction Cl- + CH3I → ClCH3 + I- are presented and compared to high-level direct dynamics trajectory calculations. Furthermore, an improved design of the crossed-beam imaging spectrometer with full three-dimensional measurement capabilities is discussed and characterization measurements using photoionization of NH3 and photodissociation of CH3I are presented.

  2. A combined electron-ion spectrometer for studying complete kinematics of molecular dissociation upon shell selective ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, K.; Banerjee, S. B.; Bapat, B.

    2013-07-15

    A combined electron-ion spectrometer has been built to study dissociation kinematics of molecular ions upon various electronic decay processes ensuing from ionization of neutral molecules. The apparatus can be used with various ionization agents. Ion time-of-flight (ToF) spectra arising from various electronic decay processes are acquired by triggering the ToF measurement in coincidence with energy analyzed electrons. The design and the performance of the spectrometer in a photoionization experiment is presented in detail. Electron spectra and ion time of flight spectra resulting from valence and 2p{sub 1/2} ionization of Argon and those from valence ionization of CO are presented to demonstrate the capability of the instrument. The fragment ion spectra show remarkable differences (both kinematic and cross sectional) dependent on the energy of the ejected electron, corresponding to various electron loss and decay mechanisms in dissociative photoionization of molecules.

  3. Understanding patellofemoral pain with maltracking in the presence of joint laxity: complete 3D in vivo patellofemoral and tibiofemoral kinematics.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Frances T; Derasari, Aditya; Brindle, Timothy J; Alter, Katharine E

    2009-05-01

    Patellofemoral pain is widely accepted as one of the most common pathologies involving the knee, yet the etiology of this pain is still an open debate. Generalized joint laxity has been associated with patellofemoral pain, but is not often discussed as a potential source of patellar maltracking. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the complete 6 degree of freedom patellofemoral and tibiofemoral kinematics from a group of patients diagnosed with patellofemoral pain syndrome and maltracking to those from an asymptomatic population. The following null hypotheses were tested: kinematic alterations in patellofemoral maltracking are limited to the axial plane; knee joint kinematics are the same in maltrackers with and without generalized joint laxity (defined by a clinical diagnosis of Ehlers Danlos Syndrome); and no correlations exist between tibiofemoral and patellofemoral kinematics or within patellofemoral kinematics. This study demonstrated that alterations in patellofemoral kinematics, associated with patellofemoral pain, are not limited to the axial plane, minimal correlations exist between patellofemoral and tibiofemoral kinematics, and distinct subgroups likely exist within the general population of maltrackers. Being able to identify subgroups correctly within the omnibus diagnosis of patellar maltracking is a crucial step in correctly defining the pathophysiology and the eventual treatment of these patients.

  4. Presaddle and postsaddle dissipative effects in fission using complete kinematics measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, J. L.; Benlliure, J.; Taïeb, J.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Audouin, L.; Ayyad, Y.; Bélier, G.; Boutoux, G.; Casarejos, E.; Chatillon, A.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Gorbinet, T.; Heinz, A.; Kelić-Heil, A.; Laurent, B.; Martin, J.-F.; Paradela, C.; Pellereau, E.; Pietras, B.; Ramos, D.; Rodríguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D. M.; Simon, H.; Vargas, J.; Voss, B.

    2016-12-01

    A complete kinematics measurement of the two fission fragments was used for the first time to investigate fission dynamics at small and large deformations. Fissioning systems with high excitation energies, compact shapes, and low angular momenta were produced in inverse kinematics by using spallation reactions of lead projectiles. A new generation experimental setup allowed for the first full and unambiguous identification in mass and atomic number of both fission fragments. This measurement permitted us to accurately determine fission cross sections, the charge distribution, and the neutron excess of the fission fragments as a function of the atomic number of the fissioning system. These data are compared with different model calculations to extract information on the value of the dissipation parameter at small and large deformations. The present results do not show any sizable dependence of the nuclear dissipation parameter on temperature or deformation.

  5. A kinematic study of finswimming at surface.

    PubMed

    Gautier, Jimmy; Baly, Laurent; Zanone, Pier-Giorgio; Watier, Bruno

    2004-06-01

    Finswimming is a sport of speed practiced on the surface or underwater, in which performance is based on whole-body oscillations. The present study investigated the undulatory motion performed by finswimmers at the surface. This study aiming to analyze the influence of the interaction of gender, practice level, and race distance on selected kinematic parameters. Six elite and six novices finswimmers equipped with joints markers (wrist, elbow, shoulder, hip, knee, and ankle) were recorded in the sagittal plane. The position of these anatomical marks was digitized at 50 Hz. An automated motion analysis software yielded velocity, vertical amplitude, frequency, and angular position. Results showed that stroke frequency decreased whereas the mean amplitude of all joints increased with increasing race distance (p < 0.01). Mean joint amplitude for the upper limbs (wrist, elbow and shoulder) was smaller for experts than for novices. Whereas that of the ankle was larger, so that the oscillation amplitude increased from shoulder to ankle. Elite male finswimmers were pitching more acutely than female. Moreover, elite male finswimmers showed a smaller knee bending than novices and than elite females (p < 0.01). This indicated that elite male finswimmers attempt to reduce drag forces thanks to a weak knee bending and a low upper limbs pitch. To sum up, gender, expertise, and race distance affect the performance and its kinematics in terms frontal drag. Expertise in finswimming requires taking advantage of the mechanical constraints pertaining to hydrodynamic constraints in order to optimize performance. Key PointsFinswimmers are at one and the same time a propelling and a propelled body. This study investigates the undulatory motion performed by finswimmers at the surface.Elite male finswimmers were pitching more acutely than female swimmers and showed a smaller knee bending than both novices and elite female swimmers.Finswimmers tended to perform a dolphin-like motion, which

  6. Observation of two-α emission from high-lying excited states of Ne18 by complete-kinematics measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X. X.; Lin, C. J.; Jia, H. M.; Yang, F.; Jia, F.; Wu, Z. D.; Zhang, S. T.; Liu, Z. H.; Zhang, H. Q.; Xu, H. S.; Sun, Z. Y.; Wang, J. S.; Hu, Z. G.; Wang, M.; Chen, R. F.; Zhang, X. Y.; Li, C.; Lei, X. G.; Xu, Z. G.; Xiao, G. Q.; Zhan, W. L.

    2010-12-01

    Two-α emission from high-lying excited states of Ne18 was studied by complete-kinematics measurements. The Ne18 beam at the energy of 51.8 MeV/u was bombarding a Au197 target to populate the excited states via Coulomb excitation. Products of two-α emission, C10-α-α, were measured by an array of silicon strip detectors and a CsI + PIN telescope. With the help of Monte Carlo simulations, the experimental results show the characteristics of sequential two-α emission via O14 excited states. Sequential two-α and two-proton emissions from Ne18 via one-particle daughter states are compared and the distinction of the opening angles of these two modes originates from the difference of the mass ratio of emitted particles to daughter nuclei.

  7. Complete kinematics measurement of the 11B(p,γ)3α reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diget, C. Aa; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Laursen, K. L.; Madsbøl, K. O.; Jørgensen, L.; Kirsebom, O. S.; Riisager, K.

    2012-09-01

    One of the first nuclear reactions measured after the invention of the accelerator by Cockroft and Walton was 11B+p, measured by Rutherford and Oliphant in 1933 [1, 2]. This reaction, however, is not yet fully understood at low incident proton energies [3], and the present paper therefore presents a new measurement with complete-kinematics data utilising modern large-area segmented silicon-strip detectors. The aim of the measurement is twofold: firstly, to fully characterise the triple-α decay of the T=1, 2+ state at 16.11 MeV in 12C; secondly, to search for γ decay of the 2+ state to lower lying states, in particular the newly suggested 2+ state around 9-10 MeV [4]. The isovector M1 population of lower lying 2+ states is strongly favoured over isovector E2 transitions to 0+ states, and the method is therefore a promising method to elucidating this timely question.

  8. From nearby to distant galaxies: kinematical and dynamical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epinat, Benoit

    2009-09-01

    Kinematical studies of low and high redshift galaxies enables to probe galaxy formation and evolution scenarios. Integral field spectroscopy is a powerful tool to study with accuracy nearby galaxies kinematics. Recent observations also gives a new 2D vision of high redshift galaxies kinematics. This work mostly relies on the kinematical sample of galaxies GHASP. This control sample, composed of 203 local spiral and irregular galaxies in low density environments observed with Fabry-Perot techniques in the Ha line (6563 A), is by now the largest sample of Fabry-Perot data. After a revue on Fabry-Perot interferometry and a presentation of new data reduction procedures, my implications on both 3D-NTT Fabry-Perot instrument and the wide field spectrograph project (WFSpec) for galaxy evolution study with the european ELT are developed. The second section is dedicated to GHASP data. This sample have been fully reduced and analysed using new methods. The kinematical analysis of 2D kinematical maps has been undertaken with the study of the dark matter distribution, the rotation curves shape, bar signatures and the ionized gas velocity dispersion. In a third section, this local reference sample is used as a zero point for high redshift galaxies kinematical studies. The GHASP sample is projected at high redshift (z=1.7) in order to disentangle evolution effects from distance biases in high redshift galaxies kinematical data observed with SINFONI, OSIRIS and GIRAFFE. The kinematical analysis of new SINFONI high redshift observations is also presented and high redshift data found in the literature are compared with GHASP projected sample, suggesting some evolution of the galaxy dynamical support within the ages.

  9. Motor control of voluntary arm movements. Kinematic and modelling study.

    PubMed

    Corradini, M L; Gentilucci, M; Leo, T; Rizzolatti, G

    1992-01-01

    The motor control of pointing and reaching-to-grasp movements was investigated using two different approaches (kinematic and modelling) in order to establish whether the type of control varies according to modifications of arm kinematics. Kinematic analysis of arm movements was performed on subjects' hand trajectories directed to large and small stimuli located at two different distances. The subjects were required either to grasp and to point to each stimulus. The kinematics of the subsequent movement, during which subject's hand came back to the starting position, were also studied. For both movements, kinematic analysis was performed on hand linear trajectories as well as on joint angular trajectories of shoulder and elbow. The second approach consisted in the parametric identification of the black box (ARMAX) model of the controller driving the arm movement. Such controller is hypothesized to work for the correct execution of the motor act. The order of the controller ARMAX model was analyzed with respect to the different experimental conditions (distal task, stimulus size and distance). Results from kinematic analysis showed that target distance and size influenced kinematic parameters both of angular and linear displacements. Nevertheless, the structure of the motor program was found to remain constant with distance and distal task, while it varied with precision requirements due to stimulus size. The estimated model order of the controller confirmed the invariance of the control law with regard to movement amplitude, whereas it was sensitive to target size.

  10. Towards a complete description of grasping kinematics: a framework for quantifying human grasping and manipulation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiushi; Santello, Marco

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for tracking both human hand kinematics and object contour during grasping task. The framework is based on modeling the object as point cloud and the use of marker-based tracking. We introduce how to estimate contact sites on both the hand and object, hand enclosing space, and graspable features from recorded data. Two experiments were performed to 1) verify the accuracy of contact site estimation (less than 5 mm), and 2) validate the feature extraction. Our approach can provide significant insight into how humans plan grasping and manipulation based on object recognition.

  11. A kinematic study of Tycho's supernova remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, P. J.; Sato, T.

    2016-06-01

    Thanks to its confirmed nature as the remnant of a standard Type Ia supernova from spectroscopy of its light echo, Tycho's supernova remnant is a unique object that can provide a new perspective into thermonuclear supernova explosions. More than 400 years after its discovery as a supernova in November 1572, the remnant is now spread out over an 8 arcminute diameter region in a fairly symmetric, but patchy, shell-like morphology. The remnant's thermal X-ray emission is dominated by a strong Si Kalpha line and also shows line emission from other species such as S, Ar, Ca, and Fe. Existing proper motion and X-ray line width measurements indicate that Tycho's Si-rich ejecta shell is expanding at ~4700 km/s. We have taken advantage of the huge number of Si line photons in the 750-ks Chandra ACIS observation from 2009 to make the first direct velocity measurements of ejecta in Tycho. The patchy nature of the ejecta shell allows for identification of red- and blue-shifted clumps of emission from the receding and approaching hemispheres. We use nonequilibrium ionization thermal models to jointly fit both ACIS-S and ACIS-I observations to determine the radial expansion velocity of individual clumps and associated systematic uncertainty. Red-shifted clumps have speeds of 3500-7800 km/s and blue-shifted clumps 1600--5000 km/s with a systematic uncertainty of 500-2000 km/s determined by intercomparison of the ACIS-S and ACIS-I spectral results. From our Chandra radial analysis of surface brightness, centroid energy, and line width, we have confirmed previous line width measurements from Suzaku, but are able to utilize finer radial bins that reveal additional structure in the kinematics of Tycho. In particular the Si and S line widths reach a deep minimum at the position of the peak surface brightness near the remnant's edge and where Doppler broadening from the shell expansion is minimum. From the measured line widths and assuming that Doppler and turbulent broadening can be

  12. High School Completion Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    While Alberta enjoys proven high, world-class results in student achievement, raising high school completion rates is one of the top priorities in improving the provincial education system. The 2011-12 targeted high school completion rate is 82% five years after entering Grade 10--a 2.5% increase from the current average rate of 79.5%. The purpose…

  13. Double-Pionic Fusion of Nuclear Systems and the 'ABC' Effect: Approaching a Puzzle by Exclusive and Kinematically Complete Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bashkanov, M.; Clement, H.; Doroshkevich, E.; Khakimova, O.; Kren, F.; Meier, R.; Pricking, A.; Skorodko, T.; Wagner, G. J.; Bargholtz, C.; Geren, L.; Lindberg, K.; Tegner, P.-E.; Zartova, I.; Berlowski, M.; Stepaniak, J.; Bogoslawsky, D.; Ivanov, G.; Jiganov, E.; Morosov, B.

    2009-02-06

    The ABC effect--a puzzling low-mass enhancement in the {pi}{pi} invariant mass spectrum, first observed by Abashian, Booth, and Crowe--is well known from inclusive measurements of two-pion production in nuclear fusion reactions. Here we report on the first exclusive and kinematically complete measurements of the most basic double-pionic fusion reaction pn{yields}d{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} at beam energies of 1.03 and 1.35 GeV. The measurements, which have been carried out at CELSIUS-WASA, reveal the ABC effect to be a ({pi}{pi}){sub I=L=0} channel phenomenon associated with both a resonancelike energy dependence in the integral cross section and the formation of a {delta}{delta} system in the intermediate state. A corresponding simple s-channel resonance ansatz provides a surprisingly good description of the data.

  14. Reaching and grasping behavior in Macaca fascicularis: a kinematic study.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Luisa; Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Bulgheroni, Maria; Castiello, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    The prehensile hand is one of the major traits distinguishing primates from other mammal species. All primates, in fact, are able to grasp an object and hold it in part or entirely using a single hand. Although there is a wealth of behavioral data regarding grasping movements in humans and apes, there is relatively little material on macaques, the animal model often used to investigate neuronal mechanisms responsible for grip control in humans. To date, evidence regarding free-ranging macaques is confined to observational data, while quantitative reports describe studies carried out in laboratory settings or in captivity. The purpose of the present study was to provide the first kinematic descriptions of basic grip behavior with regard to precision and power grips in free-ranging macaque monkeys. Video footage of those animals grasping objects was analyzed frame-by-frame using digitalization techniques. The results revealed that the two types of grips considered are each characterized by specific kinematic signatures. It was also found that hand kinematics was scaled depending on the type of grasp needing to be adopted and the intrinsic properties of the object to be grasped. In accordance with data concerning humans, these findings indicate that the intrinsic features of an object affect the planning and control of reach-to-grasp movements even in free-ranging macaques. The data presented here take research in the field of comparative reach-to-grasp kinematics in human and non-human primates another step forward as they are based on precise measurements of spontaneous grasping movements by animals living/acting in their natural environment.

  15. Dislocation kinematics: a molecular dynamics study in Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oren, E.; Yahel, E.; Makov, G.

    2017-02-01

    The kinematics and kinetics of edge and screw dislocations in FCC materials were studied by molecular dynamics, with Cu as a case study. It was found that with increasing stress screw dislocations enter into the transonic regime continuously and that they remain stable up to a velocity of about 2.2 km s-1. Edge dislocations are limited by the transverse sound velocity at low stresses and discontinuously cross into the transonic regime at higher stresses. For sufficiently long edge dislocations, the subsonic-transonic transition is initiated by an athermal nucleation process. Finally, an expression for the velocity dependence of the dislocation mobility was derived.

  16. Social intentions in Parkinson's disease patients: A kinematic study.

    PubMed

    Straulino, Elisa; Scaravilli, Tomaso; Castiello, Umberto

    2015-09-01

    Dysfunction of the dopaminergic system leads to motor, cognitive and motivational symptoms in brain disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Moreover, the dopaminergic system plays an important role in social interactions. The dopaminergic input to the basal ganglia (BG) thought to integrate social cues during the planning and execution of voluntary movements remains, however, largely unexplored. Since PD provides a model to assess this function in humans, our study aimed to investigate the effects of social intentions on actions in non-demented PDpatients receiving dopamine replacement therapy (Levodopa = l-Dopa) and in neurologically healthy control participants. Patients' ability to modulate motor patterning depending on the intention motivating the action to be performed was evaluated both in "on" (with l-Dopa) and "off" (without l-Dopa) states. Participants were instructed to reach for and to grasp an object; they were then told to hand it to another person (social condition) or to place it on a concave frame (individual condition). A 'passive-observer' condition, which was similar to the 'individual' condition except for the presence of an onlooker who simply observed the scene, was also assessed to exclude the possibility that differences might be due to the presence of another person. Movement kinematics were recorded using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. Study results demonstrated that the controls and the PD patients in an 'on' state adopted different kinematic patterning for the 'social' and the 'individual' conditions; the PD patients in the 'off' state, instead, were unable to kinematically differentiate between the two conditions. These results suggest that l-Dopa treatment has positive effects on translating social intentions into specific motor patterns in PD patients.

  17. Kinematic characteristics of Andalusian, Arabian and Anglo-Arabian horses: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Cano, M R; Vivo, J; Miró, F; Morales, J L; Galisteo, A M

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the kinematic trot characteristics of three different breeds of horse: Andalusian (AN, n = 15), Arabian (AR, n = 7) and Anglo-Arabian (AA, n = 5) using standard computer-assisted videography (25 Hz). Linear, temporal and angular parameters in fore- and hind limbs were analysed in six randomly selected strides per horse. Normalised angle-time diagrams along the complete stride were obtained for all joints angles in each breed and specific kinematic characteristics were detected graphically. AA horses displayed longer swing durations in both limbs ans a shorter angular range of motion (ARM) in scapula and pelvis inclination and in shoulder, hip and forelimb retraction-protraction angles. At lift off, stifle and tarsal joint angles were more flexed. In general, only small differences were observed in AR horse kinematics when compared with the other 2 breeds. AN horses presented negative overtracking length, which was positive in AR and AA. In AN horses the elbow and carpal joints were more flexed at the moment of maximal elevation, elbow and fore-fetlock joints also exhibited a larger ARM due to a smaller angle at maximal flexion. In the hind limbs, tarsal, hind fetlock and retraction-protraction angles presented a larger ARM in AN horses due to greater maximal flexion in the tarsal and hind fetlock joints. Fore- and hind fetlocks were also more flexed in horses from this breed. In conclusion, differences between kinematic variables at the trot were observed in the three breeds studied here, mainly in forelimb joints. The most outstanding feature was the greater forelimb flexion recorded in AN horses than in the other breeds which is consistent with the elevated movements in this breed. In AA horses, the ARM of proximal joints involved in retraction protraction in both fore- and hind limbs was smaller. All the differences observed highlighted the idiosyncratic nature of the trot in each breed; this may influence the functional

  18. Integrated reservoir studies enhance well completions

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, J.S.; Aud, W.W.; Burns, R.

    1998-03-16

    Integrated reservoir studies, together with modern completion and stimulation techniques, enhance well productivity while lowering completion costs. Results from different areas show that this approach increased productivity from 40% to 100% over previous applied methods. These approaches incorporate detailed production response characterization with a technical examination of past completion and stimulation practices to: Quantify the effectiveness of prior completion methods; Customize completions by specifically tailoring stimulation procedures to match the individual reservoir with its specific producing and fracturing idiosyncrasies. Two case histories, the Deep Red Fork (oil) formation of Oklahoma and the Haynesville (natural gas) formation of Louisiana, are used to illustrate the method.

  19. Photometric and Kinematic Studies of Extragalactic Globular Cluster Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windschitl-Dowell, Jessica L.

    2015-01-01

    Globular clusters (GCs) are compact, luminous collections of stars created during the early stages of galaxy formation. As a result, the properties of GC systems provide important clues about the formation, merger history, and structure of their host galaxies. In particular, kinematic studies of GCs can be used to investigate the dark matter distribution in galaxy halos and provide observational evidence that can be used to constrain models of galaxy formation. I will present our study of the GC systems of two spiral galaxies, NGC 891 and NGC 1055, and show how we used wide-field BVR imaging from the WIYN 3.5-m telescope to detect the GC population and measure the global properties of the system. We quantified the radial distribution of the GC system and total number of GCs in these galaxies and compared the results to those of other galaxies.I will also present the results of spectroscopic follow-up for two giant galaxies: the S0 galaxy NGC 4594 (M104), and the elliptical galaxy NGC 3379 (M105). Using spectra taken with AAT/AAOmega, WIYN/HYDRA, and MMT/Hectospec, I measured the radial velocities of GCs, and combined them with published results to determine the mass distribution and V-band mass-to-light (M/LV) ratio profile for each galaxy out to large effective radius (7-9 Re). I compared our results to mass estimates from other kinematic tracers and also considered them in the context of galaxy formation models. For both galaxies, I found that the M/LV profiles increase with radius and do not flatten, which suggests that the dark matter halos in these galaxies extend to the edge of our data. I also looked for evidence of rotation within the GC systems, and found that neither system exhibits significant rotation around the host galaxy. Finally, I examined the velocity dispersion of each GC system as a function of radius and found kinematic differences between the red, metal-rich and blue, metal-poor GC subpopulations.

  20. Mandibular kinematics after orthognathic surgical treatment a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Chiarella; Ugolini, Alessandro; Rocchetta, Davide; Galante, Domenico; Mapelli, Andrea; Giannì, Aldo Bruno

    2010-03-01

    We recorded three-dimensional mandibular movements, while the mouth was being opened and closed, using an optoelectronic motion analyser in 14 patients (5 skeletal Class II, 9 skeletal Class III) who were being assessed 7-49 months after orthognathic operations, and in 44 healthy subjects. All 14 patients had satisfactory healing on clinical examination, and function had been restored. Mandibular movement was divided into its rotational and translational components. On maximum mouth opening, the patients had significantly less total displacement of the mandibular interincisor point (p=0.05), and more mandibular movement that was explained by pure condylar rotation (p=0.006), than control subjects. There was no significant relation between maximum mouth opening and percentage rotation. While mandibular motion was well restored clinically by orthognathic surgery, the kinematics of the joint were modified. Larger studies and longitudinal investigations are necessary to appreciate the clinical relevance of the variations in condylar rotational and translational components.

  1. A feasibility study of hand kinematics for EVA analysis using magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickenson, Rueben D.; Lorenz, Christine H.; Peterson, Steven W.; Strauss, Alvin M.; Main, John A.

    1992-01-01

    A new method of analyzing the kinematics of joint motion is developed. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) offers several distinct advantages. Past methods of studying anatomic joint motion have usually centered on four approaches. These methods are x-ray projection, goniometric linkage analysis, sonic digitization, and landmark measurement of photogrammetry. Of these four, only x-ray is applicable for in vivo studies. The remaining three methods utilize other types of projections of inter-joint measurements, which can cause various types of error. MRI offers accuracy in measurement due to its tomographic nature (as opposed to projection) without the problems associated with x-ray dosage. Once the data acquisition of MR images was complete, the images were processed using a 3D volume rendering workstation. The metacarpalphalangeal (MCP) joint of the left index finger was selected and reconstructed into a three-dimensional graphic display. From the reconstructed volumetric images, measurements of the angles of movement of the applicable bones were obtained and processed by analyzing the screw motion of the MCP joint. Landmark positions were chosen at distinctive locations of the joint at fixed image threshold intensity levels to ensure repeatability. The primarily two dimensional planar motion of this joint was then studied using a method of constructing coordinate systems using three (or more) points. A transformation matrix based on a world coordinate system described the location and orientation of a local target coordinate system. Future research involving volume rendering of MRI data focusing on the internal kinematics of the hand's individual ligaments, cartilage, tendons, etc. will follow. Its findings will show the applicability of MRI to joint kinematics for gaining further knowledge of the hand-glove (power assisted) design for extravehicular activity (EVA).

  2. Alternative Education Completers: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Becky L.; Holt, Carleton R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the elements of the alternative education experience significant to successful completion of the program. This phenomenological paradigm provided the framework for all aspects of the qualitative study. Students, parents, administrators, and staff members of two alternative programs in the southeast Kansas…

  3. A KINEMATIC STUDY OF THE ANDROMEDA DWARF SPHEROIDAL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Michelle L. M.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Chapman, Scott C.; Irwin, Michael J.; Rich, R. Michael; Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Bate, Nicholas F.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Penarrubia, Jorge; Casey, Caitlin M.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Koch, Andreas; McConnachie, Alan W.; Tanvir, Nial

    2013-05-10

    We present a homogeneous kinematic analysis of red giant branch stars within 18 of the 28 Andromeda dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies, obtained using the Keck I/LRIS and Keck II/DEIMOS spectrographs. Based on their g - i colors (taken with the CFHT/MegaCam imager), physical positions on the sky, and radial velocities, we assign probabilities of dSph membership to each observed star. Using this information, the velocity dispersions, central masses, and central densities of the dark matter halos are calculated for these objects, and compared with the properties of the Milky Way dSph population. We also measure the average metallicity ([Fe/H]) from the co-added spectra of member stars for each M31 dSph and find that they are consistent with the trend of decreasing [Fe/H] with luminosity observed in the Milky Way population. We find that three of our studied M31 dSphs appear as significant outliers in terms of their central velocity dispersion, And XIX, XXI, and XXV, all of which have large half-light radii ({approx}> 700 pc) and low velocity dispersions ({sigma}{sub v} < 5 km s{sup -1}). In addition, And XXV has a mass-to-light ratio within its half-light radius of just [M/L]{sub half}=10.3{sup +7.0}{sub -6.7}, making it consistent with a simple stellar system with no appreciable dark matter component within its 1{sigma} uncertainties. We suggest that the structure of the dark matter halos of these outliers have been significantly altered by tides.

  4. A complete analytical solution for the inverse instantaneous kinematics of a spherical-revolute-spherical (7R) redundant manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podhorodeski, R. P.; Fenton, R. G.; Goldenberg, A. A.

    1989-01-01

    Using a method based upon resolving joint velocities using reciprocal screw quantities, compact analytical expressions are generated for the inverse solution of the joint rates of a seven revolute (spherical-revolute-spherical) manipulator. The method uses a sequential decomposition of screw coordinates to identify reciprocal screw quantities used in the resolution of a particular joint rate solution, and also to identify a Jacobian null-space basis used for the direct solution of optimal joint rates. The results of the screw decomposition are used to study special configurations of the manipulator, generating expressions for the inverse velocity solution for all non-singular configurations of the manipulator, and identifying singular configurations and their characteristics. Two functions are therefore served: a new general method for the solution of the inverse velocity problem is presented; and complete analytical expressions are derived for the resolution of the joint rates of a seven degree of freedom manipulator useful for telerobotic and industrial robotic application.

  5. Photometric and kinematic studies of extragalactic globular cluster systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowell, Jessica

    Globular clusters (GCs) are old, luminous, compact collections of stars found in galaxy halos that formed during the early stages of galaxy formation. Because of this, GCs serve as excellent tracers of the formation, structure, and merger history of their host galaxies. My dissertation will examine both the photometric and kinematic properties of GC systems and their relationship to their host galaxies. In the first section, I will present the analysis of the GC systems of two spiral galaxies, NGC 891 and NGC 1055. I will discuss the photometric methods used to detect GCs using wide-field BVR imaging and to quantify the global properties of the system such as the total number of GCs and their radial distribution. My results for these two GC systems were compared to those of other galaxies. I will also present the results of spectroscopic follow-up for two giant galaxies: the S0 galaxy NGC 4594 (M104), and the elliptical galaxy NGC 3379 (M105). I measured the radial velocities of GCs in these two galaxies, and combined them with published results to determine the mass distribution and mass-to-light (M/L) ratio profile for each galaxy out to large effective radius (7-9 Re). For both galaxies, I found that the M/L profiles increase with radius and do not flatten, which suggests that the dark matter halos in these galaxies extend to the edge of my data. I also looked for evidence of rotation in the GC systems, and found that neither system exhibits significant rotation around the host galaxy. I examined the velocity dispersion profile of each GC system and found kinematic differences between the red and blue GC subpopulations. Finally, I compared my results to mass estimates for these galaxies from other kinematic tracers and considered them in the context of galaxy formation models.

  6. Can co-activation reduce kinematic variability? A simulation study.

    PubMed

    Selen, Luc P J; Beek, Peter J; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2005-11-01

    Impedance modulation has been suggested as a means to suppress the effects of internal 'noise' on movement kinematics. We investigated this hypothesis in a neuro-musculo-skeletal model. A prerequisite is that the muscle model produces realistic force variability. We found that standard Hill-type models do not predict realistic force variability in response to variability in stimulation. In contrast, a combined motor-unit pool model and a pool of parallel Hill-type motor units did produce realistic force variability as a function of target force, largely independent of how the force was transduced to the tendon. To test the main hypothesis, two versions of the latter model were simulated as an antagonistic muscle pair, controlling the position of a frictionless hinge joint, with a distal segment having realistic inertia relative to the muscle strength. Increasing the impedance through co-activation resulted in less kinematic variability, except for the lowest levels of co-activation. Model behavior in this region was affected by the noise amplitude and the inertial properties of the model. Our simulations support the idea that muscular co-activation is in principle an effective strategy to meet accuracy demands.

  7. Development of prehension movements in children: a kinematic study.

    PubMed

    Kuhtz-Buschbeck, J P; Stolze, H; Jöhnk, K; Boczek-Funcke, A; Illert, M

    1998-10-01

    To evaluate the normal development of functional hand motor skill, the kinematics of prehension movements were analyzed in 54 healthy children (age 4-12 years). The subjects repeatedly reached out for cylindrical target objects and grasped them with a precision grip of their dominant hand. The trajectory of the reaching hand and the finger aperture were monitored by optoelectronic motion analysis. To obtain comparable conditions for the different age groups, the experimental setup was scaled according to the individual body proportions of each subject. Within the investigated age range, neither the movement duration nor the normalized (according to body proportions) peak spatial velocity of the reaching hand changed significantly. However, the hand trajectory straightened and the coordination between hand transport and grip formation improved, resulting in smooth and stereotyped kinematic profiles at the age of 12 years. The younger children opened their grip relatively wider than the older ones, thus grasping with a higher safety margin. The dependence on visual control of the movement declined during motor development. Only the oldest children were able to scale the grip aperture adequately, according to various sizes of the target objects, when visual control of the movement was lacking. The results suggest that the development of prehensile skills during childhood lasts until the end of the first decade of life. This functional maturation is discussed in relation to the development of neuronal pathways.

  8. Proper-Motion Based Kinematics Study of Galactic RR Lyraes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dambis, Andrei; Berdnikov, Leonid; Rastorguev, Alexei; Zabolotskikh, Marina

    2015-08-01

    We cross-match an extensive sample of almost 2000 RR Lyrae type stars located within ≈7 kpc from the Sun drawn from the lists of Torrealba et al. (2015) and Drake et al. (2013) with the US Naval Observatory CCD Astrograph Catalogue (UCAC4) and SDSS DR12 used as sources of proper motions and ALLWISE data release of the WISE infrared photometric catalog to analyze the kinematics of the RR Lyrae type star population in the extended solar neoghborhood. We find the mean velocities and the components of the velocity ellipsoid tensors of the halo and thick-disk subpopulations and the dependence of these parameters on Galactocentric distance and the height above the Galactic midplane.

  9. A Kinematically Complete Measurement of the Proton Structure Function F2 in the Resonance Region and Evaluation of Its Moments

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhail Osipenko; Et. Al.

    2003-05-01

    We measured the inclusive electron-proton cross section in the nucleon resonance region (W<2.5 GeV) at momentum transfers Q2 below 4.5 (GeV/c)2 with the CLAS detector. The large acceptance of CLAS allowed the measurement of the cross section in a large, contiguous two-dimensional range of Q2 and x, making it possible to perform an integration of the data at fixed Q2 over the significant x interval. >From these data we extracted the structure function F2 and, by including other world data, we studied the Q2 evolution of its moments, Mn(Q2), in order to estimate higher twist contributions. The small statistical and systematic uncertainties of the CLAS data allow a precise extraction of the higher twists and will require significant improvements in theoretical predictions if a meaningful comparison with these new experimental results is to be made.

  10. Using kinematic reduction for studying grasping postures. An application to power and precision grasp of cylinders.

    PubMed

    Jarque-Bou, N; Gracia-Ibáñez, V; Sancho-Bru, J L; Vergara, M; Pérez-González, A; Andrés, F J

    2016-09-01

    The kinematic analysis of human grasping is challenging because of the high number of degrees of freedom involved. The use of principal component and factorial analyses is proposed in the present study to reduce the hand kinematics dimensionality in the analysis of posture for ergonomic purposes, allowing for a comprehensive study without losing accuracy while also enabling velocity and acceleration analyses to be performed. A laboratory study was designed to analyse the effect of weight and diameter in the grasping posture for cylinders. This study measured the hand posture from six subjects when transporting cylinders of different weights and diameters with precision and power grasps. The hand posture was measured using a Vicon(®) motion-tracking system, and the principal component analysis was applied to reduce the kinematics dimensionality. Different ANOVAs were performed on the reduced kinematic variables to check the effect of weight and diameter of the cylinders, as well as that of the subject. The results show that the original twenty-three degrees of freedom of the hand were reduced to five, which were identified as digit arching, closeness, palmar arching, finger adduction and thumb opposition. Both cylinder diameter and weight significantly affected the precision grasping posture: diameter affects closeness, palmar arching and opposition, while weight affects digit arching, palmar arching and closeness. The power-grasping posture was mainly affected by the cylinder diameter, through digit arching, closeness and opposition. The grasping posture was largely affected by the subject factor and this effect couldn't be attributed only to hand size. In conclusion, this kinematic reduction allowed identifying the effect of the diameter and weight of the cylinders in a comprehensive way, being diameter more important than weight.

  11. Kinematic and kinetic interactions during normal and ACL-deficient gait: a longitudinal in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Atarod, Mohammad; Frank, Cyril B; Shrive, Nigel G

    2014-03-01

    The interactions between different tissues within the knee joint and between different kinematic DOF and joint flexion during normal gait were investigated. These interactions change following ACL transection, in both short (4 weeks) and long (20 weeks) term. Ten skeletally mature sheep were used in control (N = 5) and experimental (N = 5) groups. The 6-DOF stifle joint motion was first measured during normal gait. The control group were then euthanized and mounted on a unique robotic testing platform for kinetic measurements. The experimental group underwent ACL transection surgery, and kinematics measurements were repeated 4 and 20 weeks post-operatively. The experimental group were then euthanized and underwent kinetic assessment using the robotic system. Results indicated significant couplings between joint flexion vs. abduction and internal tibial rotation, as well as medial, anterior, and superior tibial translations during both normal and ACL-deficient gait. Distinct kinetic interactions were also observed between different tissues within the knee joint. Direct relationships were found between ACL vs. LM/MM, and PCL vs. MCL loads during normal gait; inverse relationships were detected between ACL vs. PCL and PCL vs. LM/MM loads. These kinetic interaction patterns were considerably altered by ACL injury. Significant inter-subject variability in joint kinematics and tissue loading patterns during gait was also observed. This study provides further understanding of the in vivo function of different tissues within the knee joint and their couplings with joint kinematics during normal gait and over time following ACL transection.

  12. A Three-Dimensional Kinematic and Kinetic Study of the College-Level Female Softball Swing

    PubMed Central

    Milanovich, Monica; Nesbit, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper quantifies and discusses the three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic characteristics of the female softball swing as performed by fourteen female collegiate amateur subjects. The analyses were performed using a three-dimensional computer model. The model was driven kinematically from subject swings data that were recorded with a multi-camera motion analysis system. Each subject used two distinct bats with significantly different inertial properties. Model output included bat trajectories, subject/bat interaction forces and torques, work, and power. These data formed the basis for a detailed analysis and description of fundamental swing kinematic and kinetic quantities. The analyses revealed that the softball swing is a highly coordinated and individual three-dimensional motion and subject-to-subject variations were significant in all kinematic and kinetic quantities. In addition, the potential effects of bat properties on swing mechanics are discussed. The paths of the hands and the centre-of-curvature of the bat relative to the horizontal plane appear to be important trajectory characteristics of the swing. Descriptions of the swing mechanics and practical implications are offered based upon these findings. Key Points The female softball swing is a highly coordinated and individual three-dimensional motion and subject-to-subject variations were significant in all kinematic and kinetic quantities. The paths of the grip point, bat centre-of-curvature, CG, and COP are complex yet reveal consistent patterns among subjects indicating that these patterns are fundamental components of the swing. The most important mechanical quantity relative to generating bat speed is the total work applied to the bat from the batter. Computer modeling of the softball swing is a viable means for study of the fundamental mechanics of the swing motion, the interactions between the batter and the bat, and the energy transfers between the two. PMID:24570623

  13. A Morpho-kinematic and Spectroscopic study of Bipolar Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clyne, Niall

    2015-09-01

    In this thesis, studies of the kinematic properties for a sample of Galactic bipolar planetary nebulae, based on optical and infrared observations, were performed using a morpho-kinematic code, optical and NIR diagnostic diagrams, and techniques using data analyses. The mechanisms that form complex bipolar planetary nebulae remain unclear, and their shapes can be generated either as a planetary or symbiotic nebula. The origin of the material ionised by the white dwarf is very different in these two scenarios, and it complicates the understanding of the morphologies of planetary nebulae. The physical properties, structure, and dynamics of the bipolar nebulae, MyCn 18, M 2-9, Mz 3, Hen 2-104, and Abell 14, are each investigated in detail with the aim of understanding their nature, shaping mechanisms, and evolutionary history. For MyCn 18, VLT infrared images, VLT ISAAC infrared spectra, and long-slit optical echelle spectra are used to investigate the inner and outer regions of the nebula. The morpho-kinematic modelling tool shape was used to firmly constrain the structure and kinematics of the source. A timescale analysis was used to help determine the kinematical age of the nebula and its main components. A spectroscopic study of MyCn 18's central region reveals the detailed make-up of its nebular composition. Molecular hydrogen, atomic helium, and Brackett gamma emission are detected in the central regions. ISAAC spectra from a slit position along the narrow waist of the nebula demonstrate that the ionised gas resides closer to the centre of the nebula than the molecular emission. A final reconstructed 3-D model of MyCn 18 was generated, providing kinematical information on the expansion velocity of its nebular components by means of position-velocity arrays (or observed long-slit spectra). A kinematical age of the nebula and its components were obtained using the position-velocity arrays and timescale analysis. For M 2-9, Mz 3, and Hen 2-104, long-slit optical

  14. Study determines better well completion practices

    SciTech Connect

    Venditto, J.J.; McMechan, D.E. ); Simpson, G. ); Hyde, P.V.; Friend, L.L.; Schindler, R.E. )

    1993-01-25

    The 9-month Halliburton Services and Columbia Natural Resources (CNR) study showed a number of ways for improving gas production from Devonian shale and other tight gas formations. This paper discusses these conclusions and the supporting evidence. In the West Virginia study well, the effects of perforation direction on fracture initiation were illustrated by breakdown pressure differences and fluid distribution. This was determined with a prototype directional gamma ray logging (DGRL) tool that measures azimuthal distribution of the tracer. The perforation (4,857-4,860 ft) aligned with the least principal stress broke down at 3,238 psi, while the perforations (4,850-4,853 ft) aligned perpendicular to the least principal stress broke down at 2,731 psi.

  15. Centrifuge workers study. Phase II, completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Wooten, H.D.

    1994-09-01

    Phase II of the Centrifuge Workers Study was a follow-up to the Phase I efforts. The Phase I results had indicated a higher risk than expected among centrifuge workers for developing bladder cancer when compared with the risk in the general population for developing this same type of cancer. However, no specific agent could be identified as the causative agent for these bladder cancers. As the Phase II Report states, Phase I had been limited to workers who had the greatest potential for exposure to substances used in the centrifuge process. Phase II was designed to expand the survey to evaluate the health of all employees who had ever worked in Centrifuge Program Departments 1330-1339 but who had not been interviewed in Phase I. Employees in analytical laboratories and maintenance departments who provided support services for the Centrifuge Program were also included in Phase II. In December 1989, the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), now known as Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), was contracted to conduct a follow-up study (Phase II). Phase H of the Centrifuge Workers Study expanded the survey to include all former centrifuge workers who were not included in Phase I. ORISE was chosen because they had performed the Phase I tasks and summarized the corresponding survey data therefrom.

  16. Walking and running on treadmill: the standard criteria for kinematics studies.

    PubMed

    Padulo, Johnny; Chamari, Karim; Ardigò, Luca Paolo

    2014-04-01

    In humans, walking and running represent the most studied locomotion forms. The motorized treadmill has always been a very useful scientific tool, because it allows administer a variety of speed/slope combinations, which is not always easy-to-find in nature. The purpose of this short communication is to help improve the scientific use of the treadmill and explain some simple kinematics variables together with simple ways to measure/calculate them.

  17. Walking and running on treadmill: the standard criteria for kinematics studies

    PubMed Central

    Padulo, Johnny; Chamari, Karim; Ardigò, Luca Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Summary In humans, walking and running represent the most studied locomotion forms. The motorized treadmill has always been a very useful scientific tool, because it allows administer a variety of speed/slope combinations, which is not always easy-to-find in nature. The purpose of this short communication is to help improve the scientific use of the treadmill and explain some simple kinematics variables together with simple ways to measure/calculate them. PMID:25332929

  18. Kinematically complete final state investigations of molecular photodissociation: two- and three-body decay of laser-prepared H 3 3 s 2 A 1 '

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galster, U.; Kaminski, P.; Beckert, M.; Helm, H.; Müller, U.

    2001-12-01

    We have performed kinematically complete investigations of molecular photodissociation of triatomic hydrogen in a fast beam translational spectrometer recently built in Freiburg. The apparatus allows us to investigate laser-induced dissociation of neutral molecules into two, three, or more neutral products. The fragments are detected in coincidence and their vectorial momenta in the center-of-mass frame are determined. We demonstrate the potential of the method at the fragmentation of the 3 s 2A1'(N = 1, K = 0) state of triatomic hydrogen. In this state, three-body decay into ground state hydrogen atoms H+H+H, two-body predissociation into H+H2(v, J), and photoemission to the H3 ground state surface with subsequent two-body decay are competing channels. In the case of two-body predissociation, we determine the rovibrational population in the H2(v, J) fragment. The vibrational distribution of H2 is compared with approximate theoretical predictions. For three-body decay, we measure the six-fold differential photodissociation cross-section. To determine accurate final state distributions, the geometric collection efficiency of the apparatus is calculated by a Monte Carlo simulation, and the raw data are corrected for apparatus efficiency. The final state momentum distribution shows pronounced correlation patterns which are characteristic for the dissociation mechanism. For a three-body decay process with a discrete kinetic energy release we have developed a novel data reduction procedure based on the detection of two fragments. The final state distribution determined by this independent method agrees extremely well with that observed in the triple-coincidence data. In addition, this method allows us to fully explore the phase space of the final state and to determine the branching ratios between the two- and three-body decay processes.

  19. A feasibility study of hand kinematics for EVA analysis using magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickenson, Reuben D.; Lorenz, Christine H.; Peterson, Steven W.; Strauss, Alvin M.; Main, John A.

    1992-01-01

    A new method for analyzing the kinematics of joint motion using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is described. The reconstruction of the metacarpalphalangeal joint of the left index finger into a 3D graphic display is shown. From the reconstructed volumetric images, measurements of the angles of movement of the applicable bones are obtained and processed by analyzing the screw motion of the joint. Landmark positions are chosen at distinctive locations of the joint at fixed image threshold intensity levels to ensure repeatability. The primarily 2D planar motion of this joint is then studied using a method of constructing coordinate systems using three or more points. A transformation matrix based on a world coordinate system describes the location and orientation of the local target coordinate system. The findings show the applicability of MRI to joint kinematics for gaining further knowledge of the hand-glove design for EVA.

  20. 2MASS photometry and kinematical studies of open cluster NGC 188

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsanhoury, W. H.; Haroon, A. A.; Chupina, N. V.; Vereshchagin, S. V.; Sariya, Devesh P.; Yadav, R. K. S.; Jiang, Ing-Guey

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we present our results for the photometric and kinematical studies of old open cluster NGC 188. We determined various astrophysical parameters like limited radius, core and tidal radii, distance, luminosity and mass functions, total mass, relaxation time etc. for the cluster using 2MASS catalog. We obtained the cluster's distance from the Sun as 1721 ± 41 pc and log (age)= 9.85 ± 0.05 at Solar metallicity. The relaxation time of the cluster is smaller than the estimated cluster age which suggests that the cluster is dynamically relaxed. Our results agree with the values mentioned in the literature. We also determined the clusters apex coordinates as (281°.88, -44∘ .76) using AD-diagram method. Other kinematical parameters like space velocity components, cluster center and elements of Solar motion etc. have also been computed.

  1. Total knee arthroplasty kinematics may be assessed using computer modeling: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Mihalko, William M; Williams, John L

    2012-10-01

    The next generational leap in computer navigation will hopefully aid surgeons in personalizing surgical techniques to patients' individual anatomical variables to optimize outcomes. To effectively use the information obtained in the operating room, a multitude of kinematic variables must be conveyed to the orthopedic surgeon in a usable and coherent manner. This study used an intraoperative navigation system to record passive knee kinematics after a total knee arthroplastyperformed. The clinical measures were taken via research software with the ability to record kinematic data in 10-second intervals. The data from 10 consecutive clinical cases were averaged, and the translation (anterior/posterior) and rotation (internal/external) were recorded and compared from 0° to 100° of flexion to allow for comparison with the previously recorded computer model. Model and clinical curves compared favorably, with less than 1° rotational and 1.5-mm differences, on average. The comparison of information and analyses were reviewed to indicate how they might be interpreted in the operating room for future use during surgery to allow a more personalized approach to improving functional outcomes after total knee arthroplasty.

  2. Inverse kinematics (p, n) reactions studies using the WINDS slow neutron detector and the SAMURAI spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, J.; Sasano, M.; Zegers, R. G. T.; Baba, H.; Chao, W.; Dozono, M.; Fukuda, N.; Inabe, N.; Isobe, T.; Jhang, G.; Kameda, D.; Kubo, T.; Kurata-Nishimura, M.; Milman, E.; Motobayashi, T.; Otsu, H.; Panin, V.; Powell, W.; Sakai, H.; Sako, M.; Sato, H.; Shimizu, Y.; Stuhl, L.; Suzuki, H.; Tangwancharoen, S.; Takeda, H.; Uesaka, T.; Yoneda, K.; Zenihiro, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Sumikama, T.; Tako, T.; Nakamura, T.; Kondo, Y.; Togano, Y.; Shikata, M.; Tsubota, J.; Yako, K.; Shimoura, S.; Ota, S.; Kawase, S.; Kubota, Y.; Takaki, M.; Michimasa, S.; Kisamori, K.; Lee, C. S.; Tokieda, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Koyama, S.; Kobayashi, N.; Wakasa, T.; Sakaguchi, S.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Murakami, T.; Nakatsuka, N.; Kaneko, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Mucher, D.; Reichert, S.; Bazin, D.; Lee, J. W.

    2016-06-01

    We have combined the low-energy neutron detector WINDS (Wide-angle Inverse-kinematics Neutron Detectors for SHARAQ) and the SAMURAI spectrometer at RIKEN Nishina Center RI Beam Factory (RIBF) in order to perform (p, n) reactions in inverse kinematics for unstable nuclei in the mass region around A ∼ 100 . In this setup, WINDS is used for detecting recoil neutrons and the SAMURAI spectrometer is used for tagging decay channel of heavy residue. The first experiment by using the setup was performed to study Gamow-Teller transitions from 132Sn in April 2014. The atomic number Z and mass-to-charge ratio A / Q of the beam residues were determined from the measurements of time of flight, magnetic rigidity and energy loss. The obtained A / Q and Z resolutions were σA/Q = 0.14 % and σZ = 0.22 , respectively. Furthermore, owing to the large momentum acceptance (50 %) of SAMURAI, the beam residues associated with the γ , 1n and 2n decay channel were measured in the same magnetic field setting. The kinematic loci of the measured recoil neutron energy and laboratory angle are clearly seen. It shows that the excitation energy up to about 20 MeV can be reconstructed.

  3. Simulated stellar kinematics studies of high-redshift galaxies with the HARMONI Integral Field Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrew, S.; Zieleniewski, S.; Houghton, R. C. W.; Thatte, N.; Devriendt, J.; Tecza, M.; Clarke, F.; O'Brien, K.; Häußler, B.

    2016-05-01

    We present a study into the capabilities of integrated and spatially resolved integral field spectroscopy of galaxies at z = 2-4 with the future HARMONI spectrograph for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) using the simulation pipeline, HSIM. We focus particularly on the instrument's capabilities in stellar absorption line integral field spectroscopy, which will allow us to study the stellar kinematics and stellar population characteristics. Such measurements for star-forming and passive galaxies around the peak star formation era will provide a critical insight into the star formation, quenching and mass assembly history of high-z, and thus present-day galaxies. First, we perform a signal-to-noise study for passive galaxies at a range of stellar masses for z = 2-4, assuming different light profiles; for this population, we estimate that integrated stellar absorption line spectroscopy with HARMONI will be limited to galaxies with M* ≳ 1010.7 M⊙. Secondly, we use HSIM to perform a mock observation of a typical star-forming 1010 M⊙ galaxy at z = 3 generated from the high-resolution cosmological simulation NUTFB. We demonstrate that the input stellar kinematics of the simulated galaxy can be accurately recovered from the integrated spectrum in a 15-h observation, using common analysis tools. Whilst spatially resolved spectroscopy is likely to remain out of reach for this particular galaxy, we estimate HARMONI's performance limits in this regime from our findings. This study demonstrates how instrument simulators such as HSIM can be used to quantify instrument performance and study observational biases on kinematics retrieval; and shows the potential of making observational predictions from cosmological simulation output data.

  4. Kinematic space and wormholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian-dong; Chen, Bin

    2017-01-01

    The kinematic space could play a key role in constructing the bulk geometry from dual CFT. In this paper, we study the kinematic space from geometric points of view, without resorting to differential entropy. We find that the kinematic space could be intrinsically defined in the embedding space. For each oriented geodesic in the Poincaré disk, there is a corresponding point in the kinematic space. This point is the tip of the causal diamond of the disk whose intersection with the Poincaré disk determines the geodesic. In this geometric construction, the causal structure in the kinematic space can be seen clearly. Moreover, we find that every transformation in the SL(2,R) leads to a geodesic in the kinematic space. In particular, for a hyperbolic transformation defining a BTZ black hole, it is a timelike geodesic in the kinematic space. We show that the horizon length of the static BTZ black hole could be computed by the geodesic length of corresponding points in the kinematic space. Furthermore, we discuss the fundamental regions in the kinematic space for the BTZ blackhole and multi-boundary wormholes.

  5. A Study of Prior Learning Assessment in Degree Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Jean Marie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of prior learning assessment (PLA) in postsecondary degree completion for adult community college students at Mountwest Community and Technical College (MCTC). The study group consisted of 339 MCTC graduates, who applied PLA credits toward degree completion between the academic year 2006 and 2011.…

  6. Study of the kinematic and dynamic characteristics of a wormgear transmission for helicopter applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, D. C.; Yuan, Qin

    1994-01-01

    The first phase of the study of the performance of a wormgear transmission is reported. In this phase the work included the selection of a double-enveloping wormgear type, and its dimensions, suitable for use in helicopter transmissions; the 3-D graphics representation of the selected wormgear using the I-DEAS software; the analysis of the kinematics of meshing; the analysis of load sharing among the meshing teeth; and the implementation of the analyses in a computer program. The report describes the analyses, their results, and the use of the computer programs.

  7. A kinematic study on (un)intentional imitation in bottlenose dolphins

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Luisa; Bulgheroni, Maria; Tizzi, Raffaella; Castiello, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of observing other’s movements on subsequent performance in bottlenose dolphins. The imitative ability of non-human animals has intrigued a number of researchers. So far, however, studies in dolphins have been confined to intentional imitation concerned with the explicit request to imitate other agents. In the absence of instruction to imitate, do dolphins (un)intentionally replicate other’s movement features? To test this, dolphins were filmed while reaching and touching a stimulus before and after observing another dolphin (i.e., model) performing the same action. All videos were reviewed and segmented in order to extract the relevant movements. A marker was inserted post hoc via software on the videos upon the anatomical landmark of interest (i.e., rostrum) and was tracked throughout the time course of the movement sequence. The movement was analyzed using an in-house software developed to perform two-dimensional (2D) post hoc kinematic analysis. The results indicate that dolphins’ kinematics is sensitive to other’s movement features. Movements performed for the “visuomotor priming” condition were characterized by a kinematic pattern similar to that performed by the observed dolphin (i.e., model). Addressing the issue of spontaneous imitation in bottlenose dolphins might allow ascertaining whether the potential or impulse to produce an imitative action is generated, not just when they intend to imitate, but whenever they watch another conspecific’s behavior. In closing, this will clarify whether motor representational capacity is a by-product of factors specific to humans or whether more general characteristics such as processes of associative learning prompted by high level of encephalization could help to explain the evolution of this ability. PMID:26300764

  8. Internal Kinematics of the Volume-reduced Tongue: A Longitudinal Microsonometric Study

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, JIE; SHCHERBATYY, VOLODYMYR; LIU, ZI-JUN

    2015-01-01

    This study examined tongue internal kinematics during feeding over time after its volume reduction. Six ultrasonic crystals were implanted into the tongue to record distance changes in anterior width (AW), bilateral lengths (LENG), posterior thicknesses (THICK), posterior dorsal (PDW) and ventral (PVW) widths in 5 sibling pairs of Yucatan minipigs (n=10). In each pair, one received tongue volume reduction surgery (reduction) and the other had the identical incisions without tissue removal (sham). Functional deformation of the tongue from pre-implanted ultrasonic crystals was recorded during natural feeding 1 day before, 7–8, 13–15 and 28–30 days after the surgery. The results revealed that feeding behavior and tongue functional deformation were unchanged over time in the sham pigs. However, at day 7–8, more frequent and longer ingestion episodes were seen in the reduction as compared to the sham. Moreover, deformational changes in AW and LENG decreased while those in THICK, PDW and PVW increased significantly (P < 0.001). At day 13–15, the reduced deformational changes in LENG (P < 0.01) slightly restored and the increased deformation in THICK (P > 0.05), PDW (P < 0.01), and PVW (P < 0.05) diminished. At day 28–30, the restoration of AW and LENG continued (P < 0.01–0.05), but previously enhanced deformations in THICK, PDW and PVW were no longer significantly different from the baseline (P > 0.05). These results suggest that the tongue volume reduction has significant and persistent impacts on feeding behaviors and tongue internal kinematics, and the restoring capacity of internal kinematics in the anterior tongue is limited and incomplete over time. PMID:26456078

  9. Internal Kinematics of the Volume-Reduced Tongue: A Longitudinal Microsonometric Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Shcherbatyy, Volodymyr; Liu, Zi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined tongue internal kinematics during feeding over time after its volume reduction. Six ultrasonic crystals were implanted into the tongue to record distance changes in anterior width (AW), bilateral lengths (LENG), posterior thicknesses (THICK), and posterior dorsal (PDW) and ventral (PVW) widths in five sibling pairs of Yucatan minipigs (N = 10). In each pair, one received tongue volume reduction surgery (reduction), and the other had the identical incisions without tissue removal (sham). Functional deformation of the tongue from preimplanted ultrasonic crystals was recorded during natural feeding 1 day before, 7-8, 13-15, and 28-30 days after the surgery. The results revealed that feeding behavior and tongue functional deformation were unchanged over time in the sham pigs. However, at Days 7-8, more frequent and longer ingestion episodes were seen in the reduction as compared with the sham. Moreover, deformational changes in AW and LENG decreased, whereas those in THICK, PDW, and PVW increased significantly (P < 0.001). At Days 13-15, the reduced deformational changes in LENG (P < 0.01) slightly restored, and the increased deformation in THICK (P > 0.05), PDW (P < 0.01), and PVW (P < 0.05) diminished. At Days 28-30, the restoration of AW and LENG continued (P < 0.01-0.05), but previously enhanced deformations in THICK, PDW, and PVW were no longer significantly different from the baseline (P > 0.05). These results suggest that the tongue volume reduction has significant and persistent impacts on feeding behaviors and tongue internal kinematics, and the restoring capacity of internal kinematics in the anterior tongue is limited and incomplete over time.

  10. Postural stability and vehicle kinematics during an evasive lane change manoeuvre: a driver training study.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Andrew; Barrett, Rod

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a 2-day driver-training course that emphasised postural stability maintenance during critical driving situations on postural stability and vehicle kinematics during an evasive lane change manoeuvre. Following training, the trainee group experienced enhanced postural stability during specific phases of the task. In terms of vehicle kinematics, the main adaptation to training was that trained drivers reduced the extent to which they experienced vehicle decelerations during rapid turning compared to controls. Such a strategy may confer a safety benefit due to the increased risks associated with simultaneous braking while turning during an evasive manoeuvre. The newly learned strategy was consistent with the strategy used by a group of highly skilled drivers (driving instructors). Taken together, the results of the study suggest postural stability may be a useful variable to consider in relation to the skill-based component of hierarchical driver training programmes. The findings of this study provide some preliminary evidence to suggest that postural stability may be an important consideration when instructing individuals on how to safely negotiate obstacles during driving.

  11. 2D kinematic study of the central region of NGC 4501

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repetto, P.; Faúndez-Abans, M.; Freitas-Lemes, P.; Rodrigues, I.; de Oliveira-Abans, M.

    2017-01-01

    Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph and its Integral Field Unit observational data were used to study the detailed 2D gas kinematics and morphological structures within the ˜500 × 421 pc2 of the active Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 4501. We provide empirical pieces of evidence of possible outflowing material from the central zones of NGC 4501 to the observer. In addition, we performed a spectral synthesis and diagnostic diagram analysis to determine respectively the dominant stellar population in the inner disc of this galaxy and to unveil the actual nature of the central engine of NGC 4501. The principal finding of this work is that the central regions of NGC 4501 are dominated by non-circular motions connected to probable outflows of matter from the nuclear regions of this galaxy. A predominant old stellar population inhabits the internal zones of NGC 4501, excluding the possibility of ongoing starburst activity in the central parsecs of this galaxy. The latter result is confirmed by the diagnostic diagram analysis that establishes a preponderant active galactic nucleus character for NGC 4501. These outcomes together provide a general description of the gas motion and the corresponding nuclear activity in the internal disc of NGC 4501 in an attempt to elucidate the possible relation among the central activity and the induced kinematic properties of this nearby galaxy.

  12. Effects of jump and balance training on knee kinematics and electromyography of female basketball athletes during a single limb drop landing: pre-post intervention study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Some research studies have investigated the effects of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs on knee kinematics during landing tasks; however the results were different among the studies. Even though tibial rotation is usually observed at the time of ACL injury, the effects of training programs for knee kinematics in the horizontal plane have not yet been analyzed. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a jump and balance training program on knee kinematics including tibial rotation as well as on electromyography of the quadriceps and hamstrings in female athletes. Methods Eight female basketball athletes participated in the experiment. All subjects performed a single limb landing at three different times: the initial test, five weeks later, and one week after completing training. The jump and balance training program lasted for five weeks. Knee kinematics and simultaneous electromyography of the rectus femoris and Hamstrings before training were compared with those measured after completing the training program. Results After training, regarding the position of the knee at foot contact, the knee flexion angle for the Post-training trial (mean (SE): 24.4 (2.1) deg) was significantly larger than that for the Pre-training trial (19.3 (2.5) deg) (p < 0.01). The absolute change during landing in knee flexion for the Post-training trial (40.2 (1.9) deg) was significantly larger than that for the Pre-training trial (34.3 (2.5) deg) (p < 0.001). Tibial rotation and the knee varus/valgus angle were not significantly different after training. A significant increase was also found in the activity of the hamstrings 50 ms before foot contact (p < 0.05). Conclusions The jump and balance training program successfully increased knee flexion and hamstring activity of female athletes during landing, and has the possibility of producing partial effects to avoid the characteristic knee position observed in ACL injury, thereby

  13. Case studies from Oman for coiled tubing deployed completion techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.W.; Conrad, B.

    1996-09-01

    Although the use of ultra-large coiled tubing to complete wells is relatively new, it is gaining widespread industry application. This paper will detail the equipment necessary to perform an operation of this type and will present information from several case studies in Oman in which an operator has successfully deployed completion equipment on 3-1/2-inch-OD coiled tubing. In addition to a discussion of the equipment required to perform the necessary operations, the trial parameters that were established by this operator will be given. The information presented has been selected to allow an initial evaluation to be made of coiled tubing completions in general and will help to determine whether this method can prove to be less expensive than traditional rig-based completions. The topics presented have been chosen to provide the reader with a thorough understanding of the techniques and preparation needed to execute a coiled tubing completion. The summary of experiences will conclude that this innovative completion technique can be a viable method for completing wells. Although long-term advantages regarding production and well maintenance cannot yet be determined, the operator`s experiences to date have confirmed his initial belief that use of coiled tubing in ultra-large continuous-pipe applications can be cost effective.

  14. Space density distribution of galaxies in the absolute magnitude - rotation velocity plane: a volume-complete Tully-Fisher relation from CALIFA stellar kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekeraité, S.; Walcher, C. J.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Garcia Lorenzo, B.; Lyubenova, M.; Sánchez, S. F.; Spekkens, K.; van de Ven, G.; Wisotzki, L.; Ziegler, B.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; García-Benito, R.

    2016-10-01

    We measured the distribution in absolute magnitude - circular velocity space for a well-defined sample of 199 rotating galaxies of the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area Survey (CALIFA) using their stellar kinematics. Our aim in this analysis is to avoid subjective selection criteria and to take volume and large-scale structure factors into account. Using stellar velocity fields instead of gas emission line kinematics allows including rapidly rotating early-type galaxies. Our initial sample contains 277 galaxies with available stellar velocity fields and growth curve r-band photometry. After rejecting 51 velocity fields that could not be modelled because of the low number of bins, foreground contamination, or significant interaction, we performed Markov chain Monte Carlo modelling of the velocity fields, from which we obtained the rotation curve and kinematic parameters and their realistic uncertainties. We performed an extinction correction and calculated the circular velocity vcirc accounting for the pressure support of a given galaxy. The resulting galaxy distribution on the Mr-vcirc plane was then modelled as a mixture of two distinct populations, allowing robust and reproducible rejection of outliers, a significant fraction of which are slow rotators. The selection effects are understood well enough that we were able to correct for the incompleteness of the sample. The 199 galaxies were weighted by volume and large-scale structure factors, which enabled us to fit a volume-corrected Tully-Fisher relation (TFR). More importantly, we also provide the volume-corrected distribution of galaxies in the Mr-vcirc plane, which can be compared with cosmological simulations. The joint distribution of the luminosity and circular velocity space densities, representative over the range of -20 > Mr > -22 mag, can place more stringent constraints on the galaxy formation and evolution scenarios than linear TFR fit parameters or the luminosity function alone. Galaxies main

  15. Nonlinear deconvolution of hyperspectral data with MCMC for studying the kinematics of galaxies.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Emma; Carfantan, Hervé

    2014-10-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has been an area of active research in image processing and analysis for more than 10 years, mainly for remote sensing applications. Astronomical ground-based hyperspectral imagers offer new challenges to the community, which differ from the previous ones in the nature of the observed objects, but also in the quality of the data, with a low signal-to-noise ratio and a low resolution, due to the atmospheric turbulence. In this paper, we focus on a deconvolution problem specific to hyperspectral astronomical data, to improve the study of the kinematics of galaxies. The aim is to estimate the flux, the relative velocity, and the velocity dispersion, integrated along the line-of-sight, for each spatial pixel of an observed galaxy. Thanks to the Doppler effect, this is equivalent to estimate the amplitude, center, and width of spectral emission lines, in a small spectral range, for every spatial pixel of the hyperspectral data. We consider a parametric model for the spectral lines and propose to compute the posterior mean estimators, in a Bayesian framework, using Monte Carlo Markov chain algorithms. Various estimation schemes are proposed for this nonlinear deconvolution problem, taking advantage of the linearity of the model with respect to the flux parameters. We differentiate between methods taking into account the spatial blurring of the data (deconvolution) or not (estimation). The performances of the methods are compared with classical ones, on two simulated data sets. It is shown that the proposed deconvolution method significantly improves the resolution of the estimated kinematic parameters.

  16. Identifying the Functional Flexion-extension Axis of the Knee: An In-Vivo Kinematics Study

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Li; Chen, Kaining; Guo, Lin; Cheng, Liangjun; Wang, Fuyou; Yang, Liu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to calculate the flexion-extension axis (FEA) of the knee through in-vivo knee kinematics data, and then compare it with two major anatomical axes of the femoral condyles: the transepicondylar axis (TEA) defined by connecting the medial sulcus and lateral prominence, and the cylinder axis (CA) defined by connecting the centers of posterior condyles. Methods The knee kinematics data of 20 healthy subjects were acquired under weight-bearing condition using bi-planar x-ray imaging and 3D-2D registration techniques. By tracking the vertical coordinate change of all points on the surface of femur during knee flexion, the FEA was determined as the line connecting the points with the least vertical shift in the medial and lateral condyles respectively. Angular deviation and distance among the TEA, CA and FEA were measured. Results The TEA-FEA angular deviation was significantly larger than that of the CA-FEA in 3D and transverse plane (3.45° vs. 1.98°, p < 0.001; 2.72° vs. 1.19°, p = 0.002), but not in the coronal plane (1.61° vs. 0.83°, p = 0.076). The TEA-FEA distance was significantly greater than that of the CA-FEA in the medial side (6.7 mm vs. 1.9 mm, p < 0.001), but not in the lateral side (3.2 mm vs. 2.0 mm, p = 0.16). Conclusion The CA is closer to the FEA compared with the TEA; it can better serve as an anatomical surrogate for the functional knee axis. PMID:26039711

  17. Pilot study of the impact sacroiliac joint manipulation has on walking kinematics using motion analysis technology

    PubMed Central

    Ward, John S.; Coats, Jesse; Sorrels, Kenneth; Walters, Mathew; Williams, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of engaging in a series of larger studies measuring the effect of sacroiliac joint manipulation on walking kinematics using motion analysis technology. Methods Twelve college students engaged in a baseline 90-second gait analysis at 1.5 mph using infrared VICON cameras. Following this, they underwent a prone heel comparison test for functional leg length inequality. Upon examination, participants were then classified as follows: left short leg, right short leg, or no short leg. Participants in each of the 2 short leg branches of this study were then randomized to receive either chiropractic manipulative therapy to the posterior superior iliac spine on the short limb side or no manipulation. Recruitment was ongoing for this pilot study until 1 participant was recruited in each of the following 5 comparative study groups: left short leg—manipulation, left short leg—no manipulation (control 1), right short leg—manipulation, right short leg—no manipulation (control 2), and no short leg (control 3). All participants then underwent another 90-second gait analysis. Data were then grouped and submitted to a blinded biomechanist to determine if there were any unique biomechanical differences between the groups. Results No statistically significant differences were measured because of this being a pilot study with a small sample size. Conclusions The data from this study indicate that a series of larger studies with this design is feasible. PMID:24396314

  18. Improving Course Completions in Distance Education: An Institutional Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thistoll, Tony; Yates, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This article reports two studies undertaken at The Open Polytechnic of New Zealand, a vocational distance education (DE) provider, where course completion rates have risen to match those of face-to-face technical institutions. A simple model of student engagement is presented, which reflects the triality between the student, institution, and…

  19. A Pilot Study on Gait Kinematics of Old Women with Bound Feet

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Feng, Neng; Hu, Nanzhi; Gu, Yaodong

    2015-01-01

    Foot binding has a long and influential history in China. Little is known about biomechanical changes in gait caused by bound foot. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in lower limb kinematics between old women with bound feet and normal feet during walking. Six old women subjects (three with bound feet and three controls with normal feet) volunteered to participate in this study. Video data were recorded with a high speed video camera and analysed in the SIMI motion analysis software. Compared to normal controls, bound feet subjects had faster gait cadence with shorter stride length as well as smaller ankle and knee range of motion (ROM). During preswing phase, ankle remained to be dorsiflexion for bound foot subjects. The data from bound foot group also demonstrated that toe vertical displacement increased continuously during whole swing phase without a minimum toe clearance (MTC). The findings indicate that older women with bound feet exhibit significant differences in gait pattern compared to those with normal feet, which is characterised by disappeared propulsion/push-off and reduced mobility of lower limb segments. PMID:27019587

  20. Absolute kinematics of radio-source components in the complete S5 polar cap sample. IV. Proper motions of the radio cores over a decade and spectral properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martí-Vidal, I.; Abellán, F. J.; Marcaide, J. M.; Guirado, J. C.; Pérez-Torres, M. A.; Ros, E.

