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Sample records for kinetic phosphorescence analysis

  1. Kinetic phosphorescence analysis to quantify europium and terbium

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, Chelsie; Seiner, Brienne; Smith, Steven; Bowen, James; Finch, Zach; Friese, Judah

    2015-09-04

    The ability to measure europium and terbium may be confounded by the presence of other lanthanides when using spectroscopic techniques such as optical emission spectroscopy, especially at trace levels. Kinetic Phosphorescence Analysis (KPA) offers a method to avoid these interferences during trace level measurements. This study examined analysis parameters for Eu and Tb by testing the effects of different acids, molarities, and the use of a complexing agent to determine the ideal conditions and limits of detection for each analyte in samples containing various mixtures of lanthanides.

  2. Evaluation of kinetic phosphorescence analysis for the determination of uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Croatto, P.V.; Frank, I.W.; Johnson, K.D.; Mason, P.B.; Smith, M.M.

    1997-12-01

    In the past, New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) has used a fluorometric method for the determination of sub-microgram quantities of uranium. In its continuing effort to upgrade and improve measurement technology, NBL has evaluated the commercially-available KPA-11 kinetic phosphorescence analyzer (Chemchek, Richland, WA). The Chemchek KPA-11 is a bench-top instrument which performs single-measurement, quench-corrected analyses for trace uranium. It incorporates patented kinetic phosphorimetry techniques to measure and analyze sample phosphorescence as a function of time. With laser excitation and time-corrected photon counting, the KPA-11 has a lower detection limit than conventional fluorometric methods. Operated with a personal computer, the state-of-the-art KPA-11 offers extensive time resolution and phosphorescence lifetime capabilities for additional specificity. Interferences are thereby avoided while obtaining precise measurements. Routine analyses can be easily and effectively accomplished, with the accuracy and precision equivalent to the pulsed-laser fluorometric method presently performed at NBL, without the need for internal standards. Applications of kinetic phosphorimetry at NBL include the measurement of trace level uranium in retention tank, waste samples, and low-level samples. It has also been used to support other experimental activities at NBL by the measuring of nanogram amounts of uranium contamination (in blanks) in isotopic sample preparations, and the determining of elution curves of different ion exchange resins used for uranium purification. In many cases, no pretreatment of samples was necessary except to fume them with nitric acid, and then to redissolve and dilute them to an appropriate concentration with 1 M HNO{sub 3} before measurement. Concentrations were determined on a mass basis ({micro}g U/g of solution), but no density corrections were needed since all the samples (including the samples used for calibration) were in the same

  3. Effect of Proton Radiation on the Kinetics of Phosphorescence Decay in the Ceramic Material ZnS-Cu

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchakova, T.A.; Vesna, G.V.; Makara, V.A.

    2004-11-01

    The results of studying the dose dependences of the decay kinetics of phosphorescence excited by X-ray radiation in luminescent ZnS-Cu ceramic material before and after irradiation with 50-MeV protons are considered. An anomalous variation in the exponent of the hyperbolic phosphorescence curves was observed experimentally as the accumulated light sum increased. It is found from an analysis of the data obtained that two processes are involved in the decay: one of these is monomolecular and corresponds to the first-order kinetics; the other is bimolecular and corresponds to the second-order kinetics. Transitions of charge carriers delocalized from traps occur at the nonradiative-recombination centers induced by proton radiation. Recombination of these charge carriers at the emission centers in the course of decay is described by the second-order kinetics.

  4. Analysis of the phosphorescent dye concentration dependence of triplet-triplet annihilation in organic host-guest systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; van Eersel, H.; Bobbert, P. A.; Coehoorn, R.

    2016-10-01

    Using a novel method for analyzing transient photoluminescence (PL) experiments, a microscopic description is obtained for the dye concentration dependence of triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) in phosphorescent host-guest systems. It is demonstrated that the TTA-mechanism, which could be a single-step dominated process or a diffusion-mediated multi-step process, can be deduced for any given dye concentration from a recently proposed PL intensity analysis. A comparison with the results of kinetic Monte Carlo simulations provides the TTA-Förster radius and shows that the TTA enhancement due to triplet diffusion can be well described in a microscopic manner assuming Förster- or Dexter-type energy transfer.

  5. Phosphorescence lifetime analysis with a quadratic programming algorithm for determining quencher distributions in heterogeneous systems.

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradov, S A; Wilson, D F

    1994-01-01

    A new method for analysis of phosphorescence lifetime distributions in heterogeneous systems has been developed. This method is based on decomposition of the data vector to a linearly independent set of exponentials and uses quadratic programming principles for x2 minimization. Solution of the resulting algorithm requires a finite number of calculations (it is not iterative) and is computationally fast and robust. The algorithm has been tested on various simulated decays and for analysis of phosphorescence measurements of experimental systems with descrete distributions of lifetimes. Critical analysis of the effect of signal-to-noise on the resolving capability of the algorithm is presented. This technique is recommended for resolution of the distributions of quencher concentration in heterogeneous samples, of which oxygen distributions in tissue is an important example. Phosphors of practical importance for biological oxygen measurements: Pd-meso-tetra (4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin (PdTCPP) and Pd-meso-porphyrin (PdMP) have been used to provide experimental test of the algorithm. PMID:7858142

  6. Franck-Condon analysis of the S0 --> T1 absorption and phosphorescence spectra of biphenyl and bridged derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negri, Fabrizia; Zgierski, Marek Z.

    1992-11-01

    The equilibrium geometry and the vibrational force field of the ground and the lowest triplet electronic states of biphenyl and three bridged derivatives-biphenylene, fluorene and phenanthrene-are computed by using an updated version of the QCFF/PI (Quantum Chemical Force Field/π electron) Hamiltonian. The displacement parameters between T1 and S0 are obtained and used to model the S0→T1 absorption and the phosphorescence spectra. The calculated Franck-Condon envelopes are found to be in excellent agreement with the vibrational structure of the observed spectra. The common features of the phosphorescence spectra of biphenyl and fluorene are related to the same orbital nature of the lowest triplet state. The observed asymmetry between the phosphorescence and singlet-triplet absorption spectra of biphenyl is reproduced when the twisted equilibrium geometry of S0 is considered. It is shown that evidence of the nonplanarity of the ground state of biphenyl is manifested by the lower intensity of the band observed in the phosphorescence at 747 cm-1 with respect to the intensity of the same band in fluorene. The increased vibrational activity calculated in the lower frequency region for biphenylene and phenanthrene agrees with the observed spectra and reflects the different orbital nature of the lowest triplet state of the two strongly perturbed bridged derivatives with respect to biphenyl and fluorene. From the analysis of the computed vibrational frequencies, it is suggested that the false origin of the symmetry forbidden phosphorescence of biphenylene is due to the lowest out-of-plane mode of au symmetry.

  7. The energies and kinetics of triplet carotenoids in the LH2 antenna complexes as determined by phosphorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rondonuwu, Ferdy S.; Taguchi, Tokio; Fujii, Ritsuko; Yokoyama, Kyosuke; Koyama, Yasushi; Watanabe, Yasutaka

    2004-01-01

    The triplet (T 1) states of carotenoids (Cars) and bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl) in the LH2 antenna complexes from Rhodobacter sphaeroides G1C, Rba. sphaeroides 2.4.1 and Rhodospirillum molischianum, containing neurosporene, spheroidene and lycopene, respectively, were examined by stationary-state and time-resolved phosphorescence spectroscopy. The T 1 energies of Cars were determined, irrespective of the Car or BChl excitation, to be 7030 cm -1 (neurosporene), 6920 cm -1 (spheroidene) and 6870 cm -1 (lycopene), respectively, whereas that of BChl to be 7590 cm -1. In the Rba. sphaeroides G1C, the Car and BChl triplet states decayed in similar time constant as the BChl Q y state, a fact which indicates that the pair of triplet states decays through the triplet-triplet annihilation mechanism.

  8. Flow injection analysis with on-line nylon powder extraction for room-temperature phosphorescence determination of thiabendazole.

    PubMed

    Piccirilli, G N; Escandar, G M

    2009-07-30

    A fast and very selective flow-through phosphorescence optosensor was designed and characterized for the determination of the fungicide thiabendazole in water samples. For the first time, thiabendazole was determined using a flow-through optosensor based on the phosphorescence signals obtained when it is retained in a solid support. While thiabendazole does not phosphoresce in packing materials commonly used to fill the flow-cell, significant emission signals are observed when it is retained on nylon powder in the presence of iodide and sulfite. The experimental set-up was based on a flow-injection manifold coupled to an on-line phosphorescence detector containing nylon powder packed in a conventional flow-cell. Potassium iodide and sodium sulfite were added to sample aliquots to improve the thiabendazole phosphorescence and injected in the flow manifold using water as carrier. After the phosphorescence emission was registered, the analyte was eluted from the packed nylon with a 65% (v/v) methanol-water mixture. Optimal instrumentation, experimental and flow conditions were evaluated. Using a sample volume of 2000 microL, the analytical signal showed a very good linearity in the range 12.9-110 ng mL(-1), with a detection limit of 4.5 ng mL(-1), and a sample throughput of about 14 samples per hour. The effects of the presence of concomitant species in the thiabendazole phosphorescence signal were studied, and a comparison with the fluorescence nylon-powder optosensor was carried out and discussed. Finally, the applicability of the proposed optosensor was tested in water samples, and satisfactory recoveries ranging between 97% and 105% were obtained.

  9. Using phosphorescence as a fingerprint for the Hope and other blue diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton-Magaña, Sally; Post, Jeffrey E.; Heaney, Peter J.; Freitas, Jaime; Klein, Paul; Walters, Roy; Butler, James E.

    2008-01-01

    Sixty-seven natural blue diamonds, including the two largestsuch gemstones known (the Hope and the Blue Heart), were probedby ultraviolet radiation, and their luminescence was analyzedusing a novel spectrometer system. Prior to this study, thefiery red phosphorescence of the Hope Diamond was regarded asquite rare compared to greenish-blue phosphorescence. However,our results demonstrated that virtually all blue diamonds phosphoresceat 660 nm (orange-red) but that this emission often is obscuredby a concomitant luminescence at 500 nm (green-blue). Althoughboth bands were nearly always present, the relative intensitiesof these emissions and their decay kinetics varied dramatically.Consequently, phosphorescence analysis provides a method todiscriminate among individual blue diamonds. Treated and syntheticblue diamonds showed behavior distinct from natural stones.Temperature-dependent phosphorescence revealed that the 660nm emission has an activation energy of 0.4 eV, close to the0.37 eV acceptor energy for boron, suggesting that the phosphorescenceis caused by donor-acceptor pair recombination.

  10. Analysis of Crystallization Kinetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelton, Kenneth F.

    1997-01-01

    A realistic computer model for polymorphic crystallization (i.e., initial and final phases with identical compositions), which includes time-dependent nucleation and cluster-size-dependent growth rates, is developed and tested by fits to experimental data. Model calculations are used to assess the validity of two of the more common approaches for the analysis of crystallization data. The effects of particle size on transformation kinetics, important for the crystallization of many systems of limited dimension including thin films, fine powders, and nanoparticles, are examined.

  11. How the Molecular Packing Affects the Room Temperature Phosphorescence in Pure Organic Compounds: Ingenious Molecular Design, Detailed Crystal Analysis, and Rational Theoretical Calculations.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yujun; Ge, Yuwei; Peng, Qian; Li, Conggang; Li, Qianqian; Li, Zhen

    2017-02-21

    Long-lived phosphorescence at room temperature (RTP) from pure organic molecules is rare. Recent research reveals various crystalline organic molecules can realize RTP with lifetimes extending to the magnitude of second. There is little research on how molecular packing affecting RTP. Three compounds are designed with similar optical properties in solution, but tremendously different solid emission characteristics. By investigating the molecular packing arrangement in single crystals, it is found that the packing style of the compact face to face favors of long phosphorescence lifetime and high photoluminescence efficiency, with the lifetime up to 748 ms observed in the crystal of CPM ((9H-carbazol-9-yl)(phenyl)methanone). Theoretical calculation analysis also reveals this kind of packing style can remarkably reduce the singlet excited energy level and prompt electron communication between dimers. Surprisingly, CPM has two very similar single crystals, labeled as CPM and CPM-A, with almost identical crystal data, and the only difference is that molecules in CPM-A crystal take a little looser packing arrangement. X-ray diffraction and cross-polarization under magic spinning (13) C NMR spectra double confirm that they are different crystals. Interestingly, CPM-A crystal shows negligible RTP compared to the CPM crystal, once again proving that the packing style is critical to the RTP property.

  12. Kinetic parameters from thermogravimetric analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    High performance polymeric materials are finding increased use in aerospace applications. Proposed high speed aircraft will require materials to withstand high temperatures in an oxidative atmosphere for long periods of time. It is essential that accurate estimates be made of the performance of these materials at the given conditions of temperature and time. Temperatures of 350 F (177 C) and times of 60,000 to 100,000 hours are anticipated. In order to survey a large number of high performance polymeric materials on a reasonable time scale, some form of accelerated testing must be performed. A knowledge of the rate of a process can be used to predict the lifetime of that process. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) has frequently been used to determine kinetic information for degradation reactions in polymeric materials. Flynn and Wall studied a number of methods for using TGA experiments to determine kinetic information in polymer reactions. Kinetic parameters, such as the apparent activation energy and the frequency factor, can be determined in such experiments. Recently, researchers at the McDonnell Douglas Research Laboratory suggested that a graph of the logarithm of the frequency factor against the apparent activation energy can be used to predict long-term thermo-oxidative stability for polymeric materials. Such a graph has been called a kinetic map. In this study, thermogravimetric analyses were performed in air to study the thermo-oxidative degradation of several high performance polymers and to plot their kinetic parameters on a kinetic map.

  13. Time-resolved phosphorescence of proteins and polypeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousslang, Kenneth W.; Buratto, Steve K.; Haynes, D.; Heath, P.; Holloway, D.; Hulteen, John C.; Dick, Lisa; Stevenson, K.; Harding, C. O.; Ross, J. B. Alexander

    1990-05-01

    This paper describes the use of luminescent coenzymes and substrates in the study of two proteins, horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and sex steroid-binding protein (SBP). We report the phosphorescence emission and lifetimes of NAD and e-NAD in pyrazole ternary complexes with ADH. Whereas the decay of NAD is adequately described as monoexponential with a lifetime of 2.4 s, the decay of e-NAD obeys a double exponential decay law with time constants of 0.4 and 0.15 sec. Ternary complexes with NAD have the same decay kinetics as ADH by itself. However, in ternary complexes with f-NAD, it is possible to selectively excite and detect the coenzyme phosphorescence. We show that f-NAD is a more useful probe than NAD for protein structure in ADH. We also measured the triplet emission and decay lifetimes of dihydroequilenin, an equine steroid bound by SBP. We find that the phosphorescence spectra and lifetimes are pH dependent, with the protonated species dominating emission below pH 10.0, and the deprotonated form dominating at pH 10.0 and above. The acidic and basic species can be selectively excited, and the emission at pH near the pKa is characteristic of the equilibrium ground state populations. Since hydrogen bonding is implicated in SBP-steroid complexes, dihydroequilenin is a potential phosphorescent probe for the binding interaction.

  14. Stable blue phosphorescent organic light emitting devices

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Thompson, Mark; Giebink, Noel

    2014-08-26

    Novel combination of materials and device architectures for organic light emitting devices is provided. An organic light emitting device, is provided, having an anode, a cathode, and an emissive layer disposed between the anode and the cathode. The emissive layer includes a host and a phosphorescent emissive dopant having a peak emissive wavelength less than 500 nm, and a radiative phosphorescent lifetime less than 1 microsecond. Preferably, the phosphorescent emissive dopant includes a ligand having a carbazole group.

  15. Detailed kinetic study of the thermoluminescence glow curve of synthetic quartz.

    PubMed

    Kitis, G; Pagonis, V; Carty, H; Tatsis, E

    2002-01-01

    A detailed kinetic analysis has been performed of the thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve of high purity synthetic quartz. The kinetic parameters of the glow peak at 110 degrees C were evaluated for doses ranging from 0.1 Gy to 100 Gy using glow curve deconvolution (GCD), initial rise, variable heating ratc and phosphorescence decay methods. All the methods gave results that agree within the experimental errors.

  16. Laser induced phosphorescence uranium analysis

    DOEpatents

    Bushaw, B.A.

    1983-06-10

    A method is described for measuring the uranium content of aqueous solutions wherein a uranyl phosphate complex is irradiated with a 5 nanosecond pulse of 425 nanometer laser light and resultant 520 nanometer emissions are observed for a period of 50 to 400 microseconds after the pulse. Plotting the natural logarithm of emission intensity as a function of time yields an intercept value which is proportional to uranium concentration.

  17. Laser induced phosphorescence uranium analysis

    DOEpatents

    Bushaw, Bruce A.

    1986-01-01

    A method is described for measuring the uranium content of aqueous solutions wherein a uranyl phosphate complex is irradiated with a 5 nanosecond pulse of 425 nanometer laser light and resultant 520 nanometer emissions are observed for a period of 50 to 400 microseconds after the pulse. Plotting the natural logarithm of emission intensity as a function of time yields an intercept value which is proportional to uranium concentration.

  18. Host compounds for red phosphorescent OLEDs

    DOEpatents

    Xia, Chuanjun; Cheon, Kwang -Ohk

    2015-08-25

    Novel compounds containing a triphenylene moiety linked to an .alpha..beta. connected binaphthyl ring system are provided. These compounds have surprisingly good solubility in organic solvents and are useful as host compounds in red phosphorescent OLEDs.

  19. Decreasing luminescence lifetime of evaporating phosphorescent droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Voort, D. D.; Dam, N. J.; Sweep, A. M.; Kunnen, R. P. J.; van Heijst, G. J. F.; Clercx, H. J. H.; van de Water, W.

    2016-12-01

    Laser-induced phosphorescence has been used extensively to study spray dynamics. It is important to understand the influence of droplet evaporation in the interpretation of such measurements, as it increases luminescence quenching. By suspending a single evaporating n-heptane droplet in an acoustic levitator, the properties of lanthanide-complex europium-thenoyltrifluoroacetone-trioctylphosphine oxide (Eu-TTA-TOPO) phosphorescence are determined through high-speed imaging. A decrease was found in the measured phosphorescence decay coefficient (780 → 200 μs) with decreasing droplet volumes (10-9 → 10-11 m3) corresponding to increasing concentrations (10-4 → 10-2 M). This decrease continues up to the point of shell-formation at supersaturated concentrations. The diminished luminescence is shown not to be attributable to triplet-triplet annihilation, quenching between excited triplet-state molecules. Instead, the pure exponential decays found in the measurements show that a non-phosphorescent quencher, such as free TTA/TOPO, can be attributable to this decay. The concentration dependence of the phosphorescence lifetime can therefore be used as a diagnostic of evaporation in sprays.

  20. Principles of phosphorescent organic light emitting devices.

    PubMed

    Minaev, Boris; Baryshnikov, Gleb; Agren, Hans

    2014-02-07

    Organic light-emitting device (OLED) technology has found numerous applications in the development of solid state lighting, flat panel displays and flexible screens. These applications are already commercialized in mobile phones and TV sets. White OLEDs are of especial importance for lighting; they now use multilayer combinations of organic and elementoorganic dyes which emit various colors in the red, green and blue parts of the visible spectrum. At the same time the stability of phosphorescent blue emitters is still a major challenge for OLED applications. In this review we highlight the basic principles and the main mechanisms behind phosphorescent light emission of various classes of photofunctional OLED materials, like organic polymers and oligomers, electron and hole transport molecules, elementoorganic complexes with heavy metal central ions, and clarify connections between the main features of electronic structure and the photo-physical properties of the phosphorescent OLED materials.

  1. Effect of concentration, temperature, and freezing rate on the phosphorescence parameters of acenaphthene in n-hexane matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanova, N. V.; Deryabin, M. I.

    2016-04-01

    The effect of the concentration, temperature, and freezing rate on the spectra, kinetics, and intensity of phosphorescence of acenaphthene in polycrystalline n-hexane matrices has been studied. The specific features of the transformation of quasi-lines in the phosphorescence spectrum of molecules embedded in an n-hexane crystal lattice into broad molecular bands at high concentrations of the solution (~10‒1 mol/L) have been considered. It has been demonstrated that a distortion of the n-hexane crystal lattice at a high concentration of embedded acenaphthene molecules can be a cause of the observed transformation of the quasi-line spectrum.

  2. Mathematics analysis of polymerase chain reaction kinetic curves.

    PubMed

    Sochivko, D G; Fedorov, A A; Varlamov, D A; Kurochkin, V E; Petrov, R V

    2016-01-01

    The paper reviews different approaches to the mathematical analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) kinetic curves. The basic principles of PCR mathematical analysis are presented. Approximation of PCR kinetic curves and PCR efficiency curves by various functions is described. Several PCR models based on chemical kinetics equations are suggested. Decision criteria for an optimal function to describe PCR efficiency are proposed.

  3. Reaction kinetic analysis of reactor surveillance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshiie, T.; Kinomura, A.; Nagai, Y.

    2017-02-01

    In the reactor pressure vessel surveillance data of a European-type pressurized water reactor (low-Cu steel), it was found that the concentration of matrix defects was very high, and a large number of precipitates existed. In this study, defect structure evolution obtained from surveillance data was simulated by reaction kinetic analysis using 15 rate equations. The saturation of precipitation and the growth of loops were simulated, but it was not possible to explain the increase in DBTT on the basis of the defect structures. The sub-grain boundary segregation of solutes was discussed for the origin of the DBTT increase.

  4. A century of enzyme kinetic analysis, 1913 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kenneth A

    2013-09-02

    This review traces the history and logical progression of methods for quantitative analysis of enzyme kinetics from the 1913 Michaelis and Menten paper to the application of modern computational methods today. Following a brief review of methods for fitting steady state kinetic data, modern methods are highlighted for fitting full progress curve kinetics based upon numerical integration of rate equations, including a re-analysis of the original Michaelis-Menten full time course kinetic data. Finally, several illustrations of modern transient state kinetic methods of analysis are shown which enable the elucidation of reactions occurring at the active sites of enzymes in order to relate structure and function.

  5. Hybrid native phosphorescence and fluorescence spectroscopy for cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimova, Alexandra; Katz, A.; Sriramoju, Vidyasagar; Budansky, Yuri; Bykov, Alexei A.; Zeylikovich, Roman; Alfano, R. R.

    2006-02-01

    Native fluorescence of tissues in the UV and visible spectral regions has been investigated for over two decades. Native fluorescence has been demonstrated to be an accurate tools for distinguish normal tissue from malignant and pre-malignant. Prior investigations have demonstrated that there are several ratio-based algorithms, which can distinguish malignant tissue from normal with high sensitivity and specificity.1 The wavelength combinations used in these ratios isolate the contributions from pairs of tissue fluorophors, one of which is frequently tryptophan (trp), the predominant tissue fluorophore with excitation in the UV (250-300 nm). In this work, algorithms using a combination of native fluorescence and trp phosphorescence were developed which show promise for providing enhanced detection accuracy. Using optical fibers to collect the emission from the specimen allowed interrogation of small regions of tissue, providing precise spatial information. Using a specially designed setup, specimens were excited in the UV and spectra were collected in the range of 300 to 700 nm. Three main emission bands were selected for analysis: 340 nm (trp fluorescence); 420 - 460 nm band (fluorescence from the extra cellular matrix); and 500 - 520 nm (trp phosphorescence). Normal specimens consistently exhibited a low ratio (<10) of 345 to 500 nm emission intensity while this same ratio was consistently high (>15) for cancer specimens. Creating intensities ratio maps from the tissue allows one to localize the malignant regions with high spatial precision. The study was performed on ex vivo human breast tissues. The ratio analysis correlated well with histopathology.

  6. Kinetic and thermal analysis of polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Jeffery David

    2002-09-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques have been used to study the thermal degradation of polymeric materials. These polymers were subjected to a variety of heating programs as well as numerous types of atmospheric conditions. The results from these analyses were then used to determine activation energies as a function of an extent of reaction variable, alpha. This technique, known as the model-free isoconversional method, allows for changes in energies to occur as decomposition pathways change. This produces a more realistic means of observing complex kinetic schemes and is a better representation of kinetic analysis. Chapters 1 and 2 provide introductory backgrounds into both polymer chemistry and the isoconversional analysis technique, respectively. A brief description of the research goals and motivations is also discussed. Thermal analysis of pure polystyrene (PS), polyethylene (PE), and polypropylene (PP) samples are presented in Chapter 3. The obtained activation energy dependencies are interpreted in terms of degradation mechanisms. These mechanisms vary greatly according to the gaseous environment in which they were analyzed. The thermal degradation of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in both pure nitrogen and in various oxygen-containing atmospheres is discussed in Chapter 4. It was observed that oxygen exhibits a stabilizing effect on PMMA decomposition. Activation energies for these processes, and their mechanistic interpretations, will also be presented. Chapter 5 builds off the understanding gained in Chapter 4 by investigating the char-forming effects of silica gel and potassium carbonate additives on PMMA. These additives are known for their fire-resistant properties when combined in a 3:1 silica gel to potassium carbonate ratio. The effects of these additives, and their respective ratio amounts, on PMMA char formation are reported. Chapters 6 and 7 conclude the dissertation by looking at the thermal

  7. Kinetic Analysis of tRNA Methylfransferases

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Ya-Ming; Masuda, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules contain many chemical modifications that are introduced after transcription. A major form of these modifications is methyl transfer to bases and backbone groups, using S-adenosyl methionine (AdoMet) as the methyl donor. Each methylation confers a specific advantage to tRNA in structure or in function. A remarkable methylation is to the G37 base on the 3' side of the anticodon to generate m1G37-tRNA, which suppresses frameshift errors during protein synthesis and is therefore essential for cell growth in all three domains of life. This methylation is catalyzed by TrmD in bacteria and by Trm5 in eukaryotes and archaea. Although TrmD and Trm5 catalyze the same methylation reaction, kinetic analysis reveal that these two enzymes are unrelated to each other and are distinct in their reaction mechanism. This chapter summarizes the kinetic assays that are used to reveal the distinction between TrmD and Trm5. Three types of assays are described, the steady-state, the pre-steady-state, and the single turnover assays, which collectively provide the basis for mechanistic investigation of AdoMet-dependent methyl transfer reactions. PMID:26253967

  8. Updated Chemical Kinetics and Sensitivity Analysis Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan

    2005-01-01

    An updated version of the General Chemical Kinetics and Sensitivity Analysis (LSENS) computer code has become available. A prior version of LSENS was described in "Program Helps to Determine Chemical-Reaction Mechanisms" (LEW-15758), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 19, No. 5 (May 1995), page 66. To recapitulate: LSENS solves complex, homogeneous, gas-phase, chemical-kinetics problems (e.g., combustion of fuels) that are represented by sets of many coupled, nonlinear, first-order ordinary differential equations. LSENS has been designed for flexibility, convenience, and computational efficiency. The present version of LSENS incorporates mathematical models for (1) a static system; (2) steady, one-dimensional inviscid flow; (3) reaction behind an incident shock wave, including boundary layer correction; (4) a perfectly stirred reactor; and (5) a perfectly stirred reactor followed by a plug-flow reactor. In addition, LSENS can compute equilibrium properties for the following assigned states: enthalpy and pressure, temperature and pressure, internal energy and volume, and temperature and volume. For static and one-dimensional-flow problems, including those behind an incident shock wave and following a perfectly stirred reactor calculation, LSENS can compute sensitivity coefficients of dependent variables and their derivatives, with respect to the initial values of dependent variables and/or the rate-coefficient parameters of the chemical reactions.

  9. Rigidification or interaction-induced phosphorescence of organic molecules.

    PubMed

    Baroncini, Massimo; Bergamini, Giacomo; Ceroni, Paola

    2017-02-09

    Phosphorescent materials are mostly based on metal complexes. Metal-free organic molecules usually display phosphorescence only in a rigid matrix at 77 K. In the last few years, there has been increasing interest in the design of organic molecules displaying long-lived and highly intense room-temperature phosphorescence, an extremely difficult task since these two properties are generally conflicting. This review reports the most recent and tutorial examples of molecules that are weakly or non-phosphorescent in deaerated fluid solution and whose room temperature phosphorescence is switched on upon aggregation. The examples are divided into two classes according to the mechanism responsible for switching on phosphorescence: (i) rigidification by crystallization or by encapsulation in a polymeric matrix and (ii) interaction with other molecules of the same type (self-aggregation) or a different type by taking advantage of heavy-atom effects.

  10. Phosphorescent Differential Sensing of Physiological Phosphates with Lanthanide Ions-Modified Mn-Doped ZnCdS Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    He, Hengwei; Li, Chenghui; Tian, Yunfei; Wu, Peng; Hou, Xiandeng

    2016-06-07

    Phosphates, both inorganic and organic, play fundamental roles in numerous biological and chemical processes. The biological functions of phosphates connect with each other, analysis of single phosphate-containing biomolecule therefore cannot reveal the exact biological significance of phosphates. Sensor array is therefore the best choice for differentiation analysis of physiological phosphates. Lanthanide ions possess high affinity toward physiological phosphates, while lanthanide ions can also efficiently quench the luminescence of quantum dots (QDs). Taking lanthanide ions as cartridges, here we proposed a sensor array for sensing of physiological phosphates based on lanthanide ions-modified Mn-doped ZnCdS phosphorescent QDs in the manner of indicator-displacement assay. A series of lanthanide ions were selected as quencher for phosphorescent QDs. Physiological phosphates could subsequently displace the quencher and recover the phosphorescence. Depending on their varied phosphorescence restoration, a sensor array was thus developed. The photophysics of phosphorescence quenching and restoration were studied in detail for better understanding the mechanism of the sensor array. The exact contribution of each sensor element to the sensor array was evaluated. Those sensor elements with little contribution to the differentiation analysis were removed for narrowing the size of the array. The proposed sensor array was successfully explored for probing nucleotide phosphates-involved enzymatic processes and their metabolites, simulated energy charge changes, and analysis of physiological phosphates in biological samples.

  11. Red long-lasting phosphorescence based on color conversion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhanjun; Zhang, Hongwu; Fu, Haixia

    2013-01-01

    The principle of color conversion process was used to generate red long-lasting phosphorescence (LLP) using SrAl2O4:Eu, Dy (SAO) as primary light source and rhodamine B encapsulated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MCM-R) as effective color conversion agent. The phosphorescence spectra of MCM-R/SAO hybrid samples show green peaks from 425 nm to 550 nm and red peaks from 550 nm to 700 nm, which can be attributed to the phosphorescence of SAO and the fluorescence of MCM-R, respectively. The phosphorescence color can be adjusted from green to red by changing the mass ratio of MCM-R/SAO. When the mass ratio of MCM-R/SAO increases from 0.05 to 1.5, a blue shift for the green peak and a red shift for the red peak of the phosphorescence spectra can be observed and the intensity of the red emission peak increase relatively towards the green one. The phosphorescence decay curves show that MCM-R and SAO have similar decay dynamics and the MCM-R can inherit the LLP properties of SAO. The phosphorescence decay spectra indicate that the MCM-R/SAO hybrid can retain constant and steady visual phosphorescence color. The red phosphorescence can be seen in the dark with naked eyes for more than 5 h. So, the red LLP can be successfully achieved based on the principle of color conversion process.

  12. Laser phosphoroscope and applications to room-temperature phosphorescence.

    PubMed

    Payne, Sarah J; Zhang, Guoqing; Demas, James N; Fraser, Cassandra L; Degraff, Ben A

    2011-11-01

    A simple phosphoroscope with no moving parts is described. In one scan the total luminescence, the long-lived phosphorescence, and the short-lived fluorescence can be determined. A 50% duty cycle excitation from a diode laser is used to excite the sample, and from the digitized waveform the phosphorescence is extracted from the off period, the total emission from the full cycle, and the fluorescence from the on period corrected for the phosphorescence contribution. The performance of the system is demonstrated using room-temperature phosphorescence of organic dyes in boric acid glasses, a multi-emissive boron-polymer dye, and a europium chelate.

  13. Phosphorescent cyclometalated complexes for efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes

    PubMed Central

    Suzuri, Yoshiyuki; Oshiyama, Tomohiro; Ito, Hiroto; Hiyama, Kunihisa; Kita, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorescent emitters are extremely important for efficient organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), which attract significant attention. Phosphorescent emitters, which have a high phosphorescence quantum yield at room temperature, typically contain a heavy metal such as iridium and have been reported to emit blue, green and red light. In particular, the blue cyclometalated complexes with high efficiency and high stability are being developed. In this review, we focus on blue cyclometalated complexes. Recent progress of computational analysis necessary to design a cyclometalated complex is introduced. The prediction of the radiative transition is indispensable to get an emissive cyclometalated complex. We summarize four methods to control phosphorescence peak of the cyclometalated complex: (i) substituent effect on ligands, (ii) effects of ancillary ligands on heteroleptic complexes, (iii) design of the ligand skeleton, and (iv) selection of the central metal. It is considered that novel ligand skeletons would be important to achieve both a high efficiency and long lifetime in the blue OLEDs. Moreover, the combination of an emitter and a host is important as well as the emitter itself. According to the dependences on the combination of an emitter and a host, the control of exciton density of the triplet is necessary to achieve both a high efficiency and a long lifetime, because the annihilations of the triplet state cause exciton quenching and material deterioration. PMID:27877712

  14. Molecular Fluorescence, Phosphorescence, and Chemiluminescence Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Powe, Aleeta; Das, Susmita; Lowry, Mark; El-Zahab, Bilal; Fakayode, Sayo; Geng, Maxwell; Baker, Gary A; Wang, Lin; McCarroll, Matthew; Patonay, Gabor; Li, Min; Aljarrah, Mohannad; Neal, Sharon; Warner, Isiah M

    2010-01-01

    This review covers the 2 year period since our last review (1) from January 2008 through December 2009. A computer search of Chemical Abstracts provided most of the references for this review. A search for documents written in English containing the terms fluorescence or phosphorescence or chemiluminescence published in 2008-2009 resulted in more than 100 000 hits. An initial screening reduced this number to approximately 23 000 publications that were considered for inclusion in this review. Key word searches of this subset provided subtopics of manageable size. Other citations were found through individual searches by the various authors who wrote a particular section of this review.

  15. Kinetic Analysis of a Mammalian Phospholipase D

    PubMed Central

    Henage, Lee G.; Exton, John H.; Brown, H. Alex

    2013-01-01

    In mammalian cells, phospholipase D activity is tightly regulated by diverse cellular signals, including hormones, neurotransmitters, and growth factors. Multiple signaling pathways converge upon phospholipase D to modulate cellular actions, such as cell growth, shape, and secretion. We examined the kinetics of protein kinase C and G-protein regulation of mammalian phospholipase D1 (PLD1) in order to better understand interactions between PLD1 and its regulators. Activation by Arf-1, RhoA, Rac1, Cdc42, protein kinase Cα, and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate displayed surface dilution kinetics, but these effectors modulated different kinetic parameters. PKCα activation of PLD1 involves N- and C-terminal PLD domains. Rho GTPases were binding activators, enhancing the catalytic efficiency of a purified PLD1 catalytic domain via effects on Km. Arf-1, a catalytic activator, stimulated PLD1 by enhancing the catalytic constant, kcat. A kinetic description of PLD1 activation by multiple modulators reveals a mechanism for apparent synergy between activators. Synergy was observed only when PLD1 was simultaneously stimulated by a binding activator and a catalytic activator. Surprisingly, synergistic activation was steeply dependent on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidylcholine. Together, these findings suggest a role for PLD1 as a signaling node, in which integration of convergent signals occurs within discrete locales of the cellular membrane. PMID:16339153

  16. Phosphorescence bioimaging using cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    You, Youngmin

    2013-08-01

    Recent advances in the development of the phosphorescent Ir(III) complexes have made it possible to implement the phosphorescence modality in bioimaging applications. A variety of phosphorescent Ir(III) complexes have been synthesized and assessed in the context of in vitro and in vivo imaging, especially in subcellular organelle staining and the sensing of biologically important analytes. The examples presented here demonstrate that Ir(III) complexes provide attractive alternatives to fluorescent organic compounds in the construction of biolabels and biosensors. The complexes are particularly advantageous with respect to fluorescent compounds in their compatibility with time-gated bioimaging techniques that completely eliminate background signals due to autofluorescence.

  17. Model-based analysis of coupled equilibrium-kinetic processes: indirect kinetic studies of thermodynamic parameters using the dynamic data.

    PubMed

    Emami, Fereshteh; Maeder, Marcel; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2015-05-07

    Thermodynamic studies of equilibrium chemical reactions linked with kinetic procedures are mostly impossible by traditional approaches. In this work, the new concept of generalized kinetic study of thermodynamic parameters is introduced for dynamic data. The examples of equilibria intertwined with kinetic chemical mechanisms include molecular charge transfer complex formation reactions, pH-dependent degradation of chemical compounds and tautomerization kinetics in micellar solutions. Model-based global analysis with the possibility of calculating and embedding the equilibrium and kinetic parameters into the fitting algorithm has allowed the complete analysis of the complex reaction mechanisms. After the fitting process, the optimal equilibrium and kinetic parameters together with an estimate of their standard deviations have been obtained. This work opens up a promising new avenue for obtaining equilibrium constants through the kinetic data analysis for the kinetic reactions that involve equilibrium processes.

  18. Scenario of temperature-related variation of phosphorescence spectra of ortho-bromobenzophenone crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzhemechny, M. A.; Stepanian, S. G.; Zloba, D. I.; Buravtseva, L. M.; Pyshkin, O. S.; Piryatinski, Yu. P.; Melnik, V. I.; Klishevich, G. V.; Adamowicz, L.

    2015-12-01

    Luminescence and other properties of solid 2-bromobenzophenone demonstrate features, which require special attention. We present results, which include DFT calculations, integrated and time-resolved phosphorescence spectra, and excitation spectra. The energies of the title molecule were calculated for the S0 , S1 , and T1 states. Nanosecond time-resolved phosphorescence spectra were measured at three temperature points at which the spectra undergo substantial changes. Joint analysis of energy surfaces and experimental evidence allowed reconstruction of the emission scenario that determines temperature-related variations of spectra. Upon excitation to state S1 the molecule converges very fast to T1 , emission from which can occur from the minima at 60° or at 180°. At low temperatures the molecule emits from the former, whereas at higher temperatures the molecule can overcome the barrier to emit from the lower minimum. The probability of excimer formation increases with increasing temperature.

  19. Phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes with high efficiency and brightness

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zhang, Yifan

    2015-11-12

    An organic light emitting device including a) an anode; b) a cathode; and c) an emissive layer disposed between the anode and the cathode, the emissive layer comprising an organic host compound and a phosphorescent compound exhibiting a Stokes Shift overlap greater than 0.3 eV. The organic light emitting device may further include a hole transport layer disposed between the emissive layer and the anode; and an electron transport layer disposed between the emissive layer and the cathode. In some embodiments, the phosphorescent compound exhibits a phosphorescent lifetime of less than 10 .mu.s. In some embodiments, the concentration of the phosphorescent compound ranges from 0.5 wt. % to 10 wt. %.

  20. Bright afterglow illuminator made of phosphorescent material and fluorescent fibers.

    PubMed

    Saito, M; Yamamoto, K

    2000-08-20

    Phosphorescent oxides and fluorescent dyes were used together to create a fiber-type illuminator that glows in the dark without the need for electric power. Dye-doped polymer fibers, which were bundled at one end, were linearly arrayed in a polysiloxane resin that contained phosphorescent oxide particles. The phosphorescent resin continued to glow for a long time even after the excitation light was removed. Organic dyes in a polymer fiber were excited by the phosphorescence and emitted fluorescence toward the fiber end. Fluorescence from a number of dyes was combined in the long fiber, and, consequently a bright light beam emerged from the fiber end. Useful performance, i.e., high power density, narrow beam divergence, and long afterglow, is demonstrated by the prototype fiber illuminator.

  1. Kinetic Analysis of δ Ribozyme Cleavage†

    PubMed Central

    Mercure, Stéphane; Lafontaine, Daniel; Ananvoranich, Sirinart; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    The ability of δ ribozyme to catalyze the cleavage of an 11-mer RNA substrate was examined under both single- and multiple-turnover conditions. In both cases only small differences in the kinetic parameters were observed in the presence of either magnesium or calcium as cofactor. Under multiple-turnover conditions, the catalytic efficiency of the ribozyme (kcat/KM) was higher at 37 °C than at 56 °C. The cleavage reaction seems to be limited by the product release step at 37 °C and by the chemical cleavage step at 56 °C. We observed substrate inhibition at high concentrations of the 11-mer substrate. Cleavage rate constants were determined with a structural derivative characterized by an ultrastable L4 tetraloop. The kinetic parameters (kcat and KM) and dissociation constant (Kd) were almost identical for both ribozymes, suggesting that the stability of the L4 loop has a negligible impact on the catalytic activities of the examined ribozymes. Various cleavage inhibition and gel-shift assays with analogues, substrate, and both active and inactive ribozymes were performed. The 2′-hydroxyl group adjacent to the scissile phosphate was shown to be involved in binding with the ribozyme, while the essential cytosine residue of the J4/2 junction was shown to contribute to substrate association. We clearly show that substrate binding to the δ ribozyme is not restricted to the formation of a helix located downstream of the cleavage site. Using these results, we postulate a kinetic pathway involving a conformational transition step essential for the formation of the active ribozyme/substrate complex. PMID:9836591

  2. Kinetic analysis of dynamic PET data

    SciTech Connect

    Knittel, B.

    1983-12-01

    Our goal is to quantify regional physiological processes such as blood flow and metabolism by means of tracer kinetic modeling and positron emission tomography (PET). Compartmental models are one way of characterizing the behavior of tracers in physiological systems. This paper describes a general method of estimating compartmental model rate constants from measurements of the concentration of tracers in blood and tissue, taken at multiple time intervals. A computer program which applies the method is described, and examples are shown for simulated and actual data acquired from the Donner 280-Crystal Positron Tomograph.

  3. Spectrum Analysis of Some Kinetic Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tong; Yu, Hongjun

    2016-11-01

    We analyze the spectrum structure of some kinetic equations qualitatively by using semigroup theory and linear operator perturbation theory. The models include the classical Boltzmann equation for hard potentials with or without angular cutoff and the Landau equation with {γ≥q-2}. As an application, we show that the solutions to these two fundamental equations are asymptotically equivalent (mod time decay rate {t^{-5/4}}) as {tto∞} to that of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations for initial data around an equilibrium state.

  4. Status and potential for phosphorescent OLED technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hack, M.; Weaver, M. S.; Adamovich, V.; Kwong, R. C.; Lu, M. H.; Brown, J. J.

    2005-07-01

    As organic light emitting device (OLED) technology is building up momentum in the commercial marketplace, phosphorescent OLEDs (PHOLEDsTM) are proving themselves to be an ideal display medium for a wide range of product applications: from small mobile displays to large area TVs. As part of this work we continue to advance PHOLED technology by new materials design and device architectures. For example a green PHOLED with 4.3 V, 70 cd/A, 50 lm/W and > 10,000 hours lifetime at 1,000 cd/m2 is reported. PHOLEDs enable very low power consumption displays with low display operating temperatures, and can be deposited by a range of different deposition techniques. Along with state-of-the-art device performance we report results on the ruggedness of PHOLED materials in high volume manufacturing environments.

  5. Kinetic compartmental analysis of carnitine metabolism in the dog

    SciTech Connect

    Rebouche, C.J.; Engel, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    This study was undertaken to quantitate the dynamic parameters of carnitine metabolism in the dog. Six mongrel dogs were given intravenous injections of L-(methyl-3H)carnitine and the specific radioactivity of carnitine was followed in plasma and urine for 19-28 days. The data were analyzed by kinetic compartmental analysis. A three-compartment, open-system model ((a) extracellular fluid, (b) cardiac and skeletal muscle, (c) other tissues, particularly liver and kidney) was adopted and kinetic parameters (carnitine flux, pool sizes, kinetic constants) were derived. In four of six dogs the size of the muscle carnitine pool obtained by kinetic compartmental analysis agreed (+/- 5%) with estimates based on measurement of carnitine concentrations in different muscles. In three of six dogs carnitine excretion rates derived from kinetic compartmental analysis agreed (+/- 9%) with experimentally measured values, but in three dogs the rates by kinetic compartmental analysis were significantly higher than the corresponding rates measured directly. Appropriate chromatographic analyses revealed no radioactive metabolites in muscle or urine of any of the dogs. Turnover times for carnitine were (mean +/- SEM): 0.44 +/- 0.05 h for extracellular fluid, 232 +/- 22 h for muscle, and 7.9 +/- 1.1 h for other tissues. The estimated flux of carnitine in muscle was 210 pmol/min/g of tissue. Whole-body turnover time for carnitine was 62.9 +/- 5.6 days (mean +/- SEM). Estimated carnitine biosynthesis ranged from 2.9 to 28 mumol/kg body wt/day. Results of this study indicate that kinetic compartmental analysis may be applicable to study of human carnitine metabolism.

  6. Pyrolysis kinetics of hazelnut husk using thermogravimetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Ceylan, Selim; Topçu, Yıldıray

    2014-03-01

    This study aims at investigating physicochemical properties and pyrolysis kinetics of hazelnut husk, an abundant agricultural waste in Turkey. The physicochemical properties were determined by bomb calorimeter, elemental analysis and FT-IR spectroscopy. Physicochemical analysis results showed that hazelnut husk has a high calorimetric value and high volatile matter content. Pyrolysis experiments were carried out in a thermogravimetric analyzer under inert conditions and operated at different heating rates (5, 10, 20°C/min). Three different kinetic models, the iso-conversional Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Ozawa-Flynn-Wall (OFW) models and Coats-Redfern method were applied on TGA data of hazelnut husk to calculate the kinetic parameters including activation energy, pre-exponential factor and reaction order. Simulation of hazelnut husk pyrolysis using data obtained from TGA analysis showed good agreement with experimental data. Combining with physicochemical properties, it was concluded that this biomass can become useful source of energy or chemicals.

  7. Kinetics of enzyme action on surface-attached substrates: a practical guide to progress curve analysis in any kinetic situation.

    PubMed

    Anne, Agnès; Demaille, Christophe

    2012-10-16

    In the present work, exact kinetic equations describing the action of an enzyme in solution on a substrate attached to a surface have been derived in the framework of the Michaelis-Menten mechanism but without resorting to the often-used steady-state approximation. The here-derived kinetic equations are cast in a workable format, allowing us to introduce a simple and universal procedure for the quantitative analysis of enzyme surface kinetics that is valid for any kinetic situation. The results presented here should allow experimentalists studying the kinetics of enzyme action on immobilized substrates to analyze their data in a perfectly rigorous way.

  8. Quantitative full time course analysis of nonlinear enzyme cycling kinetics.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenxiang; De La Cruz, Enrique M

    2013-01-01

    Enzyme inhibition due to the reversible binding of reaction products is common and underlies the origins of negative feedback inhibition in many metabolic and signaling pathways. Product inhibition generates non-linearity in steady-state time courses of enzyme activity, which limits the utility of well-established enzymology approaches developed under the assumption of irreversible product release. For more than a century, numerous attempts to find a mathematical solution for analysis of kinetic time courses with product inhibition have been put forth. However, no practical general method capable of extracting common enzymatic parameters from such non-linear time courses has been successfully developed. Here we present a simple and practical method of analysis capable of efficiently extracting steady-state enzyme kinetic parameters and product binding constants from non-linear kinetic time courses with product inhibition and/or substrate depletion. The method is general and applicable to all enzyme systems, independent of reaction schemes and pathways.

  9. Biomedical application of metalloporphyrins room-temperature phosphorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savitsky, Alexander P.

    1993-05-01

    Biological specimens are characterized by high light-scattering and background fluorescence which cause decrease in sensitivity of immunoassays. These unfavorable effects can be minimized by selecting a label with high absolute sensitivity, appropriate excitation and emission wavelengths, and time-resolved mode of measurements. This can be achieved by the use of metalloporphyrin labels, microsecond logic for discrimination of scattered light and background fluorescence which arises in optical elements, cells, solvents, and samples. The intensity of metalloporphyrin phosphorescence depends to a great extent on pH. Nonionic and cationic micelles have a strong effect on the phosphorescence quantum yield of Pd- coproporphyrin. Under optimum conditions Pd-coproporphyrin can be detected at a concentration of 10-13M by using modified Arcus 1230 (Wallac, Finland). On the basis of these results a novel class of luminescent labels --phosphorescent metalloporphyrins -- was applied to immunoassays. Pd- and Pt-coproporphyrins were used for the covalent labeling of antibodies and antigens. Special derivatives of a porphyrin with activated side chain were synthesized. Techniques for covalent coupling of porphyrins and their metal derivatives with proteins were developed as well as methods for purification of conjugates. A solid-phase time-resolved porphyrin phosphorescence immunoassay test was developed. The well known `sandwich' and competition techniques are compatible with the proposed method. Two or more metalloporphyrins with distinguishable phosphorescent parameters may be used for the simultaneous determining of several antigens in one sample.

  10. A highly selective phosphorescence probe for histidine in living bodies.

    PubMed

    Gao, Quankun; Song, Bo; Ye, Zhiqiang; Yang, Liu; Liu, Ruoyang; Yuan, Jingli

    2015-11-14

    In this work, we designed and synthesized a heterobimetallic ruthenium(ii)-nickel(ii) complex, [Ru(bpy)2(phen-DPA)Ni](PF6)4 (Ru-Ni), as a highly selective phosphorescence probe for histidine. The probe exhibited weak emission at 603 nm because the phosphorescence of the Ru(ii) complex can be strongly quenched by the paramagnetic Ni(2+) ion. In the presence of histidine, reaction of Ru-Ni with histidine resulted in the release of nickel(ii) and an enhancement in the phosphorescence intensity at 603 nm. Ru-Ni showed high selectivity for histidine even in the presence of other amino acids and cellular abundant species. Cell imaging experimental results demonstrated that Ru-Ni is membrane permeable, and can be applied for visualizing histidine in live cells. More interestingly, Ru-Ni also can act as a novel reaction-based nuclear staining agent for visualizing exclusively the nuclei of living cells with a significant phosphorescence enhancement. In addition, the potential of the probe for biological applications was confirmed by employing it for phosphorescence imaging of histidine in larval zebrafish and Daphnia magna. These results demonstrated that Ru-Ni would be a useful tool for physiological and pathological studies involving histidine.

  11. Studies on properties and application of non-protected room temperature phosphorescence of propranolol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Wen-Qing; Zhang, Zhong-Xiao; Li, Long-Di

    2002-08-01

    A direct and simple non-protected room temperature phosphorimetry (NP-RTP) for determine propranolol, which using I - as a heavy atom perturber and sodium sulfite as a deoxygenator, has been developed. The phosphorescence peak wavelength maxima λex/ λem=288/494, 522 nm. The analytical curve of propranolol gives a linear dynamic range of 8.0×10 -8-2.0×10 -5 mol l -1 and a detection limit of 3×10 -8 mol l -1. The influence of I - concentration on RTP lifetime of propranolol was studied and the luminescence kinetic parameters were calculated. It is found that the relation between I - concentration ( x) and RTP lifetime ( τ) can be expressed as τ=1.25e -0.477 x and the rate constants of phosphorescence emission kp was 0.800 per ms. The method was applied directly to determination of propranolol in urine and drug tablets with a satisfactory result. The recoveries were 96.6-97.4% and the relative standard deviation was 2% for the 1.00×10 -6-4.00×10 -6 mol l -1 propranolol in spiked urine sample.

  12. Highly efficient exciplex phosphorescence from organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgili, D.; Cocchi, M.; Fattori, V.; Sabatini, C.; Kalinowski, J.; Williams, J. A. G.

    2006-12-01

    The efficiency of organic exciplex light-emitting-devices (EXLEDs) can be greatly improved by introduction of a phosphorescent sensitizer with a high electronic affinity. In the electron-hole combination process at the electron donor/acceptor interface, solely singlet exciplexes are generated producing the exciplex fluorescence. A phosphor sensitizer allows the formation in the emitter bulk of triplet exciplexes, which yield highly efficient exciplex phosphorescence. As an example, we use a Pt-based phosphor (PtL 2Cl) doped into a star-burst amine hole transporting donor (m-MTDATA) and bathophenanthroline (BPT) electron-transporting acceptor system which in a bi-layer EXLED reveals an exciplex high electro-phosphorescence external quantum yield of 2.4% photon/carrier.

  13. Kinetic analysis of complex metabolic networks

    SciTech Connect

    Stephanopoulos, G.

    1996-12-31

    A new methodology is presented for the analysis of complex metabolic networks with the goal of metabolite overproduction. The objective is to locate a small number of reaction steps in a network that have maximum impact on network flux amplification and whose rate can also be increased without functional network derangement. This method extends the concepts of Metabolic Control Analysis to groups of reactions and offers the means for calculating group control coefficients as measures of the control exercised by groups of reactions on the overall network fluxes and intracellular metabolite pools. It is further demonstrated that the optimal strategy for the effective increase of network fluxes, while maintaining an uninterrupted supply of intermediate metabolites, is through the coordinated amplification of multiple (as opposed to a single) reaction steps. Satisfying this requirement invokes the concept of the concentration control to coefficient, which emerges as a critical parameter in the identification of feasible enzymatic modifications with maximal impact on the network flux. A case study of aromatic aminoacid production is provided to illustrate these concepts.

  14. Kinetic analysis of a general model of activation of aspartic proteinase zymogens involving a reversible inhibitor. I. Kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-López, A; Sotos-Lomas, A; Arribas, E; Masia-Perez, J; Garcia-Molina, F; García-Moreno, M; Varon, R

    2007-04-01

    Starting from a simple general reaction mechanism of activation of aspartic proteinases zymogens involving a uni- and a bimolecular simultaneous activation route and a reversible inhibition step, the time course equation of the zymogen, inhibitor and activated enzyme concentrations have been derived. Likewise, expressions for the time required for any reaction progress and the corresponding mean activation rates as well as the half-life of the global zymogen activation have been derived. An experimental design and kinetic data analysis is suggested to estimate the kinetic parameters involved in the reaction mechanism proposed.

  15. Novel red phosphorescent polymers bearing both ambipolar and functionalized Ir(III) phosphorescent moieties for highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiang; Lian, Meng; Yu, Yue; Yan, Xiaogang; Xu, Xianbin; Yang, Xiaolong; Zhou, Guijiang; Wu, Zhaoxin

    2015-01-01

    A series of novel red phosphorescent polymers is successfully developed through Suzuki cross-coupling among ambipolar units, functionalized Ir(III) phosphorescent blocks, and fluorene-based silane moieties. The photophysical and electrochemical investigations indicate not only highly efficient energy-transfer from the organic segments to the phosphorescent units in the polymer backbone but also the ambipolar character of the copolymers. Benefiting from all these merits, the phosphorescent polymers can furnish organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with exceptional high electroluminescent (EL) efficiencies with a current efficiency (η L ) of 8.31 cd A(-1) , external quantum efficiency (η ext ) of 16.07%, and power efficiency (η P ) of 2.95 lm W(-1) , representing the state-of-the-art electroluminescent performances ever achieved by red phosphorescent polymers. This work here might represent a new pathway to design and synthesize highly efficient phosphorescent polymers.

  16. LSENS - GENERAL CHEMICAL KINETICS AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS CODE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittker, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    LSENS has been developed for solving complex, homogeneous, gas-phase, chemical kinetics problems. The motivation for the development of this program is the continuing interest in developing detailed chemical reaction mechanisms for complex reactions such as the combustion of fuels and pollutant formation and destruction. A reaction mechanism is the set of all elementary chemical reactions that are required to describe the process of interest. Mathematical descriptions of chemical kinetics problems constitute sets of coupled, nonlinear, first-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The number of ODEs can be very large because of the numerous chemical species involved in the reaction mechanism. Further complicating the situation are the many simultaneous reactions needed to describe the chemical kinetics of practical fuels. For example, the mechanism describing the oxidation of the simplest hydrocarbon fuel, methane, involves over 25 species participating in nearly 100 elementary reaction steps. Validating a chemical reaction mechanism requires repetitive solutions of the governing ODEs for a variety of reaction conditions. Analytical solutions to the systems of ODEs describing chemistry are not possible, except for the simplest cases, which are of little or no practical value. Consequently, there is a need for fast and reliable numerical solution techniques for chemical kinetics problems. In addition to solving the ODEs describing chemical kinetics, it is often necessary to know what effects variations in either initial condition values or chemical reaction mechanism parameters have on the solution. Such a need arises in the development of reaction mechanisms from experimental data. The rate coefficients are often not known with great precision and in general, the experimental data are not sufficiently detailed to accurately estimate the rate coefficient parameters. The development of a reaction mechanism is facilitated by a systematic sensitivity analysis

  17. Kinetic analysis of the multistep aggregation mechanism of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Nicoud, Lucrèce; Arosio, Paolo; Sozo, Margaux; Yates, Andrew; Norrant, Edith; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2014-09-11

    We investigate by kinetic analysis the aggregation mechanism of two monoclonal antibodies belonging to the IgG1 and IgG2 subclass under thermal stress. For each IgG, we apply a combination of size exclusion chromatography and light scattering techniques to resolve the time evolution of the monomer, dimer, and trimer concentrations, as well as the average molecular weight and the average hydrodynamic radius of the aggregate distribution. By combining the detailed experimental characterization with a theoretical kinetic model based on population balance equations, we extract relevant information on the contribution of the individual elementary steps on the global aggregation process. The analysis shows that the two molecules follow different aggregation pathways under the same operating conditions. In particular, while the monomer depletion of the IgG1 is found to be rate-limited by monomeric conformational changes, bimolecular collision is identified as the rate-limiting step in the IgG2 aggregation process. The measurement of the microscopic rate constants by kinetic analysis allows the quantification of the protein-protein interaction potentials expressed in terms of the Fuchs stability ratio (W). It is found that the antibody solutions exhibit large W values, which are several orders of magnitude larger than the values computed in the frame of the DLVO theory. This indicates that, besides net electrostatic repulsion, additional effects delay the aggregation kinetics of the antibody solutions with respect to diffusion-limited conditions. These effects likely include the limited efficiency of the collision events due to the presence of a limited number of specific aggregation-prone patches on the heterogeneous protein surface, and the contribution of additional repulsive non-DLVO forces to the protein-protein interaction potential, such as hydration forces.

  18. Phosphorescence within benzotellurophenes and color tunable tellurophenes under ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    He, Gang; Wiltshire, Benjamin D; Choi, Paul; Savin, Aliaksandr; Sun, Shuai; Mohammadpour, Arash; Ferguson, Michael J; McDonald, Robert; Farsinezhad, Samira; Brown, Alex; Shankar, Karthik; Rivard, Eric

    2015-03-28

    The zirconium-mediated syntheses of pinacolboronate (BPin) appended benzo[b]tellurophenes and two phenyl/BPin substituted tellurophene isomers with different colors of emission have been achieved. These species are new additions to an emerging class of inorganic heterocycles that display visible phosphorescence in the solid state under ambient conditions.

  19. LSENS, The NASA Lewis Kinetics and Sensitivity Analysis Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, K.

    2000-01-01

    A general chemical kinetics and sensitivity analysis code for complex, homogeneous, gas-phase reactions is described. The main features of the code, LSENS (the NASA Lewis kinetics and sensitivity analysis code), are its flexibility, efficiency and convenience in treating many different chemical reaction models. The models include: static system; steady, one-dimensional, inviscid flow; incident-shock initiated reaction in a shock tube; and a perfectly stirred reactor. In addition, equilibrium computations can be performed for several assigned states. An implicit numerical integration method (LSODE, the Livermore Solver for Ordinary Differential Equations), which works efficiently for the extremes of very fast and very slow reactions, is used to solve the "stiff" ordinary differential equation systems that arise in chemical kinetics. For static reactions, the code uses the decoupled direct method to calculate sensitivity coefficients of the dependent variables and their temporal derivatives with respect to the initial values of dependent variables and/or the rate coefficient parameters. Solution methods for the equilibrium and post-shock conditions and for perfectly stirred reactor problems are either adapted from or based on the procedures built into the NASA code CEA (Chemical Equilibrium and Applications).

  20. Fluctuation Analysis: Dissecting Transcriptional Kinetics with Signal Theory.

    PubMed

    Coulon, A; Larson, D R

    2016-01-01

    Recent live-cell microscopy techniques now allow the visualization in multiple colors of RNAs as they are transcribed on genes of interest. Following the number of nascent RNAs over time at a single locus reveals complex fluctuations originating from the underlying transcriptional kinetics. We present here a technique based on concepts from signal theory-called fluctuation analysis-to analyze and interpret multicolor transcriptional time traces and extract the temporal signatures of the underlying mechanisms. The principle is to generate, from the time traces, a set of functions called correlation functions. We explain how to compute these functions practically from a set of experimental traces and how to interpret them through different theoretical and computational means. We also present the major difficulties and pitfalls one might encounter with this technique. This approach is capable of extracting mechanistic information hidden in transcriptional fluctuations at multiple timescales and has broad applications for understanding transcriptional kinetics.

  1. Intracellular O2 sensing probe based on cell-penetrating phosphorescent nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Fercher, Andreas; Borisov, Sergey M; Zhdanov, Alexander V; Klimant, Ingo; Papkovsky, Dmitri B

    2011-07-26

    A new intracellular O(2) (icO(2)) sensing probe is presented, which comprises a nanoparticle (NP) formulation of a cationic polymer Eudragit RL-100 and a hydrophobic phosphorescent dye Pt(II)-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin (PtPFPP). Using the time-resolved fluorescence (TR-F) plate reader set-up, cell loading was investigated in detail, particularly the effects of probe concentration, loading time, serum content in the medium, cell type, density, etc. The use of a fluorescent analogue of the probe in conjunction with confocal microscopy and flow cytometry analysis, revealed that cellular uptake of the NPs is driven by nonspecific energy-dependent endocytosis and that the probe localizes inside the cell close to the nucleus. Probe calibration in biological environment was performed, which allowed conversion of measured phosphorescence lifetime signals into icO(2) concentration (μM). Its analytical performance in icO(2) sensing experiments was demonstrated by monitoring metabolic responses of mouse embryonic fibroblast cells under ambient and hypoxic macroenvironment. The NP probe was seen to generate stable and reproducible signals in different types of mammalian cells and robust responses to their metabolic stimulation, thus allowing accurate quantitative analysis. High brightness and photostability allow its use in screening experiments with cell populations on a commercial TR-F reader, and for single cell analysis on a fluorescent microscope.

  2. Kinetic analysis of two dimensional metallic grating Cerenkov maser

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Ding

    2011-08-15

    The dispersion relation of two dimensional metallic grating Cerenkov maser has been given by using kinetic analysis, in which the influence of electron movement is directly considered without using an equivalent dielectric medium assumption. The effects of structural parameters and beam state on the interaction gain and synchronous frequency have also been investigated in detail by numerical calculations. To an illustrative case, the quantitative relations produced from varying the gap distance between electron beam and metallic grating, beam current, electron transverse to axial velocity ratio, and electron axial velocity spread have been obtained. The developed method can be used to predict the real interaction system performances.

  3. A novel optical biosensor for direct and selective determination of serotonin in serum by Solid Surface-Room Temperature Phosphorescence.

    PubMed

    Ramon-Marquez, Teresa; Medina-Castillo, Antonio L; Fernandez-Gutierrez, Alberto; Fernandez-Sanchez, Jorge F

    2016-08-15

    This paper describes a novel biosensor which combines the use of nanotechnology (non-woven nanofibre mat) with Solid Surface-Room Temperature Phosphorescence (SS-RTP) measurement for the determination of serotonin in human serum. The developed biosensor is simple and can be directly applied in serum; only requires a simple clean-up protocol. Therefore it is the first time that serotonin is analysed directly in serum with a non-enzymatic technique. This new approach is based on the covalent immobilization of serotonin directly from serum on a functional nanofibre material (Tiss®-Link) with a preactivated surface for direct covalent immobilization of primary and secondary amines, and the subsequent measurement of serotonin phosphorescent emission from the solid surface. The phosphorescent detection allows avoiding the interference from any fluorescence emission or scattering light from any molecule present in the serum sample which can be also immobilised on the nanofibre material. The determination of serotonin with this SS-RTP sensor overcomes some limitations, such as large interference from the matrix and high cost and complexity of many of the methods widely used for serotonin analysis. The potential applicability of the sensor in the clinical diagnosis was demonstrated by analysing serum samples from seven healthy volunteers. The method was validated with an external reference laboratory, obtaining a correlation coefficient of 0.997 which indicates excellent correlation between the two methods.

  4. A DNA probe based on phosphorescent resonance energy transfer for detection of transgenic 35S promoter DNA.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jinzhi; Miao, Yanming; Yang, Jiajia; Qin, Jin; Li, Dongxia; Yan, Guiqin

    2017-05-15

    A QDs-DNA nano-probe was made by combining Mn-doped ZnS room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) quantum dots (QDs) and DNA. Then an RTP sensor for quantitative detection of genetically-modified mark sequence cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (Ca MV 35S) DNA was built on basis of phosphorescent resonance energy transfer (PRET). The underlying principles were that a QDs-DNA water-soluble nano-probe was built by connecting single-strand DNA to the surfaces of QDs via a ligand exchange method. This probe had good RTP performance and could well identify Ca MV 35S. Thereby, the simple, rapid and efficient detection of genetically-modified organisms was realized. With the increase of target DNA sequence, the phosphorescent intensity of QDs was gradually reduced due to the energy transfer between QDs and the organic quencher BHQ2. This sensor had a detection limit of 4.03nM and a detection range of 12-300nM. Moreover, this sensor had high selectivity. This sensor could effectively detect the target DNA compared with mismatched and random sequences. Thus, this method is very promising for biological analysis.

  5. Long lasting phosphorescence and photostimulated luminescence in Tb-ion-activated reduced calcium aluminate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Takeru; Yamazaki, Masaaki; Kawazoe, Hiroshi; Hosono, Hideo

    1999-10-01

    Long lasting phosphorescence (LLP) and photostimulated luminescence (PSL) were found in reduced calcium aluminate glasses activated with Tb3+ ions. The LLP from Tb3+ was observed by illuminating the Tb3+ 4f→5d charge transfer band with ultraviolet (UV) 254 nm light, while the PSL was seen by stimulating the UV-illuminated glasses with 633 nm light. The decay curve of the LLP was fitted with a second-order kinetic for the initial period (0kinetic for the later (t>30 min). An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal, which is attributed to an F+-like center associated with Ca2+ ions, was induced by illumination with UV light and its intensity decay was fitted with a first-order kinetic similarly to the later stage of the LLP. The appearance of the PSL by illumination is accompanied by a distinct intensity reduction of the EPR signal due to the F+-like center. The thermoluminescence spectra of the specimen illuminated with UV light at 77 K consist of two components peaking at ˜240 and ˜390 K. The low temperature component and the high temperature component were attributed to an F-like center and an F+-like center, respectively. These results lead to a conclusion that electrons of the F-like center and the F+-like center contribute predominantly to the emergence of the LLP and the PSL, respectively.

  6. Red phosphorescence from benzo[2,1,3]thiadiazoles at room temperature

    DOE PAGES

    Gutierrez, Gregory D.; Sazama, Graham T.; Wu, Tony; ...

    2016-05-23

    In this paper, we describe the red phosphorescence exhibited by a class of structurally simple benzo[2,1,3]thiadiazoles at room temperature. The photophysical properties of these molecules in deoxygenated cyclohexane, including their absorption spectra, steady-state photoluminescence and excitation spectra, and phosphorescence lifetimes, are presented. Finally, time-dependent density functional theory calculations were carried out to better understand the electronic excited states of these benzo[2,1,3]thiadiazoles and why they are capable of phosphorescence.

  7. Green Phosphorescence and Electroluminescence of Sulfur Pentafluoride-Functionalized Cationic Iridium(III) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Shavaleev, Nail M; Xie, Guohua; Varghese, Shinto; Cordes, David B; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Momblona, Cristina; Ortí, Enrique; Bolink, Henk J; Samuel, Ifor D W; Zysman-Colman, Eli

    2015-06-15

    We report on four cationic iridium(III) complexes [Ir(C^N)2(dtBubpy)](PF6) that have sulfur pentafluoride-modified 1-phenylpyrazole and 2-phenylpyridine cyclometalating (C^N) ligands (dtBubpy = 4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridyl). Three of the complexes were characterized by single-crystal X-ray structure analysis. In cyclic voltammetry, the complexes undergo reversible oxidation of iridium(III) and irreversible reduction of the SF5 group. They emit bright green phosphorescence in acetonitrile solution and in thin films at room temperature, with emission maxima in the range of 482-519 nm and photoluminescence quantum yields of up to 79%. The electron-withdrawing sulfur pentafluoride group on the cyclometalating ligands increases the oxidation potential and the redox gap and blue-shifts the phosphorescence of the iridium complexes more so than the commonly employed fluoro and trifluoromethyl groups. The irreversible reduction of the SF5 group may be a problem in organic electronics; for example, the complexes do not exhibit electroluminescence in light-emitting electrochemical cells (LEECs). Nevertheless, the complexes exhibit green to yellow-green electroluminescence in doped multilayer organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with emission maxima ranging from 501 nm to 520 nm and with an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of up to 1.7% in solution-processed devices.

  8. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding. 2. Enormous deuterium isotope effect on the phosphorescence of 6-hydroxybenzanthrone

    SciTech Connect

    Van Benthem, M.H.; Gillispie, G.D.; Haddon, R.C.

    1982-10-28

    The laser-excited fluorescence and phosphorescence spectra of the title compound and its hydroxy-deuterated analogue have been measured in an n-hexane Shpol'skii matrix at 10 K. The deuterium substitution has only a minor effect on the fluorescence intensity and the fluorescence and phosphorescence vibronic patterns but leads to a greater than order of magnitude increase in the phosphorescence quantum yield. The phosphorescence lifetimes have been measured to be 19 ms for the normal isotopic species and 300 ms for the deuterated form. This probably represents the largest deuterium isotope effect yet observed in aromatic molecule photophysics.

  9. Synthesis of a platinum diketonate-containing polymer showing oxygen-resistant phosphorescence.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kazuo; Hirose, Amane; Tamashima, Kenji; Chujo, Yoshiki

    2015-04-01

    The synthesis of a platinum diketonate-based alternating copolymer containing a fluorene unit and its oxygen-resistant phosphorescence are reported. The polymerization is executed via palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction. The synthesized polymer shows good solubility in common organic solvents and processability to form homogeneous films. By optical measurements it is found that the synthesized polymer shows phosphorescence from a triplet π-π* ligand-centered transition, and interestingly, the emission is hardly influenced by oxygen. Phosphorescence is observed from both solution and film samples under aerobic conditions. The new idea of obtaining emissive materials based on conjugated polymers showing oxygen-resistant phosphorescence is presented here.

  10. Quantitating intracellular oxygen tension in vivo by phosphorescence lifetime measurement

    PubMed Central

    Hirakawa, Yosuke; Yoshihara, Toshitada; Kamiya, Mako; Mimura, Imari; Fujikura, Daichi; Masuda, Tsuyoshi; Kikuchi, Ryohei; Takahashi, Ippei; Urano, Yasuteru; Tobita, Seiji; Nangaku, Masaomi

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia appears to have an important role in pathological conditions in many organs such as kidney; however, a method to quantify intracellular oxygen tension in vivo has not been well established. In this study, we established an optical method to quantify oxygen tension in mice kidneys using a cationic lipophilic phosphorescence probe, BTPDM1, which has an intracellular oxygen concentration-sensitive phosphorescence lifetime. Since this probe is distributed inside the tubular cells of the mice kidney, we succeeded in detecting acute renal hypoxic conditions and chronic kidney disease. This technique enabled us to estimate intracellular partial pressures of oxygen in vivo by extrapolating the calibration curve generated from cultured tubular cells. Since intracellular oxygen tension is directly related to cellular hypoxic reactions, such as the activation of hypoxia-inducible factors, our method will shed new light on hypoxia research in vivo. PMID:26644023

  11. LSENS - GENERAL CHEMICAL KINETICS AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS CODE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittker, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    LSENS has been developed for solving complex, homogeneous, gas-phase, chemical kinetics problems. The motivation for the development of this program is the continuing interest in developing detailed chemical reaction mechanisms for complex reactions such as the combustion of fuels and pollutant formation and destruction. A reaction mechanism is the set of all elementary chemical reactions that are required to describe the process of interest. Mathematical descriptions of chemical kinetics problems constitute sets of coupled, nonlinear, first-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The number of ODEs can be very large because of the numerous chemical species involved in the reaction mechanism. Further complicating the situation are the many simultaneous reactions needed to describe the chemical kinetics of practical fuels. For example, the mechanism describing the oxidation of the simplest hydrocarbon fuel, methane, involves over 25 species participating in nearly 100 elementary reaction steps. Validating a chemical reaction mechanism requires repetitive solutions of the governing ODEs for a variety of reaction conditions. Analytical solutions to the systems of ODEs describing chemistry are not possible, except for the simplest cases, which are of little or no practical value. Consequently, there is a need for fast and reliable numerical solution techniques for chemical kinetics problems. In addition to solving the ODEs describing chemical kinetics, it is often necessary to know what effects variations in either initial condition values or chemical reaction mechanism parameters have on the solution. Such a need arises in the development of reaction mechanisms from experimental data. The rate coefficients are often not known with great precision and in general, the experimental data are not sufficiently detailed to accurately estimate the rate coefficient parameters. The development of a reaction mechanism is facilitated by a systematic sensitivity analysis

  12. Adaptive approach for nonlinear sensitivity analysis of reaction kinetics.

    PubMed

    Horenko, Illia; Lorenz, Sönke; Schütte, Christof; Huisinga, Wilhelm

    2005-07-15

    We present a unified approach for linear and nonlinear sensitivity analysis for models of reaction kinetics that are stated in terms of systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The approach is based on the reformulation of the ODE problem as a density transport problem described by a Fokker-Planck equation. The resulting multidimensional partial differential equation is herein solved by extending the TRAIL algorithm originally introduced by Horenko and Weiser in the context of molecular dynamics (J. Comp. Chem. 2003, 24, 1921) and discussed it in comparison with Monte Carlo techniques. The extended TRAIL approach is fully adaptive and easily allows to study the influence of nonlinear dynamical effects. We illustrate the scheme in application to an enzyme-substrate model problem for sensitivity analysis w.r.t. to initial concentrations and parameter values.

