Science.gov

Sample records for kinshasa area moisture

  1. Surface moisture estimation in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yitong

    Surface moisture is an important parameter because it modifies urban microclimate and surface layer meteorology. The primary objectives of this paper are: 1) to analyze the impact of surface roughness from buildings on surface moisture in urban areas; and 2) to quantify the impact of surface roughness resulting from urban trees on surface moisture. To achieve the objectives, two hypotheses were tested: 1) the distribution of surface moisture is associated with the structural complexity of buildings in urban areas; and 2) The distribution and change of surface moisture is associated with the distribution and vigor of urban trees. The study area is Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. In the part of the morphology of urban trees, Warren Township was selected due to the limitation of tree inventory data. To test the hypotheses, the research design was made to extract the aerodynamic parameters, such as frontal areas, roughness length and displacement height of buildings and trees from Terrestrial and Airborne LiDAR data, then to input the aerodynamic parameters into the urban surface energy balance model. The methodology was developed for comparing the impact of aerodynamic parameters from LiDAR data with the parameters that were derived empirically from land use and land cover data. The analytical procedures are discussed below: 1) to capture the spatial and temporal variation of surface moisture, daily and hourly Land Surface Temperature (LST) were downscaled from 4 km to 1 km, and 960 m to 30 m, respectively, by regression between LST and various components that impact LST; 2) to estimate surface moisture, namely soil moisture and evapotranspiration (ET), land surfaces were classified into soil, vegetation, and impervious surfaces, using Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis (LSMA); 3) aerodynamic parameters of buildings and trees were extracted from Airborne and Terrestrial LiDAR data; 4) the Temperature-Vegetation-Index (TVX) method, and the Two-Source-Energy-Balance (TSEB

  2. The fertility of internal migrants to Kinshasa.

    PubMed

    Anglewicz, Philip; Corker, Jamaica; Kayembe, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The rapid population growth of many African cities has important implications for population health, yet little is known about factors contributing to increasing population, such as the fertility of internal migrants. We examine whether in-migrants to Kinshasa have different fertility patterns than lifetime Kinshasa residents, and identify characteristics of migrants that may explain differences in fertility. We also use detailed migration histories to examine whether fertility differs by features of migration. We use representative data from the PMA2020 Project for 2197 women in Kinshasa, including 340 women who moved to Kinshasa. We examine differences between migrants and non-migrants in fertility and other fertility-related characteristics. We also examine whether fertility differs by duration of residence in Kinshasa, number of lifetime moves, age at first migration, urban/rural classification of birthplace, and the distinction between intra-Kinshasa migration and migration to Kinshasa.. Migrants have significantly higher fertility than permanent Kinshasa residents, but the difference is relatively small in magnitude. This higher fertility appears due in part to patterns of contraceptive use among migrants. There is noteworthy heterogeneity among migrants: higher fertility among migrants is associated with longer duration in Kinshasa, more lifetime moves, urban-Kinshasa migration, older age at first migration, and moving to Kinshasa from outside (as opposed to intra-Kinshasa migration).

  3. Moisture transports and budgets of 'moisture bursts'. [of oceanic areas of tropical and subtropical latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. H.; Mcguirk, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses moisture fluxes and budgets associated with a pair of 'moisture bursts' in the eastern North Pacific Ocean area, described by Smith et al. (1985). The moisture fluxes were calculated using data obtained during the first Special Observing Period (SOP-1) of the FGGE. The area specifically examined extended from the equator to the latitude 20 deg N and from longitude 180 deg to 100 deg W, with concentration on the region south and southeast of the Hawaiian Islands. From the comparison of the calculations based on dropwindsonde and radiosonde data and reports from commercial and military aircraft, it is concluded that the calculations of water vapor flow across latitude lines probably provide a fair representation of reality, especially when based on the dropwindsonde data. However, water vapor flow out of small volumes is not well represented by the results from either data.

  4. MOISTURE AND SURFACE AREA MEASUREMENTS OF PLUTONIUM-BEARING OXIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, M.; Duffey, J.; Livingston, R.; Scogin, J.; Kessinger, G.; Almond, P.

    2009-09-28

    To ensure safe storage, plutonium-bearing oxides are stabilized at 950 C for at least two hours in an oxidizing atmosphere. Stabilization conditions are expected to decompose organic impurities, convert metals to oxides, and result in moisture content below 0.5 wt%. During stabilization, the specific surface area is reduced, which minimizes readsorption of water onto the oxide surface. Plutonium oxides stabilized according to these criteria were sampled and analyzed to determine moisture content and surface area. In addition, samples were leached in water to identify water-soluble chloride impurity content. Results of these analyses for seven samples showed that the stabilization process produced low moisture materials (< 0.2 wt %) with low surface area ({le} 1 m{sup 2}/g). For relatively pure materials, the amount of water per unit surface area corresponded to 1.5 to 3.5 molecular layers of water. For materials with chloride content > 360 ppm, the calculated amount of water per unit surface area increased with chloride content, indicating hydration of hygroscopic salts present in the impure PuO{sub 2}-containing materials. The low moisture, low surface area materials in this study did not generate detectable hydrogen during storage of four or more years.

  5. Moisturizers.

    PubMed

    Lipozencić, Jasna; Pastar, Zrinjka; Marinović-Kulisić, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Moisturizers combine occlusives and humectants to enhance the water-holding capacity of the skin. Further diversity in moisturizer formulation is created through the addition of special ingredients, designed to enhance the functions of the skin. These agents mimic natural ingredients. Application of moisturizers can serve as important adjunctive therapy for patients with various dermatologic disorders.

  6. A comparison of soil-moisture loss from forested and clearcut areas in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Charles A. Troendle

    1970-01-01

    Soil-moisture losses from forested and clearcut areas were compared on the Fernow Experimental Forest. As expected, hardwood forest soils lost most moisture while revegetated clearcuttings, clearcuttings, and barren areas lost less, in that order. Soil-moisture losses from forested soils also correlated well with evapotranspiration and streamflow.

  7. Soil moisture trends in mountainous areas: a 50-yr analysis of modelled soil moisture over Sierra Nevada Mountains (Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Pérez-Palazón, María; Pimentel, Rafael; Herrero, Javier; José Polo, María

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture conditions the energy and water fluxes through the ground surface and constitutes a major hydrological state variable in the analysis of environmental processes. Detecting potential changes in soil moisture and analyzing their trend over a long period of study can help to understand its evolution in other similar areas and to estimate its future role. In mountainous areas, the snow distribution highly conditions soil water content and its implications on the local water cycle. Sierra Nevada, Southern Spain, is a linear mountain range, with altitude higher than 3000 m.a.s.l., where Mediterranean and alpine climates coexist. The snow dynamics dominates the hydrological regime, and the medium and long term trends observed in the snow persistence constitute one of the main potential drivers for soil moisture changes both on a seasonal and annual basis. This work presents a 50-yr study of the soil moisture trends in Sierra Nevada (SN); the distributed monthly mean soil moisture evolution during the recent past (1960-2010) is simulated and its relationship with meteorological variables (precipitation and temperature) analyzed in the five head river basins that the SN area comprises. For this, soil water content is simulated throughout the area by means of WiMMed, a distributed and physically based hydrological model developed for Mediterranean regions that includes snow modelling, which had been previously calibrated and validated in the study area. The analysis of soil moisture shows a globally decreasing annual rate, with a mean value of 0.0011 mmṡmm-1ṡyear-1 during the study period averaged over the whole study area, which locally ranges between 0.174 mmṡmm-1ṡyear-1 and 0.0014 mmṡmm-1ṡyear-1. As previous studies reported, the observed trend in precipitation is more influent than temperature on the snowfall regime change; therefore, as expected, the estimated trends of soil moisture are more related to this variable. Moreover, an increase of

  8. Explaining nitrate pollution pressure on the groundwater resource in Kinshasa using a multivariate statistical modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mfumu Kihumba, Antoine; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2013-04-01

    Drinking water in Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo, is provided by extracting groundwater from the local aquifer, particularly in peripheral areas. The exploited groundwater body is mainly unconfined and located within a continuous detrital aquifer, primarily composed of sedimentary formations. However, the aquifer is subjected to an increasing threat of anthropogenic pollution pressure. Understanding the detailed origin of this pollution pressure is important for sustainable drinking water management in Kinshasa. The present study aims to explain the observed nitrate pollution problem, nitrate being considered as a good tracer for other pollution threats. The analysis is made in terms of physical attributes that are readily available using a statistical modelling approach. For the nitrate data, use was made of a historical groundwater quality assessment study, for which the data were re-analysed. The physical attributes are related to the topography, land use, geology and hydrogeology of the region. Prior to the statistical modelling, intrinsic and specific vulnerability for nitrate pollution was assessed. This vulnerability assessment showed that the alluvium area in the northern part of the region is the most vulnerable area. This area consists of urban land use with poor sanitation. Re-analysis of the nitrate pollution data demonstrated that the spatial variability of nitrate concentrations in the groundwater body is high, and coherent with the fragmented land use of the region and the intrinsic and specific vulnerability maps. For the statistical modeling use was made of multiple regression and regression tree analysis. The results demonstrated the significant impact of land use variables on the Kinshasa groundwater nitrate pollution and the need for a detailed delineation of groundwater capture zones around the monitoring stations. Key words: Groundwater , Isotopic, Kinshasa, Modelling, Pollution, Physico-chemical.

  9. [Soil moisture characteristics at the boundary of forestland-grassland in hilly area of Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    You, Wenzhong; Zeng, Dehui; Liu, Mingguo; Song, Xide

    2006-06-01

    In this paper, the spatial distribution pattern of soil moisture at the boundary of forestland-grassland in hilly area of Loess Plateau was studied in dry season of June and rainy season of August 2004. The results showed that the variance coefficient of soil moisture content was smaller, and the difference of moisture content between soil layers was less significant in forestland than in grassland in June while reversed in August. There was a weak or medium differentiation of moisture content in different soil layers at the boundary of forestland-grassland. The edge effect area at the boundary was from 2 m (0. 4 of tree height) outside forestland to 2 m inside forestland in June, and from 2 m outside forestland to 4 m (0. 8 of tree height) inside forestland in August. The forestland-grassland landscape could be divided into 3 parts, i.e., grassland area, forest edge area, and forestland area, and the vertical distribution of soil moisture in these three parts showed different traits. In June, soil moisture content increased with increasing soil depth, with a smaller increment in grassland than in forestland, but in August, it was reversed. The vertical distribution of soil moisture at forest edge area showed an in-between feature.

  10. [Combining microcredit, microinsurance, and the provision of health care can improve access to quality care in urban areas of Africa: Results of an experiment in the Bandalungwa health zone in Kinshasa, the Congo].

    PubMed

    Manzambi Kuwekita, J; Gosset, C; Guillaume, M; Balula Semutsari, M-P; Tshiama Kabongo, E; Bruyere, O; Reginster, J-Y

    2015-01-01

    This study, based on a survey conducted in 2008, examines how combining microcredit, microinsurance, and health care provision can improve access to quality care in the health zone of Bandalungwa, in Kinshasa. The bivariate analysis showed a significant association between increased purchasing power and earnings (p = 0.001), between earnings and savings (p = 0.000), and between health insurance and improved access to health care. These results show that 68.8% of borrowers reported an increase in their purchasing power, of whom 82% reported profits. Those with savings were 24.7 times more likely to purchase health insurance than those without; and 72% of those who regularly made health insurance payments improved their access to care. Combining microcredit, health microinsurance, and health care can improve access to quality health care at lower cost. This suggests that health insurance could usefully be integrated into the primary health-care system.

  11. Soil Moisture Retrieval with Airborne PALS Instrument over Agricultural Areas in SMAPVEX16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colliander, Andreas; Jackson, Thomas J.; Cosh, Mike; Misra, Sidharth; Bindlish, Rajat; Powers, Jarrett; McNairn, Heather; Bullock, P.; Berg, A.; Magagi, A.; hide

    2017-01-01

    NASA's SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) calibration and validation program revealed that the soil moisture products are experiencing difficulties in meeting the mission requirements in certain agricultural areas. Therefore, the mission organized airborne field experiments at two core validation sites to investigate these anomalies. The SMAP Validation Experiment 2016 included airborne observations with the PALS (Passive Active L-band Sensor) instrument and intensive ground sampling. The goal of the PALS measurements are to investigate the soil moisture retrieval algorithm formulation and parameterization under the varying (spatially and temporally) conditions of the agricultural domains and to obtain high resolution soil moisture maps within the SMAP pixels. In this paper the soil moisture retrieval using the PALS brightness temperature observations in SMAPVEX16 is presented.

  12. Synopsis of moisture monitoring by neutron probe in the unsaturated zone at Area G

    SciTech Connect

    Vold, E.

    1997-12-31

    Moisture profiles from neutron probe data provide valuable information in site characterization and to supplement ground water monitoring efforts. The neutron probe precision error (reproducibility) is found to be about 0.2 vol% under in situ field conditions where the slope in moisture content with depth is varying slowly. This error is about 2 times larger near moisture spikes (e.g., at the vapor phase notch), due to the sensitivity of the probe response to vertical position errors on the order of 0.5 inches. Calibrations were performed to correct the downhole probe response to the volumetric moisture content determined on core samples. Calibration is sensitive to borehole diameter and casing type, requiring 3 separate calibration relations for the boreholes surveyed here. Power law fits were used for calibration in this study to assure moisture content results greater than zero. Findings in the boreholes reported here confirm the broad features seen previously in moisture profiles at Area G, a near-surface region with large moisture variability, a very dry region at greater depths, and a moisture spike at the vapor phase notch (VPN). This feature is located near the interface between the vitrified and vitrified stratigraphic units and near the base of the mesa. This report describes the in-field calibration methods used for the neutron moisture probe measurements and summarizes preliminary results of the monitoring program in the in-situ monitoring network at Area G. Reported results include three main areas: calibration studies, profiles from each of the vertical boreholes at Area G, and time-dependent variations in a select subset of boreholes. Results are reported here for the vertical borehole network. Results from the horizontal borehole network will be described when available.

  13. Monitoring Soil Moisture in a Coal Mining Area with Multi-Phase Landsat Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, J. L.; Xian, T.; Yang, J.; Chen, L.; Yang, X. T.

    2016-06-01

    The coal development zone of Northern Shaanxi, China is one of the eight largest coal mines in the world, also the national energy and chemical bases. However, the coal mining leads to ground surface deformation and previous studies show that in collapse fissure zone soil water losses almost 50% compared with non-fissure zone. The main objective of this study is to develop a retrieval model that is reliable and sensitive to soil moisture in the whole coal mining zone of Northern Shaanxi based upon the soil sample parameters collected from in situ site investigation, spectral data gathered simultaneously and the images of Landsat7 ETM. The model uses different phases of Landsat data to retrieve soil moisture and analyze the patterns of spatial and temporal variations of soil moisture caused by ground deformation in the coal mining areas. The study indicated that band4 of Landsat7 ETM is the most sensitive band for soil moisture retrieval using the spectrum method. The quadratic model developed by remote sensing reflectance (Rrs4) (corresponding to the band4) is the best pattern with the correlation coefficient of 0.858 between the observed and the estimated soil moisture. Two-phase Landsat7 ETM data of 2002 and 2009 and one phase Landsat8 OLI data of 2015 for the study area were selected to retrieve soil moisture information. The result showed that the mean relative error was 35.16% and the root-mean-squared error (RMSE) was 0.58%. The changes of the spatial distribution of inversed soil moisture revealed that the trend of soil moisture contents of the study area was in general being gradually reduced from 2002 to 2015. The study results can serve as the baseline for monitoring environmental impacts on soil moisture in the regions due to coal mining.

  14. The malaria testing and treatment market in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2013.

    PubMed

    Mpanya, Godéfroid; Tshefu, Antoinette; Likwela, Joris Losimba

    2017-02-28

    The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is one of the two most leading contributors to the global burden of disease due to malaria. This paper describes the malaria testing and treatment market in the nation's capital province of Kinshasa, including availability of malaria testing and treatment and relative anti-malarial market share for the public and private sector. A malaria medicine outlet survey was conducted in Kinshasa province in 2013. Stratified multi-staged sampling was used to select areas for the survey. Within sampled areas, all outlets with the potential to sell or distribute anti-malarials in the public and private sector were screened for eligibility. Among outlets with anti-malarials or malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) in stock, a full audit of all available products was conducted. Information collected included product information (e.g. active ingredients, brand name), amount reportedly distributed to patients in the past week, and retail price. In total, 3364 outlets were screened for inclusion across Kinshasa and 1118 outlets were eligible for the study. Among all screened outlets in the private sector only about one in ten (12.1%) were stocking quality-assured Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) medicines. Among all screened public sector facilities, 24.5% had both confirmatory testing and quality-assured ACT available, and 20.2% had sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) available for intermittent preventive therapy during pregnancy (IPTp). The private sector distributed the majority of anti-malarials in Kinshasa (96.7%), typically through drug stores (89.1% of the total anti-malarial market). Non-artemisinin therapies were the most commonly distributed anti-malarial (50.1% of the total market), followed by non quality-assured ACT medicines (38.5%). The median price of an adult quality-assured ACT was $6.59, and more expensive than non quality-assured ACT ($3.71) and SP ($0.44). Confirmatory testing was largely not available in the private

  15. Cholera ante portas – The re-emergence of cholera in Kinshasa after a ten-year hiatus

    PubMed Central

    Bompangue, Didier; Vesenbeckh, Silvan Manuel; Giraudoux, Patrick; Castro, Marcia; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Kebela Ilunga, Benoît; Murray, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cholera is an endemic disease in certain well-defined areas in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The west of the country, including the mega-city Kinshasa, has been free of cases since mid 2001 when the last outbreak ended. Methods and Findings: We used routinely collected passive surveillance data to construct epidemic curves of the cholera cases and map the spatio-temporal progress of the disease during the first 47 weeks of 2011. We compared the spatial distribution of disease spread to that which occurred in the last cholera epidemic in Kinshasa between 1996 and 2001. To better understand previous determinants of cholera spread in this region, we conducted a correlation analysis to assess the impact of rainfall on weekly health zone cholera case counts between December 1998 and March 2001 and a Generalized Linear Model (GLM) regression analysis to identify factors that have been associated with the most vulnerable health zones within Kinshasa between October 1998 and June 1999. In February 2011, cholera reemerged in a region surrounding Kisangani and gradually spread westwards following the course of the Congo River to Kinshasa, home to 10 million people. Ten sampled isolates were confirmed to be Vibrio cholerae O1, biotype El Tor, serotype Inaba, resistant to trimethoprim-sulfa, furazolidone, nalidixic acid, sulfisoxaole, and streptomycin, and intermediate resistant to Chloramphenicol. An analysis of a previous outbreak in Kinshasa shows that rainfall was correlated with case counts and that health zone population densities as well as fishing and trade activities were predictors of case counts. Conclusion: Cholera is particularly difficult to tackle in the DRC. Given the duration of the rainy season and increased riverine traffic from the eastern provinces in late 2011, we expect further increases in cholera in the coming months and especially within the mega-city Kinshasa. We urge all partners involved in the response to remain

  16. ASCAT soil moisture data assimilation in the local area model ALADIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, S.

    2010-09-01

    Soil moisture is crucial for all biological life on land and controls the energy, water and carbon fluxes at the land surface, thus influencing the weather. Therefore, knowledge about the soil moisture distribution is of large interest for weather forecasting, flood and drought monitoring, and civil protection. Investigations are showing that the spatial and temporal distribution of soil moisture in mid-latitudes has important implications especially for the summertime convective precipitation distribution. In general, higher levels of soil moisture and evapotranspiration lead to higher levels of precipitation due to feedback mechanisms. To determine the soil moisture distribution, the field of microwave remote sensing has been an important research topic since the 1970s, but only in the last few years significant progress towards operational soil moisture services has been made. This progress became possible due to advances in sensor technology and new algorithmic approaches. The first near-real-time (broadcasting within 130 minutes after sensing) soil moisture service was started by EUMETSAT in May 2008 based on METOP ASCAT scatterometer, providing soil moisture data on a 25km grid over Europe with a temporal coverage of about 1.5 days. While there are already several investigations about assimilation of these data to global forecast models resulting in small improvements of screen level parameters, ASCAT soil moisture assimilation in local area model (LAM) is a new scientific topic. For this purpose, the high resolution measurements are assimilated at the Austrian federal weather service ZAMG into its version of the local area model ALADIN. The main goal is the further improvement of the forecast quality, especially in convective situations, taking into account the complex topography in Austria. Data assimilation is executed with an extended Kalman filter (EKF) approach developed at Météo France and CNRM within the surface modelling system SURFEX. The

  17. Estimating Long Term Surface Soil Moisture in the GCIP Area From Satellite Microwave Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owe, Manfred; deJeu, Vrije; VandeGriend, Adriaan A.

    2000-01-01

    Soil moisture is an important component of the water and energy balances of the Earth's surface. Furthermore, it has been identified as a parameter of significant potential for improving the accuracy of large-scale land surface-atmosphere interaction models. However, accurate estimates of surface soil moisture are often difficult to make, especially at large spatial scales. Soil moisture is a highly variable land surface parameter, and while point measurements are usually accurate, they are representative only of the immediate site which was sampled. Simple averaging of point values to obtain spatial means often leads to substantial errors. Since remotely sensed observations are already a spatially averaged or areally integrated value, they are ideally suited for measuring land surface parameters, and as such, are a logical input to regional or larger scale land process models. A nine-year database of surface soil moisture is being developed for the Central United States from satellite microwave observations. This region forms much of the GCIP study area, and contains most of the Mississippi, Rio Grande, and Red River drainages. Daytime and nighttime microwave brightness temperatures were observed at a frequency of 6.6 GHz, by the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR), onboard the Nimbus 7 satellite. The life of the SMMR instrument spanned from Nov. 1978 to Aug. 1987. At 6.6 GHz, the instrument provided a spatial resolution of approximately 150 km, and an orbital frequency over any pixel-sized area of about 2 daytime and 2 nighttime passes per week. Ground measurements of surface soil moisture from various locations throughout the study area are used to calibrate the microwave observations. Because ground measurements are usually only single point values, and since the time of satellite coverage does not always coincide with the ground measurements, the soil moisture data were used to calibrate a regional water balance for the top 1, 5, and 10 cm

  18. Large area mapping of soil moisture using the ESTAR passive microwave radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, T. J.; Levine, D. M.; Swift, C. T.; Schmugge, T. J.

    1994-01-01

    Investigations designed to study land surface hydrologic-atmospheric interactions, showing the potential of L band passive microwave radiometry for measuring surface soil moisture over large areas, are discussed. Satisfying the data needs of these investigations requires the ability to map large areas rapidly. With aircraft systems this means a need for more beam positions over a wider swath on each flightline. For satellite systems the essential problem is resolution. Both of these needs are currently being addressed through the development and verification of Electronically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR) technology. The ESTAR L band radiometer was evaluated for soil moisture mapping applications in two studies. The first was conducted over the semiarid rangeland Walnut Gulch watershed located in south eastern Arizona (U.S.). The second was performed in the subhumid Little Washita watershed in south west Oklahoma (U.S.). Both tests showed that the ESTAR is capable of providing soil moisture with the same level of accuracy as existing systems.

  19. Soil moisture status estimation over Three Gorges area with Landsat TM data based on temperature vegetation dryness index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lina; Niu, Ruiqing; Li, Jiong; Dong, Yanfang

    2011-12-01

    Soil moisture is the important indicator of climate, hydrology, ecology, agriculture and other parameters of the land surface and atmospheric interface. Soil moisture plays an important role on the water and energy exchange at the land surface/atmosphere interface. Remote sensing can provide information on large area quickly and easily, so it is significant to do research on how to monitor soil moisture by remote sensing. This paper presents a method to assess soil moisture status using Landsat TM data over Three Gorges area in China based on TVDI. The potential of Temperature- Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) from Landsat TM data in assessing soil moisture was investigated in this region. After retrieving land surface temperature and vegetation index a TVDI model based on the features of Ts-NDVI space is established. And finally, soil moisture status is estimated according to TVDI. It shows that TVDI has the advantages of stability and high accuracy to estimating the soil moisture status.

  20. Processing of polarimetric SAR data for soil moisture estimation over Mahantango watershed area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, K. S.; Teng, W. L.; Wang, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing technique has a high potential for measuring soil moisture due to the large contrast in dielectric constant of dry and wet soils. Recent work by Pults et al. demonstrated the use of X/C-band data for quantitative surface soil moisture extraction from Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system. Similar technique was adopted using polarimetric SAR data acquired with the JPL-AIRSAR system over the Mahantango watershed area in central Pennsylvania during July 1990. The data sets reported include C-, L-, and P-bands of 10, 13, 15, and 17 July 1990.

  1. Evaluation of Soil Moisture Estimation in Vegetated Areas Using Compact Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jian; Chen, Lin; Yin, Qiang; Li, Yang; Hong, Wen

    2010-12-01

    Within the framework of the DRAGON project, in this paper, we preliminarily analyze the soil moisture estimation performance in vegetated areas based on Water-Cloud model and Dubois model using compact polarimetry. We compare the inversion results of the compact polarimetry (CP) data to those of the dual polarimetric data (DP, HH and VV) and to the in-situ data. The comparison indicates that the retrieved parameters from original DP data are mainly in consistence with ground measured values, but the estimated parameters from the reconstructed data of CP are not quite consistent with the in-situ values, especially for the moisture.

  2. Feasibility Analysis of an Evidence-Based Positive Prevention Intervention for Youth Living with HIV/AIDS in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, L.; Maman, S.; Pettifor, A.; Chalachala, J. L.; Edmonds, A.; Golin, C. E.; Moracco, K.; Behets, F.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of a Positive Prevention intervention adapted for youth living with HIV/AIDS (YLWH) ages 15-24 in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with intervention facilitators and YLWH participants on the following four areas of a feasibility framework:…

  3. Assessing temporal stability for coarse scale satellite moisture validation in the Maqu area, Tibet.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Haris Akram; Rientjes, Tom; Verhoef, Wouter; Yaseen, Muhammad

    2013-08-16

    This study evaluates if the temporal stability concept is applicable to a time series of satellite soil moisture images so to extend the common procedure of satellite image validation. The area of study is the Maqu area, which is located in the northeastern part of the Tibetan plateau. The network serves validation purposes of coarse scale (25-50 km) satellite soil moisture products and comprises 20 stations with probes installed at depths of 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 cm. The study period is 2009. The temporal stability concept is applied to all five depths of the soil moisture measuring network and to a time series of satellite-based moisture products from the Advance Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E). The in-situ network is also assessed by Pearsons's correlation analysis. Assessments by the temporal stability concept proved to be useful and results suggest that probe measurements at 10 cm depth best match to the satellite observations. The Mean Relative Difference plot for satellite pixels shows that a RMSM pixel can be identified but in our case this pixel does not overlay any in-situ station. Also, the RMSM pixel does not overlay any of the Representative Mean Soil Moisture (RMSM) stations of the five probe depths. Pearson's correlation analysis on in-situ measurements suggests that moisture patterns over time are more persistent than over space. Since this study presents first results on the application of the temporal stability concept to a series of satellite images, we recommend further tests to become more conclusive on effectiveness to broaden the procedure of satellite validation.

  4. [Differentiation between moisture lesions and pressure ulcers using photographs in a critical area].

    PubMed

    Valls-Matarín, Josefa; Del Cotillo-Fuente, Mercedes; Pujol-Vila, María; Ribal-Prior, Rosa; Sandalinas-Mulero, Inmaculada

    2016-01-01

    To identify difficulties for nurses in differentiating between moisture lesions and pressure ulcers, proper classification of pressure ulcers to assess the adequate classification of the Grupo Nacional para el Estudio y Asesoramiento de Úlceras por Presión y Heridas Crónicas (GNEAUPP) and the degree of agreement in the correct assessment by type and category of injury. Cross-sectional study in a critical area during 2014. All nurses who agreed to participate were included. They performed a questionnaire with 14 photographs validated by experts of moisture lesions or pressure ulcers in the sacral area and buttocks, with 6 possible answers: Pressure ulcer category I, II, III, IV, moisture lesions and unknown. Demographics and knowledge of the classification system of the pressure ulcers were collected according to GNEAUPP. It involved 98% of the population (n=56); 98.2% knew the classification system of the GNEAUPP; 35.2% of moisture lesions were considered as pressure ulcers, most of them as a category II (18.9%). The 14.8% of the pressure ulcers photographs were identified as moisture lesions and 16.1% were classified in another category. The agreement between nurses earned a global Kappa index of .38 (95% CI: .29-.57). There are difficulties differentiating between pressure ulcers and moisture lesions, especially within initial categories. Nurses have the perception they know the pressure ulcers classification, but they do not classify them correctly. The degree of concordance in the diagnosis of skin lesions was low. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing Temporal Stability for Coarse Scale Satellite Moisture Validation in the Maqu Area, Tibet

    PubMed Central

    Bhatti, Haris Akram; Rientjes, Tom; Verhoef, Wouter; Yaseen, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates if the temporal stability concept is applicable to a time series of satellite soil moisture images so to extend the common procedure of satellite image validation. The area of study is the Maqu area, which is located in the northeastern part of the Tibetan plateau. The network serves validation purposes of coarse scale (25–50 km) satellite soil moisture products and comprises 20 stations with probes installed at depths of 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 cm. The study period is 2009. The temporal stability concept is applied to all five depths of the soil moisture measuring network and to a time series of satellite-based moisture products from the Advance Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E). The in-situ network is also assessed by Pearsons's correlation analysis. Assessments by the temporal stability concept proved to be useful and results suggest that probe measurements at 10 cm depth best match to the satellite observations. The Mean Relative Difference plot for satellite pixels shows that a RMSM pixel can be identified but in our case this pixel does not overlay any in-situ station. Also, the RMSM pixel does not overlay any of the Representative Mean Soil Moisture (RMSM) stations of the five probe depths. Pearson's correlation analysis on in-situ measurements suggests that moisture patterns over time are more persistent than over space. Since this study presents first results on the application of the temporal stability concept to a series of satellite images, we recommend further tests to become more conclusive on effectiveness to broaden the procedure of satellite validation. PMID:23959237

  6. Estimation of soil moisture using radar and optical images over Grassland areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    EL HAJJ, Mohammad; Baghdadi, Nicolas; Zribi, Mehrez; Bellaud, Gilles; Cheviron, Bruno; Courault, Dominique; Hagolle, Olivier; Charron, François

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an inversion approach to estimate soil moisture over Grassland areas by coupling SAR and optical data. A time series of radar (TerraSAR-X and COSMO-SkyMed) and optical (SPOT 4/5, LANDSAT 7/8) images were acquired over an agriculture region in southeastern France. In most cases, the optical and radar images were not separated by more than four days. Ground-truth measurements of volumetric soil moisture and vegetation descriptors were performed simultaneously with image acquisitions. In this study, the semi-empirical water-cloud model (WCM) was used to model the total backscattering coefficient in HH and HV polarizations as a function of soil moisture and vegetation descriptor. WCM was fitted against in situ measurements to estimates WCM parameters according to each vegetation descriptor and each radar polarization (HH and HV). The parameterized water cloud model was then used to generate one synthetic dataset using wide range of soil moisture and NDVI values. Next, a noise was applied to both simulated radar responses and NDVI. An inversion technique based on Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) neural networks (NN) were used to invert the radar signal in order to estimate the soil moisture. Three inversion configurations were defined using in addition to one vegetation descriptor: (1) HH polarization, (2) HV polarization, and (3) both HH and HV polarizations. The neural networks were trained and validated on the noisy synthetic dataset. Next, the inversion approach was then conducted on real dataset comprised observed SAR data, soil moisture and NDVI. The best soil moisture estimates were obtained with the use of HH (in addition to one vegetation descriptor). For NDVI (Normalized Difference vegetation index) lower than about 0.8 the RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) between measured and estimated soil moisture is about 0.05 cm3/cm3. However, for NDVI greater than about 0.8 the RMSE on estimated soil moisture is about 0.08 cm3/cm3.

  7. Impacts of soil moisture on precipitation over Bangladesh and its surrounding area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Shiori; Takahashi, Hiroshi G.

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture is an important contributor for regional-scale precipitation. Over Bangladesh and its surrounding area, we can clearly find seasonal variations of wetness in land surface and atmosphere depending on a transition of summer Asian monsoon. Under this atmospheric condition, sensitivities of precipitation to soil moisture are expected to differ with the season. Hence, in this study, a seasonal variation in effects of soil moisture on precipitation are investigated using a regional climate model; Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model version 3.5.1. Horizontal mesh size is 20 km for outer domain and 5 km for inner domain without cumulus convective scheme. The numerical experiment is conducted from 20 March through 1 October for each year during 2003-2007 to analyze the seasonal transition of soil moisture impacts on precipitation from April to September. Under the same conditions of atmospheric and SST forcing by reanalysis datasets, three kinds of simulations were performed to examine the precipitation sensitivity to soil moisture; (1) A land surface condition including soil moisture was calculated by a land surface scheme coupled with the WRF (control; CTL run), (2) and (3) soil moisture was fixed for 0.1 or 0.6 kg/kg over Bangladesh and its surrounding area (22-27N, 88-93E) for sensitivity experiments (DRY or WET run). The CTL run could successfully simulate diurnal variations of intensity and frequency of precipitation for each month. In April and May, i.e., pre-monsoon season, differences of three-hourly precipitation between WET and DRY runs indicated precipitation decrease during afternoon and evening and its increase from night to next morning in the WET run. This diurnal variation in differences of precipitation amount was strongly controlled by differences in precipitation frequency. Precipitation intensity also weakened during daytime in pre-monsoon season without significant changes during nighttime. On the other hand, in July, August, and

  8. Holocene moisture evolution across the Mongolian Plateau and its surrounding areas: A synthesis of climatic records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Feng, Zhaodong

    Based on the review of 26 high-standard Holocene climatic reconstructions (mainly pollen-based) from the Mongolian Plateau and its surrounding areas, temporal and spatial patterns of the Holocene moisture evolution are synthesized. The regionally-averaged moisture history from the summer monsoon-influenced semiarid belt in China (i.e., Region A) demonstrates that the moisture index curve is broadly in agreement with the synthesized East Asian Monsoon Strength curve, both following the general trend of the West Tropical Pacific SST that is in turn the delayed response to the northern hemispheric summer solar insolation. The regionally-averaged moisture indices from the winter monsoon-dominated southern Siberia including Lake Baikal area and the Altai Mountains (i.e., Region B) exhibit a general declining trends since 10.6-9.6 cal. kyr BP, being largely consistent with the trends of the annual precipitation and the warm-season temperature in the Russian Plain. The consistency might be attributable to the Holocene declining trend of the warm-season temperature in North Atlantic region. The predominant feature of the regionally-averaged moisture index from the westerlies-affected northern Xinjiang (i.e., Region C) is a persistent increasing trend since ~ 8 cal. kyr BP. The wetting trend of northern Xinjiang during the past 8000 years might be attributable to the increasing trend of winter insolation and to the associated increasing trend of cold-season temperature in northwestern Europe. The chronological correspondences between dry phases and warm intervals in the arid areas of the Mongolian Plateau (i.e., northern Mongolian Plateau within Mongolia and southern Mongolian Plateau within China, Region D) lend a support to the proposal that the mid-Holocene dry phase was most likely the result of mid-Holocene high warm-season temperature.

  9. [Promoting the sustainable management of hospital waste in Kinshasa].

    PubMed

    Kasuku, Wanduma; Bouland, Catherine; De Brouwer, Christophe; Mareschal, Bertrand; Mulaji, Crispin

    2016-11-01

    The management of hospital waste is a high-risk practice in the hospitals of Kinshasa, the largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, from the point of view of public health and the environment. A multi-criteria study carried out in 4 hospitals assessed the situation and put forward solutions. Copyright © 2016. Publié par Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Wide-Area Soil Moisture Estimation Using the Propagation of Lightning Generated Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Signals 1977

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Land surface moisture measurements are central to our understanding of the earth’s water system, and are needed to produce accurate model-based weather/climate predictions. Currently, there exists no in-situ network capable of estimating wide-area soil moisture. In this paper, we explore an alterna...

  11. A simulation study of moisture movement in proposed barriers for the subsurface disposal area, INEL

    SciTech Connect

    Magnuson, S.O.

    1993-09-01

    This document presents a simulation study that was conducted to investigate moisture movement within two engineered barriers, which are proposed for use in eventual closure of the Subsurface Disposal Area. The results of the study are intended to guide the design and implementation of field test plots that will be constructed to test the barrier designs. Discussed are the sensitivity of barrier performance to changes in the conceptual model, which was used to simulate the barriers, and to changes in hydrologic parameters, which were used to describe the materials composing the barriers. In addition, estimates are presented concerning the time required for the moisture profile within the barriers to come into equilibrium with the meteorological conditions at the surface. In addition, the performance of the barriers under conditions of supplemental precipitation and ponding is presented.

  12. Morphological and moisture availability controls of the leaf area-to-sapwood area ratio: analysis of measurements on Australian trees

    PubMed Central

    Togashi, Henrique Furstenau; Prentice, Iain Colin; Evans, Bradley John; Forrester, David Ian; Drake, Paul; Feikema, Paul; Brooksbank, Kim; Eamus, Derek; Taylor, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The leaf area-to-sapwood area ratio (LA:SA) is a key plant trait that links photosynthesis to transpiration. The pipe model theory states that the sapwood cross-sectional area of a stem or branch at any point should scale isometrically with the area of leaves distal to that point. Optimization theory further suggests that LA:SA should decrease toward drier climates. Although acclimation of LA:SA to climate has been reported within species, much less is known about the scaling of this trait with climate among species. We compiled LA:SA measurements from 184 species of Australian evergreen angiosperm trees. The pipe model was broadly confirmed, based on measurements on branches and trunks of trees from one to 27 years old. Despite considerable scatter in LA:SA among species, quantile regression showed strong (0.2 < R1 < 0.65) positive relationships between two climatic moisture indices and the lowermost (5%) and uppermost (5–15%) quantiles of log LA:SA, suggesting that moisture availability constrains the envelope of minimum and maximum values of LA:SA typical for any given climate. Interspecific differences in plant hydraulic conductivity are probably responsible for the large scatter of values in the mid-quantile range and may be an important determinant of tree morphology. PMID:25859331

  13. Morphological and moisture availability controls of the leaf area-to-sapwood area ratio: analysis of measurements on Australian trees.

    PubMed

    Togashi, Henrique Furstenau; Prentice, Iain Colin; Evans, Bradley John; Forrester, David Ian; Drake, Paul; Feikema, Paul; Brooksbank, Kim; Eamus, Derek; Taylor, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    The leaf area-to-sapwood area ratio (LA:SA) is a key plant trait that links photosynthesis to transpiration. The pipe model theory states that the sapwood cross-sectional area of a stem or branch at any point should scale isometrically with the area of leaves distal to that point. Optimization theory further suggests that LA:SA should decrease toward drier climates. Although acclimation of LA:SA to climate has been reported within species, much less is known about the scaling of this trait with climate among species. We compiled LA:SA measurements from 184 species of Australian evergreen angiosperm trees. The pipe model was broadly confirmed, based on measurements on branches and trunks of trees from one to 27 years old. Despite considerable scatter in LA:SA among species, quantile regression showed strong (0.2 < R1 < 0.65) positive relationships between two climatic moisture indices and the lowermost (5%) and uppermost (5-15%) quantiles of log LA:SA, suggesting that moisture availability constrains the envelope of minimum and maximum values of LA:SA typical for any given climate. Interspecific differences in plant hydraulic conductivity are probably responsible for the large scatter of values in the mid-quantile range and may be an important determinant of tree morphology.

  14. Moisture availability constraints on the leaf area to sapwood area ratio: analysis of measurements on Australian evergreen angiosperm trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togashi, Henrique; Prentice, Colin; Evans, Bradley; Forrester, David; Drake, Paul; Feikema, Paul; Brooksbank, Kim; Eamus, Derek; Taylor, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    The leaf area to sapwood area ratio (LA:SA) is a key plant trait that links photosynthesis to transpiration. Pipe model theory states that the sapwood cross-sectional area of a stem or branch at any point should scale isometrically with the area of leaves distal to that point. Optimization theory further suggests that LA:SA should decrease towards drier climates. Although acclimation of LA:SA to climate has been reported within species, much less is known about the scaling of this trait with climate among species. We compiled LA:SA measurements from 184 species of Australian evergreen angiosperm trees. The pipe model was broadly confirmed, based on measurements on branches and trunks of trees from one to 27 years old. We found considerable scatter in LA:SA among species. However quantile regression showed strong (0.2moisture indices and the lowermost (5%) and uppermost (5-15%) quantiles of log LA:SA, suggesting that moisture availability constrains the envelope of minimum and maximum values of LA:SA typical for any given climate. Interspecific differences in plant hydraulic conductivity are probably responsible for the large scatter of values in the mid quantile-range, and may be an important determinant of tree morphology.

  15. Blood lead levels in the Kinshasa population: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective Leaded gasoline and lead paints are still in use in the Democratic Republic of Congo but data on blood lead levels in the general population are not available. We evaluated the Pb impregnation in children and adults (0 - 70 years old) in Kinshasa. Methods Blood lead was measured by atomic absorption in a sample of 485 healthy people (268 men and 217 women) living in Kinshasa between May 2003 and June 2004. Results Geometric mean blood lead was 120 µg/L (95% CI: 115-125), with a higher concentration in men than in women (127 vs 114 µg/L, p = 0.01). Sixty-three percent of children aged less than 6 years old presented blood lead levels above the 100 µg threshold. In the adult population, occupations with a potential risk of exposure to gasoline (car mechanics or garage owners, taxi drivers, conveyors and gas pump attendants) were associated with an extra blood lead of about 65µg/L. Conclusion This study indicates a relatively important Pb impregnation of the Kinshasa population. It demonstrates the existence of a major public health issue requiring corrective actions and the implementation of an appropriate regulation.

  16. Multivariate assimilation of coarse scale soil moisture, cosmic-ray soil moisture, land surface temperature and leaf area index in CLM4.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xujun; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan; Schalge, Bernd; Baroni, Gabriele; Rihani, Jehan; Kollet, Stefan; Vereecken, Harry; Simmer, Clemens

    2017-04-01

    The land surface plays a central role in the atmosphere - land surface - subsurface continuum. Surface soil moisture for instance impacts the partitioning of absorbed radiation in heating ground and atmosphere and thus impacts resulting evapotranspiration. The land surface also drives partitioning of rainfall between infiltration which ends up as groundwater recharge and surface runoff contributing to stream discharge. It is therefore expected that the use of observations for characterizing and predicting the land surface state also leads to improved state estimations and predictions in all the other sub-compartments of the system we consider: groundwater, stream discharge and atmosphere. To test this hypothesis requires efficient data assimilation schemes that are capable to take up specific requirements of different compartments, such as different time windows of observations. In this study we will derive such data assimilation methods and quantify the improvement of predictions in the different compartments due to assimilation of multiple observations, and evaluate to what extent assimilation of land surface observations will also improve predictions of land surface states and fluxes for atmosphere and groundwater. We argue that improvements can be achieved by implementing a data assimilation methodology that is capable of simultaneous assimilation of many data sources (remote sensing soil moisture, cosmic-ray measurement for soil moisture, land surface temperature and leaf area index) at different spatial scales ranging from 102 m to 104 m. The multivariate data assimilation system for the land-surface component will be developed and extended to assimilate the coarse scale remote sensing soil moisture, cosmic-ray soil moisture, land surface temperature and leaf area index, and their different combinations using the local ensemble transform Kalman filter. The multivariate data assimilation will be evaluated using a synthetic study which mimics the Neckar

  17. Evaluation of SMOS soil moisture products over the CanEx-SM10 area

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Earth observation satellite was launched in November 2009 to provide global soil moisture and ocean salinity measurements based on L-Band passive microwave measurements. Since its launch, different versions of SMOS soil moisture products processors have be...

  18. Movement of moisture in the unsaturated zone in a loess-mantled area, southwestern Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prill, Robert C.

    1977-01-01

    A study of moisture movement associated with ponding near Garden City, Kansas, indicates that loess-manted areas have excellent potential for artificial recharge by water spreading. Infiltration stabilized at rates ranging from 0.7 to 2.2 feet (0.2 to 0.7 meter) per day reflecting changes in hydraulic conductivity of soil horizons. Results of the study indicate that the underlying loess has the capacity to temporarily store about 1 cubic foot (0.03 cubic meter) of water for each 6 cubic feet (0.17 cubic meter) of material. Owing to relatively high hydraulic conductivities of the loess and alluvium, however, moisture continues to move through the unsaturated zone. After application of 21 feet (6 meters) of water, mounding at the water table had a maximum thickness of 2 feet (0.6 meter) at the edge of the pond. Although the boundary of mounding spread rapidly, the applied water moved slowly by lateral displacement. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Estimating irrigated areas from satellite and model soil moisture data over the contiguous US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaussinger, Felix; Dorigo, Wouter; Gruber, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Information about irrigation is crucial for a number of applications such as drought- and yield management and contributes to a better understanding of the water-cycle, land-atmosphere interactions as well as climate projections. Currently, irrigation is mainly quantified by national agricultural statistics, which do not include spatial information. The digital Global Map of Irrigated Areas (GMIA) has been the first effort to quantify irrigation at the global scale by merging these statistics with remote sensing data. Also, the MODIS-Irrigated Agriculture Dataset (MirAD-US) was created by merging annual peak MODIS-NDVI with US county level irrigation statistics. In this study we aim to map irrigated areas by confronting time series of various satellite soil moisture products with soil moisture from the ERA-Interim/Land reanalysis product. We follow the assumption that irrigation signals are not modelled in the reanalysis product, nor contributing to its forcing data, but affecting the spatially continuous remote sensing observations. Based on this assumption, spatial patterns of irrigation are derived from differences between the temporal slopes of the modelled and remotely sensed time series during the irrigation season. Results show that a combination of ASCAT and ERA-Interim/Land show spatial patterns which are in good agreement with the MIrAD-US, particularly within the Mississippi Delta, Texas and eastern Nebraska. In contrast, AMSRE shows weak agreements, plausibly due to a higher vegetation dependency of the soil moisture signal. There is no significant agreement to the MIrAD-US in California, which is possibly related to higher crop-diversity and lower field sizes. Also, a strong signal in the region of the Great Corn Belt is observed, which is generally not outlined as an irrigated area. It is not yet clear to what extent the signal obtained in the Mississippi Delta is related to re-reflection effects caused by standing water due to flood or furrow

  20. Topographic and road control of mega-gullies in Kinshasa (DR Congo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makanzu Imwangana, Fils; Dewitte, Olivier; Ntombi, Médard; Moeyersons, Jan

    2014-07-01

    Diachronic mapping (1957, 1967, 2007 and 2010) shows an exponentially growing mega-gully network since roads were constructed through in the forests and plantations which occupied the sandy soils of the high town of Kinshasa. We found that the spatial occurrence of the mega-gullies (width ≥ 5 m) in this newly urbanized environment is controlled by two factors. First, there is a topographic control, given by the relation S = 0.00008A- 1.459, with S being the slope gradient (m m- 1) of the soil surface at the gully head and A the drainage area (ha) above the head. There is also a ‘road’ control, expressed by S = 22.991Lc- 1.999, with Lc being the cumulated length of roads in the basin above the gully head. The co-existence of both controls reflects the fact that the local sands are highly permeable and hence roads are more important generators of continuous runoff. The S-A relation noted above should not be applied outside the town where the road network is less dense. In contrast, the S-Lc relation may be used in both the town and rural areas underlain by porous soils where roads are the only generators of continuous runoff. We further conclude that the high town of Kinshasa is one of the most vulnerable places for gullying, and gullying can potentially transform the town into a badland. ‘Artisanal’ gully treatment is more successful than generally believed and the S-Lc relation can be a tool for mega-gully prevention.

  1. Simplified floor-area-based energy-moisture-economic model for residential buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Luis A.

    In the United States, 21% of all energy is used in residential buildings (40% of which is for heating and cooling homes). Promising improvements in residential building energy efficiency are underway such as the Building America Program and the Passive House Concept. The ability of improving energy efficiency in buildings is enhanced by building energy modeling tools, which are well advanced and established but lack generality (each building has to be modeled individually) and require high cost, which limits many residential buildings from taking advantage of such powerful tools. This dissertation attempts to develop guidelines based on a per-building-floor-area basis for designing residential buildings that achieve maximum energy efficiency and minimum life cycle cost. Energy and moisture-mass conservation principles were formulated for residential buildings on a per-building-floor-area basis. This includes thermal energy balance, moisture-mass conservation and life cycle cost. The analysis also includes the effects of day-lighting, initial cost estimation and escalation rates. The model was implemented on Excel so it is available for broader audiences and was validated using the standard BESTEST validation procedure for energy models yielding satisfactory results for different scenarios, within a 90% confidence interval. Using the model, parametric optimization studies were conducted in order to study how each variable affects energy and life cycle cost. An efficient whole-building optimization procedure was developed to determine the optimal design based on key design parameters. Whole-building optimization studies were conducted for 12 climate zones using four different criteria: minimum energy consumption, minimum life cycle cost (35 years) using constant energy costs and minimum life cycle cost (35 years) varying escalation rates (-5%, 10%). Conclusions and recommendations were inferred on how to design an optimal house, using each criterion and for all

  2. A dynamic programming approach to water allocation for seasonally dry area, based on stochastic soil moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Porporato, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    seasonally dry areas, which are widely distributed in the world, are usually facing an intensive disparity between the lack of natural resource and the great demand of social development. In dry seasons of such areas, the distribution/allocation of water resource is an extremely critical and sensitive issue, and conflicts often occur due to lack of appropriate water allocation scheme. Among the many uses of water, the need of agricultural irrigation water is highly elastic, but this factor has not yet been made full use to free up water from agriculture use. The primary goal of this work is to design an optimal distribution scheme of water resource for dry seasons to maximize benefits from precious water resources, considering the high elasticity of agriculture water demand due to the dynamic of soil moisture affected by the uncertainty of precipitation and other factors like canopy interception. A dynamic programming model will be used to figure out an appropriate allocation of water resources among agricultural irrigation and other purposes like drinking water, industry, and hydropower, etc. In this dynamic programming model, we analytically quantify the dynamic of soil moisture in the agricultural fields by describing the interception with marked Poisson process and describing the rainfall depth with exponential distribution. Then, we figure out a water-saving irrigation scheme, which regulates the timetable and volumes of water in irrigation, in order to minimize irrigation water requirement under the premise of necessary crop yield (as a constraint condition). And then, in turn, we provide a scheme of water resource distribution/allocation among agriculture and other purposes, taking aim at maximizing benefits from precious water resources, or in other words, make best use of limited water resource.

  3. The value of spatial analysis for tracking supply for family planning: the case of Kinshasa, DRC.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Julie H; Akilimali, Pierre; Kayembe, Patrick; Dikamba, Nelly; Bertrand, Jane

    2016-10-01

    While geographic information systems (GIS) are frequently used to research accessibility issues for healthcare services around the world, sophisticated spatial analysis protocols and outputs often prove inappropriate and unsustainable to support evidence-based programme strategies in resource-constrained environments. This article examines how simple, open-source and interactive GIS tools have been used to locate family planning (FP) services delivery points in Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo) and to identify underserved areas, determining the potential location of new service points, and to support advocacy for FP programmes. Using smartphone-based data collection applications (OpenDataKit), we conducted two surveys of FP facilities supported by partner organizations in 2012 and 2013 and used the results to assess gaps in FP services coverage, using both ratio of facilities per population and distance-based accessibility criteria. The cartographic outputs included both static analysis maps and interactive Google Earth displays, and sought to support advocacy and evidence-based planning for the placement of new service points. These maps, at the scale of Kinshasa or for each of the 35 health zones that cover the city, garnered a wide interest from the operational level of the health zones' Chief Medical Officers, who were consulted to contribute field knowledge on potential new service delivery points, to the FP programmes officers at the Ministry of Health, who could use the map to inform resources allocation decisions throughout the city. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Local Differences in HIV Prevalence: A Comparison of Social Venue Patrons, Antenatal Patients, and STI Patients in Eastern Kinshasa

    PubMed Central

    Mwandagalirwa, Kashamuka; Jackson, Elizabeth F.; McClamroch, Kristi; Ryder, Robert W.; Weir, Sharon S.

    2013-01-01

    Background This study compares the sexual behavior and HIV prevalence of men and women at social venues where people meet new sexual partners in Eastern Kinshasa with the HIV prevalence and behavior of STI treatment and antenatal clinic patients in the same area. Methods ANC clinic patients, STI clinic patients and social venue patrons were interviewed, asked to provide a blood sample onsite, and provided information about obtaining test results. All social venue patrons at all identified social venues in the study area were invited to participate. Results 1,116 pregnant women; 66 male and 229 female STI clinic patients; and 952 male and 247 female patrons of social venues were interviewed and tested. HIV prevalence ranged by group: ANC patients (4%); female venue patrons (12%); female STI patients (16%); male venue patrons (2%); and male STI patients (23%). HIV prevalence among sexworkers at social venues (29%) was higher than the prevalence among other female patrons with new or multiple partnerships (19%) or among female patrons denying sexwork (6%). However, the absolute number of infected women was higher among women reporting recent new or multiple partnerships than the smaller group of sexworkers (23 vs 18). Two-thirds of the infected female STI patients (24/36) reported no more than one sexual partner in the past year. Conclusion Improving prevention programs in Kinshasa is essential. Prevention efforts should not neglect women at social venues who do not self-identify as sexworkers but have high rates of new sexual partnerships. PMID:19525891

  5. Barriers to Modern Contraceptive Use in Kinshasa, DRC

    PubMed Central

    Muanda, Mbadu; Gahungu Ndongo, Parfait; Taub, Leah D.; Bertrand, Jane T.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research from Kinshasa, DRC, has shown that only one in five married women uses modern contraception; over one quarter have an unmet need for family planning; and almost 400 health facilities across Kinshasa report that they provide modern contraception. This study addresses the question: with reasonable physical access and relatively high unmet need, why is modern contraceptive prevalence so low? To this end, the research team conducted 6 focus groups of women (non-users of any method, users of traditional methods, and users of modern methods) and 4 of husbands (of users of traditional methods and in non-user unions) in health zones with relatively strong physical access to FP services. Five key barriers emerged from the focus group discussions: fear of side effects (especially sterility), costs of the method, sociocultural norms (especially the dominant position of the male in family decision-making), pressure from family members to avoid modern contraception, and lack of information/misinformation. These findings are very similar to those from 12 other studies of sociocultural barriers to family planning in sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, they have strong programmatic implications for the training of FP workers to counsel future clients and for the content of behavior change communication interventions. PMID:27907138

  6. Barriers to Modern Contraceptive Use in Kinshasa, DRC.

    PubMed

    Muanda, Mbadu; Gahungu Ndongo, Parfait; Taub, Leah D; Bertrand, Jane T

    2016-01-01

    Recent research from Kinshasa, DRC, has shown that only one in five married women uses modern contraception; over one quarter have an unmet need for family planning; and almost 400 health facilities across Kinshasa report that they provide modern contraception. This study addresses the question: with reasonable physical access and relatively high unmet need, why is modern contraceptive prevalence so low? To this end, the research team conducted 6 focus groups of women (non-users of any method, users of traditional methods, and users of modern methods) and 4 of husbands (of users of traditional methods and in non-user unions) in health zones with relatively strong physical access to FP services. Five key barriers emerged from the focus group discussions: fear of side effects (especially sterility), costs of the method, sociocultural norms (especially the dominant position of the male in family decision-making), pressure from family members to avoid modern contraception, and lack of information/misinformation. These findings are very similar to those from 12 other studies of sociocultural barriers to family planning in sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, they have strong programmatic implications for the training of FP workers to counsel future clients and for the content of behavior change communication interventions.

  7. Assimilating remote sensing observations of leaf area index and soil moisture for wheat yield estimates: An observing system simulation experiment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We develop a robust understanding of the effects of assimilating remote sensing observations of leaf area index and soil moisture (in the top 5 cm) on DSSAT-CSM CropSim-Ceres wheat yield estimates. Synthetic observing system simulation experiments compare the abilities of the Ensemble Kalman Filter...

  8. Influence of Leaf Area Index Prescriptions on Simulations of Heat, Moisture, and Carbon Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kala, Jatin; Decker, Mark; Exbrayat, Jean-Francois; Pitman, Andy J.; Carouge, Claire; Evans, Jason P.; Abramowitz, Gab; Mocko, David

    2013-01-01

    Leaf-area index (LAI), the total one-sided surface area of leaf per ground surface area, is a key component of land surface models. We investigate the influence of differing, plausible LAI prescriptions on heat, moisture, and carbon fluxes simulated by the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLEv1.4b) model over the Australian continent. A 15-member ensemble monthly LAI data-set is generated using the MODIS LAI product and gridded observations of temperature and precipitation. Offline simulations lasting 29 years (1980-2008) are carried out at 25 km resolution with the composite monthly means from the MODIS LAI product (control simulation) and compared with simulations using each of the 15-member ensemble monthly-varying LAI data-sets generated. The imposed changes in LAI did not strongly influence the sensible and latent fluxes but the carbon fluxes were more strongly affected. Croplands showed the largest sensitivity in gross primary production with differences ranging from -90 to 60 %. PFTs with high absolute LAI and low inter-annual variability, such as evergreen broadleaf trees, showed the least response to the different LAI prescriptions, whilst those with lower absolute LAI and higher inter-annual variability, such as croplands, were more sensitive. We show that reliance on a single LAI prescription may not accurately reflect the uncertainty in the simulation of the terrestrial carbon fluxes, especially for PFTs with high inter-annual variability. Our study highlights that the accurate representation of LAI in land surface models is key to the simulation of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Hence this will become critical in quantifying the uncertainty in future changes in primary production.

  9. Identifying risk factors for Plasmodium infection and anaemia in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Giovanfrancesco; Ntuku, Henry M T; Ross, Amanda; Schmidlin, Sandro; Kalemwa, Didier M; Tshefu, Antoinette K; Lengeler, Christian

    2016-07-15

    There is little data on the risk factors for malaria infection in large cities in central Africa and in all age groups. There may be different associations with the risk factors for areas with different malaria transmission intensities such as the effect of fever or age. This study aimed at identifying risk factors associated with Plasmodium infection and anaemia among children 6-59 months and individuals aged older than 5 years in Kinshasa, a large city with heterogeneity in malaria prevalence. This study analysed data from 3342 children aged 6-59 months from 25 non-rural health zones (HZs) and for 816 individuals aged older than 5 years from two HZs in Kinshasa (non-rural), collected during a cross sectional malaria survey in 2011. Logistic regression with random effects was used to investigate predictors for malaria and anaemia. Differences in risk factors in areas with a prevalence of less than 10 and 10 % or greater were investigated. There was evidence of a different age-pattern in the two transmission settings. For children under 5 years, the highest prevalence of malaria was observed in the 48-59 months group in both transmission settings, but it increased more gently for the lower transmission HZs (p = 0.009). In a separate analysis in children over 5 years in two selected HZs, the peak prevalence was in 5-9 years old in the higher transmission setting and in 15-19 years old in the lower transmission setting. Reported fever was associated with malaria in both transmission strata, with no evidence of a difference in these associations (p = 0.71); however in children older than 5 years there was a significant interaction with a stronger association in the low transmission HZ. Insecticide-treated net (ITN) use was associated with a lower risk of malaria infection in children 6-59 months in the high transmission HZs. Similar estimates were found in children over 5 years and the lower transmission HZ but the associations there were not

  10. A Model for coupled heat and moisture transfer in permafrost regions of three rivers source areas, Qinghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X. L.; Xiang, X. H.; Wang, C. H.; Shao, Q. Q.

    2012-04-01

    Soil freezing occurs in winter in many parts of the world. The transfer of heat and moisture in freezing and thawing soil is interrelated, and this heat and moisture transport plays an important role in hydrological activity of seasonal frozen region especially for three rivers sources area of China. Soil freezing depth and ice content in frozen zone will significantly influence runoff and groundwater recharge. The purpose of this research is to develop a numerical model to simulate water and heat movement in the soil under freezing and thawing conditions. The basic elements of the model are the heat and water flow equations, which are heat conduction equation and unsaturated soil fluid mass conservation equation. A full-implicit finite volume scheme is used to solve the coupled equations in space. The model is calibrated and verified against the observed moisture and temperature of soil during freezing and thawing period from 2005 to 2007. Different characters of heat and moisture transfer are testified, such as frozen depth, temperature field of 40 cm depth and topsoil moisture content, et al. The model is calibrated and verified against observed value, which indicate that the new model can be used successfully to simulate numerically the coupled heat and mass transfer process in permafrost regions. By simulating the runoff generation process and the driven factors of seasonal changes, the agreement illustrates that the coupled model can be used to describe the local phonemes of hydrologic activities and provide a support to the local Ecosystem services. This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51009045; 40930635; 41001011; 41101018; 51079038), the National Key Program for Developing Basic Science (No. 2009CB421105), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 2009B06614; 2010B00414), the National Non Profit Research Program of China (No. 200905013-8; 201101024; 20101224).

  11. Overview of Animal Rabies in Kinshasa Province in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Twabela, Augustin Tshibwabwa; Lombe, Boniface Pongombo; Hankanga, Careen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rabies is one of the major public health problems mostly affecting developing countries in Africa and Asia where 99.9% of all rabies related human deaths are recorded each year. In Democratic Republic of Congo, repeated outbreaks have been reported. Despite this, there is little reliable epidemiological data about rabies in the country for the development of effective control strategies. Materials and Methods A retrospective study was carried out in Kinshasa Province during a period of five years (2009–2013) to describe the proportion of rabid animals and the species involved in rabies transmission and maintenance. The survey also aimed at describing the spatial-temporal distribution of rabies. To gather information, the daily registers of institutions involved in rabies diagnosis were reviewed and each rabies case was traced back to area of occurrence for collection of geographic coordinates. Results and Discussion A total of 5,053 attacks were registered involving six animal species including dog, cat, monkey, rabbit, rat, and pig. Based on clinical observations, rabies was reported in dogs and cats while data obtained from the laboratory confirmed rabies cases included dogs, cats and a goat. The annual distribution showed a significant decrease of rabies cases from 2009 up to 2011 and a later increase up to 2013. There was no difference in rabies occurrence between seasons (p = 0.721). Rabies cases were three times higher in peri-urban zone than in urban zone OR = 3.4 (95% CI: 2.3–5.1). The positive proportion of rabies was 2.6% (95% CI: 2.1–3) based on clinical evidence and 65.9% (95% CI: 50–79.5) for laboratory confirmed cases. Conclusion and Suggestion This study confirms the endemicity of rabies in Kinshasa where occurrence of rabies cases was related to human population density and lifestyle. In order to control rabies, there is need to set up a surveillance program and implement efficient mass vaccination campaigns of susceptible

  12. Tentative reference values for environmental pollutants in blood or urine from the children of Kinshasa.

    PubMed

    Tuakuila, J; Kabamba, M; Mata, H; Mbuyi, F

    2015-11-01

    The DRC, as most of African nations, does not have a national biomonitoring programme and there is a lack of information on background levels of environmental pollutants in the general DRC population, particularly in children. The focus of the data presented in this report aims to establish the background levels of a range of environmental pollutants in urine or blood from the children population of Kinshasa. Based on the representative data collection of the Kinshasa population, the survey selected 125 children aged 1-14years and living in Kinshasa (6years on average, 56% of girls, 100% of non-smokers, without amalgam fillings and consumers of fish 3 times per week). Biomarkers of a range of metals (As, Cd, Hg and Pb), pyrene (PAH) and benzene were analyzed in the blood or urine samples. Globally, the results indicate that the exposure levels of children living in Kinshasa are 10 times higher than those published by the American, Canadian and German children surveys. This study provides the first Reference Values of environmental pollutants [As, Cd, Hg, Pb, pyrene (PAH) and benzene] in the Kinshasa children population and reveals elevated levels of all biomarkers studied. The data set of this study may allow environmental and health authorities of DRC to undertake a national biomonitoring programme, especially with four insights for the protection of human heath.

  13. HCMM detection of high soil moisture areas. [by diurnal temperature observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heilman, J. L.; Moore, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    It is noted that one objective of NASA's Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) is to evaluate the feasibility of using HCMM data to assess soil moisture effects by observing temperatures near the maximum and minimum of the diurnal temperature cycle. The satellite, which carries a two-channel radiometer (0.5-1.1 and 10.5-12.5 microns) gathers data at 1:30 P.M. and 2:30 A.M. local time at midlatitudes, with a repeat cycle of 5 or 16 days depending on latitude. The spatial resolutions are 0.5 x 0.5 km at nadir for the visible channel and 0.6 x 0.6 km at nadir for the thermal infrared channel. An example is presented here of HCMM detection of a region of high soil moisture.

  14. Finally It Is Possible To Measure Area-Average Soil Moisture!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuttleworth, W. J.; Zreda, M. G.; Zeng, X.; Zweck, C.; Franz, T. E.; Rosolem, R.

    2011-12-01

    When a hitherto impossible measurement becomes possible, there are transformational changes in understanding. Measuring soil moisture using cosmic rays sounds like 1950s science fiction. But the non-invasive measurement of soil moisture at a horizontal scale of ~700m and depths of 15-70 cm is now feasible, by counting cosmic-ray neutrons that are generated within soil, moderated mainly by the hydrogen atoms, and emitted back to the atmosphere. The number of neutrons counted is sensitive to water content changes, only weakly sensitive to soil chemistry, and their intensity is inversely correlated with the hydrogen (i.e., water) content of the soil. Neither the basis of this measurement method nor the sensor technology used is new, they have been around for decades. However, the systematic understanding of cosmic-ray interactions at the ground-atmosphere interface and resulting knowledge of the source "footprint" of above ground neutron detectors and recognition of their limited of sensitivity to soil type in selected neutron energy bands is new, as is the low power electronics used for remote signal conditioning, counting and data capture. The measurement with a portable neutron detector placed above the ground takes minutes to hours, permitting high-resolution, long-term monitoring of undisturbed soil moisture. The large footprint makes the method suitable for weather and short-term climate forecast initialization and satellite validation, while the measurement depth makes the probe ideal for studying plant/soil/atmosphere interactions. Inclusion of a second detector that is sensitive to neutrons with lower energy shows promise as a means for detecting snow cover. This talk briefly overviews evidence that soil moisture status can potentially influence weather and seasonal climate and describe the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS), which observing program will install initially a network of 50 probes (to provide a proof of concept) and subsequently

  15. Assessing groundwater vulnerability in the Kinshasa region, DR Congo, using a calibrated DRASTIC model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mfumu Kihumba, Antoine; Vanclooster, Marnik; Ndembo Longo, Jean

    2017-02-01

    This study assessed the vulnerability of groundwater against pollution in the Kinshasa region, DR Congo, as a support of a groundwater protection program. The parametric vulnerability model (DRASTIC) was modified and calibrated to predict the intrinsic vulnerability as well as the groundwater pollution risk. The method uses groundwater body specific parameters for the calibration of the factor ratings and weightings of the original DRASTIC model. These groundwater specific parameters are inferred from the statistical relation between the original DRASTIC model and observed nitrate pollution for a specific period. In addition, site-specific land use parameters are integrated into the method. The method is fully embedded in a Geographic Information System (GIS). Following these modifications, the correlation coefficient between groundwater pollution risk and observed nitrate concentrations for the 2013-2014 survey improved from r = 0.42, for the original DRASTIC model, to r = 0.61 for the calibrated model. As a way to validate this pollution risk map, observed nitrate concentrations from another survey (2008) are compared to pollution risk indices showing a good degree of coincidence with r = 0.51. The study shows that a calibration of a vulnerability model is recommended when vulnerability maps are used for groundwater resource management and land use planning at the regional scale and that it is adapted to a specific area.