    2016-11-01

    We have carried out a high-precision astrometric analysis of two very-long-baseline-interferometry (VLBI) epochs of observation of the 13 extragalactic radio sources in the complete S5 polar cap sample. The VLBI epochs span a time baseline of ten years and enable us to achieve precisions in the proper motions of the source cores up to a few micro-arcseconds per year. The observations were performed at 14.4 GHz and 43.1 GHz, and enable us to estimate the frequency core-shifts in a subset of sources, for which the spectral-index distributions can be computed. We study the source-position stability by analysing the changes in the relative positions of fiducial source points (the jet cores) over a decade. We find motions of 0.1-0.9 mas among close-by sources between the two epochs, which imply drifts in the jet cores of approximately a few tens of μas per year. These results have implications for the standard Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) jet model (where the core locations are supposed to be stable in time). For one of our sources, 0615+820, the morphological and spectral properties in year 2010, as well as the relative astrometry between years 2000 and 2010, suggest the possibility of either a strong parsec-scale interaction of the AGN jet with the ISM, a gravitational lens with 1 mas diameter, or a resolved massive binary black hole. Reduced images as FITS files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/596/A27

  1. High Resolution Studies Of Lensed z ∼ 2 Galaxies: Kinematics And Metal Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leethochawalit, Nicha

    2016-09-01

    We use the OSIRIS integral field unit (IFU) spectograph to secure spatially-resolved strong emission lines of 15 gravitationally-lensed star-forming galaxies at redshift z ∼ 2. With the aid of gravitational lensing and Keck laser-assisted adaptive optics, the spatial resolution of these sub-luminous galaxies is at a few hundred parsecs. First, we demonstrate that high spatial resolution is crucial in diagnosing the kinematic properties and dynamical maturity of z ∼ 2 galaxies. We observe a significantly lower fraction of rotationally-supported systems than what has been claimed in lower spatial resolution surveys. Second, we find a much larger fraction of z ∼ 2 galaxies with weak metallicity gradients, contrary to the simple picture suggested by earlier studies that well-ordered rotation develops concurrently with established steep metal gradients in all but merging systems. Comparing our observations with the predictions of hydronamical simulations, strong feedback is likely to play a key role in flattening metal gradients in early star-forming galaxies.

  2. Study of the structure and kinematics of the NGC 7465/64/63 triplet galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkulova, O. A.; Karataeva, G. M.; Yakovleva, V. A.; Burenkov, A. N.

    2012-05-01

    We analyze new observational data obtained at the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences with the multimode SCORPIO instrument and the Multi-Pupil Fiber Spectrograph for the group of galaxies NGC 7465/64/63. For one of the group members (NGC 7465), the presence of a polar ring has been suspected. We have constructed the large-scale brightness distributions, the ionized-gas velocity and velocity dispersion fields for all three galaxies as well as the line-of-sight velocity curves based on emission and absorption lines and the stellar velocity field in the central region for NGC 7465. As a result of our analysis of the data obtained, we have discovered an inner stellar disk ( r ≈ 0.5 kpc) and a warped gaseous disk in NGC 7465, in addition to the main stellar disk. Based on a joint study of our photometric and spectroscopic data, we have established that NGC 7464 is an irregular IrrI-type galaxy whose structural and kinematic peculiarities most likely resulted from its gravitational interaction with NGC 7465. The velocity field of the ionized gas in NGC 7463 turns out to be typical of barred spiral galaxies, and the warp of the outer parts of its disk could arise from a close encounter with one of the galaxies of the environment.

  3. A study of kinematic cues and anticipatory performance in tennis using computational manipulation and computer graphics.

    PubMed

    Ida, Hirofumi; Fukuhara, Kazunobu; Kusubori, Seiji; Ishii, Motonobu

    2011-09-01

    Computer graphics of digital human models can be used to display human motions as visual stimuli. This study presents our technique for manipulating human motion with a forward kinematics calculation without violating anatomical constraints. A motion modulation of the upper extremity was conducted by proportionally modulating the anatomical joint angular velocity calculated by motion analysis. The effect of this manipulation was examined in a tennis situation--that is, the receiver's performance of predicting ball direction when viewing a digital model of the server's motion derived by modulating the angular velocities of the forearm or that of the elbow during the forward swing. The results showed that the faster the server's forearm pronated, the more the receiver's anticipation of the ball direction tended to the left side of the serve box. In contrast, the faster the server's elbow extended, the more the receiver's anticipation of the ball direction tended to the right. This suggests that tennis players are sensitive to the motion modulation of their opponent's racket-arm.

  4. Experimental study on flow kinematics and impact pressure in liquid sloshing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Youn Kyung; Chang, Kuang-An; Ryu, Yonguk; Kwon, Sun Hong

    2013-09-01

    This paper experimentally studied flow kinematics and impact pressure of a partially filled liquid sloshing flow produced by the periodic motion of a rectangular tank. The study focused on quantifying the flow velocities and impact pressures induced by the flow. Filled with water at a 30 % filling ratio, the tank oscillated at a resonant frequency and generated the violent sloshing flow. The flow propagated like breaking waves that plunged on both side walls and formed up-rushing jets that impacted on the top wall. Velocities of the multiphase flow were measured using the bubble image velocimetry technique. A total of 15 pressure sensors were mounted on the top wall and a side wall to measure the impact pressures. The local kinetic energy obtained by the measured local velocities was used to correlate with the corresponding pressures and determine the impact coefficient. In the sloshing flow, the flow direction was dominantly horizontal in the same direction of the tank motion before the wave crest broke and impinged on a side wall. At this stage, the maximum flow velocities reached 1.6 C with C being the wave phase speed. After the wave impingement, the uprising jet moved in the vertical direction with a maximum velocity reached 3.6 C before it impacted on the top wall. It was observed that the impact coefficients differed by almost one order of magnitude between the side wall impact and the top wall impact, mainly due to the large difference between the local velocities. A nearly constant impact coefficient was found for both side wall and top wall impacts if the impact pressures were directly correlated with the flow kinetic energy calculated using C instead of the local velocities.

  5. Application of a photogrammetric kinematic model for prediction of lung volumes in adolescents: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are several ways to measure the respiratory system, among them inductance plethysmography and three-dimensional kinematic analysis, methods of high cost and difficult transportability. The objective of this study was to correlate respiratory volumes obtained by spirometry standard equipment with a biomechanical model photogrammetric analysis of adolescents. Methods We evaluated 50 subjects of both genders, aged between 14 and 17 years old, excluding those with respiratory obstruction or restriction. Stickers with markers, there was a five-point mapping for anatomical modeling and photogrammetry, with each evaluated in supine position, was sought to test the Forced Vital Capacity (FVC). The test was filmed and repeated three times. Images of the films were extracted for the moment of maximum exhalation and inhalation of proof with better breathing. With the use of a commercial software, defined the respiratory volumes to the thorax and abdomen. Results The photogrammetric analysis has found values strongly correlated with the spirometric measurements of FVC (0.812), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 – 0.708), Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF – 0.762) in addition to post test performed Inspiration (IP- 0.816). There was a higher ventilatory mobility for boys than girls for Lower Chest and Lower and Upper Abdomen. It was possible to reach a regression R2 = 0.866 for proof of FVC and R2 = 0.776 for IP with the use of photogrammetry, presenting a standard error of 0.353 and 0.451, respectively. Conclusions Photogrammetry can be used to study thoracoabdominal movements by applying analytical two-dimensional and three-dimensional images acquired using a video camera being, applicable and reproducible. PMID:24571595

  6. Effects of Global Postural Reeducation on gait kinematics in parkinsonian patients: a pilot randomized three-dimensional motion analysis study.

    PubMed

    Agosti, Valeria; Vitale, Carmine; Avella, Dario; Rucco, Rosaria; Santangelo, Gabriella; Sorrentino, Pierpaolo; Varriale, Pasquale; Sorrentino, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    The Global Postural Reeducation (GPR) method is a physical therapy based on the stretching of antigravity muscle chains with the parallel enhancement of the basal tone of antagonistic muscles addressed to improve static and dynamic stability. Through a three-dimensional motion analysis (3DMA) system, our study aims to investigate whether in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients a GPR program results in a more physiological gait pattern. The kinematic parameters of gait of twenty subjects with clinically diagnosed PD were calculated. The patients were randomly assigned to a study (10 or control (10) group. All subjects underwent neurological and 3DMA assessments at entry time (t 0), at 4 weeks (t 1, end of GPR program), and at 8 and 12 weeks (t 2 and t 3, follow-up evaluation). The study group underwent a four-week GPR program, three times a week, for 40 min individual sessions. Kinematic gait parameters of thigh (T), knee (K) and ankle (A) and UPDRS-III scores were evaluated. At the end of the GPR program, we observed an improvement of the kinematic gait pattern, documented by the increase in KΔc and TΔc values that respectively express the flexion amplitude of knee and thigh. The amelioration was persistent at follow-up assessments, with a parallel enhancement in clinical parameters. GPR intervention shows a long-term efficacy on gait pattern in PD patients. Furthermore, we validated 3DMA as a valuable tool to study the kinematics of gait thus refining the understanding of the effects of specific rehabilitation programs.

  7. Psychological Vulnerability to Completed Suicide: A Review of Empirical Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Kenneth R.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Conwell, Yeates; Seidlitz, Larry; Caine, Eric D.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews empirical literature on psychological vulnerability to completed suicide. Five constructs have been consistently associated with completed suicide: impulsivity/aggression; depression; anxiety; hopelessness; and self-consciousness/social disengagement. Current knowledge of psychological vulnerability could inform social…

  8. 2D kinematical study in local luminous compact blue galaxies. Starburst origin in UCM2325+2318

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo-Morales, A.; Pérez-Gallego, J.; Gallego, J.; Guzmán, R.; Castander, F.; Garland, C.; Gruel, N.; Pisano, D. J.; Muñoz-Mateos, J. C.; Ocaña, F.; Zamorano, J.

    2013-05-01

    Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies (LCBGs) are small, but vigorously star forming galaxies. Their presence at different redshifts denotes their cosmological relevance and implies that local starburst galaxies, when properly selected, are unique laboratories for studying the complex ecosystem of the star formation process over time. We have selected a representative sample of 22 LCBGs from the SDSS and UCM databases which, although small, provides an excellent reference for comparison with current and future surveys of similar starbursts at high-z. We are carrying out a 2D optical spectroscopic study of this LCBG sample, including spatially resolved maps of kinematics, extinction, SFR and metallicity. This will help us to answer questions regarding the nature of these objects. In this poster we show our results on the kinematical study (Pérez-Gallego et al. 2011) which allows us to classify these galaxies into three different classes: rotating disk (RD) 48%, perturbed rotation (PR) 28% and complex kinematics (CK) 24%. We find 5% of objects show evidence of a recent major merger, 10% of a minor merger, and 45% of a companion. This argues in favor of ongoing interactions with close companions as a mechanism for the enhanced star formation activity in these galaxies. We find only 5% of objects with clear evidence of AGN activity, and 27% with kinematics consistent with SN-driven galactic winds. Therefore, a different mechanism may be responsible for quenching the star formation in LCBGs. The detailed analysis of the physical properties for each galaxy in the sample is on progress and we show in this poster the results on UCM2325+2318 as a prototype LCBG. Between the possible mechanisms to explain the starburst activity in this galaxy, our 2D spectroscopic data support the scenario of an on-going interaction with the possibility for clump B to be the dwarf satellite galaxy (Castillo-Morales et al. 2011, Pérez-Gallego et al. 2010).

  9. Experimental study of the optimal angle for arthrodesis of fingers based on kinematic analysis with tip-pinch manipulation.

    PubMed

    Arauz, Paul; Sisto, Sue Ann; Kao, Imin

    2016-12-08

    To evaluate the appropriate angle for arthrodesis of the index finger proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint, the functional range of motion (ROM) of the joints and manipulabilities at three selected tip-pinch manipulation postures of the finger were studied experimentally under imposed PIP joint arthrodesis angles. A kinematic model of the index finger was used in experiments which involved three postures. Experiments were conducted using seven healthy subjects in tip-pinch manipulation tasks to obtain the measurements of finger motions under imposed angles of joint constraint, including the functional ROM of the joints and the three criteria of kinematic manipulability. Data show that the functional ROM and the shape of the kinematic manipulability ellipses at the fingertip were influenced significantly by the imposed PIP joint constraint in the tip-pinch manipulation tests. Results suggest that a PIP arthrodesis angle between 40° and 60° led to the optimal performance of fingers in grasping and manipulation of fine objects. This theoretical and experimental study can help surgeons and clinicians to make more informed decisions on the appropriate constraint angles before the arthrodesis operation, and to customize this angle for individual patients in order to enhance not only the capability of manipulation of the finger but also the quality of life after such intervention.

  10. Real-time measurement of rectus femoris muscle kinematics during drop jump using ultrasound imaging: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Eranki, Avinash; Cortes, Nelson; Ferencek Gregurić, Zrinka; Kim, John J; Sikdar, Siddhartha

    2012-01-01

    We have developed an office based vector tissue Doppler imaging (vTDI) that can be used to quantitatively measure muscle kinematics using ultrasound. The goal of this preliminary study was to investigate if vTDI measures are repeatable and can be used robustly to measure and understand the kinematics of the rectus femoris muscle during a drop jump task. Data were collected from 8 healthy volunteers. Vector TDI along with a high speed camera video was used to better understand the dynamics of the drop jump. Our results indicate that the peak resultant vector velocity of the rectus femoris immediately following landing was repeatable across trials (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.9).The peak velocity had a relatively narrow range in 6 out of 8 subjects (48-62 cm/s), while in the remaining two subjects it exceeded 70 cm/s. The entire drop jump lasted for 1.45 0.27 seconds. The waveform of muscle velocity could be used to identify different phases of the jump. Also, the movement of the ultrasound transducer holder was minimal with peak deflection of 0.91 0.54 degrees over all trials. Vector TDI can be implemented in a clinical setting using an ultrasound system with a research interface to better understand the muscle kinematics in patients with ACL injuries.

  11. Study on general theory of kinematics and dynamics of wheeled mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukishima, Takahiro; Sasaki, Ken; Takano, Masaharu; Inoue, Kenji

    1992-03-01

    This paper proposes a general theory of kinematics and dynamics of wheeled mobile robots (WMRs). Unlike robotic manipulators which are modeled as 3-dimensional serial link mechanism, WMRs will be modeled as planar linkage mechanism with multiple links branching out from the base and/or another link. Since this model resembles a tree with branches, it will be called 'tree-structured-link'. The end of each link corresponds to the wheel which is in contact with the floor. In dynamics of WMR, equation of motion of a WMR is derived from joint input torques incorporating wheel dynamics. The wheel dynamics determines forces and moments acting on wheels as a function of slip velocity. This slippage of wheels is essential in dynamics of WMR. It will also be shown that the dynamics of WMR reduces to kinematics when slippage of wheels is neglected. Furthermore, the equation of dynamics is rewritten in velocity input form, since most of industrial motors are velocity controlled.

  12. Experimental study of pancreaticojejunostomy completed using anastomotic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wei-Dong; Xu, Rui-Yun; Li, Nan; Fang, He-Ping; Pan, Cu-Zhi; Tang, Zhao-Feng

    2010-07-01

    The most difficult, time-consuming, and complication-prone step in pancreaticoduodenectomy is the pancreaticojejunostomy step. The largest disadvantage of this kind of anastomosis is the high incidence of postoperative anastomotic leakage. Once pancreatic leakage occurs, the patient death rate can be very high. The aim of this study was to design a pancreaticojejunostomy procedure using anastomotic chains, which results in the cut end of the jejunum being attached to the pancreatic stump without suturing, and to evaluate the safety and efficacy of this procedure in domestic pigs. The pancreaticojejunal anastomotic chains had the following structures: the chains consisted of two braceletlike chains made of titanium, named chain A and chain B. The function of chain A was to attach the free jejunal end onto the pancreatic stump, whereas the function of chain B was to tighten the contact between the jejunal wall and the surface of the pancreatic stump to eliminate gaps between the two structures and ensure tightness that is sufficient to guarantee that there is no leakage of jejunal fluid or pancreatic juice. The following procedure was used to assess the safety and efficacy of the procedure: pancreaticojejunostomies were performed on ten domestic pigs using anastomotic chains. The time required to complete the pancreaticojejunal anastomoses, the pressure tolerance of the pancreaticojejunal anastomoses, the pig death rate, and the histopathological examinations of the pancreaticojejunostomy tissues were recorded. The average time required to complete the pancreaticojejunal anastomosis procedure was 13±2 min. The observed tolerance pressure of the pancreaticojejunal anastomoses was more than 90 mm H2O. All ten domestic pigs that underwent operations were still alive four weeks after the operations. Pathological examinations showed that the anastomotic surfaces were completely healed, and the pancreatic cutting surfaces were primarily epithelialized. In conclusion, the

  13. Knee Kinematics Estimation Using Multi-Body Optimisation Embedding a Knee Joint Stiffness Matrix: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Vincent; Lamberto, Giuliano; Lu, Tung-Wu; Cappozzo, Aurelio; Dumas, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    The use of multi-body optimisation (MBO) to estimate joint kinematics from stereophotogrammetric data while compensating for soft tissue artefact is still open to debate. Presently used joint models embedded in MBO, such as mechanical linkages, constitute a considerable simplification of joint function, preventing a detailed understanding of it. The present study proposes a knee joint model where femur and tibia are represented as rigid bodies connected through an elastic element the behaviour of which is described by a single stiffness matrix. The deformation energy, computed from the stiffness matrix and joint angles and displacements, is minimised within the MBO. Implemented as a “soft” constraint using a penalty-based method, this elastic joint description challenges the strictness of “hard” constraints. In this study, estimates of knee kinematics obtained using MBO embedding four different knee joint models (i.e., no constraints, spherical joint, parallel mechanism, and elastic joint) were compared against reference kinematics measured using bi-planar fluoroscopy on two healthy subjects ascending stairs. Bland-Altman analysis and sensitivity analysis investigating the influence of variations in the stiffness matrix terms on the estimated kinematics substantiate the conclusions. The difference between the reference knee joint angles and displacements and the corresponding estimates obtained using MBO embedding the stiffness matrix showed an average bias and standard deviation for kinematics of 0.9±3.2° and 1.6±2.3 mm. These values were lower than when no joint constraints (1.1±3.8°, 2.4±4.1 mm) or a parallel mechanism (7.7±3.6°, 1.6±1.7 mm) were used and were comparable to the values obtained with a spherical joint (1.0±3.2°, 1.3±1.9 mm). The study demonstrated the feasibility of substituting an elastic joint for more classic joint constraints in MBO. PMID:27314586

  14. Neural signatures of hand kinematics in leaders vs. followers: A dual-MEG study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guangyu; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Parkkonen, Lauri; Hari, Riitta

    2016-01-15

    During joint actions, people typically adjust their own actions according to the ongoing actions of the partner, which implies that the interaction modulates the behavior of both participants. However, the neural substrates of such mutual adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we set out to identify the kinematics-related brain activity of leaders and followers performing hand actions. Sixteen participants as 8 pairs performed continuous, repetitive right-hand opening and closing actions with ~3-s cycles in a leader-follower task. Subjects played each role for 5min. Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) brain signals were recorded simultaneously from both partners with a dual-MEG setup, and hand kinematics was monitored with accelerometers. Modulation index, a cross-frequency coupling measure, was computed between the hand acceleration and the MEG signals in the alpha (7-13Hz) and beta (13-25Hz) bands. Regardless of the participants' role, the strongest alpha and beta modulations occurred bilaterally in the sensorimotor cortices. In the occipital region, beta modulation was stronger in followers than leaders; these oscillations originated, according to beamformer source reconstructions, in early visual cortices. Despite differences in the modulation indices, alpha and beta power did not differ between the conditions. Our results indicate that the beta modulation in the early visual cortices depends on the subject's role as a follower or leader in a joint hand-action task. This finding could reflect the different strategies employed by leaders and followers in integrating kinematics-related visual information to control their own actions.

  15. Exploring Homework Completion and Non-Completion in Post-Secondary Language Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gascoigne, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    While homework is something that language professionals often assign, based on the paucity of research on the topic, it is clearly not something to which much attention is given in terms of professional discourse or research. In the following pages, the author reviews the limited available research and describes a case study that seeks to examine…

  16. A kinematically complete, interdisciplinary, and co-institutional measurement of the 19F(α,n) cross section for nuclear safeguards science

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, W. A.; Smith, M. S.; Pittman, S.; Thompson, S. J.; Clement, R. R. C.; Cizewski, J. A.; Pain, S. D.; Febbraro, M.; Chipps, K. A.; Burcher, S.; Manning, B.; Reingold, C.; Avetisyan, R.; Battaglia, A.; Chen, Y.; Long, A.; Lyons, S.; Marley, S. T.; Seymour, C.; Siegl, K. T.; Smith, M. K.; Strauss, S.; Talwar, R.; Bardayan, D. W.; Gyurjinyan, A.; Smith, K.; Thornsberry, C.; Thompson, P.; Madurga, M.; Stech, E.; Tan, W. P.; Wiescher, M.; Ilyushkin, S.; Tully, Z.; Grinder, M. M.

    2016-05-01

    Alpha particles emitted from the decay of uranium in a UF6 matrix can interact with fluorine and generate neutrons via the 19F(α,n)22Na reaction. These neutrons can be used to determine the uranium content in a UF6 storage cylinder. The accuracy of this self-interrogating, non-destructive assay (NDA) technique is, however, limited by the uncertainty of the 19F(α,n)22Na cross section. We have performed complementary measurements of the 19F(α,n)22Na reaction with both 4He and 19F beams to improve the precision of the 19F(α,n)22Na cross section over the alpha energy range that encompasses common actinide alpha decay needed for NDA studies. We have determined an absolute cross section for the 19F(α,n)22Na reaction to an average precision of 7.6% over the alpha energy range of 3.9 – 6.7 MeV. We utilized this cross section in a simulation of a 100 g spherical UF6 assembly and obtained a change in neutron emission rate values of approximately 10-12%, and a significant (factor of 3.6) decrease in the neutron emission rate uncertainty (from 50-51% to 13-14%), compared to simulations using the old cross section. Our new absolute cross section enables improved interpretations of NDAs of containers of arbitrary size and configuration.

  17. Studying the dynamics of high-speed elastic kinematically controlled robot-manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavrashina, T. V.; Zavrashina, N. M.

    The authors set out the problem on controlling kinematically spatial motions of a flexible multi-link space robot-manipulator under conditions of its high-speed manoevering. The constructed mathematical model of the system dynamics takes into account the distributed properties of elasticity and inertia of the manipulator links, which are at the state of compound motion. They give an example of the numerical investigation of the dynamical characteristics of two-link robot when it is employed to carry a load.

  18. Annual Report FY2013-- A Kinematically Complete, Interdisciplinary, and Co-Institutional Measurement of the 19F(α,n) Cross-section for Nuclear Safeguards Science

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, William A; Smith, Michael Scott; Clement, Ryan; Tan, Wanpeng; Stech, Ed; Cizewski, J A; Febbraro, Michael; Madurga Flores, Miguel

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this proposal is to enable neutron detection for precision Non-Destructive Assays (NDAs) of actinide-fluoride samples. Neutrons are continuously generated from a UFx matrix in a container or sample as a result of the interaction of alpha particles from uranium-decay α particles with fluorine nuclei in the matrix. Neutrons from 19F(α,n)22Na were once considered a poorly characterized background for assays of UFx samples via 238U spontaneous fission neutron detection [SMI2010B]. However, the yield of decay-α-driven neutrons is critical for 234,235U LEU and HEU assays, as it can used to determine both the total amount of uranium and the enrichment [BER2010]. This approach can be extremely valuable in a variety of safeguard applications, such as cylinder monitoring in underground uranium storage facilities, nuclear criticality safety studies, nuclear materials accounting, and other nonproliferation applications. The success of neutron-based assays critically depends on an accurate knowledge of the cross section of the (α,n) reaction that generates the neutrons. The 40% uncertainty in the 19F(α,n)22Na cross section currently limits the precision of such assays, and has been identified as a key factor in preventing accurate enrichment determinations [CRO2003]. The need for higher quality cross section data for (α,n) reactions has been a recurring conclusion in reviews of the nuclear data needs to support safeguards. The overarching goal of this project is to enable neutron detection to be used for precision Non- Destructive Assays (NDAs) of actinide-fluoride samples. This will significantly advance safeguards verification at existing declared facilities, nuclear materials accounting, process control, nuclear criticality safety monitoring, and a variety of other nonproliferation applications. To reach this goal, Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Rutgers University (RU), and the University of Notre

  19. Kinematics at the Intersection of the Garlock and Death Valley Fault Zones, California: Integration of TM Data and Field Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verosub, Kenneth L.; Brady, Roland H., III; Abrams, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Kinematic relationships at the intersection of the southern Death Valley and Garlock fault zones were examined to identify and delineate the eastern structural boundary between the Mojave and the Basin and Range geologic terrains, and to construct a model for the evolution of this boundary through time. In order to accomplish this, satellite imagery was combined with field investigations to study six areas in the vicinity of the intersection, or possible extensions, of the fault zones. The information gathered from these areas allows the test of various hypotheses that were proposed to explain the interaction between the Death Valley and Garlock fault zones.

  20. The effect of various kinematics on postoperative pain after instrumentation: a prospective, randomized clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Hakan; Khalilov, Ruslan; Doğanay, Ezgi; Karatas, Ertugrul

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate various kinematic movements on postoperative pain using a Reciproc system. Material and Methods: Fifty-six molar teeth were divided into four groups according to kinematics as follows: continuous rotation, 360° CCW – 30° CW, 270° CCW – 30° CW, and 150° CCW – 30° CW. Preoperative and postoperative pain levels using visual analogue scale (VAS), percussion pain, and analgesic intake were recorded for each subject. Postoperative pain levels at 1, 3, 5, and 7 d were evaluated. Data were analyzed statistically using the Kruskal-Walis, Mann-Whitney-U, one-way analysis of variance, and chi-square tests (p=0.05). Results: Continuous rotation resulted in more pain at Day 1 when compared with the reciprocating groups (360° CCW – 30° CW and 270° CCW – 30° C) (p<0.05). Conclusions: Continuous rotation resulted in more postoperative pain at Day 1 than in reciprocating groups, and thereafter no significant pain was found among the groups. PMID:27812621

  1. In vivo kinematics of the talocrural and subtalar joints with functional ankle instability during weight-bearing ankle internal rotation: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takumi; No, Yumi; Yoneta, Kei; Sadakiyo, Masashi; Gamada, Kazuyoshi

    2013-06-01

    Functional ankle instability (FAI) may involve abnormal kinematics. However, reliable quantitative data for kinematics of FAI have not been reported. The objective of this study was to determine if the abnormal kinematics exist in the talocrural and subtalar joints in patients with FAI. Five male subjects with unilateral FAI (a mean age of 33.4 ± 13.2 years) were enrolled. All subjects were examined with stress radiography and found to have no mechanical ankle instability (MAI). Lateral radiography at weight-bearing ankle internal rotation of 0° and 20° was taken with the ankle at 30° dorsiflexion and 30° plantar flexion. Patients underwent computed tomography scan at 1.0 mm slice pitch spanning distal one third of the lower leg and the distal end of the calcaneus. Three-dimensional (3D) kinematics of the talocrural and subtalar joints as well as the ankle joint complex (AJC) were determined using a 3D-to-2D registration technique using a 3D-to-2D registration technique with 3D bone models and plain radiography. FAI joints in ankle dorsiflexion demonstrated significantly greater subtalar internal rotation from 0° to 20° internal rotation. No statistical differences in plantar flexion were detected in talocrural, subtalar or ankle joint complex kinematics between the FAI and contralateral healthy joints. During ankle internal rotation in dorsiflexion, FAI joints demonstrated greater subtalar internal rotation. The FAI joints without mechanical instability presented abnormal kinematics. This suggests that abnormal kinematics of the FAI joints may contribute to chronic instability. FAI joints may involve unrecognized abnormal subtalar kinematics during internal rotation in ankle dorsiflexion which may contribute to chronic instability and frequent feelings of instability.

  2. Stumbling reactions during perturbed walking: Neuromuscular reflex activity and 3-D kinematics of the trunk - A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Müller, Juliane; Müller, Steffen; Engel, Tilman; Reschke, Antje; Baur, Heiner; Mayer, Frank

    2016-04-11

    Reflex activity of the lower leg muscles involved when compensating for falls has already been thoroughly investigated. However, the trunk׳s role in this compensation strategy remains unclear. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to analyze the kinematics and muscle activity of the trunk during perturbed walking. Ten subjects (29 ± 3 yr;79 ± 11 cm;74 ± 14 kg) walked (1m/s) on a split-belt treadmill, while 5 randomly timed, right-sided perturbations (treadmill belt deceleration: 40 m/s(2)) were applied. Trunk muscle activity was assessed with a 12-lead-EMG. Trunk kinematics were measured with a 3D-motion analysis system (12 markers framing 3 segments: upper thoracic area (UTA), lower thoracic area (LTA), lumbar area (LA)). The EMG-RMS [%] (0-200 ms after perturbation) was analyzed and then normalized to the RMS of normal walking. The total range of motion (ROM;[°]) for the extension/flexion, lateral flexion and rotation of each segment were calculated. Individual kinematic differences between walking and stumbling [%; ROM] were also computed. Data analysis was conducted descriptively, followed by one- and two-way ANOVAs (α=0.05). Stumbling led to an increase in ROM, compared to unperturbed gait, in all segments and planes. These increases ranged between 107 ± 26% (UTA/rotation) and 262 ± 132% (UTS/lateral flexion), significant only in lateral flexion. EMG activity of the trunk was increased during stumbling (abdominal: 665 ± 283%; back: 501 ± 215%), without significant differences between muscles. Provoked stumbling leads to a measurable effect on the trunk, quantifiable by an increase in ROM and EMG activity, compared to normal walking. Greater abdominal muscle activity and ROM of lateral flexion may indicate a specific compensation pattern occurring during stumbling.

  3. Kinematic and Neurophysiological Consequences of an Assisted-Force-Feedback Brain-Machine Interface Training: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Silvoni, Stefano; Cavinato, Marianna; Volpato, Chiara; Cisotto, Giulia; Genna, Clara; Agostini, Michela; Turolla, Andrea; Ramos-Murguialday, Ander; Piccione, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    In a proof-of-principle prototypical demonstration we describe a new type of brain-machine interface (BMI) paradigm for upper limb motor-training. The proposed technique allows a fast contingent and proportionally modulated stimulation of afferent proprioceptive and motor output neural pathways using operant learning. Continuous and immediate assisted-feedback of force proportional to rolandic rhythm oscillations during actual movements was employed and illustrated with a single case experiment. One hemiplegic patient was trained for 2 weeks coupling somatosensory brain oscillations with force-field control during a robot-mediated center-out motor-task whose execution approaches movements of everyday life. The robot facilitated actual movements adding a modulated force directed to the target, thus providing a non-delayed proprioceptive feedback. Neuro-electric, kinematic, and motor-behavioral measures were recorded in pre- and post-assessments without force assistance. Patient’s healthy arm was used as control since neither a placebo control was possible nor other control conditions. We observed a generalized and significant kinematic improvement in the affected arm and a spatial accuracy improvement in both arms, together with an increase and focalization of the somatosensory rhythm changes used to provide assisted-force-feedback. The interpretation of the neurophysiological and kinematic evidences reported here is strictly related to the repetition of the motor-task and the presence of the assisted-force-feedback. Results are described as systematic observations only, without firm conclusions about the effectiveness of the methodology. In this prototypical view, the design of appropriate control conditions is discussed. This study presents a novel operant-learning-based BMI-application for motor-training coupling brain oscillations and force feedback during an actual movement. PMID:24223567

  4. Cruciate Retaining Versus Cruciate Stabilising Total Knee Arthroplasty – A Prospective Randomised Kinematic Study

    PubMed Central

    Godwin, T L; Bayan, A

    2016-01-01

    Objective: While there is a large body of research in regards to cruciate retaining(CR) and cruciate sacrificing total condylar knee replacement, the literature is spars in regards to highly conforming polyetheylene such as the triatholon cruciate stabilising tibial insert (CS).The aim was to determine whether there is a difference in the range of motion, kinematics as well as the functional outcome for Triathlon CS and CR TKJR. Methods: A single hospital consecutive series of one surgeon between 2011 and 2013 were enrolled. Kinematic data recorded prospectively at the time of surgery utilizing imageless navigation included preoperative and post-replacement extension, gravity flexion, passive flexion and rotation. Intraoperative femoral and tibial cuts and definitive implants were also recorded. Statistically analysis performed to compare CS and CR TKJR range of motion, deformity correction, and rotation pre and post-operatively. Oxford functional scores were obtained at the final follow up. 124 patients were randomised to 71 CS and 53 CR TKJR. The demographics were comparable between the two groups. Results: No significant difference was found between the groups’ preoperative range of motion. The net gain in extension for the CS group was 5.65 degrees (4.14-7.17) and for CR 5.64 degrees (4.24-7.04, p=0.99) with no significant difference shown. Post-operative gravity flexion significantly increased in CS TKJR with 129.01 degrees (127.37130.66) compared with 126.35 degrees (124.39-128.30, p =0.04) for CR. A weak positive correlation was shown between the size of distal femoral cut and post-operative extension for both CS and CR TKJR. A weak positive correlation was also shown for the difference between the intraoperative cuts (tibial and femoral) and the size of the implants used, in relation to post-operative extension. Post-operative oxford scores at average of 3.4 year follow up comparable between groups. Conclusion: The kinematics of CS and CR TKJR are

  5. Whole limb kinematics are preferentially conserved over individual joint kinematics after peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Chang, Young-Hui; Auyang, Arick G; Scholz, John P; Nichols, T Richard

    2009-11-01

    Biomechanics and neurophysiology studies suggest whole limb function to be an important locomotor control parameter. Inverted pendulum and mass-spring models greatly reduce the complexity of the legs and predict the dynamics of locomotion, but do not address how numerous limb elements are coordinated to achieve such simple behavior. As a first step, we hypothesized whole limb kinematics were of primary importance and would be preferentially conserved over individual joint kinematics after neuromuscular injury. We used a well-established peripheral nerve injury model of cat ankle extensor muscles to generate two experimental injury groups with a predictable time course of temporary paralysis followed by complete muscle self-reinnervation. Mean trajectories of individual joint kinematics were altered as a result of deficits after injury. By contrast, mean trajectories of limb orientation and limb length remained largely invariant across all animals, even with paralyzed ankle extensor muscles, suggesting changes in mean joint angles were coordinated as part of a long-term compensation strategy to minimize change in whole limb kinematics. Furthermore, at each measurement stage (pre-injury, paralytic and self-reinnervated) step-by-step variance of individual joint kinematics was always significantly greater than that of limb orientation. Our results suggest joint angle combinations are coordinated and selected to stabilize whole limb kinematics against short-term natural step-by-step deviations as well as long-term, pathological deviations created by injury. This may represent a fundamental compensation principle allowing animals to adapt to changing conditions with minimal effect on overall locomotor function.

  6. Study of human body: Kinematics and kinetics of a martial arts (Silat) performers using 3D-motion capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soh, Ahmad Afiq Sabqi Awang; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat; Azraai, Nur Zaidi

    2015-04-01

    The Interest in this studies of human kinematics goes back very far in human history drove by curiosity or need for the understanding the complexity of human body motion. To find new and accurate information about the human movement as the advance computing technology became available for human movement that can perform. Martial arts (silat) were chose and multiple type of movement was studied. This project has done by using cutting-edge technology which is 3D motion capture to characterize and to measure the motion done by the performers of martial arts (silat). The camera will detect the markers (infrared reflection by the marker) around the performer body (total of 24 markers) and will show as dot in the computer software. The markers detected were analyzing using kinematic kinetic approach and time as reference. A graph of velocity, acceleration and position at time,t (seconds) of each marker was plot. Then from the information obtain, more parameters were determined such as work done, momentum, center of mass of a body using mathematical approach. This data can be used for development of the effectiveness movement in martial arts which is contributed to the people in arts. More future works can be implemented from this project such as analysis of a martial arts competition.

  7. Action observation versus motor imagery in learning a complex motor task: a short review of literature and a kinematics study.

    PubMed

    Gatti, R; Tettamanti, A; Gough, P M; Riboldi, E; Marinoni, L; Buccino, G

    2013-04-12

    Both motor imagery and action observation have been shown to play a role in learning or re-learning complex motor tasks. According to a well accepted view they share a common neurophysiological basis in the mirror neuron system. Neurons within this system discharge when individuals perform a specific action and when they look at another individual performing the same or a motorically related action. In the present paper, after a short review of literature on the role of action observation and motor imagery in motor learning, we report the results of a kinematics study where we directly compared motor imagery and action observation in learning a novel complex motor task. This involved movement of the right hand and foot in the same angular direction (in-phase movement), while at the same time moving the left hand and foot in an opposite angular direction (anti-phase movement), all at a frequency of 1Hz. Motor learning was assessed through kinematics recording of wrists and ankles. The results showed that action observation is better than motor imagery as a strategy for learning a novel complex motor task, at least in the fast early phase of motor learning. We forward that these results may have important implications in educational activities, sport training and neurorehabilitation.

  8. 75 FR 67999 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Anthropological Studies Center, Archaeological Collections...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... Completion: Anthropological Studies Center, Archaeological Collections Facility, Sonoma State University... completion of an inventory of human remains in the possession of the Anthropological Studies Center.... A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by the Anthropological Studies...

  9. Kinematic Characteristics of Speaking Rate in Individuals with Cerebral Palsy: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Nip, Ignatius S B

    2013-01-01

    Many individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) have a slower speaking rate compared with their typically developing peers. Previous studies examining age-related changes in speaking rate in typical development suggest that (1) cognitive and linguistic processing increases account for most of these changes, and (2) changes to linguistic task demands affect the articulatory strategies used to produce the target stimuli (e.g., truncating movements for tasks with fewer linguistic demands). The purpose of this study was to determine the relations between linguistic and physiologic factors in individuals with CP to better understand how the pathophysiology of CP affects speech production in these individuals. Four participants with CP and 38 age-matched peers were asked to complete a diadochokinetic (DDK) task, a vowel-consonant-vowel syllable repetition task, and a sentence repetition task. Speaking rate for the tasks and lower lip maximum movement speed, range of movement, and duration of the closing and opening gestures common to each task were measured. In general, participants with CP have reduced speaking rates compared with their typically developing peers despite increased movement speeds. In both groups, linguistic task effects were observed; higher linguistic demands resulted in slower speaking rates and higher movement speeds. Range of movement was greater for participants with CP than their typically developing peers and may have contributed to the observed decreased speaking rates in individuals with CP.

  10. Study on lumbar kinematics and the risk of low back disorder in female university students by using shoes of different heel heights.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Rauf; De, Amitabha; Mishra, Wricha; Maulik, Shreya; Chandra, A M

    2012-01-01

    The study was taken up to investigate the effects of heel heights on lumbar kinematics and the risk of Low Back Disorder (LBD) in females. Nineteen female university students (24.5 ± 3.36 yrs) volunteered in the study. Lumbar kinematics was measured by using Industrial Lumbar Motion Monitor (iLMM). The volunteers were asked to walk for a distance of 50 meters in 3 different given conditions i.e bare foot (Heel 0), with flat heels (Heel 1) and with high heels (Heel 2). Heights of Heel 1 and Heel 2 were 1.5 ± 0.84 cm and 5.5 ± 1.70 cm respectively. The Lumbar kinematic parameters studied were- Average Twisting Velocity (ATV), Maximum Sagital Flexion (MSF) and Maximum Lateral Velocity (MLV). It was observed that all the above mentioned Lumbar kinematics - ATV, MSF and MLV increases with increase of heel heights, which in turn increases the risk of LBD. As a result of increase in Lumbar kinematic values with increase in heel heights, LBD risk has also increased. Mean and SD of the LBD risk with Heel 0, Heel 1 and Heel 2 were 16.79 ± 6.04%, 19.00 ± 7.38% and 22.11 ± 6.98% respectively. Lower stature with high heels showed higher risk of LBD than the higher stature with high heels.

  11. Grasping Kinematics from the Perspective of the Individual Digits: A Modelling Study

    PubMed Central

    Verheij, Rebekka; Brenner, Eli; Smeets, Jeroen B. J.

    2012-01-01

    Grasping is a prototype of human motor coordination. Nevertheless, it is not known what determines the typical movement patterns of grasping. One way to approach this issue is by building models. We developed a model based on the movements of the individual digits. In our model the following objectives were taken into account for each digit: move smoothly to the preselected goal position on the object without hitting other surfaces, arrive at about the same time as the other digit and never move too far from the other digit. These objectives were implemented by regarding the tips of the digits as point masses with a spring between them, each attracted to its goal position and repelled from objects' surfaces. Their movements were damped. Using a single set of parameters, our model can reproduce a wider variety of experimental findings than any previous model of grasping. Apart from reproducing known effects (even the angles under which digits approach trapezoidal objects' surfaces, which no other model can explain), our model predicted that the increase in maximum grip aperture with object size should be greater for blocks than for cylinders. A survey of the literature shows that this is indeed how humans behave. The model can also adequately predict how single digit pointing movements are made. This supports the idea that grasping kinematics follow from the movements of the individual digits. PMID:22412997

  12. A Multi-epoch Kinematic Study of the Remote Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy Leo II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Meghin E.; Mateo, Mario; Walker, Matthew G.; Olszewski, Edward W.

    2017-02-01

    We conducted a large spectroscopic survey of 336 red giants in the direction of the Leo II dwarf galaxy using Hectochelle on the Multiple Mirror Telescope, and we conclude that 175 of them are members based on their radial velocities and surface gravities. Of this set, 40 stars have never before been observed spectroscopically. The systemic velocity of the dwarf is 78.3 ± 0.6 km s‑1 with a velocity dispersion of 7.4 ± 0.4 km s‑1. We identify one star beyond the tidal radius of Leo II but find no signatures of uniform rotation, kinematic asymmetries, or streams. The stars show a strong metallicity gradient of ‑1.53 ± 0.10 dex kpc‑1 and have a mean metallicity of ‑1.70 ± 0.02 dex. There is also evidence of two different chemodynamic populations, but the signal is weak. A larger sample of stars would be necessary to verify this feature. Observations reported here were obtained at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the University of Arizona and the Smithsonian Institution.

  13. A theoretical study of burrowing in dry soil using razor clam-inspired kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Amos; Isava, Monica

    2015-11-01

    This work investigates whether the digging kinematics of Ensis directus, the Atlantic razor clam, could be utilized in dry soil. In wet soil, E. directus uses contractions of its valves to relieve stress on the surrounding soil, and then draw water towards its body to create a pocket of fluidized substrate. This locally fluidized zone requires much less force to move through than static soil, resulting in burrowing energy that scales linearly with depth, rather than depth squared. In dry soil, if the valves of a clam-like device are contracted fast enough, the horizontal stress in the soil could be brought to a zero-stress state. This would correspondingly reduce the local vertical stresses to zero, which could drastically lower the forces required to burrow compared to moving through static dry soil. Using analytical models of soil failure mechanics, we investigated the critical timescales for inducing a zero-stress state in soil surrounding an E. directus-like device with contracting valves. This device was modeled as a similar size to a real razor clam (15 mm wide). It was found that for most dry soils, the device would have to contract its valves in 0.02 seconds, a speed within the realm of possibility for a mechanical system. These results suggest that the burrowing method used by E. directus could feasibly be adapted for digging in dry soil.

  14. A 3D kinematic study of the northern ejecta `jet' of the Crab nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Christine S.; Fesen, Robert A.

    2015-03-01

    We present moderate resolution [O III] λλ4959, 5007 line emission spectra of the Crab nebula's northern ejecta jet. These data along with an [O III] image of the Crab nebula were used to build three-dimensional kinematic maps of the jet and adjacent remnant nebulosity to better understand the jet's properties and thus its likely origin. We find the jet's systemic velocity to be +170 ± 15 km s-1 with radial velocities ranging from -190 to +480 km s-1. Our data indicate that the jet consists of thin filamentary walls (Vexp ≃ 40-75 km s-1), is virtually hollow in [O III] emission, and elliptical and funnel-like in shape rather than a straight cylindrical tube as previously thought. Examination of the Crab's 3D filamentary structure along the jet's base reveals a large and nearly emission-free opening in the remnant's thick outer ejecta shell. The jet's blueshifted and redshifted sides are surprisingly well defined and, like the jet's sharp western limb, appear radially aligned with the remnant's centre of expansion. These alignments, along with the opening in the nebula at the jet's base and proper motions indicating an expansion age in line with the 1054 supernova event, suggest a direct connection between the jet's formation and the Crab's radial expansion. While our analysis supports the scenario that the jet may simply represent the highest velocity material of the remnant's N-S bipolar expansion, the nature of this expansion asymmetry remains unclear.

  15. A Project to Study Stellar and Gas Kinematics in 30 Dor with the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hénault-Brunet, Vincent; Evans, Christopher J.; Taylor, William D.; Gieles, Mark; VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Consortium

    2011-01-01

    The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey offers a unique opportunity to study the stellar and gas kinematics of 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Using the nebular emission lines in the fibre spectra of ˜1000 stars, we can map the radial velocity structure of ionized gas across the 30 Doradus region, enabling us to study the environment of massive stars. Multi-epoch ARGUS-IFU observations and MEDUSA/UVES fibre spectroscopy in the young massive cluster R136, at the core of 30 Dor, will allow us to quantify the effect of binaries on the velocity dispersion of the cluster. The true velocity dispersion will be measured from the radial velocities of the identified single stars, providing an essential ingredient to estimate the dynamical mass and probe the dynamical state of R136.

  16. Tensor networks from kinematic space

    DOE PAGES

    Czech, Bartlomiej; Lamprou, Lampros; McCandlish, Samuel; ...

    2016-07-20

    We point out that the MERA network for the ground state of a 1+1-dimensional conformal field theory has the same structural features as kinematic space — the geometry of CFT intervals. In holographic theories kinematic space becomes identified with the space of bulk geodesics studied in integral geometry. We argue that in these settings MERA is best viewed as a discretization of the space of bulk geodesics rather than of the bulk geometry itself. As a test of this kinematic proposal, we compare the MERA representation of the thermofield-double state with the space of geodesics in the two-sided BTZ geometry,more » obtaining a detailed agreement which includes the entwinement sector. In conclusion, we discuss how the kinematic proposal can be extended to excited states by generalizing MERA to a broader class of compression networks.« less

  17. Tensor networks from kinematic space

    SciTech Connect

    Czech, Bartlomiej; Lamprou, Lampros; McCandlish, Samuel; Sully, James

    2016-07-20

    We point out that the MERA network for the ground state of a 1+1-dimensional conformal field theory has the same structural features as kinematic space — the geometry of CFT intervals. In holographic theories kinematic space becomes identified with the space of bulk geodesics studied in integral geometry. We argue that in these settings MERA is best viewed as a discretization of the space of bulk geodesics rather than of the bulk geometry itself. As a test of this kinematic proposal, we compare the MERA representation of the thermofield-double state with the space of geodesics in the two-sided BTZ geometry, obtaining a detailed agreement which includes the entwinement sector. In conclusion, we discuss how the kinematic proposal can be extended to excited states by generalizing MERA to a broader class of compression networks.

  18. A morpho-kinematic and spectroscopic study of the bipolar nebulae: M 2-9, Mz 3, and Hen 2-104

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clyne, N.; Akras, S.; Steffen, W.; Redman, M. P.; Gonçalves, D. R.; Harvey, E.

    2015-10-01

    Context. Complex bipolar shapes can be generated either as a planetary nebula or a symbiotic system. The origin of the material ionised by the white dwarf is very different in these two scenarios, and it complicates the understanding of the morphologies of planetary nebulae. Aims: The physical properties, structure, and dynamics of the bipolar nebulae, M 2-9, Mz 3, and Hen 2-104, are investigated in detail with the aim of understanding their nature, shaping mechanisms, and evolutionary history. Both a morpho-kinematic study and a spectroscopic analysis, can be used to more accurately determine the kinematics and nature of each nebula. Methods: Long-slit optical echelle spectra are used to investigate the morpho-kinematics of M 2-9, Mz 3, and Hen 2-104. The morpho-kinematic modelling software SHAPE is used to constrain both the morphology and kinematics of each nebula by means of detailed 3D models. Near-infrared (NIR) data, as well as optical, spectra are used to separate Galactic symbiotic-type nebulae from genuine planetary nebulae by means of a 2MASS J-H/H-Ks diagram and a λ4363/Hγ vs. λ5007/Hβ diagnostic diagram, respectively. Results: The best-fitted 3D models for M 2-9, Mz 3, and Hen 2-104 provide invaluable kinematical information on the expansion velocity of its nebular components by means of synthetic spectra. The observed spectra match up very well with the synthetic spectra for each model, thus showing that each model is tightly constrained both morphologically and kinematically. Kinematical ages of the different structures of M 2-9 and Mz 3 have also been determined. Both diagnostic diagrams show M 2-9 and Hen 2-104 to fall well within the category of having a symbiotic source, whereas Mz 3 borders the region of symbiotic and young planetary nebulae in the optical diagram but is located firmly in the symbiotic region of the NIR colour-colour diagram. The optical diagnostic diagram is shown to successfully separate the two types of nebulae, however

  19. Use of high-speed cinematography and computer generated gait diagrams for the study of equine hindlimb kinematics.

    PubMed

    Kobluk, C N; Schnurr, D; Horney, F D; Sumner-Smith, G; Willoughby, R A; Dekleer, V; Hearn, T C

    1989-01-01

    High-speed cinematography with computer aided analysis was used to study equine hindlimb kinematics. Eight horses were filmed at the trot or the pace. Filming was done from the side (lateral) and the back (caudal). Parameters measured from the lateral filming included the heights of the tuber coxae and tailhead, protraction and retraction of the hoof and angular changes of the tarsus and stifle. Abduction and adduction of the limb and tarsal height changes were measured from the caudal filming. The maximum and minimum values plus the standard deviations and coefficients of variations are presented in tabular form. Three gait diagrams were constructed to represent stifle angle versus tarsal angle, metatarsophalangeal height versus protraction-retraction (fetlock height diagram) and tuber coxae and tailhead height versus stride (pelvic height diagram). Application of the technique to the group of horses revealed good repeatability of the gait diagrams within a limb and the diagrams appeared to be sensitive indicators of left/right asymmetries.

  20. A novel spinal kinematic analysis using X-ray imaging and vicon motion analysis: a case study.

    PubMed

    Noh, Dong K; Lee, Nam G; You, Joshua H

    2014-01-01

    This study highlights a novel spinal kinematic analysis method and the feasibility of X-ray imaging measurements to accurately assess thoracic spine motion. The advanced X-ray Nash-Moe method and analysis were used to compute the segmental range of motion in thoracic vertebra pedicles in vivo. This Nash-Moe X-ray imaging method was compared with a standardized method using the Vicon 3-dimensional motion capture system. Linear regression analysis showed an excellent and significant correlation between the two methods (R2 = 0.99, p < 0.05), suggesting that the analysis of spinal segmental range of motion using X-ray imaging measurements was accurate and comparable to the conventional 3-dimensional motion analysis system. Clinically, this novel finding is compelling evidence demonstrating that measurements with X-ray imaging are useful to accurately decipher pathological spinal alignment and movement impairments in idiopathic scoliosis (IS).

  1. Do planning and visual integration difficulties underpin motor dysfunction in autism? A kinematic study of young children with autism.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Ariane M; McGinley, Jennifer L; Taffe, John R; Rinehart, Nicole J

    2012-08-01

    This paper examines the upper-limb movement kinematics of young children (3-7 years) with high-functioning autism using a point-to-point movement paradigm. Consistent with prior findings in older children, a difference in movement preparation was found in the autism group (n = 11) relative to typically developing children. In contrast to typically developing children, the presence of a visual distractor in the movement task did not appear to impact on early movement planning or execution in children with autism, suggesting that this group were not considering all available environmental cues to modulate movement. The findings from this study are consistent with the possibility that autism is associated with a difficulty using visual information to prime alternative movements in a responsive way to environmental demands.

  2. The discriminant capabilities of stability measures, trunk kinematics, and step kinematics in classifying successful and failed compensatory stepping responses by young adults.

    PubMed

    Crenshaw, Jeremy R; Rosenblatt, Noah J; Hurt, Christopher P; Grabiner, Mark D

    2012-01-03

    This study evaluated the discriminant capability of stability measures, trunk kinematics, and step kinematics to classify successful and failed compensatory stepping responses. In addition, the shared variance between stability measures, step kinematics, and trunk kinematics is reported. The stability measures included the anteroposterior distance (d) between the body center of mass and the stepping limb toe, the margin of stability (MOS), as well as time-to-boundary considering velocity (TTB(v)), velocity and acceleration (TTB(a)), and MOS (TTB(MOS)). Kinematic measures included trunk flexion angle and angular velocity, step length, and the time after disturbance onset of recovery step completion. Fourteen young adults stood on a treadmill that delivered surface accelerations necessitating multiple forward compensatory steps. Thirteen subjects fell from an initial disturbance, but recovered from a second, identical disturbance. Trunk flexion velocity at completion of the first recovery step and trunk flexion angle at completion of the second step had the greatest overall classification of all measures (92.3%). TTB(v) and TTB(a) at completion of both steps had the greatest classification accuracy of all stability measures (80.8%). The length of the first recovery step (r ≤ 0.70) and trunk flexion angle at completion of the second recovery step (r ≤ -0.54) had the largest correlations with stability measures. Although TTB(v) and TTB(a) demonstrated somewhat smaller discriminant capabilities than trunk kinematics, the small correlations between these stability measures and trunk kinematics (|r| ≤ 0.52) suggest that they reflect two important, yet different, aspects of a compensatory stepping response.

  3. A Study of Primary Collision Dynamics in Inverse-Kinematics Reaction of 78Kr on 40Ca at a Bombarding Energy of 10 MeV per Nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Eric M.

    The CHIMERA multi-detector array at LNS Catania has been used to study the inverse-kinematics reaction of 78Kr + 40Ca at a bombarding energy of 10 A MeV. The multi-detector is capable of detecting individual products of the collision essential for the reconstruction of the collision dynamics. This is the first time CHIMERA has been used at low-energy, which offered a unique challenge for the calibration and interpretation of experimental data. Initial interrogation of the calibrated data revealed a class of selected events characterized by two coincident heavy fragments (atomic number Z>3) that together account for the majority of the total mass of the colliding system. These events are consistent with the complete fusion and subsequent binary split (fission) of a composite nucleus. The observed fission fragments are characterized by a broad A, Z distribution and are centered about symmetric fission while exhibiting relative velocities significantly higher than given by Viola systematics. Additional analysis of the kinematic relationship between the fission fragments was performed. Of note, is that the center-of-mass angular distribution (dsigma/dtheta) of the fission fragments exhibits an unexpected anisotropy inconsistent with a compound-nucleus reaction. This anisotropy is indicative of a dynamic fusion/fission-like process. The observed angular distribution features a forward-backward anisotropy most prevalent for mass-asymmetric events. Furthermore, the more massive fragment of mass-asymmetric events appears to emerge preferentially in the forward direction, along the beam axis. Analysis of the angular distribution of alpha particles emitted from these fission fragments suggests the events are associated mostly with central collisions. The observations associated with this subset of events are similar to those reported for dynamic fragmentation of projectile-like fragments, but have not before been observed for a fusion/fission-like process. Comparisons to

  4. The Public Library Effectiveness Study: The Complete Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van House, Nancy A.; Childers, Thomas A.

    The purpose of the Public Library Effectiveness Study was to define effectiveness for the public library institution. The research was designed not to measure effectiveness or evaluate particular libraries or groups of libraries, but rather to identify the feature or features of a public library that most directly attest to its effectiveness. The…

  5. Do surgical patellar interventions restore patellar kinematics in fixed-bearing, cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty?: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Keshmiri, Armin; Maderbacher, Günther; Baier, Clemens; Müller, Werner; Grifka, Joachim; Springorum, Hans Robert

    2014-11-01

    Despite different surgical patellar interventions, the decision how to treat the patella during TKA remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of different reconstructive patellar interventions on patellar kinematics during TKA using optical computer navigation. We implanted ten navigated TKAs in full body specimens. During passive motion, the effect of different surgical patellar interventions on patellar kinematics was analysed. A contrarily tilt behaviour was observed in the TKA group without patellar intervention compared to the natural knee. Lateral release led to similar tilt values (P < 0.05). All surgical interventions led to a 3 to 5mm medial shift of the patella (P < 0.05). None of the analysed surgical patellar interventions could restore natural patellar kinematics after TKA.

  6. Aero-optimum hovering kinematics.

    PubMed

    Nabawy, Mostafa R A; Crowther, William J

    2015-08-07

    Hovering flight for flapping wing vehicles requires rapid and relatively complex reciprocating movement of a wing relative to a stationary surrounding fluid. This note develops a compact analytical aero-kinematic model that can be used for optimization of flapping wing kinematics against aerodynamic criteria of effectiveness (maximum lift) and efficiency (minimum power for a given amount of lift). It can also be used to make predictions of required flapping frequency for a given geometry and basic aerodynamic parameters. The kinematic treatment is based on a consolidation of an existing formulation that allows explicit derivation of flapping velocity for complex motions whereas the aerodynamic model is based on existing quasi-steady analysis. The combined aero-kinematic model provides novel explicit analytical expressions for both lift and power of a hovering wing in a compact form that enables exploration of a rich kinematic design space. Good agreement is found between model predictions of flapping frequency and observed results for a number of insects and optimal hovering kinematics identified using the model are consistent with results from studies using higher order computational models. For efficient flight, the flapping angle should vary using a triangular profile in time leading to a constant velocity flapping motion, whereas for maximum effectiveness the shape of variation should be sinusoidal. For both cases the wing pitching motion should be rectangular such that pitch change at stroke reversal is as rapid as possible.

  7. Effects of a program for trunk strength and stability on pain, low back and pelvis kinematics, and body balance: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Carpes, Felipe Pivetta; Reinehr, Fernanda Beatriz; Mota, Carlos Bolli

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of trunk strength and stability training on body balance and low back and pelvis kinematics during gait in females. Six subjects volunteered to do 20 sessions of training. Data collection involved a qualitative pain grade test, low back stabilization tests, low back and pelvis kinematics, and body balance assessment. Results indicate the absence or decrease in the low back pain, and also an increase in the stabilization and strength of low back and pelvis complex. The 3-D kinematics showed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) when compared pre- to post-training. The body balance was improved as well as the range of motion (ROM) was improved for trunk rotation, pelvis inclination and low back flexion. The results suggest the influence of trunk strength and stability on low back and pelvis pain and kinematics as well as on body balance. Further studies with a larger sample and/or a control group must be conducted in an attempt to confirm this hypothesis.

  8. Kinematic Analysis of Canoe Stroke and its Changes During Different Types of Paddling Pace – Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Zahálka, František; Malý, Tomáš; Malá, Lucie; Doktor, Martin; Větrovský, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe and evaluate movements of an elite canoeist when different paddling paces are applied. One of the tasks consisted of finding differences in time-space characteristics of selected markers in the referencing system canoeist’s body - canoe. 3D kinematic analysis was used for identification and comparison of selected parameters. The study confirmed that an elite canoeist has a high level of movement similarity in all types of stroke rates; differences were mainly found in time sequence of applied strokes. To evaluate properly the racing stroke rate, start, flying start, 200m pace, 500m pace, and 1000m pace were chosen. One of the evaluated parameters was the boat velocity that was 2.1–4.5 ms−1 at start, 3.2–5.2 ms−1 at flying start, 3.9–6.1 ms−1 at 200m pace, 3.9–5.9 ms−1 at 500m pace and 3.0–5.4 ms−1 at 1000m pace. Vertical change of the position of the right hand was 0.77 m at start, 0.73 m at flying start, 0.87 at 200m pace, 0.89 at 500m pace and 0.81 m at 1000m pace. PMID:23486828

  9. Mapping the Nuclear Outflow of the Milky Way: Studying the Kinematics and Spatial Extent of the Northern Fermi Bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordoloi, Rongmon; Fox, Andrew J.; Lockman, Felix J.; Wakker, Bart P.; Jenkins, Edward B.; Savage, Blair D.; Hernandez, Svea; Tumlinson, Jason; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Kim, Tae-Sun

    2017-01-01

    We report new observations from a systematic, spectroscopic, ultraviolet absorption-line survey that maps the spatial and kinematic properties of the high velocity gas in the Galactic Center (GC) region. We examine the hypothesis that this gas traces the biconical nuclear outflow. We use an ultraviolet spectra of 47 background QSOs and halo stars projected inside and outside the northern Fermi Bubble from the Hubble Space Telescope to study the incidence of high velocity absorption around it. We use five lines of sight inside the northern Fermi Bubble to constrain the velocity and column densities of outflowing gas traced by O i, Al ii, C ii, C iv, Si ii, Si iii, Si iv, and other species. We find that all five lines of sight inside the northern Fermi Bubble exhibit blueshifted high velocity absorption components, whereas only 9 out of the 42 lines of sight outside the northern Fermi Bubble exhibit blueshifted high velocity absorption components. The observed outflow velocity profile decreases with Galactic latitude and radial distance (R) from the GC. The observed blueshifted velocities change from {v}{GSR}=-265 {km} {{{s}}}-1 at R ≈ 2.3 kpc to {v}{GSR}=-91 {km} {{{s}}}-1 at R ≈ 6.5 kpc. We derive the metallicity of the entrained gas along the 1H1613-097 sightline, one that passes through the center of the northern Fermi Bubble, finding [O/H] ≳ ‑0.54 ± 0.15. A simple kinematic model, tuned to match the observed absorption component velocities along the five lines of sight inside the Bubble, constrains the outflow velocities to ≈1000–1300 {km} {{{s}}}-1, and the age of the outflow to be ∼6–9 Myr. We estimate a minimum mass outflow rate for the nuclear outflow to be ≳ 0.2{M}ȯ {{yr}}-1. Combining the age and mass outflow rates, we determine a minimum mass of total UV-absorbing cool gas entrained in the Fermi Bubbles to be ≳ 2× {10}6 {M}ȯ .

  10. A Gemini/GMOS study of the physical conditions and kinematics of the blue compact dwarf galaxy Mrk 996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telles, Eduardo; Thuan, Trinh X.; Izotov, Yuri I.; Carrasco, Eleazar R.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We present an integral field spectroscopic study with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) of the unusual blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxy Mrk 996. Methods: We show through velocity and dispersion maps, emission-line intensity and ratio maps, and by a new technique of electron density limit imaging that the ionization properties of different regions in Mrk 996 are correlated with their kinematic properties. Results: From the maps, we can spatially distinguish a very dense high-ionization zone with broad lines in the nuclear region, and a less dense low-ionization zone with narrow lines in the circumnuclear region. Four kinematically distinct systems of lines are identified in the integrated spectrum of Mrk 996, suggesting stellar wind outflows from a population of Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars in the nuclear region, superposed on an underlying rotation pattern. From the intensities of the blue and red bumps, we derive a population of ~473 late nitrogen (WNL) stars and ~98 early carbon (WCE) stars in the nucleus of Mrk 996, resulting in a high N(WR)/N(O+WR) of 0.19. We derive, for the outer narrow-line region, an oxygen abundance 12 + log (O/H) = 7.94 ± 0.30 (~0.2 Z⊙) by using the direct Te method derived from the detected narrow [O iii]λ4363 line. The nucleus of Mrk 996 is, however, nitrogen-enhanced by a factor of ~20, in agreement with previous CLOUDY modeling. This nitrogen enhancement is probably due to nitrogen-enriched WR ejecta, but also to enhanced nitrogen line emission in a high-density environment. Although we have made use here of two new methods - principal component analysis (PCA) tomography and a method for mapping low- and high-density clouds - to analyze our data, new methodology is needed to further exploit the wealth of information provided by integral field spectroscopy. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative

  11. Stellar kinematics across the Hubble sequence in the CALIFA survey: general properties and aperture corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcón-Barroso, J.; Lyubenova, M.; van de Ven, G.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; García-Lorenzo, B.; Bekeraité, S.; Sánchez, S. F.; Husemann, B.; García-Benito, R.; Mast, D.; Walcher, C. J.; Zibetti, S.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Galbany, L.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Singh, R.; van den Bosch, R. C. E.; Wild, V.; Zhu, L.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Cid Fernandes, R.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Gallazzi, A.; González Delgado, R. M.; Marino, R. A.; Márquez, I.; Pérez, E.; Pérez, I.; Roth, M. M.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Ruiz-Lara, T.; Wisotzki, L.; Ziegler, B.; Califa Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We present the stellar kinematic maps of a large sample of galaxies from the integral-field spectroscopic survey CALIFA. The sample comprises 300 galaxies displaying a wide range of morphologies across the Hubble sequence, from ellipticals to late-type spirals. This dataset allows us to homogeneously extract stellar kinematics up to several effective radii. In this paper, we describe the level of completeness of this subset of galaxies withrespect to the full CALIFA sample, as well as the virtues and limitations of the kinematic extraction compared to other well-known integral-field surveys. In addition, we provide averaged integrated velocity dispersion radial profiles for different galaxy types, which are particularly useful to apply aperture corrections for single aperture measurements or poorly resolved stellar kinematics of high-redshift sources. The work presented in this paper sets the basis for the study of more general properties of galaxies that will be explored in subsequent papers of the survey.

  12. 21 CFR 99.203 - Request to extend the time for completing planned studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... studies. 99.203 Section 99.203 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... completing planned studies. (a) A manufacturer may request, prior to or at the time of making a submission to FDA under § 99.201, that FDA extend the 36-month time period for completing the studies and...

  13. A kinematic analysis of a haptic handheld stylus in a virtual environment: a study in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Broeren, Jurgen; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S; Rydmark, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Background Virtual Reality provides new options for conducting motor assessment and training within computer-generated 3 dimensional environments. To date very little has been reported about normal performance in virtual environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of a clinical procedure measuring trajectories with a haptic handheld stylus in a virtual environment and to establish normative data in healthy subjects using this haptic device. Methods Fifty-eight normal subjects; aged from 20 to 69, performed 3 dimensional hand movements in a virtual environment using a haptic device on three occasions within one week. Test-retest stability and standardized normative data were obtained for all subjects. Results No difference was found between test and retest. The limits of agreement revealed that changes in an individual's performance could not be detected. There was a training effect between the first test occasion and the third test occasion. Normative data are presented. Conclusion A new test was developed for recording the kinematics of the handheld haptic stylus in a virtual environment. The normative data will be used for purposes of comparison in future assessments, such as before and after training of persons with neurological deficits. PMID:17490470

  14. PUMA: the first results of a nebular spectrograph for the study of the kinematics of interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langarica, Rosalia; Bernal, Abel; Rosado, Margarita; Cobos Duenas, Francisco J.; Garfias, Fernando; Gutierrez, Leonel; Le Coarer, Etienne; Tejada, Carlos; Tinoco, Silvio J.

    1998-07-01

    The kinematics of the interstellar medium may be studied by means of a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer (SFPI). This allows the coverage of a wider field of view with higher spatial and spectral resolution than when a high-dispersion classical spectrograph is used. The system called PUMA consists of a focal reducer and a SFPI installed in the 2.1 m telescope of the San Pedro Martir National Astronomical Observatory (SPM), Mexico, in its f/7.5 configuration. It covers a field of view of 10 arcmin providing direct images as well as interferograms which are focused on a 1024 X 1024 Tektronix CCD, covering a wide spectral range. It is considered the integration of other optical elements for further developments. The optomechanical system and the developed software allow exact, remote positioning of all movable parts and control the FPI scanning and data acquisition. The parallelism of the interferometer plates is automatically achieved by a custom method. The PUMA provides spectral resolutions of 0.414 Angstrom and a free spectral range of 19.8 Angstrom. Results of high quality that compete with those obtained by similar systems in bigger telescopes, are presented.

  15. Rattlesnake strike behavior: kinematics

    PubMed

    Kardong; v

    1998-03-01

    The predatory behavior of rattlesnakes includes many distinctive preparatory phases leading to an extremely rapid strike, during which venom is injected. The rodent prey is then rapidly released, removing the snake's head from retaliation by the prey. The quick action of the venom makes possible the recovery of the dispatched prey during the ensuing poststrike period. The strike is usually completed in less than 0.5 s, placing a premium on an accurate strike that produces no significant errors in fang placement that could result in poor envenomation and subsequent loss of the prey. To clarify the basis for effective strike performance, we examined the basic kinematics of the rapid strike using high-speed film analysis. We scored numerous strike variables. Four major results were obtained. (1) Neurosensory control of the strike is based primarily upon sensory inputs via the eyes and facial pits to launch the strike, and upon tactile stimuli after contact. Correction for errors in targeting occurs not by a change in strike trajectory, but by fang repositioning after the jaws have made contact with the prey. (2) The rattlesnake strike is based upon great versatility and variation in recruitment of body segments and body postures. (3) Forces generated during acceleration of the head are transferred to posterior body sections to decelerate the head before contact with the prey, thereby reducing impact forces upon the snake's jaws. (4) Body acceleration is based on two patterns of body displacement, one in which acute sections of the body open like a gate, the other in which body segments flow around postural curves similar to movements seen during locomotion. There is one major implication of these results: recruitment of body segments, launch postures and kinematic features of the strike may be quite varied from strike to strike, but the overall predatory success of each strike by a rattlesnake is very consistent.