  13. Novel bipolar bathophenanthroline containing hosts for highly efficient phosphorescent OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ziyi; Hayakawa, Teruaki; Ando, Shinji; Ueda, Mitsuru; Akiike, Toshiyuki; Miyamoto, Hidetoshi; Kajita, Toru; Kakimoto, Masa-aki

    2008-02-07

    The electronic structures of eight bathophenanthroline derivatives were elucidated by DFT calculations, and four representatives of which CZBP, m-CZBP, m-TPAP, and BPABP were synthesized and employed as the hosts to afford highly efficient phosphorescent OLEDs. The calculated molecular orbital energies agree well with the experimental results, which further demonstrates that the localization of HOMO and LUMO at the respective hole- and electron-transporting moieties is desirable in bipolar molecular designs.

  14. Boron Polylactide Nanoparticles Exhibiting Fluorescence and Phosphorescence in Aqueous Medium

    PubMed Central

    Pfister, Anne; Zhang, Guoqing; Zareno, Jessica; Horwitz, Alan F.; Fraser, Cassandra L.

    2008-01-01

    Difluoroboron dibenzoylmethane-polylactide, BF2dbmPLA, a biocompatible polymerluminophore conjugate was fabricated as nanoparticles. Spherical particles <100 nm in size were generated via nanoprecipitation. Intense blue fluorescence, two-photon absorption, and long-lived room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) are retained in aqueous suspension. The nanoparticles were internalized by cells and visualized by fluorescence microscopy. Luminescent boron biomaterials show potential for imaging and sensing. PMID:19081748

  15. Norepinephrine metabolism in humans. Kinetic analysis and model

    SciTech Connect

    Linares, O.A.; Jacquez, J.A.; Zech, L.A.; Smith, M.J.; Sanfield, J.A.; Morrow, L.A.; Rosen, S.G.; Halter, J.B.

    1987-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to quantify more precisely and to begin to address the problem of heterogeneity of the kinetics of distribution and metabolism of norepinephrine (NE) in humans, by using compartmental analysis. Steady-state NE specific activity in arterialized plasma during (/sup 3/H)NE infusion and postinfusion plasma disappearance of (/sup 3/H)NE were measured in eight healthy subjects in the supine and upright positions. Two exponentials were clearly identified in the plasma (/sup 3/H)NE disappearance curves of each subject studied in the supine (r = 0.94-1.00, all P less than 0.01) and upright (r = 0.90-0.98, all P less than 0.01) positions. A two-compartment model was the minimal model necessary to simultaneously describe the kinetics of NE in the supine and upright positions. The NE input rate into the extravascular compartment 2, estimated with the minimal model, increased with upright posture (1.87 +/- 0.08 vs. 3.25 +/- 0.2 micrograms/min per m2, P less than 0.001). Upright posture was associated with a fall in the volume of distribution of NE in compartment 1 (7.5 +/- 0.6 vs. 4.7 +/- 0.3 liters, P less than 0.001), and as a result of that, there was a fall in the metabolic clearance rate of NE from compartment 1 (1.80 +/- 0.11 vs. 1.21 +/- 0.08 liters/min per m2, P less than 0.001). We conclude that a two-compartment model is the minimal model that can accurately describe the kinetics of distribution and metabolism of NE in humans.

  16. Temperature Measurement Technique Using Phosphorescence of Porphyrin Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kura, Kentaro; Someya, Satoshi; Okamoto, Koji

    2007-11-01

    LIF have been developed to measure the temperature, pH and the oxygen concentration in the fluid. However, the frequent excitation of the fluorescent dye causes the quenching effect. In addition, two color LIF should be applied in order to cancel the effect of non-uniform light intensity of excitation. The phosphor emitting the phosphorescence for a few milliseconds by an excitation was measured at the high time resolution, while the phosphorescence lifetime is the function of the temperature. As the phosphorescence dyes, PtTFPP and PdTFPP were tested. Those mixed with Coumarin30 were also demonstrated. These dyes were excited by a CW laser with the wavelength of 405nm. As the result, it was clarified to be able to measure the temperature using these dyes and this laser. Present study is the result of ``High speed three-dimensional direct measurement technology development for the evaluation of heat flux and flow of liquid metal'' entrusted to the University of Tokyo by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT).

  17. Kinetic analysis of manure pyrolysis and combustion processes.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Lopez, M; Pedrosa-Castro, G J; Valverde, J L; Sanchez-Silva, L

    2016-12-01

    Due to the depletion of fossil fuel reserves and the environmental issues derived from their use, biomass seems to be an excellent source of renewable energy. In this work, the kinetics of the pyrolysis and combustion of three different biomass waste samples (two dairy manure samples before (Pre) and after (Dig R) anaerobic digestion and one swine manure sample (SW)) was studied by means of thermogravimetric analysis. In this work, three iso-conversional methods (Friedman, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS)) were compared with the Coats-Redfern method. The Ea values of devolatilization stages were in the range of 152-170kJ/mol, 148-178kJ/mol and 156-209kJ/mol for samples Pre, Dig R and SW, respectively. Concerning combustion process, char oxidation stages showed lower Ea values than that obtained for the combustion devolatilization stage, being in the range of 140-175kJ/mol, 178-199kJ/mol and 122-144kJ/mol for samples Pre, Dig R and SW, respectively. These results were practically the same for samples Pre and Dig R, which means that the kinetics of the thermochemical processes were not affected by anaerobic digestion. Finally, the distributed activation energy model (DAEM) and the pseudo-multi component stage model (PMSM) were applied to predict the weight loss curves of pyrolysis and combustion. DAEM was the best model that fitted the experimental data.

  18. Cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes for phosphorescence sensing of biological metal ions.

    PubMed

    You, Youngmin; Cho, Somin; Nam, Wonwoo

    2014-02-17

    Phosphorescence signaling provides a valuable alternative to conventional bioimaging based on fluorescence. The benefits of using phosphorescent molecules include improved sensitivity and capabilities for effective elimination of background signals by time-gated acquisition. Cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes are promising candidates for facilitating phosphorescent bioimaging because they provide synthetic versatility and excellent phosphorescence properties. In this Forum Article, we present our recent studies on the development of phosphorescence sensors for the detection of metal ions based on cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes. The constructs contained cyclometalating (C^N) ligands with the electron densities and band-gap energies of the C^N ligand structures systematically varied. Receptors that chelated zinc, cupric, and chromium ions were tethered to the ligands to create phosphorescence sensors. The alterations in the C^N ligand structures had a profound influence on the phosphorescence responses to metal ions. Mechanistic studies suggested that the phosphorescence responses could be explained on the basis of the modulation of photoinduced electron transfer (PeT) from the receptor to the photoexcited iridium species. The PeT behaviors strictly adhered to the Rehm-Weller principle, and the occurrence of PeT was located in the Marcus-normal region. It is thus anticipated that improved responses will be obtainable by increasing the excited-state reduction potential of the iridium(III) complexes. Femtosecond transient absorption experiments provided evidence for the presence of an additional photophysical mechanism that involved metal-ion-induced alteration of the intraligand charge-transfer (ILCT) transition state. Utility of the mechanism by PeT and ILCT has been demonstrated for the phosphorescence sensing of biologically important transition-metal ions. In particular, the phosphorescence zinc sensor could report the presence of intracellular zinc pools by

  19. Fluctuation analysis of motor protein movement and single enzyme kinetics.

    PubMed Central

    Svoboda, K; Mitra, P P; Block, S M

    1994-01-01

    We studied fluctuations in the displacement of silica beads driven by single molecules of the motor protein kinesin, moving under low mechanical loads at saturating ATP concentrations. The variance in position was significantly smaller than expected for the case of stepwise movement along a regular lattice of positions with exponentially distributed intervals. The small variance suggests that two or more sequential processes with comparable reaction rates dominate the biochemical cycle. The low value is inconsistent with certain recently proposed thermal ratchet models for motor movement as well as with scenarios where the hydrolysis of a single ATP molecule leads to a cluster of several steps. Fluctuation analysis is a potential powerful tool for studying kinetic behavior whenever the output of a single enzyme can be monitored. PMID:7991536

  20. An integral turbulent kinetic energy analysis of free shear flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, C. E.; Phares, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    Mixing of coaxial streams is analyzed by application of integral techniques. An integrated turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) equation is solved simultaneously with the integral equations for the mean flow. Normalized TKE profile shapes are obtained from incompressible jet and shear layer experiments and are assumed to be applicable to all free turbulent flows. The shear stress at the midpoint of the mixing zone is assumed to be directly proportional to the local TKE, and dissipation is treated with a generalization of the model developed for isotropic turbulence. Although the analysis was developed for ducted flows, constant-pressure flows were approximated with the duct much larger than the jet. The axisymmetric flows under consideration were predicted with reasonable accuracy. Fairly good results were also obtained for the fully developed two-dimensional shear layers, which were computed as thin layers at the boundary of a large circular jet.

  1. Analysis of Network Topologies Underlying Ethylene Growth Response Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Aaron M.; McCollough, Forest W.; Eldreth, Bryan L.; Binder, Brad M.; Abel, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Most models for ethylene signaling involve a linear pathway. However, measurements of seedling growth kinetics when ethylene is applied and removed have resulted in more complex network models that include coherent feedforward, negative feedback, and positive feedback motifs. The dynamical responses of the proposed networks have not been explored in a quantitative manner. Here, we explore (i) whether any of the proposed models are capable of producing growth-response behaviors consistent with experimental observations and (ii) what mechanistic roles various parts of the network topologies play in ethylene signaling. To address this, we used computational methods to explore two general network topologies: The first contains a coherent feedforward loop that inhibits growth and a negative feedback from growth onto itself (CFF/NFB). In the second, ethylene promotes the cleavage of EIN2, with the product of the cleavage inhibiting growth and promoting the production of EIN2 through a positive feedback loop (PFB). Since few network parameters for ethylene signaling are known in detail, we used an evolutionary algorithm to explore sets of parameters that produce behaviors similar to experimental growth response kinetics of both wildtype and mutant seedlings. We generated a library of parameter sets by independently running the evolutionary algorithm many times. Both network topologies produce behavior consistent with experimental observations, and analysis of the parameter sets allows us to identify important network interactions and parameter constraints. We additionally screened these parameter sets for growth recovery in the presence of sub-saturating ethylene doses, which is an experimentally-observed property that emerges in some of the evolved parameter sets. Finally, we probed simplified networks maintaining key features of the CFF/NFB and PFB topologies. From this, we verified observations drawn from the larger networks about mechanisms underlying ethylene

  2. Piezoresistive microcantilever aptasensor for ricin detection and kinetic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi-Wei; Tong, Zhao-Yang; Liu, Bing; Hao, Lan-Qun; Mu, Xi-Hui; Zhang, Jin-Ping; Gao, Chuan

    2015-04-01

    Up to now, there has been no report on target molecules detection by a piezoresistive microcantilever aptasensor. In order to evaluate the test performance and investigate the response dynamic characteristics of a piezoresistive microcantilever aptasensor, a novel method for ricin detection and kinetic analysis based on a piezoresistive microcantilever aptasensor was proposed, where ricin aptamer was immobilised on the microcantilever surface by biotin-avidin binding system. Results showed that the detection limit of ricin was 0.04μg L-1 (S/N ≥ 3). A linear relationship between the response voltage and the concentration of ricin in the range of 0.2μg L-1-40μg L-1 was obtained, with the linear regression equation of ΔUe = 0.904C + 5.852 (n = 5, R = 0.991, p < 0.001). The sensor showed no response for abrin, BSA, and could overcome the influence of complex environmental disruptors, indicating high specificity and good selectivity. Recovery and reproducibility in the result of simulated samples (simulated water, soil, and flour sample) determination met the analysis requirements, which was 90.5˜95.5% and 7.85%˜9.39%, respectively. On this basis, a reaction kinetic model based on ligand-receptor binding and the relationship with response voltage was established. The model could well reflect the dynamic response of the sensor. The correlation coefficient (R) was greater than or equal to 0.9456 (p < 0.001). Response voltage (ΔUe) and response time (t0) obtained from the fitting equation on different concentrations of ricin fitted well with the measured values.

  3. Kinetic analysis of overlapping multistep thermal decomposition comprising exothermic and endothermic processes: thermolysis of ammonium dinitramide.

    PubMed

    Muravyev, Nikita V; Koga, Nobuyoshi; Meerov, Dmitry B; Pivkina, Alla N

    2017-01-25

    This study focused on kinetic modeling of a specific type of multistep heterogeneous reaction comprising exothermic and endothermic reaction steps, as exemplified by the practical kinetic analysis of the experimental kinetic curves for the thermal decomposition of molten ammonium dinitramide (ADN). It is known that the thermal decomposition of ADN occurs as a consecutive two step mass-loss process comprising the decomposition of ADN and subsequent evaporation/decomposition of in situ generated ammonium nitrate. These reaction steps provide exothermic and endothermic contributions, respectively, to the overall thermal effect. The overall reaction process was deconvoluted into two reaction steps using simultaneously recorded thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) curves by considering the different physical meanings of the kinetic data derived from TG and DSC by P value analysis. The kinetic data thus separated into exothermic and endothermic reaction steps were kinetically characterized using kinetic computation methods including isoconversional method, combined kinetic analysis, and master plot method. The overall kinetic behavior was reproduced as the sum of the kinetic equations for each reaction step considering the contributions to the rate data derived from TG and DSC. During reproduction of the kinetic behavior, the kinetic parameters and contributions of each reaction step were optimized using kinetic deconvolution analysis. As a result, the thermal decomposition of ADN was successfully modeled as partially overlapping exothermic and endothermic reaction steps. The logic of the kinetic modeling was critically examined, and the practical usefulness of phenomenological modeling for the thermal decomposition of ADN was illustrated to demonstrate the validity of the methodology and its applicability to similar complex reaction processes.

  4. Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of Arundo donax using thermogravimetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Jeguirim, Mejdi; Trouvé, Gwenaelle

    2009-09-01

    The increase of the price of fossil means, as well as their programmed disappearing, contributed to increase among appliances based on biomass and energy crops. The thermal behavior of Arundo donax by thermogravimetric analysis was studied under inert atmosphere at heating rates ranging from 5 to 20 degrees C min(-1) from room temperature to 750 degrees C. Gaseous emissions as CO(2), CO and volatile organic compounds (VOC) were measured and global kinetic parameters were determined during pyrolysis with the study of the influence of the heating rate. The thermal process describes two main phases. The first phase named active zone, characterizes the degradation of hemicellulose and cellulose polymers. It started at low temperature (200 degrees C) comparatively to wood samples and was finished at 350 degrees C. The pyrolysis of the lignin polymer occurred during the second phase from 350 to 750 degrees C, named passive zone. Carbon oxides are emitted during the active zone whereas VOC are mainly formed during the passive zone. Mass losses, mass loss rates and emission factors were strongly affected by the variation of the heating rate in the active zone. It was found that the global pyrolysis of A. donax can be satisfactorily described using global independent reactions model for hemicellulose and cellulose in the active zone. The activation energy for hemicellulose was not affected by a variation of the heating rate with a value close to 110 kJ mol(-1) and presented a reaction order close to 0.5. An increase of the heating rate decreased the activation energy of the cellulose. However, a first reaction order was observed for cellulose decomposition. The experimental results and kinetic parameters may provide useful data for the design of pyrolytic processing system using A. donax as feedstock.

  5. Phosphorescent nanoparticles and their applications for time-resolved luminescent biological assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xuedong; Huang, Lei; Knotts, Mike; Wu, Bin

    2009-02-01

    A new class of phosphorescent nanoparticles has been developed that use halogen-containing polymers and copolymers to encapsulate phosphorescent molecules. Their strong phosphorescence of long lifetime and large Stoke shift are not subject to oxygen quenching under ambient conditions due to the low oxygen permeability of the encapsulation matrix. The cross-linked phosphorescent particles are very stable and easily re-suspendable in aqueous media with surface functional groups to allow covalent tagging of biological recognition molecules such as antibodies. The conjugates can be used to provide very sensitive detection of analytes through time-resolved phosphorescence measurements. In addition to their applications for solution-based biological assays, those particles have also been demonstrated to be very useful for dry-chemistry-based time-resolved luminescent lateral flow assays.

  6. Physico-Geometrical Kinetics of Solid-State Reactions in an Undergraduate Thermal Analysis Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koga, Nobuyoshi; Goshi, Yuri; Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Tatsuoka, Tomoyuki

    2014-01-01

    An undergraduate kinetic experiment of the thermal decomposition of solids by microscopic observation and thermal analysis was developed by investigating a suitable reaction, applicable techniques of thermal analysis and microscopic observation, and a reliable kinetic calculation method. The thermal decomposition of sodium hydrogen carbonate is…

  7. Analysis and Interpretation of Single Molecule Protein Unfolding Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lannon, Herbert; Brujic, Jasna

    2012-02-01

    The kinetics of protein unfolding under a stretching force has been extensively studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) over the past decade [1]. Experimental artifacts at the single molecule level introduce uncertainties in the data analysis that have led to several competing physical models for the unfolding process. For example, the unfolding dynamics of the protein ubiquitin under constant force has been described by probability distributions as diverse as exponential [2,3], a sum of exponentials, log-normal [4], and more recently a function describing static disorder in the Arrhenius model [5]. A new method for data analysis is presented that utilizes maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) combined with other traditional statistical tests to unambiguously rank the consistency of these and other models with the experimental data. These techniques applied to the ubiquitin unfolding data shows that the probability of unfolding is best fit with a stretched exponential distribution, with important implications on the complexity of the mechanism of protein unfolding. [4pt] [1] Carrion-Vazquez, et. al. Springer Series in Biophys. 2006 [0pt] [2] Fernandez et. al. Science 2004 [0pt] [3] Brujic et. al. Nat. Phys 2006 [0pt] [4] Garcia-Manyes et. al. Biophys. J. 2007 [0pt] [5] Kuo et. al. PNAS 2010

  8. Development of a room-temperature phosphorescence fiber-optic sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Campiglia, A.D.; Alarie, J.P.; Vo-Dinh, T.

    1996-05-01

    The design of a new fiber optic sensor based on solid-surface room temperature phosphorimetry is presented for the analyses of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples. Analytical figures of merit are given for several compounds of environmental importance. Limits of detection at the nanograms per milliliter level were estimated for pyrene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, 1,2:3,4-dibenzanthracene, coronene, and 2,3-benzofluorene. The linearity of response of the phosphorescence sensor was evaluated, showing a fairly linear behavior for quantitative analysis. Finally, the feasibility of monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous media was illustrated by identifying pyrene in a contaminated ground water sample. 33 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Synchronous wavelength scanning room temperature phosphorescence: Comparison of cyclodextrin and micellar media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Femia, Robert A.; Love, L. J. Cline

    Application of synchronous wavelength scanning to two fluid phase room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) techniques using β-cyclodextrin and micelles are evaluated and compared. The selectivity, sensitivity, susceptibility to light scattering interference and classes of compounds amenable to determination by the two RTP approaches are discussed. Synchronous wavelength scanning cyclodextrin RTP studies focus on its usefulness for identification of nitrogen heterocyclic phosphors. Spectral resolution is improved in both RTP techniques by second derivative manipulation of the digitally stored synchronous spectra. A significant scatter interference resulting from turbidity produced by the cyclodextrin inclusion complexes imposes constraints on the selectivity and sensitivity achievable with the cyclodextrin medium, especially when using synchronous wavelength scanning. Generally, micelle-induced RTP was found to be superior to cyclodextrin-induced RTP for analysis of various mixtures of the 12 heterocyclics and 15 carbocyclics studied, as well as for a mixture of the drug, propranolol, and its 4-hydroxy metabolite.

  10. A precision synchrotron radiation detector using phosphorescent screens

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, C.K.; Lateur, M.; Nash, J.; Tinsman, J. ); Butler, J. ); Wormser, G. . Lab. de l'Accelerateur Lineaire); Levi, M.; Rouse, F. )

    1990-01-01

    A precision detector to measure synchrotron radiation beam positions has been designed and installed as part of beam energy spectrometers at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The distance between pairs of synchrotron radiation beams is measured absolutely to better than 28 {mu}m on a pulse-to-pulse basis. This contributes less than 5 MeV to the error in the measurement of SLC beam energies (approximately 50 GeV). A system of high-resolution video cameras viewing precisely aligned fiducial wire arrays overlaying phosphorescent screens has achieved this accuracy. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Thermodynamic and kinetic analysis of heterogeneous photocatalysis for semiconductor systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baoshun; Zhao, Xiujian; Terashima, Chiaki; Fujishima, Akira; Nakata, Kazuya

    2014-05-21

    Since the report of the Honda-Fujishima effect, heterogeneous photocatalysis has attracted much attention around the world because of its potential energy and environmental applications. Although great progresses have been made in recent years, most were focused on preparing highly-active photocatalysts and investigating visible light utilization. In fact, we are still unclear on the thermodynamic and kinetic nature of photocatalysis to date, which sometimes leads to misunderstandings for experimental results. It is timely to give a review and discussion on the thermodynamics and kinetics of photocatalysis, so as to direct future researches. However, there is an absence of a detailed review on this topic until now. In this article, we tried to review and discuss the thermodynamics and kinetics of photocatalysis. We explained the thermodynamic driving force of photocatalysis, and distinguished the functions of light and heat in photocatalysis. The Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model, the ˙OH oxidation mechanism, and the direct-indirect (D-I) kinetic model were reviewed and compared. Some applications of the D-I model to study photocatalytic kinetics were also discussed. The electron transport mode and its importance in photocatalysis were investigated. Finally, the intrinsic relation between the kinetics and the thermodynamics of photocatalytic reactions was discussed.

  12. Quantifying a pathway: kinetic analysis of actin dendritic nucleation.

    PubMed

    Kraikivski, Pavel; Slepchenko, Boris M

    2010-08-04

    Progress in uncovering the reaction networks that underlie important cell functions is laying the groundwork for quantitative identification of protein-interaction pathways. Since direct measurement of rate constants is not always feasible, the parameters are often inferred from multiple pieces of data using kinetic analyses based on appropriate mathematical models. The success of this approach relies on the sufficiency of available experimental data for a unique parameterization of the network. The concept of a rate-limiting step is applied to the analysis of experimental data that are usually used to quantify a pathway of actin dendritic nucleation, the Arp2/3-mediated mechanism that enables rapid changes of cell shape in response to external cues. The method yields analytical descriptions of the dynamics of polymerized actin and provides insights into how the experimental curves should be analyzed. It is shown that dynamics measured by pyrene-labeled actin assays with varying Arp2/3 concentrations are equally well described by two different rate-limiting steps: 1), binding of a nucleating complex to the side of a preexisting filament; or 2), its subsequent activation. To distinguish between the alternatives, we propose experiments with varying concentrations of actin monomers, taking advantage of the fact that the number of branches in the two cases depends differently on the initial monomer concentration. The idea is tested by simulating the proposed experiments with the use of spatial stochastic modeling.

  13. [Kinetic analysis of additive effect on desulfurization activity].

    PubMed

    Han, Kui-hua; Zhao, Jian-li; Lu, Chun-mei; Wang, Yong-zheng; Zhao, Gai-ju; Cheng, Shi-qing

    2006-02-01

    The additive effects of A12O3, Fe2O3 and MnCO3 on CaO sulfation kinetics were investigated by thermogravimetic analysis method and modified grain model. The activation energy (Ea) and the pre-exponential factor (k0) of surface reaction, the activation energy (Ep) and the pre-exponential factor (D0) of product layer diffusion reaction were calculated according to the model. Additions of MnCO3 can enhance the initial reaction rate, product layer diffusion and the final CaO conversion of sorbents, the effect mechanism of which is similar to that of Fe2O3. The method based isokinetic temperature Ts and activation energy can not estimate the contribution of additive to the sulfation reactivity, the rate constant of the surface reaction (k), and the effective diffusivity of reactant in the product layer (Ds) under certain experimental conditions can reflect the effect of additives on the activation. Unstoichiometric metal oxide may catalyze the surface reaction and promote the diffusivity of reactant in the product layer by the crystal defect and distinct diffusion of cation and anion. According to the mechanism and effect of additive on the sulfation, the effective temperature and the stoichiometric relation of reaction, it is possible to improve the utilization of sorbent by compounding more additives to the calcium-based sorbent.

  14. Kinetic analysis of Legionella inactivation using ozone in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Li, Kunquan; Zhou, Yan; Li, Xuebin; Tao, Tao

    2017-02-01

    Legionella inactivation using ozone was studied in wastewater using kinetic analysis and modeling. The experimental results indicate that the relationship between the ozone concentration, germ concentration, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) can be used to predict variations in germ and COD concentrations. The ozone reaction with COD and inactivation of Legionella occurred simultaneously, but the reaction with COD likely occurred at a higher rate than the inactivation, as COD is more easily oxidized by ozone than Legionella. Higher initial COD concentrations resulted in a lower inactivation rate and higher lnN/N0. Higher temperature led to a higher inactivation efficiency. The relationship of the initial O3 concentration and Legionella inactivation rate was not linear, and thus, the Ct value required for a 99.99% reduction was not constant. The initial O3 concentration was more important than the contact time, and a reduction of the initial O3 concentration could not be compensated by increasing the contact time. The Ct values were compared over a narrow range of initial concentrations; the Ct values could only be contrasted when the initial O3 concentrations were very similar. A higher initial O3 concentration led to a higher inflection point value for the lnN/N0 vs C0t curve. Energy consumption using a plasma corona was lower than when using boron-doped diamond electrodes.

  15. Kinetic analysis of pre-ribosome structure in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Swiatkowska, Agata; Wlotzka, Wiebke; Tuck, Alex; Barrass, J. David; Beggs, Jean D.; Tollervey, David

    2012-01-01

    Pre-ribosomal particles undergo numerous structural changes during maturation, but their high complexity and short lifetimes make these changes very difficult to follow in vivo. In consequence, pre-ribosome structure and composition have largely been inferred from purified particles and analyzed in vitro. Here we describe techniques for kinetic analyses of the changes in pre-ribosome structure in living cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To allow this, in vivo structure probing by DMS modification was combined with affinity purification of newly synthesized 20S pre-rRNA over a time course of metabolic labeling with 4-thiouracil. To demonstrate that this approach is generally applicable, we initially analyzed the accessibility of the region surrounding cleavage site D site at the 3′ end of the mature 18S rRNA region of the pre-rRNA. This revealed a remarkably flexible structure throughout 40S subunit biogenesis, with little stable RNA–protein interaction apparent. Analysis of folding in the region of the 18S central pseudoknot was consistent with previous data showing U3 snoRNA–18S rRNA interactions. Dynamic changes in the structure of the hinge between helix 28 (H28) and H44 of pre-18S rRNA were consistent with recently reported interactions with the 3′ guide region of U3 snoRNA. Finally, analysis of the H18 region indicates that the RNA structure matures early, but additional protection appears subsequently, presumably reflecting protein binding. The structural analyses described here were performed on total, affinity-purified, newly synthesized RNA, so many classes of RNA and RNA–protein complex are potentially amenable to this approach. PMID:23093724

  16. Creation of a U.S. Phosphorescent OLED Lighting Panel Manufacturing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hack, Michael

    2013-09-30

    Universal Display Corporation (UDC) has pioneered high efficacy phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED™) technology to enable the realization of an exciting new form of high quality, energy saving solid-date lighting. In laboratory test devices, we have demonstrated greater than 100 lm/W conversion efficacy. In this program, Universal Display will demonstrate the scalability of its proprietary UniversalPHOLED technology and materials for the manufacture of white OLED lighting panels that meet commercial lighting targets. Moser Baer Technologies will design and build a U.S.- based pilot facility. The objective of this project is to establish a pilot phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED) manufacturing line in the U.S. Our goal is that at the end of the project, prototype lighting panels could be provided to U.S. luminaire manufacturers for incorporation into products to facilitate the testing of design concepts and to gauge customer acceptance, so as to facilitate the growth of the embryonic U.S. OLED lighting industry. In addition, the team will provide a cost of ownership analysis to quantify production costs including OLED performance metrics which relate to OLED cost such as yield, materials usage, cycle time, substrate area, and capital depreciation. This project was part of a new DOE initiative designed to help establish and maintain U.S. leadership in this program will support key DOE objectives by showing a path to meet Department of Energy Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Roadmap cost targets, as well as meeting its efficiency targets by demonstrating the energy saving potential of our technology through the realization of greater than 76 lm/W OLED lighting panels by 2012.

  17. Photomultiplier window materials under electron irradiation - Fluorescence and phosphorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viehmann, W.; Eubanks, A. G.; Pieper, G. F.; Bredekamp, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The fluorescence and phosphorescence of photomultiplier window materials under electron irradiation have been investigated using a Sr-90/Y-90 beta emitter as the electron source. Spectral emission curves of UV-grade, optical-grade, and electron-irradiated samples of MgF2 and LiF, and of CaF2, BaF2, sapphire, fused silica, and UV-transmitting glasses were obtained over the 200-650-nm spectral range. Fluorescence yields were determined on these materials utilizing photomultiplier tubes with cesium telluride, bialkali, and trialkali (S-20) photocathodes, respectively. Optical-grade MgF2 and LiF, as well as electron-irradiated UV-grade samples of these two materials, show enhanced fluorescence due to color-center formation and associated emission bands in the blue and red wavelength regions. Large variations in fluorescence intensities were found in UV-grade sapphire samples of different origins, particularly in the red end of the spectrum, presumably due to various amounts of chromium-ion content. Phosphorescence decay with time is best described by a sum of exponential terms, with time constants ranging from a few minutes to several days.

  18. Time resolved imaging microscopy. Phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Marriott, G; Clegg, R M; Arndt-Jovin, D J; Jovin, T M

    1991-01-01

    An optical microscope capable of measuring time resolved luminescence (phosphorescence and delayed fluorescence) images has been developed. The technique employs two phase-locked mechanical choppers and a slow-scan scientific CCD camera attached to a normal fluorescence microscope. The sample is illuminated by a periodic train of light pulses and the image is recorded within a defined time interval after the end of each excitation period. The time resolution discriminates completely against light scattering, reflection, autofluorescence, and extraneous prompt fluorescence, which ordinarily decrease contrast in normal fluorescence microscopy measurements. Time resolved image microscopy produces a high contrast image and particular structures can be emphasized by displaying a new parameter, the ratio of the phosphorescence to fluorescence. Objects differing in luminescence decay rates are easily resolved. The lifetime of the long lived luminescence can be measured at each pixel of the microscope image by analyzing a series of images that differ by a variable time delay. The distribution of luminescence decay rates is displayed directly as an image. Several examples demonstrate the utility of the instrument and the complementarity it offers to conventional fluorescence microscopy. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:1723311

  19. Heavy atom induced phosphorescence study on the influence of internal structural factors on the photophysics of tryptophan in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalska-Baron, Agnieszka; Gałęcki, Krystian; Rożniakowski, Kamil; Kolesińska, Beata; Kamiński, Zbigniew J.; Wysocki, Stanisław

    2014-07-01

    In this study the effect of alanyl residue insertion into tryptophan and to some extent the effect of peptide bond on the photophysics of tryptophan chromophore has been studied. The photophysical parameters crucial in triplet state decay mechanism of aqueous AW, WA and AWA peptides have been determined applying our previously proposed methodology based on the heavy atom effect and compared with the previously reported values for tryptophan (Kowalska-Baron et al., 2012). The obtained results clearly indicated that the presence of alanyl residue and the peptide bond results in the changes in the fluorescence and phosphorescence decay kinetics of tryptophan. The fluorescence decays of the oligopeptides studied at pH 7 were biexponential. The longer lifetime component of WA arises from anionic form of this dipeptide, while the shorter one may be assigned to the zwitterionic form of WA. The observed invariance of the lifetimes of anionic and zwitterionic forms of WA throughout the pH studied supports the idea that these two components of WA fluorescence decay correspond to nearly independent species, possibly interconverting but at a rate slower than the fluorescence decay rates. Comparing the determined phosphorescence spectra of the oligopeptides studied with that of tryptophan, a slight blue-shift and more evident red-shift was observed in the spectrum of AW and WA, respectively. On the basis of the results of the phosphorescence measurements performed at pH 10, the 170 μs lifetime of WA, observed even at pH 7, may be assigned to the anionic form of the compound. It may be suggested that at pH 7 during the excited triplet state lifetime of WA there is a shift in the equilibrium towards the anionic form of this dipeptide. In the case of AW and AWA at pH 7 the obtained monoexponential decay kinetics, most probably, arise from zwitterionic forms of these peptides. The determined triplet quantum yield of AWA is slightly lower than that of tryptophan, while the quantum

  20. Phosphorescent Neutral Iridium (III) Complexes for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Bin Mohd Yusoff, Abd Rashid; Huckaba, Aron J; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja

    2017-04-01

    The development of transition metal complexes for application in light-emitting devices is currently attracting significant research interest. Among phosphorescent emitters, those involving iridium (III) complexes have proven to be exceedingly useful due to their relatively short triplet lifetime and high phosphorescence quantum yields. The emission wavelength of iridium (III) complexes significantly depends on the ligands, and changing the electronic nature and the position of the ligand substituents can control the properties of the ligands. In this chapter, we discuss recent developments of phosphorescent transition metal complexes for organic light-emitting diode applications focusing solely on the development of iridium metal complexes.

  1. A water-soluble and highly phosphorescent cyclometallated iridium complex with versatile sensing capability.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Zhao, Yuan; Wang, Chan; Song, Qijun; Pang, Qingfeng

    2017-05-01

    A water-soluble and highly phosphorescent cyclometallated iridium complex [(pq)2Ir(bpy-COOK)](+)Cl(-) (where pq=2-phenylquinoline, bpy-COOK= potassium 2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-dicarboxylate) (Ir) has been synthesized and characterized. Its phosphorescence can be sensitively and selectively quenched by tryptophan through a photoinduced electron-transfer (PET) process. Furthermore, the phosphorescence of Ir is drastically increased upon binding with bovine serum albumin (BSA), and the enhanced signal is effectively quenched in the presence of Cu(2+). Thus, Ir can be used as a multifunctional chemosensor for tryptophan, BSA, and Cu(2+) determination as well as for cell imaging.

  2. TChem - A Software Toolkit for the Analysis of Complex Kinetic Models

    SciTech Connect

    Safta, Cosmin; Najm, Habib N.; Knio, Omar

    2011-05-01

    The TChem toolkit is a software library that enables numerical simulations using complex chemistry and facilitates the analysis of detailed kinetic models. The toolkit provide capabilities for thermodynamic properties based on NASA polynomials and species production/consumption rates. It incorporates methods that can selectively modify reaction parameters for sensitivity analysis. The library contains several functions that provide analytically computed Jacobian matrices necessary for the efficient time advancement and analysis of detailed kinetic models.

  3. Optical and magnetic studies on the phosphorescent state of phthalazine in polar and non-polar hosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Seigo; Ueno, Tetsuo; Hirota, Noboru

    The optical and magnetic properties of the lowest triplet state (T1) of phthalazine were investigated in benzoic acid (BAC), p-dichlorobenzene (DCB) and p-dibromobenzene (DBB) by means of phosphorescence spectroscopy, ODMR and E.P.R. at liquid helium temperatures. Well resolved phosphorescence spectra were observed in DCB and DBB and a vibrational analysis of the spectra was made. The transition energies of the T2(nπ*) and the S1(nπ*) states were estimated from the excitation spectra. The energy gaps between T1 and T2 were estimated to be 2150, 694 and 788 cm-1 in BAC, DCB and DBB, respectively. The sublevel schemes and the zero field splittings (ZFS) were determined. The observed changes of the ZFS on going from the polar to the non-polar hosts are discussed in terms of the vibronic and spin-orbit interactions with the nearby T2(nπ*) state. The most radiative sublevel was found to be T2 in DCB, but Ty in BAC. This difference is attributed to the shifts of the energy levels and the reduction of the molecular symmetry in the polar host. In the non-radiative decay Ty was found to be the most active. Tremendous increases in the non-radiative decay rate constants were observed on going from BAC to DCB. Possible explanations for these observations are presented. The external heavy atom effect on the phosphorescence was observed in the case of DBB. The mechanisms enhancing the radiative decay rates, including those for the vibronic bands are discussed.

  4. Kinetic analysis and mechanistic aspects of autoxidation of catechins.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Manabu; Yamazaki, Shin-ichi; Kano, Kenji; Ikeda, Tokuji

    2002-01-15

    A peroxidase-based bioelectrochemical sensor of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and a Clark-type oxygen electrode were applied to continuous monitoring and kinetic analysis of the autoxidation of catechins. Four major catechins in green tea, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epicatechin gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin, and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, were used as model compounds. It was found that dioxygen (O(2)) is quantitatively reduced to H(2)O(2). The initial rate of autoxidation is suppressed by superoxide dismutase and H(+), but is independent of buffer capacity. Based on these results, a mechanism of autoxidation is proposed; the initial step is the one-electron oxidation of the B ring of catechins by O(2) to generate a superoxide anion (O(2)(*-)) and a semiquinone radical, as supported in part by electron spin resonance measurements. O(2)(*-) works as a stronger one-electron oxidant than O(2) against catechins and is reduced to H(2)O(2). The semiquinone radical is more susceptible to oxidation with O(2) than fully reduced catechins. The autoxidation rate increases with pH. This behavior can be interpreted in terms of the increase in the stability of O(2)(*-) and the semiquinone radical with increasing pH, rather than the acid dissociation of phenolic groups. Cupric ion enhances autoxidation; most probably it functions as a catalyst of the initial oxidation step of catechins. The product cuprous ion can trigger a Fenton reaction to generate hydroxyl radical. On the other hand, borate ion suppresses autoxidation drastically, due to the strong complex formation with catechins. The biological significance of autoxidation and its effectors are also discussed.

  5. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics analysis of transcriptional regulation kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Lemus, Enrique; Tovar, Hugo; Mejía, Carmen

    2014-12-01

    Gene expression in eukaryotic cells is an extremely complex and interesting phenomenon whose dynamics are controlled by a large number of subtle physicochemical processes commonly described by means of gene regulatory networks. Such networks consist in a series of coupled chemical reactions, conformational changes, and other biomolecular processes involving the interaction of the DNA molecule itself with a number of proteins usually called transcription factors as well as enzymes and other components. The kinetics behind the functioning of such gene regulatory networks are largely unknown, though its description in terms of non-equilibrium thermodynamics has been discussed recently. In this work we will derive general kinetic equations for a gene regulatory network from a non-equilibrium thermodynamical description and discuss its use in understanding the free energy constrains imposed in the network structure. We also will discuss explicit expressions for the kinetics of a simple model of gene regulation and show that the kinetic role of mRNA decay during the RNA synthesis stage (or transcription) is somehow limited due to the comparatively low values of decay rates. At the level discussed here, this implies a decoupling of the kinetics of mRNA synthesis and degradation a fact that may become quite useful when modeling gene regulatory networks from experimental data on whole genome gene expression.

  6. NMR analysis of base-pair opening kinetics in DNA.

    PubMed

    Szulik, Marta W; Voehler, Markus; Stone, Michael P

    2014-12-12

    Base pairing in nucleic acids plays a crucial role in their structure and function. Differences in the base-pair opening and closing kinetics of individual double-stranded DNA sequences or between chemically modified base pairs provide insight into the recognition of these base pairs by DNA processing enzymes. This unit describes how to quantify the kinetics for localized base pairs by observing changes in the imino proton signals by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The determination of all relevant parameters using state-of-the art techniques and NMR instrumentation, including cryoprobes, is discussed.

  7. A cyclometalated iridium(III) complex with enhanced phosphorescence emission in the solid state (EPESS): synthesis, characterization and its application in bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huazhou; Yang, Tianshe; Zhao, Qiang; Zhou, Jing; Li, Chunyan; Li, Fuyou

    2011-03-07

    Iridium(III) complexes with intense phosphorescence in solution have been widely applied in organic light-emitting diodes, chemosensors and bioimaging. However, little attention has been paid to iridium(III) complexes showing weak phosphorescence in solution and enhanced phosphorescence emission in the solid state (EPESS). In the present study, two β-diketonate ligands with different degrees of conjugation, 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone (HL1) and 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-phenylacetyl-5-pyrazolone (HL2), have been synthesized to be used as ancillary ligands for two iridium(III) complexes, Ir(ppy)(2)(L1) and Ir(ppy)(2)(L2) (Hppy = 2-phenylpyridine). The two complexes have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray crystallography, (1)H NMR and elemental analysis. Interestingly, Ir(ppy)(2)(L1) is EPESS-active whereas Ir(ppy)(2)(L2) exhibits moderately intense emission both in solution and as a neat film, indicating that the degree of conjugation of the β-diketone ligands determines the EPESS-activity. The single-crystal X-ray analysis has indicated that there are π-π interactions between the adjacent ppy ligands in Ir(ppy)(2)(L1) but not in Ir(ppy)(2)(L2). Finally, EPESS-active Ir(ppy)(2)(L1) has been successfully embedded in polymer nanoparticles and used as a luminescent label in bioimaging.

  8. Suppressing molecular motions for enhanced room-temperature phosphorescence of metal-free organic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Min Sang; Yu, Youngchang; Coburn, Caleb; Phillips, Andrew W.; Chung, Kyeongwoon; Shanker, Apoorv; Jung, Jaehun; Kim, Gunho; Pipe, Kevin; Forrest, Stephen R.; Youk, Ji Ho; Gierschner, Johannes; Kim, Jinsang

    2015-12-01

    Metal-free organic phosphorescent materials are attractive alternatives to the predominantly used organometallic phosphors but are generally dimmer and are relatively rare, as, without heavy-metal atoms, spin-orbit coupling is less efficient and phosphorescence usually cannot compete with radiationless relaxation processes. Here we present a general design rule and a method to effectively reduce radiationless transitions and hence greatly enhance phosphorescence efficiency of metal-free organic materials in a variety of amorphous polymer matrices, based on the restriction of molecular motions in the proximity of embedded phosphors. Covalent cross-linking between phosphors and polymer matrices via Diels-Alder click chemistry is devised as a method. A sharp increase in phosphorescence quantum efficiency is observed in a variety of polymer matrices with this method, which is ca. two to five times higher than that of phosphor-doped polymer systems having no such covalent linkage.

  9. Suppressing molecular motions for enhanced room-temperature phosphorescence of metal-free organic materials

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Min Sang; Yu, Youngchang; Coburn, Caleb; Phillips, Andrew W.; Chung, Kyeongwoon; Shanker, Apoorv; Jung, Jaehun; Kim, Gunho; Pipe, Kevin; Forrest, Stephen R.; Youk, Ji Ho; Gierschner, Johannes; Kim, Jinsang

    2015-01-01

    Metal-free organic phosphorescent materials are attractive alternatives to the predominantly used organometallic phosphors but are generally dimmer and are relatively rare, as, without heavy-metal atoms, spin–orbit coupling is less efficient and phosphorescence usually cannot compete with radiationless relaxation processes. Here we present a general design rule and a method to effectively reduce radiationless transitions and hence greatly enhance phosphorescence efficiency of metal-free organic materials in a variety of amorphous polymer matrices, based on the restriction of molecular motions in the proximity of embedded phosphors. Covalent cross-linking between phosphors and polymer matrices via Diels–Alder click chemistry is devised as a method. A sharp increase in phosphorescence quantum efficiency is observed in a variety of polymer matrices with this method, which is ca. two to five times higher than that of phosphor-doped polymer systems having no such covalent linkage. PMID:26626796

  10. Conformational changes in the (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase of sarcoplasmic reticulum detected using phosphorescence polarization.

    PubMed

    Restall, C J; Coke, M; Murray, E K; Chapman, D

    1985-02-28

    The technique of time-averaged phosphorescence has been used to study the interaction of calcium ions and ATP with the (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase in sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles. The presence of excess calcium ions was found to cause a 20% decrease in the phosphorescence emission anisotropy. This is interpreted as being due to a conformational change in the protein and is supported by data from time-resolved phosphorescence measurements which also show a lowering of the anisotropy. This change in the decay of the emission anisotropy is associated with only minor changes in the rotational relaxation time of the protein and is again suggestive of a conformational change in the protein. In some cases ATP was also observed to lower the time-averaged phosphorescence anisotropy possibly via an interaction with the low-affinity regulatory site of the protein.

  11. Kinetic analysis of a Michaelis-Menten mechanism in which the enzyme is unstable.

    PubMed Central

    Garrido-del Solo, C; García-Cánovas, F; Havsteen, B H; Varón-Castellanos, R

    1993-01-01

    A kinetic analysis of the Michaelis-Menten mechanism is made for the cases in which the free enzyme, or the enzyme-substrate complex, or both, are unstable, either spontaneously or as a result of the addition of a reagent. The explicit time-course equations of all of the species involved has been derived under conditions of limiting enzyme concentration. The validity of these equations has been checked by using numerical simulations. An experimental design and a kinetic data analysis allowing the evaluation of the parameters and kinetic constants are recommended. PMID:8373361

  12. A KINETIC ANALYSIS OF THE CONFORMATIONAL FLEXIBILITY OF STEROID HORMONES

    EPA Science Inventory

    For a set of 10 androgen steroids and estradiol (E2), the kinetic feasibility of conformation flexibility of the cyclic moieties was studied under the constraint of maintaining the B/C trans and C/D trans ring fusion of the natural and biologically active enantiomer. To this end,...

  13. Nonisothermal Analysis of Solution Kinetics by Spreadsheet Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Levie, Robert

    2012-01-01

    A fast and generally applicable alternative solution to the problem of determining the useful shelf life of medicinal solutions is described. It illustrates the power and convenience of the combination of numerical simulation and nonlinear least squares with a practical pharmaceutical application of chemical kinetics and thermodynamics, validated…

  14. Growth of Listeria monocytogenes in Salmon Roe - a kinetic analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the growth kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes in unsalted and salted (3%) salmon roe. Growth curves, developed using inoculated samples incubated at constant temperatures between 5 and 30 degrees C, were analyzed by curve-fitting to the Huang and Baran...

  15. Sensitized phosphorescence studies of p-xylene+biacetyl system, an optical antenna.

    PubMed

    Bayrakçeken, Fuat

    2007-04-01

    p-Xylene sensitized biacetyl fluorescence and phosphorescence has been investigated and photosensitized phosphorescence lifetimes of biacetyl in the vapor phase has been determined. Attempts to detect the triplet of biacetyl by its absorption spectrum were unsuccessful, due to primarily, it is believed, to the low extinction coefficients of the triplet, and the low triplet concentrations produced by the optical pumping device at room temperature.

  16. Photon counting phosphorescence lifetime imaging with TimepixCam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirvonen, Liisa M.; Fisher-Levine, Merlin; Suhling, Klaus; Nomerotski, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    TimepixCam is a novel fast optical imager based on an optimized silicon pixel sensor with a thin entrance window and read out by a Timepix Application Specific Integrated Circuit. The 256 × 256 pixel sensor has a time resolution of 15 ns at a sustained frame rate of 10 Hz. We used this sensor in combination with an image intensifier for wide-field time-correlated single photon counting imaging. We have characterised the photon detection capabilities of this detector system and employed it on a wide-field epifluorescence microscope to map phosphorescence decays of various iridium complexes with lifetimes of about 1 μs in 200 μm diameter polystyrene beads.

  17. Fluorescence and phosphorescence of photomultiplier window materials under electron irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viehmann, W.; Eubanks, A. G.; Bredekamp, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    The fluorescence and phosphorescence of photomultiplier window materials under electron irradiation were investigated using a Sr-90/Y-90 beta emitter as the electron source. Spectral emission curves of UV grade, optical grade, and electron-irradiated samples of MGF2 and LiF, CaF2, BaF2, sapphire, fused silica, and UV transmitting glasses were obtained over the spectral range of 200 nm to 650 nm. Fluorescence yields, expressed as the number of counts in a solid angle of 2 pi steradian per 1MeV of incident electron energy deposited, were determined on these materials utilizing photomultiplier tubes with cesium telluride, bialkali, and trialkali (S-20) photocathodes, respectively.

  18. Photon counting phosphorescence lifetime imaging with TimepixCam

    DOE PAGES

    Hirvonen, Liisa M.; Fisher-Levine, Merlin; Suhling, Klaus; ...

    2017-01-12

    TimepixCam is a novel fast optical imager based on an optimized silicon pixel sensor with a thin entrance window, and read out by a Timepix ASIC. The 256 x 256 pixel sensor has a time resolution of 15 ns at a sustained frame rate of 10 Hz. We used this sensor in combination with an image intensifier for wide-field time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) imaging. We have characterised the photon detection capabilities of this detector system, and employed it on a wide-field epifluorescence microscope to map phosphorescence decays of various iridium complexes with lifetimes of about 1 μs in 200more » μm diameter polystyrene beads.« less

  19. High efficiency deep-blue and white phosphorescent OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Jiangeng; Eom, Sang-Hyun; Zheng, Ying; Wrzesniewski, Edward; Chopra, Neetu; Lee, Jaewon; So, Franky

    2009-08-01

    We report studies on blue and white organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) based on the deep-blue electrophosphorescent dye iridium(III) bis(4',6'-difluorophenylpyridinato)tetrakis(1-pyrazolyl)borate (FIr6). Using high triplet energy charge transport layers and a dual-emissive-layer structure as well as the p-i-n device structure, we have achieved external quantum efficiencies of 20% and maximum power efficiency of 36 lm/W in these deep-blue OLEDs. White OLEDs with a CRI of 79 and a maximum power efficiency of 40 lm/W were also demonstrated by incorporating red and green phosphorescent dopants together with FIr6.

  20. Enzyme Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Owen; Cornelius, Richard

    1988-01-01

    Conveys an appreciation of enzyme kinetic analysis by using a practical and intuitive approach. Discusses enzyme assays, kinetic models and rate laws, the kinetic constants (V, velocity, and Km, Michaels constant), evaluation of V and Km from experimental data, and enzyme inhibition. (CW)

  1. Glycerol effects on protein flexibility: a tryptophan phosphorescence study.

    PubMed Central

    Gonnelli, M.; Strambini, G. B.

    1993-01-01

    In exploring the dynamic properties of protein structure, numerous studies have focussed on the dependence of structural fluctuations on solvent viscosity, but the emerging picture is still not well defined. Exploiting the sensitivity of the phosphorescence lifetime of tryptophan to the viscosity of its environment we have used the delayed emission as an intrinsic probe of protein flexibility and investigated the effects of glycerol as a viscogenic cosolvent. The phosphorescence lifetime of alcohol dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, apoazurin and RNase T1, as a function of glycerol concentration was studied at various temperatures. Flexibility data, which refer to rather rigid sites of the globular structures, point out that, for some concentration ranges glycerol, effects on the rate of structural fluctuations of alcohol dehydrogenase and RNase T1 do not obey Kramers' a power law on solvent viscosity and emphasize that cosolvent-induced structural changes can be important, even for inner cores of the macromolecule. When the data is analyzed in terms of Kramers' model, for the temperature range 0-30 degrees C one derives frictional coefficients that are relatively large (0.6-0.7) for RNase T1, where the probe is in a flexible region near the surface of the macromolecule and much smaller, less than 0.2, for the rigid sites of the other proteins. For the latter sites the frictional coefficient rises sharply between 40 and 60 degrees C, and its value correlates weakly with molecular parameters such as the depth of burial or the rigidity of a particular site. For RNase T1, coupling to solvent viscosity increases at subzero temperatures, with the coefficient becoming as large as 1 at -20 degrees C. Temperature effects were interpreted by proposing that solvent damping of internal protein motions is particularly effective for low frequency, large amplitude, structural fluctuations yielding highly flexible conformers of the macromolecule. PMID:8369422

  2. Room temperature phosphorescence of metal-free organic materials in amorphous polymer matrices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dongwook; Bolton, Onas; Kim, Byoung Choul; Youk, Ji Ho; Takayama, Shuichi; Kim, Jinsang

    2013-04-24

    Developing metal-free organic phosphorescent materials is promising but challenging because achieving emissive triplet relaxation that outcompetes the vibrational loss of triplets, a key process to achieving phosphorescence, is difficult without heavy metal atoms. While recent studies reveal that bright room temperature phosphorescence can be realized in purely organic crystalline materials through directed halogen bonding, these organic phosphors still have limitations to practical applications due to the stringent requirement of high quality crystal formation. Here we report bright room temperature phosphorescence by embedding a purely organic phosphor into an amorphous glassy polymer matrix. Our study implies that the reduced beta (β)-relaxation of isotactic PMMA most efficiently suppresses vibrational triplet decay and allows the embedded organic phosphors to achieve a bright 7.5% phosphorescence quantum yield. We also demonstrate a microfluidic device integrated with a novel temperature sensor based on the metal-free purely organic phosphors in the temperature-sensitive polymer matrix. This unique system has many advantages: (i) simple device structures without feeding additional temperature sensing agents, (ii) bright phosphorescence emission, (iii) a reversible thermal response, and (iv) tunable temperature sensing ranges by using different polymers.

  3. Co-combustion of different sewage sludge and coal: a non-isothermal thermogravimetric kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Otero, M; Calvo, L F; Gil, M V; García, A I; Morán, A

    2008-09-01

    The kinetics of the combustion of coal, two different sewage sludge and their blends (containing different dried weight percentages of sewage sludge) was studied by simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis. Once the weight percentage of sludge in the blend was 10%, the effects on the combustion of coal were hardly noticeable in terms of weight loss. The Arrhenius activation energy corresponding to the co-combustion of the blends was evaluated by non-isothermal kinetic analysis. This showed that, though differences between coal and sewage sludge, the combustion of their blends kept kinetically alike to that of the coal. This work illustrates how thermogravimetric analysis may be used as an easy rapid tool to asses, not only mass loss, but also kinetics of the co-combustion of sewage sludge and coal blends.

  4. Comparative kinetic analysis on thermal degradation of some cephalosporins using TG and DSC data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The thermal decomposition of cephalexine, cefadroxil and cefoperazone under non-isothermal conditions using the TG, respectively DSC methods, was studied. In case of TG, a hyphenated technique, including EGA, was used. Results The kinetic analysis was performed using the TG and DSC data in air for the first step of cephalosporin’s decomposition at four heating rates. The both TG and DSC data were processed according to an appropriate strategy to the following kinetic methods: Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose, Friedman, and NPK, in order to obtain realistic kinetic parameters, even if the decomposition process is a complex one. The EGA data offer some valuable indications about a possible decomposition mechanism. The obtained data indicate a rather good agreement between the activation energy’s values obtained by different methods, whereas the EGA data and the chemical structures give a possible explanation of the observed differences on the thermal stability. A complete kinetic analysis needs a data processing strategy using two or more methods, but the kinetic methods must also be applied to the different types of experimental data (TG and DSC). Conclusion The simultaneous use of DSC and TG data for the kinetic analysis coupled with evolved gas analysis (EGA) provided us a more complete picture of the degradation of the three cephalosporins. It was possible to estimate kinetic parameters by using three different kinetic methods and this allowed us to compare the Ea values obtained from different experimental data, TG and DSC. The thermodegradation being a complex process, the both differential and integral methods based on the single step hypothesis are inadequate for obtaining believable kinetic parameters. Only the modified NPK method allowed an objective separation of the temperature, respective conversion influence on the reaction rate and in the same time to ascertain the existence of two simultaneous steps. PMID:23594763

  5. Characterization of the low-temperature triplet state of chlorophyll in photosystem II core complexes: Application of phosphorescence measurements and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zabelin, Alexey A; Neverov, Konstantin V; Krasnovsky, Alexander A; Shkuropatova, Valentina A; Shuvalov, Vladimir A; Shkuropatov, Anatoly Ya

    2016-06-01

    Phosphorescence measurements at 77 K and light-induced FTIR difference spectroscopy at 95 K were applied to study of the triplet state of chlorophyll a ((3)Chl) in photosystem II (PSII) core complexes isolated from spinach. Using both methods, (3)Chl was observed in the core preparations with doubly reduced primary quinone acceptor QA. The spectral parameters of Chl phosphorescence resemble those in the isolated PSII reaction centers (RCs). The main spectral maximum and the lifetime of the phosphorescence corresponded to 955±1 nm and of 1.65±0.05 ms respectively; in the excitation spectrum, the absorption maxima of all core complex pigments (Chl, pheophytin a (Pheo), and β-carotene) were observed. The differential signal at 1667(-)/1628(+)cm(-1) reflecting a downshift of the stretching frequency of the 13(1)-keto C=O group of Chl was found to dominate in the triplet-minus-singlet FTIR difference spectrum of core complexes. Based on FTIR results and literature data, it is proposed that (3)Chl is mostly localized on the accessory chlorophyll that is in triplet equilibrium with P680. Analysis of the data suggests that the Chl triplet state responsible for the phosphorescence and the FTIR difference spectrum is mainly generated due to charge recombination in the reaction center radical pair P680(+)PheoD1(-), and the energy and temporal parameters of this triplet state as well as the molecular environment and interactions of the triplet-bearing Chl molecule are similar in the PSII core complexes and isolated PSII RCs.

  6. Multicompartmental Analysis of Calcium Kinetics in Normal Adult Males*

    PubMed Central

    Neer, R.; Berman, M.; Fisher, L.; Rosenberg, L. E.

    1967-01-01

    This report describes studies of calcium kinetics in ten normal young men. Serum, urinary, and fecal radioactivity was measured from 1 minute to 20 days after intravenous tracer 47Ca injection, and these results were analyzed jointly with data obtained from a simultaneous metabolic balance study, using digital computer techniques. Surface radioactivity measurements were also obtained to gain further insight into the anatomic correlates of the tracer distribution. The data were satisfied by a model with four exchanging compartments. Series, branching, and mammillary models were analyzed. Several parameters of physiologic interest were independent of the model, but two were dependent on the duration of the study. Individual and mean values for these kinetic analyses are presented with their statistical uncertainties. These studies present detailed analyses in a healthy, normal population and provide a reference for future studies of skeletal metabolism and serum calcium homeostasis. Images PMID:16695925

  7. Systems engineering analysis of kinetic energy weapon concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Senglaub, M.

    1996-06-01

    This study examines, from a systems engineering design perspective, the potential of kinetic energy weapons being used in the role of a conventional strategic weapon. Within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, strategic weapon experience falls predominantly in the nuclear weapons arena. The techniques developed over the years may not be the most suitable methodologies for use in a new design/development arena. For this reason a more fundamental approach was pursued with the objective of developing an information base from which design decisions might be made concerning the conventional strategic weapon system concepts. The study examined (1) a number of generic missions, (2) the effects of a number of damage mechanisms from a physics perspective, (3) measures of effectiveness (MOE`s), and (4) a design envelope for kinetic energy weapon concepts. With the base of information a cut at developing a set of high-level system requirements was made, and a number of concepts were assessed against these requirements.

  8. NMR analysis of staphylococcal nuclease thermal quench refolding kinetics.

    PubMed

    Kautz, R A; Fox, R O

    1993-05-01

    Thermally unfolded staphylococcal nuclease has been rapidly quenched to temperatures near 0 degree C and the refolding behavior examined using an NMR kinetic experiment. Unfolded protein, exhibiting random coil chemical shifts, persists following the quench and refolds in two distinct kinetic phases. A protein folding intermediate with a trans Lys 116-Pro 117 peptide bond is transiently overpopulated and relaxes to the predominantly cis native cis-trans equilibrium. The rate of trans-->cis isomerization in the native-like nuclease intermediate is approximately 100-fold faster than that observed in a Lys-Pro model peptide. The activation enthalpy of 20 kcal/mol observed for the nuclease Lys 116-Pro 117 peptide bond is comparable to that observed for other X-Pro isomerizations.

  9. Kinetic analysis of supine stepping for early rehabilitation of walking.

    PubMed

    Fang, Juan; Galen, Sujay; Vuckovic, Aleksandra; Conway, Bernard A; Hunt, Kenneth J

    2014-05-01

    In order to promote gait restoration in patients who cannot maintain an upright position in the early post-injury phase, a Gait Orthosis for Early Rehabilitation was proposed for supine stepping. Although supine stepping can generate lower-limb joint trajectories which are close to normal gait, the inter-segmental dynamics of supine stepping are believed to be different from those of upright walking. Furthermore, training in a supine position requires a certain loading on the foot to mimic the ground reaction forces, where different loading amplitudes influence the joint dynamics. This work analysed the kinetics of supine stepping with variable loading and investigated structural modifications for the Gait Orthosis for Early Rehabilitation system to address this kinetic difference. Three able-bodied subjects walked overground while their walking performance was recorded. Based on the experimental data, a leg-linkage model was developed to simulate the dynamics of upright walking. This model was then rotated by 90° with different foot loadings to investigate the kinetics of supine stepping. Compared to upright walking, supine stepping had a large kinetic difference at the hip joint due to the supine leg position. The ankle joint during supine stepping was sensitive to the force amplitude simulated on the foot. Thus, the Gait Orthosis for Early Rehabilitation system requires a leg frame to compensate the position change and a shoe platform to activate the leg muscles, especially at the ankle joint. This study provided important structural information for the further development of the Gait Orthosis for Early Rehabilitation system.

  10. Joint factor and kinetic analysis of dynamic FDOPA PET scans of brain cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Dowson, N; Bourgeat, P; Rose, S; Daglish, M; Smith, J; Fay, M; Coulthard, A; Winter, C; MacFarlane, D; Thomas, P; Crozier, S; Salvado, O

    2010-01-01

    Kinetic analysis is an essential tool of Positron Emission Tomography image analysis. However it requires a pure tissue time activity curve (TAC) in order to calculate the system parameters. Pure tissue TACs are particularly difficult to obtain in the brain as the low resolution of PET means almost all voxels are a mixture of tissues. Factor analysis explicitly accounts for mixing but is an underdetermined problem that can give arbitrary results. A joint factor and kinetic analysis is proposed whereby factor analysis explicitly accounts for mixing of tissues. Hence, more meaningful parameters are obtained by the kinetic models, which also ensure a less ambiguous solution to the factor analysis. The method was tested using a cylindrical phantom and the 18F-DOPA data of a brain cancer patient.

  11. Acrylonitrile quenching of trp phosphorescence in proteins: a probe of the internal flexibility of the globular fold.

    PubMed

    Strambini, Giovanni B; Gonnelli, Margherita

    2010-08-04

    Quenching of Trp phosphorescence in proteins by diffusion of solutes of various molecular sizes unveils the frequency-amplitude of structural fluctuations. To cover the sizes gap between O(2) and acrylamide, we examined the potential of acrylonitrile to probe conformational flexibility of proteins. The distance dependence of the through-space acrylonitrile quenching rate was determined in a glass at 77 K, with the indole analog 2-(3-indoyl) ethyl phenyl ketone. Intensity and decay kinetics data were fitted to a rate, k(r) =k(0) exp[-(r -r(0))/r(e)], with an attenuation length r(e) = 0.03 nm and a contact rate k(0) = 3.6 x 10(10) s(-1). At ambient temperature, the bimolecular quenching rate constant (kq) was determined for a series of proteins, appositely selected to test the importance of factors such as the degree of Trp burial and structural rigidity. Relative to kq = 1.9 x 10(9) M(-1)s(-1) for free Trp in water, in proteins kq ranged from 6.5 x 10(6) M(-1)s(-1) for superficial sites to 1.3 x 10(2) M(-1)s(-1) for deep cores. The short-range nature of the interaction and the direct correlation between kq and structural flexibility attest that in the microsecond-second timescale of phosphorescence acrylonitrile readily penetrates even compact protein cores and exhibits significant sensitivity to variations in dynamical structure of the globular fold.

  12. Kinetic Analysis for Macrocyclizations Involving Anionic Template at the Transition State

    PubMed Central

    Martí-Centelles, Vicente; Burguete, M. Isabel; Luis, Santiago V.

    2012-01-01

    Several kinetic models for the macrocyclization of a C2 pseudopeptide with a dihalide through a SN2 reaction have been developed. These models not only focus on the kinetic analysis of the main macrocyclization reaction, but also consider the competitive oligomerization/polymerization processes yielding undesired oligomeric/polymeric byproducts. The effect of anions has also been included in the kinetic models, as they can act as catalytic templates in the transition state reducing and stabilizing the transition state. The corresponding differential equation systems for each kinetic model can be solved numerically. Through a comprehensive analysis of these results, it is possible to obtain a better understanding of the different parameters that are involved in the macrocyclization reaction mechanism and to develop strategies for the optimization of the desired processes. PMID:22666148

  13. Kinetic analysis for macrocyclizations involving anionic template at the transition state.

    PubMed

    Martí-Centelles, Vicente; Burguete, M Isabel; Luis, Santiago V

    2012-01-01

    Several kinetic models for the macrocyclization of a C₂ pseudopeptide with a dihalide through a S(N)2 reaction have been developed. These models not only focus on the kinetic analysis of the main macrocyclization reaction, but also consider the competitive oligomerization/polymerization processes yielding undesired oligomeric/polymeric byproducts. The effect of anions has also been included in the kinetic models, as they can act as catalytic templates in the transition state reducing and stabilizing the transition state. The corresponding differential equation systems for each kinetic model can be solved numerically. Through a comprehensive analysis of these results, it is possible to obtain a better understanding of the different parameters that are involved in the macrocyclization reaction mechanism and to develop strategies for the optimization of the desired processes.

  14. Units of analysis and kinetic structure of behavioral repertoires

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Travis; Lubinski, David

    1986-01-01

    It is suggested that molar streams of behavior are constructed of various arrangements of three elementary constituents (elicited, evoked, and emitted response classes). An eight-cell taxonomy is elaborated as a framework for analyzing and synthesizing complex behavioral repertoires based on these functional units. It is proposed that the local force binding functional units into a smoothly articulated kinetic sequence arises from temporally arranged relative response probability relationships. Behavioral integration is thought to reflect the joint influence of the organism's hierarchy of relative response probabilities, fluctuating biological states, and the arrangement of environmental and behavioral events in time. PMID:16812461

  15. Nonparametric analysis of nonexponential and multidimensional kinetics. I. Quantifying rate dispersion, rate heterogeneity, and exchange dynamics.

    PubMed

    Berg, Mark A; Kaur, Harveen

    2017-02-07

    The quantification of nonexponential (dispersed) kinetics has relied on empirical functions, which yield parameters that are neither unique nor easily related to the underlying mechanism. Multidimensional kinetics provide more information on dispersed processes, but a good approach to their analysis is even less clear than for standard, one-dimensional kinetics. This paper is the first in a series that analyzes kinetic data in one or many dimensions with a scheme that is nonparametric: it quantifies nonexponential decays without relying on a specific functional form. The quantities obtained are directly related to properties of the mechanism causing the rate dispersion. Log-moments of decays, which parallel the standard moments of distributions (mean, standard deviation, etc.), are introduced for both one- and multi-dimensional decays. Kinetic spectra are defined to visualize the data. The utility of this approach is demonstrated on a simple, but general, model of dispersed kinetics-a nonexponential homogeneous decay combined with slowly exchanging rate heterogeneity. The first log-moments give a geometric-mean relaxation time. Second log-moments quantify the magnitude of rate dispersion, the fraction of the dispersion due to heterogeneity, and the dynamics of exchange between different rate subensembles. A suitable combination of these moments isolates exchange dynamics from three-dimensional kinetics without contamination by the rate-filtering effects that were identified in a recent paper [M. A. Berg and J. R. Darvin, J. Chem. Phys. 145, 054119 (2016)].

  16. Kinetic modeling and sensitivity analysis of plasma-assisted combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togai, Kuninori

    Plasma-assisted combustion (PAC) is a promising combustion enhancement technique that shows great potential for applications to a number of different practical combustion systems. In this dissertation, the chemical kinetics associated with PAC are investigated numerically with a newly developed model that describes the chemical processes induced by plasma. To support the model development, experiments were performed using a plasma flow reactor in which the fuel oxidation proceeds with the aid of plasma discharges below and above the self-ignition thermal limit of the reactive mixtures. The mixtures used were heavily diluted with Ar in order to study the reactions with temperature-controlled environments by suppressing the temperature changes due to chemical reactions. The temperature of the reactor was varied from 420 K to 1250 K and the pressure was fixed at 1 atm. Simulations were performed for the conditions corresponding to the experiments and the results are compared against each other. Important reaction paths were identified through path flux and sensitivity analyses. Reaction systems studied in this work are oxidation of hydrogen, ethylene, and methane, as well as the kinetics of NOx in plasma. In the fuel oxidation studies, reaction schemes that control the fuel oxidation are analyzed and discussed. With all the fuels studied, the oxidation reactions were extended to lower temperatures with plasma discharges compared to the cases without plasma. The analyses showed that radicals produced by dissociation of the reactants in plasma plays an important role of initiating the reaction sequence. At low temperatures where the system exhibits a chain-terminating nature, reactions of HO2 were found to play important roles on overall fuel oxidation. The effectiveness of HO2 as a chain terminator was weakened in the ethylene oxidation system, because the reactions of C 2H4 + O that have low activation energies deflects the flux of O atoms away from HO2. For the

  17. Novel Smart Windows Based on Transparent Phosphorescent OLEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Brian D'Andrade; Stephen Forest

    2006-09-15

    In this program, Universal Display Corporation (UDC) and Princeton University developed the use of white transparent phosphorescent organic light emitting devices (PHOLEDs{trademark}) to make low-cost ''transparent OLED (TOLED) smart windows'', that switch rapidly from being a highly efficient solid-state light source to being a transparent window. PHOLEDs are ideal for large area devices, and the UDC-Princeton team has demonstrated white PHOLEDs with efficiencies of >24 lm/W at a luminance of 1,000 cd/m{sup 2}. TOLEDs have transparencies >70% over the visible wavelengths of light, but their transparency drops to less than 5% for wavelengths shorter than 350 nm, so they can also be used as ultraviolet (UV) light filters. In addition to controlling the flow of UV radiation, TOLEDs coupled with an electromechanical or electrically activated reflecting shutter on a glass window can be employed to control the flow of heat from infrared (IR) radiation by varying the reflectance/transparency of the glass for wavelengths greater than 800nm. One particularly attractive shutter technology is reversible electrochromic mirrors (REM). Our goal was therefore to integrate two innovative concepts to meet the U.S. Department of Energy goals: high power efficiency TOLEDs, plus electrically controlled reflectors to produce a ''smart window''. Our efforts during this one year program have succeeded in producing a prototype smart window shown in the Fig. I, below. The four states of the smart window are pictured: reflective with lamp on, reflective with lamp off, transparent with lamp on, and transparent with lamp off. In the transparent states, the image is an outdoor setting viewed through the window. In the reflective states, the image is an indoor setting viewed via reflection off the window. We believe that the integration of our high efficiency white phosphorescent TOLED illumination source, with electrically activated shutters represents an innovative low-cost approach to

  18. Crystallization kinetics of poly-(lactic acid) with and without talc: Optical microscopy and calorimetric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refaa, Z.; Boutaous, M.; Rousset, F.; Fulchiron, R.; Zinet, M.; Xin, S.; Bourgin, P.

    2014-05-01

    Poly-(lactic acid) or PLA is a biodegradable polymer synthesized from renewable resources. Recently, the discovery of new polymerization routes has allowed increasing the produced volumes. As a consequence, PLA is becoming of great interest for reducing the dependence on petroleum-based plastics. Because of its interesting mechanical properties, PLA is seen as a potential substitute for some usual polymers. However, its relatively slow crystallization kinetics can be a disadvantage with regard to industrial applications. The crystallization kinetics of PLA can be enhanced by adding nucleating agents, which also influences on crystalline morphology and rheological behavior. In the present work, the isothermal quiescent crystallization kinetics of both neat PLA and PLA/talc composite (5 wt% talc) are investigated. The effects of talc on the overall crystallization kinetics and on the crystalline morphology are analyzed using both optical microscopy measurements and thermal analysis by differential scanning calorimetry.

