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Sample records for kirovo-chepetsky chemical plant

  1. Chemical Control of Plant Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agricultural Research Center (USDA), Beltsville, MD.

    Seven experiments are presented in this Science Study Aid to help students investigate the control of plant growth with chemicals. Plant growth regulators, weed control, and chemical pruning are the topics studied in the experiments which are based on investigations that have been and are being conducted at the U. S. Agricultural Research Center,…

  2. Chemical genomics in plant biology.

    PubMed

    Sadhukhan, Ayan; Sahoo, Lingaraj; Panda, Sanjib Kumar

    2012-06-01

    Chemical genomics is a newly emerged and rapidly progressing field in biology, where small chemical molecules bind specifically and reversibly to protein(s) to modulate their function(s), leading to the delineation and subsequent unravelling of biological processes. This approach overcomes problems like lethality and redundancy of classical genetics. Armed with the powerful techniques of combinatorial synthesis, high-throughput screening and target discovery chemical genomics expands its scope to diverse areas in biology. The well-established genetic system of Arabidopsis model allows chemical genomics to enter into the realm of plant biology exploring signaling pathways of growth regulators, endomembrane signaling cascades, plant defense mechanisms and many more events.

  3. Chemical signaling between plants and plant-pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Venturi, Vittorio; Fuqua, Clay

    2013-01-01

    Studies of chemical signaling between plants and bacteria in the past have been largely confined to two models: the rhizobial-legume symbiotic association and pathogenesis between agrobacteria and their host plants. Recent studies are beginning to provide evidence that many plant-associated bacteria undergo chemical signaling with the plant host via low-molecular-weight compounds. Plant-produced compounds interact with bacterial regulatory proteins that then affect gene expression. Similarly, bacterial quorum-sensing signals result in a range of functional responses in plants. This review attempts to highlight current knowledge in chemical signaling that takes place between pathogenic bacteria and plants. This chemical communication between plant and bacteria, also referred to as interkingdom signaling, will likely become a major research field in the future, as it allows the design of specific strategies to create plants that are resistant to plant pathogens.

  4. Rhizosphere chemical dialogues: plant-microbe interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Badri, D.V.; van der Lelie, D.; Weir, T. L.; Vivanco, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Every organism on earth relies on associations with its neighbors to sustain life. For example, plants form associations with neighboring plants, microflora, and microfauna, while humans maintain symbiotic associations with intestinal microbial flora, which is indispensable for nutrient assimilation and development of the innate immune system. Most of these associations are facilitated by chemical cues exchanged between the host and the symbionts. In the rhizosphere, which includes plant roots and the surrounding area of soil influenced by the roots, plants exude chemicals to effectively communicate with their neighboring soil organisms. Here we review the current literature pertaining to the chemical communication that exists between plants and microorganisms and the biological processes they sustain.

  5. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant safety document ICPP hazardous chemical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of a hazardous chemical evaluation performed for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). ICPP tracks chemicals on a computerized database, Haz Track, that contains roughly 2000 individual chemicals. The database contains information about each chemical, such as its form (solid, liquid, or gas); quantity, either in weight or volume; and its location. The Haz Track database was used as the primary starting point for the chemical evaluation presented in this report. The chemical data and results presented here are not intended to provide limits, but to provide a starting point for nonradiological hazards analysis.

  6. Chemical defense lowers plant competitiveness.

    PubMed

    Ballhorn, Daniel J; Godschalx, Adrienne L; Smart, Savannah M; Kautz, Stefanie; Schädler, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Both plant competition and plant defense affect biodiversity and food web dynamics and are central themes in ecology research. The evolutionary pressures determining plant allocation toward defense or competition are not well understood. According to the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis (GDB), the relative importance of herbivory and competition have led to the evolution of plant allocation patterns, with herbivore pressure leading to increased differentiated tissues (defensive traits), and competition pressure leading to resource investment towards cellular division and elongation (growth-related traits). Here, we tested the GDB hypothesis by assessing the competitive response of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) plants with quantitatively different levels of cyanogenesis-a constitutive direct, nitrogen-based defense against herbivores. We used high (HC) and low cyanogenic (LC) genotypes in different competition treatments (intra-genotypic, inter-genotypic, interspecific), and in the presence or absence of insect herbivores (Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis) to quantify vegetative and generative plant parameters (above and belowground biomass as well as seed production). Highly defended HC-plants had significantly lower aboveground biomass and seed production than LC-plants when grown in the absence of herbivores implying significant intrinsic costs of plant cyanogenesis. However, the reduced performance of HC- compared to LC-plants was mitigated in the presence of herbivores. The two plant genotypes exhibited fundamentally different responses to various stresses (competition, herbivory). Our study supports the GDB hypothesis by demonstrating that competition and herbivory affect different plant genotypes differentially and contributes to understanding the causes of variation in defense within a single plant species.

  7. Target identification strategies in plant chemical biology.

    PubMed

    Dejonghe, Wim; Russinova, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    The current needs to understand gene function in plant biology increasingly require more dynamic and conditional approaches opposed to classic genetic strategies. Gene redundancy and lethality can substantially complicate research, which might be solved by applying a chemical genetics approach. Now understood as the study of small molecules and their effect on biological systems with subsequent target identification, chemical genetics is a fast developing field with a strong history in pharmaceutical research and drug discovery. In plant biology however, chemical genetics is still largely in the starting blocks, with most studies relying on forward genetics and phenotypic analysis for target identification, whereas studies including direct target identification are limited. Here, we provide an overview of recent advances in chemical genetics in plant biology with a focus on target identification. Furthermore, we discuss different strategies for direct target identification and the possibilities and challenges for plant biology.

  8. Target identification strategies in plant chemical biology

    PubMed Central

    Dejonghe, Wim; Russinova, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    The current needs to understand gene function in plant biology increasingly require more dynamic and conditional approaches opposed to classic genetic strategies. Gene redundancy and lethality can substantially complicate research, which might be solved by applying a chemical genetics approach. Now understood as the study of small molecules and their effect on biological systems with subsequent target identification, chemical genetics is a fast developing field with a strong history in pharmaceutical research and drug discovery. In plant biology however, chemical genetics is still largely in the starting blocks, with most studies relying on forward genetics and phenotypic analysis for target identification, whereas studies including direct target identification are limited. Here, we provide an overview of recent advances in chemical genetics in plant biology with a focus on target identification. Furthermore, we discuss different strategies for direct target identification and the possibilities and challenges for plant biology. PMID:25104953

  9. Plant chemical genomics: gravity sensing and response.

    PubMed

    Surpin, Marci

    2014-01-01

    The gene families that encode the vesicle trafficking machinery in plants are highly expanded compared to those from protists and animals. As such, classical genetic screens for mutants with lesions in these genes are fraught with issues of redundancy and lethality. A chemical genomics approach can, in theory, circumvent these issues because inhibitory or stimulatory molecules may be applied at any point in development at sublethal concentrations. This chapter describes the protocols for a chemical genomics screen designed to identify components of the plant cell vesicle trafficking machinery. A two-tiered screen was designed where the primary screen assayed for chemicals that modified the gravitropic response, a process that in plant cells is intimately tied to vesicle trafficking; the secondary screen employed fluorescent marker lines that were treated with gravitropic inhibitors or inducers to assay for changes in endomembrane system morphology. We thus identified four compounds by which we can further explore the relationship between gravitropic signal transduction and vesicle trafficking.

  10. Chemical inducers of systemic immunity in plants.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qing-Ming; Kachroo, Aardra; Kachroo, Pradeep

    2014-04-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a highly desirable form of resistance that protects against a broad-spectrum of related or unrelated pathogens. SAR involves the generation of multiple signals at the site of primary infection, which arms distal portions against subsequent secondary infections. The last decade has witnessed considerable progress, and a number of chemical signals contributing to SAR have been isolated and characterized. The diverse chemical nature of these chemicals had led to the growing belief that SAR might involve interplay of multiple diverse and independent signals. However, recent results suggest that coordinated signalling from diverse signalling components facilitates SAR in plants. This review mainly discusses organized signalling by two such chemicals, glycerol-3-phoshphate and azelaic acid, and the role of basal salicylic acid levels in G3P-conferred SAR.

  11. Chemical Secretory Pathway Modulation in Plant Protoplasts.

    PubMed

    De Marchis, Francesca; Pompa, Andrea; Bellucci, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The classical Golgi pathway is not the only mechanism for vacuolar protein transport in plants because alternative transport mechanisms have been described. The existence of these alternative pathways can be demonstrated using several chemicals and here we describe the use of brefeldin A (BFA), endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase H (Endo-H), and tunicamycin, on isolated tobacco leaf protoplasts. Two main methods are illustrated in this chapter, protoplast pulse-chase followed by protein immunoprecipitation, and protoplast immunofluorescence. PMID:27665551

  12. Hyperspectral monitoring of chemically sensitive plant sentinels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Danielle A.; Kerekes, John P.; Raqueno, Nina G.

    2009-08-01

    Automated detection of chemical threats is essential for an early warning of a potential attack. Harnessing plants as bio-sensors allows for distributed sensing without a power supply. Monitoring the bio-sensors requires a specifically tailored hyperspectral system. Tobacco plants have been genetically engineered to de-green when a material of interest (e.g. zinc, TNT) is introduced to their immediate vicinity. The reflectance spectra of the bio-sensors must be accurately characterized during the de-greening process for them to play a role in an effective warning system. Hyperspectral data have been collected under laboratory conditions to determine the key regions in the reflectance spectra associated with the degreening phenomenon. Bio-sensor plants and control (nongenetically engineered) plants were exposed to TNT over the course of two days and their spectra were measured every six hours. Rochester Institute of Technologys Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation Model (DIRSIG) was used to simulate detection of de-greened plants in the field. The simulated scene contains a brick school building, sidewalks, trees and the bio-sensors placed at the entrances to the buildings. Trade studies of the bio-sensor monitoring system were also conducted using DIRSIG simulations. System performance was studied as a function of field of view, pixel size, illumination conditions, radiometric noise, spectral waveband dependence and spectral resolution. Preliminary results show that the most significant change in reflectance during the degreening period occurs in the near infrared region.

  13. Hyperspectral monitoring of chemically sensitive plant sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Danielle A.

    Current events clearly demonstrate that chemical and biological threats against the public are very real. Automated detection of chemical threats is a necessary component of a system that provides early warning of an attack. Plant biologists are currently developing genetically engineered plants that de-green in the presence of explosives (i.e. TNT) in their environment. The objectives of this thesis are to study the spectral reflectance phenomenology of the plant sensors and to propose requirements for an operational monitoring system using spectral imaging technology. Hyperspectral data were collected under laboratory conditions to determine the key spectral regions in the reflectance spectra associated with the de-greening phenomenon. The collected reflectance spectra were then entered into simulated imagery created using the Rochester Institute of Technology's Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model. System performance was studied as a function of pixel size, radiometric noise, spectral waveband dependence and spectral resolution. It was found that a framing array sensor with 40nm wide bands centered at 645 nm, 690 nm, 875 nm, a ground sample distance of 11cm or smaller, and an signal to noise ratio of 250 or better would be sufficient for monitoring bio-sensors deployed under conditions similar to those simulated for this work.

  14. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Site Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, F.G.

    1994-02-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) mission is to receive and store spent nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes for disposition for Department of Energy (DOE) in a cost-effective manner that protects the safety of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) employees, the public, and the environment by: Developing advanced technologies to process spent nuclear fuel for permanent offsite disposition and to achieve waste minimization. Receiving and storing Navy and other DOE assigned spent nuclear fuels. Managing all wastes in compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Identifying and conducting site remediation consistent with facility transition activities. Seeking out and implementing private sector technology transfer and cooperative development agreements. Prior to April 1992, the ICPP mission included fuel reprocessing. With the recent phaseout of fuel reprocessing, some parts of the ICPP mission have changed. Others have remained the same or increased in scope.

  15. Chemical hydrophobicity and uptake by plant roots.

    PubMed

    Dettenmaier, Erik M; Doucette, William J; Bugbee, Bruce

    2009-01-15

    The transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF), the ratio between a compound's concentration in the xylem to that in the solution adjacent to the roots, is commonly used to describe the relative ability of an organic compound to be passively transported from root to shoot. Widely cited bell-shaped curves relating TSCFto the octanol/water partition coefficient (log Kow) imply that significant root uptake and transfer into shoot tissues occurs only for compounds falling within an intermediate hydrophobicity range. However, recent laboratory and field data for relatively water soluble compounds such as sulfolane, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and 1,4-dioxane suggest that these relationships are not universally applicable, especiallyfor nonionizable, highly polar, water soluble organics. To re-evaluate the relationship between root uptake and chemical hydrophobicity, TSCFs were measured for 25 organic chemicals ranging in log Kow from -0.8 to 5 using a pressure chamber technique. Using the TSCF values measured in this study, a new empirical relationship between TSCF (0 and 1) and log Kow (-0.8 to 5) is presented that indicates that nonionizable, polar, highly water soluble organic compounds are most likely to be taken up by plant roots and translocated to shoot tissue.

  16. 131. NORTH PLANT TANK CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS FROM GB MANUFACTURING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    131. NORTH PLANT TANK CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS FROM GB MANUFACTURING PLANT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  17. Chemical Priming of Plants Against Multiple Abiotic Stresses: Mission Possible?

    PubMed

    Savvides, Andreas; Ali, Shawkat; Tester, Mark; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2016-04-01

    Crop plants are subjected to multiple abiotic stresses during their lifespan that greatly reduce productivity and threaten global food security. Recent research suggests that plants can be primed by chemical compounds to better tolerate different abiotic stresses. Chemical priming is a promising field in plant stress physiology and crop stress management. We review here promising chemical agents such as sodium nitroprusside, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hydrosulfide, melatonin, and polyamines that can potentially confer enhanced tolerance when plants are exposed to multiple abiotic stresses. The challenges and opportunities of chemical priming are addressed, with the aim to boost future research towards effective application in crop stress management.

  18. Plant cell tissue culture: A potential source of chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.D.; Dougall, D.K.

    1987-08-01

    Higher plants produce many industrially important products. Among these are drugs and medicinal chemicals, essential oils and flavors, vegetable oils and fats, fine and specialty chemicals, and even some commodity chemicals. Although, currently, whole-plant extraction is the primary means of harvesting these materials, the advent of plant cell tissue culture could be a much more effective method of producing many types of phytochemicals. The use of immobilized plant cells in an advanced bioreactor configuration with excretion of the product into the reactor medium may represent the most straightforward way of commercializing such techniques for lower-value chemicals. Important research and development opportunities in this area include screening for plant cultures for nonmedical, lower-value chemicals; understanding and controlling plant cell physiology and biochemistry; optimizing effective immobilization methods; developing more efficient bioreactor concepts; and perfecting product extraction and purification techniques. 62 refs., 2 figs.

  19. THE USE OF CHEMICALS AS PLANT REGULATORS. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONS, THIS MODULE IS SPECIFICALLY CONCERNED WITH CHEMICALS AS PLANT REGULATORS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF DATA FROM STATE STUDIES. SECTIONS INCLUDE -- (1) CHEMICALS AS MODIFIERS OF PLANT GROWTH, (2)…

  20. Natural plant chemicals: source of industrial and medicinal materials

    SciTech Connect

    Balandrin, M.F.; Klocke, J.A.; Wurtele, E.S.; Bollinger, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    Many higher plants produce economically important organic compounds such as oils, resins, tannins, natural rubber, gums, waxes, dyes, flavors and fragrances, pharmaceuticals, and pesticides. However, most species of higher plants have never been described, much less surveyed for chemical or biologically active constituents, and new sources of commercially valuable materials remain to be discovered. Advances in biotechnology, particularly methods for culturing plants cells and tissues, should provide new means for the commercial processing of even rare plants and the chemicals they produce. These new technologies will extend and enhance the usefulness of plants as renewable resources of valuable chemicals. In the future, biologically active plant-derived chemicals can be expected to play an increasingly significant role in the commercial development of new products for regulating plant growth and for insect and weed control. 65 references.

  1. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Griebenow, B.

    1996-03-01

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond.

  2. Plant signalling: the opportunities and dangers of chemical communication.

    PubMed

    Adler, Frederick R

    2011-04-23

    The notion of chemical communication between plants and other organisms has gone from being viewed as a fringe idea to an accepted ecological phenomenon only recently. An Organized Oral Session at the August 2010 Ecological Society of America meeting in Pittsburgh examined the role of plant signalling both within and between plants, with speakers addressing the remarkably wide array of effects that plant signals have on plant physiology, species interactions and entire communities. In addition to the familiar way that plants communicate with mutualists like pollinators and fruit dispersers through both chemical and visual cues, speakers at this session described how plants communicate with themselves, with each other, with herbivores and with predators of those herbivores. These plant signals create a complex odour web superimposed upon the more classical food web itself, with its own dynamics in the face of exotic species and rapid community assembly and disassembly.

  3. Skill Development of Plant Operators in the Chemical Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Kouichi

    In the chemical industry, most of the chemical products are manufactured by operating equipment and changing raw materials chemically and physically. Knowledge and skills regarding the raw materials and the products are required to manufacture the products of good quality safely. Furthermore the knowledge and skills concerning the chemical process, the equipment and other treated materials are needed to operate plant appropriately. The way of plant operation partially depends on the type of process such as continuous process and batch process. As a plant operator is promoted to an upper position, required to improve one's skills. To operate plant safely, the base action to prevent an error of judgment, and the adaptive action based on the rule and principle i.e. KNOW-WHY are also required. In this paper, it reports on some cases of the skill development of plant operators in Omuta Works.

  4. [Chemical study of Indonesian medicinal plants].

    PubMed

    Shibuya, H; Kitagawa, I

    1996-12-01

    A series of scientific expeditions in Indonesia for collecting informations and materials concerning locally used medicinal plants and Javanese traditional medicine "jamu" have been carried out by us since 1985. This article reviews pharmacochemical investigations of nine Indonesian medicinal plants: i.e. Pongamia pinnata (Papilionaceae), Fagara rhetza (Rutaceae), Calotropis gigantea (Asclepiadaceae), Beilschmiedia madang (Lauraceae), Caesalpinia major (Fabaceae), Peronema canescens (Verbenaceae), Taxus sumatrana (Taxaceae), Alyxia reinwardtii (Apocynaceae), and Merremia mammosa (Convolvulaceae), which were selected among plant materials collected in those surveys.

  5. Coastal plants : chemical sensitivities and risk assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of plant-dominated ecosystems to improve water quality and provide habitat for biodiversity are important ecological services. These services are impacted by natural and anthropogenic stressors which includes contaminant toxicity. Scientific information describing the...

  6. 66. SOUTH PLANT CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. SOUTH PLANT CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  7. 2. OVERALL VIEW OF SOUTH PLANT FROM SHELL CHEMICAL STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERALL VIEW OF SOUTH PLANT FROM SHELL CHEMICAL STORAGE TANK. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  8. 86. DETAIL OF SOUTH PLANT CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    86. DETAIL OF SOUTH PLANT CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS. VIEW TO EAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  9. 65. SOUTH PLANT CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS, WITH SECONDARY CONTAINMENT BERM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. SOUTH PLANT CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS, WITH SECONDARY CONTAINMENT BERM IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  10. 78. DETAIL OF SOUTH PLANT MAILBOX, WITH CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. DETAIL OF SOUTH PLANT MAILBOX, WITH CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  11. 64. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING, CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AND BUILDINGS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. SOUTH PLANT PROCESS PIPING, CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AND BUILDINGS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. 84. SOUTH PLANT CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AND FILLING STATION. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    84. SOUTH PLANT CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AND FILLING STATION. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  13. 72. SOUTH PLANT SHELL OIL COMPANY COMPLEX, FROM CHEMICAL STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. SOUTH PLANT SHELL OIL COMPANY COMPLEX, FROM CHEMICAL STORAGE TANK. VIEW TO WEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  14. 132. NORTH PLANT CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS WEST OF CASE FILLING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    132. NORTH PLANT CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS WEST OF CASE FILLING PLANT (BUILDING 1601). VIEW TO NORTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  15. Discovering Chemical Aromaticity Using Fragrant Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Tanya L.

    2010-01-01

    Introductory organic chemistry is often perceived as inaccessible by students. This article describes a method used to link organic chemistry to everyday experience, asking students to explore whether fragrant molecules are also aromatic in the chemical sense. Students were engaged in this activity, excited about their results, and performed well…

  16. Chemical Growth Regulators for Guayule Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dastoor, M. N.; Schubert, W. W.; Petersen, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Test Tubes containing Guayule - tissue cultures were used in experiments to test effects of chemical-growth regulators. The shoots grew in response to addition of 2-(3,4-dichlorophenoxy)-triethylamine (triethylamine (TEA) derivative) to agar medium. Preliminary results indicate that a class of compounds that promotes growth in soil may also promote growth in a culture medium. Further experiments are needed to define the effect of the TEA derivative.

  17. FGD systems -- Physical deterioration of the chemical plant facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dille, E.R.; Ridge, J.L.

    1996-10-01

    The Clean Air Act of 1970 established the initial requirements for the control of flue gas emissions from fossil-fuel-fired power plants in the US. Until then, only mechanical collectors and electrostatic precipitators regulated smoke and fly ash emissions from these plants. Now, a new technique for controlling the chemical emissions from a fossil-fuel-fired power plant had to be installed. Since there was practically no time for a research and development program, the power industry had to move quickly to select a compliance system. They chose to modify existing technology from the chemical industry for their specific need. Thus, wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems were born into the power industry and a chemical plant was added between the electrostatic precipitator and the chimney. This paper provides insight on how a program can be implemented to reconcile the materials and corrosion protection techniques available today to the specific areas of an FGD system. This paper focuses on a typical wet limestone FGD process. This type of process constitutes the vast majority of the FGD systems by total megawatt generation in the US. The power industry must learn from its chemical plant experience if it intends to extend the service life of FGD systems to match the design life of the remaining plant power block.

  18. Chemical manipulation of plant water use.

    PubMed

    Helander, Jonathan D M; Vaidya, Aditya S; Cutler, Sean R

    2016-02-01

    Agricultural productivity is dictated by water availability and consequently drought is the major source of crop losses worldwide. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is elevated in response to water deficit and modulates drought tolerance by reducing water consumption and inducing other drought-protective responses. The recent identification of ABA receptors, elucidation of their structures and understanding of the core ABA signaling network has created new opportunities for agrochemical development. An unusually large gene family encodes ABA receptors and, until recently, it was unclear if selective or pan-agonists would be necessary for modulating water use. The recent identification of the selective agonist quinabactin has resolved this issue and defined Pyrabactin Resistance 1 (PYR1) and its close relatives as key targets for water use control. This review provides an overview of the structure and function of ABA receptors, progress in the development of synthetic agonists, and the use of orthogonal receptors to enable agrochemical control in transgenic plants. PMID:26612713

  19. The impact of plant chemical diversity on plant-herbivore interactions at the community level.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Diego; Jaramillo, Alejandra; Marquis, Robert J

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the role of diversity in ecosystem processes and species interactions is a central goal of ecology. For plant-herbivore interactions, it has been hypothesized that when plant species diversity is reduced, loss of plant biomass to herbivores increases. Although long-standing, this hypothesis has received mixed support. Increasing plant chemical diversity with increasing plant taxonomic diversity is likely to be important for plant-herbivore interactions at the community level, but the role of chemical diversity is unexplored. Here we assess the effect of volatile chemical diversity on patterns of herbivore damage in naturally occurring patches of Piper (Piperaceae) shrubs in a Costa Rican lowland wet forest. Volatile chemical diversity negatively affected total, specialist, and generalist herbivore damage. Furthermore, there were differences between the effects of high-volatility and low-volatility chemical diversity on herbivore damage. High-volatility diversity reduced specialist herbivory, while low-volatility diversity reduced generalist herbivory. Our data suggest that, although increased plant diversity is expected to reduce average herbivore damage, this pattern is likely mediated by the diversity of defensive compounds and general classes of anti-herbivore traits, as well as the degree of specialization of the herbivores attacking those plants. PMID:27129320

  20. Chemical and pharmacological studies of the plants from genus Celastrus.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Man-Li; Zhan, Wen-Hong; Huo, Chang-Hong; Shi, Qing-Wen; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Kiyota, Hiromasa

    2009-02-01

    The plants of genus Celastrus, distributed in Asia, have been used as natural insecticides and folk medicines to treat fever, chill, joint pain, edema, rheumatoid arthritis, and bacterial infection in China for a long time. This contribution reviews the chemical constituents, isolated from the plants in genus Celastrus in the past few decades, and their biological activities. The compounds listed are sesquiterpenes (beta-agarofurans), diterpenes, triterpenes, alkaloids, and flavonoids.

  1. Urinary thioether of employees of a chemical plant.

    PubMed Central

    Vainio, H; Savolainen, H; Kilpikari, I

    1978-01-01

    The thiols in the morning urine of 224 employees of a chemical plant were determined after alkaline hydrolysis of all urinary thioethers. The highest thioether excretion was found in rubber workers and radial tyre builders in comparison with clerks, plastic monomer mixers and footwear preparers. Smoking and medication tended to increase thioether excretion. Urinary thioether determination may prove to be a valuable tool in assessing exposure to mixtures of chemicals regardless of the route of absorption. PMID:698138

  2. Urinary thioether of employees of a chemical plant.

    PubMed

    Vainio, H; Savolainen, H; Kilpikari, I

    1978-08-01

    The thiols in the morning urine of 224 employees of a chemical plant were determined after alkaline hydrolysis of all urinary thioethers. The highest thioether excretion was found in rubber workers and radial tyre builders in comparison with clerks, plastic monomer mixers and footwear preparers. Smoking and medication tended to increase thioether excretion. Urinary thioether determination may prove to be a valuable tool in assessing exposure to mixtures of chemicals regardless of the route of absorption. PMID:698138

  3. Protection of plants against air pollutants: Role of chemical protectants

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, J.; Agrawal, M. )

    1993-03-01

    The protection of plants against air pollution damage can best be achieved either by developing pollution-tolerant cultivars or by using chemical protectants. Use of chemical protectants such as pesticides, growth regulators, anti-oxidants, fertilizers, etc. is a short-term solution to reduce the risk of air pollution damage. In addition, these protectants help in understanding the mechanism of air pollution toxicity and provide a scientific basis for assessing crop losses in field conditions. 95 refs.

  4. Gut microbes may facilitate insect herbivory of chemically defended plants.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Tobin J; Bowers, M Deane

    2015-09-01

    The majority of insect species consume plants, many of which produce chemical toxins that defend their tissues from attack. How then are herbivorous insects able to develop on a potentially poisonous diet? While numerous studies have focused on the biochemical counter-adaptations to plant toxins rooted in the insect genome, a separate body of research has recently emphasized the role of microbial symbionts, particularly those inhabiting the gut, in plant-insect interactions. Here we outline the "gut microbial facilitation hypothesis," which proposes that variation among herbivores in their ability to consume chemically defended plants can be due, in part, to variation in their associated microbial communities. More specifically, different microbes may be differentially able to detoxify compounds toxic to the insect, or be differentially resistant to the potential antimicrobial effects of some compounds. Studies directly addressing this hypothesis are relatively few, but microbe-plant allelochemical interactions have been frequently documented from non-insect systems-such as soil and the human gut-and thus illustrate their potential importance for insect herbivory. We discuss the implications of this hypothesis for insect diversification and coevolution with plants; for example, evolutionary transitions to host plant groups with novel allelochemicals could be initiated by heritable changes to the insect microbiome. Furthermore, the ecological implications extend beyond the plant and insect herbivore to higher trophic levels. Although the hidden nature of microbes and plant allelochemicals make their interactions difficult to detect, recent molecular and experimental techniques should enable research on this neglected, but likely important, aspect of insect-plant biology.

  5. 88. EAST SECTION OF SOUTH PLANT FROM CHEMICAL STORAGE TANK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    88. EAST SECTION OF SOUTH PLANT FROM CHEMICAL STORAGE TANK, SHOWING MUSTARD FILLING BUILDING (BUILDING 728) AT RIGHT FOREGROUND AND ARMY RESERVE CENTER (BUILDING 732) AT CENTER. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  6. 12. SOUTH PLANT FROM SHELL OIL COMPANY CHEMICAL STORAGE TANK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. SOUTH PLANT FROM SHELL OIL COMPANY CHEMICAL STORAGE TANK, SHOWING FACILITIES MAINTENANCE BUILDING (543) AT LEFT AND WHITE PHOSPHOROUS FILLING BUILDING (541) AND WAREHOUSE (542) AT CENTER. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  7. 85. SOUTH PLANT CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AND FILLING STATION FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    85. SOUTH PLANT CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AND FILLING STATION FROM DECEMBER 7TH AVENUE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  8. 70. DETAIL OF SOUTH PLANT FIRE HYDRANT, WITH CHEMICAL STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. DETAIL OF SOUTH PLANT FIRE HYDRANT, WITH CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  9. 89. EAST EDGE OF SOUTH PLANT FROM CHEMICAL STORAGE TANK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    89. EAST EDGE OF SOUTH PLANT FROM CHEMICAL STORAGE TANK, SHOWING ROOF OF MUSTARD FILLING BUILDING (BUILDING 728) AT CENTER FOREGROUND, WAREHOUSE (BUILDING 729) AT RIGHT AND ARMY RESERVE CENTER (BUILDING 732) AT RIGHT BACKGROUND. VIEW TO EAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  10. 90. EAST SECTION OF SOUTH PLANT FROM CHEMICAL STORAGE TANK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. EAST SECTION OF SOUTH PLANT FROM CHEMICAL STORAGE TANK, SHOWING MUSTARD FILLING BUILDING (BUILDING 728) AT LEFT AND WAREHOUSE (BUILDING 729) AT RIGHT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  11. 26. PROCESS PIPING AND CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AT SOUTH PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. PROCESS PIPING AND CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS AT SOUTH PLANT NORTH EDGE FROM DECEMBER 7TH AVENUE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. Considerations for designing chemical screening strategies in plant biology.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Mario; Kombrink, Erich; Meesters, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, biologists regularly used classical genetic approaches to characterize and dissect plant processes. However, this strategy is often impaired by redundancy, lethality or pleiotropy of gene functions, which prevent the isolation of viable mutants. The chemical genetic approach has been recognized as an alternative experimental strategy, which has the potential to circumvent these problems. It relies on the capacity of small molecules to modify biological processes by specific binding to protein target(s), thereby conditionally modifying protein function(s), which phenotypically resemble mutation(s) of the encoding gene(s). A successful chemical screening campaign comprises three equally important elements: (1) a reliable, robust, and quantitative bioassay, which allows to distinguish between potent and less potent compounds, (2) a rigorous validation process for candidate compounds to establish their selectivity, and (3) an experimental strategy for elucidating a compound's mode of action and molecular target. In this review we will discuss details of this general strategy and additional aspects that deserve consideration in order to take full advantage of the power provided by the chemical approach to plant biology. In addition, we will highlight some success stories of recent chemical screenings in plant systems, which may serve as teaching examples for the implementation of future chemical biology projects.

  13. Considerations for designing chemical screening strategies in plant biology

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Mario; Kombrink, Erich; Meesters, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, biologists regularly used classical genetic approaches to characterize and dissect plant processes. However, this strategy is often impaired by redundancy, lethality or pleiotropy of gene functions, which prevent the isolation of viable mutants. The chemical genetic approach has been recognized as an alternative experimental strategy, which has the potential to circumvent these problems. It relies on the capacity of small molecules to modify biological processes by specific binding to protein target(s), thereby conditionally modifying protein function(s), which phenotypically resemble mutation(s) of the encoding gene(s). A successful chemical screening campaign comprises three equally important elements: (1) a reliable, robust, and quantitative bioassay, which allows to distinguish between potent and less potent compounds, (2) a rigorous validation process for candidate compounds to establish their selectivity, and (3) an experimental strategy for elucidating a compound's mode of action and molecular target. In this review we will discuss details of this general strategy and additional aspects that deserve consideration in order to take full advantage of the power provided by the chemical approach to plant biology. In addition, we will highlight some success stories of recent chemical screenings in plant systems, which may serve as teaching examples for the implementation of future chemical biology projects. PMID:25904921

  14. Plant chemical biology: are we meeting the promise?

    PubMed

    Hicks, Glenn R; Raikhel, Natasha V

    2014-01-01

    As an early adopter of plant chemical genetics to the study of endomembrane trafficking, we have observed the growth of small molecule approaches. Within the field, we often describe the strengths of the approach in a broad, generic manner, such as the ability to address redundancy and lethality. But, we are now in a much better position to evaluate the demonstrated value of the approach based on examples. In this perspective, we offer an assessment of chemical genetics in plants and where its applications may be of particular utility from the perspective of the cell biologist. Beyond this, we suggest areas to be addressed to provide broader access and enhance the effectiveness of small molecule approaches in plant biology.

  15. Plant chemical biology: are we meeting the promise?

    PubMed

    Hicks, Glenn R; Raikhel, Natasha V

    2014-01-01

    As an early adopter of plant chemical genetics to the study of endomembrane trafficking, we have observed the growth of small molecule approaches. Within the field, we often describe the strengths of the approach in a broad, generic manner, such as the ability to address redundancy and lethality. But, we are now in a much better position to evaluate the demonstrated value of the approach based on examples. In this perspective, we offer an assessment of chemical genetics in plants and where its applications may be of particular utility from the perspective of the cell biologist. Beyond this, we suggest areas to be addressed to provide broader access and enhance the effectiveness of small molecule approaches in plant biology. PMID:25250041

  16. Chemical defenses promote persistence of the aquatic plant Micranthemum umbrosum.

    PubMed

    Parker, John D; Collins, Dwight O; Kubanek, Julia; Sullards, M Cameron; Bostwick, David; Hay, Mark E

    2006-04-01

    Five of the most common macrophytes from an aquaculture facility with high densities of the herbivorous Asian grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were commonly unpalatable to three generalist consumers-grass carp and the native North American crayfishes Procambarus spiculifer and P. acutus. The rooted vascular plant Micranthemum umbrosum comprised 89% of the total aboveground plant biomass and was unpalatable to all three consumers as fresh tissues, as homogenized pellets, and as crude extracts. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extract from M. umbrosum led to four previously known compounds that each deterred feeding by at least one consumer: 3,4,5-trimethoxyallylbenzene (1) and three lignoids: beta-apopicropodophyllin (2); (-)-(3S,4R,6S)-3-(3',4'-methylenedioxy-alpha-hydroxybenzyl)-4-(3'',4''-dimethoxybenzyl)butyrolactone (3); and (-)-hibalactone (4). None of the remaining four macrophytes produced a chemically deterrent extract. A 16-mo manipulative experiment showed that the aboveground biomass of M. umbrosum was unchanged when consumers were absent, but the biomass of Ludwigia repens, a plant that grass carp preferentially consumed over M. umbrosum, increased over 300-fold. Thus, selective feeding by grass carp effectively eliminates most palatable plants from this community and promotes the persistence of the chemically defended M. umbrosum, suggesting that plant defenses play critical yet understudied roles in the structure of freshwater plant communities.

  17. Identification and chemical enhancement of two ornamental plants for phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia-Nv; Zhou, Qi-Xing; Sun, Ting; Ma, Lena Q; Wang, Song

    2008-03-01

    With an increase in the contamination of urban areas, more and more attention has been paid to the role of ornamental plants in remedying contaminated soils. Thus, cadmium (Cd) tolerance and accumulation characteristics of Calendula officinalis and Althaea rosea as ornamental plants under the concentration gradient experiment with single Cd, as well as the effect of ethylenegluatarotriacetic acid (EGTA) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on their Cd phytoremediation capacity under the chemically enhanced experiment was further investigated. It was showed that they had strong tolerance and accumulation capacity of Cd under single Cd treatments, thus they had great potential to be used for Cd contaminated soil remediation. Furthermore, under chemically enhanced treatments, the great efficiency was found through applying EGTA and SDS, they could not only increase the dry biomass of the plants, but also promote the Cd accumulation in shoots and roots. Particularly, Althaea rosea can be regarded as a potential Cd-hyperaccumulator through applying chemical agents. In conclusion, the two ornamental plants are promising to be used for phytoremediation.

  18. Two-way chemical signaling in Agrobacterium-plant interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Winans, S C

    1992-01-01

    The discovery in 1977 that Agrobacterium species can transfer a discrete segment of oncogenic DNA (T-DNA) to the genome of host plant cells has stimulated an intense interest in the molecular biology underlying these plant-microbe associations. This attention in turn has resulted in a series of insights about the biology of these organisms that continue to accumulate at an ever-increasing rate. This excitement was due in part to the notion that this unprecedented interkingdom DNA transfer could be exploited to create transgenic plants containing foreign genes of scientific or commercial importance. In the course of these discoveries, Agrobacterium became one of the best available models for studying the molecular interactions between bacteria and higher organisms. One extensively studied aspect of this association concerns the exchange of chemical signals between Agrobacterium spp. and host plants. Agrobacterium spp. can recognize no fewer than five classes of low-molecular-weight compounds released from plants, and other classes probably await discovery. The most widely studied of these are phenolic compounds, which stimulate the transcription of the genes needed for infection. Other compounds include specific monosaccharides and acidic environments which potentiate vir gene induction, acidic polysaccharides which induce one or more chromosomal genes, and a family of compounds called opines which are released from tumorous plant cells to the bacteria as nutrient sources. Agrobacterium spp. in return release a variety of chemical compounds to plants. The best understood is the transferred DNA itself, which contains genes that in various ways upset the balance of phytohormones, ultimately causing neoplastic cell proliferation. In addition to transferring DNA, some Agrobacterium strains directly secrete phytohormones. Finally, at least some strains release a pectinase, which degrades a component of plant cell walls. PMID:1579105

  19. Source reduction from chemical plants using on-line optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Pike, R.W.; Hertwig, T.A.

    1995-12-01

    An effective approach for source reduction in chemical plants has been demonstrated using on-line optimization with flowsheeting (ASPEN PLUS) for process optimization and parameter estimation and the Tjao-Biegler algorithm implemented in a mathematical programming language (GAMS/MINOS) for data reconciliation and gross error detection. Results for a Monsanto sulfuric acid plant with a Bailey distributed control system showed a 25% reduction in the sulfur dioxide emissions and a 17% improvement in the profit over the current operating conditions. Details of the methods used are described.