  16. MUSE sneaks a peek at extreme ram-pressure stripping events - I. A kinematic study of the archetypal galaxy ESO137-001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumagalli, Michele; Fossati, Matteo; Hau, George K. T.; Gavazzi, Giuseppe; Bower, Richard; Sun, Ming; Boselli, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    We present Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) observations of ESO137-001, a spiral galaxy infalling towards the centre of the massive Norma cluster at z ˜ 0.0162. During the high-velocity encounter of ESO137-001 with the intracluster medium, a dramatic ram-pressure stripping event gives rise to an extended gaseous tail, traced by our MUSE observations to >30 kpc from the galaxy centre. By studying the Hα surface brightness and kinematics in tandem with the stellar velocity field, we conclude that ram pressure has completely removed the interstellar medium from the outer disc, while the primary tail is still fed by gas from the inner regions. Gravitational interactions do not appear to be a primary mechanism for gas removal. The stripped gas retains the imprint of the disc rotational velocity to ˜20 kpc downstream, without a significant gradient along the tail, which suggests that ESO137-001 is fast moving along a radial orbit in the plane of the sky. Conversely, beyond ˜20 kpc, a greater degree of turbulence is seen, with velocity dispersion up to ≳100 km s-1. For a model-dependent infall velocity of vinf ˜ 3000 km s-1, we conclude that the transition from laminar to turbulent flow in the tail occurs on time-scales ≥6.5 Myr. Our work demonstrates the terrific potential of MUSE for detailed studies of how ram-pressure stripping operates on small scales, providing a deep understanding of how galaxies interact with the dense plasma of the cluster environment.

  17. Study of the kinematic and load sharing properties of wormgearing with non-symmetric tooth profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, D. C.; Yuan, Qin

    1995-01-01

    The geometry of non-symmetric tooth profiles, i.e. tooth profiles with different pressure angles on the two sides of the tooth, is studied. A feasible non-symmetric tooth profile for application in helicopter transmissions is laid out as the best compromise among several conflicting factors. The non-symmetric tooth profile is then compared with the symmetric tooth profile studied previously. Based on the detailed comparisons it is concluded that the use of the non-symmetric tooth profile would severely limit the face width of the worm, consequently reduce the number of meshing teeth and cause much higher normal load on the individual gear teeth.

  18. Influence of Motivational Design on Completion Rates in Online Self-Study Pharmacy-Content Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittenger, Amy; Doering, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Student retention rates are a constant concern in higher education, but this concern has become especially challenging as online courses become more common and there are widespread reports of low completion rates for online, self-study courses. We evaluated four self-study online pharmacy courses with a history of very high completion rates for…

  19. Perceptions of Student-Teacher Relationships and GED Completion: A Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hairston, Melissa Tynetta

    2013-01-01

    This study took an in depth look at student-teacher relationships as one institutional barrier affecting GED completion among adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of student-instructor relationships, specifically Instructor Connectedness and Instructor Anxiety, and its effects on adults seeking GED completion. Data from…

  20. Completion Time Dynamics of Doctoral Studies at Makerere University: A Hazard Model Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamala, Robert; Oonyu, Joseph; Ocaya, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Issues related to attrition and completion time of graduate studies are certainly an internationally challenging and important area of higher education literature. In this paper, completion time dynamics of doctoral studies at Makerere University were investigated based on data extracted for all 295 candidates in the commencement cohorts from 2000…

  1. Contributions to the study of students' ideas about the kinematics concepts velocity and acceleration: Implications in the didactic of the kinematic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orbegoso-Sevillano, Victor Alfonso

    The concepts velocity and acceleration are within first whereupon all course of introductory physics begins and, later, they are continually applied in the development of the course when discussing dynamics, energy, electricity and waves, among other subjects. Therefore, this pair of concepts deserves special attention in the process of teaching and learning of physics. In this study, the ideas of the university students related to the velocity and acceleration concepts were identified and analyzed, and was determined the degree or level of understanding of such concepts. The study is of descriptive nature, and the results from this study it is tried to improve an aspect of the teaching and learning process in the course of physics. The guide questions were What are the previous conceptions on velocity and acceleration that university students have from courses of General Physics I (FISI 3001) and University Physics I (FISI 3011)? What is the genesis of those conceptions? How defer the previous ideas between students from different sex? What are the conceptual categories that stand out in the previous ideas of the students on velocity and acceleration? What difficulties find the students in the process of learning the concepts of velocity and acceleration? What degree of understanding have the students about the concepts of velocity and acceleration at the end of the semester compared to the beginning? The previous ideas that had the participants of low, average, and high academic performance about the concepts velocity and acceleration were identified by means of the analysis of the data obtained through questionnaires and interviews. This information allowed to suggest changes in the content, and the methodology, so that it was more relevant and can be more effective in accomplish objectives. The degree of understanding of the concepts velocity and acceleration was determined by means of the criterion of the ability that the student has to apply correctly such

  2. A 2D 3D registration with low dose radiographic system for in vivo kinematic studies.

    PubMed

    Jerbi, T; Burdin, V; Stindel, E; Roux, C

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge of the poses and the positions of the knee bones and prostheses is of a great interest in the orthopedic and biomechanical applications. In this context, we use an ultra low dose bi-planar radiographic system called EOS to acquire two radiographs of the studied bones in each position. In this paper, we develop a new method for 2D 3D registration based on the frequency domain to determine the poses and the positions during quasi static motion analysis for healthy and prosthetic knees. Data of two healthy knees and four knees with unicompartimental prosthesis performing three different poses (full extension, 30° and 60° of flexion) were used in this work. The results we obtained are in concordance with the clinical accuracy and with the accuracy reported in other previous studies.

  3. Inverse Kinematics Studies of Intermediate-Energy Reactions Relevant for SEE and Medical Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Aichelin, J.; Bargholtz, Ch.; Geren, L.; Tegner, P.-E.; Zartova, I.; Blomgren, J.; Olsson, N.; Budzanowski, A.; Czech, B.; Skwirczynska, I.; Chubarov, M.; Lozhkin, O.; Murin, Yu.; Pljuschev, V.; Zubkov, M.; Ekstroem, C.; Kolozhvari, A.; Persson, H.; Westerberg, L.; Jakobsson, B.

    2005-05-24

    The lack of systematic experimental checks on the intermediate-energy nuclear model simulations of heavily ionizing recoils from nucleon-nucleus collisions -- critical inputs for the Single Event Effect analysis of microelectronics and dosimetry calculations including high-LET components in the cancer tumor radiation therapy -- has been a primary motivation for a new experiment planned at the CELSIUS nuclear storage ring of The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala, Sweden. Details of the experiment and the first results from a feasibility study are presented here.

  4. Walking in a rotating space station, an electromyographic and kinematic study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Biomechanics were studied of locomotion in a rotating environment like that of a space station at various gravity levels. Comparisons were made of the walking gait patterns and the amplitudes of various leg muscle electrical outputs at different gravity levels. The results of these tests are applicable to planning future space missions by providing a part of the information that will be needed to determine the type of vehicle and the gravity level to be provided for the astronauts if it is decided that artificial gravity is to be utilized.

  5. Study of isolated prompt photon production in p -Pb collisions for the ALICE kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goharipour, Muhammad; Mehraban, Hossein

    2017-03-01

    Prompt photon production is known as a powerful tool for testing perturbative QCD predictions and also the validity of parton densities in the nucleon and nuclei, especially of the gluon. In this work, we have performed a detailed study on this subject, focusing on the isolated prompt photon production in p -Pb collisions at forward rapidity at the LHC. The impact of input nuclear modifications obtained from different global analyses by various groups on several quantities has been investigated to estimate the order of magnitude of the difference between their predictions. We have also studied in detail the theoretical uncertainties in the results due to various sources. We found that there is a remarkable difference between the predictions from the nCTEQ15 and other groups in all ranges of photon transverse momentum pTγ. Their differences become more explicit in the calculation of the nuclear modification ratio and also the yield asymmetry between the forward and backward rapidities rather than single differential cross sections. We emphasize that future measurements with ALICE will be very useful, not only for decreasing the uncertainty of the gluon nuclear modification, but also to accurately determine its central values, especially in the shadowing region.

  6. Kinematic MRI study of upper-airway biomechanics using electrical muscle stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennick, Michael J.; Margulies, Susan S.; Ford, John C.; Gefter, Warren B.; Pack, Allan I.

    1997-05-01

    We have developed a new and powerful method to study the movement and function of upper airway muscles. Our method is to use direct electrical stimulation of individual upper airway muscles, while performing state of the art high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We have adapted a paralyzed isolated UA cat model so that positive or negative static pressure in the UA can be controlled at specific levels while electrical muscle stimulation is applied during MRI. With these techniques we can assess the effect of muscle stimulation on airway cross-sectional area compliance and soft tissue motion. We are reporting the preliminary results and MRI techniques which have enabled us to examine changes in airway dimensions which result form electrical stimulation of specific upper airway dilator muscles. The results of this study will be relevant to the development of new clinical treatments for obstructive sleep apnea by providing new information as to exactly how upper airway muscles function to dilate the upper airway and the strength of stimulation required to prevent the airway obstruction when overall muscle tone may not be sufficient to maintain regular breathing.

  7. A KINEMATIC AND PHOTOMETRIC STUDY OF THE GALACTIC YOUNG STAR CLUSTER NGC 7380

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W. P.; Chen, C. W.; Pandey, A. K.; Sharma, Saurabh; Chen Li; Sperauskas, J.; Ogura, K.; Chuang, R. J.; Boyle, R. P.

    2011-09-15

    We present proper motions, radial velocities, and a photometric study of the Galactic open cluster NGC 7380, which is associated with prominent emission nebulosity and dark molecular clouds. On the basis of the sample of highly probable member stars, the star cluster is found to be at a distance of 2.6 {+-} 0.4 kpc, has an age of around 4 Myr, and a physical size of {approx}6 pc across with a tidal structure. The binary O-type star DH Cep is a member of the cluster in its late stage of clearing the surrounding material, and may have triggered the ongoing star formation in neighboring molecular clouds which harbor young stars that are coeval and comoving with, but not gravitationally bound by, the star cluster.

  8. A Study of Kinematics Modeling and the Computational Optimization of the Human Underwater Undulatory Kick by Comparison of Swimmers and Body Orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaoran; Liu, Geng; Ren, Yan; Dong, Haibo; Flow Simulation Research Group Team

    2014-11-01

    Underwater Undulatory Swimming (UUS), better known as the underwater dolphin kick, is the most important technique in competitive swimming. Faster than three of the four strokes in swimming, UUS is permitted in the 15 m after dives and turns. In this study, we compared the UUS of a college-level swimmer and a younger swimmer. 3D human models were built and reconstructed using stereo-videos for identifying key components of undulatory kick kinematics with respect to strongly flexing joints. A gradient-based optimizer and an immersed boundary method based CFD solver was then used to study the hydrodynamic performance of each swimmer. Optimal settings of current kinematic models will help us to understand the efficiency of the observed undulatory kick mechanisms and further improvements of the human UUS strategy. This work is supported by NSF CEBT-1313217 and UVa HooS-STER program.

  9. A Study on Investigation of Crustal Deformation and Block Kinematics Along the Eastern Sector of the NAF by GPS Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozener, H.; Kagawa, D.; Gulen, L.; Arpat, E.; Yilmaz, O.; Dogru, A. G.; Ogutcu, Z.; Yilmazer, M.; Gunes, Y.; Sanli, U.; Cakmak, R.; Turgut, B.

    2003-12-01

    This study constitutes part of an integrated project that have been carried out jointly by the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) and the TUBITAK-MAM to investigate crustal deformation and block kinematics by Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements in and around the eastern sector of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) Zone. The integrated project is also include investigation of seismicity and earthquake potential. Additionally the Radon gas emissions will also be monitored on-line, near real-time along active fault zones in an attempt to predict earthquakes. The region is an ideal choice to carry out the above mentioned investigations, because due to the northward movement of the Arabian Plate, the Erzincan-Karliova region is squeezed, crushed, and expelled westward along the NAF and East Anatolian Fault Zones. The active fault pattern indicates that maximum crustal shortening and crustal deformation in Turkey takes place in this region. Despite this, the Yedisu segment of the NAF was identifed as a seismic gap and it has not been broken entirely since the 1784 earthquake. This region is the most tectonically active region in Turkey as far as the major earthquake occurences are concerned and it is capable of generating major earthquakes in every 3-4 years. It is quite obvious that following the 1992 Erzincan and 2003 Pulumur Earthquakes the Coulomb stress loading on the Yedisu segment of the NAF have been increased significantly and the region needs to be monitored vigilantly with the full armament of geophysical techniques such as seismic (network), geodetic (GPS, InSAR), and geochemical (Radon emissions) techniques. First period GPS measurements were performed at twelve GPS stations in the area. This study reports the evaluation of this GPS data.

  10. Motor planning of goal-directed action is tuned by the emotional valence of the stimulus: a kinematic study

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, P. O.; Oliveira, L. A. S.; Nogueira-Campos, A. A.; Saunier, G.; Pozzo, T.; Oliveira, J. M.; Rodrigues, E. C.; Volchan, E.; Vargas, C. D.

    2016-01-01

    The basic underpinnings of homeostatic behavior include interacting with positive items and avoiding negative ones. As the planning aspects of goal-directed actions can be inferred from their movement features, we investigated the kinematics of interacting with emotion-laden stimuli. Participants were instructed to grasp emotion-laden stimuli and bring them toward their bodies while the kinematics of their wrist movement was measured. The results showed that the time to peak velocity increased for bringing pleasant stimuli towards the body compared to unpleasant and neutral ones, suggesting higher easiness in undertaking the task with pleasant stimuli. Furthermore, bringing unpleasant stimuli towards the body increased movement time in comparison with both pleasant and neutral ones while the time to peak velocity for unpleasant stimuli was the same as for that of neutral stimuli. There was no change in the trajectory length among emotional categories. We conclude that during the “reach-to-grasp” and “bring-to-the-body” movements, the valence of the stimuli affects the temporal but not the spatial kinematic features of motion. To the best of our knowledge, we show for the first time that the kinematic features of a goal-directed action are tuned by the emotional valence of the stimuli. PMID:27364868

  11. Do Planning and Visual Integration Difficulties Underpin Motor Dysfunction in Autism? A Kinematic Study of Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, Ariane M.; McGinley, Jennifer L.; Taffe, John R.; Rinehart, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the upper-limb movement kinematics of young children (3-7 years) with high-functioning autism using a point-to-point movement paradigm. Consistent with prior findings in older children, a difference in movement preparation was found in the autism group (n = 11) relative to typically developing children. In contrast to typically…

  12. Multifrequency studies of massive cores with complex spatial and kinematic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirogov, L. E.; Shul'ga, V. M.; Zinchenko, I. I.; Zemlyanukha, P. M.; Patoka, A. N.; Tomasson, M.

    2016-10-01

    Five regions of massive-star formation have been observed in various molecular lines in the frequency range˜85-89 GHz. The studied regions comprise dense cores, which host young stellar objects. The physical parameters of the cores are estimated, including the kinetic temperatures (˜20-40 K), the sizes of the emitting regions (˜0.1-0.6 pc), and the virial masses (˜40-500 M ⊙). The column densities and abundances of various molecules are calculated assuming Local Thermodynamical Equilibrium(LTE). The core in 99.982+4.17, which is associated with the weakest IRAS source, is characterized by reduced molecular abundances. The molecular line widths decrease with increasing distance from the core centers ( b). For b ≳ 0.1 pc, the dependences Δ V ( b) are close to power laws (∝ b - p ), where p varies from ~0.2 to ~0.5, depending on the object. In four cores, the asymmetries of the optically thick HCN(1-0) and HCO+(1-0) lines indicates systematicmotions along the line of sight: collapse in two cores and expansion in two others. Approximate estimates of the accretion rates in the collapsing cores indicate that the forming stars have masses exceeding the solar mass.

  13. PSR J1301+0833: A Kinematic Study of a Black-widow Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romani, Roger W.; Graham, Melissa L.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Zheng, WeiKang

    2016-12-01

    We have obtained spectroscopic measurements of the P s = 1.8 ms, P B = 6.5 hr black-widow (BW) pulsar PSR J1301+0833 as part of a program to investigate optical companions of wind-shrouded pulsars. The derived radial-velocity amplitude (259+/- 4 {km} {{{s}}}-1) and inclination (i≈ 52^\\circ ) imply a neutron star mass {M}p={1.74}-0.17+0.20 {\\text{}}{M}⊙ , smaller (for similar fit assumptions) than that of the well-studied original BW pulsar PSR J1959+2048, which shares similar values of P s and P B . This fit, which assumes d≈ 1 {kpc}, indicates a small heated region on the (anomalously faint) companion. With a free distance and full surface heating the best fit is statistically acceptable, but the large inferred d=4.7+/- 0.3 {kpc} is inconsistent with the observed pulsar proper motion. Improved photometry and heating models will be needed to refine these measurements.

  14. Glenohumeral kinematics after soft tissue interposition graft and glenoid reaming: A cadaveric study

    PubMed Central

    Garbis, Nickolas G; Weber, Alexander E; Shewman, Elizabeth F; Cole, Brian J; Romeo, Anthony A; Verma, Nikhil N

    2016-01-01

    Background: The management of young patients with glenohumeral arthritis is controversial. Resurfacing of the glenoid with biologic interposition and reaming of the glenoid have been suggested as potential treatment options. The goal of this study was to determine the change in glenohumeral contact pressures in interposition arthroplasty, as well as glenoid reaming in an arthritis model. We hypothesized that interposition with meniscal allograft will lead to the best normalization of contact pressure throughout the glenohumeral range of motion. Materials and Methods: Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders were tested in static positions of humeral abduction with a compressive load. Glenohumeral contact area, contact pressure, and peak force were determined sequentially for (1) intact glenoid (2) glenoid with cartilage removed (arthritis model) (3) placement of lateral meniscus allograft (4) placement of Achilles allograft (5) arthritis model with reamed glenoid. Results: The arthritis model demonstrated statistically higher peak pressures than intact glenoid and glenoid with interpositional allograft. Meniscal and Achilles allograft lowered mean contact pressure and increased contact area to a level equal to or more favorable than the control state. In contrast, the reamed glenoid did not show any statistical difference from the arthritis model for any of the recorded measures. Conclusion: Glenohumeral contact pressure is significantly improved with interposition of allograft at time zero compared to an arthritic state. Our findings suggest that concentric reaming did not differ from the arthritic model when compared to normal. These findings favor the use of allograft for interposition as a potential treatment option in patients with glenoid wear. PMID:27293292

  15. Comparison of quasi-static and dynamic squats: a three-dimensional kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic study of the lower limbs.

    PubMed

    Clément, Julien; Hagemeister, Nicola; Aissaoui, Rachid; de Guise, Jacques A

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have described 3D kinematics, 3D kinetics and electromyography (EMG) of the lower limbs during quasi-static or dynamic squatting activities. One study compared these two squatting conditions but only at low speed on healthy subjects, and provided no information on kinetics and EMG of the lower limbs. The purpose of the present study was to contrast simultaneous recordings of 3D kinematics, 3D kinetics and EMG of the lower limbs during quasi-stat ic and fast-dynamic squats in healthy and pathological subjects. Ten subjects were recruited: five healthy and five osteoarthritis subjects. A motion-capture system, force plate, and surface electrodes respectively recorded 3D kinematics, 3D kinetics and EMG of the lower limbs. Each subject performed a quasi-static squat and several fast-dynamic squats from 0° to 70° of knee flexion. The two squatting conditions were compared for positions where quasi-static and fast-dynamic knee flexion-extension angles were similar. Mean differences between quasi-static and fast-dynamic squats were 1.5° for rotations, 1.9 mm for translations, 2.1% of subjects' body weight for ground reaction forces, 6.6 Nm for torques, 11.2 mm for center of pressure, and 6.3% of maximum fast-dynamic electromyographic activities for EMG. Some significant differences (p<0.05) were found in internal rotation, anterior translation, vertical force and EMG. All differences between quasi-static and fast-dynamic squats were small. 69.5% of compared data were equivalent. In conclusion, this study showed that quasi-static and fast-dynamic squatting activities are comparable in terms of 3D kinematics, 3D kinetics and EMG, although some reservations still remain.

  16. JCCC Career Program Completers 1986-87: A Three-Year Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson County Community Coll., Overland Park, KS. Office of Institutional Research.

    In 1990, a follow-up study was conducted of 1986-87 Johnson County Community College (JCCC) career program completers to assess their career and educational experiences over an extended period of time. Data from 128 returned mail surveys and 166 completed telephone interviews represented responses from 86.2% of the 462 students who left JCCC with…

  17. A Case Study of English Language Learners Who Have Successfully Completed a Healthcare Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloud Smith, Theresa Ann

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if English Language Learners (ELLs), who had successfully completed a healthcare education program, identified support services as having an impact on their academic success, and to identify what support services were critical to their successful completion of the healthcare education program. The…

  18. 40 CFR 26.1607 - Human Studies Review Board review of completed human research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Human Studies Review Board review of completed human research. 26.1607 Section 26.1607 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Review of Proposed and Completed Human Research § 26.1607...

  19. 40 CFR 26.1607 - Human Studies Review Board review of completed human research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Human Studies Review Board review of completed human research. 26.1607 Section 26.1607 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Review of Proposed and Completed Human Research § 26.1607...

  20. A study of bicyclist kinematics and injuries based on reconstruction of passenger car-bicycle accident in China.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jin; Yang, Jikuang

    2014-10-01

    Like pedestrians, bicyclists are vulnerable road users, representing a population with a high risk of fatal and severe injuries in traffic accidents as they are unprotected during vehicle collisions. The objective of this study is to investigate the kinematics response of bicyclists and the correlation of the injury severity with vehicle impact speed. Twenty-four car-bicyclist cases with detailed information were selected for accident reconstruction using mathematical models, which was implemented in the MADYMO program. The dynamic response of bicyclists in the typical impact configuration and the correlation of head impact conditions were analyzed and discussed with respect to the head impact speed, time of head impact and impact angle of bicyclists to vehicle impact speed. Furthermore, the injury distribution of bicyclists and the risk of head injuries and fractures of lower limbs were investigated in terms of vehicle impact speed. The results indicate that wrap-around distance (WAD), head impact speed, time of head impact, head impact angle, and throw-out distance (TOD) of the bicyclists have a strong relationship with vehicle impact speed. The vehicle impact speed corresponding to a 50% probability of head AIS 2+ injuries, head AIS 3+ injuries, and lower limb fracture risk for bicyclists is 53.8km/h, 58.9km/h, and 41.2km/h, respectively. A higher vehicle impact speed produces a higher injury risk to bicyclist. The results could provide background knowledge for the establishment or modification of pedestrian regulations considering bicyclist protection as well as being helpful for developing safety measures and protection devices for bicyclists.

  1. Occupant kinematics and shoulder belt retention in far-side lateral and oblique collisions: a parametric study.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jason L; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco; Lessley, David J; Riley, Patrick; Sochor, Mark; Heltzel, Sara; Ash, Joseph; Perz, Rafal; Kent, Richard W; Seacrist, Thomas; Arbogast, Kristy B; Tanji, Hiromasa; Higuchi, Kazuo

    2013-11-01

    In far-side impacts, head contact with interior components is a key injury mechanism. Restraint characteristics have a pronounced influence on head motion and injury risk. This study performed a parametric examination of restraint, positioning, and collision factors affecting shoulder belt retention and occupant kinematics in far-side lateral and oblique sled tests with post mortem human subjects (PMHS). Seven PMHS were subjected to repeated tests varying the D-ring position, arm position, pelvis restraint, pre-tensioning, and impact severity. Each PMHS was subjected to four low-severity tests (6.6 g sled acceleration pulse) in which the restraint or position parameters were varied and then a single higher-severity test (14 g) with a chosen restraint configuration (total of 36 tests). Three PMHS were tested in a purely lateral (90° from frontal) impact direction; 4 were tested in an oblique impact (60° from frontal). All subjects were restrained by a 3-point seatbelt. Occupant motion was tracked with a 3D optoelectric high speed motion capture system. For all restraint configurations, the 60° oblique impact angle was associated with greater lateral head excursion than the 90° impact angle. This unexpected result reflects the increased axial rotation of the torso in the oblique impacts, which allowed the shoulder to displace more relative to the shoulder belt and thus the head to displace more relative to the sled buck. Restraint engagement of the torso and shoulder was actually greater in the purely lateral impacts than in the oblique impacts. Pretensioning significantly reduced lateral head excursion (175 mm average in the low-severity tests across all restraint configurations).

  2. Study of Gamow-Teller transitions from 132Sn via the (p,n) reaction at 220 MeV/u in inverse kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasano, M.; Yasuda, J.; Zegers, R. G. T.; Baba, H.; Chao, W.; Dozono, M.; Fukuda, N.; Inabe, N.; Isobe, T.; Jhang, G.; Kamaeda, D.; Kubo, T.; Kurata-Nishimura, M.; Milman, E.; Motobayashi, T.; Otsu, H.; Panin, V.; Powell, W.; Sakai, H.; Sako, M.; Sato, H.; Shimizu, Y.; Stuhl, L.; Suzuki, H.; Tangwancharoen, S.; Takeda, H.; Uesaka, T.; Yoneda, K.; Zenihiro, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Sumikama, T.; Tako, T.; Nakamura, T.; Kondo, Y.; Togano, Y.; Shikata, M.; Tsubota, J.; Yako, K.; Shimoura, K.; Ota, S.; Kawase, S.; Kubota, Y.; Takaki, M.; Michimasa, S.; Kisamori, K.; Lee, C. S.; Tokieda, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Koyama, S.; Kobayashi, N.; Wakasa, T.; Sakaguchi, S.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Murakami, T.; Nakatsuka, N.; Kaneko, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Mucher, D.; Reichert, S.; Bazin, D.; Lee, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    The charge-exchange (p,n) reaction at 220 MeV has been measured to extract the strength distribution of Gamow-Teller transitions from the doubly magic unstable nucleus 132Sn. A recently developed experimental technique of measuring the (p,n) reaction in inverse kinematics has been applied to the study of unstable nuclei in the mass region around A˜100 for the first time. We have combined the low-energy neutron detector WINDS and the SAMURAI spectrometer at the RIKEN radioactive isotope beam factory (RIBF). The particle identification plot for the reaction residues obtained by the spectrometer provides the clear separation of the CE reaction channel from other background events, enabling us to identify kinematic curves corresponding the (p, n) reaction. Further analysis to reconstruct the excitation energy spectrum is ongoing.

  3. Opening-closing pattern of four pericardial prostheses: results from an in vitro study of leaflet kinematics.

    PubMed

    Tasca, Giordano; Fiore, Gianfranco Beniamino; Mangini, Andrea; Romagnoni, Claudia; Gamba, Amando; Redaelli, Alberto; Antona, Carlo; Vismara, Riccardo

    2016-12-01

    Pericardial and porcine stented aortic valves have different leaflet kinematics. To study the biomechanics of a prosthesis thoroughly, the in vitro setting is the most appropriate. The aim of our study was to find out whether the prosthesis design in which the pericardial sheet is outside the stent post might influence the opening and closing patterns of the leaflets. Four pericardial prostheses (Magna Ease [MG] 21, Trifecta [TRI] 21, Soprano-Armonia [SA] 20 and Mitroflow [MF] 23) that fitted aortic roots with a native annulus diameter of 2.1 cm were implanted and their leaflet kinematics was studied by a high-speed digital camera. In the opening phase, MG showed the shortest RVOT and the highest RVOVI, with values of 12 ± 2 and 209 ± 17 ms, respectively. The RVOT of MG was significantly shorter than that of MF (p < 0.01), but not than that of TRI (p = 0.286). Both TRI and SA showed similar opening patterns (TRI: RVOT of 15 ± 3 ms and RVOVI of 132 ± 25 ms; SA: 17 ± 2 ms and 126 ± 19 ms), without statistically significant difference. Conversely, MF showed the slowest profile, with an RVOT of 23 ± 3 ms and an RVOVI of 94 ± 8 ms (Table 1; Fig. 3). The opening/closing profile is not influenced by the position of the pericardial leaflets, but depends on other intrinsic structural characteristics related to the material used for the stent and leaflets. Moreover, the kinematics does not affect the valve performance. Table 1 Kinematics and hydrodynamic results, reported as means and standard deviations, evaluated over the tested heart samples TRI SA MG MF ANOVA TRI versus SA TRI versus MG TRI versus MF SA versus MG SA versus MF MG versus MF p Value p Value p Value p Value p Value p Value p Value ET (ms) 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 RVOT (ms) 15 ± 3 17 ± 2 12 ± 2 23 ± 3 <0.01 1.0 0.286 <0.01 0.03 <0.01 <0.01 SVCT (ms) 247 ± 14 231 ± 15 256 ± 26 241 ± 11 0.170 0.463 0.853 0.931 0.213 1.0 1.0 RVCT (ms) 35 ± 19 52 ± 13 32

  4. New kinematic constraints on the Cantabrian orocline: A paleomagnetic study from the Peñalba and Truchas synclines, NW Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Lozano, Javier; Pastor-Galán, Daniel; Gutiérrez-Alonso, Gabriel; Franco, Piedad

    2016-06-01

    The Cantabrian orocline is a large structure that bends the Variscan orogen of Western Europe in NW Iberia. The extensively studied kinematics of its core, the foreland of the orogen, indicates that the structure is secondary, i.e. acquired after the formation of the orogenic edifice. However, the extent of the Cantabrian orocline away from its core is under debate. In this paper we study the kinematics of the Cantabrian orocline beyond the foreland. We collected and analyzed samples from the northern and central parts of the Truchas syncline, which provides new data within the hinterland of the orogen in NW Iberia. The analysis of 320 samples shows a late Carboniferous remagnetization with an E to NE declination and shallow downward inclinations. These results suggest a counter-clockwise rotation of ~ 60° and peri-equatorial but still southern hemisphere latitude for Iberia during the uppermost Carboniferous-Early Permian. This rotation fits with the expected kinematic evolution of the Truchas syncline if it indeed was part of the Cantabrian orocline.

  5. O-star kinematics

    SciTech Connect

    Karimova, D.K.; Pavlovskaya, E.D.

    1984-01-01

    Proper motions determined by the authors are utilized to study the kinematics of 79 O-type stars at distance r< or =2.5 kpc. The sample is divided into two groups, having space-velocity dispersions tau/sub I/roughly-equal10 km/sec, sigma/sub II/roughly-equal35 km/sec. Solutions for the velocity-field parameters for group I yield a galactic angular rotation speed ..omega../sub 0/ = 24.9 km sec/sup -1/ kpc/sup -1/ at the sun (for R/sub 0/ = 10.0 kpc) and an Oort constant A = 12.2 km sec/sup -1/ kpc/sup -1/. Most of the O stars exhibit a small z-velocity directed away from the galactic plane. The velocity-ellipsoid parameters and box-orbit elements are calculated.

  6. Occupant Kinematics in Laboratory Rollover Tests: PMHS Response.

    PubMed

    Lessley, David J; Riley, Patrick; Zhang, Qi; Foltz, Patrick; Overby, Brian; Heltzel, Sara; Sochor, Mark; Crandall, Jeff; Kerrigan, Jason R

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the current study was to characterize the whole-body kinematic response of restrained PMHS in controlled laboratory rollover tests. A dynamic rollover test system (DRoTS) and a parametric vehicle buck were used to conduct 36 rollover tests on four adult male PMHS with varied test conditions to study occupant kinematics during the rollover event. The DRoTS was used to drop/catch and rotate the test buck, which replicated the occupant compartment of a typical mid-sized SUV, around its center of gravity without roof-to-ground contact. The studied test conditions included a quasi-static inversion (4 tests), an inverted drop and catch that produced a 3 g vertical deceleration (4 tests), a pure dynamic roll at 360 degrees/second (11 tests), and a roll with a superimposed drop and catch produced vertical deceleration (17 tests). Each PMHS was restrained with a three-point belt and was tested in both leading-side and trailing-side front-row seating positions. Whole-body kinematics were measured using a 3D motion capture system that quantified occupant displacement relative to the vehicle buck for the X-axis (longitudinal), Y-axis (lateral), and Z-axis (vertical) directions. Additionally the spine was divided into five segments to describe intrasegmental kinematics of the spine, including segment rotations as well as spinal extension and compression. The reported data represent the most complete set of kinematic response targets for a restrained occupant in a variety of dynamic rollover conditions, and are immediately useful for efforts to evaluate and improve existing ATDs and computational models for use in the rollover crash environment.

  7. Upper Limb Assessment in Tetraplegia: Clinical, Functional and Kinematic Correlations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacho, Enio Walker Azevedo; de Oliveira, Roberta; Ortolan, Rodrigo L.; Varoto, Renato; Cliquet, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate clinical and functional evaluations with kinematic variables of upper limp reach-to-grasp movement in patients with tetraplegia. Twenty chronic patients were selected to perform reach-to-grasp kinematic assessment using a target placed at a distance equal to the arm's length. Kinematic variables (hand peak…

  8. Association study of MIF promoter polymorphisms with suicide completers in the Japanese population

    PubMed Central

    Shimmyo, Naofumi; Hishimoto, Akitoyo; Otsuka, Ikuo; Okazaki, Satoshi; Boku, Shuken; Mouri, Kentaro; Horai, Tadasu; Takahashi, Motonori; Ueno, Yasuhiro; Shirakawa, Osamu; Sora, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    Background Numerous studies suggest that inflammation plays a key role in suicidal behavior. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory cytokine, has received increasing attention in depression research. However, no study has investigated whether MIF has genetic involvement in completed suicide. In this study, we sought to explore the relationship between two functional polymorphisms on the MIF gene promoter (MIF-794CATT5–8 microsatellite and MIF-173G/C single-nucleotide polymorphism [SNP]) and completed suicide by using one of the largest samples of suicide completers ever reported. Methods The subjects comprised 602 suicide completers and 728 healthy controls. We genotyped MIF-794CATT5–8 microsatellite by polymerase chain reaction–based size discrimination assay and MIF-173G/C SNP by TaqMan® SNP genotyping assay. The allele-, genotype-, or haplotype-based association analyses between the suicide completers and the controls were carried out with the χ2 test, the Cochran–Armitage trend test, or Fisher’s exact test. Results Analyses of allele or genotype frequency distributions of the polymorphisms studied here did not reveal any significant differences between the suicide completers and the controls. Haplotype analysis also revealed no association with completed suicide. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first study that has examined the genetic association between MIF and completed suicide. Our results suggest that the effects of MIF-794CATT5–8 microsatellite and MIF-173G/C SNP on the MIF gene promoter might not contribute to the genetic risk of completed suicide in the Japanese population. PMID:28367056

  9. The effect of the variation in ACL constitutive model on joint kinematics and biomechanics under different loads: a finite element study.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chao; Hao, Zhixiu; Wen, Shizhu

    2013-04-01

    The biomechanics and function of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) have been widely studied using both experimental and simulation methods. It is known that a constitutive model of joint tissue is a critical factor in the numerical simulation. Some different ligament constitutive models have been presented to describe the ACL material behavior. However, the effect of the variation in the ligament constitutive model on joint kinematics and biomechanics has still not been studied. In this paper, a three-dimensional finite element model of an intact tibiofemoral joint was reconstructed. Three ACL constitutive models were compared under different joint loads (such as anterior tibial force, varus tibial torque, and valgus tibial torque) to investigate the effect of the change of the ACL constitutive model. The three constitutive models corresponded to an isotropic hyperelasticity model, a transversely isotropic hyperelasticity model with neo-Hookean ground substance description, and a transversely isotropic hyperelastic model with nonlinear ground substance description. Although the material properties of these constitutive equations were fitted on the same uniaxial tension stress-strain curve, the change of the ACL material constitutive model was found to induce altered joint kinematics and biomechanics. The effect of different ACL constitutive equations on joint kinematics depended on both deformation direction and load type. The variation in the ACL constitutive models would influence the joint kinematic results greatly in both the anterior and internal directions under anterior tibial force as well as some other deformations such as the anterior and medial tibial translations under valgus tibial torque, and the medial tibial translation and internal rotation under varus torque. It was revealed that the transversely isotropic hyperelastic model with nonlinear ground substance description (FE model III) was the best representation of the realistic ACL property by a

  10. In vivo kinematic study of the tarsal joints complex based on fluoroscopic 3D-2D registration technique.

    PubMed

    Chen Wang, M D; Geng, Xiang; Wang, Shaobai; Xin Ma, M D; Xu Wang, M D; Jiazhang Huang, M D; Chao Zhang, M D; Li Chen, M S; Yang, Junsheng; Wang, Kan

    2016-09-01

    The tarsal bones articulate with each other and demonstrate complicated kinematic characteristics. The in vivo motions of these tarsal joints during normal gait are still unclear. Seven healthy subjects were recruited and fourteen feet in total were tested in the current study. Three dimensional models of the tarsal bones were first created using CT scanning. Corresponding local 3D coordinate systems of each tarsal bone was subsequently established for 6DOF motion decompositions. The fluoroscopy system captured the lateral fluoroscopic images of the targeted tarsal region whilst the subject was walking. Seven key pose images during the stance phase were selected and 3D to 2D bone model registrations were performed on each image to determine joint positions. The 6DOF motions of each tarsal joint during gait were then obtained by connecting these positions together. The TNJ (talo-navicular joint) exhibited the largest ROMs (range of motion) on all rotational directions with 7.39±2.75°of dorsi/plantarflexion, 21.12±4.68°of inversion/eversion, and 16.11±4.44°of internal/external rotation. From heel strike to midstance, the TNJ, STJ (subtalar joint), and CCJ (calcaneao-cuboid joint) were associated with 5.97°, 5.04°, and 3.93°of dorsiflexion; 15.46°, 8.21°, and 5.82°of eversion; and 9.75°, 7.6°, and 4.99°of external rotation, respectively. Likewise, from midstance to heel off, the TNJ, STJ, and CCJ were associated with 6.39, 6.19°, and 4.47°of plantarflexion; 18.57°, 11.86°, and 6.32°of inversion and 13.95°, 9.66°, and 7.58°of internal rotation, respectively. In conclusion, among the tarsal joints, the TNJ exhibited the greatest rotational mobility. Synchronous and homodromous rotational motions were detected for TNJ, STJ, and CCJ during the stance phase.

  11. Complete Study of Hadroproduction of a ϒ Meson Associated with a Prompt J/ψ.

    PubMed

    Shao, Hua-Sheng; Zhang, Yu-Jie

    2016-08-05

    We present the first complete study of ϒ and prompt J/ψ production from single-parton scattering, including the complete O(α_{S}^{6}) color-singlet contribution, the O(α_{S}^{2}α^{2}) electroweak contribution, and the complete nonrelativistic S-wave and P-wave color-octet contribution as well as the feeddown contribution. Our study was motivated by the recent evidence reported by the D0 Collaboration of prompt J/ψ and ϒ simultaneous production at the Tevatron. With our complete evaluation, we are able to refine the determination of the double-parton scattering contribution made by the D0 Collaboration. We find that the effective cross section characterizing the importance of double-parton scatterings is σ_{eff}≤8.2  mb at 68% confidence level from the D0 measurement.

  12. 75 FR 57493 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Department of Anthropology & Ethnic Studies, University of Nevada...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Department of Anthropology & Ethnic Studies... ] object in the possession of the Department of Anthropology & Ethnic Studies, University of Nevada Las... assessment of the human remains was made by the Department of Anthropology & Ethnic Studies, University...

  13. 21 CFR 99.303 - Extension of time for completing planned studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Extension of time for completing planned studies... planned studies. (a) Upon review of a drug or device manufacturer's proposed protocols and schedules for conducting studies needed for the submission of a supplemental application for a new use, FDA may, with...

  14. Technology Acceptance and Course Completion Rates in Online Education: A Non-experimental, Mixed Method Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Colelia

    As the need for quality online courses increase in demand, the acceptance of technology and completion rates become the focus of higher education. The purpose of this non-experimental, mixed method study was to examine the relationship between the university students' perceptions and acceptance of technology and learner completion rates with respect to the development of online courses. This study involved 61 participants from two universities regarding their perceived usefulness (PU) of technology, intent to use technology, and intent to complete a course. Two research questions were examined regarding student perceptions regarding technology employed in an online course and the relationship, if any, between technology acceptance and completion of an online university course. The technology acceptance model (TAM) was used to collect data on the usefulness of course activities and student intent to complete the course. An open-ended questionnaire was administered to collect information concerning student perceptions of course activities. Quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS and Qualtrics, which indicated there was not a significant relationship between technology acceptance and course completion (p = .154). Qualitative data were examined by pattern matching to create a concept map of the theoretical patterns between constructs. Pattern matching revealed many students favored the use of the Internet over Canvas. Furthermore, data showed students enrolled in online courses because of the flexibility and found the multimedia used in the courses as helpful in course completion. Insight was investigated to offer reasons and decisions concerning choice that were made by the students. Future recommendations are to expand mixed methods studies of technology acceptance in various disciplines to gain a better understanding of student perceptions of technology uses, intent to use, and course completion.

  15. The cutaneous manifestations of atypical complete DiGeorge syndrome: a histopathologic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Selim, Maria Angelica; Markert, Mary L; Burchette, James L; Herman, Christopher M; Turner, John W

    2008-04-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is a congenital anomaly with a constellation of findings that includes thymic hypoplasia. Only a small subset of patients with DiGeorge syndrome has complete athymia, classified as complete DiGeorge anomaly; one third of these patients show an eczematous dermatitis, oligoclonal T-cells and lymphadenopathy, known as atypical complete DiGeorge anomaly. Six biopsies from six patients with the distinctive clinical phenotype of atypical complete DiGeorge anomaly were studied. Every biopsy showed exocytosis (100%), parakeratosis, often confluent and spongiosis (100%). Neutrophilic abscesses (50%), dyskeratosis (67%) and satellite cell necrosis (50%) were seen. Perieccrine and perivascular inflammation were seen in half of the cases. Eosinophils were identified (83%); most commonly in both the epidermis and dermis. All of lymphocytes were CD3 positive. Most (83%) of cases contained T-cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA-1) positive cells. Special testing of the selected patients using spectratyping identified oligoclonal T-cell populations. The presence of dyskeratotic keratinocytes, satellite cell necrosis and parakeratotic scale with neutrophils characterizes the cutaneous rash seen in this subset of complete DiGeorge syndrome patients. Such skin lesions from patients with DiGeorge anomaly should alert the pathologist to the potential diagnosis of atypical complete DiGeorge anomaly. The pathophysiologic role of the oligoclonal T-cells in this entity requires additional study.

  16. A numerical study of the effects of fluid rheology and stroke kinematics on flagellar swimming in complex fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuanbin; Guy, Robert; Thomases, Becca

    2016-11-01

    It is observed in experiments that as the fluid rheology is changed, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exhibits changes in both flagellar kinematics and the swimming speed. To understand this phenomenon, we develop a computational model of the swimmer, using flagellar strokes fit from experimental data. We conduct numerical simulations by changing strokes and fluid rheology independently to dissect the effects of these two factors. We discover that stroke patterns extracted from viscoelastic fluids generate much lower stress and have higher efficiency at the cost of lower swimming speed. We also discover that higher fluid elasticity hinders swimming for a fixed stroke pattern.

  17. Continuation and Completion Patterns of Management Distance Learners: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivaswaroop, P.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a case study of continuation and completion patterns of distance-education students at the Bhopal Regional Center of Indira Gandhi National Open University. Findings revealed that the first semester of study is more crucial for distance learning and the distance-learning institute must provide more support to students during this period.…

  18. Predicting High School Completion Using Student Performance in High School Algebra: A Mixed Methods Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiado, Wendy S.

    2012-01-01

    Too many of our nation's youth have failed to complete high school. Determining why so many of our nation's students fail to graduate is a complex, multi-faceted problem and beyond the scope of any one study. The study presented herein utilized a thirteen-step mixed methods model developed by Leech and Onwuegbuzie (2007) to demonstrate within a…

  19. 75 FR 52364 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Department of Anthropology and Ethnic Studies, University of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... Completion: Department of Anthropology and Ethnic Studies, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV... of Anthropology & Ethnic Studies, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV. The human remains... in this notice. A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by the Department of...

  20. Completion Time Dynamics for Master's and Doctoral Studies at Makerere University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamala, Robert; Oonyu, Joseph C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the dynamics of completion time of master's studies and how such dynamics relate to those of doctoral studies at Makerere University, Uganda. The assessment is based on administrative data of 605 master's degree students at the University in the 2004 and 2005 enrollment cohorts. The total elapsed time from first enrollment to…

  1. 21 CFR 99.303 - Extension of time for completing planned studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVICES FDA Action on Submissions, Requests, and Applications § 99.303 Extension of time for completing... conducting studies needed for the submission of a supplemental application for a new use, FDA may, with or... writing that FDA extend the time period for conducting studies needed for the submission of a...

  2. Integrating concepts and skills: Slope and kinematics graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonelli, Edward P., Jr.

    The concept of force is a foundational idea in physics. To predict the results of applying forces to objects, a student must be able to interpret data representing changes in distance, time, speed, and acceleration. Comprehension of kinematics concepts requires students to interpret motion graphs, where rates of change are represented as slopes of line segments. Studies have shown that majorities of students who show proficiency with mathematical concepts fail accurately to interpret motion graphs. The primary aim of this study was to examine how students apply their knowledge of slope when interpreting kinematics graphs. To answer the research questions a mixed methods research design, which included a survey and interviews, was adopted. Ninety eight (N=98) high school students completed surveys which were quantitatively analyzed along with qualitative information collected from interviews of students (N=15) and teachers ( N=2). The study showed that students who recalled methods for calculating slopes and speeds calculated slopes accurately, but calculated speeds inaccurately. When comparing the slopes and speeds, most students resorted to calculating instead of visual inspection. Most students recalled and applied memorized rules. Students who calculated slopes and speeds inaccurately failed to recall methods of calculating slopes and speeds, but when comparing speeds, these students connected the concepts of distance and time to the line segments and the rates of change they represented. This study's findings will likely help mathematics and science educators to better assist their students to apply their knowledge of the definition of slope and skills in kinematics concepts.

  3. [Effects of aquatic physical exercise on the kinematic gait pattern in patients with Parkinson's disease: a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Paula; Cancela, José M; Ayan, Carlos; do Nascimento, Carla; Seijo-Martínez, Manuel

    2013-03-16

    AIM. To determine the effects of an aquatic-based physical exercise program on gait parameters of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). PATIENTS AND METHODS. A total of nine patients diagnosed with idiopathic PD (stages I-III according to the Hoehn and Yahr scale) carried out an aquatic physical exercise program which lasted for five months, with one session per week. A three-dimensional biomechanical analysis was used to determine the effects of the program on several kinematic variables (walking speed, cadence, stride length, step time, single and double support time, angles of the hip, knee and ankle joints) which were assessed by a treadmill-walking test. RESULTS. At the end of the program, significant improvement in walking speed, stride length and on the relationship between single and double support time (p < 0,05). Although improvements in all tested ranges of motion were obtained, these did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS. Aquatic-based physical exercise seems to have positive effects in some aspects of the gait kinematics parameters present in the typical gait pattern of patients with PD.

  4. Kinematics at the intersection of the Garlock and Death Valley fault zones, California: Integration of TM data and field studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, Michael; Verosub, Ken; Finnerty, Tony; Brady, Roland

    1987-01-01

    The Garlock and Death Valley fault zones in SE California are two active strike-slip faults coming together on the east side of the Avawatz Mtns. The kinematics of this intersection, and the possible continuation of either fault zone, are being investigated using a combination of field mapping, and processing and interpretation of remotely sensed image data. Regional and local relationships are derivable from Thematic Mapper data (30 m resolution), including discrimination and relative age dating of alluvial fans, bedrock mapping, and fault mapping. Aircraft data provide higher spatial resolution over more limited areas. Hypotheses being considered are: (1) the Garlock fault extends east of the intersection; (2) the Garlock fault terminates at the intersection and the Death Valley fault continues southeastward; and (3) the Garlock fault has been offset right laterally by the Death Valley fault which continues to the southeast. Preliminary work indicates that the first hypothesis is invalid. From kinematic considerations, image analysis, and field work the third hypothesis is favored. The projected continuation of the Death Valley zone defines the boundary between the Mojave crustal block and the Basin and Range block.

  5. KINEMATIC SYNERGIES DURING SACCADES INVOLVING WHOLE-BODY ROTATION: A STUDY BASED ON THE UNCONTROLLED MANIFOLD HYPOTHESIS

    PubMed Central

    Degani, Adriana M.; Danna-Dos-Santos, Alessander; Robert, Thomas; Latash, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    We used the framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis to study the coordination of body segments and eye movements in standing persons during the task of shifting the gaze to a target positioned behind the body. The task was performed at a comfortable speed and fast. Multi-segment and head-eye synergies were quantified as co-varied changes in elemental variables (body segment rotations and eye rotation) that stabilized (reduced the across trials variability) of head rotation in space and gaze trajectory. Head position in space was stabilized by co-varied rotations of body segments prior to the action, during its later stages, and after its completion. The synergy index showed a drop that started prior to the action initiation (anticipatory synergy adjustment) and continued during the phase of quick head rotation. Gaze direction was stabilized only at the movement completion and immediately after the saccade at movement initiation under the “fast” instruction. The study documents for the first time anticipatory synergy adjustments during whole-body actions. It shows multi-joint synergies stabilizing head trajectory in space. In contrast, there was no synergy between head and eye rotations during saccades that would achieve a relatively invariant gaze trajectory. PMID:20346529

  6. Different strategies in solving series completion inductive reasoning problems: an fMRI and computational study.

    PubMed

    Liang, Peipeng; Jia, Xiuqin; Taatgen, Niels A; Zhong, Ning; Li, Kuncheng

    2014-08-01

    Neural correlate of human inductive reasoning process is still unclear. Number series and letter series completion are two typical inductive reasoning tasks, and with a common core component of rule induction. Previous studies have demonstrated that different strategies are adopted in number series and letter series completion tasks; even the underlying rules are identical. In the present study, we examined cortical activation as a function of two different reasoning strategies for solving series completion tasks. The retrieval strategy, used in number series completion tasks, involves direct retrieving of arithmetic knowledge to get the relations between items. The procedural strategy, used in letter series completion tasks, requires counting a certain number of times to detect the relations linking two items. The two strategies require essentially the equivalent cognitive processes, but have different working memory demands (the procedural strategy incurs greater demands). The procedural strategy produced significant greater activity in areas involved in memory retrieval (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, DLPFC) and mental representation/maintenance (posterior parietal cortex, PPC). An ACT-R model of the tasks successfully predicted behavioral performance and BOLD responses. The present findings support a general-purpose dual-process theory of inductive reasoning regarding the cognitive architecture.

  7. Factors associated with study completion in patients with premature acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Factors associated with study completion in younger adults are not well understood. This study sought to describe psychosocial, clinical, and demographic features associated with completion of a study of men and women with premature acute coronary syndrome. Methods As part of the GENdEr and Sex determInantS of cardiovascular disease: From bench to beyond-Premature Acute Coronary Syndrome (GENESIS-PRAXY) study, demographic, psychosocial, and clinical variables were assessed in 1213 patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome (≤ 55 years; 30% women). Patients were followed for 12 months. Dropouts withdrew from the study or were lost to follow-up after 12 months; completers were still enrolled after 12 months. Results Of 1213 patients initially enrolled, 777 (64.1%) completed 12-month follow-up. Fully adjusted models suggested that being older (OR = 1.04, 95% CI [1.01, 1.06]), higher subjective social status within one’s country (OR = 1.11, 95% CI [1.01, 1.22]), being free of type II diabetes, (OR = 0.66, 95% CI [0.45, 0.97]), non-smoking status (OR = 0.70, 95% CI [0.51, 0.95]) and being free of depression (OR = 1.52, 95% CI [1.11, 2.07]) were independently associated with study completion. Conclusions Recruitment/retention strategies targeting individuals who smoke, are younger, have low subjective social status within one’s country, have diabetes, or have depression may improve participant follow-up in cardiovascular cohort studies. PMID:28301532

  8. Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices

    SciTech Connect

    Mattione, Paul

    2007-05-01

    The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

  9. Inverse Kinematics for a Parallel Myoelectric Elbow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    Inverse Kinematics for a Parallel Myoelectric Elbow A. Z. Escudero, Ja. Álvarez, L. Leija. Center of Research and Advanced Studies of the IPN...replacement above elbow are serial mechanisms driven by a DC motor and they include only one active articulation for the elbow [1]. Parallel mechanisms...are rather scarce [2]. The inverse kinematics model of a 3-degree of freedom parallel prosthetic elbow mechanism is reported. The mathematical

  10. Online Notes: Differential Effects of Studying Complete or Partial Graphically Organized Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katayama, Andrew D.; Crooks, Steven M.

    2003-01-01

    The authors investigated in this study the effects of two electronic notes conditions (complete vs. partial) and two testing conditions (immediate vs. delayed) on three types of tests (fact, structure, and application). A 2 x 2 factorial multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) yielded no significant main effects for notes conditions on the fact…

  11. State Constitutionalism: Completing the Interdisciplinary Study of Constitutional Law and Political Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that a complete and accurate understanding of constitutional history and constitutional law requires the study of state constitutions. Maintains that state constitutions contain a coherent political theory that is, in important respects, at variance with the concept of federalism. (CFR)

  12. Emerging Adulthood and Gender Differences in Adult Bachelor Degree Completion: A Multi-Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Riley, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    Adult undergraduate students constitute 40% of the total undergraduates studying in the United States. However, male undergraduates and male undergraduates over the age of 25 are less likely to enroll in and complete a bachelor's degree than their female counterparts. Given the detrimental employment impacts of not earning a bachelor's…

  13. The Benefits and Challenges Hospitality Management Students Experience by Working in Conjunction with Completing Their Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoffstall, Donald G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous researchers have suggested that in order to be successful in the hospitality industry, students need to obtain work experience in addition to completing their degrees. Although the benefit of gaining such experience from the industry viewpoint has been well documented, few studies have assessed the benefits and challenges faced by…

  14. Nursing Students’ Self-Graded Motivation to Complete their Programme of Study

    PubMed Central

    Stomberg, Margareta Warrén; Nilsson, Kerstin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore variation in nursing students’ motivation to complete their programme of study, as well as factors relating to low versus high motivation and students’ opinions of what would increase their motivation to complete their programme of study. A study was carried out between April 2006 and December 2007. A total of 872 students registered in a 3-year nursing programme randomly participated in self-rating their motivation score once each semester. Descriptive statistics, statistical calculations and content analysis regarding open-ended questions were performed. Most of the students, 73%, rated their motivation as ≥6 on a 0-10 Likert scale; and 16% gave a rating of ≤4. The desire to become a registered nurse (RN) and having a positive attitude towards the studies were the main factors influencing high motivation to complete the programme of study. Having a negative attitude towards the studies was an explanation of decreased motivation. There was a significant decrease (p=0.001) in the motivation score with respect to number of semesters, and motivation increased with the student’s age (p=0.0119). Suggestions for increasing motivation given by those who rated their motivation as ≤4 mainly focused on improvements in didactics and study organisation. PMID:21347211

  15. CME Kinematics and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C.-H.; Gallagher, P. T.

    The goal of this study is to investigate the driving mechanisms of CMEs and to infer the magnetic field properties at the onset of the instability. We use EIT 195 Å images and LASCO white-light coronagraph data of a CME event that occurred on 17 December 2006. It was a long-duration event, and was associated with an occulted C2.1 class flare. To determine the driving mechanism, we quantitatively and qualitatively compared the observationally obtained kinematic evolution with that predicted by three CME models: the breakout model (BO, see Antiochos et al. 1999; Lynch et al. 2008; DeVore and Antiochos 2008), the catastrophe model (CM, see Priest and Forbes 2000), and the toroidal instability model (TI, see Chen 1989; Kliem and Török 2006). Our results indicate that this CME is best represented by the CM model. We infer that, at the onset of the instability, the Alfvén speed is approximately 120 km s-1 and the height of the flux rope is roughly 100-200Mm. These parameter values are related to the magnetic environment and the loop geometry and can be used to infer the magnetic condition at the onset of the eruption.We intend to submit the full analysis to A&A.

  16. A study of the lived experiences of African American women STEM doctoral degree completers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squires, Stephanie Michelle

    This study examined the lived experiences of African American women (AAW) who completed doctoral degrees in a STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) discipline in the United States. This study sought to fill the gap in the literature by examining how AAW described and made meaning of lived STEM educational experiences during doctoral degree completion in the context of the intersection of being African American and a woman. This study utilized a theoretical perspective based upon three theories: (a) critical race theory as a framework to gather AAW's narratives about STEM doctorate education, (b) Black feminist thought as a framework to view the intersection of being African American and a woman in the United States, and (c) the science identity model as a framework to view how women of color successfully complete scientific graduate degrees. Participants revealed that being an African American and a woman in a STEM doctoral program often complicated an already difficult process of completing the doctoral degree. The participants described the educational experience as challenging, particularly the writing of the dissertation. The challenges that the participants faced were due to various factors such as difficult advisor/advisee relationships, tedious writing and revision processes, politics, and lack of information regarding the doctoral degree process. The findings suggested that AAW participants confronted intrinsic bias while completing STEM doctoral degrees, which led to isolation and feelings of being an impostor---or feelings of not belonging in scientific studies. The findings also indicated that the women in this study ascribed success in dissertation writing and degree completion to one or more of the following attributes: (a) having a clear plan, (b) taking ownership of the writing process, (c) having an engaged advisor, (d) learning the writing style of the advisor, (e) understanding the temperament of the advisor, (f) personal will

  17. A Clinical Study to Examine the Effect of Complete Denture on Head Posture/Craniovertical Angle

    PubMed Central

    Nandeeshwar, D.B.; Sangur, Rajashekar; Makkar, Sumit; Khare, Pooja; Chitumalla, Rajkiran; Prasad, Renuka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Edentulous patients show some significant changes in ridge relationship caused by resorption of alveolar ridge. The changes are characterized by an upward rotation of mandible, increase in mandibular prognathism that ultimately results in change of natural head posture. Aim This clinical study was planned to know the effect of complete denture on head posture in different age groups of Indian completely edentulous population, after placement of complete denture at various time intervals. Materials and Methods The sample consisted of completely edentulous patients without previous experience of the dentures. They were divided into 2 age groups: Group A (45-60) and Group B (61-75). During placement of complete denture craniovertical angle was measured with the help of custom made ruler protector device. Readings were taken before denture placement, immediately after denture placement, 30 minutes, 24 hours and 30 days after dentures placement. Results The results of this study indicated that in most of the patients (90%) despite their age, change in head posture (extension) occurred immediately after the denture placement. Thereafter reading remains same for measurement at 30 minutes and 24 hours of denture placement. However after 30 days, observation revealed that all the patients showed reduced craniovertical angle (flexion). Even though the values of craniovertical angle remain higher than its baseline in both groups, significant changes were noticed only in Group A. Conclusion Findings revealed that head posture was significantly altered by the placement of dentures in completely edentulous patients. Within the time interval of 30 minutes and 24 hours extension of head posture remained constant with slight variation. Although after 30 days, changes remained significant for group ‘A’, but no significant changes were observed in the subjects of group ‘B’. PMID:27190938

  18. Effects of resisted sled towing on sprint kinematics in field-sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Lockie, Robert G; Murphy, Aron J; Spinks, Christopher D

    2003-11-01

    Weighted sled towing is a common resisted sprint training technique even though relatively little is known about the effects that such practice has on sprint kinematics. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of sled towing on acceleration sprint kinematics in field-sport athletes. Twenty men completed a series of sprints without resistance and with loads equating to 12.6 and 32.2% of body mass. Stride length was significantly reduced by approximately 10 and approximately 24% for each load, respectively. Stride frequency also decreased, but not to the extent of stride length. In addition, sled towing increased ground contact time, trunk lean, and hip flexion. Upper-body results showed an increase in shoulder range of motion with added resistance. The heavier load generally resulted in a greater disruption to normal acceleration kinematics compared with the lighter load. The lighter load is likely best for use in a training program.

  19. Feasibility of a cost-effective, video analysis software-based mobility protocol for objective spine kinematics and gait metrics: a proof of concept study.

    PubMed

    Paul, Justin C; Petrizzo, Anthony; Rizzo, John-Ross; Bianco, Kristina; Maier, Stephen; Errico, Thomas J; Lafage, Virginie

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of a high-throughput, easily implemented, cost-effective, video analysis software-based mobility protocol to quantify spine kinematics. This prospective cohort study of clinical biomechanics implemented 2-dimensional (2D) image processing at a tertiary-care academic institution. Ten healthy, able-bodied volunteers were recruited for 2D videography of gait and functional motion. The reliability of a 2D video analysis software program for gait and range of motion metrics was evaluated over 2 independent experimental sessions, assessing for inter-trial, inter-session, and inter-rater reliability. Healthy volunteers were evaluated for simple forward and side bending, rotation, treadmill stride length, and more complex seated-to-standing tasks. Based on established intraclass correlation coefficients, results indicated that reliability was considered good to excellent for simple forward and side bending, rotation, stride length, and more complex sit-to-standing tasks. In conclusion, a cost-effective, 2D, video analysis software-based mobility protocol represents a feasible and clinically useful approach for objective spine kinematics and gait metrics. As the complication rate of operative management in the setting of spinal deformity is weighed against functional performance and quality of life measures, an objective analysis tool in combination with an appropriate protocol will aid in clinical assessments and lead to an increased evidence base for management options and decision algorithms.

  20. Feasibility of a Cost-Effective, Video Analysis Software–Based Mobility Protocol for Objective Spine Kinematics and Gait Metrics: A Proof of Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Justin C.; Petrizzo, Anthony; Rizzo, John-Ross; Bianco, Kristina; Maier, Stephen; Errico, Thomas J.; Lafage, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of a high-throughput, easily implemented, cost-effective, video analysis software–based mobility protocol to quantify spine kinematics. This prospective cohort study of clinical biomechanics implemented 2-dimensional (2D) image processing at a tertiary-care academic institution. Ten healthy, able-bodied volunteers were recruited for 2D videography of gait and functional motion. The reliability of a 2D video analysis software program for gait and range of motion metrics was evaluated over 2 independent experimental sessions, assessing for inter-trial, inter-session, and inter-rater reliability. Healthy volunteers were evaluated for simple forward and side bending, rotation, treadmill stride length, and more complex seated-to-standing tasks. Based on established intraclass correlation coefficients, results indicated that reliability was considered good to excellent for simple forward and side bending, rotation, stride length, and more complex sit-to-standing tasks. In conclusion, a cost-effective, 2D, video analysis software–based mobility protocol represents a feasible and clinically useful approach for objective spine kinematics and gait metrics. As the complication rate of operative management in the setting of spinal deformity is weighed against functional performance and quality of life measures, an objective analysis tool in combination with an appropriate protocol will aid in clinical assessments and lead to an increased evidence base for management options and decision algorithms. PMID:25543099

  1. Three tooth kinematic coupling

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Layton C.

    2000-01-01

    A three tooth kinematic coupling based on having three theoretical line contacts formed by mating teeth rather than six theoretical point contacts. The geometry requires one coupling half to have curved teeth and the other coupling half to have flat teeth. Each coupling half has a relieved center portion which does not effect the kinematics, but in the limit as the face width approaches zero, three line contacts become six point contacts. As a result of having line contact, a three tooth coupling has greater load capacity and stiffness. The kinematic coupling has application for use in precision fixturing for tools or workpieces, and as a registration device for a work or tool changer or for optics in various products.

  2. Locomotion mode identification for lower limbs using neuromuscular and joint kinematic signals.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Taimoor; White, Gannon; Wright, Andrew B; Iqbal, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    Recent development in lower limb prosthetics has seen an emergence of powered prosthesis that have the capability to operate in different locomotion modes. However, these devices cannot transition seamlessly between modes such as level walking, stair ascent and descent and up slope and down slope walking. They require some form of user input that defines the human intent. The purpose of this study was to develop a locomotion mode detection system and evaluate its performance for different sensor configurations and to study the effect of locomotion mode detection with and without electromyography (EMG) signals while using kinematic data from hip joint of non-dominant/impaired limb and an accelerometer. Data was collected from four able bodied subjects that completed two circuits that contained standing, level-walking, ramp ascent and descent and stair ascent and descent. By using only the kinematic data from the hip joint and accelerometer data the system was able to identify the transitions, stance and swing phases with similar performance as compared to using only EMG and accelerometer data. However, significant improvement in classification error was observed when EMG, kinematic and accelerometer data were used together to identify the locomotion modes. The higher recognition rates when using the kinematic data along with EMG shows that the joint kinematics could be beneficial in intent recognition systems of locomotion modes.

  3. Kinematic top analyses at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Cobal-Grassman, M.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-01-01

    We present an update of the top quark analysis using kinematic techniques in {rho}{ovr string {rho}} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV with the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). We reported before on a study which used 19.3 pb{sup -1} of data from the 1992-93 collider run, but now we use a larger data sample of 67 pb{sup -1}. First, we analyze the total transverse energy of the hard collision in W+{ge}3 jet events, showing the likely presence of a t{ovr string t} component in the event sample. Next, we compare in more detail the kinematic structure of W+{ge}3 jet events with expectations for top pair production and with background processes, predominantly direct W+ jet production. We again find W+{ge}3 jet events which cannot be explained in terms of background, but show kinematic features as expected from top. These events also show evidence for beauty quarks. The findings confirm the observation of top events made earlier in the data of the 1992-93 collider run.

  4. A kinematic study of 0509-67.5, the second youngest supernova remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud, and its astrophysical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovey, Luke

    2016-05-01

    Supernova remnants are the lasting interactions of shock waves that develop in the wake of supernovae. These remnants, especially those in our galaxy and our companion galaxies, allow us to study supernovae for thousands of years after the initial stellar explosions. Remnants that are formed from Ia supernovae, which are the explosions and complete annihilation of white dwarf stars, are of particular interest due to the explosions' value as standard candles in cosmological studies. The shock waves in these young supernova remnants offer an unparalleled look into the physical processes that take place there, especially since these shocks are often simpler to study than shocks with strong radiative components that are present in remnants that are formed from the core-collapse supernovae of massive stars. I will detail the work of my kinematic study of the second youngest remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud, 0509--67.5, which has been confirmed to be the result of a Ia supernova. Chapter 2 details the proper motion measurements made on the forward shock of this remnant, which has led to many key results. I was able to use the results of ii the global shock speed in the remnant to measure the density of neutral hydrogen in the ambient medium into which these shocks expand. In addition, I use the measurements of the shock speed for select portions of the forward shock to search for signatures of efficient cosmic-ray acceleration. Hydrodynamic simulations are then employed to constrain the age and ambient medium density of 0509--67.5, as well as to place limits on the compression factor at the immediate location of the blast wave. Chapter 3 uses the proper motion results from chapter 2 to determine possible asymmetries in the expansion of the remnant for the eastern and western limbs. These measurements are then used as constraints in hydrodynamic simulations to assess the possible dynamical offset of the explosion site compared to the geometric center of 0509

  5. Factors influencing attempted and completed suicide in postnatal women: A population-based study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Shu-Chuan; Chang, Jung-Chen; Yeh, Ming-Kung; Wang, Shun-Mu; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The aims of study were to investigate risk factors associated with attempted and completed suicide. This nested case–control study was conducted using the medical and death data of nearly all pregnant women for the period 2002–2012 in Taiwan. A total of 139 cases of attempted suicide and 95 cases of completed suicide were identified; for each case, 10 controls were randomly selected and matched to the cases according to age and year of delivery. A conditional logistic regression model was used. The mean attempted and completed suicide rates were 9.91 and 6.86 per 100,000 women with live births, respectively. Never having married and postpartum depression also increased the risk of attempted suicide (OR = 2.06; 95% CI = 1.09–3.88 and OR = 2.51; 95% CI = 1.10–5.75, respectively) and completed suicide (OR = 20.27; 95% CI = 8.99–45.73 and OR = 21.72; 95% CI = 8.08–58.37, respectively). Other factors for attempted suicide included being widowed or divorced, and having a caesarean delivery or suicide history. Other factors for completed suicide included lower education level, low infant birth weight, and diagnosis of anxiety or mood disorder. These results suggest that people should appropriately assess potential risk factors and provide assistance for postnatal women to reduce the occurrence of suicide events. PMID:27173845

  6. Teaching about Kinematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jane Bray; Nelson, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Written by Jim and Jane Nelson, Teaching About Kinematics is the latest AAPT/PTRA resource book. Based on physics education research, the book provides teachers with the resources needed to introduce students to some of the fundamental building blocks of physics. It is a carefully thought-out, step-by-step laboratory-based introduction to the…

  7. Kinematically redundant robot manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baillieul, J.; Hollerbach, J.; Brockett, R.; Martin, D.; Percy, R.; Thomas, R.