  19. Elimination of "hook-effect" in two-site immunoradiometric assays by kinetic rate analysis.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, K L; Parsons, G H; Allerdt, L J; Brooks, J M; Miles, L E

    1984-09-01

    Two-site or sandwich immunoradiometric assays (IRMAs) offer theoretical advantages over competitive immunoassay systems for sensitivity, precision, and rapid incubation. The practical realization of these advantages has been limited by the phenomenon of the "high-dose hook effect," such that high concentrations of an analyte give similar responses to those of much lower concentrations. We have developed a kinetic rate monitoring IRMA system for use with the Kineti-Count 48TM, an automated kinetic radioassay analyzer, which eliminates "hook-effect" interference, thereby permitting optimal assay design for increasing sensitivity and reducing incubation time. Practical illustration of these concepts is demonstrated by a 10-min, automated, quantitative assay we developed for human choriogonadotropin. The assay can detect as little as 1.2 int. units/L and kinetically screens for the hook effect. Kinetic rate analysis of the two-site IRMA and potentially of nonisotopic counterparts permits improvements in the speed and reliability of these immunoassays.

  20. RETRAN-3D MOD003 Peach Bottom Turbine Trip 2 Multidimensional Kinetics Analysis Models and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Michitsugu; Ogura, Katsunori; Gose, Garry C.; Wu, J.-Y

    2003-04-15

    An analysis of the Peach Bottom Unit 2 Turbine Trip Test 2 (PB2/TT2) has been performed using RETRAN-3D MOD003. The purpose of the analysis was to investigate the PB2/TT2 overpressurization transient using the RETRAN-3D multidimensional kinetics model.

  1. Kinetic theory analysis of solar wind interaction with planetary objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.; Dryer, M.

    1973-01-01

    A purely kinetic treatment is proposed for the interaction of the solar wind with any small planetary object. Small refers to those cases where the solar wind proton's thermal gyroradius is arbitrarily taken to be greater than 0.1 radius of the object under investigation. The 'object' may possibly include an ionosphere or magnetosphere. The collisionless Boltzmann equation, neglecting the magnetic field, is used to calculate steady-state profiles of density and velocity around the obstacle. A low density plasma void in the umbral region and a compression in the penumbral region are clearly found. The present technique, despite its neglect of the interplanetary magnetic field, is proposed as an alternative zeroth order approach to the continuum, local magnetic anomaly, and guiding center approaches used by others for the particular case of moon. Some recent, potentially relevant, observations on and in front of the moon are discussed.

  2. Decoupled direct method for sensitivity analysis in combustion kinetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan

    1987-01-01

    An efficient, decoupled direct method for calculating the first order sensitivity coefficients of homogeneous, batch combustion kinetic rate equations is presented. In this method the ordinary differential equations for the sensitivity coefficients are solved separately from , but sequentially with, those describing the combustion chemistry. The ordinary differential equations for the thermochemical variables are solved using an efficient, implicit method (LSODE) that automatically selects the steplength and order for each solution step. The solution procedure for the sensitivity coefficients maintains accuracy and stability by using exactly the same steplengths and numerical approximations. The method computes sensitivity coefficients with respect to any combination of the initial values of the thermochemical variables and the three rate constant parameters for the chemical reactions. The method is illustrated by application to several simple problems and, where possible, comparisons are made with exact solutions and those obtained by other techniques.

  3. Synthesis, crystal structure and photoluminescence of phosphorescent copper (I) complexes containing hole-transporting carbazoly moiety.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tianzhi; Chai, Haifang; Zhao, Yuling; Zhang, Chengcheng; Liu, Peng; Fan, Duowang

    2013-05-15

    Two new mononuclear Cu(I) complexes based on 2-(2'-pyridyl)benzimidazolyl derivative ligand containing hole-transporting carbazole (L), [Cu(L)(DPEphos)](BF4) and [Cu(L)(PPh3)2](BF4), where L=(4-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)methyl-2-(2'-pyridyl)benzimidazole; DPEphos=bis[2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl]ether and PPh3=triphenylphosphine, have been synthesized and characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, (1)H NMR and FT-IR spectra. The structures of the ligand L and the Cu(I) complexes were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The results reveal that in the Cu(I) complexes the central Cu(I) ions assume the irregular distorted tetrahedral geometry and are tetra-coordinated by the two nitrogen atoms from L ligand and two phosphorus atoms from ancillary ligands. The photophysical properties of the complexes were examined by using UV-vis, photoluminescence spectroscopic analysis. The complexes exhibit weak MLCT absorption bands ranging from 360 to 480 nm, and display strong orange phosphorescence in the solid states at room temperature, which is completely quenched in solutions.

  4. Kinetic analysis of barium currents in chick cochlear hair cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zidanic, M; Fuchs, P A

    1995-01-01

    Inward barium current (IBa) through voltage-gated calcium channels was recorded from chick cochlear hair cells using the whole-cell clamp technique. IBa was sensitive to dihydropyridines and insensitive to the peptide toxins omega-agatoxin IVa, omega-conotoxin GVIa, and omega-conotoxin MVIIC. Changing the holding potential over a -40 to -80 mV range had no effect on the time course or magnitude of IBa nor did it reveal any inactivating inward currents. The activation of IBa was modeled with Hodgkin-Huxley m2 kinetics. The time constant of activation, tau m, was 550 microseconds at -30 mV and gradually decreased to 100 microseconds at +50 mV. A Boltzmann fit to the activation curve, m infinity, yielded a half activation voltage of -15 mV and a steepness factor of 7.8 mV. Opening and closing rate constants, alpha m and beta m, were calculated from tau m and m infinity, then fit with modified exponential functions. The H-H model derived by evaluating the exponential functions for alpha m and beta m not only provided an excellent fit to the time course of IBa activation, but was predictive of the time course and magnitude of the IBa tail current. No differences in kinetics or voltage dependence of activation of IBa were found between tall and short hair cells. We conclude that both tall and short hair cells of the chick cochlea predominantly, if not exclusively, express noninactivating L-type calcium channels. These channels are therefore responsible for processes requiring voltage-dependent calcium entry through the basolateral cell membrane, such as transmitter release and activation of Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels. PMID:7787021

  5. Kinetic analysis of several variations of push-ups.

    PubMed

    Ebben, William P; Wurm, Bradley; VanderZanden, Tyler L; Spadavecchia, Mark L; Durocher, John J; Bickham, Curtis T; Petushek, Erich J

    2011-10-01

    Push-ups are a common and practical exercise that is used to enhance fitness, including upper body strength or endurance. The kinetic characteristics of push-ups and its variations are yet to be quantified. Kinetic quantification is necessary to accurately evaluate the training load, and thus the nature of the training stimulus, for these exercise variations. This study assessed the peak vertical ground reaction forces (GRFs) of push-up variations including the regular push-up and those performed with flexed knee, feet elevated on a 30.48-cm box, and a 60.96-cm box, and hands elevated on a 30.48-cm box and a 60.96-cm box. Twenty-three recreationally fit individuals (14 men, 9 women) performed each of the 6 push-up variations in a randomized order. Peak GRF and peak GRF expressed as a coefficient of subject body mass were obtained with a force platform. Push-ups with the feet elevated produced a higher GRF than all other push-up variations (p ≤ 0.05). Push-ups with hands elevated and push-ups from the flexed knee position produced a lower GRF than all other push-up variations (p ≤ 0.05). No gender differences in response to these push-up variations were found (p > 0.05). Additionally, subject height was not related to the GRF for any of the push-up conditions (p > 0.05) other than the condition where hands were elevated on a 60.96-cm box (p ≤ 0.05; r = 0.63). These data can be used to progress the intensity of push-ups in a program and to quantify the training load as a percentage of body mass.

  6. Development and Utilization of Host Materials for White Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Ching; Chen, Shaw

    2013-05-31

    Our project was primarily focused on the MYPP 2015 goal for white phosphorescent organic devices (PhOLEDs or phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes) for solid-state lighting with long lifetimes and high efficiencies. Our central activity was to synthesize and evaluate a new class of host materials for blue phosphors in the PhOLEDs, known to be a weak link in the device operating lifetime. The work was a collaborative effort between three groups, one primarily responsible for chemical design and characterization (Chen), one primarily responsible for device development (Tang) and one primarily responsible for mechanistic studies and degradation analysis (Rothberg). The host materials were designed with a novel architecture that chemically links groups with good ability to move electrons with those having good ability to move “holes” (positive charges), the main premise being that we could suppress the instability associated with physical separation and crystallization of the electron conducting and hole conducting materials that might cause the devices to fail. We found that these materials do prevent crystallization and that this will increase device lifetimes but that efficiencies were reduced substantially due to interactions between the materials creating new low energy “charge transfer” states that are non-luminescent. Therefore, while our proposed strategy could in principle improve device lifetimes, we were unable to find a materials combination where the efficiency was not substantially compromised. In the course of our project, we made several important contributions that are peripherally related to the main project goal. First, we were able to prepare the proposed new family of materials and develop synthetic routes to make them efficiently. These types of materials that can transport both electrons and holes may yet have important roles to play in organic device technology. Second we developed an important new method for controlling the

  7. Two-Dimensional Kinetic Analysis of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Instabilities in Tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, H.; Tang, W. M.; Rewoldt, G.

    1996-11-01

    Previous studies of low-toroidal-mode-number microinstabilities in tokamaks have included two-dimensional (r and θ) fully-kinetic analysis(R. Marchand, W.M. Tang, and G. Rewoldt, Phys. Fluids 23), 1164 (1980); W.M. Tang and G. Rewoldt, Phys. Fluids B 5, 2451 (1993) of electrostatic instabilities such as the trapped-ion mode. Recently, this analysis was extended to include effects of sheared toroidal plasma rotation(M. Artun, W.M. Tang, and G. Rewoldt, Phys. Plasmas 2), 3384 (1995). In the present work, the electrostatic calculation, implemented in the KIN-2DES computer code, is being extended to the electromagnetic case, in the KIN-2DEM code. This will allow treatment of both electromagnetic effects on electrostatic instabilities, and of kinetic effects on low-n tokamak MHD instabilities such as kink and ballooning modes. In the latter cases, the analysis represents the first systematic kinetic treatment of low-n MHD modes.

  8. Phosphorescent sensor for phosphorylated peptides based on an iridium complex.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung Hyun; Kim, Hee Jin; Kwon, Tae-Hyuk; Hong, Jong-In

    2014-07-03

    A bis[(4,6-difluorophenyl)pyridinato-N,C(2')]iridium(III) picolinate (FIrpic) derivative coupled with bis(Zn(2+)-dipicolylamine) (ZnDPA) was developed as a sensor (1) for phosphorylated peptides, which are related to many cellular mechanisms. As a control, a fluorescent sensor (2) based on anthracene coupled to ZnDPA was also prepared. When the total negative charge on the phosphorylated peptides was changed to -2, -4, and -6, the emission intensity of sensor 1 gradually increased by factors of up to 7, 11, and 16, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in the emission intensity of sensor 1 upon the addition of a neutral phosphorylated peptide, non-phosphorylated peptides, or various anions such as CO3(2-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), phosphate, azide, and pyrophosphate. Furthermore, sensor 1 could be used to visually discriminate between phosphorylated peptides and adenosine triphosphate in aqueous solution under a UV-vis lamp, unlike fluorescent sensor 2. This enhanced luminance of phosphorescent sensor 1 upon binding to a phosphorylated peptide is attributed to a reduction in the repulsion between the Zn(2+) ions due to the phenoxy anion, its strong metal-to-ligand charge transfer character, and a reduction in self-quenching.

  9. Visual evaluation of kinetic characteristics of PET probe for neuroreceptors using a two-phase graphic plot analysis.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroshi; Ikoma, Yoko; Seki, Chie; Kimura, Yasuyuki; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Takuwa, Hiroyuki; Ichise, Masanori; Suhara, Tetsuya; Kanno, Iwao

    2017-02-08

    Objectives In PET studies for neuroreceptors, tracer kinetics are described by the two-tissue compartment model (2-TCM), and binding parameters, including the total distribution volume (V T), non-displaceable distribution volume (V ND), and binding potential (BPND), can be determined from model parameters estimated by kinetic analysis. The stability of binding parameter estimates depends on the kinetic characteristics of radioligands. To describe these kinetic characteristics, we previously developed a two-phase graphic plot analysis in which V ND and V T can be estimated from the x-intercept of regression lines for early and delayed phases, respectively. In this study, we applied this graphic plot analysis to visual evaluation of the kinetic characteristics of radioligands for neuroreceptors, and investigated a relationship between the shape of these graphic plots and the stability of binding parameters estimated by the kinetic analysis with 2-TCM in simulated brain tissue time-activity curves (TACs) with various binding parameters. Methods 90-min TACs were generated with the arterial input function and assumed kinetic parameters according to 2-TCM. Graphic plot analysis was applied to these simulated TACs, and the curvature of the plot for each TAC was evaluated visually. TACs with several noise levels were also generated with various kinetic parameters, and the bias and variation of binding parameters estimated by kinetic analysis were calculated in each TAC. These bias and variation were compared with the shape of graphic plots. Results The graphic plots showed larger curvature for TACs with higher specific binding and slower dissociation of specific binding. The quartile deviations of V ND and BPND determined by kinetic analysis were smaller for radioligands with slow dissociation. Conclusions The larger curvature of graphic plots for radioligands with slow dissociation might indicate a stable determination of V ND and BPND by kinetic analysis. For

  10. Dynamics of a lamellar system with diffusion and reaction: Scaling analysis and global kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzzio, F. J.; Ottino, J. M.

    1989-12-01

    The evolution of a one-dimensional array of reactive lamellae with distributed striation thickness is studied by means of simulations, scaling analysis, and space-averaged kinetics. An infinitely fast, diffusion-controlled reaction A+B-->2P occurs at the interfaces between striations. As time increases, thin striations are eaten by thicker neighbors resulting in a modification of the striation thickness distribution (STD). Scaling analysis suggests that the STD evolves into a universal form and that the behavior of the system at short and long times is characterized by two different kinetic regimes. These predictions are confirmed by means of a novel numerical algorithm.

  11. Nonparametric analysis of nonexponential and multidimensional kinetics. I. Quantifying rate dispersion, rate heterogeneity, and exchange dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Mark A.; Kaur, Harveen

    2017-02-01

    The quantification of nonexponential (dispersed) kinetics has relied on empirical functions, which yield parameters that are neither unique nor easily related to the underlying mechanism. Multidimensional kinetics provide more information on dispersed processes, but a good approach to their analysis is even less clear than for standard, one-dimensional kinetics. This paper is the first in a series that analyzes kinetic data in one or many dimensions with a scheme that is nonparametric: it quantifies nonexponential decays without relying on a specific functional form. The quantities obtained are directly related to properties of the mechanism causing the rate dispersion. Log-moments of decays, which parallel the standard moments of distributions (mean, standard deviation, etc.), are introduced for both one- and multi-dimensional decays. Kinetic spectra are defined to visualize the data. The utility of this approach is demonstrated on a simple, but general, model of dispersed kinetics—a nonexponential homogeneous decay combined with slowly exchanging rate heterogeneity. The first log-moments give a geometric-mean relaxation time. Second log-moments quantify the magnitude of rate dispersion, the fraction of the dispersion due to heterogeneity, and the dynamics of exchange between different rate subensembles. A suitable combination of these moments isolates exchange dynamics from three-dimensional kinetics without contamination by the rate-filtering effects that were identified in a recent paper [M. A. Berg and J. R. Darvin, J. Chem. Phys. 145, 054119 (2016)].

  12. Kinetic analysis of microbial respiratory response to substrate addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Yuyukina, Tatayna; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2010-05-01

    Heterotrophic component of CO2 emitted from soil is mainly due to the respiratory activity of soil microorganisms. Field measurements of microbial respiration can be used for estimation of C-budget in soil, while laboratory estimation of respiration kinetics allows the elucidation of mechanisms of soil C sequestration. Physiological approaches based on 1) time-dependent or 2) substrate-dependent respiratory response of soil microorganisms decomposing the organic substrates allow to relate the functional properties of soil microbial community with decomposition rates of soil organic matter. We used a novel methodology combining (i) microbial growth kinetics and (ii) enzymes affinity to the substrate to show the shift in functional properties of the soil microbial community after amendments with substrates of contrasting availability. We combined the application of 14C labeled glucose as easily available C source to soil with natural isotope labeling of old and young soil SOM. The possible contribution of two processes: isotopic fractionation and preferential substrate utilization to the shifts in δ13C during SOM decomposition in soil after C3-C4 vegetation change was evaluated. Specific growth rate (µ) of soil microorganisms was estimated by fitting the parameters of the equation v(t) = A + B * exp(µ*t), to the measured CO2 evolution rate (v(t)) after glucose addition, and where A is the initial rate of non-growth respiration, B - initial rate of the growing fraction of total respiration. Maximal mineralization rate (Vmax), substrate affinity of microbial enzymes (Ks) and substrate availability (Sn) were determined by Michaelis-Menten kinetics. To study the effect of plant originated C on δ13C signature of SOM we compared the changes in isotopic composition of different C pools in C3 soil under grassland with C3-C4 soil where C4 plant Miscanthus giganteus was grown for 12 years on the plot after grassland. The shift in 13δ C caused by planting of M. giganteus

  13. Temporal Kinetics and Quantitative Analysis of Cryptococcus neoformans Nonlytic Exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Stukes, Sabriya A.; Cohen, Hillel W.

    2014-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of cryptococcosis, a disease that is often fatal to those with compromised immune systems. C. neoformans has the capacity to escape phagocytic cells through a process known as nonlytic exocytosis whereby the cryptococcal cell is released from the macrophage into the extracellular environment, leaving both the host and pathogen alive. Little is known about the mechanism behind nonlytic exocytosis, but there is evidence that both the fungal and host cells contribute to the process. In this study, we used time-lapse movies of C. neoformans-infected macrophages to delineate the kinetics and quantitative aspects of nonlytic exocytosis. We analyzed approximately 800 macrophages containing intracellular C. neoformans and identified 163 nonlytic exocytosis events that were further characterized into three subcategories: type I (complete emptying of macrophage), type II (partial emptying of macrophage), and type III (cell-to-cell transfer). The majority of type I and II events occurred after several hours of intracellular residence, whereas type III events occurred significantly (P < 0.001) earlier in the course of macrophage infection. Our results show that nonlytic exocytosis is a morphologically and temporally diverse process that occurs relatively rapidly in the course of macrophage infection. PMID:24595144

  14. Study on the paper substrate room temperature phosphorescence of theobromine, caffeine and theophylline and analytical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuan, Dong; Yan-Li, Wei; Shao-Min, Shuang

    2003-05-01

    Paper substrate room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) of theobromine (TB), caffeine (CF) and theophylline (TP) were investigated. The method is based on fast speed quantitative filter paper as substrate and KI-NaAc as heavy atom perturber. Various factors affecting their RTP were discussed in detail. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the linear dynamic range, limit of detection (LOD), and relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) were 14.41˜576.54 ng per spot, 1.14 ng per spot, 4.8% for TB, 5.44˜699.08 ng per spot, 0.78 ng per spot, 1.56% for CF, 7.21˜360.34 ng per spot, 1.80 ng per spot, 3.80% for TP, respectively. The first analytical application for the determination of these compounds was developed. The recovery of standard samples added to commercial products chocolate, tea, coffee and aminophylline is in the range 92.80-106.08%. The proposed method was successfully applied to real sample analysis without separation.

  15. Development and sensitivity analysis of a fully kinetic model of sequential reductive dechlorination in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Malaguerra, Flavio; Chambon, Julie C; Bjerg, Poul L; Scheutz, Charlotte; Binning, Philip J

    2011-10-01

    A fully kinetic biogeochemical model of sequential reductive dechlorination (SERD) occurring in conjunction with lactate and propionate fermentation, iron reduction, sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis was developed. Production and consumption of molecular hydrogen (H(2)) by microorganisms have been modeled using modified Michaelis-Menten kinetics and has been implemented in the geochemical code PHREEQC. The model have been calibrated using a Shuffled Complex Evolution Metropolis algorithm to observations of chlorinated solvents, organic acids, and H(2) concentrations in laboratory batch experiments of complete trichloroethene (TCE) degradation in natural sediments. Global sensitivity analysis was performed using the Morris method and Sobol sensitivity indices to identify the most influential model parameters. Results show that the sulfate concentration and fermentation kinetics are the most important factors influencing SERD. The sensitivity analysis also suggests that it is not possible to simplify the model description if all system behaviors are to be well described.

  16. Line phosphorescence spectrum of octachlorodibenzo- p-dioxine at 4.2 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, V. G.; Nurmukhametov, R. N.; Gastilovich, E. A.; Lebedev, S. A.

    2000-03-01

    The line phosphorescence spectrum of octachlorodibenzo- p-dioxine (OCDX) is obtained and interpreted. The symmetry of the lowest triplet state of this molecule is established. The vibrational frequencies found from the vibronic phosphorescence spectrum at 4.2 k are assigned to the vibrational modes of certain symmetry related to individual functional atomic groups of the molecule. The relation between contributions from the spin-orbit (SO) and vibronic-spin-orbit (VSO) interactions to the phosphorescence rate constant k ph of the OCDX molecule is found from the vibronic line intensities. It is found that the increase in the number of Cl atoms in OCDX compared to that in tetrachlorobenzo- p-dioxine results in the increase in the relative contribution of the VSO interaction to k ph.

  17. Lifetime enhanced phosphorescent organic light emitting diode using an electron scavenger layer

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Seokhwan; Kim, Ji Whan; Lee, Sangyeob

    2015-07-27

    We demonstrate a method to improve lifetime of a phosphorescent organic light emitting diode (OLED) using an electron scavenger layer (ESL) in a hole transporting layer (HTL) of the device. We use a bis(1-(phenyl)isoquinoline)iridium(III)acetylacetonate [Ir(piq){sub 2}(acac)] doped HTL to stimulate radiative decay, preventing thermal degradation in HTL. The ESL effectively prevented non-radiative decay of leakage electron in HTL by converting non-radiative decay to radiative decay via a phosphorescent red emitter, Ir(piq){sub 2}(acac). The lifetime of device (t{sub 95}: time after 5% decrease of luminance) has been increased from 75 h to 120 h by using the ESL in a phosphorescent green-emitting OLED.

  18. Triplet diffusion leads to triplet-triplet annihilation in organic phosphorescent emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yifan; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2013-12-01

    In organic materials, triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) can be dominated by triplet diffusion or triplet-to-triplet energy transfer. Here, we discuss the diffusion and transfer dominated mechanisms in the context of photoluminescence (PL) transient measurements from thin films of archetype phosphorescent organic light emitters based on Ir and Pt complexes. We find that TTA in these emitters is controlled by diffusion due to a Dexter-type exchange interaction, suggesting triplet radiative decay and TTA are independent processes. Minimizing the PL and absorption spectral overlap in phosphorescent emitters can lead to a significantly decreased TTA rate, and thus suppressed efficiency roll-off in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes at high brightness.

  19. Lifetime enhanced phosphorescent organic light emitting diode using an electron scavenger layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seokhwan; Kim, Ji Whan; Lee, Sangyeob

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate a method to improve lifetime of a phosphorescent organic light emitting diode (OLED) using an electron scavenger layer (ESL) in a hole transporting layer (HTL) of the device. We use a bis(1-(phenyl)isoquinoline)iridium(III)acetylacetonate [Ir(piq)2(acac)] doped HTL to stimulate radiative decay, preventing thermal degradation in HTL. The ESL effectively prevented non-radiative decay of leakage electron in HTL by converting non-radiative decay to radiative decay via a phosphorescent red emitter, Ir(piq)2(acac). The lifetime of device (t95: time after 5% decrease of luminance) has been increased from 75 h to 120 h by using the ESL in a phosphorescent green-emitting OLED.

  20. Phosphorescent dye-based supramolecules for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwon-Hyeon; Lee, Sunghun; Moon, Chang-Ki; Kim, Sei-Yong; Park, Young-Seo; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Woo Lee, Jin; Huh, June; You, Youngmin; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2014-09-10

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are among the most promising organic semiconductor devices. The recently reported external quantum efficiencies (EQEs) of 29-30% for green and blue phosphorescent OLEDs are considered to be near the limit for isotropically oriented iridium complexes. The preferred orientation of transition dipole moments has not been thoroughly considered for phosphorescent OLEDs because of the lack of an apparent driving force for a molecular arrangement in all but a few cases, even though horizontally oriented transition dipoles can result in efficiencies of over 30%. Here we use quantum chemical calculations to show that the preferred orientation of the transition dipole moments of heteroleptic iridium complexes (HICs) in OLEDs originates from the preferred direction of the HIC triplet transition dipole moments and the strong supramolecular arrangement within the co-host environment. We also demonstrate an unprecedentedly high EQE of 35.6% when using HICs with phosphorescent transition dipole moments oriented in the horizontal direction.

  1. Pink light emitting long-lasting phosphorescence in Sm 3+-doped CdSiO 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Bingfu; Liu, Yingliang; Liu, Jie; Ye, Zeren; Shi, Chunshan

    2004-04-01

    Novel pink light emitting long-lasting afterglow CdSiO 3:Sm 3+ phosphors are prepared by the conventional high-temperature solid-state method and their luminescent properties are investigated. XRD and photoluminescence (PL) spectra are used to characterize the synthesized phosphors. The phosphors are well crystallized by calcinations at 1050°C for 5 h. These phosphors emit pink light and show long-lasting phosphorescence after they are excited with 254 nm ultraviolet light. The phosphorescence lasts for nearly 5 h in the light perception of the dark-adapted human eye (0.32 mcd/m 2). The phosphorescence mechanism is also investigated. All the results indicate that these phosphors have promising potential practical applications.

  2. Heat Transfer Analysis and Assessment of Kinetics Systems for PBX 9501

    SciTech Connect

    Jorenby, Jeffrey W.

    2006-07-01

    The study of thermal decomposition in high explosive (HE) charges has been an ongoing process since the early 1900s. This work is specifically directed towards the analysis of PBX 9501. In the early 1970s, Dwight Jaeger of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed a single-step, two-species kinetics system that was used in the development of one of the first finite element codes for thermal analyses known as EXPLO. Jaeger's research focused on unconfined spherical samples of HE charges to determine if varied heating ramps would cause detonation or deflagration. Tarver and McGuire of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) followed soon after with a three-step, four-species kinetics system that was developed for confined spheres under relatively fast heating conditions. Peter Dickson et al. of LANL then introduced a kinetics system with four steps and five species that included bimolecular products to capture the effects of the endothermic phase change that the HE undergoes. The results of four experiments are examined to study the effectiveness of these kinetics systems. The experiments are: (1) The LLNL scaled thermal explosion (STEX) experiments on confined cylindrical charges with long heating ramps in the range of 90 hours. (2) The LLNL one-dimensional time to explosion (ODTX) experiments on spherical charges that include confined, partially confined, and aged HE experiments. (3) The LANL unconfined one-dimensional experiments for small spheres. (4) The Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division at China Lake experiments on small confined cylinders. The three kinetics systems are applied to each of the four experiments with the use of the finite element analysis (FEA) heat conduction solver COYOTE. The numerical results using the kinetics systems are compared to each other and to the experimental data to determine which kinetics systems are best suited for analyzing conditions such as time to ignition, containment, heating time, and location of

  3. Phosphorescent Iridium(III) Complexes Bearing Fluorinated Aromatic Sulfonyl Group with Nearly Unity Phosphorescent Quantum Yields and Outstanding Electroluminescent Properties.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiang; Yu, Yue; Yang, Xiaolong; Yan, Xiaogang; Zhang, Huiming; Xu, Xianbin; Zhou, Guijiang; Wu, Zhaoxin; Ren, Yixia; Wong, Wai-Yeung

    2015-11-11

    A series of heteroleptic functional Ir(III) complexes bearing different fluorinated aromatic sulfonyl groups has been synthesized. Their photophysical features, electrochemical behaviors, and electroluminescent (EL) properties have been characterized in detail. These complexes emit intense yellow phosphorescence with exceptionally high quantum yields (ΦP > 0.9) at room temperature, and the emission maxima of these complexes can be finely tuned depending upon the number of the fluorine substituents on the pendant phenyl ring of the sulfonyl group. Furthermore, the electrochemical properties and electron injection/transporting (EI/ET) abilities of these Ir(III) phosphors can also be effectively tuned by the fluorinated aromatic sulfonyl group to furnish some desired characters for enhancing the EL performance. Hence, the maximum luminance efficiency (ηL) of 81.2 cd A(-1), corresponding to power efficiency (ηP) of 64.5 lm W(-1) and external quantum efficiency (ηext) of 19.3%, has been achieved, indicating the great potential of these novel phosphors in the field of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Furthermore, a clear picture has been drawn for the relationship between their optoelectronic properties and chemical structures. These results should provide important information for developing highly efficient phosphors.

  4. In vitro comparative kinetic analysis of the chloroplast Toc GTPases.

    PubMed

    Reddick, L Evan; Vaughn, Michael D; Wright, Sarah J; Campbell, Ian M; Bruce, Barry D

    2007-04-13

    A unique aspect of protein transport into plastids is the coordinate involvement of two GTPases in the translocon of the outer chloroplast membrane (Toc). There are two subfamilies in Arabidopsis, the small GTPases (Toc33 and Toc34) and the large acidic GTPases (Toc90, Toc120, Toc132, and Toc159). In chloroplasts, Toc34 and Toc159 are implicated in precursor binding, yet mechanistic details are poorly understood. How the GTPase cycle is modulated by precursor binding is complex and in need of careful dissection. To this end, we have developed novel in vitro assays to quantitate nucleotide binding and hydrolysis of the Toc GTPases. Here we present the first systematic kinetic characterization of four Toc GTPases (cytosolic domains of atToc33, atToc34, psToc34, and the GTPase domain of atToc159) to permit their direct comparison. We report the KM, Vmax, and Ea values for GTP hydrolysis and the Kd value for nucleotide binding for each protein. We demonstrate that GTP hydrolysis by psToc34 is stimulated by chloroplast transit peptides; however, this activity is not stimulated by homodimerization and is abolished by the R133A mutation. Furthermore, we show peptide stimulation of hydrolytic rates are not because of accelerated nucleotide exchange, indicating that transit peptides function as GTPase-activating proteins and not guanine nucleotide exchange factors in modulating the activity of psToc34. Finally, by using the psToc34 structure, we have developed molecular models for atToc33, atToc34, and atToc159G. By combining these models with the measured enzymatic properties of the Toc GTPases, we provide new insights of how the chloroplast protein import cycle may be regulated.

  5. Phosphorescence quenching by mechanical stimulus in CaZnOS:Cu

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, Dong; Kamimura, Sunao; Xu, Chao-Nan; Fujio, Yuki; Sakata, Yoshitaro; Ueno, Naohiro

    2014-07-07

    We have found that phosphorescence intensity of CaZnOS:Cu decreased visibly under an applied load. This mechanical quenching (MQ) of phosphorescence in CaZnOS:Cu corresponded to the mechanical stimuli. We have thus demonstrated that the MQ of CaZnOS:Cu could be used for visualizing stress distributions in practical applications. We propose that MQ arises from non-radiative recombination due to electron-transfer from trap levels to non-radiative centers as a result of the mechanical load.

  6. Efficiency enhancement of blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using mixed electron transport layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Seung Il; Yoon, Ju-An; Kim, Nam Ho; Kim, Jin Wook; Lee, Ho Won; Kim, Young Kwan; He, Gufeng; Kim, Woo Young

    2015-01-01

    Blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) using mixed electron transport layer (ETL) were fabricated with the device structure of ITO/NPB/mCP:Firpic-8%/TPBi:BCP or TPBi:3TPYMB/Liq/Al to observe mixed ETL's influence on their electrical and optical characteristics. OLED device with mixed ETL of TPBi with BCP or 3TPYMB significantly improved its current efficiency to 30.4 and 34.2 cd/A comparing to 19.8 cd/A of single ETL with BCP only. We examined mixed ETL's capability of electron transport and triplet exciton confinement enhancing phosphorescent OLED's luminance and luminous efficiency.

  7. Water-soluble triscyclometalated organoiridium complex: phosphorescent nanoparticle formation, nonlinear optics, and application for cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yuanpeng; Zhao, Jingyi; Yan, Qifan; Chen, Peng R; Zhao, Dahui

    2014-03-12

    Two water-soluble triscyclometalated organoiridium complexes, 1 and 2, with polar side chains that form nanoparticles emitting bright-red phosphorescence in water were synthesized. The optimal emitting properties are related to both the triscyclometalated structure and nanoparticle-forming ability in aqueous solution. Nonlinear optical properties are also observed with the nanoparticles. Because of their proper cellular uptake in addition to high emission brightness and effective two-photon absorbing ability, cell imaging can be achieved with nanoparticles of 2 bearing quaternary ammonium side chains at ultra-low effective concentrations using NIR incident light via the multiphoton excitation phosphorescence process.

  8. Kinetic Analysis of Haloacetonitrile Stability in Drinking Waters.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yun; Reckhow, David A

    2015-09-15

    Haloacetonitriles (HANs) are an important class of drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) that are reactive and can undergo considerable transformation on time scales relevant to system distribution (i.e., from a few hours to a week or more). The stability of seven mono-, di-, and trihaloacetonitriles was examined under a variety of conditions including different pH levels and disinfectant doses that are typical of drinking water distribution systems. Results indicated that hydroxide, hypochlorite, and their protonated forms could react with HANs via nucleophilic attack on the nitrile carbon, forming the corresponding haloacetamides (HAMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) as major reaction intermediates and end products. Other stable intermediate products, such as the N-chloro-haloacetamides (N-chloro-HAMs), may form during the course of HAN chlorination. A scheme of pathways for the HAN reactions was proposed, and the rate constants for individual reactions were estimated. Under slightly basic conditions, hydroxide and hypochlorite are primary reactants and their associated second-order reaction rate constants were estimated to be 6 to 9 orders of magnitude higher than those of their protonated conjugates (i.e., neutral water and hypochlorous acid), which are much weaker but more predominant nucleophiles at neutral and acidic pHs. Developed using the estimated reaction rate constants, the linear free energy relationships (LFERs) summarized the nucleophilic nature of HAN reactions and demonstrated an activating effect of the electron withdrawing halogens on nitrile reactivity, leading to decreasing HAN stability with increasing degree of halogenation of the substituents, while subsequent shift from chlorine to bromine atoms has a contrary stabilizing effect on HANs. The chemical kinetic model together with the reaction rate constants that were determined in this work can be used for quantitative predictions of HAN concentrations depending on pH and free chlorine

  9. Data Capture and Analysis Using the BBC Microcomputer--an Interfacing Project Applied to Enzyme Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lawrence; Graham, Ian

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the main principles of interfacing and discusses the software developed to perform kinetic data capture and analysis with a BBC microcomputer linked to a recording spectrophotometer. Focuses on the steps in software development. Includes results of a lactate dehydrogenase assay. (ML)

  10. High Efficancy Integrated Under-Cabinet Phosphorescent OLED

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Hack

    2001-10-31

    In this two year program Universal Display Corporation (UDC) together with the University of Michigan, Teknokon, developed and delivered an energy efficient phosphorescent OLED under cabinet illumination system. Specifically the UDC team goal was in 2011 to deliver five (5) Beta level OLED under cabinet lighting fixtures each consisting of five 6-inch x 6-inch OLED lighting panels, delivering over 420 lumens, at an overall system efficacy of >60 lm/W, a CRI of >85, and a projected lifetime to 70% of initial luminance to exceed 20,000 hours. During the course of this program, the Team pursued the commercialization of these OLED based under cabinet lighting fixtures, to enable the launch of commercial OLED lighting products. The UDC team was ideally suited to develop these novel and efficient solid state lighting fixtures, having both the technical experience and commercial distribution mechanisms to leverage work performed under this contract. UDC's business strategy is to non-exclusively license its PHOLED technology to lighting manufacturers, and also supply them with our proprietary PHOLED materials. UDC is currently working with several licensees who are manufacturing OLED lighting panels using our technology. During this 2 year program, we further developed our high efficiency white Phosphorescent OLEDs from the first milestone, achieving a 80 lm/W single pixel to the final milestone, achieving an under-cabinet PHOLED lighting system that operates at 56 lm/W at 420 lumens. Each luminaire was comprised of ten 15cm x 7.5cm lighting modules mounted in outcoupling enhancement lenses and a control module. The lamps modules are connected together using either plugs or wires with plugs on each end, allowing for unlimited configurations. The lamps are driven by an OLED driver mounted in an enclosure which includes the AC plug. As a result of advancements gained under this program, the path to move OLED lighting panels from development into manufacturing has been

  11. A kinetic analysis of strand breaks on large DNA induced by cigarette smoke extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurita, Hirofumi; Takata, Tatsuya; Yasuda, Hachiro; Takashima, Kazunori; Mizuno, Akira

    2010-06-01

    We report a kinetic analysis of strand breakages on large DNA molecules induced by cigarette smoke extract (CSE), an extract of soluble cigarette smoke components. Previously, this DNA damage was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis, whereas we used fluorescence to kinetically analyze damage to individual DNA molecules. CSE caused a marked change in length of DNA molecules. The rate of CSE-induced double-strand breakage on large random-coiled DNA molecules was determined using a simple theoretical model, allowing the facile estimation of the rate of double-strand breaks on large DNA molecules.

  12. Dynamic nuclear renography kinetic analysis: Four-compartment model for assessing kidney function

    SciTech Connect

    Raswan, T. R. Haryanto, F.

    2014-09-30

    Dynamic nuclear renography method produces TACs of kidneys and bladder. Multiple TACs data can be further analyzed to obtain the overview of urinary system's condition. Tracer kinetic analysis was performed using four-compartment models. The system's model consist of four irreversible compartment with four transport constants (k1, k2, k3 and k4). The mathematical expressions of tracer's distributions is fitted to experimental data (TACs) resulting in model constants. This transport constants represent the urinary system behavior, and later can be used for analyzing system's condition. Different intervals of kinetics parameter are clearly shown by abnormal system with respect to the normal one. Furthermore, the system with delayed uptake has 82% lower uptake parameters (k1 and k2) than normal one. Meanwhile, the system with prolonged clearance time has its kinetics parameters k3 or k4 lower than the others. This model is promising for quantitatively describe urinary system's function especially if supplied with more data.

  13. Dynamic nuclear renography kinetic analysis: Four-compartment model for assessing kidney function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raswan, T. R.; Haryanto, F.

    2014-09-01

    Dynamic nuclear renography method produces TACs of kidneys and bladder. Multiple TACs data can be further analyzed to obtain the overview of urinary system's condition. Tracer kinetic analysis was performed using four-compartment models. The system's model consist of four irreversible compartment with four transport constants (k1, k2, k3 and k4). The mathematical expressions of tracer's distributions is fitted to experimental data (TACs) resulting in model constants. This transport constants represent the urinary system behavior, and later can be used for analyzing system's condition. Different intervals of kinetics parameter are clearly shown by abnormal system with respect to the normal one. Furthermore, the system with delayed uptake has 82% lower uptake parameters (k1 and k2) than normal one. Meanwhile, the system with prolonged clearance time has its kinetics parameters k3 or k4 lower than the others. This model is promising for quantitatively describe urinary system's function especially if supplied with more data.

  14. Thermal Decomposition of Thermoelectric Material CoSb3: A Thermogravimetry Kinetic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fang; He, Qingli; Hu, Dinxu; Gao, Feng; Song, Hongzhang; Jia, Jianfeng; Hu, Xing

    2013-08-01

    The thermal decomposition of the thermoelectric CoSb3 alloy was investigated using thermogravimetry (TG). TG curves obtained in inert gas flow with different heating rates were used to perform kinetic analysis based on the Arrhenius equation. Kinetic parameters, such as the effective activation energy, the pre-exponential factor, and the kinetic model function f(α ) , were obtained using the Freeman-Carroll method, the multiheating rates method, and the Coats-Redfern equation. The activation energy was found to be around 200 kJ/mol, and the reaction mechanism for the decomposition of CoSb3 alloy mostly obeys the second-order chemical decomposition process f(α ) = (1 - α )2.

  15. Comparative kinetic analysis of silent and ultrasound-assisted catalytic wet peroxide oxidation of phenol.

    PubMed

    Rokhina, Ekaterina V; Repo, Eveliina; Virkutyte, Jurate

    2010-03-01

    The kinetic study of silent and ultrasound-assisted catalytic wet peroxide oxidation of phenol in water was performed to qualitatively assess the effect of ultrasound on the process kinetics. Various kinetic parameters such as the apparent kinetic rate constants, the surface utilization coefficient and activation energy of phenol oxidation over RuI(3) catalyst were investigated. Comparative analysis revealed that the use of ultrasound irradiation reduced the energy barrier of the reaction but had no impact on the reaction pathway. The activation energy for the oxidation of phenol over RuI(3) catalyst in the presence of ultrasound was found to be 13kJmol(-1), which was four times smaller in comparison to the silent oxidation process (57kJmol(-1)). Finally, 'figures-of-merit' was utilized to assess different experimental strategies such as sonolysis alone, H(2)O(2)-enhanced sonolysis and sono-catalytic oxidation of phenol in order to estimate the electric energy consumption based on the kinetic rate constants of the oxidation process.

  16. An explicit expression for determining cometabolism kinetics using progress curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Goudar, Chetan T

    2012-05-31

    We present an explicit expression for describing the kinetics of cometabolic biotransformation of environmental pollutants. This expression is based on the Lambert W function and explicitly relates the substrate concentration, S, to time, t, the two experimentally measured variables. This explicit relationship simplifies kinetic parameter estimation as differential equation solution and iterative estimation of the substrate concentration are eliminated. The applicability of this new expression for nonlinear kinetic parameter estimation was first demonstrated using noise containing synthetic data where final estimates of the kinetic parameters were very close to their actual values. Subsequently 1.1.1-trichloroethane degradation data at initial concentrations of 750 and 375 μM were described using the explicit expression resulting in r and K(s) estimates of 0.26 μM/mg d and 28.08 μM and 0.30 μM/mg d and 28.70 μM, respectively, very similar to 0.276 μM/mg d and 31.2 μM, respectively, that were reported in the original study. The new explicit expression presented in this study simplifies estimation of cometabolic kinetic parameters and can be easily used across all computational platforms thereby providing an attractive alternative for progress curve analysis.

  17. Kinetic and phylogenetic analysis of plant polyamine uptake transporters.

    PubMed

    Mulangi, Vaishali; Chibucos, Marcus C; Phuntumart, Vipaporn; Morris, Paul F

    2012-10-01

    The rice gene Polyamine Uptake Transporter1 (PUT1) was originally identified based on its homology to the polyamine uptake transporters LmPOT1 and TcPAT12 in Leishmania major and Trypanosoma cruzi, respectively. Here we show that five additional transporters from rice and Arabidopsis that cluster in the same clade as PUT1 all function as high affinity spermidine uptake transporters. Yeast expression assays of these genes confirmed that uptake of spermidine was minimally affected by 166 fold or greater concentrations of amino acids. Characterized polyamine transporters from both Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa along with the two polyamine transporters from L. major and T. cruzi were aligned and used to generate a hidden Markov model. This model was used to identify significant matches to proteins in other angiosperms, bryophytes, chlorophyta, discicristates, excavates, stramenopiles and amoebozoa. No significant matches were identified in fungal or metazoan genomes. Phylogenic analysis showed that some sequences from the haptophyte, Emiliania huxleyi, as well as sequences from oomycetes and diatoms clustered closer to sequences from plant genomes than from a homologous sequence in the red algal genome Galdieria sulphuraria, consistent with the hypothesis that these polyamine transporters were acquired by horizontal transfer from green algae. Leishmania and Trypansosoma formed a separate cluster with genes from other Discicristates and two Entamoeba species. We surmise that the genes in Entamoeba species were acquired by phagotrophy of Discicristates. In summary, phylogenetic and functional analysis has identified two clades of genes that are predictive of polyamine transport activity.

  18. In situ reaction kinetic analysis of dental restorative materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younas, Basma; Samad Khan, Abdul; Muzaffar, Danish; Hussain, Ijaz; Chaudhry, Aqif Anwar; Rehman, Ihtesham Ur

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in situ structural and thermal changes of dental restorative materials at periodical time intervals. The commercial materials included zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE), zinc phosphate type I (ZnPO4), glass ionomer cement type II (GIC) and resin-based nano-omposite (Filtek Z350 XT). These materials were processed according to manufacturer's instructions. For the structural analysis Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used at high resolution. TGA was used to evaluate thermal weight-loss. The FTIR spectra were collected at periodic time intervals. FTIR spectra showed that with time passing all materials exhibited an increase in peak intensities and a new appearance of shoulders and shifting of peaks for example, ZnPO4 (P-O), ZOE (C═O, C═N, C-O-C), GIC (COO-, C-H, Si-OH), composites (C═O, C═C, C═N, C-N-H). The peaks were replaced by bands and these bands became broader with time interval. Composites showed a degree of conversion and new peaks corresponded to the cross-linking of polymer composites. TGA analysis showed that significant changes in weight loss of set materials were observed after 24 h, where ZOE showed continuous changes in thermal degradation. The spectral changes and thermal degradation with time interval elucidated in situ setting behaviour and understanding of their bonding compatibility with tooth structure and change in relation to time.

  19. Kinetic analysis of a general model of activation of aspartic proteinase zymogens.

    PubMed

    Varón, R; García-Moreno, M; Valera-Ruipérez, D; García-Molina, F; García-Cánovas, F; Ladrón-de Guevara, R G; Masiá-Pérez, J; Havsteen, B H

    2006-10-07

    Starting from a simple general reaction mechanism of activation of aspartic proteinase zymogens involving an uni- and a bimolecular simultaneous route, the time course equation of the concentration of the zymogen and of the activated enzyme have been derived. From these equations, an analysis quantifying the relative contribution to the global process of the two routes has been carried out for the first time. This analysis suggests a way to predict the time course of the relative contribution as well as the effect of the initial zymogen and activating enzyme concentrations, on the relative weight. An experimental design and kinetic data analysis is suggested to estimate the kinetic parameters involved in the reaction mechanism proposed. Finally, we apply some of our results to experimental data obtained by other authors in experimental studies of the activation of some aspartic proteinase zymogens.

  20. Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum thin film as ETL in efficient green phosphorescent OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thangaraju, K.; Kim, Yun-Hi; Kwon, Soon-Ki

    2013-02-01

    Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum thin film as ETL in green phosphorescent OLEDs improves the device performances to a maximum of 34.2 cd/A, 11.3% with the maximum brightness of 63,150 cd/m2 and broadens the device emission in yellow-green region suitable in the white OLEDs for the lighting applications.

  1. Crystal induced phosphorescence from Benz(a)anthracene microcrystals at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Maity, Samir; Mazumdar, Prativa; Shyamal, Milan; Sahoo, Gobinda Prasad; Misra, Ajay

    2016-03-15

    Pure organic compounds that are also phosphorescent at room temperature are very rare in literature. Here, we report efficient phosphorescence emission from aggregated hydrosol of Benz(a)anthracene (BaA) at room temperature. Aggregated hydrosol of BaA has been synthesized by re-precipitation method and SDS is used as morphology directing agent. Morphology of the particles is characterized using optical and scanning electronic microcopy (SEM). Photophysical properties of the aggregated hydrosol are carried out using UV-vis, steady state and time resolved fluorescence study. The large stoke shifted structured emission from aggregated hydrosol of BaA has been explained due to phosphorescence emission of BaA at room temperature. In the crystalline state, the restricted intermolecular motions (RIM) such as rotations and vibrations are activated by crystal lattice. This rigidification effect makes the chromophore phosphorescent at room temperature. The possible stacking arrangement of the neighboring BaA within the aggregates has been substantiated by computing second order Fukui parameter as local reactivity descriptors. Computational study also reveals that the neighboring BaA molecules are present in parallel slipped conformation in its aggregated crystalline form.

  2. Crystal induced phosphorescence from Benz(a)anthracene microcrystals at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, Samir; Mazumdar, Prativa; Shyamal, Milan; Sahoo, Gobinda Prasad; Misra, Ajay

    2016-03-01

    Pure organic compounds that are also phosphorescent at room temperature are very rare in literature. Here, we report efficient phosphorescence emission from aggregated hydrosol of Benz(a)anthracene (BaA) at room temperature. Aggregated hydrosol of BaA has been synthesized by re-precipitation method and SDS is used as morphology directing agent. Morphology of the particles is characterized using optical and scanning electronic microcopy (SEM). Photophysical properties of the aggregated hydrosol are carried out using UV-vis, steady state and time resolved fluorescence study. The large stoke shifted structured emission from aggregated hydrosol of BaA has been explained due to phosphorescence emission of BaA at room temperature. In the crystalline state, the restricted intermolecular motions (RIM) such as rotations and vibrations are activated by crystal lattice. This rigidification effect makes the chromophore phosphorescent at room temperature. The possible stacking arrangement of the neighboring BaA within the aggregates has been substantiated by computing second order Fukui parameter as local reactivity descriptors. Computational study also reveals that the neighboring BaA molecules are present in parallel slipped conformation in its aggregated crystalline form.

  3. A phosphorescent rhenium(I) histone deacetylase inhibitor: mitochondrial targeting and paraptosis induction.

    PubMed

    Ye, Rui-Rong; Tan, Cai-Ping; Lin, Yan-Nan; Ji, Liang-Nian; Mao, Zong-Wan

    2015-05-14

    In this report, we designed a histone deacetylase-targeted phosphorescent Re(I) complex ReLMito. Colocalization studies suggested that ReLMito could specially localize to mitochondria. We also demonstrated that ReLMito could induce paraptosis in cancer cells. These features endowed the complex with potential to induce and monitor mitochondrial morphological changes during the paraptosis simultaneously.

  4. Phosphorescent probes for two-photon microscopy of oxygen (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradov, Sergei A.; Esipova, Tatiana V.

    2016-03-01

    The ability to quantify oxygen in vivo in 3D with high spatial and temporal resolution is much needed in many areas of biological research. Our laboratory has been developing the phosphorescence quenching technique for biological oximetry - an optical method that possesses intrinsic microscopic capability. In the past we have developed dendritically protected oxygen probes for quantitative imaging of oxygen in tissue. More recently we expanded our design on special two-photon enhanced phosphorescent probes. These molecules brought about first demonstrations of the two-photon phosphorescence lifetime microscopy (2PLM) of oxygen in vivo, providing new information for neouroscience and stem cell biology. However, current two-photon oxygen probes suffer from a number of limitations, such as sub-optimal brightness and high cost of synthesis, which dramatically reduce imaging performance and limit usability of the method. In this paper we discuss principles of 2PLM and address the interplay between the probe chemistry, photophysics and spatial and temporal imaging resolution. We then present a new approach to brightly phosphorescent chromophores with internally enhanced two-photon absorption cross-sections, which pave a way to a new generation of 2PLM probes.

  5. Novel carbazole/fluorene hybrids: host materials for blue phosphorescent OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Shih, Ping-I; Chiang, Chih-Long; Dixit, Ajay Kumar; Chen, Ching-Kun; Yuan, Mao-Chuan; Lee, Rei-Yuen; Chen, Chin-Ti; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang; Shu, Ching-Fong

    2006-06-22

    [reaction: see text] A series of carbazole/fluorene (CBZm-Fn) hybrids were effectively synthesized through Friedel-Crafts-type substitution of the carbazole rings. These compounds were thermally and morphologically stable host materials for OLED applications. Efficient blue phosphorescent OLEDs were obtained when employing CBZ1-F2 as the host and FIrpic as the guest.

  6. A Brief History of Fluorescence and Phosphorescence before the Emergence of Quantum Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valeur, Bernard; Berberan-Santos, Mario N.

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescence and phosphorescence are two forms of photoluminescence used in modern research and in practical applications. The early observations of these phenomena, before the emergence of quantum theory, highlight the investigation into the mechanism of light emission. In contrast to incandescence, photoluminescence does not require high…

  7. Multifunctional Phosphorescent Conjugated Polymer Dots for Hypoxia Imaging and Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaobo; Liang, Hua; Jiang, Pengfei; Zhang, Kenneth Yin; Liu, Shujuan; Yang, Tianshe; Yang, Lijuan; Lv, Wen; Yu, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Molecular oxygen (O2) plays a key role in many physiological processes, and becomes a toxicant to kill cells when excited to 1O2. Intracellular O2 levels, or the degree of hypoxia, are always viewed as an indicator of cancers. Due to the highly efficient cancer therapy ability and low side effect, photodynamic therapy (PDT) becomes one of the most promising treatments for cancers. Herein, an early‐stage diagnosis and therapy system is reported based on the phosphorescent conjugated polymer dots (Pdots) containing Pt(II) porphyrin as an oxygen‐responsive phosphorescent group and 1O2 photosensitizer. Intracellular hypoxia detection has been investigated. Results show that cells treated with Pdots display longer lifetimes under hypoxic conditions, and time‐resolved luminescence images exhibit a higher signal‐to‐noise ratio after gating off the short‐lived background fluorescence. Quantification of O2 is realized by the ratiometric emission intensity of phosphorescence/fluorescence and the lifetime of phosphorescence. Additionally, the PDT efficiency of Pdots is estimated by flow cytometry, MTT cell viability assay, and in situ imaging of PDT induced cell death. Interestingly, Pdots exhibit a high PDT efficiency and would be promising in clinical applications. PMID:27722081

  8. Synthesis and characterization of a combined fluorescence, phosphorescence, and electron paramagnetic resonance probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beth, Albert H.; Cobb, Charles E.; Beechem, Joseph M.

    1992-04-01

    A spin-labeled derivative of eosin was chemically synthesized from 5-aminoeosin and the nitroxide spin label 2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolin-1-oxyl-3-carboxylic acid. Following determination of the chemical identity of the spin-labeled eosin (5-SLE) by FAB mass spectroscopy, its optical and magnetic resonance spectroscopic properties were characterized in aqueous solution and compared to a diamagnetic eosin derivative, 5-acetamido eosin (5- AcE). The visible light absorption maximum of 5-SLE was 518 nm, the same as for 5-AcE. The fluorescence quantum yield of 5-SLE was only reduced by approximately 10% relative to 5-AcE, and the fluorescence lifetime was marginally reduced relative to 5-AcE. The phosphorescence lifetime and yield for 5-SLE were very similar to those for 5-AcE. The phosphorescence yield of 5-SLE bound noncovalently to BSA was reduced by approximately 60% relative to 5-AcE, and the phosphorescence lifetime reduced from approximately 2.4 msec (5-AcE) to 1.6 msec (5-SLE). Reduction of the nitroxide moiety of the 5-SLE with sodium ascorbate resulted in minimal changes in the fluorescence and phosphorescence quantum yields and lifetimes. This indicated that the unpaired electron of the nitroxide spin label did not seriously affect the optical spectroscopic characteristics of the spin-labeled eosin molecule. The quantum yields and lifetimes of 5-SLE were still quite acceptable for time- resolved fluorescence and phosphorescence studies. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of 5-SLE in aqueous solution has a lineshape consistent with a molecule the size of 5-SLE undergoing rapid rotational reorientation. When bound to BSA, the EPR spectrum of 5-SLE was broadened to a near slow motion limit for EPR, as expected for the relatively slowly rotating protein-5-SLE complex. Time-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy and saturation transfer EPR (ST-EPR) experiments with samples of 5-SLE bound to BSA in solutions of varying glycerol concentrations at 2

  9. Surface Plasmon Enhanced Phosphorescent Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Guillermo Bazan; Alexander Mikhailovsky

    2008-08-01

    The objective of the proposed work was to develop the fundamental understanding and practical techniques for enhancement of Phosphorescent Organic Light Emitting Diodes (PhOLEDs) performance by utilizing radiative decay control technology. Briefly, the main technical goal is the acceleration of radiative recombination rate in organometallic triplet emitters by using the interaction with surface plasmon resonances in noble metal nanostructures. Increased photonic output will enable one to eliminate constraints imposed on PhOLED efficiency by triplet-triplet annihilation, triplet-polaron annihilation, and saturation of chromophores with long radiative decay times. Surface plasmon enhanced (SPE) PhOLEDs will operate more efficiently at high injection current densities and will be less prone to degradation mechanisms. Additionally, introduction of metal nanostructures into PhOLEDs may improve their performance due to the improvement of the charge transport through organic layers via multiple possible mechanisms ('electrical bridging' effects, doping-like phenomena, etc.). SPE PhOLED technology is particularly beneficial for solution-fabricated electrophosphorescent devices. Small transition moment of triplet emitters allows achieving a significant enhancement of the emission rate while keeping undesirable quenching processes introduced by the metal nanostructures at a reasonably low level. Plasmonic structures can be introduced easily into solution-fabricated PhOLEDs by blending and spin coating techniques and can be used for enhancement of performance in existing device architectures. This constitutes a significant benefit for a large scale fabrication of PhOLEDs, e.g. by roll-to-roll fabrication techniques. Besides multieexciton annihilation, the power efficacy of PhOLEDs is often limited by high operational bias voltages required for overcoming built-in potential barriers to injection and transport of electrical charges through a device. This problem is especially

  10. Binding of naproxen enantiomers to human serum albumin studied by fluorescence and room-temperature phosphorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, Ivonne; Lhiaubet-Vallet, Virginie; Ariese, Freek; Miranda, Miguel A.; Gooijer, Cees

    2013-03-01

    The interaction of the enantiomers of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug naproxen (NPX) with human serum albumin (HSA) has been investigated using fluorescence and phosphorescence spectroscopy in the steady-state and time-resolved mode. The absorption, fluorescence excitation, and fluorescence emission spectra of (S)-NPX and (R)-NPX differ in shape in the presence of HSA, indicating that these enantiomers experience a different environment when bound. In solutions containing 0.2 M KI, complexation with HSA results in a strongly increased NPX fluorescence intensity and a decreased NPX phosphorescence intensity due to the inhibition of the collisional interaction with the heavy atom iodide. Fluorescence intensity curves obtained upon selective excitation of NPX show 8-fold different slopes for bound and free NPX. No significant difference in the binding constants of (3.8 ± 0.6) × 105 M-1 for (S)-NPX and (3.9 ± 0.6) × 105 M-1 for (R)-NPX was found. Furthermore, the addition of NPX quenches the phosphorescence of the single tryptophan in HSA (Trp-214) based on Dexter energy transfer. The short-range nature of this mechanism explains the upward curvature of the Stern-Volmer plot observed for HSA: At low concentrations NPX binds to HSA at a distance from Trp-214 and no quenching occurs, whereas at high NPX concentrations the phosphorescence intensity decreases due to dynamic quenching by NPX diffusing into site I from the bulk solution. The dynamic quenching observed in the Stern-Volmer plots based on the longest phosphorescence lifetime indicates an overall binding constant to HSA of about 3 × 105 M-1 for both enantiomers.

  11. A specific Tween-80-Rhodamine S-MWNTs phosphorescent reagent for the detection of trace calcitonin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia-Ming; Huang, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Li-Hong; Zheng, Zhi-Yong; Lin, Xuan; Zhang, Xiao-Yang; Jiao, Li; Cui, Ma-Lin; Jiang, Shu-Lian; Lin, Shao-Qin

    2012-09-26

    The present study proposed a simple sensitive and specific immunoassay for the quantification of calcitonin (CT) in human serum with water-soluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). The COOH group of MWNTs could react with the NH group of rhodamine S (Rhod.S) molecules to form Rhod.S-MWNTs, which could emit room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) on acetate cellulose membrane (ACM) and react with Tween-80 to form micellar compound. Tween-80-Rhod.S-MWNTs (TRM), as a phosphorescent labelling reagent, could dramatically enhance the RTP signal of the system. The developed TRM phosphorescent reagent was used to label anti-calcitonin antibody (Ab(CT)) to form the TRM-Ab(CT) labelling product, which could take high specific immunoreaction with CT, and the ΔI(p) (= I(p2)-I(p1), I(p2) and I(p1) were the phosphorescence intensity of the test solution and the blank sample, respectively) of the system was linear to the content of CT. Hence, a new solid substrate room temperature phosphorescence immunoassay (SSRTPIA) was established for the determination of CT in human serum. This sensitive (limit of quantification (LOQ) was 8.0×10(-14) g mL(-1)), accurate, selective and precise method has been applied to determine CT in human serum and predict primary osteoporosis and fractures, with the results in good agreement with those obtained by chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA). Simultaneously, the structure of MWNTs was characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy (IR), and the reaction mechanisms of both labelling Ab(CT) with TRM and SSRTPIA for the determination of trace CT were discussed.

  12. Ultra-sensitive complex as phosphorescence probe for the determination of trace protein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia-Ming; Jiang, Shu-Lian; Cui, Ma-Lin; Jiao, Li; Zhang, Li-Hong; Zheng, Zhi-Yong

    2013-02-01

    β-CD-HMTA-L-Tyr complex, formed in the host guest inclusion reaction carried out between host molecule β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) in β-CD-HMTA (HMTA is methenamine) and guest molecule L-tryptophan (L-Tyr), possessing the characteristic of room temperature phosphorescence (RTP). Bovine serum albumin (BSA) reacted with L-Tyr to form a complex of cage structure bringing in the sharply RTP signal quenching of L-Tyr. Based on the above facts, a new ultra-sensitive solid substrate room temperature phosphorimetry (SSRTP) for the determination of trace protein has been established using β-CD-HMTA-L-Tyr complex as a phosphorescence probe. Under the optimum conditions, the linear range of this method was 0.0040-0.56 agspot(-1) with a detection limit (D.L.) as 0.92 zgspot(-1), and the regression equations of working curve was ΔI(p)=0.8239+162.5 m(BSA) (agspot(-1), n=8) with the correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9994. The relatively standard deviation (RSD) and the recovery of SSRTP were 4.8-3.3% and 96.7-102%, respectively, indicating that this method had good repeatability. The proposed phosphorescence probe has been applied in the detection of protein in real samples and the results agreed well with those obtained with SSRTP using methylene blue-sodium tetraphenylborate as phosphorescence probe. Meanwhile, the reaction mechanism for the determination of trace protein with β-CD-HMTA-L-Tyr complex as phosphorescence probe has been discussed.

  13. Chemorheological analysis and model-free kinetics of acid catalysed furfuryl alcohol polymerization.

    PubMed

    Guigo, Nathanael; Mija, Alice; Vincent, Luc; Sbirrazzuoli, Nicolas

    2007-10-21

    The complete curing of furfuryl alcohol (FA), was studied by chemorheological analysis and model-free kinetics under isothermal and non-isothermal modes. Polymerization of FA under acidic catalysis involves complex reactions, with several steps (such as condensations and Diels-Alder cycloadditions). To account for the polymerization complexity, kinetic analysis of DSC data was performed with a model-free isoconversional method. The obtained E(alpha)-dependencies were closely-correlated with the variation of complex viscosity during curing. Linear condensations are predominant during the early curing stage and are followed by two distinct stages of branching cycloadditions. Gelation and vitrification, identified by rheometric measurements, were associated with a decrease of the overall reaction rate that becomes controlled by diffusion of small oligomers. Before vitrification, the rate of crosslinking is limited by the mobility of longer polymer chains and diffusion encounters a large energy barrier due to the cooperative nature of the motions, leading to higher E(alpha) values.

  14. The derivative assay--an analysis of two fast components of DNA rejoining kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstroem, B.E. )

    1989-11-01

    The DNA rejoining kinetics of human U-118 MG cells were studied after gamma-irradiation with 4 Gy. The analysis of the sealing rate of the induced DNA strand breaks was made with a modification of the DNA unwinding technique. The modification meant that rather than just monitoring the number of existing breaks at each time of analysis, the velocity, at which the rejoining process proceeded, was determined. Two apparent first-order components of single-strand break repair could be identified during the 25 min of analysis. The half-times for the two components were 1.9 and 16 min, respectively.

  15. On-Line Analysis and Kinetic Behavior of Arsenic Release during Coal Combustion and Pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fenghua; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Zhen; Dai, Jinxin

    2015-11-17

    The kinetic behavior of arsenic (As) release during coal combustion and pyrolysis in a fluidized bed was investigated by applying an on-line analysis system of trace elements in flue gas. This system, based on inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), was developed to measure trace elements concentrations in flue gas quantitatively and continuously. Obvious variations of arsenic concentration in flue gas were observed during coal combustion and pyrolysis, indicating strong influences of atmosphere and temperature on arsenic release behavior. Kinetic laws governing the arsenic release during coal combustion and pyrolysis were determined based on the results of instantaneous arsenic concentration in flue gas. A second-order kinetic law was determined for arsenic release during coal combustion, and the arsenic release during coal pyrolysis followed a fourth-order kinetic law. The results showed that the arsenic release rate during coal pyrolysis was faster than that during coal combustion. Thermodynamic calculations were carried out to identify the forms of arsenic in vapor and solid phases during coal combustion and pyrolysis, respectively. Ca3(AsO4)2 and Ca(AsO2)2 are the possible species resulting from As-Ca interaction during coal combustion. Ca(AsO2)2 is the most probable species during coal pyrolysis.

  16. Simplified half-life methods for the analysis of kinetic data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhart, J. G.; Levin, E.

    1988-01-01

    The analysis of reaction rate data has as its goal the determination of the order rate constant which characterize the data. Chemical reactions with one reactant and present simplified methods for accomplishing this goal are considered. The approaches presented involve the use of half lives or other fractional lives. These methods are particularly useful for the more elementary discussions of kinetics found in general and physical chemistry courses.

  17. Rotational diffusion of receptors for epidermal growth factor measured by time-resolved phosphorescence depolarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zidovetzki, Raphael; Johnson, David A.; Arndt-Jovin, Donna J.; Jovin, Thomas M.

    1991-06-01

    The cell surface receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGFR) is one of the most studied integral membrane proteins. The receptor is widely distributed in cells and tissues of mammalian and avian tissues and plays an important role in growth control. Binding of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) to EGFR initiates a complex biological response, which includes self-phosphorylation of the receptor due to an intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity, phosphorylation of other membrane proteins, increased intake of metabolites, and increased proliferation. Complete amino acid sequence of EGFR revealed a high degree of homology with viral oncogenes and allowed tentative identification of an external hormone binding domain, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic domain that includes tyrosine kinase activity. EGF binding induces rapid aggregation of EGFR, a process which was also observed on other receptor systems. These and other observations led to a hypothesis that microaggregation of EGFR is a necessary prerequisite for the biological response of EGF. A direct approach to study the processes of oligomerization of cell membrane proteins is to measure their mobility under various conditions. The lateral mobility of the EGFR was studied on mouse 3T3 fibroblasts and on A431 cells. However, an examination of the equations for the lateral and rotational diffusion in membranes shows that only rotational diffusion is strongly dependent on the size of the diffusing entity. A method of measuring protein rotational diffusion by time-resolved phosphorescence has proved to be very useful in the analysis of both in vivo and in vitro systems. The authors apply this method to study the mobility of EGFR on living A431 cells and membrane preparations.

  18. The conformation of serum albumin in solution: a combined phosphorescence depolarization-hydrodynamic modeling study.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, M L; Duchowicz, R; Carrasco, B; de la Torre, J G; Acuña, A U

    2001-01-01

    There is a striking disparity between the heart-shaped structure of human serum albumin (HSA) observed in single crystals and the elongated ellipsoid model used for decades to interpret the protein solution hydrodynamics at neutral pH. These two contrasting views could be reconciled if the protein were flexible enough to change its conformation in solution from that found in the crystal. To investigate this possibility we recorded the rotational motions in real time of an erythrosin-bovine serum albumin complex (Er-BSA) over an extended time range, using phosphorescence depolarization techniques. These measurements are consistent with the absence of independent motions of large protein segments in solution, in the time range from nanoseconds to fractions of milliseconds, and give a single rotational correlation time phi(BSA, 1 cP, 20 degrees C) = 40 +/- 2 ns. In addition, we report a detailed analysis of the protein hydrodynamics based on two bead-modeling methods. In the first, BSA was modeled as a triangular prismatic shell with optimized dimensions of 84 x 84 x 84 x 31.5 A, whereas in the second, the atomic-level structure of HSA obtained from crystallographic data was used to build a much more refined rough-shell model. In both cases, the predicted and experimental rotational diffusion rate and other hydrodynamic parameters were in good agreement. Therefore, the overall conformation in neutral solution of BSA, as of HSA, should be rigid, in the sense indicated above, and very similar to the heart-shaped structure observed in HSA crystals. PMID:11325741

  19. Branched pore kinetic model analysis of geosmin adsorption on super-powdered activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Yoshihiko; Ando, Naoya; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Taku; Ohno, Koichi

    2009-07-01

    Super-powdered activated carbon (S-PAC) is activated carbon of much finer particle size than powdered activated carbon (PAC). Geosmin is a naturally occurring taste and odor compound that impairs aesthetic quality in drinking water. Experiments on geosmin adsorption on S-PAC and PAC were conducted, and the results using adsorption kinetic models were analyzed. PAC pulverization, which produced the S-PAC, did not change geosmin adsorption capacity, and geosmin adsorption capacities did not differ between S-PAC and PAC. Geosmin adsorption kinetics, however, were much higher on S-PAC than on PAC. A solution to the branched pore kinetic model (BPKM) was developed, and experimental adsorption kinetic data were analyzed by BPKM and by a homogeneous surface diffusion model (HSDM). The HSDM describing the adsorption behavior of geosmin required different surface diffusivity values for S-PAC and PAC, which indicated a decrease in surface diffusivity apparently associated with activated carbon particle size. The BPKM, consisting of macropore diffusion followed by mass transfer from macropore to micropore, successfully described the batch adsorption kinetics on S-PAC and PAC with the same set of model parameter values, including surface diffusivity. The BPKM simulation clearly showed geosmin removal was improved as activated carbon particle size decreased. The simulation also implied that the rate-determining step in overall mass transfer shifted from intraparticle radial diffusion in macropores to local mass transfer from macropore to micropore. Sensitivity analysis showed that adsorptive removal of geosmin improved with decrease in activated carbon particle size down to 1microm, but further particle size reduction produced little improvement.

  20. Microscopic basis for kinetic gating in Cytochrome c oxidase: insights from QM/MM analysis

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Puja; Yang, Shuo; Cui, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of vectorial proton pumping in biomolecules requires establishing the microscopic basis for the regulation of both thermodynamic and kinetic features of the relevant proton transfer steps. For the proton pump cytochrome c oxidase, while the regulation of thermodynamic driving force for key proton transfers has been discussed in great detail, the microscopic basis for the control of proton transfer kinetics has been poorly understood. Here we carry out extensive QM/MM free energy simulations to probe the kinetics of relevant proton transfer steps and analyze the effects of local structure and hydration level. We show that protonation of the proton loading site (PLS, taken to be a propionate of heme a3) requires a concerted process in which a key glutamic acid (Glu286H) delivers the proton to the PLS while being reprotonated by an excess proton coming from the D-channel. The concerted nature of the mechanism is a crucial feature that enables the loading of the PLS before the cavity containing Glu286 is better hydrated to lower its pKa to experimentally measured range; the charged rather than dipolar nature of the process also ensures a tight coupling with heme a reduction, as emphasized by Siegbahn and Blomberg. In addition, we find that rotational flexibility of the PLS allows its protonation before that of the binuclear center (the site where oxygen gets reduced to water). Together with our recent study (P. Goyal, et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 110:18886-18891, 2013) that focused on the modulation of Glu286 pKa, the current work suggests a mechanism that builds in a natural sequence for the protonation of the PLS prior to that of the binuclear center. This provides microscopic support to the kinetic constraints revealed by kinetic network analysis as essential elements that ensure an efficient vectorial proton transport in cytochrome c oxidase. PMID:25678950

  1. Dissecting the Catalytic Mechanism of Trypanosoma brucei Trypanothione Synthetase by Kinetic Analysis and Computational Modeling*

    PubMed Central

    Leroux, Alejandro E.; Haanstra, Jurgen R.; Bakker, Barbara M.; Krauth-Siegel, R. Luise

    2013-01-01

    In pathogenic trypanosomes, trypanothione synthetase (TryS) catalyzes the synthesis of both glutathionylspermidine (Gsp) and trypanothione (bis(glutathionyl)spermidine (T(SH)2)). Here we present a thorough kinetic analysis of Trypanosoma brucei TryS in a newly developed phosphate buffer system at pH 7.0 and 37 °C, mimicking the physiological environment of the enzyme in the cytosol of bloodstream parasites. Under these conditions, TryS displays Km values for GSH, ATP, spermidine, and Gsp of 34, 18, 687, and 32 μm, respectively, as well as Ki values for GSH and T(SH)2 of 1 mm and 360 μm, respectively. As Gsp hydrolysis has a Km value of 5.6 mm, the in vivo amidase activity is probably negligible. To obtain deeper insight in the molecular mechanism of TryS, we have formulated alternative kinetic models, with elementary reaction steps represented by linear kinetic equations. The model parameters were fitted to the extensive matrix of steady-state data obtained for different substrate/product combinations under the in vivo-like conditions. The best model describes the full kinetic profile and is able to predict time course data that were not used for fitting. This system's biology approach to enzyme kinetics led us to conclude that (i) TryS follows a ter-reactant mechanism, (ii) the intermediate Gsp dissociates from the enzyme between the two catalytic steps, and (iii) T(SH)2 inhibits the enzyme by remaining bound at its product site and, as does the inhibitory GSH, by binding to the activated enzyme complex. The newly detected concerted substrate and product inhibition suggests that TryS activity is tightly regulated. PMID:23814051

  2. Kinetic Analysis of the Digestion of Bovine Type I Collagen Telopeptides with Porcine Pepsin.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jun; Okada, Yukari; Ogura, Takayuki; Tanaka, Keisuke; Hattori, Shunji; Ito, Shinji; Satoh, Junko; Takita, Teisuke; Yasukawa, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Collagen is frequently digested using pepsin in industries to produce a triple helical collagen without the N- and C-terminal telopeptides. However, kinetic analysis of this reaction is difficult because several Lys residues in the N- and in the C-terminal telopeptides form covalent bonds, leading to multiple substrates species, and pepsin cleaves collagen at various sites in the N-terminal and in the C-terminal telopeptides, yielding different products. Here we performed kinetic analysis of the digestion of bovine type I collagen with porcine pepsin. The reaction could be monitored by SDS-PAGE by measuring the intensity of the protein bands corresponding to the variant β11 chain. We obtained kinetic parameters relative to the decrease in the variant β11 chain upon digestion. At pH 4.0, the Km and kcat values increased with increasing temperature (30 to 65 °C), although the kcat /Km values were stable. Additional cleavage at the helical region was detected at 45 to 65 °C. At 37 °C, the Km and kcat values increased with decreasing pH, and the kcat /Km values at pH 2.1 to 4.5 were stable and higher than those at pH 5.0 and 5.5. No additional cleavage was detected at the examined pH. Thus, the optimal pH and temperatures for selective digestion of collagen telopeptides with pepsin are 2.1 to 4.5 and 30 to 40 °C, respectively. These results suggest that the method might be useful for the kinetic analysis of the digestion of collagen telopeptides with pepsin.