  20. Hong Kong plans new generation chemical waste plant for 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Haggin, J. )

    1991-02-01

    The first comprehensive chemical waste treatment facility in a Pacific Rim country is scheduled for completion in Hong Kong in early 1993. Designed to treat industrial chemical wastes generated in Hong Kong and vicinity, the plant will have an output consisting of environmentally safe materials, energy, and some recovered products. The new waste treatment facility will be located on Tsing-yi Island, which is connected to the New Territories by road, near Ha Kwai Chung. The island is close to the main harbor and western shipping channel, providing immediate access to the Pearl River and Guangzhou (Canton).

  1. Portable chemical protective clothing test method: application at a chemical plant

    SciTech Connect

    Berardinelli, S.P.; Rusczek, R.A.; Mickelsen, R.L.

    1987-10-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), in cooperation with Monsanto Chemical Company, conducted an on-site evaluation of chemical protective clothing at Monsanto's Nitro, West Virginia plant. The Monsanto plant manufactures additives for the rubber industry including antioxidants, pre-vulcanization inhibitors, accelerators, etc. This survey evaluated six raw materials that have a potential for skin absorption: aniline, cyclohexylamine, diisorpropylamine, tertiary butylamine, morpholine and carbon disulfide. Five generic glove materials were tested against these chemicals; nitrile, neoprene, polyvinylchloride, natural latex and natural rubber. The NIOSH chemical permeation portable test system was used to generate breakthrough time data. The results were compared to permeation data reported in the literature that were obtained by using the ASTM F739-85 test method. The test data demonstrated that aniline has too low a vapor pressure for reliable analysis on the portable direct reading detectors used. The chemical permeation test system, however provided comparable, reliable permeation data for the other tested chemicals. Monsanto has used this data to better select chemical protective clothing for its intended use.

  2. Wastewater Treatment Plants as Chemical Observatories to Forecast Ecological and Human Health Risks of Manmade Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Arjun K.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2014-01-01

    Thousands of chemicals have been identified as contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), but prioritizing them concerning ecological and human health risks is challenging. We explored the use of sewage treatment plants as chemical observatories to conveniently identify persistent and bioaccumulative CECs, including toxic organohalides. Nationally representative samples of sewage sludge (biosolids) were analyzed for 231 CECs, of which 123 were detected. Ten of the top 11 most abundant CECs in biosolids were found to be high-production volume chemicals, eight of which representing priority chemicals, including three flame retardants, three surfactants and two antimicrobials. A comparison of chemicals detected in nationally representative biological specimens from humans and municipal biosolids revealed 70% overlap. This observed co-occurrence of contaminants in both matrices suggests that the analysis of sewage sludge can inform human health risk assessments by providing current information on toxic exposures in human populations and associated body burdens of harmful environmental pollutants. PMID:24429544

  3. Wastewater Treatment Plants as Chemical Observatories to Forecast Ecological and Human Health Risks of Manmade Chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesan, Arjun K.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2014-01-01

    Thousands of chemicals have been identified as contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), but prioritizing them concerning ecological and human health risks is challenging. We explored the use of sewage treatment plants as chemical observatories to conveniently identify persistent and bioaccumulative CECs, including toxic organohalides. Nationally representative samples of sewage sludge (biosolids) were analyzed for 231 CECs, of which 123 were detected. Ten of the top 11 most abundant CECs in biosolids were found to be high-production volume chemicals, eight of which representing priority chemicals, including three flame retardants, three surfactants and two antimicrobials. A comparison of chemicals detected in nationally representative biological specimens from humans and municipal biosolids revealed 70% overlap. This observed co-occurrence of contaminants in both matrices suggests that the analysis of sewage sludge can inform human health risk assessments by providing current information on toxic exposures in human populations and associated body burdens of harmful environmental pollutants.

  4. Botanical insecticides inspired by plant-herbivore chemical interactions.

    PubMed

    Miresmailli, Saber; Isman, Murray B

    2014-01-01

    Plants have evolved a plethora of secondary chemicals to protect themselves against herbivores and pathogens, some of which have been used historically for pest management. The extraction methods used by industry render many phytochemicals ineffective as insecticides despite their bioactivity in the natural context. In this review, we examine how plants use their secondary chemicals in nature and compare this with how they are used as insecticides to understand why the efficacy of botanical insecticides can be so variable. If the commercial production of botanical insecticides is to become a viable pest management option, factors such as production cost, resource availability, and extraction and formulation techniques need be considered alongside innovative application technologies to ensure consistent efficacy of botanical insecticides.

  5. Priorities in the design of chemical shops at coke plants

    SciTech Connect

    V.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; V.V. Grabko; L.A. Kazak

    2009-07-15

    Recent trends in the design of chemical equipment at coke plants are described, through the lens of experience at Giprokoks. The main priorities were to improve the removal of impurities from coke oven gas; to improve equipment design on the basis of new materials; to reduce reagent consumption; to reduce the materials and energy consumed in the construction of new equipment; and to minimize impacts on the environment and worker health. Some technological equipment is briefly characterized.

  6. Chemical sensing of plant stress at the ecosystem scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, T.; Guenther, A.; Turnipseed, A.; Patton, E. G.; Jardine, K.

    2008-06-01

    Significant ecosystem-scale emissions of methylsalicylate (MeSA), a semivolatile plant hormone thought to act as the mobile signal for systemic acquired resistance (SAR) (Park et al., 2006), were observed in an agroforest. Our measurements show that plant internal defence mechanisms can be activated in response to temperature stress and are modulated by water availability on large scales. Highest MeSA fluxes (up to 0.25 mg/m2/h) were observed after plants experienced ambient night-time temperatures of ~7.5°C followed by a large daytime temperature increase (e.g. up to 22°C). Under these conditions estimated night-time leaf temperatures were as low as ~4.6°C, likely inducing a response to prevent chilling injury (Ding et al., 2002). Our observations imply that plant hormones can be a significant component of ecosystem scale volatile organic compound (VOC) fluxes (e.g. as high as the total monoterpene (MT) flux) and therefore contribute to the missing VOC budget (de Carlo et al., 2004; Goldstein and Galbally, 2007). If generalized to other ecosystems and different types of stresses these findings suggest that semivolatile plant hormones have been overlooked by investigations of the impact of biogenic VOCs on aerosol formation events in forested regions (Kulmala et al., 2001; Boy et al., 2000). Our observations show that the presence of MeSA in canopy air serves as an early chemical warning signal indicating ecosystem-scale stresses before visible damage becomes apparent. As a chemical metric, ecosystem emission measurements of MeSA in ambient air could therefore support field studies investigating factors that adversely affect plant growth.

  7. Chemical sensing of plant stress at the ecosystem scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, T.; Guenther, A.; Turnipseed, A.; Patton, E. G.; Jardine, K.

    2008-09-01

    Significant ecosystem-scale emissions of methylsalicylate (MeSA), a semivolatile plant hormone thought to act as the mobile signal for systemic acquired resistance (SAR), were observed in an agroforest. Our measurements show that plant internal defence mechanisms can be activated in response to temperature stress and are modulated by water availability on large scales. Highest MeSA fluxes (up to 0.25 mg/m2/h) were observed after plants experienced ambient night-time temperatures of ~7.5°C followed by a large daytime temperature increase (e.g. up to 22°C). Under these conditions estimated night-time leaf temperatures were as low as ~4.6°C, likely inducing a response to prevent chilling injury. Our observations imply that plant hormones can be a significant component of ecosystem scale volatile organic compound (VOC) fluxes (e.g. as high as the total monoterpene (MT) flux) and therefore contribute to the missing VOC budget. If generalized to other ecosystems and different types of stresses these findings suggest that semivolatile plant hormones have been overlooked by investigations of the impact of biogenic VOCs on aerosol formation events in forested regions. Our observations show that the presence of MeSA in canopy air serves as an early chemical warning signal indicating ecosystem-scale stresses before visible damage becomes apparent. As a chemical metric, ecosystem emission measurements of MeSA in ambient air could therefore support field studies investigating factors that adversely affect plant growth.

  8. Chemical plants remain vulnerable to terrorists: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Lippin, Tobi Mae; McQuiston, Thomas H; Bradley-Bull, Kristin; Burns-Johnson, Toshiba; Cook, Linda; Gill, Michael L; Howard, Donna; Seymour, Thomas A; Stephens, Doug; Williams, Brian K

    2006-09-01

    U.S. chemical plants currently have potentially catastrophic vulnerabilities as terrorist targets. The possible consequences of these vulnerabilities echo from the tragedies of the Bhopal incident in 1984 to the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001 and, most recently, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Findings from a 2004 nationwide participatory research study of 125 local union leaders at sites with very large volumes of highly hazardous chemicals suggest that voluntary efforts to achieve chemical plant security are not succeeding. Study respondents reported that companies had only infrequently taken actions that are most effective in preventing or in preparing to respond to a terrorist threat. In addition, companies reportedly often failed to involve key stakeholders, including workers, local unions, and the surrounding communities, in these efforts. The environmental health community thus has an opportunity to play a key role in advocating for and supporting improvements in prevention of and preparation for terrorist attacks. Policy-level recommendations to redress chemical site vulnerabilities and the related ongoing threats to the nation's security are as follows: a) specify detailed requirements for chemical site assessment and security ; b) mandate audit inspections supported by significant penalties for cases of noncompliance ; c) require progress toward achieving inherently safer processes, including the minimizing of storage of highly hazardous chemicals ; d) examine and require additional effective actions in prevention, emergency preparedness, and response and remediation ; e) mandate and fund the upgrading of emergency communication systems ; and f) involve workers and community members in plan creation and equip and prepare them to prevent and respond effectively to an incident.

  9. Behavior of Selected Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Sewage Treatment Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinze; Lu, Jiaming; Ollivier, Natacha; Saturnino, Anais; Gomez, Elena; Casellas, Claude; Picot, Bernadette

    2010-11-01

    The behavior of endocrine disrupting chemicals in sewage treatment plant affects their final fate in water environment. We selected six endocrine disrupting chemicals: 4 alkylphenols (4-tert-octylphenol, octylphenol, 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A) and 2 steroids (17α-ethinylestradiol and estriol) as targets, their removal and transformation in wastewater treatment plant were studied. Five mixed liquors were sampled respectively from different stages of Minhang wastewater treatment plant in Shanghai. EDCs concentration were analyzed with GC-MS. The main removal pathways of EDCs include initial adsorption by suspended solids and following biodegradation in biological sludge. The removal efficiency of six targets was more than 86%. The concentration of OP and 4-n-NP in water significantly increased in anoxic stage, the reason may be the releases of EDCs from sludge to water on the condition of low DO. And it was also found that the EDCs could be released to water phase in the secondary clarifier, which may cause potential risk of EDCs entering the environment with discharge.

  10. Leaching characteristics of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant calcines

    SciTech Connect

    Chipman, N A

    1990-02-01

    This report documents leaching studies conducted on two non-radioactive, pilot-plant calcines produced at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The two pilot-plant calcines simulate radioactive calcine which may be produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility by blending high-level liquid waste and sodium-bearing liquid waste. The calcines were subjected to the Environmental Protection Agency's Extraction Procedure Toxicity Test and to a test based on the Materials Characterization Center's MCC-1 Static Leach Test. Following the protocol of these tests, leachates were obtained and analyzed for chemical composition to develop information about component mass loss and total mass loss. Surface analysis techniques were employed in an attempt to identify species that were leached from the calcines, but later precipitated during the MCC-1 tests. This report also documents leaching studies conducted on a radioactive fluorinel-sodium blend calcine produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility. This calcine was also subjected to a static leach test based on the MCC-1 test. The leachate was analyzed to develop information about total mass loss and leaching characteristics of radioactive species. 12 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Effects of ecotoxicological chemicals on passive plasmalemma permeability in plants.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, G; Sellner, M; Golle, B; Lüttge, U

    1983-08-01

    The measurement of changes of electrical conductivity in the external medium of isolated mesophyll protoplasts of Vicia faba, tissue disks of red beetroot (Beta vulgaris), and intact duckweed plants (Lemna gibba) was used to determine nonspecific electrolyte efflux. This provided rapid screening tests to assess the impact of environmental chemicals on passive membrane permeabilities. The conditions of the tests and their applicability to environmental studies are described in detail. Twenty-five reference chemicals selected by the Bundesminister für Forschung und Technologie (BMFT, FRG) were tested. The sequence of effectiveness of the various substances was similar in the different test systems and appeared to be independent of the organizational level of the plant material. Passive electrolyte efflux was most effectively stimulated by HgCl2, pentachlorophenol (PCP), and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (LAS). The threshold concentrations showing clear stimulation of electrolyte efflux after 3 hr of application with protoplasts and 24 hr with tissue disks were in the vicinity of relevant environmental levels. The tests described allow the detection of effects at least down to concentrations of 0.004 mol m-3 HgCl2, 0.001 mol m-3 PCP, and 0.04 mol m-3 LAS. Other putatively very toxic chemicals were ineffective in these short-term permeability tests.

  12. [Chemical constituents from whole plants of Valeriana hardwickii].

    PubMed

    Chai, Shi-wei; Zhai, Yong-song; Wang, Man-yuan

    2015-10-01

    Chemical investigation of the whole plants of Valeriana hardwickii has led to the isolation of 11 flavones and 2 monoterpe- noids by using various chromatographic techniques including column chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20, preparative TLC, and preparative HPLC. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic data analysis as syzalterin (1), 6-methylapigenin (2), 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavone (3), genkwanin (4), acacetin (5), apigenin (6), quercetin (7), tricin (8), (-)-farrerol (9), sosakuranetin (10), 5,3',4'-trihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (11), (-)-bornyl ferulate ( 12) , and (-)-bornyl caffeate ( 13). All compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time, while compounds 1, 9-13 were obtained from this genus for the first time. PMID:27062818

  13. Cadmium distribution and chemical fate in soybean plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cataldo, D.A.; Garland, T.R.; Wildung, R.E.

    1981-10-01

    The distribution and chemical behavior of Cd/sup 2+/ in tissues and its chemical form in xylem water of soybeam plants (cv. Williams) were investigated. Following root absorption, Cd is strongly retained by roots, with only 2% of the accumulated Cd being transported to leaves; as much as 8% was transported to seeds during seed filling. In vivo xylem exudates contained two anionic Cd complexes in addition to inorganic forms of Cd. Once accumulated in root and leaf tissues, Cd rapidly equilibrated between the insoluble, soluble, and organelle fractions. Of the solubles, which contain 50% of the Cd, >50% was associated with components of >10,000 molecular weight, and <8% was associated with <500 molecular weight components. Cadmium accumulated in soybean seeds was primarily associated with cotyledons. Fractionation of seeds showed the soy proteinate and soy whey to contain 32 and 50% of the accumulated Cd, respectively.

  14. Monte Carlo optimization for site selection of new chemical plants.

    PubMed

    Cai, Tianxing; Wang, Sujing; Xu, Qiang

    2015-11-01

    Geographic distribution of chemical manufacturing sites has significant impact on the business sustainability of industrial development and regional environmental sustainability as well. The common site selection rules have included the evaluation of the air quality impact of a newly constructed chemical manufacturing site to surrounding communities. In order to achieve this target, the simultaneous consideration should cover the regional background air-quality information, the emissions of new manufacturing site, and statistical pattern of local meteorological conditions. According to the above information, the risk assessment can be conducted for the potential air-quality impacts from candidate locations of a new chemical manufacturing site, and thus the optimization of the final site selection can be achieved by minimizing its air-quality impacts. This paper has provided a systematic methodology for the above purpose. There are total two stages of modeling and optimization work: i) Monte Carlo simulation for the purpose to identify background pollutant concentration based on currently existing emission sources and regional statistical meteorological conditions; and ii) multi-objective (simultaneous minimization of both peak pollutant concentration and standard deviation of pollutant concentration spatial distribution at air-quality concern regions) Monte Carlo optimization for optimal location selection of new chemical manufacturing sites according to their design data of potential emission. This study can be helpful to both determination of the potential air-quality impact for geographic distribution of multiple chemical plants with respect to regional statistical meteorological conditions, and the identification of an optimal site for each new chemical manufacturing site with the minimal environment impact to surrounding communities. The efficacy of the developed methodology has been demonstrated through the case studies.

  15. Subcellular distribution and chemical form of cadmium in bean plants

    SciTech Connect

    Weigel, H.J.; Jaeger, H.J.

    1980-03-01

    The subcellular distribution and chemical form of Cd in bean plants grown in nutrient solutions containing Cd were investigated. Cd was accumulated mainly in roots and to a minor extent in leaves. Subcellular fractionation of Cd-containing tissues (pH 7.5) showed that more than 70% of the element was localized in the cytoplasmic fraction in roots as well as in leaves. Little Cd (8 to 14%) was bound either to the cell wall fraction or to the organelles. Gel filtration of the soluble fraction showed Cd to be associated mainly with 5000 to 10,000 molecular weight components in roots, and 700 to 5000 molecular weight components in leaves. Small amounts of Cd were found in the high molecular weight proteins (molecular weight 150,000). Only traces of Cd could be detected as a free ion. Chemical characterization of the low molecular weight components resulted in the identification of nine amino acids which were identical in roots and leaves. Cd in bean plants is assumed to be bound to peptides and/or proteins of low molecular weight.

  16. Proportional mortality patterns among chemical plant workers exposed to formaldehyde.

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, G M

    1982-01-01

    To examine the possible health risks associated with occupational exposure to formaldehyde a proportional mortality analysis was conducted on deaths occurring between 1950 and 1976 among 136 men who had been employed a month or more in one of five formaldehyde-related areas of a large chemical producing plant located in Springfield, Massachusetts, USA. Overall, no statistically significant excesses or deficits in proportional mortality were observed among the formaldehyde-exposed group based on comparisons with both United States men and men from the local county area. In addition, no important differences in mortality were observed among this group when comparisons were made with 456 male decedents from the same plant who had not had a month or more of formaldehyde exposure. Within the calendar period examined, no deaths from sinonasal cancer were observed among the chemical workers studied nor was mention made on any death certificate of sinonasal cancer as a contributory cause of death. No important excesses, trends, or patterns in cancer mortality were observed among white male formadelhyde-exposed workers when consideration was given to age and time period of death, type and duration of formaldehyde exposure, and the lapse period from the onset of the first formaldehyde-related job assignment. Although certain limitations of this study do not allow definite conclusions to be drawn, the results indicate no trends or patterns in proportional mortality that could be directly linked to exposures to formaldehyde. PMID:7138792

  17. Dissecting a complex chemical stress: chemogenomic profiling of plant hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Skerker, Jeffrey M; Leon, Dacia; Price, Morgan N; Mar, Jordan S; Tarjan, Daniel R; Wetmore, Kelly M; Deutschbauer, Adam M; Baumohl, Jason K; Bauer, Stefan; Ibáñez, Ana B; Mitchell, Valerie D; Wu, Cindy H; Hu, Ping; Hazen, Terry; Arkin, Adam P

    2013-01-01

    The efficient production of biofuels from cellulosic feedstocks will require the efficient fermentation of the sugars in hydrolyzed plant material. Unfortunately, plant hydrolysates also contain many compounds that inhibit microbial growth and fermentation. We used DNA-barcoded mutant libraries to identify genes that are important for hydrolysate tolerance in both Zymomonas mobilis (44 genes) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (99 genes). Overexpression of a Z. mobilis tolerance gene of unknown function (ZMO1875) improved its specific ethanol productivity 2.4-fold in the presence of miscanthus hydrolysate. However, a mixture of 37 hydrolysate-derived inhibitors was not sufficient to explain the fitness profile of plant hydrolysate. To deconstruct the fitness profile of hydrolysate, we profiled the 37 inhibitors against a library of Z. mobilis mutants and we modeled fitness in hydrolysate as a mixture of fitness in its components. By examining outliers in this model, we identified methylglyoxal as a previously unknown component of hydrolysate. Our work provides a general strategy to dissect how microbes respond to a complex chemical stress and should enable further engineering of hydrolysate tolerance. PMID:23774757

  18. Exploring the Potential for Using Inexpensive Natural Reagents Extracted from Plants to Teach Chemical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartwell, Supaporn Kradtap

    2012-01-01

    A number of scientific articles report on the use of natural extracts from plants as chemical reagents, where the main objective is to present the scientific applications of those natural plant extracts. The author suggests that natural reagents extracted from plants can be used as alternative low cost tools in teaching chemical analysis,…

  19. Fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in plant-soil systems: Plant responses to a chemical stress in the root zone

    SciTech Connect

    Hoylman, A.M.; Walton, B.T.

    1994-01-01

    Under laboratory conditions selected to maximize root uptake, plant tissue distribution of PAH-derived {sup 14}C was largely limited to root tissue of Malilotus alba. These results suggest that plant uptake of PAHs from contaminated soil via roots, and translocation to aboveground plant tissues (stems and leaves), is a limited mechanism for transport into terrestrial food chains. However, these data also indicate that root surface sorption of PAHs may be important for plants grown in soils containing elevated concentration PAHs. Root surface sorption of PAHs may be an important route of exposure for plants in soils containing elevated concentrations of PAHS. Consequently, the root-soil interface may be the site of plant-microbial interactions in response to a chemical stress. In this study, evidence of a shift in carbon allocation to the root zone of plants exposed to phenanthrene and corresponding increases in soil respiration and heterotrophic plate counts provide evidence of a plant-microbial response to a chemical stress. The results of this study establish the importance of the root-soil interface for plants growing in PAH contaminated soil and indicate the existence of plant-microbial interactions in response to a chemical stress. These results may provide new avenues of inquiry for studies of plant toxicology, plant-microbial interactions in the rhizosphere, and environmental fates of soil contaminants. In addition, the utilization of plants to enhance the biodegradation of soil contaminants may require evaluation of plant physiological changes and plant shifts in resource allocation.

  20. [Measurement of chemical agents in metallurgy field: electric steel plant].

    PubMed

    Cottica, D; Grignani, E; Ghitti, R; Festa, D; Apostoli, P

    2012-01-01

    The steel industry maintains its important position in the context of the Italian production involving thousands of workers. The iron and steel processes are divided into primary steel industry, production of intermediate minerals, and secondary steel, scrap from the production of semi-finished industrial and consumer sector (metal inserted into components and metal used for dissipative uses, primarily coatings) and industrial waste. The paper presents the results of environmental monitoring carried out in some electric steel plant for the measurement of airborne chemicals that characterize the occupational exposure of workers employed in particular area like electric oven, to treatment outside the furnace, continuous casting area. For the sampling of the pollutants were used both personal and in fixed positions samplers. The pollutants measured are those typical of steel processes inhalable dust, metals, respirable dust, crystalline silica, but also Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs).

  1. Chemical preservation of plants and insects in natural resins

    PubMed Central

    Stankiewicz, B. A.; Poinar, H. N.; Briggs, D. E. G.; Evershed, R. P.; Poinar, G. O.

    1998-01-01

    The morphological preservation of fossils in amber is remarkable, but their chemical composition is largely unknown. The likelihood of DNA preservation in amber has been questioned but, surprisingly, the fate of more decay-resistant macromolecules such as ligno-cellulose in plants or the chitin–protein complex in insect cuticle has not been investigated. Here we report the results of investigations using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (py-GC/MS) of the tissues of insects and the plant Hymenaea from ancient and sub-fossil resins (2–20 ka) from Kenya, and from Dominican amber (25–30 Ma). The volatile components of the resin have penetrated even the internal tissues, resulting in the exceptional three-dimensional preservation of amber inclusions. Chitin is preserved in the bee and ligno-cellulose in the Hymenaea leaf from the Kenyan resins. There was no trace, however, of these macromolecules in tissues in Dominican amber. The presence of aliphatic polymer and sulphur-containing moieties in these tissues indicates that they have undergone diagenetic alteration; in view of this, the preservation in Dominican amber of a macromolecule as labile as DNA would be extraordinary.

  2. Chemical Profiling of the Plant Cell Wall through Raman Microspectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Ju; Singh, Seema; Sun, Lan; Simmons, Blake; Auer, Manfred; Parvin, Bahram

    2010-03-02

    This paper presents a computational framework for chemical pro.ling of the plant cell wall through the Raman spectroscopy. The system enables query of known spectral signatures and clustering of spectral data based on intrinsic properties. As a result, presence and relative concentration of speci.c chemical bonds can be quanti.ed. The primary contribution of this paper is in representation of raman pro.le in terms of .uorescence background and multiscale peak detection at each grid point (voxel). Such a representation allows ef.cient spatial segmentation based on the coupling between high-level salient properties and low-level symbolic representation at each voxel. The high-level salient properties refer to preferred peaks and their attributes for the entire image. The low-level symbolic representations are based on .uorescence background, spectral peak locations, and their attributes. We present results on a corn stover tissue section that is imaged through Raman microscopy, and the results are consistent with the literature. In addition, automatic clustering indicates several distinct layers of the cell walls with different spectral signatures.

  3. Rohm and Haas: Furnace Replacement Project Saves Energy and Improves Production at a Chemical Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-02-01

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how Rohm and Haas's Deer Park, Texas, chemical plant reduced natural gas usage and energy costs by replacing inefficient furnace equipment.

  4. Some Sensitivity Studies of Chemical Transport Simulated in Models of the Soil-Plant-Litter System

    SciTech Connect

    Begovich, C.L.

    2002-10-28

    Fifteen parameters in a set of five coupled models describing carbon, water, and chemical dynamics in the soil-plant-litter system were varied in a sensitivity analysis of model response. Results are presented for chemical distribution in the components of soil, plants, and litter along with selected responses of biomass, internal chemical transport (xylem and phloem pathways), and chemical uptake. Response and sensitivity coefficients are presented for up to 102 model outputs in an appendix. Two soil properties (chemical distribution coefficient and chemical solubility) and three plant properties (leaf chemical permeability, cuticle thickness, and root chemical conductivity) had the greatest influence on chemical transport in the soil-plant-litter system under the conditions examined. Pollutant gas uptake (SO{sub 2}) increased with change in plant properties that increased plant growth. Heavy metal dynamics in litter responded to plant properties (phloem resistance, respiration characteristics) which induced changes in the chemical cycling to the litter system. Some of the SO{sub 2} and heavy metal responses were not expected but became apparent through the modeling analysis.

  5. Computational insight into the chemical space of plant growth regulators.

    PubMed

    Bushkov, Nikolay A; Veselov, Mark S; Chuprov-Netochin, Roman N; Marusich, Elena I; Majouga, Alexander G; Volynchuk, Polina B; Shumilina, Daria V; Leonov, Sergey V; Ivanenkov, Yan A

    2016-02-01

    An enormous technological progress has resulted in an explosive growth in the amount of biological and chemical data that is typically multivariate and tangled in structure. Therefore, several computational approaches have mainly focused on dimensionality reduction and convenient representation of high-dimensional datasets to elucidate the relationships between the observed activity (or effect) and calculated parameters commonly expressed in terms of molecular descriptors. We have collected the experimental data available in patent and scientific publications as well as specific databases for various agrochemicals. The resulting dataset was then thoroughly analyzed using Kohonen-based self-organizing technique. The overall aim of the presented study is to investigate whether the developed in silico model can be applied to predict the agrochemical activity of small molecule compounds and, at the same time, to offer further insights into the distinctive features of different agrochemical categories. The preliminary external validation with several plant growth regulators demonstrated a relatively high prediction power (67%) of the constructed model. This study is, actually, the first example of a large-scale modeling in the field of agrochemistry.

  6. Plant polyphenols: chemical properties, biological activities, and synthesis.

    PubMed

    Quideau, Stéphane; Deffieux, Denis; Douat-Casassus, Céline; Pouységu, Laurent

    2011-01-17

    Eating five servings of fruits and vegetables per day! This is what is highly recommended and heavily advertised nowadays to the general public to stay fit and healthy! Drinking green tea on a regular basis, eating chocolate from time to time, as well as savoring a couple of glasses of red wine per day have been claimed to increase life expectancy even further! Why? The answer is in fact still under scientific scrutiny, but a particular class of compounds naturally occurring in fruits and vegetables is considered to be crucial for the expression of such human health benefits: the polyphenols! What are these plant products really? What are their physicochemical properties? How do they express their biological activity? Are they really valuable for disease prevention? Can they be used to develop new pharmaceutical drugs? What recent progress has been made toward their preparation by organic synthesis? This Review gives answers from a chemical perspective, summarizes the state of the art, and highlights the most significant advances in the field of polyphenol research.

  7. Plant polyphenols: chemical properties, biological activities, and synthesis.

    PubMed

    Quideau, Stéphane; Deffieux, Denis; Douat-Casassus, Céline; Pouységu, Laurent

    2011-01-17

    Eating five servings of fruits and vegetables per day! This is what is highly recommended and heavily advertised nowadays to the general public to stay fit and healthy! Drinking green tea on a regular basis, eating chocolate from time to time, as well as savoring a couple of glasses of red wine per day have been claimed to increase life expectancy even further! Why? The answer is in fact still under scientific scrutiny, but a particular class of compounds naturally occurring in fruits and vegetables is considered to be crucial for the expression of such human health benefits: the polyphenols! What are these plant products really? What are their physicochemical properties? How do they express their biological activity? Are they really valuable for disease prevention? Can they be used to develop new pharmaceutical drugs? What recent progress has been made toward their preparation by organic synthesis? This Review gives answers from a chemical perspective, summarizes the state of the art, and highlights the most significant advances in the field of polyphenol research. PMID:21226137

  8. Chemical interactions between plants in Mediterranean vegetation: the influence of selected plant extracts on Aegilops geniculata metabolome.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, Monica; Fiumano, Vittorio; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Esposito, Assunta; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Robert; Fiorentino, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Allelopathy is the chemical mediated communication among plants. While on one hand there is growing interest in the field, on the other hand it is still debated as doubts exist at different levels. A number of compounds have been reported for their ability to influence plant growth, but the existence of this phenomenon in the field has rarely been demonstrated. Furthermore, only few studies have reported the uptake and the effects at molecular level of the allelochemicals. Allelopathy has been reported on some plants of Mediterranean vegetation and could contribute to structuring this ecosystem. Sixteen plants of Mediterranean vegetation have been selected and studied by an NMR-based metabolomics approach. The extracts of these donor plants have been characterized in terms of chemical composition and the effects on a selected receiving plant, Aegilops geniculata, have been studied both at the morphological and at the metabolic level. Most of the plant extracts employed in this study were found to have an activity, which could be correlated with the presence of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamate derivatives. These plant extracts affected the receiving plant in different ways, with different rates of growth inhibition at morphological level. The results of metabolomic analysis of treated plants suggested the induction of oxidative stress in all the receiving plants treated with active donor plant extracts, although differences were observed among the responses. Finally, the uptake and transport into receiving plant leaves of different metabolites present in the extracts added to the culture medium were observed. PMID:25073950

  9. Chemical interactions between plants in Mediterranean vegetation: the influence of selected plant extracts on Aegilops geniculata metabolome.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, Monica; Fiumano, Vittorio; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Esposito, Assunta; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Robert; Fiorentino, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Allelopathy is the chemical mediated communication among plants. While on one hand there is growing interest in the field, on the other hand it is still debated as doubts exist at different levels. A number of compounds have been reported for their ability to influence plant growth, but the existence of this phenomenon in the field has rarely been demonstrated. Furthermore, only few studies have reported the uptake and the effects at molecular level of the allelochemicals. Allelopathy has been reported on some plants of Mediterranean vegetation and could contribute to structuring this ecosystem. Sixteen plants of Mediterranean vegetation have been selected and studied by an NMR-based metabolomics approach. The extracts of these donor plants have been characterized in terms of chemical composition and the effects on a selected receiving plant, Aegilops geniculata, have been studied both at the morphological and at the metabolic level. Most of the plant extracts employed in this study were found to have an activity, which could be correlated with the presence of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamate derivatives. These plant extracts affected the receiving plant in different ways, with different rates of growth inhibition at morphological level. The results of metabolomic analysis of treated plants suggested the induction of oxidative stress in all the receiving plants treated with active donor plant extracts, although differences were observed among the responses. Finally, the uptake and transport into receiving plant leaves of different metabolites present in the extracts added to the culture medium were observed.

  10. Corrosion Resistance of Various High Chromium Alloys in Simulated Chemical Processing Nuclear Plant Waste Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.A.; Agarwal, D.C.

    1997-12-31

    High chromium nickel alloys were tested at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) to determine their corrosion performance in the high temperature aggressive chemical environments of liquid waste evaporators used in the chemical reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels. The results of these tests, which included a variety of base metal alloys I weld filler material combinations, are presented and discussed.

  11. Chemical monitoring strategy for the assessment of advanced water treatment plant performance.

    PubMed

    Drewes, J E; McDonald, J A; Trinh, T; Storey, M V; Khan, S J

    2011-01-01

    A pilot-scale plant was employed to validate the performance of a proposed full-scale advanced water treatment plant (AWTP) in Sydney, Australia. The primary aim of this study was to develop a chemical monitoring program that can demonstrate proper plant operation resulting in the removal of priority chemical constituents in the product water. The feed water quality to the pilot plant was tertiary-treated effluent from a wastewater treatment plant. The unit processes of the AWTP were comprised of an integrated membrane system (ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis) followed by final chlorination generating a water quality that does not present a source of human or environmental health concern. The chemical monitoring program was undertaken over 6 weeks during pilot plant operation and involved the quantitative analysis of pharmaceuticals and personal care products, steroidal hormones, industrial chemicals, pesticides, N-nitrosamines and halomethanes. The first phase consisted of baseline monitoring of target compounds to quantify influent concentrations in feed waters to the plant. This was followed by a period of validation monitoring utilising indicator chemicals and surrogate measures suitable to assess proper process performance at various stages of the AWTP. This effort was supported by challenge testing experiments to further validate removal of a series of indicator chemicals by reverse osmosis. This pilot-scale study demonstrated a simplified analytical approach that can be employed to assure proper operation of advanced water treatment processes and the absence of trace organic chemicals.

  12. Aphids Pick Their Poison: Selective Sequestration of Plant Chemicals Affects Host Plant Use in a Specialist Herbivore.

    PubMed

    Goodey, Nicole A; Florance, Hannah V; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-10-01

    In some plant-insect interactions, specialist herbivores exploit the chemical defenses of their food plant to their own advantage. Brassica plants produce glucosinolates that are broken down into defensive toxins when tissue is damaged, but the specialist aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae, uses these chemicals against its own natural enemies by becoming a "walking mustard-oil bomb". Analysis of glucosinolate concentrations in plant tissue and associated aphid colonies reveals that not only do aphids sequester glucosinolates, but they do so selectively. Aphids specifically accumulate sinigrin to high concentrations while preferentially excreting a structurally similar glucosinolate, progoitrin. Surveys of aphid infestation in wild populations of Brassica oleracea show that this pattern of sequestration and excretion maps onto host plant use. The probability of aphid infestation decreases with increasing concentrations of progoitrin in plants. Brassica brassicae, therefore, appear to select among food plants according to plant secondary metabolite profiles, and selectively store only some compounds that are used against their own enemies. The results demonstrate chemical and behavioral mechanisms that help to explain evidence of geographic patterns and evolutionary dynamics in Brassica-aphid interactions. PMID:26411571

  13. Aphids Pick Their Poison: Selective Sequestration of Plant Chemicals Affects Host Plant Use in a Specialist Herbivore.

    PubMed

    Goodey, Nicole A; Florance, Hannah V; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-10-01

    In some plant-insect interactions, specialist herbivores exploit the chemical defenses of their food plant to their own advantage. Brassica plants produce glucosinolates that are broken down into defensive toxins when tissue is damaged, but the specialist aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae, uses these chemicals against its own natural enemies by becoming a "walking mustard-oil bomb". Analysis of glucosinolate concentrations in plant tissue and associated aphid colonies reveals that not only do aphids sequester glucosinolates, but they do so selectively. Aphids specifically accumulate sinigrin to high concentrations while preferentially excreting a structurally similar glucosinolate, progoitrin. Surveys of aphid infestation in wild populations of Brassica oleracea show that this pattern of sequestration and excretion maps onto host plant use. The probability of aphid infestation decreases with increasing concentrations of progoitrin in plants. Brassica brassicae, therefore, appear to select among food plants according to plant secondary metabolite profiles, and selectively store only some compounds that are used against their own enemies. The results demonstrate chemical and behavioral mechanisms that help to explain evidence of geographic patterns and evolutionary dynamics in Brassica-aphid interactions.

  14. Plant Disease Control by the Use of Chemicals. MP-27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, William D.; Bridgmon, George H.

    This document has been prepared as a reference manual providing information regarding plant diseases. The text concerns itself with the identification and development of infectious and non-infectious diseases and associated control measures. An appendix includes a glossary of plant pathological terms and a bibliography. (CS)

  15. Fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in plant-soil systems: Plant responses to a chemical stress in the root zone

    SciTech Connect

    Hoylman, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Plant uptake and translocation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil was investigated to explore plant-microbial interactions in response to a chemical stress in the root zone. Plant uptake of individual PAHs was examined under laboratory conditions which maximized root exposure. White sweetclover, Melilotus alba, was grown in soils dosed with [sup 14]C-naphthalene, -phenanthrene, -pyrene, and -fluoranthene. The highest [sup 14]C concentrations were associated with roots, with decreasing concentrations observed in stems and leaves; however, the greatest percentage of recoverable [sup 14]C remained in the soil ([ge]86%) for all four PAHs. No evidence of bioaccumulation of the individual PAHs was found in M. alba over a 5-day exposure period. Root uptake and translocation of PAHs from soil to aboveground plant tissues proved to be a limited mechanism for PAH transport into terrestrial food chains. However, root surface sorption of PAHs may be important for plants in soils containing elevated concentrations of PAHs. Consequently, the root-soil interface may be important for plant-microbial interactions in response to a chemical stress. [sup 14]CO[sub 2] pulse-labeling studies provide evidence of a shift in [sup 14]C-allocation from aboveground tissue to the root zone when plants were exposed simultaneously to phenanthrene in soil. In addition, soil respiration and heterotrophic plate counts of rhizosphere microorganisms increased in plants exposed to phenanthrene as compared to controls. This study demonstrates the importance of the root-soil interface for plants growing in PAH contaminated soil and provides supportive evidence for a plant-microbial defense response to chemical toxicants in the root zone. Lipophilic toxicants in soils may reach high concentrations in the root zone, but rhizosphere microbial communities under the influence of the plant may reduce the amount of the compound that is actually taken up by the root.

  16. Rohm and Haas: Furnace Replacement Project Saves Energy and Improves Production at a Chemical Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2006-02-01

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how Rohm and Haas’s Deer Park, Texas, chemical plant reduced natural gas usage and energy costs by replacing inefficient furnace equipment.