    1987-01-01

    Research on control, design and programming of kinematically redundant robot manipulators (KRRM) is discussed. These are devices in which there are more joint space degrees of freedom than are required to achieve every position and orientation of the end-effector necessary for a given task in a given workspace. The technological developments described here deal with: kinematic programming techniques for automatically generating joint-space trajectories to execute prescribed tasks; control of redundant manipulators to optimize dynamic criteria (e.g., applications of forces and moments at the end-effector that optimally distribute the loading of actuators); and design of KRRMs to optimize functionality in congested work environments or to achieve other goals unattainable with non-redundant manipulators. Kinematic programming techniques are discussed, which show that some pseudo-inverse techniques that have been proposed for redundant manipulator control fail to achieve the goals of avoiding kinematic singularities and also generating closed joint-space paths corresponding to close paths of the end effector in the workspace. The extended Jacobian is proposed as an alternative to pseudo-inverse techniques.

  8. Kinematics of Tape Recording.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    Describes mathematics of the nonliner relationships between a constant-speed, capstan-driven magnetic tape transport mechanism and a constant-angular-velocity take-up reel. The relationship, derived from the sum of a partial, serves in recognition of a finite tape. Thickness can serve as an example of rotational kinematics. (Author/SK)

  9. Robotic training and kinematic analysis of arm and hand after incomplete spinal cord injury: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kadivar, Z; Sullivan, J L; Eng, D P; Pehlivan, A U; O'Malley, M K; Yozbatiran, N; Francisco, G E

    2011-01-01

    Regaining upper extremity function is the primary concern of persons with tetraplegia caused by spinal cord injury (SCI). Robotic rehabilitation has been inadequately tested and underutilized in rehabilitation of the upper extremity in the SCI population. Given the acceptance of robotic training in stroke rehabilitation and SCI gait training, coupled with recent evidence that the spinal cord, like the brain, demonstrates plasticity that can be catalyzed by repetitive movement training such as that available with robotic devices, it is probable that robotic upper-extremity training of persons with SCI could be clinically beneficial. The primary goal of this pilot study was to test the feasibility of using a novel robotic device for the upper extremity (RiceWrist) and to evaluate robotic rehabilitation using the RiceWrist in a tetraplegic person with incomplete SCI. A 24-year-old male with incomplete SCI participated in 10 sessions of robot-assisted therapy involving intensive upper limb training. The subject successfully completed all training sessions and showed improvements in movement smoothness, as well as in the hand function. Results from this study provide valuable information for further developments of robotic devices for upper limb rehabilitation in persons with SCI.

  10. Natural and Man-Made Chemicals in North American Soils--Continental-Scale Pilot Study Completed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Canada recently completed a continental-scale pilot study for a proposed geochemical survey of North American soils. This survey will provide baseline soil chemistry data against which future changes in soil composition can be measured and that can be used by Federal, State/Provincial, and local agencies when making risk-assessment and land-use decisions.

  11. Complete data acquisition and analysis system for low-energy electron-molecule collision studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Pamir; Nandi, Dhananjay

    2015-09-01

    A complete data acquisition system has been developed that can work with any personal computer irrespective of the operating system installed on it. The software can be used in low and intermediate electron-energy collision studies with ground-state molecules in gas phase using a combination of RS-232, GPIB, and USB-interfaced devices. Various tabletop instruments and nuclear instrumentation module (NIM) -based electronics have been interfaced and have communicated with the software, which is based on LabVIEW. This is tested with dissociative electron attachment (DEA) and polar dissociation studies to oxygen molecule and successfully used in a DEA study of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.

  12. Mathematical modeling and kinematics: A study of emerging themes and their implications for learning mathematics through an inquiry-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrejo, David John

    In recent years, emphasis on student learning of mathematics through "real world" problems has intensified. With both national and state standards calling for more conceptual learning and understanding of mathematics, teachers must be prepared to learn and implement more innovative approaches to teaching mathematical content. Mathematical modeling of physical phenomena is presented as a subject for new and developing research areas in both teacher and student learning. Using a grounded theory approach to qualitative research, this dissertation presents two related studies whose purpose was to examine the process by which in-service teachers and students enrolled in an undergraduate physics course constructed mathematical models to describe and predict the motion of an object in both uniform and non-uniform (constant acceleration) contexts. This process provided the framework for the learners' study of kinematics. Study One involved twenty-three in-service physics and math teachers who participated in an intensive six-hour-a-day, five-day unit on kinematics as part of a professional development institute. Study Two involved fifteen students participating in the same unit while enrolled in a physics course designed for pre-service teachers and required in their undergraduate or graduate degree programs in math and science education. Qualitative data, including videotapes of classroom sessions, field notes, researcher reflections, and interviews are the focus of analysis. The dissertation presents and analyzes tensions between learner experience, learning standard concepts in mathematics and learning standard concepts in physics within a framework that outlines critical aspects of mathematical modeling (Pollak, 2003): (1) understanding a physical situation, (2) deciding what to keep and what not to keep when constructing a model related to the situation, and (3) determining whether or not the model is sufficient for acceptance and use. Emergent themes related to the

  13. A VLT/FLAMES STUDY OF THE PECULIAR INTERMEDIATE-AGE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD STAR CLUSTER NGC 1846. I. KINEMATICS

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, A. D.; Da Costa, G. S.; Yong, D.; Ferguson, A. M. N.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present high-resolution VLT/FLAMES observations of red giant stars in the massive intermediate-age Large Magellanic Cloud star cluster NGC 1846, which, on the basis of its extended main-sequence turnoff (EMSTO), possesses an internal age spread of Almost-Equal-To 300 Myr. We describe in detail our target selection and data reduction procedures, and construct a sample of 21 stars possessing radial velocities indicating their membership of NGC 1846 at high confidence. We consider high-resolution spectra of the planetary nebula Mo-17, and conclude that this object is also a member of the cluster. Our measured radial velocities allow us to conduct a detailed investigation of the internal kinematics of NGC 1846, the first time this has been done for an EMSTO system. The key result of this work is that the cluster exhibits a significant degree of systemic rotation, of a magnitude comparable to the mean velocity dispersion. Using an extensive suite of Monte Carlo models we demonstrate that, despite our relatively small sample size and the substantial fraction of unresolved binary stars in the cluster, the rotation signal we detect is very likely to be genuine. Our observations are in qualitative agreement with the predictions of simulations modeling the formation of multiple populations of stars in globular clusters, where a dynamically cold, rapidly rotating second generation is a common feature. NGC 1846 is less than one relaxation time old, so any dynamical signatures encoded during its formation ought to remain present.

  14. A new approach to kinematic feature extraction from the human right ventricle for classification of hypertension: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jia; Wang, Yingqian; Simon, Marc A.; Brigham, John C.

    2012-12-01

    This work presents a novel approach to analyze the function of the human right ventricle (RV) by deriving kinematic features of the relative change in shape throughout the cardiac cycle. The approach is anatomically consistent, allows direct comparison across populations of individuals, and potentially provides new metrics to improve the diagnosis and understanding of cardiovascular diseases such as pulmonary hypertension (PH). The details of the approach are presented, which includes a variation of harmonic topological mapping and proper orthogonal decomposition techniques, with particular focus on their applicability with respect to untagged cardiac imaging data. Results are shown for the decomposition of a collection of clinically obtained human RV endocardial surfaces segmented from cardiac computed tomography imaging into the fundamental shape change features for individuals both with and without PH. The features are shown to be consistent and converging towards intrinsically physiological components for the heart, and may potentially represent a new set of features for classifying the progressive change in RV function caused by PH, particularly in comparison to traditional clinical metrics.

  15. Interaction Between Leg Muscle Performance and Sprint Acceleration Kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Lockie, Robert G.; Jalilvand, Farzad; Callaghan, Samuel J.; Jeffriess, Matthew D.; Murphy, Aron J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between 10 m sprint acceleration, step kinematics (step length and frequency, contact and flight time), and leg muscle performance (power, stiffness, strength). Twenty-eight field sport athletes completed 10 m sprints that were timed and filmed. Velocity and step kinematics were measured for the 0–5, 5–10, and 0–10 m intervals to assess acceleration. Leg power was measured via countermovement jumps (CMJ), a five-bound test (5BT), and the reactive strength index (RSI) defined by 40 cm drop jumps. Leg stiffness was measured by bilateral and unilateral hopping. A three-repetition maximum squat determined strength. Pearson’s correlations and stepwise regression (p ≤ 0.05) determined velocity, step kinematics, and leg muscle performance relationships. CMJ height correlated with and predicted velocity in all intervals (r = 0.40–0.54). The 5BT (5–10 and 0–10 m intervals) and RSI (5–10 m interval) also related to velocity (r = 0.37–0.47). Leg stiffness did not correlate with acceleration kinematics. Greater leg strength related to and predicted lower 0–5 m flight times (r = −0.46 to −0.51), and a longer 0–10 m step length (r = 0.38). Although results supported research emphasizing the value of leg power and strength for acceleration, the correlations and predictive relationships (r2 = 0.14–0.29) tended to be low, which highlights the complex interaction between sprint technique and leg muscle performance. Nonetheless, given the established relationships between speed, leg power and strength, strength and conditioning coaches should ensure these qualities are expressed during acceleration in field sport athletes. PMID:26839607

  16. Systematic study of the experimental measurements on J/ψ cross sections and kinematic distributions in p+p collisions at different energies

    DOE PAGES

    Zha, Wangmei; Huang, Bingchu; Ma, Rongrong; ...

    2016-02-29

    The world experimental data on cross section and kinematic distribution in p + p and p + A collisions at √s = 6.8 – 7000 GeV are systematically examined in this work. The √s dependence of the inclusive cross section, rapidity, and transverse momentum distributions are studied phenomenologically. Also, we explore empirical formulas to obtain the total cross section, rapidity, and transverse momentum (pT) distribution. This is crucial for the interpretation of A + A J/ψ results at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider when the p + p reference data are not available. In addition, the cross section atmore » midrapidity and transverse momentum distributions in p + p collisions at √s = 39 and 62.4 GeV are evaluated.« less

  17. Collecting Kinematic Data on a Ski Track with Optoelectronic Stereophotogrammetry: A Methodological Study Assessing the Feasibility of Bringing the Biomechanics Lab to the Field

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Erich

    2016-01-01

    In the laboratory, optoelectronic stereophotogrammetry is one of the most commonly used motion capture systems; particularly, when position- or orientation-related analyses of human movements are intended. However, for many applied research questions, field experiments are indispensable, and it is not a priori clear whether optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric systems can be expected to perform similarly to in-lab experiments. This study aimed to assess the instrumental errors of kinematic data collected on a ski track using optoelectronic stereophotogrammetry, and to investigate the magnitudes of additional skiing-specific errors and soft tissue/suit artifacts. During a field experiment, the kinematic data of different static and dynamic tasks were captured by the use of 24 infrared-cameras. The distances between three passive markers attached to a rigid bar were stereophotogrammetrically reconstructed and, subsequently, were compared to the manufacturer-specified exact values. While at rest or skiing at low speed, the optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric system’s accuracy and precision for determining inter-marker distances were found to be comparable to those known for in-lab experiments (< 1 mm). However, when measuring a skier’s kinematics under “typical” skiing conditions (i.e., high speeds, inclined/angulated postures and moderate snow spraying), additional errors were found to occur for distances between equipment-fixed markers (total measurement errors: 2.3 ± 2.2 mm). Moreover, for distances between skin-fixed markers, such as the anterior hip markers, additional artifacts were observed (total measurement errors: 8.3 ± 7.1 mm). In summary, these values can be considered sufficient for the detection of meaningful position- or orientation-related differences in alpine skiing. However, it must be emphasized that the use of optoelectronic stereophotogrammetry on a ski track is seriously constrained by limited practical usability, small-sized capture

  18. On steady kinematic helical dynamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltayeb, I. A.; Loper, D. E.

    The equations governing steady kinematic helical dynamos are studied, using the formalism of Benton (1979), when the flow has no radial component (in cylindrical coordinates). It is shown that all solutions must decay exponentially to zero at large distances, s, from the axis of the helix. When the flow depends on s only it is shown that a necessary condition for dynamo action is that the flow possesses components along both the primary and secondary helices. It is also found that periodic motion of one mode along the primary helix cannot support dynamo action even if the field is composed of mean and periodic parts.

  19. Changes in knee kinematics following total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Akbari Shandiz, Mohsen; Boulos, Paul; Saevarsson, Stefan Karl; Yoo, Sam; Miller, Stephen; Anglin, Carolyn

    2016-04-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) changes the knee joint in both intentional and unintentional, known and unknown, ways. Patellofemoral and tibiofemoral kinematics play an important role in postoperative pain, function, satisfaction and revision, yet are largely unknown. Preoperative kinematics, postoperative kinematics or changes in kinematics may help identify causes of poor clinical outcome. Patellofemoral kinematics are challenging to record since the patella is obscured by the metal femoral component in X-ray and moves under the skin. The purpose of this study was to determine the kinematic degrees of freedom having significant changes and to evaluate the variability in individual changes to allow future study of patients with poor clinical outcomes. We prospectively studied the 6 degrees of freedom patellofemoral and tibiofemoral weightbearing kinematics, tibiofemoral contact points and helical axes of rotation of nine subjects before and at least 1 year after total knee arthroplasty using clinically available computed tomography and radiographic imaging systems. Normal kinematics for healthy individuals were identified from the literature. Significant differences existed between pre-TKA and post-TKA kinematics, with the post-TKA kinematics being closer to normal. While on average the pre-total knee arthroplasty knees in this group displayed no pivoting (only translation), individually only five knees displayed this behaviour (of these, two showed lateral pivoting, one showed medial pivoting and one showed central pivoting). There was considerable variability postoperatively as well (five central, two lateral and two medial pivoting). Both preop and postop, flexion behaviour was more hinge-like medially and more rolling laterally. Helical axes were more consistent postop for this group. An inclusive understanding of the pre-TKA and post-TKA kinematics and changes in kinematics due to total knee arthroplasty could improve implant design, patient diagnosis and

  20. Essential Study Skills: The Complete Guide to Success at University. Second Edition. Sage Study Skills Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Tom; Sinfield, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    The eagerly-awaited new edition of the successful "Essential Study Skills" continues to provide a truly practical guide to achieving success at university. Whether you are going to university straight from school, a mature student, or an overseas student studying in the UK for the first time, this is the book that will help you to better…

  1. Complete synchronization of uncertain chaotic systems via a single proportional adaptive controller: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Israr Saaban, Azizan Bin Ibrahim, Adyda Binti; Shahzad, Mohammad

    2015-12-11

    This paper addresses a comparative computational study on the synchronization quality, cost and converging speed for two pairs of identical chaotic and hyperchaotic systems with unknown time-varying parameters. It is assumed that the unknown time-varying parameters are bounded. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory and using the adaptive control method, a single proportional controller is proposed to achieve the goal of complete synchronizations. Accordingly, appropriate adaptive laws are designed to identify the unknown time-varying parameters. The designed control strategy is easy to implement in practice. Numerical simulations results are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization scheme.

  2. The brown dwarf kinematics project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faherty, Jackie K.

    2010-10-01

    Brown dwarfs are a recent addition to the plethora of objects studied in Astronomy. With theoretical masses between 13 and 75 MJupiter , they lack sustained stable Hydrogen burning so they never join the stellar main sequence. They have physical properties similar to both planets and low-mass stars so studies of their population inform on both. The distances and kinematics of brown dwarfs provide key statistical constraints on their ages, moving group membership, absolute brightnesses, evolutionary trends, and multiplicity. Yet, until my thesis, fundamental measurements of parallax and proper motion were made for only a relatively small fraction of the known population. To address this deficiency, I initiated the Brown Dwarf Kinematics (BDKP). Over the past four years I have re-imaged the majority of spectroscopically confirmed field brown dwarfs (or ultracool dwarfs---UCDs) and created the largest proper motion catalog for ultracool dwarfs to date. Using new astrometric information I examined population characteristics such as ages calculated from velocity dispersions and correlations between kinematics and colors. Using proper motions, I identified several new wide co-moving companions and investigated binding energy (and hence formation) limitations as well as the frequency of hierarchical companions. Concurrently over the past four years I have been conducting a parallax survey of 84 UCDs including those showing spectral signatures of youth, metal-poor brown dwarfs, and those within 20 pc of the Sun. Using absolute magnitude relations in J,H, and K, I identified overluminous binary candidates and investigated known flux-reversal binaries. Using current evolutionary models, I compared the MK vs J-K color magnitude diagram to model predictions and found that the low-surface gravity dwarfs are significantly red-ward and underluminous of predictions and a handful of late-type T dwarfs may require thicker clouds to account for their scatter.

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of Sika deer Cervus nippon hortulorum (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) and phylogenetic studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Hua; Liu, Xin-Xin; Zhang, Ming-Hai

    2016-07-01

    Sika deer (Cervus nippon Temminck 1836) are classified in the order Artiodactyla, family Cervidae, subfamily Cervinae. At present, the phylogenetic studies of C. nippon are problematic. In this study, we first determined and described the complete mitochondrial sequence of the wild C. nippon hortulorum. The complete mitogenome sequence is 16 566 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, a putative control region (CR) and a light-strand replication origin (OL). The overall base composition was 33.4% A, 28.6% T, 24.5% C, 13.5% G, with a 62.0% AT bias. The 13 protein-coding genes encode 3782 amino acids in total. To further validate the new determined sequences and phylogeny of Sika deer, phylogenetic trees involving 15 most closely related species available in GenBank database were constructed. These results are expected to provide useful molecular data for deer species identification and further phylogenetic studies of Artiodactyla.

  4. Predictors of Death among Patients Who Completed Tuberculosis Treatment: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Juan-Pablo; Orcau, Angels; Rius, Cristina; Casals, Marti; de Olalla, Patricia Garcia; Moreno, Antonio; Nelson, Jeanne L.; Caylà, Joan A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mortality among patients who complete tuberculosis (TB) treatment is still high among vulnerable populations. The objective of the study was to identify the probability of death and its predictive factors in a cohort of successfully treated TB patients. Methods A population-based retrospective longitudinal study was performed in Barcelona, Spain. All patients who successfully completed TB treatment with culture-confirmation and available drug susceptibility testing between 1995–1997 were retrospectively followed-up until December 31, 2005 by the Barcelona TB Control Program. Socio-demographic, clinical, microbiological and treatment variables were examined. Mortality, TB Program and AIDS registries were reviewed. Kaplan-Meier and a Cox regression methods with time-dependent covariates were used for the survival analysis, calculating the hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Among the 762 included patients, the median age was 36 years, 520 (68.2%) were male, 178 (23.4%) HIV-infected, and 208 (27.3%) were alcohol abusers. Of the 134 (17.6%) injecting drug users (IDU), 123 (91.8%) were HIV-infected. A total of 30 (3.9%) recurrences and 173 deaths (22.7%) occurred (mortality rate: 3.4/100 person-years of follow-up). The predictors of death were: age between 41–60 years old (HR: 3.5; CI:2.1–5.7), age greater than 60 years (HR: 14.6; CI:8.9–24), alcohol abuse (HR: 1.7; CI:1.2–2.4) and HIV-infected IDU (HR: 7.9; CI:4.7–13.3). Conclusions The mortality rate among TB patients who completed treatment is associated with vulnerable populations such as the elderly, alcohol abusers, and HIV-infected IDU. We therefore need to fight against poverty, and promote and develop interventions and social policies directed towards these populations to improve their survival. PMID:21980423

  5. Complete dataset for 2-treatment, 2-sequence, 2-period efavirenz bioequivalence study conducted with nightly dosing.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Manuel; Magallanes, Laura; Lorier, Marianela; Vázquez, Marta; Fagiolino, Pietro

    2016-06-01

    The efavirenz pharmacokinetic raw data presented in this article was obtained in an average bioequivalence study between a local brand and Stocrin (Merck Sharp & Dohme, purchased from Australia, batch H009175, expiration date November 2013). Dose was administered at night (9:00 p.m.) two hours after food intake. Fourteen healthy subjects, 8 women and 6 men, completed the study. For each subject, 15 data points until 96 h post-administration are included. Subject demographic characteristics and sequences of administration are provided along with individual pharmacokinetic profiles of efavirenz obtained for both formulations after a single oral dose of 600 mg. This data provides information in support of the research article "Sex-by-formulation interaction assessed through a bioequivalence study of efavirenz tablets" [1].

  6. Complete dataset for 2-treatment, 2-sequence, 2-period efavirenz bioequivalence study conducted with nightly dosing

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra, Manuel; Magallanes, Laura; Lorier, Marianela; Vázquez, Marta; Fagiolino, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    The efavirenz pharmacokinetic raw data presented in this article was obtained in an average bioequivalence study between a local brand and Stocrin (Merck Sharp & Dohme, purchased from Australia, batch H009175, expiration date November 2013). Dose was administered at night (9:00 p.m.) two hours after food intake. Fourteen healthy subjects, 8 women and 6 men, completed the study. For each subject, 15 data points until 96 h post-administration are included. Subject demographic characteristics and sequences of administration are provided along with individual pharmacokinetic profiles of efavirenz obtained for both formulations after a single oral dose of 600 mg. This data provides information in support of the research article “Sex-by-formulation interaction assessed through a bioequivalence study of efavirenz tablets” [1]. PMID:27054190

  7. Economy of effort in different speaking conditions. II. Kinematic performance spaces for cyclical and speech movements.

    PubMed

    Perkell, Joseph S; Zandipour, Majid

    2002-10-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that the kinematic manipulations used by speakers in different speaking conditions are influenced by kinematic performance limits. A range of kinematic parameter values was elicited by having seven subjects produce cyclical CV movements of lips, tongue blade and tongue dorsum (/ba/, /da/, /ga/), at rates ranging from 1 to 6 Hz. The resulting measures were used to establish speaker- and articulator-specific kinematic performance spaces, defined by movement duration, displacement and peak speed. These data were compared with speech movement data produced by the subjects in several different speaking conditions in the companion study (Perkell et al., 2002). The amount of overlap of the speech data and cyclical data varied across speakers, from almost no overlap to complete overlap. Generally, for a given movement duration, speech movements were larger than cyclical movements, indicating that the speech movements were faster and were produced with greater effort, according to the performance space analysis. It was hypothesized that the cyclical movements of the tongue and lips were slower than the speech movements because they were more constrained by (coupled to) the relatively massive mandible. To test this hypothesis, a comparison was made of cyclical movements in maxillary versus mandibular frames of reference. The results indicate that the cyclical movements were not strongly constrained by mandible movements. The overall results generally indicate that the cyclical task did not succeed in defining the upper limits of kinematic performance spaces within which the speech data were confined. Thus, the hypothesis that performance limits influence speech kinematics could not be tested effectively. The differences between the speech and cyclical movements may be due to other factors, such as differences in speakers' "skill" with the two types of movement, or the size of the movements--the speech movements were larger

  8. Vacation Study Abroad, 1994/95. The Complete Guide to Summer and Short-Term Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Sara J., Ed.

    This book describes over 2,100 academic programs sponsored by U.S. and foreign universities, language schools, and a wide variety of other organizations for summer and short-term study abroad programs. Entries are based on a 1993 survey. While most programs listed are available to undergraduates, many programs are also open to precollege students,…

  9. Vacation Study Abroad. 1990. The Most Complete Guide to Planning Summer Study Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, E. Marguerite, Ed.

    The book presents concise descriptions of over 1,300 summer study programs and short courses (geared to all levels of postsecondary education) worldwide sponsored by U.S. colleges and universities, foreign universities and language schools, and nonprofit and proprietary educational organizations. Programs are arranged first by the geographical…

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NGC2548 clumpy spatial and kinematic structure (Vicente+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente, B.; Sanchez, N.; Alfaro, E.

    2016-10-01

    We used precise astrometric data from the Carte du Ciel - San Fernando catalogue to study the clumpy structure in NGC 2548. We have completed our spatial and kinematic information with photometric data from the UCAC4 catalogue. With this, we derived positions and proper motions for each of the detected cores in this cluster. This table contains all the astrometric and photometric data for the 1655 stars toward NGC 2548. (1 data file).

  11. Catalog of Completed Studies, US Army Health Care Studies and Clinical Investigation Activity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-10

    Environment Substudy: AD A139001 Effects of Chemical Protective Clothing on the Performance of Basic Medical Tasks (HCSD Report #83-001) 8 DATE TITLE...Contact urticaria to parabens , Arch. Dermatol, 1979, 115:1231-1232. *13 Smith, E. B., Padilla, R. S., McCabe, J. M., Becker, L. E., Benzoyl...Chemical Environment . --3-Report #83-001. Ft. Sam Houston, TX: Health Care Studies and Clinical Investigation Activity, December 1982. 19 Penetar, D. M

  12. Pain and risk of completed suicide in Japanese men: a population-based cohort study in Japan (Ohsaki Cohort Study).

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Nobutaka; Ohmori-Matsuda, Kaori; Shimazu, Taichi; Sone, Toshimasa; Kakizaki, Masako; Nakaya, Naoki; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2009-03-01

    Unrelieved pain is a major factor that influences suicide risk among terminally ill patients, but little is known about the relationship between pain and the risk of completed suicide in the general population. We prospectively examined the association between self-reports of pain and subsequent risk of completed suicide in 26,481 men aged 40 to 79 years from the Ohsaki National Health Insurance Cohort study, a population-based, prospective cohort study initiated in 1994. On the basis of a five-item questionnaire on pain, individuals were classified as having no pain, very mild pain, mild pain, or moderate or severe pain. Completed suicide cases were documented from 1995 to 2001. During 131,027 person-years, 64 completed suicides were documented. After adjustment for covariates, the risk for completed suicide was significantly higher in the subjects with more pain. Multivariate hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) relative to the subjects who had no pain were 1.36 (0.67-2.75), 2.11 (1.02-4.33), and 2.93 (1.34-6.42) in the subjects who had very mild pain, mild pain, and moderate or severe pain, respectively (P for trend=0.004). Stratified analysis showed that the positive association between pain and suicide risk was robust in the subjects with good health, low stress, adequate sleep, good physical activity, and no history of chronic diseases. Our results suggest that pain is associated with an increased risk of completed suicide among Japanese men. The association was consistently observed among apparently healthy subjects.

  13. Internal Kinematics of Distant Field Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ing, Kristine Mei Lan

    1998-08-01

    We study faint blue field galaxies in two complementary ways by targeting red-shifted, broadened emission lines: (1) a detailed study of a small but representative sample using resolved images that reveal the internal kinematics of individual galaxies, and analyzing effects like ionized gas distribution and galaxy inclination that tend to bias the results obtained from spatially unresolved galaxy spectra; and (2) a study of a spatially unresolved but statistically complete sample within our color, magnitude, and redshift cuts. In order to facilitate comparison of distant and local galaxies, we have developed a methodology to study distant galaxies in as much detail as is customary for nearby galaxies, using state-of-the-art data. The ultimate goal of such a comparison is to determine the amount of evolution of the mass-to-light ratio of individual galaxies and to thereby constrain models of galaxy formation and evolution. In a followup to our recent multifiber spectroscopic study of the linewidth-vs-luminosity relation in faint blue galaxies at < z>~ 0.25 (Rix et al. 1997, MNRAS, 285, 779), we have carried out a detailed study of the internal kinematics of 10 distant (z = 0.30[-]0.44), faint (B = 20[-]24), blue (B-R <= 1.2) field galaxies using the Rutgers Fabry-Perot (RFP) instrument on the Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory's 4-meter telescope. In deriving rotation speeds from fiber spectra, we had to rely on large and somewhat uncertain statistical corrections for the effects of non-uniform gas distribution, disk inclination, shape of the rotation curve, and seeing. Using fitting disk models to the RFP datacube, complemented by surface photometry and isophotal shapes derived from high angular resolution Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field/Planetary Camera-2 images in the F814W ('I') or F555W ('V') Band and deep H-Band (1.6 μm) images obtained with the Near InfraRed Camera on the Keck 10-meter telescope, the RFP study addresses these issues directly and yields

  14. A pilot study of RN-BSN completion students' preferred instructor online classroom caring behaviors.

    PubMed

    Mann, Judith C

    2014-01-01

    Definitions of caring include the global concept of showing concern and empathy of others. This may be especially true in the online classroom in the absence of face to face interactions. This quantitative study focused on RN-BSN completion students' preferred online instructor caring behaviors. Online RN-BSN students (N = 100) were invited to participate in the study. The research question was: What are historically black colleges universities nursing students' preferred instructor caring behaviors in the online classroom? All of the respondents (N = 48) agreed that an instructor can create a caring online learning environment, while the vast majority agreed that the presence of a caring environment influenced their success in the course. As ranked by the respondents the three most important items in creating a caring online learning environment were instructors': 1) attention to detail in organization and clarity, 2) prompt and detailed feedback to assignments, and 3) prompt response to students' questions.

  15. Asymptotic study of a complete magnetic attitude control cycle providing a single-axis orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, M. Yu.; Roldugin, D. S.; Penkov, V. I.

    2012-08-01

    The angular motion of an axisymmetrical satellite equipped with the active magnetic attitude control system is examined. Attitude control system has to ensure necessary orientation of the axis of symmetry in the inertial space. It implements the following strategy: coarse reorientation of the axis of symmetry with nutation damping or "-Bdot" without initial detumbling; spinning-up about the axis of symmetry to achieve the property of a gyro; fine reorientation of the axis in the inertial space. Dynamics of the satellite is analytically studied using averaging technique on the complete control loop consisting of five algorithms. Solutions of the equations of motion are obtained in terms of quadratures for most cases or even in closed-form. The latter allowed to study the dependence of motion parameters including time-response with respect to the orbit inclination and other parameters for all algorithms.

  16. A complete database of international chess players and chess performance ratings for varied longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Howard, Robert W

    2006-11-01

    Chess is an oft-used study domain in psychology and artificial intelligence because it is well defined, its performance rating systems allow ea sy identification o f experts and their development, andchess playing is a complex intellectual task However, usable computerized chess data have been very limited. The present article has two aims. The first is to highlight the methodological value of chess data and how researchers can use them to address questions in quite different areas. The second is to present a computerized database of all international chess players and official performance ratings beginning from the inaugural 1970 international rating list. The database has millions of records and gives complete longitudinal official performance data for over 60,000 players from 1970 to the present. Like a time series of population censuses, these data can be used for many different research and teaching purposes. Three quite different studies, conducted by the author using the database, are described.

  17. KINEMATIC AND SPATIAL SUBSTRUCTURE IN NGC 2264

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, John J.; Hartmann, Lee; Hsu, Wen-Hsin; Mateo, Mario; Fűrész, Gabor

    2015-04-15

    We present an expanded kinematic study of the young cluster NGC 2264 based upon optical radial velocities measured using multi-fiber echelle spectroscopy at the 6.5 m MMT and Magellan telescopes. We report radial velocities for 695 stars, of which approximately 407 stars are confirmed or very likely members. Our results more than double the number of members with radial velocities from Fűrész et al., resulting in a much better defined kinematic relationship between the stellar population and the associated molecular gas. In particular, we find that there is a significant subset of stars that are systematically blueshifted with respect to the molecular ({sup 13}CO) gas. The detection of Lithium absorption and/or infrared excesses in this blueshifted population suggests that at least some of these stars are cluster members; we suggest some speculative scenarios to explain their kinematics. Our results also more clearly define the redshifted population of stars in the northern end of the cluster; we suggest that the stellar and gas kinematics of this region are the result of a bubble driven by the wind from O7 star S Mon. Our results emphasize the complexity of the spatial and kinematic structure of NGC 2264, important for eventually building up a comprehensive picture of cluster formation.

  18. A 2-Year Psychological Autopsy Study of Completed Suicides in the Athens Greater Area, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Michopoulos, Ioannis; Christodoulou, Christos; Koutsaftis, Filippos; Lykouras, Lefteris; Douzenis, Athanassios

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the characteristics of a sample of suicide victims from the Athens Greater Area using the psychological autopsy method for the first time in Greece. Methods We studied all recorded cases of completed suicide for the 2-year time period November 2007-October 2009 collecting data from the victims' forensic records as well as from the completion of a psychological autopsy questionnaire. Results 335 persons were recorded as suicide victims. We contacted relatives of 256 victims interviewing those of 248 of them (96.9%). The differences regarding sex, marital and employment status between our sample and the general population were statistically significant (p<0.001). The male/female ratio was 3:1. Comparatively more victims were divorced, separated or single and a greater proportion were pensioners or unemployed. 26.0% of the victims had history of prior attempts (64.4% once, 20.3% twice and 15.3% more times). 42.6% were taking psychiatric medication-significantly more women than men according to blood tests; 14.2% had been hospitalized in a psychiatric clinic the year prior to their death. 84.8% have deceased at the place of suicide and 15.2% died in the hospital; 80.3% died indoors and 19.7% outdoors. Men died primarily by hanging or shooting by a firearm while women preferred jumping from height instead (p<0.001). As many as 48.8% had expressed their intention to die to their relatives; 26.6% left a suicide note. Conclusion Our study has shown that the psychological autopsy method is applicable and widely accepted yielding results comparable to the international literature. Specific parameters associated with suicide have been studied for the first time in Greece. PMID:25866522

  19. Glucose metabolism in completed suicide: a forensic-pathological pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Forsman, Jonas; Keltanen, Terhi; Liberg, Benny; Sajantila, Antti; Masterman, Thomas; Lindroos, Katarina

    2017-01-01

    Aim To determine whether antemortem blood levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and glucose predict completed suicide and, by extension, whether markers of glucose metabolism might be associated with a prosuicidal trait or state. Method From consecutively performed autopsies, samples of blood and vitreous humor from 17 suicide victims and 27 non-suicide controls were compared with regard to levels of glucose, lactate, and HbA1c. Results Mean HbA1c was higher and mean estimated blood glucose was lower among suicide victims, although tests revealed no significant differences (P = 0.171 and P = 0.395, respectively). HbA1c levels exceeding 48.0 mmol/mol, which were indicative of persistent hyperglycemia, were twice as common in suicide victims (59% vs 30%; P = 0.068). Conclusion The finding of this pilot study suggest that deranged glucose metabolism may reflect biological events antecedent to, or concomitant with, completed suicide, with the following clinical implications: recurring hyperglycemia due to defective glucose transport, which may give rise to depression and suicidal ideation, and elevated HbA1c levels, which may represent an assayable correlate to neurobiological conditions predisposing to suicide. PMID:28252873

  20. Decoding intentions from movement kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Cavallo, Andrea; Koul, Atesh; Ansuini, Caterina; Capozzi, Francesca; Becchio, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    How do we understand the intentions of other people? There has been a longstanding controversy over whether it is possible to understand others’ intentions by simply observing their movements. Here, we show that indeed movement kinematics can form the basis for intention detection. By combining kinematics and psychophysical methods with classification and regression tree (CART) modeling, we found that observers utilized a subset of discriminant kinematic features over the total kinematic pattern in order to detect intention from observation of simple motor acts. Intention discriminability covaried with movement kinematics on a trial-by-trial basis, and was directly related to the expression of discriminative features in the observed movements. These findings demonstrate a definable and measurable relationship between the specific features of observed movements and the ability to discriminate intention, providing quantitative evidence of the significance of movement kinematics for anticipating others’ intentional actions. PMID:27845434

  1. Responsible reporting of health research studies: transparent, complete, accurate and timely

    PubMed Central

    Altman, Douglas G.; Simera, Iveta

    2010-01-01

    Complete, accurate and transparent reporting is an integral part of responsible research conduct. However, many studies have shown that health research publications frequently lack crucial information. Reporting guidelines like the CONSORT Statement help to improve the quality of research reports. Unfortunately, their uptake by journals and authors is still limited and does not maximize their potential. The EQUATOR Network, a new international initiative, leads the effort to promote transparent reporting of research and the use of reporting guidelines. It provides online resources and training relating to the reporting of health research, and assists in the development, dissemination and implementation of reporting guidelines (www.equator-network.org). Poor reporting practices can be decreased only through close collaboration of all parties involved in research and its publication; EQUATOR can facilitate the process. PMID:19900949

  2. XMM-Subaru:Complete High Precision Study of Galaxy Clusters for Modern Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-Ying

    2011-10-01

    We request 382 ks data for 12 clusters to complete our survey of a volume-limited sample of 55 clusters. We investigated the existing data, which hints a mass dependent bias in the X-ray to weak lensing mass ratios for disturbed ones. X-ray mass proxies, e.g., Yx, show low scatter, but the best fits, particularly the slopes, of the mass-observable relations may be biased due to this mass dependence. Our program will quantify any mass/radial dependent bias based on three independent probes (X-ray/lensing/velocity dispersion) for such a volume-limited sample, and deliver definitive constraints on systematics for upcoming cluster cosmology surveys. The dataset will be a major asset for programs aiming to measure dark energy and programs adding a multi-wavelength focus to studies of cluster physics.

  3. In silico phylogenomics using complete genomes: a case study on the evolution of hominoids.

    PubMed

    Costa, Igor Rodrigues; Prosdocimi, Francisco; Jennings, W Bryan

    2016-09-01

    The increasing availability of complete genome data is facilitating the acquisition of phylogenomic data sets, but the process of obtaining orthologous sequences from other genomes and assembling multiple sequence alignments remains piecemeal and arduous. We designed software that performs these tasks and outputs anonymous loci (AL) or anchored enrichment/ultraconserved element loci (AE/UCE) data sets in ready-to-analyze formats. We demonstrate our program by applying it to the hominoids. Starting with human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan genomes, our software generated an exhaustive data set of 292 ALs (∼1 kb each) in ∼3 h. Not only did analyses of our AL data set validate the program by yielding a portrait of hominoid evolution in agreement with previous studies, but the accuracy and precision of our estimated ancestral effective population sizes and speciation times represent improvements. We also used our program with a published set of 512 vertebrate-wide AE "probe" sequences to generate data sets consisting of 171 and 242 independent loci (∼1 kb each) in 11 and 13 min, respectively. The former data set consisted of flanking sequences 500 bp from adjacent AEs, while the latter contained sequences bordering AEs. Although our AE data sets produced the expected hominoid species tree, coalescent-based estimates of ancestral population sizes and speciation times based on these data were considerably lower than estimates from our AL data set and previous studies. Accordingly, we suggest that loci subjected to direct or indirect selection may not be appropriate for coalescent-based methods. Complete in silico approaches, combined with the burgeoning genome databases, will accelerate the pace of phylogenomics.

  4. In silico phylogenomics using complete genomes: a case study on the evolution of hominoids

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Igor Rodrigues; Prosdocimi, Francisco; Jennings, W. Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The increasing availability of complete genome data is facilitating the acquisition of phylogenomic data sets, but the process of obtaining orthologous sequences from other genomes and assembling multiple sequence alignments remains piecemeal and arduous. We designed software that performs these tasks and outputs anonymous loci (AL) or anchored enrichment/ultraconserved element loci (AE/UCE) data sets in ready-to-analyze formats. We demonstrate our program by applying it to the hominoids. Starting with human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan genomes, our software generated an exhaustive data set of 292 ALs (∼1 kb each) in ∼3 h. Not only did analyses of our AL data set validate the program by yielding a portrait of hominoid evolution in agreement with previous studies, but the accuracy and precision of our estimated ancestral effective population sizes and speciation times represent improvements. We also used our program with a published set of 512 vertebrate-wide AE “probe” sequences to generate data sets consisting of 171 and 242 independent loci (∼1 kb each) in 11 and 13 min, respectively. The former data set consisted of flanking sequences 500 bp from adjacent AEs, while the latter contained sequences bordering AEs. Although our AE data sets produced the expected hominoid species tree, coalescent-based estimates of ancestral population sizes and speciation times based on these data were considerably lower than estimates from our AL data set and previous studies. Accordingly, we suggest that loci subjected to direct or indirect selection may not be appropriate for coalescent-based methods. Complete in silico approaches, combined with the burgeoning genome databases, will accelerate the pace of phylogenomics. PMID:27435933

  5. Numerical analysis of kinematic soil—pile interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, Francesco; Maugeri, Michele; Mylonakis, George

    2008-07-01

    In the present study, the response of singles pile to kinematic seismic loading is investigated using the computer program SAP2000@. The objectives of the study are: (1) to develop a numerical model that can realistically simulate kinematic soil-structure interaction for piles accounting for discontinuity conditions at the pile-soil interface, energy dissipation and wave propagation; (2) to use the model for evaluating kinematic interaction effects on pile response as function of input ground motion; and (3) to present a case study in which theoretical predictions are compared with results obtained from other formulations. To evaluate the effects of kinematic loading, the responses of both the free-field soil (with no piles) and the pile were compared. Time history and static pushover analyses were conducted to estimate the displacement and kinematic pile bending under seismic loadings.

  6. Galactic warp kinematics: model vs. observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedi, H.; Figueras, F.; Aguilar, L.; Mateu, C.; Romero-Gómez, M.; López-Corredoira, M.; Garzón, F.

    2015-05-01

    We test the capability of several methods to identify and characterise the warping of the stellar disc of our Galaxy in the Gaia era. We have developed a first kinematic model for the galactic warp and derived the analytical expressions for the force field of a warped Miyamoto- Nagai potential. We have generated realistic mock catalogues of OB, A and red clump stars within the warped galactic disc, where a very complete model of Gaia observables and their expected errors are included. We use the family of Great Circle Cell Counts (GC3) methods and LonKin methods for detecting and characterising the galactic warp. As a complementary work, we look into one of the existing proper motion catalogue namely the UCAC4, and look for the kinematic signature of the warp. We demonstrate the necessity of correcting for a possible residual rotation of the Hipparcos celestial reference frame with respect to the extra galactic inertial one.

  7. Complete solubilization of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue may improve proteomic studies.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shan-Rong; Taylor, Clive R; Fowler, Carol B; Mason, Jeffrey T

    2013-04-01

    Tissue-based proteomic approaches (tissue proteomics) are essential for discovering and evaluating biomarkers for personalized medicine. In any proteomics study, the most critical issue is sample extraction and preparation. This problem is especially difficult when recovering proteins from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections. However, improving and standardizing protein extraction from FFPE tissue is a critical need because of the millions of archival FFPE tissues available in tissue banks worldwide. Recent progress in the application of heat-induced antigen retrieval principles for protein extraction from FFPE tissue has resulted in a number of published FFPE tissue proteomics studies. However, there is currently no consensus on the optimal protocol for protein extraction from FFPE tissue or accepted standards for quantitative evaluation of the extracts. Standardization is critical to ensure the accurate evaluation of FFPE protein extracts by proteomic methods such as reverse phase protein arrays, which is now in clinical use. In our view, complete solubilization of FFPE tissue samples is the best way to achieve the goal of standardizing the recovery of proteins from FFPE tissues. However, further studies are recommended to develop standardized protein extraction methods to ensure quantitative and qualitative reproducibility in the recovery of proteins from FFPE tissues.

  8. Effects of the rider on the kinematics of the equine spine under the saddle during the trot using inertial measurement units: Methodological study and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Martin, P; Cheze, L; Pourcelot, P; Desquilbet, L; Duray, L; Chateau, H

    2017-03-01

    Many factors associated with the saddle and the rider could produce pain in horses thus reducing performance. However, studies of horse-saddle-rider interactions are limited and determining their effects remains challenging. The aim of this study was to test a novel method for assessing equine thoracic and lumbar spinal movement under the saddle and collect data during trotting. Back movement was measured using inertial measurement units (n = 5) fixed at the levels of thoracic vertebrae T6, T12 and T16, and lumbar vertebrae L2 and L5. To compare unridden and ridden conditions, three horses were trotted in hand then at the rising trot (seated phase: left diagonal, rider seated; standing phase: right diagonal, rider standing). The protraction-retraction angles of the forelimbs and the hind limbs were also calculated in two dimensions (2D) using reflective markers. To compare conditions, linear mixed-effects regression models were used and estimated means (standard error) were calculated. The range of motion (ROM) of the caudal thoracic and thoracolumbar regions decreased respectively by -1.3 (0.4)° and -0.6 (0.2)° during the seated phase compared to the unridden condition. Concomitantly, the ROM of protraction and retraction angles increased in the ridden condition. This study demonstrated the ability of inertial measurement units to assess equine vertebral movements under the saddle. The rider, at the rising trot, affected the horse's global locomotion with measurable changes in the vertebral kinematics under the saddle.

  9. Kinematics and Control of Robot Manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paden, Bradley Evan

    This dissertation focuses on the kinematics and control of robot manipulators. The contribution to kinematics is a fundamental theorem on the design of manipulators with six revolute joints. The theorem states, roughly speaking, that manipulators which have six revolute joints and are modeled after the human arm are optimal and essentially unique. In developing the mathematical framework to prove this theorem, we define precisely the notions of length of a manipulator, well-connected-workspace, and work-volume. We contribute to control a set of analysis techniques for the design of variable structure (sliding mode) controllers for manipulators. The organization of the dissertation is the following. After introductory remarks in chapter one, the group of proper rigid motions, G, is introduced in chapter two. The tangent bundle of G is introduced and it is shown that the velocity of a rigid body can be represented by an element in the Lie algebra of G (commonly called a twist). Further, rigid motions which are exponentials of twists are used to describe four commonly occurring subproblems in robot kinematics. In chapter three, the exponentials of twists are used to write the forward kinematic map of robot manipulators and the subproblems of chapter two are used to solve the Stanford manipulator and an elbow manipulator. Chapter four focuses on manipulator singularities. Twist coordinates are used to find critical points of the forward kinematic map. The contribution to kinematics is contained in chapter five where a mathematical framework for studying the relationship between the design of 6R manipulators and their performance is developed. Chapter seven contains the contribution to control. The work of A. F. Filippov on differential equations with discontinuous right-hand-side and the work of F. H. Clarke on generalized gradients are combined to obtain a calculus for analyzing nonsmooth gradient systems. The techniques developed are applied to design a simple

  10. Restraints and occupant kinematics in vehicular rollovers.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Steven E; Herbst, Brian; Forrest, Stephen; Syson, Stephen R; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam

    2002-01-01

    Occupant kinematics and the potential for injury in vehicular rollover crashes are dramatically affected by various restraint system characteristics. This study reviews previous research that utilized various methodologies and test fixtures to evaluate restrained occupant motions, primarily in the vertical direction, during both inverted and quasi-static simulated rollover environments. Additional laboratory tests were conducted in order to understand the static and dynamic excursion of restrained humans and surrogates in typical production motor vehicles under inverted circumstances. These tests indicated that volunteer occupants restrained within a complete vehicle by typical production 3 point seat belts will move vertically towards the vehicle roof structure by approximately 50-150 mm in production vehicles, depending on occupant size and belt configuration, when inverted and subjected to a static 1 g acceleration. Dynamic inverted vehicle drop testing in 3-point belt production vehicles, resulting in 4 to 11 g impacts, resulted in surrogates moving only about an additional 23 to 55 mm beyond the static inverted 1 g excursions.

  11. A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study of Non-Completers in Online Doctor of Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, Bernadette Marie

    2012-01-01

    The chance of an individual completing a traditional doctorate program is 50% (Bowen & Rudenstine, 1992; Council of Graduate Schools Ph.D. Completion Project, 2008; Ivankova & Stick, 2007). Student attrition in online programs is 10% to 20% greater than that of traditional, residential programs (Allen & Seaman, 2010; Carr, 2000; Diaz,…

  12. Complete prewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsyshin, P.; Parry, A. O.; Kalliadasis, S.

    2016-07-01

    We study continuous interfacial transitions, analagous to two-dimensional complete wetting, associated with the first-order prewetting line, which can occur on steps, patterned walls, grooves and wedges, and which are sensitive to both the range of the intermolecular forces and interfacial fluctuation effects. These transitions compete with wetting, filling and condensation producing very rich phase diagrams even for relatively simple prototypical geometries. Using microscopic classical density functional theory to model systems with realistic Lennard-Jones fluid-fluid and fluid-substrate intermolecular potentials, we compute mean-field fluid density profiles, adsorption isotherms and phase diagrams for a variety of confining geometries.

  13. Chocolate frogs do not increase completion of parent survey: randomised study.

    PubMed

    Price, Anna M H; Coates, Cathy; Symeonides, Christos; Hiscock, Harriet; Smith, Libby; York, Elissa; Hennel, Sabine

    2014-11-01

    Four months into a year-long, national survey assessing parents' experiences of a child's diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder, our response fraction was only 23%. We aimed to determine whether including a chocolate incentive in the postal survey would increase the response fraction. Families enrolled between 15 March and 25 May 2012 were randomised to receive a chocolate frog versus no chocolate frog. Both groups received a written reminder and replacement survey 2 weeks after the survey was posted and up to two telephone reminders thereafter. We analysed the effect of the incentive using χ(2) tests for the categorical response variable and t-tests for the continuous reminder and length of response variables at the end of (i) randomisation and (ii) the study (1 November 2012). A total of 137 families were randomised in the 6-week period. Parents who received an incentive were more likely to return a completed survey in the 6 weeks than those who did not (21% vs. 6%, P = 0.009). This effect faded by the end of the study (53% vs. 42%, P = 0.4). There were no differences between groups at either follow-up in the number of reminders that parents received or the number of days it took parents to return the survey. Including a chocolate-based incentive does not significantly increase response rate in a postal survey over and above standard reminder techniques like posting follow-up survey packs or phoning families.

  14. An Integrated Study of the Kinematics and Evolution of Fault Systems in the Hellenic Margin, Crete, Greece: Insight into Forearc Development above a Retreating Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallen, S. F.; Wegmann, K. W.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    Accommodating ~ 36 mm/yr of convergence between the African and Eurasian tectonic plates the Hellenic Subduction zone is the largest, fastest and most seismically active subduction zone in the Mediterranean. Long-lived Cenozoic subduction of the African slab has resulted in the construction of a large south-facing subduction wedge. Rollback of the African slab likely initiated sometime in the Eocene and continues today. This geodynamic setting has given rise to a forearc characterized by a series of dramatic 2-4 km high topographic escarpments south of the Island of Crete; one of the few subaerial forearc highs along the Hellenic margin. It is generally agreed that these escarpments represent the surface expression of large intra-crust faults, yet the kinematics of faulting remains contentious in contemporary scientific literature. Different geologic and geophysical datasets have been used to argue that these structures accommodate either shortening due to continued plate convergence or extension driven by processes related to slab rollback. Resolving the debate over the kinematics of the large-scale structures embedded in the Hellenic forearc is paramount to our understanding of seismic hazards, the development of forearc basins, and the geodynamic processes operating in this region. We present results from a study of the tectonic geomorphology and structural geology of the south-central coastline of Crete that constrain the kinematics and evolution of one of the aforementioned fault systems that is related to the construction of a large forearc basin known as the Ptolemy trough. Field surveys and geochronology of marine terraces reveal the pattern of late Quaternary uplift along the south-central coastline. Two large south-dipping extensional faults, which extend offshore into the Ptolemy trough, are found to offset Pleistocene marine terraces and are inferred to be active with average slip rates of ca. 0.5 mm/yr. The hanging walls and footwalls of these faults

  15. A Theoretical Study of the Build-up of the Sun’s Polar Magnetic Field by using a 3D Kinematic Dynamo Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazra, Gopal; Choudhuri, Arnab Rai; Miesch, Mark S.

    2017-01-01

    We develop a three-dimensional kinematic self-sustaining model of the solar dynamo in which the poloidal field generation is from tilted bipolar sunspot pairs placed on the solar surface above regions of strong toroidal field by using the SpotMaker algorithm, and then the transport of this poloidal field to the tachocline is primarily caused by turbulent diffusion. We obtain a dipolar solution within a certain range of parameters. We use this model to study the build-up of the polar magnetic field and show that some insights obtained from surface flux transport models have to be revised. We present results obtained by putting a single bipolar sunspot pair in a hemisphere and two symmetrical sunspot pairs in two hemispheres. We find that the polar fields produced by them disappear due to the upward advection of poloidal flux at low latitudes, which emerges as oppositely signed radial flux and which is then advected poleward by the meridional flow. We also study the effect that a large sunspot pair, violating Hale’s polarity law, would have on the polar field. We find that there would be some effect—especially if the anti-Hale pair appears at high latitudes in the mid-phase of the cycle—though the effect is not very dramatic.

  16. Influence of gravity compensation on kinematics and muscle activation patterns during reach and retrieval in subjects with cervical spinal cord injury: an explorative study.

    PubMed

    Kloosterman, Marieke G M; Snoek, Govert J; Kouwenhoven, Mirjam; Nene, Anand V; Jannink, Michiel J A

    2010-01-01

    Many interventions in upper-limb rehabilitation after cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) use arm support (gravity compensation); however, its specific effects on kinematics and muscle activation characteristics in subjects with a CSCI are largely unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional explorative study to study these effects. Nine subjects with a CSCI performed two goal-directed arm movements (maximal reach, reach and retrieval) with and without gravity compensation. Angles at elbow and shoulder joints and muscle activation were measured and compared. Seven subjects reduced elbow extension (range 1.8°-4.5°) during the maximal reaching task with gravity compensation. In the reach and retrieval task with gravity compensation, all subjects decreased elbow extension (range 0.1°-11.0°). Eight subjects executed movement closer to the body. Regarding muscle activation, gravity compensation did not influence timing; however, the amplitude of activation decreased, especially in antigravity muscles, namely mean change +/- standard deviation of descending part of trapezius (18.2% +/- 37.5%), anterior part of deltoid (37.7% +/- 16.7%), posterior part of deltoid (32.0% +/- 13.9%), and long head biceps (49.6% +/- 20.0%). Clinical implications for the use of gravity compensation in rehabilitation (during activities of daily living or exercise therapy) should be further investigated with a larger population.

  17. In vivo six-degree-of-freedom knee-joint kinematics in overground and treadmill walking following total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Guan, Shanyuanye; Gray, Hans A; Schache, Anthony G; Feller, Julian; de Steiger, Richard; Pandy, Marcus G

    2016-10-22

    No data are available to describe six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) knee-joint kinematics for one complete cycle of overground walking following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The aims of this study were firstly, to measure 6-DOF knee-joint kinematics and condylar motion for overground walking following TKA; and secondly, to determine whether such data differed between overground and treadmill gait when participants walked at the same speed during both tasks. A unique mobile biplane X-ray imaging system enabled accurate measurement of 6-DOF TKA knee kinematics during overground walking by simultaneously tracking and imaging the joint. The largest rotations occurred for flexion-extension and internal-external rotation whereas the largest translations were associated with joint distraction and anterior-posterior drawer. Strong associations were found between flexion-extension and adduction-abduction (R(2)  = 0.92), joint distraction (R(2)  = 1.00), and anterior-posterior translation (R(2)  = 0.77), providing evidence of kinematic coupling in the TKA knee. Although the measured kinematic profiles for overground walking were grossly similar to those for treadmill walking, several statistically significant differences were observed between the two conditions with respect to temporo-spatial parameters, 6-DOF knee-joint kinematics, and condylar contact locations and sliding. Thus, caution is advised when making recommendations regarding knee implant performance based on treadmill-measured knee-joint kinematic data. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res.

  18. Significance of complete right bundle-branch block when an isolated finding. An echocardiographic study.

    PubMed Central

    Dancy, M; Leech, G; Leatham, A

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-seven patients with complete right bundle-branch block as the only abnormal finding were studied using high speed M-mode echocardiography to determine the effect of the electrical delay on the mechanical events of right ventricular systole. Pulmonary valve opening (PVOm) was delayed in all cases. In some the delay was mainly between mitral valve closure (MVC) and tricuspid valve closure (TVC), and this was designated proximal block. In the others the main delay was between tricuspid valve closure and pulmonary valve opening and this was designated distal block. The patients were divided into those with proximal and those with distal block by calculating the ratio TVC-PVOm/MVC-TVC. Twelve out of 13 of those with distal delay but only one out of 14 of those with proximal delay had episodes of syncope or near syncope. These results are consistent with previous theories about the pathophysiology of right bundle-branch block. Echocardiography may offer a non-invasive method to estimate the prognosis in isolated right bundle-branch block. PMID:7104112

  19. Analytical and semi-analytical inverse kinematics of SSRMS-type manipulators with single joint locked failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenfu; She, Yu; Xu, Yangsheng

    2014-12-01

    Redundant space manipulators, including Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM) and European Robotic Arm (ERA), have been playing important roles in the construction and maintenance of International Space Station (ISS). They all have 7 revolute joints arranged in similar configurations, and are referred to as SSRMS-type manipulators. When a joint is locked in an arbitrary position due to some failures, a 7R manipulator degrades to a 6R manipulator. Without a spherical wrist or three consecutive parallel joints, the inverse kinematics of the 6R manipulator is very complex. In this paper, we propose effective methods to resolve the inverse kinematics for different cases of any joint locked in an arbitrary position. Firstly, configuration characteristics of the SSRMS-type redundant manipulators are analyzed. Then, an existing of closed-form inverse kinematics is discussed for locking different joints. Secondly, D-H frames and corresponding D-H parameters of the new 6-DOF manipulator formed by locking a joint in an arbitrary position are re-constructed. A unified table is then created to describe the kinematics for all possible cases of single joint locking failure. Thirdly, completely analytical and semi-analytical methods are presented to solve the inverse kinematics equations, and the former is used for locking joint 1, 2, 6 or 7 while the latter for locking joint 3, 4 or 5. Finally, typical cases for single joint locking are studied. The results verify the proposed methods.

  20. Frontal plane knee and hip kinematics during sit-to-stand and proximal lower extremity strength in persons with patellofemoral osteoarthritis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hoglund, Lisa T; Hillstrom, Howard J; Barr-Gillespie, Ann E; Lockard, Margery A; Barbe, Mary F; Song, Jinsup

    2014-02-01

    Increased joint stress and malalignment are etiologic factors in osteoarthritis. Static tibiofemoral frontal plane malalignment is associated with patellofemoral osteoarthritis (PFOA). Patellofemoral joint stress is increased by activities such as sit-to-stand (STS); this stress may be even greater if dynamic frontal plane tibiofemoral malalignment occurs. If hip muscle or quadriceps weakness is present in persons with PFOA, aberrant tibiofemoral frontal plane movement may occur, with increased patellofemoral stress. No studies have investigated frontal plane tibiofemoral and hip kinematics during STS in persons with PFOA or the relationship of hip muscle and quadriceps strength to these motions. Eight PFOA and seven control subjects performed STS from a stool during three-dimensional motion capture. Hip muscle and quadriceps strength were measured as peak isometric force. The PFOA group demonstrated increased peak tibial abduction angles during STS, and decreased hip abductor, hip extensor, and quadriceps peak force versus controls. A moderate inverse relationship between peak tibial abduction angle and peak hip abductor force was present. No difference between groups was found for peak hip adduction angle or peak hip external rotator force. Dynamic tibiofemoral malalignment and proximal lower extremity weakness may cause increased patellofemoral stress and may contribute to PFOA incidence or progression.

  1. Hyoid and laryngeal excursion kinematics - magnitude, duration and velocity - changes following successful exercise-based dysphagia rehabilitation: MDTP.

    PubMed

    Sia, I; Carvajal, P; Lacy, A A; Carnaby, G D; Crary, M A

    2015-05-01

    Variability in magnitude of deglutitional hyolaryngeal excursion in patients with dysphagia suggests that it does not adequately represent the kinematics of swallowing difficulties or recovery following rehabilitation. On the other hand, reduced hyolaryngeal excursion velocity has been reported in patients with dysphagia. While increased movement velocity often accompanies clinical and functional recovery in many diseases, velocity changes in swallowing-related movement following dysphagia therapy have not been well studied. This study evaluated changes in hyoid and laryngeal excursion (magnitude, duration and velocity) before and following successful dysphagia therapy to provide a more comprehensive representation of improvement to swallowing kinematics in patients who have experienced successful rehabilitation. A secondary analysis of case series data was completed. Eight patients with severe, chronic dysphagia completed a standard course of an exercise-based dysphagia treatment programme (McNeill dysphagia therapy program, MDTP). Pre- and post-treatment, kinematic aspects of swallowing were evaluated for thin liquid, thick liquid and pudding swallows. Maximum hyoid and laryngeal excursion magnitude and excursion duration were measured. Excursion velocities were calculated from excursion magnitude and duration measures. Successful treatment for dysphagia facilitated increased hyolaryngeal excursion magnitude, duration and velocity. These changes were most prominent for the hyoid and most often observed with thin liquids. By examining hyoid and laryngeal excursion velocity in patients who have experienced successful dysphagia rehabilitation, this study demonstrated the value of evaluating spatial and temporal aspects of swallowing kinematics in a single measure for a more comprehensive representation of positive changes underlying functional recovery.

  2. Molecular studies of a patient with complete androgen insensitivity and a 47,XXY karyotype.

    PubMed

    Girardin, C M; Deal, C; Lemyre, E; Paquette, J; Lumbroso, R; Beitel, L K; Trifiro, M A; Van Vliet, G

    2009-09-01

    A phenotypic female with complete androgen insensitivity from a maternally inherited mutation in the androgen receptor had a 47,XXY karyotype. Partial maternal X isodisomy explained the expression of androgen insensitivity despite the presence of 2 X chromosomes.

  3. Forward and inverse kinematics of double universal joint robot wrists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Robert L., II

    1991-01-01

    A robot wrist consisting of two universal joints can eliminate the wrist singularity problem found on many individual robots. Forward and inverse position and velocity kinematics are presented for such a wrist having three degrees of freedom. Denavit-Hartenberg parameters are derived to find the transforms required for the kinematic equations. The Omni-Wrist, a commercial double universal joint robot wrist, is studied in detail. There are four levels of kinematic parameters identified for this wrist; three forward and three inverse maps are presented for both position and velocity. These equations relate the hand coordinate frame to the wrist base frame. They are sufficient for control of the wrist standing alone. When the wrist is attached to a manipulator arm; the offset between the two universal joints complicates the solution of the overall kinematics problem. All wrist coordinate frame origins are not coincident, which prevents decoupling of position and orientation for manipulator inverse kinematics.

  4. Speech-Associated Labiomandibular Movement in Mandarin-Speaking Children with Quadriplegic Cerebral Palsy: A Kinematic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Hsieh-Ching; Yang, Fan-pei Gloria; Wu, Ching-Yi; Chen, Chia-Ling; Wong, Alice May-kuen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the speech-associated labiomandibular movement during articulation production in Mandarin-speaking children with spastic quadriplegic (SQ) cerebral palsy (CP). Twelve children with SQ CP (aged 7-11 years) and 12 age-matched healthy children as controls were enrolled for the study. All children underwent…

  5. KINEMATICS OF STELLAR POPULATIONS IN POSTSTARBURST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hiner, Kyle D.; Canalizo, Gabriela E-mail: khiner@astro-udec.cl

    2015-01-20

    Poststarburst galaxies host a population of early-type stars (A or F) but simultaneously lack indicators of ongoing star formation such as [O II] emission. Two distinct stellar populations have been identified in these systems: a young poststarburst population superimposed on an older host population. We present a study of nine poststarburst galaxies with the following objectives: (1) to investigate whether and how kinematical differences between the young and old populations of stars can be measured, and (2) to gain insight into the formation mechanism of the young population in these systems. We fit high signal-to-noise spectra with two independent populations in distinct spectral regions: the Balmer region, the Mg IB region, and the Ca triplet when available. We show that the kinematics of the two populations largely track one another if measured in the Balmer region with high signal-to-noise data. Results from examining the Faber-Jackson relation and the fundamental plane indicate that these objects are not kinematically disturbed relative to more evolved spheroids. A case study of the internal kinematics of one object in our sample shows it to be pressure supported and not rotationally dominated. Overall our results are consistent with merger-induced starburst scenarios where the young population is observed during the later stages of the merger.

  6. Adult patients with treated complete cleft lip and palate. Methodological and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Marcusson, A

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present thesis was to investigate the quality of life, satisfaction with treatment, prevalence of temporomandibular disorders, psychosocial distress, and occlusal stability in a treated group of adults with complete cleft lip and palate (CLP). Sixty-eight adults (44 men and 24 women) with a mean age of 24.2 years (range 19.5-29.2) with treated CLP were compared with a gender- and age-matched group with no clefts. The CLP subjects were born between 1968 and 1977 and had undergone standardised plastic surgery at the Department of Plastic Surgery, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden. Logopaedic, phoniatric, otological, and orthodontic examinations and treatment had been provided locally, supervised by the Cleft Plate Team. The subjects answered a multidimensional, self-report, standardised questionnaire regarding psychological and somatic conditions. The subjects underwent a clinical TMD examination and an evaluation of the occlusion. The reliability of the multidimensional questionnaire was analysed for the CLP group by a test-retest study within a 2-3 week interval and most questions showed an overall good reliability. A panel of professionals judged the outcome of the surgical treatment on colour slides of the CLP subjects. The dental plaster casts of 39 subjects born with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) were analysed (mean age 24.7 years, range 20.2-29.3) and compared with the dental plaster casts taken at mean age of 19.1 years (range 16.0-20.6). The overall level of quality of life was rather high in both groups. The CLP group rated some detached aspects, such as life meaning, family life, and private economy, significantly lower than did the group without clefts. Overall aspects such as well-being and social life were affected by having a treated cleft but not the more practical and tangible aspects of their daily living. There was an overall high level of satisfaction with all the different part of the body in both groups

  7. The Photometric and Kinematic Structure of Face-on Disk Galaxies. III. Kinematic Inclinations from Hα Velocity Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, David R.; Bershady, Matthew A.

    2013-05-01

    Using the integral field unit DensePak on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope we have obtained Hα velocity fields of 39 nearly face-on disks at echelle resolutions. High-quality, uniform kinematic data and a new modeling technique enabled us to derive accurate and precise kinematic inclinations with mean i kin = 23° for 90% of these galaxies. Modeling the kinematic data as single, inclined disks in circular rotation improves upon the traditional tilted-ring method. We measure kinematic inclinations with a precision in sin i of 25% at 20° and 6% at 30°. Kinematic inclinations are consistent with photometric and inverse Tully-Fisher inclinations when the sample is culled of galaxies with kinematic asymmetries, for which we give two specific prescriptions. Kinematic inclinations can therefore be used in statistical "face-on" Tully-Fisher studies. A weighted combination of multiple, independent inclination measurements yield the most precise and accurate inclination. Combining inverse Tully-Fisher inclinations with kinematic inclinations yields joint probability inclinations with a precision in sin i of 10% at 15° and 5% at 30°. This level of precision makes accurate mass decompositions of galaxies possible even at low inclination. We find scaling relations between rotation speed and disk-scale length identical to results from more inclined samples. We also observe the trend of more steeply rising rotation curves with increased rotation speed and light concentration. This trend appears to be uncorrelated with disk surface brightness.

  8. Multiparameter Radar and Aircraft Based Studies of the Micro-Physical, Kinematic and Electrical Structure of Convective Clouds.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-14

    study is related to multiparameter radar studies of lightning echoes and a triggered lightning event. q 6 C , 3 O7444/S,•~e ,•,=g vo, 4• - 074 14...SIUIICT TERMS WAMiRN Of PAGES Radar , electrical, storms, lightning jI WA COM. i?. 11cunty cSWICATsON I 13. sECUouTy c •A1SIDCArflO 1%. SECURITY $ASSWI...hence- _ ,, . forth all times are UTC and all heights are msl). For > c e 1 1 B e a few minutes the dual-frequency (S/X- band ) reflectivity ratio, DFR, was

  9. Study of Minor Physical Anomalies in Complete Nuclear Mexican Families. Evidence of Neurodevelopmental Problems in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosio-Gallardo, Félix; Cruz-Fuentes, Carlos; Heinze-Martin, Gerhard; Caraveo-Anduaga, Jorge; Cortés-Sotres, José

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Minor physical anomalies (MPA) are dysmorphic features that reflect deviations in early development, are morphological variants that appear during the first trimester of pregnancy and could be used as a marker of disease risk in susceptible people. The literature agrees that the number of MPA is higher in patients with schizophrenia compared with their relatives and healthy subjects. The purpose of this study is to compare the MPA, assessed using the Gourion Scale, in complete nuclear families (families with a member with schizophrenia and control families) by determining the MPA mean, concordance and heritability for the total score on the MPA Gourion Scale for each anomaly. Method The sample consisted of 60 families with at least one schizophrenic patient (284 members) and 61 control families (249 members). Results: The mean total score for the scale was 5.72 ± 2.3 MPA in the case of families with at least one schizophrenic patient and 1.8 ± 4.46 MPA for control families. The average for families of patients without considering the patient in the analysis was 5.59 ± 2.3 MPA; for patients, the mean was 6.14 ± 2.4 MPA. In the analysis by anomaly differences were found only in eleven anomalies found no evidence of heritability or concordance. Conclusions MPA occur more frequently in patients, but a pattern of low consistency between them persists. It is concluded that MPA could be a marker of neurodevelopmental problems, but it is not suitable to consider them a Gourion scale as endophenotype. PMID:25612094

  10. KINEMATIC DISTANCE ASSIGNMENTS WITH H I ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Courtney; Dickey, John M.