  16. A project to evaluate moisture stress in corn and soybean areas of western and southwestern Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, R. H.; Robert, P. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques, particularly LANDSAT data, were used to assess soil moisture stress through crop signature in southwestern Minnesota. Related objectives were: localization of droughty, well drained, and poorly drained soils; detection of stress from hail, wind, and disease damage; and the use of remote sensing data for agricultural management. Since the amount and distribution of precipitation were adequate during the 1977 and 1978 growing seasons, no significant stress occurred. Crop conditions were very favorable. As a result, crop signatures were too uniform to reflect soilscape variations and crop condition changes. In 1979 precipitation was again adequate to excess, particularly in June and August. In some cases, poorly drained sites especially, stress conditions developed as a result of excess of water and could be identified on color infrared photographs.

  17. A Comparison of 20th Century and Holocene Historical Lake Areas and Implications for Reconstruction of Holocene Moisture Balance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, C. P.; Ferreira, M.; Shuman, B.; Ito, E.

    2005-12-01

    Low lake stands during the Holocene document a period of drier than modern conditions in the upper Midwest after 8000 cal yr B.P. Here, we seek to compare the magnitudes and spatial extent of these mid-Holocene water-level changes with the changes that occurred during the 1930s Dust Bowl drought. The comparison allows us to consider the potential range of hydrologic conditions in the mid-continent, and to detect similarities or differences between the two periods as a way to learn more about the climatic controls on the mid-Holocene moisture-balance. (How good an analog is the 1930s drought for the mid-Holocene aridity?) Each lake record, however, is unique and comparisons among lakes have been hindered by local hydrologic influences and sedimentary processes. We therefore test the simple methodological assumption that the stratigraphic records of small lakes may be used in concert to produce valid and meaningful maps of Holocene moisture balance. First we confirm that broad regional trends in lake area reflect long-term moisture balance patterns by studying the 1930s aerial photography. Second, we confirm that regionally coherent patterns of sedimentary change related to past water levels can be detected for the mid-Holocene via GPR profiles. Changes in open water surface area in response to the 1930's drought are quantified and mapped for over 300 small (1km sq. or less) lakes of northern and central Minnesota in order to determine if small basins responded to drought with explainable regional coherency. A map of percent area change (between AD 1930 and 2003) reveals that coherent trends in surface area response reflect the gradient of moisture balance change over the same period. We found a trend in percent surface area change from east to west with western lakes completely drying out (>100% change), a wider variability of responses in central Minnesota, and eastern lakes undergoing almost no change (<10%). GPR profiles were collected on two east-west transects

  18. Collaboration between Higher Education and Labor Market in Kinshasa, DR Congo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etshim, Rachal

    2017-01-01

    The transition of new graduate students from school to the labor market in Democratic Republic of Congo has been a major topic for debate over the last twenty years. This study identifies the factors affecting collaboration between higher education and the labor market in Kinshasa, the Capital city of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Even though…

  19. Ethnicity, Education, and Fertility Transition in Kinshasa, Congo. Working Paper 2-97-1. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, David; Tambashe, B. Oleko

    Substantial ethnic differences in fertility were documented in the Congo in the mid-1950s. These differences, apparent as well among women residing in Kinshasa, the capital, were linked to variations across ethnic groups in the incidence of venereal diseases and sterility. By the mid-1970s ethnic differences in fertility had diminished but were…

  20. Assimilation of leaf area index and surface soil moisture satellite observations into the SIM hydrological model over France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairbairn, David; Calvet, Jean-Christophe; Mahfouf, Jean-Francois; Barbu, Alina

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological models have a variety of uses, including flood and drought prediction and water management. The SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU (SIM) hydrological model consists of three stages: An atmospheric analysis (SAFRAN) over France, which forces a land surface model (ISBA-A-gs), which then provides drainage and runoff inputs to a hydrological model (MODCOU). The river discharge from MODCOU is validated using observed river discharge over France. Data assimilation (DA) combines a short model forecast from the past with observations to improve the estimate of the model state. The ISBA-A-gs representation of soil moisture and its influence by vegetation can be improved by assimilating surface soil moisture (SSM) and leaf area index (LAI) observations respectively. The Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) on board the MetOP satellite measures a low-frequency microwave signal, which is used to retrieve daily SSM over France. The SPOT-VGT sensor observes LAI over France at a temporal frequency of about 10 days. The Simplified Extended Kalman (SEKF) filter combines the model and observed variables by weighting them according to their respective accuracies. Although the SEKF makes incorrect linear assumptions, past experiments have shown that it improves on the model estimates of SSM and LAI. However, due to nonlinearities in the land surface model, improvements in SSM and LAI do not imply improved soil moisture fluxes (drainage, runoff and evapotranspiration). This study indirectly examines the impact of the SEKF on the soil moisture fluxes using the MODCOU hydrological model. The ISBA-A-gs model appears to underestimate the LAI for grasslands in winter and spring, which results in an underestimation (overestimation) of evapotranspiration (drainage and runoff). The excess water flowing into the rivers and aquifers contributes to an overestimation of the MODCOU discharge. Assimilating LAI observations slightly increases the LAI analysis in winter and spring and therefore reduces the

  1. Assimilating Remote Sensing Observations of Leaf Area Index and Soil Moisture for Wheat Yield Estimates: An Observing System Simulation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nearing, Grey S.; Crow, Wade T.; Thorp, Kelly R.; Moran, Mary S.; Reichle, Rolf H.; Gupta, Hoshin V.

    2012-01-01

    Observing system simulation experiments were used to investigate ensemble Bayesian state updating data assimilation of observations of leaf area index (LAI) and soil moisture (theta) for the purpose of improving single-season wheat yield estimates with the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) CropSim-Ceres model. Assimilation was conducted in an energy-limited environment and a water-limited environment. Modeling uncertainty was prescribed to weather inputs, soil parameters and initial conditions, and cultivar parameters and through perturbations to model state transition equations. The ensemble Kalman filter and the sequential importance resampling filter were tested for the ability to attenuate effects of these types of uncertainty on yield estimates. LAI and theta observations were synthesized according to characteristics of existing remote sensing data, and effects of observation error were tested. Results indicate that the potential for assimilation to improve end-of-season yield estimates is low. Limitations are due to a lack of root zone soil moisture information, error in LAI observations, and a lack of correlation between leaf and grain growth.

  2. Spatial variation of shallow and deep soil moisture in the semi-arid loess hilly area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L.; Wei, W.; Chen, L.; Jia, F.; Mo, B.

    2012-04-01

    Soil moisture in deep soil layers is the only relatively stable water resource for introduced vegetation in the semi-arid Loess Plateau of China. Characterizing the spatial variation of deep soil moisture is significant for vegetation restoration with respect to the topographic conditions. In this study, we focused on analyzing the spatial variations and influencing factors of soil moisture content (SMC) in shallow (0-2 m) and deep (2-8 m) soil layers based on soil moisture observation in the Longtan watershed. The vegetation type of each sampling site for each comparison is same, while varies with slope position, slope gradient, or slope aspect. The following results are found: (1) compared with shallow SMC, slope position and slope aspect may affect shallow soil moisture more, rather than deep layers. Slope gradient however, affect both shallow and deep soil moisture significantly. It indicates that high difference of deep soil hydrological processes between shallow and deep soil moisture remains, which can be attributed to the introduced vegetation and topography. (2) The vegetation growth condition has significant negative relation with deep soil moisture. This result indicates that plants under different growth conditions may consume soil moisture differently, thus causing higher spatial variation of deep soil moisture. (3) The dynamic role of slope position and slope aspect on deep SMC has been changed by introduced vegetation in semi-arid environment. Consequently, vegetation growth condition and slope gradient may be the major factor contributing to the spatial variation of deep soil moisture.

  3. Subsurface Temperature, Moisture, Thermal Conductivity and Heat Flux, Barrow, Area A, B, C, D

    DOE Data Explorer

    Cable, William; Romanovsky, Vladimir

    2014-03-31

    Subsurface temperature data are being collected along a transect from the center of the polygon through the trough (and to the center of the adjacent polygon for Area D). Each transect has five 1.5m vertical array thermistor probes with 16 thermistors each. This dataset also includes soil pits that have been instrumented for temperature, water content, thermal conductivity, and heat flux at the permafrost table. Area C has a shallow borehole of 2.5 meters depth is instrumented in the center of the polygon.

  4. Analysis of ASAR Wide Swath Mode time series for the retrieval of soil moisture in mountainous areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greifeneder, Felix; Notarnicola, Claudia; Cuozzo, Giovanni; Spindler, Nadine; Bertoldi, Giacomo; Della Chiesa, Stefano; Niedrist, Georg; Stamenkovic, Jelena; Wagner, Wolgang

    2014-05-01

    Soil moisture is a key element in the global cycles of water, energy, and carbon. Knowledge on the spatial and temporal distribution of the soil moisture content (SMC) is therefore essential for a number of hydrological applications as well as earth sciences like meteorology or climatology (Heathman et al., 2003). In the last few years there has been an increasing interest towards the estimation of SMC at local scales using active microwave sensors (Barret et al., 2009). Compared to passive microwave sensors, SAR offers the potential to provide data at high spatial resolution (modern sensors can acquire images with up to approximately 1 m), which is particularly important in mountainous areas. So far, these areas have been considered only marginally in research and only pioneer studies can be found in the literature (Brocca et al., 2012; Bertoldi et al. 2013). In this work we analyzed the temporal and spatial dynamics of the surface SMC (0 - 5 cm depth) on the basis of ground data collected by fixed meteorological stations located in the emerging Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site Mazia Valley (Province of Bolzano, South Tyrol, Italy), SAR data from ENVISATs ASAR sensor, wide swath (WS) mode (acquired between 2005 and 2012), and SMC estimates from the hydrological model GEOtop (Endrizzi et al., 2013). The SMC retrieval process was based on the support vector regression (SVR) method introduced by Pasolli et al. (2011). The training of the algorithm was based on data acquired in 2010. Furthermore, the SAR backscatter and derived SMC have been compared with time-series derived from the distributed hydrological model GEOtop. The differences in terms of temporal and spatial dynamic have been analyzed. The main goal of this work is to evaluate the spatial and temporal patterns of SAR derived SMC at field scale and to correlate them with ground information. This is a preparatory study to establish a methodology for the retrieval of SMC with high spatial and

  5. Evaluating the drought response of CMIP5 models using global gross primary productivity, leaf area, precipitation, and soil moisture data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Gerber, Stefan; Huang, Tongyi; Lichstein, Jeremy W.

    2016-12-01

    Realistic representation of vegetation's response to drought is important for understanding terrestrial carbon cycling. We evaluated nine Earth system models from the historical experiment of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 for the response of gross primary productivity (GPP) and leaf area index (LAI) to hydrological anomalies. Hydrological anomalies were characterized by the standardized precipitation index (SPI) and surface soil moisture anomalies (SMA). GPP and LAI in models were on average more responsive to SPI than in observations revealed through several indicators. First, we find higher mean correlations between global annual anomalies of GPP and SPI in models than observations. Second, the maximum correlation between GPP and SPI across 1-24 month time scales is higher in models than observations. And finally, we found stronger excursions of GPP to extreme dry or wet events. Similar to GPP, LAI responded more to SPI in models than observations. The over-response of models is smaller if evaluated based on SMA instead of SPI. LAI responses to SMA are inconsistent among models, showing both higher and lower LAI when soil moisture is reduced. The time scale of maximum correlation is shorter in models than the observation for GPP, and the markedly different response time scales among models for LAI indicate gaps in understanding how variability of water availability affects foliar cover. The discrepancy of responses derived from SPI and SMA among models, and between models and observations, calls for improvement in understanding the dynamics of plant-available water in addition to how vegetation responds to these anomalies.

  6. Retrieving soil moisture for non-forested areas using PALS radiometer measurements in SMAPVEX12 field campaign

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this paper we investigate retrieval of soil moisture based on L-band brightness temperature under diverse conditions and land cover types. We apply the PALS (Passive Active L-band System) radiometer data collected in the SMAPVEX12 (Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012) field ex...

  7. Field-scale moisture estimates using COSMOS sensors: a validation study with temporary networks and leaf-area-indices

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Cosmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS) is a new and innovative method for estimating surface and near surface soil moisture at large (~700 m) scales. This system accounts for liquid water within its measurement volume. Many of the sites used in the early validation of the system had...

  8. ENDURING ECONOMIC HARDSHIP, WOMEN'S EDUCATION, MARRIAGE AND FERTILITY TRANSITION IN KINSHASA.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, David

    2015-03-01

    This paper examines fertility transition in Kinshasa, capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and second-largest city in sub-Saharan Africa. Shapiro (1996) documented the onset of fertility transition in the city, using data from 1990. Women's education was strongly inversely related to fertility, beginning with secondary schooling, and increases in women's education were important in initiating fertility transition in the city. The paper uses data from the 2007 Demographic and Health Survey in the DRC to examine fertility in Kinshasa and assess fertility transition since 1990, a period characterized by severe adverse economic conditions in the DRC. Fertility transition has continued at a strong pace. In part this reflects increased educational attainment of women, but it appears also to be largely a consequence of enduring economic hardship. The ongoing fertility decline has been accompanied by substantial delays in entry to marriage and childbearing, reflecting adverse economic conditions, which in turn have contributed to continuing declines in fertility.

  9. Mosquito-borne viruses circulating in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Mbanzulu, Kennedy Makola; Wumba, Roger; Mukendi, Jean-Pierre Kambala; Zanga, Josué Kikana; Shija, Fortunate; Bobanga, Thierry Lengu; Aloni, Michel Ntetani; Misinzo, Gerald

    2017-04-01

    Diseases caused by mosquito-borne viruses are among the most important emerging diseases that threaten human and animal health, particularly in Africa. However, little attention has been paid to these diseases in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The present cross-sectional study was undertaken between March and May 2014 to investigate the presence of mosquito-borne viruses in mosquitoes collected from five municipalities of Kinshasa, DRC. Mosquitoes were collected using BG-Sentinel traps and battery-powered aspirators. Female mosquitoes were pooled according to their genera and sampling locations, preserved in RNAlater, and later screened for viruses using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) assays. A total of 2922 mosquitoes were collected and 29 pools of female mosquitoes, containing approximately 30 mosquitoes each, were tested. Twelve of the 29 (41.4%) mosquito pools were found to be infected with at least one arbovirus, with eight (27.5%) pools positive for Alphavirus, nine (31%) for Flavivirus, and five (17.2%) for Bunyaviridae. Chikungunya, o'nyong'nyong, and Rift valley fever viruses were detected. The present study shows that mosquitoes in Kinshasa carry mosquito-borne viruses that may have serious public health implications. Further investigations on the presence of mosquito-borne viruses in the human and livestock populations of Kinshasa and DRC are recommended. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Study of high SAR backscattering caused by an increase of soil moisture over a sparsely vegetated area: Implications for characteristics of backscattering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhiming; Meyer, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    We used interferometric methods on a pair of repeat-pass ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images to study soil moisture changes over sparsely vegetated targets. The intensity of the SAR image acquired at one time was higher than that of an image acquired at an earlier time. We used a correlation image computed from the SAR image pair to study the cause of the observed changes in SAR intensity. Because a reduction of correlation over areas with intensity changes was not observed, we interpreted the intensity changes as not being caused by changes in roughness/structure, but by a change in soil moisture owing to rainfall. An increase in soil moisture ranging from 5% to 20% is the most likely explanation for the increase of intensity. These analyses imply that both intensity and phase information should be used in SAR change detection applications.

  11. Irrigation scheduling of green areas based on soil moisture estimation by the active heated fiber optic distributed temperature sensing AHFO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubelzu, Sergio; Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Sobrino, Fernando; Sánchez, Raúl

    2017-04-01

    Irrigation programing determines when and how much water apply to fulfill the plant water requirements depending of its phenology stage and location, and soil water content. Thus, the amount of water, the irrigation time and the irrigation frequency are variables that must be estimated. Likewise, irrigation programing has been based in approaches such as: the determination of plant evapotranspiration and the maintenance of soil water status between a given interval or soil matrix potential. Most of these approaches are based on the measurements of soil water sensors (or tensiometers) located at specific points within the study area which lack of the spatial information of the monitor variable. The information provided in such as few points might not be adequate to characterize the soil water distribution in irrigation systems with poor water application uniformity and thus, it would lead to wrong decisions in irrigation scheduling. Nevertheless, it can be overcome if the active heating pulses distributed fiber optic temperature measurement (AHFO) is used. This estimates the temperature variation along a cable of fiber optic and then, it is correlated with the soil water content. This method applies a known amount of heat to the soil and monitors the temperature evolution, which mainly depends on the soil moisture content. Thus, it allows estimations of soil water content every 12.5 cm along the fiber optic cable, as long as 1500 m (with 2 % accuracy) , every second. This study presents the results obtained in a green area located at the ETSI Agronómica, Agroalimentaria y Biosistesmas in Madrid. The area is irrigated by an sprinkler irrigation system which applies water with low uniformity. Also, it has deployed and installation of 147 m of fiber optic cable at 15 cm depth. The Distribute Temperature Sensing unit was a SILIXA ULTIMA SR (Silixa Ltd, UK) with spatial and temporal resolution of 0.29 m and 1 s, respectively. In this study, heat pulses of 7 W/m for 2

  12. Therapeutic moisturizers.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Z D

    2000-10-01

    Moisturizers have been adapted to perform many important roles on the skin surface. Simple moisturizers combine occlusives and humectants to enhance the water-holding capacity of the skin. The addition of carefully selected emollients can influence the esthetic properties of the moisturizer and the stability of the active ingredients. The addition of sunscreens to moisturizers has created a new product category with an added skin function. Further diversity in moisturizer formulation is created through the addition of specialty ingredients, designed to enhance the functioning of the skin. Moisturizers are an important part of the dermatologist's armamentarium.

  13. Elevated blood lead levels and sources of exposure in the population of Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Tuakuila, Joel; Lison, Dominique; Mbuyi, Francois; Haufroid, Vincent; Hoet, Perrine

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine blood lead levels (BLLs) and the possible sources of exposure in the population of Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo. A cross-sectional survey was carried out from January to May 2008 in a representative sample of the Kinshasan population. BLL was measured in 275 individuals (53.4% women) aged 1-70 years in the urban area of Kinshasa and from 60 additional subjects in the rural area. Pb was also determined in environmental specimens (air and soil, indoor and outdoor). BLL in the study population ranged from 2.9 to 49.3 μg/dl (median, 9.9 μg/dl). The median BLL among children aged <6 years was 11.5 μg/dl (range: 3.0-37.8 μg/dl). Of these children, 71% had elevated BLL (≥10 μg/dl) and 22% had BLL ≥20 μg/dl. The proportion of elevated BLL (≥10 μg/dl) was higher for children aged <3 years than for children aged 3 to 5 years (97% vs 56%). A higher prevalence of elevated BLL was observed in urban compared with rural children (71% vs 20%). Significantly higher BLLs were also found in children whose mother consumed fired clay during pregnancy. Residential informal activities in the recycling of car batteries also contributed to elevated BLL in children. The elevated background of Pb exposure in the Kinshasan population indicates a public health issue that requires corrective actions. Pb-contaminated dust and air in children's home is an issue of public health concern. The use of leaded gasoline and the activities of car battery recycling in certain residences appear to constitute the main sources of exposure in the city of Kinshasa. The traditional use of fired clay for the treatment of gastritis by pregnant women is another significant contributor for elevated BLL in children.

  14. Moisturizer Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Stechschulte, Sarah A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Moisturizers are used by patients with dry skin conditions as well as those with healthy skin to enhance and preserve the smoothness of the skin and to interrupt the dry-skin cycle. Moisturizers are generally considered safe, although skin reactions, such as allergic contact dermatitis from topical preparations may occur. Cosmetic products including moisturizers are among the main culprits of allergic contact dermatitis. Methods: Utilizing a recently published database of all moisturizers available at Walgreens Pharmacies (Chicago, Illinois), which listed each product's allergens from the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) screening panel, we evaluated the number of moisturizers containing each allergen. Results: Of the 276 moisturizers accounted for in the database, 68 percent contained fragrance making it the most common allergen found in these moisturizers. Parabens were discovered in 62 percent of moisturizers, followed by Vitamin E in 55 percent of products. Essential oils and biologic additives were found in 45 percent of products, followed by benzyl alcohol in 24 percent of moisturizers. Propylene glycol was found in 20 percent of moisturizers, followed by formaldehyde releasers in 20 percent of products. Iodopropynyl butylcarbamate was discovered in 16 percent of products, followed by lanolin in 10 percent of moisturizers. Methylisothiazolinone/methylchloroisothiazolinone was found in six percent of available products. Conclusions: Many ingredients of moisturizers have the potential to cause irritant and allergic contact dermatitis; therefore, it is necessary for clinicians to be aware of such potential allergens in order to manage and advise their patients accordingly. PMID:21212847

  15. Modelling nitrate pollution pressure using a multivariate statistical approach: the case of Kinshasa groundwater body, Democratic Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mfumu Kihumba, Antoine; Ndembo Longo, Jean; Vanclooster, Marnik

    2016-03-01

    A multivariate statistical modelling approach was applied to explain the anthropogenic pressure of nitrate pollution on the Kinshasa groundwater body (Democratic Republic of Congo). Multiple regression and regression tree models were compared and used to identify major environmental factors that control the groundwater nitrate concentration in this region. The analyses were made in terms of physical attributes related to the topography, land use, geology and hydrogeology in the capture zone of different groundwater sampling stations. For the nitrate data, groundwater datasets from two different surveys were used. The statistical models identified the topography, the residential area, the service land (cemetery), and the surface-water land-use classes as major factors explaining nitrate occurrence in the groundwater. Also, groundwater nitrate pollution depends not on one single factor but on the combined influence of factors representing nitrogen loading sources and aquifer susceptibility characteristics. The groundwater nitrate pressure was better predicted with the regression tree model than with the multiple regression model. Furthermore, the results elucidated the sensitivity of the model performance towards the method of delineation of the capture zones. For pollution modelling at the monitoring points, therefore, it is better to identify capture-zone shapes based on a conceptual hydrogeological model rather than to adopt arbitrary circular capture zones.

  16. Local differences in human immunodeficiency virus prevalence: a comparison of social venue patrons, antenatal patients, and sexually transmitted infection patients in eastern kinshasa.

    PubMed

    Mwandagalirwa, Kashamuka; Jackson, Elizabeth F; McClamroch, Kristi; Bollinger, Robert; Ryder, Robert W; Weir, Sharon S

    2009-07-01

    This study compares the sexual behavior and HIV prevalence of men and women at social venues where people meet new sexual partners in Eastern Kinshasa with that of sexually transmitted infection (STI) treatment and antenatal clinic (ANC) patients in the same area. ANC patients, STI clinic patients, and social venue patrons were interviewed, asked to provide a blood sample on-site, and provided with information about obtaining test results. Every patron at identified social venues in the study area was invited to participate. One thousand one hundred sixteen pregnant women; 66 male and 229 female STI clinic patients; and 952 male and 247 female patrons of social venues were interviewed and tested for HIV. HIV prevalence differed by group: ANC patients (4%); female venue patrons (12%); female STI patients (16%); male venue patrons (2%); and male STI patients (23%). HIV prevalence among sex workers at social venues (29%) was higher than HIV prevalence among other female patrons with new or multiple partnerships in the past four weeks (19%) and higher than HIV prevalence among female patrons denying sex work (6%). However, the absolute number of infected women was higher among women reporting recent new or multiple partnerships than among the smaller group of sex workers (23 vs. 18). Two-thirds of the infected female STI patients (24/36) reported no more than one and no new sexual partner in the past year. Improving prevention programs in Kinshasa is essential. Prevention efforts should not neglect women at social venues who do not self-identify as sex workers but who have high rates of new sexual partnership formation.

  17. Evaluation of Free Moisture in Resins used at the F- and H-Area Groundwater Treatment Units

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.I.

    2001-03-16

    The overall objective of this study was to determine the influence of total moisture content on the amount of free liquid released from two resins (CG-8 and Dowex 21K) and one absorbent (SP 400). An additional objective of this work was to provide some guidance as to how much moisture can be left with the resins before free-liquid is released from the materials. Finally, this work was intended to bench mark the standard vibration test (ASTM D999-96) to the amount of free-liquid measured in resins that had actually been shipped to Nevada Test Site in B-12 containers.

  18. Analysis of the long-term dynamics of moisture balance components in typical chernozems of the reserved steppe area in Kursk region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazykina, G. S.

    2010-12-01

    The long-term dynamics (1947-2006) of parameters characterizing the income and expenditure components of moisture balance in deep (3 m) chernozems of the reserved steppe area subject to annual hay cutting have been analyzed by methods of moving averages and resolution of data sets into time series. The results provide evidence for the cyclic patterns of these dynamics and their dependence on changes in weather conditions over the past few decades, referred to as recent climate warming. An increase is noted in the occurrence frequency of long time series (about 7 years) with parameters of soil moisture balance deviating (either positively or negatively) from long-term average values, during which changes in soil properties (in particular, carbonate status) may well leave their mark in the soil profile. The long-term dynamics of individual components of soil moisture balance have a specific pattern accounted for by the mutual influence of these components on each other as well as by the combined effect of changing environmental factors. An analysis of the moving-average curves of these components has revealed the tendency indicating that the period of increased moisture supply to chernozem soils (characteristic of the past few decades) is coming to an end.

  19. A missing piece of the puzzle in climate change hotspots: Near-surface turbulent interactions controlling ET-soil moisture coupling in semiarid areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghighi, Erfan; Gianotti, Daniel J.; Rigden, Angela J.; Salvucci, Guido D.; Kirchner, James W.; Entekhabi, Dara

    2017-04-01

    Being located in the transitional zone between dry and wet climate areas, semiarid ecosystems (and their associated ecohydrological processes) play a critical role in controlling climate change and global warming. Land evapotranspiration (ET), which is a central process in the climate system and a nexus of the water, energy and carbon cycles, typically accounts for up to 95% of the water budget in semiarid areas. Thus, the manner in which ET is partitioned into soil evaporation and plant transpiration in these settings is of practical importance for water and carbon cycling and their feedbacks to the climate system. ET (and its partitioning) in these regions is primarily controlled by surface soil moisture which varies episodically under stochastic precipitation inputs. Important as the ET-soil moisture relationship is, it remains empirical, and physical mechanisms governing its nature and dynamics are underexplored. Thus, the objective of this study is twofold: (1) to provide observational evidence for the influence of surface cover conditions on ET-soil moisture coupling in semiarid regions using soil moisture data from NASA's SMAP satellite mission combined with independent observationally based ET estimates, and (2) to develop a relatively simple mechanistic modeling platform improving our physical understanding of interactions between micro and macroscale processes controlling ET and its partitioning in partially vegetated areas. To this end, we invoked concepts from recent progress in mechanistic modeling of turbulent energy flux exchange in bluff-rough regions, and developed a physically based ET model that explicitly accounts for how vegetation-induced turbulence in the near-surface region influences soil drying and thus ET rates and dynamics. Model predictions revealed nonlinearities in the strength of the ET-soil moisture relationship (i.e., ∂ET/∂θ) as vegetation cover fraction increases, accounted for by the nonlinearity of surface

  20. Perceptions of health, health care and community-oriented health interventions in poor urban communities of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Maketa, Vivi; Vuna, Mimy; Baloji, Sylvain; Lubanza, Symphorien; Hendrickx, David; Inocêncio da Luz, Raquel Andrea; Boelaert, Marleen; Lutumba, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    In Democratic Republic of Congo access to health care is limited because of many geographical and financial barriers, while quality of care is often low. Global health donors assist the country with a number of community-oriented interventions such as free distribution of bednets, antihelminthic drugs, vitamin A supplementation and vaccination campaigns, but uptake of these interventions is not always optimal. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of poor urban communities of the capital Kinshasa with regard to health issues in general as well as their experiences and expectations concerning facility-based health services and community-oriented health interventions. Applying an approach rooted in the grounded theory framework, focus group discussions were conducted in eight neighborhoods of poor urban areas in the city of Kinshasa in July 2011. Study participants were easily able to evoke the city's major health problems, with the notable exceptions of malnutrition and HIV/AIDS. They perceive the high out-of-pocket cost of health services as the major obstacle when seeking access to quality care. Knowledge of ongoing community-oriented health interventions seems good. Still, while the study participants agree that those interventions are beneficial; their acceptability seems to be problematic. This is chiefly put down to a lack of information and government communication about the programs and their interventions. Furthermore, the study participants referred to rumors and the deterring effect of stories about alleged harmful consequences of those interventions. Along with improving the provision and quality of general health care, the government and international actors must improve their efforts in informing the communities about disease control programs, their rationale and benefit/risk ratio. Directly engaging community members in a dialogue might be beneficial in terms of improving acceptability and overall access to health services and

  1. Perceptions of Health, Health Care and Community-Oriented Health Interventions in Poor Urban Communities of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Maketa, Vivi; Vuna, Mimy; Baloji, Sylvain; Lubanza, Symphorien; Hendrickx, David; Inocêncio da Luz, Raquel Andrea; Boelaert, Marleen; Lutumba, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    In Democratic Republic of Congo access to health care is limited because of many geographical and financial barriers, while quality of care is often low. Global health donors assist the country with a number of community-oriented interventions such as free distribution of bednets, antihelminthic drugs, vitamin A supplementation and vaccination campaigns, but uptake of these interventions is not always optimal. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of poor urban communities of the capital Kinshasa with regard to health issues in general as well as their experiences and expectations concerning facility-based health services and community-oriented health interventions. Applying an approach rooted in the grounded theory framework, focus group discussions were conducted in eight neighborhoods of poor urban areas in the city of Kinshasa in July 2011. Study participants were easily able to evoke the city’s major health problems, with the notable exceptions of malnutrition and HIV/AIDS. They perceive the high out-of-pocket cost of health services as the major obstacle when seeking access to quality care. Knowledge of ongoing community-oriented health interventions seems good. Still, while the study participants agree that those interventions are beneficial; their acceptability seems to be problematic. This is chiefly put down to a lack of information and government communication about the programs and their interventions. Furthermore, the study participants referred to rumors and the deterring effect of stories about alleged harmful consequences of those interventions. Along with improving the provision and quality of general health care, the government and international actors must improve their efforts in informing the communities about disease control programs, their rationale and benefit/risk ratio. Directly engaging community members in a dialogue might be beneficial in terms of improving acceptability and overall access to health services and

  2. Representative elementary volume estimation for porosity, moisture saturation, and air-water interfacial areas in unsaturated porous media: Data quality implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costanza-Robinson, Molly S.; Estabrook, Benjamin D.; Fouhey, David F.

    2011-07-01

    Achieving a representative elementary volume (REV) has become a de facto criterion for demonstrating the quality of ?CT measurements in porous media systems. However, the data quality implications of an REV requirement have not been previously examined. In this work, deterministic REVs for porosity, moisture saturation (SW), and air-water interfacial area (AI) were estimated using a set of 49 ?CT images of eight unsaturated homogeneous porous media with heterogeneity in moisture distributions present in varying degrees. Estimated porosity REVs were <8 mm3 for all cases, smaller than typical ?CT image sizes (˜100 mm3). Estimated SW and AI REVs were <55 mm3 for cases with homogeneous moisture distributions but could not be estimated for cases with heterogeneous moisture distributions, due to the absence of a distinct "REV plateau" within the maximum imaged volume. Conventionally, SW and AI data from such non-REV cases would be excluded. The implications of excluding data on the basis of REV were examined by comparing AI-SW data measured on image windows of increasing size against the expected linear AI-SW relationship. At measurement scales exceeding porosity REV, random fluctuations in AI-SW data were excluded, even for cases containing heterogeneous moisture distributions. In contrast, requiring measurement scales to exceed SW and AI REV appeared overly restrictive and resulted in visible loss of reliable AI-SW data. We attribute these findings to overestimation of REVs due to inherently problematic estimation of deterministic REVs in real systems. Implications of these findings for ensuring ?CT data quality and the efficient use of ?CT data are discussed.

  3. Representative elementary volume estimation for porosity, moisture saturation, and air-water interfacial areas in unsaturated porous media: Data quality implications

    SciTech Connect

    Costanza-Robinson, Molly S.; Estabrook, Benjamin D.; Fouhey, David F.

    2011-09-16

    Achieving a representative elementary volume (REV) has become a de facto criterion for demonstrating the quality of {mu}CT measurements in porous media systems. However, the data quality implications of an REV requirement have not been previously examined. In this work, deterministic REVs for porosity, moisture saturation (S{sub W}), and air-water interfacial area (A{sub I}) were estimated using a set of 49 {mu}CT images of eight unsaturated homogeneous porous media with heterogeneity in moisture distributions present in varying degrees. Estimated porosity REVs were <8 mm{sup 3} for all cases, smaller than typical CT image sizes ({approx}100 mm{sup 3}). Estimated S{sub W} and A{sub I} REVs were <55 mm{sup 3} for cases with homogeneous moisture distributions but could not be estimated for cases with heterogeneous moisture distributions, due to the absence of a distinct 'REV plateau' within the maximum imaged volume. Conventionally, S{sub W} and A{sub I} data from such non-REV cases would be excluded. The implications of excluding data on the basis of REV were examined by comparing A{sub I}-S{sub W} data measured on image windows of increasing size against the expected linear A{sub I}-S{sub W} relationship. At measurement scales exceeding porosity REV, random fluctuations in A{sub I}-S{sub W} data were excluded, even for cases containing heterogeneous moisture distributions. In contrast, requiring measurement scales to exceed S{sub W} and A{sub I} REV appeared overly restrictive and resulted in visible loss of reliable A{sub I}-S{sub W} data. We attribute these findings to overestimation of REVs due to inherently problematic estimation of deterministic REVs in real systems. Implications of these findings for ensuring CT data quality and the efficient use of CT data are discussed.

  4. Complications of childbirth and maternal deaths in Kinshasa hospitals: testimonies from women and their families

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality in Kinshasa is high despite near universal availability of antenatal care and hospital delivery. Possible explanations are poor-quality care and by delays in the uptake of care. There is, however, little information on the circumstances surrounding maternal deaths. This study describes and compares the circumstances of survivors and non survivors of severe obstetric complications. Method Semi structured interviews with 208 women who survived their obstetric complication and with the families of 110 women who died were conducted at home by three experienced nurses under the supervision of EK. All the cases were identified from twelve referral hospitals in Kinshasa after admission for a serious acute obstetric complication. Transcriptions of interviews were analysed with N-Vivo 2.0 and some categories were exported to SPSS 14.0 for further quantitative analysis. Results Testimonies showed that despite attendance at antenatal care, some women were not aware of or minimized danger signs and did not seek appropriate care. Cost was a problem; 5 deceased and 4 surviving women tried to avoid an expensive caesarean section by delivering in a health centre, although they knew the risk. The majority of surviving mothers (for whom the length of stay was known) had the caesarean section on the day of admission while only about a third of those who died did so. Ten women died before the required caesarean section or blood transfusion could take place because they did not bring the money in time. Negligence and lack of staff competence contributed to the poor quality of care. Interviews revealed that patients and their families were aware of the problem, but often powerless to do anything about it. Conclusion Our findings suggest that women with serious obstetric complications have a greater chance of survival in Kinshasa if they have cash, go directly to a functioning referral hospital and have some leverage when dealing with health care staff PMID

  5. [Funding of the management of severe malaria in children by Kinshasa households (Democratic Republic of Congo)].

    PubMed

    Ilunga-Ilunga, Félicien; Levêque, Alain; Dramaix, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the source of health care funding for heads of households related to the management of severe malaria in children admitted to a Kinshasa reference hospital. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,350 hospitalised children under the age of 15 years treated for severe malaria in Kinshasa reference hospitals from January to November 2011 and the heads of households of these children. Only 46% of heads of households reported having sufficient funds directly available in the household budget. The remaining 54% had to call upon external sources of funding (sale of assets, loans, pawning goods). The use of a loan tended to increase significantly mainly for households with a low (adjusted odds ratio = 6.2), and intermediate socioeconomic status (adjusted odds ratio = 3.8) and for households working in the informal sector (adjusted odds ratio = 2.5). Similarly, the sale of assets was more frequently reported for households working in the informal sector (adjusted odds ratio = 2.4) and for female heads of households (adjusted odds ratio = 3.9). The management of severe malaria is a burden on household income. The majority of heads of households concerned needs to use external funding sources. A State subsidy for this management would help to reduce the risk of debt and sale of assets, especially for the poorest households.

  6. Smoke emissions due to burning of green waste in the Mediterranean area: Influence of fuel moisture content and fuel mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tihay-Felicelli, V.; Santoni, P. A.; Gerandi, G.; Barboni, T.

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate emission characteristics in relation to differences in fuel moisture content (FMC) and initial dry mass. For this purpose, branches and twigs with leaves of Cistus monspeliensis were burned in a Large Scale Heat Release apparatus coupled to a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer. A smoke analysis was conducted and the results highlighted the presence of CO2, H2O, CO, CH4, NO, NO2, NH3, SO2, and non-methane organic compounds (NMOC). CO2, NO, and NO2 species are mainly released during flaming combustion, whereas CO, CH4, NH3, and NMOC are emitted during both flaming and smoldering combustion. The emission of these compounds during flaming combustion is due to a rich fuel to air mixture, leading to incomplete combustion. The fuel moisture content and initial dry mass influence the flame residence time, the duration of smoldering combustion, the combustion efficiency, and the emission factors. By increasing the initial dry mass, the emission factors of NO, NO2, and CO2 decrease, whereas those of CO and CH4 increase. The increase of FMC induces an increase of the emission factors of CO, CH4, NH3, NMOC, and aerosols, and a decrease of those of CO2, NO, and NO2. Increasing fuel moisture content reduces fuel consumption, duration of smoldering, and peak heat release rate, but simultaneously increases the duration of propagation within the packed bed, and the flame residence time. Increasing the initial dry mass, causes all the previous combustion parameters to increase. These findings have implications for modeling biomass burning emissions and impacts.

  7. Conflicting discourses of church youths on masculinity and sexuality in the context of HIV in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Lusey, Hendrew; San Sebastian, Miguel; Christianson, Monica; Dahlgren, Lars; Edin, Kerstin E

    2014-01-01

    Masculinity studies are fairly new and young churchgoers are an under-researched group in the current Congolese church context. In response to this knowledge gap, this paper attempts to explore discourses of young churchgoers from deprived areas of Kinshasa regarding masculinity and sexuality in the era of HIV. A series of 16 semi-structured interviews were conducted with unmarried young churchgoers from the Salvation Army, Protestant and Revival churches. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using discourse analysis. Five main discourses emerged: 'we are aware of the church message on sex', 'young men need sex', 'young women need money', 'to use or not to use condoms' and 'we trust in the church message'. Although all informants knew and heard church messages against premarital sex, many of them were sexually active. The perception was that young men were engaged in sexual activities with multiple partners as a result of sexual motivations surrounding masculinity and sexual potency, while young women sought multiple partners through transactional and intergenerational sex for economic reasons. These sexual practices of young people conflicted with church messages on sexual abstinence and faithfulness. However, a small number of participants challenged current gender norms and suggested alternative ways of being a man or a woman. To elucidate these alternatives, we suggest that church youths and church leaders might take concrete actions to deconstruct misconceptions about being men. In this way, they can possibly enhance a frank and fruitful dialogue on sex, sexuality and gender to promote positive masculinities and constructive partnerships to prevent HIV.

  8. Conflicting discourses of church youths on masculinity and sexuality in the context of HIV in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Lusey, Hendrew; San Sebastian, Miguel; Christianson, Monica; Dahlgren, Lars; Edin, Kerstin E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Masculinity studies are fairly new and young churchgoers are an under-researched group in the current Congolese church context. In response to this knowledge gap, this paper attempts to explore discourses of young churchgoers from deprived areas of Kinshasa regarding masculinity and sexuality in the era of HIV. A series of 16 semi-structured interviews were conducted with unmarried young churchgoers from the Salvation Army, Protestant and Revival churches. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using discourse analysis. Five main discourses emerged: ‘we are aware of the church message on sex’, ‘young men need sex’, ‘young women need money’, ‘to use or not to use condoms’ and ‘we trust in the church message’. Although all informants knew and heard church messages against premarital sex, many of them were sexually active. The perception was that young men were engaged in sexual activities with multiple partners as a result of sexual motivations surrounding masculinity and sexual potency, while young women sought multiple partners through transactional and intergenerational sex for economic reasons. These sexual practices of young people conflicted with church messages on sexual abstinence and faithfulness. However, a small number of participants challenged current gender norms and suggested alternative ways of being a man or a woman. To elucidate these alternatives, we suggest that church youths and church leaders might take concrete actions to deconstruct misconceptions about being men. In this way, they can possibly enhance a frank and fruitful dialogue on sex, sexuality and gender to promote positive masculinities and constructive partnerships to prevent HIV. PMID:25000272

  9. Boundary-layer moisture regimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahrt, L.

    1991-01-01

    Boundary-layer moisture fluctuations are estimated by analyzing HAPEX and FIFE data collected on 52 aircraft flight legs. Moisture fluctuations were given considerable attention in the HAPEX flights, which were 120 km long, and flew 150 m over one area of homogeneous terrain. The repetitions permit statistical consideration of motion characteristics on horizontal scales. Two prototypical boundary layer regimes are discovered: the entrainment-drying boundary layer, and the moistening boundary layer. The latter demonstrates positive moisture skewness close to the surface related to high surface evaporation. The former is characterized by boundary-layer instability, weak surface evaporation, and drier air aloft, leading to unexpected negative moisture skewness. It is noted that 10 km moisture variations with horizontal gradients are often found in narrow zones of horizontal convergence, called mesoscale moisture fronts. A negative moisture to temperature correlation, due to surface energy budget inhomogeneity, is shown to incur large mesoscale variations of relative humidity.

  10. Measurement of Tritium in Gas Phase Soil Moisture and Helium-3 in Soil Gas at the Hanford Townsite and 100 K Area

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Khris B.; Patton, Gregory W.; Poreda, R.; Dresel, P Evan; Evans, John C.

    2000-07-05

    In 1999, eight soil gas sampling points ranging in depth from 4.9 ft to 32 ft below ground surface (bgs) in two clusters were installed adjacent to well 699-41-1, south of the Hanford Townsite. Fifteen soil gas sampling points, ranging in depth from 7.0 ft to 10.4 ft bgs, were installed to the north and east of the 100-K East Reactor facility. Gas phase soil moisture samples were collected using silica gel traps from all eight sampling locations adjacent to well 699-41-1 and eight locations at the 100-K Area. Soil gas samples for helium-3 measurements were collected at all sampling points. No detectable tritium (<240 pCi/L) was found in the soil moisture samples from either the Hanford Townsite or 100-K Area sampling points. This behavior suggests that tritiated moisture from groundwater is not migrating upward to the sampling points and there are no large vadose zone sources of tritium at either location. Helium-3 analyses of the soil gas samples showed significant enrichments relative to ambient air helium-3 concentrations with a depth dependence consistent with a groundwater source from decay of tritium. Helium-3/helium-4 ratios (normalized to the abundances in ambient air) at the Hanford Townsite ranged from 1.012 at 5 feet below ground surface (bgs) to 2.157 at 32 feet bgs. Helium-3/helium-4 ratios at the 100-K area ranged from 0.972 to 1.131. Based on results from the 100-K area, we believe that a major tritium plume does not lie within that study area. The data also suggest there may be a tritium groundwater plume or a source of helium-3 to the southeast of the study area. We recommend that the study be continued by the placement of additional soil gas sampling points along the perimeter road to the west and to the south of the initial study area.

  11. Measurement of Tritium in Gas Phase Soil Moisture and Helium-3 in Soil Gas at the Hanford Townsite and 100 K Area

    SciTech Connect

    KB Olsen; GW Patton; R Poreda; PE Dresel; JC Evans

    2000-07-05

    In 1999, soil gas samples for helium-3 measurements were collected at two locations on the Hanford Site. Eight soil gas sampling points ranging in depth from 1.5 to 9.8 m (4.9 to 32 ft) below ground surface (bgs) in two clusters were installed adjacent to well 699-41-1, south of the Hanford Townsite. Fifteen soil gas sampling points, ranging in depth from 2.1 to 3.2 m (7 to 10.4 ft) bgs, were installed to the north and east of the 100 KE Reactor. Gas phase soil moisture samples were collected using silica gel traps from all eight sampling locations adjacent to well 699-41-1 and eight locations at the 100 K Area. No detectable tritium (<240 pCi/L) was found in the soil moisture samples from either the Hanford Townsite or 100 K Area sampling points. This suggests that tritiated moisture from groundwater is not migrating upward to the sampling points and there are no large vadose zone sources of tritium at either location. Helium-3 analyses of the soil gas samples showed significant enrichments relative to ambient air helium-3 concentrations with a depth dependence consistent with a groundwater source from decay of tritium. Helium-3/helium-4 ratios (normalized to the abundances in ambient air) at the Hanford Townsite ranged from 1.012 at 1.5 m (5 ft) bgs to 2.157 at 9.8 m (32 ft) bgs. Helium-3/helium-4 ratios at the 100 K Area ranged from 0.972 to 1.131. Based on results from the 100 K Area, the authors believe that a major tritium plume does not lie within that study area. The data also suggest there may be a tritium groundwater plume or a source of helium-3 to the southeast of the study area. They recommend that the study be continued by placing additional soil gas sampling points along the perimeter road to the west and to the south of the initial study area.

  12. Rainfall-soil moisture relations in landslide-prone areas of a tropical rain forest, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Torres-Sanchez, Angel J.; Krishna, J.H.; Quinones-Aponte, Vicente; Gomez-Gomez, Fernando; Morris, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    Detailed studies of the relation between rainfall and soil moisture are underway at two forested sites on slopes in the CNF. Soil at the sites is characterized by a layer of silty-clay colluvial soil about 1 m thick, which is underlain by up to 10 m of saprolite, and overlies weathered volcaniclastic or quartz-diorite bedrock. Although considerable surface runoff has been observed at the study sites, data show moderate to rapid increases in pore pressure in repsonse to short duration storm events. Pore-pressure increases are greatest in the lower sections of concave slopes apparently due to convergent flow. It is anticipated that these pore-pressure data will provide a means of assessing rainfall characteristics leading to landslide initiation as well as insight to the mechanics of shallow landslides

  13. The impact of the uncertainty in the initial soil moisture condition of irrigated areas on the spatiotemporal characteristics of convective activity in Central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsopoulos, Stylianos; Ioannis, Tegoulias; Ioannis, Pytharoulis; Stergios, Kartsios; Dimitrios, Bampzelis; Theodore, Karacostas

    2015-04-01

    The region of Thessaly is the second largest plain in Greece and has a vital role in the financial life of the country, because of its significant agricultural production. The intensive and extensive cultivation of irrigated crops, in combination with the population increase and the alteration of precipitation patterns due to climate change, often leading the region to experience severe drought conditions, especially during the warm period of the year. The aim of the DAPHNE project is to tackle the problem of drought in this area by means of Weather Modification.In the framework of the project DAPHNE, the numerical weather prediction model WRF-ARW 3.5.1 is used to provide operational forecasts and hindcasts for the region of Thessaly. The goal of this study is to investigate the impact of the uncertainty in the initial soil moisture condition of irrigated areas, on the spatiotemporal characteristics of convective activity in the region of interest. To this end, six cases under the six most frequent synoptic conditions, which are associated with convective activity in the region of interest, are utilized, considering six different soil moisture initialization scenarios. In the first scenario (Control Run), the model is initialized with the surface soil moisture of the ECMWF analysis data, that usually does not take into account the modification of soil moisture due to agricultural activity in the area of interest. In the other five scenarios (Experiment 1,2,3,4,5) the soil moisture in the upper soil layers of the study area are modified from -50% to 50% of field capacity (-50%FC, -25%FC, FC, 25%FC, 50%FC),for the irrigated cropland.Three model domains, covering Europe, the Mediterranean Sea and northern Africa (d01), the wider area of Greece (d02) and central Greece - Thessaly region (d03) are used at horizontal grid-spacings of 15km, 5km and 1km respectively. ECMWF operational analyses at 6-hourly intervals (0.25ox0.25o lat.-long.) are imported as initial and

  14. HIV seroprevalence among hospital workers in Kinshasa, Zaire: lack of association with occupational exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, J.M.; Francis, H.; Quinn, T.C.; Bila, K.; Asila, P.K.; Bosenge, N.; Nzilambi, N.; Jansegers, L.; Piot, P.; Ruti, K.; Curran, J.W.

    1986-12-12

    A study of seroprevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus involving 2384 (96%) of Mama Yemo Hospital's (Kinshasa, Zaire) 2492 personnel found 152 (6.4%) to be seropositive. Prevalence was higher among women than among men (8.1% vs 5.2%); in women peak seroprevalence (13.9%) occurred in 20 to 29-year-olds. Workers most likely to be seropositive were those who were relatively young, those who were unmarried, those reporting a blood transfusion or hospitalization during the previous ten years, and those receiving medical injections during the previous three years. Medical, administrative, and manual workers had similar seroprevalence (6.5%, 6.4%, and 6.0%, respectively), and seropositivity was not associated with any measure of patient, blood, or needle contact. These findings are consistent with other hospital-based studies indicating low risks for occupational transmission of human immunodeficiency virus.

  15. Isolated case of Ebola hemorrhagic fever with mucormycosis complications, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Kalongi, Y; Mwanza, K; Tshisuaka, M; Lusiama, N; Ntando, E; Kanzake, L; Shieh, W J; Zaki, S R; Lloyd, E S; Ksiazek, T G; Rollin, P E

    1999-02-01

    A patient with undiagnosed Ebola (EBO) hemorrhagic fever (EHF) was transferred from Kikwit to a private clinic in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. A diagnosis of EHF was suspected on clinical grounds and was confirmed by detection of EBO virus-specific IgM and IgG in serum of the patient. During the course of the disease, although she had no known predisposing factors, the patient developed a periorbital mucormycosis abscess on eyelid tissue that was biopsied during surgical drainage; the abscess was histologically confirmed. Presence of EBO antigen was also detected by specific immunohistochemistry on the biopsied tissue. The patient survived the EBO infection but had severe sequelae associated with the mucormycosis. Standard barrier-nursing precautions were taken upon admission and upgraded when EHF was suspected; there was no secondary transmission of the disease.

  16. The incidence of induced abortion in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2016.

    PubMed

    Chae, Sophia; Kayembe, Patrick K; Philbin, Jesse; Mabika, Crispin; Bankole, Akinrinola

    2017-01-01

    In the Democratic Republic of Congo, the penal code prohibits the provision of abortion. In practice, however, it is widely accepted that the procedure can be performed to save the life of a pregnant woman. Although abortion is highly restricted, anecdotal evidence indicates that women often resort to clandestine abortions, many of which are unsafe. However, to date, there are no official statistics or reliable data to support this assertion. Our study provides the first estimates of the incidence of abortion and unintended pregnancy in Kinshasa. We applied the Abortion Incidence Complications Method (AICM) to estimate the incidence of abortion and unintended pregnancy. We used data from a Health Facilities Survey and a Prospective Morbidity Survey to determine the annual number of women treated for abortion complications at health facilities. We also employed data from a Health Professionals Survey to calculate a multiplier representing the number of abortions for every induced abortion complication treated in a health facility. In 2016, an estimated 37,865 women obtained treatment for induced abortion complications in health facilities in Kinshasa. For every woman treated in a facility, almost four times as many abortions occurred. In total, an estimated 146,713 abortions were performed, yielding an abortion rate of 56 per 1,000 women aged 15-49. Furthermore, more than 343,000 unintended pregnancies occurred, resulting in an unintended pregnancy rate of 147 per 1,000 women aged 15-49. Increasing contraceptive uptake can reduce the number of women who experience unintended pregnancies, and as a consequence, result in fewer women obtaining unsafe abortions, suffering abortion complications, and dying needlessly from unsafe abortion. Increasing access to safe abortion and improving post-abortion care are other measures that can be implemented to reduce unsafe abortion and/or its negative consequences, including maternal mortality.

  17. Preeclampsia and toxic metals: a case-control study in Kinshasa, DR Congo.

    PubMed

    Elongi Moyene, Jean-Pierre; Scheers, Hans; Tandu-Umba, Barthélémy; Haufroid, Vincent; Buassa-Bu-Tsumbu, Baudouin; Verdonck, Fons; Spitz, Bernard; Nemery, Benoit

    2016-04-05

    Preeclampsia is frequent in Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo), especially during the dry season. We tested whether preeclampsia was associated with exposure to environmental metals. Using a case-control design, 88 women hospitalized with preeclampsia (cases) and 88 healthy pregnant women from the antenatal clinic (controls) were included in the study; 67 and 109 women were enrolled during the rainy and dry season, respectively. The concentrations of 24 elements were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in 24-h urine collections. Differences in the urinary excretion of metals were investigated between cases and controls, and the interaction with season was assessed. Cases and controls were well matched regarding age, parity and duration of pregnancy. In controls, the urinary concentrations of most elements were substantially higher than reference values for adults from industrially developed countries, e.g. for lead: geometric mean (GM) 8.0 μg/L [25(th)-75(th) percentile 3.1-13.8]. The daily urinary excretions of 14 metals were significantly higher in women with preeclampsia than in control women, e.g. for lead: GM 61 μg/day (25(th)-75(th) percentile 8-345) in women with preeclampsia vs 9 μg/day (25(th)-75(th) percentile 3-21) in controls (p < 0.001). A significant interaction was found between season and preeclampsia for several elements, with higher urinary excretions in preeclamptic women than controls during the dry season, but not during the rainy season. This study revealed not only that women with preeclampsia excrete higher amounts of several toxic metals, especially lead, than control women, but also that this excretion exhibits seasonal variation, thus possibly explaining the high incidence and seasonal variation of preeclampsia in Kinshasa. Although the exact sources of this exposure are unknown, these findings underscore the need for preventing environmental exposures to lead and other toxic metals.

  18. Toxoplasmosis among pregnant women: high seroprevalence and risk factors in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Doudou, Yobi; Renaud, Piarroux; Coralie, L'Ollivier; Jacqueline, Franck; Hypolite, Situakibanza; Hypolite, Muhindo; Patrick, Mitashi; Andreia, Inocêncio da Luz Raquel; Van Sprundel, Marc; Marleen, Boelaert; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Pascal, Lutumba

    2014-01-01

    To determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women, as well as the proportion of acutely infected and risk factors in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Thirty maternities in Kinshasa were randomly selected and women attending antenatal consultation were invited to participate. They were interviewed with a structured questionnaire about known risk factors (age, meat consumption, contact with soil, and presence of cat) and a venous blood sample was taken. Sera were analysed for total immunoglobulins (Ig) by VIDAS Toxo Competition using Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay. IgM was determined by VIDIA Toxo IgM and IgG avidity by VIDAS Toxo IgG avidity. A total of 781 women were included. Median age was 28 years old (IQR: 8.5). And 627 women (80.3%; 95% CI: 77.5-83.1) were found to be positive to total Ig and 17 out of 387 (4.4%; 95% CI: 2.3-6.4) were positive to IgM. IgG avidity was low for 2 (11.8%) women, intermediate for 2 (11.8%) and high for 13 women (76.4%). There was no statistically significant association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and any risk factors assessed. In Kinshasa, toxoplasmosis endemicity is highly prevalent. One woman out of twenty five had a recent toxoplasmosis infection and 20% were not protected against primo-infection, indicating a need for measures to prevent and control toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Impact of Standing Water and Irrigation on AMSR-E Sensitivity to Soil Moisture over the NAFE'06 Experiment Area

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    AMSR-E sensitivity to soil moisture and its accuracy have been studied over a wide variety of surface conditions and weather regimes using both in situ measured data and aircraft derived soil moisture estimates. Several extensive soil moisture field campaigns involving ground and air-borne component...

  20. Intellectual and developmental disabilities in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo: causality and implications for resilience and support.

    PubMed

    Aldersey, Heather M; Turnbull, H Rutherford; Turnbull, Ann P

    2014-06-01

    This article reports results of a 7-month qualitative study on intellectual and related developmental disabilities in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, particularly as they relate to the causes and meaning of intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). This study raises important questions related to the understanding of resilience of persons affected by IDD and the nature and purpose of support they use or desire.

  1. Presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in waste waters, Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, H; Lunguya, O; Muyembe, J-J; Glupczynski, Y; Jacobs, J

    2012-11-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae are a major public health concern. We previously demonstrated the presence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in sachet-packaged water bags sold in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In complement to the previous study, we aimed to assess the presence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in waste waters in Kinshasa.Enterobacteriaceae isolates recovered from environmental water samples were screened and phenotypically confirmed as ESBL-producers by disk diffusion according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines (CLSI M100-S21). Final identification to the species level and further antimicrobial susceptibility testing were carried out with MicroScan® NBC42 panels and the identification of bla (ESBL) coding genes was performed by a commercial multiplex ligation polymerase chain reaction (PCR) microarray (Check-Points CT 101, Wageningen, the Netherlands). Overall, 194 non-duplicate Enterobacteriaceae were recovered from several sewer and river sites in nine out of 24 municipalities of Kinshasa. Fourteen isolates (7.4 %) were confirmed as ESBL-producers, the main species being Enterobacter cloacae (46.6 %) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (40.0 %). Associated resistance to both aminoglycoside and fluoroquinolone antibiotics was observed in ten isolates; the remaining isolates showed co-resistance to either fluoroquinolone (n = 3) or to aminoglycoside (n = 1) alone. All but one isolate carried bla (CTX-M) genes belonging to the CTX-M-1 group. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae are increasingly being reported from various sources in the community. The present results suggest that ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae are widespread in the environment in the community of Kinshasa. Cities in Central Africa should be added to the map of potentially ESBL-contaminated environments and highlight the need to reinforce safe water supply and public sanitation.

  2. Mycological and aflatoxin contamination of peanuts sold at markets in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Pretoria, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kamika, Ilunga; Mngqawa, Pamella; Rheeder, John P; Teffo, Snow L; Katerere, David R

    2014-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important food crop in sub-Saharan Africa. In this survey, the mycological and aflatoxin contamination of peanuts collected from Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Pretoria, South Africa, was assessed. Twenty peanut samples were purchased randomly at informal markets in the two cities and analysed for mycoflora and aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) using standard methods. The results indicated that 95% of the Kinshasa samples and 100% of the Pretoria samples were contaminated with aflatoxigenic fungi in the ranges 20-49,000 and 40-21,000 CFU/g, respectively. Seventy-five per cent of the Kinshasa samples and 35% of the Pretoria samples exceeded the maximum limits of AFB1 as set by The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Residents of both cities are at a high risk of aflatoxin exposure despite their apparent cultural, socio-economic, geographic and climatic differences. Further work needs to be done to understand the supply chains of peanut trade in informal markets of the two countries so that interventions are well targeted on a regional rather than a national level.

  3. Evaluating the Utility of Satellite Soil Moisture Retrievals over Irrigated Areas and the Ability of Land Data Assimilation Methods to Correct for Unmodeled Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, S. V.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Santanello, J. A.; Reichle, R. H.; Draper, C. S.; Koster, R. D.; Nearing, G.; Jasinski, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Earth's land surface is characterized by tremendous natural heterogeneity and human-engineered modifications, both of which are challenging to represent in land surface models. Satellite remote sensing is often the most practical and effective method to observe the land surface over large geographical areas. Agricultural irrigation is an important human-induced modification to natural land surface processes, as it is pervasive across the world and because of its significant influence on the regional and global water budgets. In this article, irrigation is used as an example of a human-engineered, often unmodeled land surface process, and the utility of satellite soil moisture retrievals over irrigated areas in the continental US is examined. Such retrievals are based on passive or active microwave observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2), the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, WindSat and the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT). The analysis suggests that the skill of these retrievals for representing irrigation effects is mixed, with ASCAT-based products somewhat more skillful than SMOS and AMSR2 products. The article then examines the suitability of typical bias correction strategies in current land data assimilation systems when unmodeled processes dominate the bias between the model and the observations. Using a suite of synthetic experiments that includes bias correction strategies such as quantile mapping and trained forward modeling, it is demonstrated that the bias correction practices lead to the exclusion of the signals from unmodeled processes, if these processes are the major source of the biases. It is further shown that new methods are needed to preserve the observational information about unmodeled processes during data assimilation.

  4. Evaluating the Utility of Satellite Soil Moisture Retrievals over Irrigated Areas and the Ability of Land Data Assimilation Methods to Correct for Unmodeled Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, S. V.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Santanello, J. A.; Reichle, R. H.; Draper, C. S.; Koster, R. D.; Nearing, G.; Jasinski, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Earth's land surface is characterized by tremendous natural heterogeneity and human-engineered modifications, both of which are challenging to represent in land surface models. Satellite remote sensing is often the most practical and effective method to observe the land surface over large geographical areas. Agricultural irrigation is an important human-induced modification to natural land surface processes, as it is pervasive across the world and because of its significant influence on the regional and global water budgets. In this article, irrigation is used as an example of a human-engineered, often unmodeled land surface process, and the utility of satellite soil moisture retrievals over irrigated areas in the continental US is examined. Such retrievals are based on passive or active microwave observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2), the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, WindSat and the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT). The analysis suggests that the skill of these retrievals for representing irrigation effects is mixed, with ASCAT-based products somewhat more skillful than SMOS and AMSR2 products. The article then examines the suitability of typical bias correction strategies in current land data assimilation systems when unmodeled processes dominate the bias between the model and the observations. Using a suite of synthetic experiments that includes bias correction strategies such as quantile mapping and trained forward modeling, it is demonstrated that the bias correction practices lead to the exclusion of the signals from unmodeled processes, if these processes are the major source of the biases. It is further shown that new methods are needed to preserve the observational information about unmodeled processes during data assimilation.

  5. Evaluating the utility of satellite soil moisture retrievals over irrigated areas and the ability of land data assimilation methods to correct for unmodeled processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S. V.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Santanello, J. A.; Reichle, R. H.; Draper, C. S.; Koster, R. D.; Nearing, G.; Jasinski, M. F.

    2015-11-01

    Earth's land surface is characterized by tremendous natural heterogeneity and human-engineered modifications, both of which are challenging to represent in land surface models. Satellite remote sensing is often the most practical and effective method to observe the land surface over large geographical areas. Agricultural irrigation is an important human-induced modification to natural land surface processes, as it is pervasive across the world and because of its significant influence on the regional and global water budgets. In this article, irrigation is used as an example of a human-engineered, often unmodeled land surface process, and the utility of satellite soil moisture retrievals over irrigated areas in the continental US is examined. Such retrievals are based on passive or active microwave observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2), the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, WindSat and the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT). The analysis suggests that the skill of these retrievals for representing irrigation effects is mixed, with ASCAT-based products somewhat more skillful than SMOS and AMSR2 products. The article then examines the suitability of typical bias correction strategies in current land data assimilation systems when unmodeled processes dominate the bias between the model and the observations. Using a suite of synthetic experiments that includes bias correction strategies such as quantile mapping and trained forward modeling, it is demonstrated that the bias correction practices lead to the exclusion of the signals from unmodeled processes, if these processes are the major source of the biases. It is further shown that new methods are needed to preserve the observational information about unmodeled processes during data assimilation.

  6. Evaluating the utility of satellite soil moisture retrievals over irrigated areas and the ability of land data assimilation methods to correct for unmodeled processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S. V.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Santanello, J. A.; Reichle, R. H.; Draper, C. S.; Koster, R. D.; Nearing, G.; Jasinski, M. F.

    2015-06-01

    The Earth's land surface is characterized by tremendous natural heterogeneity and human engineered modifications, both of which are challenging to represent in land surface models. Satellite remote sensing is often the most practical and effective method to observe the land surface over large geographical areas. Agricultural irrigation is an important human induced modifications to natural land surface processes, as it is pervasive across the world and because of its significant influence on the regional and global water budgets. In this article, irrigation is used as an example of a human engineered, unmodeled land surface process, and the utility of satellite soil moisture retrievals over irrigated areas in the continental US is examined. Such retrievals are based on passive or active microwave observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2), the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, WindSat and the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT). The analysis suggests that the skill of these retrievals for representing irrigation artifacts is mixed, with ASCAT based products somewhat more skillful than SMOS and AMSR2 products. The article then examines the suitability of typical bias correction strategies in current land data assimilation systems when unmodeled processes dominate the bias between the model and the observations. Using a suite of synthetic experiments that includes bias correction strategies such as quantile mapping and trained forward modeling, it is demonstrated that the bias correction practices lead to the exclusion of the signals from unmodeled processes, if these processes are the major source of the biases. It is further shown that new methods are needed to preserve the observational information about unmodeled processes during data assimilation.

  7. Knowledge, attitude and practice about cancer of the uterine cervix among women living in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the most frequent cancer of women in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Nevertheless, the level of women’s awareness about cervical cancer is unknown. Knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) are important elements for designing and monitoring screening programs. The study purpose was to estimate KAP on cervical cancer and to identify associated factors. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kinshasa, DRC, including 524 women aged 16–78 years (median age 28; interquartile range 22–35). The women were interviewed at home by trained field workers using a standardized questionnaire. The women’s score on knowledge, attitude and practice were dichotomized as sufficient or insufficient. We used binary and multiple logistic regression to assess associations between obtaining sufficient scores and a series of socio-demographic factors: age, residence, marital status, education, occupation, religion, and parity. Results The women’s score on knowledge was not significantly correlated with their score on practice (Spearman’s rho = 0.08; P > 0.05). Obtaining a sufficient score on knowledge was positively associated with higher education (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 7.65; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 3.31-17.66) and formal employment (adjusted OR 3.35; 95% CI 1.85-6.09); it was negatively associated with being single (adjusted OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.24-0.81) and living in the eastern, western and northern zone of Kinshasa compared to the city centre. The attitude score was associated with place of residence (adjusted OR for east Kinshasa: 0.49; 95% CI 0.27-0.86 and for south Kinshasa: 0.48; 95% CI 0.27-0.85) and with religion (adjusted OR 0.55; 95% CI 0.35-0.86 for women with a religion other than Catholicism or Protestantism compared to Catholics). Regarding practice, there were negative associations between a sufficient score on practice and being single (adjusted OR 0.24; 95% CI 0.13-0.41) and living in the eastern

  8. Physical properties and moisture

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.; Tye, C.; Neumann, R.M.

    1985-07-01

    Our principal accomplishments in the physical property studies of low-rank coals are the determination of their: (A) relative amounts of tightly and loosely bound moisture, (B) porosity and pore size distribution, (C) mechanical and thermal friabilities, and (D) surface areas. The occurrence of moisture in low-rank coals involves at least two fundamentally different mechanisms for binding the water to the coal matrix. The first type of moisture behaves as if it were ''free''; the vapor pressure versus temperature behavior is similar to that of pure water. The second type occurs at sites where it is bound more tightly, resulting in a lowering of the corresponding vapor pressure. A dielectric-relaxation-spectroscopic investigation of a North Dakota lignite and a subbituminous coal provides direct evidence for the existence of the two types of moisture. Lignite incorporates 80% of its moisture in a loosely-bound form which freezes to ice and the remaining 20% is present possibly chemically bound to inorganic moieties. The subbituminous coal contains only the latter type of bound moisture. Small angle scattering has proven to be a useful and convenient method of studying the pore structure of coal, and yields information related to pore size, pore size distribution, specific surface area and specific volume. Calculation of values for these parameters must be made in terms of some model; a pore model developed at the University of Missouri has proven to be quite useful. The objective in friability studies is to determine the shift in particle size distribution as a result of tumbling or heating. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Production of high-resolution forest-ecosite maps based on model predictions of soil moisture and nutrient regimes over a large forested area.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qi; Meng, Fan-Rui; Bourque, Charles P-A; Zhao, Zhengyong

    2017-09-08

    Forest ecosite reflects the local site conditions that are meaningful to forest productivity as well as basic ecological functions. Field assessments of vegetation and soil types are often used to identify forest ecosites. However, the production of high-resolution ecosite maps for large areas from interpolating field data is difficult because of high spatial variation and associated costs and time requirements. Indices of soil moisture and nutrient regimes (i.e., SMR and SNR) introduced in this study reflect the combined effects of biogeochemical and topographic factors on forest growth. The objective of this research is to present a method for creating high-resolution forest ecosite maps based on computer-generated predictions of SMR and SNR for an area in Atlantic Canada covering about 4.3 × 10(6) hectares (ha) of forestland. Field data from 1,507 forest ecosystem classification plots were used to assess the accuracy of the ecosite maps produced. Using model predictions of SMR and SNR alone, ecosite maps were 61 and 59% correct in identifying 10 Acadian- and Maritime-Boreal-region ecosite types, respectively. This method provides an operational framework for the production of high-resolution maps of forest ecosites over large areas without the need for data from expensive, supplementary field surveys.