  17. In Situ Chemical Imaging of Plant Cell Walls Using CARS/SRS Microscopy (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Y.; Liu, Y. S.; Saar, B. G.; Xie, X. S.; Chen, F.; Dixon, R. A.; Himmel, M. E.; Ding S. Y.

    2009-06-01

    This poster demonstrates coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and stimulated Raman scattering of plant cell walls. It includes simultaneous chemical imaging of lignin and cellulose (corn stover) during acidic pretreatment.

  18. 15 CFR 714.1 - Annual declaration requirements for plant sites that produce a Schedule 3 chemical in excess of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... in the production of a chemical in any units within the same plant through chemical reaction... plant sites that produce a Schedule 3 chemical in excess of 30 metric tons. 714.1 Section 714.1 Commerce... AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES...

  19. 15 CFR 714.1 - Annual declaration requirements for plant sites that produce a Schedule 3 chemical in excess of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... in the production of a chemical in any units within the same plant through chemical reaction... plant sites that produce a Schedule 3 chemical in excess of 30 metric tons. 714.1 Section 714.1 Commerce... AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES...

  20. 15 CFR 714.1 - Annual declaration requirements for plant sites that produce a Schedule 3 chemical in excess of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in the production of a chemical in any units within the same plant through chemical reaction... plant sites that produce a Schedule 3 chemical in excess of 30 metric tons. 714.1 Section 714.1 Commerce... AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES...

  1. 15 CFR 714.1 - Annual declaration requirements for plant sites that produce a Schedule 3 chemical in excess of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... in the production of a chemical in any units within the same plant through chemical reaction... plant sites that produce a Schedule 3 chemical in excess of 30 metric tons. 714.1 Section 714.1 Commerce... AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES...

  2. 15 CFR 714.1 - Annual declaration requirements for plant sites that produce a Schedule 3 chemical in excess of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in the production of a chemical in any units within the same plant through chemical reaction... plant sites that produce a Schedule 3 chemical in excess of 30 metric tons. 714.1 Section 714.1 Commerce... AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES...

  3. Chemical signatures of fossilized resins and recent plant exudates.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Joseph B; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A; Anderson, Ken B

    2008-01-01

    Amber is one of the few gemstones based on an organic structure. Found over most of the world, it is the fossil form of sticky plant exudates called resins. Investigation of amber by modern analytical techniques provides structural information and insight into the identity of the ancient plants that produced the source resin. Mass spectrometric analysis of materials separated by gas chromatography has identified specific compounds that are the basis of a reliable classification of the different types of amber. NMR spectroscopy of bulk, solid amber provides a complementary classification. NMR spectroscopy also can be used to characterize modern resins as well as other types of plant exudates such as gums, gum resins, and kinos, which strongly resemble resins in appearance but have very different molecular constitutions.

  4. Chemical signatures of fossilized resins and recent plant exudates.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Joseph B; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A; Anderson, Ken B

    2008-01-01

    Amber is one of the few gemstones based on an organic structure. Found over most of the world, it is the fossil form of sticky plant exudates called resins. Investigation of amber by modern analytical techniques provides structural information and insight into the identity of the ancient plants that produced the source resin. Mass spectrometric analysis of materials separated by gas chromatography has identified specific compounds that are the basis of a reliable classification of the different types of amber. NMR spectroscopy of bulk, solid amber provides a complementary classification. NMR spectroscopy also can be used to characterize modern resins as well as other types of plant exudates such as gums, gum resins, and kinos, which strongly resemble resins in appearance but have very different molecular constitutions. PMID:18925589

  5. Physiology and toxicology of hormone-disrupting chemicals in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Couée, Ivan; Serra, Anne-Antonella; Ramel, Fanny; Gouesbet, Gwenola; Sulmon, Cécile

    2013-06-01

    Higher plants are exposed to natural environmental organic chemicals, associated with plant-environment interactions, and xenobiotic environmental organic chemicals, associated with anthropogenic activities. The effects of these chemicals result not only from interaction with metabolic targets, but also from interaction with the complex regulatory networks of hormone signaling. Purpose-designed plant hormone analogues thus show extensive signaling effects on gene regulation and are as such important for understanding plant hormone mechanisms and for manipulating plant growth and development. Some natural environmental chemicals also act on plants through interference with the perception and transduction of endogenous hormone signals. In a number of cases, bioactive xenobiotics, including herbicides that have been designed to affect specific metabolic targets, show extensive gene regulation effects, which are more in accordance with signaling effects than with consequences of metabolic effects. Some of these effects could be due to structural analogies with plant hormones or to interference with hormone metabolism, thus resulting in situations of hormone disruption similar to animal cell endocrine disruption by xenobiotics. These hormone-disrupting effects can be superimposed on parallel metabolic effects, thus indicating that toxicological characterisation of xenobiotics must take into consideration the whole range of signaling and metabolic effects. Hormone-disruptive signaling effects probably predominate when xenobiotic concentrations are low, as occurs in situations of residual low-level pollutions. These hormone-disruptive effects in plants may thus be of importance for understanding cryptic effects of low-dosage xenobiotics, as well as the interactive effects of mixtures of xenobiotic pollutants.

  6. Activation of chemical promutagens by Selenastrum capricornutum in the plant cell/microbe coincubation assay

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, J.M.; Lippert, M.; Johnson, P.; Shafer, T. )

    1990-05-01

    The critical balance of organisms living in aquatic environments is influenced by the presence and relationship of plants to those environments. However, even though plants occupy a fundamental trophic level within aquatic ecosystems, few studies have focused upon the effect of xenobiotics on aquatic plants, and even fewer studies have dealt with xenobiotic metabolism by aquatic plants. It is well established that plants can metabolize chemicals into mutagens. The impact of these unique plant-activated chemical mutagens on ecosystems, food chains and, ultimately, human health is an important question that will require intensive and integrative investigation. The plant cell/microbe coincubation assay is particularly advantageous for use with unicellular algae. The conditions of this assay are such that chemical metabolism and subsequent mutagen detection can be followed in intact algal cells under simulated field conditions. The purpose of this research was to demonstrate that a unicellular algal species could be used effectively in the plant cell/microbe coincubation assay to activate model chemical mutagens.

  7. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROFILE OF SOME COLOURING PLANTS USED IN HOMOEOPATHY

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, P.; Sunilkumar

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this paper deal with the physico chemical aspects of certain colouring plants namely. Bixa orellana Linn. (Leaves) and Lawsonia inermis Linn (Leaves). The determined data under the physico chemical, chromatographic and spectrophotometric studies can be taken as a pharmacopoeial standards. PMID:22557040

  8. Physico-chemical profile of some colouring plants used in homoeopathy.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, P; Sunilkumar

    2001-10-01

    The objective of this paper deal with the physico chemical aspects of certain colouring plants namely. Bixa orellana Linn. (Leaves) and Lawsonia inermis Linn (Leaves). The determined data under the physico chemical, chromatographic and spectrophotometric studies can be taken as a pharmacopoeial standards. PMID:22557040

  9. [A method of evaluation of work load in an automated chemical plant].

    PubMed

    Egorova, Iu V

    1991-01-01

    Time-study techniques were used at several chemical enterprises to assess 13 basic elements of the operator's labour, and to determine their average energy inputs in the conditions of a modern chemical plant. A table was drawn up as a time-study guidance for establishing energy inputs in a unit of time, thus determining the labour intensity degree. The contributors set forth a hypothesis regarding the influence of chemical processing products on the non-direct calorimetry indices in energy input analyses. It was further shown that, with the workers contacts with chemical substances in the concentrations peculiar of a modern chemical plant, no correlation corresponding to the chemical factors was required.

  10. Analysis of chemical components from plant tissue samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laseter, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Information is given on the type and concentration of sterols, free fatty acids, and total fatty acids in plant tissue samples. All samples were analyzed by gas chromatography and then by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combination. In each case the mass spectral data was accumulated as a computer printout and plot. Typical gas chromatograms are included as well as tables describing test results.

  11. INORGANIC CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT RESIDUALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study obtained field data on the inorganic contaminants and constituents in residuals produced by Water Treatment Plants (WTPs). Eight WTPs were studied based on treatment technology, contamination or suspected contamination of raw water, and efficiency in the removal of cont...

  12. Use of plant volatiles to reconcile biological and chemical controls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When loaded within slow-release lures, herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) allow researchers to monitor or manipulate the spatial distributions of natural enemy populations. In Washington apple orchards, HIPV blends were screened for their attractiveness to the resident insect taxa. In 2009, t...

  13. Circumventing Graphical User Interfaces in Chemical Engineering Plant Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romey, Noel; Schwartz, Rachel M.; Behrend, Douglas; Miao, Peter; Cheung, H. Michael; Beitle, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) are pervasive elements of most modern technical software and represent a convenient tool for student instruction. For example, GUIs are used for [chemical] process design software (e.g., CHEMCAD, PRO/II and ASPEN) typically encountered in the senior capstone course. Drag and drop aspects of GUIs are challenging for…

  14. From plant biomass to bio-based chemicals: latest developments in xylan research.

    PubMed

    Deutschmann, Rudolf; Dekker, Robert F H

    2012-01-01

    For a hundred years or more, oil and natural gas has supplied fuel and other raw chemicals to support economic growth. In the last decades their shrinking reservoirs and the increasing cost of production has become obvious, leading researchers to look for alternative substitutes of all the chemical materials presently derived from oil and gas. This review is focused on xylan, the second most abundant plant polysaccharide on our planet. Some xylan-derived products have already found commercial applications (ethanol, xylitol, xylo-oligosaccharides) while others could have a great future in a wide range of industries. The chemical and structural variations of xylans produced by different plants, and the concentration of xylan in various plant resources are summarized. This review discusses the latest research developments in extraction and purification methodologies, and chemical modification, as well as the analytical methods necessary for xylan related research. PMID:22776161

  15. In-line chemical sensor deployment in a tritium plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.S.; Hope, D.T.; Torres, R.D.; Peters, B.; Tovo, L.L.

    2015-03-15

    The Savannah River Tritium Plant (TP) relies on well understood but aging sensor technology for process gas analysis. The use of alternative sensing and detection technologies for in-line and real-time analysis would aid process control and optimization. The TP upgrading follows a 2-phase projects. In the first phase, TP sensing requirements were determined by a team of process experts. Meanwhile, Savannah River National Laboratory sensor experts identified candidate technologies and related them to the TP processing requirements. The resulting road-map links the candidate technologies to actual plant needs. In the second phase an instrument demonstration station was established within a TP glove box in order to provide accurate assessments of how a candidate sensor technology would perform in a contaminated process environment.

  16. Immunoelectron microscopy of chemically fixed developing plant embryos.

    PubMed

    Osafune, Tetsuaki; Schwartzbach, Steven D

    2010-01-01

    The hydrophobic plant cell wall, large acidic central vacuole, diverse secondary compounds, intercellular airspaces, and rigid starch granules present obstacles to ultrastructure preservation and specimen sectioning. We describe modifications of fixation and embedding procedures successfully used with microbes, protists, and mammalian tissues that have overcome these obstacles. Vacuum infiltration is used to remove intercellular air rapidly replacing it with fixative and buffer preserving cellular ultrastructure while neutralizing the acidic vacuole. Vacuum infiltration of embedding resin ensures uniform embedding resin permeation allowing production of intact ultrathin sections that are stable under the electron beam and suitable for immunolabeling. The methodology described has been used for immunolocalization of non-specific lipid transfer proteins in the diverse cell types found in developing castor bean fruits but is suitable for all plant tissues.

  17. Antifungal activities and chemical composition of some medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, A; Nazari, H; Imani, S; Amrollahi, H

    2014-06-01

    The use of and search for drugs and dietary supplements derived from plants have accelerated in recent years. Ethnopharmacologists, botanists, microbiologists and natural-products scientists are combing the earth for phytochemicals and leads, which could be developed for treatment of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the antifungal activities of the essential oils of some medicinal plants such as Stachys pubescens, Thymus kotschyanus, Thymus daenensis and Bupleurum falcatum against Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus flavus and Alternaria alternata. The essential oils were used to evaluate their MICs and MFCs compared to the amphotricin B as a standard drug. The essential oils were also analyzed by GC/MS. Essential oils isolated from the S. pubescens, T. kotschyanus and B. falcatum showed strong antifungal activities. The essential oil of T. daenensis exhibited a moderate activity against the selected fungi in comparison with the other plants' essential oils. In addition, the results showed that 26, 23, 22 and 15 components were identified from the essential oils of T. kotschyanus, S. pubescens, T. daenensis and B. falcatum, respectively. These oils exhibited a noticeable antifungal activity against the selected fungi. Regarding obtained results and that natural antimicrobial substances are inexpensive and have fewer side effects, they convey potential for implementation in fungal pathogenic systems.

  18. Antifungal activities and chemical composition of some medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, A; Nazari, H; Imani, S; Amrollahi, H

    2014-06-01

    The use of and search for drugs and dietary supplements derived from plants have accelerated in recent years. Ethnopharmacologists, botanists, microbiologists and natural-products scientists are combing the earth for phytochemicals and leads, which could be developed for treatment of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the antifungal activities of the essential oils of some medicinal plants such as Stachys pubescens, Thymus kotschyanus, Thymus daenensis and Bupleurum falcatum against Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus flavus and Alternaria alternata. The essential oils were used to evaluate their MICs and MFCs compared to the amphotricin B as a standard drug. The essential oils were also analyzed by GC/MS. Essential oils isolated from the S. pubescens, T. kotschyanus and B. falcatum showed strong antifungal activities. The essential oil of T. daenensis exhibited a moderate activity against the selected fungi in comparison with the other plants' essential oils. In addition, the results showed that 26, 23, 22 and 15 components were identified from the essential oils of T. kotschyanus, S. pubescens, T. daenensis and B. falcatum, respectively. These oils exhibited a noticeable antifungal activity against the selected fungi. Regarding obtained results and that natural antimicrobial substances are inexpensive and have fewer side effects, they convey potential for implementation in fungal pathogenic systems. PMID:24768063

  19. Selective chemical binding enhances cesium tolerance in plants through inhibition of cesium uptake.

    PubMed

    Adams, Eri; Chaban, Vitaly; Khandelia, Himanshu; Shin, Ryoung

    2015-03-05

    High concentrations of cesium (Cs(+)) inhibit plant growth but the detailed mechanisms of Cs(+) uptake, transport and response in plants are not well known. In order to identify small molecules with a capacity to enhance plant tolerance to Cs(+), chemical library screening was performed using Arabidopsis. Of 10,000 chemicals tested, five compounds were confirmed as Cs(+) tolerance enhancers. Further investigation and quantum mechanical modelling revealed that one of these compounds reduced Cs(+) concentrations in plants and that the imidazole moiety of this compound bound specifically to Cs(+). Analysis of the analogous compounds indicated that the structure of the identified compound is important for the effect to be conferred. Taken together, Cs(+) tolerance enhancer isolated here renders plants tolerant to Cs(+) by inhibiting Cs(+) entry into roots via specific binding to the ion thus, for instance, providing a basis for phytostabilisation of radiocesium-contaminated farmland.

  20. Host plant invests in growth rather than chemical defense when attacked by a specialist herbivore.

    PubMed

    Arab, Alberto; Trigo, José Roberto

    2011-05-01

    Plant defensive compounds may be a cost rather than a benefit when plants are attacked by specialist insects that may overcome chemical barriers by strategies such as sequestering plant compounds. Plants may respond to specialist herbivores by compensatory growth rather than chemical defense. To explore the use of defensive chemistry vs. compensatory growth we studied Brugmansia suaveolens (Solanaceae) and the specialist larvae of the ithomiine butterfly Placidina euryanassa, which sequester defensive tropane alkaloids (TAs) from this host plant. We investigated whether the concentration of TAs in B. suaveolens was changed by P. euryanassa damage, and whether plants invest in growth, when damaged by the specialist. Larvae feeding during 24 hr significantly decreased TAs in damaged plants, but they returned to control levels after 15 days without damage. Damaged and undamaged plants did not differ significantly in leaf area after 15 days, indicating compensatory growth. Our results suggest that B. suaveolens responds to herbivory by the specialist P. euryanassa by investing in growth rather than chemical defense.

  1. FMC Chemicals: Burner Management System Upgrade Improves Performance and Saves Energy at a Chemical Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-01

    FMC Chemicals Corporation increased the efficiency of two large coal-fired boilers at its soda ash mine in Green River, Wyoming, by upgrading the burner management system. The project yields annual energy savings of 250,000 MMBtu.

  2. IN-LINE CHEMICAL SENSOR DEPLOYMENT IN A TRITIUM PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Tovo, L.; Wright, J.; Torres, R.; Peters, B.

    2013-10-02

    The Savannah River Tritium Plant (TP) relies on well understood but aging sensor technology for process gas analysis. Though new sensor technologies have been brought to various readiness levels, the TP has been reluctant to install technologies that have not been tested in tritium service. This gap between sensor technology development and incorporating new technologies into practical applications demonstrates fundamental challenges that exist when transitioning from status quo to state-of-the-art in an extreme environment such as a tritium plant. These challenges stem from three root obstacles: 1) The need for a comprehensive assessment of process sensing needs and requirements; 2) The lack of a pick-list of process-compatible sensor technologies; and 3) The need to test technologies in a tritium-contaminated process environment without risking production. At Savannah River, these issues are being addressed in a two phase project. In the first phase, TP sensing requirements were determined by a team of process experts. Meanwhile, Savannah River National Laboratory sensor experts identified candidate technologies and related them to the TP processing requirements. The resulting roadmap links the candidate technologies to actual plant needs. To provide accurate assessments of how a candidate sensor technology would perform in a contaminated process environment, an instrument demonstration station was established within a TP glove box. This station was fabricated to TP process requirements and designed to handle high activity samples. The combination of roadmap and demonstration station provides the following assets: Creates a partnership between the process engineers and researchers for sensor selection, maturation, and insertion, Selects the right sensors for process conditions Provides a means for safely inserting new sensor technology into the process without risking production, and Provides a means to evaluate off normal occurrences where and when they occur

  3. Economics of gasification integrated power-chemical co-production plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, H.; Mohammed-Zadeh, Y.

    1998-07-01

    The use of coal and refinery residual fuels for power generation through integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants have been successfully demonstrated and many large-scale commercial projects are now in various phases of development. The syngas produced from gasification of solid fuels or low-grade refinery residues can be formulated to imitate the syngas produced from the reforming of conventional hydrocarbon feedstocks. With the advancement in the gasification technology, it is technically feasible to produce basic chemicals such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methanol, and reducing gas from coal or refinery by-products. While the capital plant cost of a natural gas fired combined cycle power plant is lower than that of an IGCC plant; cogeneration of power and chemicals using the low cost solid or residual fuels can provide better overall economics. Economics is the most important factor in any co-production scheme. In general, all energy facilities are energy intensive. IGCC/chemical cogeneration facilities can reduce the amount of power consumption, and depending on the chemical production rate, excess power may be available for export. This paper provides a review of current industrial syngas applications using the conventional hydrocarbon as a feedstock. An overview of the gasification technology for power/chemical cogeneration that can be used to replace the current technologies is provided. The overview includes the assessment of current syngas generation and cleaning technologies. This paper will also examine various industrial plant operating scenarios and provide economics for co-production schemes.

  4. [Relationship between chemical constituents and herbs properties of relative plant herbs].

    PubMed

    Cao, Jia; Wang, Yun

    2013-02-01

    The material fundament of Chinese herbs is chemical constituents which represented the properties of herbs, including five fundamental natures (cold, cool, neutral, warm and hot), seven flavors (sour, bitter, sweet, salty, acerbity, mild and pungent) and twelve meridians (liver, heart, spleen, lung, kidney, Xin Bao, Gall bladder, small intestine, stomach, large intestine, bladder and San Jiao). In this article, authors study the relationship between chemical constituents of plant herbs and their properties. First, authors build a relationship network where the herbs with similar chemical compositions are connected each other. The particular difference of our work is to filter the common chemical constituents that many plants from different families contained. As a result, considering relative plants have similar chemical constituents, the relative plant herbs are clustering closely and the herbs of different family are connected loosely in our network. The results indicates that the method of building the herbs network is correct. The characteristics of herbs' properties in the network are that the same properties are usually connected regardless the plant families. There is "properties hole" phenomenon, that is, the majority of adjacent drugs of a herb have a certain properties, while the drug does not have the properties.

  5. Role of plant growth regulators as chemical signals in plant-microbe interactions: a double edged sword.

    PubMed

    Spence, Carla; Bais, Harsh

    2015-10-01

    Growth regulators act not only as chemicals that modulate plant growth but they also act as signal molecules under various biotic and abiotic stresses. Of all growth regulators, abscisic acid (ABA) is long known for its role in modulating plants response against both biotic and abiotic stress. Although the genetic information for ABA biosynthesis in plants is well documented, the knowledge about ABA biosynthesis in other organisms is still in its infancy. It is known that various microbes including bacteria produce and secrete ABA, but the overall functional significance of why ABA is synthesized by microbes is not known. Here we discuss the functional involvement of ABA biosynthesis by a pathogenic fungus. Furthermore, we propose that ABA biosynthesis in plant pathogenic fungi could be targeted for novel fungicidal discovery.

  6. Chemical constituents of marine medicinal mangrove plant Sonneratia caseolaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Minqing; Dai, Haofu; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bingui

    2009-05-01

    Twenty-four compounds including eight steroids ( 1-8), nine triterpenoids ( 9-16, 24), three flavonoids ( 20-22), and four benzenecarboxylic derivatives ( 17-19, 23) were isolated and identified from stems and twigs of medicinal mangrove plant Sonneratia caseolaris. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by extensive analysis of their spectroscopic data. Among these metabolites, compounds 1, 4-20 and 22-24 were isolated and identified for the first time from S. caseolaris. In the in vitro cytotoxic assay against SMMC-7721 human hepatoma cells, compound 21 (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) exhibited significant activity with IC50 2.8 μg/mL, while oleanolic acid ( 14), 3,3'-di- O-methyl ether ellagic acid ( 18), and 3,3',4- O-tri- O-methyl ether ellagic acid ( 19) showed weak activity. None of these compounds displayed significant antibacterial activites.

  7. ASSESSING CHEMICAL HAZARDS AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) FOR PLANNING FUTURE D&D

    SciTech Connect

    HOPKINS, A.M.; KLOS, D.B.; MINETT, M.J.

    2007-01-25

    This paper documents the fiscal year (FY) 2006 assessment to evaluate potential chemical and radiological hazards associated with vessels and piping in the former plutonium process areas at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Evaluations by PFP engineers as design authorities for specific systems and other subject-matter experts were conducted to identify the chemical hazards associated with transitioning the process areas for the long-term layup of PFP before its eventual final decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). D and D activities in the main process facilities were suspended in September 2005 for a period of between 5 and 10 years. A previous assessment conducted in FY 2003 found that certain activities to mitigate chemical hazards could be deferred safely until the D and D of PFP, which had been scheduled to result in a slab-on-grade condition by 2009. As a result of necessary planning changes, however, D and D activities at PFP will be delayed until after the 2009 time frame. Given the extended project and plant life, it was determined that a review of the plant chemical hazards should be conducted. This review to determine the extended life impact of chemicals is called the ''Plutonium Finishing Plant Chemical Hazards Assessment, FY 2006''. This FY 2006 assessment addresses potential chemical and radiological hazard areas identified by facility personnel and subject-matter experts who reevaluated all the chemical systems (items) from the FY 2003 assessment. This paper provides the results of the FY 2006 chemical hazards assessment and describes the methodology used to assign a hazard ranking to the items reviewed.

  8. [Results of testing well water from an area influenced by the chemical plant "Police"].

    PubMed

    Toruń, D

    1992-01-01

    The subject of this study was the determination of the correlation between the operation of Chemical Plant "Police" and contamination of underground waters. The waters from ten wells in 16 localities were tested in 1982, 1987 and 1990. The indicators of contaminations emitted in different form by Chemical Plant "Police" as fluorides, ammonia and its derivatives nitrites and nitrates, sulphates, phosphates and also chlorides were tested. Bacteriological examinations of water also were performed. Investigations performed in 1987, confronted to 1982, showed development concentration of ammonia and minor as depends fluorides and sulphates. In 1990 lowering of average level of all chemical indicators were obtained. Presumable the introduction of technological changes in Plant determined the reduction of contaminations of underground water in this area.

  9. Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater by chemically modified plant wastes as adsorbents: a review.

    PubMed

    Wan Ngah, W S; Hanafiah, M A K M

    2008-07-01

    The application of low-cost adsorbents obtained from plant wastes as a replacement for costly conventional methods of removing heavy metal ions from wastewater has been reviewed. It is well known that cellulosic waste materials can be obtained and employed as cheap adsorbents and their performance to remove heavy metal ions can be affected upon chemical treatment. In general, chemically modified plant wastes exhibit higher adsorption capacities than unmodified forms. Numerous chemicals have been used for modifications which include mineral and organic acids, bases, oxidizing agent, organic compounds, etc. In this review, an extensive list of plant wastes as adsorbents including rice husks, spent grain, sawdust, sugarcane bagasse, fruit wastes, weeds and others has been compiled. Some of the treated adsorbents show good adsorption capacities for Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni.

  10. Chemical inducible promotor used to obtain transgenic plants with a silent marker

    DOEpatents

    Chua, Nam-Hai; Aoyama, Takashi

    2000-01-01

    A chemically inducible promoter is described which may be used to transform plants with genes which are easily regulatable by adding plants or plant cells to a medium containing an inducer of the promoter or by removing the plants or plant cells from such medium. The promoter described is one which is inducible by a glucocorticoid which is not endogenous to plants. Such promoters may be used with a variety of genes such as ipt or knotted1 to induce shoot formation in the presence of a glucocorticoid. The promoter may also be used with antibiotic or herbicide resistance genes which are then regulatable by the presence or absence of inducer rather than being constitutive. Other examples of genes which may be placed under the control of the inducible promoter are also presented.

  11. Chemical inducible promotor used to obtain transgenic plants with a silent marker

    SciTech Connect

    Chua, N.H.; Aoyama, Takashi

    2000-05-16

    A chemically inducible promoter is described which may be used to transform plants with genes which are easily regulatable by adding plants or plant cells to a medium containing an inducer of the promoter or by removing the plants or plant cells from such medium. The promoter is inducible by a glucocorticoid which is not endogenous to plants. Such promoters may be used with a variety of genes such as ipt or knotted1 to induce shoot formation in the presence of a glucocorticoid. The promoter may also be used with antibiotic or herbicide resistance genes which are then regulatable by the presence or absence of inducer rather than being constitutive. Other examples of genes which may be placed under the control of the inducible promoter are also presented.

  12. Chemical inducible promoter used to obtain transgenic plants with a silent marker

    DOEpatents

    Aoyama, Takashi; Zuo, Jianru; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2004-08-31

    A chemically inducible promoter is described that may be used to transform plants, including tobacco and lettuce, with genes which are easily regulatable by adding the plants or plant cells to a medium containing an inducer of the promoter or by removing the plants or plant cells from such medium. The promoter described is one that is inducible by a glucocorticoid which is not endogenous to plants. Such promoters may be used with a variety of genes such as ipt or knotted1 to induce shoot formation in the presence of a glucocorticoid. The promoter may also be used with antibiotic or herbicide resistance genes which are then regulatable by the presence or absence of inducer rather than being constitutive. Other examples of genes which may be placed under the control of the inducible promoter are also presented.

  13. THE USE OF CHEMICALS AS INSECTICIDES--PLANTS. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS GUIDE IS ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO PROVIDE GROUP INSTRUCTION AND INDIVIDUAL OCCUPATIONAL EXPERIENCE FOR POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS PREPARING FOR EMPLOYMENT AS AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL TECHNICIANS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF STATE STUDY DATA. THE OBJECTIVES ARE TO DEVELOP (1) INTEREST, APPRECIATION, AND UNDERSTANDING…

  14. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF A POWER-PLANT PLUME.

    SciTech Connect

    SPRINGSTON,S.R.; KLEINMAN,L.I.; BRECHTEL,F.; DAUM,P.H.; LEE,Y.N.; NUNNERMACKER,L.J.; WEINSTEIN-LLOYD,J.

    2001-10-01

    Measurements made from the DOE G-1 aircraft were used to calculate the rate and efficiency of O{sub 3} production downwind of an isolated, coal-fired power plant. The plume was transected 12 times at distances ranging to 65 km from its source (corresponding to an age of {approx}4 h assuming constant wind velocity). For NO{sub x}, a loss rate of 0.5 h{sup -1} was calculated. If reaction with OH was the sole loss mechanism, then an [OH] = 1.6 x 10{sup 7}molec/cm{sup 3} is inferred, which is {approx}2-3X values calculated using a box model constrained by observations. Possible explanations for this discrepancy are discussed. O{sub 3} production per molecule of NO{sub x} approached 6-8 after the plume had aged >3h. Peak O{sub 3} concentrations were 15 ppbv above background. Dilution appears to limit the peak O{sub 3} concentration despite the high production efficiency. Hydrocarbon samples indicate high levels of VOC reactivity ({approx}8 s{sup -1}) in the plume. The number concentration of accumulation mode particles increases significantly with plume age indicating a rapid formation of aerosol mass.

  15. Chemical Safety Management Program for Lockheed Martin Energy Systems operations at the Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    C.W. McMahon

    2000-03-24

    Operated by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (Energy Systems), the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is a manufacturing facility that plays an integral role in the DOE nuclear weapons complex. Fulfilling the national security mission at the Y-12 Plant, continuing to be the cornerstone of uranium and lithium technologies for DOE, and providing customers with solutions for challenging manufacturing needs requires usage of a variety of chemicals and chemical processes. Performing this work safely while protecting workers, the public, and the environment is their commitment. The purpose of this document is to provide a description of the essential components of chemical safety, the integration of these components into the Y-12 Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), and the functional integration of chemical safety issues across Y-12 organizations and programs managed by Energy Systems.

  16. Chemical structures of constituents from the whole plant of Bacopa monniera.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Tomoe; Nakamura, Seikou; Nakashima, Souichi; Oda, Yoshimi; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Fukaya, Masashi; Yano, Mamiko; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2016-07-01

    Two new dammarane-type triterpene oligoglycosides, bacomosaponins A and B, and three new phenylethanoid glycosides, bacomosides A, B1, and B2, were isolated from the whole plant of Bacopa monniera Wettst. The chemical structures of the new constituents were characterized on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. In the present study, bacomosaponins A and B with acyl groups were obtained from the whole plant of B. monniera. This is the first report of acylated dammarane-type triterpene oligoglycosides isolated from B. monniera. In addition, dammarane-type triterpene saponins significantly inhibited the aggregation of 42-mer amyloid β-protein.

  17. Consequences of plant-chemical diversity for domestic goat food preference in Mediterranean forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraza, Elena; Hódar, José A.; Zamora, Regino

    2009-01-01

    The domestic goat, a major herbivore in the Mediterranean basin, has demonstrated a strong ability to adapt its feeding behaviour to the chemical characteristics of food, selecting plants according to their nutritive quality. In this study, we determine some chemical characteristics related to plant nutritional quality and its variability among and within five tree species, these being the main components of the mountain forests of SE Spain, with the aim of determining their influence on food selection by this generalist herbivore. We analyse nitrogen, total phenols, condensed tannins and fibre concentration as an indicator of the nutritive value of the different trees. To determine the preference by the domestic goat, we performed two types of feeding-choice assays, where goats had to select between different species or between branches of the same species but from trees of different nutritional quality. The analysis of the plant nutritional quality showed significant differences in the chemical characteristics between species, and a high variability within species. However, when faced with different tree species, the domestic goat selected some of them but showed striking individual differences between goats. When selecting between trees of the same species, the goats showed no differential selection. This limited effect of chemical plant characteristics, together with the variability in foraging behaviour, resulted in a widespread consumption of diverse plant species, which can potentially modulate the effect of the goat on vegetation composition, and open the way for the conservation of traditional livestock grazing on natural protected areas.

  18. Reducing Steam Header Pressure Provides Attractive Operating Costs Savings (Nalco Chemical Company Bedford Park Plant)

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2000-11-01

    Nalco Chemical Company is constantly seeking ways to improve steam system performance. At Nalco's Clearing Plant in Bedford Park, Illinois, changes in some of the plants processes led personnel to evaluate the feasibility of reducing the steam header pressure. The team decided to incrementally decrease header pressure while monitoring the effects of this change on system performance. The pressure was reduced twice, and each time the system was carefully monitored to ensure there was no detrimental impact on system operation.

  19. Mortality among flavour and fragrance chemical plant workers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Thomas, T L

    1987-11-01

    Vital status on 1 January 1981 was determined for a cohort of 1412 white men employed in a flavour and fragrance chemical plant between 1945 and 1965 in order to investigate the risks from fatal diseases among men exposed to multiple chemicals in the manufacture of fragrances, flavours, aroma chemicals, and other organic substances. Cause specific standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for the entire study population and for several subsets by likelihood of exposure to chemicals, duration of employment, and year of hire. SMRs for rectal cancer and ischaemic heart disease were raised among white male employees whose jobs were in production, maintenance, laboratory, or other jobs that would involve exposure to multiple chemicals used and produced in the plant. The excess of rectal cancer was confined to employees who had worked as chemical operators and mortality was significantly raised among men who worked for ten or more years. Traces of dioxin were recently found in and around plant buildings that used trichlorophenol in the production of hexachlorophene. The study group was small and had limited power to detect excess risk of rare causes of death; however, no soft tissue sarcomas were observed during the study period.

  20. Phenotypic and biochemical profile changes in calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) plants treated with two chemical mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    El-Nashar, Y I; Asrar, A A

    2016-01-01

    Chemical mutagenesis is an efficient tool used in mutation-breeding programs to improve the vital characters of the floricultural crops. This study aimed to estimate the effects of different concentrations of two chemical mutagens; sodium azide (SA) and diethyl sulfate (DES). The vegetative growth and flowering characteristics in two generations (M1 and M2) of calendula plants were investigated. Seeds were treated with five different concentrations of SA and DES (at the same rates) of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 5000 ppm, in addition to a control treatment of 0 ppm. Results showed that lower concentrations of SA mutagen had significant effects on seed germination percentage, plant height, leaf area, plant fresh weight, flowering date, inflorescence diameter, and gas-exchange measurements in plants of both generations. Calendula plants tended to flower earlier under low mutagen concentrations (1000 ppm), whereas higher concentrations delayed flowering significantly. Positive results on seed germination, plant height, number of branches, plant fresh weight, and leaf area were observed in the M2-generation at lower concentrations of SA (1000 ppm), as well as at 4000 ppm DES on number of leaves and inflorescences. The highest total soluble protein was detected at the concentrations of 1000 ppm SA and 2000 ppm DES. DES showed higher average of acid phosphatase activity than SA. Results indicated that lower concentrations of SA and DES mutagens had positive effects on seed germination percentage, plant height, leaf area, plant fresh weight, flowering date, inflorescence diameter, and gas-exchange measurements. Thus, lower mutagen concentrations could be recommended for better floral and physio-chemical performance. PMID:27173326

  1. Phenotypic and biochemical profile changes in calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) plants treated with two chemical mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    El-Nashar, Y I; Asrar, A A

    2016-01-01

    Chemical mutagenesis is an efficient tool used in mutation-breeding programs to improve the vital characters of the floricultural crops. This study aimed to estimate the effects of different concentrations of two chemical mutagens; sodium azide (SA) and diethyl sulfate (DES). The vegetative growth and flowering characteristics in two generations (M1 and M2) of calendula plants were investigated. Seeds were treated with five different concentrations of SA and DES (at the same rates) of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 5000 ppm, in addition to a control treatment of 0 ppm. Results showed that lower concentrations of SA mutagen had significant effects on seed germination percentage, plant height, leaf area, plant fresh weight, flowering date, inflorescence diameter, and gas-exchange measurements in plants of both generations. Calendula plants tended to flower earlier under low mutagen concentrations (1000 ppm), whereas higher concentrations delayed flowering significantly. Positive results on seed germination, plant height, number of branches, plant fresh weight, and leaf area were observed in the M2-generation at lower concentrations of SA (1000 ppm), as well as at 4000 ppm DES on number of leaves and inflorescences. The highest total soluble protein was detected at the concentrations of 1000 ppm SA and 2000 ppm DES. DES showed higher average of acid phosphatase activity than SA. Results indicated that lower concentrations of SA and DES mutagens had positive effects on seed germination percentage, plant height, leaf area, plant fresh weight, flowering date, inflorescence diameter, and gas-exchange measurements. Thus, lower mutagen concentrations could be recommended for better floral and physio-chemical performance.

  2. Omani propolis: chemical profiling, antibacterial activity and new propolis plant sources

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Propolis (bee glue) is a resinous honeybee product having a long history of application in many countries as a traditional remedy for treating wounds, burns, soar throat, stomach disorders, etc. It has been proved to possess beneficial biological effects, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, antiulcer, and many others. Bees gather propolis from diverse resinous plant parts and in different phytogeographic regions its chemical composition might vary significantly. In this article we report the results of the first study on the chemical profiles of propolis from Oman, its plant origin and antibacterial activity. Results The chemical profiles of Omani propolis extracts were obtained by GC-MS analysis after silylation. Over 50 individual compounds were identified in the samples, belonging to different compound types: sugars, polyols, hydroxy acids, fatty acids, cardanols and cardols, anacardic acids, flavan derivatives, triterpenes, prenylated flavanones and chalcones. The profiles were dissimilar from other known propolis types. They demonstrate that although Oman is not a large country, the plant sources of propolis vary significantly, even in the same apiary and the same season. Based on chemical profiles, and isolation and identification of major marker compounds (new propolis constituents), new plant sources of propolis were found: Azadiracta indica (neem tree) and Acacia spp. (most probably A. nilotica). The ethanol extracts of the studied propolis samples demonstrated activity against S. aureus (MIC < 100 μg. mL-1) and E. coli (MIC < 380 μg. mL-1). Conclusion Omani propolis is different form the known propolis types and demonstrates significant chemical diversity. Its most important plant source is the resin of Azadirachta indica, and as a result its typical components are С5-prenyl flavanones. Other plant sources have been identified, too, playing some role in resin collection by bees in Oman: Acacia spp

  3. Marine-terrestrial contrasts in the ecology of plant chemical defenses against herbivores.

    PubMed

    Hay, M E

    1991-11-01

    Small marine herbivores that live on the plants they consume often selectively eat seaweeds that are chemically defended from fishes. Their feeding is unaffected or stimulated by the plant metabolites that deter fishes, and these small herbivores dramatically reduce their susceptibility to predation by associating with host plants that are noxious to fishes. Ecological similarities between these small marine herbivores and numerous terrestrial insects suggest that herbivorous insects also may have evolved a preference for toxic plants because this diminishes their losses to predators, parasites and pathogens. Although marine and terrestrial plants and herbivores evolved in strikingly different environments, the ease of experimentation in some marine systems makes them ideal for addressing certain questions of fundamental importance to both terrestrial and marine workers.