  3. Red-emitting dendritic iridium(III) complexes for solution processable phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Qin, Tianshi; Ding, Junqiao; Baumgarten, Martin; Wang, Lixiang; Müllen, Klaus

    2012-06-27

    Functionalization of a red phosphorescent iridium(III) complex core surrounded by rigid polyphenylene dendrons with a hole-transporting triphenylamine surface allows to prevent the intermolecular aggregation-induced emission quenching, improves charge recombination, and therefore enhances photo- and electroluminescence efficiencies of dendrimer in solid state. These multifunctional shape-persistent dendrimers provide a new pathway to design highly efficient solution processable materials for phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs).

  4. Solid surface luminescence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtubise, R. J.

    1984-04-01

    Several advances were made in understanding the interactions responsible for room-temperature phosphorescence. Infrared data showed strong room-temperature phosphorescence from compounds adsorbed on some surfaces which contained adsorbed water. A partial model for phosphor/solid-surface interactions was developed for nitrogen heterocycles and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed on poly(acrylic acid)-salt mixtures. Hydroxyl aromatics behave as hydrogen donors, hydrogen accepting species, or as both hydrogen donors and hydrogen acceptors when adsorbed on solid-surfaces. Several new analytical methods and techniques were developed. Poly(acrylic acid)-phosphor solutions that were spotted on filter paper resulted in lower limits of detection and better reproducibility. Both qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures were achieved at the nanogram level by using room-temperature fluorescence and phosphorescence. In addition, the combined use of zeroth and second derivative room-temperature fluorescence and phosphorescence spectra was developed into a useful analytical approach.

  5. A comprehensive analysis of the influence of drug binding kinetics on drug action at molecular and systems levels.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ning; Pei, Jianfeng; Lai, Luhua

    2013-06-01

    Binding kinetics is closely related to the efficacy of drugs. Several aspects of binding kinetics, such as long residence or frequent dissociation, have been proposed to affect drug properties such as efficacy, selectivity, and multi-target potency. However, a comprehensive and balanced study of binding kinetics in various scenarios is still needed. We performed a comprehensive computational analysis of the role of drug binding kinetics in various situations such as enzyme inhibition, receptor binding, multi-target drug targeting, signal transduction pathways, and metabolic networks. Molecular studies of enzyme inhibition, receptor binding, and multi-target drugs have shown that at constant binding affinity, fast associating drugs show better enzyme inhibitory effects, earlier and higher receptor occupancy peaks, and better multi-target performances, while slow dissociating drugs show prolonged receptor occupancy, as suggested by others. Different situations exemplify slightly different kinetic-efficacy relationships, and each must be considered separately. At the systems level, binding kinetics can not only change the overall effect of drugs, but can also affect signaling dynamics. For example, in the tumor necrosis factor α-induced nuclear factor-κB pathway, inhibitor addition can delay the onset of oscillations and decrease their frequencies, with these changes varying with the binding kinetics of the inhibitor. The effects of drug binding kinetics also depend on network topology and where the target is located in the network. For successful drug discovery, both molecular binding kinetics and systems level requirements need to be considered.

  6. Ligand-receptor binding kinetics in surface plasmon resonance cells: a Monte Carlo analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Jacob; Raum, Matthew; Forsten-Williams, Kimberly; Täuber, Uwe C.

    2016-12-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) chips are widely used to measure association and dissociation rates for the binding kinetics between two species of chemicals, e.g., cell receptors and ligands. It is commonly assumed that ligands are spatially well mixed in the SPR region, and hence a mean-field rate equation description is appropriate. This approximation however ignores the spatial fluctuations as well as temporal correlations induced by multiple local rebinding events, which become prominent for slow diffusion rates and high binding affinities. We report detailed Monte Carlo simulations of ligand binding kinetics in an SPR cell subject to laminar flow. We extract the binding and dissociation rates by means of the techniques frequently employed in experimental analysis that are motivated by the mean-field approximation. We find major discrepancies in a wide parameter regime between the thus extracted rates and the known input simulation values. These results underscore the crucial quantitative importance of spatio-temporal correlations in binary reaction kinetics in SPR cell geometries, and demonstrate the failure of a mean-field analysis of SPR cells in the regime of high Damköhler number {{Da}}\\gt 0.1, where the spatio-temporal correlations due to diffusive transport and ligand-receptor rebinding events dominate the dynamics of SPR systems.

  7. Thermodynamic Analysis of Chemically Reacting Mixtures and Their Kinetics: Example of a Mixture of Three Isomers.

    PubMed

    Pekař, Miloslav

    2016-10-18

    Thermodynamics provides consequences of and restrictions on chemically reacting mixtures, particularly their kinetics, which have not been fully explored. Herein, a comprehensive thermodynamic analysis is illustrated for a reacting mixture of three isomers. The rate equation is first derived on the basis of the results of nonequilibrium continuum thermodynamics of linear fluids, and is then subjected to the requirement of consistency with entropic inequality (the second law). This consistency test involves the correct representation of the reaction rate as a function of affinities. It is shown that entropic inequality restricts the signs or values of coefficients in the constitutive equations for reaction rates/rate constants. The use of reverse rate constants and the identification of thermodynamic and kinetic equilibrium constants are not necessary in this approach. Although the presented thermodynamic analysis works only for independent reactions, the rates of dependent reactions are not excluded from having effects on kinetics. It is shown that the rates of dependent reactions are combined from the rates of independent reactions differently than dependent reactions are combined from independent reactions. The results are compared to the classical mass-action rate equations, and new restrictions on the values of the classical rate constants are derived.

  8. Graph-based analysis of kinetics on multidimensional potential-energy surfaces.

    PubMed

    Okushima, T; Niiyama, T; Ikeda, K S; Shimizu, Y

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: one is to give a detailed description of an alternative graph-based analysis method, which we call saddle connectivity graph, for analyzing the global topography and the dynamical properties of many-dimensional potential-energy landscapes and the other is to give examples of applications of this method in the analysis of the kinetics of realistic systems. A Dijkstra-type shortest path algorithm is proposed to extract dynamically dominant transition pathways by kinetically defining transition costs. The applicability of this approach is first confirmed by an illustrative example of a low-dimensional random potential. We then show that a coarse-graining procedure tailored for saddle connectivity graphs can be used to obtain the kinetic properties of 13- and 38-atom Lennard-Jones clusters. The coarse-graining method not only reduces the complexity of the graphs, but also, with iterative use, reveals a self-similar hierarchical structure in these clusters. We also propose that the self-similarity is common to many-atom Lennard-Jones clusters.

  9. Quantitative kinetic analysis of hydrogen transfer reactions from dietary polyphenols to the DPPH radical.

    PubMed

    Goupy, Pascale; Dufour, Claire; Loonis, Michele; Dangles, Olivier

    2003-01-29

    Diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) is widely used for quickly assessing the ability of polyphenols to transfer labile H atoms to radicals, a likely mechanism of antioxidant protection. This popular test generally pays no attention to the kinetics of H atom transfer, which however could be even more important than the total H-atom-donating capacities (stoichiometry, EC50) typically evaluated. In the present work, a series of dietary polyphenols belonging to the most representative families (flavonols from onion, flavanol monomers and oligomers from barley, and caffeic acid and caffeoyl esters from artichoke and endive) are characterized not only by their total stoichiometries (n(tot)) but also by their rate constants of first H atom abstraction by DPPH (k(1)), deduced from the kinetic analysis of the decay of the DPPH visible band following addition of the antioxidant. The mildly reactive DPPH radical allows a good discrimation between polyphenols, as demonstrated by the relatively large ranges of k(1) (ca. 400-5000 M(-)(1) s(-)(1)) and n(tot) (ca. 1-5) values typically measured with antioxidants having a single polyphenolic nucleus. With antioxidants displaying more than one polyphenolic nucleus (procyanidin oligomers, dicaffeoyl esters), the kinetic analysis makes it possible to demonstrate significant differences in reactivity between the subunits (two distinct k(1) values whose ratio lies in the range 3-10) and nonadditive stoichiometries.

  10. Analysis of proton exchange kinetics with time-dependent exchange rate.

    PubMed

    Rutkowska-Wlodarczyk, Izabela; Kierdaszuk, Borys; Wlodarczyk, Jakub

    2010-04-01

    Mass spectrometry is used to probe the kinetics of hydrogen-deuterium exchange in lysozyme in pH 5, 6 and 7.4. An analysis based on a Verhulst growth model is proposed and effectively applied to the kinetics of the hydrogen exchange. The data are described by a power-like function which is based on a time-dependence of the exchange rate. Experimental data ranging over many time scales is considered and accurate fits of a power-like function are obtained. Results of fittings show correlation between faster hydrogen-deuterium exchange and increase of pH. Furthermore a model is presented that discriminates between easily exchangeable hydrogens (located in close proximity to the protein surface) and those protected from the exchange (located in the protein interior). A possible interpretation of the model and its biological significance are discussed.

  11. Bioleaching kinetics and multivariate analysis of spent petroleum catalyst dissolution using two acidophiles.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Debabrata; Mishra, Debaraj; Kim, Dong J; Ahn, Jong G; Chaudhury, G Roy; Lee, Seoung W

    2010-03-15

    Bioleaching studies were conducted to evaluate the recovery of metal values from waste petroleum catalyst using two different acidophilic microorganisms, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. Various leaching parameters such as contact time, pH, oxidant concentration, pulp densities, particle size, and temperature were studied in detail. Activation energy was evaluated from Arrhenius equation and values for Ni, V and Mo were calculated in case of both the acidophiles. In both cases, the dissolution kinetics of Mo was lower than those of V and Ni. The lower dissolution kinetics may have been due to the formation of a sulfur product layer, refractoriness of MoS(2) or both. Multivariate statistical data were presented to interpret the leaching data in the present case. The significance of the leaching parameters was derived through principle component analysis and multi linear regression analyses for both iron and sulfur oxidizing bacteria.

  12. Anion exchange kinetics of nanodimensional layered metal hydroxides: use of isoconversional analysis.

    PubMed

    Majoni, Stephen; Hossenlopp, Jeanne M

    2010-12-16

    Anion exchange reactions of nanodimensional layered metal hydroxide compounds are utilized to create materials with targeted physical and chemical properties and also as a means for controlled release of intercalated anions. The kinetics of this important class of reaction are generally characterized by model-based approaches. In this work, a different approach based on isothermal, isoconversional analysis was utilized to determine effective activation energies with respect to extent of reaction. Two different layered metal hydroxide materials were chosen for reaction with chloride anions, using a temperature range of 30-60 °C. The concentrations of anions released into solution and the changes in polycrystalline solid phases were evaluated using model-based (Avrami-Erofe'ev nucleation-growth model) and model-free (integral isoconversional) methods. The results demonstrate the utility of the isoconversional approach for identifying when fitting to a single model is not appropriate, particularly for characterizing the temperature dependence of the reaction kinetics.

  13. Kinetic analysis of artificial peptide self-replication. Part I: the homochiral case.

    PubMed

    Islas, Jesús Rivera; Pimienta, Véronique; Micheau, Jean-Claude; Buhse, Thomas

    2003-03-25

    Computational kinetic analysis of a lately discovered homochiral peptide self-replicator is presented. A 6-step kinetic model was designed that addresses the main reactions and hydrophobic interactions involved in this template-directed, autocatalytic system and that gave rise to excellent fitting of 4 previously published independent experimental series. The model sheds light on the mechanistic principle of the reaction system and illustrates directly a number of dynamic properties such as the observed autocatalytic efficiency. It was found that the dynamics are basically governed by two reversible hydrophobic interactions: between the template and a peptide fragment and between two template species. The later association was determined to be considerably more favored, which leads to the predominant presence of the catalytically inactive template dimer in the reaction system. Our results show that the involvement of a template trimer is not necessary to obtain the observed fittings.

  14. A thermogravimetric analysis of the combustion kinetics of karanja (Pongamia pinnata) fruit hulls char.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Azharul; Auta, M; Kabir, G; Hameed, B H

    2016-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of Karanj fruit hulls char (KFH-char) was investigated with thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The TGA outlined the char combustion thermographs at a different heating rate and isoconversional methods expressed the combustion kinetics. The Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) methods authenticated the char average activation energy at 62.13 and 68.53kJ/mol respectively, enough to derive the char to burnout. However, the Coats-Redfern method verified the char combustion via complex multi-step mechanism; the second stage mechanism has 135kJ/mol average activation energy. The TGA thermographs and kinetic parameters revealed the adequacy of the KFH-char as fuel substrate than its precursor, Karanj fruit hulls (KFH).

  15. Kinetic analysis of high-concentration isopropanol biodegradation by a solvent-tolerant mixed microbial culture.

    PubMed

    Bustard, Mark T; Meeyoo, Vissanu; Wright, Phillip C

    2002-06-20

    The ability of a previously enriched microbial population to utilize isopropanol (IPA) as the sole carbon source within a minimal salts medium is studied. The advantage of prior enrichment procedures for the improvement of IPA biodegradation performance is demonstrated for an IPA concentration of up to 24 g L(-1). Results showing the interrelationship between temperature and substrate utilization and inhibition levels at temperatures of between 2 degrees C and 45 degrees C are examined. Models of inhibition based on enzyme kinetics are assessed via nonlinear analysis, in order to accurately represent the growth kinetics of this solvent-tolerant mixed culture. The model that best describes the data is the Levenspiel substrate inhibition model, which can predict the maximum substrate level above which growth is completely limited. This is the first report of IPA treatment of up to 24 g L(-1) by an aerobic solvent-tolerant population.

  16. Color changes in wood during heating: kinetic analysis by applying a time-temperature superposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Miyuki; Yokoyama, Misao; Umemura, Kenji; Gril, Joseph; Yano, Ken'ichiro; Kawai, Shuichi

    2010-04-01

    This paper deals with the kinetics of the color properties of hinoki ( Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl.) wood. Specimens cut from the wood were heated at 90-180°C as accelerated aging treatment. The specimens completely dried and heated in the presence of oxygen allowed us to evaluate the effects of thermal oxidation on wood color change. Color properties measured by a spectrophotometer showed similar behavior irrespective of the treatment temperature with each time scale. Kinetic analysis using the time-temperature superposition principle, which uses the whole data set, was successfully applied to the color changes. The calculated values of the apparent activation energy in terms of L *, a *, b *, and Δ E^{*}_{ab} were 117, 95, 114, and 113 kJ/mol, respectively, which are similar to the values of the literature obtained for other properties such as the physical and mechanical properties of wood.

  17. LSENS, a general chemical kinetics and sensitivity analysis code for gas-phase reactions: User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Bittker, David A.

    1993-01-01

    A general chemical kinetics and sensitivity analysis code for complex, homogeneous, gas-phase reactions is described. The main features of the code, LSENS, are its flexibility, efficiency and convenience in treating many different chemical reaction models. The models include static system, steady, one-dimensional, inviscid flow, shock initiated reaction, and a perfectly stirred reactor. In addition, equilibrium computations can be performed for several assigned states. An implicit numerical integration method, which works efficiently for the extremes of very fast and very slow reaction, is used for solving the 'stiff' differential equation systems that arise in chemical kinetics. For static reactions, sensitivity coefficients of all dependent variables and their temporal derivatives with respect to the initial values of dependent variables and/or the rate coefficient parameters can be computed. This paper presents descriptions of the code and its usage, and includes several illustrative example problems.

  18. Model-based analysis for kinetic complexation study of Pizda and Cu(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vosough, M.; Maeder, M.; Jalali-Heravi, M.; Norman, S. E.

    2008-08-01

    In the present work, the multivariate kinetic complexation of a new synthesized ligand, 1-(2″-hydroxyl cyclohexyl)-3'-[aminopropyl]-4-[3'-aminopropyl]piperazine (Pizda) and Cu 2+ in 50% ethanol-water solution is investigated using the UV-vis stopped-flow technique and state-of-the-art multi-wavelength numerical analysis. Model-based least squares fitting analysis or hard modeling is a specific part of chemometrics which is based on mathematical relationships for describing the measurements. Some recent developments include the incorporation of the effects of non-ideal experimental conditions into the fitting algorithm so it can substantially simplify experimental procedures. In this study no buffers are required because pH changes are taken into computations. Some 21 multi-wavelength kinetic measurements, taken at various initial concentrations of [H +] were analyzed globally, i.e. simultaneously applying an all inclusive reaction mechanism and a common set of species spectra. Using numerical analysis, the pH of the experimental solutions was allowed to vary as a consequence of the proceeding reactions. This enabled the complete kinetic analysis of the formation and dissociation of Cu(Pizda) n+ . Here protonation equilibria have been directly incorporated into the rate law, so thus variable pH values have been allowed during each measurement. Using the independently estimated stability constants (from spectrophotometric and potentiometric measurements) for the Cu(Pizda) n+ complexes, a total of six rate constants and one protonation constant could be elucidated. The results of the analysis include the concentration distribution and spectra of all chemical species involved in the reaction. A low standard deviation and residual profiles obtained validate the results.

  19. Model-based analysis for kinetic complexation study of Pizda and Cu(II).

    PubMed

    Vosough, M; Maeder, M; Jalali-Heravi, M; Norman, S E

    2008-08-01

    In the present work, the multivariate kinetic complexation of a new synthesized ligand, 1-(2''-hydroxyl cyclohexyl)-3'-[aminopropyl]-4-[3'-aminopropyl]piperazine (Pizda) and Cu(2+) in 50% ethanol-water solution is investigated using the UV-vis stopped-flow technique and state-of-the-art multi-wavelength numerical analysis. Model-based least squares fitting analysis or hard modeling is a specific part of chemometrics which is based on mathematical relationships for describing the measurements. Some recent developments include the incorporation of the effects of non-ideal experimental conditions into the fitting algorithm so it can substantially simplify experimental procedures. In this study no buffers are required because pH changes are taken into computations. Some 21 multi-wavelength kinetic measurements, taken at various initial concentrations of [H(+)] were analyzed globally, i.e. simultaneously applying an all inclusive reaction mechanism and a common set of species spectra. Using numerical analysis, the pH of the experimental solutions was allowed to vary as a consequence of the proceeding reactions. This enabled the complete kinetic analysis of the formation and dissociation of Cu(Pizda)(n+). Here protonation equilibria have been directly incorporated into the rate law, so thus variable pH values have been allowed during each measurement. Using the independently estimated stability constants (from spectrophotometric and potentiometric measurements) for the Cu(Pizda)(n+) complexes, a total of six rate constants and one protonation constant could be elucidated. The results of the analysis include the concentration distribution and spectra of all chemical species involved in the reaction. A low standard deviation and residual profiles obtained validate the results.

  20. Chemkin-II: A Fortran chemical kinetics package for the analysis of gas-phase chemical kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Kee, R.J.; Rupley, F.M.; Miller, J.A.

    1989-09-01

    This document is the user's manual for the second-generation Chemkin package. Chemkin is a software package for whose purpose is to facilitate the formation, solution, and interpretation of problems involving elementary gas-phase chemical kinetics. It provides an especially flexible and powerful tool for incorporating complex chemical kinetics into simulations of fluid dynamics. The package consists of two major software components: an Interpreter and Gas-Phase Subroutine Library. The Interpreter is a program that reads a symbolic description of an elementary, user-specified chemical reaction mechanism. One output from the Interpreter is a data file that forms a link to the Gas-Phase Subroutine Library. This library is a collection of about 100 highly modular Fortran subroutines that may be called to return information on equation of state, thermodynamic properties, and chemical production rates.

  1. Kinetic products in coordination networks: ab initio X-ray powder diffraction analysis.

    PubMed

    Martí-Rujas, Javier; Kawano, Masaki

    2013-02-19

    Porous coordination networks are materials that maintain their crystal structure as molecular "guests" enter and exit their pores. They are of great research interest with applications in areas such as catalysis, gas adsorption, proton conductivity, and drug release. As with zeolite preparation, the kinetic states in coordination network preparation play a crucial role in determining the final products. Controlling the kinetic state during self-assembly of coordination networks is a fundamental aspect of developing further functionalization of this class of materials. However, unlike for zeolites, there are few structural studies reporting the kinetic products made during self-assembly of coordination networks. Synthetic routes that produce the necessary selectivity are complex. The structural knowledge obtained from X-ray crystallography has been crucial for developing rational strategies for design of organic-inorganic hybrid networks. However, despite the explosive progress in the solid-state study of coordination networks during the last 15 years, researchers still do not understand many chemical reaction processes because of the difficulties in growing single crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction: Fast precipitation can lead to kinetic (metastable) products, but in microcrystalline form, unsuitable for single crystal X-ray analysis. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) routinely is used to check phase purity, crystallinity, and to monitor the stability of frameworks upon guest removal/inclusion under various conditions, but rarely is used for structure elucidation. Recent advances in structure determination of microcrystalline solids from ab initio XRPD have allowed three-dimensional structure determination when single crystals are not available. Thus, ab initio XRPD structure determination is becoming a powerful method for structure determination of microcrystalline solids, including porous coordination networks. Because of the great interest across scientific

  2. Analysis of “On/Off” Kinetics of a CETP Inhibitor Using a Mechanistic Model of Lipoprotein Metabolism and Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Lu, J; Cleary, Y; Maugeais, C; Kiu Weber, CI; Mazer, NA

    2015-01-01

    RG7232 is a potent inhibitor of cholesteryl-ester transfer protein (CETP). Daily oral administration of RG7232 produces a dose- and time-dependent increase in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoproteinA-I (ApoA-I) levels and a corresponding decrease in low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoproteinB (ApoB) levels. Due to its short plasma half-life (∼3 hours), RG7232 transiently inhibits CETP activity during each dosing interval (“on/off” kinetics), as reflected by the temporal effects on HDL-C and LDL-C. The influence of RG7232 on lipid-poor ApoA-I (i.e., pre-β1) levels and reverse cholesterol transport rates is unclear. To investigate this, a published model of lipoprotein metabolism and kinetics was combined with a pharmacokinetic model of RG7232. After calibration and validation of the combined model, the effect of RG7232 on pre-β1 levels was simulated. A dose-dependent oscillation of pre-β1, driven by the “on/off” kinetics of RG7232 was observed. The possible implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26380155

  3. Solid-state phosphorescence of trans-bis(salicylaldiminato)platinum(II) complexes bearing long alkyl chains: morphology control towards intense emission.

    PubMed

    Komiya, Naruyoshi; Itami, Nao; Naota, Takeshi

    2013-07-15

    Morphology control for intense solid-state phosphorescence of non-emissive, but potentially emissive crystals of platinum complexes and the mechanistic rationale are described. A series of trans-bis(salicylaldiminato)platinum(II) complexes bearing linear alkyl chains (1a: n=5; 1b: n=8; 1c: n=12; 1d: n=14; 1e: n=16; 1f: n=18) was synthesized and the solid-state emission properties were examined by using crystals/aggregates prepared under various precipitation conditions. Crystals of 1e, prepared using "kinetic" conditions including rapid cooling, high concentrations, and poor solvents, emit intensive yellow phosphorescence (λ(max)=545 nm) under UV irradiation at 298 K with an absolute quantum efficiency of 0.36, whereas all the crystals of 1a-1f prepared using "thermodynamic" conditions including slow cooling, low concentrations, and good solvents were either non- or less emissive with Φ(298K) values of 0.12 (1a), 0.11 (1b), 0.10 (1c), 0.07 (1d), 0.02 (1e), and 0.02 (1f) under the same measurement conditions. The amorphous solid 1e, prepared by rapid cooling and freeze-drying, was also non-emissive (Φ(298K)=0.02, 0.02). Temperature-dependent emission spectra showed that the kinetic crystals of 1e exhibit high heat-resistance towards emission decay with increasing temperature, whereas the amorphous solid 1e is entirely heat-quenchable. This is a rare example of the change from a non-emissive crystal into a highly emissive crystal by morphology control through crystal engineering. Emission spectra and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the emissive, kinetic crystals of 1e are clearly distinct from those of the less emissive, thermodynamic crystals of 1a-1f. Single-crystal XRD unequivocally establishes that the thermodynamic crystals of 1d have a multilayered lamellar structure supported by highly regulated, consecutive π-stacking interactions between imine moieties, whereas the kinetic crystals of 1e have a face-to-edge lamellar structure with less

  4. Glass Stability and Kinetic Analysis of Iron-Metalloid Bulk Metallic Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhaweesuk, Charuayporn

    Multicomponent Fe-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) with a combination of excellent properties such as good soft magnetic properties, high strength, high hardness, and high corrosion resistance have attracted increasing attention both from a basic science research standpoint and due to their industrial application potential. However, many of the elemental additions which lead to the easiest glass formation are expensive. The identification of alloys composed of abundant and inexpensive elements that still retain excellent properties would promote applications for engineering and industry. In short, the development of the Fe-based BMG without any glass-forming metal elements and with high glass forming ability is desired. This study shows that the thermal stability of the Fe-based alloys can be improved beyond a simple rule of mixtures prediction by utilizing a well-balance multi-metalloid approach. The kinetics aspect of glass-forming ability is studied experimentally for Fe-B-Si-P alloys. The systematic variation in alloy composition gives access to differences in phase selection and the final dimensions of glass formation. Two alloys, representing the best glass-forming composition and the poorest glass-forming composition, were studied in terms of their stability to crystallization, solidification microstructure evolution and thermal history. The utility of the wedge-casting technique is developed to examine bulk glass-forming alloys by combining multiple temperature profiles of the quenching melt with a measurement-based kinetic analysis of the phase selection competition and critical cooling rate conditions. Based upon direct thermal measurement, microstructural analysis and kinetic modeling, it was found that both representative alloys show a board spectrum of solidification microstructures which include a critical cooling rate range. The kinetic competition in the formation of certain phases can enhance or detract from the final dimension of bulk glass

  5. Kinetic Analysis of Competitive Electrocatalytic Pathways: New Insights into Hydrogen Production with Nickel Electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedner, Eric S.; Brown, Houston J.; Helm, Monte L.

    2016-01-20

    The hydrogen production electrocatalyst Ni(PPh2NPh2)22+ (1) is capable of traversing multiple electrocatalytic pathways. When using dimethylformamidium, DMF(H)+, the mechanism of formation of H2 catalyzed by 1 changes from an ECEC to an EECC mechanism as the potential approaches the Ni(I/0) couple. Two recent electrochemical methods, current-potential analysis and foot-of-the-wave analysis (FOWA), were performed on 1 to measure the detailed chemical kinetics of the competing ECEC and EECC pathways. A sensitivity analysis was performed on the electrochemical methods using digital simulations to gain a better understanding of their strengths and limitations. Notably, chemical rate constants were significantly underestimated when not accounting for electron transfer kinetics, even when electron transfer was fast enough to afford a reversible non-catalytic wave. The EECC pathway of 1 was found to be faster than the ECEC pathway under all conditions studied. Using buffered DMF: DMF(H)+ mixtures led to an increase in the catalytic rate constant (kobs) of the EECC pathway, but kobs for the ECEC pathway did not change when using buffered acid. Further kinetic analysis of the ECEC path revealed that added base increases the rate of isomerization of the exo-protonated Ni(0) isomers to the catalytically active endo-isomers, but decreases the net rate of protonation of Ni(I). FOWA on 1 did not provide accurate rate constants due to incomplete reduction of the exo-protonated Ni(I) intermediate at the foot of the wave, but FOWA could be used to estimate the reduction potential of this previously undetected intermediate. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  6. Color stable white phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes with red emissive electron transport layer

    SciTech Connect

    Wook Kim, Jin; Yoo, Seung Il; Sung Kang, Jin; Eun Lee, Song; Kwan Kim, Young; Hwa Yu, Hyeong; Turak, Ayse; Young Kim, Woo

    2015-06-28

    We analyzed the performance of multi-emissive white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) in relation to various red emitting sites of hole and electron transport layers (HTL and ETL). The shift of the recombination zone producing stable white emission in PHOLEDs was utilized as luminance was increased with red emission in its electron transport layer. Multi-emissive white PHOLEDs including the red light emitting electron transport layer yielded maximum external quantum efficiency of 17.4% with CIE color coordinates (−0.030, +0.001) shifting only from 1000 to 10 000 cd/m{sup 2}. Additionally, we observed a reduction of energy loss in the white PHOLED via Ir(piq){sub 3} as phosphorescent red dopant in electron transport layer.

  7. Enhanced exciton diffusion in an organic photovoltaic cell by energy transfer using a phosphorescent sensitizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhman, Wade A.; Holmes, Russell J.

    2009-04-01

    We demonstrate enhanced exciton diffusion in an organic photovoltaic cell through the incorporation of a phosphorescent sensitizer. The increase in exciton diffusion length (LD) is realized using a composite electron donor layer consisting of a N ,N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N ,N'-bis(phenyl)-benzidine (NPD) host doped with the phosphorescent guest fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium [Ir(ppy)3]. The presence of the phosphor at low concentration allows for the population of the long-lived NPD triplet state and an increase in LD. An increase in the NPD LD from 6.5±0.3 to 11.8±0.6 nm is extracted from measurements of the external quantum efficiency for donor layers containing 5 wt % Ir(ppy)3. This enhancement leads to a ˜80% improvement in the power conversion efficiency relative to devices containing an undoped donor layer.

  8. Color stable white phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes with red emissive electron transport layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wook Kim, Jin; Yoo, Seung Il; Sung Kang, Jin; Eun Lee, Song; Kwan Kim, Young; Hwa Yu, Hyeong; Turak, Ayse; Young Kim, Woo

    2015-06-01

    We analyzed the performance of multi-emissive white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) in relation to various red emitting sites of hole and electron transport layers (HTL and ETL). The shift of the recombination zone producing stable white emission in PHOLEDs was utilized as luminance was increased with red emission in its electron transport layer. Multi-emissive white PHOLEDs including the red light emitting electron transport layer yielded maximum external quantum efficiency of 17.4% with CIE color coordinates (-0.030, +0.001) shifting only from 1000 to 10 000 cd/m2. Additionally, we observed a reduction of energy loss in the white PHOLED via Ir(piq)3 as phosphorescent red dopant in electron transport layer.

  9. Imaging of oxygenation in 3D tissue models with multi-modal phosphorescent probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papkovsky, Dmitri B.; Dmitriev, Ruslan I.; Borisov, Sergei

    2015-03-01

    Cell-penetrating phosphorescence based probes allow real-time, high-resolution imaging of O2 concentration in respiring cells and 3D tissue models. We have developed a panel of such probes, small molecule and nanoparticle structures, which have different spectral characteristics, cell penetrating and tissue staining behavior. The probes are compatible with conventional live cell imaging platforms and can be used in different detection modalities, including ratiometric intensity and PLIM (Phosphorescence Lifetime IMaging) under one- or two-photon excitation. Analytical performance of these probes and utility of the O2 imaging method have been demonstrated with different types of samples: 2D cell cultures, multi-cellular spheroids from cancer cell lines and primary neurons, excised slices from mouse brain, colon and bladder tissue, and live animals. They are particularly useful for hypoxia research, ex-vivo studies of tissue physiology, cell metabolism, cancer, inflammation, and multiplexing with many conventional fluorophors and markers of cellular function.

  10. Theoretical analysis of the kinetic performance of laboratory- and full-scale composting systems.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Marco; Silveira, Ana; Antunes, Fernando

    2012-07-01

    Composting research at laboratory-scale is critical for the development of optimized full-scale plants. Discrepancies between processes at laboratory-scale and full-scale systems have been investigated in terms of heat balances, but a kinetic analysis of this issue is still missing. In this study, the composting rate at laboratory-scale was, on average, between 1.9 and 5.7 times faster than in full-scale systems for a set of published studies using municipal solid waste, food waste or similar materials. Laboratory-scale performance and full-scale systems were limited to 71 and 46%, respectively, of their maximum potential due to poor management of environmental process conditions far from their optimum. The main limiting environmental factor was found to be moisture content, followed by temperature. Besides environmental factors, waste composition and particle size were identified as factors accounting for kinetic differences between laboratory- and full-scale systems. Overall, this study identifies those factors that affect the kinetics of the composting process most and revealed a significant margin for reducing process time in full-scale composting.

  11. Direct determination of enzyme kinetic parameters from single reactions using a new progress curve analysis tool.

    PubMed

    Bäuerle, Felix; Zotter, Agnes; Schreiber, Gideon

    2016-10-15

    With computer-based data-fitting methods becoming a standard tool in biochemistry, progress curve analysis of enzyme kinetics is a feasible, yet seldom used tool. Here we present a versatile Matlab-based tool (PCAT) to analyze catalysis progress curves with three complementary model approaches. The first two models are based on the known closed-form solution for this problem: the first describes the required Lambert W function with an analytical approximation and the second provides a numerical solution of the Lambert W function. The third model is a direct simulation of the enzyme kinetics. Depending on the chosen model, the tools excel in speed, accuracy or initial value requirements. Using simulated and experimental data, we show the strengths and pitfalls of the different fitting models. Direct simulation proves to have the highest level of accuracy, but it also requires reasonable initial values to converge. Finally, we propose a standard procedure to obtain optimized enzyme kinetic parameters from single progress curves.

  12. Solvent-induced lysozyme gels: rheology, fractal analysis, and sol-gel kinetics.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcelo A; Arêas, Elizabeth P G

    2005-09-15

    In this work, the gelation kinetics and fractal character of lysozyme gel matrices developed in tetramethylurea (TMU)-water media were investigated. Gelation times were determined from the temporal crossover point between the storage, G', and loss, G'', moduli, as a function of the binary solvent composition and of protein concentration. The inverse dependence of the upper limit of the linear viscoelastic region (gamma0) on protein concentration indicate that the lysozyme gels belong to the "strong link" kind, a gel category where interparticle links are stronger than intraparticle ones. Lysozyme gel fractal dimensions (Df) were determined from the analysis of rheological data according to a scaling theory by Shih et al. [Phys. Rev. A 42 (1990) 4772-4779] and were found to be compatible with a diffusion-limited cluster-aggregation kinetics (DLCA) for lysozyme gels formed at the TMU mass fraction in the binary organic-aqueous solvent, wTMU=0.9, and with a reaction-limited cluster aggregation kinetics (RLCA) for wTMU in the 0.6< or =wTMU< or =0.8 range.

  13. Quantification of exocytosis kinetics by DIC image analysis of cortical lawns.

    PubMed

    Mooney, James; Thakur, Saumitra; Kahng, Peter; Trapani, Josef G; Poccia, Dominic

    2014-04-01

    Cortical lawns prepared from sea urchin eggs have offered a robust in vitro system for study of regulated exocytosis and membrane fusion events since their introduction by Vacquier almost 40 years ago (Vacquier in Dev Biol 43:62-74, 1975). Lawns have been imaged by phase contrast, darkfield, differential interference contrast, and electron microscopy. Quantification of exocytosis kinetics has been achieved primarily by light scattering assays. We present simple differential interference contrast image analysis procedures for quantifying the kinetics and extent of exocytosis in cortical lawns using an open vessel that allows rapid solvent equilibration and modification. These preparations maintain the architecture of the original cortices, allow for cytological and immunocytochemical analyses, and permit quantification of variation within and between lawns. When combined, these methods can shed light on factors controlling the rate of secretion in a spatially relevant cellular context. We additionally provide a subroutine for IGOR Pro® that converts raw data from line scans of cortical lawns into kinetic profiles of exocytosis. Rapid image acquisition reveals spatial variations in time of initiation of individual granule fusion events with the plasma membrane not previously reported.

  14. Iso-conversional kinetic analysis of quaternary glass re-crystallization.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ankita; Chandel, Namrata; Mehta, Neeraj

    2017-02-01

    Iso-conversional kinetic analysis is popular in scientific community for analyzing solid-state reactions (e.g., glass/amorphous and amorphous/crystal phase transformations, re-crystallization etc). It is a recognized significant tool to achieve useful outcomes for the solid state reaction under consideration. Present work is devoted to explore some insights of thermally activated crystallization using various heating rates (VHR) method. We have examined the correlation between iso-conversional activation energy and iso-conversional rate of crystal growth. In fact, we have observed the compensation law and iso-kinetic relationship using two different approaches for the study of crystallization phenomenon that drives thermally in an Arrhenian manner. Moreover, we found that the estimated intercepts and gradients (i.e., Meyer-Neldel energy and Meyer-Neldel pre-factor respectively) for both approaches also vary linearly and both sets are remarkably identical. These results approach to an inference for ensuring the equivalence of compensation law and iso-kinetic relationship and provide an understanding of various advanced materials in physical chemistry, materials sciences and solid-state physics.

  15. Curing kinetics of visible light curing dental resin composites investigated by dielectric analysis (DEA).

    PubMed

    Steinhaus, Johannes; Hausnerova, Berenika; Haenel, Thomas; Großgarten, Mandy; Möginger, Bernhard

    2014-03-01

    During the curing process of light curing dental composites the mobility of molecules and molecule segments is reduced leading to a significant increase of the viscosity as well as the ion viscosity. Thus, the kinetics of the curing behavior of 6 different composites was derived from dielectric analysis (DEA) using especially redesigned flat sensors with interdigit comb electrodes allowing for irradiation at the top side and measuring the ion viscosity at the bottom side. As the ion viscosities of dental composites change 1-3 orders of magnitude during the curing process, DEA provides a sensitive approach to evaluate their curing behavior, especially in the phase of undisturbed chain growth. In order to determine quantitative kinetic parameters a kinetic model is presented and examined for the evaluation of the ion viscosity curves. From the obtained results it is seen that DEA might be employed in the investigation of the primary curing process, the quality assurance of ingredients as well as the control of processing stability of the light curing dental composites.

  16. Fast and sensitive optical toxicity bioassay based on dual wavelength analysis of bacterial ferricyanide reduction kinetics.

    PubMed

    Pujol-Vila, F; Vigués, N; Díaz-González, M; Muñoz-Berbel, X; Mas, J

    2015-05-15

    Global urban and industrial growth, with the associated environmental contamination, is promoting the development of rapid and inexpensive general toxicity methods. Current microbial methodologies for general toxicity determination rely on either bioluminescent bacteria and specific medium solution (i.e. Microtox(®)) or low sensitivity and diffusion limited protocols (i.e. amperometric microbial respirometry). In this work, fast and sensitive optical toxicity bioassay based on dual wavelength analysis of bacterial ferricyanide reduction kinetics is presented, using Escherichia coli as a bacterial model. Ferricyanide reduction kinetic analysis (variation of ferricyanide absorption with time), much more sensitive than single absorbance measurements, allowed for direct and fast toxicity determination without pre-incubation steps (assay time=10 min) and minimizing biomass interference. Dual wavelength analysis at 405 (ferricyanide and biomass) and 550 nm (biomass), allowed for ferricyanide monitoring without interference of biomass scattering. On the other hand, refractive index (RI) matching with saccharose reduced bacterial light scattering around 50%, expanding the analytical linear range in the determination of absorbent molecules. With this method, different toxicants such as metals and organic compounds were analyzed with good sensitivities. Half maximal effective concentrations (EC50) obtained after 10 min bioassay, 2.9, 1.0, 0.7 and 18.3 mg L(-1) for copper, zinc, acetic acid and 2-phenylethanol respectively, were in agreement with previously reported values for longer bioassays (around 60 min). This method represents a promising alternative for fast and sensitive water toxicity monitoring, opening the possibility of quick in situ analysis.

  17. Chromatographic preparation and kinetic analysis of interactions between tabun enantiomers and acetylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Tenberken, O; Thiermann, H; Worek, F; Reiter, G

    2010-06-02

    The easy accessibility to highly toxic OP (organophosphorus)-type chemical warfare agents (nerve agents) underlines the necessity for an effective medical treatment. Acute OP toxicity is primarily caused by inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7). Reactivators (oximes) of inhibited AChE are a mainstay of treatment. However, the commercially available compounds, obidoxime and pralidoxime, are considered rather ineffective against various nerve agents, including tabun. OP-type chemical warfare agents include an asymmetrical P-atom and consist of at least two stereoisomers. Previous studies with the nerve agents sarin and soman showed marked differences between (-)- and (+)-P isomers regarding AChE inhibition and stability in biological matrices. Hence, stereoselectivity is a key parameter for the development of optimized treatment. In the present study, the tabun enantiomers were isolated by semi-preparative liquid-chromatography (LC) with offline analysis by GC-PCI-MS and final characterization of optical purity (99.98% (-)-tabun and 99.83% (+)-tabun) and specific optical rotation. The inhibition and reactivation kinetics of the tabun enantiomers were determined with human and swine AChE and the aging kinetics with human AChE. The results show a large difference in the inhibitory potency between (-)- and (+)-tabun. The determination of reactivation and aging kinetics indicates that both reactions are at least in part determined by the residual (-)-tabun contamination (0.17%) of the (+)-tabun preparation. These data provide further insight into the kinetic interactions between tabun enantiomers and AChE and may contribute to the development of more effective treatment options.

  18. Phosphorescence detection of manganese(VII) based on Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Pan; Lu, Li-Qiang; Cao, Wei-Cheng; Tian, Xi-Ke

    2017-02-01

    The phosphorescent L-cysteine modified manganese-doped zinc sulfide quantum dots (L-cys-MnZnS QDs) was developed for a highly sensitive detection of permanganate anions (MnO4-). L-cys-MnZnS QDs, which were easily synthesized in aqueous media using safe and low-cost materials, can emit intense phosphorescence even though the solution was not deoxygenated. However, the phosphorescence of L-cys-Mn-ZnS QDs was strongly quenched by MnO4- ascribed to the oxidation of L-cys and the increase of surface defects on L-cys-MnZnS QDs. Under the optimal conditions, L-cys-MnZnS QDs offer high selectivity over other anions for MnO4- determination, and good linear Stern-Volmer equation was obtained for MnO4- in the range of 0.5-100 μM with a detection limit down to 0.24 μM. The developed method was finally applied to the detection of MnO4- in water samples, and the spike-recoveries fell in the range of 95-106%.

  19. Real-time tracking mitochondrial dynamic remodeling with two-photon phosphorescent iridium (III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huaiyi; Yang, Liang; Zhang, Pingyu; Qiu, Kangqiang; Huang, Juanjuan; Chen, Yu; Diao, JiaJie; Liu, Jiankang; Ji, Liangnian; Long, Jiangang; Chao, Hui

    2016-03-01

    Mitochondrial fission and fusion control the shape, size, number, and function of mitochondria in the cells of organisms from yeast to mammals. The disruption of mitochondrial fission and fusion is involved in severe human diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, metabolic diseases, and cancers. Agents that can real-time track the mitochondrial dynamics are of great importance. However, the short excitation wavelengths and rapidly photo-bleaching properties of commercial mitochondrial dyes render them unsuitable for tracking mitochondrial dynamics. Thus, mitochondrial targeting agents that exhibit superior photo-stability under continual light irradiation, deep tissue penetration and at intrinsically high three-dimensional resolutions are urgently needed. Two-photon-excited compounds employ low-energy near-infrared light and have emerged as a non-invasive tool for real-time cell imaging. Here, cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes (Ir1-Ir5) are demonstrated as one- and two-photon phosphorescent probes for the real-time imaging and tracking of mitochondrial fission and fusion. The results indicate that Ir2 is well suited for two-photon phosphorescent tracking of mitochondrial fission and fusion in living cells and in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). This study provides a practical use for mitochondrial targeting two-photon phosphorescent Ir(III) complexes.

  20. Phosphorescent ruthenium complexes with a nitroimidazole unit that image oxygen fluctuation in tumor tissue.

    PubMed

    Son, Aoi; Kawasaki, Atsushi; Hara, Daiki; Ito, Takeo; Tanabe, Kazuhito

    2015-02-02

    Understanding oxygen fluctuation in a cancerous tumor is important for effective treatment, especially during radiotherapy. In this paper, ruthenium complexes bearing a nitroimidazole group are shown to report the oxygen status in tumor tissue directly. The nitroimidazole group was known to be accumulated in hypoxic tumor tissues. On the other hand, the ruthenium complex showed strong phosphorescence around 600 nm. The emission of ruthenium is quenched instantaneously by molecular oxygen due to energy transfer between triplet states of oxygen and ruthenium complex, but the emission is then recovered by the removal of oxygen. Thus, we could observe oxygen fluctuation in tumor tissue in a real-time manner by monitoring the phosphorescence of the ruthenium complex. The versatility of the probe is demonstrated by monitoring oxygen fluctuation in living cells and tumor tissue planted in mice. The ruthenium complex promptly penetrated plasma membrane and accumulated in cells to emit its oxygen-dependent phosphorescence. In vivo experiments revealed that the oxygen level in tumor tissue seems to fluctuate at the sub-minute timescale.

  1. Multi-Faceted Scientific Strategies Toward Better Solid-State Lighting of Phosphorescent OLEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammad Omary; Bruce Gnade; Qi Wang; Oussama Elbjeirami; Chi Yang; Nigel Shepherd; Huiping Jia; Manuel Quevedo; Husam Alshareef; Minghang Li; Ming-Te Lin; Wei-Hsuan Chen; Iain Oswald; Pankaj Sinha; Ravi Arvapally; Usha Kaipa; John Determan; Sreekar Marpu; Roy McDougald; Gustavo Garza; Jason Halbert; Unnat Bhansali; Michael Perez

    2010-08-31

    This project has advanced solid-state lighting (SSL) by utilizing new phosphorescent systems for use in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The technical approach was two-fold: a) Targeted synthesis and screening of emitters designed to exhibit phosphorescence with maximized brightness in the solid state; and b) Construction and optimizing the performance of monochromatic and white OLEDs from the best new emitters to improve performance metrics versus the state of the art. The phosphorescent systems were screened candidates among a large variety of recentlysynthesized and newly-designed molecular and macromolecular metal-organic phosphors. The emitters and devices have been optimized to maximize light emission and color metrics, improve the long-term durability of emitters and devices, and reduce the manufacturing cost both by simplifying the process flow and by seeking less expensive device components than common ones. The project succeeded in all these goals upon comparison of the best materials and devices investigated vs. the state of the art of the technology.

  2. Mono- and Dinuclear Phosphorescent Rhenium(I) Complexes: Impact of Subcellular Localization on Anticancer Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ye, Rui-Rong; Tan, Cai-Ping; Chen, Mu-He; Hao, Liang; Ji, Liang-Nian; Mao, Zong-Wan

    2016-06-01

    Elucidation of relationship among chemical structure, cellular uptake, localization, and biological activity of anticancer metal complexes is important for the understanding of their mechanisms of action. Organometallic rhenium(I) tricarbonyl compounds have emerged as potential multifunctional anticancer drug candidates that can integrate therapeutic and imaging capabilities in a single molecule. Herein, two mononuclear phosphorescent rhenium(I) complexes (Re1 and Re2), along with their corresponding dinuclear complexes (Re3 and Re4), were designed and synthesized as potent anticancer agents. The subcellular accumulation of Re1-Re4 was conveniently analyzed by confocal microscopy in situ in live cells by utilizing their intrinsic phosphorescence. We found that increased lipophilicity of the bidentate ligands could enhance their cellular uptake, leading to improved anticancer efficacy. The dinuclear complexes were more potent than the mononuclear counterparts. The molecular anticancer mechanisms of action evoked by Re3 and Re4 were explored in detail. Re3 with a lower lipophilicity localizes to lysosomes and induces caspase-independent apoptosis, whereas Re4 with higher lipophilicity specially accumulates in mitochondria and induces caspase-independent paraptosis in cancer cells. Our study demonstrates that subcellular localization is crucial for the anticancer mechanisms of these phosphorescent rhenium(I) complexes.

  3. Hybrid detection of target sequence DNA based on phosphorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yanming; Lv, Jinzhi; Yan, Guiqin

    2017-03-07

    The severe background fluorescence and scattering light of real biological samples or environmental samples largely reduce the sensitivity and accuracy of fluorescence resonance energy transfer sensors based on fluorescent quantum dots (QDs). To solve this problem, we designed a novel target sequence DNA biosensor based on phosphorescent resonance energy transfer (PRET). This sensor relied on Mn-doped ZnS (Mn-ZnS) room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) QDs/poly-(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) nanocomposite (QDs(+)) as the energy donor and the single-strand DNA-ROX as the energy receptor. Thereby, an RTP biosensor was built and used to quantitatively detect target sequence DNA. This biosensor had a detection limit of 0.16nM and a linear range of 0.5-20nM for target sequence DNA. The dependence on RTP of QDs effectively avoided the interference from background fluorescence and scattering light in biological samples. Moreover, this sensor did not need sample pretreatment. Thus, this sensor compared with FRET is more feasible for quantitative detection of target sequence DNA in biological samples. Interestingly, the QDs(+) nanocomposite prolonged the phosphorescence lifetime of Mn-ZnS QDs by 2.6 times to 4.94ms, which was 5-6 magnitude-order larger than that of fluorescent QDs. Thus, this sensor largely improves the optical properties of QDs and permits chemical reactions at a long enough time scale.

  4. Ultraviolet-stimulated fluorescence and phosphorescence of aromatic hydrocarbons in water ice.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Paul V; Hodyss, Robert; Bolser, Diana K; Bhartia, Rohit; Lane, Arthur L; Kanik, Isik

    2011-03-01

    A principal goal of astrobiology is to detect and inventory the population of organic compounds on extraterrestrial bodies. Targets of specific interest include the wealth of icy worlds that populate our Solar System. One potential technique for in situ detection of organics trapped in water ice matrices involves ultraviolet-stimulated emission from these compounds. Here, we report a preliminary investigation into the feasibility of this concept. Specifically, fluorescence and phosphorescence of pure benzene ice and 1% mixtures of benzene, toluene, p-xylene, m-xylene, and o-xylene in water ice, respectively, were studied at temperatures ranging from ∼17 K up to 160 K. Spectra were measured from 200-500 nm (50,000-20,000 cm(-1)) while ice mixtures were excited at 248.6 nm. The temperature dependence of the fluorescence and phosphorescence intensities was found to be independent of the thermal history and phase of the ice matrix in all cases examined. All phosphorescent emissions were found to decrease in intensity with increasing temperature. Similar behavior was observed for fluorescence in pure benzene, while the observed fluorescence intensity in water ices was independent of temperature.

  5. Blood, urine, and hair kinetic analysis following an acute lead intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ho, G; Keutgens, A; Schoofs, R; Kotolenko, S; Denooz, R; Charlier, C

    2011-01-01

    A case of lead exposure resulting from the accidental ingestion of a lead-containing solution is reported. Because of clinical management rapidly performed through chelation therapy by 2,3-dimercaptopropane sulfonate sodium and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid, blood lead levels of this 51-year-old patient were moderate (412.9 μg/L) and no clinical symptoms were observed. Numerous blood and urine samples were collected for kinetic analysis of lead elimination. However, we report the first case in which hair samples were analyzed to determine the excretion level of lead after acute intoxication.

  6. A kinetic and equilibrium analysis of silicon carbide chemical vapor deposition on monofilaments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, S. A.; Kuczmarski, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical kinetics of atmospheric pressure silicon carbide (SiC) chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from dilute silane and propane source gases in hydrogen is numerically analyzed in a cylindrical upflow reactor designed for CVD on monofilaments. The chemical composition of the SiC deposit is assessed both from the calculated total fluxes of carbon and silicon and from chemical equilibrium considerations for the prevailing temperatures and species concentrations at and along the filament surface. The effects of gas and surface chemistry on the evolution of major gas phase species are considered in the analysis.

  7. DURIP: Electrokinetic Injection and Separation System for Analysis of Protein and Peptide Transport, Adsorption and Kinetics Instrumentation Proposal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-18

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: We requested equipment necessary to build an electrokinetic injection and separation system for the analysis of protein...Jul-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: DURIP: Electrokinetic Injection and Separation System for Analysis of...Injection and Separation System for Analysis of Protein and Peptide Transport, Adsorption and Kinetics Instrumentation Proposal Report Title We requested

  8. The effect of salinity on waste activated sludge alkaline fermentation and kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Baodan; Wang, Shuying; Xing, Liqun; Li, Baikun; Peng, Yongzhen

    2016-05-01

    The effect of salinity on sludge alkaline fermentation at low temperature (20°C) was investigated, and a kinetic analysis was performed. Different doses of sodium chloride (NaCl, 0-25g/L) were added into the fermentation system. The batch-mode results showed that the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) increased with salinity. The hydrolysate (soluble protein, polysaccharide) and the acidification products (short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), NH4(+)-N, and PO4(3-)-P) increased with salinity initially, but slightly declined respectively at higher level salinity (20g/L or 20-25g/L). However, the hydrolytic acidification performance increased in the presence of salt compared to that without salt. Furthermore, the results of Haldane inhibition kinetics analysis showed that the salt enhanced the hydrolysis rate of particulate organic matter from sludge particulate and the specific utilization of hydrolysate, and decreased the specific utilization of SCFAs. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis indicated that the importance of polysaccharide on the accumulation of SCFAs was reduced with salt addition, but the importance of protein and NH4(+)-N on SCFA accumulation was increased.

  9. Interaction and kinetic analysis for coal and biomass co-gasification by TG-FTIR.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chaofen; Hu, Song; Xiang, Jun; Zhang, Liqi; Sun, Lushi; Shuai, Chao; Chen, Qindong; He, Limo; Edreis, Elbager M A

    2014-02-01

    This study aims to investigate the interaction and kinetic behavior of CO2 gasification of coal, biomass and their blends by thermogravimetry analysis (TG). The gas products evolved from gasification were measured online with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) coupled with TG. Firstly, TG experiments indicated that interaction between the coals and biomasses mainly occurred during co-gasification process. The most significant synergistic interaction occurred for LN with SD at the blending mass ratio 4:1. Furthermore, thermal kinetic analysis indicated that the activation energy involved in co-gasification decreased as the SD content increased until the blending ratio of SD with coal reached 4:1. The rise of the frequency factor indicated that the increase of SD content favored their synergistic interaction. Finally, FTIR analysis of co-gasification of SD with LN indicated that except for CO, most gases including CH3COOH, C6H5OH, H2O, etc., were detected at around 50-700°C.

  10. White-light-emitting long-lasting phosphorescence in Dy{sup 3+}-doped SrSiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang Jinyong; Liu Yingliang . E-mail: tliuyl@jnu.edu.cn; Zhang Jianxian

    2006-01-15

    We report on a luminescent phenomenon in Dy{sup 3+}-doped SrSiO{sub 3} long-lasting phosphor. After irradiation by a 254-nm UV lamp for 5min, the Dy{sup 3+}-doped SrSiO{sub 3} phosphor emits white light-emitting long-lasting phosphorescence for more than 1h even after the irradiation source has been removed. Photoluminescence, long-lasting phosphorescence and thermoluminescence (TL) spectra are used to explain this phenomenon. Photoluminescence spectra reveal that the white light-emitting long-lasting phosphorescence originated from the two mixtures of Dy{sup 3+} characteristic luminescence, the 480-nm blue emission ({sup 4}F{sub 9/2}->{sup 6}H{sub 15/2}) and the 572-nm yellow emission ({sup 4}F{sub 9/2}->{sup 6}H{sub 13/2}). TL spectra shows that the introduction of Dy{sup 3+} ions into the SrSiO{sub 3} host produces a highly dense trapping level at 377K (0.59eV), which is responsible for the long-lasting phosphorescence at room temperature. A possible mechanism of the long-lasting phosphorescence based on the experimental results is proposed. It is considered that the long-lasting phosphorescence is due to persistent energy transfer from the electron traps to the Dy{sup 3+} ions, which creates the persistent luminescence of Dy{sup 3+} to produce the white light-emitting long-lasting phosphorescence.

  11. In situ X-ray pair distribution function analysis of geopolymer gel nanostructure formation kinetics.

    PubMed

    White, Claire E; Provis, John L; Bloomer, Breaunnah; Henson, Neil J; Page, Katharine

    2013-06-14

    With the ever-increasing environmentally-driven demand for technologically advanced structural materials, geopolymer cement is fast becoming a viable alternative to traditional cements due to its proven engineering characteristics and the reduction in CO2 emitted during manufacturing (as much as 80% less CO2 emitted in manufacture, compared to ordinary Portland cement). Nevertheless, much remains unknown regarding the kinetics of reaction responsible for nanostructural evolution during the geopolymerisation process. Here, in situ X-ray total scattering measurements and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis are used to quantify the extent of reaction as a function of time for alkali-activated metakaolin/slag geopolymer binders, including the impact of various activators (alkali hydroxide/silicate) on the kinetics of the geopolymerisation reaction. Quantifying the reaction process in situ from X-ray PDF data collected during the initial ten hours can provide an estimate of the total reaction extent, but when combined with data obtained at longer times (128 days here) enables more accurate determination of the overall rate of reaction. To further assess the initial stages of the geopolymerisation reaction process, a pseudo-single step first order rate equation is fitted to the extent of reaction data, which reveals important mechanistic information regarding the role of free silica in the activators in the evolution of the binder systems. Hence, it is shown that in situ X-ray PDF analysis is an ideal experimental local structure tool to probe the reaction kinetics of complex reacting systems involving transitions between disordered/amorphous phases, of which geopolymerisation is an important example.

  12. Energy transfer and device performance in phosphorescent dye doped polymer light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Yong-Young; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Kim, Jang-Joo; Yase, Kiyoshi

    2003-02-01

    Singlet and triplet-triplet energy transfer in phosphorescent dye doped polymer light emitting devices were investigated. Poly(N-vinylcarbazol) and poly[9,9'-di-n-hexyl-2,7-fluorene-alt- 1,4-(2,5-di-n-hexyloxy)phenylene] (PFHP) were selected as the host polymer for the phosphorescent dopants fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium(III) [Ir(ppy)3] and 2,3,7,8,12,13, 17,18-octaethyl-21H,23H-porphyrin platinum(II) (PtOEP) because of their high triplet energy levels and long phosphorescence lifetimes. In case of PVK film, efficient triplet energy transfers to both PtOEP and Ir(ppy)3 were observed. In contrast, the triplet energy transfer did not occur or was very weak from PFHP to both PtOEP and Ir(ppy)3 although usual requirements for triplet energy transfer were satisfied. Furthermore, the singlet-singlet energy transfer did not take place from PFHP to Ir(ppy)3 in doped films even though the Förster radius is more than 30 Å. However, the blended film of Ir(ppy)3 with PFHP and PMMA showed the green emission from Ir(ppy)3 via singlet energy transfer. In addition, the solution of PFHP and Ir(ppy)3 (8 wt. %) in p-xylene also showed green emission. The blocking of the energy transfers in the phosphorescent dye doped PFHP films is found to be originated from the formation of aggregates which is evident from the microscopic images taken by transmission electron microscope, atomic force microscope, and fluorescence microscope. The formation of aggregates prevents dopant molecules from being in close proximity with host molecules thereby inhibiting energy transfer processes. The phase separation deteriorates the device performance also. Therefore, the chemical compatibility of a dopant with a host polymer as well as conventional requirements for energy transfers must be significantly considered to fabricate efficient phosphorescent dye doped polymer light emitting devices.

  13. Cerebral Blood Oxygenation Measurement Based on Oxygen-dependent Quenching of Phosphorescence

    PubMed Central

    Sakadžić, Sava; Roussakis, Emmanuel; Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Mandeville, Emiri T.; Srinivasan, Vivek J.; Arai, Ken; Ruvinskaya, Svetlana; Wu, Weicheng; Devor, Anna; Lo, Eng H.; Vinogradov, Sergei A.; Boas, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring of the spatiotemporal characteristics of cerebral blood and tissue oxygenation is crucial for better understanding of the neuro-metabolic-vascular relationship. Development of new pO2 measurement modalities with simultaneous monitoring of pO2 in larger fields of view with higher spatial and/or temporal resolution will enable greater insight into the functioning of the normal brain and will also have significant impact on diagnosis and treatment of neurovascular diseases such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and head injury. Optical imaging modalities have shown a great potential to provide high spatiotemporal resolution and quantitative imaging of pO2 based on hemoglobin absorption in visible and near infrared range of optical spectrum. However, multispectral measurement of cerebral blood oxygenation relies on photon migration through the highly scattering brain tissue. Estimation and modeling of tissue optical parameters, which may undergo dynamic changes during the experiment, is typically required for accurate estimation of blood oxygenation. On the other hand, estimation of the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) based on oxygen-dependent quenching of phosphorescence should not be significantly affected by the changes in the optical parameters of the tissue and provides an absolute measure of pO2. Experimental systems that utilize oxygen-sensitive dyes have been demonstrated in in vivo studies of the perfused tissue as well as for monitoring the oxygen content in tissue cultures, showing that phosphorescence quenching is a potent technology capable of accurate oxygen imaging in the physiological pO2 range. Here we demonstrate with two different imaging modalities how to perform measurement of pO2 in cortical vasculature based on phosphorescence lifetime imaging. In first demonstration we present wide field of view imaging of pO2 at the cortical surface of a rat. This imaging modality has relatively simple experimental setup based on a CCD camera and a

  14. An Inducible Reconstitution System for the Real-Time Kinetic Analysis of Protease Activity and Inhibition Inside the Membrane.

    PubMed

    Baker, R P; Urban, S

    2017-01-01

    Intramembrane proteases are an ancient and diverse group of multispanning membrane proteins that cleave transmembrane substrates inside the membrane to effect a wide range of biological processes. As proteases, a clear understanding of their function requires kinetic dissection of their catalytic mechanism, but this is difficult to achieve for membrane proteins. Kinetic measurements in detergent systems are complicated by micelle fusion/exchange, which introduces an additional kinetic step and imposes system-specific behaviors (e.g., cooperativity). Conversely, kinetic analysis in proteoliposomes is hindered by premature substrate cleavage during coreconstitution, and lack of methods to quantify proteolysis in membranes in real time. In this chapter, we describe a method for the real-time kinetic analysis of intramembrane proteolysis in model liposomes. Our assay is inducible, because the enzyme is held inactive by low pH during reconstitution, and fluorogenic, since fluorescence emission from the substrate is quenched near lipids but restored upon proteolytic release from the membrane. The precise measurement of initial reaction velocities continuously in real time facilitates accurate steady-state kinetic analysis of intramembrane proteolysis and its inhibition inside the membrane environment. Using real data we describe a step-by-step strategy to implement this assay for essentially any intramembrane protease.

  15. Unraveling the Decomposition Process of Lead(II) Acetate: Anhydrous Polymorphs, Hydrates, and Byproducts and Room Temperature Phosphorescence.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Casado, Francisco J; Ramos-Riesco, Miguel; Rodríguez-Cheda, José A; Cucinotta, Fabio; Matesanz, Emilio; Miletto, Ivana; Gianotti, Enrica; Marchese, Leonardo; Matěj, Zdeněk

    2016-09-06

    Lead(II) acetate [Pb(Ac)2, where Ac = acetate group (CH3-COO(-))2] is a very common salt with many and varied uses throughout history. However, only lead(II) acetate trihydrate [Pb(Ac)2·3H2O] has been characterized to date. In this paper, two enantiotropic polymorphs of the anhydrous salt, a novel hydrate [lead(II) acetate hemihydrate: Pb(Ac)2·(1)/2H2O], and two decomposition products [corresponding to two different basic lead(II) acetates: Pb4O(Ac)6 and Pb2O(Ac)2] are reported, with their structures being solved for the first time. The compounds present a variety of molecular arrangements, being 2D or 1D coordination polymers. A thorough thermal analysis, by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), was also carried out to study the behavior and thermal data of the salt and its decomposition process, in inert and oxygenated atmospheres, identifying the phases and byproducts that appear. The complex thermal behavior of lead(II) acetate is now solved, finding the existence of another hydrate, two anhydrous enantiotropic polymorphs, and some byproducts. Moreover, some of them are phosphorescent at room temperature. The compounds were studied by TGA, DSC, X-ray diffraction, and UV-vis spectroscopy.

  16. A common neighbor analysis of crystallization kinetics and excess entropy of charged spherical colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia Bañuelos, Efraín; Contreras Aburto, Claudio; Maldonado Arce, Amir

    2016-03-01

    The topological analysis tool known as the common neighbor analysis (CNA) is used for the first time in this work to analyze crystallization kinetics and excess entropy of charge-stabilized colloidal suspensions. For this purpose, Brownian dynamics computer simulations are implemented to investigate the crystallization kinetics of homogeneously melted colloidal crystals that are composed of hard-core-screened-Coulomb interacting particles. The results are in agreement with recent static structure factor measurements that could indicate the presence of icosahedral units in the metastable melt, and with the fact that weakly screened charged colloids crystallize into body-centered-cubic (bcc) ordering. A two-step crystallization pathway is found, in which the population of bcc-subunit CNA-pairs satisfactorily obeys a Verhulst model. Moreover, the CNA helped to unveil that the excess entropy obeys a quasi-universal functional form, relating the behavior of colloidal, molecular, and metallic liquid systems. The work contributes to the scientific understanding of the crystallization pathway of charged colloids, and to the development of new ways to assess the degree of crystalline order, starting from the excess entropy.

  17. Characterization of the efficiency of microbore liquid chromatography columns by van Deemter and kinetic plot analysis.

    PubMed

    Hetzel, Terence; Loeker, Denise; Teutenberg, Thorsten; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2016-10-01

    The efficiency of miniaturized liquid chromatography columns with inner diameters between 200 and 300 μm has been investigated using a dedicated micro-liquid chromatography system. Fully porous, core-shell and monolithic commercially available stationary phases were compared applying van Deemter and kinetic plot analysis. The sub-2 μm fully porous as well as the 2.7 μm core-shell particle packed columns showed superior efficiency and similar values for the minimum reduced plate heights (2.56-2.69) before correction for extra-column contribution compared to normal-bore columns. Moreover, the influence of extra-column contribution was investigated to demonstrate the difference between apparent and intrinsic efficiency by replacing the column by a zero dead volume union to determine the band spreading caused by the system. It was demonstrated that 72% of the intrinsic efficiency could be reached. The results of the kinetic plot analysis indicate the superior performance of the sub-2 μm fully porous particle packed column for ultra-fast liquid chromatography.

  18. Theoretical analysis of the kinetics of DNA hybridization with gel-immobilized oligonucleotides.

    PubMed Central

    Livshits, M A; Mirzabekov, A D

    1996-01-01

    A new method of DNA sequencing by hybridization using a microchip containing a set of immobilized oligonucleotides is being developed. A theoretical analysis is presented of the kinetics of DNA hybridization with deoxynucleotide molecules chemically tethered in a polyacrylamide gel layer. The analysis has shown that long-term evolution of the spatial distribution and of the amount of DNA bound in a hybridization cell is governed by "retarded diffusion," i.e., diffusion of the DNA interrupted by repeated association and dissociation with immobile oligonucleotide molecules. Retarded diffusion determines the characteristic time of establishing a final equilibrium state in a cell, i.e., the state with the maximum quantity and a uniform distribution of bound DNA. In the case of cells with the most stable, perfect duplexes, the characteristic time of retarded diffusion (which is proportional to the equilibrium binding constant and to the concentration of binding sites) can be longer than the duration of the real hybridization procedure. This conclusion is indirectly confirmed by the observation of nonuniform fluorescence of labeled DNA in perfect-match hybridization cells (brighter at the edges). For optimal discrimination of perfect duplexes from duplexes with mismatches the hybridization process should be brought to equilibrium under low-temperature nonsaturation conditions for all cells. The kinetic differences between perfect and nonperfect duplexes in the gel allow further improvement in the discrimination through additional washing at low temperature after hybridization. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8913616

  19. A common neighbor analysis of crystallization kinetics and excess entropy of charged spherical colloids.

    PubMed

    Urrutia Bañuelos, Efraín; Contreras Aburto, Claudio; Maldonado Arce, Amir

    2016-03-07

    The topological analysis tool known as the common neighbor analysis (CNA) is used for the first time in this work to analyze crystallization kinetics and excess entropy of charge-stabilized colloidal suspensions. For this purpose, Brownian dynamics computer simulations are implemented to investigate the crystallization kinetics of homogeneously melted colloidal crystals that are composed of hard-core-screened-Coulomb interacting particles. The results are in agreement with recent static structure factor measurements that could indicate the presence of icosahedral units in the metastable melt, and with the fact that weakly screened charged colloids crystallize into body-centered-cubic (bcc) ordering. A two-step crystallization pathway is found, in which the population of bcc-subunit CNA-pairs satisfactorily obeys a Verhulst model. Moreover, the CNA helped to unveil that the excess entropy obeys a quasi-universal functional form, relating the behavior of colloidal, molecular, and metallic liquid systems. The work contributes to the scientific understanding of the crystallization pathway of charged colloids, and to the development of new ways to assess the degree of crystalline order, starting from the excess entropy.

  20. Kinetic analysis for formation of Cd1-xZnxSe solid-solution nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yun-Mo; Lee, Yong-Ji; Park, Kyung-Soo

    2006-07-19

    Kinetic analysis on the nanocrystal solid-solution formation was performed by heat treating CdSe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals, synthesized via a typical TOP/TOPO approach, at different temperatures for different time periods. X-ray diffraction (XRD) peak shifts in Cd1-xZnxSe cores according to the solid-solution treatments were monitored and used for the estimation of the lattice parameter change. The degree of solid-solution formation was determined considering the compositional variation in Cd1-xZnxSe cores, which was obtained from the Vegard's law. The degree of solid-solution formation (x) was applied to Jander analysis, and an Arrhenius-type plot was produced using the slopes of Jander plots. The activation energy for solid-solution formation was determined as approximately 152 kJ/mol, which evidently indicates that the diffusion of Zn2+ ions in the CdSe-ZnSe system is the governing mechanism for the Cd1-xZnxSe solid-solution formation. The Jander equation to predict the solid-solution formation kinetics for the CdSe/ZnSe core/shell systems was completed using the reaction rate constant (k).

  1. CHEMKIN-III: A FORTRAN chemical kinetics package for the analysis of gas-phase chemical and plasma kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Kee, R.J.; Rupley, F.M.; Meeks, E.; Miller, J.A.

    1996-05-01

    This document is the user`s manual for the third-generation CHEMKIN package. CHEMKIN is a software package whose purpose is to facilitate the formation, solution, and interpretation of problems involving elementary gas-phase chemical kinetics. It provides a flexible and powerful tool for incorporating complex chemical kinetics into simulations of fluid dynamics. The package consists of two major software components: an Interpreter and a Gas-Phase Subroutine Library. The Interpreter is a program that reads a symbolic description of an elementary, user-specified chemical reaction mechanism. One output from the Interpreter is a data file that forms a link to the Gas-Phase Subroutine Library. This library is a collection of about 100 highly modular FORTRAN subroutines that may be called to return information on equations of state, thermodynamic properties, and chemical production rates. CHEMKIN-III includes capabilities for treating multi-fluid plasma systems, that are not in thermal equilibrium. These new capabilities allow researchers to describe chemistry systems that are characterized by more than one temperature, in which reactions may depend on temperatures associated with different species; i.e. reactions may be driven by collisions with electrons, ions, or charge-neutral species. These new features have been implemented in such a way as to require little or no changes to CHEMKIN implementation for systems in thermal equilibrium, where all species share the same gas temperature. CHEMKIN-III now has the capability to handle weakly ionized plasma chemistry, especially for application related to advanced semiconductor processing.

  2. Rhenium(I) polypyridine dibenzocyclooctyne complexes as phosphorescent bioorthogonal probes: Synthesis, characterization, emissive behavior, and biolabeling properties.