  10. Investigation et riposte à une épidémie de poliovirus sauvage à Kinshasa

    PubMed Central

    Nsambu, Muriel Nzazi; Bazira, Léodegal; Coulibaly, Tiekoura; Mbule, Albert; Wilmet, Michèle Dramaix; Likwela, Joris Losimba

    2013-01-01

    Introduction La République Démocratique du Congo a été considérée comme un pays à circulation rétablie de poliovirus sauvage (PVS). Cet article décrit l’épidémie de PVS qui a sévit dans la province de Kinshasa de 2010 à 2011. Méthodes Les analyses ont porté sur les cas de paralysie flasque aigüe (PFA) enregistrés de décembre 2010 à décembre 2011, les données de surveillance des PFA, les données de couverture vaccinale et celles du monitorage indépendant des activités de vaccination supplémentaires. Résultats Entre décembre 2010 à décembre 2011, 298 cas de PFA ont été enregistrés par les zones de santé parmi lesquels 34 cas de PVS confirmés. 58% des cas de PVS avaient plus de 15 ans avec plus d'hommes que de femmes. 10 passages d'activités de vaccination supplémentaires ont été mis en œuvre dont 4 avaient ciblé toute la population de Kinshasa. Il n'y a plus eu de cas de PVS après le 3e passage. Le monitorage des activités de vaccination a montré une proportion de sujets non vaccinés allant de 4 à 13%. La performance du système de surveillance était globalement bonne. Conclusion La prédominance des adultes parmi les cas notifiés traduit leur susceptibilité alors qu'ils ne sont généralement pas concernés lors des campagnes de vaccination supplémentaires. Ceci devrait engager les autorités sanitaires à envisager des activités vaccinales supplémentaires ciblant les adultes afin de casser plus rapidement la chaîne de transmission. Les faiblesses subsistant dans le système de surveillance pourraient être jugulées par le renforcement de la surveillance à base communautaire. PMID:24062866

  11. Twisted Pair Of Insulated Wires Senses Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, Eric G.; Stephens, James B.

    1989-01-01

    Sensitivity of electronic moisture sensor to low levels of moisture increased by new electrode configuration. Moisture-sensing circuit described in "Low-Cost Humidity Sensor" (NPO-16544). New twisted pair of wires takes place of flat-plate capacitor in circuit. Configuration allows for thermal expansion and contraction of polymer while maintaining nearly constant area of contact between polymer and wires.

  12. An in situ moisture monitoring system for a solid low-level radioactive disposal pit at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Technical Area 54, Area G

    SciTech Connect

    Purtymun, W.F. New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM . Dept. of Geology)

    1990-01-01

    At the end of the 1950's, Los Alamos National Laboratory began to develop a Laboratory-wide, shallow-land, solid low-level radioactive waste disposal area on top of Mesita del Buey at TA-54, Area G. An in situ hydrologic monitoring system in the zone of aeration was developed in early 1990 to detect the presence of the infiltration of meteoric water into Pit 37 at Area G. Monitoring the water movement through the pit cap into the waste with leaching and transport the containment rock and possible contamination of the main aquifer is of primary concern. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Evaluation of Assimilated SMOS Soil Moisture Data for US Cropland Soil Moisture Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Zhengwei; Sherstha, Ranjay; Crow, Wade; Bolten, John; Mladenova, Iva; Yu, Genong; Di, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensed soil moisture data can provide timely, objective and quantitative crop soil moisture information with broad geospatial coverage and sufficiently high resolution observations collected throughout the growing season. This paper evaluates the feasibility of using the assimilated ESA Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS)Mission L-band passive microwave data for operational US cropland soil surface moisture monitoring. The assimilated SMOS soil moisture data are first categorized to match with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) survey based weekly soil moisture observation data, which are ordinal. The categorized assimilated SMOS soil moisture data are compared with NASSs survey-based weekly soil moisture data for consistency and robustness using visual assessment and rank correlation. Preliminary results indicate that the assimilated SMOS soil moisture data highly co-vary with NASS field observations across a large geographic area. Therefore, SMOS data have great potential for US operational cropland soil moisture monitoring.

  14. Influence of subgrid-scale heterogeneity in leaf area index, stomatal resistance, and soil moisture on grid-scale land-atmosphere interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Bonan, G.B.; Pollard, D.; Thompson, S.L. )

    1993-10-01

    The statistical representation of multiple land surfaces within a grid cell has received attention as a means to parameterize the nonlinear effects of subgrid-scale heterogeneity on land-atmosphere energy exchange. However, previous analyses have not identified the critical land-surface parameters to which energy exchanges are sensitive; the appropriate number of within-grid-cell classes for a particular parameter, or the effects of interactions among several parameters on the nonlinearity of energy exchanges. The analyses reported here used a land-surface scheme for climate models to examine the effects of subgrid variability in leaf area index, minimum and maximum stomatal resistances, and soil moisture on grid-scale fluxes. Comparisons between energy fluxes obtained using parameter values for the average of 100 subgrid points and the average fluxes for the 100 subgrid points showed minor differences for emitted infrared radiation and reflected solar radiation, but large differences for sensible heat and evapotranspiration. Leaf area index was the most important parameter; stomatal resistances were only important on wet soils. Interactions among parameters increased the nonlinearity of land-atmosphere energy exchange. When considered separately, six to ten values of each parameter greatly reduced the deviation between the two flux estimates. However, this approach became cumbersome when all four parameters varied independently. These analyses suggest that the debate over how to best parameterize the nonlinear effects of subgrid-scale heterogeneity on land-atmosphere interactions will continue.

  15. Characterization of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella Kinshasa from dairy calves in Texas.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, K M; Edrington, T S; Callaway, T R; Genovese, K J; Nisbet, D J

    2004-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella isolated from a central Texas dairy calf farm that raises animals for dairy-beef production. Salmonella isolates collected from 50 faecal samples were characterized for susceptibility to 20 antimicrobial agents. Seventy per cent of the faecal samples (35 of 50) tested positive for Salmonella, and high rates of resistance to the following drugs that are commonly used for treatment of bacterial enteritis in livestock were observed: ampicillin (88%), apramycin (83%), neomycin (86%), spectinomycin (91%) and oxytetracycline (90%). No resistance to the fluoroquinolone antibiotics was observed. The most prevalent Salmonella serotype was Kinshasha (22 of 35 samples), followed by Agona (4 of 35), Newport (3 of 35), Infantis (2 of 35), Montevideo (2 of 35), Lille (1 of 35) and Newington (1 of 35). The Kinshasa, Agona, Newport and Infantis serotypes all displayed resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulphamethoxazole and tetracycline, and the penta-resistance phenotype was transferable to an Escherichia coli recipient strain. Multi-drug resistant Salmonella in dairy calves pose a costly animal health problem and a potential risk to the public health. This study emphasizes the need for alternative, non-antimicrobial intervention strategies for the control of zoonotic pathogens.

  16. Severe malaria in children: A descriptive report from Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Kunuanunua, Thomas S; Nsibu, Célestin N; Bodi, Joseph M; Tshibola, Thérèse K; Makusi Bura, Mimy; Magoga, Kumbundu; Ekila, Mathilde B; Situakibanza, Hypolite T; Aloni, Michel N

    2015-08-01

    The decline of susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resulted in the change of drug policy. This policy has probably changed the facies of the severe form of malaria. A prospective study was conducted in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo. Data on children aged ≤13 years, diagnosed with severe malaria were analyzed. In total, 378 children were included with an overall median age of 8 years (age range: 1-13 years). Dark urine was seen in 25.1% of cases. Metabolic acidosis (85.2%), hypoglycemia (62.2%) and hemoglobin ≤5 g/dl (39.1%) were the common laboratories features. Severe malaria anemia, cerebral malaria and Blackwater fever (BWF) were found in 39.1, 30.1 and 25.4%, respectively. Mortality rate was 4%. BWF emerges as a frequent form of severe malaria in our midst. Availing artemisin-based combination treatments in the health care system is a priority to reduce the incidence of BWF in our environment.

  17. Maternal behavioural risk factors for severe childhood diarrhoeal disease in Kinshasa, Zaire.

    PubMed

    Dikassa, L; Mock, N; Magnani, R; Rice, J; Abdoh, A; Mercer, D; Bertrand, W

    1993-04-01

    This study examines the relationship between severe diarrhoeal disease and maternal knowledge and behaviours related to hygiene and sanitation. Some 107 paediatric cases admitted to two hospitals in Kinshasa, Zaire in 1988 were matched on age and nearest-neighbour status to 107 controls. Personal interviews and observational methods were used to assess knowledge and behaviours related to hygiene and sanitation. Cases and controls had equivalent socioeconomic status, demographic profiles and access to water and sanitation facilities. However, cases generally exhibited lower levels of knowledge and less sanguine sanitary practices than did controls. Of particular interest was the finding that very specific behavioural items distinguished cases from controls. The disposal of the child faeces and household garbage and mother's knowledge that poor caretaker cleanliness was a cause of diarrhoea in children showed the strongest associations with risk of diarrhoea. There was an exponential relationship between the number of these items a mother answered incorrectly and the odds of diarrhoeal disease. The risk attributable to these three variables was as high as 70%. These findings provide further support for the view that focused educational interventions may have a substantial impact on the occurrence of severe diarrhoeal disease in low-income countries.

  18. Genetic diversification and recombination of HIV type 1 group M in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunfu; Li, Ming; Mokili, John L K; Winter, Jorn; Lubaki, Ndongala M; Mwandagalirwa, Kashamuka M; Kasali, Mwamba J; Losoma, Atibu J; Quinn, Thomas C; Bollinger, Robert C; Lal, Renu B

    2005-07-01

    As the HIV-1 pandemic becomes increasingly complex, the genetic characterization of HIV strains bears important implications for vaccine research. To better understand the molecular evolution of HIV-1 viral diversity, we performed a comparative molecular analysis of HIV strains collected from high-risk persons in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Analysis of the gag-p24, env-C2V3 and -gp41 regions from 83 specimens collected in 1999-2000 revealed that 44 (53%) had concordant subtypes in the three regions (14 subsubtype A1, 10 subtype G, 8 subtype D, 5 subtype C, 2 each subsubtype F1 and CRF01_AE, and one each of subtypes H and J, and subsubtype A2, while the remaining 39 (47%) had mosaic genomes comprising multiple subtype combinations. Similar multisubtype patterns were also observed in 24 specimens collected in 1985. Sequence analysis of the gag-pol region (2.1 kb) from 21 discordant specimens in the gag-p24, env-C2V3 and -gp41 regions in 1985 and 1999-2000 further confirmed the complex recombinant patterns. Despite the remarkable similarity in overall subtype distribution, the intra- and intersubtype distances of major subtypes A1 and G increased significantly from 1985 to 1999-2000 (p=0.018 and p=0.0016, respectively). Given the complexity of HIV-1 viruses circulating in DRC, efforts should focus on the development of vaccines that result in cross-clade immunity.

  19. Empirical evidence of contrasting feedbacks between remotely sensed soil moisture and gauge-based precipitation in arid vs. humid areas of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, S. E.; Salvucci, G.

    2014-12-01

    Land surface moisture content affects the partitioning of radiative energy into heat and moisture fluxes at the land surface, and thus can affect the state of the overlying atmosphere by supplying water vapor, inducing moist convection and lateral convergence, and growing the planetary boundary layer. However, it is difficult to determine how this influence may in turn affect the propensity for subsequent precipitation. Empirical studies have disagreed on the sign and statistical significance of the estimated influence of soil moisture on precipitation, and have suffered from the difficulty of distinguishing a causal effect from lagged correlations that arise from the autocorrelation, seasonality, and interannual variability of each signal. Modeling studies can more easily establish causality, but feedback behavior has been shown to vary widely among models. We apply Granger Causality (Granger (1969), Econometrica, 37: 424-438) to quantitatively diagnose the relationship between soil moisture state and the occurrence of subsequent precipitation, and implement it over the contiguous United States using remotely sensed soil moisture and gauge-based precipitation observations. This is accomplished through a generalized linear model (GLM), specifically a probit regression model, constructed to estimate the observed record of precipitation occurrence. Predictor variables included in the regression account for external atmospheric and climatic influences on precipitation, the prior occurrence of precipitation, and previous day soil moisture anomalies. We find a generally positive soil moisture-precipitation feedback in the western part of the United States and a negative feedback in the east. These findings suggest that processes linking soil moisture to precipitation triggering may differ in arid versus humid climate regimes, and that soil moisture state can play an important role in determining future weather conditions.

  20. High School Students Are a Target Group for Fight against Self-Medication with Antimalarial Drugs: A Pilot Study in University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Kabongo Kamitalu, Ramsès; Aloni, Michel Ntetani

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To assess the self-medication against malaria infection in population of Congolese students in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out in University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Medical records of all students with malaria admitted to Centre de Santé Universitaire of University of Kinshasa from January 1, 2008, to April 30, 2008, were reviewed retrospectively. Results. The median age of the patients was 25.4 years (range: from 18 to 36 years). The majority of them were male (67.9%). Artemisinin-based combination treatments (ACTs) was the most used self-prescribed antimalarial drugs. However, self-medication was associated with the ingestion of quinine in 19.9% of cases. No case of ingestion of artesunate/artemether in monotherapy was found. All the medicines taken were registered in DRC. In this series, self-prescribed antimalarial was very irrational in terms of dose and duration of treatment. Conclusion. This paper highlights self-medication by a group who should be aware of malaria treatment protocols. The level of self-prescribing quinine is relatively high among students and is disturbing for a molecule reserved for severe disease in Congolese health care policy in management of malaria. PMID:27340411

  1. High School Students Are a Target Group for Fight against Self-Medication with Antimalarial Drugs: A Pilot Study in University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Kabongo Kamitalu, Ramsès; Aloni, Michel Ntetani

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To assess the self-medication against malaria infection in population of Congolese students in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out in University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Medical records of all students with malaria admitted to Centre de Santé Universitaire of University of Kinshasa from January 1, 2008, to April 30, 2008, were reviewed retrospectively. Results. The median age of the patients was 25.4 years (range: from 18 to 36 years). The majority of them were male (67.9%). Artemisinin-based combination treatments (ACTs) was the most used self-prescribed antimalarial drugs. However, self-medication was associated with the ingestion of quinine in 19.9% of cases. No case of ingestion of artesunate/artemether in monotherapy was found. All the medicines taken were registered in DRC. In this series, self-prescribed antimalarial was very irrational in terms of dose and duration of treatment. Conclusion. This paper highlights self-medication by a group who should be aware of malaria treatment protocols. The level of self-prescribing quinine is relatively high among students and is disturbing for a molecule reserved for severe disease in Congolese health care policy in management of malaria.

  2. Physical properties and moisture

    SciTech Connect

    Hauserman, W.B.

    1984-05-01

    This is an interim report of work done to identify and define numerically a group of coal properties relating the structural integrity and intrinsic moisture content of coals. It represents work for the first time approaching a possibility of correlating properties formerly considered as completely unrelated subject areas. The data are still preliminary but demonstrate productive experimental techniques for further insight into the physical and molecular structure of coals. The only firm conclusion to be drawn from the friability and dielectric data together is that both are simple, numerical techniques to characterize and compare coals with respect to their mechanical structure and mode of intrinsic moisture attachment. Each provides sets of several variables, whose full significance can only be established after expanding the data base to include more coals, with more replications for statistical validity. The accomplishment to date consists of demonstrating that such data are possible. 10 references, 16 figures.

  3. [Maternal mortality in obstetrics at the Mont-Amba University Clinics, Kinshasa].

    PubMed

    Kinkenda, K N; Lusanga, N; Mbanzulu, N; Yanga, K

    1985-10-01

    All cases of maternal mortality occurring at the University Clinic of Mont Amba in Kinshasa, Zaire, between 1961 and 1980 were analyzed. 20 of the 60 records of maternal deaths were excluded from the study for technical reasons, but the maternal mortality rates were calculated on the basis of all deaths. The highest rate of 197.53/100,000 live births occurred in 1961. The lowest rate, 35.76/100,000 live births, occurred in 1976. The maternal mortality rate for the entire series was 68.58/100,000 live births. Of the 40 women included, 5 were under 20 years old, 11 were 20-29, 18 were 30-39, and 6 were 40-49 years old. 30 of the women were from lower and 10 from higher socioeconomic level backgrounds. 8 were nulliparas, 9 had had few births, 8 were multiparas, and 13 were grand multiparas. 1 death occurred during pregnancy, 4 during labor, 30 postpartum, 3 during a cesarean, and 2 during a laparotomy for uterine rupture. The cause of death was hemorrhage in 14 cases, infection in 6 cases, vascular accident in 6 cases, anesthetic accident in 4 cases, acute pulmonary edema in 3 cases, hepatitis in 1 case, and bronchial pneumonia in 1 case. 85% of the deaths appear to have been avoidable; only the 6 deaths from vascular accidents were judged unavoidable. The maternal mortality rate was probably lower than those registered in developing countries in general because it included only obstetrical deaths in a university teaching hospital. 7 of the deaths from hemorrhage were due to uterine rupture. 3 of the deaths from vascular accidents were due of thromboembolism, 2 to amniotic embolism, and 1 to pulmonary embolism. 12 of the women died after a cesarean.

  4. High prevalence of methicillin resistant staphylococci strains isolated from surgical site infections in Kinshasa.

    PubMed

    Iyamba, Jean-Marie Liesse; Wambale, José Mulwahali; Lukukula, Cyprien Mbundu; za Balega Takaisi-Kikuni, Ntondo

    2014-01-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) after surgery are usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). In low income countries, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CNS) surgical site infections are particularly associated with high treatment cost and remain a source of mortality and morbidity. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and the sensitivity to antibiotics of MRSA and MR-CNS isolated from SSIs. Wound swabs were collected from 130 hospitalized surgical patients in two major hospitals of Kinshasa. S. aureus and CNS strains were identified by standard microbiological methods and latex agglutination test (Pastorex Staph-Plus). The antibiotic susceptibility of all staphylococcal strains was carried out using disk-diffusion method. Eighty nine staphylococcal strains were isolated. Out of 74 S. aureus and 15 CNS isolated, 47 (63.5%) and 9 (60%) were identified as MRSA and MR-CNS respectively. Among the MRSA strains, 47 strains (100%) were sensitive to imipenem, 39 strains (89%) to amoxycillin-clavulanic acid and 38 strains (81%) to vancomycin. All MR-CNS were sensitive to imipenem, amoxycillin-clavulanic acid and vancomycin. The isolated MRSA and MR-CNS strains showed multidrug resistance. They were both resistant to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, erythromycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime and ceftazidime. The results of the present study showed a high prevalence of MRSA and MR-CNS. Imipenem, amoxycillin-clavulanic acid and vancomycin were the most active antibiotics. This study suggests that antibiotic surveillance policy should become national priority as MRSA and MR-CNS were found to be multidrug resistant.

  5. Uncontrolled hypertension among patients managed in primary healthcare facilities in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Kika, TM; Kintoki, EV; M’Buyamba-Kabangu, JR; Lepira, FB; Makulo, JR; Sumaili, EK; Kayembe, PK

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Uncontrolled hypertension remains an important issue in daily clinical practice worldwide. Although the majority of patients are treated in primary care, most of the data on blood pressure control originate from populationbased studies or secondary healthcare. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of uncontrolled hypertension and associated risk factors among hypertensive patients followed at primary care facilities in Kinshasa, the capital city of Democratic Republic of the Congo. Methods A sample of 298 hypertensive patients seen at primary healthcare facilities, 90 men and 208 women, aged ≥ 18 years, were consecutively included in this cross-sectional study. The majority (66%) was receiving monotherapy, and diuretics (43%) were the most used drugs. According to 2007 European Society of Hypertension/European Society of Cardiology hypertension guidelines, uncontrolled hypertension was defined as blood pressure ≥ 140/90 or ≥ 130/80 mmHg (diabetes or chronic kidney disease). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the determinants of uncontrolled hypertension. Results Uncontrolled hypertension was observed in 231 patients (77.5%), 72 men and 159 women. Uncontrolled systolic blood pressure (SBP) was more frequent than uncontrolled diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and increased significantly with advancing age (p = 0.002). The proportion of uncontrolled SBP and DBP was significantly higher in patients with renal failure (p = 0.01) and those with high (p = 0.03) to very high (p = 0.02) absolute cardiovascular risk. The metabolic syndrome (OR 2.40; 95% CI 1.01–5.74; p = 0.04) emerged as the main risk factor associated with uncontrolled hypertension. Conclusion Uncontrolled hypertension was common in this case series and was associated with factors related to lifestyle and diet, which interact with blood pressure control. PMID:27965999

  6. High prevalence of methicillin resistant staphylococci strains isolated from surgical site infections in Kinshasa

    PubMed Central

    Iyamba, Jean-Marie Liesse; Wambale, José Mulwahali; Lukukula, Cyprien Mbundu; Takaisi-Kikuni, Ntondo za Balega

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Surgical site infections (SSIs) after surgery are usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). In low income countries, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CNS) surgical site infections are particularly associated with high treatment cost and remain a source of mortality and morbidity. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and the sensitivity to antibiotics of MRSA and MR-CNS isolated from SSIs. Methods Wound swabs were collected from 130 hospitalized surgical patients in two major hospitals of Kinshasa. S. aureus and CNS strains were identified by standard microbiological methods and latex agglutination test (Pastorex Staph-Plus). The antibiotic susceptibility of all staphylococcal strains was carried out using disk-diffusion method. Results Eighty nine staphylococcal strains were isolated. Out of 74 S. aureus and 15 CNS isolated, 47 (63.5%) and 9 (60%) were identified as MRSA and MR-CNS respectively. Among the MRSA strains, 47 strains (100%) were sensitive to imipenem, 39 strains (89%) to amoxycillin-clavulanic acid and 38 strains (81%) to vancomycin. All MR-CNS were sensitive to imipenem, amoxycillin-clavulanic acid and vancomycin. The isolated MRSA and MR-CNS strains showed multidrug resistance. They were both resistant to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, erythromycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime and ceftazidime. Conclusion The results of the present study showed a high prevalence of MRSA and MR-CNS. Imipenem, amoxycillin-clavulanic acid and vancomycin were the most active antibiotics. This study suggests that antibiotic surveillance policy should become national priority as MRSA and MR-CNS were found to be multidrug resistant. PMID:25478043

  7. Early Soil Moisture Field Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmugge, T.

    2008-12-01

    Before the large scale field experiments described in the call for papers, there were a number of experiments devoted to a single parameter, e.g. soil moisture. In the early 1970's, before the launch of the first microwave radiometer by NASA, there were a number of aircraft experiments to determine utility of these sensors for land observations. For soil moisture, these experiments were conducted in southwestern United States over irrigated agricultural areas which could provide a wide range of moisture conditions on a given day. The radiometers covered the wavelength range from 0.8 to 21 cm. These experiments demonstrated that it is possible to observe soil moisture variations remotely using a microwave radiometer with a sensitivity of about 3 K / unit of soil moisture. The results also showed that the longer wavelengths were better, with a radiometer at the 21 cm wavelength giving the best results. These positive results led to the development of Push Broom Microwave Radiometer (PBMR) and the Electrically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR) instruments at the 21-cm wavelength. They have been used extensively in the large-scale experiments such as HAPEX-MOBILHY, FIFE, Monsoon90, SMEX, etc. The multi-beam nature of these instruments makes it possible to obtain more extensive coverage and thus to map spatial variations of surface soil moisture. Examples of the early results along with the more recent soil moisture maps will be presented.

  8. Lead exposure and early child neurodevelopment among children 12-24 months in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Kashala-Abotnes, Espérance; Mumbere, Pépé Penghele; Mishika, Jeannette Mukanya; Ndjukendi, Ally Omba; Mpaka, Davin Beya; Bumoko, Makila-Mabe Guy; Kayembe, Tharcisse Kalula; Tshala-Katumbay, Désiré; Kazadi, Théodore Kayembe; Okitundu, Daniel Luwa E-Andjafono

    2016-12-01

    Childhood lead exposure remains a problem in developing countries, and little is known about its effects on early child neurodevelopment and temperament in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). We, therefore, conducted this study to determine the association between lead exposure and the neurodevelopment and behaviour of children aged 12-24 months in Kinshasa, DRC. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and June 2012, and parents of 104 children were invited to participate. Blood lead levels (BLLs) of each child were tested using the flame atomic spectrophotometry method. All children were subject to a clinical examination and assessed with two selected early child neurodevelopmental tools, the Gensini-Gavito and the baby characteristics questionnaire, to measure their neurodevelopment and temperament. Detectable BLLs ranged from 1 to 30 μg/dl with a geometric mean of 6.9 (SD 4.8) μg/dl. BLLs at 5-9 and ≥10 μg/dl were significantly associated with the child temperament (p <0.05). Perinatal and maternal factors did not seem to affect early child neurodevelopment and temperament. Children exposed to lead were reported with more temperament difficulties at even blood lead levels <10 μg/dl, suggesting the need for preventive and intervention measures to reduce lead exposure among children in Kinshasa, DRC.

  9. The moisture budget in relation to convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, R. W.; Scoggins, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation of the moisture budget in the environment of convective storms is presented by using the unique 3- to 6-h rawinsonde data. Net horizontal and vertical boundary fluxes accounted for most of the large amounts of moisture which were concentrated into convective regions associated with two squall lines that moved through the area during the experiment. The largest values of moisture accumulations were located slightly downwind of the most intense convective activity. Relationships between computed moisture quantities of the moisture budget and radar-observed convection improved when lagging the radar data by 3 h. The residual of moisture which represents all sources and sinks of moisture in the budget equation was largely accounted for by measurements of precipitation.

  10. Results of 1999 Spectral Gamma-Ray and Neutron Moisture Monitoring of Boreholes at Specific Retention Facilities in the 200 East Area, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    DG Horton; RR Randall

    2000-01-18

    Twenty-eight wells and boreholes in the 200 East Are% Hanford Site, Washington were monitored in 1999. The monitored facilities were past-practice liquid waste disposal facilities and consisted of six cribs and nineteen ''specific retention'' cribs and trenches. Monitoring consisted of spectral gamma-ray and neutron moisture logging. All data are included in Appendix B. The isotopes {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 154}Eu were identified on spectral gamma logs from boreholes monitoring the PUREX specific retention facilities; the isotopes {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 125}Sb, and {sup 154}Eu were identified on the logs from boreholes at the BC Controlled Area cribs and trenches; and {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 125}Sb were, identified on the logs from boreholes at the BX specific retention trenches. Three boreholes in the BC Controlled Area and one at the BX trenches had previous spectral gamma logs available for comparison with 1999 logs. Two of those logs showed that changes in the subsurface distribution of {sup 137}CS and/or {sup 60}Co had occurred since 1992. Although the changes are not great, they do point to continued movement of contaminants in the vadose zone. The logs obtained in 1999 create a larger baseline for comparison with future logs. Numerous historical gross gamma logs exist from most of the boreholes logged. Qualitative comparison of those logs with the 1999 logs show many substantial changes, most of which reflect the decay of deeper short-lived isotopes, such as {sup 106}Ru and {sup 125}Sb, and the much slower decay of shallower and longer-lived isotopes such as {sup 137}Cs. The radionuclides {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co have moved in two boreholes since 1992. Given the amount of movement and the half-lives of the isotopes, it is expected that they will decay to insignificant amounts before reaching groundwater. However, gamma ray logging cannot detect many of the contaminants of interest such as {sup 99}Tc, NO

  11. Trace metal distributions in the sediments from river-reservoir systems: case of the Congo River and Lake Ma Vallée, Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo).

    PubMed

    Mwanamoki, Paola M; Devarajan, Naresh; Niane, Birane; Ngelinkoto, Patience; Thevenon, Florian; Nlandu, José W; Mpiana, Pius T; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Mubedi, Josué I; Kabele, Christophe G; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of drinking water resources by toxic metals is a major problem in many parts of the world, particularly in dense populated areas of developing countries that lack wastewater treatment facilities. The present study characterizes the recent evolution with time of some contaminants deposited in the Congo River and Lake Ma Vallée, both located in the vicinity of the large city of Kinshasa, capital of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Physicochemical parameters including grain size distribution, organic matter and trace element concentrations were measured in sediment cores sampled from Congo River (n = 3) and Lake Ma Vallée (n = 2). The maximum concentration of trace elements in sediment profiles was found in the samples from the sites of Pool Malebo, with the values of 107.2, 111.7, 88.6, 39.3, 15.4, 6.1 and 4.7 mg kg(-1) for Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, As and Hg, respectively. This site, which is characterized by intense human activities, is especially well known for the construction of numerous boats that are used for regular navigation on Congo River. Concerning Lake Ma Vallée, the concentration of all metals are generally low, with maximum values of 26.3, 53.6, 16.1, 15.3, 6.5 and 1.8 mg kg(-1) for Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb and As, respectively. However, the comparison of the metal profiles retrieved from the different sampled cores also reveals specific variations. The results of this study point out the sediment pollution by toxic metals in the Congo River Basin. This research presents useful tools for the evaluation of sediment contamination of river-reservoir systems.

  12. Seeking better topical delivery technologies of moisturizing agents for enhanced skin moisturization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeongmin; Kim, Jeong Tae; Barua, Sonia; Yoo, Seung-Yup; Hong, Seong-Chul; Lee, Kyung Bin; Lee, Jaehwi

    2017-03-20

    An adequate hydration level is essential to maintain epidermal barrier functions and normal physiological activities of skin tissues. Diverse moisturizing agents and pharmaceutical formulations for dermal deliveries have thus extensively been investigated. This review comprehensively discusses scientific outcomes of moisturizing agents and pharmaceutical vehicles for skin moisturization, thereby providing insight into designing innovative pharmaceutical formulations for effective skin moisturization. Areas covered: We discussed the functions of various moisturizing agents ranging from conventional creams to novel moisturizers which has recently been explored. In addition, novel pharmaceutical formulations for efficient dermal delivery of the moisturizers, in particular, nanocarriers, were discussed along with their uses in commercial products. Expert opinion: Although various moisturizing agents have demonstrated their promising effects, exploitation of pharmaceutical formulations for their dermal delivery have been limited to few commonly used moisturizing agents. Thus, combinatorial investigation of novel moisturizers and pharmaceutical vehicles should be further conducted. As a new concept for improving skin moisturization, skin regeneration technologies using therapeutic cells have recently shown great promise for skin moisturization, but major challenges remain, such as efficient delivery and prolonged survival of such cells. Thus, novel approaches for improving skin moisturization require continuous efforts of pharmaceutical scientists to address the remaining problems.

  13. Impact of straw and rock-fragment mulches on soil moisture and early growth of holm oaks in a semiarid area

    Treesearch

    M. N. Jimenez; J. R. Pinto; M. A. Ripoll; A. Sanchez-Miranda; F. B. Navarro

    2017-01-01

    Planted seedlings and saplings usually exhibit low survival and growth rates under dry Mediterranean environments, especially late-successional species such as Quercus. In this work, we studied the effects of straw and rock fragment mulches on the establishment conditions of holm oak (Quercus ilex L. subsp. ballota (Def.) Samp.) in SE Spain. Soil moisture was...

  14. [Effects of whole field-surface plastic mulching and planting in furrow on soil temperature, soil moisture, and corn yield in arid area of Gansu Province, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-li; Zhang, Xu-cheng; Song, Shang-you; Ma, Yi-Fan; Yu, Xian-feng; Liu, Yan-lan

    2011-10-01

    Taking spring corn (Zea mays) cultivar Shendan 16 as test material, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of the treatments whole-field surface plastic mulching and planting in furrow (PMF), whole-field surface sand mulching and flat planting (SM), and uncovered and flat planting (CK) on the soil temperature, soil moisture, and corn yield on the dry land of arid area (annual average precipitation 415 mm) in middle Gansu Province. Comparing with CK, treatments PMF and SM increased the average temperature in 0-25 cm soil layer before tasselling stage, with the highest increment in treatment PMF. As for the soil water consumption, its depth in the three treatments increased with increasing years of planting. In the first year of planting, the soil water consumption was the most in 20-120 cm soil layer; whereas in the second year, the consumption was the most in 120-200 cm soil layer, with the soil water loss being the highest in treatment PMF. Treatment PMF had the highest grain number, grain weight per spike, and 100-grain weight, followed by treatment SM, and CK. In 2009 and 2010, the average grain number, average grain weight per spike, and average 100-grain weight in treatment PMF were increased by 13.5% and 114.2%, 29.8% and 321.1%, and 14.4% and 95.4% respectively, as compared to treatments SM and CK, and the grain yield and water use efficiency in treatments PMF and SM were increased by 333.1% and 240.2%, and 290.6% and 227.6%, respectively, as compared to CK. After two years continuous cropping of corn, the soil water loss in 120-200 cm soil layer in treatment PMF was up to 72 mm, being significantly higher than that in treatments SM (45 mm) and CK (40 mm). It was suggested that PMF could increase the soil temperature at seedling-tasselling stage, promote the corn growth in its early growth period, improve the soil water use by corn, and consequently, increase the grain number per spike and 100-grain weight, manifesting a good effect in

  15. The effect of satellite-derived surface soil moisture and leaf area index land data assimilation on streamflow simulations over France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairbairn, David; Lavinia Barbu, Alina; Napoly, Adrien; Albergel, Clément; Mahfouf, Jean-François; Calvet, Jean-Christophe

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluates the impact of assimilating surface soil moisture (SSM) and leaf area index (LAI) observations into a land surface model using the SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU (SIM) hydrological suite. SIM consists of three stages: (1) an atmospheric reanalysis (SAFRAN) over France, which forces (2) the three-layer ISBA land surface model, which then provides drainage and runoff inputs to (3) the MODCOU hydro-geological model. The drainage and runoff outputs from ISBA are validated by comparing the simulated river discharge from MODCOU with over 500 river-gauge observations over France and with a subset of stations with low-anthropogenic influence, over several years. This study makes use of the A-gs version of ISBA that allows for physiological processes. The atmospheric forcing for the ISBA-A-gs model underestimates direct shortwave and long-wave radiation by approximately 5 % averaged over France. The ISBA-A-gs model also substantially underestimates the grassland LAI compared with satellite retrievals during winter dormancy. These differences result in an underestimation (overestimation) of evapotranspiration (drainage and runoff). The excess runoff flowing into the rivers and aquifers contributes to an overestimation of the SIM river discharge. Two experiments attempted to resolve these problems: (i) a correction of the minimum LAI model parameter for grasslands and (ii) a bias-correction of the model radiative forcing. Two data assimilation experiments were also performed, which are designed to correct random errors in the initial conditions: (iii) the assimilation of LAI observations and (iv) the assimilation of SSM and LAI observations. The data assimilation for (iii) and (iv) was done with a simplified extended Kalman filter (SEKF), which uses finite differences in the observation operator Jacobians to relate the observations to the model variables. Experiments (i) and (ii) improved the median SIM Nash scores by about 9 % and 18 % respectively. Experiment (iii

  16. SOIL moisture data intercomparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Yann; Rodriguez-Frenandez, Nemesio; Al-Yaari, Amen; Parens, Marie; Molero, Beatriz; Mahmoodi, Ali; Mialon, Arnaud; Richaume, Philippe; Bindlish, Rajat; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity satellite (SMOS) was launched in November 2009 and started delivering data in January 2010. Subsequently, the satellite has been in operation for over 6 years while the retrieval algorithms from Level 1 to Level 2 underwent significant evolutions as knowledge improved. Other approaches for retrieval at Level 2 over land were also investigated while Level 3 and 4 were initiated. In this présentation these improvements are assessed by inter-comparisons of the current Level 2 (V620) against the previous version (V551) and new products either using neural networks or Level 3. In addition a global evaluation of different SMOS soil moisture (SM) products is performed comparing products with those of model simulations and other satellites (AMSR E/ AMSR2 and ASCAT). Finally, all products were evaluated against in situ measurements of soil moisture (SM). The study demonstrated that the V620 shows a significant improvement (including those at level1 improving level2)) with respect to the earlier version V551. Results also show that neural network based approaches can yield excellent results over areas where other products are poor. Finally, global comparison indicates that SMOS behaves very well when compared to other sensors/approaches and gives consistent results over all surfaces from very dry (African Sahel, Arizona), to wet (tropical rain forests). RFI (Radio Frequency Interference) is still an issue even though detection has been greatly improved while RFI sources in several areas of the world are significantly reduced. When compared to other satellite products, the analysis shows that SMOS achieves its expected goals and is globally consistent over different eco climate regions from low to high latitudes and throughout the seasons.

  17. Measuring soil moisture with imaging radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubois, Pascale C.; Vanzyl, Jakob; Engman, Ted

    1995-01-01

    An empirical model was developed to infer soil moisture and surface roughness from radar data. The accuracy of the inversion technique is assessed by comparing soil moisture obtained with the inversion technique to in situ measurements. The effect of vegetation on the inversion is studied and a method to eliminate the areas where vegetation impairs the algorithm is described.

  18. The relationship between Plasmodium infection, anaemia and nutritional status in asymptomatic children aged under five years living in stable transmission zones in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Maketa, Vivi; Mavoko, Hypolite Muhindo; da Luz, Raquel Inocêncio; Zanga, Josué; Lubiba, Joachim; Kalonji, Albert; Lutumba, Pascal; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre

    2015-02-18

    Malaria is preventable and treatable when recommended interventions are properly implemented. Thus, diagnosis and treatment focus on symptomatic individuals while asymptomatic Plasmodium infection (PI) plays a role in the sustainability of the transmission and may also have an impact on the morbidity of the disease in terms of anaemia, nutritional status and even cognitive development of children. The objective of this study was to assess PI prevalence and its relationship with known morbidity factors in a vulnerable but asymptomatic stratum of the population. A simple random sample, household survey in asymptomatic children under the age of five was conducted from April to September 2012 in two health areas of the health zone of Mont Ngafula 1, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. The PI prevalence were 30.9% (95% CI: 26.5-35.9) and 14.3% (95% CI: 10.5-18.1) in Cité Pumbu and Kindele health areas, respectively, (OR: 2.7; p <0.001). All were Plasmodium falciparum infected and 4% were co-infected with Plasmodium malariae. In Cité Pumbu and Kindele, the prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin <11 g/dL) was 61.6% (95% CI: 56.6-66.5) and 39.3% (95% CI: 34.0-44.6), respectively, (OR: 2.5; p <0.001). The health area of Cité Pumbu had 32% (95% CI: 27.5-37.0) of chronic malnutrition (HAZ score ≤ -2SD) compared to 5.1% (95% CI: 2.8-7.6) in Kindele. PI was predictor factor for anaemia (aOR: 3.5, p =0.01) and within infected children, there was an inverse relationship between parasite density and haemoglobin level (β = -5*10(-5), p <0.001). Age older than 12 months (aOR: 3.8, p = 0.01), presence of anaemia (aOR: 3.4, p =0.001), chronic malnutrition (aOR: 1.8, p = 0.01), having a single parent/guardian (aOR: 1.6, p =0.04), and the non-use of insecticide-treated nets (aOR: 1.7, p = 0.04) were all predictors for PI in the overall population. PI in asymptomatic children was correlated with anaemia and chronic malnutrition and was thus a harmful condition in the study

  19. Moisture in Crawl Spaces

    Treesearch

    Anton TenWolde; Samuel V. Glass

    2013-01-01

    Crawl space foundations can be designed and built to avoid moisture problems. In this article we provide a brief overview of crawl spaces with emphasis on the physics of moisture. We review trends that have been observed in the research literature and summarize cur-rent recommendations for moisture control in crawl spaces.

  20. Estimation of surface soil moisture in alpine areas based on medium spatial resolution SAR time-series and upscaled in-situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greifeneder, F.; Notarnicola, C.; Cuozzo, G.; Bertoldi, G.; Della Chiesa, S.; Niedrist, G.; Stamenkovic, J.; Wagner, W.

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the applicability of medium resolution SAR time-series, in combination with in-situ point measurements and machine learning, for the estimation of soil moisture content (SMC). One of the main challenges was the combination of SMC point measurements and satellite data. Due to the high spatial variability of soil moisture a direct linkage can be inappropriate. Data used in this study were a combination of in-situ data, satellite data and modelled SMC from the hydrological model GEOtop. To relate the point measurements with the satellite pixel footprint resolution, a spatial upscaling method was developed. It was found that both temporal and spatial SMC patterns obtained from various data sources (ASAR WS, GEOtop and meteorological stations) show similar behaviors. Furthermore, it was possible to increase the absolute accuracy of the estimated SMC through spatial upscaling of the obtained in-situ data. Introducing information on the temporal behavior of the SAR signal proves to be a promising method to increase the confidence and accuracy of SMC estimations. Following steps were identified as critical for the retrieval process: the topographic correction and geocoding of SAR data, the calibration of the meteorological stations and the spatial upscaling.

  1. Modeling soil moisture memory in savanna ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, S.; Miller, G. R.

    2011-12-01

    Antecedent soil conditions create an ecosystem's "memory" of past rainfall events. Such soil moisture memory effects may be observed over a range of timescales, from daily to yearly, and lead to feedbacks between hydrological and ecosystem processes. In this study, we modeled the soil moisture memory effect on savanna ecosystems in California, Arizona, and Africa, using a system dynamics model created to simulate the ecohydrological processes at the plot-scale. The model was carefully calibrated using soil moisture and evapotranspiration data collected at three study sites. The model was then used to simulate scenarios with various initial soil moisture conditions and antecedent precipitation regimes, in order to study the soil moisture memory effects on the evapotranspiration of understory and overstory species. Based on the model results, soil texture and antecedent precipitation regime impact the redistribution of water within soil layers, potentially causing deeper soil layers to influence the ecosystem for a longer time. Of all the study areas modeled, soil moisture memory of California savanna ecosystem site is replenished and dries out most rapidly. Thus soil moisture memory could not maintain the high rate evapotranspiration for more than a few days without incoming rainfall event. On the contrary, soil moisture memory of Arizona savanna ecosystem site lasts the longest time. The plants with different root depths respond to different memory effects; shallow-rooted species mainly respond to the soil moisture memory in the shallow soil. The growing season of grass is largely depended on the soil moisture memory of the top 25cm soil layer. Grass transpiration is sensitive to the antecedent precipitation events within daily to weekly timescale. Deep-rooted plants have different responses since these species can access to the deeper soil moisture memory with longer time duration Soil moisture memory does not have obvious impacts on the phenology of woody plants

  2. Soil moisture variability within remote sensing pixels

    SciTech Connect

    Charpentier, M.A.; Groffman, P.M. )

    1992-11-30

    This work is part of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE), an international land-surface-atmosphere experiment aimed at improving the way climate models represent energy, water, heat, and carbon exchanges, and improving the utilization of satellite based remote sensing to monitor such parameters. This paper addresses the question of soil moisture variation within the field of view of a remote sensing pixel. Remote sensing is the only practical way to sense soil moisture over large areas, but it is known that there can be large variations of soil moisture within the field of view of a pixel. The difficulty with this is that many processes, such as gas exchange between surface and atmosphere can vary dramatically with moisture content, and a small wet spot, for example, can have a dramatic impact on such processes, and thereby bias remote sensing data results. Here the authors looked at the impact of surface topography on the level of soil moisture, and the interaction of both on the variability of soil moisture sensed by a push broom microwave radiometer (PBMR). In addition the authors looked at the question of whether variations of soil moisture within pixel size areas could be used to assign errors to PBMR generated soil moisture data.

  3. Individually Linked Household and Health Facility Vaccination Survey in 12 At-risk Districts in Kinshasa Province, Democratic Republic of Congo: Methods and Metadata.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Eleanor; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Ngoie Mwamba, Guillaume; Yolande, Masembe; Guylain, Kaya; Muriel, Nzazi Nsambu; Cathy, Nzuzi; Patrice, Tshekoya; Wilkins, Karen; Yoloyolo, Norbert

    2017-07-01

    Health facility (HF) and household (HH) data can complement each other to provide a better understanding of the factors that contribute to vaccination status. In 12 zones with low vaccination coverage within Kinshasa Province, Democratic Republic of Congo, we conducted 2 surveys: (1) a linked HH and HF survey among 6-11-month-old infants, and (2) a HH survey among 12-23-month-old children. Linked survey objectives were to identify factors associated with vaccination status and to explore methodological considerations for linked survey implementation. To provide linked HH and HF data, we enrolled 6-11-month-old infants in HH clusters in each zone and then surveyed HFs located within the 12 zones and cited by caregivers of the enrolled infants as the most recent HF visited for vaccination or curative care. To provide vaccination coverage estimates for the 12-zone area, we enrolled 12-23-month-old children in every fourth HH. Of the HHs with a child aged 6-23 months, 16% were ineligible because they had resided in the neighborhood for <3 months or were unavailable to be interviewed, 4% refused, and 80% were eligible and participated. Of 1224 enrolled infants 6-11 months of age, records of 879 (72%) were linked to one of the 182 surveyed HFs. For the coverage survey, 710 children aged 12-23 months participated. Home-based vaccination cards were available for 1210 of 1934 children (63%) surveyed. The surveys were successful in assessing HH information for 2 age groups, documenting written vaccination history for a large proportion of 6-23-month-old children, linking the majority of infants with their most recently visited HF, and surveying identified HFs. The implementation of the individually linked survey also highlighted the need for a comprehensive list of HFs and an analysis plan that addresses cross-classified clusters with only 1 child. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  4. On-irrigator pasture soil moisture sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eng-Choon Tan, Adrian; Richards, Sean; Platt, Ian; Woodhead, Ian

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we presented the development of a proximal soil moisture sensor that measured the soil moisture content of dairy pasture directly from the boom of an irrigator. The proposed sensor was capable of soil moisture measurements at an accuracy of  ±5% volumetric moisture content, and at meter scale ground area resolutions. The sensor adopted techniques from the ultra-wideband radar to enable measurements of ground reflection at resolutions that are smaller than the antenna beamwidth of the sensor. An experimental prototype was developed for field measurements. Extensive field measurements using the developed prototype were conducted on grass pasture at different ground conditions to validate the accuracy of the sensor in performing soil moisture measurements.

  5. Network analysis of knowledge and practices regarding sexual and reproductive health: a study among adolescent street girls in Kinshasa (DRC).

    PubMed

    Vallès, Xavier; Lusala, Patrick Lunzayiladio; Devalière, Hortense; Metsia-Thiam, Marie-Michele; Aguilar, Daniel; Cheyron, Anne-Laure; Cannet, Didier

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to ascertain the influence of knowledge and interventions in sexual and reproductive health and contraception practices among adolescent street girls from Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. A cross-sectional study was carried out among street girls between 12 and 21 years of age. A standardised questionnaire was used, encompassing socio-demographic data and knowledge and practices regarding sexual and reproductive health. A network analysis was carried out. The study comprised 293 street girls. The mean age was 17.1 years (range 12-21 years) and the mean time spent living on the streets was 3.9 years (range 0-15 years). Commercial sex was reported by 78.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 73.3%, 83.2%) as the main source of their income. During their last sexual intercourse, 44.0% (95%CI 38.1%, 50.4%) had not used a condom; 29.3% (95%CI 23.3%, 35.9%) had used hormonal contraception. Previous pregnancy was reported by 62.5% (95%CI 56.7%, 68.3%) and current pregnancy by 12.3% (95%CI 8.8%, 17.2%); 24.5% of previous pregnancies ended in voluntary termination, with a higher rate among the youngest street girls (12-15 years, 50.0%; p = 0.01). Time spent living on the streets was independently associated with pregnancy (odds ratio 1.2; 95%CI 1.1, 1.4). Practices and outcomes (previous or current pregnancy) were poorly correlated with knowledge about sexual and reproductive health. The network analysis confirmed the poor influence of exposure to intervention activities on sexual and reproductive health practices and outcomes, but did confirm a centrality effect of knowledge about HIV/AIDS. Street girls in Kinshasa are extremely vulnerable with regard to their sexual and reproductive health, especially the youngest street girls. Behavioural and biomedical interventions have had limited influence. Structural and societal changes are necessary to positively impact street girls' sexual and reproductive health. Knowledge about HIV/AIDS than

  6. Soil moisture modeling review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildreth, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    A determination of the state of the art in soil moisture transport modeling based on physical or physiological principles was made. It was found that soil moisture models based on physical principles have been under development for more than 10 years. However, these models were shown to represent infiltration and redistribution of soil moisture quite well. Evapotranspiration has not been as adequately incorporated into the models.

  7. Moisturizers for Acne

    PubMed Central

    Chularojanamontri, Leena; Tuchinda, Papapit; Kulthanan, Kanokvalai

    2014-01-01

    Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit that affects almost all teenagers. Different treatments offer different modes of action, but aim to target acne pathology. Topical therapies, such as benzoyl peroxide, retinoids, antibiotics with alcohol-based preparations, and salicylic acid, can cause skin irritation resulting in a lack of patient adherence. Some physicians recommend patients use moisturizers as adjunctive treatment of acne, especially when either topical benzoyl peroxide or a retinoid is prescribed. Furthermore, some evidence shows that moisturizers can contribute independently to improve signs and symptoms of acne. Moisturizers contain three main properties, which are occlusive, humectant, and emollient effects. Currently, many moisturizers claim to be suitable for acne treatment. This article aims to provide a review of the active ingredients and properties of those moisturizers. Fifty-two moisturizers for acne were included for analysis. Most of the products (92%) have anti-inflammatory properties apart from occlusive, humectant, and emollient effects. Anti-acne medications, including salicylic acid, benzoyl peroxide, and retinol, were found respectively in 35, 10, and 8 percent of the moisturizer products containing anti-inflammatory properties. More than half of the products contain dimethicone and/or glycerin for its moisturizer property. Aloe vera and witch hazel are botanical anti-inflammatories that were commonly found in this study. Scientific data regarding some ingredients are discussed to provide a guide for physicians in selecting moisturizers for acne patients. PMID:24847408

  8. First soil moisture values from SMOS over a Sahelian region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruhier, Claire; Kerr, Yann; de Rosnay, Patricia; Pellarin, Thierry; Grippa, Manuela

    2010-05-01

    Soil moisture is a crucial variable which influences the land surface processes. Numerous studies shown microwaves at low frequency are particularly performed to access to soil moisture values. SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity), launched the November 2th 2009, is the first space mission dedicated to soil moisture observations. Before SMOS, several soil moisture products were provided, based on active or passive microwaves measurements. Gruhier et al. (2010) analyse five of them over a Sahelian area. The results show that the range of volumetric soil moisture values obtained over Sahel is drastically different depending on the remote sensing approach used to produce soil moisture estimates. Although microwave bands currently available are not optimal, some products are in very good agreement with ground data. The main goal of this study is to introduce the first soil moisture maps from SMOS over West Africa. A first analyse of values over a Sahelian region is investigated. The study area is located in Gourma region in Mali. This site has been instrumented in the context of the AMMA project (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis) and was specifically designed to address the validation of remotely sensed soil moisture. SMOS soil moisture values was analysed with ground knowledge and placed in the context of previous soil moisture products. The high sensitivity of the L-band used by SMOS should provide very accurate soil moisture values.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors for hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, and human immunodeficiency virus in transfused children in Kinshasa.

    PubMed

    Katabuka, M; Mafuta, M E; Ngoma, A M; Beya, P Mutombo; Yuma, S; Aketi, L; Kayembe, K P; Gini, J R

    2013-08-01

    To determine seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) and associated factors among transfused children. A multicenter cross-sectional study of transfused children aged between 18 mo and 13 y old was conducted in 4 hospitals in Kinshasa. Blood samples were collected for the detection of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibodies to HCV, HIV 1 and 2. A total of 177 (47.7 %) boys and 194 (52.3 %) girls participated in the study. The median age was 59.5 mo (Interquartile range IQR = 60.6). The prevalence rates of HCV, HBV, and HIV infection were 13.5 %, 1.6 %, and 1.3 %, respectively. Frequency of transfusion events were significantly associated with HCV (p < 0.001) and HIV (p < 0.05) infections. HCV infection was by far more frequently identified than HBV and HIV infections among Congolese transfused children. Frequency of transfusion events was the only significant risk factor associated with HCV and HIV infections but not for HBV.

  10. HIV infection and risk factors among the armed forces personnel stationed in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Rimoin, A W; Hoff, N A; Djoko, C F; Kisalu, N K; Kashamuka, M; Tamoufe, U; LeBreton, M; Kayembe, P K; Muyembe, J J; Kitchen, C R; Saylors, K; Fair, J; Doshi, R; Papworth, E; Mpoudi-Ngole, E; Grillo, M P; Tshala, F; Peeters, M; Wolfe, N D

    2015-03-01

    Despite recent declines in HIV incidence, sub-Saharan Africa remains the most heavily affected region in the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. Estimates of HIV prevalence in African military personnel are scarce and inconsistent. We conducted a serosurvey between June and September 2007 among 4043 Armed Forces personnel of the Democratic Republic of Congo (FARDC) stationed in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) to determine the prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections and describe associated risk behaviours. Participants provided blood for HIV and syphilis testing and responded to a demographic and risk factor questionnaire. The prevalence of HIV was 3.8% and the prevalence of syphilis was 11.9%. Women were more likely than men to be HIV positive, (7.5% vs. 3.6% respectively, aOR: 1.66, 95% C.I: 1.21-2.28, p < 0.05). Factors significantly associated with HIV infection included gender and self-reported genital ulcers in the 12 months before date of enrollment. The prevalence of HIV in the military appears to be higher than the general population in DRC (3.8% vs. 1.3%, respectively), with women at increased risk of infection.

  11. Preventing vertical transmission of HIV in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo: a baseline survey of 18 antenatal clinics.

    PubMed Central

    Behets, Frieda Mtf; Matendo, Richard; Vaz, Lara Me; Kilese, Nick; Nanlele, Diderot; Kokolomami, Jack; Okitolando, Emile W.; Van Rie, Annelies

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the content and delivery of essential antenatal services before implementation of programmes for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: We assessed 18 antenatal care centres (eight public units and ten managed by nongovernmental organizations) in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. We used a survey to capture information about the number and type of antenatal health workers, infrastructure capacity and the delivery of basic antenatal care services such as: nutritional counselling; tetanus toxoid vaccination; prevention and management of anaemia, malaria, sexually transmitted infections, and tuberculosis; and counselling for postpartum contraception. FINDINGS: Antenatal care units differed with respect to size, capacity, cost, service delivery systems and content. For instance, 17 of the 18 sites offered anaemia screening but only two sites included the cost in the card that gives access to antenatal care. Nine of the clinics (50%) reported providing the malaria prophyalxis sulfadoxine pyrimethamine as per national policy. Four (22%) of the sites offered syphilis screening. CONCLUSION: Scaling up PMTCT programmes in under-resourced settings requires evaluation and strengthening of existing basic antenatal care service delivery. PMID:17242833

  12. Combination moisture and hydrogen getter

    DOEpatents

    Harrah, L.A.; Mead, K.E.; Smith, H.M.

    1983-09-20

    A combination moisture and hydrogen getter comprises (a) a moisture getter comprising a readily oxidizable metal; and (b) a hydrogen getter comprising (1) a solid acetylenic compound and (2) a hydrogenation catalyst. A method of scavenging moisture from a closed container uses the combination moisture and hydrogen getter to irreversibly chemically reduce the moisture and chemically bind the resultant hydrogen.

  13. Combination moisture and hydrogen getter

    DOEpatents

    Harrah, Larry A.; Mead, Keith E.; Smith, Henry M.

    1983-01-01

    A combination moisture and hydrogen getter comprises (a) a moisture getter comprising a readily oxidizable metal; and (b) a hydrogen getter comprising (i) a solid acetylenic compound and (ii) a hydrogenation catalyst. A method of scavenging moisture from a closed container uses the combination moisture and hydrogen getter to irreversibly chemically reduce the moisture and chemically bind the resultant hydrogen.

  14. Combination moisture and hydrogen getter

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1982-04-29

    A combination moisture and hydrogen getter comprises (a) a moisture getter comprising a readily oxidizable metal; and (b) a hydrogen getter comprising (i) a solid acetylenic compound and (ii) a hydrogenation catalyst. A method of scavenging moisture from a closed container uses the combination moisture and hydrogen getter to irreversibly chemically reduce the moisture and chemically bind the reusltant hydrogen.

  15. Understanding Soil Moisture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding soil moisture is critical for landscape irrigation management. This landscaep irrigation seminar will compare volumetric and matric potential soil-moisture sensors, discuss the relationship between their readings and demonstrate how to use these data. Soil water sensors attempt to sens...

  16. Do moisturizers work?

    PubMed

    Lodén, M

    2003-07-01

    Moisturizers are used on large body surfaces to maintain the smoothness of the skin and to break the dry-skin cycle. Many healthcare professionals and patients overlook the importance of moisturizers and do not consider them to be 'active' treatments. However, evidence from clinical and experimental studies shows that moisturizers enhance both the smoothness and hydration of skin. Different moisturizers have different ingredients, and each may have a different mode of action. Some smooth the skin, others affect barrier function. Some enhance barrier function in both diseased and normal skin. Others impair barrier function in both diseased and normal skin. Defective barrier function may trigger the development of eczema. The composition of a particular moisturizer should reflect its desired therapeutic effect, i.e. a moisturizer to diminish dryness may need different ingredients from those required to improve barrier function. The content of excipients, such as emulsifiers, chelating agents and antioxidants, may have greater impact than is commonly believed. Greater tailoring of moisturizers will improve their efficacy. Confidence in the therapeutic effects of moisturizers will be enhanced by well-designed randomized controlled trials.

  17. Soil Moisture Sensing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil moisture monitoring can be useful as an irrigation management tool for both landscapes and agriculture, sometimes replacing an evapotranspiration (ET) based approach or as a useful check on ET based approaches since the latter tend to drift off target over time. All moisture sensors, also known...

  18. [Stab wounds of the hand and forearm due to Kuluna in Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo): types of injuries and treatment].

    PubMed

    Kibadi, K; Portaels, F; Pichot, Y; Kapinga, M; Moutet, F

    2015-01-01

    Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), a particular form of juvenile delinquency and insecurity intensifies in the city of Kinshasa. This is the phenomenon Kuluna. It is organized gangs equipped with machetes and other weapons. The main objective of this study is to know the phenomenon Kuluna and describe the upper limb injuries caused by machetes, while insisting on the specifics of the management of these lesions in our communities. This retrospective descriptive study examines 14 cases of wounds of the hand and forearm due to stab phenomenon Kuluna, in Kinshasa. It covers the period from 1 November 2010 to 1 November 2013. Among the 14 patients with lesions in the hand and forearm admitted and treated at the Unit of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Hand Surgery and Burns, University Clinics of Kinshasa to attacks due to the phenomenon Kuluna. We have 11 men and 3 women. The average age was 33, 5 years (extremes of 21 and 56 years). The right upper limb is reached that the left upper limb, respectively 12 patients and 2 patients. The lesions are localized to the wrist in the majority of cases (10 patients) in the palm of hand and in 3 patients in the fingers in 1 patient. The palmar surface is reached (10 cases) and the dorsal (4 cases). Zone 5 of the International Classification of flexor and Zone 8 topographic classification extensors at hand are the predilection sites of lesions respectively the palmar surface (6 out of 10) and the dorsal (2 case 4). The median nerve at the wrist is cut in half the cases. On bone lesions localized to the forearm, we observed a high incidence of fracture of the ulna (62.5%). The treatment begins with the stabilization of bone pieces, gestures revascularization and nerve sutures and suture tendon and finally skin coverage. Rehabilitation was mandatory, she supervises the actions of repair and it continues until the recovery of function.

  19. Approaching Moisture Recycling Governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keys, Patrick; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Gordon, Line; Galaz, Victor; Ebbesson, Jonas

    2017-04-01

    The spatial and temporal dynamics of water resources are a continuous challenge for effective and sustainable national and international governance. Despite the surface watershed being the typical unit of water management, recent advances in hydrology have revealed 'atmospheric watersheds' - otherwise known as precipitationsheds. Also, recent research has demonstrated that water flowing within a precipitationshed may be modified by land-use change in one location, while the effect of this modification could be felt in a different province, nation, or continent. Notwithstanding these insights, the major legal and institutional implications of modifying moisture recycling have remained unexplored. In this presentation, we examine potential approaches to moisture recycling governance. We first identify a set of international study regions, and then develop a typology of moisture recycling relationships within these regions ranging from bilateral moisture exchange to more complex networks. This enables us to classify different types of legal and institutional governance principles. Likewise, we relate the moisture recycling types to existing land and water governance frameworks and management practices. The complexity of moisture recycling means institutional fit will be difficult to generalize for all moisture recycling relationships, but our typology allows the identification of characteristics that make effective governance of these normally ignored water flows more tenable.

  20. Soil Moisture Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heilman, J. L. (Editor); Moore, D. G. (Editor); Schmugge, T. J. (Editor); Friedman, D. B. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Workshop was held at the United States Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Library in Beltsville, Maryland on January 17-19, 1978. The objectives of the Workshop were to evaluate the state of the art of remote sensing of soil moisture; examine the needs of potential users; and make recommendations concerning the future of soil moisture research and development. To accomplish these objectives, small working groups were organized in advance of the Workshop to prepare position papers. These papers served as the basis for this report.

  1. SMALT - Soil Moisture from Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Richard; Salloway, Mark; Berry, Philippa; Hahn, Sebastian; Wagner, Wolfgang; Egido, Alejandro; Dinardo, Salvatore; Lucas, Bruno Manuel; Benveniste, Jerome

    2014-05-01

    Soil surface moisture is a key scientific parameter; however, it is extremely difficult to measure remotely, particularly in arid and semi-arid terrain. This paper outlines the development of a novel methodology to generate soil moisture estimates in these regions from multi-mission satellite radar altimetry. Key to this approach is the development of detailed DRy Earth ModelS (DREAMS), which encapsulate the detailed and intricate surface brightness variations over the Earth's land surface, resulting from changes in surface roughness and composition. DREAMS have been created over a number of arid and semi-arid deserts worldwide to produce historical SMALT timeseries over soil moisture variation. These products are available in two formats - a high resolution track product which utilises the altimeter's high frequency content alongtrack and a multi-looked 6" gridded product at facilitate easy comparison/integeration with other remote sensing techniques. An overview of the SMALT processing scheme, covering the progression of the data from altimeter sigma0 through to final soil moisture estimate, is included along with example SMALT products. Validation has been performed over a number of deserts by comparing SMALT products with other remote sensing techniques, results of the comparison between SMALT and Metop Warp 5.5 are presented here. Comparisons with other remote sensing techniques have been limited in scope due to differences in the operational aspects of the instruments, the restricted geographical coverage of the DREAMS and the low repeat temporal sampling rate of the altimeter. The potential to expand the SMALT technique into less arid areas has been investigated. Small-scale comparison with in-situ and GNSS-R data obtained by the LEiMON experimental campaign over Tuscany, where historical trends exist within both SMALT and SMC probe datasets. A qualitative analysis of unexpected backscatter characteristics in dedicated dry environments is performed with

  2. Fiber optic moisture sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kirkham, R.R.

    1984-08-03

    A method and apparatus for sensing moisture changes by utilizing optical fiber technology. One embodiment uses a reflective target at the end of an optical fiber. The reflectance of the target varies with its moisture content and can be detected by a remote unit at the opposite end of the fiber. A second embodiment utilizes changes in light loss along the fiber length. This can be attributed to changes in reflectance of cladding material as a function of its moisture content. It can also be affected by holes or inserts interposed in the cladding material and/or fiber. Changing light levels can also be coupled from one fiber to another in an assembly of fibers as a function of varying moisture content in their overlapping lengths of cladding material.

  3. Family Planning Supply Environment in Kinshasa, DRC: Survey Findings and Their Value in Advancing Family Planning Programming.

    PubMed

    Kayembe, Patrick; Babazadeh, Saleh; Dikamba, Nelly; Akilimali, Pierre; Hernandez, Julie; Binanga, Arsene; Bertrand, Jane T

    2015-12-01

    Modern contraceptive prevalence was 14.1% in 2007 in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Yet virtually nothing was known about the family planning supply environment. Three surveys of health facilities were conducted in 2012, 2013, and 2014 to determine the number, spatial distribution, and attributes of sites providing family planning services. The 2012 and 2013 surveys aimed to identify the universe of family planning facilities while obtaining a limited set of data on "readiness" to provide family planning services (defined as having at least 3 modern methods, at least 1 person training in family planning in the last 3 years, and an information system to track distribution of products to clients) and output (measured by couple-years of protection, or CYP). In contrast, the 2014 survey, conducted under the umbrella of the Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 (PMA2020) project, was based on 2-stage cluster sampling. This article provides detailed analysis of the 2012 and 2013 surveys, including bivariate and multivariate analysis of correlates of readiness to provide services and of output. We identified 184 health facilities that reported providing at least 1 contraceptive method in 2012 and 395 facilities in 2013. The percentage of sites defined as "ready" to provide services increased from 44.1% in 2012 to 63.3% in 2013. For the 3-month period between January and March 2013, facilities distributed between 0 and 879.2 CYP (mean, 39.7). Nearly half (49%) of the CYP was attributable to implants, followed by IUDs (24%), CycleBeads (11%), and injectables (8%). In 2013, facilities supported by PEPFAR (n = 121) were more likely than other facilities to be rated as ready to provide services (P<.0001); however, PEPFAR-supported sites generated less CYP on average than sites supported by family planning implementing agencies (P<.0001). Multivariate analysis showed 3 variables were associated with CYP: type of health

  4. Family Planning Supply Environment in Kinshasa, DRC: Survey Findings and Their Value in Advancing Family Planning Programming

    PubMed Central

    Kayembe, Patrick; Babazadeh, Saleh; Dikamba, Nelly; Akilimali, Pierre; Hernandez, Julie; Binanga, Arsene; Bertrand, Jane T

    2015-01-01

    Background: Modern contraceptive prevalence was 14.1% in 2007 in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Yet virtually nothing was known about the family planning supply environment. Methods: Three surveys of health facilities were conducted in 2012, 2013, and 2014 to determine the number, spatial distribution, and attributes of sites providing family planning services. The 2012 and 2013 surveys aimed to identify the universe of family planning facilities while obtaining a limited set of data on “readiness” to provide family planning services (defined as having at least 3 modern methods, at least 1 person training in family planning in the last 3 years, and an information system to track distribution of products to clients) and output (measured by couple-years of protection, or CYP). In contrast, the 2014 survey, conducted under the umbrella of the Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 (PMA2020) project, was based on 2-stage cluster sampling. This article provides detailed analysis of the 2012 and 2013 surveys, including bivariate and multivariate analysis of correlates of readiness to provide services and of output. Results: We identified 184 health facilities that reported providing at least 1 contraceptive method in 2012 and 395 facilities in 2013. The percentage of sites defined as “ready” to provide services increased from 44.1% in 2012 to 63.3% in 2013. For the 3-month period between January and March 2013, facilities distributed between 0 and 879.2 CYP (mean, 39.7). Nearly half (49%) of the CYP was attributable to implants, followed by IUDs (24%), CycleBeads (11%), and injectables (8%). In 2013, facilities supported by PEPFAR (n = 121) were more likely than other facilities to be rated as ready to provide services (P<.0001); however, PEPFAR-supported sites generated less CYP on average than sites supported by family planning implementing agencies (P<.0001). Multivariate analysis showed 3 variables were

  5. Quantifying mesoscale soil moisture with the cosmic-ray rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrisman, B.; Zreda, M.