  4. REMOTE SENSING DAMAGE ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL PLANTS AND REFINERIES FOLLOWING HURRICANES KATRINA AND RITA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The massive destruction brought by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita also impacted the many chemical plants and refineries in the region. The achievement of this rapid analysis capability highlights the advancement of this technology for air quality assessment and monitoring. Case st...

  5. Physical/chemical and microbiological analyses of dusts at a resource recover plant.

    PubMed

    Duckett, E J; Wagner, J; Welker, R; Rogers, B; Usdin, V

    1980-12-01

    Airborne dusts at a resource recovery pilot plant were sampled and analyzed to determine physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics. The sampling device was a multi-stage impactor equipped with a pre-collector. Dusts are primarily fibrous organic materials, predominantly of nonrespirable size. Microbiological aerosol concentrations are reported and discussed.

  6. Air is still contaminated 40 years after the Michigan Chemical plant disaster in St. Louis, Michigan.

    PubMed

    Peverly, Angela A; Salamova, Amina; Hites, Ronald A

    2014-10-01

    The Michigan Chemical (also known as Velsicol Chemical) plant located in St. Louis, Michigan operated from 1936-1978. During this time, the plant manufactured polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), hexabromobenzene (HBB), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT), and tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (TDBPP), among other products. Due to widespread PBB contamination of Michigan, the plant eventually became a Superfund site, and despite years of cleanup activities, many of the compounds can still be found in the local ecosystem. To investigate the current atmospheric levels and to determine their spatial distributions, we collected tree bark samples from around Michigan and measured the concentrations of these pollutants. For comparison, other organic pollutants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organophosphate esters (OPEs), which were not manufactured at the Michigan Chemical plant, were also measured in the same tree bark samples. Our results show levels of PBBs, DDT, and HBB in tree bark collected within 10 km of the Velsicol Superfund site (43, 477, and 108 ng/g lipid wgt., respectively) are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than at sites located more than 10 km from the site (0.36, 28, and 0.36 ng/g lipid wgt., respectively). Levels of PBDEs and OPEs did not depend on distance from St. Louis. This is the first study on the atmospheric distribution of these chemicals around the Superfund site. PMID:25211223

  7. PORTABLE IMAGING DEVICES FOR INDUSTRIAL LEAK DETECTION AT PETROLEUM REFINERIES AND CHEMICAL PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Undiscovered gas leaks, or fugitive emissions, in chemical plants and refinery operations can impact regional air quality as well as being a public health problem. Surveying a facility for potential gas leaks can be a daunting task. Industrial Leak Detection and Repair (LDAR) pro...

  8. Towards personalized agriculture: what chemical genomics can bring to plant biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Michael E.; McCourt, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the dominant drug paradigm in which compounds were developed to “fit all,” new models focused around personalized medicine are appearing in which treatments are developed and customized for individual patients. The agricultural biotechnology industry (Ag-biotech) should also think about these new personalized models. For example, most common herbicides are generic in action, which led to the development of genetically modified crops to add specificity. The ease and accessibility of modern genomic analysis, when wedded to accessible large chemical space, should facilitate the discovery of chemicals that are more selective in their utility. Is it possible to develop species-selective herbicides and growth regulators? More generally put, is plant research at a stage where chemicals can be developed that streamline plant development and growth to various environments? We believe the advent of chemical genomics now opens up these and other opportunities to “personalize” agriculture. Furthermore, chemical genomics does not necessarily require genetically tractable plant models, which in principle should allow quick translation to practical applications. For this to happen, however, will require collaboration between the Ag-biotech industry and academic labs for early stage research and development, a situation that has proven very fruitful for Big Pharma. PMID:25183965

  9. Chemical diversity of microbial volatiles and their potential for plant growth and productivity

    PubMed Central

    Kanchiswamy, Chidananda Nagamangala; Malnoy, Mickael; Maffei, Massimo E.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) are produced by a wide array of microorganisms ranging from bacteria to fungi. A growing body of evidence indicates that MVOCs are ecofriendly and can be exploited as a cost-effective sustainable strategy for use in agricultural practice as agents that enhance plant growth, productivity, and disease resistance. As naturally occurring chemicals, MVOCs have potential as possible alternatives to harmful pesticides, fungicides, and bactericides as well as genetic modification. Recent studies performed under open field conditions demonstrate that efficiently adopting MVOCs may contribute to sustainable crop protection and production. We review here the chemical diversity of MVOCs by describing microbial–plants and microbial–microbial interactions. Furthermore, we discuss MVOCs role in inducing phenotypic plant responses and their potential physiological effects on crops. Finally, we analyze potential and actual limitations for MVOC use and deployment in field conditions as a sustainable strategy for improving productivity and reducing pesticide use. PMID:25821453

  10. Anaerobic soil disinfestation: a chemical-independent approach to pre-plant control of plant pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to increasing regulations and restrictions, there is an urgent need to develop effective alternatives to chemical-dependent soil fumigation control of soilborne pests and pathogens. Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) is one such alternative showing great promise against a number of soilborne pa...

  11. Inline chemical process analysis in micro-plants based on thermoelectric flow and impedimetric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, T.; Kutzner, C.; Kropp, M.; Brokmann, G.; Lang, W.; Steinke, A.; Kienle, A.; Hauptmann, P.

    2010-10-01

    In micro-plants, as used in chemical micro-process engineering, an integrated inline analytics is regarded as an important factor for the development and optimization of chemical processes. Up to now, there is a lack of sensitive, robust and low-priced micro-sensors for monitoring mixing and chemical conversion in micro-fluidic channels. In this paper a novel sensor system combining an impedimetric sensor and a novel pressure stable thermoelectric flow sensor for monitoring chemical reactions in micro-plants is presented. The CMOS-technology-based impedimetric sensor mainly consists of two capacitively coupled interdigital electrodes on a silicon chip. The thermoelectric flow sensor consists of a heater in between two thermopiles on a perforated membrane. The pulsed and constant current feeds of the heater were analyzed. Both sensors enable the analysis of chemical conversion by means of changes in the thermal and electrical properties of the liquid. The homogeneously catalyzed synthesis of n-butyl acetate as a chemical model system was studied. Experimental results revealed that in an overpressure regime, relative changes of less than 1% in terms of thermal and electrical properties can be detected. Furthermore, the transition from one to two liquid phases accompanied by the change in slug flow conditions could be reproducibly detected.

  12. Chemical Diversity and Defence Metabolism: How Plants Cope with Pathogens and Ozone Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Iriti, Marcello; Faoro, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Chemical defences represent a main trait of the plant innate immune system. Besides regulating the relationship between plants and their ecosystems, phytochemicals are involved both in resistance against pathogens and in tolerance towards abiotic stresses, such as atmospheric pollution. Plant defence metabolites arise from the main secondary metabolic routes, the phenylpropanoid, the isoprenoid and the alkaloid pathways. In plants, antibiotic compounds can be both preformed (phytoanticipins) and inducible (phytoalexins), the former including saponins, cyanogenic glycosides and glucosinolates. Chronic exposure to tropospheric ozone (O3) stimulates the carbon fluxes from the primary to the secondary metabolic pathways to a great extent, inducing a shift of the available resources in favour of the synthesis of secondary products. In some cases, the plant defence responses against pathogens and environmental pollutants may overlap, leading to the unspecific synthesis of similar molecules, such as phenylpropanoids. Exposure to ozone can also modify the pattern of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC), emitted from plant in response to herbivore feeding, thus altering the tritrophic interaction among plant, phytophagy and their natural enemies. Finally, the synthesis of ethylene and polyamines can be regulated by ozone at level of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), the biosynthetic precursor of both classes of hormones, which can, therefore, mutually inhibit their own biosynthesis with consequence on plant phenotype. PMID:20111684

  13. Chemical diversity and defence metabolism: how plants cope with pathogens and ozone pollution.

    PubMed

    Iriti, Marcello; Faoro, Franco

    2009-07-30

    Chemical defences represent a main trait of the plant innate immune system. Besides regulating the relationship between plants and their ecosystems, phytochemicals are involved both in resistance against pathogens and in tolerance towards abiotic stresses, such as atmospheric pollution. Plant defence metabolites arise from the main secondary metabolic routes, the phenylpropanoid, the isoprenoid and the alkaloid pathways. In plants, antibiotic compounds can be both preformed (phytoanticipins) and inducible (phytoalexins), the former including saponins, cyanogenic glycosides and glucosinolates. Chronic exposure to tropospheric ozone (O(3)) stimulates the carbon fluxes from the primary to the secondary metabolic pathways to a great extent, inducing a shift of the available resources in favour of the synthesis of secondary products. In some cases, the plant defence responses against pathogens and environmental pollutants may overlap, leading to the unspecific synthesis of similar molecules, such as phenylpropanoids. Exposure to ozone can also modify the pattern of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC), emitted from plant in response to herbivore feeding, thus altering the tritrophic interaction among plant, phytophagy and their natural enemies. Finally, the synthesis of ethylene and polyamines can be regulated by ozone at level of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), the biosynthetic precursor of both classes of hormones, which can, therefore, mutually inhibit their own biosynthesis with consequence on plant phenotype.

  14. Influence of Host-Plant Surface Chemicals on the Oviposition of the Cereal Stemborer Busseola Fusca.

    PubMed

    Juma, Gerald; Clément, Gilles; Ahuya, Peter; Hassanali, Ahmed; Derridj, Sylvie; Gaertner, Cyrile; Linard, Romain; Le Ru, Bruno; Frérot, Brigitte; Calatayud, Paul-André

    2016-05-01

    The chemical composition of plant surfaces plays a role in selection of host plants by herbivorous insects. Once the insect reaches the plant, these cues determine host acceptance. Laboratory studies have shown that the stem borer Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an important pest of sorghum and maize in sub-Saharan Africa, is able to differentiate between host and non-host plant species. However, no information is available on the cues used by this insect to seek and accept the host plant. Thus, the role of surface phytochemical stimuli on host selection and oviposition by B. fusca was studied in the laboratory using two host plants, sorghum, Sorghum bicolor, and maize, Zea mays, and one non-host plant, Napier grass, Pennisetum purpureum. The numbers of eggs and egg masses deposited on the three plant species were compared first under no-choice and choice conditions. In both cases, more eggs and egg masses were laid on maize and sorghum than on the non-host. Artificial surrogate stems treated with a water or chloroform surface extract of each plant were then compared with surrogate stems treated with, respectively, water or chloroform as controls, under similar conditions. Surrogate stems treated with plant water extracts did not show an increase in oviposition when compared to controls, indicating that the major compounds in these extracts, i.e., simple sugars and free amino acids, are not significantly responsible for the oviposition preference. By contrast, a chloroform extract of sorghum enhanced oviposition on the surrogate stems compared to the control, while those of maize and Napier grass showed no significant effects. Analysis of the chloroform extract of sorghum showed higher amounts of α-amyrin, ß-amyrin, and n-nonacosane compared to those of maize and Napier grass. A blend of the three chemicals significantly increased oviposition compared to the chloroform-treated control, indicating that these compounds are part of the surface chemical

  15. Can Coffee Chemical Compounds and Insecticidal Plants Be Harnessed for Control of Major Coffee Pests?

    PubMed

    Green, Paul W C; Davis, Aaron P; Cossé, Allard A; Vega, Fernando E

    2015-11-01

    Pests and pathogens threaten coffee production worldwide and are difficult to control using conventional methods, such as insecticides. We review the literature on the chemistry of coffee, concentrating on compounds most commonly reported from Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora. Differences in chemistry can distinguish coffee species and varieties, and plants grown under different biogeographic conditions exhibit different chemotypes. A number of chemical groups, such as alkaloids and caffeoylquinic acids, are known to be insecticidal, but most studies have investigated their effects on coffee quality and flavor. More research is required to bridge this gap in knowledge, so that coffee can be bred to be more resistant to pests. Furthermore, we report on some pesticidal plants that have been used for control of coffee pests. Locally sourced pesticidal plants have been underutilized and offer a sustainable alternative to conventional insecticides and could be used to augment breeding for resilience of coffee plants.

  16. Can Coffee Chemical Compounds and Insecticidal Plants Be Harnessed for Control of Major Coffee Pests?

    PubMed

    Green, Paul W C; Davis, Aaron P; Cossé, Allard A; Vega, Fernando E

    2015-11-01

    Pests and pathogens threaten coffee production worldwide and are difficult to control using conventional methods, such as insecticides. We review the literature on the chemistry of coffee, concentrating on compounds most commonly reported from Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora. Differences in chemistry can distinguish coffee species and varieties, and plants grown under different biogeographic conditions exhibit different chemotypes. A number of chemical groups, such as alkaloids and caffeoylquinic acids, are known to be insecticidal, but most studies have investigated their effects on coffee quality and flavor. More research is required to bridge this gap in knowledge, so that coffee can be bred to be more resistant to pests. Furthermore, we report on some pesticidal plants that have been used for control of coffee pests. Locally sourced pesticidal plants have been underutilized and offer a sustainable alternative to conventional insecticides and could be used to augment breeding for resilience of coffee plants. PMID:26458882

  17. Representativity of mosses as biomonitor organisms for the accumulation of environmental chemicals in plants and soils

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, W.

    1986-06-01

    The suitability of mosses for air pollution monitoring of benzohexachloride isomers and polyaromatic hydrocarbons is shown by residue data of different samples from Europe. The interpretation of the results makes it obvious that next to regional pattern analysis, hypotheses for atmospheric transport and deposition processes of different environmental chemicals can also be formed. An evaluation of these kinds of bioindicator methods is presented by a quantitative comparison of air pollution data and accumulated residues in plants. The results indicate a high retention efficiency of mosses for pollutants dominantly adsorbed to particulate matter in the air, like polyaromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals. The comparison of residue data of trace pollutants in mosses and other plants underlines the indicator functions of lower plants for air monitoring patterns with the exception of chlorinated hydrocarbons. They are more effective enriched by coniferous plants which contain ingredients able to absorb and transport these groups of environmental pollutants in the organism.

  18. Assessment of impacts at the advanced test reactor as a result of chemical releases at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Rood, A.S.

    1991-02-01

    This report provides an assessment of potential impacts at the Advanced Test Reactor Facility (ATR) resulting from accidental chemical spill at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Spills postulated to occur at the Lincoln Blvd turnoff to ICPP were also evaluated. Peak and time weighted average concentrations were calculated for receptors at the ATR facility and the Test Reactor Area guard station at a height above ground level of 1.0 m. Calculated concentrations were then compared to the 15 minute averaged Threshold Limit Value - Short Term Exposure Limit (TLV-STEL) and the 30 minute averaged Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) limit. Several different methodologies were used to estimate source strength and dispersion. Fifteen minute time weighted averaged concentrations of hydrofluoric acid and anhydrous ammonia exceeded TLV-STEL values for the cases considered. The IDLH value for these chemicals was not exceeded. Calculated concentrations of ammonium hydroxide, hexone, nitric acid, propane, gasoline, chlorine and liquid nitrogen were all below the TLV-STEL value.

  19. Responses to chemical cues from animal and plant foods by actively foraging insectivorous and omnivorous scincine lizards.

    PubMed

    Cooper, W E; Al-Johany, A M; Vitt, L J; Habegger, J J

    2000-10-01

    If tongue-flicking is important to lizards to sample chemical cues permitting identification of foods, tongue-flicking and subsequent feeding responses should be adjusted to match diet. This hypothesis can be examined for plant foods because most lizards are insectivores, but herbivory/omnivory has evolved independently in many lizard taxa. Here we present experimental data on chemosensory responses to chemical cues from animal prey and palatable plants by three species of the scincine lizards. When tested with chemical stimuli presented on cotton swabs, the insectivorous Eumeces fasciatus responded strongly to prey chemicals but not to chemicals from plants palatable to omnivorous lizards or to pungent or odorless control stimuli. Two omnivorous species, E. schneideri and Scincus mitranus, responded more strongly to chemical cues from both prey and food plants than to the control chemicals. All available data for actively foraging lizards, including these skinks, show that they are capable of prey chemical discrimination, and insectivores do not exhibit elevated tongue-flicking or biting responses to chemical cues from palatable plants. In all of the several species of herbivores/omnivores tested, the lizards show elevated responses to both animal and plant chemicals. We suggest two independent origins of both omnivory and plant chemical discrimination that may account for the evolution of diet and food chemical discriminations in the eight species of skinks studied, five of which are omnivores. All data are consistent with the hypothesis that acquisition of omnivory is accompanied by acquisition of plant chemical discrimination, but data on a broad diversity of taxa are needed for a definitive comparative test of the evolutionary hypothesis. J. Exp. Zool. 287:327-339, 2000.

  20. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of a Lebanese plant Euphorbia macroclada schyzoceras

    PubMed Central

    Farhan, Hussein; Rammal, Hassan; Hijazi, Akram; Daher, Ahmad; Reda, Mohamad; Annan, Hussein; Chokr, Ali; Bassal, Ali; Badran, Bassam; Ghaloub, Abdulameer Nasser

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the chemical composition, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the crude extracts from leaves and stems of a Lebanese plant Euphorbia macroclada schyzoceras (E. macroclada), and to evaluate their antioxidant potential using DPPH, H2O2, and chelating of ferrous ions tests. Methods Quantification of the total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the crude extracts from leaves and stems and the antioxidant activities were evaluated using spectrophotometric analyses. The chemical composition has been estimated using different techniques such as IR, LC/MS and NMR. Results Ethanolic extract from leaves of E. macroclada was better than aqueous extract and showed higher content in total phenolic and total flavonoid than found in the stems. On the other hand, using DPPH and H2O2 tests, this extract from leaves showed higher antioxidant capacity than aqueous extract. However, using the chelating of ferrous ions test, the antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract of both stems and leaves was stronger than that of ethanolic once. The chemical composition of the whole plant showed the presence of some aromatic compounds and fatty acids. Conclusions Both ethanolic and water extracts from both parts of this plant are effective and have good antioxidant power. So, this plant can be used in the prevention of a number of diseases related to oxidative stress. PMID:23836193

  1. An improved chemically inducible gene switch that functions in the monocotyledonous plant sugar cane.

    PubMed

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, R Jason; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; De Lucca, Paulo C; Palupe, Anthony; Harrison, Mark D; Jepson, Ian; Dale, James L; Sainz, Manuel B

    2014-03-01

    Chemically inducible gene switches can provide precise control over gene expression, enabling more specific analyses of gene function and expanding the plant biotechnology toolkit beyond traditional constitutive expression systems. The alc gene expression system is one of the most promising chemically inducible gene switches in plants because of its potential in both fundamental research and commercial biotechnology applications. However, there are no published reports demonstrating that this versatile gene switch is functional in transgenic monocotyledonous plants, which include some of the most important agricultural crops. We found that the original alc gene switch was ineffective in the monocotyledonous plant sugar cane, and describe a modified alc system that is functional in this globally significant crop. A promoter consisting of tandem copies of the ethanol receptor inverted repeat binding site, in combination with a minimal promoter sequence, was sufficient to give enhanced sensitivity and significantly higher levels of ethanol inducible gene expression. A longer CaMV 35S minimal promoter than was used in the original alc gene switch also substantially improved ethanol inducibility. Treating the roots with ethanol effectively induced the modified alc system in sugar cane leaves and stem, while an aerial spray was relatively ineffective. The extension of this chemically inducible gene expression system to sugar cane opens the door to new opportunities for basic research and crop biotechnology.

  2. Application of infrared spectroscopy for assessing quality (chemical composition) of peatland plants, litter and soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straková, Petra; Laiho, Raija

    2016-04-01

    In this presentation, we assess the merits of using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra to estimate the organic matter composition in different plant biomass and peat soil samples. Infrared spectroscopy has a great potential in large-scale peatland studies that require low cost and high throughput techniques, as it gives a unique "chemical overview" of a sample, with all the chemical compounds present contributing to the spectrum produced. Our extensive sample sets include soil samples ranging from boreal to tropical peatlands, including sites under different environmental and/or land-use changes; above- and below-ground biomass of different peatland plant species; plant root mixtures. We mainly use FTIR to estimate (1) chemical composition of the samples (e.g., total C and N, C:N ratio, holocellulose, lignin and ash content), (2) proportion of each plant species in root mixtures, and (3) respiration of surface peat. The satisfactory results of our predictive models suggest that this experimental approach can, for example, be used as a screening tool in the evaluation of organic matter composition in peatlands during monitoring of their degradation and/or restoration success.

  3. An improved chemically inducible gene switch that functions in the monocotyledonous plant sugar cane.

    PubMed

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, R Jason; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; De Lucca, Paulo C; Palupe, Anthony; Harrison, Mark D; Jepson, Ian; Dale, James L; Sainz, Manuel B

    2014-03-01

    Chemically inducible gene switches can provide precise control over gene expression, enabling more specific analyses of gene function and expanding the plant biotechnology toolkit beyond traditional constitutive expression systems. The alc gene expression system is one of the most promising chemically inducible gene switches in plants because of its potential in both fundamental research and commercial biotechnology applications. However, there are no published reports demonstrating that this versatile gene switch is functional in transgenic monocotyledonous plants, which include some of the most important agricultural crops. We found that the original alc gene switch was ineffective in the monocotyledonous plant sugar cane, and describe a modified alc system that is functional in this globally significant crop. A promoter consisting of tandem copies of the ethanol receptor inverted repeat binding site, in combination with a minimal promoter sequence, was sufficient to give enhanced sensitivity and significantly higher levels of ethanol inducible gene expression. A longer CaMV 35S minimal promoter than was used in the original alc gene switch also substantially improved ethanol inducibility. Treating the roots with ethanol effectively induced the modified alc system in sugar cane leaves and stem, while an aerial spray was relatively ineffective. The extension of this chemically inducible gene expression system to sugar cane opens the door to new opportunities for basic research and crop biotechnology. PMID:24142380

  4. Automated chemical monitoring in new projects of nuclear power plant units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobanok, O. I.; Fedoseev, M. V.

    2013-07-01

    The development of automated chemical monitoring systems in nuclear power plant units for the past 30 years is briefly described. The modern level of facilities used to support the operation of automated chemical monitoring systems in Russia and abroad is shown. Hardware solutions suggested by the All-Russia Institute for Nuclear Power Plant Operation (which is the General Designer of automated process control systems for power units used in the AES-2006 and VVER-TOI Projects) are presented, including the structure of additional equipment for monitoring water chemistry (taking the Novovoronezh 2 nuclear power plant as an example). It is shown that the solutions proposed with respect to receiving and processing of input measurement signals and subsequent construction of standard control loops are unified in nature. Simultaneous receipt of information from different sources for ensuring that water chemistry is monitored in sufficient scope and with required promptness is one of the problems that have been solved successfully. It is pointed out that improved quality of automated chemical monitoring can be supported by organizing full engineering follow-up of the automated chemical monitoring system's equipment throughout its entire service life.

  5. Confluence of structural and chemical biology: plant polyketide synthases as biocatalysts for a bio-based future.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Charles; Vickery, Christopher R; Burkart, Michael D; Noel, Joseph P

    2013-06-01

    Type III plant polyketide synthases (PKSs) biosynthesize a dazzling array of polyphenolic products that serve important roles in both plant and human health. Recent advances in structural characterization of these enzymes and new tools from the field of chemical biology have facilitated exquisite probing of plant PKS iterative catalysis. These tools have also been used to exploit type III PKSs as biocatalysts to generate new chemicals. Going forward, chemical, structural and biochemical analyses will provide an atomic resolution understanding of plant PKSs and will serve as a springboard for bioengineering and scalable production of valuable molecules in vitro, by fermentation and in planta.

  6. In vivo chemical and structural analysis of plant cuticular waxes using stimulated Raman scattering microscopy.

    PubMed

    Littlejohn, George R; Mansfield, Jessica C; Parker, David; Lind, Rob; Perfect, Sarah; Seymour, Mark; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Love, John; Moger, Julian

    2015-05-01

    The cuticle is a ubiquitous, predominantly waxy layer on the aerial parts of higher plants that fulfils a number of essential physiological roles, including regulating evapotranspiration, light reflection, and heat tolerance, control of development, and providing an essential barrier between the organism and environmental agents such as chemicals or some pathogens. The structure and composition of the cuticle are closely associated but are typically investigated separately using a combination of structural imaging and biochemical analysis of extracted waxes. Recently, techniques that combine stain-free imaging and biochemical analysis, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy microscopy and coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy microscopy, have been used to investigate the cuticle, but the detection sensitivity is severely limited by the background signals from plant pigments. We present a new method for label-free, in vivo structural and biochemical analysis of plant cuticles based on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy. As a proof of principle, we used SRS microscopy to analyze the cuticles from a variety of plants at different times in development. We demonstrate that the SRS virtually eliminates the background interference compared with coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy imaging and results in label-free, chemically specific confocal images of cuticle architecture with simultaneous characterization of cuticle composition. This innovative use of the SRS spectroscopy may find applications in agrochemical research and development or in studies of wax deposition during leaf development and, as such, represents an important step in the study of higher plant cuticles.

  7. Plant Community Diversity Influences Allocation to Direct Chemical Defence in Plantago lanceolata

    PubMed Central

    Mraja, Anne; Unsicker, Sybille B.; Reichelt, Michael; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Roscher, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    Background Forecasting the consequences of accelerating rates of changes in biodiversity for ecosystem functioning requires a mechanistic understanding of the relationships between the structure of biological communities and variation in plant functional characteristics. So far, experimental data of how plant species diversity influences the investment of individual plants in direct chemical defences against herbivores and pathogens is lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings We used Plantago lanceolata as a model species in experimental grasslands differing in species richness and composition (Jena Experiment) to investigate foliar concentrations of the iridoid glycosides (IG), catalpol and its biosynthetic precursor aucubin. Total IG and aucubin concentrations decreased, while catalpol concentrations increased with increasing plant diversity in terms of species or functional group richness. Negative plant diversity effects on total IG and aucubin concentrations correlated with increasing specific leaf area of P. lanceolata, suggesting that greater allocation to light acquisition reduced the investment into these carbon-based defence components. In contrast, increasing leaf nitrogen concentrations best explained increasing concentrations of the biosynthetically more advanced IG, catalpol. Observed levels of leaf damage explained a significant proportion of variation in total IG and aucubin concentrations, but did not account for variance in catalpol concentrations. Conclusions/Significance Our results clearly show that plants growing in communities of varying species richness and composition differ in their defensive chemistry, which may modulate plant susceptibility to enemy attack and consequently their interactions with higher trophic level organisms. PMID:22174766

  8. Strategies for emission reduction of air pollutants produced from a chemical plant.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byeong-Kyu; Cho, Sung-Woong

    2003-01-01

    Various air pollution control (APC) techniques were employed in order to reduce emissions of air pollutants produced from chemical plants, which have many different chemical production facilities. For an emission reduction of acid gases, this study employed a method to improve solubility of pollutants by decreasing the operating temperature of the scrubbers, increasing the surface area for effective contact of gas and liquid, and modifying processes in the acid scrubbers. To reduce emission of both amines and acid gases, pollutant gas components were first separated, then condensation and/or acid scrubbing, depending on the chemical and physical properties of pollutant components, were used. To reduce emission of solvents, condensation and activated carbon adsorption were employed. To reduce emission of a mixture gases containing acid gases and solvents, the mixed gases were passed into the first condenser, the acid scrubber, the second condenser, and the activated carbon adsorption tower in sequence. As a strategy to reduce emission of pollutants at the source, this study also employed the simple pollution prevention concept of modification of the previously operating APC control device. Finally, air emissions of pollutants produced from the chemical plants were much more reduced by applying proper APC methods, depending upon the types (physical or chemical properties) and the specific emission situations of pollutants. PMID:12447574

  9. Ultra-spatial synchrotron radiation for imaging molecular chemical structure: Applications in plant and animal studies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (S-FTIR) has been developed as a rapid, direct, non-destructive, bioanalytical technique. This technique takes advantage of synchrotron light brightness and small effective source size and is capable of exploring the molecular chemical features and make-up within microstructures of a biological tissue without destruction of inherent structures at ultra-spatial resolutions within cellular dimension. To date there has been very little application of this advanced synchrotron technique to the study of plant and animal tissues' inherent structure at a cellular or subcellular level. In this article, a novel approach was introduced to show the potential of themore » newly developed, advanced synchrotron-based analytical technology, which can be used to reveal molecular structural-chemical features of various plant and animal tissues.« less

  10. Chemical constituents of the hemiparasitic plant Phoradendron brachystachyum DC Nutt (Viscaceae).

    PubMed

    López-Martínez, Sugey; Navarrete-Vázquez, Gabriel; Estrada-Soto, Samuel; León-Rivera, Ismael; Rios, María Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    Phoradendron brachystachyum is a hemiparasitic plant widely distributed in México that belongs to the Viscaceae family. It has been commonly used in folk medicine as a substitute for the European mistletoe. In this chemical study, morolic acid was isolated as the major component (47.54% of the total composition of acetone extract) of this plant. In addition, 19 known compounds were identified: β-sitosteryl and stigmasteryl linoleates, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, triacontanol, squalene, α- and β-amyrin, lupeol, lupenone, betulin aldehyde, betulon aldehyde, oleanolic aldehyde, betulinic acid, betulonic acid, moronic acid, morolic acid, oleanolic acid, flavonoids acacetin and acacetin 7-methyl ether. There have been no previous reports in the literature on the chemical composition of this potential natural source of hypoglycaemic and antihypertensive compounds.

  11. Chemical constituents and bioactivities of the plants of genus Flemingia Roxb. et Ait. (Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Zhai, Fengyan; Liu, Zhongdong

    2012-09-01

    The genus Flemingia Roxb. et Ait. (Leguminosae) has been used for disease prevention and therapy in China since ancient times. So the material basis of the pharmacological activity in the genus Flemingia should be clear for how to use this kind of traditional Chinese medicines more reasonably in pharmacology. Therefore, this review gives an account of the current knowledge on the chemical constituents, biological activities and pharmacological properties of the plants of the genus. Several different classes of compounds were previously isolated, which the main groups are flavones, particularly prenylated flavones, and triterpenes accompanied with sterols, anthraquinones, and others. The names and structures of the chemical constituents are given in this review. In addition, the pharmacological effects of the extracts and individual compounds (mainly for flavones) derived from the genus plants have been found, including neuroprotection, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, cytotoxicity, hormone-like effects, antimicrobial activities, and so on.

  12. Chemical species in fly ash from coal-burning power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hulett, L.D. Jr.; Weinberger, A.J.; Northcutt, K.J.; Ferguson, M.

    1980-12-19

    Fly ash specimens from four power plants in the Tennessee Valley Authority system have been separated into three matrices: glass, mullite-quartz, and magnetic spinel. Chemical species of trace elements are defined to a large extent by the matrices that contain them. The magnetic component of fly ash is ferrite. The mullit-quartz phase is relatively pure and can be recovered as a resource.

  13. Renal failure caused by chemicals, foods, plants, animal venoms, and misuse of drugs. An overview.

    PubMed

    Abuelo, J G

    1990-03-01

    Nephrotoxicity caused by contrast media and drugs is a frequent cause of renal failure in medical practice. However, there are only sporadic cases of renal failure caused by chemicals, foods, plants, animal venoms, and misused or illegal drugs, and standard medical textbooks are limited in the coverage given to the subject. This review provides a referenced compilation of these lesser-known nephrotoxins and gives an overview of renal failure caused by substances other than properly used medications.

  14. Systems Engineering of Chemical Hydrogen Storage, Pressure Vessel and Balance of Plant for Onboard Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Weimar, Mark R.

    2014-09-02

    This is the annual report for the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence project as required by DOE EERE's Fuel Cell Technologies Office. We have been provided with a specific format. It describes the work that was done with cryo-sorbent based and chemical-based hydrogen storage materials. Balance of plant components were developed, proof-of-concept testing performed, system costs estimated, and transient models validated as part of this work.

  15. Optical methods for creating delivery systems of chemical compounds to plant roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Pavel E.; Rogacheva, Svetlana M.; Arefeva, Oksana A.; Minin, Dmitryi V.; Tolmachev, Sergey A.; Kupadze, Machammad S.

    2004-08-01

    Spectrophotometric and fluorescence methods have been used for creation and investigation of various systems of target delivery of chemical compounds to roots of plants. The possibility of using liposomes, incrusted by polysaccharides of the external surface of nitrogen-fixing rizospheric bacteria Azospirillum brasilense SP 245, and nanoparticles incrusted by polysaccharides of wheat roots, as the named systems has been shown. The important role of polysaccharide-polysaccharide interaction in the adsorption processes of bacteria on wheat roots has been demonstrated.

  16. Characterization of plutonium in ground water near the idaho chemical processing plant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cleveland, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Plutonium is present in very low concentrations in ground water near the disposal well at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant but was not detected in waters at greater distances. Because of the absence of strong complexing agents, the plutonium is present as an uncomplexed (perhaps hydrolyzed) tetravalent species, which is readily precipitated or sorbed by basalt or sediments along the ground-water flow path.

  17. A Specialist Herbivore Uses Chemical Camouflage to Overcome the Defenses of an Ant-Plant Mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Susan R.; Reid, Ellen; Sapp, Joseph; Poveda, Katja; Royer, Anne M.; Posto, Amanda L.; Kessler, André

    2014-01-01

    Many plants and ants engage in mutualisms where plants provide food and shelter to the ants in exchange for protection against herbivores and competitors. Although several species of herbivores thwart ant defenses and extract resources from the plants, the mechanisms that allow these herbivores to avoid attack are poorly understood. The specialist insect herbivore, Piezogaster reclusus (Hemiptera: Coreidae), feeds on Neotropical bull-horn acacias (Vachellia collinsii) despite the presence of Pseudomyrmex spinicola ants that nest in and aggressively defend the trees. We tested three hypotheses for how P. reclusus feeds on V. collinsii while avoiding ant attack: (1) chemical camouflage via cuticular surface compounds, (2) chemical deterrence via metathoracic defense glands, and (3) behavioral traits that reduce ant detection or attack. Our results showed that compounds from both P. reclusus cuticles and metathoracic glands reduce the number of ant attacks, but only cuticular compounds appear to be essential in allowing P. reclusus to feed on bull-horn acacia trees undisturbed. In addition, we found that ant attack rates to P. reclusus increased significantly when individuals were transferred between P. spinicola ant colonies. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that chemical mimicry of colony-specific ant or host plant odors plays a key role in allowing P. reclusus to circumvent ant defenses and gain access to important resources, including food and possibly enemy-free space. This interaction between ants, acacias, and their herbivores provides an excellent example of the ability of herbivores to adapt to ant defenses of plants and suggests that herbivores may play an important role in the evolution and maintenance of mutualisms. PMID:25047551

  18. Chemical detoxification vs mechanical removal of host plant toxins in Eucalyptus feeding sawfly larvae (Hymenoptera: Pergidae).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, S; McKinnon, A E; Moore, C J; Walter, G H

    2010-12-01

    The essential oils that characterize the eucalypts and related Myrtaceae pose a challenge for herbivores. Phytophagous insects that feed on oil-rich Myrtaceae have developed specific mechanisms to deal with these oils, some of which are notoriously toxic (e.g. 1,8-cineole). Some of the eight Australian subfamilies in the sawfly family Pergidae are associated exclusively with Eucalyptus and Melaleuca species that often have high concentrations of essential oils. Unexpectedly, the Perginae and Pterygophorinae use different mechanisms to deal with the same toxic components in their respective host plants. Larvae of the Perginae have the inner surface of their mandibles equipped with soft brush-like structures that are unique among phytophagous insects in general. The proposed role of these ancillary mandibular structures in separating leaf oils from nutritive plant matter could be confirmed in experiments with larvae of two pergine species. The oil sequestration is, however, incomplete and chemical gut content analyses by gas-chromatography (GC) revealed that 1,8-cineole does enter the midgut and is metabolised to hydroxycineole. Although the related Pterygophorinae also feed mainly on oil-rich Myrtaceae, they do not sequester the oil and lack morphological structures on their mandibles. Chemical analysis of the gut content of two pterygophorine species showed that they rely solely on chemical detoxification of the relevant plant compounds, with GC demonstrating that the 1,8-cineole is removed far more rapidly and completely than in the pergine species. PMID:20655314

  19. Factors affecting the uptake of 14C-labeled organic chemicals by plants from soil

    SciTech Connect

    Topp, E.; Scheunert, I.; Attar, A.; Korte, F.

    1986-04-01

    The uptake of /sup 14/C from various /sup 14/C-labeled organic chemicals from different chemical classes by barley and cress seedlings from soil was studied for 7 days in a closed aerated laboratory apparatus. Uptake by roots and by leaves via the air was determined separately. Although comparative long-term outdoor studies showed that an equilibrium is not reached within a short time period, plant concentration factors after 7 days could be correlated to some physicochemical and structural substance properties. Barley root concentration factors due to root uptake, expressed as concentration in roots divided by concentration in soil, gave a fairly good negative correlation to adsorption coefficients based on soil organic carbon. Barley root concentration factors, expressed as concentration in roots divided by concentration in soil liquid, gave a positive correlation to the n-octanol/water partition coefficients. Uptake of chemicals by barley leaves via air was strongly positively correlated to volatilization of chemicals from soil. Both root and foliar uptake by barley could be correlated well to the molecular weight of 14 chemicals. Uptake of chemicals by cress differed from that by barley, and correlations to physicochemical substance properties mostly were poor.