    PubMed

    Choi, Alex Wing-Tat; Liu, Hua-Wei; Lo, Kenneth Kam-Wing

    2015-07-01

    We report the development of rhenium(I) polypyridine complexes appended with a dibenzocyclooctyne (DIBO) moiety as bioorthogonal probes for azide-modified biomolecules. Three phosphorescent rhenium(I) polypyridine DIBO complexes [Re(N^N)(CO)3(py-C6-DIBO)][CF3SO3] (py-C6-DIBO=3-(N-(6-(3,4:7,8-dibenzocyclooctyne-5-oxycarbonylamino)hexyl)aminocarbonyl)pyridine; N^N=1,10-phenanthroline (phen) (1a), 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Me4-phen) (2a), 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Ph2-phen) (3a)) and their DIBO-free counterparts [Re(N^N)(CO)3(py-C6-BOC)][CF3SO3] (py-C6-BOC=3-(N-(6-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)hexyl)aminocarbonyl)pyridine; N^N=phen (1b), Me4-phen (2b), Ph2-phen (3b)) were synthesized and characterized. Upon photoexcitation, all the complexes displayed intense and long-lived yellow triplet metal-to-ligand charge-transfer ((3)MLCT) (dπ(Re)→π*(N^N)) emission. The DIBO complexes underwent facile reactions with benzyl azide in methanol at 298 K with second-order rate constants (k2) in the range of 0.077 to 0.091 M(-1) s(-1). As revealed from SDS-PAGE analysis, the DIBO complexes can selectively label azide-modified proteins and the resulting bioconjugates displayed strong phosphorescence upon photoexcitation. Results of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays indicated that the DIBO complexes accumulated in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells with considerable cytotoxic activity. Upon incubation of CHO cells with these complexes, relatively weak intracellular emission was observed. In contrast, upon pretreatment of the cells with 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-N-azidoacetyl-D-mannosamine (Ac4ManNAz), intense emission was observed from the cell membrane and some internal compartments. The results suggest that the DIBO complexes are promising candidates for imaging azide-labeled biomolecules.

  3. Engineering substrate preference in subtilisin: structural and kinetic analysis of a specificity mutant.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Biao; London, Viktoriya; Fisher, Kathryn E; Gallagher, D Travis; Bryan, Philip N

    2008-06-24

    Bacillus subtilisin has been a popular model protein for engineering altered substrate specificity. Although some studies have succeeded in increasing the specificity of subtilisin, they also demonstrate that high specificity is difficult to achieve solely by engineering selective substrate binding. In this paper, we analyze the structure and transient state kinetic behavior of Sbt160, a subtilisin engineered to strongly prefer substrates with phenylalanine or tyrosine at the P4 position. As in previous studies, we measure improvements in substrate affinity and overall specificity. Structural analysis of an inactive version of Sbt160 in complex with its cognate substrate reveals improved interactions at the S4 subsite with a P4 tyrosine. Comparison of transient state kinetic behavior against an optimal sequence (DFKAM) and a similar, but suboptimal, sequence (DVRAF) reveals the kinetic and thermodynamic basis for increased specificity, as well as the limitations of this approach. While highly selective substrate binding is achieved in Sbt160, several factors cause sequence specificity to fall short of that observed with natural processing subtilisins. First, for substrate sequences which are nearly optimal, the acylation reaction becomes faster than substrate dissociation. As a result, the level of discrimination among these substrates diminishes due to the coupling between substrate binding and the first chemical step (acylation). Second, although Sbt160 has 24-fold higher substrate affinity for the optimal substrate DFKAM than for DVRAF, the increased substrate binding energy is not translated into improved transition state stabilization of the acylation reaction. Finally, as interactions at subsites become stronger, the rate-determining step in peptide hydrolysis changes from acylation to product release. Thus, the release of the product becomes sluggish and leads to a low k(cat) for the reaction. This also leads to strong product inhibition of substrate

  4. Soil sample preparation using microwave digestion for uranium analysis

    SciTech Connect

    MOHAGHEGHI,AMIR H.; PRESTON,ROSE; AKBARZADEH,MANSOOR; BAKHTIAR,STEVEN

    2000-04-05

    A new sample preparation procedure has been developed for digestion of soil samples for uranium analysis. The technique employs a microwave oven digestion system to digest the sample and to prepare it for separation chemistry and analysis. The method significantly reduces the volume of acids used, eliminates a large fraction of acid vapor emissions, and speeds up the analysis time. The samples are analyzed by four separate techniques: Gamma Spectrometry, Alpha Spectroscopy using the open digestion method, Kinetic Phosphorescence Analysis (KPA) using open digestion, and KPA by Microwave digestion technique. The results for various analytical methods are compared and used to confirm the validity of the new procedure. The details of the preparation technique along with its benefits are discussed.

  5. Kinetic analysis and probability mapping applied to the detection of ovarian cancer by radioimmunoscintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Granowska, M.; Nimmon, C.C.; Britton, K.E.; Crowther, M.; Mather, S.J.; Slevin, M.L.; Shepherd, J.H.

    1988-05-01

    Kinetic analysis with probability mapping is an objective method of serial image analysis applicable to radioimmunoscintigraphy. The technique is described and subjected to clinical testing by comparing the prediction of biopsy histology from the probability map in patients coming to operation. In those with ovarian cancer undergoing second-look laparotomy after completing full courses of chemotherapy, the prediction of histology in 108 biopsy sites was 45 true positives and 38 true negatives, sensitivity 80%, specificity 73%, accuracy 77% p less than 0.001. In patients with tumors less than 2 cm diameter, 41 biopsy sites were predicted with a specificity of 78% and an accuracy of 76%, p less than 0.01. The technique is reducing the need for second-look laparotomy in patients with subclinical and subradiological disease. Such disease is suitable for intraperitoneal radioimmunotherapy.

  6. A critical analysis of the accuracy of several numerical techniques for combustion kinetic rate equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhadrishnan, Krishnan

    1993-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the accuracy of several techniques recently developed for integrating stiff ordinary differential equations is presented. The techniques include two general-purpose codes EPISODE and LSODE developed for an arbitrary system of ordinary differential equations, and three specialized codes CHEMEQ, CREK1D, and GCKP4 developed specifically to solve chemical kinetic rate equations. The accuracy study is made by application of these codes to two practical combustion kinetics problems. Both problems describe adiabatic, homogeneous, gas-phase chemical reactions at constant pressure, and include all three combustion regimes: induction, heat release, and equilibration. To illustrate the error variation in the different combustion regimes the species are divided into three types (reactants, intermediates, and products), and error versus time plots are presented for each species type and the temperature. These plots show that CHEMEQ is the most accurate code during induction and early heat release. During late heat release and equilibration, however, the other codes are more accurate. A single global quantity, a mean integrated root-mean-square error, that measures the average error incurred in solving the complete problem is used to compare the accuracy of the codes. Among the codes examined, LSODE is the most accurate for solving chemical kinetics problems. It is also the most efficient code, in the sense that it requires the least computational work to attain a specified accuracy level. An important finding is that use of the algebraic enthalpy conservation equation to compute the temperature can be more accurate and efficient than integrating the temperature differential equation.

  7. Multijoint kinetic chain analysis of knee extension during the soccer instep kick.

    PubMed

    Naito, Kozo; Fukui, Yosuke; Maruyama, Takeo

    2010-04-01

    Although previous studies have shown that motion-dependent interactions between adjacent segments play an important role in producing knee extension during the soccer instep kick, detailed knowledge about the mechanisms underlying those interactions is lacking. The present study aimed to develop a 3-D dynamical model for the multijoint kinetic chain of the instep kick in order to quantify the contributions of the causal dynamical factors to the production of maximum angular velocity during knee extension. Nine collegiate soccer players volunteered to participate in the experiment and performed instep kicking movements while 3-D positional data and the ground reaction force were measured. A dynamical model was developed in the form of a linked system containing 8 segments and 18 joint rotations, and the knee extension/flexion motion was decomposed into causal factors related to muscular moment, gyroscopic moment, centrifugal force, Coriolis force, gravity, proximal endpoint linear acceleration, and external force-dependent terms. The rapid knee extension during instep kicking was found to result almost entirely from kicking leg centrifugal force, trunk rotation muscular moment, kicking leg Coriolis force, and trunk rotation gyroscopic-dependent components. Based on the finding that rapid knee extension during instep kicking stems from multiple dynamical factors, it is suggested that the multijoint kinetic chain analysis used in the present study is more useful for achieving a detailed understanding of the cause of rapid kicking leg movement than the previously used 2-D, two-segment kinetic chain model. The present results also indicated that the centrifugal effect due to the kicking hip flexion angular velocity contributed substantially to the generation of a rapid knee extension, suggesting that the adjustment between the kicking hip flexion angular velocity and the leg configuration (knee flexion angle) is more important for effective instep kicking than other

  8. Simultaneous kinetic spectrophotometric analysis of five synthetic food colorants with the aid of chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yongnian; Wang, Yong; Kokot, Serge

    2009-04-30

    This paper describes a simple and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous determination of Amaranth, Ponceau 4R, Sunset Yellow, Tartrazine and Brilliant Blue in mixtures with the aid of chemometrics. The method involved two coupled reactions, viz. the reduction of iron(III) by the analytes to iron(II) in sodium acetate/hydrochloric acid solution (pH 1.71) and the chromogenic reaction between iron(II) and hexacyanoferrate(III) ions to yield a Prussian blue peak at 760 nm. The spectral data were recorded over the 500-1000 nm wavelength range every 2s for 600 s. The kinetic data were collected at 760 nm and 600 s, and linear calibration models were satisfactorily constructed for each of the dyes with detection limits in the range of 0.04-0.50 mg L(-1). Multivariate calibration models for kinetic data were established and verified for methods such as the Iterative target transform factor analysis (ITTFA), principal component regression (PCR), partial least squares (PLS), and principal component-radial basis function-artificial neural network (PC-RBF-ANN) with and without wavelet packet transform (WPT) pre-treatment. The PC-RBF-ANN with WPT calibration performed somewhat better than others on the basis of the %RPE(T) (approximately 9) and %Recovery parameters (approximately 108), although the effect of the WPT pre-treatment was marginal (approximately 0.5% RPE(T)). The proposed method was applied for the simultaneous determination of the five colorants in foodstuff samples, and the results were comparable with those from a reference HPLC method.

  9. Goal-oriented sensitivity analysis for lattice kinetic Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Arampatzis, Georgios; Katsoulakis, Markos A

    2014-03-28

    In this paper we propose a new class of coupling methods for the sensitivity analysis of high dimensional stochastic systems and in particular for lattice Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC). Sensitivity analysis for stochastic systems is typically based on approximating continuous derivatives with respect to model parameters by the mean value of samples from a finite difference scheme. Instead of using independent samples the proposed algorithm reduces the variance of the estimator by developing a strongly correlated-"coupled"- stochastic process for both the perturbed and unperturbed stochastic processes, defined in a common state space. The novelty of our construction is that the new coupled process depends on the targeted observables, e.g., coverage, Hamiltonian, spatial correlations, surface roughness, etc., hence we refer to the proposed method as goal-oriented sensitivity analysis. In particular, the rates of the coupled Continuous Time Markov Chain are obtained as solutions to a goal-oriented optimization problem, depending on the observable of interest, by considering the minimization functional of the corresponding variance. We show that this functional can be used as a diagnostic tool for the design and evaluation of different classes of couplings. Furthermore, the resulting KMC sensitivity algorithm has an easy implementation that is based on the Bortz-Kalos-Lebowitz algorithm's philosophy, where events are divided in classes depending on level sets of the observable of interest. Finally, we demonstrate in several examples including adsorption, desorption, and diffusion Kinetic Monte Carlo that for the same confidence interval and observable, the proposed goal-oriented algorithm can be two orders of magnitude faster than existing coupling algorithms for spatial KMC such as the Common Random Number approach. We also provide a complete implementation of the proposed sensitivity analysis algorithms, including various spatial KMC examples, in a supplementary MATLAB

  10. Goal-oriented sensitivity analysis for lattice kinetic Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Arampatzis, Georgios; Katsoulakis, Markos A.

    2014-03-28

    In this paper we propose a new class of coupling methods for the sensitivity analysis of high dimensional stochastic systems and in particular for lattice Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC). Sensitivity analysis for stochastic systems is typically based on approximating continuous derivatives with respect to model parameters by the mean value of samples from a finite difference scheme. Instead of using independent samples the proposed algorithm reduces the variance of the estimator by developing a strongly correlated-“coupled”- stochastic process for both the perturbed and unperturbed stochastic processes, defined in a common state space. The novelty of our construction is that the new coupled process depends on the targeted observables, e.g., coverage, Hamiltonian, spatial correlations, surface roughness, etc., hence we refer to the proposed method as goal-oriented sensitivity analysis. In particular, the rates of the coupled Continuous Time Markov Chain are obtained as solutions to a goal-oriented optimization problem, depending on the observable of interest, by considering the minimization functional of the corresponding variance. We show that this functional can be used as a diagnostic tool for the design and evaluation of different classes of couplings. Furthermore, the resulting KMC sensitivity algorithm has an easy implementation that is based on the Bortz–Kalos–Lebowitz algorithm's philosophy, where events are divided in classes depending on level sets of the observable of interest. Finally, we demonstrate in several examples including adsorption, desorption, and diffusion Kinetic Monte Carlo that for the same confidence interval and observable, the proposed goal-oriented algorithm can be two orders of magnitude faster than existing coupling algorithms for spatial KMC such as the Common Random Number approach. We also provide a complete implementation of the proposed sensitivity analysis algorithms, including various spatial KMC examples, in a supplementary

  11. Luminescence properties of a new bluish green long-lasting phosphorescence phosphor Ca9Bi(PO4)7:Eu2+,Dy3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yonglei; Li, Haifeng; Zhao, Ran; Sun, Wenzhi; Su, Qiang; Pang, Ran; Li, Chengyu

    2014-09-01

    A new long-lasting phosphorescence phosphor Ca9Bi(PO4)7:Eu2+,Dy3+ was synthesized by solid state reaction and its long-lasting phosphorescence properties were investigated for the first time. The X-ray powder diffraction, photoluminescence, long-lasting phosphorescence spectra, decay curves and thermoluminescence curves were measured. The Ca9Bi(PO4)7:Eu2+,Dy3+ phosphor exhibits an asymmetric emission centered at 475 nm, which can be ascribed to the 4f65d1-4f7 electronic transition of Eu2+. For the optimized sample, the bright bluish green long-lasting phosphorescence could be observed for 5 h by naked eyes after the excitation source was removed. The long-lasting phosphorescence spectra show that the co-doping of Dy3+ ions greatly enhance the intensity of the long-lasting phosphorescence. Meanwhile, the long-lasting phosphorescence mechanism of this phosphor was discussed. Based on our study, Dy3+ ions are suggested to increase the density of electron or hole traps so as to improve the performance of the bluish green phosphorescence of Eu2+, including the intensity and persistent time.

  12. Room temperature fluorescence and phosphorescence study on the interactions of iodide ions with single tryptophan containing serum albumins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gałęcki, Krystian; Kowalska-Baron, Agnieszka

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the influence of heavy-atom perturbation, induced by the addition of iodide ions, on the fluorescence and phosphorescence decay parameters of some single tryptophan containing serum albumins isolated from: human (HSA), equine (ESA) and leporine (LSA) has been studied. The obtained results indicated that, there exist two distinct conformations of the proteins with different exposure to the quencher. In addition, the Stern-Volmer plots indicated saturation of iodide ions in the binding region. Therefore, to determine quenching parameter, we proposed alternative quenching model and we have performed a global analysis of each conformer to define the effect of iodide ions in the cavity by determining the value of the association constant. The possible quenching mechanism may be based on long-range through-space interactions between the buried chromophore and quencher in the aqueous phase. The discrepancies of the decay parameters between the albumins studied may be related with the accumulation of positive charge at the main and the back entrance to the Drug Site 1 where tryptophan residue is located.

  13. Room temperature fluorescence and phosphorescence study on the interactions of iodide ions with single tryptophan containing serum albumins.

    PubMed

    Gałęcki, Krystian; Kowalska-Baron, Agnieszka

    2016-12-05

    In this study, the influence of heavy-atom perturbation, induced by the addition of iodide ions, on the fluorescence and phosphorescence decay parameters of some single tryptophan containing serum albumins isolated from: human (HSA), equine (ESA) and leporine (LSA) has been studied. The obtained results indicated that, there exist two distinct conformations of the proteins with different exposure to the quencher. In addition, the Stern-Volmer plots indicated saturation of iodide ions in the binding region. Therefore, to determine quenching parameter, we proposed alternative quenching model and we have performed a global analysis of each conformer to define the effect of iodide ions in the cavity by determining the value of the association constant. The possible quenching mechanism may be based on long-range through-space interactions between the buried chromophore and quencher in the aqueous phase. The discrepancies of the decay parameters between the albumins studied may be related with the accumulation of positive charge at the main and the back entrance to the Drug Site 1 where tryptophan residue is located.

  14. Effect of two yellow delta-emitting layers on device performance of phosphorescent white organic light-emitting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Juan; Yu, Junsheng; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Lei

    2013-03-01

    Phosphorescent white organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs) with a structure of ITO/TAPC/δ-EML1/mCP:FIrpic/δ-EML2/Bphen/Mg:Ag were fabricated, wherein two ultrathin and host-free emitting layers (EMLs) were formed by using yellow bis[2-(4-tertbutylphenyl)benzothiazolato-N,C2'] iridium (acetylacetonate) [(tbt)2Ir(acac)] and referred to as delta-EMLs (δ-EML1 and δ-EML2). By adjusting the thicknesses of δ-EMLs, a maximum current efficiency of 27.6 cd/A, an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 10%, together with low efficiency roll-off at high luminance were achieved. The results showed that δ-EML1 played a dominant role on charge carrier trapping, while δ-EML2 had major impact on yellow light emission, which were highly sensitive to the location of δ-EMLs. Furthermore, by introducing 5-nm Au as anode modifying layer, high device efficiency was maintained along with excellent color stability of warm white emission, displaying color coordinates of (0.38, 0.42) and color temperature of 4348 K at a luminance of 7000 cd/m2. Importantly, explanation and analysis for the influence of both ultrathin δ-EMLs and anode modifying layer on device performance were proposed.

  15. Single-cell analysis of transcription kinetics across the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Samuel O; Xu, Heng; Nagarkar-Jaiswal, Sonal; Freire, Pablo R; Zwaka, Thomas P; Golding, Ido

    2016-01-29

    Transcription is a highly stochastic process. To infer transcription kinetics for a gene-of-interest, researchers commonly compare the distribution of mRNA copy-number to the prediction of a theoretical model. However, the reliability of this procedure is limited because the measured mRNA numbers represent integration over the mRNA lifetime, contribution from multiple gene copies, and mixing of cells from different cell-cycle phases. We address these limitations by simultaneously quantifying nascent and mature mRNA in individual cells, and incorporating cell-cycle effects in the analysis of mRNA statistics. We demonstrate our approach on Oct4 and Nanog in mouse embryonic stem cells. Both genes follow similar two-state kinetics. However, Nanog exhibits slower ON/OFF switching, resulting in increased cell-to-cell variability in mRNA levels. Early in the cell cycle, the two copies of each gene exhibit independent activity. After gene replication, the probability of each gene copy to be active diminishes, resulting in dosage compensation.

  16. Towards theoretical analysis of long-range proton transfer kinetics in biomolecular pumps

    PubMed Central

    König, P. H.; Ghosh, N.; Hoffmann, M.; Elstner, M.; Tajkhorshid, E.; Frauenheim, Th.; Cui, Q.

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by the long-term goal of theoretically analyzing long-range proton transfer (PT) kinetics in biomolecular pumps, a number of technical developments were made in the framework of QM/MM simulations. A set of collective reaction co-ordinates is proposed for characterizing the progress of long-range proton transfers; unlike previous suggestions, the new coordinates can describe PT along highly non-linear three-dimensional pathways. Calculations using a realistic model of carbonic anhydrase demonstrated that adiabatic mapping using these collective coordinates gives reliable energetics and critical geometrical parameters as compared to minimum energy path calculations, which suggests that the new coordinates can be effectively used as reaction coordinate in potential of mean force calculations for long-range PT in complex systems. In addition, the generalized solvent boundary potential was implemented in the QM/MM framework for rectangular geometries, which is useful for studying reactions in membrane systems. The resulting protocol was found to produce water structure in the interior of aquaporin consistent with previous studies including much larger number of explicit solvent and lipid molecules. The effect of electrostatics for PT through membrane protein was also illustrated with a simple model channel embedded in different dielectric continuum environments. The encouraging results observed so far suggest that robust theoretical analysis of long-range PT kinetics in biomolecular pumps can soon be realized in a QM/MM framework. PMID:16405327

  17. Statistical assessment of change point detectors for single molecule kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Sean P; Huizinga, Jan D

    2013-05-01

    Change point detectors (CPDs) are used to segment recordings of single molecules for the purpose of kinetic analysis. The assessment of the accuracy of CPD algorithms has usually been based on testing them with simulated data. However, there have not been methods to assess the output of CPDs from real data independent of simulation. Here we present one method to do this based on the assumption that the elementary kinetic unit is a stationary period (SP) with a normal distribution of samples, separated from other SPs by change points (CPs). Statistical metrics of normality can then be used to assess SPs detected by a CPD algorithm (detected SPs, DSPs). Two statistics in particular were found to be useful, the z-transformed skew (S(Z)) and z-transformed kurtosis (K(Z)). K(Z)(S(Z)) plots of DSP from noise, simulated data and single ion channel recordings showed that DSPs with false negative CP could be distinguished. Also they showed that filtering had a significant effect on the normality of data and so filtering should be taken into account when calculating statistics. This method should be useful for analyzing single molecule recordings where there is no simple model for the data.

  18. Single-cell analysis of transcription kinetics across the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Samuel O; Xu, Heng; Nagarkar-Jaiswal, Sonal; Freire, Pablo R; Zwaka, Thomas P; Golding, Ido

    2016-01-01

    Transcription is a highly stochastic process. To infer transcription kinetics for a gene-of-interest, researchers commonly compare the distribution of mRNA copy-number to the prediction of a theoretical model. However, the reliability of this procedure is limited because the measured mRNA numbers represent integration over the mRNA lifetime, contribution from multiple gene copies, and mixing of cells from different cell-cycle phases. We address these limitations by simultaneously quantifying nascent and mature mRNA in individual cells, and incorporating cell-cycle effects in the analysis of mRNA statistics. We demonstrate our approach on Oct4 and Nanog in mouse embryonic stem cells. Both genes follow similar two-state kinetics. However, Nanog exhibits slower ON/OFF switching, resulting in increased cell-to-cell variability in mRNA levels. Early in the cell cycle, the two copies of each gene exhibit independent activity. After gene replication, the probability of each gene copy to be active diminishes, resulting in dosage compensation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12175.001 PMID:26824388

  19. Pyrolysis kinetics of raw and hydrothermally carbonized Karanj (Pongamia pinnata) fruit hulls via thermogravimetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Azharul; Asif, M; Hameed, B H

    2015-03-01

    The pyrolysis of karanj fruit hulls (KFH) and karanj fruit hull hydrothermal carbonization (KFH-HTC) hydrochar was thermogravimetrically investigated under a nitrogen environment at 5 °C/min, 10 °C/min, and 20 °C/min. The pyrolysis decomposition of KFH biomass was faster than that of KFH-HTC hydrochar because of the high volatility and fixed carbon of KFH biomass. Weight loss percentage was also affected by the heating rates. The kinetic data were evaluated with the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods. The activation energy values obtained with these two methods were 61.06 and 68.53 kJ/mol for KFH biomass and 130.49 and 135.87 kJ/mol for KFH-HTC hydrochar, respectively. The analysis of kinetic process mechanisms was verified with the Coats-Redfern method. KFH-HTC hydrochar may play a potential role in transforming biomass to energy-rich feedstock for thermochemical applications because of its high heating value, high fixed carbon, and low ash and sulfur contents.

  20. Reflectance spectroscopy in analysis of UO2 scale: derivation of a kinetic model of uranium oxidation.

    PubMed

    Chernia, Z

    2009-03-21

    In this study, we analyzed the development of a compact oxide scale built in course of Uranium surface oxidation. The process was monitored by an in-situ acquisition of the reflectance interference peaks in the NIR-MIR. Dielectric properties of the growing oxide scale were derived in accord to the oscillator model. We used effective media approach to simulate heterogeneous dielectric content in the oxide-metal interface. Following dielectric parameterization, structural properties (e.g., scale thickness) of the proposed multi-scale scheme were calculated. As scale's growth process quantified, a valid kinetic model was proposed. Analysis showed that oxidation dynamics is governed by a multi-parabolic, true diffusion-limited mechanism of activation energy conveniently equaling the known anion diffusion enthalpy of 26 kcal/mol. The applied kinetic model suggested a setup of two consecutive oxide scales, characterized by differing anion diffusion rates. Though mathematical formalism presented a similar to the paralinear, time-dependent solution, here, in contrast to the classic paralinear assumption, both scales consisted of a compact, diffusion limited oxide barriers. As a result, the difference in anion flow across the outer and inner scale barriers assigned the overall, pseudo-linear rate constant-kl, of a negative (in contrast to the paralinear approach) value. Next, Uranium oxidation has been studied in the post-elastic domain. Markedly, upon breakaway of the compact oxide scale, classic paralinear behavior was reestablished for scale thickness of > or = 0.5 microm.

  1. Kinetic analysis of the thermal stability of the photosynthetic reaction center from Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Arwel V; Rees, Paul; Heathcote, Peter; Jones, Michael R

    2006-06-01

    The temperature-induced denaturation of the photosynthetic reaction center from Rhodobacter sphaeroides has been studied through the changes that occur in the absorption spectrum of the bound chromophores on heating. At elevated temperatures, the characteristic absorbance bands of the bacteriochlorins bound to the polypeptides within the reaction center are lost, and are replaced by features typical of unbound bacteriochlorophyll and bacteriopheophytin. The kinetics of the spectral changes cannot be explained by a direct conversion from the functional to the denatured form of the protein, and require the presence of at least one intermediate. Possible mechanisms for the transformation via an intermediate are examined using a global analysis of the kinetic data, and the most likely mechanism is shown to involve a reversible transformation between the native state and an off-pathway intermediate, coupled to an irreversible transformation to the denatured state. The activation energies for the transformations between the three components are calculated from the effect of temperature on the individual rate constants, and the likely structural changes of the protein during the temperature-induced transformation are discussed.

  2. Toward theoretical analysis of long-range proton transfer kinetics in biomolecular pumps.

    PubMed

    König, P H; Ghosh, N; Hoffmann, M; Elstner, M; Tajkhorshid, E; Frauenheim, Th; Cui, Q

    2006-01-19

    Motivated by the long-term goal of theoretically analyzing long-range proton transfer (PT) kinetics in biomolecular pumps, researchers made a number of technical developments in the framework of quantum mechanics-molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations. A set of collective reaction coordinates is proposed for characterizing the progress of long-range proton transfers; unlike previous suggestions, the new coordinates can describe PT along highly nonlinear three-dimensional pathways. Calculations using a realistic model of carbonic anhydrase demonstrated that adiabatic mapping using these collective coordinates gives reliable energetics and critical geometrical parameters as compared to minimum energy path calculations, which suggests that the new coordinates can be effectively used as reaction coordinate in potential of mean force calculations for long-range PT in complex systems. In addition, the generalized solvent boundary potential was implemented in the QM/MM framework for rectangular geometries, which is useful for studying reactions in membrane systems. The resulting protocol was found to produce water structure in the interior of aquaporin consistent with previous studies including a much larger number of explicit solvent and lipid molecules. The effect of electrostatics for PT through a membrane protein was also illustrated with a simple model channel embedded in different dielectric continuum environments. The encouraging results observed so far suggest that robust theoretical analysis of long-range PT kinetics in biomolecular pumps can soon be realized in a QM/MM framework.

  3. Photoacoustic Analysis of the Penetration Kinetics of Cordia verbenacea DC in Human Skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, S. S.; Barja, P. R.

    2012-11-01

    Phonophoresis consists of the utilization of ultrasound radiation associated to pharmacological agents in order to enhance transdermal penetration of applied drugs. It is a widely employed resource in physiotherapy practice, normally associated with anti-inflammatory drugs, such as Acheflan. This drug was developed in Brazil from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea DC, a native plant of the Brazilian southern coast. In previous studies, the photoacoustic (PA) technique proved effective in the study of the penetration kinetics of topically applied products and in the evaluation of drug delivery after phonophoresis application. The present work aimed to evaluate the penetration kinetics of Acheflan in human skin, employing in vivo PA measurements after massage application or phonophoresis application. Ten volunteers (aged between 18 and 30 years) took part in the study. Time evolution of the PA signal was fitted to a Boltzmann curve, S-shaped. After statistical analysis, PA measurements have shown drug penetration for both application forms, but drug delivery was more evident after phonophoresis application, with a characteristic penetration time of less than 15 min for the stratum corneum.

  4. Kinetic energy entrainment in wind turbine and actuator disc wakes: an experimental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lignarolo, L. E. M.; Ragni, D.; Simão Ferreira, C. J.; van Bussel, G. J. W.

    2014-06-01

    The present experimental study focuses on the comparison between the wake of a two-bladed wind turbine and the one of an actuator disk. The flow field at the middle plane of the wake is measured with a stereoscopic particle image velocimetry setup, in the low-speed Open Jet Facility wind tunnel of the Delft University of Technology. The wind turbine wake is characterized by the complex dynamics of the tip vortex development and breakdown. Analysis of the flow statistics show anisotropic turbulent fluctuations in the turbine wake, with stronger components in the radial direction. The wake of the actuator disc is instead characterized by isotropic random fluctuations. The mixing process in the shear layer is further analysed in terms of flux of mean flow kinetic energy, to show the main differences between the kinetic energy entrainment in the actuator and the turbine wake. This project is intended to provide the basis for understanding the origin of the limitations of the current wake models based on the actuator disc assumption.

  5. Multisubstrate kinetics of PAH mixture biodegradation: analysis in the double-logarithmic plot.

    PubMed

    Baboshin, Mikhail; Golovleva, Ludmila

    2011-02-01

    The proposed method of kinetic analysis of aqueous-phase biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) mixture presupposes representation of kinetic curves for each pair of mixture components, S(x) and S(y), in double-logarithmic coordinates (ln S(x); ln S(y)). If PAH mixture conversion corresponds to the multisubstrate model with a common active site, then the graphs in double-logarithmic coordinates are straight lines with the angular coefficients equal to the ratio of respective first-order rate constants k(y)(x)= V(y)K(x)/K(y)V(x), where K(x) and K(y) are half-saturation constants, V(x) and V( y ) are the maximum conversion rates for substrates S(x) and S(y); the graph slope does not depend on any concentrations and remains constant during the change of reaction rates as a result of inhibition, induction/inactivation of enzymes or biomass growth. The formulated method has been used to analyze PAH mixture conversion by the culture of Sphingomonas sp. VKM B-2434. It has been shown that this process does not satisfy the multisubstrate model with a single active site. The results suggest that the strain VKM B-2434 contains at least two dioxygenases of different substrate specificity: one enzyme converts phenanthrene and fluoranthene and the other converts acenaphthene and acenaphthylene. The ratios of first-order rate constants have been obtained for these pairs of substrates.

  6. Kinetic modeling and sensitivity analysis of acetone-butanol-ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Shinto, Hideaki; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Yamashita, Mayu; Kobayashi, Genta; Sekiguchi, Tatsuya; Hanai, Taizo; Kuriya, Yuki; Okamoto, Masahiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2007-08-01

    A kinetic simulation model of metabolic pathways that describes the dynamic behaviors of metabolites in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 was proposed using a novel simulator WinBEST-KIT. This model was validated by comparing with experimental time-course data of metabolites in batch cultures over a wide range of initial glucose concentrations (36.1-295 mM). By introducing substrate inhibition, product inhibition of butanol, activation of butyrate and considering the cessation of metabolic reactions in the case of insufficiency of energy after glucose exhaustion, the revised model showed 0.901 of squared correlation coefficient (r(2)) between experimental time-course of metabolites and calculated ones. Thus, the final revised model is assumed to be one of the best candidates for kinetic simulation describing dynamic behavior of metabolites in ABE production. Sensitivity analysis revealed that 5% increase in reaction of reverse pathway of butyrate production (R(17)) and 5% decrease in reaction of CoA transferase for butyrate (R(15)) highly contribute to high production of butanol. These system analyses should be effective in the elucidation which pathway is metabolic bottleneck for high production of butanol.

  7. Thermogravimetric Analysis and Kinetics on Reducing Low-Grade Manganese Dioxide Ore by Biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Honglei; Zhu, Guocai; Yan, Hong; Li, Tiancheng; Feng, Xiujuan

    2013-08-01

    Nonisothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was applied to evaluate rice straw, sawdust, wheat stalk, maize straw, and bamboo to explore their potential for reduction of manganese dioxide ore. Results from the biomass pyrolysis experiments showed that wood-based biomass materials, such as sawdust and bamboo, could produce more reductive agents, while herb-based biomass materials, such as rice straw, wheat stalk, and maize straw, had lower reaction temperatures. The peak temperatures for biomass reduction tests were 20 K to 50 K (20 °C to 50 °C) higher compared with the pyrolysis tests, and a clear shoulder at around 523 K (250 °C) could be observed. The effects of heating rate, biomass/manganese dioxide ore ratio, and different components of biomass were also investigated. An independent parallel first-order reaction kinetic model was used to calculate the values of activation energy and frequency factor for biomass pyrolysis and reduction of manganese dioxide ore. For better understanding the reduction process, kinetic parameters of independent behavior of manganese dioxide ore were also calculated by simple mathematical treatment. Finally, the isokinetic temperature T i and the rate constant k 0 for reduction of manganese oxide ore by reductive volatiles of biomass were derived according to the Arrhenius equation, which were determined to be 603 K (330 °C) and 108.99 min-1, respectively.

  8. Kinetic analysis and energy efficiency of phenol degradation in a plasma-photocatalysis system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-juan; Chen, Xiao-yang

    2011-02-28

    Combination of two kinds of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) is an effective approach to control wastewater pollution. In this research, a pulsed discharge plasma system with multi-point-to-plate electrode and an immobilized TiO(2) photocatalysis system is coupled to oxidize target pollutant in aqueous solution. Kinetic analysis (pseudo-first order kinetic constant, k) and energy efficiency (energy yield value at 50% phenol conversion, G(50)) of phenol oxidation in different reaction systems (plasma alone and plasma-photocatalysis) are reviewed to account for the synergistic mechanism of plasma and photocatalysis. The experimental results show that higher k and G(50) of phenol oxidation can be obtained in the plasma-photocatalysis system under the conditions of different gas bubbling varieties, initial solution pH and radical scavenger addition. Moreover, the investigation tested hydroxyl radical (OH) is the most important species for phenol removal in the synergistic system of plasma-photocatalysis as well as in the plasma alone system.

  9. Potentiometric sensors doped with biomolecules as a new approach to small molecule/biomolecule binding kinetics analysis.

    PubMed

    Daems, D; De Wael, K; Vissenberg, K; Van Camp, G; Nagels, L

    2014-04-15

    The most successful binding kinetics analysis systems at this moment include surface plasmon resonance (SPR), quartz microcrystal balance (QMB) and surface acoustic wave (SAW). Although these are powerful methods, they generally are complex, expensive and require the use of monolayers. Here, we report on potentiometric sensors as an inexpensive and simple alternative to do binding kinetics analysis between small molecules in solution and biomolecules (covalently) attached in a biopolymer sensor coating layer. As an example, dopamine and an anti-dopamine aptamer were used as the small molecule and the biomolecule respectively. Binding between both follows a Langmuir adsorption type model and creates a surface potential. The system operates in Flow Injection Analysis mode (FIA). Besides being an interesting new binding kinetics tool, the approach allows systematic design of potentiometric biosensors (in the present study a dopamine sensor), and gives new insights into the functioning of ion-selective electrodes (ISE's).

  10. Kinematic and kinetic analysis of two gymnastics acrobatic series to performing the backward stretched somersault.

    PubMed

    Mkaouer, Bessem; Jemni, Monèm; Amara, Samiha; Chaabène, Helmi; Tabka, Zouhair

    2013-01-01

    Back swing connections during gymnastics acrobatic series considerably influence technical performance and difficulties, particularly in the back somersault. The aim of this study was to compare the take-off's kinetic and kinematic variables between two acrobatic series leading to perform the backward stretched somersault (also called salto): round-off, flic-flac to stretched salto versus round-off, tempo-salto to stretched salto. Five high level male gymnasts (age 23.17 ± 1.61 yrs; body height 1.65 ± 0.05 m; body mass 56.80 ± 7.66 kg) took part in this investigation. A force plate synchronized with a two dimensional movement analysis system was used to collect kinetic and kinematic data. Statistical analysis via the non-parametric Wilcoxon Rank-sum test showed significant differences between the take-offs' variables. The backswing connections were different in the take-off angle, linear momentum, vertical velocity and horizontal and vertical displacements. In conclusion, considering that the higher elevation of the centre of mass in the flight phase would allow best performance and lower the risk of falls, particularly when combined to a great angular momentum, this study demonstrated that the optimal connection series was round-off, flic-flac to stretched salto which enabled the best height in the somersault. Analysis of the results suggests that both connections facilitate the performance of single and double (or triple) backward somersaults with or without rotations around the longitudinal axis. Gymnasts could perform these later while gaining height if they chose the round-off, flic-flac technique or gaining some backward displacement if they choose the round-off, salto tempo.

  11. A practical approach to the sensitivity analysis for kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of heterogeneous catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Max J.; Engelmann, Felix; Matera, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Lattice kinetic Monte Carlo simulations have become a vital tool for predictive quality atomistic understanding of complex surface chemical reaction kinetics over a wide range of reaction conditions. In order to expand their practical value in terms of giving guidelines for the atomic level design of catalytic systems, it is very desirable to readily evaluate a sensitivity analysis for a given model. The result of such a sensitivity analysis quantitatively expresses the dependency of the turnover frequency, being the main output variable, on the rate constants entering the model. In the past, the application of sensitivity analysis, such as degree of rate control, has been hampered by its exuberant computational effort required to accurately sample numerical derivatives of a property that is obtained from a stochastic simulation method. In this study, we present an efficient and robust three-stage approach that is capable of reliably evaluating the sensitivity measures for stiff microkinetic models as we demonstrate using the CO oxidation on RuO2(110) as a prototypical reaction. In the first step, we utilize the Fisher information matrix for filtering out elementary processes which only yield negligible sensitivity. Then we employ an estimator based on the linear response theory for calculating the sensitivity measure for non-critical conditions which covers the majority of cases. Finally, we adapt a method for sampling coupled finite differences for evaluating the sensitivity measure for lattice based models. This allows for an efficient evaluation even in critical regions near a second order phase transition that are hitherto difficult to control. The combined approach leads to significant computational savings over straightforward numerical derivatives and should aid in accelerating the nano-scale design of heterogeneous catalysts.

  12. A practical approach to the sensitivity analysis for kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of heterogeneous catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Max J; Engelmann, Felix; Matera, Sebastian

    2017-01-28

    Lattice kinetic Monte Carlo simulations have become a vital tool for predictive quality atomistic understanding of complex surface chemical reaction kinetics over a wide range of reaction conditions. In order to expand their practical value in terms of giving guidelines for the atomic level design of catalytic systems, it is very desirable to readily evaluate a sensitivity analysis for a given model. The result of such a sensitivity analysis quantitatively expresses the dependency of the turnover frequency, being the main output variable, on the rate constants entering the model. In the past, the application of sensitivity analysis, such as degree of rate control, has been hampered by its exuberant computational effort required to accurately sample numerical derivatives of a property that is obtained from a stochastic simulation method. In this study, we present an efficient and robust three-stage approach that is capable of reliably evaluating the sensitivity measures for stiff microkinetic models as we demonstrate using the CO oxidation on RuO2(110) as a prototypical reaction. In the first step, we utilize the Fisher information matrix for filtering out elementary processes which only yield negligible sensitivity. Then we employ an estimator based on the linear response theory for calculating the sensitivity measure for non-critical conditions which covers the majority of cases. Finally, we adapt a method for sampling coupled finite differences for evaluating the sensitivity measure for lattice based models. This allows for an efficient evaluation even in critical regions near a second order phase transition that are hitherto difficult to control. The combined approach leads to significant computational savings over straightforward numerical derivatives and should aid in accelerating the nano-scale design of heterogeneous catalysts.

  13. Wetting of biopolymer coatings: contact angle kinetics and image analysis investigation.

    PubMed

    Farris, Stefano; Introzzi, Laura; Biagioni, Paolo; Holz, Torsten; Schiraldi, Alberto; Piergiovanni, Luciano

    2011-06-21

    The surface wetting of five biopolymers, used as coating materials for a plastic film, was monitored over a span of 8 min by means of the optical contact angle technique. Because most of the total variation was observed to occur during the first 60 s, we decided to focus on this curtailed temporal window. Initial contact angle values (θ(0)) ranged from ∼91° for chitosan to ∼30° for pullulan. However, the water drop profile began to change immediately following drop deposition for all biocoatings, confirming that the concept of water contact angle equilibrium is not applicable to most biopolymers. First, a three-parameter decay equation [θ(t) = θ(0) exp(kt(n))] was fit to the experimental contact angle data to describe the kinetics of the contact angle change for each biocoating. Interestingly, the k constant correlated well with the contact angle evolution rate and the n exponent seemed to be somehow linked to the physicochemical phenomena underlying the overall kinetics process. Second, to achieve a reliable description of droplet evolution, the contact angle (CA) analysis was coupled with image analysis (IA) through a combined geometric/trigonometric approach. Absorption and spreading were the key factors governing the overall mechanism of surface wetting during the 60 s analysis, although the individual quantification of both phenomena demonstrated that spreading provided the largest contribution for all biopolymers, with the only exception of gelatin, which showed two quasi-equivalent and counterbalancing effects. The possible correlation between these two phenomena and the topography of the biopolymer surfaces are then discussed on the basis of atomic force microscopy analyses.

  14. Rapid quantification and analysis of kinetic • OH radical footprinting data using SAFA

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Katrina; Martin, Joshua S.; Shcherbakova, Inna; Laederach, Alain

    2010-01-01

    The use of highly reactive chemical species to probe the structure and dynamics of nucleic acids is greatly simplified by software that enables rapid quantification of the gel images that result from these experiments. SAFA (Semi-Automated Footprinting Analysis) allows a user to quickly and reproducibly quantify a chemical footprinting gel image through a series of steps that rectify, assign, and integrate the relative band intensities. The output of this procedure is raw band intensities that report on the relative reactivity of each nucleotide with the chemical probe. We describe here how to obtain these raw band intensities using SAFA and the subsequent normalization and analysis procedures required to process this data. In particular, we focus on analyzing time-resolved hydroxyl radical (•OH) data, which we use to monitor the kinetics of folding of a large RNA (the L-21 T. thermophila group I intron). Exposing the RNA to bursts of •OH radicals at specific time-points during the folding process monitors the time-progress of the reaction. Specifically, we identify protected (nucleotides that become inaccessible to the •OH radical probe when folded) and invariant (nucleotides with constant accessibility to the •OH probe) residues that we use for monitoring and normalization of the data. With this analysis, we obtain time-progress curves from which we determine kinetic rates of folding. We also report on a data visualization tool implemented in SAFA that allows users to map data onto a secondary structure diagram. PMID:20946764

  15. Regulation of responsiveness of phosphorescence toward dissolved oxygen concentration by modulating polymer contents in organic-inorganic hybrid materials.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kazuo; Chujo, Yoshiki

    2014-06-15

    Platinum(II) octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP)-loaded organic-inorganic hybrids were obtained via the microwave-assisted sol-gel condensation with methyltrimethoxysilane and poly(vinylpyrrolidone). From transparent and homogeneous hybrid films, the strong phosphorescence from PtOEP was observed. Next, the resulting hybrids were immersed in the aqueous buffer, and the emission intensity was monitored by changing the dissolved oxygen level in the buffer. When the hybrid with relatively-higher amount of the silica element, the strong phosphorescence was observed even under the aerobic conditions. In contrast, the emission from the hybrids with lower amounts of the silica element was quenched under the hypoxic conditions. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first example to demonstrate that the responsiveness of the phosphorescence intensity of PtOEP in hybrid films to the dissolved oxygen concentration in water can be modulated by changing the percentage of the contents in the material.

  16. Effect of Triplet Harvesting on the Lifetime Based on Fluorescence and Phosphorescence in Hybrid White Organic Light Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun; Lee, Ho Won; Yang, Hyung Jin; Sun, Yong; Lee, Jae Woo; Hwang, Kyo Min; Kim, Woo Young; Kim, Young Kwan

    2016-03-01

    We investigated efficient hybrid white organic light emitting diodes (WOLEDs) apply to triplet harvesting (TH) concept based on three complementary colors by mixing containing blue fluorescent emitter with phosphorescent emitters. The TH is to transfer these triplet excitons from a fluorescence to a phosphorescence, where they can decay radiatively. We fabricated several hybrid WOLEDs, having various emitting layer structures with blue fluorescent emitter and red, green phosphorescent emitter. The WOLED exhibited maximum luminous efficiency of 9.02 cd/A, and a maximum external quantum efficiency of 4.17%. The WOLED showed a highly color-stable white emission with the Commission International de L'Éclairage chromaticity of (0.38, 0.36) at 1,000 cd/m2.

  17. Low-temperature (77 K) phosphorescence of triplet chlorophyll in isolated reaction centers of photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Neverov, Konstantin V; Krasnovsky, Alexander A; Zabelin, Alexey A; Shuvalov, Vladimir A; Shkuropatov, Anatoly Ya

    2015-08-01

    Phosphorescence characterized by the main emission band at 952 ± 1 nm (1.30 eV), the lifetime of 1.5 ± 0.1 ms and the quantum yield nearly equal to that for monomeric chlorophyll a in aqueous detergent dispersions, has been detected in isolated reaction centers (RCs) of spinach photosystem II at 77 K. The excitation spectrum shows maxima corresponding to absorption bands of chlorophyll a, pheophytin a, and β-carotene. The phosphorescence intensity strongly depends upon the redox state of RCs. The data suggest that the phosphorescence signal originates from the chlorophyll triplet state populated via charge recombination in the radical pair [Formula: see text].

  18. A steady-state kinetic analysis of the prolyl-4-hydroxylase mechanism.

    PubMed

    Soskel, N T; Kuby, S A

    1981-01-01

    Published kinetic data by Kivirikko, et al. on the prolyl-4-hydroxylase reaction have been re-evaluated using the overall steady-state velocity equation in the forward and reverse directions for an ordered ter ter kinetic mechanism. Qualitatively, the published data for prolyl-4-hydroxylase appear to fit the predicted patterns for this kinetic mechanism. More kinetic data are needed to confirm these results and to quantitate the kinetic parameters but, tentatively, the order of substrate addition would appear to be alpha-ketoglutarate, oxygen, and peptide; and the order of product release would be hydroxylated peptide (or collagen), carbon dioxide, and succinate.

  19. Quantitative kinetic analysis of lung nodules by temporal subtraction technique in dynamic chest radiography with a flat panel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Yuichiro; Kodera, Yoshie; Tanaka, Rie; Sanada, Shigeru

    2007-03-01

    Early detection and treatment of lung cancer is one of the most effective means to reduce cancer mortality; chest X-ray radiography has been widely used as a screening examination or health checkup. The new examination method and the development of computer analysis system allow obtaining respiratory kinetics by the use of flat panel detector (FPD), which is the expanded method of chest X-ray radiography. Through such changes functional evaluation of respiratory kinetics in chest has become available. Its introduction into clinical practice is expected in the future. In this study, we developed the computer analysis algorithm for the purpose of detecting lung nodules and evaluating quantitative kinetics. Breathing chest radiograph obtained by modified FPD was converted into 4 static images drawing the feature, by sequential temporal subtraction processing, morphologic enhancement processing, kinetic visualization processing, and lung region detection processing, after the breath synchronization process utilizing the diaphragmatic analysis of the vector movement. The artificial neural network used to analyze the density patterns detected the true nodules by analyzing these static images, and drew their kinetic tracks. For the algorithm performance and the evaluation of clinical effectiveness with 7 normal patients and simulated nodules, both showed sufficient detecting capability and kinetic imaging function without statistically significant difference. Our technique can quantitatively evaluate the kinetic range of nodules, and is effective in detecting a nodule on a breathing chest radiograph. Moreover, the application of this technique is expected to extend computer-aided diagnosis systems and facilitate the development of an automatic planning system for radiation therapy.

  20. Role of manganese in red long-lasting phosphorescence of manganese-doped diopside for in vivo imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lecointre, A.; Bessière, A.; Priolkar, K.R.; Gourier, D.; Wallez, G.; Viana, B.

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Long-lasting phosphorescence of CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Mn is studied for bioimaging application. ► CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Mn yields orange and red luminescence of Mn{sup II}{sub Ca} and Mn{sup II}{sub Mg}, respectively. ► Red Mn{sup II}{sub Mg} emission dominates long-lasting phosphorescence spectra. ► Mn mainly substitutes Mg. ► Mn{sup II}{sub Mg} plays the role of hole trap in the persistent luminescence mechanism. - Abstract: Materials with red long-lasting phosphorescence, such as Mn{sup II}-doped diopsides, can be used for small animal in vivo imaging. CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Mn powders with various amounts of Mn were prepared by sol–gel to investigate their long-lasting phosphorescence mechanism. X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption fine and near-edge structure and electron paramagnetic resonance showed that manganese is quantitatively introduced in the structure as Mn{sup II}. Most of the Mn doping ions substitute Mg and possess a highly elongated octahedral environment. While photoluminescence and X-ray excited optical luminescence spectra show both orange (585 nm) and red (685 nm) {sup 4}T{sub 1} ({sup 4}G) → {sup 6}A{sub 1} ({sup 6}S) emission of Mn{sup II}{sub Ca} and Mn{sup II}{sub Mg}, respectively, Mn{sup II}{sub Mg} red emission dominates long-lasting phosphorescence and thermally stimulated luminescence spectra. These results point to Mn{sup II}{sub Mg} as the preferential hole trap and recombination center in the long-lasting phosphorescence mechanism. An intense persistent red emission suitable for in vivo imaging probes is obtained for the highest nominal Mn content (7.5%)

  1. /sup 15/N kinetic analysis of N/sub 2/O production by Nitrosomonas europaea: an examination of nitrifier denitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Poth, M.; Focht, D.D.

    1985-05-01

    A series of /sup 15/N isotope tracer experiments showed that Nitrosomonas europaea produces nitrous oxide only under oxygen-limiting conditions and that the labeled N from nitrite, but not nitrate, is incorporated into nitrous oxide, indicating the presence of the denitrifying enzyme nitrite reductase. A kinetic analysis of the m/z 44, 45, and 46 nitrous oxide produced by washed cell suspensions of N. europaea when incubated with 4 mM ammonium (99% /sup 14/N) and 0.4 mM nitrite (99% /sup 15/N) was performed. No labeled nitirte was reduced to ammonium. All labeled material added was accounted for as either nitrite or nitrous oxide. The hypothesis that nitrous oxide is produced directly from nitrification was rejected since (i) it does not allow for the large amounts of double-labeled (m/z 46) nitrous oxide observed; (ii) the observed patterns of m/z 44, 45, 46 nitrous oxide were completely consistent with a kinetic analysis based on denitrification as the sole mechanism of nitrous oxide production but not with a kinetic analysis based on both mechanisms; (iii) the asymptotic ratio of m/z 45 to m/z 46 nitrous oxide was consistent with denitrification kinetics but inconsistent with nitrification kinetics, which predicted no limit to m/z 45 production. It is concluded that N. europaea is a denitrifier which, under conditions of oxygen stress, uses nitrite as a terminal electron acceptor and produces nitrous oxide.

  2. Kinetics Analysis of Higher Temperature Salt Bath Nitriding for Aisi 1045 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Mingyang; Chen, Yao; Chai, Yating; Hu, Jing

    2016-05-01

    Rapid salt bath nitriding was conducted at higher temperature above 600∘C instead of normally used 560∘C for AISI 1045 steel. Optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and micro-hardness tester were employed to characterize the microstructure, phase constituents and micro-hardness of the treated specimens. The results showed that salt bath nitriding at higher temperature could significantly increase the compound layer thickness and higher cross-sectional hardness can be obtained. Kinetics analysis illustrated that the nitrogen atoms diffusion coefficient was obviously increased with temperature, and the activation energy of nitrogen atom diffusion was decreased from 220kJṡmol-1 to 142kJṡmol-1.

  3. Uncertainty in the analysis of tracer kinetics using dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI.

    PubMed

    Buckley, David L

    2002-03-01

    In recent years a number of physiological models have gained prominence in the analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI data. However, there remains little evidence to support their use in estimating the absolute values of tissue physiological parameters such as perfusion, capillary permeability, and blood volume. In an attempt to address this issue, data were simulated using a distributed pathway model of tracer kinetics, and three published models were fitted to the resultant concentration-time curves. Parameter estimates obtained from these fits were compared with the parameters used for the simulations. The results indicate that the use of commonly accepted models leads to systematic overestimation of the transfer constant, Ktrans, and potentially large underestimates of the blood plasma volume fraction, Vp. In summary, proposals for a practical approach to physiological modeling using MRI data are outlined.

  4. Kinetic theory analysis of rarefied gas flow through finite length slots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raghuraman, P.; Willis, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    A kinetic-theory analysis is made of the flow of a rarefied monatomic gas through a two-dimensional slot connecting two reservoirs. Numerical solutions are obtained by the moment and discrete-ordinate methods. The former method portrays the transition-regime characteristics well but has limitations in the free-molecule regime. The latter method gives accurate results in the free-molecule and slip regimes and bolsters confidence in the accuracy of the transition-regime results. The numerical solution for the mass flux through the slot agrees well with an approximate analytical solution of the moment equations for length-to-width ratios from 6 to 0.5, pressure ratios from 0.8 to 0.1, and Knudsen numbers from 5 to 0.5.

  5. Retorting of oil shale followed by solvent extraction of spent shale: Experiment and kinetic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Khraisha, Y.H.

    2000-05-01

    Samples of El-Lajjun oil shale were thermally decomposed in a laboratory retort system under a slow heating rate (0.07 K/s) up to a maximum temperature of 698--773 K. After decomposition, 0.02 kg of spent shale was extracted by chloroform in a Soxhlet extraction unit for 2 h to investigate the ultimate amount of shale oil that could be produced. The retorting results indicate an increase in the oil yields from 3.24% to 9.77% of oil shale feed with retorting temperature, while the extraction results show a decrease in oil yields from 8.10% to 3.32% of spent shale. The analysis of the data according to the global first-order model for isothermal and nonisothermal conditions shows kinetic parameters close to those reported in literature.

  6. Analysis of thickness dependent on crystallization kinetics in thin isotactic-polysterene films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairuddin

    2016-11-01

    Crystalliaztion kinetics of thin film of Isotactic Polysterene (it-PS) films has been studied. Thin PET films having thickness of 338, 533, 712, 1096, 1473, and 2185 A° were prepared by using spin-cast technique. The it-PS crystals were grown on Linkam-hostage in the temperature range 130-240°C with an interval of 10°C. The crystal growths are measured by optical microscopy in lateral direction. It was found that a substantial thickness dependence on crystallisation rate. The analysis using fitting technique based on theory crystal growth of Lauritzen-Hoffman showed that the fitting technique could not resolve to predict the mechanism controlling the thickness dependence on the rate of crystallisation. The possible reasons were due to the crystallisation rate varies with the type of crystals (smooth, rough, overgrowth terrace), and the crystallisation rate changes with the time of crystallisation.

  7. Effect of Composition and Impurities on the Phosphorescence of Green-Emitting Alkaline Earth Aluminate Phosphor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Doory; Kim, Han-Eol; Kim, Chang-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Recent improvements to SrAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ phosphors have enabled the use of luminescent hosts with a stable crystal structure and high physical and chemical stability, thus overcoming the bottleneck in the applicability of ZnS:Cu phosphors. However, enhancement of afterglow lifetime and brightness in SrAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ phosphors remains a challenging task. Here, we have improved the afterglow characteristics in terms of persistence time and brightness by a systematic investigation of the composition of Eu-doped alkaline earth aluminate SrAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ crystals. We found that a Dy3+/Eu2+ ratio of ~2.4 and ~0.935 mol Eu2+ (per mol of SrAl2O4) gave the brightest and longest emissions (11% and 9% increase for each). Doping with Si4+ also resulted in a slight increase in brightness up to ~15%. Doping with alkali metal or alkaline earth metal significantly enhanced the phosphorescence intensity. In particular, doping with 0.005 mol Li+ (per mol of SrAl2O4) alone boosted the phosphorescence intensity to 239% of the initial value, as compared to that observed for the non-doped crystal, while doping with 0.01 mol Mg2+ and 0.005 mol Li+ (per 1 mol SrAl2O4) boosted the phosphorescence intensity up to 313% of the initial value. The results of this investigation are expected to act as a guideline for the synthesis of bright and long persistent phosphors, and facilitate the development of persistent phosphors with afterglow characteristics superior to those of conventional phosphors. PMID:26731086

  8. Kinetic Analysis of Lauric Acid Hydroxylation by Human Cytochrome P450 4A11

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) 4A11 is the only functionally active subfamily 4A P450 in humans. P450 4A11 catalyzes mainly ω-hydroxylation of fatty acids in liver and kidney; this process is not a major degradative pathway, but at least one product, 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, has important signaling properties. We studied catalysis by P450 4A11 and the issue of rate-limiting steps using lauric acid ω-hydroxylation, a prototypic substrate for this enzyme. Some individual reaction steps were studied using pre-steady-state kinetic approaches. Substrate and product binding and release were much faster than overall rates of catalysis. Reduction of ferric P450 4A11 (to ferrous) was rapid and not rate-limiting. Deuterium kinetic isotope effect (KIE) experiments yielded low but reproducible values (1.2–2) for 12-hydroxylation with 12-2H-substituted lauric acid. However, considerable “metabolic switching” to 11-hydroxylation was observed with [12-2H3]lauric acid. Analysis of switching results [Jones, J. P., et al. (1986) J. Am. Chem. Soc.108, 7074–7078] and the use of tritium KIE analysis with [12-3H]lauric acid [Northrop, D. B. (1987) Methods Enzymol.87, 607–625] both indicated a high intrinsic KIE (>10). Cytochrome b5 (b5) stimulated steady-state lauric acid ω-hydroxylation ∼2-fold; the apoprotein was ineffective, indicating that electron transfer is involved in the b5 enhancement. The rate of b5 reoxidation was increased in the presence of ferrous P450 mixed with O2. Collectively, the results indicate that both the transfer of an electron to the ferrous·O2 complex and C–H bond-breaking limit the rate of P450 4A11 ω-oxidation. PMID:25203493

  9. Kinetic analysis of lauric acid hydroxylation by human cytochrome P450 4A11.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donghak; Cha, Gun-Su; Nagy, Leslie D; Yun, Chul-Ho; Guengerich, F Peter

    2014-10-07

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) 4A11 is the only functionally active subfamily 4A P450 in humans. P450 4A11 catalyzes mainly ω-hydroxylation of fatty acids in liver and kidney; this process is not a major degradative pathway, but at least one product, 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, has important signaling properties. We studied catalysis by P450 4A11 and the issue of rate-limiting steps using lauric acid ω-hydroxylation, a prototypic substrate for this enzyme. Some individual reaction steps were studied using pre-steady-state kinetic approaches. Substrate and product binding and release were much faster than overall rates of catalysis. Reduction of ferric P450 4A11 (to ferrous) was rapid and not rate-limiting. Deuterium kinetic isotope effect (KIE) experiments yielded low but reproducible values (1.2-2) for 12-hydroxylation with 12-(2)H-substituted lauric acid. However, considerable "metabolic switching" to 11-hydroxylation was observed with [12-(2)H3]lauric acid. Analysis of switching results [Jones, J. P., et al. (1986) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 108, 7074-7078] and the use of tritium KIE analysis with [12-(3)H]lauric acid [Northrop, D. B. (1987) Methods Enzymol. 87, 607-625] both indicated a high intrinsic KIE (>10). Cytochrome b5 (b5) stimulated steady-state lauric acid ω-hydroxylation ∼2-fold; the apoprotein was ineffective, indicating that electron transfer is involved in the b5 enhancement. The rate of b5 reoxidation was increased in the presence of ferrous P450 mixed with O2. Collectively, the results indicate that both the transfer of an electron to the ferrous·O2 complex and C-H bond-breaking limit the rate of P450 4A11 ω-oxidation.

  10. A highly selective OFF-ON red-emitting phosphorescent thiol probe with large stokes shift and long luminescent lifetime.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shaomin; Guo, Huimin; Yuan, Xiaolin; Li, Xiaohuan; Ding, Haidong; Gao, Peng; Zhao, Chunxia; Wu, Wenting; Wu, Wanhua; Zhao, Jianzhang

    2010-06-18

    An OFF-ON red-emitting phosphorescent thiol probe is designed by using the (3)MLCT photophysics of Ru(II) complexes, i.e., with Ru(II) as the electron donor. The probe is non-luminescent because the MLCT is corrupted by electron transfer from Ru(II) to an intramolecular electron sink (2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonyl). Thiols cleave the electron sink, and the MLCT is re-established. Phosphorescence at 598 nm was enhanced by 90-fold, with a 143 nm (5256 cm(-1)) Stokes shift and a 1.1 mus luminescent lifetime.

  11. High efficient white organic light-emitting diodes with single emissive layer using phosphorescent red, green, and blue dopants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, You-Hyun; Wai Cheah, Kok; Young Kim, Woo

    2013-07-01

    Phosphorescent white organic light-emitting diodes (PHWOLEDs) with single emissive layer were fabricated by co-doping phosphorescent blue, green, and red emitters with different concentrations. WOLEDs using Ir(piq)3 and Ir(ppy)3 as red and green dopants along with 8% of Firpic as blue dopant with host materials of 4CzPBP in the emissive layer were compared under various doping ratio between Ir(piq)3 and Ir(ppy)3. Triplet-triplet Dexter energy transfer in single emissive PHWOLEDs including three primary colors was saturated from higher triplet energy levels to lower triplet energy levels directly.

  12. Comparison of Cherenkov excited fluorescence and phosphorescence molecular sensing from tissue with external beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huiyun; Zhang, Rongxiao; Gunn, Jason R; Esipova, Tatiana V; Vinogradov, Sergei; Gladstone, David J; Jarvis, Lesley A; Pogue, Brian W

    2016-05-21

    Ionizing radiation delivered by a medical linear accelerator (LINAC) generates Cherenkov emission within the treated tissue. A fraction of this light, in the 600-900 nm wavelength region, propagates through centimeters of tissue and can be used to excite optical probes in vivo, enabling molecular sensing of tissue analytes. The success of isolating the emission signal from this Cherenkov excitation background is dependent on key factors such as: (i) the Stokes shift of the probe spectra; (ii) the excited state lifetime; (iii) the probe concentration; (iv) the depth below the tissue surface; and (v) the radiation dose used. Previous studies have exclusively focused on imaging phosphorescent dyes, rather than fluorescent dyes. However there are only a few biologically important phosphorescent dyes and yet in comparison there are thousands of biologically relevant fluorescent dyes. So in this study the focus was a study of efficacy of Cherenkov-excited luminescence using fluorescent commercial near-infrared probes, IRDye 680RD, IRDye 700DX, and IRDye 800CW, and comparing them to the well characterized phosphorescent probe Oxyphor PtG4, an oxygen sensitive dye. Each probe was excited by Cherenkov light from a 6 MV external radiation beam, and measured in continuous wave or time-gated modes. The detection was performed by spectrally resolving the luminescence signals, and measuring them with spectrometer-based separation on an ICCD detector. The results demonstrate that IRDye 700DX and PtG4 allowed for the maximal signal to noise ratio. In the case of the phosphorescent probe, PtG4, with emission decays on the microsecond (μs) time scale, time-gated acquisition was possible, and it allowed for higher efficacy in terms of the probe concentration and detection depth. Phantoms containing the probe at 5 mm depth could be detected at concentrations down to the nanoMolar range, and at depths into the tissue simulating phantom near 3 cm. In vivo studies showed that 5

  13. Concentration dependence of 4-methylbenzophenone choleic acid crystal phosphorescence: Evidence for a percolation driven structural transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kook, S.-K.; Kim, D.-Y.; Hanson, D. M.

    1989-12-01

    Steady state phosphorescence spectra at 4.2 K were obtained for different concentrations of 4-methylbenzophenone (MBP) doped into deoxycholic acid (DCA) crystals. The spectra indicate that at concentrations of 14% and below, the sample consists of choleic acid crystals partially filled with MBP and as the concentration increases to 16%, enough guest sites are filled with MBP to cause the local structure to change to that of the stoichiometric crystal. The stoichiometric ratio of DCA to MBP was determined to be 2:1. Spectral shifts characteristic of energy transfer processes are not observed over the concentration range of 4% to 33% MBP.

  14. Colloidal Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diodes Employing Phosphorescent Small Organic Molecules as Efficient Exciton Harvesters.

    PubMed

    Mutlugun, Evren; Guzelturk, Burak; Abiyasa, Agus Putu; Gao, Yuan; Sun, Xiao Wei; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2014-08-21

    Nonradiative energy transfer (NRET) is an alternative excitation mechanism in colloidal quantum dot (QD) based electroluminescent devices (QLEDs). Here, we develop hybrid highly spectrally pure QLEDs that facilitate energy transfer pumping via NRET from a phosphorescent small organic molecule-codoped charge transport layer to the adjacent QDs. A partially codoped exciton funnelling electron transport layer is proposed and optimized for enhanced QLED performance while exhibiting very high color purity of 99%. These energy transfer pumped hybrid QLEDs demonstrate a 6-fold enhancement factor in the external quantum efficiency over the conventional QLED structure, in which energy transfer pumping is intrinsically weak.

  15. Combined phosphorescence-holographic approach for singlet oxygen detection in biological media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenova, I. V.; Belashov, A. V.; Beltukova, D. M.; Petrov, N. V.; Vasyutinskii, O. S.

    2015-06-01

    The paper presents a novel combined approach aimed to detect and monitor singlet oxygen molecules in biological specimens by means of the simultaneous recording and monitoring of their deactivation dynamics in the two complementary channels: radiative and nonradiative. The approach involves both the direct registration of phosphorescence at the wavelength of about 1270 nm caused by radiative relaxation of excited singlet oxygen molecules and holographic recording of thermal disturbances in the medium produced by their nonradiative relaxation. The data provides a complete set of information on singlet oxygen location and dynamics in the medium. The approach was validated in the case study of photosensitized generation of singlet oxygen in onion cell structures.

  16. Integrated luminometer for the determination of trace metals in seawater using fluorescence, phosphorescence and chemiluminescence detection

    PubMed Central

    Achterberg, E. P.; Bowie, A. R.; Cannizzaro, V.; Charles, S.; Costa, J. M.; Dubois, F.; Pereiro, R.; San Vicente, B.; Sanz-Medel, A.; Vandeloise, R.; Donckt, E. Vander; Wollast, P.; Yunus, S.

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes an integrated luminometer able to perform fluorescence (FL), room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) and chemiluminescence (CL) measurements on seawater samples. The technical details of the instrumentation are presented together with flow injection (FI) manifolds for the determination of cadmium and zinc (by FL), lead (RTP) and cobalt (CL). The analytical figures of merit are given for each manifold and results are presented for the determination of the four trace metals in seawater reference materials (NASS-5, SLEW-2) and Scheldt estuarine water samples. PMID:18924742

  17. Influence of dehydrated nanotubed titanic acid on polymer light-emitting diodes with phosphorescent dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, L.; Zhang, T.; Wang, Y. S.; Xu, X. R.; Jin, Z. S.; Du, Z. L.

    2006-01-01

    In this letter, we demonstrate that hole injection and transport in polymer light-emitting diodes with phosphorescent dye Ir(ppy)3 can be significantly enhanced by doping p-type conductive dehydrated nanotubed titanic acid into poly(vinylcarbazole) (PVK) films at 2wt.%. At the same time, both energy transfer and exciton recombination efficiency are improved because of the open and straight conformation of the PVK molecule in the nanocomposite. The performance of these devices was greatly improved, showing higher luminance, enhanced efficiency, and a lower turn-on voltage.

  18. Phosphorescent Molecular Butterflies with Controlled Potential-Energy Surfaces and Their Application as Luminescent Viscosity Sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chenkun; Yuan, Lin; Yuan, Zhao; Doyle, Nicholas Kelly; Dilbeck, Tristan; Bahadur, Divya; Ramakrishnan, Subramanian; Dearden, Albert; Huang, Chen; Ma, Biwu

    2016-09-06

    We report precise manipulation of the potential-energy surfaces (PESs) of a series of butterfly-like pyrazolate-bridged platinum binuclear complexes, by synthetic control of the electronic structure of the cyclometallating ligand and the steric bulkiness of the pyrazolate bridging ligand. Color tuning of dual emission from blue/red, to green/red and red/deep red were achieved for these phosphorescent molecular butterflies, which have two well-controlled energy minima on the PESs. The environmentally dependent photoluminescence of these molecular butterflies enabled their application as self-referenced luminescent viscosity sensor.

  19. Comparison of Cherenkov excited fluorescence and phosphorescence molecular sensing from tissue with external beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Huiyun; Zhang, Rongxiao; Gunn, Jason R.; Esipova, Tatiana V.; Vinogradov, Sergei; Gladstone, David J.; Jarvis, Lesley A.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2016-05-01

    Ionizing radiation delivered by a medical linear accelerator (LINAC) generates Cherenkov emission within the treated tissue. A fraction of this light, in the 600-900 nm wavelength region, propagates through centimeters of tissue and can be used to excite optical probes in vivo, enabling molecular sensing of tissue analytes. The success of isolating the emission signal from this Cherenkov excitation background is dependent on key factors such as: (i) the Stokes shift of the probe spectra; (ii) the excited state lifetime; (iii) the probe concentration; (iv) the depth below the tissue surface; and (v) the radiation dose used. Previous studies have exclusively focused on imaging phosphorescent dyes, rather than fluorescent dyes. However there are only a few biologically important phosphorescent dyes and yet in comparison there are thousands of biologically relevant fluorescent dyes. So in this study the focus was a study of efficacy of Cherenkov-excited luminescence using fluorescent commercial near-infrared probes, IRDye 680RD, IRDye 700DX, and IRDye 800CW, and comparing them to the well characterized phosphorescent probe Oxyphor PtG4, an oxygen sensitive dye. Each probe was excited by Cherenkov light from a 6 MV external radiation beam, and measured in continuous wave or time-gated modes. The detection was performed by spectrally resolving the luminescence signals, and measuring them with spectrometer-based separation on an ICCD detector. The results demonstrate that IRDye 700DX and PtG4 allowed for the maximal signal to noise ratio. In the case of the phosphorescent probe, PtG4, with emission decays on the microsecond (μs) time scale, time-gated acquisition was possible, and it allowed for higher efficacy in terms of the probe concentration and detection depth. Phantoms containing the probe at 5 mm depth could be detected at concentrations down to the nanoMolar range, and at depths into the tissue simulating phantom near 3 cm. In vivo studies showed that 5

  20. Exact and user-friendly kinetic analysis of the two-step rapid equilibrium Michaelis-Menten mechanism.

    PubMed

    Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie; Shkel, Irina A; Tsodikov, Oleg V

    2009-04-15

    Most enzyme kinetic experiments are carried out under pseudo-first-order conditions, that is, when one of the reactant species (the enzyme or the substrate) is in a large excess of the other species. More accurate kinetic information about the system can be gained without the restrictions of the pseudo-first-order conditions. We present a practical and general method of analysis of the common two-step rapid equilibrium Michaelis-Menten mechanism. The formalism is exact in that it does not involve any other approximations such as the steady-state, limitations on the reactant concentrations or on reaction times. We apply this method to the global analysis of kinetic progress curves for bovine alkaline phosphatase assays carried out under both pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order conditions.

  1. Thermogravimetric analysis and kinetic study of bamboo waste treated by Echinodontium taxodii using a modified three-parallel-reactions model.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongbo; Liu, Fang; Ke, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2015-06-01

    In this study, the effect of pretreatment with Echinodontium taxodii on thermal decomposition characteristics and kinetics of bamboo wastes was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed fungal pretreatment can enhance the thermal degradation of bamboo. The negative effect of extractives in bamboo on the thermal decomposition can be decreased by the pretreatment. A modified three-parallel-reactions model based on isolated lignin was firstly proposed to study pyrolysis kinetics of bamboo lignocellulose. Kinetic analysis showed that with increasing pretreatment time fungal delignification was enhanced to transform the lignin component with high activation energy into that with low activation energy and raise the cellulose content in bamboo, making the thermal decomposition easier. These results demonstrated fungal pretreatment provided a potential way to improve thermal conversion efficiency of bamboo.

  2. Neutron activation analysis via nuclear decay kinetics using gamma-ray spectroscopy at SFU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingo, Thomas; Chester, Aaron; Starosta, Krzysztof; Williams, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Gamma-ray spectroscopy is a powerful tool used in a variety of fields including nuclear and analytical chemistry, environmental science, and health risk management. At SFU, the Germanium detector for Elemental Analysis and Radiation Studies (GEARS), a low-background shielded high-purity germanium gamma-ray detector, has been used recently in all of the above fields. The current project aims to expand upon the number of applications for which GEARS can be used while enhancing its current functionality. A recent addition to the SFU Nuclear Science laboratory is the Thermo Scientific P 385 neutron generator. This device provides a nominal yield of 3 ×108 neutrons/s providing the capacity for neutron activation analysis, opening a major avenue of research at SFU which was previously unavailable. The isotopes created via neutron activation have a wide range of half-lives. To measure and study isotopes with half-lives above a second, a new analogue data acquisition system has been installed on GEARS allowing accurate measurements of decay kinetics. This new functionality enables identification and quantification of the products of neutron activation. Results from the neutron activation analysis of pure metals will be presented.