    2013-06-01

    Soil moisture governs the surface fluxes of mass and energy and is a major influence on floods and drought. Existing techniques measure soil moisture either at a point or over a large area many kilometers across. To bridge these two scales we used the cosmic-ray rover, an instrument similar to the recently developed COSMOS probe, but bigger and mobile. This paper explores the challenges and opportunities for mapping soil moisture over large areas using the cosmic-ray rover. In 2012, soil moisture was mapped 22 times in a 25 km × 40 km survey area of the Tucson Basin at 1 km2 resolution, i.e., a survey area extent comparable to that of a pixel for the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission. The soil moisture distribution is dominated by climatic variations, notably by the North American monsoon, that results in a systematic increase in the standard deviation, observed up to 0.022 m3 m-3, as a function of the mean, between 0.06 and 0.14 m3 m-3. Two techniques are explored to use the cosmic-ray rover data for hydrologic applications: (1) interpolation of the 22 surveys into a daily soil moisture product by defining an approach to utilize and quantify the observed temporal stability producing an average correlation coefficient of 0.82 for the soil moisture distributions that were surveyed and (2) estimation of soil moisture profiles by combining surface moisture from satellite microwave sensors with deeper measurements from the cosmic-ray rover. The interpolated soil moisture and soil moisture profile estimates allow for basin-wide mass balance calculation of evapotranspiration, totaling 241 mm for the year 2012. Generating soil moisture maps with cosmic-ray rover at this intermediate scale may help in the calibration and validation of satellite campaigns and may also aid in various large scale hydrologic studies.

  6. Infant feeding practices and determinants of poor breastfeeding behavior in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although breastfeeding is almost universally accepted in the Democratic Republic (DR) of Congo, by the age of 2 to 3 months 65% of children are receiving something other than human milk. We sought to describe the infant feeding practices and determinants of suboptimal breastfeeding behaviors in DR Congo. Methods Survey questionnaire administered to mothers of infants aged ≤ 6 months and healthcare providers who were recruited consecutively at six selected primary health care facilities in Kinshasa, the capital. Results All 66 mothers interviewed were breastfeeding. Before initiating breastfeeding, 23 gave their infants something other than their milk, including: sugar water (16) or water (2). During the twenty-four hours prior to interview, 26 (39%) infants were exclusively breastfed (EBF), whereas 18 (27%), 12 (18%), and 10 (15%) received water, tea, formula, or porridge, respectively, in addition to human milk. The main reasons for water supplementation included “heat” and cultural beliefs that water is needed for proper digestion of human milk. The main reason for formula supplementation was the impression that the baby was not getting enough milk; and for porridge supplementation, the belief that the child was old enough to start complementary food. Virtually all mothers reported that breastfeeding was discussed during antenatal clinic visit and half reported receiving help regarding breastfeeding from a health provider either after birth or during well-child clinic visit. Despite a median of at least 14 years of experience in these facilities, healthcare workers surveyed had little to no formal training on how to support breastfeeding and inadequate breastfeeding-related knowledge and skills. The facilities lacked any written policy about breastfeeding. Conclusion Addressing cultural beliefs, training healthcare providers adequately on breastfeeding support skills, and providing structured breastfeeding support after maternity discharge is

  7. [Impact of seasons, years El Nino/La Nina and rainfalls on stroke-related morbidity and mortality in Kinshasa].

    PubMed

    Kintoki Mbala, F; Longo-Mbenza, B; Mbungu Fuele, S; Zola, N; Motebang, D; Nakin, V; Lueme Lokotola, C; Simbarashe, N; Nge Okwe, A

    2016-02-01

    The significant impact of seasonality and climate change on stroke-related morbidity and mortality is well established, however, some findings on this issue are conflicting. The objective was to determine the impact of gender, age, season, year of admission, temperature, rainfall and El Nino phenomenon on ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes and fatal cases of stroke. The study was carried out at the teaching hospital of Kinshasa, DRC, between January 1998 and December 2004. Rainy and dry seasons, elevated temperatures, indices of rainfalls El Nino years 1998, 2002 and 2004, but La Nina years 1999-2000 and neutral/normal years 2001 and 2003 were defined. Among 470 incident strokes, 34.5% of victims (n=162) died. Traditional seasons (small dry season, small rainy season, great dry season, great rainy season) and temperatures did not significantly (P>0.005) impact on stroke incidence. However, there was a positive association between the decrease in rainfall, El Nino, and incident ischemic strokes, but a significant positive association between the increase in rainfall, La Nina, and incident hemorrhagic strokes. Using logistic regression analysis, age ≥ 60 years (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2-2.5; P=0.018) and El Nino years (OR: 2, 95% CI: 1.2-3.3; P=0.009) were identified as the independent predictors of fatal strokes. Early warning systems should be developed to predict the impact of seasons and climate variability on stroke morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Bulk Moisture and Salinity Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar; Prenger, Jessica; Catechis, John

    2013-01-01

    Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced-gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish. A combination bulk moisture and salinity sensor has been designed, built, and tested with different nutrient solutions in several substrates. The substrates include glass beads, a clay-like substrate, and a nutrient-enriched substrate with the presence of plant roots. By measuring two key parameters, the sensor is able to monitor both the volumetric water content and salinity of the nutrient solution in bulk media. Many commercially available moisture sensors are point sensors, making localized measurements over a small volume at the point of insertion. Consequently, they are more prone to suffer from interferences with air bubbles, contact area of media, and root growth. This makes it difficult to get an accurate representation of true moisture content and distribution in the bulk media. Additionally, a network of point sensors is required, increasing the cabling, data acquisition, and calibration requirements. measure the dielectric properties of a material in the annular space of the vessel. Because the pore water in the media often has high salinity, a method to measure the media moisture content and salinity simultaneously was devised. Characterization of the frequency response for capacitance and conductance across the electrodes was completed for 2-mm glass bead media, 1- to 2-mm Turface (a clay like media), and 1- to 2-mm fertilized Turface with the presence of root mass. These measurements were then used to find empirical relationships among capacitance (C), the dissipation factor (D), the volumetric water content, and the pore water salinity.

  9. Nutritional status and height, weight and BMI centiles of school-aged children and adolescents of 6-18-years from Kinshasa (DRC).

    PubMed

    Buhendwa, Rudahaba Augustin; Roelants, Mathieu; Thomis, Martine; Nkiama, Constant E

    2017-09-01

    The last study to establish centiles of main anthropometric measurements in Kinshasa was conducted over 60 years ago, which questions its current adequacy to describe or monitor growth in this population. To assess the nutritional status of school-aged children and adolescents and to estimate centile curves of height, weight and body mass index (BMI). A representative sample of 7541 school-aged children and adolescents (48% boys) aged 6-18 years was measured between 2010-2013. Smooth centiles of height, weight and BMI-for-age were estimated with the LMS method and compared with the WHO 2007 reference. Nutritional status was assessed by comparing measurements of height and BMI against the appropriate WHO cut-offs. Compared to the WHO reference, percentiles of height and BMI were generally lower. This difference was larger in boys than in girls and increased as they approached adolescence. The prevalence of short stature (< -2 SD) and thinness (< -2 SD) was higher in boys (9.8% and 12%) than in girls (3.4% and 6.1%), but the prevalence of overweight (> 1 SD) was higher in girls (8.6%) than in boys (4.5%). Children from Kinshasa fall below WHO centile references. This study established up-to-date centile curves for height, weight and BMI by age in children and adolescents. These reference curves describe the current status of these anthropometric markers and can be used as a basis for comparison in future studies.

  10. [Prevalence of opportunistic digestive parasitic infections in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Results of a preliminary study in 50 AIDS patients].

    PubMed

    Wumba, R; Enache-Angoulvant, A; Develoux, M; Mulumba, A; Mulumba, P M; Hennequin, C; Odio, T W; Biligui, S; Sala, J; Thellier, M

    2007-04-01

    In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), as in many African countries, AIDS and its procession of opportunistic infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In Kinshasa, the estimated prevalence rate of HIV-infected persons is between 4 and 5%, corresponding to more than 200,000 people. Due to the lack of trained laboratory personnel and appropriate diagnostic equipment, no local investigation has been carried out to determine the prevalence of the opportunistic digestive parasitic infection in HIV-infected persons. As a step to obtaining this information that is needed for implementation of an adequate care policy, a preliminary investigation was carried out in Paris, France on 50 stool samples from 50 AIDS-patients hospitalized in 3 reference hospitals in Kinshasa. Eleven patients (22%) had digestive symptoms with a diarrhea syndrome. Further study using specialized techniques demonstrated 2 cases of digestive infection related to opportunistic parasites (4%). The first involved a Cryptosporidium sp. The second represented the first case of Enterocytozoon bieneusi infection reported in the literature from the DRC.

  11. Bed net ownership, use and perceptions among women seeking antenatal care in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC): opportunities for improved maternal and child health.

    PubMed

    Pettifor, Audrey; Taylor, Eboni; Nku, David; Duvall, Sandra; Tabala, Martine; Meshnick, Steve; Behets, Frieda

    2008-09-24

    To describe malaria knowledge, attitudes toward malaria and bed net use, levels of ownership and use of bed nets, and factors associated with ownership and use among pregnant women attending their first antenatal care (ANC) visit in Kinshasa, DRC. Women attending their first ANC visit at one maternity in Kinshasa were recruited to take part in a study where they were given free insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs) and then followed up at delivery and 6 months post delivery to assess ITN use. This study describes the baseline levels of bed net ownership and use, attitudes towards net use and factors associated with net use Among 351 women interviewed at baseline, 115 (33%) already owned a bed net and 86 (25%) reported to have slept under the net the previous night. Cost was reported as the reason for not owning a net by 48% of the 236 women who did not own one. In multivariable analyses, women who had secondary school or higher education were 3.4 times more likely to own a net (95% CI 1.6-7.3) and 2.8 times more likely to have used a net (95% CI 1.3-6.0) compared to women with less education Distribution of ITNs in antenatal clinics in this setting is needed and feasible. The potential for ITN use by this target population is high.

  12. Adaptation of a U.S. evidence-based Positive Prevention intervention for youth living with HIV/AIDS in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Parker, L; Maman, S; Pettifor, A; Chalachala, J L; Edmonds, A; Golin, C E; Moracco, K; Behets, F

    2013-02-01

    Effective HIV prevention programs for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) are important to reduce new infections and to ensure PLWH remain healthy. This paper describes the systematic adaptation of a U.S.-developed Evidence Based Intervention (EBI) using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Map of Adaption Process for use at a Pediatric Hospital in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The adapted intervention, Supporting Youth and Motivating Positive Action or SYMPA, a six-session risk reduction intervention targeted for youth living with HIV/AIDS (YLWH) in Kinshasa was adapted from the Healthy Living Project and guided by the Social Action Theory. This paper describes the process of implementing the first four steps of the ADAPT framework (Assess, Select, Prepare, and Pilot). Our study has shown that an EBI developed and implemented in the U.S. can be adapted successfully for a different target population in a low-resource context through an iterative process following the CDC ADAPT framework. This process included reviewing existing literature, adapting and adding components, and focusing on increasing staff capacity. This paper provides a rare, detailed description of the adaptation process and may aid organizations seeking to adapt and implement HIV prevention EBIs in sub-Saharan Africa and beyond.

  13. Adaptation of a U.S. evidence-based Positive Prevention intervention for youth living with HIV/AIDS in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Parker, L.; Maman, S.; Pettifor, A.; Chalachala, J.L.; Edmonds, A.; Golin, C.E.; Moracco, K.; Behets, F.

    2013-01-01

    Effective HIV prevention programs for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) are important to reduce new infections and to ensure PLWH remain healthy. This paper describes the systematic adaptation of a U.S.-developed Evidence Based Intervention (EBI) using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Map of Adaption Process for use at a Pediatric Hospital in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The adapted intervention, Supporting Youth and Motivating Positive Action or SYMPA, a six-session risk reduction intervention targeted for youth living with HIV/AIDS (YLWH) in Kinshasa was adapted from the Healthy Living Project and guided by the Social Action Theory. This paper describes the process of implementing the first four steps of the ADAPT framework (Assess, Select, Prepare, and Pilot). Our study has shown that an EBI developed and implemented in the U.S. can be adapted successfully for a different target population in a low-resource context through an iterative process following the CDC ADAPT framework. This process included reviewing existing literature, adapting and adding components, and focusing on increasing staff capacity. This paper provides a rare, detailed description of the adaptation process and may aid organizations seeking to adapt and implement HIV prevention EBIs in sub-Saharan Africa and beyond. PMID:23063699

  14. Plan of research for integrated soil moisture studies. Recommendations of the Soil Moisture Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Soil moisture information is a potentially powerful tool for applications in agriculture, water resources, and climate. At present, it is difficult for users of this information to clearly define their needs in terms of accuracy, resolution and frequency because of the current sparsity of data. A plan is described for defining and conducting an integrated and coordinated research effort to develop and refine remote sensing techniques which will determine spatial and temporal variations of soil moisture and to utilize soil moisture information in support of agricultural, water resources, and climate applications. The soil moisture requirements of these three different application areas were reviewed in relation to each other so that one plan covering the three areas could be formulated. Four subgroups were established to write and compile the plan, namely models, ground-based studies, aircraft experiments, and spacecraft missions.

  15. Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection is associated with anaemia in pregnancy and can be more cost-effectively detected by rapid diagnostic test than by microscopy in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In areas of high malaria transmission, Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy is characterized by malaria-related anaemia, placental malaria and does not always result in clinical symptoms. This situation is associated with poor pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of asymptomatic P. falciparum infection, its relation with anaemia as well as the most cost-effective technique for its diagnosis in healthy pregnant women living in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Methods In a cross-sectional study design, information on socio-demographic characteristics and cost data were collected in healthy pregnant women attending antenatal care consultations. Plasmodium falciparum infection was diagnosed using rapid diagnostic test (RDT), microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Haemoglobin concentration was also determined. Results In total, 332 pregnant women were enrolled. RDT and microscopy data were available for all the blood samples and 166 samples were analysed by PCR. The prevalence of asymptomatic P. falciparum infection using microscopy, RDTs and PCR, were respectively 21.6%, 27.4% and 29.5%. Taking PCR as a reference, RDTs had a sensitivity of 81.6% and a specificity of 94.9% to diagnose asymptomatic P. falciparum infection. The corresponding values for microscopy were 67.3% and 97.4%. The prevalence of anaemia was 61.1% and asymptomatic malaria increased five times the odds (p < 0.001) of having anaemia. RDTs were more cost-effective compared to microscopy. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was US$ 63.47 per microscopy adequately diagnosed case. Conclusion These alarming results emphasize the need to actively diagnose and treat asymptomatic malaria infection during all antenatal care visits. Moreover, in DRC, malaria and anaemia control efforts should be strengthened by promoting the use of insecticide-treated nets, intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and iron

  16. Role of regional thermal contrast over West Asia in interannual variation in atmospheric moisture transportation over the Indian Ocean and neighboring areas at summer monsoon onset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Takeshi

    2015-12-01

    The low-level temperature contrast over West Asia influences the interannual variation in water vapor transportation over the northern and equatorial Indian Ocean and neighboring monsoon area. A composite analysis that takes into account the thermal contrast over West Asia during the monsoon seasonal transition is performed based on the reanalysis and merged observational precipitation data sets. The positive (negative) low-level thermal contrast anomaly over the Iranian Plateau (IP) strengthens (weakens) the thermal contrast over the Arabian Sea. The low-level westerly anomaly develops earlier in the positive IP thermal contrast years than in the negative years. As a result, water vapor transport varies. This variation in water vapor transport in turn has an influence on the abrupt increase in precipitation over South Asia and the Arabian Sea and the decrease over equatorial East Africa. The variation in low-level temperature over the IP precedes the variation of precipitation over these regions by a few pentads. A numerical experiment using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model agrees with the results of the composite analysis. Particles are emitted from the western tropical Indian Ocean region from the preonset to onset period. Results of numerical experiments concerning positive IP thermal contrast years show that particles can be transported into South Asia and the Arabian Sea before the climatological Asian summer monsoon onset pentad. However, small amounts of particles arrive in South Asia and the Arabian Sea at the onset period in negative IP years. The transport into equatorial East Africa becomes weak earlier in positive IP years.

  17. Multilayer moisture barrier

    DOEpatents

    Pankow, Joel W; Jorgensen, Gary J; Terwilliger, Kent M; Glick, Stephen H; Isomaki, Nora; Harkonen, Kari; Turkulainen, Tommy

    2015-04-21

    A moisture barrier, device or product having a moisture barrier or a method of fabricating a moisture barrier having at least a polymer layer, and interfacial layer, and a barrier layer. The polymer layer may be fabricated from any suitable polymer including, but not limited to, fluoropolymers such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), or ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE). The interfacial layer may be formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD). In embodiments featuring an ALD interfacial layer, the deposited interfacial substance may be, but is not limited to, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, AlSiO.sub.x, TiO.sub.2, and an Al.sub.2O.sub.3/TiO.sub.2 laminate. The barrier layer associated with the interfacial layer may be deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The barrier layer may be a SiO.sub.xN.sub.y film.

  18. Moisturizers: The Slippery Road

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Anisha; Kaur, Tejinder; Malhotra, SK; Gambhir, ML

    2016-01-01

    Moisturizers are an important part of a dermatologist's armamentarium although little is written and well, a less is truly known about them. There is a cornucopia of projected skin products in the market whose real scientific role is not proven. These products although at times are regarded as mere cosmetics but have a well-known role in many skin disorders. Adequate knowledge about their mechanism of action, dosage, usage, and adverse effects is must for a dermatologist in this era. This article aims to bring forth the ever hidden facts of the much-hyped moisturizers. It is probably the first of its kind covering all aspects of moisturizers ranging from basic science to clinical usage, a subject that receives a short shrift in the current dermatological text. PMID:27293248

  19. Moisturizers: The Slippery Road.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Anisha; Kaur, Tejinder; Malhotra, S K; Gambhir, M L

    2016-01-01

    Moisturizers are an important part of a dermatologist's armamentarium although little is written and well, a less is truly known about them. There is a cornucopia of projected skin products in the market whose real scientific role is not proven. These products although at times are regarded as mere cosmetics but have a well-known role in many skin disorders. Adequate knowledge about their mechanism of action, dosage, usage, and adverse effects is must for a dermatologist in this era. This article aims to bring forth the ever hidden facts of the much-hyped moisturizers. It is probably the first of its kind covering all aspects of moisturizers ranging from basic science to clinical usage, a subject that receives a short shrift in the current dermatological text.

  20. Global atmospheric moisture variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; James, Bonnie F.; Chi, Kay; Huang, Huo-Jin

    1989-01-01

    Research efforts during FY-88 have focused on completion of several projects relating to analysis of FGGE data during SOP-1 and on expanded studies of global atmospheric moisture. In particular, a revised paper on the relationship between diabatic heating and baroclinicity in the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) was submitted. A summary of completed studies on diagnostic convective parameterization was presented at the Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography Convergence last February. These investigations of diabatic heating in the SPCZ have demonstrated the requirement for a more quantitative description of atmospheric moisture. As a result, efforts were directed toward use of passive remote microwave measurements from the Nimbus-7 SMMR and the DOD's Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI/I) as critical sources of moisture data. Activities this year are summarized.

  1. Distributed fiber optic moisture intrusion sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2003-06-24

    Method and system for monitoring and identifying moisture intrusion in soil such as is contained in landfills housing radioactive and/or hazardous waste. The invention utilizes the principle that moist or wet soil has a higher thermal conductance than dry soil. The invention employs optical time delay reflectometry in connection with a distributed temperature sensing system together with heating means in order to identify discrete areas within a volume of soil wherein temperature is lower. According to the invention an optical element and, optionally, a heating element may be included in a cable or other similar structure and arranged in a serpentine fashion within a volume of soil to achieve efficient temperature detection across a large area or three dimensional volume of soil. Remediation, moisture countermeasures, or other responsive action may then be coordinated based on the assumption that cooler regions within a soil volume may signal moisture intrusion where those regions are located.

  2. Drought episodes in the climatological sinks of the Mediterranean moisture source: The role of moisture transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drumond, Anita; Gimeno, Luis; Nieto, Raquel; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.

    2017-04-01

    It is well known from previous work that the regions most affected by moisture transport from the Mediterranean Sea (MED) are central-eastern Europe and the eastern Mediterranean. We apply a Lagrangian approach to investigate whether severe drought episodes observed in these areas, hereafter referred to as the climatological moisture sinks of the MED source, are associated with changes in moisture transport from the basin. The drought events were identified for both hydrological summer and winter using the Standardised Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). The analyses were complemented with fields of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) over the sinks, together with evaporation over MED and the vertically integrated moisture flux. According to our results, a significant reduction in the moisture contribution from MED is evident in events for both summer and winter, as evidenced by the values accumulated over the episodes concerned. Anomalies in MED evaporation presented seasonal contrasts, i.e., a reduction in winter and an increase in summer episodes. In terms of interannual variability, linear correlation analyses show that in winter, the SPEI over the sinks is more associated with moisture transport from the MED than with MED evaporation. The correlation between moisture contribution from MED and the sink SPEI/precipitation is stronger in winter than summer.

  3. Blood lead levels in children after phase-out of leaded gasoline in Kinshasa, the capital of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

    PubMed

    Tuakuila, Joel; Kabamba, Martin; Mata, Honoré; Mata, Gerard

    2013-04-04

    The phasing out of lead from gasoline has resulted in a significant decrease in blood lead levels (BLLs) in children during the last two decades. Tetraethyl lead was phased out in DRC in 2009. The objective of this study was to test for reduction in pediatric BLLs in Kinshasa, by comparing BLLs collected in 2011 (2 years after use of leaded gasoline was phased out) to those collected in surveys conducted in 2004 and 2008 by Tuakuila et al. (when leaded gasoline was still used). We analyzed BLLs in a total of 100 children under 6 years of age (Mean ± SD: 2.9 ± 1.6 age, 64% boys) using inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometry (ICP - MS). The prevalence of elevated BLLs (≥ 10 μg/dL) in children tested was 63% in 2004 [n = 100, GM (95% CI) = 12.4 μg/dL (11.4 - 13.3)] and 71% in 2008 [(n = 55, GM (95% CI) = 11.2 μg/dL (10.3 - 14.4)]. In the present study, this prevalence was 41%. The average BLLs for the current study population [GM (95% CI) = 8.7 μg/dL (8.0 - 9.5)] was lower than those found by Tuakuila et al. (F = 10.38, p <0.001) as well as the CDC level of concern (10 μ/dL), with 3% of children diagnosed with BLLs ≥ 20 μg/dL. These results demonstrate a significant success of the public health system in Kinshasa, DRC-achieved by the removal of lead from gasoline. However, with increasing evidence that adverse health effects occur at BLLs < 10 μg/dL and no safe BLLs in children has been identified, the BLLs measured in this study continue to constitute a major public health concern for Kinshasa. The emphasis should shift to examine the contributions of non-gasoline sources to children's BLLs: car batteries recycling in certain residences, the traditional use of fired clay for the treatment of gastritis by pregnant women and leaded paint.

  4. The urban moisture climate

    Treesearch

    Douglas L. Sisterson

    1977-01-01

    Data collected on 26 July 1974 as a part of project METROMEX in St. Louis show the three-dimensional structure of the urban moisture field. Mesoscale dry regions at the urban surface, corresponding to large residential and light industrial land-use characterization, were responsible for a reduction in specific humidity in the urban mixing layer. Anthropogenic sources...

  5. Tropical Pacific moisture variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguirk, James P.

    1989-01-01

    Research objectives are to: (1) describe the synoptic scale variability of moisture over the tropical Pacific Ocean; (2) describe the systems leading to this variability; and (3) develop and implement satellite analysis procedures to facilitate (1) and (2) over the data sparse Pacific.

  6. Physical properties of coriander seeds at different moisture content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, S.; Singh, K. K.; Kumar, R.

    2012-10-01

    Physical properties of coriander seeds were determined at moisture content of 3.5-17.7%, d.b. The major axis and 1 000 seeds mass were found to decrease nonlinearly with increase in seed moisture. The medium and minor axes, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, unit volume, surface area and angle of repose increased linearly. Bulk density decreased linearly, however the true density increased non-linearly. The coefficient of static friction increased nonlinearly for different surfaces with increase in moisture level and its maximum was found for plywood surface. The rupture force and energy absorbed decreased linearly with increasing moisture content.

  7. Concerning the relationship between evapotranspiration and soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetzel, Peter J.; Chang, Jy-Tai

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between the evapotranspiration and soil moisture during the drying, supply-limited phase is studied. A second scaling parameter, based on the evapotranspirational supply and demand concept of Federer (1982), is defined; the parameter, referred to as the threshold evapotranspiration, occurs in vegetation-covered surfaces just before leaf stomata close and when surface tension restricts moisture release from bare soil pores. A simple model for evapotranspiration is proposed. The effects of natural soil heterogeneities on evapotranspiration computed from the model are investigated. It is observed that the natural variability in soil moisture, caused by the heterogeneities, alters the relationship between regional evapotranspiration and the area average soil moisture.

  8. Concerning the relationship between evapotranspiration and soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetzel, Peter J.; Chang, Jy-Tai

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between the evapotranspiration and soil moisture during the drying, supply-limited phase is studied. A second scaling parameter, based on the evapotranspirational supply and demand concept of Federer (1982), is defined; the parameter, referred to as the threshold evapotranspiration, occurs in vegetation-covered surfaces just before leaf stomata close and when surface tension restricts moisture release from bare soil pores. A simple model for evapotranspiration is proposed. The effects of natural soil heterogeneities on evapotranspiration computed from the model are investigated. It is observed that the natural variability in soil moisture, caused by the heterogeneities, alters the relationship between regional evapotranspiration and the area average soil moisture.

  9. Large Scale Evaluation of AMSR-E Soil Moisture Products Based on Ground Soil Moisture Network Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruhier, C.; de Rosnay, P.; Richaume, P.; Kerr, Y.; Rudiger, C.; Boulet, G.; Walker, J. P.; Mougin, E.; Ceschia, E.; Calvet, J.

    2007-05-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS) soil moisture products, based on a comparison with three ground soil moisture networks. The selected ground sites are representative of various climatic, hydrologic and environmental conditions in temperate and semi-arid areas. They are located in the south-west of France, south-east of Australia and the Gourma region of the Sahel. These sites were respectively implemented in the framework of the projects SMOSREX (Surface Monitoring Of Soil Reservoir Experiment), SASMAS/GoREx (Scaling and Assimilation of Soil Moisture and Streamflow in the Goulburn River Experimental catchment) and AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis). In all cases, the arrangement of the soil moisture measuring sites was specifically designed to address the validation of remotely sensed soil moisture in the context of the preparation of the SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) project. For the purpose of this study, 25km AMSR-E products were used, including brightness temperatures at 6.9 and 10.7 GHz, and derived soil moisture. The study is focused on the year 2005. It is based on ground soil moisture network measurements from 4 stations for SMOSREX extended to the SUDOUEST project of CESBIO, 12 stations for GoRex, and 4 stations for AMMA. Temporal and spatial features of soil moisture variability and stability is a critical issue to be addressed for remotely sensed soil moisture validation. While ground measurements provide information on soil moisture dynamics at local scale and high temporal resolution (hourly), satellite measurements are sparser in time (up to several days), but cover a larger region (25km x 25km for AMSR-E). First, a statistical analysis, including mean relative difference and Spearman rank, is conducted for the three soil moisture networks. This method is mainly based on the approach proposed by Cosh et al. (2004) for the purpose of the use of ground networks for

  10. Detection of entrapped moisture in honeycomb sandwich structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallmark, W. B.

    1967-01-01

    Thermal neutron moisture detection system detects entrapped moisture in intercellular areas of bonded honeycomb sandwich structures. A radium/beryllium fast neutron source bombards a specimen. The emitted thermal neutrons from the target nucleus are detected and counted by a boron trifluoride thermal neutron detector.

  11. SMOS Soil Moisture Validation with Dense and Sparse Networks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Validation is an important but particularly challenging task for passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture from Earth orbit. The key issue is spatial scale; conventional measurements of soil moisture are made at a point whereas satellite sensors provide an integrated area/volume value for a ...

  12. Remote Satellite Soil Moisture Mapping for the ERDC Countermine Simulation Test Bed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    river beds, deserts, riparian areas and forests; 2. Development of a reliable downscaling procedure for Landsat soil moisture maps (30 m) to Quickbird...on roads and in river beds, deserts, riparian areas and forests; 2. Development of a reliable downscaling procedure for Landsat soil moisture maps... river the QuickBird soil moisture seems to be too low (Figures 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12) while on the asphalt road the soil moisture is estimated too high (13

  13. Assessment of NGNP Moisture Ingress Events

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Landman

    2011-04-01

    An assessment of modular HTGR moisture ingress events, making use of a phenomena identification and ranking process, was conducted by a panel of experts in the related areas for the U.S. next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) design. Consideration was given mainly to the prismatic core gas-cooled reactor configurations incorporating a steam generator within the primary circuit.

  14. A GIS-derived integrated moisture index

    Treesearch

    Louis R. Iverson; Anantha M. Prasad

    2003-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) approach was used in conjunction with forest-plot data to develop an integrated moisture index (IMI) that is being used to stratify and help explain landscape-level phenomena in the four study areas. Several landscape features (a slope-aspect shading index, cumulative flow of water downslope, curvature of the landscape, and water-...

  15. Derivation of Soil Moisture Patterns from a simple Soil Moisture Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korres, W.; Schneider, K.; Reichenau, T. G.; Esch, S.

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture and its spatio-temporal pattern is one of the main drivers in complex soil-vegetation-atmosphere exchange processes. In order to observe long-term patterns of surface soil moisture, we analyzed a historical data set of ERS SAR (synthetic aperture radar) data using 85 ERS scenes from 1995-2003 for the Rur catchment (2364 km2) in Western Germany. The ERS satellites operated in C-band and single-channel VV polarization. To derive surface soil moisture from the microwave backscatter intensity, the influence of surface roughness and vegetation biomass on the backscatter must be taken into account. Thus, a simple soil moisture index was developed to retrieve semi-quantitative information about spatial soil moisture patterns with a simple yet robust approach. By using data from all available scenes for each month of the year, histograms of σ0-values for each agricultural land use class (cereals, sugar beet, pasture) were generated. Within each of these histograms, the influence of biomass and surface roughness on backscatter is assumed to be constant. Thus, changes in backscatter intensity are due to changes in surface soil moisture. Since the histograms are based on data from 8 years, we assume that each histogram contains pixels representing the wet and the dry soil moisture state. An index was spanned between high and low backscatter values, identifying wet and dry areas. By using soil texture information of the given location, the qualitative index can be translated into volumetric soil moisture. The resulting soil moisture maps were compared to precipitation data from nearby meteorological stations.

  16. Validation of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite soil moisture retrieval in an Arctic tundra environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrona, Elizabeth; Rowlandson, Tracy L.; Nambiar, Manoj; Berg, Aaron A.; Colliander, Andreas; Marsh, Philip

    2017-05-01

    This study examines the Soil Moisture Active Passive soil moisture product on the Equal Area Scalable Earth-2 (EASE-2) 36 km Global cylindrical and North Polar azimuthal grids relative to two in situ soil moisture monitoring networks that were installed in 2015 and 2016. Results indicate that there is no relationship between the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Level-2 passive soil moisture product and the upscaled in situ measurements. Additionally, there is very low correlation between modeled brightness temperature using the Community Microwave Emission Model and the Level-1 C SMAP brightness temperature interpolated to the EASE-2 Global grid; however, there is a much stronger relationship to the brightness temperature measurements interpolated to the North Polar grid, suggesting that the soil moisture product could be improved with interpolation on the North Polar grid.

  17. Moisture monitoring in waste disposal surface barriers.

    PubMed

    Brandelik, Alex; Huebner, Christof

    2003-05-01

    Surface barriers for waste disposal sites should prevent waste water and gas emission into the environment. It is necessary to assess their proper operation by monitoring the water regime of the containment. A set of three new water content measuring devices has been developed that provide an economical solution for monitoring the moisture distribution and water dynamic. They will give an early warning service if the barrier system is at risk of being damaged. The cryo soil moisture sensor 'LUMBRICUS' is an in situ self-calibrating absolute water content measuring device. It measures moisture profiles at spot locations down to 2.5 m depth with an accuracy of better than 1.5% and a depth resolution of 0.03 m. The sensor inherently measures density changes and initial cracks of shrinking materials like clay minerals. The large area soil moisture sensor 'TAUPE' is a moisture sensitive electric cable network to be buried in the mineral barrier material of the cover. A report will be given with results and experiences on an exemplary installation at the Waste Disposal Facility Karlsruhe-West. 800 m2 of the barrier construction have been continuously monitored since December 1997. Volumetric water content differences of 1.5% have been detected and localised within 4 m. This device is already installed in two other waste disposal sites. A modified 'TAUPE' was constructed for the control of tunnels and river dams as well. Thin sheet moisture sensor 'FORMI' is specifically designed for moisture measurements in liners like bentonite, textile and plastic. Due to its flexibility it follows the curvature of the liner. The sensor measures independently from neighbouring materials and can be matched to a wide range of different thickness of the material. The sensors are patented in several countries.

  18. Brief Report: Decentralizing ART Supply for Stable HIV Patients to Community-Based Distribution Centers: Program Outcomes From an Urban Context in Kinshasa, DRC

    PubMed Central

    Kalenga, Lucien; Lukela, Jean; Salumu, Freddy; Diallo, Ibrahim; Nico, Elena; Lampart, Emmanuel; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Shah, Safieh; Ogundahunsi, Olumide; Zachariah, Rony; Van Griensven, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Facility-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) provision for stable patients with HIV congests health services in resource-limited countries. We assessed outcomes and risk factors for attrition after decentralization to community-based ART refill centers among 2603 patients with HIV in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, using a multilevel Poisson regression model. Death, loss to follow-up, and transfer out were 0.3%, 9.0%, and 0.7%, respectively, at 24 months. Overall attrition was 5.66/100 person-years. Patients with >3 years on ART, >500 cluster of differentiation type-4 count, body mass index >18.5, and receiving nevirapine but not stavudine showed reduced attrition. ART refill centers are a promising task-shifting model in low-prevalence urban settings with high levels of stigma and poor ART coverage. PMID:27787343

  19. Electric moisture meters for wood

    Treesearch

    William L. James

    1963-01-01

    Common methods of measuring the moisture content of wood are described briefly, and a short historical account of the development of electric moisture meters is given. Electrical properties of wood are discussed briefly, and the basic operation of the resistance type and the radio- frequency types of moisture meter is outlined. Data relating the electrical resistance...

  20. Electric moisture meters for wood

    Treesearch

    William L. James

    1988-01-01

    Electric moisture meters for wood measure electric conductance (resistance) or dielectric properties, which vary fairly consistently with moisture content when it is less than 30 percent. The two major classes of electric moisture meters are the conductance (resistance) type and the dielectric type. Conductance-t ype meters use penetrating electrodes that measure in a...

  1. Moisturizer allergy: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Zirwas, Matthew J; Stechschulte, Sarah A

    2008-11-01

    Moisturizers are used by patients with dry skin conditions as well as those with healthy skin to enhance and preserve the smoothness of the skin and to interrupt the dry-skin cycle. Moisturizers are generally considered safe, although skin reactions, such as allergic contact dermatitis from topical preparations may occur. Cosmetic products including moisturizers are among the main culprits of allergic contact dermatitis. Utilizing a recently published database of all moisturizers available at Walgreens Pharmacies (Chicago, Illinois), which listed each product's allergens from the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) screening panel, we evaluated the number of moisturizers containing each allergen. Of the 276 moisturizers accounted for in the database, 68 percent contained fragrance making it the most common allergen found in these moisturizers. Parabens were discovered in 62 percent of moisturizers, followed by Vitamin E in 55 percent of products. Essential oils and biologic additives were found in 45 percent of products, followed by benzyl alcohol in 24 percent of moisturizers. Propylene glycol was found in 20 percent of moisturizers, followed by formaldehyde releasers in 20 percent of products. Iodopropynyl butylcarbamate was discovered in 16 percent of products, followed by lanolin in 10 percent of moisturizers. Methylisothiazolinone/methylchloroisothiazolinone was found in six percent of available products. Many ingredients of moisturizers have the potential to cause irritant and allergic contact dermatitis; therefore, it is necessary for clinicians to be aware of such potential allergens in order to manage and advise their patients accordingly.

  2. A Redesigned DFA Moisture Meter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The DFA moisture meter has been internationally recognized as the standard for determining moisture content of dried fruit in general and is AOAC Official Method 972.2 for measuring moisture in prunes and raisins since 1972. The device has remained virtually unchanged since its inception, with its o...

  3. Variability of Moisture Sources and Moisture Transport in the East Asian Monsoon System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fremme, Astrid; Sodemann, Harald

    2016-04-01

    The rainfall of the East Asian Monsoon is of key importance for livelihoods in the densely populated area of China, Japan and Korea. The interplay of many factors, including land surface processes, makes monsoon precipitation difficult to predict. To contribute to improved precipitation prediction we investigate the atmospheric mechanisms importing moisture to the region. In previous studies moisture transport has mainly been analysed by examining a combination of temperature, pressure, winds and water vapour content. However this has been done without linking precipitation to its moisture sources directly. In this project we use the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART and the diagnostic tool WaterSip to analyse ERA Interim reanalysis data to obtain a link between precipitation and its moisture sources. The total atmospheric mass is subdivided into millions air parcels, which are traced backwards for 20 days for each rainfall event in the 34 year ERA-Interim period. Specific humidity changes are interpreted as evaporation and precipitation in the area beneath the parcel with the help of a sophisticated accounting method related to target precipitation. Results on the relationship between source and sink areas reflect changes in the conditions of the source regions and in moisture transport. We investigate the moisture transport mechanisms for both seasonal and inter-annual variations during the study period 1979-2013. Preliminary results show that the sources for precipitation in the Yangtze River Valley (YRV) in China have a clear seasonal cycle in terms of location and evaporation conditions. Land areas outside the YRV Region contribute most of the moisture. The second largest source is inside the YRV region itself. For monthly means the sum of all direct oceanic sources rarely exceeds 20%. Recycling of moisture from land surfaces outside the target regions therefore seems to play a pivotal role in the East Asian Monsoon's moisture budget. Contrasting

  4. Soil moisture needs in earth sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engman, Edwin T.

    1992-01-01

    The author reviews the development of passive and active microwave techniques for measuring soil moisture with respect to how the data may be used. New science programs such as the EOS, the GEWEX Continental-Scale International Project (GCIP) and STORM, a mesoscale meteorology and hydrology project, will have to account for soil moisture either as a storage in water balance computations or as a state variable in-process modeling. The author discusses future soil moisture needs such as frequency of measurement, accuracy, depth, and spatial resolution, as well as the concomitant model development that must proceed concurrently if the development in microwave technology is to have a major impact in these areas.

  5. Microwave remote sensing of soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiue, J. C.; Wang, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge of soil moisture is important to many disciplines, such as agriculture, hydrology, and meteorology. Soil moisture distribution of vast regions can be measured efficiently only with remote sensing techniques from airborne or satellite platforms. At low microwave frequencies, water has a much larger dielectric constant than dry soil. This difference manifests itself in surface emissivity (or reflectivity) change between dry and wet soils, and can be measured by a microwave radiometer or radar. The Microwave Sensors and Data Communications Branch is developing microwave remote sensing techniques using both radar and radiometry, but primarily with microwave radiometry. The efforts in these areas range from developing algorithms for data interpretation to conducting feasibility studies for space systems, with a primary goal of developing a microwave radiometer for soil moisture measurement from satellites, such as EOS or the Space Station. These efforts are listed.

  6. Root-zone soil moisture estimation from assimilation of downscaled Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumedah, Gift; Walker, Jeffrey P.; Merlin, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    The crucial role of root-zone soil moisture is widely recognized in land-atmosphere interaction, with direct practical use in hydrology, agriculture and meteorology. But it is difficult to estimate the root-zone soil moisture accurately because of its space-time variability and its nonlinear relationship with surface soil moisture. Typically, direct satellite observations at the surface are extended to estimate the root-zone soil moisture through data assimilation. But the results suffer from low spatial resolution of the satellite observation. While advances have been made recently to downscale the satellite soil moisture from Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission using methods such as the Disaggregation based on Physical And Theoretical scale Change (DisPATCh), the assimilation of such data into high spatial resolution land surface models has not been examined to estimate the root-zone soil moisture. Consequently, this study assimilates the 1-km DisPATCh surface soil moisture into the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) to better estimate the root-zone soil moisture. The assimilation is demonstrated using the advanced Evolutionary Data Assimilation (EDA) procedure for the Yanco area in south eastern Australia. When evaluated using in-situ OzNet soil moisture, the open loop was found to be 95% as accurate as the updated output, with the updated estimate improving the DisPATCh data by 14%, all based on the root mean square error (RMSE). Evaluation of the root-zone soil moisture with in-situ OzNet data found the updated output to improve the open loop estimate by 34% for the 0-30 cm soil depth, 59% for the 30-60 cm soil depth, and 63% for the 60-90 cm soil depth, based on RMSE. The increased performance of the updated output over the open loop estimate is associated with (i) consistent estimation accuracy across the three soil depths for the updated output, and (ii) the deterioration of the open loop output for deeper soil depths. Thus, the

  7. Soil moisture variation patterns observed in Hand County, South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, E. B.; Owe, M.; Schmugge, T. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Soil moisture data were taken during 1976 (April, June, October), 1977 (April, May, June), and 1978 (May, June, July) Hand County, South Dakota as part of the ground truth used in NASA's aircraft experiments to study the use of microwave radiometers for the remote sensing of soil moisture. The spatial variability observed on the ground during each of the sampling events was studied. The data reported are the mean gravimetric soil moisture contained in three surface horizon depths: 0 to 2.5, 0 to 5 and 0 to 10 cm. The overall moisture levels ranged from extremely dry conditions in June 1976 to very wet in May 1978, with a relatively even distribution of values within that range. It is indicated that well drained sites have to be partitioned from imperfectly drained areas when attempting to characterize the general moisture profile throughout an area of varying soil and cover type conditions. It is also found that the variability in moisture content is greatest in the 0 to 2.5 cm measurements and decreases as the measurements are integrated over a greater depth. It is also determined that the sampling intensity of 10 measurements per km is adequate to estimate the mean moisture with an uncertainty of + or - 3 percent under average moisture conditions in areas of moderate to good drainage.

  8. On Soil Moisture Retrieval and Target Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubois, Pascale C.; vanZyl, Jakob

    1996-01-01

    In an earlier study, an empirical model was developed to infer soil moisture and surface roughness from radar data. The inversion technique was extensively tested over bare surfaces by comparing the estimated soil moisture to in situ measurements. The overall RMS error in the soil moisture estimate was found to be 3.5% and the RMS error in the RMS height estimate was less than 0.35 cm absolute for bare or slightly vegetated surfaces. However, inversion results indicate that significant amounts of vegetation cause the algorithm to underestimate soil moisture and overestimate RMS height. Among the areas over which the inversion cannot be applied, the areas with intermediate vegetation cover are of particular interest as both the vegetation and the underlying bare surface affect the backscatter. This paper concentrates mostly on these areas. Using the full polarimetric information and the Cloude target decomposition approach. Three different components of the target backscattering can be isolated. One of these three components can be identified as the surface component in the case of intermediate vegetation cover. Once the surface component of the scattering is isolated, the bare surface inversion can then be applied.

  9. On Soil Moisture Retrieval and Target Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubois, Pascale C.; vanZyl, Jakob

    1996-01-01

    In an earlier study, an empirical model was developed to infer soil moisture and surface roughness from radar data. The inversion technique was extensively tested over bare surfaces by comparing the estimated soil moisture to in situ measurements. The overall root mean square (RMS) error in the soil moisture estimate was found to be about 3.5% and the RMS error in the RMS height estimate was less than 0.35 cm absolute for bare or slightly vegetated surfaces. However, inversion results indicate that significant amounts of vegetation cause the algorithm to underestimate soil moisture and overestimate RMS height. Among the areas over which the inversion cannot be applied, the areas with intermediate vegetation cover are of particular interest as both the vegetation and the underlying bare surface affect the backscatter. This paper concentrates mostly on these areas. Using the full polarimetric information and the Cloude target decomposition approach, three different components of the target backscattering can be isolated. One of these three components can be identified as the surface component in the case of intermediate vegetation cover. Once the surface component of the scattering is isolated, the bare surface inversion can then be applied.

  10. Moisture Metrics Project

    SciTech Connect

    Schuchmann, Mark

    2011-08-31

    the goal of this project was to determine the optimum moisture levels for biomass processing for pellets commercially, by correlating data taken from numerous points in the process, and across several different feedstock materials produced and harvested using a variety of different management practices. This was to be done by correlating energy consumption and material through put rates with the moisture content of incoming biomass ( corn & wheat stubble, native grasses, weeds, & grass straws), and the quality of the final pellet product.This project disseminated the data through a public website, and answering questions form universities across Missouri that are engaged in biomass conversion technologies. Student interns from a local university were employed to help collect data, which enabled them to learn firsthand about biomass processing.

  11. Moisture origin and transport processes in Colombia, northern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyos, I.; Dominguez, F.; Cañón-Barriga, J.; Martínez, J. A.; Nieto, R.; Gimeno, L.; Dirmeyer, P. A.

    2017-04-01

    We assess the spatial structure of moisture flux divergence, regional moisture sources and transport processes over Colombia, in northern South America. Using three independent methods the dynamic recycling model (DRM), FLEXPART and the Quasi-isentropic back-trajectory (QIBT) models we quantify the moisture sources that contribute to precipitation over the region. We find that moisture from the Atlantic Ocean and terrestrial recycling are the most important sources of moisture for Colombia, highlighting the importance of the Orinoco and Amazon basins as regional providers of atmospheric moisture. The results show the influence of long-range cross-equatorial flow from the Atlantic Ocean into the target region and the role of the study area as a passage of moisture into South America. We also describe the seasonal moisture transport mechanisms of the well-known low-level westerly and Caribbean jets that originate in the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea, respectively. We find that these dynamical systems play an important role in the convergence of moisture over western Colombia.

  12. EDITORIAL: Microwave Moisture Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaatze, Udo; Kupfer, Klaus; Hübner, Christof

    2007-04-01

    Microwave moisture measurements refer to a methodology by which the water content of materials is non-invasively determined using electromagnetic fields of radio and microwave frequencies. Being the omnipresent liquid on our planet, water occurs as a component in most materials and often exercises a significant influence on their properties. Precise measurements of the water content are thus extremely useful in pure sciences, particularly in biochemistry and biophysics. They are likewise important in many agricultural, technical and industrial fields. Applications are broad and diverse, and include the quality assessment of foodstuffs, the determination of water content in paper, cardboard and textile production, the monitoring of moisture in sands, gravels, soils and constructions, as well as the measurement of water admixtures to coal and crude oil in reservoirs and in pipelines. Microwave moisture measurements and evaluations require insights in various disciplines, such as materials science, dielectrics, the physical chemistry of water, electrodynamics and microwave techniques. The cooperation of experts from the different fields of science is thus necessary for the efficient development of this complex discipline. In order to advance cooperation the Workshop on Electromagnetic Wave Interaction with Water and Moist Substances was held in 1993 in Atlanta. It initiated a series of international conferences, of which the last one was held in 2005 in Weimar. The meeting brought together 130 scientists and engineers from all over the world. This special issue presents a collection of some selected papers that were given at the event. The papers cover most topics of the conference, featuring dielectric properties of aqueous materials, electromagnetic wave interactions, measurement methods and sensors, and various applications. The special issue is dedicated to Dr Andrzej W Kraszewski, who died in July 2006 after a distinguished career of 48 years in the research of

  13. Precision moisture generation and measurement.

    SciTech Connect

    Thornberg, Steven Michael; White, Michael I.; Irwin, Adriane Nadine

    2010-03-01

    In many industrial processes, gaseous moisture is undesirable as it can lead to metal corrosion, polymer degradation, and other materials aging processes. However, generating and measuring precise moisture concentrations is challenging due to the need to cover a broad concentration range (parts-per-billion to percent) and the affinity of moisture to a wide range surfaces and materials. This document will discuss the techniques employed by the Mass Spectrometry Laboratory of the Materials Reliability Department at Sandia National Laboratories to generate and measure known gaseous moisture concentrations. This document highlights the use of a chilled mirror and primary standard humidity generator for the characterization of aluminum oxide moisture sensors. The data presented shows an excellent correlation in frost point measured between the two instruments, and thus provides an accurate and reliable platform for characterizing moisture sensors and performing other moisture related experiments.

  14. Quantifying mesoscale soil moisture with the cosmic-ray rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrisman, B.; Zreda, M.

    2013-12-01

    Soil moisture governs the surface fluxes of mass and energy and is a major influence on floods and drought. Existing techniques measure soil moisture either at a point or over a large area many kilometers across. To bridge these two scales we used the cosmic-ray rover, an instrument similar to the recently developed COSMOS probe, but bigger and mobile. This paper explores the challenges and opportunities for mapping soil moisture over large areas using the cosmic-ray rover. In 2012, soil moisture was mapped 22 times in a 25 km × 40 km survey area of the Tucson Basin at an average of 1.7 km2 resolution, i.e., a survey area extent comparable to that of a pixel for the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission. The soil moisture distribution is dominated by climatic variations, notably by the North American monsoon, that results in a systematic increase in the standard deviation, observed up to 0.022 m3 m-3, as a function of the mean, between 0.06 m3 m-3 and 0.14 m3 m-3. Two techniques are explored to use the cosmic-ray rover data for hydrologic applications: (1) interpolation of the 22 surveys into a daily soil moisture product by defining an approach to utilize and quantify the observed temporal stability producing an average correlation coefficient of 0.82 for the soil moisture distributions that were surveyed, and (2) estimation of soil moisture profiles by combining surface moisture from satellite microwave sensors (SMOS) with deeper measurements from the cosmic-ray rover. The interpolated soil moisture and soil moisture profiles allow for basin-wide mass balance calculation of evapotranspiration, which amounted to 241 mm in 2012. Generating soil moisture maps with a cosmic-ray rover at this intermediate scale may help in the calibration and validation of satellite soil moisture data products and may also aid in various large-scale hydrologic studies.

  15. Measuring Total Surface Moisture with the COSMOS Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrisman, B. B.; Zreda, M.; Franz, T. E.; Rosolem, R.

    2012-12-01

    The COSMOS rover is the mobile application of the cosmic-ray soil moisture probe. By quantifying the relative amount of the hydrogen molecules within the instrument's support volume (~335 m radius in air, 10-70 cm depth in soil) the instrument makes an area-average surface moisture measurement. We call this measurement "total surface moisture". Quantifying hydrogen in all major stocks (soils, infrastructure, vegetation, and water vapor) allows for an isolation of the volumetric fraction of the exchangeable surface moisture. By isolating the hydrogen molecule we can measure the exchangeable surface moisture over all land cover types including those with built-up infrastructure and dense vegetation; two environments which have been challenging to existing technologies. . The cosmic-ray rover has the capability to improve hydrologic, climate, and weather models by parameterizing the exchangeable surface moisture status over complex landscapes. It can also fill a gap in the verification and development processes of surface moisture satellite missions, such as SMOS and SMAP. In our current research program, 2D transects are produced twice a week and 3D maps are produced once a week during the 2012 monsoon season (July-September) within the Tucson Basin. The 40 km x 40 km area includes four land cover classes; developed, scrub (natural Sonoran Desert), crops, and evergreen forest. The different land cover types show significant differences in their surface moisture behavior with irrigation acting as the largest controlling factor in the developed and crop areas. In addition we investigated the use of the cosmic-ray rover data to verify/compare with satellite derived soil moisture. A Maximum Entropy model is being used to create soil moisture profiles from shallow surface measurements (SMOS data). With the cosmic-ray penetration depth and weighting function known, the satellite measurement can be interpolated, weighted and compared with the cosmic-ray measurement when the

  16. Tropical Pacific moisture variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguirk, James P.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives are to describe synoptic scale variability of moisture over the tropical Pacific Ocean and the systems leading to this variability; implement satellite analysis procedures in support of this effort, and to incorporate additional satellite information into operational analysis forecast systems at the National Meteorological Center (NMC). Composite satellite radiance patterns describe features detectable well before the development of synoptic scale tropical plumes. These typical features were extracted from historical files of Tiros Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) radiance observations for a pair of tropical plumes which developed during January 1989. Signals were inserted into the NMC operational medium range forecast model and a suite of model integrations were conducted. Many of the 48 h model errors of the historical forecasts were eliminated by the inclusion of more complete satellite observations. Three studies in satellite radiance analysis progressed. An analysis which blended TOVS moisture channels, OLR observations and European Center for Medium Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model analysis to generate fields of total precipitable water comparable to those estimated from Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) mu-wave observations. This study demonstrated that a 10 y climatology of precipitable water over the oceans is feasible, using available infrared observations (OLR and TOVS) and model analysis (ECMWF, NMC or similar quality). The estimates are sensitive to model quality and the estimating model must be updated with operational model changes. Coe developed a set of tropical plume and ITCZ composites from TOVS observations, and from NMC and ECMWF analyses which had been passed through a radiative transfer model to simulate TOVS radiances. The composites have been completed as well as many statistical diagnostics of individual TOVS channels. Analysis of the computations is commencing. Chung has initiated a study of the

  17. The deforestation of rural areas in the Lower Congo Province.

    PubMed

    Iloweka, Ernest Manganda

    2004-12-01

    The Lower Congo is one of eleven provinces in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and is located southwest of Kinshasa Town Province. It has an area of approximately 53.947 km2 with a population of 1,504,361 at an estimated 237 persons per km2. The Province comprises five districts, including Lukaya and Cataracts where rural poverty is severe and the population struggle to make a living through agriculture and woodcutting. These activities result in excessive resource exploitation. The high demand for foodstuffs and the high consumption of wood (for energy, construction and export) in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of Congo and the expanding towns of Matadi and Boma in the Lower Congo Province, are speeding the deforestation rate and unbalancing forest ecosystems. In addition there is the stress resulting from reduced josher (the rest period for agriculture ground), plus climate change and erosion. The phenomena that that we need to address in these two districts include deforestation, reduced josher, excessive agriculture, erosion, burning and climate change which taken together largely explain the current soil degradation. These areas are marked by excessive post deforestation savannah formation and extended areas of sandy soil, distributed throughout grass and shrub savannahs. This desertification, which is rampant in Lukaya and Cataracts, risks imprisoning the rural population in a vicious cycle of poverty if adequate solutions are not found.

  18. Soil moisture in sessile oak forest gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagyvainé Kiss, Katalin Anita; Vastag, Viktor; Gribovszki, Zoltán; Kalicz, Péter

    2015-04-01

    By social demands are being promoted the aspects of the natural forest management. In forestry the concept of continuous forest has been an accepted principle also in Hungary since the last decades. The first step from even-aged stand to continuous forest can be the forest regeneration based on gap cutting, so small openings are formed in a forest due to forestry interventions. This new stand structure modifies the hydrological conditions for the regrowth. Without canopy and due to the decreasing amounts of forest litter the interception is less significant so higher amount of precipitation reaching the soil. This research focuses on soil moisture patterns caused by gaps. The spatio-temporal variability of soil water content is measured in gaps and in surrounding sessile oak (Quercus petraea) forest stand. Soil moisture was determined with manual soil moisture meter which use Time-Domain Reflectometry (TDR) technology. The three different sizes gaps (G1: 10m, G2: 20m, G3: 30m) was opened next to Sopron on the Dalos Hill in Hungary. First, it was determined that there is difference in soil moisture between forest stand and gaps. Second, it was defined that how the gap size influences the soil moisture content. To explore the short term variability of soil moisture, two 24-hour (in growing season) and a 48-hour (in dormant season) field campaign were also performed in case of the medium-sized G2 gap along two/four transects. Subdaily changes of soil moisture were performed. The measured soil moisture pattern was compared with the radiation pattern. It was found that the non-illuminated areas were wetter and in the dormant season the subdaily changes cease. According to our measurements, in the gap there is more available water than under the forest stand due to the less evaporation and interception loss. Acknowledgements: The research was supported by TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV-2012-0004 and AGRARKLIMA.2 VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034.

  19. Validation of SMOS Satellite Soil Moisture Products over Tropical Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanniah, Kasturi; Siang, Kang Chuen

    2016-07-01

    Calibration and validation (cal/val) activities on Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite derived soil moisture products has been conducted worldwide since the data has become available but not over the tropical region . This study focuses on the installation of a soil moisture data collection network over an agricultural site in a tropical region in Peninsular Malaysia, and the validation of SMOS soil moisture products. The in-situ data over one year period was analysed and validation of SMOS Soil Moisture products with these in-situ data was conducted.Bias and root mean square errors (RMSE) were computed between SMOS soil moisture products and the in-situ surface soil moisture collected at the satellite passing time (6 am and 6 pm local time). Due to the known limitations of SMOS soil moisture retrieval over vegetated areas with vegetation water content higher than 5 kgm-2, overestimation of SMOS soil moisture products to in-situ data was noticed in this study. The bias is ranging from 0.064 to 0.119 m3m-3 and the RMSE is from 0.090 to 0.158 m3m-3, when both ascending and descending data were validated. This RMSE was found to be similar to a number of studies conducted previously at different regions. However a wet bias was found during the validation, while previous validation activities at other regions showed dry biases. The result of this study is useful to support the continuous development and improvement of SMOS soil moisture retrieval model, aims to produce soil moisture products with higher accuracy, especially in the tropical region.

  20. Assimilating soil moisture into an Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacke, Tobias; Hagemann, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    , the largest differences between both simulations are seen for continental areas, while regions with a maritime climate are least sensitive to soil moisture assimilation.

  1. Moisture dependent physical properties of lathyrus.

    PubMed

    Kenghe, Rajendra Narayan; Nimkar, Prabhakar Manohar; Shirkole, Shivanand Shankarrao

    2013-10-01

    The moisture dependent physical properties of different lathyrus varieties namely NLK-40, Pratik and Ratan were studied at moisture content of 7.33 to 30.29, 6.75 to 29.95 and 7.90 to 30.90% (d.b.), respectively. The grain size, thousand grain weight, angle of repose, grain volume and surface area were found increased linearly. The grain size was found increased from 4.43 to 4.70, 4.96 to 5.32 and 5.08 to 5.49 mm. Thousand grain weight was found increased from 64.6 to 103.5, 69.1 to 105.3 and 85.3 to 125.6 g. The angle repose was increased from 28.3 to 35.4, 29.5 to 35.8 and 26.9 to 33.5°. The grain volume was increased from 9.13 to 10.38,11.73 to 13.24 and 12.22 to 14.15 mm(3) whereas, surface area increased from 54.78 to 62.29, 70.38 to 79.45 and 73.31 to 84.88 mm(2),respectively with the corresponding increase in moisture content, for NLK-40, Pratik and Ratan. The sphericity and porosity increased initially and then found decreased with increase in further moisture content. The bulk density values decreased linearly from 827.5 to 697.2, 851.3 to 726.3 and 856.0 to 727.4 kg/m(3). The true density values were found decreased from 1288.3 to 1074.3, 1324.0 to 1118.4 and 1277.7 to 1102.5 kg/m(3), respectively for these varieties with the corresponding increase in moisture content.

  2. Soil Moisture Project Evaluation Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, R. H. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Approaches planned or being developed for measuring and modeling soil moisture parameters are discussed. Topics cover analysis of spatial variability of soil moisture as a function of terrain; the value of soil moisture information in developing stream flow data; energy/scene interactions; applications of satellite data; verifying soil water budget models; soil water profile/soil temperature profile models; soil moisture sensitivity analysis; combinations of the thermal model and microwave; determing planetary roughness and field roughness; how crust or a soil layer effects microwave return; truck radar; and truck/aircraft radar comparison.

  3. Catchment scale soil moisture spatial-temporal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocca, L.; Tullo, T.; Melone, F.; Moramarco, T.; Morbidelli, R.

    2012-02-01

    SummaryThe characterization of the spatial-temporal variability of soil moisture is of paramount importance in many scientific fields and operational applications. However, due to the high variability of soil moisture, its monitoring over large areas and for extended periods through in situ point measurements is not straightforward. Usually, in the scientific literature, soil moisture variability has been investigated over short periods and in large areas or over long periods but in small areas. In this study, an effort to understanding soil moisture variability at catchment scale (>100 km2), which is the size needed for some hydrological applications and for remote sensing validation analysis, is done. Specifically, measurements were carried out in two adjacent areas located in central Italy with extension of 178 and 242 km2 and over a period of 1 year (35 sampling days) with almost weekly frequency except for the summer period because of soil hardness. For each area, 46 sites were monitored and, for each site, 3 measurements were performed to obtain reliable soil moisture estimates. Soil moisture was measured with a portable Time Domain Reflectometer for a layer depth of 0-15 cm. A statistical and temporal stability analysis is employed to assess the space-time variability of soil moisture at local and catchment scale. Moreover, by comparing the results with those obtained in previous studies conducted in the same study area, a synthesis of soil moisture variability for a range of spatial scales, from few square meters to several square kilometers, is attempted. For the investigated area, the two main findings inferred are: (1) the spatial variability of soil moisture increases with the area up to ˜10 km2 and then remains quite constant with an average coefficient of variation equal to ˜0.20; (2) regardless of the areal extension, the soil moisture exhibits temporal stability features and, hence, few measurements can be used to infer areal mean values with a

  4. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Lepage, R.; Schumacher, C.; Lukachko, A.

    2013-11-01

    The following report explains the moisture-related concerns for High R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. Hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones (2, 3, 4C, 4, 5A, and 7, respectively). The simulations are informed by experience gained from past research in this area and validated by field measurement and forensic experience. The modeling program was developed to assess the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage. The peak annual moisture content of the wood based exterior sheathing was used to comparatively analyze the response to the moisture loads for each of the walls in each given city. Walls which experienced sheathing moisture contents between 20% and 28% were identified as risky, whereas those exceeding 28% were identified as very high risk. All of the wall assemblies perform well under idealized conditions. However, only the walls with exterior insulation, or cavity insulation which provides a hygrothermal function similar to exterior insulation, perform adequately when exposed to moisture loads. Walls with only cavity insulation are particularly susceptible to air leakage condensation. None of the walls performed well when a precipitation based bulk water leak was introduced to the backside of the sheathing, emphasizing the importance of proper flashing details.

  5. Moisture Management of High-R Walls (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2013-12-01

    The following report explains the moisture-related concerns for High R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. Hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones (2, 3, 4C, 4, 5A, and 7, respectively). The simulations are informed by experience gained from past research in this area and validated by field measurement and forensic experience. The modeling program was developed to assess the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage. The peak annual moisture content of the wood based exterior sheathing was used to comparatively analyze the response to the moisture loads for each of the walls in each given city. Walls which experienced sheathing moisture contents between 20% and 28% were identified as risky, whereas those exceeding 28% were identified as very high risk. All of the wall assemblies perform well under idealized conditions. However, only the walls with exterior insulation, or cavity insulation which provides a hygrothermal function similar to exterior insulation, perform adequately when exposed to moisture loads. Walls with only cavity insulation are particularly susceptible to air leakage condensation. None of the walls performed well when a precipitation based bulk water leak was introduced to the backside of the sheathing, emphasizing the importance of proper flashing details.

  6. A microwave systems approach to measuring root zone soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, R. W.; Paris, J. F.; Clark, B. V.

    1983-01-01

    Computer microwave satellite simulation models were developed and the program was used to test the ability of a coarse resolution passive microwave sensor to measure soil moisture over large areas, and to evaluate the effect of heterogeneous ground covers with the resolution cell on the accuracy of the soil moisture estimate. The use of realistic scenes containing only 10% to 15% bare soil and significant vegetation made it possible to observe a 60% K decrease in brightness temperature from a 5% soil moisture to a 35% soil moisture at a 21 cm microwave wavelength, providing a 1.5 K to 2 K per percent soil moisture sensitivity to soil moisture. It was shown that resolution does not affect the basic ability to measure soil moisture with a microwave radiometer system. Experimental microwave and ground field data were acquired for developing and testing a root zone soil moisture prediction algorithm. The experimental measurements demonstrated that the depth of penetration at a 21 cm microwave wavelength is not greater than 5 cm.

  7. Soil moisture retrival from Sentinel-1 and Modis synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qi; Zribi, Mehrez; Escorihuela, Maria Jose; Baghdadi, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    This study presents two methodologies retrieving soil moisture from SAR remote sensing data. The study is based on Sentinel-1 data in the VV polarization, over a site in Urgell, Catalunya (Spain). In the two methodologies using change detection techniques, preprocessed radar data are combined with normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) auxiliary data to estimate the mean soil moisture with a resolution of 1km. By modeling the relationship between the backscatter difference and NDVI, the soil moisture at a specific NDVI value is retrieved. The first algorithm is already developed on West Africa(Zribi et al., 2014) from ERS scatterometer data to estimate soil water status. In this study, it is adapted to Sentinel-1 data and take into account the high repetitiveness of data in optimizing the inversion approach. Another new method is developed based on the backscatter difference between two adjacent days of Sentinel-1 data w.r.t. NDVI, with smaller vegetation change, the backscatter difference is more sensitive to soil moisture. The proposed methodologies have been validated with the ground measurement in two demonstrative fields with RMS error about 0.05 (in volumetric moisture), and the coherence between soil moisture variations and rainfall events is observed. Soil moisture maps at 1km resolution are generated for the study area. The results demonstrate the potential of Sentinel-1 data for the retrieval of soil moisture at 1km or even better resolution.

  8. Evaluation and Application of Remotely Sensed Soil Moisture Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolten, J.; Crow, W.; Zhan, X.; Jackson, T.; Reynolds, C.; Rodell, Matt

    2010-01-01

    Whereas in-situ measurements of soil moisture are very accurate, achieving accurate regional soil moisture estimates derived solely from point measurements is difficult because of the dependence upon the density of the gauge network and the proper upkeep of these instruments, which can be costly. Microwave remote sensing is the only technology capable of providing timely direct measurements of regional soil moisture in areas that are lacking in-situ networks. Soil moisture remote sensing technology is well established has been successfully applied in many fashions to Earth Science applications. Since the microwave emission from the soil surface has such a high dependency upon the moisture content within the soil, we can take advantage of this relationship and combined with physically-based models of the land surface, derive accurate regional estimates of the soil column water content from the microwave brightness temperature observed from satellite-based remote sensing instruments. However, there still remain many questions regarding the most efficient methodology for evaluating and applying satellite-based soil moisture estimates. As discussed below, we to use satellite-based estimates of soil moisture dynamics to improve the predictive capability of an optimized hydrologic model giving more accurate root-zone soil moisture estimates.

  9. Moisture Adsorption Isotherms and Thermodynamic Characteristics of Tannic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Červenka, L.; Cacková, L.