    2012-07-01

    Using H I absorption spectra from the International Galactic Plane Survey, a new method is implemented to resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity for 75 H II regions with known systemic velocities from radio recombination lines. A further 40 kinematic distance determinations are made for H II region candidates without known systemic velocities through an investigation of the presence of H I absorption around the terminal velocity. New kinematic distance determinations can be used to further constrain spiral arm parameters and the location and extent of other structures in the Milky Way disk. H I absorption toward continuum sources beyond the solar circle is also investigated. Follow-up studies of H I at higher resolution than the 1' to 2' of existing Galactic Plane Surveys will provide kinematic distances to many more H II regions on the far side of the Galactic center. On the basis of the velocity channel summation technique developed in this paper, a much larger sample of H II regions will be analyzed in a future paper to remove the near-far distance ambiguity.

  11. Effects of diagonal shoulder training in a closed kinematic chain for secondary impingement syndrome: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo-Han; Park, Du-Jin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of diagonal shoulder training on an individual with secondary impingement due to scapular dyskinesis. [Subject] A 54 year-old female with secondary impingement participated in this study. [Methods] The patient performed diagonal shoulder training in 4-point kneeling, 3 times per day for 20 minutes over a period of 6 weeks. Evaluations of shoulder pain, range of motion, upper trapezius/lower serratus anterior ratio, and impingement were performed before training and at 2, 4, and 6 weeks. [Results] The patient’s parameters improved gradually. All parameters returned to normal ranges at 4 weeks. [Conclusion] Diagonal shoulder training is effective for improving dysfunction in individuals with secondary impingement. In addition, this training should be applied for more than 4 weeks. PMID:26180371

  12. Factors affecting the programme completion of pre-registration nursing students through a three year course: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wray, Jane; Aspland, Jo; Barrett, David; Gardiner, Eric

    2017-03-14

    Students who leave pre-registration nurse education having failed to complete remain a concern for higher education institutions. This study identifed factors influencing completion using a retrospective cohort analysis to map student characteristics at entry against Year 3 completion data. The study was set in a nursing faculty in a higher education institution in northern England. Data were collected between 2009 and 2014 with five cohorts of students participating (n = 807). Multinomial logistic regression was used to model the dependent variable Progression Outcome with categories of; completion and non-completion (academic and non-academic reasons). Predictors included cohort, programme, branch, gender, age on entry, ethnic group, disability status, domicile, change of home postcode, change of term-time postcode, entry qualifications, previous experience of caring, and dependents. Age on Entry and Domicile or alternatively Dependents and Domicile emerged as statistically significant (p < 0.05) in the multivariable analysis. Older students were less likely to be lost from the programme, as were students who lived locally at all times and those with dependents. There is currently little reliable, consistent information on nursing student attrition, progression and completion. This study contributes to the evidence base by identifying some of the factors that may contribute to successful programme completion.

  13. The Maiden Voyage of a Kinematics Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwolfe, Matthew L.

    2015-04-01

    In a Montessori preschool classroom, students work independently on tasks that absorb their attention in part because the apparatus are carefully designed to make mistakes directly observable and limit exploration to one aspect or dimension. Control of error inheres in the apparatus itself, so that teacher intervention can be minimal.1 Inspired by this example, I created a robotic kinematics apparatus that also shapes the inquiry experience. Students program the robot by drawing kinematic graphs on a computer and then observe its motion. Exploration is at once limited to constant velocity and constant acceleration motion, yet open to complex multi-segment examples difficult to achieve in the lab in other ways. The robot precisely and reliably produces the motion described by the students' graphs, so that the apparatus itself provides immediate visual feedback about whether their understanding is correct as they are free to explore within the hard-coded limits. In particular, the kinematic robot enables hands-on study of multi-segment constant velocity situations, which lays a far stronger foundation for the study of accelerated motion. When correction is anonymous—just between one group of lab partners and their robot—students using the kinematic robot tend to flow right back to work because they view the correction as an integral part of the inquiry learning process. By contrast, when correction occurs by the teacher and/or in public (e.g., returning a graded assignment or pointing out student misconceptions during class), students all too often treat the event as the endpoint to inquiry. Furthermore, quantitative evidence shows a large gain from pre-test to post-test scores using the Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K).

  14. A Comparative Study on the Kinematic Biomechanical Effects of Tibia Vara in the Healthy and Diseased Individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahmohammadi, Mehrdad; Karami, Hossein; Bani, Milad Salimi; Zadeh, Hossein Bahreini; Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi

    2016-08-01

    BACKGROUND: Malalignment about the knee leads to a pathological-mechanical load that may cause early osteoarthritis of the knee joint and high degree of deformity which may need surgical treatment. Analysis of the leg movements in the experimental cases and comparing acquired results to the normal ones during the gait is used as a practical method to evaluate the effects of the disease. METHOD: In this study, gait differences between the patients with tibia vara and normal people were studied according to the data obtained from a three-dimensional (3D) motion analyzer. Various parameters, including positions, linear and angular velocities, linear and angular accelerations, total velocity, total acceleration, and path length at different angels were extracted and processed via a 3D motion analyzer. Then the results of the patient and control groups were compared to identify the differences. RESULTS: The maximum and average values as well as sample entropy were also calculated for all the mentioned parameters. Among all, only nine remarkable differences between these two groups were observed. The results revealed that the great difference between the patients with tibia vara compared to the normal ones in gait cycle lies on the abnormal movement of fibula bone and less irregularities along the z-axis. CONCLUSIONS: These findings may have implications not only for understanding the differences between the tibia vara in the healthy and diseased individuals, but also for providing a practical understanding for the medical and orthopedic experts to propose a better treatment method.

  15. Scaling and kinematics of a floating wind turbine under ocean waves and variable thrust: an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feist, Chris; Ruehl, Kelley; Guala, Michele

    2013-11-01

    Scale model wave channel experiments were performed to study the motion of an offshore floating wind turbine in operational sea states. The model tests were conducted on a 1:100 Froude scaled Sandia National Labs 13.2 MW prototype offshore wind turbine with a barge style floating platform. The platform is modeled after the MIT/NREL Shallow Drafted Barge designed for the 5MW Offshore Baseline wind turbine. The wave environment used in the model tests is representative of the deep-water sea states off the coast of Maine as well as the Pacific Northwest. The purpose of the tests is to validate a computational model of the turbine-wave interaction where the effects of airflow are not considered. To simplify the tests and validation, the platform motion is restricted to two degrees of freedom, pitch and heave, by attaching two roller support types at the center of gravity along the pitch axis. The major aerodynamic force acting on the turbine, i.e. the rotor thrust, is provided by spinning a scaled rotor at a controlled rotational speed. A subset of experiments were performed to study the effect of a mean or fluctuating rotor thrust on the platform dynamics, exploring strategies to control the thrust as a function of platform pitch angle and minimize platform oscillations.

  16. Pelvis and torso kinematics and their relationship to shoulder kinematics in high-school baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Keeley, David W

    2010-12-01

    It was the purpose of our study to examine the kinematics of the pelvis and torso and determine their relationship to the kinematics of the shoulder in high-school baseball pitchers. A single group, repeated-measures design was used to collect pelvis, torso, and shoulder kinematics throughout the pitching motion. Subjects threw a series of maximal effort fastballs to a catcher located the regulation distance (18.44m) from the pitching mound, and those data from the fastest pitch passing through the strike zone were analyzed. After test trials, kinematic data were analyzed using a series of descriptive statistics to identify outliers and determine the nature of the distribution before testing for the presence of relationships between the various parameters. Results indicated that for several parameters, the actions at and about the shoulder are strongly related to the actions of the pelvis and torso throughout the pitching motion. However, although pelvis and torso kinematics throughout the pitching motion were inversely related to both shoulder elevation and the plane of shoulder elevation, only the rate of axial torso rotation was significantly related to these shoulder parameters. More importantly, the rate of axial torso rotation is significantly related to these shoulder parameters in a way that may help explain the high rate of shoulder injury in high-school pitchers. Therefore, strength training should focus on developing a strong stable core including the gluteal musculature in an attempt to control the rate of torso rotation during the pitch.

  17. ACCURACY AND PRECISION OF A METHOD TO STUDY KINEMATICS OF THE TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT: COMBINATION OF MOTION DATA AND CT IMAGING

    PubMed Central

    Baltali, Evre; Zhao, Kristin D.; Koff, Matthew F.; Keller, Eugene E.; An, Kai-Nan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the precision and accuracy of a method used to track selected landmarks during motion of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). A precision phantom device was constructed and relative motions between two rigid bodies on the phantom device were measured using optoelectronic (OE) and electromagnetic (EM) motion tracking devices. The motion recordings were also combined with a 3D CT image for each type of motion tracking system (EM+CT and OE+CT) to mimic methods used in previous studies. In the OE and EM data collections, specific landmarks on the rigid bodies were determined using digitization. In the EM+CT and OE+CT data sets, the landmark locations were obtained from the CT images. 3D linear distances and 3D curvilinear path distances were calculated for the points. The accuracy and precision for all 4 methods were evaluated (EM, OE, EM+CT and OE+CT). In addition, results were compared with and without the CT imaging (EM vs. EM+CT, OE vs. OE+CT). All systems overestimated the actual 3D curvilinear path lengths. All systems also underestimated the actual rotation values. The accuracy of all methods was within 0.5 mm for 3D curvilinear path calculations, 0.05 mm for 3D linear distance calculations, and 0.2° for rotation calculations. In addition, Bland-Altman plots for each configuration of the systems suggest that measurements obtained from either system are repeatable and comparable. PMID:18617178

  18. Enhancing Doctoral Completion in Women: Evidence from a Qualitative Study of a Unique Federally Funded Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sandra P.; Drake-Clark, Donna; Grasso, Maureen; Banta, Trudy

    2014-01-01

    In an era where campus environments were often unwelcoming to women, and there were few women role models, an innovative program funded by the National Institute of Education produced 100% completion by female and minority doctoral students. At a 25-year reunion, the graduates reflected on their program experiences and careers. Reflections were…

  19. Gender, gender roles and completion of nursing education: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Katrina; Muldoon, Orla T; Moutray, Marianne

    2010-05-01

    The current worldwide nursing shortage and high attrition of nursing students remain a challenge for the nursing profession. The aim of this paper was to investigate how key psychological attributes and constructions differentiate between completers and non-completers of nursing education. A questionnaire including measures of gender role identity and perceived gender appropriateness of careers was administered to 384 students early in the first year of the course. At the end of the programme attrition rates were obtained. The findings indicate that males were more likely to leave the course than females. Furthermore, those who completed the course tended to view nursing as more appropriate for women, in contrast to the non-completers who had less gender typed views. The female-dominated nature of nursing, prevalent stereotypes and gender bias inherent in nursing education seem to make this an uncomfortable place for males and those with less gendered typed views. Whilst it is acknowledged that attrition is undoubtedly a complex issue with many contributing factors, the nursing profession need to take steps to address this bias to ensure their profession is open equally to both female and male recruits.

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptomyces ambofaciens DSM 40697, a Paradigm for Genome Plasticity Studies

    PubMed Central

    Thibessard, Annabelle

    2016-01-01

    The sequence of Streptomyces ambofaciens DSM 40697 was completely determined. The genome consists of an 8.1-Mbp linear chromosome with terminal inverted repeats of 210 kb. Genomic islands were identified, one of which corresponds to a new putative integrative and conjugative element (ICE) called pSAM3. PMID:27257195

  1. Timely Doctoral Completion Rates in Five Fields: A Two-Part Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Angela Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Roughly half of all doctoral students who begin a program do not continue through graduation, and many of them face significant financial losses and emotional burdens as a result. Although this completion rate has stayed fairly constant for the past few decades, it has recently gained attention on a national level. In 2011, the National Research…

  2. Peak-ring structure and kinematics from a multi-disciplinary study of the Schrödinger impact basin

    PubMed Central

    Kring, David A.; Kramer, Georgiana Y.; Collins, Gareth S.; Potter, Ross W. K.; Chandnani, Mitali

    2016-01-01

    The Schrödinger basin on the lunar farside is ∼320 km in diameter and the best-preserved peak-ring basin of its size in the Earth–Moon system. Here we present spectral and photogeologic analyses of data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper instrument on the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) on the LRO spacecraft, which indicates the peak ring is composed of anorthositic, noritic and troctolitic lithologies that were juxtaposed by several cross-cutting faults during peak-ring formation. Hydrocode simulations indicate the lithologies were uplifted from depths up to 30 km, representing the crust of the lunar farside. Through combining geological and remote-sensing observations with numerical modelling, we show that a Displaced Structural Uplift model is best for peak rings, including that in the K–T Chicxulub impact crater on Earth. These results may help guide sample selection in lunar sample return missions that are being studied for the multi-agency International Space Exploration Coordination Group. PMID:27762265

  3. Peak-ring structure and kinematics from a multi-disciplinary study of the Schrödinger impact basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kring, David A.; Kramer, Georgiana Y.; Collins, Gareth S.; Potter, Ross W. K.; Chandnani, Mitali

    2016-10-01

    The Schrödinger basin on the lunar farside is ~320 km in diameter and the best-preserved peak-ring basin of its size in the Earth-Moon system. Here we present spectral and photogeologic analyses of data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper instrument on the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) on the LRO spacecraft, which indicates the peak ring is composed of anorthositic, noritic and troctolitic lithologies that were juxtaposed by several cross-cutting faults during peak-ring formation. Hydrocode simulations indicate the lithologies were uplifted from depths up to 30 km, representing the crust of the lunar farside. Through combining geological and remote-sensing observations with numerical modelling, we show that a Displaced Structural Uplift model is best for peak rings, including that in the K-T Chicxulub impact crater on Earth. These results may help guide sample selection in lunar sample return missions that are being studied for the multi-agency International Space Exploration Coordination Group.

  4. Relationship between jump landing kinematics and peak ACL force during a jump in downhill skiing: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, D; van den Bogert, A J; Nachbauer, W

    2014-06-01

    Recent data highlight that competitive skiers face a high risk of injuries especially during off-balance jump landing maneuvers in downhill skiing. The purpose of the present study was to develop a musculo-skeletal modeling and simulation approach to investigate the cause-and-effect relationship between a perturbed landing position, i.e., joint angles and trunk orientation, and the peak force in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) during jump landing. A two-dimensional musculo-skeletal model was developed and a baseline simulation was obtained reproducing measurement data of a reference landing movement. Based on the baseline simulation, a series of perturbed landing simulations (n = 1000) was generated. Multiple linear regression was performed to determine a relationship between peak ACL force and the perturbed landing posture. Increased backward lean, hip flexion, knee extension, and ankle dorsiflexion as well as an asymmetric position were related to higher peak ACL forces during jump landing. The orientation of the trunk of the skier was identified as the most important predictor accounting for 60% of the variance of the peak ACL force in the simulations. Teaching of tactical decisions and the inclusion of exercise regimens in ACL injury prevention programs to improve trunk control during landing motions in downhill skiing was concluded.

  5. Peak-ring structure and kinematics from a multi-disciplinary study of the Schrödinger impact basin.

    PubMed

    Kring, David A; Kramer, Georgiana Y; Collins, Gareth S; Potter, Ross W K; Chandnani, Mitali

    2016-10-20

    The Schrödinger basin on the lunar farside is ∼320 km in diameter and the best-preserved peak-ring basin of its size in the Earth-Moon system. Here we present spectral and photogeologic analyses of data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper instrument on the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) on the LRO spacecraft, which indicates the peak ring is composed of anorthositic, noritic and troctolitic lithologies that were juxtaposed by several cross-cutting faults during peak-ring formation. Hydrocode simulations indicate the lithologies were uplifted from depths up to 30 km, representing the crust of the lunar farside. Through combining geological and remote-sensing observations with numerical modelling, we show that a Displaced Structural Uplift model is best for peak rings, including that in the K-T Chicxulub impact crater on Earth. These results may help guide sample selection in lunar sample return missions that are being studied for the multi-agency International Space Exploration Coordination Group.

  6. Kinematic Downsizing at z ˜ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Raymond C.; Kassin, Susan A.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Barro, Guillermo; Koo, David C.; Guo, Yicheng; Pacifici, Camilla; Koekemoer, Anton; Stephens, Andrew W.

    2016-10-01

    We present results from a survey of the internal kinematics of 49 star-forming galaxies at z˜ 2 in the CANDELS fields with the Keck/MOSFIRE spectrograph, Survey in the near-Infrared of Galaxies with Multiple position Angles (SIGMA). Kinematics (rotation velocity V rot and gas velocity dispersion {σ }g) are measured from nebular emission lines which trace the hot ionized gas surrounding star-forming regions. We find that by z˜ 2, massive star-forming galaxies ({log} {M}* /{M}⊙ ≳ 10.2) have assembled primitive disks: their kinematics are dominated by rotation, they are consistent with a marginally stable disk model, and they form a Tully-Fisher relation. These massive galaxies have values of {V}{rot}/{σ }g that are factors of 2-5 lower than local well-ordered galaxies at similar masses. Such results are consistent with findings by other studies. We find that low-mass galaxies ({log} {M}* /{M}⊙ ≲ 10.2) at this epoch are still in the early stages of disk assembly: their kinematics are often dominated by gas velocity dispersion and they fall from the Tully-Fisher relation to significantly low values of V rot. This “kinematic downsizing” implies that the process(es) responsible for disrupting disks at z˜ 2 have a stronger effect and/or are more active in low-mass systems. In conclusion, we find that the period of rapid stellar mass growth at z˜ 2 is coincident with the nascent assembly of low-mass disks and the assembly and settling of high-mass disks.

  7. A complete active space self-consistent field study of the photochemistry of nitrosamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peláez, Daniel; Arenas, Juan F.; Otero, Juan C.; Soto, Juan

    2006-10-01

    Photodissociation mechanisms of nitrosamine (NH2NO) have been studied at the complete active space self-consistent field level of theory in conjunction with atomic-natural-orbital-type basis sets. In addition, the energies of all the critical points and the potential energy curves connecting them have been recomputed with the multiconfigurational second-order perturbation method. Ground state minimum of nitrosamine has a C1 nonplanar structure with the hydrogen atoms of the amino moiety out of the plane defined by the N-N-O bonds. Electronic transitions to the three lowest states are allowed by selection rules: (i) S0→S3 (7.41eV) has an oscillator strength of f =0.0006 and it is assigned as an (npO)0→(πNO*)2 transition, (ii) S0→S2 (5.86eV ) has an oscillator strength of f =0.14 and it is assigned as an npN→πNO* transition, and (iii) S0→S1 (2.98eV ) has an oscillator strength of f =0.002 and it is assigned as an npO→πNO* transition. It is found that N-N bond cleavage is the most likely process in all the photochemical relevant states, namely, S1 (1A″1), S2 (2A'1), and T1 (1A″3). While S1 and T1 yield exclusively homolytic dissociation: NH2NO →NH2 (1B12)+NO(XΠ2), on S2 the latter process constitutes the major path, but two additional minor channels are also available: adiabatic homolytic dissociation: NH2NO →NH2 (1A12)+NO(XΠ2), and adiabatic oxygen extrusion: NH2NO →NH2N (1A13)+O(P3). The excited species NH2 (1A12) experiences a subsequent ultrafast decay to the ground state, the final products in all cases the fragments being in their lowest electronic state. We have not found a unimolecular mechanism connecting excited states with the ground state. In addition, homolytic dissociation in the ground state, tautomerizations to NHNOH and NHNHO, and intersystem crossings to T1 are considered. The most favorable process on this state is the isomerization to NHNOH.

  8. Kinematic orbits and the structure of the internal space for systems of five or more bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Kevin A.; Littlejohn, Robert G.

    1999-10-01

    The internal space for a molecule, atom, or other n-body system can be conveniently parameterized by 3n - 9 kinematic angles and three hematic invariants. For a fixed set of kinematic invariants, the kinematic angles parameterize a subspace, called a kinematic orbit, of the n-body internal space. Building on an earlier analysis of the three- and four-body problems, we derive the form of these kinematic orbits (that is, their topology) for the general n-body problem. The case n = 5 is studied in detail, along with the previously studied cases n = 3,4.

  9. A statistical kinematic source inversion approach based on the QUESO library for uncertainty quantification and prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielke, Olaf; McDougall, Damon; Mai, Martin; Babuska, Ivo

    2014-05-01

    Seismic, often augmented with geodetic data, are frequently used to invert for the spatio-temporal evolution of slip along a rupture plane. The resulting images of the slip evolution for a single event, inferred by different research teams, often vary distinctly, depending on the adopted inversion approach and rupture model parameterization. This observation raises the question, which of the provided kinematic source inversion solutions is most reliable and most robust, and — more generally — how accurate are fault parameterization and solution predictions? These issues are not included in "standard" source inversion approaches. Here, we present a statistical inversion approach to constrain kinematic rupture parameters from teleseismic body waves. The approach is based a) on a forward-modeling scheme that computes synthetic (body-)waves for a given kinematic rupture model, and b) on the QUESO (Quantification of Uncertainty for Estimation, Simulation, and Optimization) library that uses MCMC algorithms and Bayes theorem for sample selection. We present Bayesian inversions for rupture parameters in synthetic earthquakes (i.e. for which the exact rupture history is known) in an attempt to identify the cross-over at which further model discretization (spatial and temporal resolution of the parameter space) is no longer attributed to a decreasing misfit. Identification of this cross-over is of importance as it reveals the resolution power of the studied data set (i.e. teleseismic body waves), enabling one to constrain kinematic earthquake rupture histories of real earthquakes at a resolution that is supported by data. In addition, the Bayesian approach allows for mapping complete posterior probability density functions of the desired kinematic source parameters, thus enabling us to rigorously assess the uncertainties in earthquake source inversions.

  10. GNSS Precise Kinematic Positioning for Multiple Kinematic Stations Based on A Priori Distance Constraints.

    PubMed

    He, Kaifei; Xu, Tianhe; Förste, Christoph; Petrovic, Svetozar; Barthelmes, Franz; Jiang, Nan; Flechtner, Frank

    2016-04-01

    When applying the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) for precise kinematic positioning in airborne and shipborne gravimetry, multiple GNSS receiving equipment is often fixed mounted on the kinematic platform carrying the gravimetry instrumentation. Thus, the distances among these GNSS antennas are known and invariant. This information can be used to improve the accuracy and reliability of the state estimates. For this purpose, the known distances between the antennas are applied as a priori constraints within the state parameters adjustment. These constraints are introduced in such a way that their accuracy is taken into account. To test this approach, GNSS data of a Baltic Sea shipborne gravimetric campaign have been used. The results of our study show that an application of distance constraints improves the accuracy of the GNSS kinematic positioning, for example, by about 4 mm for the radial component.

  11. GNSS Precise Kinematic Positioning for Multiple Kinematic Stations Based on A Priori Distance Constraints

    PubMed Central

    He, Kaifei; Xu, Tianhe; Förste, Christoph; Petrovic, Svetozar; Barthelmes, Franz; Jiang, Nan; Flechtner, Frank

    2016-01-01

    When applying the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) for precise kinematic positioning in airborne and shipborne gravimetry, multiple GNSS receiving equipment is often fixed mounted on the kinematic platform carrying the gravimetry instrumentation. Thus, the distances among these GNSS antennas are known and invariant. This information can be used to improve the accuracy and reliability of the state estimates. For this purpose, the known distances between the antennas are applied as a priori constraints within the state parameters adjustment. These constraints are introduced in such a way that their accuracy is taken into account. To test this approach, GNSS data of a Baltic Sea shipborne gravimetric campaign have been used. The results of our study show that an application of distance constraints improves the accuracy of the GNSS kinematic positioning, for example, by about 4 mm for the radial component. PMID:27043580

  12. Multidisciplinary approach to constrain kinematics of fault zones at shallow depths: a case study from the Cameros-Demanda thrust (North Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas-Sainz, A. M.; Román-Berdiel, T.; Oliva-Urcia, B.; García-Lasanta, C.; Villalaín, J. J.; Aldega, L.; Corrado, S.; Caricchi, C.; Invernizzi, C.; Osácar, M. C.

    2016-06-01

    Thrusting at shallow depths often precludes analysis by means of structural indicators effective in other geological contexts (e.g., mylonites, sheath folds, shear bands). In this paper, a combination of techniques (including structural analysis, magnetic methods, as anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and paleomagnetism, and paleothermometry) is used to define thrusting conditions, deformation, and transport directions in the Cameros-Demanda thrust (North Spain). Three outcrops were analyzed along this intraplate, large-scale major structure having 150 km of outcropping length, 30 km of maximum horizontal displacement, and 5 km of vertical throw. Results obtained by means of the different techniques are compared with data derived from cross sections and stratigraphic analysis. Mixed-layer illite-smectite and vitrinite reflectance indicating deep diagenetic conditions and mature stage of hydrocarbon generation suggests shallow depths during deformation, thus confirming that the protolith for most of the fault rocks is the footwall of the main thrust. Kinematic indicators (foliation, S/C structures, and slickenside striations) indicate altogether a dominant NNW movement of the hanging wall in the western zone and NE in the eastern zone of the thrust, thus implying strain partitioning between different branches of the main thrust. The study of AMS in fault rocks (nearly 400 samples of fault gouge, breccia, and microbreccia) indicates that the strike of magnetic foliation is oblique to the transport direction and that the magnetic lineation parallelizes the projection of the transport direction onto the k max/k int plane in sites with strong shear deformation. Paleomagnetism applied to fault rocks indicates the existence of remagnetizations linked to thrusting, in spite of the shallow depth for deformation, and a strong deformation or scattering of the magnetic remanence vectors in the fault zone. The application of the described techniques and consistency of

  13. Determinants of Timely Completion: The Impact of Bachelor's Degree Programme Characteristics and Student Motivation on Study Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suhre, Cor J. M.; Jansen, Ellen P. W. A.; Torenbeek, M.

    2013-01-01

    Timely completion of university degree programmes is a topic of growing concern to higher education institutions and their students. This paper reports on a study about the impact of degree programme characteristics and student motivation on study progress. The setting for the study is a Dutch law school. Data on degree programme characteristics,…

  14. 43 CFR 404.29 - Can the level of effort needed to complete an appraisal investigation or feasibility study be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... an appraisal investigation or feasibility study be scaled to be proportional to the size and cost of... § 404.29 Can the level of effort needed to complete an appraisal investigation or feasibility study be... effort for an appraisal investigation or feasibility study should be scaled to take into...

  15. 43 CFR 404.33 - How much Federal funding can Reclamation provide for the completion of a feasibility study?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... provide for the completion of a feasibility study? 404.33 Section 404.33 Public Lands: Interior... of a feasibility study? In general, Reclamation will be responsible for 50 percent of the cost of a feasibility study conducted under § 404.11(a) or (b). You will be responsible to pay for the remaining...

  16. 43 CFR 404.29 - Can the level of effort needed to complete an appraisal investigation or feasibility study be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... an appraisal investigation or feasibility study be scaled to be proportional to the size and cost of... § 404.29 Can the level of effort needed to complete an appraisal investigation or feasibility study be... effort for an appraisal investigation or feasibility study should be scaled to take into...

  17. 43 CFR 404.33 - How much Federal funding can Reclamation provide for the completion of a feasibility study?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... provide for the completion of a feasibility study? 404.33 Section 404.33 Public Lands: Interior... of a feasibility study? In general, Reclamation will be responsible for 50 percent of the cost of a feasibility study conducted under § 404.11(a) or (b). You will be responsible to pay for the remaining...

  18. Contribution of the Reverse Endoprosthesis to Glenohumeral Kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Jeroen H. M.; de Leeuw, M.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.; Willems, W. J.

    2008-01-01

    After placement of a reverse shoulder endoprosthesis, range of motion is usually still compromised. To what extent this occurs from limitation in motion of the reverse endoprosthesis is, however, unclear. We measured the motion pattern of 16 patients (18 shoulders) during three active and passive range of motion tasks using a six degree-of-freedom electromagnetic tracking device. Despite rotator cuff deficiencies, glenohumeral elevation contributed roughly two-thirds of the total thoracohumeral elevation, which is comparable to healthy subjects. However, patients could not actively use the full range of motion provided by the prosthesis. Although we found considerable interindividual differences in shoulder kinematics, the limitation in glenohumeral range of motion appears related to a lack of generated muscle force and not the design of the prosthesis. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18264847

  19. Kinematic precision of gear trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Goldrich, R. N.; Coy, J. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1982-01-01

    Kinematic precision is affected by errors which are the result of either intentional adjustments or accidental defects in manufacturing and assembly of gear trains. A method for the determination of kinematic precision of gear trains is described. The method is based on the exact kinematic relations for the contact point motions of the gear tooth surfaces under the influence of errors. An approximate method is also explained. Example applications of the general approximate methods are demonstrated for gear trains consisting of involute (spur and helical) gears, circular arc (Wildhaber-Novikov) gears, and spiral bevel gears. Gear noise measurements from a helicopter transmission are presented and discussed with relation to the kinematic precision theory.

  20. Kinematic precision of gear trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Goldrich, R. N.; Coy, J. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1983-01-01

    Kinematic precision is affected by errors which are the result of either intentional adjustments or accidental defects in manufacturing and assembly of gear trains. A method for the determination of kinematic precision of gear trains is described. The method is based on the exact kinematic relations for the contact point motions of the gear tooth surfaces under the influence of errors. An approximate method is also explained. Example applications of the general approximate methods are demonstrated for gear trains consisting of involute (spur and helical) gears, circular arc (Wildhaber-Novikov) gears, and spiral bevel gears. Gear noise measurements from a helicopter transmission are presented and discussed with relation to the kinematic precision theory. Previously announced in STAR as N82-32733

  1. A feasibility study on laser rapid forming of a complete titanium denture base plate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang; Gao, Bo; Tan, Hua; Chen, Jing; Tang, Chak-Yin; Tsui, Chi-Pong

    2010-05-01

    This work attempted to integrate the technologies of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) and laser rapid forming (LRF) for the fabrication of the titanium plate of a complete denture. By the combination of laser scan and reverse engineering software, the standard triangulation language (STL)-formatted denture base plate was finally designed and sliced into a sequence of numerical controlled codes. The titanium (Ti) complete denture plate was finally built, layer-by-layer, on the LRF system. To evaluate the quality of fit, a virtual adaptation test that measured and compared the profiles of the laser free formed denture plate and those of the edentulous plaster cast had been conducted, and the mean deviation was found to be 0.34 mm. After traditional dental finishing techniques, a complete denture with a Ti base plate was then made and judged to be acceptable. The CAD/CAM/LRF system is a potential candidate and a new platform for the design and manufacture of custom-made Ti denture plates and restorations.

  2. Improved kinematic options in ALEGRA.

    SciTech Connect

    Farnsworth, Grant V.; Robinson, Allen Conrad

    2003-12-01

    Algorithms for higher order accuracy modeling of kinematic behavior within the ALEGRA framework are presented. These techniques improve the behavior of the code when kinematic errors are found, ensure orthonormality of the rotation tensor at each time step, and increase the accuracy of the Lagrangian stretch and rotation tensor update algorithm. The implementation of these improvements in ALEGRA is described. A short discussion of issues related to improving the accuracy of the stress update procedures is also included.

  3. Kinematics Around the Non-Thermal Superbubble in IC10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullejos, A.; Rosado, M.

    2002-02-01

    We study the kinematics around a non-thermal superbubble found by Yang & Skillman. Considering the H II and [S II] profiles, we find that between 3 and 6 supernovae are required to form this superbubble.

  4. A complete active space self-consistent field study of the photochemistry of nitrosamine

    SciTech Connect

    Pelaez, Daniel; Arenas, Juan F.; Otero, Juan C.; Soto, Juan

    2006-10-28

    Photodissociation mechanisms of nitrosamine (NH{sub 2}NO) have been studied at the complete active space self-consistent field level of theory in conjunction with atomic-natural-orbital-type basis sets. In addition, the energies of all the critical points and the potential energy curves connecting them have been recomputed with the multiconfigurational second-order perturbation method. Ground state minimum of nitrosamine has a C{sub 1} nonplanar structure with the hydrogen atoms of the amino moiety out of the plane defined by the N-N-O bonds. Electronic transitions to the three lowest states are allowed by selection rules: (i) S{sub 0}{yields}S{sub 3} (7.41 eV) has an oscillator strength of f=0.0006 and it is assigned as an (np{sub O}){sup 0}{yields}({pi}{sub NO}*){sup 2} transition, (ii) S{sub 0}{yields}S{sub 2} (5.86 eV) has an oscillator strength of f=0.14 and it is assigned as an np{sub N}{yields}{pi}{sub NO}* transition, and (iii) S{sub 0}{yields}S{sub 1} (2.98 eV) has an oscillator strength of f=0.002 and it is assigned as an np{sub O}{yields}{pi}{sub NO}* transition. It is found that N-N bond cleavage is the most likely process in all the photochemical relevant states, namely, S{sub 1} (1 {sup 1}A{sup ''}), S{sub 2} (2 {sup 1}A{sup '}), and T{sub 1} (1 {sup 3}A{sup ''}). While S{sub 1} and T{sub 1} yield exclusively homolytic dissociation: NH{sub 2}NO{yields}NH{sub 2} (1 {sup 2}B{sub 1})+NO(X {sup 2}{pi}), on S{sub 2} the latter process constitutes the major path, but two additional minor channels are also available: adiabatic homolytic dissociation: NH{sub 2}NO{yields}NH{sub 2} (1 {sup 2}A{sub 1})+NO(X {sup 2}{pi}), and adiabatic oxygen extrusion: NH{sub 2}NO{yields}NH{sub 2}N (1 {sup 3}A{sub 1})+O({sup 3}P). The excited species NH{sub 2} (1 {sup 2}A{sub 1}) experiences a subsequent ultrafast decay to the ground state, the final products in all cases the fragments being in their lowest electronic state. We have not found a unimolecular mechanism connecting

  5. Wing kinematics in a hovering dronefly minimize power expenditure.

    PubMed

    Wu, J H; Sun, M

    2014-10-15

    When an insect hovers or performs constant-speed flight, its wings flap at certain amplitude, frequency, angle of attack, etc., and the flight is balanced (vertical force equals to the weight, and horizontal force and pitch moment are zero). It is possible that when some other sets of values of wing kinematical parameters are used, the force and moment balance conditions can still be satisfied. Does the wing kinematics used by a constant-speed flying insect minimize the power expenditure? In this study, whether the wing kinematics used by a freely hovering dronefly minimizes its energy expenditure was investigated. First, the power consumption using the set of values of wing kinematical parameters that was actually employed by the insect was computed. Then, the kinematical parameters were changed while keeping the equilibrium flight conditions satisfied, and the power consumption was recalculated. It was found that wing kinematical parameters used by the freely hovering dronefly are very close to that minimize its energy consumption, and they can ensure the margin of controllability from hovering to maneuvers. That is, slight change of wing kinematical parameters did not cause significant change of the specific power (maintained a relatively small value).

  6. Factors That Contribute to the Completion of Programs of Study at Arkansas Institutions of Higher Education for African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, Barrett Wade McCoy

    2015-01-01

    The study examined factors that predicted the completion of programs of study at Arkansas institutions of higher education for African American males. Astin's (1993a) Input-Environment-Output (I-E-O) Model was used as the theoretical foundation. Descriptive analyses and hierarchical logistic regression analyses were performed on the data. The…

  7. Are Dropout and Degree Completion in Doctoral Study Significantly Dependent on Type of Financial Support and Field of Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Haert, Margaux; Arias Ortiz, Elena; Emplit, Philippe; Halloin, Véronique; Dehon, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the determinants of "time to dropout" from doctoral studies and "time to PhD completion" are studied using a discrete-time competing risks survival analysis for a sample of 3092 doctoral candidates from the Université libre de Bruxelles. Not surprisingly, results show that students supported with research…

  8. Review: Assessment of completeness of reporting in intervention studies using livestock: an example from pain mitigation interventions in neonatal piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate and complete reporting of study methods, results, and interpretation are essential components of the scientific process, allowing end-users to evaluate the internal and external validity of a study. Several reporting guidelines are now publicly available for animal researchers including the...

  9. Learning while Teaching: A Case Study of Beginning Special Educators Completing a Master of Arts in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCray, Erica D.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author details the findings of a study of completers during their last semester of a Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) program in special education. The purpose of this multiple-case study was to understand how the extent to which the program was implemented, the participants' background and career trajectories, and the…

  10. A Kinematic Study of the Merlin 6500 Robot and the UTAH/MIT Dexterous Hand and a Simulation of their Combined Behavior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    OF THEIR COMBINED BEHAVIOR (UNCLASSIFIED) 12 . PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Ranvir Singh Solanki and Kuldip S. Rattan, Wright State University 13a. TYPE OF... 12 The lathematics of Transformation Operators 13 MANIPULATOR KINEMATICS 16 Joint Description 16 Types of lanipulator Joints 16 Significant...Merlin 6500 Horizontal Plane Workspace 65 12 . The Utah/MIT Dexterous Hand Frame Assignments - Top View 67 13. The Utah/KIT Dexterous land Frame

  11. Space Gravity Spectroscopy - determination of the Earth's gravitational field by means of Newton interpolated LEO ephemeris Case studies on dynamic (CHAMP Rapid Science Orbit) and kinematic orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reubelt, T.; Austen, G.; Grafarend, E. W.

    2003-07-01

    An algorithm for the (kinematic) orbit analysis of a Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) GPS tracked satellite to determine the spherical harmonic coefficients of the terrestrial gravitational field is presented. A contribution to existing long wavelength gravity field models is expected since the kinematic orbit of a LEO satellite can nowadays be determined with very high accuracy in the range of a few centimeters. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method, first results from the analysis of real CHAMP Rapid Science (dynamic) Orbits (RSO) and kinematic orbits are illustrated. In particular, we take advantage of Newton's Law of Motion which balances the acceleration vector and the gradient of the gravitational potential with respect to an Inertial Frame of Reference (IRF). The satellite's acceleration vector is determined by means of the second order functional of Newton's Interpolation Formula from relative satellite ephemeris (baselines) with respect to the IRF. Therefore the satellite ephemeris, which are normally given in a Body fixed Frame of Reference (BRF) have to be transformed into the IRF. Subsequently the Newton interpolated accelerations have to be reduced for disturbing gravitational and non-gravitational accelerations in order to obtain the accelerations caused by the Earth's gravitational field. For a first insight in real data processing these reductions have been neglected. The gradient of the gravitational potential, conventionally expressed in vector-valued spherical harmonics and given in a Body Fixed Frame of Reference, must be transformed from BRF to IRF by means of the polar motion matrix, the precession-nutation matrices and the Greenwich Siderial Time Angle (GAST). The resulting linear system of equations is solved by means of a least squares adjustment in terms of a Gauss-Markov model in order to estimate the spherical harmonics coefficients of the Earth's gravitational field.Key words. space gravity spectroscopy, spherical harmonics

  12. Kinematics in irregular galaxies: NGC 4449.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdez, M.; Rosado, M.

    1998-11-01

    A kinematical analysis of the irregular galaxy NGC 4449 is presented based on the Fabry-Perot interferometer PUMA observations. In NGC 4449 we analyse its global velocity field, HII regions population as well as the SNR population identified on radioastronomy studies. Our first results for NGC 4449 show that the optical velocity field, presents a decreasing gradient in velocity along the optical bar and an anticorrelation with respect to the velocity field of the HI halo.

  13. A4-4: Do Projects Have Complete Data Capture for Their Study Populations?

    PubMed Central

    Bachman, Donald; Hornbrook, Mark; Ritzwoller, Debra; Pardee, Roy; Bauck, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Investigators often assume that when patients are enrolled in a health plan, they have complete capture of utilization data from their health plan sources. This assumption may not always be true as patients have many incentives to choose care at multiple settings (convenience, price, residence, insurance type, drug coverage), which can give rise to missing data. Complete capture of medical data for population-based research is crucial to our ability to identify populations who have not had particular exposures or outcomes. In case-control designs, where the control group does not have a specified exposure, we measure this condition by absence of data. To address this problem, the VDW enrollment work group created a new enrollment variable, called “Outside_utilization”, designed to identify members suspected of incomplete capture of encounters or pharmacy fills. This work reports on a quality assurance analysis of the extent and nature of the data gaps at different sites. Methods For V3, HMORN sites added new VDW variables in their enrollment file including the “Outside_utilization” variable. This variable identifies populations suspected of having incomplete health care utilization capture. Since the reasons for incomplete data capture vary among the sites, the methods for identifying members with incomplete data capture were determined by the local site data managers. The authors distributed a program that computed utilization rates for specific cohorts for “complete” and “incomplete” data capture populations. We also computed rates for those on high deductible plans. We compared differences in these rates by year and site. In addition, we conducted a survey to determine how the incomplete populations were identified for each participating site. Results Some sites clearly identify populations that have incomplete capture of data using the “Outside_utilization” variable. At other sites, the difference in rates is less apparent

  14. Kalman smoothing improves the estimation of joint kinematics and kinetics in marker-based human gait analysis.

    PubMed

    De Groote, F; De Laet, T; Jonkers, I; De Schutter, J

    2008-12-05

    We developed a Kalman smoothing algorithm to improve estimates of joint kinematics from measured marker trajectories during motion analysis. Kalman smoothing estimates are based on complete marker trajectories. This is an improvement over other techniques, such as the global optimisation method (GOM), Kalman filtering, and local marker estimation (LME), where the estimate at each time instant is only based on part of the marker trajectories. We applied GOM, Kalman filtering, LME, and Kalman smoothing to marker trajectories from both simulated and experimental gait motion, to estimate the joint kinematics of a ten segment biomechanical model, with 21 degrees of freedom. Three simulated marker trajectories were studied: without errors, with instrumental errors, and with soft tissue artefacts (STA). Two modelling errors were studied: increased thigh length and hip centre dislocation. We calculated estimation errors from the known joint kinematics in the simulation study. Compared with other techniques, Kalman smoothing reduced the estimation errors for the joint positions, by more than 50% for the simulated marker trajectories without errors and with instrumental errors. Compared with GOM, Kalman smoothing reduced the estimation errors for the joint moments by more than 35%. Compared with Kalman filtering and LME, Kalman smoothing reduced the estimation errors for the joint accelerations by at least 50%. Our simulation results show that the use of Kalman smoothing substantially improves the estimates of joint kinematics and kinetics compared with previously proposed techniques (GOM, Kalman filtering, and LME) for both simulated, with and without modelling errors, and experimentally measured gait motion.

  15. Relationship between Student Progress in College and Successful Completion of English and LERN Classes. Focus Study. AB 1725 Accountability Model Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tronvig, Jill; And Others

    In 1990, a study was conducted at Mt. San Antonio College to examine the relationship between students' successful completion of English and Learning Resources Network (LERN) courses and the completion of other college courses during the same semester. The study population included all students who were enrolled in either English 1A, 68, 67, or…

  16. Design, implementation, and completion of a horizontal tight gas wellbore - case study: Green River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Billingsley, R.L.; Evans, L.W.; Anderson, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    In September, 1993 Amoco Production Company began drilling the Champlin 254B No. 2H, a horizontal well test located near the Wamsutter Arch, southwestem Wyoming. The Champlin 254B No. 2H was designed to confirm a fractured reservoir concept and to test the economic viability of a horizontal wellbore in the Almond fm.. The wellbore was designed to determine real-time, the fracture direction and the optimum horizontal leg direction within the confines of the drilling permit. A deviated pilot hole was drilled to optimize our ability to cross vertical natural fractures. MWD gamma-ray, oriented core, a vertical seismic profile, Formation Microimager, and a robust suite of electric logs were obtained to gain information on the presence and orientation of fractures before kickoff for the horizontal leg. Electromagnetic goniometry was used onsite to orient fractures in core. Log and core data were consistent and a wellbore trajectory of due South was chosen. A two thousand foot horizontal wellbore was drilled, 1700 feet of which is in the upper Almond formation productive zone. MWD gamma-ray, three 30` cores, Formation Microscanner logs, and a density-neutron log were obtained in the horizontal hole. This wellbore was completed open-hole with a stabilized gas rate of 1 mmcfd. In May, 1994 a portion of the original wellbore collapsed and a replacement horizontal leg was drilled. Oil-based mud and rotary BOP`s were utilized to minimize damage and invasion to the reservoir. Reservoir pressures encountered in the redrill indicate that depletion along the original wellbore had begun. The redrill was completed open-hole with a pre-perforated (every third joint) 5 1/2 inches liner and also stabilized at a rate of 1 mmcfd.

  17. Correlation Between University Students' Kinematic Achievement and Learning Styles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çirkinoǧlu, A. G.; Dem&ircidot, N.

    2007-04-01

    In the literature, some researches on kinematics revealed that students have many difficulties in connecting graphs and physics. Also some researches showed that the method used in classroom affects students' further learning. In this study the correlation between university students' kinematics achieve and learning style are investigated. In this purpose Kinematics Achievement Test and Learning Style Inventory were applied to 573 students enrolled in general physics 1 courses at Balikesir University in the fall semester of 2005-2006. Kinematics Test, consists of 12 multiple choose and 6 open ended questions, was developed by researchers to assess students' understanding, interpreting, and drawing graphs. Learning Style Inventory, a 24 items test including visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learning styles, was developed and used by Barsch. The data obtained from in this study were analyzed necessary statistical calculations (T-test, correlation, ANOVA, etc.) by using SPSS statistical program. Based on the research findings, the tentative recommendations are made.

  18. Kinematic determinants of human locomotion.

    PubMed Central

    Borghese, N A; Bianchi, L; Lacquaniti, F

    1996-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to find kinematic patterns that are invariant across the normal range of locomotion speeds. Subjects walked at different, freely chosen speeds ranging from 0.9 to 2.1 m s-1, while motion and ground reaction forces on the right side of the body were recorded in three-dimensional space. 2. The time course of the anatomical angles of flexion-extension at the hip and ankle was variable not only across subjects, but even from trial to trial in the same subject. By contrast, the time course of the changes in the angles of elevation of each limb segment (pelvis, thigh, shank and foot) relative to the vertical was stereotyped across subjects. 3. To compare the waveforms across speeds, data were scaled in time relative to gait cycle duration. The pattern of ground reaction forces was highly speed dependent. Several distinct families of curves could be recognized in the flexion-extension angles at the hip and ankle. Instead, the waveforms of global length and elevation of the limb, elevation angles of all limb segments and flexion-extension at the knee were invariant with speed. 4. When gait trajectories at all speeds are plotted in the position space defined by the elevation angles of the limb segments, they describe regular loops on a plane. The statistical characteristics of these angular covariations were quantified by means of principal component analysis. The first two principal components accounted together for > 99% of the total experimental variance, and were quantitatively comparable in all subjects. 5. This constraint of planar covariation of the elevation angles is closely reminiscent of that previously described for the control of posture. The existence of laws of intersegmental co-ordination, common to the control of posture and locomotion, presumably assures the maintenance of dynamic equilibrium during forward progression, and the anticipatory adaptation to potentially destabilizing factors by means of co-ordinated kinematic

  19. SKIRT: Stellar Kinematics Including Radiative Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baes, Maarten; Dejonghe, Herwig; Davies, Jonathan

    2011-09-01

    SKIRT is a radiative transfer code based on the Monte Carlo technique. The name SKIRT, acronym for Stellar Kinematics Including Radiative Transfer, reflects the original motivation for its creation: it has been developed to study the effects of dust absorption and scattering on the observed kinematics of dusty galaxies. In a second stage, the SKIRT code was extended with a module to self-consistently calculate the dust emission spectrum under the assumption of local thermal equilibrium. This LTE version of SKIRT has been used to model the dust extinction and emission of various types of galaxies, as well as circumstellar discs and clumpy tori around active galactic nuclei. A new, extended version of SKIRT code can perform efficient 3D radiative transfer calculations including a self-consistent calculation of the dust temperature distribution and the associated FIR/submm emission with a full incorporation of the emission of transiently heated grains and PAH molecules.

  20. Effect of Posterior Horn Medial Meniscus Root Tear on In Vivo Knee Kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Chelsea A.; Martin, Daniel E.; Harner, Christopher D.; Tashman, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background: Medial meniscus root tear (MMRT) is a recently recognized yet frequently missed meniscal tear pattern that biomechanically creates an environment approaching meniscal deficiency. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of MMRT on tibiofemoral kinematics and arthrokinematics during daily activities by comparing the injured knees of subjects with isolated MMRT to their uninjured contralateral knees. The hypothesis was that the injured knee will demonstrate significantly more lateral tibial translation and adduction than the uninjured knee, and that the medial compartment will exhibit significantly different arthrokinematics than the lateral compartment in the affected limb. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Seven subjects with isolated MMRT were recruited and volumetric, density-based 3-dimensional models of their distal femurs and proximal tibia were created from computed tomography scans. High-speed, biplane radiographs were obtained of both their affected and unaffected knees. Moving 3-dimensional models of tibiofemoral kinematics were calculated using model-based tracking to assess overall kinematic variables and specific measures of tibiofemoral joint contact. The affected knees of the subjects were then compared to their unaffected contralateral knees. Results: Affected knees demonstrated significantly more lateral tibial translation than the uninjured contralateral limb in all dynamic activities. Additionally, the medial compartment displayed greater amounts of mobility than the lateral compartment in the injured limbs. Conclusion: This study suggests that MMRT causes significant changes in in vivo knee kinematics and arthrokinematics and that the magnitude of these changes is influenced by dynamic task difficulty. Clinical Relevance: Medial meniscus root tears lead to significant changes in joint arthrokinematics, with increased lateral tibial translation and greater medial

  1. Ionized gas kinematics of galaxies in the CALIFA survey. I. Velocity fields, kinematic parameters of the dominant component, and presence of kinematically distinct gaseous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Lorenzo, B.; Márquez, I.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Masegosa, J.; Husemann, B.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Lyubenova, M.; Sánchez, S. F.; Walcher, J.; Mast, D.; García-Benito, R.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; van de Ven, G.; Spekkens, K.; Holmes, L.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; del Olmo, A.; Ziegler, B.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Papaderos, P.; Gomes, J. M.; Marino, R. A.; González Delgado, R. M.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Bekeraitė, S.; Wisotzki, L.; Bomans, D.

    2015-01-01

    Context. Ionized gas kinematics provide important clues to the dynamical structure of galaxies and hold constraints to the processes driving their evolution. Aims: The motivation of this work is to provide an overall characterization of the kinematic behavior of the ionized gas of the galaxies included in the Calar Alto Legacy Integral field Area (CALIFA), offering kinematic clues to potential users of the CALIFA survey for including kinematical criteria in their selection of targets for specific studies. From the first 200 galaxies observed by CALIFA survey in its two configurations, we present the two-dimensional kinematic view of the 177 galaxies satisfaying a gas content/detection threshold. Methods: After removing the stellar contribution, we used the cross-correlation technique to obtain the radial velocity of the dominant gaseous component for each spectrum in the CALIFA data cubes for different emission lines (namely, [O ii] λλ3726,3729, [O iii] λλ4959,5007, Hα+[N ii] λλ6548,6584, and [SII]λλ6716,6730). The main kinematic parameters measured on the plane of the sky were directly derived from the radial velocities with no assumptions on the internal prevailing motions. Evidence of the presence of several gaseous components with different kinematics were detected by using [O iii] λλ4959,5007 emission line profiles. Results: At the velocity resolution of CALIFA, most objects in the sample show regular velocity fields, although the ionized-gas kinematics are rarely consistent with simple coplanar circular motions. Thirty-five percent of the objects present evidence of a displacement between the photometric and kinematic centers larger than the original spaxel radii. Only 17% of the objects in the sample exhibit kinematic lopsidedness when comparing receding and approaching sides of the velocity fields, but most of them are interacting galaxies exhibiting nuclear activity (AGN or LINER). Early-type (E+S0) galaxies in the sample present clear

  2. Kinematic modeling and its implication in longitudinal chemotherapy study of tumor physiology: ovarian xenograft mouse model and contrast-enhanced dynamic CT (Honorable Mention Poster Award)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stantz, Keith M.; Liang, Yun; Hutchins, Gary D.

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that dynamic CT provides the necessary sensitivity to quantify tumor physiology and differences in chemotherapeutic response. A compartmental mouse model utilizing measured contrast-enhanced dynamic CT scans is used to simulate systematic and statistical errors associated with tumor physiology: perfusion, permeability (PS), fractional plasma volume (fp), and fractional interstitial volume. The solute utilized is a small molecular weight radio-opaque contrast agent (isovue). For such an intravascular-interstitial medium, the kinematics simplifies to a two compartmental diffusive dominated set of coupled differential equations. Each combination of physiological parameters is repeatedly simulated fifteen times from which statistical errors calculated. The fractional change relative to the true value (systematic error) and standard deviation (statistical error) are plotted as a function of PS, fp, scanner temporal resolution and noise, and contrast media injection rates. By extrapolating from experimental data found in literature, a relative change in PS and fp of approximately 40% is required. Thus, the longitudinal response of two chemotherapeutic drugs under investigation - proteasome and IMPDH inhibitors - are hypothesized to induce different physiological responses. The first set of simulations varies PS from 0.05 to 0.40 mL/min/mL and fp from 0.01 to 0.07 mL/mL while holding all other physiological parameters constant. Errors in PS remain below 3% while statistical errors for fp increase significantly as the volume decreases toward 1-2%: errors remain less than 6% for fp>0.03 while increasing to above 15% for fp<0.02. The second set of simulations are performed quantifying the relationship between scanner temporal resolution and contrast media injection rate for various tumor permeabilities. For the majority of cases, the errors remain below 5%. As PS approaches perfusion, a total error less than 6% can be maintained

  3. Crafting Appealing Text Messages to Encourage Colorectal Cancer Screening Test Completion: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Shellie D; Denizard-Thompson, Nancy; Kronner, Donna; Miller, David P

    2015-01-01

    Background mHealth interventions that incorporate text messages have great potential to increase receipt of preventive health services such as colorectal cancer screening. However, little is known about older adult perspectives regarding the receipt of text messages from their health care providers. Objective To assess whether older adults would value and access text messages from their physician’s practice regarding colorectal cancer screening. Methods We conducted four focus groups with 26 adults, aged 50 to 75 years, who had either recently completed or were overdue for colorectal cancer screening. A trained moderator followed a semistructured interview guide covering participant knowledge and attitudes regarding colorectal cancer screening, potential barriers to colorectal cancer screening, attitudes about receiving electronic communications from a doctor’s office, and reactions to sample text messages. Results Participant responses to three primary research questions were examined: (1) facilitators and barriers to colorectal cancer screening, (2) attitudes toward receiving text messages from providers, and (3) characteristics of appealing text messages. Two themes related to facilitators of colorectal cancer screening were perceived benefits/need and family experiences and encouragement. Themes related to barriers included unpleasantness, discomfort, knowledge gaps, fear of complications, and system factors. Four themes emerged regarding receipt of text messages from health care providers: (1) comfort and familiarity with technology, (2) privacy concerns/potential for errors, (3) impact on patient-provider relationship, and (4) perceived helpfulness. Many participants expressed initial reluctance to receiving text messages but responded favorably when shown sample messages. Participants preferred messages that contained content that was important to them and were positive and reassuring, personalized, and friendly to novice texters (eg, avoided the use of

  4. Scapula Kinematics of Youth Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Gretchen; Weimar, Wendi

    2015-01-01

    Literature has revealed the importance of quantifying resting scapular posture in overhead athletes as well as quantifying scapular kinematics during dynamic movement. Prior to this project much of the attention in throwing research had been focused on the position of the humerus without description of the positioning of the scapula. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to present scapular kinematics during pitching in youth baseball players. Twenty-five youth baseball players (age 11.3 + 1.0 years; body height 152.4 + 9.0 cm; body mass 47.5 + 11.3 kg), with no history of injury, participated in the study. Scapular kinematics at the events of maximum humeral external rotation (MER) and maximum humeral internal rotation (MIR) during the pitching motion were assessed three-dimensionally while pitching fastballs for strikes. Results revealed that at the event of MER, the scapula was in a position of retraction, upward rotation and a posterior tilt. While at the event of MIR, the scapula was protracted, upward rotated and tilted anteriorly. PMID:26839605

  5. New Kinematical Constraints on Cosmic Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Rapetti, David; Allen, Steve W.; Amin, Mustafa A.; Blandford, Roger; /-KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-05-25

    We present and employ a new kinematical approach to ''dark energy'' studies. We construct models in terms of the dimensionless second and third derivatives of the scale factor a(t) with respect to cosmic time t, namely the present-day value of the deceleration parameter q{sub 0} and the cosmic jerk parameter, j(t). An elegant feature of this parameterization is that all {Lambda}CDM models have j(t)=1 (constant), which facilitates simple tests for departures from the {Lambda}CDM paradigm. Applying our model to redshift-independent distance measurements, from type Ia supernovae and X-ray cluster gas mass fraction measurements, we obtain clear statistical evidence for a late time transition from a decelerating to an accelerating phase. For a flat model with constant jerk, j(t)=j, we measure q{sub 0}=-0.81 {+-} 0.14 and j=2.16 +0.81 -0.75, results that are consistent with {Lambda}CDM at about the 1{sigma} confidence level. In comparison to dynamical analyses, the kinematical approach uses a different model set and employs a minimum of prior information, being independent of any particular gravity theory. The results obtained with this new approach therefore provide important additional information and we argue that both kinematical and dynamical techniques should be employed in future dark energy studies, where possible.

  6. Scapula Kinematics of Youth Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Gretchen; Weimar, Wendi

    2015-12-22

    Literature has revealed the importance of quantifying resting scapular posture in overhead athletes as well as quantifying scapular kinematics during dynamic movement. Prior to this project much of the attention in throwing research had been focused on the position of the humerus without description of the positioning of the scapula. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to present scapular kinematics during pitching in youth baseball players. Twenty-five youth baseball players (age 11.3 + 1.0 years; body height 152.4 + 9.0 cm; body mass 47.5 + 11.3 kg), with no history of injury, participated in the study. Scapular kinematics at the events of maximum humeral external rotation (MER) and maximum humeral internal rotation (MIR) during the pitching motion were assessed three-dimensionally while pitching fastballs for strikes. Results revealed that at the event of MER, the scapula was in a position of retraction, upward rotation and a posterior tilt. While at the event of MIR, the scapula was protracted, upward rotated and tilted anteriorly.

  7. The influence of different footwear on 3-D kinematics and muscle activation during the barbell back squat in males.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Jonathan; McCarthy, Derek; Bentley, Ian; Hurst, Howard Thomas; Atkins, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The barbell back squat is commonly used by athletes participating in resistance training. The barbell squat is typically performed using standard athletic shoes, or specially designed weightlifting footwear, although there are now a large number of athletes who prefer to squat barefoot or in barefoot-inspired footwear. This study aimed to determine how these footwear influence 3-D kinematics and muscle activation potentials during the barbell back squat. Fourteen experienced male participants completed squats at 70% 1 rep max in each footwear condition. 3-D kinematics from the torso, hip, knee and ankle were measured using an eight-camera motion analysis system. In addition, electromyographical (EMG) measurements were obtained from the rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, erector spinae and biceps femoris muscles. EMG parameters and joint kinematics were compared between footwear using repeated-measures analyses of variance. Participants were also asked to subjectively rate which footwear they preferred when performing their squat lifts; this was examined a chi-squared test. The kinematic analysis indicated that, in comparison to barefoot the running shoe was associated with increased squat depth, knee flexion and rectus femoris activation. The chi-squared test was significant and showed that participants preferred to squat barefoot. This study supports anecdotal evidence of athletes who prefer to train barefoot or in barefoot-inspired footwear although no biomechanical evidence was found to support this notion.

  8. Completely-in-the-canal magnet-drive hearing device: a temporal bone study.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, Hossein; Malley, Melinda J D; Paulick, Peyton; Merlo, Mark W; Bachman, Mark; Djalilian, Hamid R

    2013-03-01

    The magnet-drive hearing device (MHD) is a small completely-in-the-canal hearing aid prototype that drives the tympanic membrane (TM) through a magnetic interface. A cadaveric temporal bone was prepared. The MHD was coupled to a nickel-epoxy pellet glued to the umbo. Frequency sweeps between 0.3 and 10 kHz were performed, and the MHD was driven with various levels of current. Displacements of the posterior crus of the stapes were measured using a laser Doppler vibrometer and compared with sound-induced displacements. The MHD had a linear frequency response and low total harmonic distortion. The pellet placement altered the stapes movements; however, the changes were statistically insignificant. Inputs of 100 and 300 mV produced displacements equivalent to those of the natural sound at 70- and 80-dB sound pressure level, respectively. The coupling of this novel device using a magnetic interface to the umbo had a frequency output wider than air conduction devices, and its actuator was effective in driving the TM.

  9. Kinematic dynamo of inertial waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herreman, Wietze; Le Gal, Patrice; Le Dizes, Stephane

    2008-11-01

    Inertial waves are natural oscillatory tridimensional perturbations in rapidly rotating flows. They can be driven to high amplitudes by an external oscillatory forcing such as precession, or by a parametric instability such as in the elliptical instability. Inertial waves were observed in a MHD-flow (Gans, 1971, JFM ; Kelley et al., 2008, GAFD) and could be responsable of dynamo action. For travelling waves, a constructive alpha-effect was identified (Moffatt, 1970, JFM), but it does not apply to confined inertial wave flows. Yet, recent numerical work demonstrated that precession driven MHD flows can sustain magnetic fields (Tilgner, 2005, POF; Wu & Roberts, 2008, GAFD). This motivates us to study more precisely how inertial waves can exhibit dynamo action. Using a numerical code in cylindrical geometry, we find that standing inertial waves can generate a kinematic dynamo. We show that the dynamo-action results from a second order interaction of the diffusive eigenmodes of the magnetic field with the inertial wave. Scaling laws are obtained, which allows us to to apply the results to flows of geophysical interest.

  10. Stereoscopic study of the kinematic evolution of a coronal mass ejection and its driven shock from the sun to the earth and the prediction of their arrival times

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, Phillip; Zhang, Jie

    2014-09-01

    We present a detailed study of the complete evolution of a coronal mass ejection (CME). We have tracked the evolution of both the ejecta and its shock, and further fit the evolution of the fronts to a simple but physics-based analytical model. This study focuses on the CME initiated on the Sun on 2012 July 12 and arriving at the Earth on 2012 July 14. Shock and ejecta fronts were observed by white light images, as well as in situ by the Advanced Composition Explorer satellite. We find that the propagation of the two fronts is not completely dependent upon one another, but can each be modeled in the heliosphere with a drag model that assumes the dominant force of affecting CME evolution to be the aerodynamic drag force of the ambient solar wind. Results indicate that the CME ejecta front undergoes a more rapid deceleration than the shock front within 50 R {sub ☉} and therefore the propagation of the two fronts is not completely coupled in the heliosphere. Using the graduated cylindrical shell model, as well as data from time-elongation stack plots and in situ signatures, we show that the drag model can accurately describe the behavior of each front, but is more effective with the ejecta. We also show that without the in situ data, based on measurements out to 80 R {sub ☉} combined with the general values for drag model parameters, the arrival of both the shock and ejecta can be predicted within four hours of arrival.

  11. The Effect of Advance Directive Completion on Hospital Care Among Chronically Homeless Persons: a Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Leung, Alexander K; To, Matthew J; Luong, Linh; Vahabi, Zahra Syavash; Gonçalves, Victor L; Song, John; Hwang, Stephen W

    2017-02-01

    Advance care planning is relevant for homeless individuals because they experience high rates of morbidity and mortality. The impact of advance directive interventions on hospital care of homeless individuals has not been studied. The objective of this study was to determine if homeless individuals who complete an advance directive through a shelter-based intervention are more likely to have information from their advance directive documented and used during subsequent hospitalizations. The advance directive included preferences for life-sustaining treatments, resuscitation, and substitute decision maker(s). A total of 205 homeless men from a homeless shelter for men in Toronto, Canada, were enrolled in the study and offered an opportunity to complete an advance directive with the guidance of a trained counselor from April to June 2013. One hundred and three participants chose to complete an advance directive, and 102 participants chose to not complete an advance directive. Participants were provided copies of their advance directives. In addition, advance directives were electronically stored, and hospitals within a 1.0-mile radius of the shelter were provided access to the database. A prospective cohort study was performed using chart reviews to ascertain the documentation, availability, and use of advance directives, end-of-life care preferences, and medical treatments during hospitalizations over a 1-year follow-up period (April 2013 to June 2014) after the shelter-based advance directive intervention. Chart reviewers were blinded as to whether participants had completed an advance directive. The primary outcome was documentation or use of an advance directive during any hospitalization. The secondary outcome was documentation of end-of-life care preferences, without reference to an advance directive, during any hospitalization. After unblinding, charts were studied to determine whether advance directives were available, hospital care was consistent with

  12. Demographic and Predeparture Factors Associated with Drinking and Alcohol-Related Consequences for College Students Completing Study Abroad Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Skidmore, Jessica R.; Aresi, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Study abroad students are at risk for increased and problematic drinking behavior. As few efforts have been made to examine this at-risk population, the authors predicted drinking and alcohol-related consequences abroad from predeparture and site-specific factors. Participants: The sample consisted of 339 students completing study…

  13. Examination Phase of the Master's Thesis: A Plausible Cause of Delayed Completion of Graduate Studies at Makerere University, Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oonyu, Joseph C.; Wamala, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of the examination stage of student theses on the completion time of graduate studies at Makerere University, Uganda. The assessment is based on the administrative data of 504 Master's degree students in the 2000 to 2008 enrollment cohorts at the School of Education, Makerere University. The total elapsed time…

  14. Kinematics Under Wind Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    components of the total velocity field, negligible measurement noise, and a completely linear wave field. Yefimov and Khristoforov (1971) have investigated...The directional spreading of the real wave field must also be considered ([82] and [3]). Yefimov and Khristoforov concluded that the spectrum of the...different. As observed by Yefimov and Khristoforov the upper linit of high coherence decreased with increasing depth (Figure 9). The horizontal

  15. Reproducibility of 3D kinematics and surface electromyography measurements of mastication.

    PubMed

    Remijn, Lianne; Groen, Brenda E; Speyer, Renée; van Limbeek, Jacques; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the measurement reproducibility for a procedure evaluating the mastication process and to estimate the smallest detectable differences of 3D kinematic and surface electromyography (sEMG) variables. Kinematics of mandible movements and sEMG activity of the masticatory muscles were obtained over two sessions with four conditions: two food textures (biscuit and bread) of two sizes (small and large). Twelve healthy adults (mean age 29.1 years) completed the study. The second to the fifth chewing cycle of 5 bites were used for analyses. The reproducibility per outcome variable was calculated with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and a Bland-Altman analysis was applied to determine the standard error of measurement relative error of measurement and smallest detectable differences of all variables. ICCs ranged from 0.71 to 0.98 for all outcome variables. The outcome variables consisted of four bite and fourteen chewing cycle variables. The relative standard error of measurement of the bite variables was up to 17.3% for 'time-to-swallow', 'time-to-transport' and 'number of chewing cycles', but ranged from 31.5% to 57.0% for 'change of chewing side'. The relative standard error of measurement ranged from 4.1% to 24.7% for chewing cycle variables and was smaller for kinematic variables than sEMG variables. In general, measurements obtained with 3D kinematics and sEMG are reproducible techniques to assess the mastication process. The duration of the chewing cycle and frequency of chewing were the best reproducible measurements. Change of chewing side could not be reproduced. The published measurement error and smallest detectable differences will aid the interpretation of the results of future clinical studies using the same study variables.

  16. Enhancement of Kinematic Accelerations by Wavenumber Correlation Filtering

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Chang-Ki; Kwon, Jay Hyoun

    2016-01-01

    To obtain kinematic accelerations with high accuracy and reliability, multiple Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers with a single antenna can be used for airborne gravimetry. The data collected from each receiver can be processed for kinematic accelerations that may be combined using simple averaging. Here, however, uncorrelated errors from instrument errors in each receiver also will be included that degrade the final solutions. Therefore, in this study, the wavenumber correlation filter (WCF) is applied to extract only the higher positively correlated wavenumber components of the kinematic accelerations for the enhancement of the final solution. The in situ airborne GPS data from two receivers were wavenumber-correlation-filtered to show about 0.07835 Gal improvement in accuracy relative to the solution from the raw kinematic accelerations. PMID:27608026

  17. The effect of simultaneous motion presentation and graph generation in a kinematics lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beichner, Robert J.

    Real-time microcomputer-based Lab (MBL) experiments allow students to see and, at least in kinematics exercises, feel the connection between a physical event and its graphical representation. In Brasell's (1987) examination of the sonic ranger MBL, a delay of graphing by only 20 seconds diminished the impact of the MBL exercises. This article describes a study where kinesthetic feedback was completely removed by only giving students visual replications of a motion situation. Graph production was synchronized with motion reanimation so that students still saw a moving object and its kinematics graph simultaneously. Results indicate that this technique did not have a substantial educational advantage over traditional instruction. Since Brasell and others have demonstrated the superiority of microcomputer-based labs, this may indicate that visual juxtaposition is not the relevant variable producing the educational impact of real-time MBL. Immediate student control of the physical event and its graphical representation might be what makes MBL effective and, in the case of kinematics laboratories, kinesthetic feedback could be the most important component of the MBL learning experience. Further studies are needed in order to clarify this point.