  3. Large-scale kinetic energy spectra from Eulerian analysis of EOLE wind data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desbois, M.

    1975-01-01

    A data set of 56,000 winds determined from the horizontal displacements of EOLE balloons at the 200 mb level in the Southern Hemisphere during the period October 1971-February 1972 is utilized for the computation of planetary- and synoptic-scale kinetic energy space spectra. However, the random distribution of measurements in space and time presents some problems for the spectral analysis. Two different approaches are used, i.e., a harmonic analysis of daily wind values at equi-distant points obtained by space-time interpolation of the data, and a correlation method using the direct measurements. Both methods give similar results for small wavenumbers, but the second is more accurate for higher wavenumbers (k above or equal to 10). The spectra show a maximum at wavenumbers 5 and 6 due to baroclinic instability and then decrease for high wavenumbers up to wavenumber 35 (which is the limit of the analysis), according to the inverse power law k to the negative p, with p close to 3.

  4. Inverse problem analysis for identification of reaction kinetics constants in microreactors for biodiesel synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontes, P. C.; Naveira-Cotta, C. P.

    2016-09-01

    The theoretical analysis for the design of microreactors in biodiesel production is a complicated task due to the complex liquid-liquid flow and mass transfer processes, and the transesterification reaction that takes place within these microsystems. Thus, computational simulation is an important tool that aids in understanding the physical-chemical phenomenon and, consequently, in determining the suitable conditions that maximize the conversion of triglycerides during the biodiesel synthesis. A diffusive-convective-reactive coupled nonlinear mathematical model, that governs the mass transfer process during the transesterification reaction in parallel plates microreactors, under isothermal conditions, is here described. A hybrid numerical-analytical solution via the Generalized Integral Transform Technique (GITT) for this partial differential system is developed and the eigenfunction expansions convergence rates are extensively analyzed and illustrated. The heuristic method of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is applied in the inverse analysis of the proposed direct problem, to estimate the reaction kinetics constants, which is a critical step in the design of such microsystems. The results present a good agreement with the limited experimental data in the literature, but indicate that the GITT methodology combined with the PSO approach provide a reliable computational algorithm for direct-inverse analysis in such reactive mass transfer problems.

  5. Kinetic analysis of the hydrolysis of methyl parathion using citrate-stabilized 10 nm gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Nita, Rafaela; Trammell, Scott A; Ellis, Gregory A; Moore, Martin H; Soto, Carissa M; Leary, Dagmar H; Fontana, Jake; Talebzadeh, Somayeh F; Knight, D Andrew

    2016-02-01

    "Ligand-free" citrate-stabilized 10 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) promote the hydrolysis of the thiophosphate ester methyl parathion (MeP) on the surface of gold as a function of pH and two temperature values. At 50 °C, the active surface gold atoms show catalytic turnover ∼4 times after 8 h and little turnover of gold surface atoms at 25 °C with only 40% of the total atoms being active. From Michaelis-Menten analysis, k(cat) increases between pH 8 and 9 and decreases above pH 9. A global analysis of the spectral changes confirmed the stoichiometric reaction at 25 °C and the catalytic reaction at 50 °C and mass spectrometry confirmed the identity of p-nitrophenolate (PNP) product. Additional decomposition pathways involving oxidation and hydrolysis independent of the formation of PNP were also seen at 50 °C for both catalyzed and un-catalyzed reactions. This work represents the first kinetic analysis of ligand-free AuNP catalyzed hydrolysis of a thiophosphate ester.

  6. Determination of reaction kinetics of rice husks in air using thermogravimetric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mansaray, K.G.; Ghaly, A.E.

    1999-12-01

    Rice husk is produced in large quantities as a by-product of rice milling in rice-producing countries and has posed disposal problems in these countries. Disposal of or energy recovery from rice husk can be accomplished by thermochemical conversion processes (pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification). However, it appears that the kinetics of rice husk, which can contribute to the accurate modeling and design of thermochemical conversion processes, have not been studied extensively. In this paper the technique of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to study the thermochemical behavior of four varieties of rice husk (Lemont LG, ROK 14, CP 4, and Pa Potho). The thermal degradation of rice husk was studied in an air atmosphere (21% oxygen and 79% nitrogen) from ambient temperature to 700 C at the heating rate of 20 C/min. The thermograms showed two distinct reaction zones. The kinetic parameters (activation energy, preexponential factor, and order of reaction) were determined for the two reaction zones by applying thermoanalytical techniques to the reaction kinetics. Higher thermal degradation rates were observed in the first reaction zone due to rapid release of volatiles as compared to those in the second reaction zone. In the first reaction zone the activation energies ranged from 37.0 to 54.7 kJ/mol. Relatively lower activation energies (18.0--21.0 kJ/mol) were obtained in the second reaction zone. The preexponential factors were in the range of 4.3 x 10{sup 4} to 6.4 x 10{sup 6} min{sup {minus}1} in the first reaction zone and 4.5 x 10{sup 2} to 1.5 x 10{sup 3} min{sup {minus}1} in the second reaction zone. The orders of reaction were in the range of 1.2--1.6 and 0.4--0.5 for the first and second reaction zones, respectively. The predicted thermal degradations were in good agreement with the experimental data in both the first and second reaction zones.

  7. Simultaneous Kinetic Analysis of Ribulose 1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase Activities 1

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Samuel S.; Young, Joseph D.

    1980-01-01

    An assay was developed for simultaneous kinetic analysis of the activities of the bifunctional plant enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase [EC 4.1.1.39]. [1-14C,5-3H]Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) was used as the labeled substrate. Tritium enrichment of the doubly labeled 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PGA) product, common to both enzyme activities, may be used to calculate Vc/Vo ratios from the expression A/(B-A) where A and B represent the 3H/14C isotope ratios of doubly labeled RuBP and 3-PGA, and Vc and Vo represent the activities of carboxylase and oxygenase, respectively. Doubly labeled substrate was synthesized from [2-14C]glucose and [6-3H]glucose using the enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway coupled with phosphoribulokinase. The kinetic properties of a commercial preparation of fully activated spinach carboxylase were studied under approximated physiological conditions of 20% O2 (252 micromolar), 295 μl/l CO2 (10 micromolar), 25 C, and pH 8.19. The Vc/Vo ratio was, within experimental error, constant at 30 seconds and 1 minute. This double label assay method may be used to calculate Vc/Vo ratios for the Laing-Ogren-Hageman equation, Vc/Vo = (VcKo/VoKc) ([CO2]/[O2]) where Vc and Vo represent Vmax, and Kc and Ko represent Michaelis constants for the carboxylase and oxygenase activities, respectively. PMID:16661214

  8. Non-isothermal kinetic analysis of thermal decomposition of the Ca-bentonite from Santai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiang-hui; He, Chuan; Wang, Ling; Li, Zhong-quan; Deng, Miao; Liu, Jing; Li, Hong-kui; Feng, Qian

    2015-06-01

    The thermal decompositions of Ca-bentonites (CaB) from Santai, Shichuan Province, China, over the temperature range of 30-1,100 °C were investigated by simultaneous thermal analyzer. Non-isothermal kinetic analysis was employed to study the thermal decomposition mechanism by using Netzsch Thermokinetics software. Flynn-Wall-Ozawa and Friedman isoconversional methods were used to calculate the activation energy and analyze the reaction steps. The probable mechanism and the corresponding kinetic parameters were determined by multivariate non-linear regression program. The results show that the thermal decomposition process of CaB over the temperature range of 30-800 °C is a kind of six-step, competitive reaction ( F 1 D 3 F n C 1E F n F n model). The dehydration reaction is controlled by two consecutive mechanisms, nucleation and growth, followed by a diffusion-controlled reaction ( F 1 D 3 model), the first step: E = 61.68 kJ mol-1, log A = 6.75 s-1; the second step: E = 50.73 kJ mol-1, log A = 3.11 s-1. The dehydroxylation reaction is controlled by three-step competitive mechanisms, an autocatalytically activated, initial reaction followed by n-order competitive reaction ( C 1E F n F n model), the first step: E = 124.74 kJ mol-1, log A = 5.67 s-1; the second step: E = 245.29 kJ mol-1, log A = 11.69 s-1; the third step : E = 261.73 kJ mol-1, log A = 11.23 s-1. A combination reaction of the dehydration and dehydroxylation is observed, and controlled by one n-order reaction ( F n model), E = 8.99 kJ mol-1, log A = -1.91 s-1.

  9. Cell kinetics, DNA integrity, differentiation, and lipid fingerprinting analysis of rabbit adipose-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Barretto, Letícia Siqueira de Sá; Lessio, Camila; Sawaki e Nakamura, Ahy Natally; Lo Turco, Edson Guimarães; da Silva, Camila Gonzaga; Zambon, João Paulo; Gozzo, Fábio César; Pilau, Eduardo Jorge; de Almeida, Fernando Gonçalves

    2014-10-01

    Human adipose tissue has been described as a potential alternative reservoir for stem cells. Although studies have been performed in rabbits using autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC), these cells have not been well characterized. The primary objectives of this study were to demonstrate the presence of adipose-derived stem cells isolated from rabbit inguinal fat pads and to characterize them through osteogenic and adipogenic in vitro differentiation and lipid fingerprinting analysis. The secondary objective was to evaluate cell behavior through growth kinetics, cell viability, and DNA integrity. Rabbit ADSCs were isolated to determine the in vitro growth kinetics and cell viability. DNA integrity was assessed by an alkaline Comet assay in passages 0 and 5. The osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by Von Kossa, and Alizarin Red S staining and adipogenic differentiation were assessed by Oil Red O staining. Lipid fingerprinting analyses of control, adipogenic, and osteogenic differentiated cells were performed by MALDI-TOF/MS. We demonstrate that rabbit ADSC have a constant growth rate at the early passages, with increased DNA fragmentation at or after passage 5. Rabbit ADSC viability was similar in passages 2 and 5 (90.7% and 86.6%, respectively), but there was a tendency to decreased cellular growth rate after passage 3. The ADSC were characterized by the expression of surface markers such as CD29 (67.4%) and CD44 (89.4%), using CD 45 (0.77%) as a negative control. ADSC from rabbits were successfully isolated form the inguinal region. These cells were capable to differentiate into osteogenic and adipogenic tissue when they were placed in inductive media. After each passage, there was a trend towards decreased cell growth. On the other hand, DNA fragmentation increased at each passage. ADSC had a different lipid profile when placed in control, adipogenic, or osteogenic media.

  10. Direct dynamic kinetic analysis and computer simulation of growth of Clostridium perfringens in cooked turkey during cooling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research applied a new one-step methodology to directly construct a tertiary model for describing the growth of C. perfringens in cooked turkey meat under dynamically cooling conditions. The kinetic parameters of the growth models were determined by numerical analysis and optimization using mu...

  11. Determination of the Kinetic Oxidation Constants of Carbon Materials on the Basis of Analysis of Experiments on Their Ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorskii, V. V.; Koval‧skii, M. G.; Olenicheva, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    A new approach to the determination of the ablation properties of a heat-shield carbon material on the basis of analysis of the results of an experimental investigation of its ablation in the jet of an electric-arc plant in the nonstationary regime has been formulated. Original data on the kinetic constants of oxidation of carbon by atomic oxygen have been obtained.

  12. Kinetic Model Facilitates Analysis of Fibrin Generation and Its Modulation by Clotting Factors: Implications for Hemostasis-Enhancing Therapies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    investigating its potential as a hemostatic agent in trauma and surgery.6,7 These applications necessitate a detailed understanding of fibrin ...facilitates analysis of fibrin generation and its modulation by clotting factors: implications for hemostasis-enhancing therapies† Alexander Y...ability of the suggested molecular mechanisms to account for fibrin generation and degradation kinetics in diverse, physiologically relevant in vitro

  13. Selective turn-off phosphorescent and colorimetric detection of mercury(II) in water by half-lantern platinum(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Sicilia, Violeta; Borja, Pilar; Baya, Miguel; Casas, José M

    2015-04-21

    The platinum(ii) half-lantern dinuclear complexes [{Pt(bzq)(μ-C7H4NS2-κN,S)}2] () and [{Pt(bzq)(μ-C7H4NOS-κN,S)}2] () [bzq = benzo[h]quinolinate, C7H4NS2 = 2-mercaptobenzothiazolate, C7H4NOS = 2-mercaptobenzoxazolate] in solution of DMSO-H2O undergo a dramatic color change from yellowish-orange to purple and turn-off phosphorescence in the presence of a small amount of Hg(2+), being discernible by the naked-eye and by spectroscopic methods. Other metal ions as Ag(+), Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Ba(2+), Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Zn(2+) and Tl(+) were tested and, even in a big excess, showed no interference in the selective detection of Hg(2+) in water. Job's plot analysis indicated a 1 : 1 stoichiometry in the complexation mode of Hg(2+) by /. The phosphorescence quenching attributed to the formation of [/ : Hg(2+)] complexes showed binding constants of K = 1.13 × 10(5) M(-1) () and K = 1.99 × 10(4) M(-1) (). The limit of detection has been also evaluated. In addition, dried paper test strips impregnated in DMSO solutions of and can detect concentration of Hg(2+) in water as low as 1 × 10(-5) M for and 5 × 10(-5) M for , making these complexes good candidates to be used as real-time Hg(2+) detectors. The nature of the interaction of the Pt2 half-lantern complex with the Hg(2+) cation, has been investigated by theoretical calculations.

  14. Microchambers with Solid-State Phosphorescent Sensor for Measuring Single Mitochondrial Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Ted D.; Wallace, Douglas C.; Burke, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    It is now well established that, even within a single cell, multiple copies of the mitochondrial genome may be present (genetic heteroplasmy). It would be interesting to develop techniques to determine if and to what extent this genetic variation results in functional variation from one mitochondrion to the next (functional heteroplasmy). Measuring mitochondrial respiration can reveal the organelles’ functional capacity for Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and determine mitochondrial damage that may arise from genetic or age related defects. However, available technologies require significant quantities of mitochondria. Here, we develop a technology to assay the respiration of a single mitochondrion. Our “micro-respirometer” consists of micron sized chambers etched out of borofloat glass substrates and coated with an oxygen sensitive phosphorescent dye Pt(II) meso-tetra(pentafluorophenyl)porphine (PtTFPP) mixed with polystyrene. The chambers are sealed with a polydimethylsiloxane layer coated with oxygen impermeable Viton rubber to prevent diffusion of oxygen from the environment. As the mitochondria consume oxygen in the chamber, the phosphorescence signal increases, allowing direct determination of the respiration rate. Experiments with coupled vs. uncoupled mitochondria showed a substantial difference in respiration, confirming the validity of the microchambers as single mitochondrial respirometers. This demonstration could enable future high-throughput assays of mitochondrial respiration and benefit the study of mitochondrial functional heterogeneity, and its role in health and disease. PMID:27409618

  15. Dopant effects on charge transport to enhance performance of phosphorescent white organic light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Liping; Chen, Jiangshan; Ma, Dongge

    2015-11-07

    We compared the performance of phosphorescent white organic light emitting diodes (WOLEDs) with red-blue-green and green-blue-red sequent emissive layers. It was found that the influence of red and green dopants on electron and hole transport in emissive layers leads to the large difference in the efficiency of fabricated WOLEDs. This improvement mechanism is well investigated by the current density-voltage characteristics of single-carrier devices based on dopant doped emissive layers and the comparison of electroluminescent and photoluminescence spectra, and attributed to the different change of charge carrier transport by the dopants. The optimized device achieves a maximum power efficiency, current efficiency, and external quantum efficiency of 37.0 lm/W, 38.7 cd/A, and 17.7%, respectively, which are only reduced to 32.8 lm/W, 38.5 cd/A, and 17.3% at 1000 cd/m{sup 2} luminance. The critical current density is as high as 210 mA/cm{sup 2}. It can be seen that the efficiency roll-off in phosphorescent WOLEDs can be well improved by effectively designing the structure of emissive layers.

  16. Investigation of Oxygen-Induced Quenching of Phosphorescence in Photoexcited Aromatic Molecules by Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Eftekhari, Abe

    1996-01-01

    Platinum OctaEthyl Porphyrin (Pt.OEP) is an efficient phosphor under ultraviolet excitation. The phosphorescent triplet state P(T(Sup 1)) is readily quenched by the oxygen O2 molecules. This phenomenon is being utilized as the basis for global air pressure measurements in aerodynamic facilities at various laboratories. The exact mechanism by which O2 molecules quench the P(T(Sup 1) approaches P(S(Sub O)) transitions is still unknown. The diamagnetic singlet states P(S(Sub n)), which feed P(T(Sub 1)) states via intersystem crossings, would presumably not be affected by O2. It must be only the magnetic P(T(Sub 1)) states, which can interact with the paramagnetic O2 molecules, that are affected. However, our positron lifetime and Doppler broadening studies suggest the formation of O2P(S(Sub n)), complexes which can also eventually reduce the population of the P(T(Sub 1)) states (i.e., quench phosphorescence). This reduction is possible because higher triplet states in (Pt.OEP) are admixed with the P(S(Sub 1)), states via spin orbit interactions. The experimental procedures and the results of various measurements are presented in this paper.

  17. Strongly Phosphorescent Transition Metal π-Complexes of Boron-Boron Triple Bonds.

    PubMed

    Braunschweig, Holger; Dellermann, Theresa; Dewhurst, Rian D; Hupp, Benjamin; Kramer, Thomas; Mattock, James D; Mies, Jan; Phukan, Ashwini K; Steffen, Andreas; Vargas, Alfredo

    2017-03-27

    Herein are reported the first π-complexes of compounds with boron-boron triple bonds with transition metals, in this case Cu(I). Three different compounds were isolated that differ in the number of copper atoms bound to the BB unit. Metalation of the B-B triple bonds causes lengthening of the B-B and B-C(NHC) bonds, as well as large upfield shifts of the (11)B NMR signals, suggesting greater orbital interactions between the boron and transition metal atoms than those observed with recently published diboryne/alkali metal cation complexes. In contrast to previously reported fluorescent copper(I) π-complexes of boron-boron double bonds, the Cun-π-diboryne compounds (n = 2, 3) show intense phosphorescence in the red to near-IR region from their triplet excited states, according to their microsecond lifetimes, with quantum yields of up to 58%. While the Cu diborene bond is dominated by electrostatic interactions, giving rise to S1 and T1 states of pure IL(π-π*) nature, DFT studies show that the Cu(I) π-complexes of diborynes reported herein exhibit enhanced metal d orbital contributions to HOMO and HOMO-1, which results in S1 and T1 having significant MLCT character, enabling strong spin-orbit coupling for highly efficient intersystem-crossing S1 → Tn and phosphorescence T1 → S0.

  18. Phosphorescent nanoparticles for quantitative measurements of oxygen profiles in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Nak Won; Verbridge, Scott S.; Williams, Rebecca M.; Chen, Jin; Kim, Ju-Young; Schmehl, Russel; Farnum, Cornelia E.; Zipfel, Warren R.; Fischbach, Claudia; Stroock, Abraham D.

    2012-01-01

    We present the development and characterization of nanoparticles loaded with a custom phosphor; we exploit these nanoparticles to perform quantitative measurements of the concentration of oxygen within three-dimensional (3-D) tissue cultures in vitro and blood vessels in vivo. We synthesized a customized ruthenium (Ru)-phosphor and incorporated it into polymeric nanoparticles via self-assembly. We demonstrate that the encapsulated phosphor is non-toxic with and without illumination. We evaluated two distinct modes of employing the phosphorescent nanoparticles for the measurement of concentrations of oxygen: 1) in vitro, in a 3-D microfluidic tumor model via ratiometric measurements of intensity with an oxygen-insensitive fluorophore as a reference, and 2) in vivo, in mouse vasculature using measurements of phosphorescence lifetime. With both methods, we demonstrated micrometer-scale resolution and absolute calibration to the dissolved oxygen concentration. Based on the ease and customizability of the synthesis of the nanoparticles and the flexibility of their application, these oxygen-sensing polymeric nanoparticles will find a natural home in a range of biological applications, benefiting studies of physiological as well as pathological processes in which oxygen availability and concentration play a critical role. PMID:22240511

  19. Mechanism of phosphorescence quenching in photomagnetic molecules determined by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Eftekhari, A.; Naidu, S. V. N.

    1994-01-01

    Platinum Octaethyl Porphyrin (Pt.OEP) is an efficient phosphor under ultraviolet excitation. The phosphorescent triplet state (T(sub 1)) is readily quenched by the oxygen (O2) molecules. This phenomenon is being utilized as the basis for global air pressure measurements in aerodynamic facilities at various laboratories. The exact mechanism by which O2 molecules quench the (T(sub 1)-S(sub 0)) transitions is still unknown. The diamagnetic S(sub n) singlet states, which feed T(sub 1) states via intersystem crossings, would presumably not be affected by O2. It must be the magnetic T(sub 1) states, which can interact with the paramagnetic O2 molecules, that are affected. However, our positron lifetime and Doppler broadening studies suggest the formation of (S(sub n).02) complexes which can also eventually reduce the population of the T(sub 1) states (i.e. quench phosphorescence). This is possible since higher triplet states in (Pt-OEP) are admixed with the S(sub n) states via spin orbit interactions. The experimental procedures and the results of various measurements are discussed in this paper.

  20. Mechanism of phosphorescence quenching in photomagnetic molecules determined by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Eftekhari, A.; Naidu, S. V. N.

    1994-01-01

    Platinum Octaethyl Porphyrin (Pt.OEP) is an efficient phosphor under ultraviolet excitation. The phosphorescent triplet state (T(sub 1)) is readily quenched by the oxygen (O2) molecules. This phenomenon is being utilized as the basis for global air pressure measurements in aerodynamic facilities at various laboratories. The exact mechanism by which O2 molecules quench the (T(sub 1) - S(sub 0)) transitions is still unknown. The diamagnetic S(sub n) singlet states, which feed T(sub 1) states via intersystem crossings, would presumably not be affected by O2. It must be the magnetic T(sub 1) states, which can interact with the paramagnetic O2 molecules, that are affected. However, our positron lifetime and Doppler broadening studies suggest the formation of (S(sub n) central dot O2) complexes which can also eventually reduce the population of the T(sub 1) states (i.e. quench phosphorescence). This is possible since higher triplet states in (Pt.OEP) are admixed with the S(sub n) states via spin orbit interactions. The experimental procedures and the results of various measurements are discussed in this paper.

  1. Applications of phosphorescent materials for in-vivo imaging of brain structure and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boverman, Gregory; Shi, Xiaolei; Cotero, Victoria E.; Filkins, Robert J.; Srivastava, Alok M.; Lorraine, Peter W.; Neculaes, Vasile B.; Ishaque, A. N.

    2016-03-01

    A number of approaches have been developed for in-vivo imaging of neural function at the time scale of action potentials and at the spatial resolution of individual neurons. Remarkable results have been obtained with optogenetics, although the need for genetic modification is an important limitation of these approaches. Similarly, voltage and ion-sensitive dyes allow for optical imaging of action potentials but toxicity remains a problem. Additionally, optical techniques are often only able to be used up to a limited depth. Our preliminary work has shown that nanoparticles of common phosphorescent materials, believed to be generally non-toxic, specifically lutetium oxide and strontium aluminate, can be utilized for cellular imaging, for tomographic imaging, and that the particles can be designed to adhere to neurons. Additionally, lutetium oxide has been shown to be highly X-ray luminescent, potentially allowing for imaging deep within the brain, if the particles can be targeted properly. In ex vivo experiments, we have shown that the phosphorescence of strontium aluminate particles is significantly affected by electric fields similar in strength to those found in the vicinity of the cellular membrane of a neuron. This phenomenon is consistent with early published reports in the electroluminescence literature, namely the Gudden-Pohl effect. We will show results of the ex vivo imaging and dynamic electrical stimulation experiments. We will also show some preliminary ex vivo cell culture results, and will describe plans for future research, focusing on potential in both cell cultures and in vivo for animal models.

  2. Structural perturbations of azurin deposited on solid matrices as revealed by trp phosphorescence.

    PubMed Central

    Gabellieri, E; Strambini, G B

    2001-01-01

    The phosphorescence emission of Cd-azurin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was used as a probe of possible perturbations in the dynamical structure of the protein core that may be induced by protein-sorbent and protein-protein interactions occurring when the macromolecule is deposited into amorphous, thin solid films. Relative to the protein in aqueous solution, the spectrum is unrelaxed and the phosphorescence decay becomes highly heterogeneous, the average lifetime increasing sharply with film thickness and upon its dehydration. According to the lifetime parameter, adsorption of the protein to the substrate is found to produce a multiplicity of partially unfolded structures, an influence that propagates for several protein layers from the surface. Among the substrates used for film deposition, hydrophilic silica, dextran, DEAE-dextran, dextran sulfate, and hydrophobic octodecylamine, the perturbation is smallest with dextran sulfate and largest with octodecylamine. The destabilizing effect of protein-protein interactions, as monitored on 50-layer-thick films, is most evident at a relative humidity of 75%. Stabilizing agents were incorporated to attenuate the deleterious effects of protein aggregation. Among them, the most effective in preserving a more native-like structure are the disaccharides sucrose and trehalose in dry films and the polymer dextran in wet films. Interestingly, the polymer was found to achieve maximum efficacy at sensibly lower additive/protein ratios than the sugars. PMID:11325742

  3. Comparative Kinetic Analysis of Closed-Ended and Open-Ended Porous Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yiliang; Gaur, Girija; Mernaugh, Raymond L.; Laibinis, Paul E.; Weiss, Sharon M.

    2016-09-01

    Efficient mass transport through porous networks is essential for achieving rapid response times in sensing applications utilizing porous materials. In this work, we show that open-ended porous membranes can overcome diffusion challenges experienced by closed-ended porous materials in a microfluidic environment. A theoretical model including both transport and reaction kinetics is employed to study the influence of flow velocity, bulk analyte concentration, analyte diffusivity, and adsorption rate on the performance of open-ended and closed-ended porous sensors integrated with flow cells. The analysis shows that open-ended pores enable analyte flow through the pores and greatly reduce the response time and analyte consumption for detecting large molecules with slow diffusivities compared with closed-ended pores for which analytes largely flow over the pores. Experimental confirmation of the results was carried out with open- and closed-ended porous silicon (PSi) microcavities fabricated in flow-through and flow-over sensor configurations, respectively. The adsorption behavior of small analytes onto the inner surfaces of closed-ended and open-ended PSi membrane microcavities was similar. However, for large analytes, PSi membranes in a flow-through scheme showed significant improvement in response times due to more efficient convective transport of analytes. The experimental results and theoretical analysis provide quantitative estimates of the benefits offered by open-ended porous membranes for different analyte systems.

  4. Some Formal Approaches to the Analysis of Kinetic Data in Terms of Linear Compartmental Systems

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Mones; Shahn, Ezra; Weiss, Marjory F.

    1962-01-01

    A formal approach to the routine analysis of kinetic data in terms of linear compartmental systems is presented. The methods of analysis are general in that they include much of the theory in common use, such as direct solution of differential equations, integral equations, transfer functions, fitting of data to sums of exponentials, matrix solutions, etc. The key to the formalism presented lies in the fact that a basic operational unit—called “compartment”—has been defined, in terms of which physical and mathematical models as well as input and output functions can be expressed. Additional features for calculating linear combinations of functions and for setting linear dependence relations between parameters add to the versatility of this method. The actual computations for the values of model parameters to yield a least squares fit of the data are performed on a digital computer. A general computer program was developed that permits the routine fitting of data and the evolution of models. PMID:13867976

  5. Pyrolysis and oxy-fuel combustion characteristics and kinetics of petrochemical wastewater sludge using thermogravimetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianbiao; Mu, Lin; Cai, Jingcheng; Yao, Pikai; Song, Xigeng; Yin, Hongchao; Li, Aimin

    2015-12-01

    The pyrolysis and oxy-fuel combustion characteristics of petrochemical wastewater sludge (PS) were studied in air (O2/N2) and oxy-fuel (O2/CO2) atmospheres using non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Pyrolysis experiments showed that the weight loss profiles were almost similar up to 1050K in both N2 and CO2 atmospheres, while further weight loss took place in CO2 atmosphere at higher temperatures due to char-CO2 gasification. Compared with 20%O2/80%N2, the drying and devolatilization stage of PS were delayed in 20%O2/80%CO2 due to the differences in properties of the diluting gases. In oxy-fuel combustion experiments, with O2 concentration increasing, characteristic temperatures decreased, while characteristic combustion rates and combustion performance indexes increased. Kinetic analysis of PS decomposition under various atmospheres was performed using Coats-Redfern approach. The results indicated that, with O2 concentration increasing, the activation energies of Step 1 almost kept constant, while the values of subsequent three steps increased.

  6. Crystallization Kinetics of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Seal Glass by Differential Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Gamble, Eleanor A.

    2005-01-01

    Crystallization kinetics of a barium calcium aluminosilicate glass (BCAS), a sealant material for planar solid oxide fuel cells, have been investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA). From variation of DTA peak maximum temperature with heating rate, the activation energy for glass crystallization was calculated to be 259 kJ/mol. Development of crystalline phases on thermal treatments of the glass at various temperatures has been followed by powder x-ray diffraction. Microstructure and chemical composition of the crystalline phases were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopic (EDS) analysis. BaSiO3 and hexacelsian (BaAl2Si2O8) were the primary crystalline phases whereas monoclinic celsian (BaAl2Si2O8) and (Ba(x), Ca(y))SiO4 were also detected as minor phases. Needle-shaped BaSiO3 crystals are formed first, followed by the formation of other phases at longer times of heat treatments. The glass does not fully crystallize even after long term heat treatments at 750 to 900 C.

  7. A proteomic kinetic analysis of IGROV1 ovarian carcinoma cell line response to cisplatin treatment.

    PubMed

    Le Moguen, Karen; Lincet, Hubert; Marcelo, Paulo; Lemoisson, Edwige; Heutte, Natacha; Duval, Marilyne; Poulain, Laurent; Vinh, Joëlle; Gauduchon, Pascal; Baudin, Bruno

    2007-11-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality by gynecological cancer. Despite good response to surgery and initial chemotherapy, essentially based on cisplatin (cis-diamino-dichloro-platinum(II) (CDDP)) compounds, frequent recurrences with chemoresistance acquisition are responsible for poor prognosis. Several mechanisms have been described as implicated in CDDP resistance, however they are not sufficient to exhaustively account for this resistance emergence. We applied a proteomic approach based on 2-DE coupled with MS (MALDI-TOF/TOF) to identify proteins associated with chemoresistance induced by CDDP. A kinetic analysis of IGROV1 cell behavior following treatment with CDDP and subsequent statistical analysis revealed time and/or concentration-dependent modifications in protein expression. We evidenced events such as decreased amino-acid and nucleotide synthesis potentially associated with cell cycle blockade, and variations that may be related to resistance acquisition, such as possible enhanced glycolysis and increased proliferating potential. Moreover, overexpressions of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 and both cytokeratins 8 and 18 were consistent with our previous findings, demonstrating that expression of these proteins was increased in cisplatin-resistant IGROV1-R10 as compared to IGROV1 parental cells. Identification of such proteins could allow improved understanding of the mechanisms leading to cell death or survival and, thus, to the acquisition of chemoresistance.

  8. Accounting for the kinetics in order parameter analysis: Lessons from theoretical models and a disordered peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezovska, Ganna; Prada-Gracia, Diego; Mostarda, Stefano; Rao, Francesco

    2012-11-01

    Molecular simulations as well as single molecule experiments have been widely analyzed in terms of order parameters, the latter representing candidate probes for the relevant degrees of freedom. Notwithstanding this approach is very intuitive, mounting evidence showed that such descriptions are inaccurate, leading to ambiguous definitions of states and wrong kinetics. To overcome these limitations a framework making use of order parameter fluctuations in conjunction with complex network analysis is investigated. Derived from recent advances in the analysis of single molecule time traces, this approach takes into account the fluctuations around each time point to distinguish between states that have similar values of the order parameter but different dynamics. Snapshots with similar fluctuations are used as nodes of a transition network, the clusterization of which into states provides accurate Markov-state-models of the system under study. Application of the methodology to theoretical models with a noisy order parameter as well as the dynamics of a disordered peptide illustrates the possibility to build accurate descriptions of molecular processes on the sole basis of order parameter time series without using any supplementary information.

  9. Novel degradation pathway and kinetic analysis for buprofezin removal by newly isolated Bacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangli; Xu, Dayong; Xiong, Minghua; Zhang, Hui; Li, Feng; Liu, Yuan

    2016-09-15

    Given the intensive and widespread application of the pesticide, buprofezin, its environmental residues potentially pose a problem; yet little is known about buprofezin's kinetic and metabolic behaviors. In this study, a novel gram-positive strain, designated BF-5, isolated from aerobic activated sludge, was found to be capable of metabolizing buprofezin as its sole energy, carbon, and nitrogen source. Based on its physiological and biochemical characteristics, other aspects of its phenotype, and a phylogenetic analysis, strain BF-5 was identified as Bacillus sp. This study investigated the effect of culture conditions on bacterial growth and substrate degradation, such as pH, temperature, initial concentration, different nitrogen source, and additional nitrogen sources as co-substrates. The degradation rate parameters, qmax, Ks, Ki and Sm were determined to be 0.6918 h(-1), 105.4 mg L(-1), 210.5 mg L(-1), and 148.95 mg L(-1) respectively. The capture of unpublished potential metabolites by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis has led to the proposal of a novel degradation pathway. Taken together, our results clarify buprofezin's biodegradation pathway(s) and highlight the promising potential of strain BF-5 in bioremediation of buprofezin-contaminated environments.

  10. In vitro kinetic analysis of oligofructose consumption by Bacteroides and Bifidobacterium spp. indicates different degradation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Van der Meulen, Roel; Makras, Lefteris; Verbrugghe, Kristof; Adriany, Tom; De Vuyst, Luc

    2006-02-01

    The growth of pure cultures of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron LMG 11262 and Bacteroides fragilis LMG 10263 on fructose and oligofructose was examined and compared to that of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 through in vitro laboratory fermentations. Gas chromatography (GC) analysis was used to determine the different fractions of oligofructose and their degradation during the fermentation process. Both B. thetaiotaomicron LMG 11262 and B. fragilis LMG 10263 were able to grow on oligofructose as fast as on fructose, succinic acid being the major metabolite produced by both strains. B. longum BB536 grew slower on oligofructose than on fructose. Acetic acid and lactic acid were the main metabolites produced when fructose was used as the sole energy source. Increased amounts of formic acid and ethanol were produced when oligofructose was used as an energy source at the cost of lactic acid. Detailed kinetic analysis revealed a preferential metabolism of the short oligofructose fractions (e.g., F2 and F3) for B. longum BB536. After depletion of the short fractions, the larger oligofructose fractions (e.g., F4, GF4, F5, GF5, and F6) were metabolized, too. Both Bacteroides strains did not display such a preferential metabolism and degraded all oligofructose fractions simultaneously, transiently increasing the fructose concentration in the medium. This suggests a different mechanism for oligofructose breakdown between the strain of Bifidobacterium and both strains of Bacteroides, which helps to explain the bifidogenic nature of inulin-type fructans.

  11. Sum over Histories Representation for Kinetic Sensitivity Analysis: How Chemical Pathways Change When Reaction Rate Coefficients Are Varied.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shirong; Davis, Michael J; Skodje, Rex T

    2015-11-12

    The sensitivity of kinetic observables is analyzed using a newly developed sum over histories representation of chemical kinetics. In the sum over histories representation, the concentrations of the chemical species are decomposed into the sum of probabilities for chemical pathways that follow molecules from reactants to products or intermediates. Unlike static flux methods for reaction path analysis, the sum over histories approach includes the explicit time dependence of the pathway probabilities. Using the sum over histories representation, the sensitivity of an observable with respect to a kinetic parameter such as a rate coefficient is then analyzed in terms of how that parameter affects the chemical pathway probabilities. The method is illustrated for species concentration target functions in H2 combustion where the rate coefficients are allowed to vary over their associated uncertainty ranges. It is found that large sensitivities are often associated with rate limiting steps along important chemical pathways or by reactions that control the branching of reactive flux.

  12. The platinum microelectrode/Nafion interface - An electrochemical impedance spectroscopic analysis of oxygen reduction kinetics and Nafion characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parthasarathy, Arvind; Dave, Bhasker; Srinivasan, Supramaniam; Appleby, John A.; Martin, Charles R.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to use electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to study the oxygen-reduction reaction under lower humidification conditions than previously studied. The EIS technique permits the discrimination of electrode kinetics of oxygen reduction, mass transport of O2 in the membrane, and the electrical characteristics of the membrane. Electrode-kinetic parameters for the oxygen-reduction reaction, corrosion current densities for Pt, and double-layer capacitances were calculated. The production of water due to electrochemical reduction of oxygen greatly influenced the EIS response and the electrode kinetics at the Pt/Nafion interface. From the finite-length Warburg behavior, a measure of the diffusion coefficient of oxygen in Nafion and diffusion-layer thickness was obtained. An analysis of the EIS data in the high-frequency domain yielded membrane and interfacial characteristics such as ionic conductivity of the membrane, membrane grain-boundary capacitance and resistance, and uncompensated resistance.

  13. Integrated Analysis of Contractile Kinetics, Force Generation, and Electrical Activity in Single Human Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Kijlstra, Jan David; Hu, Dongjian; Mittal, Nikhil; Kausel, Eduardo; van der Meer, Peter; Garakani, Arman; Domian, Ibrahim J

    2015-12-08

    The quantitative analysis of cardiomyocyte function is essential for stem cell-based approaches for the in vitro study of human cardiac physiology and pathophysiology. We present a method to comprehensively assess the function of single human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte (hPSC-CMs) through simultaneous quantitative analysis of contraction kinetics, force generation, and electrical activity. We demonstrate that statistical analysis of movies of contracting hPSC-CMs can be used to quantify changes in cellular morphology over time and compute contractile kinetics. Using a biomechanical model that incorporates substrate stiffness, we calculate cardiomyocyte force generation at single-cell resolution and validate this approach with conventional traction force microscopy. The addition of fluorescent calcium indicators or membrane potential dyes allows the simultaneous analysis of contractility and calcium handling or action potential morphology. Accordingly, our approach has the potential for broad application in the study of cardiac disease, drug discovery, and cardiotoxicity screening.

  14. Integrated Analysis of Contractile Kinetics, Force Generation, and Electrical Activity in Single Human Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kijlstra, Jan David; Hu, Dongjian; Mittal, Nikhil; Kausel, Eduardo; van der Meer, Peter; Garakani, Arman; Domian, Ibrahim J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The quantitative analysis of cardiomyocyte function is essential for stem cell-based approaches for the in vitro study of human cardiac physiology and pathophysiology. We present a method to comprehensively assess the function of single human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte (hPSC-CMs) through simultaneous quantitative analysis of contraction kinetics, force generation, and electrical activity. We demonstrate that statistical analysis of movies of contracting hPSC-CMs can be used to quantify changes in cellular morphology over time and compute contractile kinetics. Using a biomechanical model that incorporates substrate stiffness, we calculate cardiomyocyte force generation at single-cell resolution and validate this approach with conventional traction force microscopy. The addition of fluorescent calcium indicators or membrane potential dyes allows the simultaneous analysis of contractility and calcium handling or action potential morphology. Accordingly, our approach has the potential for broad application in the study of cardiac disease, drug discovery, and cardiotoxicity screening. PMID:26626178

  15. Biocompatible hybrid nanomaterials involving polymers and hydrogels interfaced with phosphorescent complexes and toxin-free metallic nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marpu, Sreekar B.

    The major topics discussed are all relevant to interfacing brightly phosphorescent and non-luminescent coinage metal complexes of [Ag(I) and Au(I)] with biopolymers and thermoresponsive gels for making hybrid nanomaterials with an explanation on syntheses, characterization and their significance in biomedical fields. Experimental results and ongoing work on determining outreaching consequences of these hybrid nanomaterials for various biomedical applications like cancer therapy, bio-imaging and antibacterial abilities are described. In vitro and in vivo studies have been performed on majority of the discussed hybrid nanomaterials and determined that the cytotoxicity or antibacterial activity are comparatively superior when compared to analogues in literature. Consequential differences are noticed in photoluminescence enhancement from hybrid phosphorescent hydrogels, phosphorescent complex ability to physically crosslink, Au(I) sulfides tendency to form NIR (near-infrared) absorbing AuNPs compared to any similar work in literature. Syntheses of these hybrid nanomaterials has been thoroughly investigated and it is determined that either metallic nanoparticles syntheses or syntheses of phosphorescent hydrogels can be carried in single step without involving any hazardous reducing agents or crosslinkers or stabilizers that are commonly employed during multiple step syntheses protocols for syntheses of similar materials in literature. These astounding results that have been discovered within studies of hybrid nanomaterials are an asset to applications ranging from materials development to health science and will have striking effect on environmental and green chemistry approaches.

  16. Study of the heavy atom-induced room temperature phosphorescence properties of melatonin and its analytical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amjadi, Mohammad; Manzoori, Jamshid L.; Miller, James N.

    2006-02-01

    Liquid phase room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) properties of melatonin were studied using heavy atom induced-room temperature phosphorescence (HAI-RTP) technique. 1.2 M potassium iodide was used as a heavy atom reagent together with 0.002 M sodium sulphite as deoxygenating agent to produce the RTP signal. The maximum phosphorescence emission and excitation wavelengths of melatonin were 290 and 457 nm, respectively. The effect of potassium iodide concentration on the RTP lifetime of melatonin was also investigated and based on the results, the rate constants for phosphorescence decay ( kp) and radiationless deactivation through reaction with heavy atom ( kh) were determined. Based on the obtained results, a simple and sensitive room temperature phosphorimetric method was developed for the determination of melatonin. The method allowed the determination of 10.0-200 ng ml -1 melatonin in aqueous solution with the limits of detection and quantification of 3.6 and 12 ng ml -1, respectively. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied to the determination of melatonin in commercial pharmaceutical formulations.

  17. Phosphorescence lifetimes of organic light-emitting diodes from two-component time-dependent density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kühn, Michael; Weigend, Florian

    2014-12-14

    “Spin-forbidden” transitions are calculated for an eight-membered set of iridium-containing candidate molecules for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) using two-component time-dependent density functional theory. Phosphorescence lifetimes (obtained from averaging over relevant excitations) are compared to experimental data. Assessment of parameters like non-distorted and distorted geometric structures, density functionals, relativistic Hamiltonians, and basis sets was done by a thorough study for Ir(ppy){sub 3} focussing not only on averaged phosphorescence lifetimes, but also on the agreement of the triplet substate structure with experimental data. The most favorable methods were applied to an eight-membered test set of OLED candidate molecules; Boltzmann-averaged phosphorescence lifetimes were investigated concerning the convergence with the number of excited states and the changes when including solvent effects. Finally, a simple model for sorting out molecules with long averaged phosphorescence lifetimes is developed by visual inspection of computationally easily achievable one-component frontier orbitals.

  18. Photocatalytic reaction characteristics of the titanium dioxide supported on the long phosphorescent phosphor by a low pressure chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Sik; Kim, Seung-Woo; Jung, Sang-Chul

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the photocatalytic behavior of titanium dioxide (TiO2)-supported on the long phosphorescent materials. Nanocrystalline TiO2 was directly deposited on the plate of alkaline earth aluminate phosphor, CaAl2O4: Eu2+, Nd3+ by a low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD). Photocatalytic reaction performance was examined with the decomposition of benzene gas by using a gas chromatography (GC) system under ultraviolet and visible light (λ > 410 nm) irradiations. The LPCVD TiO2-coated phosphors showed active photocatalytic reaction under visible irradiation. The mechanism of the photocatalytic reactivity for the TiO,-coated phosphorescent phosphor was discussed in terms of the energy band structure and phosphorescence. The coupling of TiO2 with phosphor may result in energy band bending in the junction region, which makes the TiO, crystal at the interface to be photo-reactive under visible light irradiation. The fastest degradation of ben- zene gas occurred for the TiO,-coated phosphor prepared with 1 min deposition time (-150 nm thickness). The LPCVD TiO,-coated phosphor is also photo-reactive under darkness through the light photons emitted from the CaAl2O4 phosphor. In addition, the TiO2-coated phosphorescent phosphors were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  19. Doped zinc sulfide quantum dots based phosphorescence turn-off/on probe for detecting histidine in biological fluid.

    PubMed

    Bian, Wei; Wang, Fang; Wei, Yanli; Wang, Li; Liu, Qiaoling; Dong, Wenjuan; Shuang, Shaomin; Choi, Martin M F

    2015-01-26

    We report a turn-on phosphorescence probe for detection of histidine based on Co(2+)-adsorbed N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) capped Mn: ZnS quantum dots (QDs) which is directly synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The phosphorescence of NAC-Mn: ZnS QDs is effectively quenched by Co(2+) attributing to the adsorption of Co(2+) onto the surface of QDs with a concomitant in suppressing the recombination process of hole and electron of QDs. The phosphorescence of Co(2+)-adsorbed NAC-Mn: ZnS QDs can be recovered by binding of Co(2+) with histidine. The quenching and regeneration of the phosphorescence of NAC-Mn: ZnS QDs have been studied in detail. The as-prepared QDs-based probe is applied to determine histidine with a linear range of 1.25-30 μM and a detection limit of 0.74 μM. The relative standard deviation for eleven repeat detections of 20 μM histidine is 0.65%. Co(2+)-adsorbed NAC-Mn: ZnS QDs show high sensitivity and good selectivity to histidine over other amino acids, metal ions and co-existing substances. The proposed QDs probe has been successfully applied to determination of histidine in human urine samples with good recoveries of 98.5-103%.

  20. CERENA: ChEmical REaction Network Analyzer--A Toolbox for the Simulation and Analysis of Stochastic Chemical Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Kazeroonian, Atefeh; Fröhlich, Fabian; Raue, Andreas; Theis, Fabian J; Hasenauer, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression, signal transduction and many other cellular processes are subject to stochastic fluctuations. The analysis of these stochastic chemical kinetics is important for understanding cell-to-cell variability and its functional implications, but it is also challenging. A multitude of exact and approximate descriptions of stochastic chemical kinetics have been developed, however, tools to automatically generate the descriptions and compare their accuracy and computational efficiency are missing. In this manuscript we introduced CERENA, a toolbox for the analysis of stochastic chemical kinetics using Approximations of the Chemical Master Equation solution statistics. CERENA implements stochastic simulation algorithms and the finite state projection for microscopic descriptions of processes, the system size expansion and moment equations for meso- and macroscopic descriptions, as well as the novel conditional moment equations for a hybrid description. This unique collection of descriptions in a single toolbox facilitates the selection of appropriate modeling approaches. Unlike other software packages, the implementation of CERENA is completely general and allows, e.g., for time-dependent propensities and non-mass action kinetics. By providing SBML import, symbolic model generation and simulation using MEX-files, CERENA is user-friendly and computationally efficient. The availability of forward and adjoint sensitivity analyses allows for further studies such as parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis. The MATLAB code implementing CERENA is freely available from http://cerenadevelopers.github.io/CERENA/.

  1. LSENS: A General Chemical Kinetics and Sensitivity Analysis Code for homogeneous gas-phase reactions. Part 3: Illustrative test problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittker, David A.; Radhakrishnan, Krishnan

    1994-01-01

    LSENS, the Lewis General Chemical Kinetics and Sensitivity Analysis Code, has been developed for solving complex, homogeneous, gas-phase chemical kinetics problems and contains sensitivity analysis for a variety of problems, including nonisothermal situations. This report is part 3 of a series of three reference publications that describe LSENS, provide a detailed guide to its usage, and present many example problems. Part 3 explains the kinetics and kinetics-plus-sensitivity analysis problems supplied with LSENS and presents sample results. These problems illustrate the various capabilities of, and reaction models that can be solved by, the code and may provide a convenient starting point for the user to construct the problem data file required to execute LSENS. LSENS is a flexible, convenient, accurate, and efficient solver for chemical reaction problems such as static system; steady, one-dimensional, inviscid flow; reaction behind incident shock wave, including boundary layer correction; and perfectly stirred (highly backmixed) reactor. In addition, the chemical equilibrium state can be computed for the following assigned states: temperature and pressure, enthalpy and pressure, temperature and volume, and internal energy and volume. For static problems the code computes the sensitivity coefficients of the dependent variables and their temporal derivatives with respect to the initial values of the dependent variables and/or the three rate coefficient parameters of the chemical reactions.

  2. Machine vision analysis for industrial beet color change kinetics and total soluble solid content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A machine vision system (MVS) for the measurement of color change kinetics in crushed industrial beet to evaluate the total soluble solid content (°Brix) was developed in this study. It is expected that higher the °Brix faster the color change and modeling this color change kinetics helps in assessi...

  3. Entropy Analysis of Kinetic Flux Vector Splitting Schemes for the Compressible Euler Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiuhong, Lui; Xu, Jun

    1999-01-01

    Flux Vector Splitting (FVS) scheme is one group of approximate Riemann solvers for the compressible Euler equations. In this paper, the discretized entropy condition of the Kinetic Flux Vector Splitting (KFVS) scheme based on the gas-kinetic theory is proved. The proof of the entropy condition involves the entropy definition difference between the distinguishable and indistinguishable particles.

  4. Toluene combustion: reaction paths, thermochemical properties, and kinetic analysis for the methylphenyl radical + O2 reaction.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Gabriel; Chen, Chiung-Chu; Bozzelli, Joseph W

    2007-09-06

    Aromatic compounds such as toluene and xylene are major components of many fuels. Accurate kinetic mechanisms for the combustion of toluene are, however, incomplete, as they do not accurately model experimental results such as strain rates and ignition times and consistently underpredict conversion. Current kinetic mechanisms for toluene combustion neglect the reactions of the methylphenyl radicals, and we believe that this is responsible, in part, for the shortcomings of these models. We also demonstrate how methylphenyl radical formation is important in the combustion and pyrolysis of other alkyl-substituted aromatic compounds such as xylene and trimethylbenzene. We have studied the oxidation reactions of the methylphenyl radicals with O2 using computational ab initio and density functional theory methods. A detailed reaction submechanism is presented for the 2-methylphenyl radical + O2 system, with 16 intermediates and products. For each species, enthalpies of formation are calculated using the computational methods G3 and G3B3, with isodesmic work reactions used to minimize computational errors. Transition states are calculated at the G3B3 level, yielding high-pressure limit elementary rate constants as a function of temperature. For the barrierless methylphenyl + O2 and methylphenoxy + O association reactions, rate constants are determined from variational transition state theory. Multichannel, multifrequency quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (qRRK) theory, with master equation analysis for falloff, provides rate constants as a function of temperature and pressure from 800 to 2400 K and 1 x 10(-4) to 1 x 10(3) atm. Analysis of our results shows that the dominant pathways for reaction of the three isomeric methylphenyl radicals is formation of methyloxepinoxy radicals and subsequent ring opening to methyl-dioxo-hexadienyl radicals. The next most important reaction pathway involves formation of methylphenoxy radicals + O in a chain branching process. At lower

  5. The evolution of clinical gait analysis part III--kinetics and energy assessment.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, D H

    2005-06-01

    Historically, clinical applications of measurements of force and energy followed electromyography and kinematics in temporal sequence. This sequence is mirrored by the order of topics included in this trilogy on the Evolution of Clinical Gait Analysis, with part I [Sutherland DH. The evolution of clinical gait analysis part I: kinesiological EMG. Gait Posture 2001;14:61-70.] devoted to Kinesiological EMG and part II [Sutherland DH. The evolution of clinical gait analysis part II - kinematics. Gait Posture 2002;16(2):159-179.] to Kinematics. This final review in the series will focus on kinetics as it relates to gait applications. Kinematic measurements give the movements of the body segments, which can be compared with normal controls to identify pathological gait patterns, but they do not deal with the forces controlling the movements. As a major goal of scientifically minded clinicians is to understand the biomechanical forces producing movements, the objective measurement of ground reaction forces is essential. The force plate (platform) is now an indispensable tool in a state-of-the-art motion analysis laboratory. Nonetheless, it is not a stand-alone instrument as both kinematic and EMG measurements are needed for maximum clinical implementation and interpretation of force plate measurements. The subject of energy assessment is also given mention, as there is a compelling interest in whether walking has been made easier with intervention. The goals of this manuscript are to provide a historical background, recognize some of the important contributors, and describe the current multiple uses of the force plate in gait analysis. The widespread use of force plates for postural analyses is an important and more recent application of this technology, but this review will be restricted to measurements of gait rather than balance activities. Finally, this manuscript presents my personal perspective and discusses the developments and contributors that have shaped my

  6. Combination Of Static And Dynami,C Stereophotogrammetry For The Kinetic Analysis Of Human Locomotion: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaer, Alex R.; Sheffer, Daniel B.; Jones, D.; Meier, G.; Baumann, Juerg U.

    1989-04-01

    For a deeper understanding of the complexity of human walking movement not only a kinematic analysis , but also a comprehensive three-dimensional biomechanical model of the human body is required to detail the kinetic activities. This research combined static stereophotogrammetric determination of body segment mass parameters with three-dimensional gait analysis by cinephotography, direct linear transformation and two force plates. A method of combining the two independent analyses by defining the anatomical axes of each segment is shown. Practical problems arising in dynamic and stereometric analysis are demonstrated. Power spectra of a normal and a matched subject with spastic diplegia were calculated for a proper design of the kinematic analysis.

  7. Classification and kinetic analysis of viscosity growth processes for NaOH-gelatinized rice starches.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hisashi; Sawai, Nozomi; Seo, Kanako

    2013-09-12

    Using capillary viscometry, viscosity growth processes were studied for non-glutinous rice starches gelatinized with different NaOH solution concentrations. The viscosity-time data series generally conformed to sigmoid curves with an arbitrary inflection point (IP) for each curve, and were analyzed using a kinetic model that incorporated a first-order reaction rate equation and a mixing rule of a power-law type. The shapes of curves were classified with the exponent ν or the ratio η(*)/ηG, where η(*) and ηG were viscosities at IP and at equilibrium, respectively. It was argued that these parameters were related to the complex formation arising from NaOH-starch interactions. The rate constant K defined uniformly for an entire process increased with NaOH concentration and was power-law dependent. Furthermore, it was suggested that gelatinization evolved non-uniformly over time. A non-uniform analysis was then performed by disassembling the entire process into several elementary stages and revealed the evolutionary process for K.

  8. Single-cell analysis of transcription kinetics across the cell cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Samuel; Xu, Heng; Jaiswal, Sonal; Freire, Pablo; Zwaka, Thomas; Golding, Ido

    2015-03-01

    Transcription is a highly stochastic process. A common way of inferring transcription kinetics is to measure mRNA abundance in individual cells and compare the observed copy-number statistics to the prediction of a theoretical stochastic model. However, the reliability of this procedure is hampered by the fact that the measured mRNA numbers represent integration over the finite lifetime of mRNA, over multiple copies of the same gene, and the mixing of cells from different phases of the cell cycle. Here we address these limitations by simultaneously quantifying nascent and mature mRNA in individual cells, and incorporating gene-copy and cell-cycle effects in the analysis of mRNA statistics. We demonstrate this approach on Oct4 and Nanog, two key players in the mouse pluripotency network. We find that both genes are well described by a two-state stochastic model for transcription initiation. The difference in their expression characteristics is attributed to a 2.6-fold difference in the probability of switching to an active transcriptional state. Early in the cell cycle, the two copies of each gene exhibit independent activity. However, after gene replication, the probability of each gene copy to be active diminishes, resulting in dosage compensation.

  9. Integrated kinematics-kinetics-plantar pressure data analysis: a useful tool for characterizing diabetic foot biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Sawacha, Zimi; Guarneri, Gabriella; Cristoferi, Giuseppe; Guiotto, Annamaria; Avogaro, Angelo; Cobelli, Claudio

    2012-05-01

    The fundamental cause of lower-extremity complications in diabetes is chronic hyperglycemia leading to diabetic foot ulcer pathology. While the relationship between abnormal plantar pressure distribution and plantar ulcers has been widely investigated, little is known about the role of shear stress. Moreover, the mutual relationship among plantar pressure, shear stress, and abnormal kinematics in the etiology of diabetic foot has not been established. This lack of knowledge is determined by the lack of commercially available instruments which allow such a complex analysis. This study aims to develop a method for the simultaneous assessment of kinematics, kinetics, and plantar pressure on foot subareas of diabetic subjects by means of combining three commercial systems. Data were collected during gait on 24 patients (12 controls and 12 diabetic neuropathics) with a motion capture system synchronized with two force plates and two baropodometric systems. A four segment three-dimensional foot kinematics model was adopted for the subsegment angles estimation together with a three segment model for the plantar sub-area definition during gait. The neuropathic group exhibited significantly excessive plantar pressure, ground reaction forces on each direction, and a reduced loading surface on the midfoot subsegment (p<0.04). Furthermore the same subsegment displayed excessive dorsiflexion, external rotation, and eversion (p<0.05). Initial results showed that this methodology may enable a more appropriate characterization of patients at risk of foot ulcerations, and help planning prevention programs.

  10. [Analog computer analysis of radioactivity kinetics in man following oral administration of tilidine HCl-14C].

    PubMed

    Ringwelski, L

    1975-03-01

    Models for studying the absorption and elimination kinetics of 14-C labelled DL-Ethyl-trans-2-dimethylamino-1-phenyl-cyclohex-3-ene-trans-1-carboxylate-hydrochloride (Tilidine - HCl, Valoron) are developed, based on the concentration vs. time of radioactivity in the plasma following a single oral administration in man. For this purpose, the average concentration values in the plasma of 3 healthy adults, as given by Vollmer and Poisson [12] were employed. 1. Two three-compartment-models were developed which simulate with sufficient accuracy the 14-C-Valoron concentration curve in the plasma. 2. Computer analysis enables one to determine the distribution of 14-C-Valoron among the intra- and extravasal compartments and the half life for absorption t1/2 equals 0.57 h, for transport from plasma into the extravasal compartment t1/2 equals 3.31 h, for resorption t1/2 equals 4.11 h, for elimination with feces t1/2 equals 29.5 h and for elimination in urine t1/2 equals 8.75 h. 3. The use of two different models allows one to draw conclusions concerning the participation of parenchymatous organs in storage and elimination. 4. The probable radioactivity curve is calculated for repeated oral application of 14-C-Valoron in 8 hours intervals.

  11. Vacuum pyrolysis characteristics and kinetic analysis of liquid crystal from scrap liquid crystal display panels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya; Zhang, Lingen; Xu, Zhenming

    2017-04-05

    Recycling of waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels is an urgent task with the rapid expanding LCD market. However, as important composition of LCD panels, the treatment of liquid crystal is seldom concerned for its low concentration. In present study, a stripping product enriched liquid crystal and indium is gained by mechanical stripping process, in which liquid crystal is enriched from 0.3wt.% to 53wt.% and indium is enriched from 0.02wt.% to 7.95wt.%. For the stripping product, liquid crystal should be removed before indium recovery because (a) liquid crystal will hinder indium recycling; (b) liquid crystal is hazardous waste. Hence, an effective and green approach by vacuum pyrolysis is proposed to treat liquid crystal in the stripping product. The results are summarized as: (i) From the perspective of apparent activation energy, the advantages of vacuum pyrolysis is expounded according to kinetic analysis. (ii) 89.10wt.% of liquid crystal is converted and the content of indium in residue reaches 14.18wt.% under 773K, 15min and system pressure of 20Pa. This study provides reliable information for further industrial application and an essential pretreatment for the next step of indium recycling.

  12. Revisiting thermodynamics and kinetic diffusivities of uranium–niobium with Bayesian uncertainty analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Duong, Thien C.; Hackenberg, Robert Errol; Landa, Alex; ...

    2016-09-20

    In this paper, thermodynamic and kinetic diffusivities of uranium–niobium (U–Nb) are re-assessed by means of the CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagram) methodology. In order to improve the consistency and reliability of the assessments, first-principles calculations are coupled with CALPHAD. In particular, heats of formation of γ -U–Nb are estimated and verified using various density-functional theory (DFT) approaches. These thermochemistry data are then used as constraints to guide the thermodynamic optimization process in such a way that the mutual-consistency between first-principles calculations and CALPHAD assessment is satisfactory. In addition, long-term aging experiments are conducted in order to generate new phase equilibriamore » data at the γ2/α+γ2 boundary. These data are meant to verify the thermodynamic model. Assessment results are generally in good agreement with experiments and previous calculations, without showing the artifacts that were observed in previous modeling. The mutual-consistent thermodynamic description is then used to evaluate atomic mobility and diffusivity of γ-U–Nb. Finally, Bayesian analysis is conducted to evaluate the uncertainty of the thermodynamic model and its impact on the system's phase stability.« less

  13. Revisiting thermodynamics and kinetic diffusivities of uranium–niobium with Bayesian uncertainty analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Duong, Thien C.; Hackenberg, Robert Errol; Landa, Alex; Honarmandi, Pejman; Talapatra, Anjana; Volz, Heather Michelle; Llobet, Anna Megias; Smith, Alice Iulia; King, Graham Missell; Bajaj, Saurabh; Ruban, Andrei; Vitos, Levente; Turchi, Patrice E. A.; Arroyave, Raymundo

    2016-09-20

    In this paper, thermodynamic and kinetic diffusivities of uranium–niobium (U–Nb) are re-assessed by means of the CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagram) methodology. In order to improve the consistency and reliability of the assessments, first-principles calculations are coupled with CALPHAD. In particular, heats of formation of γ -U–Nb are estimated and verified using various density-functional theory (DFT) approaches. These thermochemistry data are then used as constraints to guide the thermodynamic optimization process in such a way that the mutual-consistency between first-principles calculations and CALPHAD assessment is satisfactory. In addition, long-term aging experiments are conducted in order to generate new phase equilibria data at the γ2/α+γ2 boundary. These data are meant to verify the thermodynamic model. Assessment results are generally in good agreement with experiments and previous calculations, without showing the artifacts that were observed in previous modeling. The mutual-consistent thermodynamic description is then used to evaluate atomic mobility and diffusivity of γ-U–Nb. Finally, Bayesian analysis is conducted to evaluate the uncertainty of the thermodynamic model and its impact on the system's phase stability.

  14. Age-Related Differences in Gait Kinematics, Kinetics, and Muscle Function: A Principal Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Schloemer, Sarah A; Thompson, Julie A; Silder, Amy; Thelen, Darryl G; Siston, Robert A

    2017-03-01

    Age-related increased hip extensor recruitment during gait is a proposed compensation strategy for reduced ankle power generation and may indicate a distal-to-proximal shift in muscle function with age. Extending beyond joint level analyses, identifying age-related changes at the muscle level could capture more closely the underlying mechanisms responsible for movement. The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare muscle forces and induced accelerations during gait in healthy older adults with those of young adults. Simulations of one gait cycle for ten older (73.9 ± 5.3 years) and six young (21.0 ± 2.1 years) adults walking at their self-selected speed were analyzed. Muscle force and induced acceleration waveforms, along with kinematic, kinetic, and muscle activation waveforms, were compared between age-groups using principal component analysis. Simulations of healthy older adults had greater gluteus maximus force and vertical support contribution, but smaller iliacus force, psoas force, and psoas vertical support contribution. There were no age-group differences in distal muscle force, contribution, or ankle torque magnitudes. Later peak dorsiflexion and peak ankle angular velocity in older adults may have contributed to their greater ankle power absorption during stance. These findings reveal the complex interplay between age-related changes in neuromuscular control, kinematics, and muscle function during gait.

  15. Analysis of fluid fuel flow to the neutron kinetics on molten salt reactor FUJI-12

    SciTech Connect

    Aji, Indarta Kuncoro; Waris, Abdul Permana, Sidik

    2015-09-30

    Molten Salt Reactor is a reactor are operating with molten salt fuel flowing. This condition interpret that the neutron kinetics of this reactor is affected by the flow rate of the fuel. This research analyze effect by the alteration velocity of the fuel by MSR type Fuji-12, with fuel composition LiF-BeF{sub 2}-ThF{sub 4}-{sup 233}UF{sub 4} respectively 71.78%-16%-11.86%-0.36%. Calculation process in this study is performed numerically by SOR and finite difference method use C programming language. Data of reactivity, neutron flux, and the macroscopic fission cross section for calculation process obtain from SRAC-CITATION (Standard thermal Reactor Analysis Code) and JENDL-4.0 data library. SRAC system designed and developed by JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). This study aims to observe the effect of the velocity of fuel salt to the power generated from neutron precursors at fourth year of reactor operate (last critical condition) with number of multiplication effective; 1.0155.

  16. Chloroplast translocations in Lemna trisulca L. induced by continuous irradiation and by light pulses : Kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Zurzycki, J; Walczak, T; Gabryś, H; Kajfosz, J

    1983-05-01

    The analytical model describing the steady state position of chloroplasts in dependence of fluence rate as well as the chloroplast response to single strong light pulses has been proposed. The model is based on the following assumptions: 1. Irradiation of the cell generates the state X in the cell membrane region, proportional to the local fluence rate. After switching on the light, the value of X increases exponentially with the time constant of about 3 min. The dark decay of X is also exponential with the same time constant. The level of X controls all kinds of chloroplast arrangements. 2. The state X generates two further states: Y 1 and Y 2, the first of them representing attraction forces for chloroplasts and the second representing repulsion forces. Empirical equations have been found for both Y states. The fluence rate response curve can be described with the use of functions Y 1 and Y 2. 3. The kinetic analysis requires the introduction of two additional functions Z in order to account for delays and time dispersion of the chloroplast movement in response to driving and resistance factors. The computer program for the proposed model was developed and the results of calculations were compared with experimental data (fluence rate response curve and pulse effects) with satisfactory agreement. Initially no attempt was made to ascribe any physical meaning to the postulated states. Some suggestions in this respect are mentioned in the discussion.

  17. Hydroxyl radical-induced degradation of fenuron in pulse and gamma radiolysis: kinetics and product analysis.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Krisztina; Mile, Viktoria; Csay, Tamás; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2014-11-01

    Radiolytic reactions of phenylureas were studied in detail with fenuron model compound in dilute aqueous solutions using pulse radiolysis for detection of the intermediates, gamma radiolysis with UV-Vis and HPLC-MS techniques for analysis of the final products. The kinetics of oxidation was followed by COD, TOC and toxicity measurements. During radiolysis of aerated solutions hydroxyl radical ((•)OH), eaq (-), H(•) and O2 (•-)/HO2 (•) reactive intermediates are produced, the degradation of solute takes place practically entirely through (•)OH reactions. Therefore, the product distribution is similar to the distributions reported in other advanced oxidation processes with (•)OH as main reactant. (•)OH mainly reacts with the aromatic ring, forming cyclohexadienyl radical as an intermediate. This radical in pulse radiolysis has a wide absorption band in the 310-390 nm wavelength range with a maximum at 350 nm. Cyclohexadienyl radical reacts with dissolved O2 with a rate coefficient of ∼ 4 × 10(8) mol(-1) dm(3) s(-1) forming peroxy radical. The latter may eliminate HO2 (•) giving phenols or undergoes fragmentation. The one-electron oxidant (•)OH on average induces more than two-electron oxidations. The toxicity first increases with absorbed dose, then decreases. This increase is partly due to phenols formed during the first degradation period.

  18. Biomechanics of octopedal locomotion: kinematic and kinetic analysis of the spider Grammostola mollicoma.

    PubMed

    Biancardi, Carlo M; Fabrica, C Gabriel; Polero, Patricia; Loss, Jefferson Fagundes; Minetti, Alberto E

    2011-10-15

    Despite the abundance of octapodal species and their evolutionary importance in originating terrestrial locomotion, the locomotion mechanics of spiders has received little attention so far. In this investigation we use inverse dynamics to study the locomotor performance of Grammostola mollicoma (18 g). Through 3-D kinematic measurements, the trajectory of the eight limbs and cephalothorax or abdomen allowed us to estimate the motion of the body centre of mass (COM) at different speeds. Classic mechanics of locomotion and multivariate analysis of several variables such as stride length and frequency, duty factor, mechanical external work and energy recovery, helped to identify two main gaits, a slow (speed <11 cm s(-1)) one and a fast one characterised by distinctive 3-D trajectories of COM. The total mechanical work (external + internal) calculated in the present study and metabolic data from the literature allowed us to estimate the locomotion efficiency of this species, which was less than 4%. Gait pattern due to alternating limb support, which generates asymmetrical COM trajectories and a small but consistent energy transfer between potential and kinetic energies of COM, is discussed both in terms of coordination indices and by referring to the octopod as formed by two quadrupeds in series. Analogies and differences of the newly obtained parameters with the allometric data and predictions are also illustrated.

  19. Kinetic analysis of interaction between N atoms and O-covered Ru(0001)

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Kai; Kleyn, A. W.; Gleeson, M. A.

    2015-10-28

    Eley-Rideal (ER) reactions involving neutral atoms heavier than hydrogen reacting with adsorbed atoms of similar mass were first observed in recent molecular beam experiments by Zaharia et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 053201 (2014)]. Through analysis of two types of measurements, they obtained different estimations for the N–O ER reaction cross section, one of which is unexpectedly high. This was qualitatively accounted for by invoking a secondary effect whereby the presence of N adatoms on the surface acted to “shield” O adatoms from prompt recombinative desorption. We apply a rate equation model that includes two ER processes involving different adsorbed species (N–O{sub ad} and N–N{sub ad}) and an N-adsorption process to the full-beam exposure subset of the experimental data in order to study the reaction kinetics. Values for the individual reaction cross sections are derived. The measured N{sub 2} response can be well described by the model, but it is insufficient to completely describe the NO response. Modeling of different exposures is used to evaluate the qualitative picture presented by Zaharia et al.

  20. Thermal stability and folding kinetics analysis of intrinsically disordered protein, securin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chia-Ching; Chu, Hsueh-Liang; Ho, Li-Ping

    2014-03-01

    Lacking a stable tertiary structure, intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) possess particular functions in cell regulation, signaling, and controlling pathways. The study of their unique structure features, thermal stabilities, and folding kinetics is intriguing. In this study, an identified IDP, securin, was used as a model protein. By using a quasi-static five-step (on-path) folding process, the function of securin was restored and analyzed by isothermal titration calorimetry. Fluorescence spectroscopy and particle size analysis indicated that securin possessed a compact hydrophobic core and particle size. The glass transition of securin was characterized using differential scanning microcalorimetry. Furthermore, the folding/unfolding rates (kobs) of securin were undetectable, implying that the folding/unfolding rate is very fast and that the conformation of securin is sensitive to solvent environment change. Therefore, securin may fold properly under specific physiological conditions. In summary, the thermal glass transition behavior and undetectable kobs of folding/unfolding reactions may be two of the indices of IDP. This study was supported in part by grants NSC 97-2112-M-009-009-YM3 and NSC 100-2112-M-009-004-MY3, Taiwan, R.O.C.

  1. In vivo control of soluble guanylate cyclase activation by nitric oxide: a kinetic analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Condorelli, P; George, S C

    2001-01-01

    Free nitric oxide (NO) activates soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), an enzyme, within both pulmonary and vascular smooth muscle. sGC catalyzes the cyclization of guanosine 5'-triphosphate to guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). Binding rates of NO to the ferrous heme(s) of sGC have been measured in vitro. However, a missing link in our understanding of the control mechanism of sGC by NO is a comprehensive in vivo kinetic analysis. Available literature data suggests that NO dissociation from the heme center of sGC is accelerated by its interaction with one or more cofactors in vivo. We present a working model for sGC activation and NO consumption in vivo. Our model predicts that NO influences the cGMP formation rate over a concentration range of approximately 5-100 nM (apparent Michaelis constant approximately 23 nM), with Hill coefficients between 1.1 and 1.5. The apparent reaction order for NO consumption by sGC is dependent on NO concentration, and varies between 0 and 1.5. Finally, the activation of sGC (half-life approximately 1-2 s) is much more rapid than deactivation (approximately 50 s). We conclude that control of sGC in vivo is most likely ultra-sensitive, and that activation in vivo occurs at lower NO concentrations than previously reported. PMID:11325714

  2. Screening of oil samples on the basis of excitation-emission room-temperature phosphorescence data and multiway chemometric techniques. Introducing the second-order advantage in a classification study.

    PubMed

    Arancibia, Juan A; Boschetti, Carlos E; Olivieri, Alejandro C; Escandar, Graciela M

    2008-04-15

    Room-temperature phosphorescence excitation-emission matrices and multiway methods have been analyzed as potential tools for screening oil samples, based on full matrix information for polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Crude oils obtained from different sources of similar geographic origin, as well as light and heavy lubricating oils, were analyzed. The room-temperature phosphorescence matrix signals were processed by applying multilayer perceptron artificial neural networks, parallel factor analysis coupled to linear discriminant analysis, discriminant unfolded partial least-squares, and discriminant multidimensional partial least-squares (DN-PLS). The ability of the latter algorithm to classify the investigated oils into four categories is demonstrated. In addition, the combination of DN-PLS with residual bilinearization allows for a proper classification of oils containing unsuspected compounds not present in the training sample set. This second-order advantage concept is applied to a classification study for the first time. The employed approach is fast, avoids the use of laborious chromatographic analysis, and is relevant for oil characterization, identification, and determination of accidental spill sources.