  20. Lessons Learned on University Education Programs of Chemical Engineering Principles for Nuclear Plant Operations - 13588

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Jun-hyung

    2013-07-01

    University education aims to supply qualified human resources for industries. In complex large scale engineering systems such as nuclear power plants, the importance of qualified human resources cannot be underestimated. The corresponding education program should involve many topics systematically. Recently a nuclear engineering program has been initiated in Dongguk University, South Korea. The current education program focuses on undergraduate level nuclear engineering students. Our main objective is to provide industries fresh engineers with the understanding on the interconnection of local parts and the entire systems of nuclear power plants and the associated systems. From the experience there is a huge opportunity for chemical engineering disciple in the context of giving macroscopic overview on nuclear power plant and waste treatment management by strengthening the analyzing capability of fundamental situations. (authors)

  1. Enhancing cellulose utilization for fuels and chemicals by genetic modification of plant cell wall architecture.

    PubMed

    Vermerris, Wilfred; Abril, Alejandra

    2015-04-01

    Cellulose from plant biomass can serve as a sustainable feedstock for fuels, chemicals and polymers that are currently produced from petroleum. In order to enhance economic feasibility, the efficiency of cell wall deconstruction needs to be enhanced. With the use of genetic and biotechnological approaches cell wall composition can be modified in such a way that interactions between the major cell wall polymers—cellulose, hemicellulosic polysaccharides and lignin—are altered. Some of the resulting plants are compromised in their growth and development, but this may be caused in part by the plant's overcompensation for metabolic perturbances. In other cases novel structures have been introduced in the cell wall without negative effects. The first field studies with engineered bioenergy crops look promising, while detailed structural analyses of cellulose synthase offer new opportunities to modify cellulose itself.

  2. Description of Survey Data Regarding the Chemical Repackaging Plant Accident West Helena, Arkansas

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, J.H.; Vogt, B.M.

    1999-03-01

    Shortly after 1:00 p.m. on Thursday, May 8, 1997, clouds of foul-smelling smoke began pouring from an herbicide and pesticide packaging plant in West Helena, Arkansas. An alert was sounded, employees evacuated, and the West Helena fire department was called. As three firefighters prepared to enter the plant, the chemical compounds exploded, collapsing a solid concrete block wall, and killing all three firefighters. As the odorous smoky cloud drifted away from the plant, authorities ordered residents in a 2-mile area downwind of the plant to evacuate and those in the 2- to 3-mile zone to shelter in place. This study examines and compares the responses to a mail survey of those ordered to evacuate and those told to shelter in place. Among the variables examined are compliance with official orders and perceived warnings, threat perception, time and source of first warning, response times, and behavior characteristics for both populations. The findings indicate that 90% of those that were told to evacuate did so but only 27% of those told to shelter-in-place did so, with 68% opting to evacuate instead. The implications of these findings for emergency managers is that people will likely choose to evacuate when both warnings to evacuate and warnings to shelter are issued to residents in close proximity to each other. The findings on warning times closely resemble other findings from evacuations when chemical accidents occur and route notification is used for warning residents.

  3. Development of a plant bioassay to assess toxicity of chemical stressors to emergent macrophytes

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, R.L.; Kimerle, R.A.; Moser, E.M.

    1996-09-01

    A static renewal bioassay has been proposed to evaluate the effects of chemical stressors on the growth of emergent macrophytes. Bioassay methods were developed using Oryza sativa L. (domestic rice) as the test species and boron as the test compound. After culturing O. sativa in a natural sediment for 2 weeks, the plants were continuously exposed to various concentrations of boron dissolved in the dilution water. At the end of the exposure period the plants were evaluated. Endpoints included visual observations, dry weight, residue, and chlorophyll concentration in the leaf tissue. Dose-response relationships were established for each endpoint; however, dry weight appears to be the least sensitive endpoint. Exposure duration also significantly influenced toxic values. The bioassay procedure was then used to screen several other emergent macrophytes for toxicity to boron. Visual observations and residue indicated treatment differences for each of these species; however, dry weight and chlorophyll concentration did not confirm the differences. Oryza sativa plants exposed to water naturally contaminated with boron accumulated similar concentrations of boron in their leaf tissue as plants exposed to laboratory-prepared solutions of boron. Based on the data presented here, this bioassay appears to be useful in evaluating the potential toxicity of chemical stressors to emergent macrophytes.

  4. EU-OPENSCREEN-chemical tools for the study of plant biology and resistance mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Meiners, Torsten; Stechmann, Bahne; Frank, Ronald

    2014-10-01

    EU-OPENSCREEN is an academic research infrastructure initiative in Europe for enabling researchers in all life sciences to take advantage of chemical biology approaches to their projects. In a collaborative effort of national networks in 16 European countries, EU-OPENSCREEN will develop novel chemical compounds with external users to address questions in, among other fields, systems and network biology (directed and selective perturbation of signalling pathways), structural biology (compound-target interactions at atomic resolution), pharmacology (early drug discovery and toxicology) and plant biology (response of wild or crop plants to environmental and agricultural substances). EU-OPENSCREEN supports all stages of a tool development project, including assay adaptation, high-throughput screening and chemical optimisation of the 'hit' compounds. All tool compounds and data will be made available to the scientific community. EU-OPENSCREEN integrates high-capacity screening platforms throughout Europe, which share a rationally selected compound collection comprising up to 300,000 (commercial and proprietary compounds collected from European chemists). By testing systematically this chemical collection in hundreds of assays originating from very different biological themes, the screening process generates enormous amounts of information about the biological activities of the substances and thereby steadily enriches our understanding of how and where they act.

  5. Toxicological actions of plant-derived and anthropogenic methylenedioxyphenyl-substituted chemicals in mammals and insects.

    PubMed

    Murray, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The methylenedioxyphenyl (MDP) substituent is a structural feature present in many plant chemicals that deter foraging by predatory insects and herbivores. With increasing use of herbal extracts in alternative medicine, human exposure to MDP-derived plant chemicals may also be significant. Early studies found that most MDP agents themselves possess relatively low intrinsic toxicity, but strongly influence the actions of other xenobiotics in mammals and insects by modulating cytochrome P-450 (CYP)-dependent biotransformation. Thus, after exposure to MDP chemicals an initial phase of CYP inhibition is followed by a sustained phase of CYP induction. In insects CYP inhibition by MDP agents underlies their use as pesticide synergists, but analogous inhibition of mammalian CYP impairs the clearance of drugs and foreign compounds. Conversely, induction of mammalian CYP by MDP agents increases xenobiotic oxidation capacity. Exposure of insects to MDP-containing synergists in the environment, in the absence of coadministered pesticides, may also enhance xenobiotic detoxication. Finally, although most MDP agents are well tolerated, several, typified by safrole, aristolochic acid, and MDP-kavalactones, are associated with significant toxicities, including the risk of hepatotoxicity or tumorigenesis. Thus, the presence of MDP-substituted chemicals in the environment may produce a range of direct and indirect toxicities in target and nontarget species.

  6. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant low-activity waste grout stabilization development program FY-97 status report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.; Marshall, D.W.; McCray, J.A.

    1998-02-01

    The general purpose of the Grout Development Program is to solidify and stabilize the liquid low-activity wastes (LAW) generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). It is anticipated that LAW will be produced from the following: (1) chemical separation of the tank farm high-activity sodium-bearing waste, (2) retrieval, dissolution, and chemical separation of the aluminum, zirconium, and sodium calcines, (3) facility decontamination processes, and (4) process equipment waste. Grout formulation studies for sodium-bearing LAW, including decontamination and process equipment waste, continued this fiscal year. A second task was to develop a grout formulation to solidify potential process residual heels in the tank farm vessels when the vessels are closed.

  7. Use of plant cell cultures to study the metabolism of environmental chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Sandermann, H. Jr.; Scheel, D.; v.d.Trenck, T.

    1984-04-01

    The metabolism of the following environmental chemicals has been studied in cell suspension cultures of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.):2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorophenol, diethylhexylphthalate , benzo (alpha) pyrene, and DDT. All chemicals tested, including the persistent ones, were partially metabolized. Polar conjugates predominated in all cases. A covalent incorporation into lignin could be demonstrated for 2,4-D and pentachlorophenol. A specific deposition in the cellular vacuole could be demonstrated for the beta-D-glucopyranoside conjugates derived from 2,4-D. A rapid assay procedure to evaluate the metabolism of a given /sup 14/C-labeled chemical in plant cell suspension cultures is described. This procedure requires about 1 week, and the reproducibility of the results obtained has been assessed.

  8. Historical Exposures to Chemicals at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant: A Pilot Retrospective Exposure Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Janeen Denise Robertson

    1999-02-01

    In a mortality study of white males who had worked at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant between 1952 and 1979, an increased number of deaths from benign and unspecified intracranial neoplasms was found. A case-control study nested within this cohort investigated the hypothesis that an association existed between brain tumor death and exposure to either internally deposited plutonium or external ionizing radiation. There was no statistically significant association found between estimated radiation exposure from internally deposited plutonium and the development of brain tumors. Exposure by job or work area showed no significant difference between the cohort and the control groups. An update of the study found elevated risk estimates for (1) all lymphopoietic neoplasms, and (2) all causes of death in employees with body burdens greater than or equal to two nanocuries of plutonium. There was an excess of brain tumors for the entire cohort. Similar cohort studies conducted on worker populations from other plutonium handling facilities have not yet shown any elevated risks for brain tumors. Historically, the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant used large quantities of chemicals in their production operations. The use of solvents, particularly carbon tetrachloride, was unique to Rocky Flats. No investigation of the possible confounding effects of chemical exposures was done in the initial studies. The objectives of the present study are to (1) investigate the history of chemical use at the Rocky Flats facility; (2) locate and analyze chemical monitoring information in order to assess employee exposure to the chemicals that were used in the highest volume; and (3) determine the feasibility of establishing a chemical exposure assessment model that could be used in future epidemiology studies.

  9. Inhibition of oviposition by volatiles of certain plants and chemicals in the leafhopperAmrasca devastons (distant).

    PubMed

    Saxena, K N; Basit, A

    1982-02-01

    Oviposition by the leafhopperAmrasca devastans (Distant) on its susceptible host plant, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum var. PS-10), was inhibited by the volatiles of certain plants and by the vapors of some chemicals occurring in various plants when these were presented at a distance from the ovipositional substrate. The effectiveness of the volatiles of the plants for inhibiting the oviposition decreased in the order: eucalyptus > coriander=castor=tomato > lime,Ocimum being without effect. Among the volatile plant chemicals tested, the inhibitory effects decreased in the order: citral=carvacrol > citronellol=farnesol = geraniol=eucalyptus oil > neem oil=Cymbopogan oil. These chemicals served as volatile antiovipositants and did not reduce the arrival/stay of the insects on the host plants. Carvacrol had a slight toxic effect on the nymphs, but none of the volatiles was toxic to the adults. PMID:24414944

  10. Residential and biological exposure assessment of chemicals from a wood treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Dahlgren, James; Takhar, Harpreet; Schecter, Arnold; Schmidt, Reynold; Horsak, Randy; Paepke, Olaf; Warshaw, Raphael; Lee, Alexander; Anderson-Mahoney, Pamela

    2007-04-01

    This paper evaluates the results of contamination of residents and residential homes located in close proximity to a Wood Treatment Plant. The plant has produced treated wood products continuously since 1904. The principle chemicals used to treat the wood, which is primarily used for railroad ties (oblong objects laid perpendicular to the rails to act as a base for the tracks), are creosote and pentachlorophenol. For a number of years, the plant burned treated waste wood products containing creosote and pentachlorophenol. First the plant pressure impregnates the wood with creosote and pentachlorophenol, and then the wood is stacked on open ground to allow it to air dry. Chemicals from recently treated wood ties are allowed to evaporate into the air or drip onto the ground surrounding the stacked wood. Small drainage ditches carry the liquid wastes into larger water channels where eventually the waste streams are discharged into a river adjacent to the plant. The river serves as a source of drinking water for the nearby community. Prevailing wind patterns favor a drift of air emissions from the plant's boiler stack over the nearby community and its residents. Over the past few years, the town's residents have become increasingly concerned about their health status and have voiced concerns regarding multiple health problems (including cancer), possibly associated with plant discharges. The intention of this study is to examine a representative sample of the potentially affected residents and to evaluate their residential environment for the presence of dioxin and/or its congeners. Data obtained from EPA's Toxic Release Information (TRI) database revealed the plant routinely discharged creosote, pentachlorophenol, dioxin and dioxin-like compounds into the ambient air via fugitive air emissions and surface waste waters. Sampling of household dust and water sediment within and outside of residences within a 2-mile radius of the plant revealed the presence of

  11. Biogeography of Alaska paper birch (Betula neoalaskana): latitudinal patterns in chemical defense and plant architecture.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Michael T; Brown, Sarah C; Bothwell, Helen M; Bryant, John P

    2016-02-01

    The latitudinal herbivory-defense hypothesis (LHDH) predicts that plants near the equator will be more heavily defended against herbivores than are plants at higher latitudes. Although this idea is widely found in the literature, recent studies have called this biogeographic pattern into question. We sought to evaluate the LHDH in a high-latitude terrestrial ecosystem where fire and mammalian herbivores may contribute to selection for higher levels of defensive chemistry. To address this objective, we collected seeds of Alaska paper birch (Betula neoalaskana) from nine locations along two north-south transects between 55 degrees N and 62 degrees N latitudes in western, interior Canada. The birch seeds were planted in pots in a common garden in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. From the resulting seedlings, we determined levels of chemical defense by assessing the density of resin glands, which have been shown to be negatively correlated with browsing. To assess plant architectural traits such as height, mean individual leaf area, and root-to-shoot ratio, we harvested a subset of the birch seedlings. Further, we used these traits to examine growth-defense trade-offs. Contrary to the LHDH, we found a positive correlation between chemical defense and latitude. Investigating relationships with fire, we found a strong positive correlation between resin gland density and percentage of area annually burned (PAAB) around each collection location and also between PAAB and latitude. Additionally, birch seedlings originating from higher latitudes were shorter, smaller-leaved, and rootier than their lower-latitude counterparts. Growth-defense trade-offs were observed in negative correlations between resin gland density and height and leaf size. Seedlings with higher resin gland densities also allocated less biomass to shoots and more to roots. These results further call into question the LHDH and provide specific information about latitudinal trends in plant defense at high, northern

  12. [Development of Chemical Exposure Prediction Model for Aerobic Sewage Treatment Plant for Biochemical Wastewaters].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin-jun; Liu, Ji-ning; Shi, Li-li; Feng, Jie; Xu, Yan-hua

    2016-01-15

    Sewage treatment plant (STP) is a key transfer station for chemicals distributed into different environment compartment, and hence models of exposure prediction play a crucial role in the environmental risk assessment and pollution prevention of chemicals. A mass balance model namely Chinese Sewage treatment plant (C-STP(O)) was developed to predict the fate and exposure of chemicals in a conventional sewage treatment plant. The model was expressed as 9 mixed boxes by compartment of air, water, suspended solids, and settled solids. It was based on the minimum input data required on the notification in new chemicals, such as molecular weight, absorption coefficient, vapor pressure, water solubility, ready or inherent biodegradability. The environment conditions ( Temperature = 283 K, wind speed = 2 m x s(-1)) and the classic STP scenario parameters of China, especially the scenario parameters of water quality and sludge properties were adopted in C-STP( 0) model to reflect Chinese characteristics, these parameters were sewage flow of 35 000 m3 x d(-1), influent BOD5 of 0.15 g x L(-1), influent SS of 0.2 kg x m(-3), effluent SS of 0.02 kg x m(-3), BOD5 removal in aerator of 90% sludge density of 1.6 kg x L(3) and organic carbon content of 0.18-0.19. It adopted the fugacity express for mechanism of linear absorption, first-order degradation, Whitman two resistances. An overall interphase transfer constant which was the sum of surface volatilization and stripping was used to assess the volatilization in aerator. The most important and uncertain input value was the biodegradation rate constant, and determination of which required a tier test strategy from ready or inherent biodegradability data to simulate test in STP. An extrapolated criterion of US EPA to derive biodegradation rate constant using the results of ready and inherent biodegradability was compared with that of EU and was recommended. C-STP ( 0 ) was valid to predict the relative emission of volatilization

  13. Plant-beneficial elements status assessment in soil-plant system in the vicinity of a chemical industry complex: shedding light on forage grass safety issues.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Naser A; Duarte, Armando C; Pereira, Eduarda; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2015-02-01

    Human health is closely linked with soils via plants, grazers, or plant-based products. This study estimated plant-beneficial elements (macronutrients: K, P; secondary macronutrients: Ca, Mg; micronutrients: Mo, Mn, Na, Ni, Se) in both soils and shoots of two forage grass species (Eriophorum angustifolium and Lolium perenne) prevalent in the vicinity of a chemical industry complex (Estarreja, Portugal). Both soils and plants from the chemical industrial areas exhibited differential concentrations of the studied elements. In soils, the role of contamination was evidenced as insignificant in context of its impact on all the tested macro and secondary macronutrients except P, and micronutrients such as Mo and Ni. In forage grass plant shoots, the role of contamination was evidenced as insignificant in relation to its impact on all the tested macro and secondary macronutrients except K. Between the two forage grass plants, high Se-harboring L. perenne cannot be recommended for its use as animal feed.

  14. Oxidation mechanism and overall removal rates of endocrine disrupting chemicals by aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Reis, A R; Tabei, K; Sakakibara, Y

    2014-01-30

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate experimentally and theoretically the oxidation mechanisms and overall removal rates of phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) by aquatic plants. EDCs used in this study were bisphenol-A (BPA), 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP), and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Referring to reported detection levels in aquatic environments and contaminated sites, the feed concentration of each EDC was set from 1 to 100μg/L. Experimental results showed that, except for PCP, phenolic EDCs were stably and concurrently removed by different types of aquatic plants over 70 days in long-term continuous treatments. Primal enzymes responsible for oxidation of BPA, 2,4-DCP, and 4-t-OP were peroxidases (POs). Moreover, enzymatic removal rates of BPA, 2,4-DCP, and 4-t-OP by POs were more than 2 orders of magnitude larger than those by aquatic plants. Assuming that overall removal rates of EDCs are controlled by mass transfer rates onto liquid films on the surface of aquatic plants, an electrochemical method based on the limiting current theory was developed to measure the mass transfer rates of EDCs. Because of extremely large removal rates of EDCs by POs, observed removal rates by aquatic plants were in reasonably good agreement with calculated results by a mathematical model developed based on an assumption that mass transfer limitation is a rate-limiting step.

  15. The Chemical Hazards Assessment Prior to D&D of the Plutonium Finishing Plant, Hanford Nuclear Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, A. M.; Prevette, S. S.; Sherwood, A. R.; Fitch, L. R.; Ranade, D. G.; Oldham, R. W.

    2003-02-26

    This report describes the evaluation methods and results of a chemical safety status assessment of the process equipment at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Nuclear Reservation Plutonium Finishing Plant. This assessment, designated as the Plutonium Finishing Plant Residual Chemical Hazards Assessment, focused particular emphasis on the idle and inactive plant systems, though certain active areas also were examined to the extent that these were examined during a previous facility vulnerability assessment completed in 1999. The Plutonium Finishing Plant is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Nuclear Reservation that is situated in south central Washington State.

  16. INITIAL CHEMICAL AND RESERVOIR CONDITIONS AT LOS AZUFRES WELLHEAD POWER PLANT STARTUP

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, P.; Semprini, L.; Verma, S.; Barragan, R.; Molinar, R.; Aragon, A.; Ortiz, J.; Miranda, C.

    1985-01-22

    One of the major concerns of electric utilities in installing geothermal power plants is not only the longevity of the steam supply, but also the potential for changes in thermodynamic properties of the resource that might reduce the conversion efficiency of the design plant equipment. Production was initiated at Los Azufres geothermal field with wellhead generators not only to obtain electric energy at a relatively early date, but also to acquire needed information about the resource so that plans for large central power plants could be finalized. Commercial electric energy production started at Los Azufres during the summer of 1982 with five 5-MWe wellhead turbine-generator units. The wells associated with these units had undergone extensive testing and have since been essentially in constant production. The Los Azufres geothermal reservoir is a complex structural and thermodynamic system, intersected by at least 4 major parallel faults and producing geothermal fluids from almost all water to all steam. The five wellhead generators are associated with wells of about 30%, 60%, and 100% steam fraction. A study to compile existing data on the chemical and reservoir conditions during the first two years of operation has been completed. Data have been compiled on mean values of wellhead and separator pressures, steam and liquid flowrates, steam fraction, enthalpy, and pertinent chemical components. The compilation serves both as a database of conditions during the start-up period and as an initial point to observe changes with continued and increased production. Current plans are to add additional wellhead generators in about two years followed by central power plants when the data have been sufficiently evaluated for optimum plant design. During the next two years, the data acquired at the five 5-MWe wellhead generator units can be compared to this database to observe any significant changes in reservoir behavior at constant production.

  17. The discovery of the chemical nature of the plant hormone auxin.

    PubMed

    Pennazio, Sergio

    2002-01-01

    The concept of substances working as a chemical messenger among the plant tissues was guessed in the last quarter of the nineteenth century as a consequence of a series of observations and experiments concerning two important phenomena: the geotropism and the heliotropism. The work of Theophil Ciesielski, Charles and Francis Darwin, Julius von Sachs, Martinus Beijerinck and Julius Wiesner supplied the fundamental pillar to the modern plant physiology. Hans Fitting [1909] introduced the term "hormone", coined in 1902 to indicate a substance promoting chemical correlations among various organs of animals, in plant physiology for indicating a substance stimulating the development of the ovary of orchid flower. Paul Boysen-Jensen and Arpad Paál focused the occurrence of a growth substance that somehow regulated the positive curvature of oats coleoptiles, the distinctive feature of the phototropism. During the 1920s, a few Mitteleuropean botanists gave circumstantial evidence of such a substance before the Dutch physiologist Frits Went elaborated an experimental procedure for isolating it, and quantifying its physiological activity. Went's work crowned with success a half century of research and opened the door to the chemistry of the auxins. A next important step concerned the purification of sufficient amounts of substance for analytical purposes. Five years of attempts made by Hermann Dolk, Jan Haagen-Smit, F. Kögl and Kenneth Thimann had success and the "substance" was finally identified as indolacetic acid and named "auxin". This result delivered definitively the concept of plant growth from a secular mysticism and established a milestone in the modern plant physiology.

  18. Influence of extreme pollution on the inorganic chemical composition of some plants.

    PubMed

    Reimann, C; Koller, F; Kashulina, G; Niskavaara, H; Englmaier, P

    2001-01-01

    Leaves of nine different plant species (terrestrial moss: Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi, blueberry: Vaccinium myrtillus, cowberry: Vaccinium vitis-idaea, crowberry: Empetrum nigrum, birch: Betula pubescens, willow: Salix spp., pine: Pinus sylvestris, and spruce: Picea abies) have been collected from up to nine catchments (size 14-50 km2) spread over a 1,500,000 km2 area in northern Europe. Additional soil samples were taken from the O-horizon and the C-horizon at each plant sample site. All samples were analysed for 38 elements (Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, Th, Tl, U, V, Y, Zn, and Zr) by ICP-MS, ICP-AES or CV-AAS (Hg) techniques. One of the 9 catchments was located directly adjacent (5-10 km S) to the nickel smelter and refinery at Monchegorsk, Kola Peninsula, Russia. The high levels of pollution at this site are reflected in the chemical composition of all plant leaves. However, it appears that each plant enriches (or excludes) different elements. Elements emitted at trace levels, such as Ag, As and Bi, are relatively much more enriched in most plants than the major pollutants Ni, Cu and Co. The very high levels of SO2 emissions are generally not reflected by increases in plant total S-content. Several important macro-(P) and micro-nutrients (Mn, Mg, and Zn) are depleted in most plant leaves collected near Monchegorsk. PMID:11706797

  19. OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE: UPGRADED MPC AND A SYSTEMS FOR THE RADIOCHEMICAL PLANT OF THE SIBERIAN CHEMICAL COMBINE

    SciTech Connect

    RODRIGUEZ,C.GOLOSKOKOV,I.FISHBONE,L.GOODEY,K.LOOMIS,M.CRAIN,B.JR.LARSEN,R.

    2003-07-18

    The success of reducing the risk of nuclear proliferation through physical protection and material control/accounting systems depends upon the development of an effective design that includes consideration of the objectives of the systems and the resources available to implement the design. Included among the objectives of the design are facility characterization, definition of threat, and identification of targets. When considering resources, the designer must consider funds available, rapid low-cost elements, technology elements, human resources, and the availability of resources to sustain operation of the end system. The Siberian Chemical Combine (SCC) is a multi-function nuclear facility located in the Tomsk region of Siberia, Russia. Beginning in 1996, SCC joined with the United States Department of Energy (US/DOE) Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) Program to develop and implement MPC&A upgrades for the Radiochemical, Chemical Metallurgical, Conversion, Uranium Enrichment, and Reactor Plants of the SCC. At the Radiochemical Plant the MPC&A design and implementation process has been largely completed for the Plutonium Storage Facility and related areas of the Radiochemical Plant. Design and implementation of upgrades for the Radiochemical Plant include rapid physical protection upgrades such as bricking up of doors and windows, and installation of security-hardened doors. Rapid material control and accounting upgrades include installation of modern balances and bar code equipment. Comprehensive MPC&A upgrades include the installation of access controls to sensitive areas of the Plant, alarm communication and display (AC&D) systems to detect and annunciate alarm conditions, closed circuit (CCTV) systems to assess alarm conditions, central and secondary alarm station upgrades that enable security forces to assess and respond to alarm conditions, material control and accounting upgrades that include upgraded physical inventory procedures, and

  20. Chemical phosphorus removal to extremely low levels: experience of two plants in the Washington, DC area.

    PubMed

    Takács, I; Murthy, S; Smith, S; McGrath, M

    2006-01-01

    Chemical phosphorus removal using metal (iron and aluminium) salts is frequently used to control effluent soluble phosphorus levels in wastewater treatment plants. In the Washington DC area effluent phosphorus requirements are extremely stringent to protect the Chesapeake Bay. Full-scale data from two plants in the area were analysed to establish phosphate behaviour in the presence of iron. Titration experiments and mathematical modelling were performed to determine the role of ferric phosphate and hydroxide precipitation and other mechanisms that may potentially be involved in phosphorus removal. Iron addition is described in the model using a chemical equilibrium approach extended with surface charges and adsorption. The model verifies key observations from full-scale data: (a) extremely low orthophosphate levels can be achieved over a wide range of pH values, (b) a mixture of ferric phosphate and ferric hydroxide precipitate is forming with the hydroxide acting as sorbent, (c) molar ratios of Fe/P (iron dosed to phosphate removed) vary widely (1.0-3.9) based on the technology used and residual phosphate levels. The model will be a useful tool for engineers to optimise preliminary, simultaneous and tertiary P removal, both for design and plant operation. PMID:16889237

  1. Chemical investigation of the medicinal and ornamental plant Angelonia angustifolia Benth. reveals therapeutic quantities of lupeol.

    PubMed

    Deyrup, Stephen T; Asghar, Khush B; Chacko, Ann; Hebert, Jakob M; Samson, Eric; Talone, Christopher J

    2014-10-01

    Angelonia angustifolia Benth. is a small herbaceous plant with documented use as an anti-inflammatory remedy by indigenous cultures in Latin America. It has subsequently been developed as an ornamental annual widely available in nurseries in the United States. Chemical investigation led to the discovery that lupeol is the major organic soluble constituent in the roots, and is present in large quantities in the aerial structures of the plant. Lupeol was identified by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques and quantified by HPLC-MS. The concentration of lupeol (9.14 mg/g in roots) in A. angustifolia is approximately 3 times higher than any previously reported sources. Therefore, the amount of lupeol in the roots of a single individual of A. angustifolia greatly exceeds the previously determined topical threshold for significant reduction of inflammation. The presence of topically therapeutic levels of lupeol in A. angustifolia provides chemical rationale for its indigenous use. In addition, the established cultivation of A. angustifolia could allow this plant to be used as a source of the important bioactive molecule lupeol, or to be developed as a nutraceutical without damaging wild populations.

  2. Chemical investigation of the medicinal and ornamental plant Angelonia angustifolia Benth. reveals therapeutic quantities of lupeol.

    PubMed

    Deyrup, Stephen T; Asghar, Khush B; Chacko, Ann; Hebert, Jakob M; Samson, Eric; Talone, Christopher J

    2014-10-01

    Angelonia angustifolia Benth. is a small herbaceous plant with documented use as an anti-inflammatory remedy by indigenous cultures in Latin America. It has subsequently been developed as an ornamental annual widely available in nurseries in the United States. Chemical investigation led to the discovery that lupeol is the major organic soluble constituent in the roots, and is present in large quantities in the aerial structures of the plant. Lupeol was identified by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques and quantified by HPLC-MS. The concentration of lupeol (9.14 mg/g in roots) in A. angustifolia is approximately 3 times higher than any previously reported sources. Therefore, the amount of lupeol in the roots of a single individual of A. angustifolia greatly exceeds the previously determined topical threshold for significant reduction of inflammation. The presence of topically therapeutic levels of lupeol in A. angustifolia provides chemical rationale for its indigenous use. In addition, the established cultivation of A. angustifolia could allow this plant to be used as a source of the important bioactive molecule lupeol, or to be developed as a nutraceutical without damaging wild populations. PMID:25111011

  3. Can phylogeny predict chemical diversity and potential medicinal activity of plants? A case study of amaryllidaceae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During evolution, plants and other organisms have developed a diversity of chemical defences, leading to the evolution of various groups of specialized metabolites selected for their endogenous biological function. A correlation between phylogeny and biosynthetic pathways could offer a predictive approach enabling more efficient selection of plants for the development of traditional medicine and lead discovery. However, this relationship has rarely been rigorously tested and the potential predictive power is consequently unknown. Results We produced a phylogenetic hypothesis for the medicinally important plant subfamily Amaryllidoideae (Amaryllidaceae) based on parsimony and Bayesian analysis of nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial DNA sequences of over 100 species. We tested if alkaloid diversity and activity in bioassays related to the central nervous system are significantly correlated with phylogeny and found evidence for a significant phylogenetic signal in these traits, although the effect is not strong. Conclusions Several genera are non-monophyletic emphasizing the importance of using phylogeny for interpretation of character distribution. Alkaloid diversity and in vitro inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and binding to the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) are significantly correlated with phylogeny. This has implications for the use of phylogenies to interpret chemical evolution and biosynthetic pathways, to select candidate taxa for lead discovery, and to make recommendations for policies regarding traditional use and conservation priorities. PMID:22978363

  4. Chemical and biological characterization of emissions from coal- and oil-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Ahlberg, M; Berghem, L; Nordberg, G; Persson, S A; Rudling, L; Steen, B

    1983-01-01

    Emission samples were obtained from two medium-sized power plants, one fired with oil and the other with pulverized coal. Particles obtained by a miniscale plume stack gas sampler (MIPSGAS), simulating the dilution process in the plume, were subjected to detailed physical, chemical and biological characterization. Studies by scanning electron microscopy and by Coulter counter demonstrated that the particles from the oil-fired boiler were considerably larger than the particles from the coal-fired boiler. Chemical analyses revealed more organic substances and more S, Ni, V, in the oil than in the coal particles. The latter contained a larger proportion of Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Se, Rb, Y, Zr, Ba and Pb. Biological testing revealed a greater acute and subacute toxicity by the intratracheal route in the hamster, a greater toxicity to alveolar macrophages and a greater lung retention of BaP coated on the particles from oil combustion than on those from coal combustion. In another sampling line, employed simultaneously with the MIPSGAS-particulate sampler, the total emissions were collected, i.e., both particle and gas phase. These samples were used for chemical analyses and Ames mutagenicity test. Analyses of specific PAHs in emissions from both plants demonstrated that concentrations were below the detection limit (less than 4 ng/m3 of benzo(a)pyrene), which is in accord with an efficient combustion of the fuel. The mutagenicity of the samples were below the detection limit of the mutagenicity assay.

  5. Long-term follow-up mortality study of petroleum refinery and chemical plant employees.

    PubMed

    Tsai, S P; Gilstrap, E L; Cowles, S R; Snyder, P J; Ross, C E

    1996-01-01

    A previous report presented the 1948-1983 mortality patterns of the Shell Deer Park Manufacturing Complex employees who were employed for at least 3 months from 1948 through 1972. The present study updates the earlier investigation by extending the vital status follow-up through 1989 and by expanding the cohort to include employees hired after 1972. As in the previous study, the overall mortality and cancer mortality for both refinery and chemical employees were quite favorable compared to residents in the local population. Among refinery workers, cancers for which a suspicion of work-relatedness was raised in the previous study, i.e. leukemia and cancers of the central nervous system and biliary passage/liver, no supportive evidence was found in this update. For both refinery and chemical plant employees, the mortality rate due to cancers of all lymphopoietic tissue increased with increasing duration of employment; this finding was also noted by the original study. This was also evident for lymphoreticulosarcoma in refinery employees and for leukemia in chemical plant employees. However, elevations of cancers of all lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue are primarily confined to employees who started work at the complex before 1946. By contrast, deaths from cancer of all lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue for employees hired after 1945 were 22% lower than the comparison population. Seven deaths with mesothelioma mentioned on the death certificates were identified, with 3.2 deaths expected, resulting in a statistically nonsignificant SMR of 219.

  6. Characterization of nuclear decontamination solutions at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from 1982-1990

    SciTech Connect

    Zohner, S.K.

    1996-03-01

    This report represents possibly the single largest collection of operational decontamination data from a nuclear reprocessing facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and perhaps anywhere in the world. The uniqueness of this data is due to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant`s (ICPP`s) ability to process different types of highly enriched nuclear fuel. The report covers an 8-year period, during which six campaigns were conducted to dissolve nuclear fuel clad in stainless steel, aluminum, graphite, and zirconium. Each fuel type had a separate head-end process with unique dissolution chemistry, but shared the same extraction process equipment. This report presents data about decontamination activities of the ICPP`s First Cycle extraction vessels, columns, piping, and aluminum dissolution vessels. Operating data from 1982 through 1990 has been collected, analyzed, and characterized. Chemicals used in the decontamination processes are documented along with quantities used. The chemical solutions are analyzed to compare effectiveness. Radioisotopic analysis is recorded, showing and quantifying what nuclides were removed by the various solutions. The original data is also provided to make it possible for researchers to address questions and test other hypotheses not discussed in this report.

  7. Rohm and Haas: Chemical Plant Uses Pinch Analysis to Quantify Energy and Cost Savings Opportunities at Deer Park, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    2004-08-01

    An assessment team conducted a pinch analysis on major production processes at a Rohm and Haas chemical plant. Several potential projects were identified, which could yield annual savings totaling 2.2 million MMBtu and almost $7.7 million.

  8. Rohm and Haas: Chemical Plant Uses Pinch Analysis to Quantify Energy and Cost Savings Opportunities at Deer Park, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-08-01

    An assessment team conducted a pinch analysis on major production processes at a Rohm and Haas chemical plant. Several potential projects were identified, which could yield annual savings totaling 2.2 million MMBtu and almost$7.7 million.

  9. Ecotoxicological and environmental problems associated with the former chemical plant in Tarnowskie Gory, Poland.

    PubMed

    Malina, Grzegorz

    2004-12-15

    The environmental problems related to the former chemical plant in Tarnowskie Gory, with respect to the Quaternary and Triassic groundwater as main receptors, are described and the eco-toxicological impact is discussed. The historical use of that site included industrial mining of ores (Ag, Pb, Zn) and use of Ba, B, Sr, Al, Cu during production of pigment. The majority of used and produced substances were toxic or hazardous. The applied technologies resulted in generation of waste which were mostly dumped without any elementary protection principles. Hydrodynamic modelling showed potential hazard to water-intakes. The variations of spatial distributions of selected contaminants within the Triassic carbonate series indicate that the chemical waste dumped in vicinity of the plant are the sources of groundwater contamination of boron. The results of soil and groundwater monitoring at the constructed landfill show significant contamination, mainly due to leaching from dumped waste, but also from infiltration of non-operating underground installations, and spills of toxic substances during the plant operation. The Quaternary aquifers are heavily contaminated due to the leaching out of chemical compounds from dumping sites. This is hazardous to the Triassic reservoirs--the main sources of potable water for the region. The characteristics of the key contaminants (As, B, Ba and Sr) are provided, including their transport, fate and toxicity. The spatial and temporal distribution of contaminants in groundwater is presented, and observed trends of groundwater quality decrease, mainly with respect to the Triassic aquifers, are discussed. The groundwater risk assessment being developed for the Tarnowskie Gory site should consider the present situation, and provide an approach towards evaluation and assessment of the required remediation measures. PMID:15464626

  10. Chemical characteristics of waters in Karst Formations at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Shevenell, L.A.

    1994-11-01

    Several waste disposal sites are located adjacent to or on a karst aquifer composed of the Cambrian Maynardville Limestone (Cmn) and the Cambrian Copper Ridge Dolomite (Ccr) at the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, TN. Highly variable chemical characteristics (i.e., hardness) can indicate that the portion of the aquifer tapped by a particular well is subject to a significant quick-flow component where recharge to the system is rapid and water levels and water quality change rapidly in response to precipitation events. Water zones in wells at the Y-12 Plant that exhibit quick-flow behavior (i.e., high hydraulic conductivity) are identified based on their geochemical characteristics and variability in geochemical parameters, and observations made during drilling of the wells. The chemical data used in this study consist of between one and 20 chemical analyses for each of 102 wells and multipart monitoring zones. Of these 102 water zones, 10 were consistently undersaturated with respect to calcite suggesting active dissolution. Repeat sampling of water zones shows that both supersaturation and undersaturation with respect to dolomite occurs in 46 water zones. Twelve of the zones had partial pressure of CO{sub 2} near atmospheric values suggesting limited interaction between recharge waters and the gases and solids in the vadose zone and aquifer, and hence, relatively short residence times. The preliminary data suggest that the Cmn is composed of a complicated network of interconnected, perhaps anastomosing, cavities. The degree of interconnection between the identified cavities is yet to be determined, although it is expected that there is a significant vertical and lateral interconnection between the cavities located at shallow depths in the Cnm throughout Bear Creek Valley and the Y-12 Plant area.

  11. Characterization of Waste Tar Associated with Abandoned Wood Chemical Plant Sites in Northwest Pennsylvania, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Edendorn, H.M.; Severson, D.