  18. [Feasibility study on coke wastewater treatment using membrane bioreactor (MBR) system with complete sludge retention].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-Tao; Huang, Xia; Lee, Duu-Jong; He, Miao; Yuan, Yuan

    2009-11-01

    A laboratory-scale submerged anaerobic-anoxic-oxic membrane bioreactor (A1/A2/O-MBR) system was used to treat real coke wastewater and operated continuously for 160 d with complete sludge retention. Pollutants removal performance of the system was investigated through long-term operation. The characteristics of dissolved organic matters (DOMs) in influent and effluent coke wastewater were analyzed using hydrophilic/hydrophobic fractionation, and further discussed based on fluorescence excitation-emission-matrix (EEM). The results showed that A1/A2/O-MBR system could stably remove 88.0% +/- 1.6% of COD, > 99.9% of volatile phenol, 99.4% +/- 0.2% of turbidity, and 98.3% +/- 1.9% of NH4(+) -N, with individual average effluent concentrations of 249 mg/L +/- 44 mg/L, 0.18 mg/L +/- 0.05 mg/L, 1.0 NTU +/- 0.2 NTU and 4.1 mg/L +/- 4.3 mg/L, respectively; moreover, the maximum TN removal rate also reached 74.9%. During the whole operation period, the MLVSS/MLSS appeared to be constant as 90.2% +/- 1.0% and no inorganic matters accumulation occurred. The observed sludge production (MLVSS/COD) decreased with time and stabilized at 0.035 kg/kg. DOMs in coke wastewater were fractionated as hydrophobic acids (HOA), hydrophobic neutrals (HON), hydrophobic bases (HOB) and hydrophilic substances (HIS); HOA was found to be the most abundant constituent in terms of DOC and color intensity both in influent and effluent, which accounted for 70% and 67% of total DOC, and 75% and 76% of total color intensity, respectively. Humic-like substances were suggested to be the major refractory organic and color-causing compounds coke wastewater effluent according to EEM analysis.

  19. Kinematic Diversity in Rorqual Whale Feeding Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cade, David E; Friedlaender, Ari S; Calambokidis, John; Goldbogen, Jeremy A

    2016-10-10

    Rorqual whales exhibit an extreme lunge filter-feeding strategy characterized by acceleration to high speed and engulfment of a large volume of prey-laden water [1-4]. Although tagging studies have quantified the kinematics of lunge feeding, the timing of engulfment relative to body acceleration has been modeled conflictingly because it could never be directly measured [5-7]. The temporal coordination of these processes has a major impact on the hydrodynamics and energetics of this high-cost feeding strategy [5-9]. If engulfment and body acceleration are temporally distinct, the overall cost of this dynamic feeding event would be minimized. However, greater temporal overlap of these two phases would theoretically result in higher drag and greater energetic costs. To address this discrepancy, we used animal-borne synchronized video and 3D movement sensors to quantify the kinematics of both the skull and body during feeding events. Krill-feeding blue and humpback whales exhibited temporally distinct acceleration and engulfment phases, with humpback whales reaching maximum gape earlier than blue whales. In these whales, engulfment coincided largely with body deceleration; however, humpback whales pursuing more agile fish demonstrated highly variable coordination of skull and body kinematics in the context of complex prey-herding techniques. These data suggest that rorquals modulate the coordination of acceleration and engulfment to optimize foraging efficiency by minimizing locomotor costs and maximizing prey capture. Moreover, this newfound kinematic diversity observed among rorquals indicates that the energetic efficiency of foraging is driven both by the whale's engulfment capacity and the comparative locomotor capabilities of predator and prey. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  20. ABSTRACTS OF RESEARCH STUDIES IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION COMPLETED IN 1965-66 IN THE PACIFIC REGION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LOREEN, C.O.

    THIRTY STAFF STUDIES AND MASTERS' THESES IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION ARE REPORTED IN THE FOLLOWING AREAS -- AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY, CURRICULUM, EDUCATIONAL NEEDS, FARM LABORERS, GRADUATE FOLLOWUP, INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION, OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATIONS, PROGRAM EVALUATION, AND STUDENT ACTIVITIES. THE PURPOSE, METHOD, AND FINDINGS OF EACH STUDY ARE…

  1. Kinematics of KPG 390

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repetto, P.; Rosado, M.; Gabbasov, R.; Fuentes-Carrera, I.

    2010-06-01

    In this work we present scanning Fabry-Perot Hα observations of the isolated interacting galaxy pair NGC 5278/9 obtained with the PUMA Fabry-Perot interferometer. We derived velocity fields, various kinematic parameters and rotation curves for both galaxies. Our kinematical results together with the fact that dust lanes have been detected in both galaxies, as well as the analysis of surface brightness profiles along the minor axis, allowed us to determine that both components of the interacting pair are trailing spirals.

  2. Gender differences in capitate kinematics are eliminated after accounting for variation in carpal size.

    PubMed

    Rainbow, Michael J; Crisco, Joseph J; Moore, Douglas C; Wolfe, Scott W

    2008-08-01

    Previous studies have found gender differences in carpal kinematics, and there are discrepancies in the literature on the location of the flexionextension and radio-ulnar deviation rotation axes of the wrist. It has been postulated that these differences are due to carpal bone size differences rather than gender and that they may be resolved by normalizing the kinematics by carpal size. The purpose of this study was to determine if differences in radio-capitate kinematics are a function of size or gender. We also sought to determine if a best-fit pivot point (PvP) describes the radio-capitate joint as a ball-and-socket articulation. By using an in vivo markerless bone registration technique applied to computed tomography scans of 26 male and 28 female wrists, we applied scaling derived from capitate length to radio-capitate kinematics, characterized by a best-fit PvP. We determined if radio-capitate kinematics behave as a ball-and-socket articulation by examining the error in the best-fit PvP. Scaling PvP location completely removed gender differences (P=0.3). This verifies that differences in radio-capitate kinematics are due to size and not gender. The radio-capitate joint did not behave as a perfect ball and socket because helical axes representing anatomical motions such as flexion-extension, radio-ulnar deviation, dart throwers, and antidart throwers, were located at distances up to 4.5 mm from the PvP. Although the best-fit PvP did not yield a single center of rotation, it was still consistently found within the proximal pole of the capitate, and rms errors of the best-fit PvP calculation were on the order of 2 mm. Therefore, the ball-and-socket model of the wrist joint center using the best-fit PvP is appropriate when considering gross motion of the hand with respect to the forearm such as in optical motion capture models. However, the ball-and-socket model of the wrist is an insufficient description of the complex motion of the capitate with respect to the

  3. Kinematic analysis of platform-type robotic manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaolun

    New methods are developed for the kinematic analysis of serial and platform-type parallel robotic manipulators, including forward and inverse kinematic solutions, singularity identifications and workspace evaluation. Differences between serial and platform-type parallel manipulators, which can provide substantially improved end-point rigidity compared with the conventional serial robotic arms, are addressed. The problem of determining the screw parameters of rigid body motion from initial and final position data is discussed, as a basis to search for a general and efficient procedure to solve the complex forward kinematics problem of platform-type manipulators. Several Screw-Theory based approaches for solving the inverse instantaneous problem of 6 DOF serial manipulators are studied and compared in terms of their computational efficiency, accuracy, sensitivity to data error and capability of dealing with singularities. A modified Vector Decomposition method is then proposed for solving the IIK problem and for singularity analysis of serial kinematic chains, the method is especially effective when applied to the wrist partitioned serial manipulators, which are essential components to any platform-type parallel manipulators. By using the data of three point positions, velocities, and accelerations of the end effector a general method is developed for solving the forward kinematics problem, including position, velocity and acceleration kinematics, of platform-type manipulators. The solution procedure can be applied to a wide variety of platform-type manipulators such as the 6 DOF Steward Platform manipulator and other models. It is found that while the solution for the forward position kinematics of a platform-type manipulator can be obtained by solving a non-linear system of equations, the closed-form solutions for forward rate and acceleration kinematics can be found by solving a system of linear equations. Based on the proposed kinematic formulations, an algorithm

  4. Friction Stir Welding at MSFC: Kinematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    In 1991 The Welding Institute of the United Kingdom patented the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process. In FSW a rotating pin-tool is inserted into a weld seam and literally stirs the faying surfaces together as it moves up the seam. By April 2000 the American Welding Society International Welding and Fabricating Exposition featured several exhibits of commercial FSW processes and the 81st Annual Convention devoted a technical session to the process. The FSW process is of interest to Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as a means of avoiding hot-cracking problems presented by the 2195 aluminum-lithium alloy, which is the primary constituent of the Lightweight Space Shuttle External Tank. The process has been under development at MSFC for External Tank applications since the early 1990's. Early development of the FSW process proceeded by cut-and-try empirical methods. A substantial and complex body of data resulted. A theoretical model was wanted to deal with the complexity and reduce the data to concepts serviceable for process diagnostics, optimization, parameter selection, etc. A first step in understanding the FSW process is to determine the kinematics, i.e., the flow field in the metal in the vicinity of the pin-tool. Given the kinematics, the dynamics, i.e., the forces, can be targeted. Given a completed model of the FSW process, attempts at rational design of tools and selection of process parameters can be made.

  5. A Charge Separation Study to Enable the Design of a Complete Muon Cooling Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, C.; Ankenbrandt, Charles M.; Johnson, Rolland P.; Derbenev, Yaroslav; Morozov, Vasiliy; Neuffer, David; Yonehara, K.

    2013-12-01

    The most promising designs for 6D muon cooling channels operate on a specific sign of electric charge. In particular, the Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) and Rectilinear RFOFO designs are the leading candidates to become the baseline 6D cooling channel in the Muon Accelerator Program (MAP). Time constraints prevented the design of a realistic charge separator, so a simplified study was performed to emulate the effects of charge separation on muons exiting the front end of a muon collider. The output of the study provides particle distributions that the competing designs will use as input into their cooling channels. We report here on the study of the charge separator that created the simulated particles.

  6. Kinematic and EMG activities during front and back squat variations in maximum loads.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Hasan Ulas; Erdağ, Deniz; Amca, Arif Mithat; Aritan, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the musculature activity and kinematics of knee and hip joints during front and back squat with maximal loading. Two-dimensional kinematical data were collected and electromyographic activities of vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, semitendinosus, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus and erector spinae were measured while participants (n = 12, 21.2 ± 1.9 years old) were completing front and back squat exercises with maximum loading. Paired sample t-test was used for comparisons between two techniques. Results showed that the electromyographic activity of vastus medialis was found to be greater in the front squat compared to the back squat during the ascending phase (P < 0.05, d = 0.62; 95% CI, -15.0/-4.17) and the whole manoeuvre (P < 0.05, d = 0.41; 95% CI, -12.8/-0.43), while semitendinosus (P < 0.05, d = -0.79; 95% CI, 0.62/20.59) electromyographic activity was greater in the back squat during the ascending phase. Compared to the front squat version, back squat exhibited significantly greater trunk lean, with no differences occurring in the knee joint kinematics throughout the movement. Results may suggest that the front squat may be preferred to the back squat for knee extensor development and for preventing possible lumbar injuries during maximum loading.

  7. Complete study of the pyrolysis and gasification of scrap tires in a pilot plant reactor.

    PubMed

    Conesa, Juan A; Martín-Gullón, I; Font, R; Jauhiainen, J

    2004-06-01

    The pyrolysis and gasification of tires was studied in a pilot plant reactor provided with a system for condensation of semivolatile matter. The study comprises experiments at 450, 750, and 1000 degrees C both in nitrogen and 10% oxygen atmospheres. Analysis of all the products obtained (gases, liquids, char, and soot) are presented. In the gas phase only methane and benzene yields increase with temperature until 1000 degrees C. In the liquids the main components are styrene, limonene, and isoprene. The solid fraction (including soot) increases with temperature. Zinc content of the char decreases with increasing temperature.

  8. Servant-Leader Development in an Adult Accelerated Degree Completion Program: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Angela R.

    2009-01-01

    Although many private Christian liberal arts programs exist today that seek to foster servant-leader (SL) development within their students, there is a void of both literature and data that details how servant-leadership development occurs and what contexts may be appropriate or necessary for this development. The purpose of this study was to…

  9. Academic Year Abroad, 1998/99. The Most Complete Guide to Planning Academic Year Study Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Sara J., Ed.

    This guide provides descriptions of 2,491 study-abroad programs that take place during the academic year (usually September through June), and that are at least one academic quarter in length (usually 8 to 10 weeks). Introductory sections provide information on the Institute of International Education (IIE), IIE publications, the use of the guide,…

  10. Completing PhDs: The Perils and Enduring Promise of Deep Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Jon

    2009-01-01

    What is a PhD? People answer this question too often by succumbing to the bureaucratic lure. They describe formal processes, "outcomes", time to degree, funding, training in teaching--indeed, almost everything except central intellectual attraction and personal focus of the PhD enterprise: deep study. Certainly in United States PhD programs, the…

  11. Kinematic Chains in Ski Jumping In-run Posture.

    PubMed

    Janurová, Eva; Janura, Miroslav; Cabell, Lee; Svoboda, Zdeněk; Vařeka, Ivan; Elfmark, Milan

    2013-12-18

    The concept of kinematic chains has been systematically applied to biological systems since the 1950s. The course of a ski jump can be characterized as a change between closed and open kinematic chains. The purpose of this study was to determine a relationship between adjacent segments within the ski jumper's body's kinematic chain during the in-run phase of the ski jump. The in-run positions of 267 elite male ski jumpers who participated in the FIS World Cup events in Innsbruck, Austria, between 1992 and 2001 were analyzed (656 jumps). Two-dimensional (2-D) kinematic data were collected from the bodies of the subjects. Relationships between adjacent segments of the kinematic chain in the ski jumper's body at the in-run position are greater nearer the chain's ground contact. The coefficient of determination between the ankle and knee joint angles is 0.67. Changes in the segments' positions in the kinematic chain of the ski jumper's body are stable during longitudinal assessment. Changes in shank and thigh positions, in the sense of increase or decrease, are the same.

  12. L5 – S1 Segmental Kinematics After Facet Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Voronov, Leonard I.; Havey, Robert M.; Rosler, David M.; Sjovold, Simon G.; Rogers, Susan L.; Carandang, Gerard; Ochoa, Jorge A.; Yuan, Hansen; Webb, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Background Facet arthroplasty is a motion restoring procedure. It is normally suggested as an alternative to rigid fixation after destabilizing decompression procedures in the posterior lumbar spine. While previous studies have reported successful results in reproducing normal spine kinematics after facet replacement at L4-5 and L3-4, there are no data on the viability of facet replacement at the lumbosacral joint. The anatomy of posterior elements and the resulting kinematics at L5-S1 are distinctly different from those at superior levels, making the task of facet replacement at the lumbosacral level challenging. This study evaluated the kinematics of facet replacement at L5-S1. Methods Six human cadaveric lumbar spines (L1-S1, 46.7 ± 13.0 years) were tested in the following sequence: (1) intact (L1-S1), (2) complete laminectomy and bilateral facetectomy at L5-S1, and (3) implantation of TFAS-LS (Lumbosacral Total Facet Arthroplasty System, Archus Orthopedics, Redmond, Washington) at L5-S1 using pedicle screws. Specimens were tested in flexion (8Nm), extension (6Nm), lateral bending (LB, ± 6Nm), and axial rotation (AR, ± 5Nm). The level of significance was α = .017 after Bonferroni correction for three comparisons: (1) intact vs. destabilized, (2) destabilized vs. reconstructed, and (3) intact vs. reconstructed. Results Laminectomy-facetectomy at L5-S1 increased the L5-S1 angular range of motion (ROM) in all directions. Flexion-extension (F-E) ROM increased from 15.3 ± 2.9 to 18.7 ± 3.5 degrees (P < .017), LB from 8.2 ± 1.8 to 9.3 ± 1.6 degrees (P < .017), and AR from 3.7 ± 2.0 to 5.9 ± 1.8 degrees (P < .017). The facet arthroplasty system decreased ROM compared to the laminectomy-facetectomy condition in all tested directions (P < .017). The facet arthroplasty system restored the L5-S1 ROM to its intact levels in LB and AR (P > .017). F-E ROM after the facet arthroplasty system implantation was smaller than the intact value (10.1 ± 2.2 vs. 15.3 ± 2

  13. XMM-Subaru:Complete High Precision Study of Galaxy Clusters for Modern Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-Ying

    2010-10-01

    Our XMM-Subaru study of 12 clusters confirms that Mgas is a low scatter mass proxy, but the slopes of the mass-observable relations deviate from self-similar predictions, dependent on cluster dynamics. We propose to calibrate biases in the mass proxies based on 3 independent probes (Xray/lensing/velocity dispersion) for a volume-limited sample of 52 luminous clusters, and to investigate the origin of the biases by adding a sample of 15 lower-Lx clusters. We will deliver definitive constraints on systematics for upcoming cluster cosmology surveys. The dataset will be a major asset for programs aiming to measure dark energy as well as programs adding a multi-wavelength focus to studies of cluster physics. High-quality X-ray data exist for 47 clusters, we request 650ks for the remaining 20.

  14. Prognosis of complete versus incomplete revascularisation of patients with STEMI with multivessel coronary artery disease: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Dimitriu-Leen, Aukelien C; Hermans, Maaike P J; Veltman, Caroline E; van der Hoeven, Bas L; van Rosendael, Alexander R; van Zwet, Erik W; Schalij, Martin J; Delgado, Victoria; Bax, Jeroen J; Scholte, Arthur J H A

    2017-01-01

    Objective The best strategy in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) with multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD) regarding completeness of revascularisation of the non-culprit lesion(s) is still unclear. To establish which strategy should be followed, survival rates over a longer period should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether complete revascularisation, compared with incomplete revascularisation, is associated with reduced short-term and long-term all-cause mortality in patients with first STEMI and multivessel CAD. Methods This retrospective study consisted of 518 patients with first STEMI with multivessel CAD. Complete revascularisation (45%) was defined as the treatment of any significant coronary artery stenosis (≥70% luminal narrowing) during primary or staged percutaneous coronary intervention prior to discharge. The primary end point was all-cause mortality. Results Incomplete revascularisation was not independently associated with 30-day all-cause mortality in patients with acute first STEMI and multivessel CAD (OR 1.98; 95% CI 0.62to6.37; p=0.25). During a median long-term follow-up of 6.7 years, patients with STEMI with multivessel CAD and incomplete revascularisation showed higher mortality rates compared with patients who received complete revascularisation (24% vs 12%, p<0.001), and these differences remained after excluding the first 30 days. However, in multivariate analysis, incomplete revascularisation was not independently associated with increased all-cause mortality during long-term follow-up in the group of patients with STEMI who survived the first 30 days post-STEMI (HR 1.53 95% CI 0.89-2.61, p=0.12). Conclusion In patients with acute first STEMI and multivessel CAD, incomplete revascularisation compared with complete revascularisation was not independently associated with increased short-term and long-term all-cause mortality.

  15. Multifrequency EPR Studies of Manganese Catalases Provide a Complete Description of Proteinaceous Nitrogen Coordination

    PubMed Central

    Stich, Troy A.; Whittaker, James W.; Britt, R. David

    2012-01-01

    Pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is employed at two very different excitation frequencies, 9.77 and 30.67 GHz, in the study of the nitrogen coordination environment of the Mn(III)Mn(IV) state of the dimanganese-containing catalases from Lactobacillus plantarum and Thermus thermophilus. Consistent with previous studies, the lower-frequency results reveal one unique histidine nitrogen-Mn cluster interaction. For the first time, a second, more strongly hyperfine-coupled 14N atom is unambiguously observed through the use of higher frequency/higher field EPR spectroscopy. The low excitation frequency spectral features are rationalized as arising from the interaction of a histidine nitrogen that is bound to the Mn(IV) ion, while the higher excitation frequency features are attributed to the histidine nitrogen bound to the Mn(III) ion. These results allow for the computation of intrinsic hyperfine coupling constants, which range from 2.2 to 2.9 MHz, for sp2-hybridized nitrogens coordinating equatorially to high-valent Mn ions. The relevance of these findings is discussed in the context of recent results from analogous higher frequency EPR studies of the Mn cluster in photosystem II and other exchange-coupled transition metal-containing systems. PMID:20055466

  16. Adverse Outcome Pathways for Regulatory Applications: Examination of Four Case Studies With Different Degrees of Completeness and Scientific Confidence.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Edward J; Antczak, Philipp; Burgoon, Lyle; Falciani, Francesco; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Gutsell, Steve; Hodges, Geoff; Kienzler, Aude; Knapen, Dries; McBride, Mary; Willett, Catherine

    2015-11-01

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) offer a pathway-based toxicological framework to support hazard assessment and regulatory decision-making. However, little has been discussed about the scientific confidence needed, or how complete a pathway should be, before use in a specific regulatory application. Here we review four case studies to explore the degree of scientific confidence and extent of completeness (in terms of causal events) that is required for an AOP to be useful for a specific purpose in a regulatory application: (i) Membrane disruption (Narcosis) leading to respiratory failure (low confidence), (ii) Hepatocellular proliferation leading to cancer (partial pathway, moderate confidence), (iii) Covalent binding to proteins leading to skin sensitization (high confidence), and (iv) Aromatase inhibition leading to reproductive dysfunction in fish (high confidence). Partially complete AOPs with unknown molecular initiating events, such as 'Hepatocellular proliferation leading to cancer', were found to be valuable. We demonstrate that scientific confidence in these pathways can be increased though the use of unconventional information (eg, computational identification of potential initiators). AOPs at all levels of confidence can contribute to specific uses. A significant statistical or quantitative relationship between events and/or the adverse outcome relationships is a common characteristic of AOPs, both incomplete and complete, that have specific regulatory uses. For AOPs to be useful in a regulatory context they must be at least as useful as the tools that regulators currently possess, or the techniques currently employed by regulators.

  17. Multivariate modelling to study the effect of the manufacturing process on the complete tablet dissolution profile.

    PubMed

    Dumarey, Melanie; Goodwin, Daniel J; Davison, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Dissolution is invariably identified as a critical quality attribute for oral solid dosage forms, since it is related to when a drug is available for absorption and ultimately exert its effect. In this paper, the influence of granule and compression variability introduced by a design of experiments on the entire dissolution profile was studied with an innovative multivariate tool: bi-directional projections to orthogonal structures (O2PLS). This method enabled a more holistic process understanding compared to conventional approaches where only a single response is used to quantify dissolution. The O2PLS analysis of tablet manufacturing data showed that the disintegration phase of dissolution (10-15 min) was controlled by granule attributes and tablet hardness, while the later phase (15-30 min) was solely controlled by granule attributes. The bidirectional nature of the O2PLS model made it more fit for exploratory purposes, but decreased predictive ability. This approach does not require prior knowledge on the dissolution mechanism and is therefore particularly suited for exploratory studies gaining process understanding during early phase development. The outcome can then guide the selection of attributes, parameters and their ranges for the development of predictive models, e.g., models to define a suitable design space for the process.

  18. Complete Genome and Plasmid Sequences of Staphylococcus aureus EDCC 5055 (DSM 28763), Used To Study Implant-Associated Infections

    PubMed Central

    Mannala, Gopala Krishna; Hain, Torsten; Spröer, Cathrin; Bunk, Boyke; Overmann, Jörg; Alt, Volker

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus EDCC 5055 (DSM 28763) is a human clinical wound isolate intensively used to study implant-associated infections in rabbit and rat infection models. Here, we report its complete genome sequence (2,794,437 bp) along with that of one plasmid (27,437 bp). This strain belongs to sequence type 8 and contains a mecA gene. PMID:28232428

  19. Tilted Implants for Full-Arch Rehabilitations in Completely Edentulous Maxilla: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Cavalli, Nicolò; Barbaro, Bruno; Spasari, Davide; Azzola, Francesco; Ciatti, Alberto; Francetti, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The aims of this study were to assess the treatment outcome of immediately loaded full-arch fixed bridges anchored to both tilted and axially placed implants in the edentulous maxilla and to evaluate the incidence of biological and prosthetic complications. Materials and Methods. Thirty-four patients (18 women and 16 men) were included in the study. Each patient received a maxillary full-arch fixed bridge supported by two axial implants and two distal tilted implants. A total of 136 implants were inserted. Loading was applied within 48 hours of surgery and definitive restorations were placed 4 to 6 months later. Patients were scheduled for followup at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months and annually up to 5 years. At each followup plaque level and bleeding scores were assessed and every complication was recorded. Results. The overall follow-up range was 12 to 73 months (mean 38.8 months). No implant failures were recorded to date, leading to a cumulative implant survival rate of 100%. Biological complications were recorded such as alveolar mucositis (11.8% patients), peri-implantitis (5.9% patients), and temporomandibular joint pain (5.9% patients). The most common prosthetic complications were the fracture or detachment of one or multiple acrylic teeth in both the temporary (20.6% patients) and definitive (17.7% patients) prosthesis and the minor acrylic fractures in the temporary (14.7% patients) and definitive (2.9% patients) prosthesis. Hygienic complications occurred in 38.2% patients. No patients' dissatisfactions were recorded. Conclusions. The high cumulative implant survival rate indicates that this technique could be considered a viable treatment option. An effective recall program is important to early intercept and correct prosthetic and biologic complications in order to avoid implant and prosthetic failures. PMID:23133453

  20. Power spectrum density analysis for the influence of complete denture on the brain function of edentulous patients - pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Perumal, Praveen; Anitha, Kuttae Viswanathan; Reddy, Jetti Ramesh; Muthukumar, Balasubramanium

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This pilot study was to find the influence of complete denture on the brain activity and cognitive function of edentulous patients measured through Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study recruited 20 patients aged from 50 to 60 years requiring complete dentures with inclusion and exclusion criteria. The brain function and cognitive function were analyzed with a mental state questionnaire and a 15-minute analysis of power spectral density of EEG alpha waves. The analysis included edentulous phase and post denture insertion adaptive phase, each done before and after chewing. The results obtained were statistically evaluated. RESULTS Power Spectral Density (PSD) values increased from edentulous phase to post denture insertion adaption phase. The data were grouped as edentulous phase before chewing (EEG p1-0.0064), edentulous phase after chewing (EEG p2-0.0073), post denture insertion adaptive phase before chewing (EEG p3-0.0077), and post denture insertion adaptive phase after chewing (EEG p4-0.0096). The acquired values were statistically analyzed using paired t-test, which showed statistically significant results (P<.05). CONCLUSION This pilot study showed functional improvement in brain function of edentulous patients with complete dentures rehabilitation. PMID:27350852

  1. Effect of Occlusal Scheme on the Pressure Distribution of Complete Denture Supporting Tissues: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Madalli, Poornima; Murali, C R; Subhas, Sambit; Garg, Surbhi; Shahi, Prinka; Parasher, Pragati

    2015-01-01

    Background: The complete denture teeth arrangement that gives maximum denture stability, comfort, esthetics, and function have been studied since several years. Many occlusal schemes have been advised in which the lingualized occlusion, balanced occlusion, and monoplane occlusion are advocated most popularly. The purpose of this study was to compare the pressure values on the supporting tissue using three diff erent posterior occlusal schemes: Balanced occlusion, lingualized occlusion, and monoplane occlusion in simulated dentures Materials and Methods: The simulators used in this study, composed of the maxillary, and mandibular clear heat cure acrylic resin edentulous models. Pressures on the supporting structure under the complete denture were measured using eight strain gauges placed on the model surface on the buccal and lingual slopes of the ridges on the molar and pre-molar region. Pressure on the supporting structure was measured and signals from the sensors were amplifi ed and recorded by the multi-channel electronic strain indicator. Results: The mean pressure which was obtained at each measurement point was compared by one-way ANOVA test. Conclusion: Overall monoplane occlusion had lesser pressure values compared to completely balanced and lingualized occlusal scheme. Lingualized occlusal scheme was found to transfer stresses from working side to non-working side to stabilize the mandibular denture. PMID:26668486

  2. Experimental study on flame pattern formation and combustion completeness in a radial microchannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Aiwu; Minaev, Sergey; Kumar, Sudarshan; Liu, Wei; Maruta, Kaoru

    2007-12-01

    Combustion behavior in a radial microchannel with a gap of 2.0 mm and a diameter of 50 mm was experimentally investigated. In order to simulate the heat recirculation, which is an essential strategy in microscale combustion devices, positive temperature gradients along the radial flow direction were given to the microchannel by an external heat source. A methane-air mixture was supplied from the center of the top plate through a 4.0 mm diameter delivery tube. A variety of flame patterns, including a stable circular flame and several unstable flame patterns termed unstable circular flame, single and double pelton-like flames, traveling flame and triple flame, were observed in the experiments. The regime diagram of all these flame patterns is presented in this paper. Some characteristics of the various flame patterns, such as the radii of stable and unstable circular flames, major combustion products and combustion efficiencies of all these flame patterns, were also investigated. Furthermore, the effect of the heat recirculation on combustion stability was studied by changing the wall temperature levels.

  3. Unemployment as a risk factor for completed suicide: a psychological autopsy study.

    PubMed

    Pompili, Maurizio; Innamorati, Marco; Di Vittorio, Cristina; Baratta, Stefano; Masotti, Vittoria; Badaracco, Annalisa; Wong, Paul; Lester, David; Yip, Paul; Girardi, Paolo; Amore, Mario

    2014-01-01

    This study adopts a psychological autopsy method to compare (1) unemployed suicides, (2) other suicides who were either employed or not in the labor force, and (3) psychiatric outpatients without any prior suicidal behavior. A total of 245 consecutive suicides from Province of Parma (Italy) with recorded employment status were included in the analysis. The control group included 41 psychiatric outpatients aged 18 to 64 years, who had not engaged in any previous suicidal act, and who were unemployed. The unemployed suicides had a risk 17 times higher to have had financial problems in the last 12 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0/149.5; p < 0.01) than other suicides. Unemployed suicides (compared to living unemployed controls) were 10 times more likely to have had poor social support (95% CI: 1.7/56.1; p < 0.01), 16 times more likely to have had any stressful life events in the past 12 months (95% CI: 2.5/103.9; p < 0.01), and 22 times more likely to have a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (95% CI: 2.4/203.2; p < 0.01). New suicide prevention strategies for those who are facing job loss need to focus on social support and personality disorders, as well as hopelessness and despair.

  4. Rigid Coumarins: a Complete DFT, TD-DFT and Non Linear Optical Property Study.

    PubMed

    Lanke, Sandip K; Sekar, Nagaiyan

    2015-09-01

    The electronic structures and photophysical properties of rigid coumarin dyes have been studied by using quantum chemical methods. The ground-state geometries of these dyes were optimized using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods. The lowest singlet excited state was optimized using Time -Dependent Density Functional Theory [TD-B3LYP/6-31G(d)]. On the basis of ground- and excited-state geometries, the absorption and emission spectra have been calculated using the DFT and TD-DFT method. All the calculations were carried out in gas phase and in acetonitrile medium. The results show that the absorption maxima and fluorescence emission maxima calculated using the Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory is in good agreement with the available experimental results. To understand the Non- Linear Optical properties of coumarin dyes we computed dipole moment (μ), electronic polarizability (α), mean first hyperpolarizability (βo) and second hyperpolarizability (γ) using B3LYP density functional theory method in conjunction with 6-31G(d) basis set.

  5. Using Plan-Do-Study-Act Cycle to Enhance Completeness of Suicide Firearm Reporting.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yongwen; Young, Shannon; Foss, Karen; Angeloni, Magaly; Norcini, Erica; Viner-Brown, Samara

    2017-02-01

    The Rhode Island Violent Death Reporting System (RIVDRS) collects comprehensive surveillance data on violent deaths to support violence prevention programs in Rhode Island and nationwide. Successful collection of firearm information is critical to understanding gun violence in public health. A recent quality improvement (QI) project was performed to improve gun information collection in the RIVDRS program. Our aim was to increase the presence of firearm model information for 2014 suicides from 50% to 80% by December 31, 2015. We used the 2014 RIVDRS data and the Plan-Do-Study-Act cycle for this project. Our efforts achieved a 50% increase in the number of firearm model reporting. If we work more closely with police departments, they may understand the data importance, and be more likely to include the firearm information in their reports. We describe this process and provide lessons learned that can be generalizable to other states' violent death reporting system. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2017-02.asp].

  6. A theoretical study on the complete dehydrogenation of methanol on Pd (100) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhao; Wang, Bin; Fang, Tao

    2016-02-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) method was employed to investigate the adsorption and decomposition mechanisms of CH3OH on Pd (100) surface. Different kinds of possible adsorption modes of relevant intermediates on the surface were identified. It was found that CH3OH and CH2OH prefers to adsorb on the top site, CH3O, CHOH and CO occupy preferentially on the bridge site, while CH2O, CHO, COH and H species adsorb on the hollow site. The adsorption energies of all species exhibit the following trend: CH3OH < CH2O < CH3O < CO < CH2OH < H < CHO < CHOH < COH. Subsequently, four possible dissociation pathways of CH3OH via initial Osbnd H and Csbnd H bond scissions were proposed and studied systematically. The transition states, energy barriers and reaction energies were calculated to explore the dehydrogenation mechanisms of CH3OH on Pd (100) surface. It was indicated that the scission of Csbnd H bond is more favorable for CH3OH and CH2OH and the Hsbnd O bond cleavage is easier for CHOH. The path 2 (CH3OHsbnd CH2OHsbnd CHOHsbnd CHOsbnd CO) is the most possible dehydrogenation pathway, where the highest energy barrier of CH3OH dissociation makes it to be the rate-determining step of the whole dehydrogenation reaction.

  7. Kinematic analysis of the ARID manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, Keith L

    1992-01-01

    The kinematic structure of the ARID manipulator lends itself to simple forward and inverse kinematics analysis. The purpose of this paper is to fully document and verify an existing analysis. The symbolic software package MATHEMATICA was used to produce and verify the equations presented here. In the analysis to follow, the standard Devenit-Hartenberg kinematic parameters of the ARID were employed.

  8. Do dynamic-based MR knee kinematics methods produce the same results as static methods?

    PubMed

    d'Entremont, Agnes G; Nordmeyer-Massner, Jurek A; Bos, Clemens; Wilson, David R; Pruessmann, Klaas P

    2013-06-01

    MR-based methods provide low risk, noninvasive assessment of joint kinematics; however, these methods often use static positions or require many identical cycles of movement. The study objective was to compare the 3D kinematic results approximated from a series of sequential static poses of the knee with the 3D kinematic results obtained from continuous dynamic movement of the knee. To accomplish this objective, we compared kinematic data from a validated static MR method to a fast static MR method, and compared kinematic data from both static methods to a newly developed dynamic MR method. Ten normal volunteers were imaged using the three kinematic methods (dynamic, static standard, and static fast). Results showed that the two sets of static results were in agreement, indicating that the sequences (standard and fast) may be used interchangeably. Dynamic kinematic results were significantly different from both static results in eight of 11 kinematic parameters: patellar flexion, patellar tilt, patellar proximal translation, patellar lateral translation, patellar anterior translation, tibial abduction, tibial internal rotation, and tibial anterior translation. Three-dimensional MR kinematics measured from dynamic knee motion are often different from those measured in a static knee at several positions, indicating that dynamic-based kinematics provides information that is not obtainable from static scans.

  9. Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase: Complete human gene sequence and molecular study of three families with hepatoerythropoietic porphyria

    SciTech Connect

    Moran-Jimenez, M.J.; Ged, C.; Verneuil, H. de

    1996-04-01

    A deficiency in uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD) enzyme activity, the fifth enzyme of the heme biosynthetic pathway, is found in patients with sporadic porphyria cutanea tarda (s-PCT), familial porphyria cutanea tarda (f-PCT), and hepatoerythropoietic porphyria (HEP). Subnormal UROD activity is due to mutations of the UROD gene in both f-PCT and HEP, but no mutations have been found in s-PCT. Genetic analysis has determined that f-PCT is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. In contrast, HEP, a severe form of cutaneous porphyria, is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. HEP is characterized by a profound deficiency of UROD activity, and the disease is usually manifest in childhood. In this study, a strategy was designed to identify alleles responsible for the HEP phenotype in three unrelated families. Mutations of UROD were identified by direct sequencing of four amplified fragments that contained the entire coding sequence of the UROD gene. Two new missense mutations were observed at the homoallelic state: P62L (proline-to-leucine substitution at codon 62) in a Portuguese family and Y311C (tyrosine-to-cysteine substitution at codon 311) in an Italian family. A third mutation, G281E, was observed in a Spanish family. This mutation has been previously described in three families from Spain and one from Tunisia. In the Spanish family described in this report, a paternal uncle of the proband developed clinically overt PCT as an adult and proved to be heterozygous for the G281E mutation. Mutant cDNAs corresponding to the P62L and Y311C changes detected in these families were created by site-directed mutagenesis. Recombinant proteins proved to have subnormal enzyme activity, and the Y311C mutant was thermolabile. 24 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Structure and kinematics of molecular jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snell, R. L.

    1986-04-01

    Observational studies of the structure and kinematics of the supersonic molecular gas in star-forming regions are reviewed. These studies have suggested that the bulk of the high-velocity gas may be ambient-cloud material swept up by a collimated stellar wind. The actual structures of these outflows, however, are poorly understood. One source that may provide a better understanding of molecular outflows is that in the nearby dark cloud LDN 1551. New observations of this outflow are presented and discussed in context of the models proposed by Snell and Schloerb.

  11. Cervical kinematic training with and without interactive VR training for chronic neck pain - a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sarig Bahat, Hilla; Takasaki, Hiroshi; Chen, Xiaoqi; Bet-Or, Yaheli; Treleaven, Julia

    2015-02-01

    Impairments in cervical kinematics are common in patients with neck pain. A virtual reality (VR) device has potential to be effective in the management of these impairments. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of kinematic training (KT) with and without the use of an interactive VR device. In this assessor-blinded, allocation-concealed pilot clinical trial, 32 participants with chronic neck pain were randomised into the KT or kinematic plus VR training (KTVR) group. Both groups completed four to six training sessions comprising of similar KT activities such as active and quick head movements and fine head movement control and stability over five weeks. Only the KTVR group used the VR device. The primary outcome measures were neck disability index (NDI), cervical range of motion (ROM), head movement velocity and accuracy. Kinematic measures were collected using the VR system that was also used for training. Secondary measures included pain intensity, TAMPA scale of kinesiophobia, static and dynamic balance, global perceived effect and participant satisfaction. The results demonstrated significant (p < 0.05) improvements in NDI, ROM (rotation), velocity, and the step test in both groups post-intervention. At 3-month post-intervention, these improvements were mostly sustained; however there was no control group, which limits the interpretation of this. Between-group analysis showed a few specific differences including global perceived change that was greater in the KTVR group. This pilot study has provided directions and justification for future research exploring training using kinematic training and VR for those with neck pain in a larger cohort.

  12. Prion domain of yeast Ure2 protein adopts a completely disordered structure: a solid-support EPR study.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Sam; Chiang, Vicky; Ho, Elaine; Le, Linh; Guo, Zhefeng

    2012-01-01

    Amyloid fibril formation is associated with a range of neurodegenerative diseases in humans, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and prion diseases. In yeast, amyloid underlies several non-Mendelian phenotypes referred to as yeast prions. Mechanism of amyloid formation is critical for a complete understanding of the yeast prion phenomenon and human amyloid-related diseases. Ure2 protein is the basis of yeast prion [URE3]. The Ure2p prion domain is largely disordered. Residual structures, if any, in the disordered region may play an important role in the aggregation process. Studies of Ure2p prion domain are complicated by its high aggregation propensity, which results in a mixture of monomer and aggregates in solution. Previously we have developed a solid-support electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) approach to address this problem and have identified a structured state for the Alzheimer's amyloid-β monomer. Here we use solid-support EPR to study the structure of Ure2p prion domain. EPR spectra of Ure2p prion domain with spin labels at every fifth residue from position 10 to position 75 show similar residue mobility profile for denaturing and native buffers after accounting for the effect of solution viscosity. These results suggest that Ure2p prion domain adopts a completely disordered structure in the native buffer. A completely disordered Ure2p prion domain implies that the amyloid formation of Ure2p, and likely other Q/N-rich yeast prion proteins, is primarily driven by inter-molecular interactions.

  13. Phylogenetic studies of two Anas platyrhynchos (Anatini: Anatinae) in Hunan province of China based on complete mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    He, Xi; Lin, Qian; Cao, Rong; Yuan, Ya-Ting; Pan, Di-Zi; Yun, Long; Zhang, Shi-Rui; Hou, De-Xing

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we cloned and sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNAs of Chinese duck, Anas platyrhynchos, population from two different areas of Hunan province in China. The Anas platyrhynchos breed Linwu duck (LW) sample was taken from the Linwu county of Chenzhou city, and the Anas platyrhynchos breed Youxian duck (YX) sample was taken from the Youxian county of Zhuzhou city. The lengths of their complete mitochondrial genome were 16,604 bp (LW) and 16,606 bp (YX), respectively. The organization of the two Anas platyrhynchos breed mitochondrial genomes was similar to those reported from other duck mitochondrial genomes. Phylogenetic analyses using N-J computational algorithms showed that the analyzed species are divided into four major clades: Anatinae, Anserinae, Dendrocygninae and Anseranatidae. Also, the Linwu duck and Youxian duck have highly similar phylogenetic relationship.

  14. A SLUGGS and Gemini/GMOS combined study of the elliptical galaxy M60: wide-field photometry and kinematics of the globular cluster system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pota, Vincenzo; Brodie, Jean P.; Bridges, Terry; Strader, Jay; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Villaume, Alexa; Jennings, Zach; Faifer, Favio R.; Pastorello, Nicola; Forbes, Duncan A.; Campbell, Ainsley; Usher, Christopher; Foster, Caroline; Spitler, Lee R.; Caldwell, Nelson; Forte, Juan C.; Norris, Mark A.; Zepf, Stephen E.; Beasley, Michael A.; Gebhardt, Karl; Hanes, David A.; Sharples, Ray M.; Arnold, Jacob A.

    2015-06-01

    We present new wide-field photometry and spectroscopy of the globular clusters (GCs) around NGC 4649 (M60), the third brightest galaxy in the Virgo cluster. Imaging of NGC 4649 was assembled from a recently obtained Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys mosaic, and new Subaru/Suprime-Cam and archival Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/MegaCam data. About 1200 sources were followed up spectroscopically using combined observations from three multi-object spectrographs: Keck/Deep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph, Gemini/Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph and Multiple Mirror Telescope/Hectospec. We confirm 431 unique GCs belonging to NGC 4649, a factor of 3.5 larger than previous data sets and with a factor of 3 improvement in velocity precision. We confirm significant GC colour bimodality and find that the red GCs are more centrally concentrated, while the blue GCs are more spatially extended. We infer negative GC colour gradients in the innermost 20 kpc and flat gradients out to large radii. Rotation is detected along the galaxy major axis for all tracers: blue GCs, red GCs, galaxy stars and planetary nebulae. We compare the observed properties of NGC 4649 with galaxy formation models. We find that formation via a major merger between two gas-poor galaxies, followed by satellite accretion, can consistently reproduce the observations of NGC 4649 at different radii. We find no strong evidence to support an interaction between NGC 4649 and the neighbouring spiral galaxy NGC 4647. We identify interesting GC kinematic features in our data, such as counter-rotating subgroups and bumpy kinematic profiles, which encode more clues about the formation history of NGC 4649.

  15. Kinematic Analysis of a Posterior-stabilized Knee Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhi-Xin; Wen, Liang; Qu, Tie-Bing; Hou, Li-Li; Xiang, Dong; Bin, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Background: The goal of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is to restore knee kinematics. Knee prosthesis design plays a very important role in successful restoration. Here, kinematics models of normal and prosthetic knees were created and validated using previously published data. Methods: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans of a healthy, anticorrosive female cadaver were used to establish a model of the entire lower limbs, including the femur, tibia, patella, fibula, distal femur cartilage, and medial and lateral menisci, as well as the anterior cruciate, posterior cruciate, medial collateral, and lateral collateral ligaments. The data from the three-dimensional models of the normal knee joint and a posterior-stabilized (PS) knee prosthesis were imported into finite element analysis software to create the final kinematic model of the TKA prosthesis, which was then validated by comparison with a previous study. The displacement of the medial/lateral femur and the internal rotation angle of the tibia were analyzed during 0–135° flexion. Results: Both the output data trends and the measured values derived from the normal knee's kinematics model were very close to the results reported in a previous in vivo study, suggesting that this model can be used for further analyses. The PS knee prosthesis underwent an abnormal forward displacement compared with the normal knee and has insufficient, or insufficiently aggressive, “rollback” compared with the lateral femur of the normal knee. In addition, a certain degree of reverse rotation occurs during flexion of the PS knee prosthesis. Conclusions: There were still several differences between the kinematics of the PS knee prosthesis and a normal knee, suggesting room for improving the design of the PS knee prosthesis. The abnormal kinematics during early flexion shows that the design of the articular surface played a vital role in improving the kinematics of the PS knee prosthesis. PMID:25591565

  16. Design of a Two-Step Calibration Method of Kinematic Parameters for Serial Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WANG, Wei; WANG, Lei; YUN, Chao

    2017-03-01

    Serial robots are used to handle workpieces with large dimensions, and calibrating kinematic parameters is one of the most efficient ways to upgrade their accuracy. Many models are set up to investigate how many kinematic parameters can be identified to meet the minimal principle, but the base frame and the kinematic parameter are indistinctly calibrated in a one-step way. A two-step method of calibrating kinematic parameters is proposed to improve the accuracy of the robot's base frame and kinematic parameters. The forward kinematics described with respect to the measuring coordinate frame are established based on the product-of-exponential (POE) formula. In the first step the robot's base coordinate frame is calibrated by the unit quaternion form. The errors of both the robot's reference configuration and the base coordinate frame's pose are equivalently transformed to the zero-position errors of the robot's joints. The simplified model of the robot's positioning error is established in second-power explicit expressions. Then the identification model is finished by the least square method, requiring measuring position coordinates only. The complete subtasks of calibrating the robot's 39 kinematic parameters are finished in the second step. It's proved by a group of calibration experiments that by the proposed two-step calibration method the average absolute accuracy of industrial robots is updated to 0.23 mm. This paper presents that the robot's base frame should be calibrated before its kinematic parameters in order to upgrade its absolute positioning accuracy.

  17. DNA binding activity studies and computational approach of mutant SRY in patients with 46, XY complete pure gonadal dysgenesis.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Moreno, Irene; Canto, Patricia; Munguía, Patricia; de León, Mario Bermúdez; Cisneros, Bulmaro; Vilchis, Felipe; Reyes, Edgardo; Méndez, Juan Pablo

    2009-02-27

    Mutations of SRY are the cause of 46,XY complete pure gonadal dysgenesis (PGD) in 10-15% of patients. In this study, DNA was isolated and sequenced from blood leukocytes and from paraffin-embedded gonadal tissue in five patients with 46,XY complete PGD. DNA binding capability was analyzed by three different methods. The structure of the full length SRY and its mutant proteins was carried out using a protein molecular model. DNA analysis revealed two mutations and one synonymous polymorphism: in patient #4 a Y96C mutation, and a E156 polymorphism; in patient #5 a S143G mosaic mutation limited to gonadal tissue. We demonstrated, by all methods used, that both mutant proteins reduced SRY DNA binding activity. The three-dimensional structure of SRY suggested that besides the HMG box, the carboxy-terminal region of SRY interacts with DNA. In conclusion, we identified two SRY mutations and a polymorphism in two patients with 46,XY complete PGD, demonstrating the importance of the carboxy-terminal region of SRY in DNA binding activity.

  18. Quantum simulation of noncausal kinematic transformations.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Rodriguez, U; Casanova, J; Lamata, L; Solano, E

    2013-08-30

    We propose the implementation of Galileo group symmetry operations or, in general, linear coordinate transformations in a quantum simulator. With an appropriate encoding, unitary gates applied to our quantum system give rise to Galilean boosts or spatial and time parity operations in the simulated dynamics. This framework provides us with a flexible toolbox that enhances the versatility of quantum simulation theory, allowing the direct access to dynamical quantities that would otherwise require full tomography. Furthermore, this method enables the study of noncausal kinematics and phenomena beyond special relativity in a quantum controllable system.

  19. Kinematics of Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardullo, A.; Pizzella, A.; Corsini, E. M.; Bertola, F.

    2008-10-01

    We analyzed the kinematic of 12 low surface-brightness (LSB) galaxies to study the correlation between the disk circular velocity V_{c} and the central velocity dispersion of the spheroidal component σ_{0}. This relation has been claimed to be either the same power-law relation tep{buy} or a different linear one tep{piz} with respect to high surface-brightness (HSB) galaxies. We confirm here that LSB and HSB galaxies follow two different linear V_{c}-σ_{0} relations.

  20. Kinematics and Ground Reaction Force Determination: A Demonstration Quantifying Locomotor Abilities of Young Adult, Middle-aged, and Geriatric Rats

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Aubrey A.; Kerr, Brendan; Neville, Tanya; Ngan, Sybil; Assem, Hisham

    2011-01-01

    Behavior, in its broadest definition, can be defined as the motor manifestation of physiologic processes. As such, all behaviors manifest through the motor system. In the fields of neuroscience and orthopedics, locomotion is a commonly evaluated behavior for a variety of disease models. For example, locomotor recovery after traumatic injury to the nervous system is one of the most commonly evaluated behaviors 1-3. Though locomotion can be evaluated using a variety of endpoint measurements (e.g. time taken to complete a locomotor task, etc), semiquantitative kinematic measures (e.g. ordinal rating scales (e.g. Basso Beattie and Bresnahan locomotor (BBB) rating scale, etc)) and surrogate measures of behaviour (e.g. muscle force, nerve conduction velocity, etc), only kinetics (force measurements) and kinematics (measurements of body segments in space) provide a detailed description of the strategy by which an animal is able to locomote 1. Though not new, kinematic and kinetic measurements of locomoting rodents is now more readily accessible due to the availability of commercially available equipment designed for this purpose. Importantly, however, experimenters need to be very familiar with theory of biomechanical analyses and understand the benefits and limitations of these forms of analyses prior to embarking on what will become a relatively labor-intensive study. The present paper aims to describe a method for collecting kinematic and ground reaction force data using commercially available equipment. Details of equipment and apparatus set-up, pre-training of animals, inclusion and exclusion criteria of acceptable runs, and methods for collecting the data are described. We illustrate the utility of this behavioral analysis technique by describing the kinematics and kinetics of strain-matched young adult, middle-aged, and geriatric rats. PMID:21403621

  1. Methodology issues concerning the accuracy of kinematic data collection and analysis using the ariel performance analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilmington, R. P.; Klute, Glenn K. (Editor); Carroll, Amy E. (Editor); Stuart, Mark A. (Editor); Poliner, Jeff (Editor); Rajulu, Sudhakar (Editor); Stanush, Julie (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Kinematics, the study of motion exclusive of the influences of mass and force, is one of the primary methods used for the analysis of human biomechanical systems as well as other types of mechanical systems. The Anthropometry and Biomechanics Laboratory (ABL) in the Crew Interface Analysis section of the Man-Systems Division performs both human body kinematics as well as mechanical system kinematics using the Ariel Performance Analysis System (APAS). The APAS supports both analysis of analog signals (e.g. force plate data collection) as well as digitization and analysis of video data. The current evaluations address several methodology issues concerning the accuracy of the kinematic data collection and analysis used in the ABL. This document describes a series of evaluations performed to gain quantitative data pertaining to position and constant angular velocity movements under several operating conditions. Two-dimensional as well as three-dimensional data collection and analyses were completed in a controlled laboratory environment using typical hardware setups. In addition, an evaluation was performed to evaluate the accuracy impact due to a single axis camera offset. Segment length and positional data exhibited errors within 3 percent when using three-dimensional analysis and yielded errors within 8 percent through two-dimensional analysis (Direct Linear Software). Peak angular velocities displayed errors within 6 percent through three-dimensional analyses and exhibited errors of 12 percent when using two-dimensional analysis (Direct Linear Software). The specific results from this series of evaluations and their impacts on the methodology issues of kinematic data collection and analyses are presented in detail. The accuracy levels observed in these evaluations are also presented.

  2. Contact kinematics of biomimetic scales

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Ranajay; Ebrahimi, Hamid; Vaziri, Ashkan

    2014-12-08

    Dermal scales, prevalent across biological groups, considerably boost survival by providing multifunctional advantages. Here, we investigate the nonlinear mechanical effects of biomimetic scale like attachments on the behavior of an elastic substrate brought about by the contact interaction of scales in pure bending using qualitative experiments, analytical models, and detailed finite element (FE) analysis. Our results reveal the existence of three distinct kinematic phases of operation spanning linear, nonlinear, and rigid behavior driven by kinematic interactions of scales. The response of the modified elastic beam strongly depends on the size and spatial overlap of rigid scales. The nonlinearity is perceptible even in relatively small strain regime and without invoking material level complexities of either the scales or the substrate.

  3. A Comparison of Masticatory Performance and Efficiency of Complete Dentures Made with High Impact and Flexible Resins: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhoyar, Anjali; Mishra, Sunil Kumar; Yadav, Naveen S.; Mahajan, Harsh

    2015-01-01

    Background In patients with extensive tooth loss, restoration of masticatory function and aesthetics is main concern for a prosthodontist. Aim of Study This study aimed to evaluate and compare differences in masticatory efficiency of patients treated with complete dentures made with either high impact or flexible resins. Setting and Design The sample size consisted of 10 study subjects. Two sets of dentures first conventional followed by flexible dentures were fabricated for each subject and both the sets of dentures were accessed for masticatory performance and efficiency. Materials and Methods This study compared the masticatory performance and efficiency of dentures by means of standardized mesh sieves. Masticatory efficiency was calculated by recording the total number of chewing cycles and time required to completely swallow a standardized food item. A patient satisfaction questionnaire was given and evaluated. Statistical Analysis Used The statistical analyses were performed using Z-test of Proportion and Paired t-test. Results The masticatory performance ratio was found to be more for hard food in conventional dentures. The values of masticatory performance ratios for soft food, time and number of masticatory strokes were indicating better masticatory efficiency of conventional dentures. Conclusion Though masticatory efficiency and performance were found to be better for patient’s dentures made with Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), a statistically significant number of patients reported that the flexible dentures were more satisfying than the conventional dentures. PMID:26266213

  4. Trajectories of Kinematic Risky Driving Among Novice Teenagers

    PubMed Central

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Cheon, Kyeongmi; Guo, Feng; Albert, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Elevated gravitational force event rates are associated with the likelihood of a crash or near crash and provide an objective measure of risky driving. The purpose of this research is to examine the patterns over time of kinematic measures of risky driving among novice teenage drivers. Methods Driving data were collected from 42 newly-licensed teenage drivers during the first 18 months of licensure. Data recording systems installed in participants’ vehicles provided information on driving performance and driver characteristics. Latent class and logistic regression models were used to analyze trajectories of elevated gravitational-force (g-force) event rates, called kinematic risky driving, with respect to risk groups and associated factors. Results Kinematic risky driving over the 18-month study period was best characterized as two classes, a higher-risk and a lower-risk class. The rate of kinematic risky driving during the first 6 months generally maintained over 18 months. Indeed, of those classified by latent class analysis as higher risk, 88.9%, 94.4% and 94.4% had average event rates above the median in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd 6-month periods, respectively, indicating substantial tracking over time. Friends’ risky driving, friends’ risky behavior, self-reported risky driving, and perceptions about risky driving and driving privileges were associated with trip-level rates of kinematic risky driving. However, none of these factors was associated with trip-level rates after stratifying by overall risk in a latent class model, although friend’s risky driving was marginally significant. Conclusion Kinematic risky driving tended to track over time within the lower and higher risky driving groups. Self-reported risky driving and having risky friends were predictors of kinematic risky driving rates, but these variables did not explain the heterogeneity within higher and lower classes of risky drivers. PMID:23182780

  5. Are static and dynamic kinematics comparable after total knee arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Saevarsson, Stefan K; Romeo, Carolina I; Anglin, Carolyn

    2013-04-05

    Knee kinematics provide information about how the femoral, tibial and patellar bones or prosthetic components move relative to each other. Accurate knowledge of kinematics is valuable for implant design, comparisons between designs or surgical techniques, and to identify differences between patients with good and poor outcomes. Both static and dynamic imaging techniques have been used to evaluate kinematics. In general, static imaging is used to capture better quality images or to capture views that cannot be acquired by dynamic imaging, whereas dynamic imaging is used to capture real-life movements. How well static kinematics represent dynamic kinematics is subject to frequent debate and has not been adequately addressed, especially after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We compared the static and dynamic weightbearing kinematics of 10 female subjects after TKA. Using the same clinical scanner for both methods, static images were taken using our standard protocol, sequential-biplane radiographs at multiple flexion angles, as well as with dynamic video fluoroscopy during a step up activity. The static method can reliably measure all 12 degrees of freedom (DOF) after TKA, however only seven were compared due to the poorer out-of-plane reliability in the single-plane dynamic imaging. No differences were found between the static and dynamic kinematics for nine out of ten subjects. For one subject, however, a difference of 5-8° in internal/external tibial rotation was found. The research question, study purpose and the advantages and disadvantages of each method need to be considered when determining which imaging method to use.

  6. Kinematic foot types in youth with equinovarus secondary to hemiplegia

    PubMed Central

    Krzak, Joseph J.; Corcos, Daniel M.; Damiano, Diane L.; Graf, Adam; Hedeker, Donald; Smith, Peter A.; Harris, Gerald F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Elevated kinematic variability of the foot and ankle segments exists during gait among individuals with equinovarus secondary to hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP). Clinicians have previously addressed such variability by developing classification schemes to identify subgroups of individuals based on their kinematics. Objective To identify kinematic subgroups among youth with equinovarus secondary to CP using 3-dimensional multi-segment foot and ankle kinematics during locomotion as inputs for principal component analysis (PCA), and K-means cluster analysis. Methods In a single assessment session, multi-segment foot and ankle kinematics using the Milwaukee Foot Model (MFM) were collected in 24 children/adolescents with equinovarus and 20 typically developing children/adolescents. Results PCA was used as a data reduction technique on 40 variables. K-means cluster analysis was performed on the first six principal components (PCs) which accounted for 92% of the variance of the dataset. The PCs described the location and plane of involvement in the foot and ankle. Five distinct kinematic subgroups were identified using K-means clustering. Participants with equinovarus presented with variable involvement ranging from primary hindfoot or forefoot deviations to deformtiy that included both segments in multiple planes. Conclusion This study provides further evidence of the variability in foot characteristics associated with equinovarus secondary to hemiplegic CP. These findings would not have been detected using a single segment foot model. The identification of multiple kinematic subgroups with unique foot and ankle characteristics has the potential to improve treatment since similar patients within a subgroup are likely to benefit from the same intervention(s). PMID:25467429

  7. The use of detailed reservoir description and simulation studies in investigating completion strategies, cormorant, UK North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Stiles, J.H.; Valenti, N.P.

    1987-01-01

    A portion of the Cormorant field in the U.K. North Sea is being developed using a subsea production system. All layers in the stratified reservoir section are being waterflooded concurrently by perforating the entire interval in both producers and injectors. The permeability contrast among the layers is such that there is potential for severe imbalance in the movement of the waterflood fronts, resulting in large volumes of early water production from high permeability layers and incomplete displacement of oil from less permeable layers. With the high cost of expanding platform facilities or performing workovers on subsea wells to re-distribute production and/or injection, there is considerable incentive to optimise the completions in new wells. This paper describes studies undertaken by Esso Exploration and Production U.K. to evaluate various completion strategies for newe subsea wells. These studies were done to complement work done by the operator, Shell U.K. Explorations and Production. The studies included detailed reservoir description work to define the oil-in-pace and permeability distribution, followed by simulation of the waterflood for a representative reservoir cross-section. Wellbore, flowline and pipeline hydraulics for the complex productions and injection system were included to more accurately model well rates. The results provide general insight into the nature of the displacement when waterflooding a stratified section with a limited nuber of wells. They also provide specific guidance on: (1) dual vs. single completions, (2) perforating, testing and stimulation sequence and (3) the benefits of partially perforating high permeability sands.

  8. Of cilium and flagellum kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.; Hansen, Joshua C.

    2009-11-01

    The kinematics of propulsion of small animals such as paramecium and spermatozoa is considered. Larger scale models of the cilium and flagellum have been built and a four-motor apparatus has been constructed to reproduce their known periodic motions. The cilium model has transverse deformational ability in one plane only, while the flagellum model has such ability in two planes. When the flagellum model is given a push-pull in one diametral plane, instead of transverse deflection in one plane, it forms a coil. Berg & Anderson's postulation (Nature 245 1973) that a flagellum rotates, is recalled. The kinematics of cilia of paramecium, of the whipping motion of the spermatozoa flagella, and of the flapping motion (rolling and pitching) of the pectoral fins of much larger animals such penguins, have been reproduced in the same basic paramecium apparatus. The results suggest that each of the tiny individual paramecium propulsors have the intrinsic dormant kinematic and structural building blocks to optimize into higher Reynolds number propulsors. A synthetic hypothesis on how small might have become large is animated.

  9. SMACK - SMOOTHING FOR AIRCRAFT KINEMATICS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bach, R.

    1994-01-01

    The computer program SMACK (SMoothing for AirCraft Kinematics) is designed to provide flightpath reconstruction of aircraft forces and motions from measurements that are noisy or incomplete. Additionally, SMACK provides a check on instrument accuracy and data consistency. The program can be used to analyze data from flight-test experiments prior to their use in performance, stability and control, or aerodynamic modeling calculations. It can also be used in the analysis of aircraft accidents, where the actual forces and motions may have to be determined from a very limited data set. Application of a state-estimation method for flightpath reconstruction is possible because aircraft forces and motions are related by well-known equations of motion. The task of postflight state estimation is known as a nonlinear, fixed-interval smoothing problem. SMACK utilizes a backward-filter, forward-smoother algorithm to solve the problem. The equations of motion are used to produce estimates that are compared with their corresponding measurement time histories. The procedure is iterative, providing improved state estimates until a minimum squared-error measure is achieved. In the SMACK program, the state and measurement models together represent a finite-difference approximation for the six-degree-of-freedom dynamics of a rigid body. The models are used to generate time histories which are likely to be found in a flight-test measurement set. These include onboard variables such as Euler angles, angular rates, and linear accelerations as well as tracking variables such as slant range, bearing, and elevation. Any bias or scale-factor errors associated with the state or measurement models are appended to the state vector and treated as constant but unknown parameters. The SMACK documentation covers the derivation of the solution algorithm, describes the state and measurement models, and presents several application examples that should help the analyst recognize the potential

  10. Complete Makeover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released July 23, 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    We finish our look at Mars's dynamic atmosphere with an image of the surface that has been completely modified by the wind. Even the small ridges that remain have been ground down to a cliff-face with a 'tail' of eroded material. The crosshatching shows that the wind regime has remained mainly E/W to ENE/WSW.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 8.9, Longitude 221 East (139 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip

  11. SEM-EDS-Based Elemental Identification on the Enamel Surface after the Completion of Orthodontic Treatment: In Vitro Studies

    PubMed Central

    Seeliger, Julia; Lipski, Mariusz; Wójcicka, Anna; Gedrange, Tomasz; Woźniak, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Braces as foreign bodies in the mouth carry a risk of side effects and toxicity to the human body. This article presents the results indicating the possible toxic effects of tools used for cleaning the enamel after the completion of orthodontic treatment. The studies were carried out in vitro. The procedure of enamel etching, bonding orthodontic metal brackets, and enamel cleaning after their removal was performed under laboratory conditions. The enamel microstructure and elements present on its surface were evaluated using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Silicon and aluminium were found in addition to the tooth building elements. PMID:27766265

  12. In vivo determination of total knee arthroplasty kinematics

    SciTech Connect

    Komistek, Richard D; Mahfouz, Mohamed R; Bertin, Kim; Rosenberg, Aaron; Kennedy, William

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if consistent posterior femoral rollback of an asymmetrical posterior cruciate retaining (PCR) total knee arthroplasty was mostly influenced by the implant design, surgical technique, or presence of a well-functioning posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). Three-dimensional femorotibial kinematics was determined for 80 subjects implanted by 3 surgeons, and each subject was evaluated under fluoroscopic surveillance during a deep knee bend. All subjects in this present study having an intact PCL had a well-functioning PCR knee and experienced normal kinematic patterns, although less in magnitude than the normal knee. In addition, a surprising finding was that, on average, subjects without a PCL still achieved posterior femoral rollback from full extension to maximum knee flexion. The findings in this study revealed that implant design did contribute to the normal kinematics demonstrated by subjects having this asymmetrical PCR total knee arthroplasty.

  13. Statistical Modeling to Characterize Relationships between Knee Anatomy and Kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Smoger, Lowell M.; Fitzpatrick, Clare K.; Clary, Chadd W.; Cyr, Adam J.; Maletsky, Lorin P.; Rullkoetter, Paul J.; Laz, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanics of the knee are complex and dependent on the shape of the articular surfaces and their relative alignment. Insight into how anatomy relates to kinematics can establish biomechanical norms, support the diagnosis and treatment of various pathologies (e.g. patellar maltracking) and inform implant design. Prior studies have used correlations to identify anatomical measures related to specific motions. The objective of this study was to describe relationships between knee anatomy and tibiofemoral (TF) and patellofemoral (PF) kinematics using a statistical shape and function modeling approach. A principal component (PC) analysis was performed on a 20-specimen dataset consisting of shape of the bone and cartilage for the femur, tibia and patella derived from imaging and six-degree-of-freedom TF and PF kinematics from cadaveric testing during a simulated squat. The PC modes characterized links between anatomy and kinematics; the first mode captured scaling and shape changes in the condylar radii and their influence on TF anterior-posterior translation, internal-external rotation, and the location of the femoral lowest point. Subsequent modes described relations in patella shape and alta/baja alignment impacting PF kinematics. The complex interactions described with the data-driven statistical approach provide insight into knee mechanics that is useful clinically and in implant design. PMID:25991502

  14. Kinematic features of movement tunes perception and action coupling.

    PubMed

    Pozzo, Thierry; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Petit, Jean Luc; Schweighofer, Nicolas; Stucchi, Natale

    2006-04-25

    How do we extrapolate the final position of hand trajectory that suddenly vanishes behind a wall? Studies showing maintenance of cortical activity after objects in motion disappear suggest that internal model of action may be recalled to reconstruct the missing part of the trajectory. Although supported by neurophysiological and brain imaging studies, behavioural evidence for this hypothesis is sparse. Further, in humans, it is unknown if the recall of internal model of action at motion observation can be tuned with kinematic features of movement. Here, we propose a novel experiment to address this question. Each stimulus consisted of a dot moving either upwards or downwards, and corresponding to vertical arm movements that were masked in the last part of the trajectory. The stimulus could either move according to biological and or non-biological kinematic laws of pointing tasks. We compared subjects' estimations of the stimulus vanishing or final positions after biological and after non-biological motion displays. Subjects systematically overestimated the vanishing and final position for the two directions (up and down) and the two kinematics displayed (biological and non-biological). However, estimation of the final position decreased in precision and increased in variability for movements that violated the kinematic laws of arm pointing task. The results suggest that motion inference does not rely only upon visual extrapolating mechanisms based on past visual trajectory information. We propose that motion estimation relies on internal models that contain specific kinematic details of vertical arm movement, which can be rapidly recalled during motion observation.