  3. Kinetics of the creatine kinase reaction in neonatal rabbit heart: An empirical analysis of the rate equation

    SciTech Connect

    McAuliffe, J.J. ); Perry, S.B. ); Brooks, E.E. ); Ingwall, J.S. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA )

    1991-03-12

    Here the authors define the kinetics of the creatine kinase (CK) reaction in an intact mammalian heart containing the full rnage of CK isoenzymes. Previously derived kinetic constants were refit for the reaction occurring at 37C. Steady-state metabolite concentrations from {sup 31}P NMR and standard biochemical techniques were determined. {sup 31}P magnetization transfer data were obtained to determine unidirectional creatine kinase fluxes in hearts with differing total creatine contents and differing mitochondrial CK activities during KCl arrest and isovolumic work for both the forward reaction (MgATP synthesis) and reverse reaction (phosphocreatine synthesis). The NMR kinetic data and substrate concentrations data were used in conjunction with a kinetic model based on MM-CK in solution to determine the applicability of the solution-based kinetic models to the CK kinetics of the intact heart. The results indicated that no single set of rate equation constants could describe both the KCl-arrested and working hearts. Analysis of the results indicated that the CK reaction is rate limited in the direction of ATP synthesis, the size of the guanidino substrate pool drives the measured CK flux in the intact heart, and during isovolumic work, the CK reaction operates under saturating conditions; that is, the substrate concentrations are at least 2-fold greater than the K{sub m} or K{sub im} for each substrate. However, during KCl arrest the reaction does not operate under saturating conditions and the CK reaction velocity is strongly influenced by the guanidino substrate pool size.

  4. New yellow-emitting phosphorescent cyclometalated iridium(III) complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, P.; Tomova, R.; Petrova, P.; Stanimirov, S.; Petkov, I.

    2012-12-01

    We have synthesized a new yellow iridium complex Iridium(III) bis[2-phenylbenzothiazolato-N,C2']-(1-phenylicosane-1,3-dionate) (bt)2Ir(bsm), based on the benzothiazole derivative. The synthesized molecule was identified by 1H NMR and elemental analysis. The UV-Visible absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of (bt)Ir2(bsm) in CH2Cl2 solution were found at 273 nm and 559 nm, respectively. The complex was used as a dopant into a hole-transporting layer (HTL) in a multilayered organic light emitting device (OLED) structure: ITO/doped-HTL/EL/ETL/M. ITO was a transparent anode of In2O3:SnO2, M- a metallic Al cathode, HTL- 4,4'-bis(9H-carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP) incorporated in poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) matrix, EL- electroluminescent layer of bis(8-hydroxy-2-methylquinoline)-(4-phenylphenoxy)aluminum (BAlq) and ETL- electron-transporting layer of tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum (Alq3). The electroluminescent (EL) spectra of OLEDs were basically the sum of the emissions of BAlq at 496 nm and the emission of (bt)2Ir(bsm) at 559 nm. With increasing (bt)2Ir(bsm) concentration, the relative electroluminescent intensity of greenish-blue emission (at 496 nm) decreased, while the yellow (at 559 nm) - increased and CIE coordinates of the device shifted from (0.21, 0.33) at 0 wt % to (0.40, 0.48) at 8 wt % of the dopant. It was found that OLED with 0.5 wt % (bt)2Ir(bsm) had the best performance and stable color chromaticity at various voltages.

  5. Kinetic analysis of the pyrolysis of phenethyl phenyl ether: computational prediction of ?/?-selectivities

    SciTech Connect

    Beste, Ariana; Buchanan III, A C; Britt, Phillip F; Hathorn, Bryan C; Harrison, Robert J

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a scheme to predict / -product selectivities in the pyrolysis of model compounds for the -ether linkage in lignin. The calculation of the individual / -selectivities for hydrogen abstraction by chain carrying benzyl and phenoxyl radicals profits from error cancellation in the computation of relative rate constants of similar reactions with common reactants. The Arrhenius pre-factors depend strongly on the description of the low-frequency modes for which anharmonic contributions are important. We use density functional theory in combination with transition state theory in this analysis. Diagonal anharmonic effects for individual low-frequency modes are included by employing a second-order Wigner-Kirkwood expansion in a semiclassical expression for the vibrational partition function. The composite / -product selectivity is obtained by applying quasi-steady-state kinetic analysis for the intermediate radicals. We calculate an overall / -selectivity for the pyrolysis of phenethyl phenyl ether as a composite of the / -selectivities in the hydrogen abstraction reactions by the phenoxyl and by the benzyl radical that is in excellent agreement with experiment. The difference between the individual selectivities for these radicals is explained by analyzing the electronic structure of the transition states. Spin delocalization of the single electron favors the -pathways. An opposing effect occurs for polarized transition states, such as the transition states for the hydrogen abstraction by the electrophilic phenoxyl radical, where the adjacent ether oxygen in phenethyl phenyl ether stabilizes the -transition states. These results also indicate that theory will be able to provide excellent predictions of / -product selectivities for more complicated lignin model compounds bearing multiple substituents.

  6. Thermochemistry and Kinetic Analysis of the Unimolecular Oxiranyl Radical Dissociation Reaction: A Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heng; Bozzelli, Joseph W

    2016-07-04

    Oxirane structures are important in organic synthesis, and they are important initial products in the oxidation reactions of alkyl radicals. The thermochemical properties (enthalpy of formation, entropy, and heat capacity) for the reaction steps of the unimolecular oxiranyl radical dissociation reaction are determined and compared with the available literature. The overall ring opening and subsequent steps involve four types of reactions: β-scission ring opening, intramolecular hydrogen transfer, β-scission hydrogen elimination, and β-scission methyl radical elimination. The enthalpies of formation of the transition states are determined and evaluated using six popular Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculation methods (B3LYP, B2PLYP, M06, M06-2X, ωB97X, ωB97XD), each combined with three different basis sets. The DFT enthalpy values are compared with five composite calculation methods (G3, G4, CBS-QB3, CBS-APNO, W1U), and by CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ. Kinetic parameters are determined versus pressure and temperature for the unimolecular dissociation pathways of an oxiranyl radical, which include the chemical activation reactions of the ring-opened oxiranyl radical relative to the ring-opening barrier. Multifrequency quantum Rice Ramsperger Kassel (QRRK) analysis is used to determine k(E) with master equation analysis for falloff. The major overall reaction pathway at lower combustion temperatures is oxiranyl radical dissociation to a methyl radical and carbon monoxide. Oxiranyl radical dissociation to a ketene and hydrogen atom is the key reaction path above 700 K.

  7. Thermogravimetric analysis and kinetic study of formation of lithium titanate by solid state route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonak, Sagar; Jain, Uttam; Sahu, Ashok Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Krishnamurthy, Nagaiyar

    2015-02-01

    The kinetics of formation of lithium titanate from the solid state reaction of lithium carbonate and titanium oxide was studied using non-isothermal thermogravimetric technique. Thermogravimetric data for the reaction of lithium carbonate and titanium oxide was obtained at various heating rates. The methods such as Flynn-Wall-Ozawa and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose were used to estimate the kinetic parameters from the obtained thermogravimetric data. The average activation energy for the formation of lithium titanate by solid state route was found to be 243 kJ/mol K. The reaction mechanism was determined by the method given by Malek. It was found that the three dimensional diffusion model best describes the reaction kinetics. A kinetic equation describing the reaction is proposed and reaction mechanism is discussed.

  8. Thermal degradation studies and kinetic modeling of cardoon (Cynara cardunculus) pyrolysis using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    PubMed

    Damartzis, Th; Vamvuka, D; Sfakiotakis, S; Zabaniotou, A

    2011-05-01

    A key element in the design of sustainable pyrolysis processes is the thermal degradation kinetics of biomass. In this work, pyrolysis tests for cardoon (Cynara carduculus) stems and leaves were performed in a non-isothermal thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) in order to determine the thermal degradation behavior of both stems and leaves. The kinetic parameters of the process were evaluated using three different kinetic models, the independent parallel reaction model, KAS and OFW iso-conversional model. Good agreement with the experimental TGA data was observed for all models, the best being with the independent parallel reaction model. A variance in the activation energy with conversion was observed when the KAS and OFW models were employed, which reveals that the pyrolysis of cardoon progresses through more complex and multi-step kinetics.

  9. Weibull mixture model for isoconversional kinetic analysis of biomass oxidative pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, J. M.; Chen, S. Y.

    2010-03-01

    In this work, the possibility of applying the weighted sum of three cumulative Weibull distribution functions for the fitting of the kinetic conversion data of biomass oxidative pyrolysis has been investigated. The kinetic conversion data of the thermal decomposition of olive oil solid waste in oxygen atmosphere for different heating rates have been analyzed. The results have shown that the experimental data can be perfectly reproduced by the general fitting function. Therefore, it is possible to obtain the corresponding conversion rate values of biomass oxidative pyrolysis by differentiating directly the fitted kinetic conversion data. Additionally, the logistic mixture model has been applied to the same experimental data. It can be found that the newly proposed function can provide a better fit of the data than the logistic mixture model. Based on the fitting of Weibull mixture model, the kinetic triples (E, A and f(α)) of oxidative pyrolysis of olive solid waste were obtained by means of Friedman's differential isoconversional method.

  10. Luminous efficiency enhancement in blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with an electron confinement layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jin Sung; Yoon, Ju-An; Yoo, Seung Il; Kim, Jin Wook; Yi, Seungjun; Zhu, Furong; Cheah, Kok Wai; Kim, Woo Young

    2015-09-01

    This study reports the results of blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) employing an electron confinement layer (ECL), tris-(phenylpyrazole)iridium (Ir(ppz)3) and a hole confinement layer (HCl), 1,3,5-tris(N-phenylbenzimiazole-2-yl)benzene (TPBi). The electrical and optical characteristics of PHOLEDs with different emissive layers, including current density, luminance, and luminous efficiency, were analyzed. The thickness of the individual emissive layer was optimized, however, and the total thickness of the emitting region was kept constant at 300 Å. This work reveals that the effective electron confinement, due to a large energy level offset between the electron confinement and emitting layers, helps to improve hole-electron current balance in the emitting region. The maximum external quantum efficiency of 23.40% at 1500 cd/m2 was achieved for PHOLEDs with an ECL, which is 60% higher than the structural identical control device without ECL.

  11. Intermolecular Electronic Coupling of Organic Units for Efficient Persistent Room‐Temperature Phosphorescence

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhiyong; Mao, Zhu; Zhang, Xuepeng; Ou, Depei; Mu, Yingxiao; Zhao, Cunyuan; Liu, Siwei; Xu, Jiarui; Wu, Yuan‐Chun; Lu, Po‐Yen; Lien, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although persistent room‐temperature phosphorescence (RTP) emission has been observed for a few pure crystalline organic molecules, there is no consistent mechanism and no universal design strategy for organic persistent RTP (pRTP) materials. A new mechanism for pRTP is presented, based on combining the advantages of different excited‐state configurations in coupled intermolecular units, which may be applicable to a wide range of organic molecules. By following this mechanism, we have developed a successful design strategy to obtain bright pRTP by utilizing a heavy halogen atom to further increase the intersystem crossing rate of the coupled units. RTP with a remarkably long lifetime of 0.28 s and a very high quantum efficiency of 5 % was thus obtained under ambient conditions. This strategy represents an important step in the understanding of organic pRTP emission. PMID:26836346

  12. Formation of a Fluorous/Organic Biphasic Supramolecular Octopus Assembly for Enhanced Porphyrin Phosphorescence in Air

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Chi; Arvapally, Ravi K.; Tekarli, Sammer M.; ...

    2015-03-03

    The trinuclear triangle-shaped system [tris{3,5-bis(heptafluoropropyl)-1,2,4-triazolatosilver(I)}] (1) and the multi-armed square-shaped metalloporphyrin PtOEP or the free porphyrin base H2OEP serve as excellent octopus hosts (OEP=2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaethyl-21H,23H-porphine). Coupling of the fluorous/organic molecular octopi 1 and H2OEP or PtOEP by strong quadrupole-quadrupole and metal- interactions affords the supramolecular assemblies [1PtOEP] or [1H(2)OEP] (2a), which feature nanoscopic cavities surrounding the upper triangular and lower square cores. The fluorous/organic biphasic configuration of [1PtOEP] leads to an increase in the phosphorescence of PtOEP under ambient conditions. Guest molecules can be included in the biphasic double-octopus assembly in three different site-selective modes.

  13. A Multifunctional Biomaterial with NIR Long Persistent Phosphorescence, Photothermal Response and Magnetism.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yiling; Li, Yang; Qin, Xixi; Qiu, Jianrong

    2016-09-20

    There are many reports on long persistent phosphors (LPPs) applied in bioimaging. However, there are few reports on LPPs applied in photothermal therapy (PTT), and an integrated system with multiple functions of diagnosis and therapy. In this work, we fabricate effective multifunctional phosphors Zn3 Ga2 SnO8 : Cr(3+) , Nd(3+) , Gd(3+) with NIR persistent phosphorescence, photothermal response and magnetism. Such featured materials can act as NIR optical biolabels and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents for tracking the early cancer cells, but also as photothermal therapeutic agent for killing the cancer cells. This new multifunctional biomaterial is expected to open a new possibility of setting up an advanced imaging-guided therapy system featuring a high resolution for bioimaging and low side effects for the photothermal ablation of tumors.

  14. Mitochondrial Dynamics Tracking with Two-Photon Phosphorescent Terpyridyl Iridium(III) Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Huaiyi; Zhang, Pingyu; Qiu, Kangqiang; Huang, Juanjuan; Chen, Yu; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2016-02-01

    Mitochondrial dynamics, including fission and fusion, control the morphology and function of mitochondria, and disruption of mitochondrial dynamics leads to Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, metabolic diseases, and cancers. Currently, many types of commercial mitochondria probes are available, but high excitation energy and low photo-stability render them unsuitable for tracking mitochondrial dynamics in living cells. Therefore, mitochondrial targeting agents that exhibit superior anti-photo-bleaching ability, deep tissue penetration and intrinsically high three-dimensional resolutions are urgently needed. Two-photon-excited compounds that use low-energy near-infrared excitation lasers have emerged as non-invasive tools for cell imaging. In this work, terpyridyl cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes (Ir1-Ir3) are demonstrated as one- and two-photon phosphorescent probes for real-time imaging and tracking of mitochondrial morphology changes in living cells.

  15. Fabrication and optimization of phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes for solid-state lighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhansali, Unnat S.

    Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) have made tremendous progress over the last decade and are under consideration for use as solid-state lighting sources to replace the existing incandescent and fluorescent technology. Use of metal-organic phosphorescent complexes as bright emitters and efficient charge transporting organic semiconductors has resulted in OLEDs with internal quantum efficiency ˜ 100% and power efficiency ˜100 lm/W (green OLEDs) at 1000 cd/m2. For lighting applications, white OLEDs (WOLEDs) are required to have a color rendering index (CRI) > 80, correlated color temperature (CCT) (2700 ≤ WOLEDs ≤ 6500 °K), power efficiency > 100 lm/W and a lifetime > 25,000 hrs (at 70% of its original lumen value) at a brightness of 1000 cd/m2. Typically, high CRIs and high power efficiencies are obtained by either a combination of a blue fluorescent emitter with green and red phosphorescent emitters or a stack of blue, green and red phosphorescent emitters doped in a host material. In this work, we implement a single-emitter WOLEDs (SWOLEDs) approach by using monomer (blue) and broad excimer emissions (green and orange) from a self-sensitizing Pt-based phosphorescent complex, designed and synthesized by Prof. M.A. Omary's group. We have optimized and demonstrated high efficiency turquoise-blue OLEDs from monomer emission of Pt(ptp)2-bis[3,5-bis(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazolato]platinum(II) doped in a phosphine-oxide based host molecule and an electron transport molecule. The device peak power efficiency and external quantum efficiency were maintained >40 lm/W and >11%, respectively throughout the wide range of dopant concentrations (1% to 10%). A monotonic increase in the excimer/monomer emission intensity ratio is observed at the higher doping concentrations within 1%-10%, causing a small green-shift in the color. The peak performance of 60 -- 70 lm/W for the best optimized device represents the highest power efficiency known to date for blue OLEDs. Typically

  16. Measurement of cell respiration and oxygenation in standard multichannel biochips using phosphorescent O2-sensitive probes.

    PubMed

    Kondrashina, Alina V; Papkovsky, Dmitri B; Dmitriev, Ruslan I

    2013-09-07

    Measurement of cell oxygenation and oxygen consumption is useful for studies of cell bioenergetics, metabolism, mitochondrial function, drug toxicity and common pathophysiological conditions. Here we present a new platform for such applications which uses commercial multichannel biochips (μ-slides, Ibidi) and phosphorescent O2 sensitive probes. This platform was evaluated with both extracellular and intracellular O2 probes, several different cell types and treatments including mitochondrial uncoupling and inhibition, depletion of extracellular Ca(2+) and inhibition of V-ATPase and histone deacetylases. The results show that compared to the standard microwell plates currently used, the μ-slide platform provides facile O2 measurements with both suspension and adherent cells, higher sensitivity and reproducibility, and faster measurement time. It also allows re-perfusion and multiple treatments of cells and multi-parametric analyses in conjunction with other probes. Optical measurements are conducted on standard fluorescence readers and microscopes.

  17. Mitochondrial Dynamics Tracking with Two-Photon Phosphorescent Terpyridyl Iridium(III) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huaiyi; Zhang, Pingyu; Qiu, Kangqiang; Huang, Juanjuan; Chen, Yu; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2016-02-11

    Mitochondrial dynamics, including fission and fusion, control the morphology and function of mitochondria, and disruption of mitochondrial dynamics leads to Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, metabolic diseases, and cancers. Currently, many types of commercial mitochondria probes are available, but high excitation energy and low photo-stability render them unsuitable for tracking mitochondrial dynamics in living cells. Therefore, mitochondrial targeting agents that exhibit superior anti-photo-bleaching ability, deep tissue penetration and intrinsically high three-dimensional resolutions are urgently needed. Two-photon-excited compounds that use low-energy near-infrared excitation lasers have emerged as non-invasive tools for cell imaging. In this work, terpyridyl cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes (Ir1-Ir3) are demonstrated as one- and two-photon phosphorescent probes for real-time imaging and tracking of mitochondrial morphology changes in living cells.

  18. Mitochondrial Dynamics Tracking with Two-Photon Phosphorescent Terpyridyl Iridium(III) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huaiyi; Zhang, Pingyu; Qiu, Kangqiang; Huang, Juanjuan; Chen, Yu; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dynamics, including fission and fusion, control the morphology and function of mitochondria, and disruption of mitochondrial dynamics leads to Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, metabolic diseases, and cancers. Currently, many types of commercial mitochondria probes are available, but high excitation energy and low photo-stability render them unsuitable for tracking mitochondrial dynamics in living cells. Therefore, mitochondrial targeting agents that exhibit superior anti-photo-bleaching ability, deep tissue penetration and intrinsically high three-dimensional resolutions are urgently needed. Two-photon-excited compounds that use low-energy near-infrared excitation lasers have emerged as non-invasive tools for cell imaging. In this work, terpyridyl cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes (Ir1-Ir3) are demonstrated as one- and two-photon phosphorescent probes for real-time imaging and tracking of mitochondrial morphology changes in living cells. PMID:26864567

  19. Global fit analysis of glucose binding curves reveals a minimal model for kinetic cooperativity in human glucokinase.

    PubMed

    Larion, Mioara; Miller, Brian G

    2010-10-19

    Human pancreatic glucokinase is a monomeric enzyme that displays kinetic cooperativity, a feature that facilitates enzyme-mediated regulation of blood glucose levels in the body. Two theoretical models have been proposed to describe the non-Michaelis-Menten behavior of human glucokinase. The mnemonic mechanism postulates the existence of one thermodynamically favored enzyme conformation in the absence of glucose, whereas the ligand-induced slow transition model (LIST) requires a preexisting equilibrium between two enzyme species that interconvert with a rate constant slower than turnover. To investigate whether either of these mechanisms is sufficient to describe glucokinase cooperativity, a transient-state kinetic analysis of glucose binding to the enzyme was undertaken. A complex, time-dependent change in enzyme intrinsic fluorescence was observed upon exposure to glucose, which is best described by an analytical solution comprised of the sum of four exponential terms. Transient-state glucose binding experiments conducted in the presence of increasing glycerol concentrations demonstrate that three of the observed rate constants decrease with increasing viscosity. Global fit analyses of experimental glucose binding curves are consistent with a kinetic model that is an extension of the LIST mechanism with a total of four glucose-bound binary complexes. The kinetic model presented herein suggests that glucokinase samples multiple conformations in the absence of ligand and that this conformational heterogeneity persists even after the enzyme associates with glucose.

  20. Determination of kinetic data for soot oxidation: Modeling of competition between oxygen diffusion and reaction during thermogravimetric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gilot, P.; Bonnefoy, F.; Marcuccilli, F.; Prado, G. . Lab. Gestion des Risques et Environnement)

    1993-10-01

    Kinetic data concerning carbon black oxidation in the temperature range between 600 and 900 C have been obtained using thermogravimetric analysis. Modeling of diffusion in a boundary layer above the pan and inside the porous medium coupled to oxygen reaction with carbon black is necessary to obtain kinetic constants as a function of temperature. These calculations require the knowledge of the oxidation rate at a given constant temperature as a function of the initial mass loading m[sub o]. This oxidation rate, expressed in milligrams of soot consumed per second and per milligram of initial soot loading, decreases when m[sub o] increases, in agreement with a reaction in an intermediary regime where the kinetics and the oxygen diffusion operate. The equivalent diffusivity of oxygen inside the porous medium is evaluated assuming two degrees of porosity: between soot aggregates and inside each aggregate. Below 700 C an activation energy of about 103 kJ/mol can be related to a combustion reaction probably kinetically controlled. Beyond 700 C the activation energy of about 20 kJ/ mol corresponds to a reaction essentially controlled by oxygen diffusion leading to a constant density oxidation with oxygen consumption at or near the particle surface. To validate these data, they are used in the modeling of a Diesel particulate trap regeneration. In this particular case, the oxidizing flux is forced across the carbon black deposit, oxygen diffusion being insignificant. A good agreement between experimental results and model predictions is obtained, proving the rate constants validity.

  1. Progress curve analysis for enzyme and microbial kinetic reactions using explicit solutions based on the Lambert W function.

    PubMed

    Goudar, Chetan T; Harris, Steve K; McInerney, Michael J; Suflita, Joseph M

    2004-12-01

    We present a simple method for estimating kinetic parameters from progress curve analysis of biologically catalyzed reactions that reduce to forms analogous to the Michaelis-Menten equation. Specifically, the Lambert W function is used to obtain explicit, closed-form solutions to differential rate expressions that describe the dynamics of substrate depletion. The explicit nature of the new solutions greatly simplifies nonlinear estimation of the kinetic parameters since numerical techniques such as the Runge-Kutta and Newton-Raphson methods used to solve the differential and integral forms of the kinetic equations, respectively, are replaced with a simple algebraic expression. The applicability of this approach for estimating Vmax and Km in the Michaelis-Menten equation was verified using a combination of simulated and experimental progress curve data. For simulated data, final estimates of Vmax and Km were close to the actual values of 1 microM/h and 1 microM, respectively, while the standard errors for these parameter estimates were proportional to the error level in the simulated data sets. The method was also applied to hydrogen depletion experiments by mixed cultures of bacteria in activated sludge resulting in Vmax and Km estimates of 6.531 microM/h and 2.136 microM, respectively. The algebraic nature of this solution, coupled with its relatively high accuracy, makes it an attractive candidate for kinetic parameter estimation from progress curve data.

  2. Kinetic analysis of platelet-derived growth factor receptor/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling in fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Shin; Schneider, Ian C; Haugh, Jason M

    2003-09-26

    Isoforms of the serine-threonine kinase Akt coordinate multiple cell survival pathways in response to stimuli such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Activation of Akt is a multistep process, which relies on the production of 3'-phosphorylated phosphoinositide (PI) lipids by PI 3-kinases. To quantitatively assess the kinetics of PDGF receptor/PI 3-kinase/Akt signaling in fibroblasts, a systematic study of this pathway was performed, and a mechanistic mathematical model that describes its operation was formulated. We find that PDGF receptor phosphorylation exhibits positive cooperativity with respect to PDGF concentration, and its kinetics are quantitatively consistent with a mechanism in which receptor dimerization is initially mediated by the association of two 1:1 PDGF/PDGF receptor complexes. Receptor phosphorylation is transient at high concentrations of PDGF, consistent with the loss of activated receptors upon endocytosis. By comparison, Akt activation responds to lower PDGF concentrations and exhibits more sustained kinetics. Further analysis and modeling suggest that the pathway is saturated at the level of PI 3-kinase activation, and that the p110alpha catalytic subunit of PI 3-kinase contributes most to PDGF-stimulated 3'-PI production. Thus, at high concentrations of PDGF the kinetics of 3'-PI production are limited by the turnover rate of these lipids, while the Akt response is additionally influenced by the rate of Akt deactivation.

  3. Quantitative analysis of uranium in aqueous solutions using a semiconductor laser-based spectroscopic method.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hye-Ryun; Jung, Euo Chang; Cha, Wansik; Song, Kyuseok

    2013-05-07

    A simple analytical method based on the simultaneous measurement of the luminescence of hexavalent uranium ions (U(VI)) and the Raman scattering of water, was investigated for determining the concentration of U(VI) in aqueous solutions. Both spectra were measured using a cw semiconductor laser beam at a center wavelength of 405 nm. The empirical calibration curve for the quantitative analysis of U(VI) was obtained by measuring the ratio of the luminescence intensity of U(VI) at 519 nm to the Raman scattering intensity of water at 469 nm. The limit of detection (LOD) in the parts per billion range and a dynamic range from the LOD up to several hundred parts per million were achieved. The concentration of uranium in groundwater determined by this method is in good agreement with the results determined by kinetic phosphorescence analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

  4. Efficient light harvesting and energy transfer in a red phosphorescent iridium dendrimer.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yang-Jin; Hong, Seong Ahn; Son, Ho-Jin; Han, Won-Sik; Cho, Dae Won; Kang, Sang Ook

    2014-12-15

    A series of red phosphorescent iridium dendrimers of the type [Ir(btp)2(pic-PCn)] (Ir-Gn; n = 0, 1, 2, and 3) with two 2-(benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)pyridines (btp) and 3-hydroxypicolinate (pic) as the cyclometalating and ancillary ligands were prepared in good yields. Dendritic generation was grown at the 3 position of the pic ligand with 4-(9H-carbazolyl)phenyl dendrons connected to 3,5-bis(methyleneoxy)benzyloxy branches (PCn; n = 0, 2, 4, and 8). The harvesting photons on the PCn dendrons followed by efficient energy transfer to the iridium center resulted in high red emissions at ∼600 nm by metal-to-ligand charge transfer. The intensity of the phosphorescence gradually increased with increasing dendrimer generation. Steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopy were used to investigate the energy-transfer mechanism. On the basis of the fluorescence quenching rate constants of the PCn dendrons, the energy-transfer efficiencies for Ir-G1, Ir-G2, and Ir-G3 were 99, 98, and 96%, respectively. The energy-transfer efficiency for higher-generation dendrimers decreased slightly because of the longer distance between the PC dendrons and the core iridium(III) complex, indicating that energy transfer in Ir-Gn is a Förster-type energy transfer. Finally, the light-harvesting efficiencies for Ir-G1, Ir-G2, and Ir-G3 were determined to be 162, 223, and 334%, respectively.

  5. Kinetic analysis and molecular modeling of the inhibition mechanism of roneparstat (SST0001) on human heparanase.

    PubMed

    Pala, Daniele; Rivara, Silvia; Mor, Marco; Milazzo, Ferdinando Maria; Roscilli, Giuseppe; Pavoni, Emiliano; Giannini, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    Heparanase is a β-d-glucuronidase which cleaves heparan sulfate chains in the extracellular matrix and on cellular membranes. A dysregulated heparanase activity is intimately associated with cell invasion, tumor metastasis and angiogenesis, making heparanase an attractive target for the development of anticancer therapies. SST0001 (roneparstat; Sigma-Tau Research Switzerland S.A.) is a non-anticoagulant 100% N-acetylated and glycol-split heparin acting as a potent heparanase inhibitor, currently in phase I in advanced multiple myeloma. Herein, the kinetics of heparanase inhibition by roneparstat is reported. The analysis of dose-inhibition curves confirmed the high potency of roneparstat (IC50 ≈ 3 nM) and showed, at higher concentrations, a Hill coefficient consistent with the engagement of two molecules of inhibitor. A homology model of human heparanase GS3 construct was built and used for docking experiments with inhibitor fragments. The model has high structural similarity with the recently reported crystal structure of human heparanase. Different interaction schemes are proposed, which support the hypothesis of a complex binding mechanism involving the recruitment of one or multiple roneparstat chains, depending on its concentration. In particular, docking solutions were obtained in which (i) a single roneparstat molecule interacts with both heparin-binding domains (HBDs) of heparanase or (ii) two fragments of roneparstat interact with either HBD-1 or HBD-2, consistent with the possibility of different inhibitor:enzyme binding stoichiometries. This study provides unique insights into the mode of action of roneparstat as well as clues of its interaction with heparanase at a molecular level, which could be exploited to design novel potential inhibitor molecules.

  6. Quantitative analysis of irbesartan in commercial dosage forms by kinetic spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Nafisur; Siddiqui, Masoom Raza; Azmi, Syed Najmul Hejaz

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a new kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of irbesartan in pharmaceutical formulations. The method is based on the reaction of carboxylic acid group of the oxidized irbesartan with a mixture of potassium iodate (KIO(3)) and iodide (KI) to form yellow colored triiodide ions in aqueous medium at 30+/-1 degrees C. The reaction is followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the rate of change of absorbance at 352 nm. The initial-rate and fixed-time (DeltaA) methods are adopted for constructing the calibration curves, which were found to be linear over the concentration ranges of 10.0-60.0 and 7.5-60.0 microg ml(-1) respectively. The regression analysis of calibration data yielded the linear equations: rate=-2.138 x 10(-6)+1.058 x 10(-4)C and DeltaA=-3.75 x 10(-3)+3.25 x 10(-3)C for initial rate and fixed time (DeltaA) methods, respectively. The limit of detection for initial rate and fixed time methods are 0.21 and 2.40 mug ml(-1), respectively. The various activation parameters such as E(a), DeltaH++, DeltaS++ and DeltaG++ are also calculated for the reaction and found to be 70.95+/-0.43 kJ mol(-1), 68.48+/-0.21 kJ mol(-1), 16.54+/-0.24 J K(-1) mol(-1) and -4.94+/-0.07 kJ mol(-1), respectively. The proposed methods are optimized and validated as per the guidelines of International Conference on Harmonisation (U.S.A.). The point and interval hypothesis tests have been performed which indicate that there is no significant difference between the proposed methods and the reference method. The methods have been successfully applied to the determination of irbesartan in commercial dosage forms.

  7. High-throughput quantitative analysis with cell growth kinetic curves for low copy number mutant cells.

    PubMed

    Xing, James Z; Gabos, Stephan; Huang, Biao; Pan, Tianhong; Huang, Min; Chen, Jie

    2012-10-01

    The mutation rate in cells induced by environmental genotoxic hazards is very low and difficult to detect using traditional cell counting assays. The established genetic toxicity tests currently recognized by regulatory authorities, such as conventional Ames and hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl-transferase (HPRT) assays, are not well suited for higher-throughput screening as they require large amounts of test compounds and are very time consuming. In this study, we developed a novel cell-based assay for quantitative analysis of low numbers of cell copies with HPRT mutation induced by an environmental mutagen. The HPRT gene mutant cells induced by the mutagen were selected by 6-thioguanine (6-TG) and the cell's kinetic growth curve monitored by a real-time cell electronic sensor (RT-CES) system. When a threshold is set at a certain cell index (CI) level, samples with different initial mutant cell copies take different amounts of time in order for their growth (or CI accumulation) to cross this threshold. The more cells that are initially seeded in the test well, the faster the cell accumulation and therefore the shorter the time required to cross this threshold. Therefore, the culture time period required to cross the threshold of each sample corresponds to the original number of cells in the sample. A mutant cell growth time threshold (MT) value of each sample can be calculated to predict the number of original mutant cells. For mutagenesis determination, the RT-CES assay displayed an equal sensitivity (p > 0.05) and coefficients of variation values with good correlation to conventional HPRT mutagenic assays. Most importantly, the RT-CES mutation assay has a higher throughput than conventional cellular assays.

  8. Stepwise binding of tylosin and erythromycin to Escherichia coli ribosomes, characterized by kinetic and footprinting analysis.

    PubMed

    Petropoulos, Alexandros D; Kouvela, Ekaterini C; Dinos, George P; Kalpaxis, Dimitrios L

    2008-02-22

    Erythromycin and tylosin are 14- and 16-membered lactone ring macrolides, respectively. The current work shows by means of kinetic and chemical footprinting analysis that both antibiotics bind to Escherichia coli ribosomes in a two-step process. The first step established rapidly, involves a low-affinity binding site placed at the entrance of the exit tunnel in the large ribosomal subunit, where macrolides bind primarily through their hydrophobic portions. Subsequently, slow conformational changes mediated by the antibiotic hydrophilic portion push the drugs deeper into the tunnel, in a high-affinity site. Compared with erythromycin, tylosin shifts to the high-affinity site more rapidly, due to the interaction of the mycinose sugar of the drug with the loop of H35 in domain II of 23 S rRNA. Consistently, mutations of nucleosides U2609 and U754 implicated in the high-affinity site reduce the shift of tylosin to this site and destabilize, respectively, the final drug-ribosome complex. The weak interaction between tylosin and the ribosome is Mg2+ independent, unlike the tight binding. In contrast, both interactions between erythromycin and the ribosome are reduced by increasing concentrations of Mg2+ ions. Polyamines attenuate erythromycin affinity for the ribosome at both sequential steps of binding. In contrast, polyamines facilitate the initial binding of tylosin, but exert a detrimental, more pronounced, effect on the drug accommodation at its final position. Our results emphasize the role of the particular interactions that side chains of tylosin and erythromycin establish with 23 S rRNA, which govern the exact binding process of each drug and its response to the ionic environment.

  9. Uncertainty analysis of multi-rate kinetics of uranium desorption from sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Liu, Chongxuan; Hu, Bill X.; Zhang, Guannan

    2014-01-01

    Multi-rate surface complexation models have been proposed to describe the kinetics of uranyl (U(VI) surface complexation reactions (SCR) rate-limited by diffusive mass transfer to and from intragranular sorption sites in subsurface sediments. In this study, a Bayesian-based, Differential Evolution Markov Chain method was used to assess the uncertainty and to identify factors controlling the uncertainties of the multi-rate SCR model. The rate constants in the multi-rate SCR were estimated with and without assumption of a specified lognormal distribution to test the lognormal assumption typically used to minimize the number of the rate constants in the multi-rate model. U(VI) desorption under variable chemical conditions from a contaminated sediment at US Hanford 300 Area, Washington was used as an example. The results indicated that the estimated rate constants without a specified lognormal assumption approximately followed a lognormal distribution, indicating that the lognormal is an effective assumption for the rate constants in the multi-rate SCR model. However, those rate constants with their corresponding half-lives longer than the experimental durations for model characterization had larger uncertainties and could not be reliably estimated. The uncertainty analysis revealed that the time-scale of the experiments for calibrating the multi-rate SCR model, the assumption for the rate constant distribution, the geochemical conditions involved in predicting U(VI) desorption, and equilibrium U(VI) speciation reaction constants were the major factors contributing to the extrapolation uncertainties of the multi-rate SCR model. Overall, the results from this study demonstrated that the multi-rate SCR model with a lognormal distribution of its rate constants is an effective approach for describing rate-limited U(VI) desorption; however, the model contains uncertainties, especially for those smaller rate constants, that require careful consideration for predicting U

  10. Image Restoration and Analysis of Influenza Virions Binding to Membrane Receptors Reveal Adhesion-Strengthening Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Donald W.; Hsu, Hung-Lun; Bacon, Kaitlyn B.; Daniel, Susan

    2016-01-01

    With the development of single-particle tracking (SPT) microscopy and host membrane mimics called supported lipid bilayers (SLBs), stochastic virus-membrane binding interactions can be studied in depth while maintaining control over host receptor type and concentration. However, several experimental design challenges and quantitative image analysis limitations prevent the widespread use of this approach. One main challenge of SPT studies is the low signal-to-noise ratio of SPT videos, which is sometimes inevitable due to small particle sizes, low quantum yield of fluorescent dyes, and photobleaching. These situations could render current particle tracking software to yield biased binding kinetic data caused by intermittent tracking error. Hence, we developed an effective image restoration algorithm for SPT applications called STAWASP that reveals particles with a signal-to-noise ratio of 2.2 while preserving particle features. We tested our improvements to the SPT binding assay experiment and imaging procedures by monitoring X31 influenza virus binding to α2,3 sialic acid glycolipids. Our interests lie in how slight changes to the peripheral oligosaccharide structures can affect the binding rate and residence times of viruses. We were able to detect viruses binding weakly to a glycolipid called GM3, which was undetected via assays such as surface plasmon resonance. The binding rate was around 28 folds higher when the virus bound to a different glycolipid called GD1a, which has a sialic acid group extending further away from the bilayer surface than GM3. The improved imaging allowed us to obtain binding residence time distributions that reflect an adhesion-strengthening mechanism via multivalent bonds. We empirically fitted these distributions using a time-dependent unbinding rate parameter, koff, which diverges from standard treatment of koff as a constant. We further explain how to convert these models to fit ensemble-averaged binding data obtained by assays such

  11. The importance of growth kinetic analysis in determining bacterial susceptibility against antibiotics and silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Theophel, Karsten; Schacht, Veronika J; Schlüter, Michael; Schnell, Sylvia; Stingu, Catalina-Suzana; Schaumann, Reiner; Bunge, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Routine antibiotics susceptibility testing still relies on standardized cultivation-based analyses, including measurement of inhibition zones in conventional agar diffusion tests and endpoint turbidity-based measurements. Here, we demonstrate that common off-line monitoring and endpoint determination after 18-24 h could be insufficient for reliable growth-dependent evaluation of antibiotic susceptibility. Different minimal inhibitory concentrations were obtained in 20- and 48 h microdilution plate tests using an Enterococcus faecium clinical isolate (strain UKI-MB07) as a model organism. Hence, we used an on-line kinetic assay for simultaneous cultivation and time-resolved growth analysis in a 96-well format instead of off-line susceptibility testing. Growth of the Enterococcus test organism was delayed up to 30 h in the presence of 0.25 μg mL(-1) of vancomycin and 8 μg mL(-1) of fosfomycin, after which pronounced growth was observed. Despite the delayed onset of growth, treatment with fosfomycin, daptomycin, fusidic acid, cefoxitin, or gentamicin resulted in higher maximum growth rates and/or higher final optical density values compared with antibiotic-free controls, indicating that growth stimulation and hormetic effects may occur with extended exposure to sublethal antibiotic concentrations. Whereas neither maximum growth rate nor final cell density correlated with antibiotic concentration, the lag phase duration for some antibiotics was a more meaningful indicator of dose-dependent growth inhibition. Our results also reveal that non-temporal growth profiles are only of limited value for cultivation-based antimicrobial silver nanoparticle susceptibility testing. The exposure to Ag(0) nanoparticles led to plasma membrane damage in a concentration-dependent manner and induced oxidative stress in Enterococcus faecium UKI-MB07, as shown by intracellular ROS accumulation.

  12. Simulating cyanobacterial phenotypes by integrating flux balance analysis, kinetics, and a light distribution function

    SciTech Connect

    He, Lian; Wu, Stephen G.; Wan, Ni; Reding, Adrienne C.; Tang, Yinjie J.

    2015-12-24

    In this study, genome-scale models (GSMs) are widely used to predict cyanobacterial phenotypes in photobioreactors (PBRs). However, stoichiometric GSMs mainly focus on fluxome that result in maximal yields. Cyanobacterial metabolism is controlled by both intracellular enzymes and photobioreactor conditions. To connect both intracellular and extracellular information and achieve a better understanding of PBRs productivities, this study integrates a genome-scale metabolic model of Synechocystis 6803 with growth kinetics, cell movements, and a light distribution function. The hybrid platform not only maps flux dynamics in cells of sub-populations but also predicts overall production titer and rate in PBRs. Analysis of the integrated GSM demonstrates several results. First, cyanobacteria are capable of reaching high biomass concentration (>20 g/L in 21 days) in PBRs without light and CO2 mass transfer limitations. Second, fluxome in a single cyanobacterium may show stochastic changes due to random cell movements in PBRs. Third, insufficient light due to cell self-shading can activate the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway in subpopulation cells. Fourth, the model indicates that the removal of glycogen synthesis pathway may not improve cyanobacterial bio-production in large-size PBRs, because glycogen can support cell growth in the dark zones. Based on experimental data, the integrated GSM estimates that Synechocystis 6803 in shake flask conditions has a photosynthesis efficiency of ~2.7 %. Conclusions: The multiple-scale integrated GSM, which examines both intracellular and extracellular domains, can be used to predict production yield/rate/titer in large-size PBRs. More importantly, genetic engineering strategies predicted by a traditional GSM may work well only in optimal growth conditions. In contrast, the integrated GSM may reveal mutant physiologies in diverse bioreactor conditions, leading to the design of robust strains with high

  13. Kinetic analysis of structural influences on the susceptibility of peroxiredoxins 2 and 3 to hyperoxidation

    PubMed Central

    Poynton, Rebecca A.; Peskin, Alexander V.; Haynes, Alexina C.; Lowther, W. Todd; Hampton, Mark B.; Winterbourn, Christine C.

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian 2-cysteine peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are susceptible to hyperoxidation by excess H2O2. The cytoplasmic family member Prx2 hyperoxidizes more readily than mitochondrial Prx3 due to slower dimerization of the sulfenic acid (SpOH) intermediate. Four variant amino acids near the C-terminus have been shown to contribute to this difference. We have performed kinetic analysis of the relationship between hyperoxidation and disulfide formation, using whole-protein MS and comparing wild-type (WT) Prx2 and Prx3 with tail-swap mutants in which the four amino acids were reversed. These changes make Prx3 more sensitive and Prx2 less sensitive to hyperoxidation and accounted for ~70% of the difference between the two proteins. The tail swap mutant of Prx3 was also more susceptible when expressed in the mitochondria of HeLa cells. The hyperoxidized product at lower excesses of H2O2 was a semi-hyperoxidized dimer with one active site disulfide and the other a sulfinic acid. For Prx2, increasing the H2O2 concentration resulted in complete hyperoxidation. In contrast, only approximately half the Prx3 active sites underwent hyperoxidation and, even with high H2O2, the predominant product was the hyperoxidized dimer. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) showed that the oligomeric forms of all redox states of Prx3 dissociated more readily into dimeric units than their Prx2 counterparts. Notably the species with one disulfide and one hyperoxidized active site was decameric for Prx2 and dimeric for Prx3. Reduction and re-oxidation of the hyperoxidized dimer of Prx3 produced hyperoxidized monomers, implying dissociation and rearrangement of the subunits of the functional homodimer. PMID:26614766

  14. Kinetic analysis and molecular modeling of the inhibition mechanism of roneparstat (SST0001) on human heparanase

    PubMed Central

    Pala, Daniele; Rivara, Silvia; Mor, Marco; Milazzo, Ferdinando Maria; Roscilli, Giuseppe; Pavoni, Emiliano; Giannini, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Heparanase is a β-d-glucuronidase which cleaves heparan sulfate chains in the extracellular matrix and on cellular membranes. A dysregulated heparanase activity is intimately associated with cell invasion, tumor metastasis and angiogenesis, making heparanase an attractive target for the development of anticancer therapies. SST0001 (roneparstat; Sigma-Tau Research Switzerland S.A.) is a non-anticoagulant 100% N-acetylated and glycol-split heparin acting as a potent heparanase inhibitor, currently in phase I in advanced multiple myeloma. Herein, the kinetics of heparanase inhibition by roneparstat is reported. The analysis of dose-inhibition curves confirmed the high potency of roneparstat (IC50 ≈ 3 nM) and showed, at higher concentrations, a Hill coefficient consistent with the engagement of two molecules of inhibitor. A homology model of human heparanase GS3 construct was built and used for docking experiments with inhibitor fragments. The model has high structural similarity with the recently reported crystal structure of human heparanase. Different interaction schemes are proposed, which support the hypothesis of a complex binding mechanism involving the recruitment of one or multiple roneparstat chains, depending on its concentration. In particular, docking solutions were obtained in which (i) a single roneparstat molecule interacts with both heparin-binding domains (HBDs) of heparanase or (ii) two fragments of roneparstat interact with either HBD-1 or HBD-2, consistent with the possibility of different inhibitor:enzyme binding stoichiometries. This study provides unique insights into the mode of action of roneparstat as well as clues of its interaction with heparanase at a molecular level, which could be exploited to design novel potential inhibitor molecules. PMID:26762172

  15. Simulating cyanobacterial phenotypes by integrating flux balance analysis, kinetics, and a light distribution function

    DOE PAGES

    He, Lian; Wu, Stephen G.; Wan, Ni; ...

    2015-12-24

    In this study, genome-scale models (GSMs) are widely used to predict cyanobacterial phenotypes in photobioreactors (PBRs). However, stoichiometric GSMs mainly focus on fluxome that result in maximal yields. Cyanobacterial metabolism is controlled by both intracellular enzymes and photobioreactor conditions. To connect both intracellular and extracellular information and achieve a better understanding of PBRs productivities, this study integrates a genome-scale metabolic model of Synechocystis 6803 with growth kinetics, cell movements, and a light distribution function. The hybrid platform not only maps flux dynamics in cells of sub-populations but also predicts overall production titer and rate in PBRs. Analysis of the integratedmore » GSM demonstrates several results. First, cyanobacteria are capable of reaching high biomass concentration (>20 g/L in 21 days) in PBRs without light and CO2 mass transfer limitations. Second, fluxome in a single cyanobacterium may show stochastic changes due to random cell movements in PBRs. Third, insufficient light due to cell self-shading can activate the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway in subpopulation cells. Fourth, the model indicates that the removal of glycogen synthesis pathway may not improve cyanobacterial bio-production in large-size PBRs, because glycogen can support cell growth in the dark zones. Based on experimental data, the integrated GSM estimates that Synechocystis 6803 in shake flask conditions has a photosynthesis efficiency of ~2.7 %. Conclusions: The multiple-scale integrated GSM, which examines both intracellular and extracellular domains, can be used to predict production yield/rate/titer in large-size PBRs. More importantly, genetic engineering strategies predicted by a traditional GSM may work well only in optimal growth conditions. In contrast, the integrated GSM may reveal mutant physiologies in diverse bioreactor conditions, leading to the design of robust strains with high chances of success in

  16. Sendai virus-erythrocyte membrane interaction: quantitative and kinetic analysis of viral binding, dissociation, and fusion.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, D; Klappe, K

    1986-04-01

    A kinetic and quantitative analysis of the binding and fusion of Sendai virus with erythrocyte membranes was performed by using a membrane fusion assay based on the relief of fluorescence self-quenching. At 37 degrees C, the process of virus association displayed a half time of 2.5 min; at 4 degrees C, the half time was 3.0 min. The fraction of the viral dose which became cell associated was independent of the incubation temperature and increased with increasing target membrane concentration. On the average, one erythrocyte ghost can accommodate ca. 1,200 Sendai virus particles. The stability of viral attachment was sensitive to a shift in temperature: a fraction of the virions (ca. 30%), attached at 4 degrees C, rapidly (half time, ca. 2.5 min) eluted from the cell surface at 37 degrees C, irrespective of the presence of free virus in the medium. The elution can be attributed to a spontaneous, temperature-induced release, rather than to viral neuraminidase activity. Competition experiments with nonlabeled virus revealed that viruses destined to fuse do not exchange with free particles in the medium but rather bind in a rapid and irreversible manner. The fusion rate of Sendai virus was affected by the density of the virus particles on the cell surface and became restrained when more than 170 virus particles were attached per ghost. In principle, all virus particles added displayed fusion activity. However, at high virus-to-ghost ratios, only a fraction actually fused, indicating that a limited number of fusion sites exist on the erythrocyte membrane. We estimate that ca. 180 virus particles maximally can fuse with one erythrocyte ghost.

  17. Unveiling a New Aspect of Simple Arylboronic Esters: Long-Lived Room-Temperature Phosphorescence from Heavy-Atom-Free Molecules.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Yoshiaki; Ikabata, Yasuhiro; Wang, Qi; Nemoto, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Atsushi; Tanaka, Naoki; Seino, Junji; Nakai, Hiromi; Fukushima, Takanori

    2017-02-22

    Arylboronic esters can be used as versatile reagents in organic synthesis, as represented by Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling. Here we report a serendipitous finding that simple arylboronic esters are phosphorescent in the solid state at room temperature with a lifetime on the order of several seconds. The phosphorescence properties of arylboronic esters are remarkable in light of the general notion that phosphorescent organic molecules require heavy atoms and/or carbonyl groups for the efficient generation of a triplet excited state. Theoretical calculations on phenylboronic acid pinacol ester indicated that this molecule undergoes an out-of-plane distortion at the (pinacol)B-Cipso moiety in the T1 excited state, which is responsible for its phosphorescence. A compound survey with 19 arylboron compounds suggested that the phosphorescence properties might be determined by solid-state molecular packing rather than by the patterns and numbers of boron substituents on the aryl units. The present finding may update the general notion of phosphorescent organic molecules.

  18. Kinetic method for the large-scale analysis of the binding mechanism of histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Meyners, Christian; Baud, Matthias G J; Fuchter, Matthew J; Meyer-Almes, Franz-Josef

    2014-09-01

    Performing kinetic studies on protein ligand interactions provides important information on complex formation and dissociation. Beside kinetic parameters such as association rates and residence times, kinetic experiments also reveal insights into reaction mechanisms. Exploiting intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence a parallelized high-throughput Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based reporter displacement assay with very low protein consumption was developed to enable the large-scale kinetic characterization of the binding of ligands to recombinant human histone deacetylases (HDACs) and a bacterial histone deacetylase-like amidohydrolase (HDAH) from Bordetella/Alcaligenes. For the binding of trichostatin A (TSA), suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), and two other SAHA derivatives to HDAH, two different modes of action, simple one-step binding and a two-step mechanism comprising initial binding and induced fit, were verified. In contrast to HDAH, all compounds bound to human HDAC1, HDAC6, and HDAC8 through a two-step mechanism. A quantitative view on the inhibitor-HDAC systems revealed two types of interaction, fast binding and slow dissociation. We provide arguments for the thesis that the relationship between quantitative kinetic and mechanistic information and chemical structures of compounds will serve as a valuable tool for drug optimization.

  19. Folding of a model three-helix bundle protein: a thermodynamic and kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Karplus, M

    1999-11-05

    The kinetics and thermodynamics of an off-lattice model for a three-helix bundle protein are investigated as a function of a bias gap parameter that determines the energy difference between native and non-native contacts. A simple dihedral potential is used to introduce the tendency to form right-handed helices. For each value of the bias parameter, 100 trajectories of up to one microsecond are performed. Such statistically valid sampling of the kinetics is made possible by the use of the discrete molecular dynamics method with square-well interactions. This permits much faster simulations for off-lattice models than do continuous potentials. It is found that major folding pathways can be defined, although ensembles with considerable structural variation are involved. The large gap models generally fold faster than those with a smaller gap. For the large gap models, the kinetic intermediates are non-obligatory, while both obligatory and non-obligatory intermediates are present for small gap models. Certain large gap intermediates have a two-helix microdomain with one helix extended outward (as in domain-swapped dimers); the small gap intermediates have more diverse structures. The importance of studying the kinetic, as well as the thermodynamics, of folding for an understanding of the mechanism is discussed and the relation between kinetic and equilibrium intermediates is examined. It is found that the behavior of this model system has aspects that encompass both the "new" view and the "old" view of protein folding.

  20. LSENS, a general chemical kinetics and sensitivity analysis code for homogeneous gas-phase reactions. 2: Code description and usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Bittker, David A.

    1994-01-01

    LSENS, the Lewis General Chemical Kinetics Analysis Code, has been developed for solving complex, homogeneous, gas-phase chemical kinetics problems and contains sensitivity analysis for a variety of problems, including nonisothermal situations. This report is part 2 of a series of three reference publications that describe LSENS, provide a detailed guide to its usage, and present many example problems. Part 2 describes the code, how to modify it, and its usage, including preparation of the problem data file required to execute LSENS. Code usage is illustrated by several example problems, which further explain preparation of the problem data file and show how to obtain desired accuracy in the computed results. LSENS is a flexible, convenient, accurate, and efficient solver for chemical reaction problems such as static system; steady, one-dimensional, inviscid flow; reaction behind incident shock wave, including boundary layer correction; and perfectly stirred (highly backmixed) reactor. In addition, the chemical equilibrium state can be computed for the following assigned states: temperature and pressure, enthalpy and pressure, temperature and volume, and internal energy and volume. For static problems the code computes the sensitivity coefficients of the dependent variables and their temporal derivatives with respect to the initial values of the dependent variables and/or the three rate coefficient parameters of the chemical reactions. Part 1 (NASA RP-1328) derives the governing equations describes the numerical solution procedures for the types of problems that can be solved by lSENS. Part 3 (NASA RP-1330) explains the kinetics and kinetics-plus-sensitivity-analysis problems supplied with LSENS and presents sample results.

  1. GE SBWR stability analysis using TRAC-BF1 1-D kinetics model

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, S.; Baratta, A.J.; Robinson, G.E.

    1996-07-01

    GE`s simplified boiling water reactor, with its unique feature of using natural circulation to remove the heat from the reactor core, is a complicated dynamic system. Previous work by authors using the TRAC-BF1 code and a point kinetics model predicted that an SBWR may experience large amplitude power oscillation under certain low pressure and high power operating conditions. To further confirm the existence of this power oscillation and explore the dynamic spatial reactor power distribution, the TRAC-BF1 1-D kinetics model was used. The results show that an instability exists and the power oscillation starting time and maximum peak power are different from the point kinetics results.

  2. Determination of electron transfer kinetic parameters by fourier transform electrochemical impedance spectroscopic analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Byoung-Yong; Hong, Sung-Young; Yoo, Jung-Suk; Park, Su-Moon

    2006-10-05

    A new attempt to obtain electron transfer kinetic parameters at an electrified electrode/electrolyte interface using Fourier transform electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (FTEIS) analyses of small potential step chronoamperometric currents is presented. The kinetic parameters thus obtained allowed mass transport free voltammograms to be constructed in an overpotential region, where the diffusion limits the electron transfer reaction, using the Butler-Volmer (B-V) relation. The B-V voltammograms clearly distinguish electrode reactions that are not much different in their electron transfer kinetic parameters, thus showing very similar normal linear sweep voltammetric (SCV) behaviors. Electrochemical reduction of p-benzoquinone, which displays nearly the same SCV responses at a gold electrode regardless whether the electrode is covered by a thiolated beta-cyclodextrin self-assembled monolayer, was taken as an example for the demonstration. The results show that the two voltametrically similar systems display very different electron transfer characteristics.

  3. A kinetic energy analysis of the meso beta-scale severe storm environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Printy, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    Analyses are performed of the meso beta-scale (20-200 km wavelengths and several hours to one-day periods) severe storm kinetic energy balance on the fifth day of the AVE SESAME campaign of May 1979. A 24-hr interval covering the antecedent, active and post-convective outbreak activity over Oklahoma are considered. Use is made of the kinetic energy budget equation (KEBE) for a finite volume in an isobaric coordinate system. Rawindsonde data with 75 km resolution were treated. The KEBE model covered changes in kinetic energy due to the cross contour flows, horizontal and vertical components of flux divergence, and volumic mass changes on synoptic and subsynoptic scales. The greatest variability was concentrated above 400 mb height and over the most intense storm activity. Energy was generated at the highest rates in divergence and decreased the most in convection. The meso beta-scale lacked sufficient resolution for analyzing mesoscale activity.

  4. Analysis and prediction of integrated kinetic energy in Atlantic tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozar, Michael E.

    Integrated kinetic energy (IKE) is a recently developed metric that approximates the destructive potential of a tropical cyclone by assessing the size and strength of its wind field. Despite the potential usefulness of the IKE metric, there are few, if any, operational tools that are specifically designed to forecast IKE in real-time. Therefore, IKE and tropical cyclone structure are analyzed within historical Atlantic tropical cyclones from the past two decades in order to develop an understanding of the environmental and internal storm-driven processes that govern IKE variability. This analysis concurs with past research that IKE growth and decay is influenced by both traditional tropical cyclone development mechanisms and by other features such as extratropical transition and trough interactions. Using this framework, a series of statistical prediction tools are created in an effort to project IKE in Atlantic tropical cyclones from a series of relevant normalized input parameters. The resulting IKE prediction schemes are titled the "Statistical Prediction of Integrated Kinetic Energy (SPIKE)". The first version of SPIKE utilizes simple linear regression to project historical IKE quantities in a perfect prognostic mode for all storms between 1990 and 2011. This primitive model acts as a proof of concept, revealing that IKE can be skillfully forecasted relative to persistence out to 72 hours by even the simplest of statistical models if given accurate estimates of various metrics measured throughout the storm and its environment. The proof-of-concept version of SPIKE is improved upon in its second version, SPIKE2, by incorporating a more sophisticated system of adaptive statistical models. A system of artificial neural networks replaces the linear regression model to better capture the nonlinear relationships in the TC-environment system. In a perfect prognostic approach with analyzed input parameters, the neural networks outperform the linear models in nearly

  5. The TMI MSLB analysis using TRAC-PF1 coupled with three-dimensional kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, K.N.; Macian, R.; Baratta, A.J.; Irani, A.; Folsom, J.W.; Trikouros, N.G.

    1995-12-31

    The main steam-line break (MSLB) accident in a pressurized water reactor is characterized by significant space-time effects in the core caused by asymmetric cooling and assumed stuck-out rod during reactor trip. These effects are analyzed in this paper for Three Mile Island (TMI) cycle 10, using closely coupled transient three-dimensional thermal-hydraulic vessel and neutronics core models supplemented by one-dimensional simulation of the remainder of the reactor coolant system. Also, a comparison of the three-dimensional kinetics results to a compatible point kinetics prediction is performed.

  6. Analysis of Self Similar Scaling in Kinetic and Magnetic Energy Density as a Function of Distance From Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, A.; Coplan, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    We analyze solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field data to study scaling properties of kinetic and magnetic energy density as a function of solar cycle and distance from the sun. In his original theory on turbulence, Kolmogorov predicted that in the inertial range the fluctuations in velocity differences should be self-similar. Analysis of solar wind data showed this not to be the case. On the other hand B. Hnat et.al.(Geophys. Res. Lett., 29 (10), 1446, 2002) and J.J Podesta (J. Geophys. Res., 111, A09105, 2006) showed that fluctuations in kinetic and magnetic energy density are approximately self-similar. We extend this analysis using data from the SWE and MFI experiments on the WIND spacecraft (at 1AU) during solar minimum (2006) and solar maximum (2001) and VHM/FGM experiment on the Ulysses spacecraft (1AU to 5AU). We calculate the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the time delayed differences in kinetic and magnetic energy density and present a method through which the scaling exponent can be reliably calculated from the CDFs, instead of using structure functions which are very sensitive to large fluctuations. We compare the scaling exponents derived from the CDFs to the ones calculated from structure functions and study the rescaling properties of CDFs.

  7. Comparison between kinetic modelling and graphical analysis for the quantification of [18F]fluoromethylcholine uptake in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Until now, no kinetic model was described for the oncologic tracer [18F]fluoromethylcholine ([18F]FCho), so it was aimed to validate a proper model, which is easy to implement and allows tracer quantification in tissues. Methods Based on the metabolic profile, two types of compartmental models were evaluated. One is a 3C2i model, which contains three tissue compartments and two input functions and corrects for possible [18F]fluorobetaine ([18F]FBet) uptake by the tissues. On the other hand, a two-tissue-compartment model (2C1i) was evaluated. Moreover, a comparison, based on intra-observer variability, was made between kinetic modelling and graphical analysis. Results Determination of the [18F]FCho-to-[18F]FBet uptake ratios in tissues and evaluation of the fitting of both kinetic models indicated that corrections for [18F]FBet uptake are not mandatory. In addition, [18F]FCho uptake is well described by the 2C1i model and by graphical analysis by means of the Patlak plot. Conclusions The Patlak plot is a reliable, precise, and robust method to quantify [18F]FCho uptake independent of scan time or plasma clearance. In addition, it is easily implemented, even under non-equilibrium conditions and without creating additional errors. PMID:24034278

  8. Thermolysis of (1R,2R)-1,2-dideuteriocyclobutane. An application of vibrational circular dichroism to kinetic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chickos, J.S.; Annamalai, A.; Keiderling, T.A.

    1986-07-23

    The relative rates of geometric isomerization to racemization have been studied for the title compound by using a combination of infrared (IR) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopies, respectively. The results are interpreted with a kinetic and mechanistic scheme which parallels that used by Berson, Pedersen, and Carpenter on a similar study of chiral cyclopropane-d/sub 2/ thermolysis. Relative rates of isomerization to stereomutation of 1.5 +/- 0.4 were obtained which can be interpreted to be consistent with a mechanism best described by random methylene rotation in tetramethylene-d/sub 2/. This is the first application of VCD to kinetic analysis, and the advantages of IR techniques over the more usually employed UV spectroscopies to this type of basic mechanistic problem are illustrated.

  9. Analysis of population mortality kinetics with application to the longevity followup of the Navy's '1,000 aviators'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Economos, A. C.; Miquel, J.

    1979-01-01

    A simple physiological model of mortality kinetics is used to assess the intuitive concept that the aging rates of populations are proportional to their mortality rates. It is assumed that the vitality of an individual can be expressed as a simple summation of the weighted functional capacities of its organs and homeostatic systems that are indispensable for survival. It is shown that the mortality kinetics of a population can be derived by a linear transformation of the frequency distribution of vitality, assuming a uniform constant rate of decline of the physiological functions. A simple comparison of two populations is not possible when they have different vitality frequency distributions. Analysis of the data using the model suggests that the differences in decline of survivorship with age between the military pilot population, a medically insured population, and the control population can be accounted for by the effect of physical selection on the vitality frequency distribution of the screened populations.

  10. Permeability and kinetic coefficients for mesoscale BCF surface step dynamics: Discrete two-dimensional deposition-diffusion equation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Renjie; Evans, James W.; Oliveira, Tiago J.

    2016-04-08

    Here, a discrete version of deposition-diffusion equations appropriate for description of step flow on a vicinal surface is analyzed for a two-dimensional grid of adsorption sites representing the stepped surface and explicitly incorporating kinks along the step edges. Model energetics and kinetics appropriately account for binding of adatoms at steps and kinks, distinct terrace and edge diffusion rates, and possible additional barriers for attachment to steps. Analysis of adatom attachment fluxes as well as limiting values of adatom densities at step edges for nonuniform deposition scenarios allows determination of both permeability and kinetic coefficients. Behavior of these quantities is assessed as a function of key system parameters including kink density, step attachment barriers, and the step edge diffusion rate.

  11. Permeability and kinetic coefficients for mesoscale BCF surface step dynamics: Discrete two-dimensional deposition-diffusion equation analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Renjie; Evans, James W.; Oliveira, Tiago J.

    2016-04-08

    Here, a discrete version of deposition-diffusion equations appropriate for description of step flow on a vicinal surface is analyzed for a two-dimensional grid of adsorption sites representing the stepped surface and explicitly incorporating kinks along the step edges. Model energetics and kinetics appropriately account for binding of adatoms at steps and kinks, distinct terrace and edge diffusion rates, and possible additional barriers for attachment to steps. Analysis of adatom attachment fluxes as well as limiting values of adatom densities at step edges for nonuniform deposition scenarios allows determination of both permeability and kinetic coefficients. Behavior of these quantities is assessedmore » as a function of key system parameters including kink density, step attachment barriers, and the step edge diffusion rate.« less

  12. Measurement of the rates of detergent exchange between micelles and the aqueous phase using phosphorescent labelled detergents

    SciTech Connect

    Bolt, J.D.; Turro, N.J.

    1981-12-24

    Phosphorescence quenching is used to measure micelle-probe detergent dynamics. For phosphorescent detergent probes with varying hydrocarbon length the rate constants from escape (K-) from cationic host micelles are measured using cobalt(III) hexamine as an aqueous soluble triplet quencher. For 10-(4-bromo-1-naphthoyl) decyltrimethylammonium bromide (BND-10), K- is 3.2 x 10/sup 3/ S/sup -1/, and K+, the reentry rate constant, is 5.7 x 10/sup 7/ M/sup -1/ S/sup -1/ for hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (HDTCL) host micelles at 25 C. The log of K- is a linear function of the number of methylenes in the probe alkyl chain, in agreement with rates determined previously with relaxation methods. The apparent activation energy for escape of BND-10 from HDTCL micelles is 9 kcal/mol. Escape rates are measured for several host micelles and for micelles composed of probe detergents - self-micelles. 15 references.

  13. Solution-processable deep red-emitting supramolecular phosphorescent polymer with novel iridium complex for organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Aihui; Huang, Gui; Wang, Zhiping; Wu, Wenjin; Zhong, Yu; Zhao, Shan

    2016-09-01

    A novel bis(dibenzo-24-crown-8)-functionalized iridium complex with an emission peak at 665 nm was synthesized. Several deep red-emitting supramolecualr phosphorescent polymers (SPPs) as a class of solutionprocessable electroluminescent (EL) emitters were formed by utilizing the efficient non-bonding self-assembly between the resulting iridium complex and bis(dibenzylammonium)-tethered monomers. These SPPs show an intrinsic glass transition with a T g of ca. 90 °C. The photophysical and electroluminescent properties are strongly dependent on the hosts' structures of the supramolecular phosphorescent polymers. The polymer light-emitting diode based on SPP3 displayed a maximal external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 2.14% ph·el-1 and the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.70, 0.29).

  14. Long-lasting phosphorescence in Sn2+-Cu2+ codoped silicate glass and its high-pressure treatment effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jianbei; Miyauchi, Koichi; Kawamoto, Yoji; Kitamura, Naoyuki; Qiu, Jianrong; Hirao, Kazuyuki

    2002-07-01

    Long-lasting phosphorescence was observed at 510 nm in a Sn2+-Cu2+ codoped Na2O-CaO-SiO2 glass at room temperature under UV illumination of 254 nm. When the glass was compressed under 3, 6, and 9 GPa, the phosphorescence shifted to 465 nm and its decay rate became shorter. The optical absorption spectra of the samples changed after compression, showing that the cupric ions were reduced to the cuprous ions. The high-pressure treatment also resulted in a lower-energy shift in the absorption edge. It was suggested that Sn2+ ions act as hole trapping centers, while oxygen vacancies surrounding by Ca2+ ions as well as active sites in the glass matrix, i.e., as electron trapping centers.

  15. Measurement of Local Partial Pressure of Oxygen in the Brain Tissue under Normoxia and Epilepsy with Phosphorescence Lifetime Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cong; Bélanger, Samuel; Pouliot, Philippe; Lesage, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    In this work a method for measuring brain oxygen partial pressure with confocal phosphorescence lifetime microscopy system is reported. When used in conjunction with a dendritic phosphorescent probe, Oxyphor G4, this system enabled minimally invasive measurements of oxygen partial pressure (pO2) in cerebral tissue with high spatial and temporal resolution during 4-AP induced epileptic seizures. Investigating epileptic events, we characterized the spatio-temporal distribution of the "initial dip" in pO2 near the probe injection site and along nearby arterioles. Our results reveal a correlation between the percent change in the pO2 signal during the "initial dip" and the duration of seizure-like activity, which can help localize the epileptic focus and predict the length of seizure. PMID:26305777

  16. Revealing Assembly of a Pore-Forming Complex Using Single-Cell Kinetic Analysis and Modeling.

    PubMed

    Bischofberger, Mirko; Iacovache, Ioan; Boss, Daniel; Naef, Felix; van der Goot, F Gisou; Molina, Nacho

    2016-04-12

    Many biological processes depend on the sequential assembly of protein complexes. However, studying the kinetics of such processes by direct methods is often not feasible. As an important class of such protein complexes, pore-forming toxins start their journey as soluble monomeric proteins, and oligomerize into transmembrane complexes to eventually form pores in the target cell membrane. Here, we monitored pore formation kinetics for the well-characterized bacterial pore-forming toxin aerolysin in single cells in real time to determine the lag times leading to the formation of the first functional pores per cell. Probabilistic modeling of these lag times revealed that one slow and seven equally fast rate-limiting reactions best explain the overall pore formation kinetics. The model predicted that monomer activation is the rate-limiting step for the entire pore formation process. We hypothesized that this could be through release of a propeptide and indeed found that peptide removal abolished these steps. This study illustrates how stochasticity in the kinetics of a complex process can be exploited to identify rate-limiting mechanisms underlying multistep biomolecular assembly pathways.

  17. Optimization and kinetic analysis on the sulfuric acid - Catalyzed depolymerization of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qian-Qian; Ma, Yu-Long; Chang, Xuan; Sun, Yong-Gang

    2015-09-20

    The objectives of this work were to optimize the experimental condition and to study the kinetic behavior of wheat straw depolymerization with sulfuric acid (2 wt%, 3 wt%, and 4 wt%) at different temperatures (120°C, 130°C, and 140°C). The two-fraction kinetic model was obtained for the prediction of the generations of product and by-product during depolymerization. The kinetic parameters of the two-fraction model were analyzed using an Arrhenius-type equation. Applying the kinetic two-fraction model, the optimum condition for wheat straw depolymerization was 3 wt% H2SO4 at 130°C for 75 min, which yielded a high concentration of fermentable sugars (xylose 8.934 g/L, glucose 1.363 g/L, and arabinose 1.203 g/L) and low concentrations of microbial inhibitors (furfural 0.526 g/L and acetic acid 1.192 g/L). These results suggest that the model obtained in this study can satisfactorily describe the formation of degradation products and the depolymerization mechanism of wheat straw.

  18. Accurate kinetic parameter estimation during progress curve analysis of systems with endogenous substrate production.

    PubMed

    Goudar, Chetan T

    2011-10-01

    We have identified an error in the published integral form of the modified Michaelis-Menten equation that accounts for endogenous substrate production. The correct solution is presented and the error in both the substrate concentration, S, and the kinetic parameters Vm , Km , and R resulting from the incorrect solution was characterized. The incorrect integral form resulted in substrate concentration errors as high as 50% resulting in 7-50% error in kinetic parameter estimates. To better reflect experimental scenarios, noise containing substrate depletion data were analyzed by both the incorrect and correct integral equations. While both equations resulted in identical fits to substrate depletion data, the final estimates of Vm , Km , and R were different and Km and R estimates from the incorrect integral equation deviated substantially from the actual values. Another observation was that at R = 0, the incorrect integral equation reduced to the correct form of the Michaelis-Menten equation. We believe this combination of excellent fits to experimental data, albeit with incorrect kinetic parameter estimates, and the reduction to the Michaelis-Menten equation at R = 0 is primarily responsible for the incorrectness to go unnoticed. However, the resulting error in kinetic parameter estimates will lead to incorrect biological interpretation and we urge the use of the correct integral form presented in this study.

  19. Analysis of Ankle Kinetics during Walking in Individuals with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cioni, Matteo; Cocilovo, Anna; Rossi, Fabio; Paci, Domenico; Valle, Maria Stella

    2001-01-01

    The biomechanical characteristics of the ankle during gait of 17 participants with Down syndrome (ages 8-36) were investigated. Participants showed significant decreases of plantar-flexor moments and of A1 and A2 joint powers. Correlation between kinetic and temporal spatial parameters was markedly reduced or weak in comparison to 10 controls.…

  20. Tyrosinase kinetics in epidermal melanocytes: analysis of DAG-PKC-dependent signaling pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolnitz, Mikhail M.; Peshkova, Anna Y.

    2001-05-01

    Tyrosinase is the key enzyme of melanogenesis with unusual enzyme kinetics. Protein kinase C plays an important role in regulating of tyrosinase activity. In the paper the mathematical model of PKC-DAG-dependent signal transduction pathway for UV-radiation is presented.

  1. Kinetic studies of phosgene reduction via in-situ Fourier transform infrared analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Chauvel, J. P., Jr.

    1991-04-01

    Phosgene, a common reactant in the production of polyurethanes and polycarbonates, is unfortunately hazardous (threshold limit value equals 0.1 ppm). Consequently, the detection and elimination of atmospheric releases are paramount safety and environmental concerns. Proper design of systems to mitigate phosgene requires knowledge of the reaction kinetics for the chemistry involved. This paper presents our investigation of the reactions for phosgene with steam and ammonia. A Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) equipped with a large volume (15 L), temperature controlled (+0.5 degree(s)C), 24.5 cm path length cell was used to measure the reaction kinetics. The reaction of phosgene with steam at 110 degree(s)C followed first order kinetics (t1/2 equals 10.2 min.) producing carbon dioxide and hydrogen chloride. The reaction of phosgene with ammonia at 80 degree(s)C followed second order kinetics (t1/2 equals 1.2 min.) producing ammonium chloride and urea. It was found, however, that at 25 degree(s)C this reaction follows a previously unreported pathway producing ammonium chloride and ammonium isocyanate at a faster rate (t1/2 equals 15 sec.). Based on this reaction, a pilot scale scrubbing tower was built with a manifold to mix ammonia with ppm levels of phosgene. A complete description of the experimental conditions, the reaction pathways as a function of temperature, and the performance of the ammonia scrubbing tower are given.