    2016-09-01

    Moisture adsorption isotherms of tannic acid were determined at 5, 15, and 35°C with the use of the static gravimetric method in the range 0.113-0.980 aw (aw is the water activity). It was shown that tannic acid adsorbed more water at 5°C. The experimental data fitted well to the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer and Yanniotis-Blahovec equations, giving the corresponding parameters by nonlinear regression. The monolayer moisture content, number of monolayers, and the surface area of sorption were demonstrated to decrease with increasing temperature. Mesopores dominated below the monolayer moisture content followed by the formation of macropores. The variation of the differential enthalpy and entropy with the moisture content showed that water was strongly bound to the surface of tannic acid below the moisture content 5.0 g water/100 g dry basis. The adsorption process was found to be enthalpy-driven; however, it was not spontaneous at a low moisture content, as follows from the enthalpy-entropy compensation theory. The variation of the net integral enthalpy and entropy (at a constant spreading pressure) with the moisture content exhibited maximum and minimum values, respectively. This behavior indicated that water molecules were strongly bound to the tannic acid surface at the moisture content up to its monolayer values.

  10. Ageing, exposure to pollution, and interactions between climate change and local seasons as oxidant conditions predicting incident hematologic malignancy at KINSHASA University clinics, Democratic Republic of CONGO (DRC).

    PubMed

    Nkanga, Mireille Solange Nganga; Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Adeniyi, Oladele Vincent; Ngwidiwo, Jacques Bikaula; Katawandja, Antoine Lufimbo; Kazadi, Paul Roger Beia; Nzonzila, Alain Nganga

    2017-08-23

    The global burden of hematologic malignancy (HM) is rapidly rising with aging, exposure to polluted environments, and global and local climate variability all being well-established conditions of oxidative stress. However, there is currently no information on the extent and predictors of HM at Kinshasa University Clinics (KUC), DR Congo (DRC). This study evaluated the impact of bio-clinical factors, exposure to polluted environments, and interactions between global climate changes (EL Nino and La Nina) and local climate (dry and rainy seasons) on the incidence of HM. This hospital-based prospective cohort study was conducted at Kinshasa University Clinics in DR Congo. A total of 105 black African adult patients with anaemia between 2009 and 2016 were included. HM was confirmed by morphological typing according to the French-American-British (FAB) Classification System. Gender, age, exposure to traffic pollution and garages/stations, global climate variability (El Nino and La Nina), and local climate (dry and rainy seasons) were potential independent variables to predict incident HM using Cox regression analysis and Kaplan Meier curves. Out of the total 105 patients, 63 experienced incident HM, with an incidence rate of 60%. After adjusting for gender, HIV/AIDS, and other bio-clinical factors, the most significant independent predictors of HM were age ≥ 55 years (HR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.4-4.3; P = 0.003), exposure to pollution and garages or stations (HR = 4.9; 95% CI 2-12.1; P < 0.001), combined local dry season + La Nina (HR = 4.6; 95%CI 1.8-11.8; P < 0.001), and combined local dry season + El Nino (HR = 4; 95% CI 1.6-9.7; P = 0.004). HM types included acute myeloid leukaemia (28.6% n = 18), multiple myeloma (22.2% n = 14), myelodysplastic syndromes (15.9% n = 10), chronic myeloid leukaemia (15.9% n = 10), chronic lymphoid leukaemia (9.5% n = 6), and acute lymphoid leukaemia (7.9% n = 5). After adjusting for confounders using Cox

  11. COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS): soil moisture and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zreda, Marek; Shuttleworth, William J.; Zeng, Xubin; Zweck, Chris; Franz, Trenton; Rosolem, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    COSMOS, a project funded by the US National Science Foundation, was designed to measure average soil moisture in the top 10-70 cm of soil over the horizontal footprint of approximately 700 m by measuring cosmic-ray neutrons in air above the ground surface. It is in its fourth, final, year of the feasibility phase in which 60 neutron probes have been installed in the USA to provide continental-scale soil moisture data. The cosmic-ray neutron probe responds to all sources of hydrogen present within the footprint. Therefore, in addition to soil moisture, other pools of hydrogen can be measured; these include atmospheric water vapor, organic matter in soil, water in soil minerals, biomass water (including hydrogen bound in cellulose), and snow on the ground and on the canopy. All these pools of hydrogen form the "total surface moisture" that is measured by COSMOS probes. The first four pools are measured independently (water vapor) or are implicitly included in the probe calibration (water in minerals and organic matter, biomass water). The other two can be separated from one another to produce time series of soil moisture and snow water equivalent. Work is in progress to assimilate neutron data into land-surface models, to produce soil moisture profiles, to validate satellite soil moisture products (the current SMOS mission and the future SMAP mission), to measure temporal variations in biomass, and to measure area-average unsaturated hydraulic properties of soils. Separately, mobile COSMOS probe, called COSMOS rover, is being developed. COSMOS rover can be used to map soil moisture over large areas or along long transects. Cosmic-ray sensing of moisture at the land surface has gained popularity outside of the USA. Approximately 60 probes have been purchased in addition to the 60 probes in the COSMOS project. Funds for additional 80 probes, most of them in Germany, have been secured, and large new proposals will be submitted in the USA and Australia in 2013. These

  12. Carence en fer, anémie et anémie ferriprive chez les donneurs de sang à Kinshasa, République Démocratique du Congo

    PubMed Central

    Nzengu-Lukusa, Franck; Yuma-Ramazani, Sylvain; Sokolua-Mvika, Eddy; Dilu-Keti, Angèle; Malenga-Nkanga, Blanchard; Shuli, Jean Baptiste; Nzongola-Nkasu, Donatien Kayembe; Mbayo-Kalumbu, Ferdinand; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Introduction En République Démocratique du Congo (RDC), plus d'un million de don de sang ont été réalisés entre 2007 et 2011. Cependant, aucun bilan portant sur la carence en fer et l'anémie ferriprive, conséquence d'un don de sang chez les donneurs de sang (DS), n'est disponible dans ce pays. L'objectif de cette étude était d'estimer la prévalence de la carence en fer, de l'anémie et de l'anémie ferriprive chezles DS au Centre National de Transfusion Sanguine (CNTS) à Kinshasa en RDC. Méthodes Entre Décembre 2012 et Août 2013, une étude transversale a été menée au CNTS où des DS éligibles au don de sang ont été inclus. Les informations socio démographiques et des prélèvements sanguins ont été collectés de manière simultanée au don de sang. La ferritine sérique a été dosée pour évaluer la carence en fer en utilisant la technique ELISA. L'hémogramme a été réalisé en vue d’évaluer et mettre au point l'anémie. Résultats Au total 386 DS ont été inclus dans cette étude. La prévalence de la carence en fer et de l'anémie ferriprive étaient respectivement de 63,2% (244/386) et 25,9% (100/386) des DS. Une anémie a été trouvée chez 36.5% (141/386) au moment du don de sang. Conclusion La carence en fer, l'anémie et l'anémie ferriprive demeurent très fréquentes chez les DS à Kinshasa. Ces résultats suggèrent la révision des tests biologiques utilisés dans le recrutement des DS au CNTS. Par ailleurs le dosage de la ferritine s'impose en routine chez les DS rég PMID:27303590

  13. Facteurs de risque de la tuberculose multi-résistante dans la ville de Kinshasa en République Démocratique du Congo

    PubMed Central

    Misombo-Kalabela, André; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kalla, Ginette Claude Mireille; Ze, Emmanuel Afane; Diangs, Kimpanga; Panda, Tshapenda; Kebela, Ilunga; Fueza, Serge Bisuta; Magazani, Nzanzu; Mbopi-Kéou, François-Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de cette étude était de déterminer les facteurs de risque associés à la tuberculose multi résistance à Kinshasa en République Démocratique du Congo. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude cas témoins. Les cas comprenaient tous les patients tuberculeux résistants à la rifampicine et à l'isoniazide notifiés à Kinshasa de janvier 2012 à juin 2013. Les témoins étaient les patients tuberculeux traités durant la même période que les cas et qui à la fin du traitement étaient déclarés guéris. Pour cette étude, nous avons obtenu une clairance éthique. Résultats L’échantillon était constitué de 213 participants dont 132 hommes (62%) et 81 femmes (38%). L’âge médian était de 31ans (16-73 ans). Les facteurs associés significatifs (p< 0,05) à la tuberculose multi résistante étaient le non-respect des heures de prise de médicaments (0R = 111) (80% chez les cas et 4% chez les témoins), l’échec au traitement (0R = 20) (76% chez les cas et 13% chez les témoins); la notion de tuberculose multi résistante dans la famille (0R = 6.4) (28% chez les cas et 6% chez les témoins); la méconnaissance de la tuberculose multi résistante (0R = 3.2) (31% chez les cas et 59% chez les témoins); un séjour en prison (0R = 7.6) (10% chez les cas et 1% chez les témoins) et l'interruption du traitement (0R = 6.1) ( 59% chez les cas et 19% chez les témoins). Conclusion L’émergence de la tuberculose multi résistante peut être évitée par la mise en place des stratégies de diagnostic et de traitement appropriées. PMID:27516818

  14. SMOS CATDS level 3 Soil Moisture products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthon, L.; Mialon, A.; Bitar, A. Al; Cabot, F.; Kerr, Y. H.

    2012-04-01

    The ESA's (European Space Agency) SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) mission, operating since november 2009, is the first satellite dedicated to measuring surface soil moisture and ocean salinity. The CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) has developed a ground segment for the SMOS data, known as the CATDS (Centre Aval de Traitement des Données SMOS). Operational since June 2011, it provides data referred to as level 3 products at different time resolutions: daily products, 3 days global products insuring a complete coverage of the Earth surface, 10-days composite products, and monthly averages products. These products are presented in the NetCDF format on the EASE grid (Equal Area Scalable Earth grid) with a spatial resolution of ~ 25*25 km2. Having global maps at different time resolutions is of interest for different applications such as agriculture, water management, climatic events (especially droughts and floods) or climatology. The soil moisture level 3 algorithm is based on ESA's (European Space Agency) level 2 retrieval scheme with the improvement of using several overpasses (3 at most) over a 7-days window. The benefit of using many revisits is expected to improve the retrieved soil moisture. Along with the surface soil moisture, other geophysical parameters are retrieved such as the vegetation optical depth or the dielectric constant of the surface. The aim of this communication is to present the first results from the CATDS dataset and all the different data available. Comparisons with in situ data at different sites will be presented to assess the quality of these data. A comparison with the ESA level 2 SMOS products will also be shown to better understand the difference between these dataset, in terms of quality, coverage, applications and use. We will also present how the CATDS data can capture some special events. For instance, the dataset will be compared with meteorological events (rain events), or extreme events such as droughts or

  15. Moisturizer technology versus clinical performance.

    PubMed

    Rawlings, A V; Canestrari, David A; Dobkowski, Brian

    2004-01-01

    The principles of humectancy, emolliency, and occlusion, all central to stratum corneum (SC) maintenance, continue to drive the development of novel moisturizing technologies. Humectants promote water retention within the SC, whereas occlusives generally minimize water loss to the external environment. The complementary occlusive activity of emollients contributes to SC hydration as well. Moisturization technologies, ranging from face care to hand and body care, vary in the types and levels of humectants, emollients (including lipids), and occlusives; accordingly, their therapeutic effects differ as well. Emulsification of these components into a single formulation-the technologies of which are as varied as their individual components-is thought to enhance the aesthetics of the moisturizer and its overall moisturization efficiency. The present article reviews the current approaches to SC moisturization, increasingly viewed as critical to its structural and functional integrity, and to fundamental skin care.

  16. Value of Available Global Soil Moisture Products for Agricultural Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mladenova, Iliana; Bolten, John; Crow, Wade; de Jeu, Richard

    2016-04-01

    The first operationally derived and publicly distributed global soil moil moisture product was initiated with the launch of the Advanced Scanning Microwave Mission on the NASA's Earth Observing System Aqua satellite (AMSR-E). AMSR-E failed in late 2011, but its legacy is continued by AMSR2, launched in 2012 on the JAXA Global Change Observation Mission-Water (GCOM-W) mission. AMSR is a multi-frequency dual-polarization instrument, where the lowest two frequencies (C- and X-band) were used for soil moisture retrieval. Theoretical research and small-/field-scale airborne campaigns, however, have demonstrated that soil moisture would be best monitored using L-band-based observations. This consequently led to the development and launch of the first L-band-based mission-the ESA's Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission (2009). In early 2015 NASA launched the second L-band-based mission, the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP). These satellite-based soil moisture products have been demonstrated to be invaluable sources of information for mapping water stress areas, crop monitoring and yield forecasting. Thus, a number of agricultural agencies routinely utilize and rely on global soil moisture products for improving their decision making activities, determining global crop production and crop prices, identifying food restricted areas, etc. The basic premise of applying soil moisture observations for vegetation monitoring is that the change in soil moisture conditions will precede the change in vegetation status, suggesting that soil moisture can be used as an early indicator of expected crop condition change. Here this relationship was evaluated across multiple microwave frequencies by examining the lag rank cross-correlation coefficient between the soil moisture observations and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). A main goal of our analysis is to evaluate and inter-compare the value of the different soil moisture products derived using L-band (SMOS

  17. Retrieving and Validation Soil Moisture from SMOS Products in the Southwest of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamei, Mozhdeh; Mousavi Baygi, Mohammad; Alizadeh, Amin; Irannejad, Parviz

    2016-08-01

    Soil moisture is one of the most important variables in the hydrological cycle. Since, direct soil moisture measurement are costly and time-consuming so these information are not practicable for wide-area. In recent years, indirect soil moisture measurements have become available from satellite-based microwave sensors. The southwest of Iran is the most important agricultural area in country, therefore simulation of soil moisture in this region is necessary to water resources management, weather forecasting and monitoring extreme events. The objective of this research was to retrieve and validate of soil moisture from ESA's SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) mission. Validation of SMOS Level 1C (SCLF1C) products have done using ground based measurements and L-MEB (L-band Microwave Emission of the Biosphere) model, Level 2 (SMUDP2) products with ground based soil moisture measurement. The result of this research gives valuable information on the errors and uncertainties in SMOS Products in this region.

  18. Characterization of the spatial-temporal variability of soil moisture by remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gwangseob

    1999-11-01

    Characterization of spatial and temporal variabilities of soil moisture, spectral formalism of soil moisture estimation and sampling error simulation study were conducted to understand soil moisture field and to establish global monitoring strategy. Linear relation between soil moisture and porosity is dramatically improved with increasing pixel size although linear relation between soil moisture and soil properties is very weak. The relation between field variance and aggregation area follows power law between log scale 4 and 7. Scaling analysis indicates that the power law exponent becomes smaller with increasing area, which allows the assumption that the soil moisture field is stationary in large area. Variogram analysis shows that the stationarity of soil moisture field is changed by meteorological condition. Spectrum of soil moisture field shows there is no dominant spatial frequency. Two-dimensional correlogram of the soil moisture and brightness temperature fields shows strong anisotropy. Correlation structure of the soil moisture field is changed by drying or rainfall process. Average correlation length of the soil moisture consists of Long'-14km and Lat'-36km. Autoregressive exogenous model (ARX) with lag-1 correlation coefficient 0.9 is suggested for temporal soil moisture model. The Monsoon '90 soil moisture data indicate that diurnal cycle causes 1--4% sampling error. (5 a.m.--9a.m.: 1%, 1 p.m.--3 p.m.: 4%). North-Nakamoto formalism (1989) was used to compute the sampling error for the soil moisture field estimation. The space-time discrete design filter was evaluated and it is applicable to all kinds of sampling design. Missing temporal measurements in SGP '97 soil moisture field make it difficult to estimate the spectra directly from observed record. The soil moisture spectrum was estimated using rainfall and soil moisture models tuned parameter to SGP '97 data. Estimated sampling error of daily electronically scanned thinned army radiometer (ESTAR

  19. Moisture patterns in douglas-fir and tanoak slash

    Treesearch

    Norman C. Scott

    1964-01-01

    Moisture content in Douglas-fir cull logs and boles of felled tanoaks was sampled periodically at 2-inch intervals to a depth of 6 inches from October 1960-0ctober 1961. The study area had been clear cut in 1958 and the hardwoods felled in 1959. Analysis of the data showed that the moisture level in tanoak stems decreased at an increasing rate from a 6-inch depth to...

  20. The Effects of Wildfire on Soil Moisture Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanarek, M.; Cardenas, M.

    2013-12-01

    Moisture dynamics in the critical zone have significant implications for a variety of hydrologic processes, from water availability to plants to infiltration and groundwater recharge rates. These processes are perturbed by events such as wildfires, which may have long-lasting impacts. In September 2011, the most destructive wildfire in Texas history occurred in and around Bastrop State Park, which was significantly affected; thus we take advantage of a rare opportunity to study soil moisture under such burned conditions. A 165 m long transect bridging burned and unburned areas was established within the 'Lost Pines' of the park. Soil moisture and soil temperature were monitored and estimated using a variety of methods, including 2D electrical resistivity imaging (using dipole-dipole and Schlumberger configurations), surface permittivity measurements (ThetaProbe), permittivity-based soil moisture profiling (PR2 profile probes), and installation of thermistors. Field measurements were collected at approximately one-month intervals to study temporal and seasonal effects on soil moisture and temperature in this area. Greater soil moisture and lower resistivity were found near the surface at the heavily burned end of the transect, where trees have been largely killed by the fire and grasses now dominate, and very low near-surface soil moisture and higher resistivity were found at the opposite end, which is still populated by pine trees. These variations can likely be attributed to the vegetative variations between the two ends of the transect, with trees consuming more water at one end and the ground cover of grasses and mosses consuming less water and helping reduce evaporation at the burned end. Higher clay content at the burned end of the transect could also be a factor in greater soil moisture retention there. Given the higher moisture content throughout the soil profile at the heavily burned end of the transect, this could be an indication of greater infiltration

  1. Moisture storage parameters of porous building materials as time-dependent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Záleská, Martina; Pavlíková, Milena; Pavlík, Zbyšek

    2016-06-01

    Three different types of bricks and two different types of sandstones are studied in terms of measurement moisture storage parameters for over-hygroscopic moisture area using pressure plate device. For researched materials, basic physical properties as bulk density, matrix density and total open porosity are determined. From the obtained data of moisture storage measurement, the water retention curves and curves of degree of saturation in dependence on suction pressure are constructed. Water retention curve (also called suction curve, capillary potential curve, capillary-pressure function and capillary-moisture relationship) is the basic material property used in models for simulation of moisture storage in porous building materials.

  2. A method for estimating soil moisture availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, T. N.

    1985-01-01

    A method for estimating values of soil moisture based on measurements of infrared surface temperature is discussed. A central element in the method is a boundary layer model. Although it has been shown that soil moistures determined by this method using satellite measurements do correspond in a coarse fashion to the antecedent precipitation, the accuracy and exact physical interpretation (with respect to ground water amounts) are not well known. This area of ignorance, which currently impedes the practical application of the method to problems in hydrology, meteorology and agriculture, is largely due to the absence of corresponding surface measurements. Preliminary field measurements made over France have led to the development of a promising vegetation formulation (Taconet et al., 1985), which has been incorporated in the model. It is necessary, however, to test the vegetation component, and the entire method, over a wide variety of surface conditions and crop canopies.

  3. The Sodankylä in situ soil moisture observation network: an example application of ESA CCI soil moisture product evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikonen, Jaakko; Vehviläinen, Juho; Rautiainen, Kimmo; Smolander, Tuomo; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Bircher, Simone; Pulliainen, Jouni

    2016-04-01

    During the last decade there has been considerable development in remote sensing techniques relating to soil moisture retrievals over large areas. Within the framework of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Climate Change Initiative (CCI) a new soil moisture product has been generated, merging different satellite-based surface soil moisture based products. Such remotely sensed data need to be validated by means of in situ observations in different climatic regions. In that context, a comprehensive, distributed network of in situ measurement stations gathering information on soil moisture, as well as soil temperature, has been set up in recent years at the Finnish Meteorological Institute's (FMI) Sodankylä Arctic research station. The network forms a calibration and validation (CAL-VAL) reference site and is used as a tool to evaluate the validity of satellite retrievals of soil properties. In this paper we present the Sodankylä CAL-VAL reference site soil moisture observation network, its instrumentation as well as its areal representativeness over the study area and the region in general as a whole. As an example of data utilization, comparisons of spatially weighted average top-layer soil moisture observations between the years 2012 and 2014 against ESA CCI soil moisture data product estimates are presented and discussed. The comparisons were made against a single ESA CCI data product pixel encapsulating most of the Sodankylä CAL-VAL network sites. Comparisons are made with daily averaged and running weekly averaged soil moisture data as well as through application of an exponential soil moisture filter. The overall achieved correlation between the ESA CCI data product and in situ observations varies considerably (from 0.479 to 0.637) depending on the applied comparison perspective. Similarly, depending on the comparison perspective used, inter-annual correlation comparison results exhibit even more pronounced variation, ranging from 0.166 to 0.840.

  4. Research on the Spatial Variability of Soil Moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Changli; Liu, Shuqiang; Zhang, Xianyue; Tan, Kezhu

    China is a country seriously suffering from the lack of water resource, especially the north of China (a dense area) where there are more agricultural production than other places in China. Therefore, some have become most important problems which should be settled down right now for precision agriculture: saving the water of agriculture, optimizing the water for cropland as well as making use of soil moisture effectively. To realise the potential of soil-moisture, protect the water source , strengthen the management of the soil moisture of farm, design the irrigation and drainage, monitor the soil-moisture, etc. ,the data collection of soil moisture and the study on how to could provide the far-reaching and academic significance of guidance together with higher regional and practical use value. The IDW, Spline and Kriging in the Spatial Analyst of ArcGIS 9.0 are applied on drawing the distributing map of soil moisture and it also offers the theoretical foundation for the connection between studying soil moisture and enhancing the yield.

  5. Understanding natural moisturizing mechanisms: implications for moisturizer technology.

    PubMed

    Chandar, Prem; Nole, Greg; Johnson, Anthony W

    2009-07-01

    Dry skin and moisturization are important topics because they impact the lives of many individuals. For most individuals, dry skin is not a notable concern and can be adequately managed with current moisturizing products. However, dry skin can affect the quality of life of some individuals because of the challenges of either harsh environmental conditions or impaired stratum corneum (SC) dry skin protection processes resulting from various common skin diseases. Dry skin protection processes of the SC, such as the development of natural moisturizing factor (NMF), are complex, carefully balanced, and easily perturbed. We discuss the importance of the filaggrin-NMF system and the composition of NMF in both healthy and dry skin, and also reveal new insights that suggest the properties required for a new generation of moisturizing technologies.

  6. Fiber optic moisture sensor with moisture-absorbing reflective target

    DOEpatents

    Kirkham, Randy R.

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for sensing moisture changes by utilizing optical fiber technology. One embodiment uses a reflective target at the end of an optical fiber. The reflectance of the target varies with its moisture content and can be detected by a remote unit at the opposite end of the fiber. A second embodiment utilizes changes in light loss along the fiber length. This can be attributed to changes in reflectance of cladding material as a function of its moisture content. It can also be affected by holes or inserts interposed in the cladding material and/or fiber. Changing light levels can also be coupled from one fiber to another in an assembly of fibers as a function of varying moisture content in their overlapping lengths of cladding material.

  7. Field scale spatio-temporal soil moisture variability for trafficability and crop water availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carranza, Coleen; van der Ploeg, Martine; Ritsema, Coen

    2016-04-01

    Spatio-temporal patterns of soil moisture have been studied mostly for inputs in land surface models for weather and climate predictions. Remote sensing techniques for estimation of soil moisture have been explored because of the good spatial coverage at different scales. Current available satellite data provide surface soil moisture as microwave systems only measure soil moisture content up to 5cm soil depth. The OWAS1S project will focus on estimation of soil moisture from freely available Sentinel-1 datasets for operational water management in agricultural areas. As part of the project, it is essential to develop spatio-temporal methods to estimate root zone soil moisture from surface soil moisture. This will be used for crop water availability and trafficability in selected agricultural fields in the Netherlands. A network of single capacitance sensors installed per field will provide continuous measurements of soil moisture in the study area. Ground penetrating radar will be used to measure soil moisture variability within a single field for different time periods. During wetter months, optimal conditions for traffic will be assessed using simultaneous soil strength and soil moisture measurements. Towards water deficit periods, focus is on the relation (or the lack thereof) between surface soil moisture and root zone soil moisture to determine the amount of water for crops. Spatio-temporal distribution will determine important physical controls for surface and root zone soil moisture and provide insights for root-zone soil moisture. Existing models for field scale soil-water balance and data assimilation methods (e.g. Kalman filter) will be combined to estimate root zone soil moisture. Furthermore, effects of root development on soil structure and soil hydraulic properties and subsequent effects on trafficability and crop water availability will be investigated. This research project has recently started, therefore we want to present methods and framework of

  8. Passive microwave soil moisture research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.; Oneill, P. E.; Wang, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The AgRISTARS Soil Moisture Project has made significant progress in the quantification of microwave sensor capabilities for soil moisture remote sensing. The 21-cm wavelength has been verified to be the best single channel for radiometric observations of soil moisture. It has also been found that other remote sensing approaches used in conjunction with L-band passive data are more successful than multiple wavelength microwave radiometry in this application. AgRISTARS studies have also improved current understanding of noise factors affecting the interpretability of microwave emission data. The absorption of soil emission by vegetation has been quantified, although this effect is less important than absorption effects for microwave radiometry.

  9. Passive microwave soil moisture research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T.; Oneill, P. E.; Wang, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    During the four years of the AgRISTARS Program, significant progress was made in quantifying the capabilities of microwave sensors for the remote sensing of soil moisture. In this paper, a discussion is provided of the results of numerous field and aircraft experiments, analysis of spacecraft data, and modeling activities which examined the various noise factors such as roughness and vegetation that affect the interpretability of microwave emission measurements. While determining that a 21-cm wavelength radiometer was the best single sensor for soil moisture research, these studies demonstrated that a multisensor approach will provide more accurate soil moisture information for a wider range of naturally occurring conditions.

  10. Moisture adsorption in optical coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macleod, H. Angus

    1988-01-01

    The thin film filter is a very large aperture component which is exceedingly useful because of its small size, flexibility and ease of mounting. Thin film components, however, do have defects of performance and especially of stability which can cause problems in systems, particularly where long-term measurements are being made. Of all of the problems, those associated with moisture absorption are the most serious. Moisture absorption occurs in the pore-shaped voids inherent in the columnar structure of the layers. Ion-assisted deposition is a promising technique for substantially reducing moisture adsorption effects in thin film structures.

  11. Microwave radiometric measurements of soil moisture in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macelloni, G.; Paloscia, S.; Pampaloni, P.; Santi, E.; Tedesco, M.

    Within the framework of the MAP and RAPHAEL projects, airborne experimental campaigns were carried out by the IFAC group in 1999 and 2000, using a multifrequency microwave radiometer at L, C and X bands (1.4, 6.8 and 10 GHz). The aim of the experiments was to collect soil moisture and vegetation biomass information on agricultural areas to give reliable inputs to the hydrological models. It is well known that microwave emission from soil, mainly at L-band (1.4 GHz), is very well correlated to its moisture content. Two experimental areas in Italy were selected for this project: one was the Toce Valley, Domodossola, in 1999, and the other, the agricultural area of Cerbaia, close to Florence, where flights were performed in 2000. Measurements were carried out on bare soils, corn and wheat fields in different growth stages and on meadows. Ground data of soil moisture (SMC) were collected by other research teams involved in the experiments. From the analysis of the data sets, it has been confirmed that L-band is well related to the SMC of a rather deep soil layer, whereas C-band is sensitive to the surface SMC and is more affected by the presence of surface roughness and vegetation, especially at high incidence angles. An algorithm for the retrieval of soil moisture, based on the sensitivity to moisture of the brightness temperature at C-band, has been tested using the collected data set. The results of the algorithm, which is able to correct for the effect of vegetation by means of the polarisation index at X-band, have been compared with soil moisture data measured on the ground. Finally, the sensitivity of emission at different frequencies to the soil moisture profile was investigated. Experimental data sets were interpreted by using the Integral Equation Model (IEM) and the outputs of the model were used to train an artificial neural network to reproduce the soil moisture content at different depths.

  12. Impact of moisture flux convergence and soil moisture on precipitation: a case study for the southern United States with implications for the globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jiangfeng; Su, Hua; Yang, Zong-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between soil moisture, evapotranspiration (ET), atmospheric moisture fluxes and precipitation are complex. It is difficult to attribute the variations of one variable to another. In this study, we investigate the influence of atmospheric moisture fluxes and land surface soil moisture on local precipitation, with a focus on the southern United States (U.S.), a region with a strong humidity gradient and intense moisture fluxes. Experiments with the Weather Research and Forecasting model show that the variation of moisture flux convergence (MFC) is more important than that of soil moisture for precipitation variation over the southern U.S. Further analyses decompose the precipitation change into several contributing factors and show that MFC affects precipitation both directly through changing moisture inflow (wet areas) and indirectly by changing the precipitation efficiency (transitional zones). Soil moisture affects precipitation mainly by changing the precipitation efficiency, and secondly through direct surface ET contribution. The greatest soil moisture effects are over transitional zones. MFC is more important for the probability of heavier rainfall; soil moisture has much weaker impact on rainfall probability and its roles are similar for the probability of intermediate-to-heavy rainfall (>10 mm day-1). Although MFC is more important than soil moisture for precipitation over most regions, the impact of soil moisture could be large over certain transitional regions. At the submonthly time scale, the African Sahel appears to be the only major region where soil moisture has a greater impact than MFC on precipitation. This study provides guidance to understanding and further investigation of the roles of local land surface processes and large-scale circulations on precipitation.

  13. Sensitivity of seasonal weather prediction and extreme precipitation events to soil moisture initialization uncertainty using SMOS soil moisture products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodayar-Pardo, Samiro; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Coll Pajaron, M. Amparo

    Sensitivity of seasonal weather prediction and extreme precipitation events to soil moisture initialization uncertainty using SMOS soil moisture products (1) S. Khodayar, (2) A. Coll, (2) E. Lopez-Baeza (1) Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe Germany (2) University of Valencia. Earth Physics and Thermodynamics Department. Climatology from Satellites Group Soil moisture is an important variable in agriculture, hydrology, meteorology and related disciplines. Despite its importance, it is complicated to obtain an appropriate representation of this variable, mainly because of its high temporal and spatial variability. SVAT (Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer) models can be used to simulate the temporal behaviour and spatial distribution of soil moisture in a given area and/or state of the art products such as the soil moisture measurements from the SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) space mission may be also convenient. The potential role of soil moisture initialization and associated uncertainty in numerical weather prediction is illustrated in this study through sensitivity numerical experiments using the SVAT SURFEX model and the non-hydrostatic COSMO model. The aim of this investigation is twofold, (a) to demonstrate the sensitivity of model simulations of convective precipitation to soil moisture initial uncertainty, as well as the impact on the representation of extreme precipitation events, and (b) to assess the usefulness of SMOS soil moisture products to improve the simulation of water cycle components and heavy precipitation events. Simulated soil moisture and precipitation fields are compared with observations and with level-1(~1km), level-2(~15 km) and level-3(~35 km) soil moisture maps generated from SMOS over the Iberian Peninsula, the SMOS validation area (50 km x 50 km, eastern Spain) and selected stations, where in situ measurements are available covering different vegetation cover

  14. SMALT - Soil Moisture from Altimetry project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Richard; Benveniste, Jérôme; Dinardo, Salvatore; Lucas, Bruno Manuel; Berry, Philippa; Wagner, Wolfgang; Hahn, Sebastian; Egido, Alejandro

    Soil surface moisture is a key scientific parameter; however, it is extremely difficult to measure remotely, particularly in arid and semi-arid terrain. This paper outlines the development of a novel methodology to generate soil moisture estimates in these regions from multi-mission satellite radar altimetry. Key to this approach is the development of detailed DRy Earth ModelS (DREAMS), which encapsulate the detailed and intricate surface brightness variations over the Earth’s land surface, resulting from changes in surface roughness and composition. DREAMS have been created over a number of arid and semi-arid deserts worldwide to produce historical SMALT timeseries over soil moisture variation. These products are available in two formats - a high resolution track product which utilises the altimeter’s high frequency content alongtrack and a multi-looked 6” gridded product at facilitate easy comparison/integeration with other remote sensing techniques. An overview of the SMALT processing scheme, covering the progression of the data from altimeter sigma0 through to final soil moisture estimate, is included along with example SMALT products. Validation has been performed over a number of deserts by comparing SMALT products with other remote sensing techniques, results of the comparison between SMALT and Metop Warp 5.5 are presented here. Comparisons with other remote sensing techniques have been limited in scope due to differences in the operational aspects of the instruments, the restricted geographical coverage of the DREAMS and the low repeat temporal sampling rate of the altimeter. The potential to expand the SMALT technique into less arid areas has been investigated. Small-scale comparison with in-situ and GNSS-R data obtained by the LEiMON experimental campaign over Tuscany, where historical trends exist within both SMALT and SMC probe datasets. A qualitative analysis of unexpected backscatter characteristics in dedicated dry environments is performed

  15. An unmixing algorithm for remotely sensed soil moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ines, Amor V. M.; Mohanty, Binayak P.; Shin, Yongchul

    2013-01-01

    We present an unmixing method, based on genetic algorithm-soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer modeling to extract subgrid information of soil and vegetation from remotely sensed soil moisture (downscaled; e.g., soil hydraulic properties, area fractions of soil-vegetation combinations, and unmixed soil moisture time series) that most land surface models use. The unmixing method was evaluated using numerical experiments comprising mixed pixels with simple and complex soil-vegetation combinations, in idealized case studies (with or without uncertainty) and under actual field conditions (Walnut Creek (WC11) field, Soil Moisture Experiment 2005, Iowa). Additional validation experiments were conducted at an airborne-remote sensing footprint (Little Washita (LW21) site, Southern Great Plains 1997 hydrology campaign, Oklahoma) using Electronically Scanning Thin Array Radiometer (ESTAR). Results of the idealized experiments suggest that the unmixing method can extract optimal or near-optimal solutions to the inverse problem under different hydrologic and climatic conditions. Errors in soil moisture data and initial and boundary conditions can compound uncertainty in the solution. The solutions generated under actual field conditions (WC11 field) were able to match soil moisture observations. Analysis showed that typical soil moisture retention curves of cataloged dominant soils in WC11 field did not match well with the measurements, but those derived from actual field-scale soil moisture inversion matched better. The unmixing method performed well in replicating soil hydraulic behavior at the ESTAR footprint. Unlike in WC11 field, the typical soil moisture retention curves of cataloged soils in LW21 field matched better with the measurements. We envisaged that the unmixing method can provide quick and easy way of extracting subgrid soil moisture variability and soil-vegetation information in a pixel.

  16. Soil Moisture Measurement System For An Improved Flood Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaedel, W.; Becker, R.

    Precipitation-runoff processes are correlated with the catchment's hydrological pre- conditions that are taken into account in some hydrological models, e.g. by pre- precipitation index. This statistically generated variable is unsuitable in case of ex- treme flood events. Thus a non-statistical estimation of the catchment's preconditions is of tremendous importance for an improvement in reliability of flood warning. This can be achieved by persistent operational observation of the catchment's soil mois- ture condition. The soil moisture acts as a state variable controlling the risk of surface runoff, which is assumed to provoke critical floods. Critical soil moisture conditions can be identified by measurements in certain areas representative for the catchment. Therefore a measurement arrangement that does not effect the structure of soils is realised with twin rod probes. Spatial resolution algorithms result in soil moisture profiles along the probe rods. In this set up a quasi three dimensional soil moisture distribution can be interpolated with point measurements of up to 47 twin rod probes per cluster, connected via multiplexer. The large number of probes per cluster is of use for detailed observation of small-scaled moisture variability. As regionalized grid cell moisture the cluster information calibrates the default, state depending soil moisture distribution of the catchment. This distribution is explained by diverse soil moisture influencing properties, which are found by Landsat satellite image. Therefore the im- age is processed with principal component analysis to extract the soil moisture distri- bution. The distribution is calibrated by the detailed measurements, acting as ground based truth. Linear multiple regression operated on the calibrated distribution identi- fies the mentioned properties. In this fashion the catchment status can be determined and combined with precipitation forecasts, thus allowing for the comprehensive risk calculation of

  17. Moisturizers: Options for Softer Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... producing glands become less active. To keep your skin soft and well-hydrated, choose an oil-based moisturizer that contains petrolatum as the base, along with antioxidants or alpha hydroxy acids to combat wrinkles. These ...

  18. Microwave Soil Moisture Retrieval Under Trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, P.; Lang, R.; Kurum, M.; Joseph, A.; Jackson, T.; Cosh, M.

    2008-01-01

    Soil moisture is recognized as an important component of the water, energy, and carbon cycles at the interface between the Earth's surface and atmosphere. Current baseline soil moisture retrieval algorithms for microwave space missions have been developed and validated only over grasslands, agricultural crops, and generally light to moderate vegetation. Tree areas have commonly been excluded from operational soil moisture retrieval plans due to the large expected impact of trees on masking the microwave response to the underlying soil moisture. Our understanding of the microwave properties of trees of various sizes and their effect on soil moisture retrieval algorithms at L band is presently limited, although research efforts are ongoing in Europe, the United States, and elsewhere to remedy this situation. As part of this research, a coordinated sequence of field measurements involving the ComRAD (for Combined Radar/Radiometer) active/passive microwave truck instrument system has been undertaken. Jointly developed and operated by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and George Washington University, ComRAD consists of dual-polarized 1.4 GHz total-power radiometers (LH, LV) and a quad-polarized 1.25 GHz L band radar sharing a single parabolic dish antenna with a novel broadband stacked patch dual-polarized feed, a quad-polarized 4.75 GHz C band radar, and a single channel 10 GHz XHH radar. The instruments are deployed on a mobile truck with an 19-m hydraulic boom and share common control software; real-time calibrated signals, and the capability for automated data collection for unattended operation. Most microwave soil moisture retrieval algorithms developed for use at L band frequencies are based on the tau-omega model, a simplified zero-order radiative transfer approach where scattering is largely ignored and vegetation canopies are generally treated as a bulk attenuating layer. In this approach, vegetation effects are parameterized by tau and omega, the microwave

  19. Estimating Soil Moisture from Satellite Microwave Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owe, M.; VandeGriend, A. A.; deJeu, R.; deVries, J.; Seyhan, E.

    1998-01-01

    Cooperative research in microwave remote sensing between the Hydrological Sciences Branch of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the Earth Sciences Faculty of the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam began with the Botswana Water and Energy Balance Experiment and has continued through a series of highly successful International Research Programs. The collaboration between these two research institutions has resulted in significant scientific achievements, most notably in the area of satellite-based microwave remote sensing of soil moisture. The Botswana Program was the first joint research initiative between these two institutions, and provided a unique data base which included historical data sets of Scanning Multifrequency Microwave Radiometer (SN4NM) data, climate information, and extensive soil moisture measurements over several large experimental sites in southeast Botswana. These data were the basis for the development of new approaches in physically-based inverse modelling of soil moisture from satellite microwave observations. Among the results from this study were quantitative estimates of vegetation transmission properties at microwave frequencies. A single polarization modelling approach which used horizontally polarized microwave observations combined with monthly composites of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index was developed, and yielded good results. After more precise field experimentation with a ground-based radiometer system, a dual-polarization approach was subsequently developed. This new approach realized significant improvements in soil moisture estimation by satellite. Results from the Botswana study were subsequently applied to a desertification monitoring study for the country of Spain within the framework of the European Community science research programs EFEDA and RESMEDES. A dual frequency approach with only microwave data was used for this application. The Microwave Polarization Difference Index (MPDI) was calculated from 37 GHz data

  20. Estimating Soil Moisture from Satellite Microwave Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owe, M.; VandeGriend, A. A.; deJeu, R.; deVries, J.; Seyhan, E.

    1998-01-01

    Cooperative research in microwave remote sensing between the Hydrological Sciences Branch of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the Earth Sciences Faculty of the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam began with the Botswana Water and Energy Balance Experiment and has continued through a series of highly successful International Research Programs. The collaboration between these two research institutions has resulted in significant scientific achievements, most notably in the area of satellite-based microwave remote sensing of soil moisture. The Botswana Program was the first joint research initiative between these two institutions, and provided a unique data base which included historical data sets of Scanning Multifrequency Microwave Radiometer (SN4NM) data, climate information, and extensive soil moisture measurements over several large experimental sites in southeast Botswana. These data were the basis for the development of new approaches in physically-based inverse modelling of soil moisture from satellite microwave observations. Among the results from this study were quantitative estimates of vegetation transmission properties at microwave frequencies. A single polarization modelling approach which used horizontally polarized microwave observations combined with monthly composites of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index was developed, and yielded good results. After more precise field experimentation with a ground-based radiometer system, a dual-polarization approach was subsequently developed. This new approach realized significant improvements in soil moisture estimation by satellite. Results from the Botswana study were subsequently applied to a desertification monitoring study for the country of Spain within the framework of the European Community science research programs EFEDA and RESMEDES. A dual frequency approach with only microwave data was used for this application. The Microwave Polarization Difference Index (MPDI) was calculated from 37 GHz data

  1. Airborne gamma radiation soil moisture measurements over short flight lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, Eugene L.; Carrol, Thomas R.; Lipinski, Daniel M.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on airborne gamma radiation measurements of soil moisture condition, carried out along short flight lines as part of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment (FIFE). Data were collected over an area in Kansas during the summers of 1987 and 1989. The airborne surveys, together with ground measurements, provide the most comprehensive set of airborne and ground truth data available in the U.S. for calibrating and evaluating airborne gamma flight lines. Analysis showed that, using standard National Weather Service weights for the K, Tl, and Gc radiation windows, the airborne soil moisture estimates for the FIFE lines had a root mean square error of no greater than 3.0 percent soil moisture. The soil moisture estimates for sections having acquisition time of at least 15 sec were found to be reliable.

  2. Soil moisture and evapotranspiration predictions using Skylab data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, V. I. (Principal Investigator); Moore, D. G.; Horton, M. L.; Russell, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Multispectral reflectance and emittance data from the Skylab workshop were evaluated for prediction of evapotranspiration and soil moisture for an irrigated region of southern Texas. Wavelengths greater than 2.1 microns were required to spectrally distinguish between wet and dry fallow surfaces. Thermal data provided a better estimate of soil moisture than did data from the reflective bands. Thermal data were dependent on soil moisture but not on the type of agricultural land use. The emittance map, when used in conjunction with existing models, did provide an estimate of evapotranspiration rates. Surveys of areas of high soil moisture can be accomplished with space altitude thermal data. Thermal data will provide a reliable input into irrigation scheduling.

  3. Spectrum properties analysis of different soil moisture content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Shenghui; Hu, Bo; Lin, Fan

    2009-10-01

    Soil moisture content is one of the most important factors in soil business. The basic of detecting soil moisture content using remote sensing technology is to analyze the relationship between soil moisture content and emissivity. In this paper, based on the analysis of spectrum collection and processing by a portable spectrometer, a set of measure schemes were first established which can accurately measure the reflectivity and emissivity of soil spectrum with different moisture content in near-infrared and thermal infrared bands. Then we selected different bare soil areas as the areas for survey, and studied the relationship of different moisture content and the spectrum curve in the soil both of the same kind and of different kind (like the soil whose structure has been modified caused by the change of organic matter contents or soil particle size). Finally, we emphasized on the quantitative relationship between soil reflectivity & emissivity and soil moisture content using the test data, and establish a model depicting the quantitative relationship above in near-infrared and thermal infrared bands.

  4. Determining seed moisture in Quercus

    Treesearch

    F. T. Bonner

    1974-01-01

    The air-oven method with drying times 7 to 8 hours shorter than those now prescribed in the ISTA rules proved adequate for determining moisture contents in acorns of several North American oaks. Schedules of 8 hours at 105°C for Quercus muehlenbergii and 9 hours at 105°C for Q.shumardii and Q.nigra gave moisture contents within three percentage points of those obtained...

  5. Appearance benefits of skin moisturization.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z-X; DeLaCruz, J

    2011-02-01

    Skin hydration is essential for skin health. Moisturized skin is generally regarded as healthy and healthy looking. It is thus speculated that there may be appearance benefits of skin moisturization. This means that there are corresponding changes in the optical properties when skin is moisturized. The appearance of the skin is the result of light reflection, scattering and absorption at various skin layers of the stratum corneum, epidermis, dermis and beyond. The appearance benefits of skin moisturization are likely primarily due to the changes in the optical properties of the stratum corneum. We hypothesize that the major optical effect of skin moisturization is the decrease of light scattering at the skin surface, i.e., the stratum corneum. This decrease of surface scattering corresponds to an increase of light penetration into the deeper layers of the skin. An experiment was conducted to measure the corresponding change in skin spectral reflectance, the skin scattering coefficient and skin translucency with a change in skin hydration. In the experiment, skin hydration was decreased with the topical application of acetone and alcohol and increased with the topical application of known moisturizers and occlusives such as PJ. It was found that both the skin spectral reflectance and the skin scattering coefficient increased when the skin was dehydrated and decreased when the skin was hydrated. Skin translucency increased as the skin became moisturized. The results agree with the hypothesis that there is less light scattering at the skin surface and more light penetration into the deeper skin layers when the skin is moisturized. As a result, the skin appears darker, more pinkish and more translucent. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Application of infrared thermography in complex moisture inspection of the Schebek Palace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balík, Lukáš; Kudrnáčová, Lucie; Pavlík, Zbyšek; Černý, Robert

    2017-07-01

    In situ moisture inspection of the basement floor of the Schebek Palace was done to get necessary information for intended repairs and adaptation of cellarage. At first, visual inspection of the basement was done to locate places for moisture content measurement. Within the experimental analysis, moisture distribution in several profiles of historical masonry was measured on a gravimetric principle. Herewith, non-destructive measurement of moisture content using a capacitive moisture meter was realised. The applied non-destructive technique made possible to minimize masonry and plaster damage due to the drilling of holes for samples extraction for gravimetric measurements. The capacitance method allowed also identification of wall moistening in larger areas. Since the moisture problems behind walls, over ceilings, and under floors is often impossible to detect until the problem is excessive and visible to the naked eye, infrared thermography was used to provide complex information on hygric state of analysed building. The obtained thermographs allowed to spot suspect areas of excessive moisture that were not apparent from visual control. Infrared camera was also useful in areas, where the moisture content had no clear relation to external moisture sources or did not correspond with capillary action from the subsoil. On the basis of experimental results, moisture sources of the masonry were identified and restoration treatments respecting the historical character of the inspected building were proposed.

  7. Soil Surface Moisture from Cryosat2 and Sentinel-3 Satellite Radar Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, P. A. M.; Balmbra, R.

    2016-08-01

    Measuring soil moisture using remote sensing techniques has been a key application for many years; however, these techniques encounter difficulties in arid and semi-arid terrain. Satellite altimetry presents an attractive option for retrieval of soil surface moisture in these areas [1:2]. Surface soil moisture has now been successfully retrieved from Cryosat2 data as part of the EU LOTUS project; the key to retrieving accurate soil surface moisture estimates is the development of very detailed Dry Earth Models (DREAMS). Soil moisture time series have been derived from Cryosat2 and Jason2 data over the Simpson, Tenere and Kalahari deserts; cross-comparison of the results and validation with independent remote sensed soil moisture data is presented. These results show that the detailed along- track estimates that can be achieved from satellite radar altimetry have a unique contribution to make to soil moisture retrieval in arid and semi-arid terrain.

  8. Microwave moisture measurement for wood drying

    SciTech Connect

    Moschler, William W; Hanson, Gregory R; Gee, Timothy Felix; Killough, Stephen M; Wilgen, John B

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a prototype moisture sensor system suitable for a hardwood dry kiln based on the microwave transmission measurements of the complex dielectric constant of the wood. In this project, prototypes of two designs of microwave-based moisture sensor probes (launchers) working in the frequency range from 4.5 GHz to 6 GHz were developed and tested. A prototype set of battery powered electronics that both provides the microwave excitation and records the amplitude and phase of the returned signal after passing through the wood was built and tested. The sensors and electronics built in this project allow a swept frequency microwave transmission measurement through a small area of a board. Using the prototype electronics and launchers, measurements of moisture content (MC) over a range of 6 percent to 70 percent MC for red oak and 6 percent to 100 percent for yellow-poplar with standard deviations of less than 1.5 percent MC have been obtained.

  9. Australian Soil Moisture Field Experiments in Support of Soil Moisture Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward; Walker, Jeff; Rudiger, Christopher; Panciera, Rocco

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale field campaigns provide the critical fink between our understanding retrieval algorithms developed at the point scale, and algorithms suitable for satellite applications at vastly larger pixel scales. Retrievals of land parameters must deal with the substantial sub-pixel heterogeneity that is present in most regions. This is particularly the case for soil moisture remote sensing, because of the long microwave wavelengths (L-band) that are optimal. Yet, airborne L-band imagers have generally been large, heavy, and required heavy-lift aircraft resources that are expensive and difficult to schedule. Indeed, US soil moisture campaigns, have been constrained by these factors, and European campaigns have used non-imagers due to instrument and aircraft size constraints. Despite these factors, these campaigns established that large-scale soil moisture remote sensing was possible, laying the groundwork for satellite missions. Starting in 2005, a series of airborne field campaigns have been conducted in Australia: to improve our understanding of soil moisture remote sensing at large scales over heterogeneous areas. These field data have been used to test and refine retrieval algorithms for soil moisture satellite missions, and most recently with the launch of the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, to provide validation measurements over a multi-pixel area. The campaigns to date have included a preparatory campaign in 2005, two National Airborne Field Experiments (NAFE), (2005 and 2006), two campaigns to the Simpson Desert (2008 and 2009), and one Australian Airborne Cal/val Experiment for SMOS (AACES), just concluded in the austral spring of 2010. The primary airborne sensor for each campaign has been the Polarimetric L-band Microwave Radiometer (PLMR), a 6-beam pushbroom imager that is small enough to be compatible with light aircraft, greatly facilitating the execution of the series of campaigns, and a key to their success. An

  10. Soil moisture estimation using reflected solar and emitted thermal infrared radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, R. D.; Cihlar, J.; Estes, J. E.; Heilman, J. L.; Kahle, A.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Millard, J.; Price, J. C.; Wiegand, C. L.

    1978-01-01

    Classical methods of measuring soil moisture such as gravimetric sampling and the use of neutron moisture probes are useful for cases where a point measurement is sufficient to approximate the water content of a small surrounding area. However, there is an increasing need for rapid and repetitive estimations of soil moisture over large areas. Remote sensing techniques potentially have the capability of meeting this need. The use of reflected-solar and emitted thermal-infrared radiation, measured remotely, to estimate soil moisture is examined.

  11. Detection of moisture and moisture related phenomena from Skylab. [infrared photography of Texas/New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eagleman, J. R.; Pogge, E. C.; Moore, R. K. (Principal Investigator); Hardy, N.; Lin, W.; League, L.

    1974-01-01

    The author had identified the following significant results. Soil moisture and precipitation variations were not detectable as tonal variations on the S19OA IR B and W photography. Some light tonal areas contained high precipitation .83 inches and high moisture content 21.1% while other light tonal areas contained only .02 inches precipitation and as little as 0.7% moisture. Similar variations were observed in dark tonal areas. This inconsistency may be caused by a lapse of 3 to 4 days from the time precipitation occurred until the photographs were taken and the fact that in the first inch of soil the measured soil moisture was generally less than 5.0%. For overall tonal contrast, the aerial color, color IR and aerial B and W appear to be the best. Cities stand out from the landscape best in the aerial color and color IR, however, to see major street patterns a combination of the two aerial B and W bands and the two IR B and W bands may be desirable. For mapping roads it is best use all 6 bands. For lake detection, the IR B and W bands would be the best but for streams the aerial B and W band would be better. The aerial color, color IR, and the two IR B and W bands are best for distinguishing cultivated and non-cultivated areas, whereas the two aerial B and W bands are better for seeing local relief. Clouds may be best seen in the aerial color and color IR bands.

  12. 7 CFR 52.3185 - Moisture limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Moisture limits. 52.3185 Section 52.3185 Agriculture... United States Standards for Grades of Dried Prunes Moisture, Uniformity of Size, Defects § 52.3185 Moisture limits. Dried prunes shall not exceed the moisture limits for the applicable grades and kind...

  13. 7 CFR 52.3185 - Moisture limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Moisture limits. 52.3185 Section 52.3185 Agriculture... CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Dried Prunes Moisture, Uniformity of Size, Defects § 52.3185 Moisture limits. Dried prunes shall not exceed the moisture limits...

  14. 7 CFR 52.3185 - Moisture limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Moisture limits. 52.3185 Section 52.3185 Agriculture... CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Dried Prunes Moisture, Uniformity of Size, Defects § 52.3185 Moisture limits. Dried prunes shall not exceed the moisture limits...

  15. 7 CFR 52.3185 - Moisture limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moisture limits. 52.3185 Section 52.3185 Agriculture... Moisture limits. Dried prunes shall not exceed the moisture limits for the applicable grades and kind and size of packaging as designated in Table IV of this subpart except there is no moisture limit when safe...

  16. 7 CFR 52.3185 - Moisture limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Moisture limits. 52.3185 Section 52.3185 Agriculture... Moisture limits. Dried prunes shall not exceed the moisture limits for the applicable grades and kind and size of packaging as designated in Table IV of this subpart except there is no moisture limit when safe...

  17. Detection of moisture and moisture related phenomena from Skylab. [Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eagleman, J. R.; Pogge, E. C.; Moore, R. K. (Principal Investigator); Hardy, N.; Lin, W.; League, L.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This is a preliminary report on the ability to detect soil moisture variation from the two different sensors on board Skylab. Initial investigations of S190A and Sl94 Skylab data and ground truth has indicated the following significant results. (1) There was a decrease in Sl94 antenna temperature from NW to SE across the Texas test site. (2) Soil moisture increases were measured from NW to SE across the test site. (3) There was a general increase in precipitation distribution and radar echoes from NW to SE across the site for the few days prior to measurements. This was consistent with the soil moisture measurements and gives more complete coverage of the site. (4) There are distinct variations in soil textures over the test site. This affects the moisture holding capacity of soils and must be considered. (5) Strong correlation coefficients were obtained between S194 antenna temperature and soil moisutre content. As the antenna temperature decreases soil moisture increases. (6) The Sl94 antenna temperature correlated best with soil mositure content in the upper two inches of the soil. A correlation coefficient of .988 was obtained. (7) Sl90A photographs in the red-infrared region were shown to be useful for identification of Abilene clay loam and for determining the distribution of this soil type.

  18. Mapping soil moisture and surface heat fluxes by assimilating GOES land surface temperature and SMAP soil moisture data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yang; Steele-Dunne, Susan C.; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-04-01

    This study is focused on estimating soil moisture and sensible/latent heat fluxes by assimilating remotely-sensed land surface temperature (LST) and soil moisture data. Surface heat fluxes interact with the overlying atmosphere, and play a crucial role in the water and energy cycles. However, they cannot be directly measured using remote sensing. It has been demonstrated that LST time series contain information about the surface energy balance, and that assimilating soil moisture further improves the estimation by putting more constraints on the energy partitioning. In previous studies, two controlling factors were estimated: (1) a monthly constant bulk heat transfer coefficient (CHN) that scales the sum of surface heat fluxes, and (2) an evaporative fraction (EF) which governs the energy partitioning and stays quasi-constant during the near-peak hours. Considering the fact that CHN is not constant especially in the growing season, here CHN is assumed a function of leaf area index (LAI). LST data from GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites) and soil moisture data from SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) are both assimilated into a simply heat and water transfer model to update LST, soil moisture, CHN and EF , and to map surface heat fluxes over a study area in central US. A hybrid data assimilation strategy is necessary because SMAP data are available every 2-3 days, while GOES LST data are provided every hour. In this study, LST data are assimilated using an adaptive particle batch smoother (APBS) and soil moisture is periodically updated using a particle filter (PF). Results show that soil moisture is greatly improved, and that EF estimates are restored very well after assimilation. As forcing data are provided by remote sensing or reanalysis products to minimize the dependence on ground measurements, this methodology can be easily applied in other regions with limited data.

  19. An innovative approach to using both cellphones and the radio to identify young people’s sexual concerns in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As teenagers have easy access to both radio programs and cell phones, the current study used these tools so that young people could anonymously identify questions about sex and other related concerns in the urban environment of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The purpose of this healthcare intervention was to identify and address concerns raised by young people, which are related to sexual health, and which promote youth health. Methods This healthcare intervention was conducted over a six month period and consisted of a survey carried out in Kinshasa. This focused on 14 to 24 old young people using phone calls on a radio program raising concerns related to sexuality. The radio program was jointly run by a journalist and a health professional who were required to reply immediately to questions from young people. All sexual health concerns were recorded and analyzed. Results Forty programs were broadcast in six months and 1,250 messages and calls were recorded: 880 (70%) from girls and 370 (30%) from boys, which represents an average of 32 interventions (of which 10 calls and 22 messages) per broadcast. Most questions came from 15-19- and 20-24-year-old girls and boys. Focus of girls’ questions: menstrual cycle calculation and related concerns accounted for the majority (24%); sexual practices (16%), love relationships (15%) and virginity (14%). Boys’ concerns are masturbation (and its consequences) (22%), sexual practices (19%), love relationships (18%) and worries about penis size (10%). Infections (genital and STI) and topics regarding HIV represent 9% and 4% of the questions asked by girls against 7% and 10% by boys. Concerns were mainly related to knowledge, attitudes and competences to be developed. Conclusions Concerns and sexual practices raised by teens about their sexual and emotional life have inspired the design of a practical guide for youth self-training and have steered the second phase of this interactive program towards supporting

  20. Accumulation of toxic metals and organic micro-pollutants in sediments from tropical urban rivers, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Kilunga, Pitchouna I; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; Laffite, Amandine; Grandjean, Dominique; Mulaji, Crispin K; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Mpiana, Pius T; Poté, John

    2017-07-01

    The increasing contamination of fresh water resource by toxic metals and Persistence Organic Pollutants (POPs) is a major environmental concern globally. In the present investigation, surface sediments collected from three main rivers named, Makelele, Kalamu and Nsanga, draining through the city of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, were characterized for grain size, organic matter, toxic metals, POPs (including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Furthermore, enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) were performed to determine metal source and pollution status. The results highlighted high concentration of toxic metals in all sediment samples, reaching the values (mg kg(-1)) of 325 (Cu), 549 (Zn), 165 (Pb) and 1.5 (Cd). High values of PCBs and OCPs were detected in sediment samples, e.g. in Makelele river, PCB values ranged from 0.9 to 10.9 with total PCBs (∑7 PCBs × 4.3): 169.3 μg kg(-1); OCPs from 21.6 to 146.8 with ∑OCPs: 270.6 μg kg(-1). The PBDEs concentrations were higher in investigated rivers comparatively with values detected in many rivers from Sub-Saharan Africa. The ΣPAHs value ranged from 22.6 to 1011.9 μg kg(-1). River contamination may be explained by local intense domestic activities, urban and agricultural runoff, industrial and hospital wastewaters discharge into the rivers without prior treatment. This research provides not only a first baseline information on the extent of contamination in this tropical ecosystem but also represents useful tools incorporated to evaluate sediment quality in the river receiving systems which can be applied to similar aquatic environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Treatment-seeking Paths in the Management of Severe Malaria in Children under 15 Years of Age Treated in Reference Hospitals of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Ilunga-Ilunga, Félicien; Levêque, Alain; Ngongo, Léon Okenge; Laokri, Samia; Dramaix, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), few studies have focused on treatment-seeking paths selected by caretakers for the management of severe childhood malaria in an urban environment. The present study aims at describing the treatment-seeking paths according to the characteristics of households, as well as the subsequent impact on pre-hospitalisation delay and malarial fatality and on the main syndromes associated with severe childhood malaria. Methods: This descriptive study included data collected at nine hospitals in Kinshasa between January and November 2011. A total of 1,350 children, under 15 years of age and hospitalised for severe malaria, were included in the study. Results: Regarding the management of malaria, 31.5% of households went directly to the health centre or hospital while 68.5% opted for self-medication, church and/or traditional healing therapy. The most frequent first-line option was self-medication, adopted by more than 61.5% of households. Nevertheless, rational self-medication using antimalarial drugs recommended by the WHO (artemisinin-based combinations) was reported for only 5.5% of children. Only 12.5% of households combined 2 or 3 traditional options. The following criteria influenced the choice of a modern vs. traditional path: household socioeconomic level, residential environment, maternal education level and religious beliefs. When caretakers opted for traditional healing therapy, the pre-hospitalisation delay was longer and the occurrence of respiratory distress, severe anaemia and mortality was higher. Conclusion: The implementation of a malaria action plan in the Democratic Republic of Congo should take into account the diversity and pluralistic character of treatment-seeking behaviours in order to promote the most appropriate options (hospital and rational self-medication) and to avoid detrimental outcomes. PMID:25729313

  2. Antenatal and delivery services in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo: care-seeking and experiences reported by women in a household-based survey.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Lydia; Dimomfu, Bruno Lapika; Mupenda, Bavon; Duvall, Sandra; Chalachala, Jean Lambert; Edmonds, Andrew; Behets, Frieda

    2013-10-01

    Increasing coverage of quality reproductive health services, including prevention of mother-to-child transmission services, requires understanding where and how these services are provided. To inform scale-up, we conducted a population-based survey in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Stratified two-stage cluster sampling was used to select women ≥18 years old who had been pregnant within the prior three years. Participants were interviewed about their reproductive healthcare utilization and impressions of services received. We interviewed 1221 women, 98% of whom sought antenatal care (ANC). 78% of women began ANC after the first trimester and 22% reported <4 visits. Reasons for choosing an ANC facility included reputation (51%), friendly/accessible staff (39%), availability of comprehensive services (29%), medication access (26%), location (26%), and cost (21%). Most women reported satisfactory treatment by staff, but 47% reported that the ANC provider ignored their complaints, 23% had difficulty understanding responses to their questions, 22% wanted more time with the provider, 21% wanted more privacy, and 12% felt uncomfortable asking questions. Only 56% reported someone talked to them about HIV/AIDS. Strongest predictors of seeking inadequate ANC included low participant and partner education and lack of certain assets. Only 32% of women sought postnatal care. Some results varied by health zone. Scaling-up interventions to improve reproductive health services should include broad-based health systems strengthening and promote equitable access to quality ANC, delivery, and postnatal services. Personal and structural-level barriers to seeking ANC need to be addressed, with consideration given to local contexts. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Incidence of catastrophic health expenditures for households: an example of medical attention for the treatment of severe childhood malaria in Kinshasa reference hospitals, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Ilunga-Ilunga, Félicien; Levêque, Alain; Laokri, Samia; Dramaix, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the incidence of catastrophic health expenditures faced by households in Kinshasa with children affected by severe malaria. A total of 1350 children below the age of 15 year who were hospitalized due to severe malaria were included in the study. We analyzed the incidence of households facing catastrophic expenditures according to two thresholds: 40% of the household's capacity to pay and 10% of the household's total consumption. Based on the '40% of the capacity to pay' threshold, the incidence of catastrophic health expenditures reached 81.1%, and this estimate reached 46.4% for the '10% above total consumption' threshold. Regarding the ≥ 40% capacity to pay threshold, the incidences of catastrophic expenditures was higher among households with children who were admitted to state hospitals (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.7) and private hospitals (aOR 59.1), for poor households (aOR 13), for households with medium socioeconomic statuses (aOR 3.2), for female-headed households (aOR 2.9), for households with children affected by the neurological form (aOR 4.8) and respiratory distress (aOR 3.6), and for households who opted for a pre-hospital resort (aOR 2.7). Similar results were obtained when the 10% above the total consumption threshold was applied. Greater government financing of medical attention would lead to a reduction in the catastrophic health expenditures faced by the poorest households. Copyright © 2014 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of health service delivery capacities, health providers' knowledge and practices related to type 2 diabetes care in Kinshasa primary healthcare network facilities, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Kapongo, Remy Y; Lulebo, Aimée M; Mafuta, Eric M; Mutombo, Paulin B; Dimbelolo, Jean Claude M; Bieleli, Isidore E

    2015-01-22

    Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is experiencing an increase in the morbi-mortality related to Non Communicable Diseases (NCD). The reform of DRC health system, based on Health District model, is needed in order to tackle this public issue. This article used 2006 International Diabetes Federation (IDF)'s guidelines to assess the capacities of health facilities belonging to Kinshasa Primary Health Care Network (KPHCN) in terms of equipments, as well as the knowledge, and the practice of their health providers related to type 2 diabetes care. A multicentric cross-sectional study was carried in 18 Health Facilities (HF) of KPHCN in charge of the follow-up of diabetic patients. The presence of IDF recommended materials and equipment was checked and 28 health providers were interviewed about their theoretical knowledge about patients' management and therapeutic objectives during recommended visits. Chi square test or Fisher exact test was used to compare proportions and the Student t-test to compare means. The integration of NCD healthcare in the KPHC network is feasible. The majority of HF possessed IDF recommended materials except for the clinical practice guidelines, urinary test strips, and monofilament, available in only one, two and four HF, respectively. KPHCN referral facilities had required materials for biochemical analyses, the ECG and for the fundus oculi test. Patients' management is characterized by a lack of attention on the impairment of renal function during the first visits and a poor respect of recommended practices during quarterly and annual visits. A poor knowledge of the reduction of cardiovascular risk factors-related therapeutic objectives has been also reported. The capacities, knowledge, and practice of T2D care were poor among HF of KPHCN. The lack of equipment and training of healthcare professionals should be supplied even to those who are not medical doctors. Special attention must to be put on the clinical practice guidelines

  5. Surface moisture measurement system hardware acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, G.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-28

    This document summarizes the results of the hardware acceptance test for the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS). This test verified that the mechanical and electrical features of the SMMS functioned as designed and that the unit is ready for field service. The bulk of hardware testing was performed at the 306E Facility in the 300 Area and the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility in the 400 Area. The SMMS was developed primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement in organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks.

  6. An evaluation of the spatial resolution of soil moisture information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, K. R.; Cohen, S. H.; Rogers, L. K.; Burke, H. H. K.; Leupold, R. C.; Smallwood, M. D.

    1981-01-01

    Rainfall-amount patterns in the central regions of the U.S. were assessed. The spatial scales of surface features and their corresponding microwave responses in the mid western U.S. were investigated. The usefulness for U.S. government agencies of soil moisture information at scales of 10 km and 1 km. was ascertained. From an investigation of 494 storms, it was found that the rainfall resulting from the passage of most types of storms produces patterns which can be resolved on a 10 km scale. The land features causing the greatest problem in the sensing of soil moisture over large agricultural areas with a radiometer are bodies of water. Over the mid-western portions of the U.S., water occupies less than 2% of the total area, the consequently, the water bodies will not have a significant impact on the mapping of soil moisture. Over most of the areas, measurements at a 10-km resolution would adequately define the distribution of soil moisture. Crop yield models and hydrological models would give improved results if soil moisture information at scales of 10 km was available.

  7. Low level moisture from VAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, C. M.

    1980-01-01

    Previous research and current opinion are too pessimistic concerning the capability of defining moisture fields from satellite measurements. The TIROS-N sounder is a close analogue to what will fly on GEOS-D and can be used to investigate the probable capability of VAS. Basically, there are three frequencies applied to sensing moisture in the troposphere. The ability of these three measurements to define the moisture pattern is assessed. It is certainly true that one cannot achieve the detail available with a radiosonde hygristor. Sharp discontinuities cannot be sensed by a passive sounder, especially since the measurement tends to "saturate" with the first moisture layer encountered. However, the satellite measurements demonstrate a high degree of skill in defining the horizontal gradient. Moisture "tongues" and "dry lines" are readily delineated with some, perhaps two layers, of vertical definition. These attributes allow both the calculation of important advective quantities as well as (in concert with the temperature sounding) a gross definition of the vertical stability. The skill is demonstrably commensurate with subsynoptic forecast models and perhaps even to regional scale models.