  15. Kinematics of transition during human accelerated sprinting

    PubMed Central

    Nagahara, Ryu; Matsubayashi, Takeo; Matsuo, Akifumi; Zushi, Koji

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study investigated kinematics of human accelerated sprinting through 50 m and examined whether there is transition and changes in acceleration strategies during the entire acceleration phase. Twelve male sprinters performed a 60-m sprint, during which step-to-step kinematics were captured using 60 infrared cameras. To detect the transition during the acceleration phase, the mean height of the whole-body centre of gravity (CG) during the support phase was adopted as a measure. Detection methods found two transitions during the entire acceleration phase of maximal sprinting, and the acceleration phase could thus be divided into initial, middle, and final sections. Discriminable kinematic changes were found when the sprinters crossed the detected first transition—the foot contacting the ground in front of the CG, the knee-joint starting to flex during the support phase, terminating an increase in step frequency—and second transition—the termination of changes in body postures and the start of a slight decrease in the intensity of hip-joint movements, thus validating the employed methods. In each acceleration section, different contributions of lower-extremity segments to increase in the CG forward velocity—thigh and shank for the initial section, thigh, shank, and foot for the middle section, shank and foot for the final section—were verified, establishing different acceleration strategies during the entire acceleration phase. In conclusion, there are presumably two transitions during human maximal accelerated sprinting that divide the entire acceleration phase into three sections, and different acceleration strategies represented by the contributions of the segments for running speed are employed. PMID:24996923

  16. Epidemiology of Spinal Cord Injuries and Risk Factors for Complete Injuries in Guangdong, China: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Huang, Lin; Tang, Yong; Wang, Wenhao; Chen, Keng; Ye, Jichao; Lu, Ciyong; Wu, Yanfeng; Shen, Huiyong

    2014-01-01

    Background Spinal cord injuries are highly disabling and deadly injuries. Currently, few studies focus on non-traumatic spinal cord injuries, and there is little information regarding the risk factors for complete injuries. This study aims to describe the demographics and the injury characteristics for both traumatic and non-traumatic spinal cord injuries and to explore the risk factors for complete spinal cord injuries. Methods A retrospective study was performed by reviewing the medical records of 3,832 patients with spinal cord injuries who were first admitted to the sampled hospitals in Guangdong, China. The demographics and injury characteristics of the patients were described and compared between the different groups using the chi-square test. Logistic regression was conducted to analyze the risk factors for complete spinal cord injuries. Results The proportion of patients increased from 7.0% to 14.0% from 2003 to 2011. The male-to-female ratio was 3.0∶1. The major cause of spinal cord injuries was traffic accidents (21.7%). Many of the injured were workers (36.2%), peasants (22.8%), and unemployed people (13.9%); these occupations accounted for 72.9% of the total sample. A multivariate logistic regression model revealed that the OR (95% CI) for male gender compared to female gender was 1.25 (1.07–1.89), the OR (95%CI) for having a spinal fracture was 1.56 (1.35–2.60), the OR (95%CI) for having a thoracic injury was 1.23 (1.10–2.00), and the OR (95%CI) for having complications was 2.47 (1.96–3.13). Conclusion The proportion of males was higher than the proportion of females. Workers, peasants and the unemployed comprised the high-risk occupational categories. Male gender, having a spinal fracture, having a thoracic injury, and having complications were the major risk factors for a complete injury. We recommend that preventive measures should focus on high-risk populations, such as young males. PMID:24489652

  17. When Crohn's Disease is in Remission, More Patients Complete Capsule Endoscopy Study But Less Lesions are Identified

    PubMed Central

    Tsibouris, Panagiotis; Periklis, Apostolopoulos; Chrissostomos, Kalantzis; Antonios, Zalonis; Panagiota, Mavrogianni; Erasmia, Vlachou; Georgios, Alexandrakis

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims: Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is used in Crohn's disease (CD) to define disease extent. We aimed to define WCE detection rate of small bowel ulcerative lesions and completion rate in CD patients. Patients and Methods: A total of 102 consecutive CD patients, who successfully passed patency capsule, were matched to 102 controls. WCE was performed in both patients (in acute phase and CD clinical remission) and controls. Results: Eighty-six (84%) controls versus 62 (61%) patients in the acute phase (P = 0.003) and 96 (94%) in remission (P = 0.02) completed WCE study. Gastric passing time was 48 ± 66 min in controls, 66 ± 82 min in CD acute phase (P = 0.03) and 30 ± 21 min in remission (P = 0.07). Small bowel passing time was 276 ± 78 min in controls, 299 ± 78 min in the acute phase of CD (P = 0.04) and 248 ± 89 min in remission (P = 0.01). Mean capsule endoscopy Crohn's disease activity index (CECDAI) score was 14 ± 6 in acute small bowel CD, 12 ± 7 in acute small-large bowel CD (P = 0.08) and 2 ± 2 in both CD types while in remission (P = 1.00). Small bowel ulcerative lesions in the acute phase were more frequently in distal small bowel. Aphthous ulcers were frequent a month after entering clinical remission and tend to disappear gradually later on. No ulcerative lesions were present in deep remission. Patency capsule is rather safe to exclude small bowel obstruction. Conclusions: (1) A high percentage of patients with active CD do not complete small bowel study with WCE. (2) Small bowel ulcerative lesions in clinical remission were less severe, although at least 6 months are needed in order for them to disappear. PMID:23481131

  18. Kinematics of Signature Writing in Healthy Aging*

    PubMed Central

    Caligiuri, Michael P.; Kim, Chi; Landy, Kelly M.

    2014-01-01

    Forensic document examiners (FDE) called upon to distinguish a genuine from a forged signature of an elderly person are often required to consider the question of age-related deterioration and whether the available exemplars reliably capture the natural effects of aging of the original writer. An understanding of the statistical relationship between advanced age and handwriting movements can reduce the uncertainty that may exist in an examiner’s approach to questioned signatures formed by elderly writers. The primary purpose of this study was to systematically examine age-related changes in signature kinematics in healthy writers. Forty-two healthy subjects between the ages of 60–91 years participated in this study. Signatures were recorded using a digitizing tablet and commercial software was used to examine the temporal and spatial stroke kinematics and pen pressure. Results indicated that vertical stroke duration and dysfluency increased with age, whereas vertical stroke amplitude and velocity decreased with age. Pen pressure decreased with age. We found that a linear model characterized the best-fit relationship between advanced age and handwriting movement parameters for signature formation. Male writers exhibited stronger age effects than female writers, especially for pen pressure and stroke dysfluency. The present study contributes to an understanding of how advanced age alters signature formation in otherwise healthy adults. PMID:24673648

  19. Deployable antenna kinematics using tensegrity structure design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Byron Franklin

    With vast changes in spacecraft development over the last decade, a new, cheaper approach was needed for deployable kinematic systems such as parabolic antenna reflectors. Historically, these mesh-surface reflectors have resembled folded umbrellas, with incremental redesigns utilized to save packaging size. These systems are typically over-constrained designs, the assumption being that high reliability necessary for space operations requires this level of conservatism. But with the rapid commercialization of space, smaller launch platforms and satellite buses have demanded much higher efficiency from all space equipment than can be achieved through this incremental approach. This work applies an approach called tensegrity to deployable antenna development. Kenneth Snelson, a student of R. Buckminster Fuller, invented Tensegrity structures in 1948. Such structures use a minimum number of compression members (struts); stability is maintain using tension members (ties). The novelty introduced in this work is that the ties are elastic, allowing the struts to extend or contract, and in this way changing the surface of the antenna. Previously, the University of Florida developed an approach to quantify the stability and motion of parallel manipulators. This approach was applied to deployable, tensegrity, antenna structures. Based on the kinematic analyses for the 3-3 (octahedron) and 4-4 (square anti-prism) structures, the 6-6 (hexagonal anti-prism) analysis was completed which establishes usable structural parameters. The primary objective for this work was to prove the stability of this class of deployable structures, and their potential application to space structures. The secondary objective is to define special motions for tensegrity antennas, to meet the subsystem design requirements, such as addressing multiple antenna-feed locations. This work combines the historical experiences of the artist (Snelson), the mathematician (Ball), and the space systems engineer

  20. An observational study of the accuracy and completeness of an anesthesia information management system: recommendations for documentation system changes.

    PubMed

    Wilbanks, Bryan A; Moss, Jacqueline A; Berner, Eta S

    2013-08-01

    Anesthesia information management systems must often be tailored to fit the environment in which they are implemented. Extensive customization necessitates that systems be analyzed for both accuracy and completeness of documentation design to ensure that the final record is a true representation of practice. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of a recently installed system in the capture of key perianesthesia data. This study used an observational design and was conducted using a convenience sample of nurse anesthetists. Observational data of the nurse anesthetists'delivery of anesthesia care were collected using a touch-screen tablet computer utilizing an Access database customized observational data collection tool. A questionnaire was also administered to these nurse anesthetists to assess perceived accuracy, completeness, and satisfaction with the electronic documentation system. The major sources of data not documented in the system were anesthesiologist presence (20%) and placement of intravenous lines (20%). The major sources of inaccuracies in documentation were gas flow rates (45%), medication administration times (30%), and documentation of neuromuscular function testing (20%)-all of the sources of inaccuracies were related to the use of charting templates that were not altered to reflect the actual interventions performed.

  1. Mapping Dark Matter Halos with Stellar Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Jeremy; Gebhardt, K.; Greene, J. E.; Graves, G.

    2013-07-01

    Galaxies of all sizes form and evolve in the centers of dark matter halos. As these halos constitute the large majority of the total mass of a galaxy, dark matter certainly plays a central role in the galaxy's formation and evolution. Yet despite our understanding of the importance of dark matter, observations of the extent and shape of dark matter halos have been slow in coming. The paucity of data is particularly acute in elliptical galaxies. Happily, concerted effort over the past several years by a number of groups has been shedding light on the dark matter halos around galaxies over a wide range in mass. The development of new instrumentation and large surveys, coupled with the tantalizing evidence for a direct detection of dark matter from the AMS experiment, has brought on a golden age in the study of galactic scale dark matter halos. I report on results using extended stellar kinematics from integrated light to dynamically model massive elliptical galaxies in the local universe. I use the integral field power of the Mitchell Spectrograph to explore the kinematics of stars to large radii (R > 2.5 r_e). Once the line-of-sight stellar kinematics are measured, I employ orbit-based, axisymmetric dynamical modeling to explore a range of dark matter halo parameterizations. Globular cluster kinematics at even larger radii are used to further constrain the dynamical models. The dynamical models also return information on the anisotropy of the stars which help to further illuminate the primary formation mechanisms of the galaxy. Specifically, I will show dynamical modeling results for the first and second rank galaxies in the Virgo Cluster, M49 and M87. Although similar in total luminosity and ellipticity, these two galaxies show evidence for different dark matter halo shapes, baryon to dark matter fractions, and stellar anisotropy profiles. Moreover, the stellar velocity dispersion at large radii in M87 is significantly higher than the globular clusters at the same

  2. Stellar population and kinematics of NGC 404

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, A.; Prugniel, P.; Koleva, M.; Sharina, M.

    2010-04-01

    Context. NGC 404 is a nearly face-on, nearby low-luminosity lenticular galaxy. Probing its characteristics provides a wealth of information on the details of the possible evolution processes of dS0 galaxies, which may not be possible in other, more distant objects. Aims: We study the internal kinematics and the spatial distribution of the star formation history in NGC 404. Methods: We obtained long-slit spectroscopy at the OHP 1m93 telescope along the major and minor axes of NGC 404. The spectra had a resolution R = 3600 covering a wavelength range from 4600 to 5500 Å. The data were fitted against the Pegase. HR stellar population models to derive the internal stellar kinematics, ages, and metallicities simultaneously. All this was done while taking any instrumental contamination to the line-of-sight velocity distribution into account. First, the global properties of the galaxy were analysed by fitting a single model to the data and looking at the kinematic variations and SSP equivalent age and metallicities as a function of radius. Afterwards, the stellar populations were decomposed into 4 individually analysed components. Results: NGC 404 clearly shows two radial velocity inversions along its major axis. The kinematically decoupled core rotates in the same direction as the neutral hydrogen shell that surrounds the galaxy. We resolved the star formation history in the core of the galaxy into 4 events: a very young (< 150 Myr, and [Fe/H] = 0.4) component with constant ongoing star formation, a second young (430 Myr) component with [Fe/H] = 0.1, an intermediate population (1.7 Gyr) that has [Fe/H] = -0.05, and finally an old (12 Gyr) component with [Fe/H] = -1.26. The two young components fade very quickly with radius, leaving only the intermediate and old population at a radius of 25´´ (370 pc) from the centre. Conclusions: We conclude that NGC 404 had a spiral morphology about 1 Gyr ago and that one or many merger events has triggered a morphological transition

  3. Kinematic Evolution of Simulated Star-Forming Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassin, Susan A.; Brooks, Alyson; Governato, Fabio; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations have shown that star-forming galaxies like our own Milky Way evolve kinematically into ordered thin disks over the last approximately 8 billion years since z = 1.2, undergoing a process of "disk settling." For the first time, we study the kinematic evolution of a suite of four state of the art "zoom in" hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation and evolution in a fully cosmological context and compare with these observations. Until now, robust measurements of the internal kinematics of simulated galaxies were lacking as the simulations suffered from low resolution, overproduction of stars, and overly massive bulges. The current generation of simulations has made great progress in overcoming these difficulties and is ready for a kinematic analysis. We show that simulated galaxies follow the same kinematic trends as real galaxies: they progressively decrease in disordered motions (sigma(sub g)) and increase in ordered rotation (V(sub rot)) with time. The slopes of the relations between both sigma(sub g) and V(sub rot) with redshift are consistent between the simulations and the observations. In addition, the morphologies of the simulated galaxies become less disturbed with time, also consistent with observations. This match between the simulated and observed trends is a significant success for the current generation of simulations, and a first step in determining the physical processes behind disk settling.

  4. Kinematic Evolution of Simulated Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassin, Susan A.; Brooks, Alyson; Governato, Fabio; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2014-08-01

    Recent observations have shown that star-forming galaxies like our own Milky Way evolve kinematically into ordered thin disks over the last ~8 billion years since z = 1.2, undergoing a process of "disk settling." For the first time, we study the kinematic evolution of a suite of four state of the art "zoom in" hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation and evolution in a fully cosmological context and compare with these observations. Until now, robust measurements of the internal kinematics of simulated galaxies were lacking because the simulations suffered from low resolution, overproduction of stars, and overly massive bulges. The current generation of simulations has made great progress in overcoming these difficulties and is ready for a kinematic analysis. We show that simulated galaxies follow the same kinematic trends as real galaxies: they progressively decrease in disordered motions (σ g ) and increase in ordered rotation (V rot) with time. The slopes of the relations between both σ g and V rot with redshift are consistent between the simulations and the observations. In addition, the morphologies of the simulated galaxies become less disturbed with time, also consistent with observations. This match between the simulated and observed trends is a significant success for the current generation of simulations, and a first step in determining the physical processes behind disk settling.

  5. Kinematic evolution of simulated star-forming galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Kassin, Susan A.; Brooks, Alyson; Governato, Fabio; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2014-08-01

    Recent observations have shown that star-forming galaxies like our own Milky Way evolve kinematically into ordered thin disks over the last ∼8 billion years since z = 1.2, undergoing a process of 'disk settling'. For the first time, we study the kinematic evolution of a suite of four state of the art 'zoom in' hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation and evolution in a fully cosmological context and compare with these observations. Until now, robust measurements of the internal kinematics of simulated galaxies were lacking because the simulations suffered from low resolution, overproduction of stars, and overly massive bulges. The current generation of simulations has made great progress in overcoming these difficulties and is ready for a kinematic analysis. We show that simulated galaxies follow the same kinematic trends as real galaxies: they progressively decrease in disordered motions (σ{sub g}) and increase in ordered rotation (V{sub rot}) with time. The slopes of the relations between both σ{sub g} and V{sub rot} with redshift are consistent between the simulations and the observations. In addition, the morphologies of the simulated galaxies become less disturbed with time, also consistent with observations. This match between the simulated and observed trends is a significant success for the current generation of simulations, and a first step in determining the physical processes behind disk settling'.

  6. Comparisons of Kinematics and Dynamics Simulation Software Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiue, Yeu-Sheng Paul

    2002-01-01

    Kinematic and dynamic analyses for moving bodies are essential to system engineers and designers in the process of design and validations. 3D visualization and motion simulation plus finite element analysis (FEA) give engineers a better way to present ideas and results. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) system engineering researchers are currently using IGRIP from DELMIA Inc. as a kinematic simulation tool for discrete bodies motion simulations. Although IGRIP is an excellent tool for kinematic simulation with some dynamic analysis capabilities in robotic control, explorations of other alternatives with more powerful dynamic analysis and FEA capabilities are necessary. Kinematics analysis will only examine the displacement, velocity, and acceleration of the mechanism without considering effects from masses of components. With dynamic analysis and FEA, effects such as the forces or torques at the joint due to mass and inertia of components can be identified. With keen market competition, ALGOR Mechanical Event Simulation (MES), MSC visualNastran 4D, Unigraphics Motion+, and Pro/MECHANICA were chosen for explorations. In this study, comparisons between software tools were presented in terms of following categories: graphical user interface (GUI), import capability, tutorial availability, ease of use, kinematic simulation capability, dynamic simulation capability, FEA capability, graphical output, technical support, and cost. Propulsion Test Article (PTA) with Fastrac engine model exported from IGRIP and an office chair mechanism were used as examples for simulations.

  7. Kinematic models of the upper limb joints for multibody kinematics optimisation: An overview.

    PubMed

    Duprey, Sonia; Naaim, Alexandre; Moissenet, Florent; Begon, Mickaël; Chèze, Laurence

    2016-12-09

    Soft tissue artefact (STA), i.e. the motion of the skin, fat and muscles gliding on the underlying bone, may lead to a marker position error reaching up to 8.7cm for the particular case of the scapula. Multibody kinematics optimisation (MKO) is one of the most efficient approaches used to reduce STA. It consists in minimising the distance between the positions of experimental markers on a subject skin and the simulated positions of the same markers embedded on a kinematic model. However, the efficiency of MKO directly relies on the chosen kinematic model. This paper proposes an overview of the different upper limb models available in the literature and a discussion about their applicability to MKO. The advantages of each joint model with respect to its biofidelity to functional anatomy are detailed both for the shoulder and the forearm areas. Models capabilities of personalisation and of adaptation to pathological cases are also discussed. Concerning model efficiency in terms of STA reduction in MKO algorithms, a lack of quantitative assessment in the literature is noted. In priority, future studies should concern the evaluation and quantification of STA reduction depending on upper limb joint constraints.

  8. A study of tectonic activity in the Basin-Range Province and on the San Andreas Fault. No. 1: Kinematics of Basin-Range intraplate extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddington, P. K.; Smith, R. B.; Renggli, C.

    1986-01-01

    Strain rates assessed from brittle fracture and total brittle-ductile deformation measured from geodetic data were compared to estimates of paleo-strain from Quaternary geology for the intraplate Great Basin part of the Basin-Range, western United States. These data provide an assessment of the kinematics and mode of lithospheric extension that the western U.S. Cordillera has experienced from the past few million years to the present. Strain and deformation rates were determined by the seismic moment tensor method using historic seismicity and fault plane solutions for sub-regions of homogeneous strain. Contemporary deformation in the Great Basin occurs principally along the active seismic zones. The integrated opening rate across the entire Great Basin is accommodated by E-E extension at 8 to 10 mm/a in the north that diminishes to NW-SE extension of 3.5 mm/a in the south. Zones of maximum lithospheric extension correspond to belts of thin crust, high heat flow, and Quaternary basaltic volcanism, suggesting that these parameters are related through mechanism of extension such as a stress relaxation, allowing bouyant uplift and ascension of magmas.

  9. A KINEMATIC DISTANCE STUDY OF THE PLANETARY NEBULAE-SUPERNOVA REMNANT-H II REGION COMPLEX AT G35.6–0.5

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, H.; Tian, W. W.; Su, H. Q.; Torres, D. F.; Pedaletti, G. E-mail: tww@bao.ac.cn

    2013-10-01

    Two possible planetary nebulae (PN G035.5–00.4 and IRAS 18551+0159), one newly re-identified supernova remnant (SNR G35.6–0.4), and one H II region (G35.6–0.5) form a line-of-sight-overlapping complex known as G35.6–0.5. We analyze 21 cm H I absorption spectra toward the complex to constrain the kinematic distances of these objects. PN G035.5–00.4 has a distance from 3.8 ± 0.4 kpc to 5.4 ± 0.7 kpc. IRAS 18551+0159 is at 4.3 ± 0.5 kpc. We discuss the distance for SNR 35.6–0.4, for which the previous estimate was 10.5 kpc, and find a plausible distance of 3.6 ± 0.4 kpc. The new distance of SNR G35.6–0.4 and the derived mass for the ∼55 km s{sup –1} CO molecular cloud can accommodate an association with HESS J1858+020. We also conclude that SNR G35.6–0.4 is unlikely to be associated with PSR J1857+0210 or PSR J1857+0212, which are projected onto the SNR area.

  10. STUDIES OF GIFTED CHILDREN COMPLETED BY STUDENTS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS. KANSAS STUDIES IN EDUCATION, VOLUME 17, NUMBER 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CORNISH, ROBERT L.

    ABSTRACTS OF 27 STUDIES WERE COMPILED AS EXAMPLES OF INVESTIGATIONS MADE BY TEACHERS CONCERNED WITH THE INDIVIDUAL QUALITIES OF GIFTED CHILDREN IN THEIR SCHOOLS. THE STUDIES ARE ARRANGED IN FOUR SECTIONS--IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERISTICS, ACHIEVEMENT IN SCHOOL, HIGHER EDUCATION, AND EDUCATIONAL PROVISIONS AND PROGRAMS. EACH SECTION PROVIDES A…

  11. Tracing kinematic (mis)alignments in CALIFA merging galaxies. Stellar and ionized gas kinematic orientations at every merger stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; García-Lorenzo, B.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; van de Ven, G.; Lyubenova, M.; Wild, V.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Sánchez, S. F.; Marquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Ziegler, B.; del Olmo, A.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; García-Benito, R.; Husemann, B.; Mast, D.; Kehrig, C.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.; Marino, R. A.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Walcher, C. J.; Vílchez, J. M.; Bomans, D. J.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; González Delgado, R. M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; McIntosh, D. H.; Bekeraitė, S.

    2015-10-01

    We present spatially resolved stellar and/or ionized gas kinematic properties for a sample of 103 interacting galaxies, tracing all merger stages: close companions, pairs with morphological signatures of interaction, and coalesced merger remnants. In order to distinguish kinematic properties caused by a merger event from those driven by internal processes, we compare our galaxies with a control sample of 80 non-interacting galaxies. We measure for both the stellar and the ionized gas components the major (projected) kinematic position angles (PAkin, approaching and receding) directly from the velocity distributions with no assumptions on the internal motions. This method also allow us to derive the deviations of the kinematic PAs from a straight line (δPAkin). We find that around half of the interacting objects show morpho-kinematic PA misalignments that cannot be found in the control sample. In particular, we observe those misalignments in galaxies with morphological signatures of interaction. On the other hand, thelevel of alignment between the approaching and receding sides for both samples is similar, with most of the galaxies displaying small misalignments. Radial deviations of the kinematic PA orientation from a straight line in the stellar component measured by δPAkin are large for both samples. However, for a large fraction of interacting galaxies the ionized gas δPAkin is larger than the typical values derived from isolated galaxies (48%), indicating that this parameter is a good indicator to trace the impact of interaction and mergers in the internal motions of galaxies. By comparing the stellar and ionized gas kinematic PA, we find that 42% (28/66) of the interacting galaxies have misalignments larger than 16°, compared to 10% from the control sample. Our results show the impact of interactions in the motion of stellar and ionized gas as well as the wide the variety of their spatially resolved kinematic distributions. This study also provides a local

  12. Swimming and cycling overloaded training in triathlon has no effect on running kinematics and economy.

    PubMed

    Palazzetti, S; Margaritis, I; Guezennec, C Y

    2005-04-01

    The aim of the study was to verify whether an overloaded training (OT) in triathlon deteriorates running kinematics (RK) and running economy (RE). Thirteen well-trained male long-distance triathletes (age: 28.1 +/- 4.3 yrs; V.O (2max): 65.0 +/- 3.1 ml O (2) . min (-1) . kg (-1)) were divided into two groups: completed an individualized OT program (OG; n = 7) or maintained a normal level of training (NT) (CG; n = 6) for a duration of 3 weeks. Every week, each triathlete completed a standardized questionnaire to quantify the influence of training loads on mood state. To reach OT, total training load (h . 3 wk (-1)) was increased by 24 %; swimming and cycling total volumes were increased by 46 and 57 %, respectively, but the distance run was not modified in order to limit the risk of injuries. RK and RE were determined on treadmill test at 12 km . h (-1) before and after the 3 weeks. The 3-week swimming and cycling OT in triathlon was sufficiently stressful to alter mood state but not to deteriorate the running kinematics and economy parameters in our previously well-trained male long-distance triathletes.

  13. Test-retest reliability of three-dimensional kinematics using an electromagnetic tracking system during single-leg squat and stepping maneuver.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Theresa H; Moriya, Érika Tiemi Uehara; Maciel, Carlos D; Serrão, Fábio V

    2014-01-01

    The electromagnetic tracking system (ETS) has been used to analyze three-dimensional (3D) lower limb kinematics. The single-leg squat and stepping maneuver are useful tasks to evaluate lower extremity alignment in a clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of trunk, pelvis, hip, and knee 3D kinematics using an ETS during single-leg squat and stepping maneuver and compare 3D kinematics between tasks. Twenty healthy volunteers (10 males and 10 females) completed two test sessions 3-5 days apart. Three-dimensional kinematics using an ETS was assessed during single-leg squat and stepping maneuver. Overall, intrarater-intrasession reliability (ICCs=0.83-1.00) and intersession reliabilities (ICCs=0.82-0.97) were high during single-leg squat and stepping maneuver. The intrasession minimal detectable change (MDC) ranged from 1.3° for the knee frontal plane range of motion for single-leg squat to 6.2° for the pelvic transverse range of motion for the stepping maneuver. Intersession MDC values ranged from 1.2° for the ipsilateral trunk lean for the single-leg squat to 8.3° for hip flexion for the stepping maneuver. Healthy participants exhibited greater anterior pelvic tilt, more hip flexion, and less contralateral pelvis forward excursion (p<0.05) during single-leg squat compared with the stepping maneuver. These findings suggest that the 3D kinematics of the trunk, pelvis, hip, and knee using an ETS is reliable during single-leg squat and the stepping maneuver. Minimal detectable change values were low during the evaluated activities. Intertask comparisons revealed differences in hip and pelvis kinematics.

  14. Characteristics and phylogenetic studies of complete mitochondrial DNA based on the ricefield eel (Monopterus albus) from four different areas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dunxue; Chu, Wuying; He, Yan; Liang, Xu-Fang; Mai, Kangsen

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we cloned and sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNA of ricefield eel populations from four different areas (Guizhou province, Guangxi province, Hunan province, and Guangdong province) in China. The mitochondrial genome was 16,622 bp in length and deposited in the GenBank with accession numbers KP779622-KP779625. The organizations of the complete mitogenomes of the four ricefield eel were similar to those of other teleost species which contained 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes, as well as a putative control region (CR). Most of these genes were encoded on the H-strand, except for the ND6 and eight tRNA genes, all other genes were encoded on the H-strand. Phylogenetic analyses using N-J computational algorithms showed that the ricefield eel was clustered with Mastacembelus armatus (KJ184553) and they belong to Synbranchiformes. The four ricefield eel populations could be divided into two groups: Guangxi province and the other population cluster together.

  15. Identifying the Young Low-mass Stars within 25 pc. II. Distances, Kinematics, and Group Membership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; Liu, Michael C.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Boss, Alan P.; Reid, I. Neill; Tamura, Motohide

    2012-10-01

    We have conducted a kinematic study of 165 young M dwarfs with ages of lsim300 Myr. Our sample is composed of stars and brown dwarfs with spectral types ranging from K7 to L0, detected by ROSAT and with photometric distances of lsim25 pc assuming that the stars are single and on the main sequence. In order to find stars kinematically linked to known young moving groups (YMGs), we measured radial velocities for the complete sample with Keck and CFHT optical spectroscopy and trigonometric parallaxes for 75 of the M dwarfs with the CAPSCam instrument on the du Pont 2.5 m Telescope. Due to their youthful overluminosity and unresolved binarity, the original photometric distances for our sample underestimated the distances by 70% on average, excluding two extremely young (lsim3 Myr) objects found to have distances beyond a few hundred parsecs. We searched for kinematic matches to 14 reported YMGs and identified 10 new members of the AB Dor YMG and 2 of the Ursa Majoris group. Additional possible candidates include six Castor, four Ursa Majoris, two AB Dor members, and one member each of the Her-Lyr and β Pic groups. Our sample also contains 27 young low-mass stars and 4 brown dwarfs with ages lsim150 Myr that are not associated with any known YMG. We identified an additional 15 stars that are kinematic matches to one of the YMGs, but the ages from spectroscopic diagnostics and/or the positions on the sky do not match. These warn against grouping stars together based only on kinematics and that a confluence of evidence is required to claim that a group of stars originated from the same star-forming event. Based on observations collected at the W. M. Keck Observatory, the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, the du Pont Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, and the Subaru Telescope. The Keck Observatory is operated as a scientific partnership between the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial

  16. Kinematics of High-z Dusty Star Forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drew, Patrick; Casey, Caitlin; Hung, Chao-Ling; Cooray, Asantha R.; Sanders, David B.; Fu, Hai

    2017-01-01

    Dusty Star Forming Galaxies (DSFGs) have the highest star formation rates in the Universe, but compared with other star forming galaxies at z > ~1 they are difficult to characterize, physically. Their low number density and extreme dust obscuration has led to very few kinematic studies of DSFGs at optical wavelengths. We present a rest-frame optical kinematic analysis of 5 DSFGs at z ~1.5 using long slit spectroscopy obtained with MOSFIRE at Keck Observatory. From our high signal-to-noise spectra we simultaneously fit Hα, [NII] λ6548, and [NII] λ6583 along each slit to generate position-velocity diagrams. We infer the kinematic disturbances and derive dynamical masses in order to compare with other derived quantities such as fractional obscuration, stellar and gas fractions, and dust characteristics.

  17. A KBE tool for solving the mechanisms kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, C.; Tiuca, T. L.; Noveanu, S.; Mândru, D.

    2016-08-01

    Knowledge-Based-Engineering (KBE) is a research field in which the methodologies and technologies for capturing and re-using the engineering knowledge are studied. Nowadays, the mechanisms design is accomplished by using various CAD software. Since, every CAD system includes KBE tools, those can be used to reduce time and simplify the mechanism's design process.One step in the design of the mechanisms with more than one degree of freedom is the direct and inverse kinematic analysis. This step can be difficult, because many calculations are involved and usually more than one solution exists. The geometrical constraints defined in the CAD system for the mechanism linkage's assembling, offer a simple solution for the kinematics analysis.This paper presents a KBE tool useful for kinematics analysis.The automation of repetitive tasks is implemented in an external application written in C# that it is also presented.

  18. The experiences of women engineers who have completed one to five years of professional engineering employment: A phenomenological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Susan M.

    Women engineers remain underrepresented in employment in engineering fields in the United States. Feminist theory views this gender disparity beyond equity in numbers for women engineers and looks at structural issues of women's access, opportunities, and quality of experience in the workplace. Research on women's success and persistence in engineering education is diverse; however, there are few studies that focus on the early years of women's careers in engineering and less using a phenomenological research design. Experiences of women engineers who have completed one to five years of professional engineering employment are presented using a phenomenological research design. Research questions explored the individual and composite experiences for the co-researchers of the study as well as challenges and advantages of the phenomenon of having completed one to five years of professional engineering employment. Themes that emanated from the data were a feeling that engineering is a positive profession, liking math and science from an early age, having experiences of attending math and science camps or learning and practicing engineering interests with their fathers for some co-researchers. Other themes included a feeling of being different as a woman in the engineering workplace, taking advantage of opportunities for training, education, and advancement to further their careers, and the role of informal and formal mentoring in developing workplace networks and engineering expertise. Co-researchers negotiated issues of management quality and support, experiences of gender discrimination in the workplace, and having to make decisions balancing their careers and family responsibilities. Finally, the women engineers for this research study expressed intentions to persist in their careers while pursuing expertise and experience in their individual engineering fields.

  19. Dissecting new physics models through kinematic edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Abhishek M.; Maitra, Ushoshi

    2017-02-01

    Kinematic edges in the invariant mass distributions of different final state particles are typically a signal of new physics. In this work we propose a scenario wherein these edges could be utilized in discriminating between different classes of models. To this effect, we consider the resonant production of a heavy Higgs like resonance (H1) as a case study. Such states are a characteristic feature of many new physics scenarios beyond the standard model (SM). In the event of a discovery, it is essential to identify the true nature of the underlying theory. In this work we propose a channel, H1→t2t , where t2 is a vectorlike gauge singlet top-partner that decays into W b , Z t , h t . Invariant mass distributions constructed out of these final states are characterized by the presence of kinematic edges, which are unique to the topology under consideration. Further, since all the final state particles are SM states, the position in the edges of these invariant mass distributions can be used to exclusively determine the masses of the resonances. Observation of these features are meant to serve as a trigger, thereby mandating a more detailed analysis in a particular direction of parameter space. The absence of these edge like features, in the specific invariant mass distributions considered here, in minimal versions of supersymmetric models (MSSM) also serves as a harbinger of such non-MSSM-like scenarios.

  20. Multiplanar breast kinematics during different exercise modalities.

    PubMed

    Risius, Deborah; Milligan, Alexandra; Mills, Chris; Scurr, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Multiplanar breast movement reduction is crucial to increasing physical activity participation amongst women. To date, research has focused on breast movement during running, but until breast movement is understood during different exercise modalities, the breast support requirements for specific activities are unknown. To understand breast support requirements during different exercise modalities, this study aimed to determine multiplanar breast kinematics during running, jumping and agility tasks. Sixteen 32D participants had markers attached to their right nipple and torso. Relative multiplanar breast displacement was calculated during bare-breasted treadmill running (10 kph), maximum countermovement jumping and an agility t-test. Exercise modality influenced the magnitude and direction of breast displacement, velocity and acceleration (p < .05). Jumping produced greater vertical breast displacement (.09 m) but less mediolateral breast displacement (.05 m) than running or the agility task, but agility tasks produced the highest multiplanar breast velocities and acceleration. Breast movement during jumping was predominantly in the vertical direction, whereas the agility task produced a greater percentage of mediolateral breast acceleration than running or jumping. Exercise modality impacted upon the magnitude and distribution of bare-breasted multiplanar breast kinematics in this homogenous 32D cohort. Therefore, to reduce breast movement in women of a 32D bra size, manufacturers may wish to design sport-specific products, with greater vertical support for exercise modalities incorporating jumping and greater mediolateral support for agility tasks.

  1. The Kinematics of Turbulent Boundary Layer Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Stephen Kern

    1991-01-01

    The long history of research into the internal structure of turbulent boundary layers has not provided a unified picture of the physics responsible for turbulence production and dissipation. The goals of the present research are to: (1) define the current state of boundary layer structure knowledge; and (2) utilize direct numerical simulation results to help close the unresolved issues identified in part A and to unify the fragmented knowledge of various coherent motions into a consistent kinematic model of boundary layer structure. The results of the current study show that all classes of coherent motion in the low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer may be related to vortical structures, but that no single form of vortex is representative of the wide variety of vortical structures observed. In particular, ejection and sweep motions, as well as entrainment from the free-streem are shown to have strong spatial and temporal relationships with vortical structures. Disturbances of vortex size, location, and intensity show that quasi-streamwise vortices dominate the buffer region, while transverse vortices and vortical arches dominate the wake region. Both types of vortical structure are common in the log region. The interrelationships between the various structures and the population distributions of vortices are combined into a conceptual kinematic model for the boundary layer. Aspects of vortical structure dynamics are also postulated, based on time-sequence animations of the numerically simulated flow.

  2. Against relative timing invariance in movement kinematics.

    PubMed

    Burgess-Limerick, R; Neal, R J; Abernethy, B

    1992-05-01

    The kinematics of stair climbing were examined to test the assertion that relative timing is an invariant feature of human gait. Six male and four female subjects were video-recorded (at 60 Hz) while they climbed a flight of stairs 10 times at each of three speeds. Each gait cycle was divided into three segments by the maximum and minimum angular displacement of the left knee and left foot contact. Gentner's (1987) analysis methods were applied to the individual subject data to determine whether the duration of the segments remained a fixed proportion of gait cycle duration across changes in stair-climbing speed. A similar analysis was performed using knee velocity maxima to partition the gait cycle. Regardless of how the gait cycle was divided, relative timing was not found to remain strictly invariant across changes in speed. This conclusion is contrary to previous studies of relative timing that involved less conservative analysis but is consistent with the wider gait literature. Strict invariant relative timing may not be a fundamental feature of movement kinematics.

  3. THE KINEMATICS OF PRIMATE MIDFOOT FLEXIBILITY

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Thomas M.; Ball, Kevin A.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a unique assessment of primate intrinsic foot joint kinematics based upon bone pin rigid cluster tracking. It challenges the assumption that human evolution resulted in a reduction of midfoot flexibility, which has been identified in other primates as the “midtarsal break.” Rigid cluster pins were inserted into the foot bones of human, chimpanzee, baboon and macaque cadavers. The positions of these bone pins were monitored during a plantarflexion-dorsiflexion movement cycle. Analysis resolved flexion-extension movement patterns and the associated orientation of rotational axes for the talonavicular, calcaneocuboid and lateral cubometatarsal joints. Results show that midfoot flexibility occurs primarily at the talonavicular and cubometatarsal joints. The rotational magnitudes are roughly similar between humans and chimps. There is also a similarity among evaluated primates in the observed rotations of the lateral cubometatarsal joint, but there was much greater rotation observed for the talonavicular joint, which may serve to differentiate monkeys from the hominines. It appears that the capability for a midtarsal break is present within the human foot. A consideration of the joint axes shows that the medial and lateral joints have opposing orientations, which has been associated with a rigid locking mechanism in the human foot. However, the potential for this same mechanism also appears in the chimpanzee foot. These findings demonstrate a functional similarity within the midfoot of the hominines. Therefore, the kinematic capabilities and restrictions for the skeletal linkages of the human foot may not be as unique as has been previously suggested. PMID:25234343

  4. Kinematic Constraints Associated with the Acquisition of Overarm Throwing Part I: Step and Trunk Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stodden, David F.; Langendorfer, Stephen J.; Fleisig, Glenn S.; Andrews, James R.

    2006-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: (a) examine differences within specific kinematic variables and ball velocity associated with developmental component levels of step and trunk action (Roberton & Halverson, 1984), and (b) if the differences in kinematic variables were significantly associated with the differences in component levels, determine…

  5. Kinematic Constraints Associated with the Acquisition of Overarm Throwing Part II: Upper Extremity Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stodden, David F.; Langendorfer, Stephen J.; Fleisig, Glenn S.; Andrews, James R.

    2006-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: (a) examine the differences within 11 specific kinematic variables and an outcome measure (ball velocity) associated with component developmental levels of humerus and forearm action (Roberton & Halverson, 1984), and (b) if the differences in kinematic variables were significantly associated with the differences…

  6. Complete mitochondrial genomes of Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda and Tachypleus tridentatus (Xiphosura, Arthropoda) and implications for chelicerate phylogenetic studies.

    PubMed

    Baek, Su Youn; Choi, Eun Hwa; Jang, Kuem Hee; Ryu, Shi Hyun; Park, Sang Myeon; Suk, Ho Young; Chang, Cheon Young; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2014-01-01

    Horseshoe crabs (order Xiphosura) are often referred to as an ancient order of marine chelicerates and have been considered as keystone taxa for the understanding of chelicerate evolution. However, the mitochondrial genome of this order is only available from a single species, Limulus polyphemus. In the present study, we analyzed the complete mitochondrial genomes from two Asian horseshoe crabs, Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda and Tachypleus tridentatus to offer novel data for the evolutionary relationship within Xiphosura and their position in the chelicerate phylogeny. The mitochondrial genomes of C. rotundicauda (15,033 bp) and T. tridentatus (15,006 bp) encode 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes. Overall sequences and genome structure of two Asian species were highly similar to that of Limulus polyphemus, though clear differences among three were found in the stem-loop structure of the putative control region. In the phylogenetic analysis with complete mitochondrial genomes of 43 chelicerate species, C. rotundicauda and T. tridentatus were recovered as a monophyly, while L. polyphemus solely formed an independent clade. Xiphosuran species were placed at the basal root of the tree, and major other chelicerate taxa were clustered in a single monophyly, clearly confirming that horseshoe crabs composed an ancestral taxon among chelicerates. By contrast, the phylogenetic tree without the information of Asian horseshoe crabs did not support monophyletic clustering of other chelicerates. In conclusion, our analyses may provide more robust and reliable perspective on the study of evolutionary history for chelicerates than earlier analyses with a single Atlantic species.

  7. The morphology and kinematics of neutral hydrogen in the vicinity of z = 0 galaxies with Milky Way masses - a study with the Illustris simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffmann, Guinevere; Borthakur, Sanchayeeta; Nelson, Dylan

    2016-11-01

    We analyse the properties of the circumgalactic gas (circumgalactic medium, CGM) around 120 galaxies with stellar and dark matter halo masses similar to that of the Milky Way. We focus on the morphology and kinematics of the neutral hydrogen and how this depends on fg, the ratio of gas-to-stellar mass within the optical radius. In gas-rich galaxies with fg > 0.1, gas temperatures rise slowly from centre of the halo out to the virial radius and average neutral gas column densities remain above 1019 atoms cm-2 out to radii of 50-70 kpc. In gas-poor galaxies with fg < 0.1, gas temperatures rise quickly outside the edge of the disc to ˜106 K, and then remain fixed out to radii of 100 kpc. The column density of neutral gas quickly drops below 1019 atoms cm-2 at radii of 10 kpc. Neutral gas distributions are also more asymmetric in gas-poor galaxies. Most of the differences between gas-poor and gas-rich galaxies in the Illustris simulation can be attributed to the effects of `radio-mode' AGN feedback. In the Illustris simulation, the circumgalactic gas is found to rotate coherently about the centre of the galaxy with a maximum rotational velocity of around 200 km s-1. In gas-rich galaxies, the average coherence length of the rotating gas is 40 kpc, compared to 10 kpc in gas-poor galaxies. In the very most gas-rich systems, the CGM can rotate coherently over scales of 70-100 kpc. We discuss our results in the context of recent observations of the CGM in low-mass galaxies via UV absorption-line spectroscopy and deep 21 cm observations of edge-on spiral galaxies.

  8. The Morphology And Kinematics Of Neutral Hydrogen In The Vicinity Of Z=0 Galaxies With Milky-Way Masses - A Study With The Illustris Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffmann, Guinevere

    2016-09-01

    We analyze the properties of the circumgalactic gas (CGM) around 120 galaxies with stellar and dark matter halo masses similar to that of the Milky Way. We focus on the morphology and kinematics of the neutral hydrogen component of the CGM and how this depends on the ratio of gas-to-stellar mass within the optical radius. In gas-rich galaxies, gas temperatures rise monotonically from center of the halo out to the virial radius. Average neutral gas column densities remain higher than 10**19 atoms cm-2 all the way from the center of the galaxy out to radii of 50-70 kpc. In gas-poor galaxies with fg < 0.1, gas temperatures remain fixed at 10^6 K from the edge of the disk out to radii of 100 kpc. The column density of neutral gas drops below 1019 atoms cm-2 at radii of 10 kpc. The neutral gas distributions are also more asymmetric in gas-poor galaxies. Most of these trends can be explained by the fact that in the Illustris simulation, gas-poor galaxies with Milky Way masses have massive (108Mo) black holes that accrete at few percent of Eddington, and that energy is being dumped into the halo at large (100 kpc) radii in the form of bubbles of hot gas in these systems. We also find that the circumgalactic gas rotates coherently about the center of the galaxy with a maximum rotational velocity of around 200 km/s. In gas-rich galaxies, the average coherence length of the rotating gas is 40 kpc, compared to 10 kpc in gas-poor galaxies. In the most gas-rich systems, the CGM can rotate coherently over scales of 70-100 kpc. We discuss our results in the context of recent observations of the CGM in low mass galaxies via UV absorption-line spectroscopy and deep 21cm observations of edge-on spiral galaxies.

  9. Kinematics and dynamics of a six-degree-of-freedom robot manipulator with closed kinematic chain mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Pooran, Farhad J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper deals with a class of robot manipulators built based on the kinematic chain mechanism (CKCM). This class of CKCM manipulators consists of a fixed and a moving platform coupled together via a number of in-parallel actuators. A closed-form solution is derived for the inverse kinematic problem of a six-degre-of-freedom CKCM manipulator designed to study robotic applications in space. Iterative Newton-Raphson method is employed to solve the forward kinematic problem. Dynamics of the above manipulator is derived using the Lagrangian approach. Computer simulation of the dynamical equations shows that the actuating forces are strongly dependent on the mass and centroid of the robot links.

  10. Ballistic representation for kinematic access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfano, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    This work uses simple two-body orbital dynamics to initially determine the kinematic access for a ballistic vehicle. Primarily this analysis was developed to assess when a rocket body might conjunct with an orbiting satellite platform. A family of access opportunities can be represented as a volume for a specific rocket relative to its launch platform. Alternately, the opportunities can be represented as a geographical footprint relative to aircraft or satellite position that encompasses all possible launcher locations for a specific rocket. A thrusting rocket is treated as a ballistic vehicle that receives all its energy at launch and follows a coasting trajectory. To do so, the rocket's burnout energy is used to find its equivalent initial velocity for a given launcher's altitude. Three kinematic access solutions are then found that account for spherical Earth rotation. One solution finds the maximum range for an ascent-only trajectory while another solution accommodates a descending trajectory. In addition, the ascent engagement for the descending trajectory is used to depict a rapid access scenario. These preliminary solutions are formulated to address ground-, sea-, or air-launched vehicles.

  11. Interactive cervical motion kinematics: sensitivity, specificity and clinically significant values for identifying kinematic impairments in patients with chronic neck pain.

    PubMed

    Sarig Bahat, Hilla; Chen, Xiaoqi; Reznik, David; Kodesh, Einat; Treleaven, Julia

    2015-04-01

    Chronic neck pain has been consistently shown to be associated with impaired kinematic control including reduced range, velocity and smoothness of cervical motion, that seem relevant to daily function as in quick neck motion in response to surrounding stimuli. The objectives of this study were: to compare interactive cervical kinematics in patients with neck pain and controls; to explore the new measures of cervical motion accuracy; and to find the sensitivity, specificity, and optimal cutoff values for defining impaired kinematics in those with neck pain. In this cross-section study, 33 patients with chronic neck pain and 22 asymptomatic controls were assessed for their cervical kinematic control using interactive virtual reality hardware and customized software utilizing a head mounted display with built-in head tracking. Outcome measures included peak and mean velocity, smoothness (represented by number of velocity peaks (NVP)), symmetry (represented by time to peak velocity percentage (TTPP)), and accuracy of cervical motion. Results demonstrated significant and strong effect-size differences in peak and mean velocities, NVP and TTPP in all directions excluding TTPP in left rotation, and good effect-size group differences in 5/8 accuracy measures. Regression results emphasized the high clinical value of neck motion velocity, with very high sensitivity and specificity (85%-100%), followed by motion smoothness, symmetry and accuracy. These finding suggest cervical kinematics should be evaluated clinically, and screened by the provided cut off values for identification of relevant impairments in those with neck pain. Such identification of presence or absence of kinematic impairments may direct treatment strategies and additional evaluation when needed.

  12. Effect of palatal form on movement of teeth during processing of complete denture prosthesis: An in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Sumanth; Manjunath, Shaurya; Vajawat, Mayuri

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this in-vitro study was to assess the influence of shallow and deep palatal forms on the movement of teeth during the processing of complete denture prosthesis. Materials and Methods: Maxillary casts with shallow and deep palatal forms were selected and duplicated to make 10 casts of each palatal form. Base plates were constructed and teeth were arranged in their anatomic positions. Metal pins with true apex were placed on the central groove of the right and left first molars and one on the incisive papilla area as a reference point. Casts were scanned using i-CAT Vision Q 1.9 (i-CAT cone beam 3D dental imaging system by Imaging Sciences International, PA, USA), which has 360° rotational tomography. The distances between the apices of metallic pin inserts on the teeth and fitted point of reference were recorded in buccopalatal axes at waxed up stage, after deflasking, and after finishing and polishing. Results: Results showed a statistically significant movement of teeth in shallow and deep palatal forms during all stages of complete denture processing. In shallow palatal form dentures, there was a significant tooth movement in palatal direction between Stages 1 and 2 (P ≤ 0.05) and buccal movement between Stages 2 and 3. In deep palatal form dentures, teeth showed a statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05) movement in buccal direction during all stages of denture processing. Conclusion: Teeth showed significant movement during processing of acrylic resin dentures. Overall, the movement of teeth in shallow palatal form dentures was in palatal direction, whereas in deep palatal form dentures, the movement of teeth was in buccal direction. PMID:27041898

  13. Achieving complete nitrogen removal by coupling nitritation-anammox and methane-dependent denitrification: A model-based study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xueming; Guo, Jianhua; Xie, Guo-Jun; Yuan, Zhiguo; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2016-05-01

    The discovery of denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) processes enables the complete nitrogen removal from wastewater by utilizing the methane produced on site from anaerobic digesters. This model-based study investigated the mechanisms and operational window for efficient nitrogen removal by coupling nitritation-anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) and methane-dependent denitrification in membrane biofilm reactors (MBfRs). A mathematical model was applied to describe the microbial interactions among Anammox bacteria, DAMO archaea, and DAMO bacteria. The model sufficiently described the batch experimental data from an MBfR containing an Anammox-DAMO biofilm with different feeding nitrogen compositions, which confirmed the validity of the model. The effects of process parameters on the system performance and microbial community structure could therefore be reliably evaluated. The impacts of nitritation produced NO2(-)/NH4(+) ratio, methane supply, biofilm thickness and total nitrogen (TN) surface loading were comprehensively investigated with the model. Results showed that the optimum NO2(-)/NH4(+) ratio produced from nitritation for the Anammox-DAMO biofilm system was around 1.0 in order to achieve the maximum TN removal (over 99.0%), independent on TN surface loading. The corresponding optimal methane supply increased while the associated methane utilization efficiency decreased with the increase of TN surface loading. The cooperation between DAMO organisms and Anammox bacteria played the key role in the TN removal. Based on these results, the proof-of-concept feasibility of a single-stage MBfR coupling nitritation-Anammox-DAMO for complete nitrogen removal was also tested through integrating the model with ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) processes whilst controlling the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in the simulated system. The maximum TN removal was found to be achieved at the bulk DO concentration of

  14. In situ studies of surface of NiFe2O4 catalyst during complete oxidation of methane

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Shiran; Shan, Junjun; Nie, Longhui; ...

    2015-12-21

    Here, NiFe2O4 with an inverse spinel structure exhibits high activity for a complete oxidation of methane at 400 °C–425 °C and a higher temperature. The surface of the catalyst and its adsorbates were well characterized with ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) and in situ infrared spectroscopy (IR). In situ studies of the surface of NiFe2O4 using AP-XPS suggest the formation of methoxy-like and formate-like intermediates at a temperature lower than 200 °C, supported by the observed vibrational signatures in in situ IR studies. Evolutions of C1s photoemission features and the nominal atomic ratios of C/(Ni + Fe) of themore » catalyst surface suggest that the formate-like intermediate is transformed to product molecules CO2 and H2O in the temperature range of 250–300 °C. In situ studies suggest the formation of a spectator, – Olattice – CH2 – Olattice –. It strongly bonds to surface through C–O bonds and cannot be activated even at 400 °C.« less

  15. In situ studies of surface of NiFe2O4 catalyst during complete oxidation of methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shiran; Shan, Junjun; Nie, Longhui; Nguyen, Luan; Wu, Zili; Tao, Franklin (Feng)

    2016-06-01

    NiFe2O4 with an inverse spinel structure exhibits high activity for a complete oxidation of methane at 400 °C-425 °C and a higher temperature. The surface of the catalyst and its adsorbates were well characterized with ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) and in situ infrared spectroscopy (IR). In situ studies of the surface of NiFe2O4 using AP-XPS suggest the formation of methoxy-like and formate-like intermediates at a temperature lower than 200 °C, supported by the observed vibrational signatures in in situ IR studies. Evolutions of C1s photoemission features and the nominal atomic ratios of C/(Ni + Fe) of the catalyst surface suggest that the formate-like intermediate is transformed to product molecules CO2 and H2O in the temperature range of 250-300 °C. In situ studies suggest the formation of a spectator, - Olatticesbnd CH2sbnd Olattice -. It strongly bonds to surface through Csbnd O bonds and cannot be activated even at 400 °C.

  16. Imaging spectrophotometry of ionized gas in NGC 1068. I - Kinematics of the narrow-line region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Gerald; Bland, Jonathan; Tully, R. Brent

    1990-01-01

    The kinematics of collisionally excited forbidden N II 6548, 6583 across the inner 1 arcmin diameter of the nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068 is mapped using an imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer and low-noise CCD. The stack of monochromatic images, which spatially resolved the high-velocity gas, was analyzed for kinematic and photometric content. Profiles agree well with previous long-slit work, and their complete spatial coverage makes it possible to constrain the gas volume distribution. It is found that the narrow-line region is distributed in a thick center-darkened, line-emitting cylinder that envelopes the collimated radio jet. Three distinct kinematic subsystems, of which the cylinder is composed, are discussed in detail. Detailed behavior of the emission-line profiles, at the few points in the NE quadrant with simple kinematics, argues that the ionized gas develops a significant component of motion perpendicular to the jet axis.

  17. Differences in Soccer Kick Kinematics between Blind Players and Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Katis, Athanasios; Kellis, Eleftherios; Natsikas, Christos

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the kinematic differences during instep soccer kicks between players who were blind and sighted controls. Eleven male soccer players who were blind and nine male sighted performed instep kicks under static and dynamic conditions. The results indicated significantly higher (p less than 0.05) ball…

  18. Kinematical superalgebras and Lie algebras of order 3

    SciTech Connect

    Campoamor-Stursberg, R.; Rausch de Traubenberg, M.

    2008-06-15

    We study and classify kinematical algebras which appear in the framework of Lie superalgebras or Lie algebras of order 3. All these algebras are related through generalized Inonue-Wigner contractions from either the orthosymplectic superalgebra or the de Sitter Lie algebra of order 3.

  19. Commencing and Persisting With a Web-Based Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Insomnia: A Qualitative Study of Treatment Completers

    PubMed Central

    West, Stacey; Glozier, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Background Computerized cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CCBT-I) has a growing evidence base as a stand-alone intervention, but it is less clear what factors may limit its acceptability and feasibility when combined with clinical care. Objective The purpose of this study was to explore barriers and facilitators to use of an adjunctive CCBT-I program among depressed patients in a psychiatric clinic by using both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Methods We conducted the qualitative component of the study using face-to-face or telephone interviews with participants who had enrolled in a clinical trial of a CCBT-I program as an adjunctive treatment in a psychiatric clinical setting. In line with the grounded theory approach, we used a semistructured interview guide with new thematic questions being formulated during the transcription and data analysis, as well as being added to the interview schedule. A range of open and closed questions addressing user experience were asked of all study participants who completed the 12-week trial in an online survey. Results Three themes emerged from the interviews and open questions, consistent with nonadjunctive CCBT-I implementation. Identification with the adjunctive intervention’s target symptom of insomnia and the clinical setting were seen as key reasons to engage initially. Persistence was related to factors to do with the program, its structure, and its content, rather than any nonclinical factors. The survey results showed that only the key active behavioral intervention, sleep restriction, was rated as a major problem by more than 15% of the sample. In this clinical setting, the support of the clinician in completing the unsupported program was highlighted, as was the need for the program and clinical treatment to be coordinated. Conclusions The use of a normally unsupported CCBT-I program as an adjunctive treatment can be aided by the clinician’s approach. A key behavioral component of the

  20. EMG and Kinematic Responses to Unexpected Slips After Slip Training in Virtual Reality

    PubMed Central

    Parijat, Prakriti; Lockhart, Thurmon E.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to design a virtual reality (VR) training to induce perturbation in older adults similar to a slip and examine the effect of the training on kinematic and muscular responses in older adults. Twenty-four older adults were involved in a laboratory study and randomly assigned to two groups (virtual reality training and control). Both groups went through three sessions including baseline slip, training, and transfer of training on slippery surface. The training group experienced twelve simulated slips using a visual perturbation induced by tilting a virtual reality scene while walking on the treadmill and the control group completed normal walking during the training session. Kinematic, kinetic, and EMG data were collected during all the sessions. Results demonstrated the proactive adjustments such as increased trunk flexion at heel contact after training. Reactive adjustments included reduced time to peak activations of knee flexors, reduced knee coactivation, reduced time to trunk flexion, and reduced trunk angular velocity after training. In conclusion, the study findings indicate that the VR training was able to generate a perturbation in older adults that evoked recovery reactions and such motor skill can be transferred to the actual slip trials. PMID:25296401

  1. The appropriateness of the helical axis technique and six available cardan sequences for the representation of 3-d lead leg kinematics during the fencing lunge.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Jonathan; Taylor, Paul J; Bottoms, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Cardan/Euler angles represent the most common technique for the quantification of segmental rotations. Cardan angles are influenced by their ordered sequence, and sensitive to planar-cross talk from the dominant rotation plane, which may affect the angular parameters. The International Society of Biomechanics (ISB) currently recommends a sagittal, coronal, and then transverse (XYZ) ordered sequence, although it has been proposed that when quantifying non-sagittal rotations this may not be the most appropriate technique. This study examined the influence of the helical and six available Cardan sequences on lower extremity three-dimensional (3-D) kinematics of the lead leg during the fencing lunge. Kinematic data were obtained using a 3-D motion capture system as participants completed simulated lunges. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to compare discrete kinematic parameters, and intraclass correlations were also utilized to determine evidence of planar crosstalk. The results indicate that in all three planes of rotation, peak angle and range of motion angles using the YXZ and ZXY sequences were significantly greater than the other sequences. It was also noted that the utilization of the YXZ and ZXY sequences was associated with the strongest correlations from the sagittal plane, and the XYZ sequence was found habitually to be associated with the lowest correlations. It appears that for accurate representation of 3-D kinematics of the lead leg during the fencing lunge, the XYZ sequence is the most appropriate and as such its continued utilization is encouraged.

  2. The Appropriateness of the Helical Axis Technique and Six Available Cardan Sequences for the Representation of 3-D Lead Leg Kinematics During the Fencing Lunge

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Jonathan; Taylor, Paul J; Bottoms, Lindsay

    Cardan/Euler angles represent the most common technique for the quantification of segmental rotations. Cardan angles are influenced by their ordered sequence, and sensitive to planar-cross talk from the dominant rotation plane, which may affect the angular parameters. The International Society of Biomechanics (ISB) currently recommends a sagittal, coronal, and then transverse (XYZ) ordered sequence, although it has been proposed that when quantifying non-sagittal rotations this may not be the most appropriate technique. This study examined the influence of the helical and six available Cardan sequences on lower extremity three-dimensional (3-D) kinematics of the lead leg during the fencing lunge. Kinematic data were obtained using a 3-D motion capture system as participants completed simulated lunges. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to compare discrete kinematic parameters, and intraclass correlations were also utilized to determine evidence of planar crosstalk. The results indicate that in all three planes of rotation, peak angle and range of motion angles using the YXZ and ZXY sequences were significantly greater than the other sequences. It was also noted that the utilization of the YXZ and ZXY sequences was associated with the strongest correlations from the sagittal plane, and the XYZ sequence was found habitually to be associated with the lowest correlations. It appears that for accurate representation of 3-D kinematics of the lead leg during the fencing lunge, the XYZ sequence is the most appropriate and as such its continued utilization is encouraged. PMID:24146700

  3. Numerical study on the complete blood cell sorting using particle tracing and dielectrophoresis in a microfluidic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Haider; Park, Cheol Woo

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a numerical model of a microfluidic device with particle tracing and dielectrophoresis field-flow fractionation was employed to perform a complete and continuous blood cell sorting. A low voltage was applied to electrodes to separate the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets based on their cell size. Blood cell sorting and counting were performed by evaluating the cell trajectories, displacements, residence times, and recovery rates in the device. A novel numerical technique was used to count the number of separated blood cells by estimating the displacement and residence time of the cells in a microfluidic device. For successful blood cell sorting, the value of cells displacement must be approximately equal to or higher than the corresponding maximum streamwise distance. The study also proposed different outlet designs to improve blood cell separation. The basic outlet design resulted in a higher cells recovery rate than the other outlets design. The recovery rate decreased as the number of inlet cells and flow rates increased because of the high particle-particle interactions and collisions with walls. The particle-particle interactions significantly affect blood cell sorting and must therefore be considered in future work.

  4. A complete toolset for the study of Ustilago bromivora and Brachypodium sp. as a fungal-temperate grass pathosystem

    PubMed Central

    Rabe, Franziska; Bosch, Jason; Stirnberg, Alexandra; Guse, Tilo; Bauer, Lisa; Seitner, Denise; Rabanal, Fernando A; Czedik-Eysenberg, Angelika; Uhse, Simon; Bindics, Janos; Genenncher, Bianca; Navarrete, Fernando; Kellner, Ronny; Ekker, Heinz; Kumlehn, Jochen; Vogel, John P; Gordon, Sean P; Marcel, Thierry C; Münsterkötter, Martin; Walter, Mathias C; Sieber, Christian MK; Mannhaupt, Gertrud; Güldener, Ulrich; Kahmann, Regine; Djamei, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Due to their economic relevance, the study of plant pathogen interactions is of importance. However, elucidating these interactions and their underlying molecular mechanisms remains challenging since both host and pathogen need to be fully genetically accessible organisms. Here we present milestones in the establishment of a new biotrophic model pathosystem: Ustilago bromivora and Brachypodium sp. We provide a complete toolset, including an annotated fungal genome and methods for genetic manipulation of the fungus and its host plant. This toolset will enable researchers to easily study biotrophic interactions at the molecular level on both the pathogen and the host side. Moreover, our research on the fungal life cycle revealed a mating type bias phenomenon. U. bromivora harbors a haplo-lethal allele that is linked to one mating type region. As a result, the identified mating type bias strongly promotes inbreeding, which we consider to be a potential speciation driver. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20522.001 PMID:27835569

  5. Gefitinib Versus Placebo in Completely Resected Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Results of the NCIC CTG BR19 Study

    PubMed Central

    Goss, Glenwood D.; O'Callaghan, Chris; Lorimer, Ian; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Masters, Gregory A.; Jett, James; Edelman, Martin J.; Lilenbaum, Rogerio; Choy, Hak; Khuri, Fadlo; Pisters, Katherine; Gandara, David; Kernstine, Kemp; Butts, Charles; Noble, Jonathan; Hensing, Thomas A.; Rowland, Kendrith; Schiller, Joan; Ding, Keyue; Shepherd, Frances A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Survival of patients with completely resected non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unsatisfactory, and in 2002, the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy was not established. This phase III study assessed the impact of postoperative adjuvant gefitinib on overall survival (OS). Patients and Methods Patients with completely resected (stage IB, II, or IIIA) NSCLC stratified by stage, histology, sex, postoperative radiotherapy, and chemotherapy were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive gefitinib 250 mg per day or placebo for 2 years. Study end points were OS, disease-free survival (DFS), and toxicity. Results As a result of early closure, 503 of 1,242 planned patients were randomly assigned (251 to gefitinib and 252 to placebo). Baseline factors were balanced between the arms. With a median of 4.7 years of follow-up (range, 0.1 to 6.3 years), there was no difference in OS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.24; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.64; P = .14) or DFS (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.61; P = .15) between the arms. Exploratory analyses demonstrated no DFS (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.76; P = .14) or OS benefit (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.90 to 1.71; P = .18) from gefitinib for 344 patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) wild-type tumors. Similarly, there was no DFS (HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 0.44 to 7.73; P = .395) or OS benefit (HR, 3.16; 95% CI, 0.61 to 16.45; P = .15) from gefitinib for the 15 patients with EGFR mutation-positive tumors. Adverse events were those expected with an EGFR inhibitor. Serious adverse events occurred in ≤ 5% of patients, except infection, fatigue, and pain. One patient in each arm had fatal pneumonitis. Conclusion Although the trial closed prematurely and definitive statements regarding the efficacy of adjuvant gefitinib cannot be made, these results indicate that it is unlikely to be of benefit. PMID:23980091

  6. Kinematic determinants of weapon velocity during the fencing lunge in experienced épée fencers.

    PubMed

    Bottoms, Lindsay; Greenhalgh, Andrew; Sinclair, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The lunge is the most common attack in fencing, however there is currently a paucity of published research investigating the kinematics of this movement. The aim of this study was to investigate if kinematics measured during the épée fencing lunge had a significant effect on sword velocity at touch and whether there were any key movement tactics that produced the maximum velocity. Lower extremity kinematic data were obtained from fourteen right handed club épée fencers using a 3D motion capture system as they completed simulated lunges. A forward stepwise multiple linear regression was performed on the data. The overall regression model yielded an Adj R2 of 0.74, p ≤ 0.01. The results show that the rear lower extremity's knee range of motion, peak hip flexion and the fore lower extremity's peak hip flexion all in the sagittal plane were significant predictors of sword velocity. The results indicate that flexion of the rear extremity's knee is an important predictor, suggesting that the fencer sits low in their stance to produce power during the lunge. Furthermore it would appear that the magnitude of peak flexion of the fore extremity's hip was a significant indicator of sword velocity suggesting movement of fore limbs should also be considered in lunge performance.

  7. Does kinematics add meaningful information to clinical assessment in post-stroke upper limb rehabilitation? A case report

    PubMed Central

    Bigoni, Matteo; Baudo, Silvia; Cimolin, Veronica; Cau, Nicola; Galli, Manuela; Pianta, Lucia; Tacchini, Elena; Capodaglio, Paolo; Mauro, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aims of this case study were to: (a) quantify the impairment and activity restriction of the upper limb in a hemiparetic patient; (b) quantitatively evaluate rehabilitation program effectiveness; and (c) discuss whether more clinically meaningful information can be gained with the use of kinematic analysis in addition to clinical assessment. The rehabilitation program consisted of the combined use of different traditional physiotherapy techniques, occupational therapy sessions, and the so-called task-oriented approach. [Subject and Methods] Subject was a one hemiplegic patient. The patient was assessed at the beginning and after 1 month of daily rehabilitation using the Medical Research Council scale, Nine Hole Peg Test, Motor Evaluation Scale for Upper Extremity in Stroke Patients, and Hand Grip Dynamometer test as well as a kinematic analysis using an optoelectronic system. [Results] After treatment, significant improvements were evident in terms of total movement duration, movement completion velocity, and some smoothness parameters. [Conclusion] Our case report showed that the integration of clinical assessment with kinematic evaluation appears to be useful for quantitatively assessing performance changes. PMID:27630445

  8. Complete study of suprathermal oxygen particles in Mars upper thermosphere and exosphere over the range of limiting conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeille, Arnaud; Combi, Michael; Tenishev, Valeriy; Bougher, Stephen; Nagy, Andrew

    As a part of a global effort, the dynamics of the flow of energetic particles through the Martian upper atmosphere has been studied. Being the most important reaction, the dissociative recombination (DR) of O2+ is responsible of most of the production of hot atomic oxygen deep in the thermosphere of Mars. To understand the Martian exosphere, it is then necessary to employ a global kinetic model which can include a self-consistent description of both thermosphere collisional region and exospheric collisionless domain. In this study, we have used our Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) model in combination with the 3D Mars Thermosphere General Circulation Model (MTGCM) of Bougher et al. to describe self-consistently the region of the upper thermosphere where the exosphere is generated, the entire exosphere, and its feedback into the thermosphere generally. Along with the effect of ionization, the DSMC method allows us to provide profiles of density and temperature, atmospheric loss rates and return fluxes as functions of the Solar Zenith Angle (SZA) for all cases considered. To present a complete description of this physical problem we examined several of the most limiting cases spanning spatial and temporal domains. Along with solar activity variability, these include comparisons between the polar meridian and the equator at equinox and between the summer and winter polar meridians at perihelion and aphelion conditions, respectively. The contribution of the different physical and chemical escape processes was studied and compared for the present but also earlier Mars epochs characterized by different solar inputs (1 EUV, 3 EUV and 5 EUV) for Equinox conditions. Support for this work comes from NASA Mars Fundamental Research grant NNG05GL80G.

  9. Laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy for complete rectal prolapse: A retrospective study evaluating outcomes in North Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Abhijit; Kumar, Saket; Maurya, Ajeet Pratap; Gupta, Vishal; Gupta, Vivek; Rahul

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the outcomes of laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy in the management of complete rectal prolapse (CRP) in North Indian patients with inherent bulky and redundant colon. METHODS: The study was conducted at a tertiary health care center of North India. Between January 2010 and October 2014, 15 patients who underwent laparoscopic ventral mesh repair for CRP, were evaluated in the present study. Perioperative outcomes, improvement in bowel dysfunction or appearance of new complications were documented from the hospital records maintained prospectively. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (9 female) with a median age of 50 years (range, 15-68) were included in the study. The median operative time was 200 min (range, 180-350 min) and the median post-operative stay was 4 d (range, 3-21 d). No operative mortality occurred. One patient with inadvertent small bowel injury required laparotomy on post-operative day 2. At a median follow-up of 22 mo (range, 4-54 mo), no prolapse recurrence was reported. No mesh-related complication was encountered. Wexner constipation score improved significantly from the preoperative value of 17 (range, 5-24) to 6 (range, 0-23) (P < 0.001) and the fecal incontinence severity index score from 24 (range, 0-53) to 2 (range, 0-53) (P = 0.007). No de novo constipation or fecal incontinence was recorded during the follow-up. On personal conversation, all patients expressed satisfaction with the outcome of their treatment. CONCLUSION: Our experience indicates that laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy is an effective surgical option for CRP in North Indian patients having a bulky redundant colon. PMID:27152139

  10. Alterations in Cortical Sensorimotor Connectivity following Complete Cervical Spinal Cord Injury: A Prospective Resting-State fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenjun; Leschke, Jack; Ward, B. Douglas; Vedantam, Aditya; Kalinosky, Benjamin; Budde, Matthew D.; Schmit, Brian D.; Li, Shi-Jiang; Muqeet, Vaishnavi; Kurpad, Shekar N.