  2. Purification and kinetic analysis of cytosolic and mitochondrial thioredoxin glutathione reductase extracted from Taenia solium cysticerci.

    PubMed

    Plancarte, Agustin; Nava, Gabriela

    2015-02-01

    Thioredoxin glutathione reductases (TGRs) (EC 1.8.1.9) were purified to homogeneity from the cytosolic (cTsTGR) and mitochondrial (mTsTGR) fractions of Taenia solium, the agent responsible for neurocysticercosis, one of the major central nervous system parasitic diseases in humans. TsTGRs had a relative molecular weight of 132,000, while the corresponding value per subunit obtained under denaturing conditions, was of 62,000. Specific activities for thioredoxin reductase and glutathione reductase substrates for both TGRs explored were in the range or lower than values obtained for other platyhelminths and mammalian TGRs. cTsTGR and mTsTGR also showed hydroperoxide reductase activity using hydroperoxide as substrate. Km(DTNB) and Kcat(DTNB) values for cTsTGR and mTsTGR (88 µM and 1.9 s(-1); 45 µM and 12.6 s(-1), respectively) and Km(GSSG) and Kcat(GSSG) values for cTsTGR and mTsTGR (6.3 µM and 0.96 s(-1); 4 µM and 1.62 s(-1), respectively) were similar to or lower than those reported for mammalian TGRs. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that 12 peptides from cTsTGR and seven from mTsTGR were a match for gi|29825896 thioredoxin glutathione reductase [Echinococcus granulosus], confirming that both enzymes are TGRs. Both T. solium TGRs were inhibited by the gold compound auranofin, a selective inhibitor of thiol-dependent flavoreductases (I₅₀ = 3.25, 2.29 nM for DTNB and GSSG substrates, respectively for cTsTGR; I₅₀ = 5.6, 25.4 nM for mTsTGR toward the same substrates in the described order). Glutathione reductase activity of cTsTGR and mTsTGR exhibited hysteretic behavior with moderate to high concentrations of GSSG; this result was not observed either with thioredoxin, DTNB or NADPH. However, the observed hysteretic kinetics was suppressed with increasing amounts of both parasitic TGRs. These data suggest the existence of an effective substitute which may account for the lack of the detoxification enzymes glutathione reductase

  3. Impedance Analysis of Ion Transport Through Supported Lipid Membranes Doped with Ionophores: A New Kinetic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, P. E.; Vallejo, A. E.

    2008-01-01

    Kinetics of facilitated ion transport through planar bilayer membranes are normally analyzed by electrical conductance methods. The additional use of electrical relaxation techniques, such as voltage jump, is necessary to evaluate individual rate constants. Although electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is recognized as the most powerful of the available electric relaxation techniques, it has rarely been used in connection with these kinetic studies. According to the new approach presented in this work, three steps were followed. First, a kinetic model was proposed that has the distinct quality of being general, i.e., it properly describes both carrier and channel mechanisms of ion transport. Second, the state equations for steady-state and for impedance experiments were derived, exhibiting the input–output representation pertaining to the model’s structure. With the application of a method based on the similarity transformation approach, it was possible to check that the proposed mechanism is distinguishable, i.e., no other model with a different structure exhibits the same input–output behavior for any input as the original. Additionally, the method allowed us to check whether the proposed model is globally identifiable (i.e., whether there is a single set of fit parameters for the model) when analyzed in terms of its impedance response. Thus, our model does not represent a theoretical interpretation of the experimental impedance but rather constitutes the prerequisite to select this type of experiment in order to obtain optimal kinetic identification of the system. Finally, impedance measurements were performed and the results were fitted to the proposed theoretical model in order to obtain the kinetic parameters of the system. The successful application of this approach is exemplified with results obtained for valinomycin–K+ in lipid bilayers supported onto gold substrates, i.e., an arrangement capable of emulating biological membranes. PMID:19669528

  4. Azo-Based Iridium(III) Complexes as Multicolor Phosphorescent Probes to Detect Hypoxia in 3D Multicellular Tumor Spheroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lingli; Li, Guanying; Chen, Xiang; Chen, Yu; Jin, Chengzhi; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2015-10-01

    Hypoxia is an important characteristic of malignant solid tumors and is considered as a possible causative factor for serious resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy. The exploration of novel fluorescent probes capable of detecting hypoxia in solid tumors will aid tumor diagnosis and treatment. In this study, we reported the design and synthesis of a series of “off-on” phosphorescence probes for hypoxia detection in adherent and three-dimensional multicellular spheroid models. All of the iridium(III) complexes incorporate an azo group as an azo-reductase reactive moiety to detect hypoxia. Reduction of non-phosphorescent probes Ir1-Ir8 by reductases under hypoxic conditions resulted in the generation of highly phosphorescent corresponding amines for detection of hypoxic regions. Moreover, these probes can penetrate into 3D multicellular spheroids over 100 μm and image the hypoxic regions. Most importantly, these probes display a high selectivity for the detection of hypoxia in 2D cells and 3D multicellular spheroids.

  5. A highly selective sulfur-free iridium(III)-complex-based phosphorescent chemidosimeter for detection of mercury(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hui; Yu, Fang; Dai, Jun; Sun, Huiqin; Lu, Zhiyun; Li, Ming; Jiang, Qing; Huang, Yan

    2012-04-28

    A neutral phosphorescent coordination compound bearing a benzimidazole ligand, Ir(pbi)(2)(acac) (Hpbi = 1,2-diphenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazole; Hacac = acetylacetone), is demonstrated to be the first example of a sulfur-free iridium complex for the detection of Hg(2+) cations with high selectivity and sensitivity. Ir(pbi)(2)(acac) shows a multisignaling response towards mercury(II) ions through UV-vis absorption, phosphorescence and electrochemistry measurements. Upon addition of Hg(2+) ions, solutions of this complex change from yellow to colorless, which could be observed easily by the naked eye, while its phosphorescence turns from bright green (λ(PLmax) = 520 nm) into faint skyblue (λ(PLmax) = 476 nm), and the detection limit is calculated to be 2.4 × 10(-7) mol L(-1). (1)H NMR spectroscopic titration as well as ESI-MS results indicate that the decomposition of Ir(pbi)(2)(acac) in the presence of Hg(2+) through rupture of Ir-O bonds is responsible for the significant variations in both optical and electrochemical signals.

  6. Effect of Stepwise Doping on Lifetime and Efficiency of Blue and White Phosphorescent Organic Light Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Song Eun; Lee, Ho Won; Lee, Seok Jae; Koo, Ja-ryong; Lee, Dong Hyung; Yang, Hyung Jin; Kim, Hye Jeong; Yoon, Seung Soo; Kim, Young Kwan

    2015-02-01

    We investigated a light emission mechanism of blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes (PHOLEDs), using a stepwise doping profile of 2, 8, and 14 wt.% within the emitting layer (EML). We fabricated several blue PHOLEDs with phosphorescent blue emitter iridium(III) bis[(4,6-difluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N,C2]picolinate doped in N,N'-dicarbazolyl-3,5-benzene as a p-type host material. A blue PHOLED with the highest doping concentration as part of the EML close to an electron transporting layer showed a maximum luminous efficiency of 20.74 cd/A, and a maximum external quantum efficiency of 10.52%. This can be explained by effective electron injection through a highly doped EML side. Additionally, a white OLED based on the doping profile was fabricated with two thin red EMLs within a blue EML maintaining a thickness of 30 nm for the entire EML. Keywords: Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light Emitting Diodes, Stepwise Doping Structure, Charge Trapping Effect.

  7. Very High Brightness Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Devices via Enhanced Energy Transfer from a Phosphorescent Sensitizer.

    PubMed

    Zamani Siboni, Hossein; Sadeghimakki, Bahareh; Sivoththaman, Siva; Aziz, Hany

    2015-11-25

    We demonstrate very efficient and bright quantum dot light-emitting devices (QDLEDs) with the use of a phosphorescent sensitizer and a thermal annealing step. Utilizing CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots with 560 nm emission peak, bis(4,6-difluorophenylpyridinatoN,C2) picolinatoiridium as a sensitizer, and thermal annealing at 50 °C for 30 min, green-emitting QDLEDs with a maximum current efficiency of 23.9 cd/A, a power efficiency of 31 lm/W, and a brightness of 65,000 cd/m(2) are demonstrated. The high efficiency and brightness are attributed to annealing-induced enhancements in both the Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) process from the phosphorescent energy donor to the QD acceptor and hole transport across the device. The FRET enhancement is attributed to annealing-induced diffusion of the phosphorescent material molecules from the sensitizer layer into the QD layer, which results in a shorter donor-acceptor distance. We also find, quite interestingly, that FRET to a QD acceptor is strongly influenced by the QD size, and is generally less efficient to QDs with larger sizes despite their narrower bandgaps.

  8. Segment-interaction in sprint start: Analysis of 3D angular velocity and kinetic energy in elite sprinters.

    PubMed

    Slawinski, J; Bonnefoy, A; Ontanon, G; Leveque, J M; Miller, C; Riquet, A; Chèze, L; Dumas, R

    2010-05-28

    The aim of the present study was to measure during a sprint start the joint angular velocity and the kinetic energy of the different segments in elite sprinters. This was performed using a 3D kinematic analysis of the whole body. Eight elite sprinters (10.30+/-0.14s 100 m time), equipped with 63 passive reflective markers, realised four maximal 10 m sprints start on an indoor track. An opto-electronic Motion Analysis system consisting of 12 digital cameras (250 Hz) was used to collect the 3D marker trajectories. During the pushing phase on the blocks, the 3D angular velocity vector and its norm were calculated for each joint. The kinetic energy of 16 segments of the lower and upper limbs and of the total body was calculated. The 3D kinematic analysis of the whole body demonstrated that joints such as shoulders, thoracic or hips did not reach their maximal angular velocity with a movement of flexion-extension, but with a combination of flexion-extension, abduction-adduction and internal-external rotation. The maximal kinetic energy of the total body was reached before clearing block (respectively, 537+/-59.3 J vs. 514.9+/-66.0 J; p< or =0.01). These results suggested that a better synchronization between the upper and lower limbs could increase the efficiency of pushing phase on the blocks. Besides, to understand low interindividual variances in the sprint start performance in elite athletes, a 3D complete body kinematic analysis shall be used.

  9. Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of acid tar waste from crude benzol refining: A thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Chihobo, Chido H; Chowdhury, Arindrajit; Kuipa, Pardon K; Simbi, David J

    2016-12-01

    Pyrolysis is an attractive thermochemical conversion technology that may be utilised as a safe disposal option for acid tar waste. The kinetics of acid tar pyrolysis were investigated using thermogravimetry coupled with mass spectrometry under a nitrogen atmosphere at different heating rates of 10, 15 and 20 K min(-1) The thermogravimetric analysis shows three major reaction peaks centred around 178 °C, 258 °C, and 336 °C corresponding to the successive degradation of water soluble lower molecular mass sulphonic acids, sulphonated high molecular mass hydrocarbons, and high molecular mass hydrocarbons. The kinetic parameters were evaluated using the iso-conversional Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose method. A variation in the activation energy with conversion revealed that the pyrolysis of the acid tar waste progresses through complex multi-step kinetics. Mass spectrometry results revealed a predominance of gases such as hydrogen, methane and carbon monoxide, implying that the pyrolysis of acid tar waste is potentially an energy source. Thus the pyrolysis of acid tar waste may present a viable option for its environmental treatment. There are however, some limitations imposed by the co-evolution of corrosive gaseous components for which appropriate considerations must be provided in both pyrolysis reactor design and selection of construction materials.

  10. Thermogravimetric Analysis of Modified Hematite by Methane (CH{sub 4}) for Chemical-Looping Combustion: A Global Kinetics Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Monazam, Esmail R; Breault, Ronald W; Siriwardane, Ranjani; Miller, Duane D

    2013-10-01

    Iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) or in its natural form (hematite) is a potential material to capture CO{sub 2} through the chemical-looping combustion (CLC) process. It is known that magnesium (Mg) is an effective methyl cleaving catalyst and as such it has been combined with hematite to assess any possible enhancement to the kinetic rate for the reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with methane. Therefore, in order to evaluate its effectiveness as a hematite additive, the behaviors of Mg-modified hematite samples (hematite –5% Mg(OH){sub 2}) have been analyzed with regard to assessing any enhancement to the kinetic rate process. The Mg-modified hematite was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis. The reactivity experiments were conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) using continuous stream of CH{sub 4} (5, 10, and 20%) at temperatures ranging from 700 to 825 {degrees}C over ten reduction cycles. The mass spectroscopy analysis of product gas indicated the presence of CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, H{sub 2} and CO in the gaseous product. The kinetic data at reduction step obtained by isothermal experiments could be well fitted by two parallel rate equations. The modified hematite samples showed higher reactivity as compared to unmodified hematite samples during reduction at all investigated temperatures.

  11. Using temperature-programmed reaction for kinetic analysis of reactions in dilute aqueous solutions at high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.F.; Robinson, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    The technique of temperature-programmed reaction (TPR) is shown to be a practical experimental method for determining reaction-rate expressions and kinetics parameters for reactions in dilute aqueous solutions under high ambient pressure. By sampling and measuring the extent of reaction during a rise in temperature, information normally obtained from a series of isothermal batch kinetics experiments can be found in a single TPR test. The use of nonlinear least-squares regression eliminates the need to achieve a constant rate of temperature rise, simplifies the experimental requirements for TPR results, and gives more accurate answers than does a linear analysis of TPR results. Numerical simulations of TPR tests in the presence of random concentration-measurement error is used to assess the accuracy of the technique and to identify the best values of crucial operating parameters. The results of two TPR experiments measuring the alkaline hydrolysis of ethyl acetate demonstrate the applicability of the technique to reactions in dilute aqueous solutions at high pressure. These preliminary experimental results, along with numerical simulations, allow us to chart a course for future TPR kinetics experiments on a large number of similar reactions. 16 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Thermogravimetric and Kinetic Analysis of Melon (Citrullus colocynthis L.) Seed Husk Using the Distributed Activation Energy Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyakuma, Bemgba Bevan

    2015-12-01

    This study seeks to characterize the thermochemical fuel properties of melon seed husk (MSH) as a potential biomass feedstock for clean energy and power generation. It examined the ultimate analysis, proximate analysis, FTIR spectroscopy and thermal decomposition of MSH. Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis was examined at 5, 10, 20 °C/min from 30-800 °C under nitrogen atmosphere. Subsequently, the Distributed Activation Energy Model (DAEM) was applied to determine the activation energy, E, and frequency factor, A. The results revealed that thermal decomposition of MSH occurs in three (3) stages; drying (30-150 °C), devolatization (150-400 °C) and char degradation (400-800 °C). Kinetic analysis revealed that the E values fluctuated from 145.44-300 kJ/mol (Average E = 193 kJ/mol) while A ranged from 2.64 × 1010 to 9.18 × 1020 min-1 (Average E = 9.18 × 1019 min-1) highlighting the complexity of MSH pyrolysis. The fuel characterization and kinetics of MSH showed it is an environmentally friendly solid biofuel for future thermal biomass conversion.

  13. Analysis of sucrose accumulation in the sugar cane culm on the basis of in vitro kinetic data.

    PubMed Central

    Rohwer, J M; Botha, F C

    2001-01-01

    Sucrose accumulation in developing sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) is accompanied by a continuous synthesis and cleavage of sucrose in the storage tissues. Despite numerous studies, the factors affecting sucrose accumulation are still poorly understood, and no consistent pattern has emerged which pinpoints certain enzyme activities as important controlling steps. Here, we develop an approach based on pathway analysis and kinetic modelling to assess the biochemical control of sucrose accumulation and futile cycling in sugar cane. By using the concept of elementary flux modes, all possible routes of futile cycling of sucrose were enumerated in the metabolic system. The available kinetic data for the pathway enzymes were then collected and assembled in a kinetic model of sucrose accumulation in sugar cane culm tissue. Although no data were fitted, the model agreed well with independent experimental results: in no case was the difference between calculated and measured fluxes and concentrations greater than 2-fold. The model thus validated was then used to assess different enhancement strategies for increasing sucrose accumulation. First, the control coefficient of each enzyme in the system on futile cycling of sucrose was calculated. Secondly, the activities of those enzymes with the numerically largest control coefficients were varied over a 5-fold range to determine the effect on the degree of futile cycling, the conversion efficiency from hexoses into sucrose, and the net sucrose accumulation rate. In view of the modelling results, overexpression of the fructose or glucose transporter or the vacuolar sucrose import protein, as well as reduction of cytosolic neutral invertase levels, appear to be the most promising targets for genetic manipulation. This offers a more directed improvement strategy than cumbersome gene-by-gene manipulation. The kinetic model can be viewed and interrogated on the World Wide Web at http://jjj.biochem.sun.ac.za. PMID:11513743

  14. Kinetic analysis of enzyme systems with suicide substrate in the presence of a reversible competitive inhibitor, tested by simulated progress curves.

    PubMed

    Moruno-Dávila, M A; Garrido-del Solo, C; García-Moreno, M; Havsteen, B H; Garcia-Sevilla, F; Garcia-Cánovas, F; Varón, R

    2001-02-01

    The use of suicide substrates remains a very important and useful method in enzymology for studying enzyme mechanisms and designing potential drugs. Suicide substrates act as modified substrates for the target enzymes and bind to the active site. Therefore the presence of a competitive reversible inhibitor decreases the rate of substrate-induced inactivation and protects the enzyme from this inactivation. This lowering on the inactivation rate has evident physiological advantages, since it allows the easy acquisition of experimental data and facilitates kinetic data analysis by providing another variable (inhibitor concentration). However despite the importance of the simultaneous action of a suicide substrate and a competitive reversible inhibition, to date no corresponding kinetic analysis has been carried out. Therefore we present a general kinetic analysis of a Michaelis-Menten reaction mechanism with double inhibition caused by both, a suicide substrate and a competitive reversible inhibitor. We assume rapid equilibrium of the reversible reaction steps involved, while the time course equations for the reaction product have been derived with the assumption of a limiting enzyme. The goodness of the analytical solutions has been tested by comparison with the simulated curves obtained by numerical integration. A kinetic data analysis to determine the corresponding kinetic parameters from the time progress curve of the product is suggested. In conclusion, we present a complete kinetic analysis of an enzyme reaction mechanism as described above in an attempt to fill a gap in the theoretical treatment of this type of system.

  15. Kinetic Atom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David B.

    1981-01-01

    Surveys the research of scientists like Joule, Kelvin, Maxwell, Clausius, and Boltzmann as it comments on the basic conceptual issues involved in the development of a more precise kinetic theory and the idea of a kinetic atom. (Author/SK)

  16. Application of model-free methods for analysis of combustion kinetics of coals with different ranks

    SciTech Connect

    Sis, H

    2009-07-01

    Model-free kinetic approaches were employed to investigate the combustion kinetics of coals with different ranks, namely, lignite, bituminous coal, and anthracite. The experimental data were provided under non-isothermal conditions at different heating rates in the range of 2-25C min{sup -1}. The activation energy values were estimated by two model-free methods, that is, Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose methods. Slightly higher activation energy values were obtained by Ozawa-Flynn-Wall method at a wide range of conversion extent. Variation of activation energy was found to be comparably more significant for lower rank lignite (between 44.82 and 287.56 kJ mol{sup -1}) while less significant for higher rank bituminous coal (between 101.97 and 155.64 kJ mol{sup -1}) and anthracite (between 106.04 and 160.31 kJ mol{sup -1}).

  17. TMI MSLB analysis using TRAC-PF1 coupled with three-dimensional kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, K.N.; Macian, R.; Baratta, A.J.; Irani, A.; Folsom, J.W.; Trikouros, N.G.

    1996-07-01

    The Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) accident in a pressurized water reactor is characterized by significant space-time effects in the core caused by asymmetric cooling and assumed stuck-out rod during reactor trip. Simulation of transients involving asymmetric core power peaking requires evaluation of the core response from a multi-dimensional perspective. These effects are analyzed in this paper for TMI Cycle 10 using the TRAC-PF1/NEM computer code. The TRAC-PF1/NEM methodology utilizes a closely coupled transient three-dimensional thermal-hydraulics vessel and three-dimensional neutronics core models supplemented by 1D simulation of the remainder of the reactor coolant system. A comparison of the 3-D kinetics results to a compatible point kinetics prediction is also performed.

  18. Formulation and numerical analysis of diatomic molecular dissociation using Boltzmann kinetic equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Ryosuke; Suzuki, Kojiro; Kuroda, Hisayasu

    2007-01-01

    The direct description of chemical reactions by the Boltzmann equation still involves some difficulties in the kinetic theory. In this paper, we describe diatomic molecular dissociation due to transitions of vibrational quantum states resulting from inelastic collisions. These can be described by the Wang Chang-Uhlenbeck (WCU) equation. To avoid direct evaluation of the strong nonlinear collision kernel of the WCU equation, we used a kinetic equation. For accurate description of the dissociation process, we describe improvements we made to the conventional inelastic collision model (the so-called Morse model). Combining this inelastic collision model with the gas mixture model by Oguchi, we formulated a model for representing diatomic molecular dissociations. We validated this model by simulating a hypersonic shock layer with diatomic molecular dissociation.

  19. Fluorescent Branched RNAs for High-Throughput Analysis of Dbr1 Enzyme Kinetics and Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Katolik, Adam; Clark, Nathaniel E; Tago, Nobuhiro; Montemayor, Eric J; Hart, P John; Damha, Masad J

    2017-01-18

    We have developed fluorescent 2',5' branched RNAs (bRNA) that permit real time monitoring of RNA lariat (intron) debranching enzyme (Dbr1) kinetics. These compounds contain fluorescein (FAM) on the 5' arm of the bRNA that is quenched by a dabcyl moiety on the 2' arm. Dbr1-mediated hydrolysis of the 2',5' linkage induces a large increase in fluorescence, providing a convenient assay for Dbr1 hydrolysis. We show that unlabeled bRNAs with non-native 2',5'-phosphodiester linkages, such as phosphoramidate or phosphorothioate, can inhibit Dbr1-mediated debranching with IC50 values in the low nanomolar range. In addition to measuring kinetic parameters of the debranching enzyme, these probes can be used for high throughput screening (HTS) of chemical libraries with the aim of identifying Dbr1 inhibitors, compounds that may be useful in treating neurodegenerative diseases and retroviral infections.

  20. Kinetic analysis of dihydroxyacetone production from crude glycerol by immobilized cells of Gluconobacter oxydans MTCC 904.

    PubMed

    Dikshit, Pritam Kumar; Moholkar, Vijayanand S

    2016-09-01

    The present study has investigated kinetic features of bioconversion of biodiesel-derived crude glycerol to dihydroxyacetone with immobilized Gluconobacter oxydans cells using modified Haldane substrate-inhibition model. The results have been compared against free cells and pure glycerol. Relative variations in the kinetic parameters KS, KI, Vmax, n and X reveal that immobilized G. oxydans cells (on PU foam substrate) with crude glycerol as substrate give higher order of inhibition (n) and lower maximum reaction velocities (Vmax). These results are essentially implications of substrate transport restrictions across immobilization matrix, which causes retention of substrate in the matrix and reduction in fractional available substrate (X) for the cells. This causes reduction in both KS (substrate concentration at Vmax/2) and KI (inhibition constant) as compared to free cells. For immobilized cells, substrate concentration (Smax) corresponding to Vmax is practically same for both pure and crude glycerol as substrate.

  1. TH-C-17A-05: Cherenkov Excited Phosphorescence Oxygen (CEPhOx) Imaging During Multi-Beam Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, R; Pogue, B; Holt, R; Esipova, T; Vinogradov, S; Gladstone, D

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Cherenkov radiation is created during external beam radiation therapy that can excite phosphorescence in tissue from oxygen-sensitive, bio-compatible probes. Utilizing the known spatial information of the treatment plan with directed multiple beam angles, Cherenkov Excited Phosphorescence Oxygen (CEPhOx) imaging was realized from the reconstructions of Cherenkov excited phosphorescence lifetime. Methods: Platinum(II)-G4 (PtG4) was used as the oxygen-sensitive phosphorescent probe and added to a oxygenated cylindrical liquid phantom with a oxygenated/deoxygenated cylindrical anomaly. Cherenkov excited phosphorescence was imaged using a time-gated ICCD camera temporallysynchronized to the LINAC pulse output. Lifetime reconstruction was carried out in NIRFAST software. Multiple angles of the incident radiation beam was combined with the location of the prescribed treatment volume (PTV) to improve the tomographic recovery as a function of location. The tissue partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in the background and PTV was calculated based on the recovered lifetime distribution and Stern-Volmer equation. Additionally a simulation study was performed to examine the accuracy of this technique in the setting of a human brain tumor. Results: Region-based pO2 values in the oxygenated background and oxygenated/deoxygenated PTV were correctly recovered, with the deoxygenated anomaly (15.4 mmHg) easily distinguished from the oxygenated background (143 mmHg). The data acquisition time could be achieved within the normal irradiation time for a human fractionated plan. The simulations indicated that CEPhOx would be a sufficient to sample tumor pO2 sensing from tumors which are larger than 2cm in diameter or within 23mm depth from the surface. Conclusion: CEPhOx could be a novel imaging tool for pO2 assessment during external radiation beam therapy. It is minimally invasive and should work within the established treatment plan of radiation therapy with multiple beams in

  2. Cumulant analysis of charge recombination kinetics in bacterial reaction centers reconstituted into lipid vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Palazzo, G; Mallardi, A; Giustini, M; Berti, D; Venturoli, G

    2000-01-01

    The kinetics of charge recombination between the primary photoxidized donor (P(+)) and the secondary reduced quinone acceptor (Q(B)(-)) have been studied in reaction centers (RCs) from the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides incorporated into lecithin vesicles containing large ubiquinone pools over the temperature range 275 K kinetics of P(+) re-reduction observed following a flash, a new approach has been developed, based on the following assumptions: 1) the exchange of quinone between different vesicles is negligible; 2) the exchange of quinone between the Q(B) site of the RC and the quinone pool within each single vesicle is faster than the return of the electron from the primary reduced acceptor Q(A)(-) to P(+); 3) the size polydispersity of proteoliposomes and the distribution of quinone molecules among them result in a quinone concentration distribution function, P(Q). The first and second moments of P(Q) have been evaluated from the size distribution of proteoliposomes probed by quasi-elastic light scattering (mean radius, = (50 +/- 15) nm). Following these premises, we describe the kinetics of P(+)Q(B)(-) recombination with a truncated cumulant expansion and relate it to P(Q) and to the free energy changes for Q(A)(-)Q(B) --> Q(A)Q(B)(-) electron transfer (DeltaG(AB)(o)) and for quinone binding (DeltaG(bind)(o)) at Q(B). The model accounts well for the temperature and quinone dependence of the charge recombination kinetics, yielding DeltaG(AB)(o) = -7.67 +/- 0.05 kJ mol(-1) and DeltaG(bind)(o) = -14.6 +/- 0.6 kJ mol(-1) at 298 K. PMID:10968981

  3. Chemical Kinetics Mechanism Reduction Based on Principal Component Analysis: Development and Testing of Some New Implementations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    prediction of propulsion system performance. In addition, programs employed in this study for screening the merit of reduced mechanisms were...development of system -specific gas-phase finite-rate chemical kinetics mechanisms is a significant part of these efforts (Anderson et al., 2010; Chen and...employed to model other combustion systems . The final step involves producing a “reduced” (or skeletal) mechanism from the detailed/full one

  4. Kinetic Analysis of Cation Exchange in Birnessite using Time-resolved Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    C Lopano; P Heaney; J Bandstra; J Post; S Brantley

    2011-12-31

    In this study, we applied time-resolved synchrotron X-ray diffraction (TRXRD) to develop kinetic models that test a proposed two-stage reaction pathway for cation exchange in birnessite. These represent the first rate equations calculated for cation exchange in layered manganates. Our previous work has shown that the substitution of K, Cs, and Ba for interlayer Na in synthetic triclinic birnessite induces measurable changes in unit-cell parameters. New kinetic modeling of this crystallographic data supports our previously postulated two-stage reaction pathway for cation exchange, and we can correlate the kinetic steps with changes in crystal structure. In addition, the initial rates of cation exchange, R ({angstrom}{sup 3} min{sup -1}), were determined from changes in unit-cell volume to follow these rate laws: R = 1.75[K{sup +}{sub (aq)}]{sup 0.56}, R = 41.1[Cs{sup +}{sub (aq)}]{sup 1.10}, R = 1.15[Ba{sup 2+}{sub (aq)}]{sup 0.50}. Thus, the exchange rates for Na in triclinic birnessite decreased in the order: Cs >> K > Ba. These results are likely a function of hydration energy differences of the cations and the preference of the solution phase for the more readily hydrated cation.

  5. Dual-Mode Measurement and Theoretical Analysis of Evaporation Kinetics of Binary Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hanyu; He, Chi-Ruei; Basdeo, Carl; Li, Ji-Qin; Ye, Dezhuang; Kalonia, Devendra; Li, Si-Yu; Fan, Tai-Hsi

    Theoretical and experimental investigations are presented for the precision measurement of evaporation kinetics of binary mixtures using a quartz crystal resonator. A thin layer of light alcohol mixture including a volatile (methanol) and a much less volatile (1-butanol) components is deployed on top of the resonator. The normal or acoustic mode is to detect the moving liquid-vapor interface due to evaporation with a great spatial precision on the order of microns, and simultaneously the shear mode is used for in-situ detection of point viscosity or concentration of the mixture near the resonator. A one-dimensional theoretical model is developed to describe the underlying mass transfer and interfacial transport phenomena. Along with the modeling results, the transient evaporation kinetics, moving interface, and the stratification of viscosity of the liquid mixture during evaporation are simultaneously measured by the impedance response of the shear and longitudinal waves emitted from the resonator. The system can be used to characterize complicated evaporation kinetics involving multi-component fuels. American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund, NSF CMMI-0952646.

  6. Useful multivariate kinetic analysis: Size determination based on cystein-induced aggregation of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbani, Faride; Hormozi Nezhad, Mohammad Reza; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2013-11-01

    This study describes spectrometric monitored kinetic processes to determine the size of citrate-capped Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) based on aggregation induced by L-cysteine (L-Cys) as a molecular linker. The Au NPs association process is thoroughly dependent on pH, concentration and size of nanoparticles. Size dependency of aggregation inspirits to determine the average diameters of Au NPs. For this aim the procedure is achieved in aqueous medium at pH 7 (phosphate buffer), and multivariate data including kinetic spectra of Au NPs are collected during aggregation process. Subsequently partial least squares (PLS) modeling is carried out analyzing the obtained data. The model is built on the basis of relation between the kinetics behavior of aggregation and different Au NPs sizes. Training the model was performed using latent variables (LVs) of the original data. The analytical performance of the model was characterized by relative standard error. The proposed method was applied to determination of size in unknown samples. The predicted sizes of unknown samples that obtained by the introduced method are interestingly in agreement with the sizes measured by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) measurement.

  7. Useful multivariate kinetic analysis: Size determination based on cystein-induced aggregation of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, Faride; Hormozi Nezhad, Mohammad Reza; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2013-11-01

    This study describes spectrometric monitored kinetic processes to determine the size of citrate-capped Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) based on aggregation induced by l-cysteine (l-Cys) as a molecular linker. The Au NPs association process is thoroughly dependent on pH, concentration and size of nanoparticles. Size dependency of aggregation inspirits to determine the average diameters of Au NPs. For this aim the procedure is achieved in aqueous medium at pH 7 (phosphate buffer), and multivariate data including kinetic spectra of Au NPs are collected during aggregation process. Subsequently partial least squares (PLS) modeling is carried out analyzing the obtained data. The model is built on the basis of relation between the kinetics behavior of aggregation and different Au NPs sizes. Training the model was performed using latent variables (LVs) of the original data. The analytical performance of the model was characterized by relative standard error. The proposed method was applied to determination of size in unknown samples. The predicted sizes of unknown samples that obtained by the introduced method are interestingly in agreement with the sizes measured by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) measurement.

  8. Expanded PLA Bead Foaming: Analysis of Crystallization Kinetics and Development of a Novel Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nofar, Mohammadreza

    Bead foam technology with a double crystal-melting peak structure has been well established for polyolefins. The double crystal melting peak structure, which is required in the molding stage of the bead foams, generates a strong sintering among the foamed beads and maintains the overall foam structure. In this research, despite the PLA's poor foaming behavior and its slow crystallization kinetics, we successfully developed expanded PLA (EPLA) bead foams with double crystal melting peak structure and the inter-bead sintering behavior was verified through steam chest molding. For this purpose, the generation and evolution of double crystal melting peak structure in different PLA materials is simulated in a high-pressure differential scanning calorimeter (HP-DSC). The simulation results shows that the formation of double crystal melting peak with different peak ratios can be controlled by varying the processing parameters (i.e., saturation pressure, temperature, and time) during the saturation. The PLA bead foams characterization showed that the high melting temperature crystals generated during the saturation and the low melting temperature crystals formed during the cooling and foaming can significantly affect the foaming behavior of PLA bead foams. Moreover, the crystallization kinetics of different PLA materials are systematically investigated in presence of dissolved gas. It is shown that the different crystallization kinetics (i.e., crystal nucleation and growth rate) that can be induced at various gas pressures can significantly influence the PLA's foaming behavior (i.e., cell nucleation and expansion behavior).

  9. Optimization and kinetic analysis of food dyes biosorption by Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed

    Dotto, G L; Esquerdo, V M; Vieira, M L G; Pinto, L A A

    2012-03-01

    The biosorption of food dyes acid blue 9 and FD&C red no. 40 onto Spirulina platensis was studied. A full factorial design was used to analyze the effects of pH (2-4), stirring rate (50-400 rpm) and contact time (20-100 min) on biosorption capacity. In the best conditions, biosorption kinetics was analyzed and the experimental data were fitted with four kinetic models. The best conditions were: pH 2, 400 rpm and 100 min for acid blue 9, and pH 2, 225 rpm and 100 min for FD&C red no. 40. In these conditions, the biosorption capacities were 1653.0 mg g(-1) for acid blue 9 and 400.3 mg g(-1) for FD&C red no. 40. For both dyes, the Avrami kinetic model was the more appropriate to represent the experimental data. These results showed that the S. platensis is a suitable biosorbent for removal of food dyes from aqueous solutions.

  10. Kinetic Analysis of the Metal Binding Mechanism of Escherichia coli Manganese Superoxide Dismutase

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, Mei M.; Mizuno, Kazunori; Bächinger, Hans Peter; Whittaker, James W.

    2006-01-01

    The acquisition of a catalytic metal cofactor is an essential step in the maturation of every metalloenzyme, including manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). In this study, we have taken advantage of the quenching of intrinsic protein fluorescence by bound metal ions to continuously monitor the metallation reaction of Escherichia coli MnSOD in vitro, permitting a detailed kinetic characterization of the uptake mechanism. Apo-MnSOD metallation kinetics are “gated”, zero order in metal ion for both the native Mn2+ and a nonnative metal ion (Co2+) used as a spectroscopic probe to provide greater sensitivity to metal binding. Cobalt-binding time courses measured over a range of temperatures (35–50°C) reveal two exponential kinetic processes (fast and slow phases) associated with metal binding. The amplitude of the fast phase increases rapidly as the temperature is raised, reflecting the fraction of Apo-MnSOD in an “open” conformation, and its temperature dependence allows thermodynamic parameters to be estimated for the “closed” to “open” conformational transition. The sensitivity of the metallated protein to exogenously added chelator decreases progressively with time, consistent with annealing of an initially formed metalloprotein complex (kanneal = 0.4 min−1). A domain-separation mechanism is proposed for metal uptake by apo-MnSOD. PMID:16258041

  11. Analysis of the kinetics of lipid peroxidation in terms of characteristic time-points.

    PubMed

    Pinchuk, Ilya; Lichtenberg, Dov

    2014-02-01

    Measuring peroxidation of aggregated lipids in model systems (liposomes, micelles, emulsions or microemulsions) as well as in samples of biological origin ex vivo (isolated lipoproteins, blood sera or plasma) is widely used in medical and biological investigations, to evaluate the oxidative stress, antioxidants' efficiency and lipid oxidizability in different pathophysiological states. To avoid possible artifacts, such investigations must be based on the time course of peroxidation (i.e. on kinetic studies). To be able to compare complex kinetic profiles, it is important to characterize them in terms of mechanistically meaningful and experimentally unequivocal parameters. In this review, we characterize the typically observed continuous kinetic profiles in terms of a limited number of characteristic time-points (both commonly used and additional time-points and their combinations) that can be derived from experimental time-dependencies. The meaning of each of the experimentally observed characteristic parameters is presented in terms of rate constants and concentrations, derived on the basis of mechanistic considerations. Theoretical expressions for these characteristic parameters are based on a model that includes both the inhibited peroxidation and the uninhibited peroxidation occurring after consumption of the antioxidant(s). Comparison between theoretically predicted dependencies and experimental data support our treatment considered with special emphasis on transition metals-induced peroxidation of lipoproteins.

  12. Mechanistic Picture and Kinetic Analysis of Surface-Confined Ullmann Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Di Giovannantonio, Marco; Tomellini, Massimo; Lipton-Duffin, Josh; Galeotti, Gianluca; Ebrahimi, Maryam; Cossaro, Albano; Verdini, Alberto; Kharche, Neerav; Meunier, Vincent; Vasseur, Guillaume; Fagot-Revurat, Yannick; Perepichka, Dmitrii F; Rosei, Federico; Contini, Giorgio

    2016-12-28

    Surface-confined polymerization via Ullmann coupling is a promising route to create one- and two-dimensional covalent π-conjugated structures, including the bottom-up growth of graphene nanoribbons. Understanding the mechanism of the Ullmann reaction is necessary to provide a platform for rationally controlling the formation of these materials. We use fast X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in kinetic measurements of epitaxial surface polymerization of 1,4-dibromobenzene on Cu(110) and devise a kinetic model based on mean field rate equations, involving a transient state. This state is observed in the energy landscapes calculated by nudged elastic band (NEB) within density functional theory (DFT), which assumes as initial and final geometries of the organometallic and polymeric structures those observed by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The kinetic model accounts for all the salient features observed in the experimental curves extracted from the fast-XPS measurements and enables an enhanced understanding of the polymerization process, which is found to follow a nucleation-and-growth behavior preceded by the formation of a transient state.

  13. Automated system for kinetic analysis of particle size distributions for pharmaceutically relevant systems.

    PubMed

    Green, John-Bruce D; Carter, Phillip W; Zhang, Yingqing; Patel, Dipa; Kotha, Priyanka; Gonyon, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Detailing the kinetics of particle formation for pharmaceutically relevant solutions is challenging, especially when considering the combination of formulations, containers, and timescales of clinical importance. This paper describes a method for using commercial software Automate with a stream-selector valve capable of sampling container solutions from within an environmental chamber. The tool was built to monitor changes in particle size distributions via instrumental particle counters but can be adapted to other solution-based sensors. The tool and methodology were demonstrated to be highly effective for measuring dynamic changes in emulsion globule distributions as a function of storage and mixing conditions important for parenteral nutrition. Higher levels of agitation induced the fastest growth of large globules (≥5 μm) while the gentler conditions actually showed a decrease in the number of these large globules. The same methodology recorded calcium phosphate precipitation kinetics as a function of [Ca(2+)] and pH. This automated system is readily adaptable to a wide range of pharmaceutically relevant systems where the particle size is expected to vary with time. This instrumentation can dramatically reduce the time and resources needed to probe complex formulation issues while providing new insights for monitoring the kinetics as a function of key variables.

  14. Design and operating characteristics of a transient kinetic analysis catalysis reactor system employing in situ transmission Fourier transform infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Yong; Disselkamp, R. S.; Szanyi, J.; Peden, C. H. F.; Campbell, C. T.; Goodwin, J. G. Jr.

    2006-09-15

    A novel apparatus for gas phase heterogeneous catalysis kinetics is described. The apparatus enables fast isotopic transient kinetic analysis (ITKA) to be performed in which both the gaseous and adsorbed species inside the catalytic reactor are monitored simultaneously with rapid-scan transmission Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and its gaseous effluent can be monitored by mass spectroscopy during rapid switching of reagent gas streams. This enables a more powerful version of the well-known steady-state isotopic transient kinetic analysis (SSITKA) technique in which the vibrational spectra of the gas phase and adsorbed species are also probed: FTIR-SSITKA. Unique reactor characteristics include tungsten construction, liquid nitrogen cooling or heating ({approx}200-770 K), pressures of 1.0-2.5 atm, fast reactor disassembly and reassembly, and catalyst loading in a common volume. The FTIR data acquisition rate of this apparatus (3 Hz) is tenfold faster than previously reported instruments. A 95% signal decay time of {approx}3 s for gas switching was measured. Very good temperature reproducibility and uniformity (<{+-}3 K) were observed by in situ rotational temperature analysis, which allows accurate calibration of the reactor thermocouple to the reactor gas temperature. Finally, FTIR-SSITKA capabilities are demonstrated for CO{sub 2} isotope switching over a {gamma}-alumina sample at 75 deg. C, which reveal an adsorbed carbonate species with an average surface residence time of {tau}=148{+-}5 s and a coverage of {approx}2.5x10{sup 15} molecules cm{sup -2}.

  15. Cleavage kinetics analysis of human embryos predicts development to blastocyst and implantation.

    PubMed

    Dal Canto, Mariabeatrice; Coticchio, Giovanni; Mignini Renzini, Mario; De Ponti, Elena; Novara, Paola Vittoria; Brambillasca, Fausta; Comi, Ruggero; Fadini, Rubens

    2012-11-01

    Cleavage kinetics of human embryos is indicative of ability to develop to blastocyst and implant. Recent advances in time-lapse microscopy have opened new and important research opportunities. In this study involving infertile couples requiring standard IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment, zygotes were cultured by integrated embryo-culture time-lapse microscopy to analyse cleavage times from the 2- to the 8-cell stages in relation to the ability to develop to blastocyst, expand and implant. In comparison to embryos arresting after 8-cell stage, times of cleavage to 7- and 8-cell stages of embryos developing to blastocyst were shorter (56.5 ± 8.1 versus 58.8 ± 10.4h, P=0.03 and 61.0 ± 9.4 versus 65.2 ± 13.0 h, P=0.0008, respectively). In embryos developing to blastocyst, absence of blastocoele expansion on day 5 was associated with progressive cleavage delay. Implanting embryos developed to 8-cell stage in a shorter period compared with those unable to implant (54.9 ± 5.2 and 58.0 ± 7.2h, respectively, P=0.035). In conclusion, cleavage from 2- to 8-cell stage occurs progressively earlier in embryos with the ability to develop to blastocyst, expand and implant. Conventional observation times on days 2 and 3 are inappropriate for accurate embryo evaluation. The speed at which human embryos cleave is known to be suggestive of their ability to develop in vitro to the blastocyst stage and implant after transfer into the uterus. Recent advances in time-lapse microscopy, which allows acquisition of images every 15-20 min, have opened new and important research opportunities. In a retrospective study involving infertile couples requiring standard IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment, fertilized oocytes were cultured by an integrated embryo-culture time-lapse microscopy system in order to perform an analysis of cleavage times from the 2- to the 8-cell stage in relation to the ability to develop to blastocyst, expand and implant. In comparison to

  16. Measurement of muon annual modulation and muon-induced phosphorescence in NaI(Tl) crystals with DM-Ice17

    SciTech Connect

    Cherwinka, J.; Grant, D.; Halzen, F.; Heeger, K. M.; Hsu, L.; A. J. F. Hubbard; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Lim, K. E.; Macdonald, C.; Maruyama, R. H.; Paling, S.; Pettus, W.; Pierpoint, Z. P.; Reilly, B. N.; Robinson, M.; Sandstrom, P.; N. J.C. Spooner; Telfer, S.; Yang, L.

    2016-02-01

    We report the measurement of muons and muon-induced phosphorescence in DM-Ice17, a NaI(Tl) direct detection dark matter experiment at the South Pole. Muon interactions in the crystal are identified by their observed pulse shape and large energy depositions. The measured muon rate in DM-Ice17 is 2.93±0.04 μ/crystal/day with a modulation amplitude of 12.3±1.7%, consistent with expectation. Following muon interactions, we observe long-lived phosphorescence in the NaI(Tl) crystals with a decay time of 5.5±0.5 s. The prompt energy deposited by a muon is correlated to the amount of delayed phosphorescence, the brightest of which consist of tens of millions of photons. These photons are distributed over tens of seconds with a rate and arrival timing that do not mimic a scintillation signal above 2 keVee. Furthermore, while the properties of phosphorescence vary among individual crystals, the annually modulating signal observed by DAMA cannot be accounted for by phosphorescence with the characteristics observed in DM-Ice17.

  17. Measurement of muon annual modulation and muon-induced phosphorescence in NaI(Tl) crystals with DM-Ice17

    DOE PAGES

    Cherwinka, J.; Grant, D.; Halzen, F.; ...

    2016-02-01

    We report the measurement of muons and muon-induced phosphorescence in DM-Ice17, a NaI(Tl) direct detection dark matter experiment at the South Pole. Muon interactions in the crystal are identified by their observed pulse shape and large energy depositions. The measured muon rate in DM-Ice17 is 2.93±0.04 μ/crystal/day with a modulation amplitude of 12.3±1.7%, consistent with expectation. Following muon interactions, we observe long-lived phosphorescence in the NaI(Tl) crystals with a decay time of 5.5±0.5 s. The prompt energy deposited by a muon is correlated to the amount of delayed phosphorescence, the brightest of which consist of tens of millions of photons.more » These photons are distributed over tens of seconds with a rate and arrival timing that do not mimic a scintillation signal above 2 keVee. Furthermore, while the properties of phosphorescence vary among individual crystals, the annually modulating signal observed by DAMA cannot be accounted for by phosphorescence with the characteristics observed in DM-Ice17.« less

  18. Direct Dynamic Kinetic Analysis and Computer Simulation of Growth of Clostridium perfringens in Cooked Turkey during Cooling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lihan; Vinyard, Bryan T

    2016-03-01

    This research applied a new 1-step methodology to directly construct a tertiary model that describes the growth of Clostridium perfringens in cooked turkey meat under dynamically cooling conditions. The kinetic parameters of the growth models were determined by numerical analysis and optimization using multiple dynamic growth curves. The models and kinetic parameters were validated using independent growth curves obtained under various cooling conditions. The results showed that the residual errors (ε) of the predictions followed a Laplace distribution that is symmetric with respect to ε = 0. For residual errors, 90.6% are within ±0.5 Log CFU/g and 73.4% are ±0.25 Log CFU/g for all growth curves used for validation. For relative growth <1.0 Log CFU/g, 88.9% of the residual errors are within ±0.5 Log CFU/g, and 63.0% are within ±0.25 Log CFU/g. For relative growth of <2.0 Log CFU/g, 92.7% of the residual errors are within ±0.5 Log CFU/g, and 70.3% are within ±0.25 Log CFU/g. The scale and distribution of residual errors clearly suggests that the models and estimated kinetic parameters are reasonably accurate in predicting the growth of C. perfringens. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the probabilities of >1.0 and 2.0 Log CFU/g relative growth of C. perfringens in the final products at the end of cooling. This probabilistic process analysis approach provides a new alternative for estimating and managing the risk of a product and can help the food industry and regulatory agencies assess the safety of cooked meat in the event of cooling deviation.

  19. Gated quenching of intrinsic fluorescence and phosphorescence of globular proteins. An extended model.

    PubMed Central

    Somogyi, B; Norman, J A; Rosenberg, A

    1986-01-01

    We present a theoretical model to account for the quenching data of macromolecular fluorescence and phosphorescence when the accessibility to the quencher is gated by a dynamic mechanism coupled to the fluctuation of the macromolecular matrix. We show that the model currently in use to interpret gated quenching processes gives only approximate results in both qualitative and quantitative terms, and it can be regarded as a specific case of the presented model. We show that the gating dynamics affect both the apparent accessibility (alpha obs) and Ksv values obtained by the modified Stern-Volmer plot. The effect of gating on alpha obs and Ksv depends upon the relative rate of gating compared to the excited state lifetime. The model allows us to predict the effect of viscosity on quenching if it takes place by a gated mechanism. The prediction can and is, in this case, compared to the existing data on glycerol effects on acrylamide quenching of the tryptophan fluorescence in RNAse T1. The result shows that a simple gated model is not compatible with the observed quenching behavior. PMID:3730507

  20. Hole transport characteristics in phosphorescent dye-doped NPB films by admittance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Chen, Jiangshan; Huang, Jinying; Dai, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Su; Ma, Dongge

    2014-05-01

    Admittance spectroscopy is a powerful tool to determine the carrier mobility. The carrier mobility is a significant parameter to understand the behavior or to optimize the organic light-emitting diode or other organic semiconductor devices. Hole transport in phosphorescent dye, bis[2-(9,9-diethyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl)-1-phenyl-1Hbenzoimidazol-N,C3] iridium(acetylacetonate [(fbi)2Ir(acac)]) doped into N,N-diphenyl-N,N-bis(1-naphthylphenyl)-1,1-biphenyl-4,4-diamine (NPB) films was investigated by admittance spectroscopy. The results show that doped (fbi)2Ir(acac) molecules behave as hole traps in NPB, and lower the hole mobility. For thicker films(≳300 nm), the electric field dependence of hole mobility is as expected positive, i.e., the mobility increases exponentially with the electric field. However, for thinner films (≲300 nm), the electric field dependence of hole mobility is negative, i.e., the hole mobility decreases exponentially with the electric field. Physical mechanisms behind the negative field dependence of hole mobility are discussed. In addition, three frequency regions were divided to analyze the behaviors of the capacitance in the hole-only device and the physical mechanism was explained by trap theory and the parasitic capacitance effect.

  1. Improved efficiency in blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes by the stepwise doping structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liping; Wang, Xiaoping; Kou, Zhiqi; Ji, Changyan

    2017-04-01

    The electro-optical properties of the blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) can be affected by the stepwise doping structure in the emitting layer (EML). A series of multi-EML devices with different doping concentration of blue dopant (FIrpic) are fabricated. The effect of the stepwise doping structure close to the electron transport layer is more obvious than that close to the hole transport layer. When the doping concentration increases gradually from the hole injection side to the electron injection side, the maximum values of the luminance, current and power efficiency can reach to 9745 cd/m2 (at 9 V), 32.0 cd/A and 25.1 lm/W in the device with the asymmetric tri-EML structure, which is improved by about 10% compared with that in the bi-EML device. When the number of the EML is four, the performance of the device becomes worse because of the interface effect resulting from different concentration of dopant.

  2. Highly sensitive organic ultraviolet optical sensor based on phosphorescent Cu (I) complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Zhiguo; Li, Wenlian; Che, Guangbo; Chu, Bei; Bi, Defeng; Han, Liangliang; Chen, Lili; Hu, Zhizhi; Zhang, Zhiqiang

    2006-10-01

    Ultraviolet light-sensitive organic optical sensor based on photovoltaic diode was demonstrated by using a phosphorescent Cu complex and a diamine derivative as electroacceptor and electrodonor, respectively. The Cu complex is Cu(DPEphos )((Bphen))BF4, in which DPEphos and Bphen denote 6,7-dicyanodipyrido [2,2-d:2',3'-f] quinoxaline and bathophenanthroline. And the diamine derivative, m-MTDATA, is 4, 4',4″-tris-(2-methylphenyl phenylamino) triphenylamine. The sensor is highly sensitive to UV light band from 300to420nm while it has almost no response to the visible light, and under illumination of 365nm light with power of 1.7mW/cm2, the sensor exhibits an open circuit voltage of 1.86V, a short circuit current of 105.3μA/cm2, a fill factor of 0.246, and a power conversion efficiency of 2.83%. The dependences of ultraviolet responsive sensitivity on illumination intensity and working temperature were also discussed.

  3. Carrier Injection and Transport in Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Device with Oxadiazole Host

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Tien-Lung; Lee, Pei-Yu

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the carrier injection and transport characteristics in iridium(III)bis[4,6-(di-fluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N,C2′]picolinate (FIrpic) doped phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) with oxadiazole (OXD) as the bipolar host material of the emitting layer (EML). When doping Firpic inside the OXD, the driving voltage of OLEDs greatly decreases because FIrpic dopants facilitate electron injection and electron transport from the electron-transporting layer (ETL) into the EML. With increasing dopant concentration, the recombination zone shifts toward the anode side, analyzed with electroluminescence (EL) spectra. Besides, EL redshifts were also observed with increasing driving voltage, which means the electron mobility is more sensitive to the electric field than the hole mobility. To further investigate carrier injection and transport characteristics, FIrpic was intentionally undoped at different positions inside the EML. When FIrpic was undoped close to the ETL, driving voltage increased significantly which proves the dopant-assisted-electron-injection characteristic in this OLED. When the undoped layer is near the electron blocking layer, the driving voltage is only slightly increased, but the current efficiency is greatly reduced because the main recombination zone was undoped. However, non-negligible FIrpic emission is still observed which means the recombination zone penetrates inside the EML due to certain hole-transporting characteristics of the OXD. PMID:22837713

  4. Phosphorescent iridium(III) complexes as multicolor probes for specific mitochondrial imaging and tracking.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Qiao, Liping; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, four phosphorescent iridium(III) complexes [Ir(C-N)2(PhenSe)](+) (Ir1-Ir4, in which C-N = 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridine (dfppy), dibenzo[f,h]quinoxaline (dbq), 2-phenylquinoline (2-pq) and 2-phenylpyridine (ppy), PhenSe = 1,10-phenanthrolineselenazole) with tunable emission colors were developed to image mitochondria and track the dynamics of the mitochondrial morphology. In comparison with commercially available mitochondrial trackers, Ir1-Ir4 possess high specificity to mitochondria in live and fixed cells without requiring prior membrane permeabilization or the replacement of the culture medium. Due to the high resistance of Ir1-Ir4 to the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential as well as the appreciable tolerance to environmental changes, these complexes are applicable for the imaging and tracking of the mitochondrial morphological changes over long periods of time. In addition, Ir2-Ir4 exhibited superior photostability compared to the commercially available mitochondrial trackers. These colorful iridium(III) complexes may contribute to the future development of staining agents for organelle-selective imaging in living cells.

  5. A phosphorescent iridium(III) solvent complex for multiplex assays of cell death.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min; Wu, Yongquan; Liu, Yi; Yang, Huiran; Zhao, Qiang; Li, Fuyou

    2014-10-01

    Cell death involves loss of transport function and physical integrity of the plasma membrane, and plays a critical role in many human diseases. At present, the development of an effective visualization tool to monitor cell death remains a significant challenge. Here, a cyclometalated iridium(III) solvent complex [Ir(pdz)2(H2O)2](+)[OTf](-) (IrC1) was designed and synthesized as a phosphorescent indicator of cell death. IrC1 specifically stained the nuclei of dead cells over living cells rapidly (<10 min) and at low concentrations (10 μM), as observed using confocal luminescence microscopy. Moreover, the IrC1 uptake behavior leads to its further application in quantifying the population of early apoptotic cells using flow cytometry. In particular, successful application in time-gated fluorescence microscopy by virtue of its microsecond lifetime rendered IrC1 attractive as a luminescent probe. IrC1 additionally exhibited excellent long-term photostability, in contrast to traditional dyes. We conclude that in combination with luminescent microscopy and flow cytometry, IrC1 provides an effective, straightforward alternative to cell death assays.

  6. Direct and rapid discrimination of aflatoxigenic strains based on fibre-optic room temperature phosphorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Durán, T; Sánchez-Barragán, I; Costa-Fernández, J M; Sanz-Medel, A

    2007-04-01

    An innovative analytical methodology for the rapid identification of aflatoxin-producing moulds belonging to Aspergillus genus is presented here. The procedure is based on the measurement, using a fibre-optic luminometer, of the room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) emitted by aflatoxins produced by isolated aflatoxigenic strains, cultured in a special culture medium consisting of malt extract agar modified with beta-cyclodextrin and sodium deoxycholate for RTP induction. Unequivocal detection of the presence of aflatoxins in the culture medium is achieved within the first 36 h of incubation at 32 degrees C, owing to the selectivity and sensitivity of the RTP emission, as compared with the minimum of 72 h needed using a conventional microbiological method. In a first step, the capability of aflatoxin standard solutions to emit analytically useful RTP was evaluated. In this line all experimental conditions were optimised for in vitro induction of RTP from aflatoxins. In a second step, a simple analytical test was developed and it has been evaluated for the rapid identification of aflatoxigenic strains, as a discriminating assay from non-aflatoxigenic strains based on the measurement of experimental RTP emission observed. Confirmation of aflatoxin production on the studied culture plates was accomplished by means of an HPLC/fluorescence reference method.

  7. Different configurations of phosphorescent yellow emissive layer in white organic light-emitting device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shengqiang; Yu, Junsheng; Zhao, Juan; Jiang, Yadong; Ma, Zhu

    2012-10-01

    We fabricated white organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs) based on three different configurations for yellow emissive layer (Y-EML), using phosphorescent yellow bis[2-(4-tert-butylphenyl)benzothiazolato-N,C2']iridium (acetylacetonate) [(t-bt)2Ir(acac)]. The Y-EML was formed as undoped ultrathin layer, doped ultrathin layer with low (tbt) 2Ir(acac) concentration and doped thin layer with the same amount of (t-bt)2Ir(acac) molecular as the undoped YEML. The results showed that the difference in configurations of the Y-EML affected not only the operating voltage but also the luminance and efficiency characteristics of the devices. Comparing device performance, it was found that devices based on the doped Y-EML showed low efficiency and yellow-dominated light emission, due to triplet exciton hopping caused by different triplet energy. On the other hand, a device with the undoped Y-EML demonstrated the highest efficiency (79.0 cd/A at 1 550 cd/m2 and 40.5 lm/W at 1 000 cd/m2), attributing to well confined charge carriers and excitons.

  8. Long-Lasting Phosphorescence Properties of Pyrochlore La2Ti2O7:Pr3+ Phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Ming-Hui; Jiang, Da-Peng; Zhao, Cheng-Jiu; Li, Bin

    2010-04-01

    The La2Ti2O7:Pr3+, which emits red color luminescence upon UV light excitation, is prepared by the conventional high-temperature solid-state method and its luminescent properties are systematically investigated. X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, afterglow emission spectra and long-lasting phosphorescence (LLP) decay curves are used to characterize this phosphor. After irradiation by a 290-nm UV light for 3 min, the Pr3+-doped La2Ti2O7 phosphor emits intense red emitting afterglow from the 1 D2 → 3H4 transitions, and its afterglow can be seen with the naked eye in the dark clearly for more than 1 h after removal of the excitation source. The afterglow decay curve of the Pr3+-doped La2Ti2O7 phosphor contains a fast decay component and another slow decay one. The possible mechanism of this red light emitting LLP phosphor is also discussed based on the experimental results.

  9. Efficient phosphorescent polymer light-emitting diodes by suppressing triplet energy back transfer.

    PubMed

    Gong, Shaolong; Yang, Chuluo; Qin, Jingui

    2012-07-21

    Phosphorescent polymer light-emitting diodes (PhPLEDs) are promising devices in flat panel displays and solid state lighting sources since they can combine the advantages of the high efficiency of electrophosphorescence and low-cost, large-scale manufacture by using a solution process. However, their efficiencies are generally much lower than those of small-molecule-based devices fabricated by using a thermal deposition approach. One of the major reasons for their low efficiency is that energy is lost by back transfer to a polymer host. This tutorial review gives a brief introduction to the fundamentals of PhPLEDs, and then highlights recent progress in the main approaches to suppress triplet energy back transfer from the phosphor to the polymer host towards realizing highly efficient PhPLEDs. The suppressing mechanisms are discussed, and the achievement of high device efficiencies are demonstrated. Emphasis is placed on the relationships between molecular structure, the extent of suppressing triplet energy back transfer, and device performance.

  10. Linkage engineering in hosts for dramatic efficiency enhancement of blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chaochao; Wei, Ying; Ding, Dongxue; Xu, Hui

    2015-05-18

    Higher triplet energy and balanced charge mobility is two key factors for high-efficiency host materials of phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLED), which are integrated in a carbazole-diphenylene-fluorene hybrid FDPCz2 (9,9'-(4',4"-(9H-fluorene-9,9-diyl)bis(biphenyl-4',4-diyl))bis(9H-carbazole)) on the basis of indirect linkage strategy. Owing to rationally spatial allocation of conjugation blocking and extension for diphenylene linkages, FDPCz2 achieves both high triplet energy of 2.97 eV and favorable charge mobility by order of 6.3 × 10(-6) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Compared to conventional hosts and a short-conjugated analogue FPCz2 (9,9'-(4,4'-(9H-fluorene-9,9-diyl)bis(4,1-phenylene)) bis(9H-carbazole)), FDPCz2 dramatically elevated device efficiencies with peak values of 40.6 cd A(-1) and 20.2% for blue PhOLEDs.

  11. Two-point method for kinetic analysis of a thermoluminescence glow peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogundare, F. O.; Chithambo, M. L.

    2006-05-01

    We present a method for the estimation of defect (trap) physical parameters from thermoluminescence (TL) glow peaks. In this method, the order of kinetics b is determined using two values of TL intensity each of which corresponds to the same temperature (T-1) on two separate glow peaks of a phosphor. The two glow peaks are obtained from two aliquots of the phosphor irradiated to same dose but read out at different heating rates. The proposed method requires a minimum of only two data points in contrast to standard peak shape (PS) methods that require three points corresponding to three different temperatures on the same glow peak. Once the order of kinetics b is determined, the activation energy E is calculated by taking a second point (T-2) on any one of the two glow peaks. The values of b and E thus obtained are used to evaluate the frequency factor S'' and the number of trapped electrons before the heating begins n(o). The validity of the method was checked using two numerically generated glow peaks. For the two cases, the method reproduced the input values reasonably well. The method was also used to analyse two experimental glow peaks. The results obtained provide a reasonably good fit to the experimental data. The kinetic parameters calculated using the present technique are comparable to those calculated using PS and initial rise methods. Initial guesses can easily be obtained for E and S'' using the present technique when a glow curve is to be deconvoluted with a model consisting of many unknown parameters with E and S'' inclusive.

  12. Analysis of dechlorination kinetics of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons by Fe(II) in cement slurries.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bahngmi; Batchelor, Bill

    2008-03-21

    Degradative solidification/stabilization with ferrous iron (DS/S-Fe(II)) has been found to be effective in degrading a number of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons including 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA), 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (1,1,2,2-TeCA), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE), vinyl chloride (VC), carbon tetrachloride (CT) and chloroform (CF). Previous studies have characterized degradation kinetics in DS/S-Fe(II) systems as affected by Fe(II) dose, pH and initial target organic concentration. The goal of this study is to investigate the importance of various chemical properties on degradation kinetics of DS/S-Fe(II). This was accomplished by first measuring rate constants for degradation of 1,1,1-TCA, 1,1,2,2-TeCA and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) in individual batch experiments. Rate constants developed in these experiments and those obtained from the literature were related to thermodynamic parameters including one-electron reduction potential, two-electron reduction potential, bond dissociation energy and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies. Degradation kinetics by Fe(II) in cement slurries were generally represented by a pseudo-first-order rate law. The results showed that the rate constants for chlorinated methanes (e.g. CT, CF) and chlorinated ethanes (e.g. 1,1,1-TCA) were higher than those for chlorinated ethylenes (e.g. PCE, TCE, 1,1-DCE and VC) under similar experimental conditions. The log of the pseudo-first-order rate constant (k) was found to correlate better with lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies (E(LUMO)) (R2=0.874) than with other thermodynamic parameter descriptors.

  13. Kinetic analysis of strontium and potassium sorption onto sands and gravels in a natural channel.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bencala, K.E.; Jackman, A.P.; Kennedy, V.C.; Avanzino, R.J.; Zellweger, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    A kinetic, first-order mass transfer model was used to describe the sorption of strontium onto sand-and gravel-sized streambed sediments. Rate parameters, empirically determined for strontium, allowed for the prediction of potassium sorption with moderate success. The model parameters varied significantly with particle size. The sorption data were collected during an experimental injection of several elements into a small mountain pool-and- riffle stream. The sorption process onto sand- and gravel-sized sediment was relatively slow compared to changes in the dissolved concentrations. -Authors

  14. [Screening chest X-ray examination with kinetic analysis using flat-panel detector].

    PubMed

    Sanada, Shigeru; Tanaka, Rie; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Masayuki; Inoue, Hitoshi

    2003-11-01

    We are developing dynamic screening radiography to provide kinetic information for lung respiratory examination using a flat-panel-detector (FPD) system. We modified the FPD system (CANON CXDI-22) to take sequential images for a short period of time (10 seconds, 3 frames/sec). Sequential chest radiographs from full inspiration to expiration were taken and analyzed for diaphragm movement and density changes in local lung areas to objectively detect respiratory anomalies. Our methods derived some respiratory functions such as regional air passage and lung structure movement, and suggested that the degree of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and interstitial pneumonia could be evaluated quantitatively.

  15. Analysis of long-term bacterial vs. chemical Fe(III) oxide reduction kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roden, Eric E.

    2004-08-01

    Data from studies of dissimilatory bacterial (10 8 cells mL -1 of Shewanella putrefaciens strain CN32, pH 6.8) and ascorbate (10 mM, pH 3.0) reduction of two synthetic Fe(III) oxide coated sands and three natural Fe(III) oxide-bearing subsurface materials (all at ca. 10 mmol Fe(III) L -1) were analyzed in relation to a generalized rate law for mineral dissolution (J t/m 0 = k'(m/m 0) γ, where J t is the rate of dissolution and/or reduction at time t, m 0 is the initial mass of oxide, and m/m 0 is the unreduced or undissolved mineral fraction) in order to evaluate changes in the apparent reactivity of Fe(III) oxides during long-term biological vs. chemical reduction. The natural Fe(III) oxide assemblages demonstrated larger changes in reactivity (higher γ values in the generalized rate law) compared to the synthetic oxides during long-term abiotic reductive dissolution. No such relationship was evident in the bacterial reduction experiments, in which temporal changes in the apparent reactivity of the natural and synthetic oxides were far greater (5-10 fold higher γ values) than in the abiotic reduction experiments. Kinetic and thermodynamic considerations indicated that neither the abundance of electron donor (lactate) nor the accumulation of aqueous end-products of oxide reduction (Fe(II), acetate, dissolved inorganic carbon) are likely to have posed significant limitations on the long-term kinetics of oxide reduction. Rather, accumulation of biogenic Fe(II) on residual oxide surfaces appeared to play a dominant role in governing the long-term kinetics of bacterial crystalline Fe(III) oxide reduction. The experimental findings together with numerical simulations support a conceptual model of bacterial Fe(III) oxide reduction kinetics that differs fundamentally from established models of abiotic Fe(III) oxide reductive dissolution, and indicate that information on Fe(III) oxide reactivity gained through abiotic reductive dissolution techniques cannot be used to

  16. Kinetic analysis of Enterococcus faecium L,D-transpeptidase inactivation by carbapenems.

    PubMed

    Dubée, Vincent; Arthur, Michel; Fief, Hélène; Triboulet, Sébastien; Mainardi, Jean-Luc; Gutmann, Laurent; Sollogoub, Matthieu; Rice, Louis B; Ethève-Quelquejeu, Mélanie; Hugonnet, Jean-Emmanuel

    2012-06-01

    Bypass of classical penicillin-binding proteins by the L,D-transpeptidase of Enterococcus faecium (Ldt(fm)) leads to high-level ampicillin resistance in E. faecium mutants, whereas carbapenems remain the lone highly active β-lactams. Kinetics of Ldt(fm) inactivation was determined for four commercial carbapenems and a derivative obtained by introducing a minimal ethyl group at position 2. We show that the bulky side chains of commercial carbapenems have both positive and negative effects in preventing hydrolysis of the acyl enzyme and impairing drug binding.

  17. Quantitative kinetic analysis of lung nodules using the temporal subtraction technique in dynamic chest radiographies performed with a flat panel detector.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Yuichiro; Kodera, Yoshie; Tanaka, Rie; Sanada, Shigeru

    2009-04-01

    Early detection and treatment of lung cancer is one of the most effective means of reducing cancer mortality, and to this end, chest X-ray radiography has been widely used as a screening method. A related technique based on the development of computer analysis and a flat panel detector (FPD) has enabled the functional evaluation of respiratory kinetics in the chest and is expected to be introduced into clinical practice in the near future. In this study, we developed a computer analysis algorithm to detect lung nodules and to evaluate quantitative kinetics. Breathing chest radiographs obtained by modified FPD and breath synchronization utilizing diaphragmatic analysis of vector movement were converted into four static images by sequential temporal subtraction processing, morphological enhancement processing, kinetic visualization processing, and lung region detection processing. An artificial neural network analyzed these density patterns to detect the true nodules and draw their kinetic tracks. Both the algorithm performance and the evaluation of clinical effectiveness of seven normal patients and simulated nodules showed sufficient detecting capability and kinetic imaging function without significant differences. Our technique can quantitatively evaluate the kinetic range of nodules and is effective in detecting a nodule on a breathing chest radiograph. Moreover, the application of this technique is expected to extend computer-aided diagnosis systems and facilitate the development of an automatic planning system for radiation therapy.

  18. Exact solution of the one- and three-dimensional quantum kinetic equations with velocity-dependent collision rates: Comparative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privalov, T.; Shalagin, A.

    1999-06-01

    The interaction of a plane monochromatic traveling wave with two-level particles suffering collisions with buffer-gas particles is considered. Collision rates are assumed to be velocity dependent. The collision integral is obtained on the basis of the strong-collision model, generalized to the case of velocity-dependent collision rates (the so-called ``kangaroo'' model). We obtained the exact analytical solution of the problem for arbitrary intensity of radiation, arbitrary ratio of homogeneous and Doppler widths of the absorption line, and arbitrary mass ratio between absorbing- and buffer-gas particles. The obtained analytical solutions of the quantum kinetic equations allowed us to analyze the spectral shape of the strong-field absorption line as well as the probe-field absorption line (the nonlinear part of the work done by the probe field) and the frequency dependence of the light-induced drift (LID) velocity. A comprehensive comparative analysis for the three- and one-dimensional versions of the model is given. On the basis of this analysis, we reach the conclusion that the one-dimensional quantum kinetic equation has quite a wide range of application. We also reveal the conditions for the strongest manifestation of the velocity dependence of the collision rates, which affects most strongly the anomalous LID.

  19. Machine learning-based kinetic modeling: a robust and reproducible solution for quantitative analysis of dynamic PET data.

    PubMed

    Pan, Leyun; Cheng, Caixia; Haberkorn, Uwe; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia

    2017-04-05

    A variety of compartment models are used for the quantitative analysis of dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) data. Traditionally, these models use an iterative fitting (IF) method to find the least squares between the measured and calculated values over time, which may encounter some problems such as the overfitting of model parameters and a lack of reproducibility, especially when handling noisy data or error data. In this paper, a machine learning (ML) based kinetic modeling method is introduced, which can fully utilize a historical reference database to build a moderate kinetic model directly dealing with noisy data but not trying to smooth the noise in the image. Also, due to the database, the presented method is capable of automatically adjusting the models using a multi-thread grid parameter searching technique. Furthermore, a candidate competition concept is proposed to combine the advantages of the ML and IF modeling methods, which could find a balance between fitting to historical data and to the unseen target curve. The machine learning based method provides a robust and reproducible solution that is user-independent for VOI-based and pixel-wise quantitative analysis of dynamic PET data.

  20. Structural and kinetic analysis of the unnatural fusion protein 4-coumaroyl-CoA ligase::stilbene synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yechun; Yi, Hankuil; Wang, Melissa; Yu, Oliver; Jez, Joseph M.

    2012-10-24

    To increase the biochemical efficiency of biosynthetic systems, metabolic engineers have explored different approaches for organizing enzymes, including the generation of unnatural fusion proteins. Previous work aimed at improving the biosynthesis of resveratrol, a stilbene associated a range of health-promoting activities, in yeast used an unnatural engineered fusion protein of Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) 4-coumaroyl-CoA ligase (At4CL1) and Vitis vinifera (grape) stilbene synthase (VvSTS) to increase resveratrol levels 15-fold relative to yeast expressing the individual enzymes. Here we present the crystallographic and biochemical analysis of the 4CL::STS fusion protein. Determination of the X-ray crystal structure of 4CL::STS provides the first molecular view of an artificial didomain adenylation/ketosynthase fusion protein. Comparison of the steady-state kinetic properties of At4CL1, VvSTS, and 4CL::STS demonstrates that the fusion protein improves catalytic efficiency of either reaction less than 3-fold. Structural and kinetic analysis suggests that colocalization of the two enzyme active sites within 70 {angstrom} of each other provides the basis for enhanced in vivo synthesis of resveratrol.