    2007-07-01

    Over 70 wood chemical plants operated in northern Pennsylvania between ca. 1890 and 1950, all located within 72 km of the New York state border. Their original purpose was to salvage the small unwanted hardwood trees left behind by the lumber mills, and to make charcoal, calcium acetate and methanol for a number of industrial uses via destructive distillation. At many old wood chemical plant sites, unknown quantities of wood tar remain as a residual contaminant and pose a pollution threat to aquatic life in nearby streams. Research on the composition and properties of residual wood tars from five abandoned industrial sites in Pennsylvania are described. Weathered wood tars were more viscous and contained fewer volatile and semivolatile organic compounds than did soil-buried tars. Phenol, 2-methylphenol (o-cresol), 4-methylphenol (p-cresol), and 2, 4-dimethylphenol were found in all sampled tars. These water-soluble phenolic compounds were released quasi-instantaneously in aqueous solution, followed by a slower rate of release, consistent with the behavior of similar compounds in other dense non-aqueous liquids. Air-exposed wood tar deposits developed a hard crust, which contained fewer volatiles and semivolatiles and had a higher softening point than other samples. These tars eroded to form a powdered soil colonized by lichens and mosses. Residual wood tar material found at one site was shown to be thermally altered, likely during the historical destruction of the chemical plant by fire. Recovered wood tar wastes have a relatively high heating value and may have use as a potential, but limited, alternate energy source.

  12. Ecotoxicological and environmental problems associated with the former chemical plant in Tarnowskie Gory, Poland.

    PubMed

    Malina, Grzegorz

    2004-12-15

    The environmental problems related to the former chemical plant in Tarnowskie Gory, with respect to the Quaternary and Triassic groundwater as main receptors, are described and the eco-toxicological impact is discussed. The historical use of that site included industrial mining of ores (Ag, Pb, Zn) and use of Ba, B, Sr, Al, Cu during production of pigment. The majority of used and produced substances were toxic or hazardous. The applied technologies resulted in generation of waste which were mostly dumped without any elementary protection principles. Hydrodynamic modelling showed potential hazard to water-intakes. The variations of spatial distributions of selected contaminants within the Triassic carbonate series indicate that the chemical waste dumped in vicinity of the plant are the sources of groundwater contamination of boron. The results of soil and groundwater monitoring at the constructed landfill show significant contamination, mainly due to leaching from dumped waste, but also from infiltration of non-operating underground installations, and spills of toxic substances during the plant operation. The Quaternary aquifers are heavily contaminated due to the leaching out of chemical compounds from dumping sites. This is hazardous to the Triassic reservoirs--the main sources of potable water for the region. The characteristics of the key contaminants (As, B, Ba and Sr) are provided, including their transport, fate and toxicity. The spatial and temporal distribution of contaminants in groundwater is presented, and observed trends of groundwater quality decrease, mainly with respect to the Triassic aquifers, are discussed. The groundwater risk assessment being developed for the Tarnowskie Gory site should consider the present situation, and provide an approach towards evaluation and assessment of the required remediation measures.

  13. How does plant chemical diversity contribute to biodiversity at higher trophic levels?

    PubMed

    Schuman, Meredith C; van Dam, Nicole M; Beran, Franziska; Harpole, W Stanley

    2016-04-01

    Plants, perhaps Earth's most accomplished chemists, produce thousands of specialized metabolites having no direct role in cell division or growth. These phytochemicals vary by taxon, with many taxa producing characteristic substance classes; and within taxa, with individual variation in structural variety and production patterns. Observations of corresponding variation in herbivore metabolism, behavior, and diet breadth motivated the development of chemical ecology research. We discuss the importance of plant biodiversity in general and phytochemical diversity in particular for biodiversity and ecological interactions at higher trophic levels. We then provide an overview of the descriptive, molecular and analytical tools which allow modern biologists to investigate phytochemical diversity and its effects on higher trophic levels, from physiological mechanisms to ecological communities. PMID:27436646

  14. Suppressed ion chromatography for monitoring chemical impurities in steam for geothermal power plants.

    PubMed

    Santoyo, E; Verma, S P; Sandoval, F; Aparicio, A; García, R

    2002-03-01

    A suppressed ion chromatography (IC) technique has been evaluated as a chemical monitoring tool for detecting major anions (F-, Cl-, NO3- and SO4(2-)) of condensed steam in geothermal power plants. It is shown that the suppressed IC technique provides a suitable means for preventing possible damage to generating equipment in the geothermal industry. An electrical conductivity detector (0.1 microS sensitivity) with an anion-exchange column (IonPac AS4A-SC), a micro-membrane suppressor (AMMS II), and an isocratic high-pressure pump system were successfully used for detecting low concentrations of inorganic anions. Method detection limits for the anions of interest were <0.184 mg/L. Details of the IC methodology as well as some experimental results obtained during its application for the chemical monitoring of geothermal steam pipes are also described.

  15. Application of a reversible chemical reaction system to solar thermal power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanseth, E. J.; Won, Y. S.; Seibowitz, L. P.

    1980-01-01

    Three distributed dish solar thermal power systems using various applications of SO2/SO3 chemical energy storage and transport technology were comparatively assessed. Each system features various roles for the chemical system: (1) energy storage only, (2) energy transport, or (3) energy transport and storage. These three systems were also compared with the dish-Stirling, using electrical transport and battery storage, and the central receiver Rankine system, with thermal storage, to determine the relative merit of plants employing a thermochemical system. As an assessment criterion, the busbar energy costs were compared. Separate but comparable solar energy cost computer codes were used for distributed receiver and central receiver systems. Calculations were performed for capacity factors ranging from 0.4 to 0.8. The results indicate that SO2/SO3 technology has the potential to be more cost effective in transporting the collected energy than in storing the energy for the storage capacity range studied (2-15 hours)

  16. Chemical genetics reveals negative regulation of abscisic acid signaling by a plant immune response pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Houn; Hauser, Felix; Ha, Tracy; Xue, Shaowu; Böhmer, Maik; Nishimura, Noriyuki; Munemasa, Shintaro; Hubbard, Katharine; Peine, Nora; Lee, Byeong-Ha; Lee, Stephen; Robert, Nadia; Parker, Jane E; Schroeder, Julian I

    2011-06-01

    Coordinated regulation of protection mechanisms against environmental abiotic stress and pathogen attack is essential for plant adaptation and survival. Initial abiotic stress can interfere with disease-resistance signaling [1-6]. Conversely, initial plant immune signaling may interrupt subsequent abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction [7, 8]. However, the processes involved in this crosstalk between these signaling networks have not been determined. By screening a 9600-compound chemical library, we identified a small molecule [5-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)furan-2-yl]-piperidine-1-ylmethanethione (DFPM) that rapidly downregulates ABA-dependent gene expression and also inhibits ABA-induced stomatal closure. Transcriptome analyses show that DFPM also stimulates expression of plant defense-related genes. Major early regulators of pathogen-resistance responses, including EDS1, PAD4, RAR1, and SGT1b, are required for DFPM-and notably also for Pseudomonas-interference with ABA signal transduction, whereas salicylic acid, EDS16, and NPR1 are not necessary. Although DFPM does not interfere with early ABA perception by PYR/RCAR receptors or ABA activation of SnRK2 kinases, it disrupts cytosolic Ca(2+) signaling and downstream anion channel activation in a PAD4-dependent manner. Our findings provide evidence that activation of EDS1/PAD4-dependent plant immune responses rapidly disrupts ABA signal transduction and that this occurs at the level of Ca(2+) signaling, illuminating how the initial biotic stress pathway interferes with ABA signaling.

  17. Microcosm studies of the role of land plants in elevating soil carbon dioxide and chemical weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baars, C.; Hefin Jones, T.; Edwards, Dianne

    2008-09-01

    A decrease in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration during the mid-Palaeozoic is postulated to have been partially the consequence of the evolution of rooted land plants. Root development increased the amount of carbonic acid generated by root respiration within soils. This led to increased chemical weathering of silicates and subsequent formation of carbonates, resulting in lower atmospheric CO2 concentrations. To test this assumption, analog (morphologically equivalent) plant species, ranging from those possessing no roots to those with complex rhizomatous rooting systems, were grown in trays within microcosms at ambient (360 ppm/0.37 mbar) and highly elevated (3500 ppm/3.55 mbar) atmospheric CO2 concentrations in a controlled environment facility. Substrate CO2 concentrations increased significantly under elevated atmospheric CO2, and Equisetum hyemale (L.). The latter is postulated to result from the effects of deeply rooted plants, elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations, or both. Plants with simple or no rooting systems or the addition of dead organic matter as a substrate for microorganisms did not enhance substrate CO2 concentrations.

  18. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-01

    Funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 ENVIRON International Corporation, in collaboration with Callidus Technologies by Honeywell and Shell Global Solutions, Inc., will develop and demonstrate a full-scale fuel blending and combustion system. This system will allow a broad range of opportunity fuel compositions, including syngas, biogas, natural gas, and refinery fuel gas, to be safely, cost-effectively, and efficiently utilized while generating minimal emissions of criteria pollutants. The project will develop a commercial technology for application in refinery and chemical plant process heaters where opportunity fuels are used.

  19. Nephropathy associated with animal, plant, and chemical toxins in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Jha, Vivekanand; Chugh, Kirpal S

    2003-01-01

    Widespread human exposure to a variety of drugs, chemicals, and biologic products and recent awareness of their toxic manifestations has led to the recognition of toxic nephropathy as an important segment of renal disease in the tropical countries. Tropical nephrotoxins are distinctly different from those seen in the rest of the world and are derived from local fauna and flora or plant and chemical sources. The spectrum of exposure varies from country to country and even from community to community, depending on variations in the distribution of local plants and animal species and prevalent social practices. Acute renal failure (ARF), either alone or in association with liver failure, neurologic abnormalities, metabolic acidosis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, or pulmonary infections is the most common form of presentation. Traditional medicines prescribed by witch doctors (traditional healers) constitute a special class of nephrotoxins among several communities in Africa and Asia. The prevalence of nephropathy caused by traditional medicines is directly related to a combination of ignorance, poverty, lack of medical facilities, lax legislation, and widespread belief in indigenous systems of medicine in rural areas. These medicines are a mix of herbs and unknown chemicals administered orally or as enemas. Clustering of cases after exposure to a particular agent suggests the possibility of a toxic insult. Common animal nephrotoxins are venoms of viper snakes, sea snakes, stinging insects, and raw gallbladder and bile of carp and sheep. Botanical nephrotoxins are encountered both in common edible plants (djenkol beans, mushrooms) and medicinal herbs (impila, cat's claw). Mistaken identification of medicinal herbs by untrained workers and even deliberate trials of toxic substitutes derived from plants frequently lead to renal disease, the most commonly reported being the Chinese herbal nephropathy. Nephrotoxicity caused by chemicals can be secondary to

  20. WSSRAP chemical plant geotechnical investigations for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    This document has been prepared for the United states Department of Energy (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which consists of MK-Ferguson Company (MKF) and Morrison Knudsen Corporation Environmental Services Group (MKES) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as MKF's predesignated subcontractor. This report presents the results of site geotechnical investigations conducted by the PMC in the vicinity of the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pits (WSCP/RP) and in potential on-site and off-site clayey material borrow sources. The WSCP/RP is the proposed disposal cell (DC) site. 39 refs., 24 figs., 12 tabs.

  1. HEPA filter leaching concept validation trials at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Chakravartty, A.C.

    1995-04-01

    The enclosed report documents six New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) HEPA filter leaching trials conducted at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant using a filter leaching system to validate the filter leaching treatment concept. The test results show that a modified filter leaching system will be able to successfully remove both hazardous and radiological constituents to RCRA disposal levels. Based on the success of the filter leach trials, the existing leaching system will be modified to provide a safe, simple, effective, and operationally flexible filter leaching system.

  2. PCS Nitrogen: Combustion Fan System Optimization Improves Performance and Saves Energy at a Chemical Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2005-01-01

    This U.S. Department of Energy Industrial Technologies Program case study describes how, in 2003, PCS Nitrogen, Inc., improved the efficiency of the combustion fan on a boiler at the company's chemical fertilizer plant in Augusta, Georgia. The project saved $420,000 and 76,400 million British thermal units (MBtu) per year. In addition, maintenance needs declined, because there is now less stress on the fan motor and bearings and less boiler feed water usage. This project was so successful that the company has implemented more efficiency improvements that should result in energy cost savings of nearly $1 million per year.

  3. The aquatic toxicity and chemical forms of coke plant effluent cyanide -- Implications for discharge limits

    SciTech Connect

    Garibay, R.; Rupnow, M.; Godwin-Saad, E.; Hall, S.

    1995-12-31

    Cyanide is present in treated cokemaking process waters at concentrations as high as 8.0 mg/L. In assessing options for managing the discharge of a treated effluent, the development and implementation of discharge limits for cyanide became a critical issue. A study was initiated to evaluate possible alternatives to cyanide permit limits at the US Steel Gary Works Facility. The objectives of the study were to: (1) evaluation the forms of cyanide present in coke plant effluent; (2) determine whether these forms of cyanide are toxic to selected aquatic organisms; (3) compare the aquatic toxicity of various chemical forms of cyanide; (4) identify if the receiving water modifies cyanide bioavailability; and (5) confirm, with respect to water quality-based effluent limits, an appropriate analytical method for monitoring cyanide in a coke plant effluent. The results of aquatic toxicity tests and corresponding analytical data are presented. Toxicity tests were conducted with various pure chemical forms of cyanide as well as whole coke plant effluent (generated from a pilot-scale treatment system). Test species included the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia) and Daphnia magna (D. magna). Analytical measurements for cyanide included total, weak acid dissociable, diffusible cyanide and selected metal species of cyanide. The findings presented by the paper are relevant with respect to the application of cyanide water quality criteria for a coke plant effluent discharge, the translation of these water quality-based effluent limits to permit limits, and methods for compliance monitoring for cyanide.

  4. Exposure of unwounded plants to chemical cues associated with herbivores leads to exposure-dependent changes in subsequent herbivore attack.

    PubMed

    Orrock, John L

    2013-01-01

    Although chemical predator cues often lead to changes in the anti-predator behavior of animal prey, it is not clear whether non-volatile herbivore kairomones (i.e. incidental chemical cues produced by herbivore movement or metabolism but not produced by an attack) trigger the induction of defense in plants prior to attack. I found that unwounded plants (Brassica nigra) that were regularly exposed to kairomones from snails (mucus and feces produced during movement of Helix aspersa) subsequently experienced reduced rates of attack by snails, unlike unwounded plants that received only one initial early exposure to snail kairomones. A follow-up experiment found that mucus alone did not affect snail feeding on previously harvested B. oleracea leaves, suggesting that changes in herbivory on B. nigra were due to changes in plant quality. The finding that chemicals associated with herbivores leads to changes in palatability of unwounded plants suggests that plants eavesdrop on components of non-volatile kairomones of their snail herbivores. Moreover, this work shows that the nature of plant exposure matters, supporting the conclusion that plants that have not been attacked or wounded nonetheless tailor their use of defenses based on incidental chemical information associated with herbivores and the timing with which cues of potential attack are encountered. PMID:24278210

  5. Cadmium chemical speciation and absorption in plant in a polluted soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigliotti, Giovanni; Massaccesi, Luisa

    2013-04-01

    Cadmium is a very toxic heavy metal presents in nature in small amounts, with an average content of 0.2 mg kg-1 in the geosphere. Nonetheless, anthropogenic activities such as industrial processes, large use of phosphate fertilizers and sewage sludge disposals may determine a massive accumulation of Cd in soil. Cd is considered a particularly interesting heavy metal as it can be accumulated by plants to levels that can be toxic to humans and animals, when consumed even in minor amounts. The aim of the present work was to study in a soil polluted with Cd for a long time i) the distribution of Cd in different chemical fractions by means of a sequential extraction procedure; ii) the adsorption of Cd by plants grown in this polluted soil; iii) the change in the distribution of Cd in the soil fractions possibly due to root exudates after plant growing. The chemical fractionation procedure used involved the following forms: a) exchangeable, b) bound to carbonates, c) bound to Fe-Mn oxides and hydroxides, d) bound to organic matter, e) residual part. The following reagents and extraction times were applied: a) 1 M CH3COONa (1:10, w/v; pH 8.2) for 16 h at room temperature; b) 0,1 M CH3COOH for 16 h at room temperature; c) 0,1 M NH2OH•HCl (1:10, w/v; adjusted to pH 2.0 with HNO3) for 16 h at room temperature; d) 30% H2O2 (adjusted to pH 2.0 with HNO3) at 85 °C, followed by extraction with 1 M CH3COONH4 (1:10, w/v; adjusted to pH 2.0 with HNO3) for 16 h at room temperature; e) acid digestion with concentrated HNO3 and 30% H2O2 for residue fraction. Festuca seeds were germinated in the contaminated soil in plastic flats and non-contaminated soil. After two days the seedling were submitted to day/night conditions. The seedlings were collected 6 weeks after seeding and divided in roots and shoots and analysed for Cd concentration. The polluted soil has average Cd content of 200 mg kg-1, instead, the Cd content in the same unpolluted soil was about 0.44 mg kg-1. The

  6. Accelerating the degradation of green plant waste with chemical decomposition agents.

    PubMed

    Kejun, Sun; Juntao, Zhang; Ying, Chen; Zongwen, Liao; Lin, Ruan; Cong, Liu

    2011-10-01

    Degradation of green plant waste is often difficult, and excess maturity times are typically required. In this study, we used lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose assays; scanning electron microscopy; infrared spectrum analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis to investigate the effects of chemical decomposition agents on the lignocellulose content of green plant waste, its structure and major functional groups and the mechanism of accelerated degradation. Our results showed that adding chemical decomposition agents to Ficus microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust reduced the contents of lignin by 0.53%-11.48% and the contents of cellulose by 2.86%-7.71%, and increased the contents of hemicellulose by 2.92%-33.63% after 24 h. With increasing quantities of alkaline residue and sodium lignosulphonate, the lignin content decreased. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, after F. microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust was treated with chemical decomposition agents, lignocellulose tube wall thickness increased significantlyIncreases of 29.41%, 3.53% and 34.71% were observed after treatment with NaOH, alkaline residue and sodium lignosulphonate, respectively. Infrared spectroscopy showed that CO and aromatic skeleton stretching absorption peaks were weakened and the C-H vibrational absorption peak from out-of-plane in positions 2 and 6 (S units) (890-900 cm(-1)) was strengthened after F. microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust was treated with chemical decomposition agents, indicating a reduction in lignin content. Several absorption peaks [i.e., C-H deformations (asymmetry in methyl groups, -CH(3)- and -CH(2)-) (1450-1460 cm(-1)); Aliphatic C-H stretching in methyl and phenol OH (1370-1380 cm(-1)); CO stretching (cellulose and hemicellulose) (1040-1060 cm(-1))] that indicate the presence of a chemical bond between lignin and cellulose was reduced, indicating that the chemical bond between lignin and cellulose had been partially broken. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that Na

  7. [AF + BAF for treating effluent in the sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park].

    PubMed

    Tu, Yong; Liu, Wei-Jing; Zhang, Yao-Hui; Xu, Jun; Tang, Min; Chen, Yong; Bai, Yong-Gang

    2014-06-01

    The anaerobic filter (AF) and biological aerated filter (BAF) were employed to treat the effluent in a sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park. The ceramsite was used in BAF. In this study, the influent COD was 200-300 mg x L(-1) and the pilot model scale was 2-4 L x d(-1). According to the results, the AF-BAF treatment had a good effect on organic wastewater. When the AF HRT was 24 h and BAF was 12 h, the removal of COD reached 73.4%, and that of NH4(+)-N reached 93.8%. From gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and three-dimensional fluorescence analysis, it was found that small organic molecules and microbial metabolites could be removed effectively. However, there was no obviously effect on the removal of saturated alkane and nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds. From the denature gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) spectra analysis, it was shown that there were more kinds of microorganism in the sludge of the AF than in the up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB), which indicates that the AF-BAF system is more effective on treating effluent in a sewage plant of the resin and chemical industry park.

  8. Cranberry Resistance to Dodder Parasitism: Induced Chemical Defenses and Behavior of a Parasitic Plant.

    PubMed

    Tjiurutue, Muvari Connie; Sandler, Hilary A; Kersch-Becker, Monica F; Theis, Nina; Adler, Lynn A

    2016-02-01

    Parasitic plants are common in many ecosystems, where they can structure community interactions and cause major economic damage. For example, parasitic dodder (Cuscuta spp.) can cause up to 80-100 % yield loss in heavily infested cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) patches. Despite their ecological and economic importance, remarkably little is known about how parasitic plants affect, or are affected by, host chemistry. To examine chemically-mediated interactions between dodder and its cranberry host, we conducted a greenhouse experiment asking whether: (1) dodder performance varies with cranberry cultivar; (2) cultivars differ in levels of phytohormones, volatiles, or phenolics, and whether such variation correlates with dodder parasitism; (3) dodder parasitism induced changes in phytohormones, volatiles, or phenolics, and whether the level of inducible response varied among cultivars. We used five cranberry cultivars to assess host attractiveness to dodder and dodder performance. Dodder performance did not differ across cultivars, but there were marginally significant differences in host attractiveness to dodder, with fewer dodder attaching to Early Black than to any other cultivar. Dodder parasitism induced higher levels of salicylic acid (SA) across cultivars. Cultivars differed in overall levels of flavonols and volatile profiles, but not phenolic acids or proanthocyanidins, and dodder attachment induced changes in several flavonols and volatiles. While cultivars differed slightly in resistance to dodder attachment, we did not find evidence of chemical defenses that mediate these interactions. However, induction of several defenses indicates that parasitism alters traits that could influence subsequent interactions with other species, thus shaping community dynamics. PMID:26905738

  9. Influence of harvest season on chemical composition and bioactivity of wild rue plant hydroalcoholic extracts.

    PubMed

    Pacifico, Severina; Piccolella, Simona; Galasso, Silvia; Fiorentino, Antonio; Kretschmer, Nadine; Pan, San-Po; Bauer, Rudolf; Monaco, Pietro

    2016-04-01

    The rue (Ruta graveolens) copiousness in rural areas of the Campania Region based a thorough chemical and biological investigation aimed at exploring the seasonal variability of phenol constituents in rue leaves and its influence on their antioxidant, cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory capabilities. To this purpose, hydroalcoholic extracts were prepared from plant samples seasonally collected. LC-ESI-MS/MS techniques were employed to analyze qualitatively and quantitatively the seasonal rue phenol content, whereas different chemical antioxidant assays (by DPPH, ABTS, Fe(3+) RP, ORAC, and FCR methods) and XTT redox metabolic activity assay were performed to screen the seasonal phenol complex-related antioxidant and cytotoxic power. The ability of the rue leaf extracts to counteract cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression was also evaluated. Data obtained highlighted that the adopted extraction procedure markedly pauperized the furanocoumarin content in all the prepared rue extracts. Flavonol glycosides, along with the flavone acacetin and two sinapic acid derivatives were the main constituents of the spring harvest-derived extract, which exerted the highest antioxidant capability in cell-free systems and was capable to inhibit COX-2 synthesis by 44% comparably to dexamethasone, used as positive control. Data provide new insights for developing a proper management of rue plants for new safe industrial purposes in herbal medicine field.

  10. Aerosols near by a coal fired thermal power plant: chemical composition and toxic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jayasekher, T

    2009-06-01

    Industrial processes discharge fine particulates containing organic as well as inorganic compounds into the atmosphere which are known to induce damage to cell and DNA, both in vitro and in vivo. Source and area specific studies with respect to the chemical composition, size and shape of the particles, and toxicity evaluations are very much limited. This study aims to investigate the trace elements associated with the aerosol particles distributed near to a coal burning thermal power plant and to evaluate their toxicity through Comet assay. PM(10) (particles determined by mass passing an inlet with a 50% cut-off efficiency having a 10-microm aerodynamic diameter) samples were collected using respirable dust samplers. Twelve elements (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Se, Hg, and As) were analyzed using ICP-AES. Comet assay was done with the extracts of aerosols in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Results show that Fe and Zn were found to be the predominant elements along with traces of other analyzed elements. Spherical shaped ultrafine particles of <1 microm aerodynamic diameter were detected through scanning electron microscope. PM(10) particles near to the coal burning power plant produced comets indicating their potential to induce DNA damage. DNA damage property is found to be depending upon the chemical characteristics of the components associated with the particles besides the physical properties such as size and shape.

  11. Investigation of extrusion failures of PTFE-based gaskets in chemical plant service

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, J.R.; Keywood, S.S.

    1996-12-01

    PTFE-based gaskets in chemical plant service typically fail in an extrusion mode, sometimes referred to as blowout. Test work previously published by Monsanto indicated that correctly installed PTFE-based gaskets have pressure performance far exceeding system pressure ratings. These results have since been confirmed by extensive testing at the Montreal based Ecole Polytechnique Tightness Testing and Research Laboratory (TTRL), funded by a consortium of gasket users and manufacturers. With the knowledge that properly installed gaskets can withstand system pressures in excess of 1,000 psig [6,894 kPa], failures at two chemical plants were re-examined. This analysis indicates that extrusion type failures can be caused by excessive internal pressures, associated with sections of pipe having an external source of heat coincident with a blocked flow condition. This results in high system pressures which explain the extrusion type failures observed. The paper discusses details of individual failures and examines methods to prevent them. Other causes for extrusion failures are reviewed, with a recommendation that stronger gasket materials not be utilized to correct problems until it is verified that excessive pressure build-up is not the problem. Also summarized are the requirements for proper installation to achieve the potential blowout resistance found in these gaskets.

  12. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of plant essential oils from Benin against Anopheles gambiae (Giles)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Insecticide resistance in sub-Saharan Africa and especially in Benin is a major public health issue hindering the control of the malaria vectors. Each Anopheles species has developed a resistance to one or several classes of the insecticides currently in use in the field. Therefore, it is urgent to find alternative compounds to conquer the vector. In this study, the efficacies of essential oils of nine plant species, which are traditionally used to avoid mosquito bites in Benin, were investigated. Methods Essential oils of nine plant species were extracted by hydrodistillation, and their chemical compositions were identified by GC-MS. These oils were tested on susceptible “kisumu” and resistant “ladji-Cotonou” strains of Anopheles gambiae, following WHO test procedures for insecticide resistance monitoring in malaria vector mosquitoes. Results Different chemical compositions were obtained from the essential oils of the plant species. The major constituents identified were as follows: neral and geranial for Cymbopogon citratus, Z-carveol, E-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol and E-p-mentha-2,8-dienol for Cymbopogon giganteus, piperitone for Cymbopogon schoenanthus, citronellal and citronellol for Eucalyptus citriodora, p-cymene, caryophyllene oxide and spathulenol for Eucalyptus tereticornis, 3-tetradecanone for Cochlospermum tinctorium and Cochlospermum planchonii, methyl salicylate for Securidaca longepedunculata and ascaridole for Chenopodium ambrosioides. The diagnostic dose was 0.77% for C. citratus, 2.80% for E. tereticornis, 3.37% for E. citriodora, 4.26% for C. ambrosioides, 5.48% for C. schoenanthus and 7.36% for C. giganteus. The highest diagnostic doses were obtained with S. longepedunculata (9.84%), C. tinctorium (11.56%) and C. planchonii (15.22%), compared to permethrin 0.75%. A. gambiae cotonou, which is resistant to pyrethroids, showed significant tolerance to essential oils from C. tinctorium and S. longepedunculata as expected but was

  13. Using magnetic and chemical measurements to detect atmospherically-derived metal pollution in artificial soils and metal uptake in plants.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, B; Cioppa, M T

    2012-11-01

    Quantification of potential effects of ambient atmospheric pollution on magnetic and chemical properties of soils and plants requires precise experimental studies. A controlled growth experiment assessing magnetic and chemical parameters was conducted within (controls) and outside (exposed) a greenhouse setting. Magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements showed that while initial MS values were similar for the sample sets, the overall MS value of exposed soil was significantly greater than in controls, suggesting an additional input of Fe-containing particles. Scanning electron microscope images of the exposed soils revealed numerous angular magnetic particles and magnetic spherules typical of vehicular exhaust and combustion processes, respectively. Similarly, chemical analysis of plant roots showed that plants grown in the exposed soil had higher concentrations of Fe and heavy (toxic) metals than controls. This evidence suggests that atmospheric deposition contributed to the MS increase in exposed soils and increased metal uptake by plants grown in this soil.

  14. Residual effects of sewage-sludge application on plant and soil-profile chemical composition

    SciTech Connect

    Hue, N.V.

    1988-01-01

    Long-term effects on plant and soil-profile chemical composition imposed by a residential sewage sludge were studied on an Oxisol from Hawaii. Sludge was applied at 0, 45, 90, and 180 Mg/ha in 1983. An NPK-fertilized treatment was included for comparison. Sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) was grown as a test crop in the 1983-84 and 1986-87 seasons. Soil samples for chemical analysis were taken in 1987 at three depths: 0-23 cm, 23-46 cm, and 46-69 cm. Beneficial effects of sludge, measured 3 years after application (beginning of the 1986's planting), were evident by large yield increases on sludge-amended soils relative to the unamended and the NPK-fertilized soils. The first cutting produced approximately 5 Mg/ha of dry matter from the sludge treatments, regardless of rate, as compared with 3 and 1.5 Mg/ha from the NPK and the 0 treatments. Regrowths showed similar effect, though less dramatic; average yields were 2.6 Mg/ha with sludge and 1.6 Mg/ha without. Heavy-metal concentrations in plants were generally unaffected by sludge applications; probably because (i) heavy-metal contents of the sludge were low, and (ii) soil pH was increased by sludge. Remarkable increases in pH, exchangeable Ca and extractable P, and resultant decreases in exchangeable Al, in all three soil layers of sludge-amended soils suggest that surface application of a low heavy-metal sludge could serve to correct subsoil acidity and enhance subsoil P availability.

  15. Status of the Shanghai Coking and Chemical Company`s U-GAS coal gasification plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, B.G.; Hoppe, J.A.

    1998-12-31

    The World`s demand for energy is expected to double in the next twenty-five years. The energy mix for the next century is expected to remain strongly dependent on fossil fuels. With large worldwide coal reserves, coal will continue to play a major role in the World`s energy mix for the foreseeable future. Its use for power generation is expected to expand significantly. It is therefore very important that this coal be used in an efficient, environmentally clean, and economic manner. The Institute of Gas Technology`s U-GAS gasification process is an advanced gasification technology that can meet such a challenge. This paper describes the U-GAS coal gasification technology being used by Shanghai Coking and Chemical Corporation in their chemical facility in Shanghai, China. As part of Shanghai`s Trigeneration (Trigen) coal gasification project, seven of eight available U-GAS gasifiers have been placed in service since the plant began operation in December 1994. These gasifiers are the first commercial-scale U-GAS gasifiers to be installed anywhere in the world. Over 80 performance and production runs have now been logged over the last three and a half years of operation. From the early days of only several hours of continuous operation to today`s over 3,100 hours, significant improvements in plant performance and reliability have been achieved. Modifications and design improvements to the various plant sections are discussed, along with the resulting improvements in gasifier availability and coal conversion efficiency. Despite a strong start in China, the U-GAS technology will require an ongoing development and improvement program to realize widespread commercial deployment in China and other markets. A recently initiated DOE-sponsored program addressing key factors in commercial viability and market definition for U-GAS in China is discussed.

  16. Pattern Selection in Plants: Coupling Chemical Dynamics to Surface Growth in Three Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, David M.; Harrison, Lionel G.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims A study is made by computation of the interplay between the pattern formation of growth catalysts on a plant surface and the expansion of the surface to generate organismal shape. Consideration is made of the localization of morphogenetically active regions, and the occurrence within them of symmetry-breaking processes such as branching from an initially dome-shaped tip or meristem. Representation of a changing and growing three-dimensional shape is necessary, as two-dimensional work cannot distinguish, for example, formation of an annulus from dichotomous branching. Methods For the formation of patterns of chemical concentrations, the Brusselator reaction-diffusion model is used, applied on a hemispherical shell and generating patterns that initiate as surface spherical harmonics. The initial shape is hemispherical, represented as a mesh of triangles. These are combined into finite elements, each made up of all the triangles surrounding each node. Chemical pattern is converted into shape change by moving nodes outwards according to the concentration of growth catalyst at each, to relieve misfits caused by area increase of the finite element. New triangles are added to restore the refinement of the mesh in rapidly growing regions. Key Results The postulated mechanism successfully generates: tip growth (or stalk extension by an apical meristem) to ten times original hemisphere height; tip flattening and resumption of apical advance; and dichotomous branching and higher-order branching to make whorled structures. Control of the branching plane in successive dichotomous branchings is tackled with partial success and clarification of the issues. Conclusions The representation of a growing plant surface in computations by an expanding mesh that has no artefacts constraining changes of shape and symmetry has been achieved. It is shown that one type of pattern-forming mechanism, Turing-type reaction-diffusion, acting within a surface to pattern a

  17. Chemical and biological characterization of emissions from coal- and oil-fired power plants.

    PubMed Central

    Ahlberg, M; Berghem, L; Nordberg, G; Persson, S A; Rudling, L; Steen, B

    1983-01-01

    Emission samples were obtained from two medium-sized power plants, one fired with oil and the other with pulverized coal. Particles obtained by a miniscale plume stack gas sampler (MIPSGAS), simulating the dilution process in the plume, were subjected to detailed physical, chemical and biological characterization. Studies by scanning electron microscopy and by Coulter counter demonstrated that the particles from the oil-fired boiler were considerably larger than the particles from the coal-fired boiler. Chemical analyses revealed more organic substances and more S, Ni, V, in the oil than in the coal particles. The latter contained a larger proportion of Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Se, Rb, Y, Zr, Ba and Pb. Biological testing revealed a greater acute and subacute toxicity by the intratracheal route in the hamster, a greater toxicity to alveolar macrophages and a greater lung retention of BaP coated on the particles from oil combustion than on those from coal combustion. In another sampling line, employed simultaneously with the MIPSGAS-particulate sampler, the total emissions were collected, i.e., both particle and gas phase. These samples were used for chemical analyses and Ames mutagenicity test. Analyses of specific PAHs in emissions from both plants demonstrated that concentrations were below the detection limit (less than 4 ng/m3 of benzo(a)pyrene), which is in accord with an efficient combustion of the fuel. The mutagenicity of the samples were below the detection limit of the mutagenicity assay. Images FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. PMID:6825622

  18. Chemical and Plant-Based Insect Repellents: Efficacy, Safety, and Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2016-03-01

    Most emerging infectious diseases today are arthropod-borne and cannot be prevented by vaccinations. Because insect repellents offer important topical barriers of personal protection from arthropod-borne infectious diseases, the main objectives of this article were to describe the growing threats to public health from emerging arthropod-borne infectious diseases, to define the differences between insect repellents and insecticides, and to compare the efficacies and toxicities of chemical and plant-derived insect repellents. Internet search engines were queried with key words to identify scientific articles on the efficacy, safety, and toxicity of chemical and plant-derived topical insect repellants and insecticides to meet these objectives. Data sources reviewed included case reports; case series; observational, longitudinal, and surveillance studies; and entomological and toxicological studies. Descriptive analysis of the data sources identified the most effective application of insect repellents as a combination of topical chemical repellents, either N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (formerly N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide, or DEET) or picaridin, and permethrin-impregnated or other pyrethroid-impregnated clothing over topically treated skin. The insecticide-treated clothing would provide contact-level insecticidal effects and provide better, longer lasting protection against malaria-transmitting mosquitoes and ticks than topical DEET or picaridin alone. In special cases, where environmental exposures to disease-transmitting ticks, biting midges, sandflies, or blackflies are anticipated, topical insect repellents containing IR3535, picaridin, or oil of lemon eucalyptus (p-menthane-3, 8-diol or PMD) would offer better topical protection than topical DEET alone. PMID:26827259

  19. Fluid physico-chemical properties influence capture and diet in Nepenthes pitcher plants

    PubMed Central

    Bazile, Vincent; Le Moguédec, Gilles; Marshall, David J.; Gaume, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Nepenthes pitcher plants have evolved modified leaves with slippery surfaces and enzymatic fluids that trap and digest prey, faeces and/or plant detritus. Although the fluid’s contribution to insect capture is recognized, the physico-chemical properties involved remain underexplored and may vary among species, influencing their diet type. This study investigates the contributions of acidity and viscoelasticity in the fluid’s capture efficiency of two ant and two fly species in four Nepenthes species with different nutrition strategies. Methods Four Nepenthes species were studied, namely N. rafflesiana, N. gracilis, N. hemsleyana and N. ampullaria. Fluid was collected from pitchers of varying ages from plants growing in the field and immediately transferred to glass vials, and individual ants (tribe Campotini, Fomicinae) and flies (Calliphora vomitoria and Drosophila melanogaster) were dropped in and observed for 5 min. Water-filled vials were used as controls. Survival and lifetime data were analysed using models applied to right-censored observations. Additional laboratory experiments were carried out in which C. vomitoria flies were immersed in pH-controlled aqueous solutions and observed for 5 min. Key Results Pitcher fluid differed among Nepenthes species as regards insect retention capacity and time-to-kill, with differences observed between prey types. Only the fluids of the reputedly insectivorous species were very acidic and/or viscoelastic and retained significantly more insects than the water controls. Viscoelastic fluids were fatal to flies and were able to trap the broadest diversity of insects. Younger viscoelastic fluids showed a better retention ability than older fluids, although with less rapid killing ability, suggesting that a chemical action follows a mechanical one. Insect retention increased exponentially with fluid viscoelasticity, and this happened more abruptly and at a lower threshold for flies compared with

  20. Allocation of nitrogen to chemical defence and plant functional traits is constrained by soil N.

    PubMed

    Simon, Judy; Gleadow, Roslyn M; Woodrow, Ian E

    2010-09-01

    Plants have evolved a vast array of defence mechanisms to avoid or minimize damage caused by herbivores and pathogens. The costs and benefits of defences are thought to vary with the availability of resources, herbivore pressure and plant functional traits. We investigated the resource (nitrogen) and growth cost of deploying cyanogenic glycosides in seedlings of Eucalyptus cladocalyx (Myrtaceae). To do this, we grew the plants under a range of soil N conditions, from levels that were limiting for growth to those that were saturating for growth, and we measured correlations between foliar chemical and performance attributes. Within each N treatment, we found evidence that, for every N invested in cyanogenic glycosides, additional N is added to the leaf. For the lowest N treatment, the additional N was less than one per cyanogenic glycoside, rising to some two Ns for the other treatments. The interaction between cyanogenic glycosides and both condensed tannins and total phenolic compounds was also examined, but we did not detect correlations between these compounds under constant leaf N concentrations. Finally, we did not detect a correlation between net assimilation rate, relative growth rate and cyanogenic glycoside concentrations under any soil N treatment. We conclude that the growth cost of cyanogenic glycosides was likely too low to detect and that it was offset to some degree by additional N that was allocated alongside the cyanogenic glycosides.