  8. Remote sensing of soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T.

    1976-01-01

    The surface emissivity and reflectivity of soil are strong functions of its moisture content. Changes in emissivity, observed by passive microwave techniques (radiometry), and changes in reflectivity, observed by active microwave techniques (radar), can provide information on the moisture content of the 0 to 5 cm surface layer. In addition, the thermal inertia of the surface layer, which can be remotely sensed by observing the diurnal range of surface temperature, is an indicator of soil moisture content. The thermal infrared approach to remote sensing of soil moisture has little utility in the presence of cloud cover, but provides soil moisture data at high spatial resolutions and thermal data which are a potentially useful indicator of crop status. Microwave techniques can penetrate cloud covers. The passive technique has been demonstrated by both aircraft and spacecraft instruments, but spatial resolution is limited by the size of the antenna which can be flown. Active microwave systems offer the possibility of better spatial resolution, but have yet to be demonstrated from aircraft or spacecraft platforms.

  9. Ingested hyaluronan moisturizes dry skin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is present in many tissues of the body and is essential to maintain moistness in the skin tissues, which contain approximately half the body’s HA mass. Due to its viscosity and moisturizing effect, HA is widely distributed as a medicine, cosmetic, food, and, recently marketed in Japan as a popular dietary supplement to promote skin moisture. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study it was found that ingested HA increased skin moisture and improved treatment outcomes for patients with dry skin. HA is also reported to be absorbed by the body distributed, in part, to the skin. Ingested HA contributes to the increased synthesis of HA and promotes cell proliferation in fibroblasts. These effects show that ingestion of HA moisturizes the skin and is expected to improve the quality of life for people who suffer from dry skin. This review examines the moisturizing effects of dry skin by ingested HA and summarizes the series of mechanisms from absorption to pharmacological action. PMID:25014997

  10. Skin moisturization mechanisms: new data.

    PubMed

    Bonté, F

    2011-05-01

    The main function of the skin is to protect the body against exogenous substances and excessive water loss. The skin barrier is located in the outermost layer of the skin, called the stratum corneum, which is composed of corneocytes, originating from the keratinocytes differentiation process, embedded in organized complex lipid domains. Moisturizing of the skin is recognized as the first anti-aging skin care. Skin moisturization is essential for its appearance, protection, complexion, softness and the reinforcement of its barrier properties against deleterious and exogenous environmental factors. The intrinsic water binding capacity of skin is not only due to the complex natural moisturizing factor present in corneocytes, but also to hyaluronic acid and a regulated water transport within the skin. Recent data shows that the water movements between the cells at the different levels of the epidermis are due to dedicated water and glycerol transport proteins named aquaporins. Their role in the skin moisturization is completed by corneodesmosomes and tight junctions. Water and pH are now shown to be of prime importance in the regulation of the epidermal enzymes linked to corneocytes desquamation and lipid synthesis. Furthermore, the level of moisturization of the skin is important in its protection against repeated exposure to various irritant agents or phenomena such as very frequent washing with strong tensioactive materials.

  11. The clinical benefit of moisturizers.

    PubMed

    Lodén, M

    2005-11-01

    Moisturizing creams marketed to consumers often contain trendy ingredients and are accompanied by exciting names and attractive claims. Moisturizers are also an important part of the dermatologist's armamentarium to treat dry skin conditions and maintain healthy skin. The products can be regarded as cosmetics, but may also be regulated as medicinal products if they are marketed against dry skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis and ichthyosis. When moisturizers are used on the so-called dry skin, many distinct disorders that manifest themselves with the generally recognized symptoms of dryness are treated. Dryness is not a single entity, but is characterized by differences in chemistry and morphology in the epidermis depending on the internal and external stressors of the skin. Patients and the society expect dermatologists and pharmacists to be able to recommend treatment for various dry skin conditions upon evidence-based medicine. Upon completing this paper, the reader should be aware of different types of moisturizers and their major constituents. Furthermore, s/he will know more about the relief of dryness symptoms and the functional changes of the skin induced by moisturizers.

  12. Effect of moisture content on textural attributes of dried figs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Sara; Maftoon-Azad, Neda; Farahnaky, Asgar; Hosseini, Ebrahim; Badii, Fojan

    2014-10-01

    Due to their soft texture consumers prefer moist figs, which has motivated fig processors to increase the production of this product. However, as water enhances the browning reaction rate, moisture content optimisation of moist figs is very important. Processed figs must have suitable texture softness with browning kept to a minimum. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of moisture content on the textural attributes of dried figs. Hardness, compression energy, gradient, gumminess and chewiness of fig samples decreased with moisture content exponentially, whereas the trend of springiness and cohesiveness with change of moisture content was nearly constant. Moreover, in the texture profile analysis plot of rehydrated figs, the presence of negative area is an indication of adhesiveness which was zero in control dried figs. The results of the texture profile analysis tests proved the existence of a critical moisture content of about 18.4%, above which no significant effect of moisture content on textural parameters was found. The glass-rubber transition results from differential scanning calorimeter may explain the different texture profile analysis attributes of dried figs compared with rehydrated figs.

  13. Roughness characterizations in active and passive microwave soil moisture retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ying; Walker, Jeffrey; Panciera, Rocco; Monerris, Alessandra; Ryu, Dongryeol

    2014-05-01

    Passive microwave remote sensing at L-band is widely recognized as the preferred technique to measure surface soil moisture globally, with resolution ranging from 40-100km. However, passive microwave soil moisture retrieval is highly dependent on ancillary data such as surface roughness, which is difficult to characterize at such a large footprint by ground measurement. NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, scheduled for launch in Nov 2014, will deploy both active and passive microwave instruments to enhance soil moisture retrieval capabilities. This provides an opportunity to characterize the roughness parameter in passive observations with active measurements. However, the roughness parameters derived from active measurements cannot be directly used in the passive soil moisture retrieval models. While roughness is usually characterized by surface Root Mean Square (RMS) height in active microwave, roughness in passive microwave is described using a parameter HR. This paper compares the two roughness parameters, retrieved from active and passive scattering and emission models respectively, using data sets from the third Soil Moisture Active Passive Experiment (SMAPEx-3) conducted in south-eastern Australia in 2011. Analysis was done over a series of grassland surfaces located within the experiment focus areas. The retrieved surface RMS heights from active measurements were validated against ground samples, after which the relationship between HR and RMS was examined.

  14. Analysis of surface moisture variations within large field sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, K. R.; Blanchard, B. J.; Witczak, M. W.; Schmugge, T. J.

    1979-01-01

    A statistical analysis was made on ground soils to define the general relationship and ranges of values of the field moisture relative to both the variance and coefficient of variation for a given test site and depth increment. The results of the variability study show that: (1) moisture variations within any given large field area are inherent and can either be controlled nor reduced; (2) neither a single value of the standard deviation nor coefficient of variation uniquely define the variability over the complete range of mean field moisture contents examined; and (3) using an upper bound standard deviation parameter clearly defines the maximum range of anticipated moisture variability. 87 percent of all large field moisture content standard deviations were less than 3 percent while about 96 percent of all the computed values had an upper bound of sigma=4 percent for these intensively sampled fields. The limit of accuracy curves of mean soil moisture measurements for large field sites relative to the required number of samples were determined.

  15. Correlation of spacecraft passive microwave system data with soil moisture indices (API). [great plains corridor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, B. J.; Mcfarland, M. J.; Theis, S.; Richter, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    Electrical scanning microwave radiometer brightness temperature, meteorological data, climatological data, and winter wheat crop information were used to estimate that soil moisture content in the Great Plains region. Results over the predominant winter wheat areas indicate that the best potential to infer soil moisture occurs during fall and spring. These periods encompass the growth stages when soil moisture is most important to winter wheat yield. Other significant results are reported.

  16. Downscaling soil moisture using multisource data in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Ru; Wang, Hui-Lin; You, Jia-jun; Wang, Ying; Shen, Xiao-ji; Gao, Wei; Wang, Yi-nan; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Zhe; Quaye-Ballardd, Jonathan Arthur; Chen, Yuehong

    2016-10-01

    Soil moisture plays an important role in the water cycle within the surface ecosystem and it is the basic condition for the growth and development of plants. Currently, the spatial resolution of most soil moisture data from remote sensing ranges from ten to several tens of kilometres whilst those observed in situ and simulated for watershed hydrology, ecology, agriculture, weather and drought research are generally less than 1 kilometre. Therefore, the existing coarse resolution remotely sensed soil moisture data needs to be down-scaled. In this paper, a universal soil moisture downscaling model through stepwise regression with moving window suitable for large areas and multi temporal has been established. Datasets comprise land surface, brightness temperature, precipitation, soil and topographic parameters from high resolution data, and active/passive microwave remotely sensed soil moisture data from Essential Climate Variables (ECV_SM) with 25 km spatial resolution were used. With this model, a total of 288 soil moisture maps of 1 km resolution from the first ten-day of January 2003 to the last tenth-day of December 2010 were derived. The in situ observations were used to validate the down-scaled ECV_SM for different land cover and land use types and seasons. In addition, various errors comparative analysis was also carried out for the down-scaled ECV_SM and original one. In general, the down-scaled soil moisture for different land cover and land use types is consistent with the in situ observations. The accuracy is relatively high in autumn and winter. The validation results show that downscaled soil moisture can be improved not only on spatial resolution, but also on estimation accuracy.

  17. SMOS CATDS Level 3 products, Soil Moisture and Brightness Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthon, L.; Mialon, A.; Al Bitar, A.; Cabot, F.; Kerr, Y. H.

    2012-12-01

    The ESA's (European Space Agency) SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) mission, operating since november 2009, is the first satellite dedicated to measuring the surface soil moisture and the ocean salinity. The CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) has developed the CATDS (Centre Aval de Traitement des Données SMOS) ground segment. The CATDS provides temporal synthesis products (referred to as level 3) of soil moisture, which are now covering the whole SMOS period, i.e. since January 2010. These products have different time resolutions: daily products, 3-day global products (insuring a complete coverage of the Earth surface), 10-day composite products, and monthly averaged products. Moreover, a new product provides brightness temperatures at H and V polarizations which are computed at fixed incidence angles every 5 degrees. As the instrument measures L-band brightness temperatures at the antenna frame (X/Y polarizations), a rotation is applied to transform the observations to V/H polarizations. All the CATDS products are presented in the NetCDF format and on the EASE grid (Equal Area Scalable Earth grid) with a spatial resolution of ~ 25*25 km2 The soil moisture level 3 algorithm is based on ESA's (European Space Agency) level 2 retrieval scheme with the improvement of using several overpasses (3 at most) over a 7-day window. The use of many revisits is expected to improve the retrieved soil moisture. This communication aims at presenting the soil moisture and brightness temperature products from the CATDS as well as the other geophysical parameters retrieved, such as the vegetation optical depth or the dielectric constant of the surface. SMOS Level 3 soil moisture. 3-days aggregation product, the best estimation of soil moisture is chosen.

  18. Quantifying surface moisture influences on aeolian transport (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nield, J. M.; Wiggs, G. F.

    2010-12-01

    Surface moisture plays an important role in determining sediment availability and aeolian transport in beach systems but is heterogeneous both spatially and temporally. The development of rippled aeolian sand strips and protodunes are particularly influenced by surface moisture and are inherently transient and therefore difficult to quantify using traditional point based sampling methods. Furthermore, these structures are influenced by saltation cloud formation and mutual feedback associated with surface characteristics and transport dynamics. Here we utilise terrestrial laser scanning (ground-based LiDAR) to accurately decipher beach surface moisture during transport events, elucidating the switch between erosivity and erodibility as the surface dries and saltation intensity increases. This technology is particularly useful at identifying surface moisture within 0-10%, precisely the range over which the aeolian transport threshold is found. The resolution of the instrument allows millimeter accuracy of surface topography, percent accuracy of surface moisture with short (minutes) data collection periods, enabling the examination of multiple relationships at unprecedented detail. Surface roughness and saltation cloud height increase over moist areas, particularly as saltation intensity increases, whilst deposition on the wet/dry boundary is a function of feedback between the surface properties and aerodynamic attributes which ultimately contributes towards protodune formation. These observed feedback mechanisms are incorporated into a cellular automaton-based algorithm to examine sand strip development and surface moisture interaction. Simulations suggest the development of differing mobility between small-scale ripples and larger sand strip is a function of the response of the surface moisture to sediment deposition and erosion. Our findings highlight the inherent complexity of surface moisture and sediment transport interactions, and the need to incorporate their

  19. Multispectral sensing of moisture stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, C. E., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Laboratory reflectance data, and field tests with multispectral remote sensors provide support for this hypotheses that differences in moisture content and water deficits are closely related to foliar reflectance from woody plants. When these relationships are taken into account, automatic recognition techniques become more powerful than when they are ignored. Evidence is increasing that moisture relationships inside plant foliage are much more closely related to foliar reflectance characteristics than are external variables such as soil moisture, wind, and air temperature. Short term changes in water deficits seem to have little influence on foliar reflectance, however. This is in distinct contrast to significant short-term changes in foliar emittance from the same plants with changing wind, air temperature, incident radiation, or water deficit conditions.

  20. THERMALLY SHIELDED MOISTURE REMOVAL DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Miller, O.E.

    1958-08-26

    An apparatus is presented for removing moisture from the air within tanks by condensation upon a cartridge containing liquid air. An insulating shell made in two halves covers the cartridge within the evacuated system. The shell halves are hinged together and are operated by a system of levers from outside the tank with the motion translated through a sylphon bellows to cover and uncover the cartridge. When the condensation of moisture is in process, the insulative shell is moved away from the liquid air cartridge, and during that part of the process when there is no freezing out of moisture, the shell halves are closed on the cell so thnt the accumulated frost is not evaporated. This insulating shell greatly reduces the consumption of liquid air in this condensation process.

  1. Absolute versus temporal anomaly and percent of saturation soil moisture spatial variability for six networks worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocca, L.; Zucco, G.; Mittelbach, H.; Moramarco, T.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2014-07-01

    The analysis of the spatial-temporal variability of soil moisture can be carried out considering the absolute (original) soil moisture values or relative values, such as the percent of saturation or temporal anomalies. Over large areas, soil moisture data measured at different sites can be characterized by large differences in their minimum, mean, and maximum absolute values, even though in relative terms their temporal patterns are very similar. In these cases, the analysis considering absolute compared with percent of saturation or temporal anomaly soil moisture values can provide very different results with significant consequences for their use in hydrological applications and climate science. In this study, in situ observations from six soil moisture networks in Italy, Spain, France, Switzerland, Australia, and United States are collected and analyzed to investigate the spatial soil moisture variability over large areas (250-150,000 km2). Specifically, the statistical and temporal stability analyses of soil moisture have been carried out for absolute, temporal anomaly, and percent of saturation values (using two different formulations for temporal anomalies). The results highlight that the spatial variability of the soil moisture dynamic (i.e., temporal anomalies) is significantly lower than that of the absolute soil moisture values. The spatial variance of the time-invariant component (temporal mean of each site) is the predominant contribution to the total spatial variance of absolute soil moisture data. Moreover, half of the networks show a minimum in the spatial variability for intermediate conditions when the temporal anomalies are considered, in contrast with the widely recognized behavior of absolute soil moisture data. The analyses with percent saturation data show qualitatively similar results as those for the temporal anomalies because of the applied normalization which reduces spatial variability induced by differences in mean absolute soil moisture

  2. BOREAS HYD-6 Ground Gravimetric Soil Moisture Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Thomas; Knapp, David E. (Editor); Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Peck, Eugene L.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-6 team collected several data sets related to the moisture content of soil and overlying humus layers. This data set contains percent soil moisture ground measurements. These data were collected on the ground along the various flight lines flown in the Southern Study Area (SSA) and Northern Study Area (NSA) during 1994 by the gamma ray instrument. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The HYD-06 ground gravimetric soil moisture data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  3. Moisture Sources, moisture transport and continental recycling in the East Asian Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fremme, Astrid; Sodemann, Harald

    2017-04-01

    South East China has some of the most important climate proxy records on the past monsoon. Knowledge about moisture sources, transport and recycling is important when interpreting stable isotope concentrations from such speleothems as proxy data for past hydroclimate. Even though speleothems usually have annual resolution, the seasonal transition contributes to the annual signal and its variability also needs to be considered in their interpretation. Using the Lagrangian model FLEXPART and the diagnostic tool WaterSip with wind and humidity from ERA Interim reanalysis as input, the moisture transport to three regions of China where rainfall is dominated by the East Asian Monsoon is diagnosed from evaporation to precipitation for each rain event in the period 1979-2013. Through calculation of moisture budgets along the air parcel trajectories on a 6h time scale we obtain a quantitative estimate for contribution of surface evaporation to the target region precipitation. We find that the differences of moisture sources between months belonging to different seasons are large in the 34 year climatology. Both moisture sources and transport characteristics change strongly with the seasonal progression of the East Asian Monsoon. The westernmost and farthest source regions contribute during the peak of the monsoon. In July the mean transport distance for South China is 2400 km, compared to a whole year mean of 2100 km in this region. The transport time over these distances is rather short with close to 4 days from evaporation to precipitation. Land contributions (continental recycling) vary strongly with season an subregions, with values as low as 35% for an autumn month in South China, compared to 98% in a spring month in the upper reaches (west) of the Yangtze River. The important role of continental recycling partly explains the short average transport distances and atmospheric transport times. A key result from our approach is that local land areas are important sources

  4. Predicting root zone soil moisture using surface data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfreda, S.; Brocca, L.; Moramarco, T.; Melone, F.; Sheffield, J.; Fiorentino, M.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, much effort has been given to monitoring of soil moisture from satellite remote sensing. These tools represent an extraordinary source of information for hydrological applications, but they only provide information on near-surface soil moisture. In the present work, we developed a new formulation for the estimation of the soil moisture in the root zone based on the measured value of soil moisture at the surface. The method derives from a simplified form of the soil water balance equation and for this reason all parameters adopted are physically consistent. The formulation provides a closed form of the relationship between the root zone soil moisture and the surface soil moisture with a limited number of parameters, such as: the ratio between the depth of the surface layer and the deeper layer, the water loss coefficient, and the field capacity. The method has been tested using modeled soil moisture obtained from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). The NLDAS is a multi-institution partnership aimed at developing a retrospective data set, using available atmospheric and land surface meteorological observations to compute the land surface hydrological budget. The NLDAS database was extremely useful for the scope of the present research since it provides simulated data over an extended area with different climatic and physical condition and moreover it provides soil moisture data averaged over different depths. In particular, we used values in the top 10 cm and 100 cm layers. One year of simulation was used to test the ability of the developed method to describe soil moisture fluctuation in the 100cm layer over the entire NLDAS domain. The method was adopted by calibrating one of its three parameters and defining the remaining two based on physical characteristics of the site (using the potential evapotranspiration and ratio between the first and the second soil layer depth). In general, the method performed better than

  5. Comparison of temporal trends from multiple soil moisture data sets and precipitation: The implication of irrigation on regional soil moisture trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jianxiu; Gao, Quanzhou; Wang, Sheng; Su, Zhenrong

    2016-06-01

    In this study, soil moisture trend during 1996-2010 in China was analyzed based on three soil moisture data sets, namely microwave-based multi-satellite surface soil moisture product released from European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI), ERA-Interim/Land reanalysis, and in-situ measurements collected from the nationwide agro-meteorological network. Taking the in-situ soil moisture as reference, it is found that ESA CCI generally captured soil moisture trend more accurately than ERA-Interim/Land did. From the spatial distribution of trend analysis results, it is seen that significant decreasing trend for summer soil moisture in northwestern China and northern Inner Mongolia, as well as the significant increasing trend for autumn soil moisture in northern China were identified by both ESA CCI and ERA-Interim/Land. This is in alignment with results from gauge-based precipitation provided by Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research (IGSNRR) and satellite-based precipitation from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). However, disagreements in derived trends between ESA CCI, ERA-Interim/Land and IGSNRR were observed in the southwest and north of China, especially in major irrigation regions, such as the oases in northern Xinjiang and large areas in Sichuan province. Prominent difference between soil moisture and precipitation exhibited in the extensively irrigated Huang-Huai-Hai Plain. The spatial coincidence between significantly wetting areas (identified by ESA CCI) and heavily irrigated areas, as well as the grid-based Student's t-test sampling from various irrigation levels revealed that the observed discrepancy was caused by massive anthropogenic interference in this region. Results indicate that, for regions with great magnitude of human interference, modules considering actual irrigation practice are crucial for successful modeling of soil moisture and capturing the long-term trend. Furthermore, results could

  6. Synergies and complementarities between ASCAT and SMOS soil moisture products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escorihuela, Maria Jose; Quintana, Pere; Merlin, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    Soil moisture is a critical variable in many kinds of applications including agriculture, water management, meteorology or climatology. This is especially true in the Mediterranean context, where soil moisture plays an important role in water resources management and hydrometeorological risks such as floods and droughts. Unfortunately, this variable is not widely observed in situ, so we lack data on its time evolution and spatial structure. Remote sensing has been used to estimate surface soil moisture because it provides comprehensive data over large surfaces. In this study we compared two different surface soil moisture remote sensing products; one derived from active microwave data of the ASCAT scatterometer instrument onboard METOP and the other from passive microwave data of the SMOS mission the first dedicated to estimate soil moisture. SMOS measuring frequency (1.4 GHz) is theoretically more suited to measure soil moisture than ASCAT measuring frequency (5.255 GHz) because of its lower vegetation effects. On the other hand, ASCAT- like instruments have been providing measurements for more than 2 decades and have been a key input in building the CCI Soil Moisture Variable. In order to get the best global soil moisture products it is thus essential to understand their respective performances and restrictions. The comparison has been carried out in Catalonia where we have implemented the SURFEX/ISBA land-surface model, which we forced with the SAFRAN meteorological analysis system. A downscaling algorithm has been also implemented and validated over the area to provide SMOS derived soil moisture fields at 1 km spatial resolution. Catalonia is located in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula and its climate is typically Mediterranean, mild in winter and warm in summer. The Pyrenees and the neighbouring areas have a high-altitude climate, with minimum temperatures below 0º C, annual rainfall above 1000 mm and abundant snow during the winter. Along the coast

  7. BOREAS HYD-1 Volumetric Soil Moisture Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuenca, Richard H.; Kelly, Shaun F.; Stangel, David E.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-1 team made measurements of volumetric soil moisture at the Southern Study Area (SSA) and Northern Study Area (NSA) tower flux sites in 1994 and at selected tower flux sites in 1995-97. Different methods were used to collect these measurements, including neutron probe and manual and automated Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR). In 1994, the measurements were made every other day at the NSA-OJP (Old Jack Pine), NSA-YJP (Young Jack Pine), NSA-OBS (Old Black Spruce), NSA-Fen, SSA-OJP, SSA-YJP, SSA-Fen, SSA-YA (Young Aspen), and SSA-OBS sites. In 1995-97, when automated equipment was deployed at NSA-OJP, NSA-YJP, NSA-OBS, SSA-OBS, and SSA-OA (Old Aspen), the measurements were made as often as every hour. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The volumetric soil moisture data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  8. Combined assimilation of streamflow and satellite soil moisture with the particle filter and geostatistical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hongxiang; Moradkhani, Hamid

    2016-08-01

    Assimilation of satellite soil moisture and streamflow data into a distributed hydrologic model has received increasing attention over the past few years. This study provides a detailed analysis of the joint and separate assimilation of streamflow and Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) surface soil moisture into a distributed Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA) model, with the use of recently developed particle filter-Markov chain Monte Carlo (PF-MCMC) method. Performance is assessed over the Salt River Watershed in Arizona, which is one of the watersheds without anthropogenic effects in Model Parameter Estimation Experiment (MOPEX). A total of five data assimilation (DA) scenarios are designed and the effects of the locations of streamflow gauges and the ASCAT soil moisture on the predictions of soil moisture and streamflow are assessed. In addition, a geostatistical model is introduced to overcome the significantly biased satellite soil moisture and also discontinuity issue. The results indicate that: (1) solely assimilating outlet streamflow can lead to biased soil moisture estimation; (2) when the study area can only be partially covered by the satellite data, the geostatistical approach can estimate the soil moisture for those uncovered grid cells; (3) joint assimilation of streamflow and soil moisture from geostatistical modeling can further improve the surface soil moisture prediction. This study recommends that the geostatistical model is a helpful tool to aid the remote sensing technique and the hydrologic DA study.

  9. Soil moisture retrieval from Sentinel-1 satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benninga, Harm-Jan; van der Velde, Rogier; Su, Zhongbo

    2016-04-01

    Reliable up-to-date information on the current water availability and models to evaluate management scenarios are indispensable for skilful water management. The Sentinel-1 radar satellite programme provides an opportunity to monitor water availability (as surface soil moisture) from space on an operational basis at unprecedented fine spatial and temporal resolutions. However, the influences of soil roughness and vegetation cover complicate the retrieval of soil moisture states from radar data. In this contribution, we investigate the sensitivity of Sentinel-1 radar backscatter to soil moisture states and vegetation conditions. The analyses are based on 105 Sentinel-1 images in the period from October 2014 to January 2016 covering the Twente region in the Netherlands. This area is almost flat and has a heterogeneous landscape, including agricultural (mainly grass, cereal and corn), forested and urban land covers. In-situ measurements at 5 cm depth collected from the Twente soil moisture monitoring network are used as reference. This network consists of twenty measurement stations (most of them at agricultural fields) distributed across an area of 50 km × 40 km. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from optical images is adopted as proxy to represent seasonal variability in vegetation conditions. The results from this sensitivity study provide insight into the potential capability of Sentinel-1 data for the estimation of soil moisture states and they will facilitate the further development of operational retrieval methods. An operationally applicable soil moisture retrieval method requires an algorithm that is usable without the need for area specific model calibration with detailed field information (regarding roughness and vegetation). Because it is not yet clear which method provides the most reliable soil moisture retrievals from Sentinel-1 data, multiple soil moisture retrieval methods will be studied in which the fine spatiotemporal

  10. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

  11. Variation in seasonal moisture content

    Treesearch

    John E. Phelps

    1992-01-01

    Several properties of wood are affected by moisture content-weight, fuel value, electrical conductivity, strength, and shrinkage. Differences in these properties are commonly observed in wood in service. For example, a green 2 X 4 weighs more than a kiln-dried 2 X 4, dried wood burns more easily and hotter than green wood, etc.

  12. Soil Moisture Retrieval from Aquarius

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aquarius observations over land offer an unprecedented opportunity to provide a value-added product, land surface soil moisture, which will contribute to a better understanding of the Earth’s climate and water cycle. Additionally, Aquarius will provide the first spaceborne data that can be used to a...

  13. Using Landsat digital data to detect moisture stress in corn-soybean growing regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. R.; Wehmanen, O. A.

    1980-01-01

    As a part of a follow-on study to the moisture stress detection effort conducted in the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE), a technique utilizing transformed Landsat digital data was evaluated for detecting moisture stress in humid growing regions using sample segments from Iowa, Illinois, and Indiana. At known growth stages of corn and soybeans, segments were classified as undergoing moisture stress or not undergoing stress. The remote-sensing-based information was compared to a weekly ground-based index (Crop Moisture Index). This comparison demonstrated that the remote sensing technique could be used to monitor the growing conditions within a region where corn and soybeans are the major crop.

  14. Using Landsat digital data to detect moisture stress in corn-soybean growing regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. R.; Wehmanen, O. A.

    1980-01-01

    As a part of a follow-on study to the moisture stress detection effort conducted in the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE), a technique utilizing transformed Landsat digital data was evaluated for detecting moisture stress in humid growing regions using sample segments from Iowa, Illinois, and Indiana. At known growth stages of corn and soybeans, segments were classified as undergoing moisture stress or not undergoing stress. The remote-sensing-based information was compared to a weekly ground-based index (Crop Moisture Index). This comparison demonstrated that the remote sensing technique could be used to monitor the growing conditions within a region where corn and soybeans are the major crop.

  15. Improved Prediction of Quasi-Global Vegetation Conditions Using Remotely-Sensed Surface Soil Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolten, John; Crow, Wade

    2012-01-01

    The added value of satellite-based surface soil moisture retrievals for agricultural drought monitoring is assessed by calculating the lagged rank correlation between remotely-sensed vegetation indices (VI) and soil moisture estimates obtained both before and after the assimilation of surface soil moisture retrievals derived from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) into a soil water balance model. Higher soil moisture/VI lag correlations imply an enhanced ability to predict future vegetation conditions using estimates of current soil moisture. Results demonstrate that the assimilation of AMSR-E surface soil moisture retrievals substantially improve the performance of a global drought monitoring system - particularly in sparsely-instrumented areas of the world where high-quality rainfall observations are unavailable.

  16. NASA Soil Moisture Mapper Takes First SMAPshots

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-09

    panel of the image show a clear contrast between land and ocean surfaces. The Amazon and Congo forests in South America and Africa, respectively, produced strong radar echoes due to their large biomass and water content. Areas with no vegetation and low soil moisture, such as the Sahara Desert, yielded weaker radar echoes. As expected, the dry snow zone in central Greenland, the largest zone of the Greenland ice sheet where snow does not melt year-round, produced weaker radar echoes. Surrounding areas in Greenland's percolation zone, where some meltwater penetrates down into glaciers and refreezes, had strong radar echoes due to ice lens and glands within the ice sheet. Ice lenses form when moisture that is diffused within soil or rock accumulates in a localized zone. Ice glands are columns of ice in the granular snow at the top of glaciers. The test shows that SMAP's radiometer is performing well. The radiometer's brightness temperature data are illustrated in the lower panel. Brightness temperature is a measurement of how much natural microwave radiant energy is traveling up from Earth's surface to the satellite. The contrast between land and ocean surface brightness temperatures is clear, as they are in the radar image. The Sahara Desert has high brightness temperatures because it is so hot and has low soil moisture content. The India subcontinent is currently in its dry season and therefore also has high brightness temperatures. Some regions, such as the northeast corner of Australia, showed low brightness temperatures, likely due to the high moisture content of the soil after heavy rainfall from Cyclone Marcia in late February. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19236

  17. SMOS Soil Moisture Validation with Dense and Sparse Newtworks:Early Results

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Validation is an important but particularly challenging task for passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture from Earth orbit. The key issue is spatial scale; conventional measurements of soil moisture are made at a point whereas satellite sensors provide an integrated area/volume value for a...

  18. Using a soil moisture and precipitation network for satellite validation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A long term in situ network for the study of soil moisture and precipitation was deployed in north central Iowa, in cooperation between USDA and NASA. A total of 20 dual precipitation gages were established across a watershed landscape with an area of approximately 600 km2. In addition, four soil mo...

  19. Microwave soil moisture estimation in humid and semiarid watersheds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, P. E.; Jackson, T. J.; Chauhan, N. S.; Seyfried, M. S.

    1993-01-01

    Land surface hydrologic-atmospheric interactions in humid and semi-arid watersheds were investigated. Active and passive microwave sensors were used to estimate the spatial and temporal distribution of soil moisture at the catchment scale in four areas. Results are presented and discussed. The eventual use of this information in the analysis and prediction of associated hydrologic processes is examined.

  20. Can soil moisture be mapped onto the terrain?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blyth, E. M.; Finch, J.; Robinson, M.; Rosier, P.

    Soil moisture heterogeneity has an effect on the rainfall-runoff characteristics of a landscape. The aggregate effect on the mean water balance over an area can be quantified successfully using models such as the PDM (Moore, 1986) and TOPMODEL (Beven and Kirkby, 1979). These rainfall-runoff models have been embedded in the large-scale land surface schemes used in meteorological models. However, there is also a requirement (e.g. model validation) to identify the spatial structure of the fine-scale soil moisture heterogeneity that makes up these aggregate models. In some types of landscape, this will be dictated by topography, in others by soil characteristics, or by a combination of both. A method to distribute area-average soil moisture according to the likely effect of local topography is presented and tested. The heterogeneity of the soil moisture is described by the Xinanxiang distribution (Zhao et al., 1980), commonly used to describe the natural spatial heterogeneity of the landscape. This distribution is then mapped onto the terrain using a topographic index to locate the wettest and driest areas. Soil moisture data from the Wye catchment in Wales and from the Pang catchment in Berkshire, England, are used to test the method. It is found that soil moisture data from the Wye catchment follow the topographic index reasonably well, whereas data from the quick-draining, chalky Pang catchment do not. The conclusion that topographic index is a useful indicator only in some landscapes applies equally to using this mapping method and those models that use topographic index directly.

  1. Implications of complete watershed soil moisture measurements to hydrologic modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engman, E. T.; Jackson, T. J.; Schmugge, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    A series of six microwave data collection flights for measuring soil moisture were made over a small 7.8 square kilometer watershed in southwestern Minnesota. These flights were made to provide 100 percent coverage of the basin at a 400 m resolution. In addition, three flight lines were flown at preselected areas to provide a sample of data at a higher resolution of 60 m. The low level flights provide considerably more information on soil moisture variability. The results are discussed in terms of reproducibility, spatial variability and temporal variability, and their implications for hydrologic modeling.

  2. Photoprotection in moisturizers and daily-care products.

    PubMed

    Seite, S; Fourtanier, A; Rougier, A

    2010-10-01

    During usual daily activities, an appropriate protection against solar UV exposure should prevent clinical, cellular and molecular changes potentially leading to photoaging. In skin areas regularly exposed to sun, UV-damage is superimposed to tissue degeneration resulting from chronological aging. It is, therefore, important to know if moisturizers and daily-care products containing UVA absorbers combined with UVB ones are able to prevent these skin damages. This review will summarize clinical studies evaluating this topic. These studies demonstrate that broad-spectrum protection in moisturizers or daily-care products can prevent the "silent" sub-erythemal cumulative effects of UVR from inadvertent sun exposure.

  3. Soil Moisture: The Hydrologic Interface Between Surface and Ground Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engman, Edwin T.

    1997-01-01

    A hypothesis is presented that many hydrologic processes display a unique signature that is detectable with microwave remote sensing. These signatures are in the form of the spatial and temporal distributions of surface soil moisture. The specific hydrologic processes that may be detected include groundwater recharge and discharge zones, storm runoff contributing areas, regions of potential and less than potential evapotranspiration (ET), and information about the hydrologic properties of soils. In basin and hillslope hydrology, soil moisture is the interface between surface and ground waters.

  4. Soil Moisture: The Hydrologic Interface Between Surface and Ground Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engman, Edwin T.

    1997-01-01

    A hypothesis is presented that many hydrologic processes display a unique signature that is detectable with microwave remote sensing. These signatures are in the form of the spatial and temporal distributions of surface soil moisture. The specific hydrologic processes that may be detected include groundwater recharge and discharge zones, storm runoff contributing areas, regions of potential and less than potential evapotranspiration (ET), and information about the hydrologic properties of soils. In basin and hillslope hydrology, soil moisture is the interface between surface and ground waters.

  5. The impact of hospital and urban wastewaters on the bacteriological contamination of the water resources in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Kilunga, Pitchouna I; Kayembe, John M; Laffite, Amandine; Thevenon, Florian; Devarajan, Naresh; Mulaji, Crispin K; Mubedi, Josué I; Yav, Zéphirin G; Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Mpiana, Pius T; Poté, John

    2016-10-14

    Although the United Nations General Assembly recognized in 2010 the right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation as a human right that is essential to the full enjoyment of life and all other human rights, the contamination of water supplies with faecal pathogens is still a major and unsolved problem in many parts of the world. In this study, faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), including Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus (ENT), were quantified over the period of June/July 2014 and June/July 2015 to assess the quality of hospital effluents (n = 3: H1, H2 and H3) and of rivers receiving wastewaters from the city of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. The water and sediment samples from the river-receiving systems were collected in, upstream and downstream of the hospital outlet pipe (HOP) discharge. The analysis of E. coli and ENT in water and sediment suspension was performed using the cultural membrane filter method. The FIB characterization was performed for general E. coli, Enterococcus faecalis(E. faecalis) and human-specific Bacteroides by PCR using specific primers. The results revealed very high FIB concentration in the hospital effluent waters, with E. coli reaching the values of 4.2 × 10(5), 16.1 × 10(5) and 5.9 × 10(5) CFU 100 mL(-1), for the hospital effluents from H1, H2, and H3, respectively; and Enterococcus reaching the values of 2.3 × 10(4), 10.9 × 10(4) and 4.1 × 10(4) CFU 100 mL(-1), respectively. Interestingly, the FIB levels in the water and sediment samples from river-receiving systems are spatially and temporally highly variable and present in some samples with higher values than the hospital effluents. The PCR assays for human-specific Bacteroides HF183/HF134 further indicate that more than 98% of bacteria were from human origin. The results of this research therefore confirm the hypothesis of our previous studies, indicating that in developing countries (e.g., Democratic Republic of Congo and South India), the

  6. Temporal changes in the outcomes of HIV-exposed infants in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo during a period of rapidly evolving guidelines for care (2007–2013)

    PubMed Central

    Feinstein, Lydia; Edmonds, Andrew; Chalachala, Jean Lambert; Okitolonda, Vitus; Lusiama, Jean; Van Rie, Annelies; Chi, Benjamin H.; Cole, Stephen R.; Behets, Frieda

    2015-01-01

    Objective Guidelines for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV have developed rapidly, yet little is known about how outcomes of HIV-exposed infants have changed over time. We describe HIV-exposed infant outcomes in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, between 2007 and 2013. Design Cohort study of mother–infant pairs enrolled in family-centered comprehensive HIV care. Methods Accounting for competing risks, we estimated the cumulative incidences of early infant diagnosis, HIV transmission, death, loss to follow-up, and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation for infants enrolled in three periods (2007–2008, 2009–2010, and 2011–2012). Results 1707 HIV-exposed infants enrolled at a median age of 2.6 weeks. Among infants whose mothers had recently enrolled into HIV care (N = 1411), access to EID by age two months increased from 28% (95% confidence limits [CL]: 24,34%) among infants enrolled in 2007-2008 to 63% (95% CL: 59,68%) among infants enrolled in 2011–2012 (Gray's p-value <0.01). The 18-month cumulative incidence of HIV declined from 16% (95% CL: 11,22%) for infants enrolled in 2007–2008 to 11% (95% CL: 8,16%) for infants enrolled in 2011–2012 (Gray's p-value = 0.19). The 18-month cumulative incidence of death also declined, from 8% (95% CL: 5,12%) to 3% (95% CL: 2,5%) (Gray's p-value = 0.02). LTFU did not improve, with 18-month cumulative incidences of 19% (95% CL: 15,23%) for infants enrolled in 2007-2008 and 22% (95% CL: 18,26%) for infants enrolled in 2011–2012 (Gray's p-value = 0.06). Among HIV-infected infants, the 24-month cumulative incidence of cART increased from 61% (95% CL: 43,75%) to 97% (95% CL: 82,100%) (Gray's p-value < 0.01); the median age at cART decreased from 17.9 to 9.3 months. Outcomes were better for infants whose mothers enrolled before pregnancy. Conclusions We observed encouraging improvements, but continued efforts are needed. PMID:24991903

  7. Soil Moisture State and Hydrologic Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Western, A. W.; Grayson, R. B.; Blöschl, G.; Wilson, D.; Longobardi, A.; Villani, P.; Duncan, M.

    It has long been recognized that soil moisture has a key role in controlling evapo- transpiration during dryer periods, as well as runoff processes, particularly saturation excess runoff. The temporal and spatial variability of moisture can be an important influence on the temporal and spatial characteristics of these processes. More recently, the role of soil moisture in controlling lateral flow processes has re- ceived close attention, with switching between persistent dry and wet states leading to switches between controls on spatial patterns of soil moisture and consequent changes in runoff behaviour. In this paper we will review results on the spatial and temporal variability of soil moisture at the small catchment scale, concentrating in particular on dominant controls and temporal changes in dominant controls. We will discuss the climatic and catchment characteristics under which switching between dominant controls is likely. We will also present results relating spatial soil moisture behaviour to soil moisture state and relating rainfall-runoff response to moisture state: in particular we investi- gated the relationships between the basin soil moisture dynamic and the occurrence of very extreme flood events. The spatial probability density function of soil moisture is bounded by wilting point and porosity. This bounding combined with catchment processes leads to a strong link between spatial variance and spatial mean soil mois- ture, with an initial increase in variance followed by a decrease as mean soil moisture increases from wilting point to saturation. Changes in the spatial control of soil mois- ture and the relationship between soil moisture and terrain also occur as the spatial controls on the soil moisture pattern change in response to mean soil moisture. Strong links between the changes in the spatial characteristics of soil moisture will be demon- strated and the potential of measurements of soil moisture to provide information on catchment state

  8. The Temperature in Microwave Soil Moisture Retrieval

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the near future two dedicated soil moisture satellites will be launched, the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite and the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite that are expected to contribute to our understanding of the global hydrological cycle. It is well known that microwa...

  9. Soil moisture by extraction and gas chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merek, E. L.; Carle, G. C.

    1973-01-01

    To determine moisture content of soils rapidly and conveniently extract moisture with methanol and determine water content of methanol extract by gas chromatography. Moisture content of sample is calculated from weight of water and methanol in aliquot and weight of methanol added to sample.

  10. Soil-moisture constants and their variation

    Treesearch

    Walter M. Broadfoot; Hubert D. Burke

    1958-01-01

    "Constants" like field capacity, liquid limit, moisture equivalent, and wilting point are used by most students and workers in soil moisture. These constants may be equilibrium points or other values that describe soil moisture. Their values under specific soil and cover conditions have been discussed at length in the literature, but few general analyses and...

  11. Modernization of the DFA Moisture Meter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Dried Fruit Association (DFA) Dried Fruit Moisture Tester has been the standard technique for determining moisture in dried fruit for more than 50 years. This method of testing moisture is recognized world wide and is AOAC approved. The meter applies the results of conductivity measurements and ...

  12. Soil moisture depletion patterns around scattered trees

    Treesearch

    Robert R. Ziemer

    1968-01-01

    Soil moisture was measured around an isolated mature sugar pine tree (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.) in the mixed conifer forest type of the north central Sierra Nevada, California, from November 1965 to October 1966. From a sequence of measurements, horizontal and vertical soil moisture profiles were developed. Estimated soil moisture depletion from the 61-foot radius plot...

  13. Absolute moisture sensing for cotton bales

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With the recent prevalence of moisture restoration systems in cotton gins, more and more gins are putting moisture back into the bales immediately before the packaging operation. There are two main reasons for this recent trend, the first is that it has been found that added moisture at the bale pre...

  14. Moisture relations and physical properties of wood

    Treesearch

    Samuel V. Glass; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2010-01-01

    Wood, like many natural materials, is hygroscopic; it takes on moisture from the surrounding environment. Moisture exchange between wood and air depends on the relative humidity and temperature of the air and the current amount of water in the wood. This moisture relationship has an important influence on wood properties and performance. Many of the challenges of using...

  15. Interior moisture design loads for residences

    Treesearch

    Anton TenWolde; Iain S. Walker

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines a methodology to obtain design values for indoor boundary conditions for moisture design calculations for residences. This is part of a larger effort by ASHRAE Standard Project Committee 160P, Design Criteria for Moisture Control in Buildings, to formulate criteria for moisture design loads, analysis techniques, and material and building performance...

  16. Cotton fiber moisture measurements: a comparative evaluation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A commonly used standard method for measuring cotton fiber moisture is the oven drying method (moisture content equal weight loss). However, several commercial instruments are available for measuring fiber moisture content. A comparative evaluation program was implemented to determine the capabili...

  17. Terrain-Moisture Classification Using GPS Surface-Reflected Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Michael S.; Acton, Scott T.; Katzberg, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    In this study we present a novel method of land surface classification using surface-reflected GPS signals in combination with digital imagery. Two GPS-derived classification features are merged with visible image data to create terrain-moisture (TM) classes, defined here as visibly identifiable terrain or landcover classes containing a surface/soil moisture component. As compared to using surface imagery alone, classification accuracy is significantly improved for a number of visible classes when adding the GPS-based signal features. Since the strength of the reflected GPS signal is proportional to the amount of moisture in the surface, use of these GPS features provides information about the surface that is not obtainable using visible wavelengths alone. Application areas include hydrology, precision agriculture, and wetlands mapping.

  18. Microwave Moisture Measurement System for Hardwood Lumber Drying

    SciTech Connect

    Moschler, William W; Hanson, Gregory R

    2008-09-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a prototype microwave-based moisture sensor system suitable for the kiln drying of hardwood lumber. The moisture sensors developed are battery powered and are capable of communicating with a host kiln control system via spread spectrum wireless communications. We have developed two designs of the sensors working at 4.5 to 6 GHz with linear response to moisture content (MC) over a range of 6-100%. These sensors allow us to make a swept frequency microwave transmission measurement through a small area of a board. Using the prototype electronics and sensors, we have obtained measurements of MC over the above MC range for red oak and yellow poplar with standard deviations of less than 1.5% MC. We have developed data for board thickness corrections and for temperature corrections for the MC measurement system.

  19. NASA SMAPVEX 15 Field Campaign Measures Soil Moisture Over Arizona

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-09

    NASA's SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) satellite observatory conducted a field experiment as part of its soil moisture data product validation program in southern Arizona on Aug. 2-18, 2015. The images here represent the distribution of soil moisture over the SMAPVEX15 (SMAP Validation Experiment 2015) experiment domain, as measured by the Passive Active L-band System (PALS) developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, which was installed onboard a DC-3 aircraft operated by Airborne Imaging, Inc. Blue and green colors denote wet conditions and dry conditions are marked by red and orange. The black lines show the nominal flight path of PALS. The measurements show that on the first day, the domain surface was wet overall, but had mostly dried down by the second measurement day. On the third day, there was a mix of soil wetness. The heterogeneous soil moisture distribution over the domain is typical for the area during the North American Monsoon season and provides excellent conditions for SMAP soil moisture product validation and algorithm enhancement. The images are based on brightness temperature measured by the PALS instrument gridded on a grid with 0.6-mile (1-kilometer) pixel size. They do not yet compensate for surface characteristics, such as vegetation and topography. That work is currently in progress. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19879

  20. Moisture damage in home associates with systemic inflammation in children.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, K; Karvonen, A M; Kirjavainen, P; Roponen, M; Schaub, B; Hyvärinen, A; Frey, U; Renz, H; Pfefferle, P I; Genuneit, J; Vaarala, O; Pekkanen, J

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the association between confirmed moisture damage in homes and systemic subclinical inflammation in children. Home inspections were performed in homes of 291 children at the age of 6 years. Subclinical inflammation at the age of 6 years was assessed by measuring the circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and leukocytes in peripheral blood and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured in unstimulated, and in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin (PI), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or peptidoglycan (PPG)-stimulated whole blood. Major moisture damage in the child's main living areas (living room, kitchen, or child's bedroom) and moisture damage with mold in the bathroom were associated with increased levels of CRP and stimulated production of several proinflammatory cytokines. There were no significant associations between moisture damage/visible mold and leukocyte or FeNO values. The results suggest that moisture damage or mold in home may be associated with increased systemic subclinical inflammation and proinflammatory cytokine responsiveness.

  1. Assessment of SMOS Soil Moisture Retrieval Parameters Using Tau-Omega Algorithms for Soil Moisture Deficit Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Prashant K.; Han, Dawei; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel A.; O'Neill, Peggy; Islam, Tanvir; Gupta, Manika

    2014-01-01

    Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) is the latest mission which provides flow of coarse resolution soil moisture data for land applications. However, the efficient retrieval of soil moisture for hydrological applications depends on optimally choosing the soil and vegetation parameters. The first stage of this work involves the evaluation of SMOS Level 2 products and then several approaches for soil moisture retrieval from SMOS brightness temperature are performed to estimate Soil Moisture Deficit (SMD). The most widely applied algorithm i.e. Single channel algorithm (SCA), based on tau-omega is used in this study for the soil moisture retrieval. In tau-omega, the soil moisture is retrieved using the Horizontal (H) polarisation following Hallikainen dielectric model, roughness parameters, Fresnel's equation and estimated Vegetation Optical Depth (tau). The roughness parameters are empirically calibrated using the numerical optimization techniques. Further to explore the improvement in retrieval models, modifications have been incorporated in the algorithms with respect to the sources of the parameters, which include effective temperatures derived from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-NOAH Land Surface Model and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST) while the s is derived from MODIS Leaf Area Index (LAI). All the evaluations are performed against SMD, which is estimated using the Probability Distributed Model following a careful calibration and validation integrated with sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. The performance obtained after all those changes indicate that SCA-H using WRF-NOAH LSM downscaled ECMWF LST produces an improved performance for SMD estimation at a catchment scale.

  2. Sources of glacial moisture in Mesoamerica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradbury, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Paleoclimatic records from Mesoamerica document the interplay between Atlantic and Pacific sources of precipitation during the last glacial stage and Holocene. Today, and throughout much of the Holocene, the entire region receives its principal moisture in the summer from an interaction of easterly trade winds with the equatorial calms. Glacial records from sites east of 95?? W in Guatemala, Florida, northern Venezuela and Colombia record dry conditions before 12 ka, however. West of 95?? W, glacial conditions were moister than in the Holocene. For example, pollen and diatom data show that Lake Pa??tzcuaro in the central Mexican highlands was cool, deep and fresh during this time and fossil pinyon needles in packrat middens in Chihuahua, Sonora, Arizona, and Texas indicate cooler glacial climates with increased winter precipitation. Cold Gulf of Mexico sea-surface temperatures and reduced strength of the equatorial calms can explain arid full and late glacial environments east of 95?? W whereas an intensified pattern of winter, westerly air flow dominated hydrologic balances as far south as 20?? N. Overall cooler temperatures may have increased effective moisture levels during dry summer months in both areas. ?? 1997 INQUA/ Elsevier Science Ltd.

  3. Evaluation of soil moisture simulations in the GLACE-CMIP5 experiment using satellite and in situ observations over CONUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, S.; Quiring, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture is one of important components of land surface process. It plays critical role in the earth system through affecting both surface energy and water balances at boundary layer. Because of spatial and temporal discontinuities in observed soil moisture, model-simulated soil moisture is widely used instead. The accuracy of the model-simulated soil moisture has a significant impact on soil moisture-related research, such as investigations of soil moisture-climate interactions. This project aims will evaluate the performance of soil moisture simulations in 6 earth system models from the Global Land Atmosphere Coupling Experiment - Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (GLACE-CMIP5) by using both in situ and satellite-based soil moisture observations over CONUS. In situ soil moisture (top 5 cm and total soil column) will be derived from the North American Soil Moisture Database. Satellite-based observations, specifically the Soil Moisture Essential Climate Variable (ECV), will also be used to evaluate the models. This project will help to assess the performance of these models and to identify areas where further improvement in the accuracy of the soil moisture simulations are needed.

  4. COMPARING MOISTURE METER READINGS WITH MEASURED EQUILIBRIUM MOISTURE CONTENT OF GYPSUM BOARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Moisture meters routinely used in the field to determine the moisture content in gypsum wallboard are primarily designed and manufactured to measure the moisture content of wood. Often they are used to decide whether to replace wallboard by determining if moisture is qualitativel...

  5. COMPARING MOISTURE METER READINGS WITH MEASURED EQUILIBRIUM MOISTURE CONTENT OF GYPSUM BOARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Moisture meters routinely used in the field to determine the moisture content in gypsum wallboard are primarily designed and manufactured to measure the moisture content of wood. Often they are used to decide whether to replace wallboard by determining if moisture is qualitativel...

  6. The prototype SMOS soil moisture Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Y.; Waldteufel, P.; Richaume, P.; Cabot, F.; Wigneron, J. P.; Ferrazzoli, P.; Mahmoodi, A.; Delwart, S.

    2009-04-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission is ESA's (European Space Agency ) second Earth Explorer Opportunity mission, to be launched in September 2007. It is a joint programme between ESA CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) and CDTI (Centro para el Desarrollo Tecnologico Industrial). SMOS carries a single payload, an L-band 2D interferometric radiometer in the 1400-1427 MHz protected band. This wavelength penetrates well through the atmosphere and hence the instrument probes the Earth surface emissivity. Surface emissivity can then be related to the moisture content in the first few centimeters of soil, and, after some surface roughness and temperature corrections, to the sea surface salinity over ocean. In order to prepare the data use and dissemination, the ground segment will produce level 1 and 2 data. Level 1 will consists mainly of angular brightness temperatures while level 2 will consist of geophysical products. In this context, a group of institutes prepared the soil moisture and ocean salinity Algorithm Theoretical Basis documents (ATBD) to be used to produce the operational algorithm. The consortium of institutes preparing the Soil moisture algorithm is led by CESBIO (Centre d'Etudes Spatiales de la BIOsphère) and Service d'Aéronomie and consists of the institutes represented by the authors. The principle of the soil moisture retrieval algorithm is based on an iterative approach which aims at minimizing a cost function given by the sum of the squared weighted differences between measured and modelled brightness temperature (TB) data, for a variety of incidence angles. This is achieved by finding the best suited set of the parameters which drive the direct TB model, e.g. soil moisture (SM) and vegetation characteristics. Despite the simplicity of this principle, the main reason for the complexity of the algorithm is that SMOS "pixels" can correspond to rather large, inhomogeneous surface areas whose contribution to the radiometric

  7. The soil moisture velocity equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Fred L.; Allen, Myron B.; Lai, Wencong; Zhu, Jianting; Seo, Mookwon; Douglas, Craig C.; Talbot, Cary A.