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have demonstrated alterations during task-induced brain activation in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. The interruption to structural integrity of the spinal cord and the resultant disrupted flow of bidirectional communication between the brain and the spinal cord might contribute to the observed dynamic reorganization (neural plasticity). However, the effect of SCI on brain resting-state connectivity patterns remains unclear. We undertook a prospective resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) study to explore changes to cortical activation patterns following SCI. With institutional review board approval, rs-fMRI data was obtained in eleven patients with complete cervical SCI (>2 years post injury) and nine age-matched controls. The data was processed using the Analysis of Functional Neuroimages software. Region of interest (ROI) based analysis was performed to study changes in the sensorimotor network using pre- and post-central gyri as seed regions. Two-sampled t-test was carried out to check for significant differences between the two groups. SCI patients showed decreased functional connectivity in motor and sensory cortical regions when compared to controls. The decrease was noted in ipsilateral, contralateral, and interhemispheric regions for left and right precentral ROIs. Additionally, the left postcentral ROI demonstrated increased connectivity with the thalamus bilaterally in SCI patients. Our results suggest that cortical activation patterns in the sensorimotor network undergo dynamic reorganization following SCI. The presence of these changes in chronic spinal cord injury patients is suggestive of the inherent neural plasticity within the central nervous system. PMID:26954693

  11. An advanced navigational surgery system for dental implants completed in a single visit: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Goo; Lee, Woo-Jin; Lee, Sam-Sun; Heo, Min-Suk; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Choi, Soon-Chul; Kim, Tae-Il; Yi, Won-Jin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have developed an advanced navigational implant surgery system to overcome some disadvantages of the conventional method and have evaluated the accuracy of the system under in vitro environment. The patient splint for registration and tracking was improvised using a bite splint without laboratory work and the offset of an exchanged drill was calibrated directly without pivoting during surgery. The mean target registration errors (TRE) were 0.35 ± 0.11 mm using the registration body, 0.34 ± 0.18 mm for the registration method with prerecorded fiducials, and 0.35 ± 0.16 mm for the direct calibration of a drill offset. The mean positional deviations between the planned and placed implants in 110 implant surgeries were 0.41 ± 0.12 mm at the center point of the platform and 0.56 ± 0.14 mm at the center point of the apex. The mean angular deviation was 2.64°± 1.31 for the long axis of the implant. In conclusion, the developed system exhibited high accuracy, and the improved tools and simplified procedures increased the convenience and availability. With this advanced approach, it will be possible to complete dental implant surgery during a single visit at local clinics using a navigational guidance involving cone-beam computed tomographic images.

  12. Estimation in AB/BA crossover trials with application to bioequivalence studies with incomplete and complete data designs.

    PubMed

    Jaki, Thomas; Pallmann, Philip; Wolfsegger, Martin J

    2013-12-30

    Crossover studies are frequently used in clinical research as they allow within-subject comparisons instead of the between-subject evaluation of parallel group designs. Estimation of interesting parameters from such designs is, however, not trivial. We provide three methods for estimating treatment effects and associated standard errors from an AB/BA crossover trial. Assuming at least asymptotic normality, we can obtain the confidence intervals for single parameters as well as for differences or ratios of treatment effects. The latter is particularly useful in a pharmacokinetic context to establish bioequivalence using area under the concentration versus time curves (AUCs). In this work, we will illustrate how Fieller-type confidence intervals can be constructed for the ratio of AUCs estimated using a noncompartmental approach in a sparse sampling setting from a two-treatment, two-period, two-sequence crossover trial. In particular, we will discuss a flexible batch design, which includes traditional serial sampling and complete data designs as special cases. Via simulation, we show that the proposed intervals have nominal coverage and keep the type I error even for small sample sizes. Moreover, we illustrate the methodology in a real data example.

  13. The hidden experience of radiotherapy to the head and neck: a qualitative study of patients after completion of treatment.

    PubMed

    Wells, M

    1998-10-01

    Only a small proportion of cancer patients undergo radical radiotherapy to the head and neck, but their needs are particularly complex. Radiation reactions often exacerbate existing functional difficulties and may severely limit 'normal' life. Few existing studies examine what happens when radiotherapy is over, yet this is the time when reactions are at their peak and day to day links with the hospital are severed. This naturalistic inquiry uses a combination of methods to explore the experiences of 12 patients after completion of radiotherapy to the head and neck. The impact of radiotherapy and the profound disruption to daily life is shown by the uncertainty and unpredictability of symptoms, the waiting, ambiguity and loss of self integrity which occurs throughout this time. Despite considerable physical and emotional trauma, patients showed remarkable resilience and a profound reluctance to ask for help. The findings demand that we re-examine our styles of communication, and consider how well we give information and listen to what is really happening. It is imperative that we provide greater consistency and continuity of care during radiotherapy, recognize the impact of the whole experience and respond to the post-treatment needs of this unique patient group.

  14. Complete right bundle-branch block: echophonocardiographic study of first heart sound and right ventricular contraction times.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, N; Leech, G; Leatham, A

    1979-01-01

    High speed enchocardiograms of the mitral, tricuspid, and pulmonary valves were recorded with a simultaneous electrocardiogram and phonocardiogram in 20 patients with complete right bundle-branch block and in 67 normal subjects. Late opening of the pulmonary valve indicating late right ventricular ejection was found in all patients. In 8 patients with wide splitting of the first heart sound the late ejection was related mainly to delay in tricuspid valve closure, suggesting a late onset of the right ventricular pressure pulse. In 10 patients with a single first heart sound the delayed ejection was associated with a long interval between tricuspid valve closure and pulmonary valve opening, suggesting a slow rising right ventricular pressure pulse; 3 of these patients also had late tricuspid valve closure but the tricuspid component of the first sound was absent. Late onset of pressure rise is thought to result from block in the main right bundle-branch, and a slow rising pulse from block in the distal Purkinje network. These findings explain the conflicting results in previous studies of the first heart sound and right ventricular pressure pulse in patients with right bundle-branch block, and may have prognostic significance. Images PMID:465238

  15. Structure and Kinematics of Early-Type Galaxies from Integral Field Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappellari, Michele

    2016-09-01

    Observations of galaxy isophotes, long-slit kinematics, and high-resolution photometry suggested a possible dichotomy between two distinct classes of elliptical galaxies. But these methods are expensive for large galaxy samples. Instead, integral field spectroscopy can efficiently recognize the shape, dynamics, and stellar population of complete samples of early-type galaxies (ETGs). These studies showed that the two main classes, the fast and slow rotators, can be separated using stellar kinematics. I show that there is a dichotomy in the dynamics of the two classes. The slow rotators are weakly triaxial and dominate above [Formula: see text]. Below Mcrit, the structure of fast rotators parallels that of spiral galaxies. There is a smooth sequence along which the age, the metal content, the enhancement in α-elements, and the weight of the stellar initial mass function all increase with the central mass density slope, or bulge mass fraction, while the molecular gas fraction correspondingly decreases. The properties of ETGs on galaxy scaling relations, in particular the [Formula: see text] diagram, and their dependence on environment, indicate two main independent channels for galaxy evolution. Fast-rotator ETGs start as star-forming disks and evolve through a channel dominated by gas accretion, bulge growth, and quenching, whereas slow rotators assemble near the centers of massive halos via intense star formation at high redshift and remain as such for the rest of their evolution via a channel dominated by gas poor mergers. This is consistent with independent studies of the galaxies redshift evolution.

  16. Influence of sideslip on the kinematics of the helicopter in steady coordinated turns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, R. T. N.; Jeske, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    A steep coordinated helical turn at extreme angles of attack with inherent sideslip is of primary interest in this study. Unlike fixed-wing aircraft, the helicopter in a steady coordinated turn will inherently sideslip. A set of exact kinematic equations describing this motion in steady helical turns has been developed, and a rational definition for the load factor that best characterizes a coordinated turn for a helicopter has been proposed. An analysis has also been completed on the effects of sideslip on the kinematic relationships in a coordinated turn which is based on new closed-form solutions which relate the aircraft angular rates and pitch and roll attitudes to the turn parameters, angle of attack, and sideslip. The results show that the bank angle of the aircraft can differ markedly from the tilt angle of the normal load factor and that the normal load factor can also differ substantially from the accelerometer reading along the vertical body axis of the aircraft. Generally, sideslip has a strong influence on the pitch attitude and roll rate of the helicopter. The study also indicates that pitch rate is independent of angle of attack in a coordinated turn and that in the absence of sideslip, angular rates about the stability axes are independent of the aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft.

  17. Kinematic tests of exotic flat cosmological models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlton, Jane C.; Turner, Michael S.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical prejudice and inflationary models of the very early universe strongly favor the flat, Einstein-de Sitter model of the universe. At present the observational data conflict with this prejudice. This conflict can be resolved by considering flat models of the universe which posses a smooth component of energy density. The kinematics of such models, where the smooth component is relativistic particles, a cosmological term, a network of light strings, or fast-moving, light strings is studied in detail. The observational tests which can be used to discriminate between these models are also discussed. These tests include the magnitude-redshift, lookback time-redshift, angular size-redshift, and comoving volume-redshift diagrams and the growth of density fluctuations.

  18. Kinematic tests of exotic flat cosmological models

    SciTech Connect

    Charlton, J.C.; Turner, M.S.

    1987-02-01

    Theoretical prejudice and inflationary models of the very early universe strongly favor the flat, Einstein-de Sitter model of the universe. At present the observational data conflict with this prejudice. This conflict can be resolved by considering flat models of the universe which posses a smooth component of energy density. The kinematics of such models, where the smooth component is relativistic particles, a cosmological term, a network of light strings, or fast-moving, light strings is studied in detail. The observational tests which can be used to discriminate between these models are also discussed. These tests include the magnitude-redshift, lookback time-redshift, angular size-redshift, and comoving volume-redshift diagrams and the growth of density fluctuations. 58 references.

  19. Deriving CME kinematics from multipoint space observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrotzek, Niclas; Pluta, Adam; Bothmer, Volker; Davies, Jackie; Harrison, Richard

    2016-04-01

    It is commonly believed that the kinematics of CMEs consist of an early Lorentz acceleration phase near the Sun followed by a decelerating drag-force phase at distances further out. To better understand the physical processes of CME evolution, and also to predict more accurately their arrival times at other heliospheric locations, we have analysed CMEs using multipoint coronagraph observations from STEREO and SOHO. The CME speed evolution is analysed by applying time-series GCS-modelling. The analysis is extended to distances further away from the Sun through analysis of observations from the STEREO heliospheric imagers. The results are compared to those obtained from the geometrical modelling of time-elongation profiles of CMEs extracted from J-maps. We discuss the implications of our results in the context of state-of-the-art space weather predictions. The studies are carried out in the EU FP7 project HELCATS (Heliospheric Cataloguing, Analysis and Techniques Service).

  20. Shear dynamo problem: Quasilinear kinematic theory.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, S; Subramanian, Kandaswamy

    2009-04-01

    Large-scale dynamo action due to turbulence in the presence of a linear shear flow is studied. Our treatment is quasilinear and kinematic but is nonperturbative in the shear strength. We derive the integrodifferential equation for the evolution of the mean magnetic field by systematic use of the shearing coordinate transformation and the Galilean invariance of the linear shear flow. For nonhelical turbulence the time evolution of the cross-shear components of the mean field does not depend on any other components excepting themselves. This is valid for any Galilean-invariant velocity field, independent of its dynamics. Hence the shear-current assisted dynamo is essentially absent, although large-scale nonhelical dynamo action is not ruled out.

  1. Kinematic tests of exotic flat cosmological models

    SciTech Connect

    Charlton, J.C.; Turner, M.S.

    1986-05-01

    Theoretical prejudice and inflationary models of the very early Universe strongly favor the flat, Einstein-deSitter model of the Universe. At present the observational data conflict with this prejudice. This conflict can be resolved by considering flat models of the Universe which possess a smooth component by energy density. We study in detail the kinematics of such models, where the smooth component is relativistic particles, a cosmological term, a network of light strings, or fast-moving, light strings. We also discuss the observational tests which can be used to discriminate between these models. These tests include the magnitude-redshift, lookback time-redshift, angular size-redshift, and comoving volume-redshift diagrams and the growth of density fluctuations.

  2. Top quark kinematics and mass determination

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, H.H.

    1994-10-01

    An analysis is presented of 10 W + {ge} 3 jet events, each with evidence for the presence of a b quark, that were recently observed by the CDF collaboration. Seven of these events include a fourth jet and can be explicitly reconstructed as t{bar t} production. The best estimate of the top quark mass is M{sub t} = 174 {+-} 10{sub {minus}12}{sup +13} GeV/c{sup 2}. A study has also been performed to see if the kinematical properties of events with W + {ge} 3 jets gives evidence for top production. An excess of events with large jet energies, compared to that expected from direct production of W + {ge} 3 jets, is observed. A large fraction of these events also contain a b-quark and a fourth jet.

  3. Kinematical and EMG-classifications of a fencing attack.

    PubMed

    Frère, J; Göpfert, B; Nüesch, C; Huber, C; Fischer, M; Wirz, D; Friederich, N F

    2011-01-01

    8 expert fencers were studied with a 3-dimensional motion analysis system. Each subject performed 10 flèche attacks toward a standardized target. Surface electromyography signals (EMG) were recorded of the deltoid pars clavicularis, infraspinatus and triceps brachii caput laterale muscles of the weapon arm. The recorded EMGs were averaged using EMG wavelet-transformation software. 4 phases were defined based on the arm kinematics and used to classify fencers into 2 groups. A first group of 4 fencers showed an early maximal elbow extension (Early MEE) whereas the second group presented a late maximal elbow extension (Late MEE). 2 EMG-classifications were based on this kinematical classification, one in the time-domain and the other in the frequency-domain by using the spherical classification. The time-domain EMG-classification showed a significantly ( P=0.03) higher normalized deltoid intensity for the Early MEE group (91 ± 18%) than the Late MEE group (36 ± 13%) in the attack phase. The spherical classification revealed that the activity of all the muscles was significantly classified (recognition rate 75%, P=0.04) between the 2 groups. This study of EMG and kinematics of the weapon upper limb in fencing proposes several classifications, which implies a relationship between kinematic strategies, muscular activations and fencing success.

  4. Problem list completeness in electronic health records: a multi-site study and assessment of success factors

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Adam; McCoy, Allison B.; Hickman, Thu-Trang T.; St Hilaire, Daniel; Borbolla, Damian; Bowes, Len; Dixon, William G.; Dorr, David A.; Krall, Michael; Malholtra, Sameer; Bates, David W.; Sittig, Dean F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess problem list completeness using an objective measure across a range of sites, and to identify success factors for problem list completeness. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of electronic health record data and interviews at ten healthcare organizations within the United States, United Kingdom, and Argentina who use a variety of electronic health record systems: four self-developed and six commercial. At each site, we assessed the proportion of patients who have diabetes recorded on their problem list out of all patients with a hemoglobin A1c elevation >= 7.0%, which is diagnostic of diabetes. We then conducted interviews with informatics leaders at the four highest performing sites to determine factors associated with success. Finally, we surveyed all the sites about common practices implemented at the top performing sites to determine whether there was an association between problem list management practices and problem list completeness. Results Problem list completeness across the ten sites ranged from 60.2% to 99.4%, with a mean of 78.2%. Financial incentives, problem-oriented charting, gap reporting, shared responsibility, links to billing codes, and organizational culture were identified as success factors at the four hospitals with problem list completeness at or near 90.0%. Discussion Incomplete problem lists represent a global data integrity problem that could compromise quality of care and put patients at risk. There was a wide range of problem list completeness across the healthcare facilities. Nevertheless, some facilities have achieved high levels of problem list completeness, and it is important to better understand the factors that contribute to success to improve patient safety. Conclusion Problem list completeness varies substantially across healthcare facilities. In our review of EHR systems at ten healthcare facilities, we identified six success factors which may be useful for healthcare organizations seeking to

  5. Kinematics of Hα Emitting Stars in Andromeda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilango, Megha; Ilango, Anita; Damon, Gabriel; Prichard, Laura; Guhathakurta, Puragra; PHAT Collaboration; SPLASH Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Studying emission line stars helps improve our understanding of stellar evolution, types of stars, and their environments. In this study, we analyzed stars exhibiting Hα emission (Hα stars) in the Andromeda Galaxy. We used a combination of spectroscopic and photometric diagnostic methods to remove a population of foreground Milky Way (MW) star contaminants from our data set. The Hα stars were selected from a sample of 5295 spectra from the Spectroscopic and Photometric Landscape of Andromeda’s Stellar Halo (SPLASH) survey and accompanying photometric data from the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) survey. Velocities of two classes of Hα stars, main sequence (MS) stars and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, were analyzed through a novel Age-Velocity Difference Correlation (AVDC) method, which utilizes line-of-sight velocity differences (LOSVDs) in order to estimate the age of a rare stellar population. Histograms, weighted means, and weighted standard deviations of the LOSVDs were used to conclude that MS stars are more kinematically coherent than AGB stars, and that Hα stars are kinematically comparable and thus close in age to their non-Hα counterparts. With these results, it can definitively be inferred that mass loss is important in two stages of stellar evolution: massive MS and intermediate mass AGB. We hypothesized that this mass loss could either occur as a normal part of MS and AGB evolution, or that it could be emitted by only a subpopulation of MS and AGB stars throughout their life cycle. Our use of the novel AVDC method sets a precedent for the use of similar methods in predicting the ages of rare stellar subgroups.This research was supported by NASA and the National Science Foundation. Most of this work was carried out by high school students working under the auspices of the Science Internship Program at UC Santa Cruz.

  6. Revalidation of a prognostic score model based on complete blood count for nasopharyngeal carcinoma through a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohui; Chang, Hui; Tao, Yalan; Wang, Xiaohui; Gao, Jin; Zhang, Wenwen; Chen, Chen; Xia, Yunfei

    2016-01-01

    Objective In our previous work, we incorporated complete blood count (CBC) into TNM stage to develop a new prognostic score model, which was validated to improve prediction efficiency of TNM stage for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The purpose of this study was to revalidate the accuracy of the model, and its superiority to TNM stage, through data from a prospective study. Methods CBC of 249 eligible patients from the 863 Program No. 2006AA02Z4B4 was evaluated. Prognostic index (PI) of each patient was calculated according to the score model. Then they were divided by the PI into three categories: the low-, intermediate-and high-risk patients. The 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) of the three categories was compared by a log-rank test. The model and TNM stage (7th edition) were compared on efficiency for predicting the 5-year DSS, through comparison of the area under curve (AUC) of their receiver-operating characteristic curves. Results The 5-year DSS of the low-, intermediate-and high-risk patients were 96.0%, 79.1% and 62.2%, respectively. The low-and intermediate-risk patients had better DSS than the high-risk patients (P<0.001 and P<0.005, respectively). And there was a trend of better DSS in the low-risk patients, compared with the intermediate-risk patients (P=0.049). The AUC of the model was larger than that of TNM stage (0.726 vs. 0.661, P=0.023). Conclusions A CBC-based prognostic score model was revalidated to be accurate and superior to TNM stage on predicting 5-year DSS of NPC. PMID:27877005

  7. Kinematic path planning for space-based robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seereeram, Sanjeev; Wen, John T.

    1998-01-01

    Future space robotics tasks require manipulators of significant dexterity, achievable through kinematic redundancy and modular reconfigurability, but with a corresponding complexity of motion planning. Existing research aims for full autonomy and completeness, at the expense of efficiency, generality or even user friendliness. Commercial simulators require user-taught joint paths-a significant burden for assembly tasks subject to collision avoidance, kinematic and dynamic constraints. Our research has developed a Kinematic Path Planning (KPP) algorithm which bridges the gap between research and industry to produce a powerful and useful product. KPP consists of three key components: path-space iterative search, probabilistic refinement, and an operator guidance interface. The KPP algorithm has been successfully applied to the SSRMS for PMA relocation and dual-arm truss assembly tasks. Other KPP capabilities include Cartesian path following, hybrid Cartesian endpoint/intermediate via-point planning, redundancy resolution and path optimization. KPP incorporates supervisory (operator) input at any detail to influence the solution, yielding desirable/predictable paths for multi-jointed arms, avoiding obstacles and obeying manipulator limits. This software will eventually form a marketable robotic planner suitable for commercialization in conjunction with existing robotic CAD/CAM packages.

  8. Reliability and Minimum Detectable Change of Temporal-Spatial, Kinematic, and Dynamic Stability Measures during Perturbed Gait

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Temporal-spatial, kinematic variability, and dynamic stability measures collected during perturbation-based assessment paradigms are often used to identify dysfunction associated with gait instability. However, it remains unclear which measures are most reliable for detecting and tracking responses to perturbations. This study systematically determined the between-session reliability and minimum detectable change values of temporal-spatial, kinematic variability, and dynamic stability measures during three types of perturbed gait. Twenty young healthy adults completed two identical testing sessions two weeks apart, comprised of an unperturbed and three perturbed (cognitive, physical, and visual) walking conditions in a virtual reality environment. Within each session, perturbation responses were compared to unperturbed walking using paired t-tests. Between-session reliability and minimum detectable change values were also calculated for each measure and condition. All temporal-spatial, kinematic variability and dynamic stability measures demonstrated fair to excellent between-session reliability. Minimal detectable change values, normalized to mean values ranged from 1–50%. Step width mean and variability measures demonstrated the greatest response to perturbations with excellent between-session reliability and low minimum detectable change values. Orbital stability measures demonstrated specificity to perturbation direction and sensitivity with excellent between-session reliability and low minimum detectable change values. We observed substantially greater between-session reliability and lower minimum detectable change values for local stability measures than previously described which may be the result of averaging across trials within a session and using velocity versus acceleration data for reconstruction of state spaces. Across all perturbation types, temporal-spatial, orbital and local measures were the most reliable measures with the lowest minimum

  9. Galaxy simulations: Kinematics and mock observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, Christopher E.

    2013-08-01

    spiral galaxies. We recreate minor and major binary mergers, binary merger trees with multiple progenitors, and multiple sequential mergers. Within each of these categories of formation history, we correlate progenitor gas fraction, mass ratio, orbital pericenter, orbital ellipticity, spin, and kinematically decoupled cores with remnant kinematic properties. We find that binary mergers nearly always form fast rotators, but slow rotators can be formed from zero initial angular momentum configurations and gas-poor mergers. Remnants of binary merger trees are triaxial slow rotators. Sequential mergers form round slow rotators that most resemble the ATLAS3D rotators. We investigate the failure of ART and Sunrise simulation to reproduce the observed distribution of galaxies in the UVJ color-color diagram. No simulated galaxies achieve a color with V-J >1.0 while still being in the blue sequence. I systematically study the underlying sub grid models present in Sunrise to diagnose the source of the discrepancy. The experiments were largely unsuccessful in directly isolating the root of the J-band excess attenuation; however, they are instructive and can guide the intuition in terms of understanding the interplay of stellar emission and dust. These experiments were aimed at understanding the role of the underlying sub grid dust and radiation models, varying the dust geometry, and performing numerical studies of the radiation transfer calculation. Finally, I detail the data pipeline responsible for the creation of galaxy mock observations. The pipeline can be broken into the ART simulation raw data, the dark matter merger tree backbone, the format translation using yt, simulation the radiation transfer in Sunrise, and post-processed image treatments resulting. At every step, I detail the execution of the algorithms, the format of the data, and useful scripts for straightforward analysis.

  10. Kinematic Determinants of Early Acceleration in Field Sport Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Aron J.; Lockie, Robert G.; Coutts, Aaron J.

    2003-01-01

    Acceleration performance is important for field sport athletes that require a high level of repeat sprint ability. Although acceleration is widely trained for, there is little evidence outlining which kinematic factors delineate between good and poor acceleration. The aim of this study was to investigate the kinematic differences between individuals with fast and slow acceleration. Twenty field sport athletes were tested for sprint ability over the first three steps of a 15m sprint. Subjects were filmed at high speed to determine a range of lower body kinematic measures. For data analysis, subjects were then divided into relatively fast (n = 10) and slow (n = 10) groups based on their horizontal velocity. Groups were then compared across kinematic measures, including stride length and frequency, to determine whether they accounted for observed differences in sprint velocity. The results showed the fast group had significantly lower (~11-13%) left and right foot contact times (p < .05), and an increased stride frequency (~9%), as compared to the slow group. Knee extension was also significantly different between groups (p < .05). There was no difference found in stride length. It was concluded that those subjects who are relatively fast in early acceleration achieve this through reduced ground contact times resulting in an improved stride frequency. Training for improved acceleration should be directed towards using coaching instructions and drills that specifically train such movement adaptations. PMID:24688275

  11. Drinking in snakes: kinematic cycling and water transport.

    PubMed

    Cundall, D

    2000-07-01

    Snakes are purported to drink by sucking water into their mouths and then compressing the oral cavity to force water into the oesophagus. Video recordings of drinking behaviour in 23 snakes representing 14 species from three families, combined with simultaneous recordings of water volumes consumed, show that all the snakes vary widely in the amount of water taken in when drinking. This variation is not correlated with kinematic events. Kinematic recordings and indirect measurements of water flow suggest that moving water into the mouth can be decoupled from the processes that move water into the oesophagus and that, infrequently, water may continue flowing into the mouth during both opening (suction) and closing (presumed compression) of the mouth. Drinking in snakes is not a simple, stereotyped behaviour. Different snake species differ in both drinking kinematics and water inflow patterns. Vertical excursions of the mandible are smallest in booids and larger, but highly variable, in different viperids and colubrids. Cyclic movements of the tongue seen in booids are not evident in viperids or colubrids. All the snakes usually take in water at rates far below their potential maximum rate. Although drinking is apparently achieved by suction, a single model cannot explain all water movement patterns in snakes. At a practical level, functional morphological studies of drinking in snakes (and possibly many other animals) must demonstrate that fluid flow actually correlates with kinematic events. Without such an empirical demonstration, interpretation of other measurements (pressure, movement, etc.) is unlikely to produce meaningful models.

  12. Kinematic analysis of a flexible six-DOF parallel mechanism.

    PubMed

    Jing, Feng-Shui; Tan, Min; Hou, Zeng-Guang; Liang, Zi-Ze; Wang, Yun-Kuan; Gupta, Madan M; Nikiforuk, Peter N

    2006-04-01

    In this paper, a new type of six-degrees of freedom (DOF) flexible parallel mechanism (FPM) is presented. This type of parallel mechanism possesses several favorable properties: (1) its number of DOFs is independent of the number of serial chains which make up the mechanism; (2) it has no kinematical singularities; (3) it is designed to move on rails, and therefore its workspace is much larger than that of a conventional parallel manipulator; and (4) without changing the number of DOFs and the kinematics of the mechanisms, the number of the serial chains can be reconfigured according to the needs of the tasks. These properties make the mechanism very preferable in practice, especially for such tasks as joining huge ship blocks, in which the manipulated objects vary dramatically both in weights and dimensions. Furthermore, the mechanism can be used as either a fully actuated system or an underactuated system. In the fully actuated case, the mechanism has six DOF motion capabilities and manipulation capabilities. However, in the underactuated case, the mechanism still has six DOF motion capabilities, but it has only five DOF manipulation capabilities. In this paper, both the inverse and forward kinematics are studied and expressed in a closed form. The workspace and singularity analysis of the mechanism are also presented. An example is presented to illustrate how to calculate the kinematics of the mechanism in both fully-actuated and underactuated cases. Finally, an application of such a mechanism to manufacturing industry is introduced.

  13. Kinematic signatures of telic and atelic events in ASL predicates.

    PubMed

    Malaia, Evie; Wilbur, Ronnie B

    2012-09-01

    This article presents an experimental investigation of kinematics of verb sign production in American Sign Language (ASL) using motion capture data. The results confirm that event structure differences in the meaning of the verbs are reflected in the kinematic formation: for example, in the telic verbs (THROW, HIT), the end-point of the event is marked in the verb sign movement by significantly greater deceleration, as compared to atelic verbs (SWIM, TRAVEL). This end-point marker is highly robust regardless of position of the verb in the sentence (medial vs. final), although other prominent kinematic measures, including sign duration and peak speed of dominant hand motion within the sign, are affected by prosodic processes such as Phrase Final Lengthening. The study provides the first kinematic confirmation that event structure is expressed in movement profiles of ASL verbs, up to now only supported by apparent perceptual distinctions. The findings raise further questions about the psychology of event representation both in human languages and in the human mind.

  14. Primate Anatomy, Kinematics, and Principles for Humanoid Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Robert O.; Ambrose, Catherine G.

    2004-01-01

    The primate order of animals is investigated for clues in the design of Humanoid Robots. The pursuit is directed with a theory that kinematics, musculature, perception, and cognition can be optimized for specific tasks by varying the proportions of limbs, and in particular, the points of branching in kinematic trees such as the primate skeleton. Called the Bifurcated Chain Hypothesis, the theory is that the branching proportions found in humans may be superior to other animals and primates for the tasks of dexterous manipulation and other human specialties. The primate taxa are defined, contemporary primate evolution hypotheses are critiqued, and variations within the order are noted. The kinematic branching points of the torso, limbs and fingers are studied for differences in proportions across the order, and associated with family and genus capabilities and behaviors. The human configuration of a long waist, long neck, and short arms is graded using a kinematic workspace analysis and a set of design axioms for mobile manipulation robots. It scores well. The re emergence of the human waist, seen in early Prosimians and Monkeys for arboreal balance, but lost in the terrestrial Pongidae, is postulated as benefiting human dexterity. The human combination of an articulated waist and neck will be shown to enable the use of smaller arms, achieving greater regions of workspace dexterity than the larger limbs of Gorillas and other Hominoidea.

  15. Effects of load on good morning kinematics and EMG activity.

    PubMed

    Vigotsky, Andrew David; Harper, Erin Nicole; Ryan, David Russell; Contreras, Bret

    2015-01-01

    Many strength and conditioning coaches utilize the good morning (GM) to strengthen the hamstrings and spinal erectors. However, little research exists on its electromyography (EMG) activity and kinematics, and how these variables change as a function of load. The purpose of this investigation was to examine how estimated hamstring length, integrated EMG (IEMG) activity of the hamstrings and spinal erectors, and kinematics of the lumbar spine, hip, knee, and ankle are affected by changes in load. Fifteen trained male participants (age = 24.6 ± 5.3 years; body mass = 84.7 ± 11.3 kg; height = 180.9 ± 6.8 cm) were recruited for this study. Participants performed five sets of the GM, utilizing 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) in a randomized fashion. IEMG activity of hamstrings and spinal erectors tended to increase with load. Knee flexion increased with load on all trials. Estimated hamstring length decreased with load. However, lumbar flexion, hip flexion, and plantar flexion experienced no remarkable changes between trials. These data provide insight as to how changing the load of the GM affects EMG activity, kinematic variables, and estimated hamstring length. Implications for hamstring injury prevention are discussed. More research is needed for further insight as to how load affects EMG activity and kinematics of other exercises.

  16. Effects of load on good morning kinematics and EMG activity

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Erin Nicole; Ryan, David Russell; Contreras, Bret

    2015-01-01

    Many strength and conditioning coaches utilize the good morning (GM) to strengthen the hamstrings and spinal erectors. However, little research exists on its electromyography (EMG) activity and kinematics, and how these variables change as a function of load. The purpose of this investigation was to examine how estimated hamstring length, integrated EMG (IEMG) activity of the hamstrings and spinal erectors, and kinematics of the lumbar spine, hip, knee, and ankle are affected by changes in load. Fifteen trained male participants (age = 24.6 ± 5.3 years; body mass = 84.7 ± 11.3 kg; height = 180.9 ± 6.8 cm) were recruited for this study. Participants performed five sets of the GM, utilizing 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) in a randomized fashion. IEMG activity of hamstrings and spinal erectors tended to increase with load. Knee flexion increased with load on all trials. Estimated hamstring length decreased with load. However, lumbar flexion, hip flexion, and plantar flexion experienced no remarkable changes between trials. These data provide insight as to how changing the load of the GM affects EMG activity, kinematic variables, and estimated hamstring length. Implications for hamstring injury prevention are discussed. More research is needed for further insight as to how load affects EMG activity and kinematics of other exercises. PMID:25653899

  17. Kinematic analysis of Toxoplasma gondii motility.

    PubMed

    Frixione, E; Mondragón, R; Meza, I

    1996-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites execute a complex and little understood combination of rapid movements to reach and penetrate human or other animals cells. In the present study, computer-assisted simulation was used to quantitatively analyze the motility of these parasites in three-dimensional space with spatial and temporal resolutions in the micrometer and subsecond ranges. A digital model based on electron-micrographs of a serially sectioned tachyzoite was animated according to a videomicrographed sequence of a characteristic repetitive movement. Keyframe animation defined over 150 frames by a total of 36 kinematic parameters for specific motions, of both the whole model and particular domains, resulted in a real-time life-like simulation of the videorecorded tachyzoite movement. The kinematic values indicate that a full revolution of the model is composed of three half-turns accomplished in nearly 5 s with two phases: a relatively slow 180 degrees tilting with regard to the substratum plane, followed by fast (over 200 degrees/s) spinning almost simultaneous with pivoting around the posterior end, each clockwise and for about 180 degrees. Maximal flexing of the body, as well as bowing and retraction of its anterior end, occur at midway during the tilting phase. An estimated 70 degrees. clockwise torsion of the body seems to precede the spinning-pivoting phase. The results suggest the operation of two basic forces in the motility of T. gondii tachyzoites: (1) a clockwise torque that causes torsion, spinning, and pivoting; and (2) a longitudinal pull that contracts, bends and tilts the parasite. We discuss the possibility that both of these forces might result from the action of an actin-myosin system enveloping the twisted framework of microtubules characteristic of these organisms.

  18. Kinematic synthesis of bevel-gear-type robotic wrist mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chen-Chou

    Bevel-gear-type robotic wrist mechanisms are commonly used in industry. The reasons for their popularity are that they are compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. However, there are singularities in their workspace, which substantially degrade their manipulative performance. The objective of this research is to develop an atlas of three-degree-of-freedom bevel-gear-type wrist mechanisms, and through dimensional synthesis to improve their kinematic performance. The dissertation contains two major parts: the first is structural analysis and synthesis, the other is kinematic analysis and dimensional synthesis. To synthesize the kinematic structures of bevel-gear-type wrist mechanisms, the kinematic structures are separated from their functional considerations. All kinematic structures which satisfy the mobility condition are enumerated in an unbiased, systematic manner. Then the bevel-gear-type wrist mechanisms are identified by applying the functional requirements. Structural analysis shows that a three-degree-of-freedom wrist mechanism usually consists of non-fractionated, two degree-of-freedom epicyclic gear train jointed with the base link. Therefore, the structural synthesis can be simplified into a problem of examining the atlas of non-fractionated, two-degree-of-freedom epicyclic gear trains. The resulting bevel-gear-type wrist mechanism has been categorized and evaluated. It is shown that three-degree-of-freedom, four-jointed wrist mechanisms are promising for further improving the kinematic performance. It is found that a spherical planetary gear train is necessarily imbedded in a three-degree-of-freedom, four-jointed wrist mechanism. Therefore, to study the workspace and singularity problems of three-degree-of-freedom four-jointed spherical wrist mechanisms, we have to study the trajectories of spherical planetary gear trains. The parametric equations of the trajectories and some useful geometric properties for the analysis and synthesis of

  19. How wing kinematics affect power requirements and aerodynamic force production in a robotic bat wing.

    PubMed

    Bahlman, Joseph W; Swartz, Sharon M; Breuer, Kenneth S

    2014-06-01

    Bats display a wide variety of behaviors that require different amounts of aerodynamic force. To control and modulate aerodynamic force, bats change wing kinematics, which, in turn, may change the power required for wing motion. There are many kinematic mechanisms that bats, and other flapping animals, can use to increase aerodynamic force, e.g. increasing wingbeat frequency or amplitude. However, we do not know if there is a difference in energetic cost between these different kinematic mechanisms. To assess the relationship between mechanical power input and aerodynamic force output across different isolated kinematic parameters, we programmed a robotic bat wing to flap over a range of kinematic parameters and measured aerodynamic force and mechanical power. We systematically varied five kinematic parameters: wingbeat frequency, wingbeat amplitude, stroke plane angle, downstroke ratio, and wing folding. Kinematic values were based on observed values from free flying Cynopterus brachyotis, the species on which the robot was based. We describe how lift, thrust, and power change with increases in each kinematic variable. We compare the power costs associated with generating additional force through the four kinematic mechanisms controlled at the shoulder, and show that all four mechanisms require approximately the same power to generate a given force. This result suggests that no single parameter offers an energetic advantage over the others. Finally, we show that retracting the wing during upstroke reduces power requirements for flapping and increases net lift production, but decreases net thrust production. These results compare well with studies performed on C. brachyotis, offering insight into natural flight kinematics.

  20. Investigation of a Novel Completely-In-The-Canal Direct-Drive Hearing Device: A Temporal Bone Study

    PubMed Central

    Mahboubi, Hossein; Paulick, Peyton; Kiumehr, Saman; Merlo, Mark; Bachman, Mark; Djalilian, Hamid R.

    2012-01-01

    Hypothesis Whether a prototype direct-drive hearing device (DHD) is effective in driving the tympanic membrane (TM) in a temporal bone specimen to enable it to potentially treat moderate to severe hearing loss. Background Patient satisfaction with air conduction hearing aids has been low due to sound distortion, occlusion effect, and feedback issues. Implantable hearing aids provide a higher quality sound, but require surgery for placement. The DHD was designed to combine the ability of driving the ossicular chain with placement in the external auditory canal. Methods DHD is a 3.5 mm wide device that could fit entirely into the bony ear canal and directly drive the TM rather than use a speaker. A cadaveric temporal bone was prepared. The device developed in our laboratory was coupled to the external surface of the TM and against the malleus. Frequency sweeps between 300 Hz to 12 kHz were performed in two different coupling methods at 104 and 120 dB, and the DHD was driven with various levels of current. Displacements of the posterior crus of the stapes were measured using a Laser Doppler Vibrometer. Results The DHD showed a linear frequency response from 300Hz to 12kHz. Placement against the malleus showed higher amplitudes and lower power requirements than when the device was placed on the TM. Conclusions DHD is a small completely-in-the-canal device that mechanically drives the TM. This novel device has a frequency output wider than most air conduction devices. Findings of the current study demonstrated that the DHD had the potential of being incorporated into a hearing aid in the future. PMID:23202151

  1. Complete backbone and DENQ side chain NMR assignments in proteins from a single experiment: implications to structure-function studies.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Jithender G; Hosur, Ramakrishna V

    2014-03-01

    Resonance assignment is the first and the most crucial step in all nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) investigations on structure-function relationships in biological macromolecules. Often, the assignment exercise has to be repeated several times when specific interactions with ligands, substrates etc., have to be elucidated for understanding the functional mechanisms. While the protein backbone serves to provide a scaffold, the side chains interact directly with the ligands. Such investigations will be greatly facilitated, if there are rapid methods for obtaining exhaustive information with minimum of NMR experimentation. In this context, we present here a pulse sequence which exploits the recently introduced technique of parallel detection of multiple nuclei, e.g. (1)H and (13)C, and results in two 3D-data sets simultaneously. These yield complete backbone resonance assignment ((1)H(N), (15)N, (13)CO, (1)Hα/(13)Cα, and (1)Hβ/(13)Cβ chemical shifts) and side chain assignment of D, E, N and Q residues. Such an exhaustive assignment has the potential of yielding accurate 3D structures using one or more of several algorithms which calculate structures of the molecules very reliably on the basis of NMR chemical shifts alone. The side chain assignments of D, E, N, and Q will be extremely valuable for interaction studies with different ligands; D and E side chains are known to be involved in majority of catalytic activities. Utility of this experiment has been demonstrated with Ca(2+) bound M-crystallin, which contains largely D, E, N and Q residues at the metal binding sites.

  2. Glenohumeral Joint Kinematics following Clavicular Fracture and Repairs

    PubMed Central

    Walley, Kempland C.; Harlow, Ethan R.; Haghpanah, Babak; Vaziri, Ashkan; Ramappa, Arun J.; DeAngelis, Joseph P.

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this biomechanical study was to determine the effect of shortened clavicle malunion on the center of rotation of the glenohumeral (GH) joint, and the capacity of repair to restore baseline kinematics. Methods Six shoulders underwent automated abduction (ABD) and abbreviated throwing motion (ATM) using a 7-DoF automated upper extremity testing system in combination with an infrared motion capture system to measure the center of rotation of the GH joint. ATM was defined as pure lateral abduction and late cocking phase to the end of acceleration. Torsos with intact clavicle underwent testing to establish baseline kinematics. Then, the clavicles were subjected to midshaft fracture followed by kinematics testing. The fractured clavicles underwent repairs first by clavicle length restoration with plate fixation, and then by wiring of fragments with a 2-cm overlap to simulate shortened malunion. Kinematic testing was conducted after each repair technique. Center of rotation of the GH joint was plotted across all axes to outline 3D motion trajectory and area under the curve. Results Throughout ABD, malunion resulted in increased posterior and superior translation compared to baseline. Plate fixation restored posterior and superior translations at lower abduction angles but resulted in excess anterior and inferior translation at overhead angles. Throughout ATM, all conditions were significantly anterior and superior to baseline. Translation with malunion was situated anterior to the fractured and ORIF conditions at lower angles of external rotation. Plate fixation did not restore baseline anteroposterior or superoinferior translation at any angle measured. Conclusions This study illustrates the complex interplay of the clavicle and the GH joint. While abnormal clavicle alignment alters shoulder motion, restoration of clavicle length does not necessarily restore GH kinematics to baseline. Rehabilitation of the injured shoulder must address the

  3. Does whole body vibration training affect knee kinematics and neuromuscular control in healthy people?

    PubMed

    Sañudo, Borja; Feria, Adrian; Carrasco, Luis; de Hoyo, Moisés; Santos, Rui; Gamboa, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) training on the knee kinematics and neuromuscular control after single-legged drop landings. Surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of the rectus femoris and hamstring muscles and knee and ankle accelerometry signals were acquired from 42 healthy volunteers. Participants performed three pre-test landings and after a recovery period of three minutes, they completed one set of six bouts of WBV each of one minute duration (30 Hz - 4 mm), followed by a single-leg drop landing. After the WBV intervention no significant changes were observed in the kinematic outcomes measured, although the time to stabilise the lower-limb was significantly lower after the vibration training (F(8,41) = 6.55; P < 0.01). EMG analysis showed no significant differences in the amplitude of rectus femoris or hamstring muscles after WBV training, however, significant differences in EMG frequency of the rectus femoris were found before (F(8,41) = 7.595; P < 0.01) and after toe-down (F(8,41) = 4.440; P < 0.001). Finally, no significant changes were observed in knee or ankle acceleration after WBV. Results suggest that WBV can help to acutely enhance knee neuromuscular control, which may have clinical significance and help in the design of rehabilitation programmes.

  4. A novel running mechanic's class changes kinematics but not running economy.

    PubMed

    Craighead, Daniel H; Lehecka, Nick; King, Deborah L

    2014-11-01

    A novel method of running technique instruction, Midstance to Midstance Running (MMR), was studied to determine how MMR affected kinematics and running economy (RE) of recreational runners. An experimental pre-post randomized groups design was used. Participants (n = 18) were recreational runners who ran at least 3 days a week and 5 km per run. All testing was performed on a treadmill at 2.8 m·s. The intervention group (n = 9) completed 8 weeks of instruction in MMR; the control group (n = 9) continued running without instruction. The MMR group showed significant decreases in stride length (SL) (p = 0.02) and maximum knee flexion velocity in stance (p = 0.01), and a significant increase in stride rate (SR) (p = 0.02) after 8 weeks. No significant changes were found in heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, or RE. Midstance to Midstance Running was effective in changing SR and SL, but was not effective in changing other kinematic variables such as foot contact position and maximum knee flexion during swing. Midstance to Midstance Running did not affect RE. Evidence suggests that MMR may be an appropriate instructional method for recreational runners trying to decrease SL and increase SR.

  5. The Influence of Different Hand Paddle Size on 100-m Front Crawl Kinematics

    PubMed Central

    López-Plaza, Daniel; Alacid, Fernando; López-Miñarro, Pedro A.; Muyor, José M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of different sizes of hand paddles on kinematic parameters during a 100 m freestyle swimming performance in elite swimmers. Nine elite swimmers (19.1 ± 1.9 years) completed three tests of 100 m without paddles, with small paddles (271.27 cm2) and with large paddles (332.67 cm2), respectively. One video camera was used to record the performance during the three trials. The mean swimming velocity, stroke rate and stroke length were measured in the central 10 meters of each 50 m length. The results showed that stroke length tended to increase significantly when wearing hand paddles (p < 0.05) during both the first and second 50 m sections whereas the increase in swimming velocity occurred only in the second 50 m (p < 0.05). Conversely, the stroke rate showed a slight decreasing trend with increasing paddle size. During the 100 m freestyle trial the stroke kinematics were changed significantly as a result of the increase in propelling surface size when hand paddles were worn. PMID:23486988

  6. Learning inverse kinematics: reduced sampling through decomposition into virtual robots.

    PubMed

    de Angulo, Vicente Ruiz; Torras, Carme

    2008-12-01

    We propose a technique to speedup the learning of the inverse kinematics of a robot manipulator by decomposing it into two or more virtual robot arms. Unlike previous decomposition approaches, this one does not place any requirement on the robot architecture, and thus, it is completely general. Parametrized self-organizing maps are particularly adequate for this type of learning, and permit comparing results directly obtained and through the decomposition. Experimentation shows that time reductions of up to two orders of magnitude are easily attained.

  7. Einstein-Ehrenfest's radiation theory and Compton-Debye's kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barranco, Antonio V.; França, Humberto M.

    1992-02-01

    Einstein and Ehrenfest's radiation theory is modified in order to take into account the effects of the random zero-point fields, characteristic of classical stochastic electrodynamics, in a system of classical molecules interacting with thermal radiation. This is done by replacing the Einstein concept of “random spontaneous emission” by the concept of stimulated emission by the random zero-point fields. As a result, Compton and Debye's kinematic relations are obtained within the realm of a completely classical theory, that is, without having to consider the wave-particle duality for the molecules or the radiation.

  8. Anisotropic superconductivity driven by kinematic interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. A.

    2000-11-01

    We have analysed the effect of kinematic pairing on the symmetry of superconducting order parameter for a square lattice in the frame of the strongly correlated Hubbard model. It is argued that in the first perturbation order the kinematic interaction renormalizes the Hubbard-I dispersions and provides at low doping the mixed singlet (s + s*)-wave superconductivity, giving way at higher doping to the triplet p-wave superconductivity. The obtained phase diagram depends only on the hopping integral parameter. The influence of the Coulomb repulsion on the kinematic superconducting pairing has been estimated. The (s + s*)-wave gap and the thermodynamic critical magnetic field have been derived.

  9. Running kinematics and shock absorption do not change after brief exhaustive running.

    PubMed

    Abt, John P; Sell, Timothy C; Chu, Yungchien; Lovalekar, Mita; Burdett, Ray G; Lephart, Scott M

    2011-06-01

    Because of the nature of running, the forces encountered require a proper coordination of joint action of the lower extremity to dissipate the ground reaction forces and accelerations through the kinetic chain. Running-related muscle fatigue may reduce the shock absorbing capacity of the lower extremity and alter running kinematics. The purpose of this study was to determine if a bout of exhaustive running at a physiologically determined high intensity, changes running kinematics, impact accelerations, and alters shock attenuating capabilities. It was hypothesized that as a result of fatigue induced by an exhaustive run, running kinematics, impact accelerations at the head and shank, acceleration reduction, and shock attenuation would change. A within-subject, repeated-measures design was used for this study. Twelve healthy, competitive male and female distance runners participated. Subjects performed 2 testing sessions consisting of a VO2max treadmill protocol to determine the heart rate at ventilatory threshold and a fatigue-inducing running bout at the identified ventilatory threshold heart rate. Kinematic data included knee flexion, pronation, time to maximum knee flexion, and time to maximum pronation. Acceleration data included shank acceleration, head acceleration, and shock attenuation. No significant differences resulted for the kinematic or acceleration variables. Although the results of this study do not support the original hypotheses, the influence of running fatigue on kinematics and accelerations remains inconclusive. Future research is necessary to examine fatigue-induced changes in running kinematics and accelerations and to determine the threshold at which point the changes may occur.

  10. Proximal arm kinematics affect grip force-load force coordination.

    PubMed

    Vermillion, Billy C; Lum, Peter S; Lee, Sang Wook

    2015-10-01

    During object manipulation, grip force is coordinated with load force, which is primarily determined by object kinematics. Proximal arm kinematics may affect grip force control, as proximal segment motion could affect control of distal hand muscles via biomechanical and/or neural pathways. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of proximal kinematics on grip force modulation during object manipulation. Fifteen subjects performed three vertical lifting tasks that involved distinct proximal kinematics (elbow/shoulder), but resulted in similar end-point (hand) trajectories. While temporal coordination of grip and load forces remained similar across the tasks, proximal kinematics significantly affected the grip force-to-load force ratio (P = 0.042), intrinsic finger muscle activation (P = 0.045), and flexor-extensor ratio (P < 0.001). Biomechanical coupling between extrinsic hand muscles and the elbow joint cannot fully explain the observed changes, as task-related changes in intrinsic hand muscle activation were greater than in extrinsic hand muscles. Rather, between-task variation in grip force (highest during task 3) appears to contrast to that in shoulder joint velocity/acceleration (lowest during task 3). These results suggest that complex neural coupling between the distal and proximal upper extremity musculature may affect grip force control during movements, also indicated by task-related changes in intermuscular coherence of muscle pairs, including intrinsic finger muscles. Furthermore, examination of the fingertip force showed that the human motor system may attempt to reduce variability in task-relevant motor output (grip force-to-load force ratio), while allowing larger fluctuations in output less relevant to task goal (shear force-to-grip force ratio).

  11. An explicit kinematic scenario for the Iapetus and Rheic Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeier, Mat; Torsvik, Trond

    2015-04-01

    The opening of the Rheic Ocean by the rifting of Avalonia, and the subsequent closure of the Iapetus Ocean by means of the three-way continental collision between Laurentia, Baltica and Avalonia, together constitute the most dramatic, defining and well-studied tectonic events of the early Paleozoic. Despite this, modern kinematic models of those interrelated events are still schematic and/or spatiotemporally disjointed. This is in large part due to the fact that: 1.) many of the available models were originally built to explain a specific region (i.e. Northern Appalachians, Northern Ireland and Scotland, Norwegian Caledonides, etc.) and have only been expanded to neighboring regions as a speculative note, and 2.) the models were not constructed upon a rigorous plate tectonic framework, wherein plate boundaries are specified and the kinematics of the entire lithosphere within the domain are explicitly defined through time. Although the lithosphere of the Iapetus and Rheic Oceans was long ago destroyed, the kinematics of those basins can still be surmised through the careful consideration of paleomagnetic data from the continents and terranes formerly flanking those oceans, and from geological observables along their margins. It is thus possible to explore the tectonic evolution of those basins with kinematic models that strictly conform to plate tectonic rules, both in space and time. Such an approach can plainly identify existing kinematic concepts that are tectonically untenable and those that work only in isolation. Here we briefly elaborate on this approach and present the results of a developing full-plate model of the Iapetus and Rheic Oceans for Late Cambrian to end-Silurian time, with a particular focus on the development of the Caledonide margins.

  12. A Randomized Intervention Study to Evaluate Whether Electronic Messaging Can Increase Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Completion and Knowledge among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, Alice R.; Maddy, LaDonna; Torres, Essie; Goldberg, Ellen J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate an intervention aimed at increasing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine completion of the 3-dose series and knowledge. Participants: Two hundred sixty-four male and female US college students 18-26 years old who were receiving HPV vaccine dose 1. Methods: Students were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group.…

  13. Childhood Bullying Behaviors as a Risk for Suicide Attempts and Completed Suicides: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Sourander, Andre; Niemela, Solja; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Piha, Jorma; Tamminen, Tuula; Almqvist, Fredrik; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2009-01-01

    The examination of the data from a sample of 5,302 Finnish children who were born in 1981 finds that bullying at age eight years and later is associated with later suicide attempts and completed suicide for boys but not after controlling for conduct and depression symptoms. For girls, the association is still seen even after controlling for…

  14. Learning Together: A Study of Six B.A. Completion Cohort Programs in Early Care and Education. Year 1 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for the Study of Child Care Employment, University of California at Berkeley, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report reflects the first year of a multiyear effort to examine B.A. completion cohort programs in early care and education in four California counties. The six programs under investigation were developed with similar goals: (1) To increase and retain a pool of B.A.-level professionals in the ECE field with culturally, linguistically, and…

  15. Edge-driven microplate kinematics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schouten, Hans; Klitgord, Kim D.; Gallo, David G.

    1993-01-01

    It is known from plate tectonic reconstructions that oceanic microplates undergo rapid rotation about a vertical axis and that the instantaneous rotation axes describing the microplate's motion relative to the bounding major plates are frequently located close to its margins with those plates, close to the tips of propagating rifts. We propose a class of edge-driven block models to illustrate how slip across the microplate margins, block rotation, and propagation of rifting may be related to the relative motion of the plates on either side. An important feature of these edge-driven models is that the instantaneous rotation axes are always located on the margins between block and two bounding plates. According to those models the pseudofaults or traces of disrupted seafloor resulting from the propagation of rifting between microplate and major plates may be used independently to approximately trace the continuous kinematic evolution of the microplate back in time. Pseudofault geometries and matching rotations of the Easter microplate show that for most of its 5 m.y. history, block rotation could be driven by the drag of the Nazca and Pacific plates on the microplate's edges rather than by a shear flow of mantle underneath.

  16. Milky Way halo gas kinematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danly, L.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of high resolution, short wavelength absorption data taken by IUE toward high latitude O and B stars are presented in a discussion of the large scale kinematic properties of Milky Way Halo gas. An analysis of these data demonstrates that: (1) the obsrved absorption widths (FWHM) of Si II are very large, ranging up to 150 Km/s for the most distant halo star; this is much larger than is generally appreciated from optical data; (2) the absorption is observed to be systematically negative in radial velocity, indicating that cool material is, on the whole, flowing toward the disk of the galaxy; (3) there is some evidence for asymmetry between the northern and southern galactic hemispheres, in accordance with the HI 21 cm data toward the galactic poles; (4) low column density gas with highly negative radial LSR velocity (V less than -70 km/s) can be found toward stars beyond 1-3 kpc in the northern galactic hemisphere in all four quadrants of galactic longitude; and (5) only the profiles toward stars in the direction of known high velocity HI features show a clear two component structure.

  17. Longitudinal evaluation of jaw muscle activity and mandibular kinematics in young patients with Class II malocclusion treated with the Teuscher activator

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Maria J.; Cacho, Alberto; Alarcón, Jose A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: A longitudinal study was performed to evaluate the jaw muscle activity and mandibular kinematics after Teuscher activator treatment and at 2 years after orthodontic treatment completion. Material and Methods: Twenty-seven children with Class II division 1 malocclusion were evaluated before treatment (T0; mean: 11.6 years), after functional treatment (T1; mean: 12.8 years), and 2 years after orthodontic treatment (T2; mean: 18 years). Bilateral surface electromyographic activities of the anterior temporalis, posterior temporalis, masseter, and suprahyoid muscle areas were analyzed at rest and during clenching, swallowing, and mastication. Kinematic recordings of the mandibular maximum opening, lateral shift, right and left lateral excursions, and protrusion were evaluated. Results: Compared to T0, the left masseter activity during clenching was decreased at T1 but increased at T2, similar to the other evaluated muscles. The suprahyoid activity during swallowing was increased at T1 but decreased at T2. The masseter activity during mastication was increased at T1 and further increased at T2. The left and right lateral excursions and protrusion did not show significant changes throughout the experiment. Conclusions: Teuscher activator and subsequent fixed orthodontic treatment improved jaw muscle function; however, a long period was needed to attain complete neuromuscular adaptation. Key words:Class II malocclusion, jaw muscles, mandibular kinematics, sEMG, Teuscher activator. PMID:23385506

  18. Mapping the gas kinematics and ionization structure of four ultraluminous IRAS galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilman, R. J.; Crawford, C. S.; Abraham, R. G.

    1999-10-01

    We present a study of the morphology, kinematics and ionization structure of the extended emission-line regions in four intermediate-redshift (0.118kinematics in the hyperluminous system IRAS F20460+1925 lack coherent structure, with a full width at half-maximum (FWHM) >1000kms-1 within 1arcsec of the nucleus, suggesting that any merger is well-advanced. Emission-line intensity ratios point to active galactic nucleus (AGN) photoionization for the excitation of this gas at the systemic velocity. An isolated blob ~8kpc from the nucleus with a much smaller velocity dispersion may lie in a structure similar to the photoionization cones seen in lower-luminosity objects. A second, spatially unresolved, narrow-line component is also present on nucleus, blueshifted by ~=990kms-1 from the systemic and plausibly powered by photoionizing shocks. IRAS F23060+0505 has more ordered kinematics, with a region of increased FWHM coincident with the blue half of a dipolar velocity field. The systemic velocity rotation curve is asymmetric in appearance, as a result either of the on-going merger or of nuclear dust obscuration. From a higher-resolution ISIS spectrum, we attribute the blue asymmetry in the narrow-line profiles to a spatially resolved nuclear outflow. Emission-line intensity ratios suggest shock+precursor ionization for the systemic component, consistent with the X-ray view of a heavily obscured AGN. The lower-luminosity objects IRAS F01217+0122 and F01003-2238 complete the sample. The former has a featureless velocity field with a high FWHM, a high-ionization AGN spectrum and a ~1Gyr old starburst continuum. IRAS F01003-2238 has a dipolar velocity field and an Hii region emission-line spectrum with a strong blue continuum. After correction for intrinsic extinction, the latter can be reproduced with ~107 O5 stars, sufficient to power the bolometric luminosity of the

  19. [Advances on biomechanics and kinematics of sprain of ankle joint].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong; Wang, Gang

    2015-04-01

    Ankle sprains are orthopedic clinical common disease, accounting for joint ligament sprain of the first place. If treatment is not timely or appropriate, the joint pain and instability maybe develop, and even bone arthritis maybe develop. The mechanism of injury of ankle joint, anatomical basis has been fully study at present, and the diagnostic problem is very clear. Along with the development of science and technology, biological modeling and three-dimensional finite element, three-dimensional motion capture system,digital technology study, electromyographic signal study were used for the basic research of sprain of ankle. Biomechanical and kinematic study of ankle sprain has received adequate attention, combined with the mechanism research of ankle sprain,and to explore the the biomechanics and kinematics research progress of the sprain of ankle joint.

  20. Effects of radiograph projection parameter uncertainty on TKA kinematics from model-image registration.

    PubMed

    Chouteau, J; Lerat, J L; Testa, R; Moyen, B; Banks, S A

    2007-01-01

    Model-image registration techniques have been used extensively for the measurement of joint kinematics in vivo. These techniques typically utilize an explicit measurement of X-ray projection parameters (principal distance, principal point), which is easily done for prospective studies. However, there is vast opportunity to derive useful information from previously collected clinical radiographic films where the projection parameters are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine variation in measured knee arthroplasty kinematics when the X-ray projection parameters were unknown, but bounded. Based on the clinical radiographic protocol, a nominal principal point was chosen and eight additional points +/-2 and +/-5 cm in the horizontal and vertical directions were defined. Tibiofemoral kinematics were determined for all nine projection parameter sets for a series of 10 lateral radiographs. In addition, the principal distance was varied +/-15 cm and tibiofemoral kinematics were determined for these two projection sets. Measured joint kinematics varied less than 0.6 degrees and 0.4 mm for +/-2 cm variations in principal point location, and 0.7 degrees and 0.6 mm for +/-5 cm variations in principal point location. Measured joint kinematics varied less than 0.6 degrees and 0.7 mm for +/-15 cm variations in principal distance. Variation in X-ray principal point and principal distance over clinically bounded ranges has a small effect on knee arthroplasty kinematics computed from model-image registration with high-quality clinical radiographs.

  1. Improved methods for determining the kinematics of coronal mass ejections and coronal waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, J. P.; Long, D. M.; Gallagher, P. T.; Bloomfield, D. S.; Maloney, S. A.; McAteer, R. T. J.; Morgan, H.; Habbal, S. R.

    2013-09-01

    Context. The study of solar eruptive events and associated phenomena is of great importance in the context of solar and heliophysics. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and coronal waves are energetic manifestations of the restructuring of the solar magnetic field and mass motion of the plasma. Characterising this motion is vital for deriving the dynamics of these events and thus understanding the physics driving their initiation and propagation. The development and use of appropriate methods for measuring event kinematics is therefore imperative. Aims: Traditional approaches to the study of CME and coronal wave kinematics do not return wholly accurate nor robust estimates of the true event kinematics and associated uncertainties. We highlight the drawbacks of these approaches, and demonstrate improved methods for accurate and reliable determination of the kinematics. Methods: The Savitzky-Golay filter is demonstrated as a more appropriate fitting technique for CME and coronal wave studies, and a residual resampling bootstrap technique is demonstrated as a statistically rigorous method for the determination of kinematic error estimates and goodness-of-fit tests. Results: It is shown that the scatter on distance-time measurements of small sample size can significantly limit the ability to derive accurate and reliable kinematics. This may be overcome by (i) increasing measurement precision and sampling cadence; and (ii) applying robust methods for deriving the kinematics and reliably determining their associated uncertainties. If a priori knowledge exists and a pre-determined model form for the kinematics is available (or indeed any justified fitting-form to be tested against the data), then its precision can be examined using a bootstrapping technique to determine the confidence interval associated with the model/fitting parameters. Conclusions: Improved methods for determining the kinematics of CMEs and coronal waves are demonstrated to great effect, overcoming many

  2. Cellular Phones Helping to Get a Clearer Picture of Kinematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falcao, A. E. G., Jr.; Gomes, R. A.; Pereira, J. M.; Coelho, L. F. S.; Santos, A. C. F.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to add to the list of examples of how cell phones may be used as teaching tools in the classroom. One very interesting example of this comes from the study of projectile motion, the classical "cannon ball" problem. This problem is central to the study of kinematics, the very first topic a student meets in physics.…

  3. Barefoot vs common footwear: A systematic review of the kinematic, kinetic and muscle activity differences during walking.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Simon; Grey, Michael J; Heneghan, Nicola; Bowen, Laura; Li, François-Xavier

    2015-09-01

    Habitual footwear use has been reported to influence foot structure with an acute exposure being shown to alter foot position and mechanics. The foot is highly specialised thus these changes in structure/position could influence functionality. This review aims to investigate the effect of footwear on gait, specifically focussing on studies that have assessed kinematics, kinetics and muscle activity between walking barefoot and in common footwear. In line with PRISMA and published guidelines, a literature search was completed across six databases comprising Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, AMED, Cochrane Library and Web of Science. Fifteen of 466 articles met the predetermined inclusion criteria and were included in the review. All articles were assessed for methodological quality using a modified assessment tool based on the STROBE statement for reporting observational studies and the CASP appraisal tool. Walking barefoot enables increased forefoot spreading under load and habitual barefoot walkers have anatomically wider feet. Spatial-temporal differences including, reduced step/stride length and increased cadence, are observed when barefoot. Flatter foot placement, increased knee flexion and a reduced peak vertical ground reaction force at initial contact are also reported. Habitual barefoot walkers exhibit lower peak plantar pressures and pressure impulses, whereas peak plantar pressures are increased in the habitually shod wearer walking barefoot. Footwear particularly affects the kinematics and kinetics of gait acutely and chronically. Little research has been completed in older age populations (50+ years) and thus further research is required to better understand the effect of footwear on walking across the lifespan.

  4. A microgenetic/cross-sectional study of matrix completion: comparing short-term and long-term change.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Robert S; Svetina, Matija

    2002-01-01

    A design that included both microgenetic and cross-sectional components was used to examine 135 Slovenian children's acquisition of matrix completion proficiency and compare microgenetic and age-related changes on the task. The microgenetic analyses indicated that children's errors became increasingly variable shortly before they discovered the correct strategy, that the correct strategy became dominant quite quickly following its initial use, that improvements in matrix completion performance generalized to conservation, and that amount of learning correlated positively with IQ. The microgenetic/cross-sectional comparison, which involved contrasting the changes that occurred over seven experimental sessions with the changes that occurred between ages 6 and 7 years, indicated that the two patterns of change were highly similar.

  5. Statistical Study of High-Velocity Compact Clouds Based on the Complete CO Imagings of the Central Molecular Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuyama, Sekito; Oka, Tomoharu; Takekawa, Shunya; Yamada, Masaya; Iwata, Yuhei; Tsujimoto, Shiho

    2017-01-01

    High-velocity compact clouds (HVCCs) is one of the populations of peculiar clouds detected in the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) of our Galaxy. They have compact appearances (< 5 pc) and large velocity widths (> 50 km s-1). Several explanations for the origin of HVCC were proposed; e.g., a series of supernovae (SN) explosions (Oka et al. 1999) or a gravitational kick by a point-like gravitational source (Oka et al. 2016). To investigate the statistical property of HVCCs, a complete list of them is acutely necessary. However, the previous list is not complete since the identification procedure included automated processes and manual selection (Nagai 2008). Here we developed an automated procedure to identify HVCCs in a spectral line data.

  6. On Time to the Doctorate. A Study of the Increased Time To Complete Doctorates in Science and Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Howard; And Others

    The project described in this report was designed to render an in-depth analysis of what has happened to doctorate completion times since 1967, to provide a time-series data base for the period 1967-1986, and to develop a model that explains some of the factors that have caused an elongation to occur. Chapter 1 begins with an examination of how…

  7. Comparative study of the complete mitochondrial genomes of the bronze gudgeon (Coreius heterodon) and largemouth bronze gudgeon (Coreius guichenoti).

    PubMed

    Xu, Dandan; Li, Ping; Zhang, Yaoguang; Peng, Zuogang

    2013-06-01

    The bronze gudgeon (Coreius heterodon) and the congeneric species largemouth bronze gudgeon (Coreius guichenoti), two endemic fish species in China, are important economic fishes in local areas. The bronze gudgeon is distributed in Yangtze River and Huanghe River basin, whereas the largemouth bronze gudgeon is distributed only in the middle and upper reaches of Yangtze River. Here, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of the two species and compared the evolutionary rate differences between the two species. The complete mitochondrial genomes of C. heterodon and C. guichenoti are 16,611 and 16,612 bp, respectively. Both of the complete mitogenome sequences contain 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA subunits, 22 tRNAs and 1 non-coding control region, which are typical vertebrate mitogenomes. The relative rate test shows that the mitochondrial genome of C. heterodon evolves nearly threefold faster than that of C. guichenoti, which is mostly caused by the higher substitution rates in rRNAs and especially in tRNAs in C. heterodon.

  8. Contemporary kinematics of the southern Aegean and the Mediterranean Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreemer, Corné; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas

    2004-06-01

    This study focuses on the kinematics of the southern Aegean and the Mediterranean Ridge (MR). A quantification of the deformation of the MR is essential for both evaluating physical models of accretionary wedges in general and for obtaining a self-consistent model of the surface deformation over the entire Nubia-Eurasia (NU-EU) plate boundary zone in the eastern Mediterranean. Previous kinematic studies have not properly considered the deformation field south of the Hellenic arc. Although this study focuses on the deformation field of the MR, we also discuss the kinematics of the southern Aegean, because the geometry and movement of the Hellenic arc determine to a large extent the kinematic boundary conditions for kinematic studies of the MR. We calculate a continuous velocity and strain rate field by interpolating model velocities that are fitted in a least-squares sense to published Global Positioning System (GPS) velocities. In the interpolation, we use information from a detailed data set of onshore and offshore active faulting to place constraints on the expected style and direction of the model strain rate field. In addition, we use the orientations of tracks left by seamounts travelling into the wedge to further constrain the offshore deformation pattern. Our model results highlight the presence of active shear partitioning within the Mediterranean ridge. High compressional strain rates between the ridge crest and the deformation front accommodate approximately 60-70 per cent of the total motion over the wedge, and the outward growth rate of the frontal thrust is ~ 4 mm yr-1. Strain partitioning within the wedge leads to 19-23 mm yr-1 of dextral motion at the wedge-backstop contact of the western MR, whereas the Pliny and Strabo trenches in the eastern MR accommodate 21-23 mm yr-1 of sinistral motion. The backstop of the western MR is kinematically part of the southern Aegean, which moves as a single block [the Aegean block (AE)] at 33-34 mm yr-1 in the

  9. Analytical evaluation of the effects of inconsistent anthropometric measurements on joint kinematics in motion capturing.

    PubMed

    Krumm, Dominik; Cockcroft, John; Zaumseil, Falk; Odenwald, Stephan; Milani, Thomas L; Louw, Quinette

    2016-05-01

    Clinical decisions based on gait data obtained by optoelectronic motion capturing require profound knowledge about the repeatability of the used measurement systems and methods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of inconsistent anthropometric measurements on joint kinematics calculated with the Plug-in Gait model. Therefore, a sensitivity study was conducted to ascertain how joint kinematics output is affected to different anthropometric data input. One previously examined gait session of a healthy male subject and his anthropometric data that were assessed by two experienced examiners served as a basis for this analytical evaluation. This sensitivity study yielded a maximum difference in joint kinematics by the two sets of anthropometrics of up to 1.2°. In conclusion, this study has shown that the reliability of subjects' anthropometrics assessed by experienced examiners has no considerable effects on joint kinematics.

  10. Study of polarization in quasi-elastic break-up reaction {sup 6}Li(p,2p){sup 5}He in complete kinematics at 1 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Prokofiev, A.N.; Aleshin, N.P.; Belostotski, S.L.; Dotsenko, Y.V.; Efimovykh, V.A.; Fedorov, O.Y.; Izotov, A.A.; Kisselev, A.Y.; Komarov, E.N.; Miklukho, O.V.; Murzin, V.I.