  1. Human Error Analysis in a Permit to Work System: A Case Study in a Chemical Plant

    PubMed Central

    Jahangiri, Mehdi; Hoboubi, Naser; Rostamabadi, Akbar; Keshavarzi, Sareh; Hosseini, Ali Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Background A permit to work (PTW) is a formal written system to control certain types of work which are identified as potentially hazardous. However, human error in PTW processes can lead to an accident. Methods This cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted to estimate the probability of human errors in PTW processes in a chemical plant in Iran. In the first stage, through interviewing the personnel and studying the procedure in the plant, the PTW process was analyzed using the hierarchical task analysis technique. In doing so, PTW was considered as a goal and detailed tasks to achieve the goal were analyzed. In the next step, the standardized plant analysis risk-human (SPAR-H) reliability analysis method was applied for estimation of human error probability. Results The mean probability of human error in the PTW system was estimated to be 0.11. The highest probability of human error in the PTW process was related to flammable gas testing (50.7%). Conclusion The SPAR-H method applied in this study could analyze and quantify the potential human errors and extract the required measures for reducing the error probabilities in PTW system. Some suggestions to reduce the likelihood of errors, especially in the field of modifying the performance shaping factors and dependencies among tasks are provided. PMID:27014485

  2. Phylogenetic correlations among chemical and physical plant defenses change with ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Kariñho-Betancourt, Eunice; Agrawal, Anurag A; Halitschke, Rayko; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

    2015-04-01

    Theory predicts patterns of defense across taxa based on notions of tradeoffs and synergism among defensive traits when plants and herbivores coevolve. Because the expression of characters changes ontogenetically, the evolution of plant strategies may be best understood by considering multiple traits along a trajectory of plant development. Here we addressed the ontogenetic expression of chemical and physical defenses in 12 Datura species, and tested for macroevolutionary correlations between defensive traits using phylogenetic analyses. We used liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry to identify the toxic tropane alkaloids of Datura, and also estimated leaf trichome density. We report three major patterns. First, we found different ontogenetic trajectories of alkaloids and leaf trichomes, with alkaloids increasing in concentration at the reproductive stage, whereas trichomes were much more variable across species. Second, the dominant alkaloids and leaf trichomes showed correlated evolution, with positive and negative associations. Third, the correlations between defensive traits changed across ontogeny, with significant relationships only occurring during the juvenile phase. The patterns in expression of defensive traits in the genus Datura are suggestive of adaptation to complex selective environments varying in space and time.

  3. [Characteristics of Chemical Components in PM₂.₅ from the Coal Dust of Power Plants].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-xiu; Peng, Lin; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Teng; Liu, Hai-li; Mu, Ling

    2016-01-15

    The ashes under dust catcher of typical power plants in Yangquan was collected and the contents of elements, irons, EC (elemental carbon) and OC (organic carbon) were measured in PM₂. The characteristics of its chemical composition was studied and the degree of similarity of coal dust's source profiles of PM₂.₅ between Yangquan and other cities were compared using the coefficient of divergence method. The result indicated that the main chemical components of PM₂.₅ from the coal dust were SO₄²⁻,Ca, NO₃⁻, OC, EC, Al, Si, Na, Fe, Mg and Cl⁻, accounting for 57.22% of the total mass. The enrichment factor of Pb in PM₂.₅ of coal dust was the largest with a significant enrichment condition, reaching 10.66-15.91. The coefficient of divergence of source profiles of PM₂.₅ between blind coal and fault coal was 0.072, so it was believed that they must be similar. Compared with other cities, the chemical composition of coal dust in Yangquan had specificity, in particular, the content of Ca was obviously higher than those in other domestic cities. PMID:27078941

  4. REMOVAL OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED SOILS AT THE PAVLODAR CHEMICAL PLANT.

    SciTech Connect

    KHRAPUNOV, V. YE.; ISAKOVA, R.A.; LEVINTOV, B.L.; KALB, P.D.; KAMBEROV, I.M.; TREBUKHOV, A.

    2004-09-25

    Soils beneath and adjacent to the Pavlodar Chemical Plant in Kazakhstan have been contaminated with elemental mercury as a result of chlor alkali processing using mercury cathode cell technology. The work described in this paper was conducted in preparation for a demonstration of a technology to remove the mercury from the contaminated soils using a vacuum assisted thermal distillation process. The process can operate at temperatures from 250-500 C and pressures of 0.13kPa-1.33kPa. Following vaporization, the mercury vapor is cooled, condensed and concentrated back to liquid elemental mercury. It will then be treated using the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory as described in a companion paper at this conference. The overall project objectives include chemical and physical characterization of the contaminated soils, study of the influence of the soil's physical-chemical and hydro dynamical characteristics on process parameters, and laboratory testing to optimize the mercury sublimation rate when heating in vacuum. Based on these laboratory and pilot-scale data, a full-scale production process will be designed for testing. This paper describes the soil characterization. This work is being sponsored by the International Science and Technology Center.

  5. Chemical constituents and toxicological studies of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth., a Brazilian honey plant

    PubMed Central

    Monção, Nayana Bruna Nery; Costa, Luciana Muratori; Arcanjo, Daniel Dias Rufino; Araújo, Bruno Quirino; Lustosa, Maria do Carmo Gomes; Rodrigues, Klinger Antônio da França; Carvalho, Fernando Aécio de Amorim; Costa, Amilton Paulo Raposo; Lopes Citó, Antônia Maria das Graças

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. (Leguminosae) is widely found in the Brazilian Northeast region and markedly contributes to production of pollen and honey, being considered an important honey plant in this region. Objective: To investigate the chemical composition of the ethanol extract of leaves from M. caesalpiniifolia by GC-MS after derivatization (silylation), as well as to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo toxicological effects and androgenic activity in rats. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extract of leaves from Mimosa caesalpiniifolia was submitted to derivatization by silylation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identification of chemical constituents. In vitro toxicological evaluation was performed by MTT assay in murine macrophages and by Artemia salina lethality assay, and the in vivo acute oral toxicity and androgenic evaluation in rats. Results: Totally, 32 components were detected: Phytol-TMS (11.66%), lactic acid-2TMS (9.16%), α-tocopherol-TMS (7.34%) and β-sitosterol-TMS (6.80%) were the major constituents. At the concentrations analyzed, the ethanol extract showed low cytotoxicity against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) and murine macrophages. In addition, the extract did not exhibit any toxicological effect or androgenic activity in rats. Conclusions: The derivatization by silylation allowed a rapid identification of chemical compounds from the M. caesalpiniifolia leaves extract. Besides, this species presents a good safety profile as observed in toxicological studies, and possess a great potential in the production of herbal medicines or as for food consumption. PMID:25298660

  6. [Characteristics of Chemical Components in PM₂.₅ from the Coal Dust of Power Plants].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-xiu; Peng, Lin; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Teng; Liu, Hai-li; Mu, Ling

    2016-01-15

    The ashes under dust catcher of typical power plants in Yangquan was collected and the contents of elements, irons, EC (elemental carbon) and OC (organic carbon) were measured in PM₂. The characteristics of its chemical composition was studied and the degree of similarity of coal dust's source profiles of PM₂.₅ between Yangquan and other cities were compared using the coefficient of divergence method. The result indicated that the main chemical components of PM₂.₅ from the coal dust were SO₄²⁻,Ca, NO₃⁻, OC, EC, Al, Si, Na, Fe, Mg and Cl⁻, accounting for 57.22% of the total mass. The enrichment factor of Pb in PM₂.₅ of coal dust was the largest with a significant enrichment condition, reaching 10.66-15.91. The coefficient of divergence of source profiles of PM₂.₅ between blind coal and fault coal was 0.072, so it was believed that they must be similar. Compared with other cities, the chemical composition of coal dust in Yangquan had specificity, in particular, the content of Ca was obviously higher than those in other domestic cities.

  7. Environmental parameters of the Tennessee River in Alabama. 2: Physical, chemical, and biological parameters. [biological and chemical effects of thermal pollution from nuclear power plants on water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosing, L. M.

    1976-01-01

    Physical, chemical and biological water quality data from five sites in the Tennessee River, two in Guntersville Reservoir and three in Wheeler Reservoir were correlated with climatological data for three annual cycles. Two of the annual cycles are for the years prior to the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant operations and one is for the first 14 months of Plant operations. A comparison of the results of the annual cycles indicates that two distinct physical conditions in the reservoirs occur, one during the warm months when the reservoirs are at capacity and one during the colder winter months when the reservoirs have been drawn-down for water storage during the rainy months and for weed control. The wide variations of physical and chemical parameters to which the biological organisms are subjected on an annual basis control the biological organisms and their population levels. A comparison of the parameters of the site below the Power plant indicates that the heated effluent from the plant operating with two of the three reactors has not had any effect on the organisms at this site. Recommendations given include the development of prediction mathematical models (statistical analysis) for the physical and chemical parameters under specific climatological conditions which affect biological organisms. Tabulated data of chemical analysis of water and organism populations studied is given.

  8. Assessment of aircraft impact probabilities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, L.G.; Mines, J.M.; Webb, B.B.

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the possibility of an aircraft crash into a facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The ICPP is part of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Based on the data used in this study, an air crash into any single facility at the ICPP is incredible. An air crash into aggregate areas incorporating the following is extremely unlikely: (1) ICPP radiological materials storage facilities, (2) ICPP major processing facilities, and (3) the ICPP land surface area, which excludes buildings. According to Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company safety analysis procedures, if the probability of a radiological release event is determined to be incredible, no further review is required. Therefore, an aircraft crash scenario is not required in the safety analysis for a single facility but should be discussed relative to the ICPP aggregate areas.

  9. Mutagenicity studies in a tyre plant: in-vitro activity of urine concentrates and rubber chemicals.

    PubMed

    Crebelli, R; Falcone, E; Aquilina, G; Carere, A; Paoletti, A; Fabri, G

    1984-01-01

    A possible occupational contribution to urinary mutagenicity was studied in a tyre plant, by assaying concentrates of urine from 72 workmen and 23 controls for their activity in the Ames test and microtitre fluctuation test. The results show that smoking habits but not occupation are related to the appearance of a detectable urinary mutagenicity in strain TA98. A possible synergistic effect of occupation was, however, observed among tyre builders who were smokers. Mutagenicity screening of 25 rubber chemicals, of major technological relevance and used in high volume in the workplace investigated, showed that three of them are weakly active in TA98 and TA100 (tetramethylthiuram disulfide) or TA98 alone (poly-p-dinitrosobenzene and mixed diaryl-p-phenylendiamines). PMID:6400096

  10. Chemical characterisation, plant remain analysis and radiocarbon dating of the Venetian "Manna di San Nicola".

    PubMed

    Tapparo, Andrea; Di Marco, Valerio B; Bombi, G Giorgio; Paganelli, Arturo

    2002-03-01

    A sample of oil coming from the case containing the relics of St. Nicholas the Great, preserved in the church of "San Nicolò al Lido" (Venice, Italy), has been characterised by the determination of its chemical composition, its age (radiocarbon dating) and the presence of particles of biological origin. Experimental results show that the sample is a vegetal oil, with a fatty acids composition modified by natural oxidation processes, containing pollen grains of plants from Northern Italy, and dating around 1300 A.D. These results together with an historical and artistic evaluation of the ceramic jar containing the oil, allow us to hypothesise that the jar was introduced into the case after the arrival of the relics in Venice (1100 A.D.) during one of the official inquisitions prior to that documented in 1399 A.D.

  11. Plant Species Rather Than Climate Greatly Alters the Temporal Pattern of Litter Chemical Composition During Long-Term Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongfu; Chen, Na; Harmon, Mark E.; Li, Yuan; Cao, Xiaoyan; Chappell, Mark A.; Mao, Jingdong

    2015-01-01

    A feedback between decomposition and litter chemical composition occurs with decomposition altering composition that in turn influences the decomposition rate. Elucidating the temporal pattern of chemical composition is vital to understand this feedback, but the effects of plant species and climate on chemical changes remain poorly understood, especially over multiple years. In a 10-year decomposition experiment with litter of four species (Acer saccharum, Drypetes glauca, Pinus resinosa, and Thuja plicata) from four sites that range from the arctic to tropics, we determined the abundance of 11 litter chemical constituents that were grouped into waxes, carbohydrates, lignin/tannins, and proteins/peptides using advanced 13C solid-state NMR techniques. Decomposition generally led to an enrichment of waxes and a depletion of carbohydrates, whereas the changes of other chemical constituents were inconsistent. Inconsistent convergence in chemical compositions during decomposition was observed among different litter species across a range of site conditions, whereas one litter species converged under different climate conditions. Our data clearly demonstrate that plant species rather than climate greatly alters the temporal pattern of litter chemical composition, suggesting the decomposition-chemistry feedback varies among different plant species. PMID:26515033

  12. Plant Species Rather Than Climate Greatly Alters the Temporal Pattern of Litter Chemical Composition During Long-Term Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongfu; Chen, Na; Harmon, Mark E; Li, Yuan; Cao, Xiaoyan; Chappell, Mark A; Mao, Jingdong

    2015-10-30

    A feedback between decomposition and litter chemical composition occurs with decomposition altering composition that in turn influences the decomposition rate. Elucidating the temporal pattern of chemical composition is vital to understand this feedback, but the effects of plant species and climate on chemical changes remain poorly understood, especially over multiple years. In a 10-year decomposition experiment with litter of four species (Acer saccharum, Drypetes glauca, Pinus resinosa, and Thuja plicata) from four sites that range from the arctic to tropics, we determined the abundance of 11 litter chemical constituents that were grouped into waxes, carbohydrates, lignin/tannins, and proteins/peptides using advanced (13)C solid-state NMR techniques. Decomposition generally led to an enrichment of waxes and a depletion of carbohydrates, whereas the changes of other chemical constituents were inconsistent. Inconsistent convergence in chemical compositions during decomposition was observed among different litter species across a range of site conditions, whereas one litter species converged under different climate conditions. Our data clearly demonstrate that plant species rather than climate greatly alters the temporal pattern of litter chemical composition, suggesting the decomposition-chemistry feedback varies among different plant species.

  13. Plant Species Rather Than Climate Greatly Alters the Temporal Pattern of Litter Chemical Composition During Long-Term Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongfu; Chen, Na; Harmon, Mark E.; Li, Yuan; Cao, Xiaoyan; Chappell, Mark A.; Mao, Jingdong

    2015-10-01

    A feedback between decomposition and litter chemical composition occurs with decomposition altering composition that in turn influences the decomposition rate. Elucidating the temporal pattern of chemical composition is vital to understand this feedback, but the effects of plant species and climate on chemical changes remain poorly understood, especially over multiple years. In a 10-year decomposition experiment with litter of four species (Acer saccharum, Drypetes glauca, Pinus resinosa, and Thuja plicata) from four sites that range from the arctic to tropics, we determined the abundance of 11 litter chemical constituents that were grouped into waxes, carbohydrates, lignin/tannins, and proteins/peptides using advanced 13C solid-state NMR techniques. Decomposition generally led to an enrichment of waxes and a depletion of carbohydrates, whereas the changes of other chemical constituents were inconsistent. Inconsistent convergence in chemical compositions during decomposition was observed among different litter species across a range of site conditions, whereas one litter species converged under different climate conditions. Our data clearly demonstrate that plant species rather than climate greatly alters the temporal pattern of litter chemical composition, suggesting the decomposition-chemistry feedback varies among different plant species.

  14. Plant-associated bacteria degrade defense chemicals and reduce their adverse effects on an insect defoliator.

    PubMed

    Mason, Charles J; Couture, John J; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2014-07-01

    Phytophagous insects must contend with numerous secondary defense compounds that can adversely affect their growth and development. The gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) is a polyphagous herbivore that encounters an extensive range of hosts and chemicals. We used this folivore and a primary component of aspen chemical defenses, namely, phenolic glycosides, to investigate if bacteria detoxify phytochemicals and benefit larvae. We conducted insect bioassays using bacteria enriched from environmental samples, analyses of the microbial community in the midguts of bioassay larvae, and in vitro phenolic glycoside metabolism assays. Inoculation with bacteria enhanced larval growth in the presence, but not absence, of phenolic glycosides in the artificial diet. This effect of bacteria on growth was observed only in larvae administered bacteria from aspen foliage. The resulting midgut community composition varied among the bacterial treatments. When phenolic glycosides were included in diet, the composition of midguts in larvae fed aspen bacteria was significantly altered. Phenolic glycosides increased population responses by bacteria that we found able to metabolize these compounds in liquid growth cultures. Several aspects of these results suggest that vectoring or pairwise symbiosis models are inadequate for understanding microbial mediation of plant-herbivore interactions in some systems. First, bacteria that most benefitted larvae were initially foliar residents, suggesting that toxin-degrading abilities of phyllosphere inhabitants indirectly benefit herbivores upon ingestion. Second, assays with single bacteria did not confer the benefits to larvae obtained with consortia, suggesting multi- and inter-microbial interactions are also involved. Our results show that bacteria mediate insect interactions with plant defenses but that these interactions are community specific and highly complex. PMID:24798201

  15. Foaming and cell flotation in suspended plant cell cultures and the effect of chemical antifoams.

    PubMed

    Wongsamuth, R; Doran, P M

    1994-08-01

    Foam development and stability in Atropa belladonna suspensions were investigated as a function of culture conditions. Foaming was due mainly to properties of the cell-free broth and was correlated with protein content; effects due to presence of cells increased towards the end of batch culture. Highest foam levels were measured 11 days after inoculation. Air flow rate was of major importance in determining foam volume; foam volume and stability were also strongly dependent on pH. Foam flotation of plant cells was very effective. After 30 min foaming, ca. 55% of cells were found in the foam; this increased to ca. 75% after 90 min. Polypropylene glycol 1025 and 2025, Pluronic PE 6100, and Antifoam-C emulsion were tested as chemical antifoams. Polypropylene glycol 1025 and Antifoam C at concentrations up to 600 ppm had no adverse effect on growth in shake flasks; Pluronic PE 6100 has an inhibitory effect at all levels tested. Concentrations of polypropylene glycol 2025 and Pluronic PE 6100 as low as 20 ppm reduced foam volumes by a factor of ca. 10. Addition of antifoam reduced k(L)a values in bubble-column and stirred-tank bioreactors. After operation of a stirred reactor for 2 days using Antifoam C for foam control, cell production was limited by oxygen due to the effect of antifoam on mass transfer. Theoretical analysis showed that maximum cell concentrations and biomass levels decline with increasing reactors working volume due to greater consumption of antifoam to prevent foam overflow. The results indicate that when chemical foam control is used in plant cell cultures, head-space volume and tolerable foam levels must be considered to optimize biomass production. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  16. Effect of plants on the bioavailability of metals and other chemical properties of biosolids in a column study.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Trang T; Laidlaw, W Scott; Singh, Balwant; Zhang, Hao; Baker, Alan J M

    2012-10-01

    The effects of metal-accumulating plants (Salix x reichardtii and Populus balsamifera) on the chemical properties and dynamics of metals in biosolids were investigated using different techniques including diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT), sequential extraction procedures and partitioning coefficient (K(d)). Plants could effectively extract Cd, Ni, and Zn and decreased dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The presence of plants increased the potential bioavailability of these metals, as assessed by an increase in the ratio of metal measured by DGT and metals in the solution. The plants affected the Cd, Ni, and Zn pools (soluble/exchangeable; Fe/Mn oxide and organic matter bound) characterised by sequential extraction and K(d) but did not reduce the total metals in either substrate. However, plants had no effect on Cu, presumably because of the effective buffering of available Cu by organic matter in both solution and solid phases. A high density of plant roots was associated with increased leaching of metals.

  17. Assessment of aircraft impact possibilities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant on the INEL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, L.G.; Mines, J.M.; Webb, B.B.

    1993-08-01

    The concern of this study was the possibility of an aircraft collision with facilities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Two sets of data were combined in calculating the probability of this event. The first was from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission data is used to check the adequacy of nuclear power plant location relative to aircraft crashes. For neighboring airport scenarios, the accepted rate unit is fatal crashes per square mile. For in-flight crash scenarios, a total loss of control crash rate (where the pilot was completely out of control) is used for evaluating nuclear reactors. Numbers were given per linear mile of flight. The other set of data was obtained from the National Transportation Safety Board`s annual review. These data points show higher crash frequencies because crashes in which the pilot maintained some control have not been excluded. By including this data set, the evaluation gained two advantages. First, the data are separated by type of aircraft, which makes frequencies for specific flight paths more meaningful. Second, the data are given year by year over a ten-year time span. Therefore, it is possible to gain a sense of the variability in crash frequencies from one year to another.

  18. Source and plume investigation of chlorinated compounds in groundwater at a chemical plant

    SciTech Connect

    Trahan, D.B.

    1995-10-01

    A site assessment was conducted to determine the distribution of chlorinated compounds in soil and groundwater at a chemical plant in Geismar, Louisiana. The assessment first included an investigation of the source(S) of the contaminants using aerial photos, interviews and plant records. Next, the stratigraphic framework of the site was defined with a hydrogeological investigation using historic borin logs and cone penetrometer testing (CPT). Finally, a plume investigation was performed to determine the horizontal and vertical extent of the contamination using direct-push methods for sampling of soil and groundwater. It was determined that chlorinated compounds originated from leaking drums and cleaning operations prior to 1975. Downward migration of these compounds may have been promoted by the installation of uncased 50-foot wooden pillings. The contamination is limited both vertical and horizontally, to three hydrogeologic zones: (1) the first water-bearing silt zone; (2) an intermediate zone consisting of interlayered silt and clay; and (3) the second water-bearing silt zone. The concentration of chlorinated compounds are greatest in the intermediate zone. There is some evidence of natural degradation of the chlorinated compounds, particularly in the first water-bearing zone.

  19. Chemical modifications of estuarine water by a power plant using continuous chlorination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helz, G.R.; Sugam, R.; Sigleo, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    A season long study at a major electric power plant on the Patuxent Estuary, MD, indicated that more than 88% of the applied chlorine (22-38 ??N) disappeared within the plant. The remainder decayed in a manner approximated by a first-order rate law (T1/2 = 0.6-4.6 h). Increases in dissolved ammonia (contrary to conventional breakpoint chemistry) and losses in dissolved manganese were generally observed between the intake and discharge canals. The ammonia buildup must have derived either from the particulate (e.g., microorganism) nitrogen or from dissolved organic nitrogen. Only traces of trihalomethanes were observed, but there was evidence for a >6 km long discharge plume containing colloidal bromocarbons. The near absence of trihalomethanes is believed to be a result of the extremely rapid disappearance of free halogen oxidants. Sediments in the discharge canal were notably enriched in copper, probably from the Cu90Ni10 condenser tubes, but negligible enrichment was observed beyond the discharge canal. ?? 1984 American Chemical Society.

  20. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ocheng, Francis; Bwanga, Freddie; Joloba, Moses; Softrata, Abier; Azeem, Muhammad; Pütsep, Katrin; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Obua, Celestino; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia) used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents. PMID:26170872

  1. Ecological risk of estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals in sewage plant effluent and reclaimed water.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Huang, Huang; Sun, Ying; Wang, Chao; Shi, Xiao-Lei; Hu, Hong-Ying; Kameya, Takashi; Fujie, Koichi

    2013-09-01

    The long-term ecological risk of micropollutants, especially endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has threatened reclaimed water quality. In this study, estrogenic activity and ecological risk of eight typical estrogenic EDCs in effluents from sewage plants were evaluated. The estrogenic activity analysis showed that steroidal estrogens had the highest estrogenic activity (ranged from 10(-1) to 10(3) ng-E2/L), phenolic compounds showed weaker estrogenic activity (mainly ranged from 10(-3) to 10 ng-E2/L), and phthalate esters were negligible. The ecological risk of the estrogenic EDCs which was characterized by risk quotient ranged from 10(-4) to 10(3), with an order in descending: steroids estrogens, phenolic compounds and phthalate esters. The eight estrogenic EDCs were scored and sorted based on the comparison of the estrogenic activity and the ecological risk, suggesting that 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), estrone (E1) and estradiol (E2) should be the priority EDCs to control in municipal sewage plants. PMID:23735815

  2. Chemical, aerosol and optical measurements in the plumes of three midwestern coal-fired power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, L. W.; Anderson, J. A.; Blumenthal, D. L.; Mcdonald, J. A.; Macias, E. S.; Hering, S. V.; Wilson, W. E.

    Airborne measurements were made in and near the plumes of the following mid western coal-fired power plants in 1981: Kincaid in central Illinois in February, La Cygne near Kansas City in March and Labadie near St. Louis in August and September. One objective of these measurements was to obtain data (reported elsewhere) to be used for the evaluation of plume visibility models. The results of the chemical and aerosol measurements are reported here. Good agreement was obtained from different measurement methods for SO 2 and sulfate, but not for two different nitrate measurement methods. No more than a few per cent of the NO x emitted by these plants was NO 2, and NO 2 formation in the plumes could be accounted for by the ozone loss at the observed distances (up to 100 km in winter and 40 km in summer). Sulfate formation rates were in agreement with prior data, and there was no evidence of increased sulfate formation rates in a scrubbed plume (La Cygne). Both aerosol size distributions and sulfur particle size distributions were measured and showed reasonable agreement. The amount of light scattering by particles in the plume was quite variable, in pan because of variations in their mean particle size. The summer measurements were conducted during a rainy and hazy period when the Labadie plume typically could be seen from the ground only within a few km of the source. During this time, the visual impact of the plume was minimal.

  3. Combined physical, chemical and biological treatments of wastewater containing organics from a semiconductor plant.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sheng H; Kiang, Chang D

    2003-02-28

    Wastewater containing organics from a semiconductor plant was experimentally investigated in this study. The wastewater is characterized by strong color, high chemical oxygen demand (COD), a large amount of refractory volatile organic compounds and low biodegradability. Because of these characteristics, treatment of this wastewater by traditional activated sludge method is essentially impossible. In the present work, combined physical, chemical and biological methods were synergistically utilized to tackle the wastewater. The combined treatment consisted of air stripping, modified Fenton oxidation and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) method. Air stripping was employed to remove the majority of volatile organic components (notably isopropyl alcohol) from the wastewater, while the Fenton treatment decomposed the remaining refractory organics leading to simultaneous reductions of wastewater COD and color. After proper dilution with other low-strength, organics-containing wastewater stream, the wastewater effluent was finally treated by the SBR method. Experimental tests were conducted to determine the effectiveness and the optimum operating conditions of each treatment process. Test results clearly demonstrated the advantages of the combined treatments. The treatment train was found capable of lowering the wastewater COD concentration from as high as 80,000 mg/l to below 100mg/l and completely eliminating the wastewater color. The overall water quality of the final effluent exceeded the direct discharge standard and the effluent can even be considered for reuse.

  4. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant low-level waste grout stabilization development program FY-96 status report

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.

    1996-09-01

    The general purpose of the Grout Stabilization Development Program is to solidify and stabilize the liquid low-level wastes (LLW) generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). It is anticipated that LLW will be produced from the following: (1) chemical separation of the tank farm high-activity sodium-bearing waste; (2) retrieval, dissolution, and chemical separation of the aluminum, zirconium, and sodium calcines; (3) facility decontamination processes; and (4) process equipment waste. The main tasks completed this fiscal year as part of the program were chromium stabilization study for sodium-bearing waste and stabilization and solidification of LLW from aluminum and zirconium calcines. The projected LLW will be highly acidic and contain high amounts of nitrates. Both of these are detrimental to Portland cement chemistry; thus, methods to precondition the LLW and to cure the grout were explored. A thermal calcination process, called denitration, was developed to solidify the waste and destroy the nitrates. A three-way blend of Portland cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash was successfully tested. Grout cubes were prepared at various waste loadings to maximize loading while meeting compressive strength and leach resistance requirements. For the sodium LLW, a 25% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 3.5 and a compressive strength of 2,500 pounds per square inch while meeting leach, mix, and flow requirements. It was found that the sulfur in the slag reduces the chromium leach rate below regulatory limits. For the aluminum LLW, a 15% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 8.5 and a compressive strength of 4,350 pounds per square inch while meeting leach requirements. Likewise for zirconium LLW, a 30% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 8.3 and a compressive strength of 3,570 pounds per square inch.

  5. Alstom's Chemical Looping Combustion Prototype for CO{sub 2} Capture from Existing Pulverized Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Andrus, Herbert; Chiu, John; Edberg, Carl; Thibeault, Paul; Turek, David

    2012-09-30

    Alstom’s Limestone Chemical Looping (LCL™) process has the potential to capture CO{sub 2} from new and existing coal-fired power plants while maintaining high plant power generation efficiency. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion- gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology. This process could also be potentially configured as a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas or hydrogen for various applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. The targets set for this technology is to capture over 90% of the total carbon in the coal at cost of electricity which is less than 20% greater than Conventional PC or CFB units. Previous work with bench scale test and a 65 kWt Process Development Unit Development (PDU) has validated the chemistry required for the chemical looping process and provided for the investigation of the solids transport mechanisms and design requirements. The objective of this project is to continue development of the combustion option of chemical looping (LCL-C™) by designing, building and testing a 3 MWt prototype facility. The prototype includes all of the equipment that is required to operate the chemical looping plant in a fully integrated manner with all major systems in service. Data from the design, construction, and testing will be used to characterize environmental performance, identify and address technical risks, reassess commercial plant economics, and develop design information for a demonstration plant planned to follow the proposed Prototype. A cold flow model of the prototype will be used to predict operating conditions for the prototype and help in operator training. Operation of the prototype will provide operator experience with this new technology and performance data of the LCL-C™ process, which will be applied to the commercial design and economics and plan for a future demonstration plant.

  6. Developmental patterns of jicama (Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban) plant and the chemical constituents of roots grown in Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, M V; Warid, W A; Loaiza, J M; Montiel, A

    1997-01-01

    The developmental pattern of jicama (Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban) was studied by sampling plants aged 20 to 36 weeks at weekly intervals. There was an increase in all characteristics of foliage: fresh and dry weight, number of leaves per plant, main stem length, number of leaves, nodes and internodes of the main stem; and in all root characteristics: fresh and dry weight, diameter and length. The chemical analysis was determined for roots at different plant ages. The range values for dry matter were 16.19-22.28%, protein 1.11-1.62%, fat 0.553-0.867%, crude fiber 0.3048-0.3943%, and ash 0.669-1.089%. The chemical constituents fluctuated with age but without specific trends. These values are considered the first record of roots produced by plants grown in Mexico. PMID:9477422

  7. Lessons learned from an installation perspective for chemical demilitarization plant start-up at four operating incineration sites.

    SciTech Connect

    Motz, L.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2011-02-21

    This study presents the lessons learned by chemical storage installations as they prepared for the start of chemical demilitarization plant operations at the four current chemical incinerator sites in Alabama, Arkansas, Oregon, and Utah. The study included interviews with persons associated with the process and collection of available documents prepared at each site. The goal was to provide useful information for the chemical weapons storage sites in Colorado and Kentucky that will be going through plant start-up in the next few years. The study is not a compendium of what to do and what not to do. The information has been categorized into ten lessons learned; each is discussed individually. Documents that may be useful to the Colorado and Kentucky sites are included in the appendices. This study should be used as a basis for planning and training.

  8. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Charles; Wilson, Robert

    2014-04-30

    This project culminated in the demonstration of a full-scale industrial burner which allows a broad range of “opportunity” gaseous fuels to be cost-effectively and efficiently utilized while generating minimal emissions of criteria air pollutants. The burner is capable of maintaining a stable flame when the fuel composition changes rapidly. This enhanced stability will contribute significantly to improving the safety and reliability of burner operation in manufacturing sites. Process heating in the refining and chemicals sectors is the primary application for this burner. The refining and chemical sectors account for more than 40% of total industrial natural gas use. Prior to the completion of this project, an enabling technology did not exist that would allow these energy-intensive industries to take full advantage of opportunity fuels and thereby reduce their natural gas consumption. Opportunity gaseous fuels include biogas (from animal and agricultural wastes, wastewater plants, and landfills) as well as syngas (from the gasification of biomass, municipal solid wastes, construction wastes, and refinery residuals). The primary challenge to using gaseous opportunity fuels is that their composition and combustion performance differ significantly from those of conventional fuels such as natural gas and refinery fuel gas. An effective fuel-flexible burner must accept fuels that range widely in quality and change in composition over time, often rapidly. In Phase 1 of this project, the team applied computational fluid dynamics analysis to optimize the prototype burner’s aerodynamic, combustion, heat transfer, and emissions performance. In Phase 2, full-scale testing and refinement of two prototype burners were conducted in test furnaces at Zeeco’s offices in Broken Arrow, OK. These tests demonstrated that the full range of conventional and opportunity fuels could be utilized by the project’s burner while achieving robust flame stability and very low levels of

  9. [Research progress in chemical communication among insect-resistant genetically modified plants, insect pests and natural enemies].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing-Song; Li, Yun-He; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Peng, Yu-Fa

    2014-08-01

    Semiochemicals released by plants or insects play an important role in the communication among plants, phytophagous insects and their natural enemies. They thus form a chemical information network which regulates intra- and inter-specific behaviors and sustains the composition and structure of plant and insect communities. The application of insect-resistant genetically modified (IRGM) crops may affect the chemical communication within and among the tritrophic levels, and thus cause disturbances to the biotic community structure and the stability of the farmland ecosystem. This has raised concerns about the environmental safety of IRGM crops and triggered research worldwide. In the current article we provided a brief summary of the chemical communication among plants, herbivores and natural enemies; analyzed the potential of IRGM crops to affect the chemical communication between plants and arthropods and the related mechanisms; and discussed the current research progress and the future prospects in this field. We hope that this will promote the research in this field by Chinese scientists and increase our understanding of the potential effects of growing of IRGM crops on the arthropod community structure. PMID:25509100

  10. [Research progress in chemical communication among insect-resistant genetically modified plants, insect pests and natural enemies].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing-Song; Li, Yun-He; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Peng, Yu-Fa

    2014-08-01

    Semiochemicals released by plants or insects play an important role in the communication among plants, phytophagous insects and their natural enemies. They thus form a chemical information network which regulates intra- and inter-specific behaviors and sustains the composition and structure of plant and insect communities. The application of insect-resistant genetically modified (IRGM) crops may affect the chemical communication within and among the tritrophic levels, and thus cause disturbances to the biotic community structure and the stability of the farmland ecosystem. This has raised concerns about the environmental safety of IRGM crops and triggered research worldwide. In the current article we provided a brief summary of the chemical communication among plants, herbivores and natural enemies; analyzed the potential of IRGM crops to affect the chemical communication between plants and arthropods and the related mechanisms; and discussed the current research progress and the future prospects in this field. We hope that this will promote the research in this field by Chinese scientists and increase our understanding of the potential effects of growing of IRGM crops on the arthropod community structure.

  11. Evaluation of peroxidase as a biochemical indicator of toxic chemical exposure in the aquatic plant Hydrilla verticillata, Royle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byl, T.D.; Sutton, H.D.; Klaine, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    Laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the utility of peroxidase (POD) activity as a biochemical indicator of contaminant exposure in the aquatic plant Hydrilla verticillata, Royle. The plants were exposed to anthracene, sulfometuron methyl (Oust??), Cd2+, Cr6+, Cu2+, Mn2+, and Se4+ in concentration factors of 10. POD was extracted and measured by spectrophotometric assay. There was a significant increase in POD activity after a 5-d exposure to each of the chemicals at 1 mg/L. The optimum pH for POD activity after exposure to the chemicals was 5.5 to 6.0. The increase in POD was found to be dose dependent for each of the chemicals. The lowest concentration of chemical to induce a significant POD increase was 0.01 mg/L for anthracene, Oust, Cd, Cr, and Cu; 0.1 mg/L for Se; and 1.0 mg/L for Mn.Laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the utility of peroxidase (POD) activity as a biochemical indicator of contaminant exposure in the aquatic plant Hydrilla verticillata, Royle. The plants were exposed to anthracene, sulfometuron methyl (Oust), Cd2+, Cr6+, Cu2+, Mn2+, and Se4+ in concentration factors of 10. POD was extracted and measured by spectrophotometric assay. There was a significant increase in POD activity after a 5-d exposure to each of the chemicals at 1 mg/L. The optimum pH for POD activity after exposure to the chemicals was 5.5 to 6.0. The increase in POD was found to be dose dependent for each of the chemicals. The lowest concentration of chemical to induce a significant POD increase was 0.01 mg/L for anthracene, Oust, Cd, Cr, and Cu: 0.1 mg/L for Se; and 1.0 mg/L for Mn.

  12. Experimental investigation on the chemical precipitation generation under the loss of coolant accident of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C. H.; Sung, J. J.; Chung, Y. W.

    2012-07-01

    The PWR containment buildings are designed to facilitate core cooling in the event of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). The cooling process requires water discharged from the break and containment spray to be collected in a sump for recirculation. The containment sump contains screens to protect the components of the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) and Containment Spray System (CSS) from debris. Since the containment materials may dissolve or corrode when exposed to the reactor coolant and spray solutions, various chemical precipitations can be generated in a post-LOCA environment. These chemical precipitations may become another source of debris loading to be considered in sump screen performance and downstream effects. In this study, new experimental methodology to predict the type and quantity of chemical precipitations has been developed. To generate the plant-specific chemical precipitation in a post-LOCA environment, the plant specific chemical condition of the recirculation sump during post-LOCA is simulated with the experimental reactor for the chemical effect. The plant-specific containment materials are used in the present experiment such as glass fibers, concrete blocks, aluminum specimens, and chemical reagent - boric acid, spray additives or buffering chemicals (sodium hydroxide, Tri-Sodium Phosphate (TSP), or others). The inside temperature of the reactor is controlled to simulate the plant-specific temperature profile of the recirculation sump. The total amount of aluminum released from aluminum specimens is evaluated by ICP-AES analysis to determine the amount of AlOOH and NaAlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8} which induce very adverse effect on the head loss across the sump screens. The amount of these precipitations generated in the present experimental study is compared with the results of WCAP-16530-NP-A. (authors)

  13. Unravelling the mechanisms for plant survival on gypsum soils: an analysis of the chemical composition of gypsum plants from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bolukbasi, A; Kurt, L; Palacio, S

    2016-03-01

    Depending on their specificity to gypsum, plants can be classified as gypsophiles (gypsum exclusive) and gypsovags (non-exclusive). The former may further be segregated into wide and narrow gypsophiles, depending on the breadth of their distribution area. Narrow gypsum endemics have a putative similar chemical composition to plants non-exclusive to gypsum (i.e. gypsovags), which may indicate their similar ecological strategy as stress-tolerant plant refugees on gypsum. However, this hypothesis awaits testing in different regions of the world. We compared the chemical composition of four narrow gypsum endemics, one widely distributed gypsophile and six gypsovags from Turkey. Further, we explored the plasticity in chemical composition of Turkish gypsovags growing on high- and low-gypsum content soils. Differences were explored with multivariate analyses (RDA) and mixed models (REML). Narrow gypsum endemics segregated from gypsovags in their chemical composition according to RDAs (mainly due to higher K and ash content in the former). Nevertheless, differences were small and disappeared when different nutrients were analysed individually. All the gypsovags studied accumulated more S and ash when growing on high-gypsum than on low-gypsum soils. Similar to narrow gypsum endemics from other regions of the world, most local gypsum endemics from Turkey show a similar chemical composition to gypsovags. This may indicate a shared ecological strategy as stress-tolerant plants not specifically adapted to gypsum. Nevertheless, the narrow gypsum endemic Gypsophila parva showed a chemical composition typical of gypsum specialists, indicating that various strategies are feasible within narrowly distributed gypsophiles.