    2017-06-01

    Numerical solution of the one-dimensional Richards' equation is the recommended method for coupling groundwater to the atmosphere through the vadose zone in hyperresolution Earth system models, but requires fine spatial discretization, is computationally expensive, and may not converge due to mathematical degeneracy or when sharp wetting fronts occur. We transformed the one-dimensional Richards' equation into a new equation that describes the velocity of moisture content values in an unsaturated soil under the actions of capillarity and gravity. We call this new equation the Soil Moisture Velocity Equation (SMVE). The SMVE consists of two terms: an advection-like term that accounts for gravity and the integrated capillary drive of the wetting front, and a diffusion-like term that describes the flux due to the shape of the wetting front capillarity profile divided by the vertical gradient of the capillary pressure head. The SMVE advection-like term can be converted to a relatively easy to solve ordinary differential equation (ODE) using the method of lines and solved using a finite moisture-content discretization. Comparing against analytical solutions of Richards' equation shows that the SMVE advection-like term is >99% accurate for calculating infiltration fluxes neglecting the diffusion-like term. The ODE solution of the SMVE advection-like term is accurate, computationally efficient and reliable for calculating one-dimensional vadose zone fluxes in Earth system and large-scale coupled models of land-atmosphere interaction. It is also well suited for use in inverse problems such as when repeat remote sensing observations are used to infer soil hydraulic properties or soil moisture.Plain Language SummarySince its original publication in 1922, the so-called Richards' equation has been the only rigorous way to couple groundwater to the land surface through the unsaturated zone that lies between the water table and land</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19148213','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19148213"><span><span class="hlt">Moisturizers</span>, vehicle effects, and photocarcinogenesis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Forbes, Paul Donald</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>Topically applied formulations (e.g., emollients and <span class="hlt">moisturizers</span>) may influence the optical physics of skin and therefore the effectiveness of UVR exposures. In this issue, Lu et al. provide evidence for another type of influence by <span class="hlt">moisturizers</span>, one that does not require the presence of the chemical agent before or during UVR exposure. Several such test agents applied after the completion of a course of UVR enhanced the tumor response in mice, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The study design is rational but the group sizes are modest, the resulting database is therefore limited, and the repeatability is not yet determined. Perhaps most important for the this Journal's readership, the clinical relevance is unknown and deserves detailed examination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJT....33.1704P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJT....33.1704P"><span>Determination of <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Diffusivity as a Function of Both <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> and Temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pavlík, Z.; Černý, R.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The effect of <span class="hlt">moisture</span> and temperature on liquid water transport in porous media was studied. Specimens of autoclaved aerated concrete were subjected to one-sided water penetration in isothermal conditions at temperatures of 20 °C, 40 °C, 60 °C, and 80 °C. After specified time intervals, <span class="hlt">moisture</span> profiles were determined gravimetrically. The <span class="hlt">moisture</span> diffusivity was calculated for a particular temperature as a function of <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content, using an inverse analysis. The results demonstrate the dependence of the <span class="hlt">moisture</span> diffusivity on the <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content and the temperature of the samples. The <span class="hlt">moisture</span> diffusivity for high <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content can be as much as one order of magnitude greater than for the lowest <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content studied. The <span class="hlt">moisture</span> diffusivity was found to increase by as much as a factor of two when the temperature is increased from 20 °C to 80 °C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH33A1916G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH33A1916G"><span>Bayesian framework to identify the main effects of long term climatic constraints on soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> decline in conterminous United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guevara, M.; Vargas, R.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>We used a Bayesian regression framework based on Hamiltonian Monte Carlo simulations to identify the main effects of mean annual soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>, temperature, evapotranspiration, and precipitation, on long-term soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> decline across conterminous United States based on 36 years of remotely sensed available data. We found that mean soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> was a positive control of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> decline in <span class="hlt">areas</span> with long-term high precipitation but low evapotranspiration. Furthermore, mean soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> is a negative control on soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> decline in <span class="hlt">areas</span> with long-term low precipitation and low evapotranspiration. In contrast, mean soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> had no effect on soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> decline in <span class="hlt">areas</span> with long-term low precipitation and high evapotranspiration. These results highlight the importance of having accurate spatial soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> information to better inform earth system models to predict regional to global water balance and climate trends. These results support the current understanding of the basic physical mechanisms governing the coupling of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> with temperature, precipitation, and evapotranspiration, but bring attention to high spatial heterogeneity in the constraints of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> at the continental scale. The response of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> to climate variability is considered to be one of the largest uncertainties for global land surface models, and resolving high spatial resolution of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> is an ongoing challenge. Independent estimates of high spatial resolution of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> could improve parameterizations of land surface models and cross-validate the current functions that mainly relay on precipitation, aerodynamic representation of the latent and sensible heat fluxes, and land surface cover type.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4086530','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4086530"><span><span class="hlt">Moisturizing</span> Different Racial Skin Types</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wong, Victor W.; Longaker, Michael T.; Yang, George P.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The skin is a complex organ involved in thermoregulation, gas exchange, protection against pathogens, and barrier function to maintain proper hydration. When dry, the ability for skin to execute these tasks becomes impaired. Dry skin affects almost everyone as we age, but it is also dependent on external factors, such as dry climate, colder temperatures, and repeated washing. In addition, increasing evidence has shown racial variability in the physiological properties of skin, which directly impacts water content of the stratum corneum and sensitivity to exogenously applied agents. A multitude of products have been developed to treat dry skin, and as a group, <span class="hlt">moisturizers</span> have been designed to either impart or restore hydration in the stratum corneum. Given the large number of <span class="hlt">moisturizers</span> presently available, depending on individual components, several different mechanisms may be employed to promote skin hydration. As there exists dramatic racial variability in skin properties, certain <span class="hlt">moisturizers</span> may thus be more effective in some and less effective in others to treat the common condition of dry skin. PMID:25013536</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H32A..03P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H32A..03P"><span>Drought monitoring using downscaled soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> through machine learning approaches over North and South Korea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, S.; Im, J.; Rhee, J.; Park, S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> is one of the most important key variables for drought monitoring. It reflects hydrological and agricultural processes because soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> is a function of precipitation and energy flux and crop yield is highly related to soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>. Many satellites including Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> and Ocean Salinity sensor (SMOS), and Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Active Passive (SMAP) provide global scale soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> products through microwave sensors. However, as the spatial resolution of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> products is typically tens of kilometers, it is difficult to monitor drought using soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> at local or regional scale. In this study, AMSR-E and AMSR2 soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> were downscaled up to 1 km spatial resolution using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data—Evapotranspiration, Land Surface Temperature, Leaf <span class="hlt">Area</span> Index, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Enhanced Vegetation Index and Albedo—through machine learning approaches over Korean peninsula. To monitor drought from 2003 to 2014, each pixel of the downscaled soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> was scaled from 0 to 1 (1 is the wettest and 0 is the driest). The soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> based drought maps were validated using Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and crop yield data. Spatial distribution of drought status was also compared with other drought indices such as Scaled Drought Condition Index (SDCI). Machine learning approaches were performed well (R=0.905) for downscaling. Downscaled soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> was validated using in situ Asia flux data. The Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE) improved from 0.172 (25 km AMSR2) to 0.065 (downscaled soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>). The correlation coefficients improved from 0.201 (25 km AMSR2) to 0.341 (downscaled soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>). The soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> based drought maps and SDCI showed similar spatial distribution that caught both extreme drought and no drought. Since the proposed drought monitoring approach based on the downscaled</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981SPIE..254..111M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981SPIE..254..111M"><span>Detecting <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> In Buildings Using Infrared Thermography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marshall, Stephen J.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Visual examination is a reliable means of <span class="hlt">moisture</span> detection in building walls after serious damaR'e has been done. Traditional spot measurement instruments are inexpedient devices for elusive <span class="hlt">moisture</span> detection in heterogeneous materials. The infrared thermal imaging system was found t be a more versatile tool for in-situ <span class="hlt">moisture</span> detection because of its unique characteristics. Several thermographic examples of <span class="hlt">moisture</span> detection in. building walls are presented, which will aid the reader in the qualitative interpretation o1 therm.ograms 1or <span class="hlt">moisture</span> problem.s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840014042&hterms=evapotranspiration+normal&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Devapotranspiration%2Bnormal','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840014042&hterms=evapotranspiration+normal&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Devapotranspiration%2Bnormal"><span>Role of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> in maintaining droughts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sud, Y. C.; Smith, W. E.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The influence of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> on the persistence of an ongoing drought was investigated. The case study of drought of the summer of 1980 was selected. The difference in the simulation of two identical twin runs: one with the climatological normal soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> and the other with anomalous soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> for drought conditions, were examined on the mean monthly circulation. It is found that a reduction in soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> did produce a corresponding reduction in precipitation. The pattern of the rainfall anomaly however, was not identical to the soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> (evapotranspiration) anomaly but had a good resemblance with observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19250165','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19250165"><span>An evaluation of prescription device <span class="hlt">moisturizers</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Draelos, Zoe Diana</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Moisturization</span> of the skin is important for both medical and cosmetic purposes. The development of prescription device <span class="hlt">moisturizers</span>, receiving 510K approval on the basis of the physical reduction in transepidermal water loss, provided a new dermatologic category. This investigator-blinded research utilized a split body model in 60 subjects to examine the effect of a traditional <span class="hlt">moisturizer</span> as compared to a prescription device <span class="hlt">moisturizer</span> in the treatment of mild to moderate symmetrical eczema of the arms or legs. This study demonstrated parity between the two <span class="hlt">moisturizers</span> based on subject and investigator assessments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840014042&hterms=drought&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Ddrought','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840014042&hterms=drought&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Ddrought"><span>Role of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> in maintaining droughts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sud, Y. C.; Smith, W. E.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The influence of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> on the persistence of an ongoing drought was investigated. The case study of drought of the summer of 1980 was selected. The difference in the simulation of two identical twin runs: one with the climatological normal soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> and the other with anomalous soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> for drought conditions, were examined on the mean monthly circulation. It is found that a reduction in soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> did produce a corresponding reduction in precipitation. The pattern of the rainfall anomaly however, was not identical to the soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> (evapotranspiration) anomaly but had a good resemblance with observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.8904L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.8904L"><span>Spatial variability of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> retrieved by SMOS satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lukowski, Mateusz; Marczewski, Wojciech; Usowicz, Boguslaw; Rojek, Edyta; Slominski, Jan; Lipiec, Jerzy</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Standard statistical methods assume that the analysed variables are independent. Since the majority of the processes observed in the nature are continuous in space and time, this assumption introduces a significant limitation for understanding the examined phenomena. In classical approach, valuable information about the locations of examined observations is completely lost. However, there is a branch of statistics, called geostatistics, which is the study of random variables, but taking into account the space where they occur. A common example of so-called "regionalized variable" is soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>. Using in situ methods it is difficult to estimate soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> distribution because it is often significantly diversified. Thanks to the geostatistical methods, by employing semivariance analysis, it is possible to get the information about the nature of spatial dependences and their lengths. Since the Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> and Ocean Salinity mission launch in 2009, the estimation of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> spatial distribution for regional up to continental scale started to be much easier. In this study, the SMOS L2 data for Central and Eastern Europe were examined. The statistical and geostatistical features of <span class="hlt">moisture</span> distributions of this <span class="hlt">area</span> were studied for selected natural soil phenomena for 2010-2014 including: freezing, thawing, rainfalls (wetting), drying and drought. Those soil water "states" were recognized employing ground data from the agro-meteorological network of ground-based stations SWEX and SMUDP2 data from SMOS. After pixel regularization, without any upscaling, the geostatistical methods were applied directly on Discrete Global Grid (15-km resolution) in ISEA 4H9 projection, on which SMOS observations are reported. Analysis of spatial distribution of SMOS soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>, carried out for each data set, in most cases did not show significant trends. It was therefore assumed that each of the examined distributions of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> in the adopted scale satisfies</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050181940&hterms=values&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dvalues','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050181940&hterms=values&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dvalues"><span>Converting Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Observations to Effective Values for Improved Validation of Remotely Sensed Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Laymon, Charles A.; Crosson, William L.; Limaye, Ashutosh; Manu, Andrew; Archer, Frank</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>We compare soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> retrieved with an inverse algorithm with observations of mean <span class="hlt">moisture</span> in the 0-6 cm soil layer. A significant discrepancy is noted between the retrieved and observed <span class="hlt">moisture</span>. Using emitting depth functions as weighting functions to convert the observed mean <span class="hlt">moisture</span> to observed effective <span class="hlt">moisture</span> removes nearly one-half of the discrepancy noted. This result has important implications in remote sensing validation studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr41B7..631B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr41B7..631B"><span>Geospatial Analysis of Near-Surface Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Time Series Data Over Indian Region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berwal, P.; Murthy, C. S.; Raju, P. V.; Sesha Sai, M. V. R.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The present study has developed the time series database surface soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> over India, for June, July and August months for the period of 20 years from 1991 to 2010, using data products generated under Climate Change Initiative Programme of European Space Agency. These three months represent the crop sowing period in the prime cropping season in the country and the soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> data during this period is highly useful to detect the drought conditions and assess the drought impact. The time series soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> data which is in 0.25 degree spatial resolution was analyzed to generate different indicators. Rainfall data of same spatial resolution for the same period, generated by India Meteorological Department was also procured and analyzed. Geospatial analysis of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> and rainfall derived indicators was carried out to study (1) inter annual variability of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> and rainfall, (2) soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> deviations from normal during prominent drought years, (3) soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> and rainfall correlations and (4) drought exposure based on soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> and rainfall variability. The study has successfully demonstrated the potential of these soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> time series data sets for generating regional drought surveillance information products, drought hazard mapping, drought exposure analysis and detection of drought sensitive <span class="hlt">areas</span> in the crop planting period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000038138&hterms=ieee&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dieee','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000038138&hterms=ieee&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dieee"><span>Examination of Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Retrieval Using SIR-C Radar Data and a Distributed Hydrological Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hsu, A. Y.; ONeill, P. E.; Wood, E. F.; Zion, M.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>A major objective of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>-related hydrological-research during NASA's SIR-C/X-SAR mission was to determine and compare soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> patterns within humid watersheds using SAR data, ground-based measurements, and hydrologic modeling. Currently available soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>-inversion methods using active microwave data are only accurate when applied to bare and slightly vegetated surfaces. Moreover, as the surface dries down, the number of pixels that can provide estimated soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> by these radar inversion methods decreases, leading to less accuracy and, confidence in the retrieved soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> fields at the watershed scale. The impact of these errors in microwave- derived soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> on hydrological modeling of vegetated watersheds has yet to be addressed. In this study a coupled water and energy balance model operating within a topographic framework is used to predict surface soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> for both bare and vegetated <span class="hlt">areas</span>. In the first model run, the hydrological model is initialized using a standard baseflow approach, while in the second model run, soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> values derived from SIR-C radar data are used for initialization. The results, which compare favorably with ground measurements, demonstrate the utility of combining radar-derived surface soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> information with basin-scale hydrological modeling.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.H21C..06C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.H21C..06C"><span>Use of TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) to characterize soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> for the Little River Watershed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cashion, J. E.; Lakshmi, V.; Bosch, D.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>Soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> plays a critical role in many hydrological processes including infiltration, evaporation, and runoff. Additionally, soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> has a direct effect on weather patterns. Satellite based passive microwave sensors offer an effective way to observe soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> data over vast <span class="hlt">areas</span>, and there are currently several satellite systems that detect soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>. Long-term in situ (field) measurements of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> are collected in the Little River Watershed (LRWS) located in Tifton, Georgia and compared with the remotely sensed data collected over the watershed. The LRWS has been selected by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) to represent the south eastern costal plains region of North America. The LRWS is composed primarily of sandy soils and has a flat topography with meandering streams. The in-situ measurements were collected by stationary soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> probes attached to rain gage stations throughout the LRWS for the period 2000-2002. The remotely sensed data was acquired by two satellites viz. - the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission Microwave Imager (TMI) for soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for vegetation. The TMI is equipped with a passive vertically and horizontally polarized 10.65GHz sensor that is capable of detecting soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>. Soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> collected in the field is related to the TMI brightness temperatures. However, vegetation has a strong affect on the 10.65GHz brightness temperature. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data, provided by the (MODIS), are used to evaluate the effect of vegetation on soil microwave emission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000038138&hterms=ieee&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dieee','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000038138&hterms=ieee&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dieee"><span>Examination of Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Retrieval Using SIR-C Radar Data and a Distributed Hydrological Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hsu, A. Y.; ONeill, P. E.; Wood, E. F.; Zion, M.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>A major objective of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>-related hydrological-research during NASA's SIR-C/X-SAR mission was to determine and compare soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> patterns within humid watersheds using SAR data, ground-based measurements, and hydrologic modeling. Currently available soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>-inversion methods using active microwave data are only accurate when applied to bare and slightly vegetated surfaces. Moreover, as the surface dries down, the number of pixels that can provide estimated soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> by these radar inversion methods decreases, leading to less accuracy and, confidence in the retrieved soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> fields at the watershed scale. The impact of these errors in microwave- derived soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> on hydrological modeling of vegetated watersheds has yet to be addressed. In this study a coupled water and energy balance model operating within a topographic framework is used to predict surface soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> for both bare and vegetated <span class="hlt">areas</span>. In the first model run, the hydrological model is initialized using a standard baseflow approach, while in the second model run, soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> values derived from SIR-C radar data are used for initialization. The results, which compare favorably with ground measurements, demonstrate the utility of combining radar-derived surface soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> information with basin-scale hydrological modeling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H31F1259C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H31F1259C"><span>Soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> estimation through Active and Passive sensors : An intercomparison and validation study in Northeast Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cho, E.; Choi, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> is an important role for hydrological cycle as well as exchanges of energy and water between the land surface and the atmosphere. Although intercomparison and validation are a weighty task and particularly challenging work for analyzing remote sensing of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>, such tasks are indispensable for understanding soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> spatio-temporal variability at different scales. A key point in the validation of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> products is the gap in spatial and temporal scales between satellite and in situ observations. In this study, we estimate the Active (ASCAT) and Passive (AMSR-E) sensors soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> dynamics for assessing the accuracy of satellite-based soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> products and comparing what sensor is more good agreement with the ground soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> pattern over a growing season period in 2010 on Northeast Asia. Satellite soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> products were systematically compared with in situ observations from 4 different sites (Suwon, Seosan, Jeonju, Cheorwon) located in the Korea peninsula. Furthermore, we conducted with renormalisation methods for removing the systematic differences (bias, RMSE). As a result, ASCAT product gave the highest correlation coefficient (r = 0.788) with the in situ data. Our study will contribute not only to understand satellite validation of remotely sensed soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> products, but also to utilize these products as application <span class="hlt">areas</span> including flood forecasting, drought monitoring and asian dust research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28699214','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28699214"><span>Understanding the effects of topography on skin <span class="hlt">moisturization</span> measurement via two-dimensional capacitance imaging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Crowther, J M</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>Methods which assess skin <span class="hlt">moisturization</span> based on changes in its electrical properties are widely used in both cosmetic and medical research industries. However, the devices themselves often give results which are significantly different to each other. Recently two-dimensional imaging <span class="hlt">moisturization</span> systems have become commercially available, which have the capability to provide a more detailed assessment of what is contributing to measured skin <span class="hlt">moisturization</span>. Presented here is a new in vitro method for preparing textured model test substrates for use with these devices, and results of their use to provide a clearer insight into the devices operation. A variety of different textured model test substrates were measured using a commercially available skin <span class="hlt">moisturization</span> measurement device, the Epsilon. The response of the Epsilon was also tested against conventional skin <span class="hlt">moisturization</span> devices. Surface morphology of model test substrates was found to have a significant influence on the measurement of its electrical properties with both the conventional and two-dimensional skin <span class="hlt">moisturization</span> measurement devices. Through modification of the <span class="hlt">areas</span> of the image being assessed for the two-dimensional <span class="hlt">moisturization</span> mapping device, the parts of the model test substrate in contact with the device were indentified and analysed separately to <span class="hlt">areas</span> not in contact with the sensor. This provided a more robust assessment of the electrical properties of substrate itself, rather than being influenced by texture like the conventional skin <span class="hlt">moisturization</span> measurement devices. While the two-dimensional <span class="hlt">moisturization</span> mapping systems can be used like a conventional electrical skin measurement device giving a simple overall reading of skin <span class="hlt">moisturization</span> for the test <span class="hlt">area</span>, their true value over existing electrical measures comes from its ability to isolate the skin itself from <span class="hlt">areas</span> which are not in contact with the sensor. © 2017 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Fran</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H43E1492L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H43E1492L"><span>Variation of Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> from Rainfall Effects in Hillslope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, H.; Lee, J. Y.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study is to verify the variation of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> with respect to rainfall patterns. Thus, we analyze the data that are measured in selected sites of sloped region. The observation was performed in 10 minute-interval, from June 14th 2016 to July 20th 2016. A monitoring station was designed and installed on the hillslope, which is located on the Haean-basin in Korea. We observed four different locations (YMSL1, YMSL2, YMSL3, and YMSL4) and in which each location was sampled as three depths (30, 60, and 100 cm). The profile of this monitored region shows concave shape. In other words, the slope is decreasing when its altitude is decreasing. The data from the sites were measured by Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Loggers (SMLs). In addition, Automatic Weather System was installed in the <span class="hlt">area</span> adjacent to the site that has SMLs. The rainfall was 493.8 mm over 18 days during the observation period. In particular, the maximum rainfall showed 247 mm, from July 4 to 6 in 2016. Heavy rain occurred twice. We could determine how rainfalls at this site affect to the change of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> by comparing these two key factors in terms of geometrical slope of region and the depth of each sampled site. Delayed variations of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> on YMSL1, the sensor located at the 30 cm depth recorded a 0.3 h response delay to the rainfall event, and the 100 cm sensor recorded a 24 h delay. Delayed variations of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> on YMSL2, the sensor located at the 30, and 60 cm depth recorded a 0.8 h response delay to the rainfall event, and the 100 cm sensor recorded a 32 h delay. Delayed variations of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> on YMSL3, the sensor located at the 30 cm depth recorded a 0.8 h response delay to the rainfall event, the 60 cm sensor recorded a 88 h delay, and the 100 cm sensor recorded a 44 h delay. Delayed variations of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> on YMSL4, the sensor located at the 30, and 60 cm depth recorded a 4 h response delay to the rainfall event. From these results, it is concluded that the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JHyd..544...21N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JHyd..544...21N"><span>Spatiotemporal soil and saprolite <span class="hlt">moisture</span> dynamics across a semi-arid woody plant gradient</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Niemeyer, Ryan J.; Heinse, Robert; Link, Timothy E.; Seyfried, Mark S.; Klos, P. Zion; Williams, Christopher J.; Nielson, Travis</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Woody plant cover has increased 10-fold over the last 140+ years in many parts of the semi-arid western USA. Woody plant cover can alter the timing and amount of plant available <span class="hlt">moisture</span> in the soil and saprolite. To assess spatiotemporal subsurface <span class="hlt">moisture</span> dynamics over two water years in a snow-dominated western juniper stand we compared <span class="hlt">moisture</span> dynamics horizontally across a discontinuous canopy, and vertically in soil and saprolite. We monitored soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> at 15 and 60 cm and conducted periodic electromagnetic induction and electrical resistivity tomography surveys aimed at sensing <span class="hlt">moisture</span> changes within the root zone and saprolite. Timing of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> dry down at 15 cm was very similar between canopy patches and interspace. Conversely, dry down at 60 cm occurred 22 days earlier in the interspace than under canopy patches. After rainfall, interspaces with more shrubs showed greater increases in soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> than interspaces with few shrubs. For the few rainfall events that were large enough to increase soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> at 60 cm, increases in <span class="hlt">moisture</span> occurred almost exclusively below the canopy. Soil water holding capacity from 0 to 150 cm was a primary driver of <span class="hlt">areas</span> that were associated with the greatest change in distributed electrical conductivity - an indicator of changes in soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> - across the growing season. Vegetation was also correlated with a greater seasonal change in electrical conductivity at these depths. The seasonal change in resistivity suggested <span class="hlt">moisture</span> extraction by juniper well into the saprolite, as deep as 12 m below the surface. This change in deep subsurface resistivity primarily occurred below medium and large juniper trees. This study suggests how tree roots are both increasing infiltration below their canopy while also extracting <span class="hlt">moisture</span> at depths of upwards of 12 m. Information from this study can help improve our understanding of juniper resilience to drought and the hydrologic impacts of semi-arid land cover</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.H21C0323M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.H21C0323M"><span>Temporal Dynamics of Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Variability at the Landscape Scale: Implications for Land Surface Models.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Montaldo, N.; Albertson, J. D.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>Meteorological and hydrological forecasting models share soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> as a critical boundary condition. Partitioning of received energy at the land surface depends directly on this variable, as does the partitioning of rainfall into its possible routes over and through the soil. In Land Surface Models (LSMs) the temporal dynamic of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> spatial variability is a fundamental issue in large-scale flux predictions. From remote sensing observations soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> values are averaged in the horizontal over rather large regions (pixels). The averaging <span class="hlt">areas</span> will be getting even larger as we move from aircraft mounted sensors to satellite mounting. These data are to be used ultimately to estimate spatial averages of other processes that depend on soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>, such as, runoff generation, drainage, evaporation, sensible heat fluxes, crop yield, microbial activity, etc. Consequently, the LSMs have to predict spatial averaged flux over large region from average values of the soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>. But soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> variances affect flux predictions, which depend nonlinearly on soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>, because many of the other processes possess distinct threshold aspects to their nonlinear dependence on soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>. Through application of well-developed Reynolds averaging rules from fluid mechanics to the equation of Richards and Darcy-Buckingham, we write a conservation equation for the horizontal variance of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>. And, through closure arguments, we are able to describe the individual terms that produce and destroy spatial variance through time in terms of the mean soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> state and other observable system properties such as vegetation and soil properties variability. Finally, we calculate land surface fluxes from second order Taylor expansion, using our soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> variance closure model, and the other observable system properties. In this work, we demonstrate significant improvements in land surface large-scale flux predictions using the proposed soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.3598M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.3598M"><span>Temporal Dynamics of Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Variability: Implications For Land Surface Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Montaldo, N.; Albertson, J. D.</p> <p></p> <p>Meteorological and hydrological forecasting models share soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> as a critical boundary condition. Partitioning of received energy at the land surface depends di- rectly on this variable, as does the partitioning of rainfall into its possible routes over and through the soil. In Land Surface Models (LSMs) the temporal dynamic of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> spatial variability is a fundamental issue in large-scale flux predictions. From remote sensing observations soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> values are averaged in the horizontal over rather large regions (pixels). The averaging <span class="hlt">areas</span> will be getting even larger as we move from aircraft mounted sensors to satellite mounting. These data are to be used ultimately to estimate spatial averages of other processes that depend on soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>, such as, runoff generation, drainage, evaporation, sensible heat fluxes, crop yield, mi- crobial activity, etc. Consequently, the LSMs have to predict spatial averaged flux over large region from average values of the soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>. But soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> variances af- fect flux predictions, which depend nonlinearly on soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>, because many of the other processes possess distinct threshold aspects to their nonlinear dependence on soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>. Through application of well-developed Reynolds averaging rules from fluid mechanics to the equation of Richards and Darcy-Buckingham, we write a con- servation equation for the horizontal variance of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>. And, through closure arguments, we are able to describe the individual terms that produce and destroy spa- tial variance through time in terms of the mean soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> state and other observable system properties such as vegetation and soil properties variability. Finally, we calcu- late land surface fluxes from second order Taylor expansion, using our soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> variance closure model, and the other observable system properties. In this work, we demonstrate significant improvements in land surface large-scale flux predictions us- ing the proposed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012HESSD...913995K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012HESSD...913995K"><span>McMaster Mesonet soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> dataset: description and spatio-temporal variability analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kornelsen, K. C.; Coulibaly, P.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>This paper introduces and describes the hourly high resolution soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> dataset continuously recorded by the McMaster Mesonet located in the Hamilton-Halton Watershed in Southern Ontario, Canada. The McMaster Mesonet consists of a network of time domain reflectometer (TDR) probes collecting hourly soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> data at six depths between 10 cm and 100 cm at nine locations per site spread across four sites in the 1250 km2 watershed. The sites for the soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> arrays are designed to further improve understanding of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> dynamics in a cold and snowy climate and to capture soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> transitions in <span class="hlt">areas</span> that have different topography, soil and land-cover. The McMaster Mesonet soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> constitutes a unique database in Canada because of its high spatio-temporal resolution. In order to provide some insight into the dominant processes at the McMaster Mesonet sites a spatio-temporal and temporal stability analysis were conducted to identify spatio-temporal patterns in the data and to suggest some physical interpretation of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> variability. It was found that the seasonal Canadian climate causes a transition in soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> patterns at seasonal time scales. During winter and early spring months, and at the meadow sites, soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> distribution is governed by topographic redistribution, whereas following efflorescence in the spring and summer, soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> spatial distribution at the forested site was equally dominated by vegetation canopy. Analysis of short-term temporal stability revealed that the relative difference between sites was maintained unless there was significant rainfall (> 20 mm) or wet conditions a priori. Following a disturbance in the spatial soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> distribution due to wetting, the relative soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> pattern re-emerged in 18 to 24 h. Access to the McMaster Mesonet data can be provided by visiting <a href="http://www.hydrology.mcmaster.ca"target="_blank">http://www.hydrology.mcmaster.ca</a>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013HESS...17.1589K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013HESS...17.1589K"><span>McMaster Mesonet soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> dataset: description and spatio-temporal variability analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kornelsen, K. C.; Coulibaly, P.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>This paper introduces and describes the hourly, high-resolution soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> dataset continuously recorded by the McMaster Mesonet located in the Hamilton-Halton Watershed in Southern Ontario, Canada. The McMaster Mesonet consists of a network of time domain reflectometer (TDR) probes collecting hourly soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> data at six depths between 10 cm and 100 cm at nine locations per site, spread across four sites in the 1250 km2 watershed. The sites for the soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> arrays are designed to further improve understanding of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> dynamics in a seasonal climate and to capture soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> transitions in <span class="hlt">areas</span> that have different topography, soil and land cover. The McMaster Mesonet soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> constitutes a unique database in Canada because of its high spatio-temporal resolution. In order to provide some insight into the dominant processes at the McMaster Mesonet sites, a spatio-temporal and temporal stability analysis were conducted to identify spatio-temporal patterns in the data and to suggest some physical interpretation of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> variability. It was found that the seasonal climate of the Great Lakes Basin causes a transition in soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> patterns at seasonal timescales. During winter and early spring months, and at the meadow sites, soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> distribution is governed by topographic redistribution, whereas following efflorescence in the spring and summer, soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> spatial distribution at the forested site was also controlled by vegetation canopy. Analysis of short-term temporal stability revealed that the relative difference between sites was maintained unless there was significant rainfall (> 20 mm) or wet conditions a priori. Following a disturbance in the spatial soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> distribution due to wetting, the relative soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> pattern re-emerged in 18 to 24 h. Access to the McMaster Mesonet data can be provided by visiting <a href="http://www.hydrology.mcmaster.ca/mesonet"target="_blank">www.hydrology.mcmaster.ca/mesonet</a>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H33F0887C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H33F0887C"><span>Analysis of Satellite Retreived Active-Passive Merged Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Distribution: A Case Study Over India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chakravorty, A.; Chahar, B. R.; Sharma, O. P.; Dhanya, C. T.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> is the source of water for evapotranspiration over the continents and it participates in both energy and water balance of the earth. Soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> participates in the energy cycle by managing the partitioning of the energy budget into latent and sensible heat, there by influencing the hydrological cycle. But to better understand the influence of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> on the hydrological cycle, large scale monitoring is required. The objective of this study is to qualitatively analyze the active-passive merged soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> distribution, prepared under the ESA_CCI programme, against two AMSR-E soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> distributions, AMSR-E/NSIDC (National Snow and Ice Data Center) and AMSR-E/VUA(Virje Universiet Amstradam) and GLDAS_NOAH model simulations. The ESA_CCI soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> distribution is also compared with the GPCC monthly precipitation distribution to observe the representativeness of the precipitation seasonality in the satellite retrieved soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>. India has been selected as the study <span class="hlt">area</span>, esp. the Central Indian region, as it has shown to be a soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> hot-spot for land-surface atmosphere interaction. The preliminary study show that both ESA_CCI and AMSR-E/VUA soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> distributions capture similar seasonal patterns in addition to processes like rainfall events and inter-annual variations. In addition to this it was also observed that the soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> distribution of ESA_CCI and AMSR-E/VUA are linearly related to each other for more than 50% of the land points. In case of ESA_CCI and AMSR-E/NSIDC, the soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> distributions are able to capture similar seasonal patterns but not the random events and they also do not show a strong linear relationship. We also analyze the effect of topography and vegetation distribution on the error charactristics of the satellite retrieved soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> distributions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMEP41C0930Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMEP41C0930Z"><span>Comparison of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> interpolation methods at regional scale -Case study in Oklahoma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, C.; Quiring, S. M.; Yuan, S.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The need for accurate soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> data is growing rapidly in recent years. There are now numerous monitoring systems operated by state and federal agencies that provide real-time soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> data across the US. The North American Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Database (NASMD) houses soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> data for more than 1,400 sites. These new resources create unprecedented opportunities for providing improved soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> information, but to make full utilization of these resources, one key challenge is the implementation of interpolation methods. This paper aims to address the long-standing need to improve the integration and availability of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> data and information across the United States based on in situ measurements of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>, NRCS GSSURGO soil characteristics and PRISM data. Instead of using volumetric soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>, this paper converted volumetric soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> into percentile for better comparison between specific soil conditions. By using Oklahoma as a case study <span class="hlt">area</span>, this paper compares the soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> interpolation methods at daily scale from 1995 to 2014, and totally 4 interpolation methods have been considered: inverse distance weighting (IDW), ordinary kriging(OK), regression kriging (RK) and reduced optimal interpolation (ROI). The regression kriging method incorporated soil texture information from GSSURGO, and PRISM precipitation data at 4 km scale, while ROI method considered both in situ observation data and variable infiltration capacity (VIC) simulated-soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>. The accuracy of all four interpolation methods are evaluated using leave-one-out validation. The results indicate both ROI and RK could accurately depict the spatial distribution pattern of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5506C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5506C"><span>Estimation of Surface Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Using Fractal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Yen Chang; He, Chun Hsuan</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>This study establishes the relationship between surface soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> and fractal dimension. The surface soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> is one of important factors in the hydrological cycle of surface evaporation. It could be used in many fields, such as reservoir management, early drought warning systems, irrigation scheduling and management, and crop yield estimations. Soil surface cracks due to dryness can be used to describe drought conditions. Soil cracking phenomenon and <span class="hlt">moisture</span> have a certain relationship, thus this study makes used the fractal theory to interpret the soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> represented by soil cracks. The fractal dimension of surface soil cracking is a measure of the surface soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>. Therefore fractal dimensions can also be used to indicate how dry of the surface soil is. This study used the sediment in the Shimen Reservoir to establish the fractal dimension and soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> relation. The soil cracking is created under the control of temperature and thickness of surface soil layers. The results show the increase in fractal dimensions is accompanied by a decreases in surface soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>. However the fractal dimensions will approach a constant even the soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> continually decreases. The sigmoid function is used to fit the relation of fractal dimensions and surface soil <span class="hlt">moistures</span>. The proposed method can be successfully applied to estimate surface soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>. Only a photo taken from the field is needed and is sufficient to provide the fractal dimension. Consequently, the surface soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> can be estimated quickly and accurately.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830065022&hterms=zones+moisture&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dzones%2Bmoisture','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830065022&hterms=zones+moisture&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dzones%2Bmoisture"><span>Remote sensing of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> - Recent advances</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schmugge, T. J.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Recent advancements in microwave remote sensing of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> include a method for estimating the dependence of the soil dielectric constant on its texture, the use of a percent of field capacity to express soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> magnitudes independently of soil texture, methods of estimating soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> sampling depth, and models for describing the effect of surface roughness on microwave response in terms of surface height variance and horizontal correlation length, as well as the verification of radiative transfer model predictions of microwave emission from soils and methods for the estimation of vegetation effects on the microwave response to soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>. Such researches have demonstrated that it is possible to remotely sense soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> in the 0-5 cm soil surface layer, and simulation studies have indicated how remotely sensed surface soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> may be used to estimate evapotranspiration rates and root-zone soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26620951','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26620951"><span>Linking the soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> distribution pattern to dynamic processes along slope transects in the Loess Plateau, China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Shuai; Fu, Bojie; Gao, Guangyao; Zhou, Ji; Jiao, Lei; Liu, Jianbo</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> pulses are a prerequisite for other land surface pulses at various spatiotemporal scales in arid and semi-arid <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The temporal dynamics and profile variability of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> in relation to land cover combinations were studied along five slopes transect on the Loess Plateau during the rainy season of 2011. Within the 3 months of the growing season coupled with the rainy season, all of the soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> was replenished in the <span class="hlt">area</span>, proving that a type stability exists between different land cover soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> levels. Land cover combinations disturbed the trend determined by topography and increased soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> variability in space and time. The stability of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> resulting from the dynamic processes could produce stable patterns on the slopes. The relationships between the mean soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> and vertical standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variation (CV) were more complex, largely due to the fact that different land cover types had distinctive vertical patterns of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>. The spatial SD of each layer had a positive correlation and the spatial CV exhibited a negative correlation with the increase in mean soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>. The soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> stability implies that sampling comparisons in this <span class="hlt">area</span> can be conducted at different times to accurately compare different land use types.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016790','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016790"><span>Detectability of the effects of a hypothetical temperature increase on the Thornthwaite <span class="hlt">moisture</span> index</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>McCabe, G.J.; Wolock, D.M.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Climatic changes that result from increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide may affect the availability of water for vegetation, groundwater recharge, runoff, and human consumption. Most studies of the effects of climatic change on water resources focus on changes in mean characteristics of hydrologic variables and do not consider the effects of these changes amid natural climatic variability. In this study, the Thornthwaite <span class="hlt">moisture</span> index, an index of the supply of water in an <span class="hlt">area</span> (precipitation) relative to the climatic demand for water (potential evapotranspiration), was used to examine the effects of a hypothetical increase in air temperature on <span class="hlt">moisture</span> conditions in the United States. The effects of a gradual increase in air temperature at the rate of 4??C per 100 years, with no accompanying change in precipitation, was used to induce a change in Thornthwaite <span class="hlt">moisture</span> index values for the United States in order to: (i) determine the relation between natural variability in climate and the time needed for significant trends in the <span class="hlt">moisture</span> index to occur in response to hypothetical warming; (ii) identify the characteristics of <span class="hlt">areas</span> (e.g. wet/cool, hot/dry etc.) that are most likely to be the first to experience significant changes in the <span class="hlt">moisture</span> index given the hypothetical temperature increase. The increased temperature resulted in increased potential evapotranspiration and a decrease in the <span class="hlt">moisture</span> index across the United States. Decreases in the <span class="hlt">moisture</span> index were greatest in cool/wet regions and least in hot/dry regions. The time required to detect significant trends in the <span class="hlt">moisture</span> index was a function of both the magnitude of change in the <span class="hlt">moisture</span> index and the natural year-to-year variability of the <span class="hlt">moisture</span> index. In general, when the ratio of the magnitude of change in the <span class="hlt">moisture</span> index to the magnitude of variability was large, the time required to detect significant trends was short. This ratio was largest in cool/wet regions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H13C1112N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H13C1112N"><span>Controlling Factors of Root-Zone Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Spectra in Tropical and Temperate Forests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nakai, T.; Katul, G. G.; Kotani, A.; Igarashi, Y.; Ohta, T.; Kumagai, T.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Characteristics of root-zone soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> spectra in a subtropical monsoon forest in Thailand (Mae Moh) and two warm-temperate forests in the US (Duke) and Japan (Seto) were examined for time scales ranging from 30 minutes to multiple years. These forested <span class="hlt">areas</span> have comparable maximum leaf <span class="hlt">area</span> index but markedly different phase relations between evapotranspiration, net radiation, precipitation, and soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>. A hierarchy of models that sequentially introduce the spectrum of precipitation, net radiation, and nonlinearites in the damping originating from stomatal controls and drainage losses were used. If the precipitation is random, and the damping term by evapotranspiration and drainage is increased linearly with increasing soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>, the temporal variability of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> simplifies to a first order Markov process commonly employed in the analysis of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> in climate models. Its spectrum exhibits a Lorentz function with a white-noise behavior at low frequency and red-noise behavior at high frequency separated by a time-scale constant for intermediate frequencies. Such first order Markov process model with its time scale defined by the maximum wet surface evapotranspiration, soil porosity, and root-zone depth did not represent the observed soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> spectra at all three sites. Adding the effect of precipitation and net radiation variability were necessary for representing the actual soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> spectra. While the observed soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> spectra were satisfactorily reproduced by these additions, the relative importance of precipitation and net radiation to the soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> spectra differed between sites. The soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> memory, inferred from the observed soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> spectra (model decay time scale), was about 25-38 days, which was larger than that determined from maximum wet evapotranspiration and available pore space alone, except that these two time scales in Seto forest were nearly the same.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHyd..537..367Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHyd..537..367Y"><span>On the identification of representative in situ soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> monitoring stations for the validation of SMAP soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> products in Australia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yee, Mei Sun; Walker, Jeffrey P.; Monerris, Alessandra; Rüdiger, Christoph; Jackson, Thomas J.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The high spatio-temporal variability of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> complicates the validation of remotely sensed soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> products using in situ monitoring stations. Therefore, a standard methodology for selecting the most representative stations for the purpose of validating satellites and land surface models is essential. Based on temporal stability and geostatistical studies using long-term soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> records, intensive ground measurements and airborne soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> products, this study investigates the representativeness of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> monitoring stations within the Yanco study <span class="hlt">area</span> for the validation of NASA's Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Active Passive (SMAP) products at 3 km for radar, 9 km for radar-radiometer and 36 km for radiometer pixels. This resulted in the identification of a number of representative stations according to the different scales. Although the temporal stability method was found to be suitable for identifying representative stations, stations based on the mean relative difference (MRD) were not necessarily the most representative of the areal average. Moreover, those identified from standard deviation of the relative difference (SDRD) may be dry-biased. It was also found that in the presence of heterogeneous land use, stations should be weighted based on proportions of agricultural land. Airborne soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> products were also shown to provide useful a priori information for identifying representative locations. Finally, recommendations are made regarding the design of future networks for satellite validation, and specifically the most representative stations for the Yanco <span class="hlt">area</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol7/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol7-sec801-6.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol7/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol7-sec801-6.pdf"><span>7 CFR 801.6 - Tolerances for <span class="hlt">moisture</span> meters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">moisture</span>, mean deviation from National standard <span class="hlt">moisture</span> meter using Hard Red Winter wheat Mid ±0.05 percent <span class="hlt">moisture</span>, mean deviation from National standard <span class="hlt">moisture</span> meter using Hard Red Winter wheat High ±0.05 percent <span class="hlt">moisture</span>, mean deviation from National standard <span class="hlt">moisture</span> meter using Hard Red Winter wheat...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol7/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol7-sec801-6.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol7/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol7-sec801-6.pdf"><span>7 CFR 801.6 - Tolerances for <span class="hlt">moisture</span> meters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">moisture</span>, mean deviation from National standard <span class="hlt">moisture</span> meter using Hard Red Winter wheat Mid ±0.05 percent <span class="hlt">moisture</span>, mean deviation from National standard <span class="hlt">moisture</span> meter using Hard Red Winter wheat High ±0.05 percent <span class="hlt">moisture</span>, mean deviation from National standard <span class="hlt">moisture</span> meter using Hard Red Winter wheat...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol7/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol7-sec801-6.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol7/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol7-sec801-6.pdf"><span>7 CFR 801.6 - Tolerances for <span class="hlt">moisture</span> meters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">moisture</span>, mean deviation from National standard <span class="hlt">moisture</span> meter using Hard Red Winter wheat Mid ±0.05 percent <span class="hlt">moisture</span>, mean deviation from National standard <span class="hlt">moisture</span> meter using Hard Red Winter wheat High ±0.05 percent <span class="hlt">moisture</span>, mean deviation from National standard <span class="hlt">moisture</span> meter using Hard Red Winter wheat...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=240350','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=240350"><span>Likelihood parameter estimation for calibrating a soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> using radar backscatter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Assimilating soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> information contained in synthetic aperture radar imagery into land surface model predictions can be done using a calibration, or parameter estimation, approach. The presence of speckle, however, necessitates aggregating backscatter measurements over large land <span class="hlt">areas</span> in or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.H22D0963T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.H22D0963T"><span>Evaluation of Two Methods for Determining Surface Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> from Radar Imagery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thoma, D.; Moran, M.; Bryant, R.; Holifield, C.; Skirvin, S.; Rahman, M.; Kershner, C.; Watts, J.; Slocum, K.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>Distributed soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> data are useful for determining cross-country mobility, irrigation scheduling, pest management strategy, biomass production and potential for soil erosion and infiltration. Large <span class="hlt">area</span> monitoring of surface soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> (to depths of 5 cm) is possible with radar remote sensing techniques, but accuracy must be assessed before it can be implemented operationally. Two methods for predicting surface soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> from radar satellite imagery were tested in sparsely vegetated, semi-arid Arizona rangelands. In the first approach, the Integral Equation Method (IEM) model was run in the forward direction to generate a Look-Up-Table (LUT) of radar backscatter for the expected range of surface roughness and <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content in the study <span class="hlt">area</span>. The LUT was used to derive surface soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> estimates from radar images acquired at the study site. In the second approach, a difference index was made from time series differences in radar backscatter signals from wet and dry soils. The difference index minimized variations in surface roughness and resulted in a direct relation between difference and surface soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>. For both approaches, results were validated against in situ measurements of surface soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> at 46 sites with dielectric probes at the time of satellite overpass. The modeling approach requires surface roughness inputs which may be difficult to obtain, whereas the difference technique requires only a dry surface reference backscatter for comparison with wetter surface backscatter to determine <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRG..118.1133H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRG..118.1133H"><span><span class="hlt">Moisture</span> drives surface decomposition in thawing tundra</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hicks Pries, Caitlin E.; Schuur, E. A. G.; Vogel, Jason G.; Natali, Susan M.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Permafrost thaw can affect decomposition rates by changing environmental conditions and litter quality. As permafrost thaws, soils warm and thermokarst (ground subsidence) features form, causing some <span class="hlt">areas</span> to become wetter while other <span class="hlt">areas</span> become drier. We used a common substrate to measure how permafrost thaw affects decomposition rates in the surface soil in a natural permafrost thaw gradient and a warming experiment in Healy, Alaska. Permafrost thaw also changes plant community composition. We decomposed 12 plant litters in a common garden to test how changing plant litter inputs would affect decomposition. We combined species' tissue-specific decomposition rates with species and tissue-level estimates of aboveground net primary productivity to calculate community-weighted decomposition constants at both the thaw gradient and warming experiment. <span class="hlt">Moisture</span>, specifically growing season precipitation and water table depth, was the most significant driver of decomposition. At the gradient, an increase in growing season precipitation from 200 to 300 mm increased mass loss of the common substrate by 100%. At the warming experiment, a decrease in the depth to the water table from 30 to 15 cm increased mass loss by 100%. At the gradient, community-weighted decomposition was 21% faster in extensive than in minimal thaw, but was similar when moss production was included. Overall, the effect of climate change and permafrost thaw on surface soil decomposition are driven more by precipitation and soil environment than by changes to plant communities. Increasing soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> is thereby another mechanism by which permafrost thaw can become a positive feedback to climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B23E0248P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B23E0248P"><span>Longwall Coal Mining and Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Changes in Southwestern Pennsylvania</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pfeil-McCullough, E. K.; Bain, D.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Subsidence from longwall coal mining impacts the surface and sub-surface hydrology in overlying <span class="hlt">areas</span>. During longwall mining, coal is completely removed in large rectangular panels and the overlying rock collapses into the void. Though the hydrologic effects of longwall mining subsidence have been studied in arid systems, in humid-temperate regions these effects are not well understood. In particular, it is not clear how longwall mining will impact soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> patterns. Utilizing simple soil water modeling frameworks (ArcGIS-based Water Balance Toolbox) and the locations of recent long wall mining, potential impacts on soil water availability were predicted at the landscape scale. For example, in <span class="hlt">areas</span> overlying panel edges, soil available water capacities (AWC) were altered based on several scenarios of AWC change and interactions between aspect driven soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> regimes and the mining perturbation were explored over a five year period (2008-2013). The regular patterns of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> arising from insolation contrasts, when interacting with broad-scale longwall mining impacts, are predicted to cause complicated patterns of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> change. These predictions serve as a means to guide field campaigns necessary to understand longwall mining's hydrologic impacts in wetter climates</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012HESS...16.2893A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012HESS...16.2893A"><span>Towards an integrated soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> drought monitor for East Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, W. B.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Hain, C. R.; Anderson, M. C.; Yilmaz, M. T.; Mecikalski, J.; Schultz, L.</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Drought in East Africa is a recurring phenomenon with significant humanitarian impacts. Given the steep climatic gradients, topographic contrasts, general data scarcity, and, in places, political instability that characterize the region, there is a need for spatially distributed, remotely derived monitoring systems to inform national and international drought response. At the same time, the very diversity and data scarcity that necessitate remote monitoring also make it difficult to evaluate the reliability of these systems. Here we apply a suite of remote monitoring techniques to characterize the temporal and spatial evolution of the 2010-2011 Horn of Africa drought. Diverse satellite observations allow for evaluation of meteorological, agricultural, and hydrological aspects of drought, each of which is of interest to different stakeholders. Focusing on soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>, we apply triple collocation analysis (TCA) to three independent methods for estimating soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> anomalies to characterize relative error between products and to provide a basis for objective data merging. The three soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> methods evaluated include microwave remote sensing using the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) sensor, thermal remote sensing using the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) surface energy balance algorithm, and physically based land surface modeling using the Noah land surface model. It was found that the three soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> monitoring methods yield similar drought anomaly estimates in <span class="hlt">areas</span> characterized by extremely low or by moderate vegetation cover, particularly during the below-average 2011 long rainy season. Systematic discrepancies were found, however, in regions of moderately low vegetation cover and high vegetation cover, especially during the failed 2010 short rains. The merged, TCA-weighted soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> composite product takes advantage of the relative strengths of each method, as judged by the consistency of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012HESSD...9.4587A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012HESSD...9.4587A"><span>Towards an integrated soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> drought monitor for East Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, W. B.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Hain, C. R.; Anderson, M. C.; Yilmaz, M. T.; Mecikalski, J.; Schultz, L.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Drought in East Africa is a recurring phenomenon with significant humanitarian impacts. Given the steep climatic gradients, topographic contrasts, general data scarcity, and, in places, political instability that characterize the region, there is a need for spatially distributed, remotely derived monitoring systems to inform national and international drought response. At the same time, the very diversity and data scarcity that necessitate remote monitoring also make it difficult to evaluate the reliability of these systems. Here we apply a suite of remote monitoring techniques to characterize the temporal and spatial evolution of the 2010-2011 Horn of Africa drought. Diverse satellite observations allow for evaluation of meteorological, agricultural, and hydrological aspects of drought, each of which is of interest to different stakeholders. Focusing on soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>, we apply triple collocation analysis (TCA) to three independent methods for estimating soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> anomalies to characterize relative error between products and to provide a basis for objective data merging. The three soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> methods evaluated include microwave remote sensing using the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) sensor, thermal remote sensing using the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) surface energy balance algorithm, and physically-based land surface modeling using the Noah land surface model. It was found that the three soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> monitoring methods yield similar drought anomaly estimates in <span class="hlt">areas</span> characterized by extremely low or by moderate vegetation cover, particularly during the below-average 2011 long rainy season. Systematic discrepancies were found, however, in regions of moderately low vegetation cover and high vegetation cover, especially during the failed 2010 short rains. The merged, TCA-weighted soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> composite product takes advantage of the relative strengths of each method, as judged by the consistency of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1413058C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1413058C"><span>The role of biological soil crusts on soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chamizo, S.; Cantón, Y.; Lázaro, R.; Rodriguez-Caballero, E.; Domingo, F.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>In water-limited ecosystems, water becomes the most important driver for plant productivity. In these systems, spatial distribution of water resources is not random but organized into a mosaic of water-depletion <span class="hlt">areas</span> linked to water-accumulation <span class="hlt">areas</span>. In other words, water is transferred from interplant patches that act as source <span class="hlt">areas</span> to vegetation patches that act as sinks of this resource. Thus, structure and functioning of interplant patches have a decisive role in water redistribution and distribution patterns of vegetation. Soil surface in the interplant spaces of most arid and semiarid ecosystems is covered by biological soil crusts (BSCs). These organisms regulate water fluxes into and through soils and play major roles in local hydrological processes. In the last years, the role of these organisms in infiltration and runoff has gained increased importance and a better knowledge about their effects on these processes has been acquired. However, the role of BSCs in other important components of the water balance such as evaporation or soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> has been scarcely studied, so that their effects on these processes remain unknown. The objective of this work is to examine the influence of BSCs on soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> regimes in the top profile of the soil in two semiarid ecosystems of SE Spain with contrasting soil texture and where BSCs are well-represented. Soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content at 0.03 and 0.10 m was monitored under two representative types of BSCs, a dark cyanobacteria-dominated BSC and a light-coloured lichen-dominated BSC, and in soils where these BSCs were removed by scraping, at both study sites. Our results show that, under high water conditions, removal of BSCs leads to a decrease in soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> compared to soils covered by BSCs. Decrease in soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> due to BSC removal namely affects <span class="hlt">moisture</span> in the upper layer of the soil (0.03 m), but has little impact in deeper soil (0.10 m). Evaporation is also generally faster in soils with no BSCs than in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1220030','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1220030"><span><span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Arena, Lois; Mantha, Pallavi</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) team evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of <span class="hlt">moisture</span> modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls. Wall assemblies evaluated included code minimum walls using spray foam insulation and fiberglass batts, high R-value walls at least 12 in. thick (R-40 and R-60 assemblies), and brick walls with interior insulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JMOp...57.1770G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JMOp...57.1770G"><span><span class="hlt">Moisture</span> map by IR thermography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grinzato, E.; Cadelano, G.; Bison, P.</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>A new approach to <span class="hlt">moisture</span> detection in buildings by an optical method is presented. Limits of classical and new methods are discussed. The state of the art about the use of IR thermography is illustrated as well. The new technique exploits characteristics of the materials and takes into account explicitly the heat and mass exchange between surface and environment. A set of experiments in controlled laboratory conditions on different materials is used to better understand the physical problem. The testing procedure and the data reduction are illustrated. A case study on a heritage building points up the features of this technique.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JHyd..512..563K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JHyd..512..563K"><span>Connectivity and topographic thresholds in bi-hourly soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> measurements along transects on a steep hillslope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Sanghyun</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Observation of temporal variations in soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> along transects is important when examining hydrological processes on a hillslope. Although there is substantial interest in characterizing catchment hydrology through an investigation of hydrologic connectivity, few attempts have been made to explore hydrologic connectivity within soil layers using soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> observations. Mathematical relationships among soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> differences are reproducible when Granger causality is defined within the context of hydrological connectivity because the process based transfer functions facilitate soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> predictions. Soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> time series along two transects on a steep hillslope were obtained using a multiplexed time domain reflectometry system during the growing season in June 2008 and 2009. The transfer function relationships between multiple soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> differences were delineated to determine a representative point for reliable time series modeling, and to establish the spatial pattern of areal clusters that will enable model identification and prediction. The impact of hillslope topography on the modeling of coupled soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> was highlighted by configuring the threshold behavior of model predictability. Results showed that soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> temporal relationships can be used for the prediction of volumetric soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>, within a specific <span class="hlt">area</span> associated with representation point. Reliable relationships among soil <span class="hlt">moistures</span> were apparent for points having greater upslope <span class="hlt">areas</span> between 400 m2 and 1000 m2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Sci...352..825T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Sci...352..825T"><span>Empirical evidence of contrasting soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>-precipitation feedbacks across the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tuttle, Samuel; Salvucci, Guido</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> influences fluxes of heat and <span class="hlt">moisture</span> originating at the land surface, thus altering atmospheric humidity and temperature profiles. However, empirical and modeling studies disagree on how this affects the propensity for precipitation, mainly owing to the difficulty in establishing causality. We use Granger causality to estimate the relationship between soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> and occurrence of subsequent precipitation over the contiguous United States using remotely sensed soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> and gauge-based precipitation observations. After removing potential confounding effects of daily persistence, and seasonal and interannual variability in precipitation, we find that soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> anomalies significantly influence rainfall probabilities over 38% of the <span class="hlt">area</span> with a median factor of 13%. The feedback is generally positive in the west and negative in the east, suggesting dependence on regional aridity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNG43F1443N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNG43F1443N"><span>Surface <span class="hlt">moisture</span> feedback in modelled aeolian rippled sand strip and dune field patterns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nield, J. M.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Surface <span class="hlt">moisture</span> plays a key role in controlling sediment availability and transport in aeolian systems which leads to the development of a diverse range of spatial patterns including transient sand strips on beaches with small temporal and spatial scales, and large-scale dune patterns dominated by wet interdune <span class="hlt">areas</span>. By altering feedback response times between surface <span class="hlt">moisture</span> and transport dynamics, these different patterns can be explored and modelled using a cellular automaton-based algorithm. This algorithm includes stochastic transport and mimics real-world behaviour, where surface <span class="hlt">moisture</span> limits aeolian erosion, but a modest amount of <span class="hlt">moisture</span> hardens the surface, increasing the elasticity of rebounding grains. Simulations allow for examination of different sediment availability scenarios which can be related to the developed internal stratigraphy of the modeled landscape. Results elucidate the controlling mechanism of surface <span class="hlt">moisture</span> in sediment availability and highlight the importance of mutual feedback for developing diverse aeolian landscape patterns at different spatial and temporal scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1911086P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1911086P"><span>Downscaling soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> over East Asia through multi-sensor data fusion and optimization of regression trees</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, Seonyoung; Im, Jungho; Park, Sumin; Rhee, Jinyoung</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> is one of the most important keys for understanding regional and global climate systems. Soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> is directly related to agricultural processes as well as hydrological processes because soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> highly influences vegetation growth and determines water supply in the agroecosystem. Accurate monitoring of the spatiotemporal pattern of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> is important. Soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> has been generally provided through in situ measurements at stations. Although field survey from in situ measurements provides accurate soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> with high temporal resolution, it requires high cost and does not provide the spatial distribution of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> over large <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Microwave satellite (e.g., advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on the Earth Observing System (AMSR2), the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT), and Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Active Passive (SMAP)) -based approaches and numerical models such as Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) and Modern- Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) provide spatial-temporalspatiotemporally continuous soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> products at global scale. However, since those global soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> products have coarse spatial resolution ( 25-40 km), their applications for agriculture and water resources at local and regional scales are very limited. Thus, soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> downscaling is needed to overcome the limitation of the spatial resolution of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> products. In this study, GLDAS soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> data were downscaled up to 1 km spatial resolution through the integration of AMSR2 and ASCAT soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> data, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM), and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data—Land Surface Temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and Land cover—using modified regression trees over East Asia from 2013 to 2015. Modified regression trees were implemented using Cubist, a commercial software tool based on machine learning. An</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/400790','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/400790"><span>Depression of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> freezing point</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fedorov, V.I.</p> <p>1996-12-01</p> <p>Certain criteria for freezing temperature of clay soil have been found which are a relative <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content at the soil liquid limit (W/W{sub L}) and maximum hydroscopic <span class="hlt">moisture</span> (W/W{sub h}). On the strength of test data it has been established that the relative <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content at the soil liquid limit (W/W{sub L}) may also serve as a criterion on compression pressure and resistance against shearing for soil paste with no structural binding. Linear correlation between the <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content of natural soil and its paste -- the equation of <span class="hlt">moisture</span> balance -- has been found which specifies a thermodynamic balance condition. The equation of <span class="hlt">moisture</span> balance represents a whole set of properties for a certain type of soil, such as strength and compressibility. In this respect, it may be considered as a ``Soil equation`` which allows for further prognosis of its properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010027896','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010027896"><span>Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Memory in Climate Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koster, Randal D.; Suarez, Max J.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Water balance considerations at the soil surface lead to an equation that relates the autocorrelation of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> in climate models to (1) seasonality in the statistics of the atmospheric forcing, (2) the variation of evaporation with soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>, (3) the variation of runoff with soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>, and (4) persistence in the atmospheric forcing, as perhaps induced by land atmosphere feedback. Geographical variations in the relative strengths of these factors, which can be established through analysis of model diagnostics and which can be validated to a certain extent against observations, lead to geographical variations in simulated soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> memory and thus, in effect, to geographical variations in seasonal precipitation predictability associated with soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>. The use of the equation to characterize controls on soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> memory is demonstrated with data from the modeling system of the NASA Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93Q.472B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93Q.472B"><span>Studying dynamics of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> patterns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Balcerak, Ernie</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> variations in space and time are important to the hydrological cycle. To better understand the dynamics of the various factors affecting soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> patterns, Rosenbaum et al. conducted a comprehensive study in the small Wüstebach catchment in Germany, using a wireless sensor network to monitor soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> with high temporal and spatial resolution and broad coverage. They found large variations in spatial soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> patterns, which depended on soil depth and catchment wetness. Soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> patterns also changed seasonally and during single wetting and drying episodes. The authors showed how soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> variations are controlled by a wide range of factors including soil properties, topography, vegetation, groundwater, and rainfall. (Water Resources Research, doi:10.1029/2011WR011518, 2012)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H41K..06D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H41K..06D"><span>Water Films: <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> that Extends Beyond the Capillary Wetting Front</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dragila, M. I.; Ambrowiak, G.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Imbibition dynamics were investigated by measuring upward imbibition rates in laboratory vertical columns that were filled with sandy loam soil media. The contribution of films and capillary water which drives the infiltrating wetting front was successfully quantified. It was demonstrated that films move ahead of the wetting front only after capillary water has ceased driving percolation, and that the hydraulic diffusion coefficient (Dh) of film flow varied from 10-70% of the hydraulic diffusion coefficient of capillary water. The magnitude of Dh depended upon particle size distribution, surface roughness and initial <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content of the media. What is the potential value of this mechanism in soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> dynamics research? (1) In coarse textured soils with low capillary potential, film that stretches well beyond the capillary wetting front can provide <span class="hlt">moisture</span> to microbiota and mycorhyza, thereby increasing nutrient diffusion to a broader <span class="hlt">area</span> than by capillary based models (e.g., modeling of drip irrigation systems). Even though the potential role of films in these processes has been previously discussed, the magnitude of potential <span class="hlt">moisture</span> delivery has not been measured. (2) Films surging ahead of a decelerating capillary front may reduce the effect of subsurface water repellency. It is known that over time, <span class="hlt">moisture</span> decreases both the contact angle of water against silica and water repellent soils. Therefore, in time, a film may predispose sandy soil to greater imbibition capacity. (3) The need to maximize water efficiency becomes exceedingly important in drought threatened, semi-arid irrigated agriculture. A thoughtful, yet realistic balance must be reached between water conservation and crop production. As our climate changes and water needs increase, protecting against crop failure will require a more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms that control soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> dynamics. This study adds to this conversation by investigating higher level</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20001899','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20001899"><span>Variable frequency microwave <span class="hlt">moisture</span> leveling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hamann, M.R.</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p>A variable frequency microwave system was examined to replace an existing carousel resistance heating line as the method for drying of mouth swabs for the pharmaceutical industry. A pharmaceutical manufacturer located in Northern Illinois had a resistive heating system that was not drying product satisfactorily, thus requiring additional ambient drying time even after a 30-minute drying cycle. Since the swabs are used for the healthcare industry, the amount of <span class="hlt">moisture</span> present after drying was critical to avoid the formation of mold on the product that could have lead to dissatisfied customers. Variable frequency microwave <span class="hlt">moisture</span> leveling allowed better product quality while turning the manufacturing operation into just in time delivery. During pilot scale testing, a 300 times cycle improvement was realized for variable frequency microwave compared to the conventional carousel resistive drying unit (24 hours to 5 minutes). The projected total cost of the variable frequency microwave system is $1 million, with 25% of the cost in the microwave unit and 70% of the cost in a new autobagging system. The author projected a $0.58 million saving per year in reduced operational costs with productivity increases. Although the project would have had a 1.8 year payback time, it was not implemented due to the capital expense and risk of an unknown technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14728698','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14728698"><span><span class="hlt">Moisturization</span> and skin barrier function.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rawlings, A V; Harding, C R</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Over the past decade, great progress has been made toward elucidating the structure and function of the stratum corneum (SC), the outermost layer of the epidermis. SC cells (corneocytes) protect against desiccation and environmental challenge by regulating water flux and retention. Maintenance of an optimal level of hydration by the SC is largely dependent on several factors. First, intercellular lamellar lipids, organized predominantly in an orthorhombic gel phase, provide an effective barrier to the passage of water through the tissue. Secondly, the diffusion path length also retards water loss, since water must traverse the tortuous path created by the SC layers and corneocyte envelopes. Thirdly, and equally important, is natural <span class="hlt">moisturizing</span> factor (NMF), a complex mixture of low-molecular-weight, water-soluble compounds first formed within the corneocytes by degradation of the histidine-rich protein known as filaggrin. Each maturation step leading to the formation of an effective <span class="hlt">moisture</span> barrier--including corneocyte strengthening, lipid processing, and NMF generation--is influenced by the level of SC hydration. These processes, as well as the final step of corneodesmolysis that mediates exfoliation, are often disturbed upon environmental challenge, resulting in dry, flaky skin conditions. The present paper reviews our current understanding of the biology of the SC, particularly its homeostatic mechanisms of hydration.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036019','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036019"><span>Effects of climate change on soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> over China from 1960-2006</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Zhu, Q.; Jiang, H.; Liu, J.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> is an important variable in the climate system and it has sensitive impact on the global climate. Obviously it is one of essential components in the climate change study. The Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) is used to evaluate the spatial and temporal patterns of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> across China under the climate change conditions for the period 1960-2006. Results show that the model performed better in warm season than in cold season. Mean errors (ME) are within 10% for all the months and root mean squared errors (RMSE) are within 10% except winter season. The model captured the spatial variability higher than 50% in warm seasons. Trend analysis based on the Mann-Kendall method indicated that soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> in most <span class="hlt">area</span> of China is decreased especially in the northern China. The <span class="hlt">areas</span> with significant increasing trends in soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> mainly locate at northwestern China and small <span class="hlt">areas</span> in southeastern China and eastern Tibet plateau. ?? 2009 IEEE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720004649','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720004649"><span>Summary: Remote sensing soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schmer, F. A.; Werner, H. D.; Waltz, F. A.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>During the 1969 and 1970 growing seasons research was conducted to investigate the relationship between remote sensing imagery and soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>. The research was accomplished under two completely different conditions: (1) cultivated cropland in east central South Dakota, and (2) rangeland in western South Dakota. Aerial and ground truth data are being studied and correlated in order to evaluate the <span class="hlt">moisture</span> supply and water use. Results show that remote sensing is a feasible method for monitoring soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25004762','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25004762"><span>Characteristics of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> in relation to microtopography in the Loess region of Northern Shaanxi, China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bo, Yaojun; Zhu, Qingke; Zhao, Weijun</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> is the primary factor limiting plant growth and vegetation rehabilitation in the loess region of northern Shaanxi, China. This 5-year (2008-2012) study investigated methods of selecting appropriate microsites for vegetation restoration based on efficient use of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>; 5-year data were compared with 56 years of precipitation data using standardized precipitation index. In addition, the effects of microtopography on the spatiotemporal variations of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> were analyzed at the Wuqi Ecological Station of Beijing Forestry University. Results showed that average annual precipitation during last 5 years fell by 12.4% during the growing season compared with 1957-2012 data and soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content at depth of 0-160 cm under went dramatic changes and became relatively low in July and August. Soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content varied in different microtopographical units as follows: gullies > gently-sloped terraces > collapsed soils > undisturbed slopes (control) > furrows > escarpments. The vertical distribution of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content in different microtopographical units showed dramatic changes at depth of 0-40 cm. Soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content of gently-sloped terraces, gullies, collapsed <span class="hlt">areas</span>, furrows, and undisturbed slopes was highest at depth of 80-160 cm with a level of instability at depth of 40-80 cm. For gently-sloped terraces and gullies, soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content followed the order of 40-80 cm > 0-40 cm; for collapsed <span class="hlt">areas</span>, furrows, and undisturbed slopes, soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content follows the order of 0-40 cm > 40-80 cm. For escarpments, soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content varied with depth in a different pattern: 0-40 cm > 80-160 cm > 40-80 cm. This study is of theoretical significance and will help guide the sustainable development of ecological restoration and vegetation rehabilitation in the Loess region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994JaJAP..33.2809N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994JaJAP..33.2809N"><span>Microwave Measurements of <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Content of Aggregate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nakayama, Shigeru</p> <p>1994-05-01</p> <p>An instantaneous method for measuring the <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content in aggregate such as sand is developed using a microwave open-ended coaxial cavity resonator. We measure the attenuation and frequency shift of resonant peaks of the cavity resonator, which are related to the <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content of the sand. The standard deviations in the attenuation and frequency shift are 0.30% and 0.14% in the percentage of <span class="hlt">moisture</span>, respectively. The frequency shift measurement is better than the attenuation measurement to calculate the <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24847408','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24847408"><span><span class="hlt">Moisturizers</span> for Acne: What are their Constituents?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chularojanamontri, Leena; Tuchinda, Papapit; Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Pongparit, Kamolwan</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit that affects almost all teenagers. Different treatments offer different modes of action, but aim to target acne pathology. Topical therapies, such as benzoyl peroxide, retinoids, antibiotics with alcohol-based preparations, and salicylic acid, can cause skin irritation resulting in a lack of patient adherence. Some physicians recommend patients use <span class="hlt">moisturizers</span> as adjunctive treatment of acne, especially when either topical benzoyl peroxide or a retinoid is prescribed. Furthermore, some evidence shows that <span class="hlt">moisturizers</span> can contribute independently to improve signs and symptoms of acne. <span class="hlt">Moisturizers</span> contain three main properties, which are occlusive, humectant, and emollient effects. Currently, many <span class="hlt">moisturizers</span> claim to be suitable for acne treatment. This article aims to provide a review of the active ingredients and properties of those <span class="hlt">moisturizers</span>. Fifty-two <span class="hlt">moisturizers</span> for acne were included for analysis. Most of the products (92%) have anti-inflammatory properties apart from occlusive, humectant, and emollient effects. Anti-acne medications, including salicylic acid, benzoyl peroxide, and retinol, were found respectively in 35, 10, and 8 percent of the <span class="hlt">moisturizer</span> products containing anti-inflammatory properties. More than half of the products contain dimethicone and/or glycerin for its <span class="hlt">moisturizer</span> property. Aloe vera and witch hazel are botanical anti-inflammatories that were commonly found in this study. Scientific data regarding some ingredients are discussed to provide a guide for physicians in selecting <span class="hlt">moisturizers</span> for acne patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23859407','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23859407"><span><span class="hlt">Moisturizers</span> for patients with atopic dermatitis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Varothai, Supenya; Nitayavardhana, Sunatra; Kulthanan, Kanokvalai</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease with epidermal barrier defects which leads to dry skin that is easily disturbed by external exacerbating factors. It is now well established that <span class="hlt">moisturizers</span> play an important role in preventing skin inflammation in AD, including reducing the amount of topical corticosteroid use. Thus, the use of <span class="hlt">moisturizers</span> is currently recognized as one of standard treatment for AD. This review summarizes the role and classification of <span class="hlt">moisturizers</span>. We also review some ingredients that are commonly added in <span class="hlt">moisturizers</span> which are claimed to have an anti-inflammatory effects in AD.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3927501','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3927501"><span>Temporal Stability of Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> and Radar Backscatter Observed by the Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wagner, Wolfgang; Pathe, Carsten; Doubkova, Marcela; Sabel, Daniel; Bartsch, Annett; Hasenauer, Stefan; Blöschl, Günter; Scipal, Klaus; Martínez-Fernández, José; Löw, Alexander</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The high spatio-temporal variability of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> is the result of atmospheric forcing and redistribution processes related to terrain, soil, and vegetation characteristics. Despite this high variability, many field studies have shown that in the temporal domain soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> measured at specific locations is correlated to the mean soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content over an <span class="hlt">area</span>. Since the measurements taken by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) instruments are very sensitive to soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> it is hypothesized that the temporally stable soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> patterns are reflected in the radar backscatter measurements. To verify this hypothesis 73 Wide Swath (WS) images have been acquired by the ENVISAT Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) over the REMEDHUS soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> network located in the Duero basin, Spain. It is found that a time-invariant linear relationship is well suited for relating local scale (pixel) and regional scale (50 km) backscatter. The observed linear model coefficients can be estimated by considering the scattering properties of the terrain and vegetation and the soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> scaling properties. For both linear model coefficients, the relative error between observed and modelled values is less than 5 % and the coefficient of determination (R2) is 86 %. The results are of relevance for interpreting and downscaling coarse resolution soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> data retrieved from active (METOP ASCAT) and passive (SMOS, AMSR-E) instruments. PMID:27879759</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27879759','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27879759"><span>Temporal Stability of Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> and Radar Backscatter Observed by the Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wagner, Wolfgang; Pathe, Carsten; Doubkova, Marcela; Sabel, Daniel; Bartsch, Annett; Hasenauer, Stefan; Blöschl, Günter; Scipal, Klaus; Martínez-Fernández, José; Löw, Alexander</p> <p>2008-02-21</p> <p>The high spatio-temporal variability of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> is the result of atmosphericforcing and redistribution processes related to terrain, soil, and vegetation characteristics.Despite this high variability, many field studies have shown that in the temporal domainsoil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> measured at specific locations is correlated to the mean soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> contentover an <span class="hlt">area</span>. Since the measurements taken by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)instruments are very sensitive to soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> it is hypothesized that the temporally stablesoil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> patterns are reflected in the radar backscatter measurements. To verify this hypothesis 73 Wide Swath (WS) images have been acquired by the ENVISAT AdvancedSynthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) over the REMEDHUS soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> network located inthe Duero basin, Spain. It is found that a time-invariant linear relationship is well suited forrelating local scale (pixel) and regional scale (50 km) backscatter. The observed linearmodel coefficients can be estimated by considering the scattering properties of the terrainand vegetation and the soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> scaling properties. For both linear model coefficients,the relative error between observed and modelled values is less than 5 % and thecoefficient of determination (R²) is 86 %. The results are of relevance for interpreting anddownscaling coarse resolution soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> data retrieved from active (METOP ASCAT)and passive (SMOS, AMSR-E) instruments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19432351','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19432351"><span>[Effect of <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content on anaerobic methanization of municipal solid waste].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qu, Xian; He, Pin-Jing; Shao, Li-Ming; Bouchez, Théodore</p> <p>2009-03-15</p> <p>Biogas production, gas and liquid characteristics were investigated for comparing the effect of <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content on methanization process of MSW with different compositions of food waste and cellulosic waste. Batch reactors were used to study the anaerobic methanization of typical Chinese and French municipal solid waste (MSW) and cellulosic waste with different <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content, as 35%, field capacity (65%-70%), 80%, and saturated state (> 95%). The results showed that for the typical Chinese and French waste, which contained putrescible waste, the intermediate product, VFA, was diluted by high content of water, which helped to release the VFA inhibition on hydrolysis and methanization. Mass amount of methane was produced only when the <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content of typical French waste was higher than 80%, while higher content of <span class="hlt">moisture</span> was needed when the content of putrescible waste was higher in MSW, as > 95% for typical Chinese waste. Meanwhile the methane production rate and the ultimate cumulated methane production were increased when <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content was leveled up. The ultimate cumulated methane production of the typical French waste with saturated state was 0.6 times higher than that of the waste with <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content of 80%. For cellulosic waste, high <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content of cellulosic materials contributed to increase the attachment <span class="hlt">area</span> of microbes and enzyme on the surface of the materials, which enhance the waste hydrolysis and methanization. When the <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content of the cellulosic materials increased from field capacity (65%) to saturated state (> 95%), the ultimate cumulated methane production increased for 3.8 times.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000120188','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000120188"><span>BOREAS HYD-6 Moss/Humus <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Peck, Eugene L.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Carroll, Thomas; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-6 team collected several data sets related to the <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content of soil and overlying humus layers. This data set contains water content measurements of the moss/humus layer, where it existed. These data were collected along various flight lines in the Southern Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> (SSA) and Northern Study <span class="hlt">Area</span> (NSA) during 1994. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The HYD-06 moss/humus <span class="hlt">moisture</span> data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3827...22R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3827...22R"><span>Optimal thermographic procedures for <span class="hlt">moisture</span> analysis in building materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rosina, Elisabetta; Ludwig, Nicola</p> <p>1999-09-01</p> <p>The presence of <span class="hlt">moisture</span> in building materials causes damage second only to structural one. NDT are successfully applied to map <span class="hlt">moisture</span> distribution, to localize the source of water and to determine microclimatic conditions. IR Thermography has the advantage of non-destructive testing while it allows to investigate large surfaces. The measures can be repeated in time to monitor the phenomenon of raising water. Nevertheless the investigation of <span class="hlt">moisture</span> in walls is one of the less reliable application of Thermography IR applied to cultural heritage preservation. The temperature of the damp <span class="hlt">areas</span> can be colder than dry ones, because of surface evaporation, or can be warmer, because of the higher thermal inertia of water content versus building materials. The apparent discrepancies between the two results are due to the different microclimatic conditions of the scanning. Aim of the paper is to describe optimal procedures to obtain reliable maps of <span class="hlt">moisture</span> in building materials, at different environmental and microclimatic conditions. Another goal is the description of the related energetic phenomena, which cause temperature discontinuities, and that are detected by thermography. Active and passive procedures are presented and compared. Case studies show some examples of procedures application.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr49B2..313S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr49B2..313S"><span>Validation and Upscaling of Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Satellite Products in Romania</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sandric, I.; Diamandi, A.; Oana, N.; Saizu, D.; Vasile, C.; Lucaschi, B.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The study presents the validation of SMOS soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> satellite products for Romania. The validation was performed with in-situ measurements spatially distributed over the country and with in-situ measurements concentrated in on small <span class="hlt">area</span>. For country level a number of 20 stations from the national meteorological observations network in Romania were selected. These stations have in-situ measurements for soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> in the first 5 cm of the soil surface. The stations are more or less distributed in one pixel of SMOS, but it has the advantage that covers almost all the country with a wide range of environmental conditions. Additionally 10 mobile soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> measurements stations were acquired and installed. These are spatially concentrated in one SMOS pixel in order to have a more detailed validation against the soil type, soil texture, land surface temperature and vegetation type inside one pixel. The results were compared and analyzed for each day, week, season, soil type, and soil texture and vegetation type. Minimum, maximum, mean and standard deviation were extracted and analyzed for each validation criteria and a hierarchy of those were performed. An upscaling method based on the relations between soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>, land surface temperature and vegetation indices was tested and implemented. The study was financed by the Romanian Space Agency within the framework of ASSIMO project <a href="http://assimo.meteoromania.ro"target="_blank">http://assimo.meteoromania.ro</a>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17526666','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17526666"><span>Influence of endosperm vitreousness and kernel <span class="hlt">moisture</span> at harvest on site and extent of digestion of high-<span class="hlt">moisture</span> corn by feedlot steers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Szasz, J I; Hunt, C W; Szasz, P A; Weber, R A; Owens, F N; Kezar, W; Turgeon, O A</p> <p>2007-09-01</p> <p>Six ruminally and duodenally cannulated Angus-Jersey crossbred steers (450 kg of BW) were used in a 6 x 6 Latin square to evaluate the effect of kernel vitreousness and <span class="hlt">moisture</span> on intake and digestibility of high-<span class="hlt">moisture</span> corn. Arranged in a 2 x 3 factorial, diets included a floury (FLO) or a vitreous (VIT) endosperm corn hybrid harvested at 28.1% (DRY), 31.2% (MID), or 35.7% (WET) kernel <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content. Diet DM consisted of 88.25% high-<span class="hlt">moisture</span> corn, 6% chopped alfalfa hay, 2% corn gluten meal, 0.75% urea, and 3% supplement. Supplement was included to ensure that the diets contained a minimum (DM basis) of 0.6% Ca, 0.6% K, 0.2% S, 33 mg/kg of monensin, and 11 mg/kg of tylosin. Geometric mean diameter of lyophilized high-<span class="hlt">moisture</span> corn tended to be less (P = 0.06) for VIT than for FLO, and the calculated particle surface <span class="hlt">area</span> was 15.8% greater (P = 0.03). An interaction of vitreousness with the quadratic effect of <span class="hlt">moisture</span> was noted (P < 0.001), such that fraction a and effective degradation for starch tended to be greater for the vitreous hybrid at the least and greatest <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content but lower for the vitreous hybrid at the intermediate <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content. Intake and ruminal disappearance of DM, OM, and starch were not influenced by vitreousness or <span class="hlt">moisture</span>, with ruminal starch disappearance averaging 90.9%. Intestinal starch digestion measured as a percentage of starch entering the intestines averaged 91% and was greater (P < 0.05) for VIT than FLO corn. Averaged across <span class="hlt">moisture</span> levels, total tract starch digestibility was greater (P < 0.003) for VIT than FLO. Compared with FLO kernels, VIT kernels appeared to be more brittle and therefore shattered more readily when rolled, particularly at the driest kernel <span class="hlt">moisture</span> level. Furthermore, increased surface <span class="hlt">area</span> of smaller particles may have been responsible for the greater starch utilization from VIT corn. In contrast with the results from other in situ and in vivo trials with dry-rolled corn grain, in which</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA126245','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA126245"><span>Satellite <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Retrieval Techniques. Volume 1. Technique Development and Evaluation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>VOLUME 2: Atmospheric Sounding Bibliography — NAVENVPREDRSCHFAC CR 83-01( b ) — for listings developed by literature search in the subject <span class="hlt">area</span>. 19...Contractor Report CR 83-01 (a): Satellite <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Retrieval Techniques, Vol 1, Technique Development and Evaluation (2) CR 83-01 ( b ): Vol 2...AND EVALUATION Prepared By: A. Rosenberg, D. B . Hogan, and C. K. Bowman V /, RCA Government Systems Division, Astro-Electronics, Princeton, New</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=266165','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=266165"><span>Validation of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> ocean salinity (SMOS) satellite soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The surface soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> state controls the partitioning of precipitation into infiltration and runoff. High-resolution observations of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> will lead to improved flood forecasts, especially for intermediate to large watersheds where most flood damage occurs. Soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> is also key in d...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=299148','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=299148"><span>Probing bias reduction to improve comparability of lint cotton water and <span class="hlt">moisture</span> contents at <span class="hlt">moisture</span> equilibrium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Karl Fischer Titration (KFT) reference method is specific for water in lint cotton and was designed for samples conditioned to <span class="hlt">moisture</span> equilibrium, thus limiting its biases. There is a standard method for <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content – weight loss – by oven drying (OD), just not for equilibrium <span class="hlt">moisture</span> c...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=264667','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=264667"><span>The international soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> network: A data hosting facility for global in situ soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In situ measurements of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> are invaluable for calibrating and validating land surface models and satellite-based soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> retrievals. In addition, long-term time series of in situ soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> measurements themselves can reveal trends in the water cycle related to climate or land co...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110011920','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110011920"><span>Canadian Experiment for Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> in 2010 (CanEX-SM10): Overview and Preliminary Results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Magagi, Ramata; Berg, Aaron; Goita, Kalifa; Belair, Stephane; Jackson, Tom; Toth, B.; Walker, A.; McNairn, H.; O'Neill, P.; Moghdam. M; Gherboudj, Imen; Colliander, A.; Cosh, M.; Belanger, John; Burgin, M.; Fisher, J.; Kim, S.; Rousseau, L-P B.; Djamai, N.; Shang, J.; Merzouki, A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The Canadian Experiment for Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> in 2010 (CanEx-SM10) was carried out in Saskatchewan, Canada from 31 May to 16 June, 2010. Its main objective was to contribute to Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> and Ocean salinity (SMOS) mission validation and the pre-launch assessment of Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> and Active and Passive (SMAP) mission. During CanEx-SM10, SMOS data as well as other passive and active microwave measurements were collected by both airborne and satellite platforms. Ground-based measurements of soil (<span class="hlt">moisture</span>, temperature, roughness, bulk density) and vegetation characteristics (Leaf <span class="hlt">Area</span> Index, biomass, vegetation height) were conducted close in time to the airborne and satellite acquisitions. Besides, two ground-based in situ networks provided continuous measurements of meteorological conditions and soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> and soil temperature profiles. Two sites, each covering 33 km x 71 km (about two SMOS pixels) were selected in agricultural and boreal forested <span class="hlt">areas</span> in order to provide contrasting soil and vegetation conditions. This paper describes the measurement strategy, provides an overview of the data sets and presents preliminary results. Over the agricultural <span class="hlt">area</span>, the airborne L-band brightness temperatures matched up well with the SMOS data. The Radio frequency interference (RFI) observed in both SMOS and the airborne L-band radiometer data exhibited spatial and temporal variability and polarization dependency. The temporal evolution of SMOS soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> product matched that observed with the ground data, but the absolute soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> estimates did not meet the accuracy requirements (0.04 m3/m3) of the SMOS mission. AMSR-E soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> estimates are more closely correlated with measured soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014WRR....50.1046C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014WRR....50.1046C"><span>The role of the ENSO cycle in the modulation of <span class="hlt">moisture</span> transport from major oceanic <span class="hlt">moisture</span> sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Castillo, Rodrigo; Nieto, Raquel; Drumond, Anita; Gimeno, Luis</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>The influence that the evolution of the ENSO cycle has on the <span class="hlt">moisture</span> transport from the major oceanic <span class="hlt">moisture</span> sources is investigated using a sophisticated Lagrangian approach informed by ERA-interim data, together with composites of ENSO phases. When maintaining the sources of <span class="hlt">moisture</span> defined for the climatological period 1980-2012, the variations in the <span class="hlt">moisture</span> sinks associated with each of these evaporative sources throughout the ENSO cycle reproduce the known patterns of variations of the large-scale atmospheric and precipitation systems over this cycle. Such variations include those observed in rainfall over the equatorial Pacific, in the major Summer monsoon systems, and in subtropical rainfall. When the <span class="hlt">areas</span> of the sources were redefined according to the phase of ENSO, most of them remained stationary over the period of interest, nevertheless four of them showed notable differences in terms of their extents, namely the South Pacific and the Coral Sea (Pacific Ocean); the Mexican Caribbean (Atlantic), and the Arabian Sea (Indian).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H31A1389C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H31A1389C"><span>Comparison of Multiple Satellite Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Products Using In-Situ Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Observations Over the Continental United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chavez, N.; Galvan, J., III; McRoberts, D. B.; Quiring, S. M.; Ford, T.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We evaluate the skill of multiple satellite-derived soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> products using in-situ soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> observations from over 50 long-record stations in the continental United States. The satellite products compared include AMSR-E, ASCAT, SMOS, TMI, ESA CCI, and SMAP. Daily volumetric water content and percentiles of volumetric water content from each satellite product is compared with the observations from the corresponding station. We evaluate the similarity between the satellite and in-situ products with regard to the climate and biome conditions of the <span class="hlt">area</span> as well as the representativeness of the in-situ station for the satellite footprint. We find moderate-to-strong correspondence between all satellite products and in-situ soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> observations. Differences between the satellite and observation datasets are attributed to varying land cover conditions, snow cover, and the spatial mismatch of the point observation with the satellite product grid cell. In general, our results suggest that the satellite products evaluated can accurately capture temporal variability of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> near the surface, but do show systematic offsets at several stations across the study region.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESASP.729E..38C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESASP.729E..38C"><span>Retrieval of Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> in Plateau Pasture Using RADARSAT-2 Imagery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chai, Xun; Shao, Yun; Zhang, Tingting; Gong, Huaze; Liu, Long; Xie, Kaixin</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The object of this paper is to investigate the estimation of volumetric soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> in vegetated <span class="hlt">areas</span> of plateau pasture using fully polarimetric RADARSAT-2 SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images at C-band. Experimental campaigns were conducted in September 2012 and May 2013 in Qinghai Lake watershed in northeastern Tibetan Plateau with simultaneously satellite overpass. Two algorithms for soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> retrieval were proposed based on water-cloud model, Chen model and Dubois model. Then the performance of models were tested and validated using simulated and experimental data. Validation results indicated that the developed Dubois model can satisfied the requirement of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> inversion in study region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=323266','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=323266"><span>SMAP and SMOS soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> validation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The SMOS and SMAP satellite missions each produce global soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> products using L-band radiometry. Both missions begin with the same fundamental equations in developing their soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> retrieval algorithm but implement it differently due to design differences of the instruments. SMOS with ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=211796','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=211796"><span>Inexpensive Microwave <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Sensor for Granular Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A prototype microwave <span class="hlt">moisture</span> sensor is described that was assembled from relatively inexpensive microwave components and tested for sensing <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content in corn and wheat. Components include off-the-shelf voltage-controlled oscillator, isolator, power splitter, two 19-dBi microstrip patch ant...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title46-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title46-vol5-sec154-1715.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title46-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title46-vol5-sec154-1715.pdf"><span>46 CFR 154.1715 - <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> control.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> control. 154.1715 Section 154.1715 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... § 154.1715 <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> control. When a vessel is carrying sulfur dioxide, the master shall ensure that: (a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title46-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title46-vol5-sec154-1715.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title46-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title46-vol5-sec154-1715.pdf"><span>46 CFR 154.1715 - <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> control.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> control. 154.1715 Section 154.1715 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... § 154.1715 <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> control. When a vessel is carrying sulfur dioxide, the master shall ensure that: (a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title46-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title46-vol5-sec154-1715.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title46-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title46-vol5-sec154-1715.pdf"><span>46 CFR 154.1715 - <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> control.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> control. 154.1715 Section 154.1715 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... § 154.1715 <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> control. When a vessel is carrying sulfur dioxide, the master shall ensure that: (a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title46-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title46-vol5-sec154-1715.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title46-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title46-vol5-sec154-1715.pdf"><span>46 CFR 154.1715 - <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> control.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> control. 154.1715 Section 154.1715 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... § 154.1715 <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> control. When a vessel is carrying sulfur dioxide, the master shall ensure that: (a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=313267','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=313267"><span>Soil-<span class="hlt">moisture</span> sensors and irrigation management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This agricultural irrigation seminar will cover the major classes of soil-<span class="hlt">moisture</span> sensors; their advantages and disadvantages; installing and reading soil-<span class="hlt">moisture</span> sensors; and using their data for irrigation management. The soil water sensor classes include the resistance sensors (gypsum blocks, g...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/8717','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/8717"><span>Logging effects on soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> losses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Robert R. Ziemer</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Abstract - The depletion of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> within the surface 15 feet by an isolated mature sugar pine and an adjacent uncut forest in the California Sierra Nevada was measured by the neutron method every 2 weeks for 5 consecutive summers. Soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> recharge was measured periodically during the intervening winters. Groundwater fluctuations within the surface 50...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760003525','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760003525"><span>Soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>: Some fundamentals. [agriculture - soil mechanics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Milstead, B. W.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>A brief tutorial on soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>, as it applies to agriculture, is presented. Information was taken from books and papers considered freshman college level material, and is an attempt to briefly present the basic concept of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> and a minimal understanding of how water interacts with soil.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=267547','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=267547"><span>Embedded solution for a microwave <span class="hlt">moisture</span> meter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In this paper, the conversion of a PC or laptop-controlled microwave <span class="hlt">moisture</span> meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The <span class="hlt">moisture</span> meter is based on the free-space transmission measurement technique and uses low-intensity microwaves to measure the attenuation and p...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=342427','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=342427"><span>Microwave bale <span class="hlt">moisture</span> sensing: Field trial continued</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A microwave <span class="hlt">moisture</span> measurement technique was developed at the USDA, ARS Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit for <span class="hlt">moisture</span> sensing of cotton bales after the bale press. The technique measures the propagation delay of a microwave signal that is transmitted through the cotton bale. This res...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/543466','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/543466"><span><span class="hlt">Moisture</span> performance analysis of EPS frost insulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ojanen, T.; Kokko, E.</p> <p>1997-11-01</p> <p>A horizontal layer of expanded polystyrene foam (EPS) is widely used as a frost insulation of building foundations in the Nordic countries. The performance properties of the insulation depend strongly on the <span class="hlt">moisture</span> level of the material. Experimental methods are needed to produce samples for testing the material properties in realistic <span class="hlt">moisture</span> conditions. The objective was to analyze the <span class="hlt">moisture</span> loads and the wetting mechanisms of horizontal EPS frost insulation. Typical wetting tests, water immersion and diffusive water vapor absorption tests, were studied and the results were compared with the data from site investigations. Usually these tests give higher <span class="hlt">moisture</span> contents of EPS than what are detected in drained frost insulation applications. Also the effect of different parameters, like the immersion depth and temperature gradient were studied. Special attention was paid to study the effect of diffusion on the wetting process. Numerical simulation showed that under real working conditions the long period diffusive <span class="hlt">moisture</span> absorption in EPS frost insulation remained lower than 1% Vol. <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> performance was determined experimentally as a function of the distance between the insulation and the free water level in the ground. The main <span class="hlt">moisture</span> loads and the principles for good <span class="hlt">moisture</span> performance of frost insulation are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA19338.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA19338.html"><span>Southern U.S. Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Map</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-05-19</p> <p>Southern U.S. NASA's SMAP soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> retrievals from April 27, 2015, when severe storms were affecting Texas. Top: radiometer data alone. Bottom: combined radar and radiometer data with a resolution of 5.6 miles (9 kilometers). The combined product reveals more detailed surface soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> features. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19338</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/432952','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/432952"><span>Porous Si structure as <span class="hlt">moisture</span> sensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Peterson, D.W.; Nguyen, L.T.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>Development and characterization of a capacitive <span class="hlt">moisture</span> sensor made from porous Si is presented. The sensor development was in support of the DoD funded Plastic Package Availability program and was intended for the detection of pinholes and defects in <span class="hlt">moisture</span> barrier coatings applied to ICs during fabrication or during the plastic encapsulation assembly process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=342424','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=342424"><span>Microwave <span class="hlt">moisture</span> sensing of wet bales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Sensing of <span class="hlt">moisture</span> in very wet lint bales is unique due to the fact that <span class="hlt">moisture</span> distribution is typically non-uniform and can in some instances be highly localized. This issue is even further complicated by the use of a sensor that reads only a portion of the bale and/or with a sensor that provid...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=342453','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=342453"><span>Microwave bale <span class="hlt">moisture</span> sensing: Field trial</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A microwave <span class="hlt">moisture</span> measurement technique was developed for <span class="hlt">moisture</span> sensing of cotton bales after the bale press. The technique measures the propagation delay of a microwave signal that is transmitted through the cotton bale. This research conducted a field trial to test the sensor in a commercial...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.628a2100M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.628a2100M"><span><span class="hlt">Moisture</span> detection in composites by terahertz spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Malinowski, Paweł; Pałka, Norbert; Opoka, Szymon; Wandowski, Tomasz; Ostachowicz, Wiesław</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The application of Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymers (GFRP) in many branches of industry has been increasing steadily. Many research works focus on damage identification for structures made out of such materials. However, not only delaminations, cracks or other damage can have a negative influence of GFRP parts performance. Previous research proved that fluid absorption influences the mechanical performance of composites. GFRP parts can be contaminated by <span class="hlt">moisture</span> or release agent during manufacturing, while fuel, hydraulic fluid and <span class="hlt">moisture</span> ingression into the composite can be the in-service treats. In the reported research authors focus on <span class="hlt">moisture</span> detection. There are numerous sources of <span class="hlt">moisture</span> such as post manufacturing NDT inspection with ultrasonics coupled by water or exposition to <span class="hlt">moisture</span> during transportation and in service. An NDT tool used for the research is a terahertz (THz) spectrometer. The device uses an electromagnetic radiation in the terahertz range (0.1-3 THz) and allows for reflection and transmission measurements. The spectrometer is equipped with moving table that allows for XY scanning of large objects such as GFRP panels. In the conducted research refractive indices were experimentally extracted from the materials of interest (water and GFRP). Time signals as well as C-scans were analysed for samples with <span class="hlt">moisture</span> contamination. In order to be sure that the observed effects are related to <span class="hlt">moisture</span> contamination reference measurements were conducted. The obtained results showed that the THz NDT technique can detect <span class="hlt">moisture</span> hidden under a GFRP with multiple layers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=254669','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=254669"><span>Surface Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Assimilation with SWAT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> is one of the most critical state variables in hydrologic modeling. Certain studies have demonstrated that assimilating observed surface soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> into a hydrologic model results in improved predictions of profile soil water content. With the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780006666','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780006666"><span>Passive microwave remote sensing of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kondratyev, K. Y.; Melentyev, V. V.; Rabinovich, Y. I.; Shulgina, E. M.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>The theory and calculations of microwave emission from the medium with the depth-dependent physical properties are discussed; the possibility of determining the vertical profiles of temperature and humidity is considered. Laboratory and aircraft measurements of the soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> are described; the technique for determining the productive-<span class="hlt">moisture</span> content in soil, and the results of aircraft measurements are given.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title46-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title46-vol5-sec154-1715.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title46-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title46-vol5-sec154-1715.pdf"><span>46 CFR 154.1715 - <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> control.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> control. 154.1715 Section 154.1715 Shipping... FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Special Design and Operating Requirements § 154.1715 <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> control. When a vessel is carrying sulfur dioxide, the master shall ensure that: (a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4385K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4385K"><span>On the Relationship between Tropical <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Exports and Extratropical Cyclones</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Knippertz, Peter; Wernli, Heini; Gläser, Gregor; Boleti, Eirini; Joos, Hanna; Binder, Hanin</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Tropical <span class="hlt">moisture</span> export (TME) events are an important element of the global circulation and contribute significantly to regional precipitation. They are defined here on the basis of trajectories starting in the tropical troposphere and reaching a water vapor flux of at least 100 g kg-1 m s-1 poleward of 35° latitude. TME frequency shows four marked occurrence maxima in both hemispheres with varying seasonal cycles. In some cases TMEs can be linked to similar phenomena of atmospheric flow such as Warm Conveyor Belts (WCBs) or Atmospheric Rivers (ARs). For example, 90% of all ARs affecting the US West Coast during December-May are connected to TME events, but the tropical <span class="hlt">moisture</span> source is less important during the more active AR season June-November. In addition to these climatological TME characteristics we discuss two aspects of their relationship to extratropical cyclones: Case studies indicate that (i) cyclones traveling along the southern fringes of the midlatitude storm track can instigate the export of tropical <span class="hlt">moisture</span> ahead of their cold fronts, and (ii) the tropical <span class="hlt">moisture</span> can fuel latent heat release in the cyclone and therefore contribute to its intensification. A long-term statistical analysis of passages of TME trajectories through <span class="hlt">areas</span> with closed isobars surrounding active cyclones in the northern hemisphere reveals a surprisingly small number of encounters, particularly in winter. The majority of hits occur south of 40°N and there is no statistically significant relationship with cyclone intensification. The results suggest that TMEs often pass relatively far from cyclone centers where vertical motions tend to be moderate. This prevents an early rainout of the tropical <span class="hlt">moisture</span> and allows the export into higher latitudes. For the same reasons we expect TMEs to "avoid" WCBs with roots at low latitudes. This interpretation is consistent with the fact that most TME maxima are located along the western flanks of subtropical high-pressure systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A53F..02K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A53F..02K"><span>On the Relationship between Tropical <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Exports and Extratropical Cyclones</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Knippertz, P.; Wernli, H.; Gläser, G.; Boleti, E.; Joos, H.; Binder, H.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Tropical <span class="hlt">moisture</span> export (TME) events are an important element of the global circulation and contribute significantly to regional precipitation. They are defined here on the basis of trajectories starting in the tropical troposphere and reaching a water vapor flux of at least 100 g kg-1 m s-1 poleward of 35° latitude. TME frequency shows four marked occurrence maxima in both hemispheres with varying seasonal cycles. In some cases TMEs can be linked to similar phenomena of atmospheric flow such as Warm Conveyor Belts (WCBs) or Atmospheric Rivers (ARs). For example, 90% of all ARs affecting the US West Coast during December-May are connected to TME events, but the tropical <span class="hlt">moisture</span> source is less important during the more active AR season June-November. In addition to these climatological TME characteristics we discuss two aspects of their relationship to extratropical cyclones: Case studies indicate that (i) cyclones traveling along the southern fringes of the midlatitude storm track can instigate the export of tropical <span class="hlt">moisture</span> ahead of their cold fronts, and (ii) the tropical <span class="hlt">moisture</span> can fuel latent heat release in the cyclone and therefore contribute to its intensification. A long-term statistical analysis of passages of TME trajectories through <span class="hlt">areas</span> with closed isobars surrounding active cyclones in the northern hemisphere reveals a surprisingly small number of encounters, particularly in winter. The majority of hits occur south of 40°N and there is no statistically significant relationship with cyclone intensification. The results suggest that TMEs often pass relatively far from cyclone centers where vertical motions tend to be moderate. This prevents an early rainout of the tropical <span class="hlt">moisture</span> and allows the export into higher latitudes. For the same reasons we expect TMEs to "avoid" WCBs with roots at low latitudes. This interpretation is consistent with the fact that most TME maxima are located along the western flanks of subtropical high-pressure systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850030601&hterms=central+heating&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dcentral%2Bheating','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850030601&hterms=central+heating&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dcentral%2Bheating"><span>Mesoscale budgets of heat and <span class="hlt">moisture</span> in a convective system over the central United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kuo, Y.-H.; Anthes, R. A.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Mesoscale heat and <span class="hlt">moisture</span> budget calculations from the April 10-11 AVE-SESAME central U.S. region are calculated in order to diagnose the effect of midlatitude organized convection on its environment. When averaged over an <span class="hlt">area</span> greater than the observational scale, the noise levels of 5 C/day for the heat budget and 2 g/kg per day for the <span class="hlt">moisture</span> budget are considerably reduced. The credibility of such <span class="hlt">area</span>-averaged budget results is indicated by the general agreement obtained between the observed rainfall rate and the vertically integrated heat sources and <span class="hlt">moisture</span> sinks. The vertical convective heating that is diagnosed from this organized midlatitude convection differs significantly from tropical structures diagnosed on much larger temporal and spatial scales. A time lag of several hours between the <span class="hlt">moisture</span> convergence and rainfall rate is noted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007GeoRL..3415801T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007GeoRL..3415801T"><span>An observational case study of mesoscale atmospheric circulations induced by soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taylor, Christopher M.; Parker, Douglas J.; Harris, Phil P.</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p>Numerical and theoretical studies have shown that mesoscale gradients in land surface properties can induce circulations in the atmosphere. This study provides the first well-resolved observations of such flows induced by soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> from recent rainfall, and is based on aircraft data in the Sahel. Satellite imagery was used to identify fine scale soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> features within a wet zone spanning 160 km. Above the wet soil, the planetary boundary layer was up to 3 K cooler, 3 gkg-1 moister and extended to only half the depth of nearby drier <span class="hlt">areas</span>. Mesoscale perturbations to the background flow were found, consistent with low level divergence over wet soil and convergence in drier <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> and atmospheric wind patterns were statistically coherent on wavelengths down to 20 km. These results suggest that mesoscale convergence lines forced by soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> may play a significant role in the meteorology of the Sahel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850030601&hterms=SESAME&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DSESAME','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850030601&hterms=SESAME&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DSESAME"><span>Mesoscale budgets of heat and <span class="hlt">moisture</span> in a convective system over the central United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kuo, Y.-H.; Anthes, R. A.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Mesoscale heat and <span class="hlt">moisture</span> budget calculations from the April 10-11 AVE-SESAME central U.S. region are calculated in order to diagnose the effect of midlatitude organized convection on its environment. When averaged over an <span class="hlt">area</span> greater than the observational scale, the noise levels of 5 C/day for the heat budget and 2 g/kg per day for the <span class="hlt">moisture</span> budget are considerably reduced. The credibility of such <span class="hlt">area</span>-averaged budget results is indicated by the general agreement obtained between the observed rainfall rate and the vertically integrated heat sources and <span class="hlt">moisture</span> sinks. The vertical convective heating that is diagnosed from this organized midlatitude convection differs significantly from tropical structures diagnosed on much larger temporal and spatial scales. A time lag of several hours between the <span class="hlt">moisture</span> convergence and rainfall rate is noted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1254..313A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AIPC.1254..313A"><span><span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Migration in Stored Granular Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Avila-Acevedo, J. G.; Tsotsas, E.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Thermally-driven <span class="hlt">moisture</span> migration during the storage of polycarbonate pellets in a cylindrical silo is investigated in the present work. The bed of pellets is assumed as saturated porous medium with hygroscopic activity at a uniform initial temperature. The side wall of the cylinder undergoes a change to a low temperature while the ends of the packed cylinder are considered to be insulated. A mathematical model for the transient transport of heat and <span class="hlt">moisture</span> is developed, where the Darcy law is assumed for the flow, the Boussinesq approximation is used for accounting density variations and the adsorption equilibrium of <span class="hlt">moisture</span> is considered as a linear relationship to the relative humidity. The dimension analysis of the model and its numerical solution allow for the identification of the mechanisms responsible for <span class="hlt">moisture</span> migration and for the prediction of <span class="hlt">moisture</span> maldristibution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9498029','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9498029"><span>Preservatives in <span class="hlt">moisturizers</span> on the Swedish market.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gruvberger, B; Bruze, M; Tammela, M</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The presence of 9 common preservatives was investigated in 100 <span class="hlt">moisturizers</span> by high-performance liquid chromatography. According to the manufacturers/suppliers 88 of the 100 <span class="hlt">moisturizers</span> contained at least one of the 9 preservatives. This information was erroneous in 9 cases (10.2%). When the <span class="hlt">moisturizers</span> were investigated for the presence of the 9 preservatives which should not be present in the <span class="hlt">moisturizers</span> according to the manufacturers/suppliers, at least one of the preservatives was detected in 17 <span class="hlt">moisturizers</span> (17.0%). Parabens were the most common preservatives. The concentrations of the 9 preservatives did not exceed the maximum concentrations allowed in cosmetics. When a patient with suspected allergic contact dermatitis tests positively to a preservative, the assessment of present clinical relevance requires demonstration of exposure to the sensitizer. This demonstration cannot rely solely on information on the packages or from the manufacturers/suppliers but has often to be supplemented by chemical analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H21F1209C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H21F1209C"><span>Modeling the Effects of Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> at a GPS-Interferometric Reflectometry Station</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chew, C.; Small, E. E.; Larson, K. M.; Nievinski, F. G.; Zavorotny, V.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>GPS-Interferometric Reflectometry (GPS-IR) uses ground-reflected GPS signals to estimate near-surface soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>. Data are recorded by high-precision, geodetic-quality GPS antennas/receivers, for example those that comprise NSF's EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory. The ground reflections used in GPS-IR are representative of a ~1000 m2 <span class="hlt">area</span> around an antenna. As the dielectric constant of the surface fluctuates, the phase, amplitude, and frequency of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) data recorded by the GPS unit change. Based on field observations, it has been shown that these characteristics of the SNR data are sensitive to shallow soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>. A single-scattering, electrodynamic model was used to simulate SNR output over a range of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> conditions. All simulations were for a 2.4 m tall antenna surrounded by a surface free of roughness or vegetation. The model was run using three different types of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> profiles: constant with depth, monotonic variations with depth, and observed profiles interpolated from field data. For all profiles, amplitude, phase shift, and frequency changes were calculated from simulated SNR data. The three GPS metrics are well correlated with soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content modeled at the soil surface because a majority of the incident microwave energy is reflected at the air-soil interface. When surface soil is dry relative to the underlying soil, GPS metrics are also strongly correlated with soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> averaged over the top 5 cm of the soil column. The relationship between GPS metrics and soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> averaged over 5 cm is not as strong when surface soil is relatively wet (>35% volumetric soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>). Interpolated profiles from field data resulted in a very strong correlation between SNR metrics and soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> averaged over the top 5 cm of soil, suggesting that soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> estimated from SNR data is useful for various hydrologic applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ACP....1710383Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ACP....1710383Z"><span>Tracing changes in atmospheric <span class="hlt">moisture</span> supply to the drying Southwest China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Chi; Tang, Qiuhong; Chen, Deliang; Li, Laifang; Liu, Xingcai; Cui, Huijuan</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Precipitation over Southwest China (SWC) significantly decreased during 1979-2013. The months from July to September (JAS) contributed the most to the decrease in precipitation. By tracing <span class="hlt">moisture</span> sources of JAS precipitation over the SWC region, it is found that most <span class="hlt">moisture</span> originates in regions from the northern Indian Ocean to SWC and from South China Sea to SWC. The major <span class="hlt">moisture</span> contributing <span class="hlt">area</span> is divided into an extended west region, SWC, and an extended east region. The extended west region is mainly influenced by the South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) and the westerlies, while the extended east region is mainly influenced by the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM). The extended west, SWC, and extended east regions contribute 48.2, 15.5, and 24.5 % of the <span class="hlt">moisture</span> for the SWC precipitation, respectively. <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> supply from the extended west region decreased at a rate of -7.9 mm month-1 decade-1, whereas that from the extended east increased at a rate of 1.4 mm month-1 decade-1, resulting in an overall decrease in <span class="hlt">moisture</span> supply. Further analysis reveals that the decline of JAS precipitation is mainly caused by change in the seasonal-mean component rather than the transient component of the <span class="hlt">moisture</span> transport over the SWC region. In addition, the dynamic processes (i.e., changes in wind) rather than the thermodynamic processes (i.e., changes in specific humidity) are dominant in affecting the seasonal-mean <span class="hlt">moisture</span> transport. A prevailing easterly anomaly of <span class="hlt">moisture</span> transport that weakened <span class="hlt">moisture</span> supply from the Indian Ocean is to a large extent responsible for the precipitation decrease over the SWC region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy...48.1277T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ClDy...48.1277T"><span>Atmospheric <span class="hlt">moisture</span> budget during winter seasons in the western Himalayan region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tiwari, Sarita; Kar, Sarat C.; Bhatla, R.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Winter precipitation in the western Himalayas occurs under the influence of western disturbances (WDs) that move in synoptic timescale from west to east across the Himalayan region. The main objective of the study is to examine the water vapor budget during life cycles of WDs using the high-resolution global climate forecast system reanalysis data. It is found that over western Kashmir, even in climatological mean, a westerly trough is seen in <span class="hlt">moisture</span> flux. Precipitation exceeds evaporation over most of Jammu and Kashmir, Hindukush region and the region to the west in winter seasons. Large interannual variability is noticed in all components of the <span class="hlt">moisture</span> budget in the region. In order to understand the mechanism of <span class="hlt">moisture</span> transport and atmospheric <span class="hlt">moisture</span> budget over study <span class="hlt">area</span> during the life cycle of WDs, an EOF analysis has been carried out using geopotential height at 500 hPa. The first two leading modes represent eastward moving WDs. Composite analysis of <span class="hlt">moisture</span> budget (both atmospheric and surface) has been made using the dates from the EOF analysis. It is found that large variations in <span class="hlt">moisture</span> transport occur during different phases of the WDs. When a cyclonic circulation is around 72°E, strong meridional <span class="hlt">moisture</span> transport (from Arabian Sea) occurs and <span class="hlt">moisture</span> convergence over western Himalayas enhances precipitation over the region. After the circulation moves further east, <span class="hlt">moisture</span> convergence decreases and precipitation reduces. However, evaporation amount increases marginally due to clear sky conditions. During the life cycle of WDs, large variation in meridional transport of <span class="hlt">moisture</span> flux is noticed as compared to zonal transport.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.8554N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.8554N"><span>Long-term predictability of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> dynamics at the global scale: Persistence versus large-scale drivers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nicolai-Shaw, Nadine; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Hirschi, Martin; Seneviratne, Sonia I.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Here we investigate factors that influence the long lead time predictability of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> variability using standard statistical methods. As predictors we first consider soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> persistence only, using two independent global soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> data sets. In a second step we include three teleconnection indices indicative of the main northern, tropical, and southern atmospheric modes, i.e., the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), and the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO). For many regions results show significant skill in predicting soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> variability with lead times up to 5 months. Soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> persistence plays a key role at monthly to subseasonal time scales. With increasing lead times large-scale atmospheric drivers become more important, and <span class="hlt">areas</span> influenced by teleconnection indices show higher predictability. This long lead time predictability of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> may help to improve early warning systems for important natural hazards, such as heat waves, droughts, wildfires, and floods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRD..122.5780C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRD..122.5780C"><span>Evaluation of SMAP, SMOS, and AMSR2 soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> retrievals against observations from two networks on the Tibetan Plateau</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Yingying; Yang, Kun; Qin, Jun; Cui, Qian; Lu, Hui; La, Zhu; Han, Menglei; Tang, Wenjun</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Two soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> and temperature monitoring networks were established in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) during recent years. One is located in a semihumid <span class="hlt">area</span> (Naqu) of central TP and consists of 56 soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> and temperature measurement (SMTM) stations, the other is located in a semiarid <span class="hlt">area</span> (Pali) of southern TP and consists of 21 SMTM stations. In this study, the station data are used to evaluate soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> retrievals from three microwave satellites, i.e., the Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Active Passive (SMAP) of NASA, the Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) of European Space Agency, and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. It is found that the SMAP retrievals tend to underestimate soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> in the two TP networks, mainly due to the negative biases in the effective soil temperature that is derived from a climate model. However, the SMAP product well captures the amplitude and temporal variation of the soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>. The SMOS product performs well in Naqu network with acceptable error metrics but fails to capture the temporal variation of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> in Pali network. The AMSR2 products evidently exaggerate the temporal variation of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> in Naqu network but dampen it in Pali network, suggesting its retrieval algorithm needs further improvements for the TP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1915143D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1915143D"><span>The "fault of the Pool" along the Congo River between <span class="hlt">Kinshasa</span> and Brazzaville, R(D)Congo is no more a myth: Paleostress from small-scale brittle structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Delvaux, Damien; Ganza, Gloire; Kongota, Elvis; Fukiabantu, Guilain; Mbokola, Dim; Boudzoumou, Florent; Miyouna, Timothée; Gampio, Urbain; Nkodia, Hardy</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Small-scale brittle structures such as shear fractures and tension joints are well developed in the indurated Paleozoic Inkisi red sandstones of the West-Congo Supergroup in the "pool" region of <span class="hlt">Kinshasa</span> and Brazzaville, along the Congo River. They appear to be related to the evolution of intraplate stresses during the late Cretaceous-Paleogene period, possibly related to the opening of the South Atlantic. However, inferring paleostresses from such structures is difficult due to the lack of clear kinematic indicators, so we used mainly the geometry, architecture and sequence of the joint systems to infer paleostresses. A limited number of kinematic indicators for slip sense (displaced pebbles, irregularities on striated surfaces, slickensides) or extension (plume joints) confirm the general conclusions of the joint architecture analysis. We found evidence for two major brittle deformation systems, leading to almost orthogonal fracture sets. They both started by the development of plume joints, which progressively evolved into open tension joints, isolated shear fractures and long (up to several hundred meters) brittle shear zones. The first system started to develop under NE-SW extension and evolved into strike-slip with NNW-SSE horizontal compression while the second (and later), started to develop under NW-SE extension and evolved into strike-slip with NNE-SSW horizontal compression. The second brittle deformation episode was associated with fluid flow as shown by the presence of palygorskite-calcite veins in the most prominent fractures of the second fracture system. Along the NE-SW brittle shear zones which run parallel to the Congo River, carbonate-rich fault-gauge lenses are filled by sand derived from the crushed adjacent walls and calcite vein fragments injected at a high fluid pressure, with late precipitation of palygorskite. Our study demonstrates the existence of two fault systems between <span class="hlt">Kinshasa</span> and Brazzaville, the first one orthogonal to the trend</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4317066','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4317066"><span>Les accidents du travail dans le transport urbain en commun de la ville province de <span class="hlt">Kinshasa</span>, République Démocratique du Congo: une étude transversale descriptive</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wangata, Jemima; Elenge, Myriam; De Brouwer, Christophe</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Introduction Le transport en commun urbain constitue un secteur où les travailleurs sont très exposés aux accidents du travail. Cette étude visait une description épidémiologique des accidents du travail dans le secteur informel du transport en commun à <span class="hlt">Kinshasa</span> en vue d'apporter les pistes d'amélioration de la sécurité des travailleurs dans cette activité. Méthodes Un questionnaire sur les accidents du travail, administré en Décembre 2012 a permis d'explorer les tendances significatives entre les accidents et leurs circonstances, leurs facteurs associés, leurs conséquences au sein d'une population des travailleurs (n = 472) du transport en commun à <span class="hlt">Kinshasa</span>. Résultats Durant les 12 derniers précédant l’étude 76.5% des travailleurs ont connu au moins un accident du travail, 54,8% ont connu un arrêt d'au moins 1jour. Les accidents liés à la circulation routière étaient plus important suivis des chutes. Les facteurs ayant montré des différences significatives étaient le travail sous l'influence de l'alcool et le port des équipements de protection individuelle. Les plaies (46,3%) et les contusions (39,4%) étaient les lésions les plus courantes. Les membres supérieurs (51,3%) et inférieurs (30,7%) étaient les plus atteints. 76,6% des travailleurs ont assumé seuls leur prise en charge médicale. Conclusion L'incidence des accidents du travail dans ce secteur est très élevée. La mise en place d'une politique de prévention et gestion de différents facteurs associés ainsi qu'un système de déclaration d'accidents est nécessaire dans ce secteur. Les patrons ainsi que les politiques devraient veiller à une prise en charge médicale correcte pour des travailleurs accidentés. PMID:25667703</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/3086/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/3086/"><span>Terrestrial Ecosystems - Topographic <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Potential of the Conterminous United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cress, Jill J.; Sayre, Roger G.; Comer, Patrick; Warner, Harumi</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>As part of an effort to map terrestrial ecosystems, the U.S. Geological Survey has generated topographic <span class="hlt">moisture</span> potential classes to be used in creating maps depicting standardized, terrestrial ecosystem models for the conterminous United States, using an ecosystems classification developed by NatureServe. A biophysical stratification approach, developed for South America and now being implemented globally, was used to model the ecosystem distributions. Substrate <span class="hlt">moisture</span> regimes strongly influence the differentiation and distribution of terrestrial ecosystems, and therefore topographic <span class="hlt">moisture</span> potential is one of the key input layers in this biophysical stratification. The method used to produce these topographic <span class="hlt">moisture</span> potential classes was based on the derivation of ground <span class="hlt">moisture</span> potential using a combination of computed topographic characteristics (CTI, slope, and aspect) and mapped National Wetland Inventory (NWI) boundaries. This method does not use climate or soil attributes to calculate relative topographic <span class="hlt">moisture</span> potential since these characteristics are incorporated into the ecosystem model though other input layers. All of the topographic data used for this assessment were derived from the USGS 30-meter National Elevation Dataset (NED ) including the National Compound Topographic Index (CTI). The CTI index is a topographically derived measure of slope for a raster cell and the contributing <span class="hlt">area</span> from upstream raster cells, and thus expresses potential for water flow to a point. In other words CTI data are 'a quantification of the position of a site in the local landscape', where the lowest values indicate ridges and the highest values indicate stream channels, lakes and ponds. These CTI values were compared to independent estimates of water accumulation by obtaining geospatial data from a number of sample locations representing two types of NWI boundaries: freshwater emergent wetlands and freshwater forested/shrub wetlands. Where these shorelines</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1730F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1730F"><span>Remote sensing of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> using Loran-C signals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feng, Yi; Astin, Ivan</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Accurate knowledge of wide-<span class="hlt">area</span> soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> is essential for atmospheric and hydrological studies. In recent years, efforts worldwide have focused on the use of microwave imaging sensors on-board satellites such as SMOS to derive this information from the interpreted brightness temperature of the Earth. However, the frequency of data retrieved this way is often limited by the revisit period of the remote sensing platforms. In this study, we explore the feasibility of using 100 kHz Loran-C radio navigation signals, transmitted continuously from ground-based stations, for the estimation of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> on wide-<span class="hlt">areas</span>. This technique is based on the measured time delay of the surface wave component, which is influenced by land surface and atmospheric dynamics. It was found that variations in the propagation time of Loran-C surface waves may be representative of short-term ground electrical conductivity changes along the propagation path, which are believed to have a direct link with soil properties. Using Loran-C time delays measured at the University of Bath, it has been shown that the proposed method, combined with model data, can be used for the remote sensing of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> where improved temporal sampling is required. This allows for further validation and improvement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/11211','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/11211"><span>A Probe for Measuring <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Content in Dead Roundwood</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Richard W. Blank; John S. Frost; James E. Eenigenburg</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>This paper reports field test results of a wood <span class="hlt">moisture</span> probe''s accuracy in measuring fuel <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content of dead roundwood. Probe measurements, corrected for temperature, correlated well with observed fuel <span class="hlt">moistures</span> of 1-inch dead jack pine branchwood.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=291035','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=291035"><span><span class="hlt">Moisture</span> sorption kinetics of switchgrass, big bluestem, and bromegrass biomass</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Moisture</span> status in biomass is the most influential factor of biomass storage, and hydration kinetics control the dynamic <span class="hlt">moisture</span> condition of the biomass, thus affecting biomass storage and processing operations and final utilization applications. <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> hydration characteristics of switchgrass, ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA17798.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA17798.html"><span>SMAP Radiometer Captures Views of Global Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-05-06</p> <p>These maps of global soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> were created using data from the radiometer instrument on NASA Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Active Passive SMAP observatory. Evident are regions of increased soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> and flooding during April, 2015.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930036633&hterms=Manhattan+project&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DManhattan%2Bproject','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930036633&hterms=Manhattan+project&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DManhattan%2Bproject"><span>Active and passive microwave measurements of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> in FIFE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wang, J. R.; Gogineni, S. P.; Ampe, J.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>During the intensive field campaigns of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE) in May-October of 1987, several nearly simultaneous measurements were made with low-altitude flights of the L-band radiometer and C- and X-band scatterometers over two transects in the Konza Prairie Natural Research <span class="hlt">Area</span>, some 8 km south of Manhattan, Kansas. These measurements showed that although the scatterometers were sensitive to soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> variations in most regions under the flight path, the L-band radiometer lost most of its sensitivity in regions unburned for many years. The correlation coefficient derived from the regression between the radar backscattering coefficient and the soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> was found to improve with the increase in antenna incidence angle. This is attributed to a steeper falloff of the backscattering coefficient as a function of local incidence at angles near nadir than at angles greater than 30 deg.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930036633&hterms=Manhattan+project&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DManhattan%2Bproject','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930036633&hterms=Manhattan+project&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DManhattan%2Bproject"><span>Active and passive microwave measurements of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> in FIFE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wang, J. R.; Gogineni, S. P.; Ampe, J.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>During the intensive field campaigns of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE) in May-October of 1987, several nearly simultaneous measurements were made with low-altitude flights of the L-band radiometer and C- and X-band scatterometers over two transects in the Konza Prairie Natural Research <span class="hlt">Area</span>, some 8 km south of Manhattan, Kansas. These measurements showed that although the scatterometers were sensitive to soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> variations in most regions under the flight path, the L-band radiometer lost most of its sensitivity in regions unburned for many years. The correlation coefficient derived from the regression between the radar backscattering coefficient and the soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> was found to improve with the increase in antenna incidence angle. This is attributed to a steeper falloff of the backscattering coefficient as a function of local incidence at angles near nadir than at angles greater than 30 deg.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3967137','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3967137"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> on Powder Flow Properties of Theophylline</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sandler, Niklas; Reiche, Katharina; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Yliruusi, Jouko</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Powder flow is influenced by environmental factors, such as <span class="hlt">moisture</span> and static electricity, as well as powder related factors, such as morphology, size, size distribution, density, and surface <span class="hlt">area</span>. Pharmaceutical solids may be exposed to water during storage in an atmosphere containing water vapor, or in a dosage form consisting of materials (e.g., excipients) that contain water and are capable of transferring in to other ingredients. The effect of <span class="hlt">moisture</span> on powder flowability depends on the amount of water and its distribution. The aim of this work was to examine the effect of humidity on the flow properties of theophylline using information derived from solid-state analysis of the systems investigated. PMID:27721356</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21916151','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21916151"><span><span class="hlt">Moisturizing</span> advantages of desonide hydrogel in treating atopic dermatitis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Trookman, Nathan S; Rizer, Ronald L; Ho, Elizabeth T; Ford, Rosanne O; Gotz, Vincent</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>The stratum corneum typically is compromised in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). Beneficial AD treatments should provide <span class="hlt">moisture</span> to the skin as well as restore impaired barrier function. Traditional treatments involve ointments or creams. A clinical study was conducted to determine if desonide in a hydrogel vehicle (HGV) could improve the <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content and barrier function of the stratum corneum in adults with mild to moderate AD. Participants applied desonide hydrogel 0.05% twice daily for 4 weeks to <span class="hlt">areas</span> of both lesional and nonlesional skin. Corneometry and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were measured at baseline and weeks 1, 2, and 4. Statistically significant improvements in corneometry and TEWL measurements on lesional skin were observed at all study visits compared with baseline (all P < or = .002 and P < or = .04, respectively).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000038145&hterms=hydrologic+modeling&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dhydrologic%2Bmodeling','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000038145&hterms=hydrologic+modeling&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dhydrologic%2Bmodeling"><span>Potential for Remotely Sensed Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Data in Hydrologic Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Engman, Edwin T.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Many hydrologic processes display a unique signature that is detectable with microwave remote sensing. These signatures are in the form of the spatial and temporal distributions of surface soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> and portray the spatial heterogeneity of hydrologic processes and properties that one encounters in drainage basins. The hydrologic processes that may be detected include ground water recharge and discharge zones, storm runoff contributing <span class="hlt">areas</span>, regions of potential and less than potential ET, and information about the hydrologic properties of soils and heterogeneity of hydrologic parameters. Microwave remote sensing has the potential to detect these signatures within a basin in the form of volumetric soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> measurements in the top few cm. These signatures should provide information on how and where to apply soil physical parameters in distributed and lumped parameter models and how to subdivide drainage basins into hydrologically similar sub-basins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26ES...25a2014B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26ES...25a2014B"><span>Soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> monitoring for crop management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boyd, Dale</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The 'Risk management through soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> monitoring' project has demonstrated the capability of current technology to remotely monitor and communicate real time soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> data. The project investigated whether capacitance probes would assist making informed pre- and in-crop decisions. Crop potential and cropping inputs are increasingly being subject to greater instability and uncertainty due to seasonal variability. In a targeted survey of those who received regular correspondence from the Department of Primary Industries it was found that i) 50% of the audience found the information generated relevant for them and less than 10% indicted with was not relevant; ii) 85% have improved their knowledge/ability to assess soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> compared to prior to the project, with the most used indicator of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> still being rain fall records; and iii) 100% have indicated they will continue to use some form of the technology to monitor soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> levels in the future. It is hoped that continued access to this information will assist informed input decisions. This will minimise inputs in low decile years with a low soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> base and maximise yield potential in more favourable conditions based on soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> and positive seasonal forecasts</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/80944','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/80944"><span><span class="hlt">Moisture</span> monitoring and control system engineering study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Carpenter, K.E.; Fadeff, J.G.</p> <p>1995-05-16</p> <p>During the past 50 years, a wide variety of chemical compounds have been placed in the 149 single-shell tanks (SSTS) on the Hanford Site. A concern relating to chemical stability, chemical control, and safe storage of the waste is the potential for propagating reactions as a result of ferrocyanide-oxidizer and organic-oxidizer concentrations in the SSTS. Propagating reactions in fuel-nitrate mixtures are precluded if the amounts of fuel and <span class="hlt">moisture</span> present in the waste are within specified limits. Because most credible ignition sources occur near the waste surface, the main emphasis of this study is toward monitoring and controlling <span class="hlt">moisture</span> in the top 14 cm (5.5 in.) of waste. The purpose of this engineering study is to recommend a <span class="hlt">moisture</span> monitoring and control system for use in SSTs containing sludge and saltcake. This study includes recommendations for: (1) monitoring and controlling <span class="hlt">moisture</span> in SSTs; (2) the fundamental design criteria for a <span class="hlt">moisture</span> monitoring and control system; and (3) criteria for the deployment of a <span class="hlt">moisture</span> monitoring and control system in hanford Site SSTs. To support system recommendations, technical bases for selecting and using a <span class="hlt">moisture</span> monitoring and control system are presented. Key functional requirements and a conceptual design are included to enhance system development and establish design criteria.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22507043','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22507043"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">moisturizers</span> on epidermal barrier function.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lodén, Marie</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A daily <span class="hlt">moisturizing</span> routine is a vital part of the management of patients with atopic dermatitis and other dry skin conditions. The composition of the <span class="hlt">moisturizer</span> determines whether the treatment strengthens or deteriorates the skin barrier function, which may have consequences for the outcome of the dermatitis. One might expect that a patient's impaired skin barrier function should improve in association with a reduction in the clinical signs of dryness. Despite visible relief of the dryness symptoms, however, the abnormal transepidermal water loss has been reported to remain high, or even to increase under certain regimens, whereas other <span class="hlt">moisturizers</span> improve skin barrier function. Differing outcomes have also been reported in healthy skin: some <span class="hlt">moisturizers</span> produce deterioration in skin barrier function and others improve the skin. Possible targets for barrier-influencing <span class="hlt">moisturizing</span> creams include the intercellular lipid bilayers, where the fraction of lipids forming a fluid phase might be changed due to compositional or organizational changes. Other targets are the projected size of the corneocytes or the thickness of the stratum corneum. <span class="hlt">Moisturizers</span> with barrier-improving properties may delay relapse of dermatitis in patients with atopic dermatitis. In a worst-case scenario, treatment with <span class="hlt">moisturizing</span> creams could increase the risks of dermatitis and asthma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT........33D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT........33D"><span><span class="hlt">Moisture</span> in multilayer ceramic capacitors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Donahoe, Daniel Noel</p> <p></p> <p>When both precious metal electrode and base metal electrode (BME) capacitors were subjected to autoclave (120°C/100% RH) testing, it was found that the precious metal capacitors aged according to a well known aging mechanism (less than 3% from their starting values), but the BME capacitors degraded to below the -30% criterion at 500 hours of exposure. The reasons for this new failure mechanism are complex, and there were two theories that were hypothesized. The first was that there could be oxidation or corrosion of the nickel plates. The other hypothesis was that the loss of capacitance was due to molecular changes in the barium titanate. This thesis presents the evaluation of these hypotheses and the physics of the degradation mechanism. It is concluded by proof by elimination that there are molecular changes in the barium titanate. Furthermore, the continuous reduction in capacitor size makes the newer base metal electrode capacitors more vulnerable to <span class="hlt">moisture</span> degradation than the older generation precious metal capacitors. In addition, standard humidity life testing, such as JESD-22 THB and HAST, will likely not uncover this problem. Therefore, poor reliability due to degradation of base metal electrode multilayer ceramic capacitors may catch manufacturers and consumers by surprise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616875A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616875A"><span>Soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> under contrasted atmospheric conditions in Eastern Spain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Azorin-Molina, César; Cerdà, Artemi; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> plays a key role on the recently abandoned agriculture land where determine the recovery and the erosion rates (Cerdà, 1995), on the soil water repellency degree (Bodí et al., 2011) and on the hydrological cycle (Cerdà, 1999), the plant development (García Fayos et al., 2000) and the seasonality of the geomorphological processes (Cerdà, 2002). Moreover, Soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> is a key factor on the semiarid land (Ziadat and Taimeh, 2013), on the productivity of the land (Qadir et al., 2013) and soils treated with amendments (Johnston et al., 2013) and on soil reclamation on drained saline-sodic soils (Ghafoor et al., 2012). In previous study (Azorin-Molina et al., 2013) we investigated the intraannual evolution of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> in soils under different land managements in the Valencia region, Eastern Spain, and concluded that soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> recharges are much controlled by few heavy precipitation events; 23 recharge episodes during 2012. Most of the soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> recharge events occurred during the autumn season under Back-Door cold front situations. Additionally, sea breeze front episodes brought isolated precipitation and <span class="hlt">moisture</span> to mountainous <span class="hlt">areas</span> within summer (Azorin-Molina et al., 2009). We also evidenced that the intraanual evolution of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> changes are positively and significatively correlated (at p<0.01) with the amount of measured precipitation. In this study we analyze the role of other crucial atmospheric parameters (i.e., temperature, relative humidity, global solar radiation, and wind speed and wind direction) in the intraanual evolution of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span>; focussing our analyses on the soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> discharge episodes. Here we present 1-year of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> measurements at two experimental sites in the Valencia region, one representing rainfed orchard typical from the Mediterranean mountains (El Teularet-Sierra de Enguera), and a second site corresponding to an irrigated orange crop (Alcoleja). Key Words: Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Discharges</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110023007','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110023007"><span>Improving Simulated Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Fields Through Assimilation of AMSR-E Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Retrievals with an Ensemble Kalman Filter and a Mass Conservation Constraint</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Li, Bailing; Toll, David; Zhan, Xiwu; Cosgrove, Brian</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Model simulated soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> fields are often biased due to errors in input parameters and deficiencies in model physics. Satellite derived soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> estimates, if retrieved appropriately, represent the spatial mean of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> in a footprint <span class="hlt">area</span>, and can be used to reduce model bias (at locations near the surface) through data assimilation techniques. While assimilating the retrievals can reduce model bias, it can also destroy the mass balance enforced by the model governing equation because water is removed from or added to the soil by the assimilation algorithm. In addition, studies have shown that assimilation of surface observations can adversely impact soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> estimates in the lower soil layers due to imperfect model physics, even though the bias near the surface is decreased. In this study, an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) with a mass conservation updating scheme was developed to assimilate the actual value of Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> retrievals to improve the mean of simulated soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> fields by the Noah land surface model. Assimilation results using the conventional and the mass conservation updating scheme in the Little Washita watershed of Oklahoma showed that, while both updating schemes reduced the bias in the shallow root zone, the mass conservation scheme provided better estimates in the deeper profile. The mass conservation scheme also yielded physically consistent estimates of fluxes and maintained the water budget. Impacts of model physics on the assimilation results are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17488034','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17488034"><span>Mechanisms by which <span class="hlt">moisture</span> generates cocrystals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jayasankar, Adivaraha; Good, David J; Rodríguez-Hornedo, Naír</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study is to determine the mechanisms by which <span class="hlt">moisture</span> can generate cocrystals when solid particles of cocrystal reactants are exposed to deliquescent conditions (when <span class="hlt">moisture</span> sorption forms an aqueous solution). It is based on the hypothesis that cocrystallization behavior during water uptake can be derived from solution chemistry using models that describe cocrystal solubility and reaction crystallization of molecular complexes. Cocrystal systems were selected with active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) that form hydrates and include carbamazepine, caffeine, and theophylline. <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> uptake and crystallization behavior were studied by gravimetric vapor sorption, X-ray powder diffraction, and on-line Raman spectroscopy. Results indicate that <span class="hlt">moisture</span> uptake generates cocrystals of carbamazepine-nicotinamide, carbamazepine-saccharin, and caffeine or theophylline with dicarboxylic acid ligands (oxalic acid, maleic acid, glutaric acid, and malonic acid) when solid mixtures with cocrystal reactants deliquesce. Microscopy studies revealed that the transformation mechanism to cocrystal involves (1) <span class="hlt">moisture</span> uptake, (2) dissolution of reactants, and (3) cocrystal nucleation and growth. Studies of solid blends of reactants in a macro scale show that the rate and extent of cocrystal formation are a function of relative humidity, <span class="hlt">moisture</span> uptake, deliquescent material, and dissolution rates of reactants. It is shown that the interplay between <span class="hlt">moisture</span> uptake and dissolution determines the liquid phase composition, supersaturation, and cocrystal formation rates. Differences in the behavior of deliquescent additives (sucrose and fructose) are associated with <span class="hlt">moisture</span> uptake and composition of the deliquesced solution. Our results show that deliquescence can transform API to cocrystal or reverse the reaction given the right conditions. Key indicators of cocrystal formation and stability are (1) <span class="hlt">moisture</span> uptake, (2) cocrystal aqueous solubility, (3</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212739I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212739I"><span>Geophysical mapping of variations in soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ioane, Dumitru; Scradeanu, Daniel; Chitea, Florina; Garbacea, George</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The geophysical investigation of soil characteristics is a matter of great actuality for agricultural, hydrogeological, geotechnical or archaeological purposes. The geophysical mapping of soil quality is subject of a recently started scientific project in Romania: "Soil investigation and monitoring techniques - modern tools for implementing the precision agriculture in Romania - CNCSIS 998/2009". One of the first studied soil parameter is <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content, in irrigated or non-irrigated agricultural <span class="hlt">areas</span>. The geophysical techniques employed in two <span class="hlt">areas</span> located within the Romanian Plain, Prahova and Buzau counties, are the following: - electromagnetic (EM), using the EM38B (Geonics) conductivity meter for getting areal distribution of electric conductivity and magnetic susceptibility; - electric resistivity tomography (ERT), using the SuperSting (AGI) multi-electrode instrument for getting in-depth distribution of electric resistivity. The electric conductivity mapping was carried out on irrigated cultivated land in a vegetable farm in the Buzau county, the distribution of conductivity being closely related to the soil water content due to irrigation works. The soil profile is represented by a chernozem with the following structure: Am (0 - 40 cm), Bt (40-150 cm), Bt/C (150-170 cm), C (starting at 170 cm). The electromagnetic measurements showed large variations of this geophysical parameter within different cultivated sectors, ranging from 40 mS/m to 85 mS/m. The close association between conductivity and water content in this <span class="hlt">area</span> is illustrated by such geophysical measurements on profiles situated at ca 50 m on non-irrigated land, displaying a mean value of 15 mS/m. This low conductivity is due to quite long time interval, of about three weeks, without precipitations. The ERT measurements using multi-electrode acquisition systems for 2D and 3D results, showed by means of electric resistivity variations, the penetration of water along the cultivated rows from the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23572787','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23572787"><span>Effect of variety and <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content on some engineering properties of paddy rice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Adebowale, Abdul-Rasaq A; Sanni, Lateef O; Owo, Hameed O; Karim, Olayinka R</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>The effect of variety and <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content on some engineering properties of five improved paddy rice varieties was investigated within <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content range of 10% and 30% dry basis (d.b.). Increase in <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content was found to increase the linear dimensions, mass of 100 seeds, surface <span class="hlt">area</span>, apparent volume, true volume, arithmetic mean diameter, effective geometric diameter, sphericity, angle of repose, porosity and static coefficient of friction while bulk density and true density decreased with increase in <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content. Static coefficient of friction was found to increase as <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content increased from 0.34-0.46, 0.35-0.59, 0.36-0.46 and 0.34-0.45, respectively on plywood, galvanized steel, mild steel and glass structural surfaces. The highest static coefficient was found on galvanized steel. Angle of repose was found to increase as <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content increases. The study concludes that variety and changes in <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content significantly (P < 0.05) affected most of the engineering properties determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhPro..67..417C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhPro..67..417C"><span>Sensitivity of Micromachined Joule-Thomson Cooler to Clogging Due to <span class="hlt">Moisture</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cao, H. S.; Vanapalli, S.; Holland, H. J.; Vermeer, C. H.; ter Brake, H. J. M.</p> <p></p> <p>A major issue in long-term operation of micromachined Joule-Thomson coolers is the clogging of the microchannels and/or the restriction due to the deposition of water molecules present in the working fluid. In this study, we present the performance of a microcooler operated with nitrogen gas with different <span class="hlt">moisture</span> levels. Relatively low-purity nitrogen gas (5.0) is supplied from a gas bottle and led through a filter to control the <span class="hlt">moisture</span> level. The filter consists of a tube-in-tube counter flow heat exchanger (CFHX) and a heat exchanger that is stabilized at a certain temperature by using a Stirling cooler. The set-point temperature determines the <span class="hlt">moisture</span> level at the exit of the heat exchanger. It is found that the <span class="hlt">moisture</span> level has influence on the mass-flow rate during the cool down. Once the microcooler reaches the set cold-end temperature, the main deposition <span class="hlt">area</span> shifts into the CFHX and the <span class="hlt">moisture</span> level at the restriction is almost independent on the inlet <span class="hlt">moisture</span> level of the microcooler. The <span class="hlt">moisture</span> level at the restriction increases with the increasing cold-end temperature when the cold-end temperature is lower than the saturation temperature of the water in the nitrogen gas. Higher cold-end temperature results in higher clogging rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917595H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917595H"><span>Metop ASCAT soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> product: Calibration of the vegetation correction parameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hahn, Sebastian; Melzer, Thomas; Vreugdenhil, Mariette; Wagner, Wolfgang</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>In this study we investigated the calibration of the vegetation correction parameters in the TU Wien soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> retrieval algorithm. Unlike conventional soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> retrieval techniques used for space-borne microwave instruments, the TU Wien soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> retrieval algorithm represents a change detection method. The algorithm accounts for heterogeneous land cover and for the effects of vegetation based on empirically derived model parameters. The optimal choice of these parameters can be supported by calibrating the model using external reference data sets. In the past, external data sets have not been used unless they are indispensable to correct or improve the model output (e.g. wet correction in desert environment). Three different study <span class="hlt">areas</span> (South-East U.S., Central Europe and South-East Australia) were tested to see whether the vegetation correction parameters can be calibrated using in-situ soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> information or soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> from land surface models. The experiments show that an enhanced vegetation correction leads to a better quality of the Metop ASCAT soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> time series signal. Our study demonstrates the need to calibrate the vegetation parametrization in order to remove remaining vegetation effects in the Metop ASCAT soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> product.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ESASP.722E.127C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ESASP.722E.127C"><span>Agricultural Drought Assessment In Latin America Based On A Standardized Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Index</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carrao, Hugo; Russo, Simone; Sepulcre, Guadalupe; Barbosa, Paulo</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We propose a relatively simple, spatially invariant and probabilistic year-round Standardized Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Index (SSMI) that is designed to estimate drought conditions from satellite imagery data. The SSMI is based on soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content alone and is defined as the number of standard deviations that the observed <span class="hlt">moisture</span> at a given location and timescale deviates from the long- term normal conditions. Specifically, the SSMI is computed by fitting a non-parametric probability distribution function to historical soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> records and then trans- forming it into a normal distribution with a mean of zero and standard deviation of one. Negative standard normal values indicate dry conditions and positive values indicate wet conditions. To evaluate the applicability of the SSMI, we fitted empirical and normal cumulative distribution functions (ECDF and nCDF) to 32-years of averaged soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> amounts derived from the Essential Climate Variable (ECV) Soil <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> (SM) dataset, and compared the root-mean-squared errors of residuals. SM climatology was calculated on a 0.25° grid over Latin America at timescales of 1, 3, 6, and 12 months for the long-term period of 1979-2010. Results show that the ECDF fits better the soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> data than the nCDF at all timescales and that the negative SSMI values computed with the non-parametric estimator accurately identified the temporal and geographic distribution of major drought events that occurred in the study <span class="hlt">area</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H31D1418D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H31D1418D"><span>Soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> spatial patterns at three different scales explored using three different soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> measurement devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dong, J.; Ochsner, T. E.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Knowledge of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> spatial patterns and the development of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> measurement techniques are dependent on each other. On the one hand, devices with a wide range of footprint sizes or support volumes have been developed, which make it possible to study soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> spatial patterns at many different scales. On the other hand, none of the existing devices have the capability to reveal all the diverse scales of spatial patterns in soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> because of limitations related to footprint size, measurement precision, or time required for taking measurements. Comparing the potentials and limits of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> measurement devices across scales may help illuminate some of the hidden mysteries of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> spatial scaling. This research aims to compare spatial patterns of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> as revealed by three different measurement techniques at three spatial scales. Near-surface soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> was measured along three transects with similar numbers of measurements but vastly different lengths (18 m, 150 km and 7200 km) using sensors with differing footprint sizes: a point-scale dielectric sensor (ML3 Theta probe, Delta T Devices), a field-scale cosmic-ray neutron rover, and a 36-km scale satellite product (SMAP L2), respectively. Spatial variance and autocorrelation of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> will be calculated and compared across the three transects. The scaling properties of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> spatial patterns will be studied based on the results of the comparisons as well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760008444','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760008444"><span>Electrical methods of determining soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Silva, L. F.; Schultz, F. V.; Zalusky, J. T.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The electrical permittivity of soils is a useful indicator of soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> content. Two methods of determining the permittivity profile in soils are examined. A method due to Becher is found to be inapplicable to this situation. A method of Slichter, however, appears to be feasible. The results of Slichter's method are extended to the proposal of an instrument design that could measure available soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> profile (percent available soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> as a function of depth) from a surface measurement to an expected resolution of 10 to 20 cm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800014268','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800014268"><span>Survey of methods for soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> determination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schmugge, T. J.; Jackson, T. J.; Mckim, H. L.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Existing and proposed methods for soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> determination are discussed. These include: (1) in situ investigations including gravimetric, nuclear, and electromagnetic techniques; (2) remote sensing approaches that use the reflected solar, thermal infrared, and microwave portions of the electromagnetic spectrum; and (3) soil physics models that track the behavior of water in the soil in response to meteorological inputs (precipitation) and demands (evapotranspiration). The capacities of these approaches to satisfy various user needs for soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> information vary from application to application, but a conceptual scheme for merging these approaches into integrated systems to provide soil <span class="hlt">moisture</span> information is proposed that has the potential for meeting various application requirements.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/362386','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/362386"><span>Cone penetrometer <span class="hlt">moisture</span> probe acceptance test report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Barnes, G.A.</p> <p>1996-04-23</p> <p>This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of WHC-SD-WM-ATP-146 (Prototype Cone Penetrometer <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Probe Acceptance Test Procedure) and WHC-SD-WM-ATP-145 (Cone Penetrometer <span class="hlt">Moisture</span> Probe Acceptance Test Procedure). The master copy of WHC-SD-WM-ATP-145 can be found in Appendix A and the master copy of WHC-SD-WM-ATP-146 can be found in Appendix B. Also included with this report is a matrix showing design criteria of the cone penetrometer <span class="hlt">moisture</span> probe and the verification method used (Appendix C).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AeoRe..11..101L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AeoRe..11..101L"><span><span class="hlt">Moisture</span> availability over the past five centuries indicated by carbon isotopes of Tamarix taklamakanensis leaves in a nebkha profile in the Central Taklimakan Desert, NW China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lang, Lili; Wang, Xunming; Hua, Ting; Zhang, Caixia</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We inferred <span class="hlt">moisture</span> availability changes from 1555 to 2010 in the Central Taklimakan Desert (NW China) using Chinese tamarisk (Tamarix taklamakanensis) litter deposited within a nebkha that developed in this region. The litter δ13C trends revealed fluctuations of <span class="hlt">moisture</span> availability: From 1555 to 1785, <span class="hlt">moisture</span> availability was higher than the long-term average, but from 1555 to 1570, 1585 to 1620, 1640 to 1660, 1675 to 1700, and 1730 to 1755, this region experienced periods with lower than average <span class="hlt">moisture</span> availability. From 1785 to 1850, significant <span class="hlt">moisture</span> availability changes occurred, and the region experienced the lowest <span class="hlt">moisture</span> availability since 1555. From 1850 to the present, the δ13C trends suggested that <span class="hlt">moisture</span> availability increased. Our results also showed that although <span class="hlt">moisture</span> availability in this region is controlled by precipitation and evaporation in the Central Taklimakan Desert, temperature variations in the adjacent Kunlun Mountains (whose glacier and snowmelt runoff are dominant water sources for the study <span class="hlt">area</span>) were potentially more important. Water from these mountains plays an important role in <span class="hlt">moisture</span> availability due the region’s extremely low precipitation. In addition, although previous studies suggested that the Tarim Basin and its adjacent <span class="hlt">areas</span> experienced a wet climate for the past several centuries, this suggestion was inconsistent with the reconstructed <span class="hlt">moisture</span> availability changes in the Central Taklimakan Desert. The <span class="hlt">moisture</span> availability in the Central Taklimakan was more closely related to temperature variations in the adjacent mountain regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18503460','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18503460"><span>Dry skin, <span class="hlt">moisturization</span> and corneodesmolysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Harding, C R; Watkinson, A; Rawlings, A V; Scott, I R</p> <p>2000-02-01</p> <p>-rich microenvironment, which may indirectly reduce enzyme functionality. Increased understanding of the desquamation process is providing new insights into the mode of action of current <span class="hlt">moisturizing</span> ingredients and is offering opportunities to develop novel therapies for preventing and correcting dry skin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26557021','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26557021"><span>Combined Skin <span class="hlt">Moisturization</span> of Liposomal Serine Incorporated in Hydrogels Prepared with Carbopol ETD 2020, Rhesperse RM 100 and Hyaluronic Acid.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Hyeongmin; Ro, Jieun; Barua, Sonia; Hwang, Deuk Sun; Na, Seon-Jeong; Lee, Ho Sung; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Woo, Seulki; Kim, Hyewon; Hong, Bomi; Yun, Gyiae; Kim, Joong-Hark; Yoon, Young-Ho; Park, Myung-Gyu; Kim, Jia; Sohn, Uy Dong; Lee, Jaehwi</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>We investigated the combined <span class="hlt">moisturizing</span> effect of liposomal serine and a cosmeceutical base selected in this study. Serine is a major amino acid consisting of natural <span class="hlt">moisturizing</span> factors