  14. Unravelling the mechanisms for plant survival on gypsum soils: an analysis of the chemical composition of gypsum plants from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bolukbasi, A; Kurt, L; Palacio, S

    2016-03-01

    Depending on their specificity to gypsum, plants can be classified as gypsophiles (gypsum exclusive) and gypsovags (non-exclusive). The former may further be segregated into wide and narrow gypsophiles, depending on the breadth of their distribution area. Narrow gypsum endemics have a putative similar chemical composition to plants non-exclusive to gypsum (i.e. gypsovags), which may indicate their similar ecological strategy as stress-tolerant plant refugees on gypsum. However, this hypothesis awaits testing in different regions of the world. We compared the chemical composition of four narrow gypsum endemics, one widely distributed gypsophile and six gypsovags from Turkey. Further, we explored the plasticity in chemical composition of Turkish gypsovags growing on high- and low-gypsum content soils. Differences were explored with multivariate analyses (RDA) and mixed models (REML). Narrow gypsum endemics segregated from gypsovags in their chemical composition according to RDAs (mainly due to higher K and ash content in the former). Nevertheless, differences were small and disappeared when different nutrients were analysed individually. All the gypsovags studied accumulated more S and ash when growing on high-gypsum than on low-gypsum soils. Similar to narrow gypsum endemics from other regions of the world, most local gypsum endemics from Turkey show a similar chemical composition to gypsovags. This may indicate a shared ecological strategy as stress-tolerant plants not specifically adapted to gypsum. Nevertheless, the narrow gypsum endemic Gypsophila parva showed a chemical composition typical of gypsum specialists, indicating that various strategies are feasible within narrowly distributed gypsophiles. PMID:26404733

  15. Karrikins Identified in Biochars Indicate Post-Fire Chemical Cues Can Influence Community Diversity and Plant Development

    PubMed Central

    Kochanek, Jitka; Flematti, Gavin R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Karrikins are smoke-derived compounds that provide strong chemical cues to stimulate seed germination and seedling growth. The recent discovery in Arabidopsis that the karrikin perception system may be present throughout angiosperms implies a fundamental plant function. Here, we identify the most potent karrikin, karrikinolide (KAR1), in biochars and determine its role in species unique plant responses. Methods Biochars were prepared by three distinct commercial-scale pyrolysis technologies using systematically selected source material and their chemical properties, including karrikinolide, were quantified. Dose-response assays determined the effects of biochar on seed germination for two model species that require karrikinolide to break dormancy (Solanum orbiculatum, Brassica tourneforttii) and on seedling growth using two species that display plasticity to karrikins, biochar and phytotoxins (Lactuca sativa, Lycopersicon esculentum). Multivariate analysis examined relationships between biochar properties and the plant phenotype. Findings and Conclusions Results showed that karrikin abundant biochars stimulated dormant seed germination and seedling growth via mechanisms analogous to post-fire chemical cues. The individual species response was associated with its sensitivity to karrikinolide and inhibitory compounds within the biochars. These findings are critical for understanding why biochar influences community composition and plant physiology uniquely for different species and reaffirms that future pyrolysis technologies promise by-products that concomitantly sequester carbon and enhance plant growth for ecological and broader plant related applications. PMID:27536995

  16. Final Report: Signal Transduction in Plant Development: chemical and Biochemical Approaches to Receptor Identification, May 15, 1991 - May 14, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, David

    1997-05-14

    Work on the phenolic signals in Striga has provided evidence that the compounds are detected via a chemical reaction, quite distinct from our current models of hormone/growth factor detection by membrane localized binding proteins. Evidence ha been obtained that the recognition mechanism is a redox reaction most likely controlled by plasma membrane localized oxidoreductases. While the existence of these redox systems have been demonstrated in both plants and animals, only recently has convincing evidence connecting e- transport with plant development emerged. These discoveries have profound consequences for both the control of plant cell growth as well as strategies for general growth control.

  17. Decommissioning samples from the Ft. Lewis, WA, solvent refined coal pilot plant: chemical analysis and biological testing

    SciTech Connect

    Weimer, W.C.; Wright, C.W.

    1985-10-01

    This report presents the results from chemical analyses and limited biological assays of three sets of samples from the Ft. Lewis, WA solvent refined coal (SRC) pilot plant. The samples were collected during the process of decommissioning this facility. Chemical composition was determined for chemical class fractions of the samples by using high-resolution gas chromatography (GC), high-resolution GC/mass spectrometry (MS) and high-resolution MS. Biological activity was measuring using both the histidine reversion microbial mutagenicity assay with Salmonella typhimurium, TA98 and an initiation/promotion mouse-skin tumorigenicity assay. 19 refs., 7 figs., 27 tabs.

  18. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are evaluating conditions in groundwater and springs at the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The 88-ha (217-acre) chemical plant area is chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of uranium-processing activities conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s and 1960s and explosives-production activities conducted by the U.S. Army (Army) in the 1940s. The 6,974-ha (17,232-acre) ordnance works area is primarily chemically contaminated as a result of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) manufacturing activities during World War II. This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is being conducted as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RUFS) required under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended. The purpose of the BRA is to evaluate potential human health and ecological impacts from contamination associated with the groundwater operable units (GWOUs) of the chemical plant area and ordnance works area. An RI/FS work plan issued jointly in 1995 by the DOE and DA (DOE 1995) analyzed existing conditions at the GWOUs. The work plan included a conceptual hydrogeological model based on data available when the report was prepared; this model indicated that the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. Hence, to optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts, the DOE and DA have decided to conduct a joint RI/BRA. Characterization data obtained from the chemical plant area wells indicate that uranium is present at levels slightly higher than background, with a few concentrations exceeding the proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 20 {micro}g/L (EPA 1996c). Concentrations of other radionuclides (e

  19. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants.

    PubMed

    De Greef, J; Villani, K; Goethals, J; Van Belle, H; Van Caneghem, J; Vandecasteele, C

    2013-11-01

    Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation - before and after optimisation - as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential.

  20. Is the efficacy of biological control against plant diseases likely to be more durable than that of chemical pesticides?

    PubMed

    Bardin, Marc; Ajouz, Sakhr; Comby, Morgane; Lopez-Ferber, Miguel; Graillot, Benoît; Siegwart, Myriam; Nicot, Philippe C

    2015-01-01

    The durability of a control method for plant protection is defined as the persistence of its efficacy in space and time. It depends on (i) the selection pressure exerted by it on populations of plant pathogens and (ii) on the capacity of these pathogens to adapt to the control method. Erosion of effectiveness of conventional plant protection methods has been widely studied in the past. For example, apparition of resistance to chemical pesticides in plant pathogens or pests has been extensively documented. The durability of biological control has often been assumed to be higher than that of chemical control. Results concerning pest management in agricultural systems have shown that this assumption may not always be justified. Resistance of various pests to one or several toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis and apparition of resistance of the codling moth Cydia pomonella to the C. pomonella granulovirus have, for example, been described. In contrast with the situation for pests, the durability of biological control of plant diseases has hardly been studied and no scientific reports proving the loss of efficiency of biological control agents against plant pathogens in practice has been published so far. Knowledge concerning the possible erosion of effectiveness of biological control is essential to ensure a durable efficacy of biological control agents on target plant pathogens. This knowledge will result in identifying risk factors that can foster the selection of strains of plant pathogens resistant to biological control agents. It will also result in identifying types of biological control agents with lower risk of efficacy loss, i.e., modes of action of biological control agents that does not favor the selection of resistant isolates in natural populations of plant pathogens. An analysis of the scientific literature was then conducted to assess the potential for plant pathogens to become resistant to biological control agents.

  1. Is the efficacy of biological control against plant diseases likely to be more durable than that of chemical pesticides?

    PubMed Central

    Bardin, Marc; Ajouz, Sakhr; Comby, Morgane; Lopez-Ferber, Miguel; Graillot, Benoît; Siegwart, Myriam; Nicot, Philippe C.

    2015-01-01

    The durability of a control method for plant protection is defined as the persistence of its efficacy in space and time. It depends on (i) the selection pressure exerted by it on populations of plant pathogens and (ii) on the capacity of these pathogens to adapt to the control method. Erosion of effectiveness of conventional plant protection methods has been widely studied in the past. For example, apparition of resistance to chemical pesticides in plant pathogens or pests has been extensively documented. The durability of biological control has often been assumed to be higher than that of chemical control. Results concerning pest management in agricultural systems have shown that this assumption may not always be justified. Resistance of various pests to one or several toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis and apparition of resistance of the codling moth Cydia pomonella to the C. pomonella granulovirus have, for example, been described. In contrast with the situation for pests, the durability of biological control of plant diseases has hardly been studied and no scientific reports proving the loss of efficiency of biological control agents against plant pathogens in practice has been published so far. Knowledge concerning the possible erosion of effectiveness of biological control is essential to ensure a durable efficacy of biological control agents on target plant pathogens. This knowledge will result in identifying risk factors that can foster the selection of strains of plant pathogens resistant to biological control agents. It will also result in identifying types of biological control agents with lower risk of efficacy loss, i.e., modes of action of biological control agents that does not favor the selection of resistant isolates in natural populations of plant pathogens. An analysis of the scientific literature was then conducted to assess the potential for plant pathogens to become resistant to biological control agents. PMID:26284088

  2. Observations of temporary plant stress induced by the surface shock of a 1-kt underground chemical explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Pickles, W.L.

    1995-12-04

    The Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) involved carefully monitoring a 1-kt chemical underground explosion using extensive seismological measurements and low-altitude overhead imagery. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has conducted a study to determine whether the multispectral overhead imagery acquired during the NPE can be combined with other techniques to locate the ground zero (GZ) of an underground nuclear explosion within the seismic error ellipse. This report describes the use of such overhead images to detect the changes in plant metabolisms, normally referred to as plant stress, that appear to have been induced by the surface accelerations caused by the NPE underground explosion. The metabolic condition of the plants on the surface above the explosion point was determined using a published plant stress measuring methodology to analyze the multispectral images taken from a low-flying aircraft. The surface areas that experienced accelerations greater than 0.2 g show measurable plant stress, within 56 hours of the underground explosion, in all of the plant species. The pattern of the plants` stress generally follows the pattern of the measured surface acceleration. Seven days after the explosion, the levels of apparent plant stress had relaxed to about one-third what they were 56 hours after the explosion, while the pattern of the apparent plant stress remained the same.

  3. Augmented evaluation of the false criticality alarm at Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The Office of Self-Assessment (DP-9), Defense Programs (DP) began to monitor a Criticality Alarm system (CAS) failure occurrence at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) shortly after January 11, 1992, when a false trip of the CAS in building CPP-601/602 caused a plant evacuation. Building CPP-601/602 contains the uranium fuel reprocessing denitration system, which was not operating at the time of the CAS failure occurrence. At that time DP-9 and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO), the Department of Energy (DOE) operating contractor, believed that this event may represent a potential generic safety concern for other DOE facilities. This false criticality alarm activation did not pose a significant danger to the health and safety of the public or to ICPP employees. Once the CAS was activated, the ICPP was evacuated per procedures. However, false CAS actuations are undesirable. The CAS system should be extremely reliable because of the dangers associated with criticality events and the potential for accidents and injuries resulting from prompt process termination and building evacuation. The Office of Self-Assessment then formed an Augmented Evaluation Team (AET) for an on-site diagnostic assessment of the CAS at ICPP. The AET`s on-site evaluation process included briefings by ICPP management, discussions with pertinent technical supervisors and managers, an examination of relevant CAS documentation, physical examination of failed equipment, and a walk-through of the ICPP CAS. The AET judged that the most probable direct causes of the CAS failure were the heat induced failure of a low voltage power supply combined with the concurrent and/or prior failure of its back-up nickel cadium (NiCad) battery located in the CAS. The battery was not adequately maintained. These judgments are consistent with WINCO`s analyses.

  4. Augmented evaluation of the false criticality alarm at Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The Office of Self-Assessment (DP-9), Defense Programs (DP) began to monitor a Criticality Alarm system (CAS) failure occurrence at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) shortly after January 11, 1992, when a false trip of the CAS in building CPP-601/602 caused a plant evacuation. Building CPP-601/602 contains the uranium fuel reprocessing denitration system, which was not operating at the time of the CAS failure occurrence. At that time DP-9 and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO), the Department of Energy (DOE) operating contractor, believed that this event may represent a potential generic safety concern for other DOE facilities. This false criticality alarm activation did not pose a significant danger to the health and safety of the public or to ICPP employees. Once the CAS was activated, the ICPP was evacuated per procedures. However, false CAS actuations are undesirable. The CAS system should be extremely reliable because of the dangers associated with criticality events and the potential for accidents and injuries resulting from prompt process termination and building evacuation. The Office of Self-Assessment then formed an Augmented Evaluation Team (AET) for an on-site diagnostic assessment of the CAS at ICPP. The AET's on-site evaluation process included briefings by ICPP management, discussions with pertinent technical supervisors and managers, an examination of relevant CAS documentation, physical examination of failed equipment, and a walk-through of the ICPP CAS. The AET judged that the most probable direct causes of the CAS failure were the heat induced failure of a low voltage power supply combined with the concurrent and/or prior failure of its back-up nickel cadium (NiCad) battery located in the CAS. The battery was not adequately maintained. These judgments are consistent with WINCO's analyses.

  5. In Situ Chemical Oxidation Through Lance Permeation at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M.Z.

    2003-05-01

    In situ chemical oxidation through lance permeation (ISCO-LP) is an emerging remediation technology in which chemical oxidants (such as potassium or sodium permanganate) are delivered to the subsurface using vertical lance-like injectors. It is applicable to sites with oxidizable contaminants such as chlorinated solvents and fuel hydrocarbons. Because vertical lance injections can be deployed at relatively close spacing, ISCO-LP potentially can be used to clean-up contamination in low-permeability media. This document provides information that can help potential users determine whether ISCO-LP would apply to a particular environmental management problem. It contains a general description of the technology (Section 2), performance data from a field demonstration (Section 3), an assessment of technology applicability (Section 4), a summary of cost elements (Section 5), and a list of regulatory, environmental safety and health issues (Section 6). It is patterned after the Innovative Technology Summary Reports (ITSR) published by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology under the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA). As in the previously published ITSRs, the technology described in this report was developed through funding from SCFA. Most of the information contained in this report was obtained from a field demonstration of ISCO-LP conducted in July-August 2000 at DOE's Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The field test was not completed due to an accident that caused a field worker serious injuries. Although performance assessment data are very limited, the field test highlighted important health and safety issues that must be considered by site managers and technology vendors interested in implementing ISCO-LP.

  6. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant spent fuel and waste management technology development program plan: 1994 Update

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until April 1992, the major activity of the ICPP was the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium and the management of the resulting high-level wastes (HLW). In 1992, DOE chose to discontinue reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery and shifted its focus toward the continued safe management and disposition of SNF and radioactive wastes accumulated through reprocessing activities. Currently, 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste), 3,800 cubic meters of calcine waste, and 289 metric tons heavy metal of SNF are in inventory at the ICPP. Disposal of SNF and high-level waste (HLW) is planned for a repository. Preparation of SNF, HLW, and other radioactive wastes for disposal may include mechanical, physical, and/or chemical processes. This plan outlines the program strategy of the ICPP spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF&WMTDP) to develop and demonstrate the technology required to ensure that SNF and radioactive waste will be properly stored and prepared for final disposal in accordance with regulatory drivers. This Plan presents a brief summary of each of the major elements of the SF&WMTDP; identifies key program assumptions and their bases; and outlines the key activities and decisions that must be completed to identify, develop, demonstrate, and implement a process(es) that will properly prepare the SNF and radioactive wastes stored at the ICPP for safe and efficient interim storage and final disposal.

  7. Microbial-chemical indicator for anaerobic digester performance assessment in full-scale wastewater treatment plants for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Traversi, Deborah; Romanazzi, Valeria; Degan, Raffaella; Lorenzi, Eugenio; Carraro, Elisabetta; Gilli, Giorgio

    2015-06-01

    Anaerobic digestion was introduced into wastewater treatment plants several years ago, but anaerobic digestion performance has not yet been achieved. The variability of the microbial community in digesters is poorly understood, and despite the crucial role of anaerobic digestion reactors, the microbial equilibrium that yields the best performance in these reactors has only recently been hypothesised. In this study, two full-scale continuous anaerobic reactors, placed in Torino's main wastewater treatment plant in northern Italy, were followed to develop a summary indicator for measuring anaerobic digestion performance. A total of 100 sludge samples were collected. The samples were characterised chemically and physically, and microbial groups were quantified by qRT-PCR. A chemical biological performance index strictly correlated to specific biogas production (rho=0.739, p<0.01) is proposed. This approach will produce new management tools for anaerobic digestion in wastewater treatment plants.

  8. Analysis of chemical reaction kinetics of depredating organic pollutants from secondary effluent of wastewater treatment plant in constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Jiang, Dengling; Yang, Yong; Cao, Guoping

    2013-01-01

    Four subsurface constructed wetlands were built to treat the secondary effluent of a wastewater treatment plant in Tangshan, China. The chemical pollutant indexes of chemical oxygen demand (COD) were analyzed to evaluate the removal efficiency of organic pollutants from the secondary effluent of the wastewater treatment plant. In all cases, the subsurface constructed wetlands were efficient in treating organic pollutants. Under the same hydraulic loading condition, the horizontal flow wetlands exhibited better efficiency of COD removal than vertical flow wetlands: the removal rates in horizontal flow wetlands could be maintained at 68.4 ± 2.42% to 92.2 ± 1.61%, compared with 63.8 ± 1.19% to 85.0 ± 1.25% in the vertical flow wetlands. Meanwhile, the chemical reaction kinetics of organic pollutants was analyzed, and the results showed that the degradation courses of the four subsurface wetlands all corresponded with the first order reaction kinetics to a large extent.

  9. Genetic and chemical diversity of high mucilaginous plants of Sida complex by ISSR markers and chemical fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Thul, Sanjog T; Srivastava, Ankit K; Singh, Subhash C; Shanker, Karuna

    2011-09-01

    A method was developed based on multiple approaches wherein DNA and chemical analysis was carried out toward differentiation of important species of Sida complex that is being used for commercial preparation. Isolated DNA samples were successfully performed through PCR amplification using ISSR markers and degree of genetic diversity among the different species of Sida is compared with that of chemical diversity. For genetic fingerprint investigation, selected 10 ISSR primers generating reproducible banding patterns were used. Among the total of 63 amplicons, 62 were recorded as polymorphic, genetic similarity index deduced from ISSR profiles ranged from 12 to 51%. Based on similarity index, S. acuta and S. rhombifolia found to be most similar (51%). High number of species-specific bands played pivotal role to delineate species at genetic level. Investigation based on HPTLC fingerprints analysis revealed 23 bands representing to characteristic chemicals and similarity index ranged from 73 to 91%. Prominent distinguishable bands were observed only in S. acuta, while S. cordifolia and S. rhombifolia shared most bands making them difficult to identify on chemical fingerprint basis. This report summarizes the genotypic and chemotypic diversity and the use of profiles for authentication of species of Sida complex.

  10. Studying How Plants Defend Themselves: A Chemical Weapon Produced by Chilli Fruit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nantawanit, Nantawan; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Ruenwongsa, Pintip

    2011-01-01

    Students often prefer to study animals rather than plants, because they see plants as passive, less interesting organisms. This paper proposes a simple hands-on laboratory exercise for high-school students (grade 12) to arouse their interest in learning about plants and to demonstrate to them that plants are active organisms capable of defending…

  11. [Chemical studies on plant polyphenols and formation of black tea polyphenols].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Takashi

    2008-08-01

    Recent biological and pharmacological studies strongly suggested that plant polyphenols in foods, beverages and crude drugs have various health benefits. However, still there are chemically uncharacterized polyphenols, especially those with large molecular weights. The typical example is black tea polyphenols. Four tea catechins of fresh tea leaves are enzymatically oxidized in tea fermentation process of black tea manufacture to give a complex mixture of the oxidation products. Despite many efforts since 1950's, major part of the black tea polyphenols has not been clarified yet. We have investigated the oxidation mechanism of each catechin by employing a newly developed in vitro model fermentation system. The oxidation was initiated by enzymatic dehydrogenation of catechins, and subsequent intermolecular quinone-phenol coupling reactions followed by cascade-type degradation of the unstable products resulted in the formation of complex black tea polyphenols. Besides black tea polyphenols, this review introduces the chemistry of insolubilization of persimmon proanthocyanidins, wood polyphenols in connection with whisky polyphenols, and co-polymerization of cinnamaldehyde and proanthocyanidins in cinnamon bark.

  12. Formaldehyde: a chemical of concern in the vicinity of MBT plants of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Vilavert, Lolita; Figueras, María J; Schuhmacher, Marta; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José L

    2014-08-01

    The mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) of municipal solid waste (MSW) has a number of advantages in comparison to other MSW management possibilities. However, adverse health effects related to this practice are not well known yet, as a varied typology of microbiological and chemical agents may be generated and released. In 2010, we initiated an environmental monitoring program to control air levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and microbiological pollutants near an MBT plant in Montcada i Reixac (Catalonia, Spain). In order to assess any temporal and seasonal trends, four 6-monthly campaigns were performed. Important fluctuations were observed in the levels of different biological indicators (total and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi grown at 25 °C and 37 °C, and more specifically, Aspergillus fumigatus). Although overall bioaerosols concentrations were rather low, a certain increase in the mean values of bacteria and fungi was observed in summer. In contrast, higher concentrations of VOCs were found in winter, with the only exception of formaldehyde. Interestingly, although this compound was not detected in one of the sampling campaigns, current airborne levels of formaldehyde were higher than those previously reported in urban areas across Europe. Furthermore, the non-carcinogenic risks (Hazard Quotient), particularly in winter, as well as the cancer risks associated with the inhalation of VOCs, exceeded the threshold values (1 and 10(-5), respectively), reaffirming the need of continuing with the monitoring program, with special emphasis on formaldehyde, a carcinogenic/mutagenic substance.

  13. Controlled silica precipitation in geothermal brine at the Reykjanes geo-chemicals plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gudmundsson, S.R. ); Einarsson, E. )

    1989-01-01

    This article describes how silica was precipitated in an electromagnetic field from silica supersaturated brine. At the Reykanes Geo-Chemicals plant deposition of silica was a serious problem. After acidification of brine to pH 2.5 before evaporation the silica can be kept in solution for a considerable time. In order to precipitate silica out of this brine caustic soda is added. To get an effective precipitation of silica, a pH of at least 8.2 has to be reached. By using an electromagnetic field, a pH of 7.3-7.8 is sufficient to precipitate silica and an increased settling rate is observed. Settling rates were found to be from 7.1-9.7 cm/min at 100{sup 0}C and from 3.4-4.6 cm/min at 40{sup 0}C, compared to 1.3 cm/min for silica which was only alkalized. Higher effluent purity is also achieved by using electromagnetic field to precipitate out silica.

  14. Occurrence and fate of endocrine disrupting chemicals in ASP based sewage treatment plant in Hardwar.

    PubMed

    Saini, Gita; Pant, Shalini; Alam, Tanveer; Kazmi, A A

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of emerging contaminants such as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in our water resources is of prime concern. With this context, fate and seasonal variation of six EDCs (testosterone, T; progesterone, P; diethyl phthalate, DEP; dibutyl phthalate, DBP; propyl-paraben, PP and butyl-paraben, BP) were assessed throughout the year, i.e. in rainy, winter, spring and summer seasons in the raw, treated wastewater and activated sludge in an activated sludge process (ASP) based sewage treatment plant (STP) located in Haridwar, India. Qualitative and quantitative measurements were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Results indicate that in summer, the examined STP could effectively remove 82.9% of T, 86.4% of P, 95.5% of DEP, 92.4% of DBP, 91.5% of PP, and 89.9% of BP from the wastewater. Among the EDCs considered, higher removal efficiencies were achieved for phthalates in the summer season. GC-MS analysis showed that a small fraction of EDCs was sorbed on the solid fraction of activated sludge. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy analysis were also performed to investigate the occurrence of EDCs in biomass samples. Results of this study also demonstrated that removal efficiency, assessed in terms of physicochemical and microbiological parameters, was maximum in summer and reached minimum in rainy season. PMID:27642823

  15. Chemical evolution of an isolated power plant plume during the TexAQS 2000 study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springston, Stephen R.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Brechtel, Frederick; Lee, Yin-Nan; Nunnermacker, Linda J.; Wang, Jian

    Stack emissions from a coal-burning power plant were measured during a research flight of the DOE G-1 during the Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS 2000) on 10 September 2000. Clean upstream air and an isolated location allowed the plume to be unambiguously sampled during 12 successive downwind transects to a distance of 63 km—corresponding to a processing time of 4.6 h. The chemical transformation rates of sulfur and nitrogen primary pollutants into aerosol SO 42- and HNO 3 yield independent values of OH concentration (8.0 and 11×106 cm -3, respectively) that are consistent within experimental uncertainty and qualitatively agree with constrained steady-state (CSS) box model calculations. Ozone production efficiency increases with plume age as expected. Primary aerosol emissions with Dp>5 μm were sampled near the stack. As the plume ages, aerosol size distributions adjusted for dilution show constant number concentrations of aerosols Dp>10 nm and a marked increase in accumulation-mode particles ( Dp>0.1 μm) as gas-to-particle-conversion causes smaller particles to grow.

  16. Disposal of defense spent fuel and HLW at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ermold, L.F.; Loo, H.H.; Klingler, R.D.; Herzog, J.D.; Knecht, D.A.

    1993-06-01

    Irradiated nuclear fuel has been reprocessed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) since 1953 to recover uranium-235 and krypton-85 for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The resulting acidic high-level radioactive waste (HLW) has been solidified to a calcine since 1963 and stored in stainless steel underground bins enclosed by concrete vaults. Several different types of unprocessed irradiated DOE-owned fuels are also in storage at the ICPP. In April, 1992, DOE announced that spent fuel would no longer be reprocessed to recover enriched uranium and called for a shutdown of the reprocessing facilities at the ICPP. A new Spent Fuel and HLW Technology Development program was subsequently initiated to develop technologies for immobilizing ICPP spent fuels and HLW for disposal, in accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The Program elements include Systems Analysis, Graphite Fuel Disposal, Other Spent Fuel Disposal, Sodium-Bearing Liquid Waste Processing, Calcine Immobilization, and Metal Recycle/Waste Minimization. This paper presents an overview of the ICPP radioactive wastes and current spent fuels, with an emphasis on the description of HLW and spent fuels requiring repository disposal.

  17. Physical and chemical characterization of airborne particles from welding operations in automotive plants.

    PubMed

    Dasch, Jean; D'Arcy, James

    2008-07-01

    Airborne particles were characterized from six welding operations in three automotive plants, including resistance spot welding, metal inert gas (MIG) welding and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding of aluminum and resistance spot welding, MIG welding and weld-through sealer of galvanized steel. Particle levels were measured throughout the process area to select a sampling location, followed by intensive particle sampling over one working shift. Temporal trends were measured, and particles were collected on filters to characterize their size and chemistry. In all cases, the particles fell into a bimodal size distribution with very large particles >20 mum in diameter, possibly emitted as spatter or metal expulsions, and very small particles about 1 mum in diameter, possibly formed from condensation of vaporized metal. The mass median aerodynamic diameter was about 1 mum, with only about 7% of the particle mass present as ultrafine particles <100 nm. About half the mass of aluminum welding particles could be accounted for by chemical analysis, with the remainder possibly present as oxygen. Predominant species were organic carbon, elemental carbon, iron, and aluminum. More than 80% of the particle mass could be accounted for from steel welding, primarily present as iron, organic carbon, zinc, and copper. Particle concentrations and elemental concentrations were compared with allowable concentrations as recommended by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. In all cases, workplace levels were at least 11 times lower than recommended levels. PMID:18464098

  18. Physical and chemical characterization of airborne particles from welding operations in automotive plants.

    PubMed

    Dasch, Jean; D'Arcy, James

    2008-07-01

    Airborne particles were characterized from six welding operations in three automotive plants, including resistance spot welding, metal inert gas (MIG) welding and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding of aluminum and resistance spot welding, MIG welding and weld-through sealer of galvanized steel. Particle levels were measured throughout the process area to select a sampling location, followed by intensive particle sampling over one working shift. Temporal trends were measured, and particles were collected on filters to characterize their size and chemistry. In all cases, the particles fell into a bimodal size distribution with very large particles >20 mum in diameter, possibly emitted as spatter or metal expulsions, and very small particles about 1 mum in diameter, possibly formed from condensation of vaporized metal. The mass median aerodynamic diameter was about 1 mum, with only about 7% of the particle mass present as ultrafine particles <100 nm. About half the mass of aluminum welding particles could be accounted for by chemical analysis, with the remainder possibly present as oxygen. Predominant species were organic carbon, elemental carbon, iron, and aluminum. More than 80% of the particle mass could be accounted for from steel welding, primarily present as iron, organic carbon, zinc, and copper. Particle concentrations and elemental concentrations were compared with allowable concentrations as recommended by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. In all cases, workplace levels were at least 11 times lower than recommended levels.

  19. Egg Dispersal in the Phasmatodea: Convergence in Chemical Signaling Strategies Between Plants and Animals?

    PubMed

    Stanton, Anthony O; Dias, Daniel A; O'Hanlon, James C

    2015-08-01

    Numerous tree species' seeds contain an 'elaiosome' that acts as a food reward for ants and thus induces dispersal of the seeds. Many stick and leaf insect species appear to have evolved a convergent adaptation for dispersal whereby the egg 'capitulum' serves to induce ants to pick up and carry their eggs. Here, we investigated whether the capitulum facilitates egg dispersal by ants in the Australian stick insect Eurycnema goliath. The total fatty acid composition of E. goliath egg capsules and egg capitula were characterized to identify potential signaling compounds. Removing capitula from E. goliath eggs significantly reduced the likelihood of eggs being carried into the nests of Rhytidoponera metallica ants. Furthermore, attaching capitula to inert objects (polystyrene balls) resulted in these objects being carried into nests by R. metallica. Several fatty acids were present on the egg capsule surface in only trace amounts, whereas they made up over 10% of the dry weight of egg capitula. The fatty acid composition of egg capitula consisted mostly of palmitic acid (C16:0), linoleic acid (C18: 2n6c), oleic acid (C18:1n9c), linolenic acid (C18:3n3), and stearic acid (C18:0). Previously reported research has found that a diglyceride lipid species of oleic acid induces carrying behavior in R. metallica when added to inert artificial stimuli. Therefore, we propose that the dispersal mechanism of E. goliath eggs has converged upon the same chemical signaling pathway used by plants to exploit ant behavior.

  20. Modification of plant cell wall structure accompanied by enhancement of saccharification efficiency using a chemical, lasalocid sodium

    PubMed Central

    Okubo-Kurihara, Emiko; Ohtani, Misato; Kurihara, Yukio; Kakegawa, Koichi; Kobayashi, Megumi; Nagata, Noriko; Komatsu, Takanori; Kikuchi, Jun; Cutler, Sean; Demura, Taku; Matsui, Minami

    2016-01-01

    The cell wall is one major determinant of plant cell morphology, and is an attractive bioresource. Here, we report a novel strategy to modify plant cell wall property by small molecules. Lasalocid sodium (LS) was isolated by chemical screening to identify molecules that affect the cell morphology of tobacco BY-2 cells. LS treatment led to an increase in cell wall thickness, whilst the quantity and sugar composition of the cell wall remained unchanged in BY-2 cells. The chemical also disordered the cellular arrangement of hypocotyls of Arabidopsis plants, resulting in a decrease in hypocotyl length. LS treatment enhanced enzymatic saccharification efficiency in both BY-2 cells and Arabidopsis plants. Microarray analysis on Arabidopsis showed that exposure to LS upregulated type III peroxidase genes, of which some are involved in lignin biogenesis, and jasmonic acid response genes, and phloroglucinol staining supported the activation of lignification by the LS treatment. As jasmonic acid-mediated lignification is a typical reaction to cell wall damage, it is possible that LS induces cell wall loosening, which can trigger cell wall damage response. Thus, LS is a unique chemical for modification of cell wall and morphology through changes in cell wall architecture. PMID:27694977

  1. Detection and assessment of chemical hormesis on the radial growth in vitro of oomycetes and fungal plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Flores, Francisco J; Garzon, Carla D

    2012-01-01

    Although plant diseases can be caused by bacteria, viruses, and protists, most are caused by fungi and fungus-like oomycetes. Intensive use of fungicides with the same mode of action can lead to selection of resistant strains increasing the risk of unmanageable epidemics. In spite of the integrated use of nonchemical plant disease management strategies, agricultural productivity relies heavily on the use of chemical pesticides and biocides for disease prevention and treatment and sanitation of tools and substrates. Despite the prominent use of fungi in early hormesis studies and the continuous use of yeast as a research model, the relevance of hormesis in agricultural systems has not been investigated by plant pathologists, until recently. A protocol was standardized for detection and assessment of chemical hormesis in fungi and oomycetes using radial growth as endpoint. Biphasic dose-responses were observed in Pythium aphanidermatum exposed to sub-inhibitory doses of ethanol, cyazofamid, and propamocarb, and in Rhizoctonia zeae exposed to ethanol. This report provides an update on chemical hormesis in fungal plant pathogens and a perspective on the potential risks it poses to crop productivity and global food supply.

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are an alternative to the application of chemical fertilizer in the production of the medicinal and aromatic plant Coriandrum sativum L.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rui S; Ma, Ying; Rocha, Inês; Carvalho, Maria F; Vosátka, Miroslav; Freitas, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The widespread use of agrochemicals is detrimental to the environment and may exert harmful effects on human health. The consumer demand for organic food plants has been increasing. There is thus a rising need for alternatives to agrochemicals that can foster sustainable plant production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential use of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus as an alternative to application of chemical fertilizer for improving growth performance of the medicinal and aromatic plant Coriandrum sativum. Plants were inoculated with the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis BEG163 and/or supplemented with a commercial chemical fertilizer (Plant Marvel, Nutriculture Bent Special) in agricultural soil. Plant growth, nutrition, and development of AM fungus were assessed. Plants inoculated with R. irregularis and those supplemented with chemical fertilizer displayed significantly improved growth performances when compared with controls. There were no significant differences in total fresh weight between plants inoculated with R. irregularis or those supplemented with chemical fertilizer. Leaf chlorophyll a + b (82%), shoot nitrogen (44%), phosphorus (254%), and potassium (27%) concentrations increased in plants inoculated with R. irregularis compared to controls. Application of chemical fertilizer inhibited root mycorrhizal colonization and the length of the extraradical mycelium of R. irregularis. Inoculation with R. irregularis was equally or more efficient than application of chemical fertilizer in promoting growth and nutrition of C. sativum. AM fungi may thus contribute to improve biologically based production of food plants and reduce the dependence on agrochemicals in agriculture. PMID:27077563

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are an alternative to the application of chemical fertilizer in the production of the medicinal and aromatic plant Coriandrum sativum L.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rui S; Ma, Ying; Rocha, Inês; Carvalho, Maria F; Vosátka, Miroslav; Freitas, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The widespread use of agrochemicals is detrimental to the environment and may exert harmful effects on human health. The consumer demand for organic food plants has been increasing. There is thus a rising need for alternatives to agrochemicals that can foster sustainable plant production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential use of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus as an alternative to application of chemical fertilizer for improving growth performance of the medicinal and aromatic plant Coriandrum sativum. Plants were inoculated with the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis BEG163 and/or supplemented with a commercial chemical fertilizer (Plant Marvel, Nutriculture Bent Special) in agricultural soil. Plant growth, nutrition, and development of AM fungus were assessed. Plants inoculated with R. irregularis and those supplemented with chemical fertilizer displayed significantly improved growth performances when compared with controls. There were no significant differences in total fresh weight between plants inoculated with R. irregularis or those supplemented with chemical fertilizer. Leaf chlorophyll a + b (82%), shoot nitrogen (44%), phosphorus (254%), and potassium (27%) concentrations increased in plants inoculated with R. irregularis compared to controls. Application of chemical fertilizer inhibited root mycorrhizal colonization and the length of the extraradical mycelium of R. irregularis. Inoculation with R. irregularis was equally or more efficient than application of chemical fertilizer in promoting growth and nutrition of C. sativum. AM fungi may thus contribute to improve biologically based production of food plants and reduce the dependence on agrochemicals in agriculture.

  4. Plant seed species identification from chemical fingerprints: a high-throughput application of direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lesiak, Ashton D; Cody, Robert B; Dane, A John; Musah, Rabi A

    2015-09-01

    Plant species identification based on the morphological features of plant parts is a well-established science in botany. However, species identification from seeds has largely been unexplored, despite the fact that the seeds contain all of the genetic information that distinguishes one plant from another. Using seeds of genus Datura plants, we show here that the mass spectrum-derived chemical fingerprints for seeds of the same species are similar. On the other hand, seeds from different species within the same genus display distinct chemical signatures, even though they may contain similar characteristic biomarkers. The intraspecies chemical signature similarities on the one hand, and interspecies fingerprint differences on the other, can be processed by multivariate statistical analysis methods to enable rapid species-level identification and differentiation. The chemical fingerprints can be acquired rapidly and in a high-throughput manner by direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) analysis of the seeds in their native form, without use of a solvent extract. Importantly, knowledge of the identity of the detected molecules is not required for species level identification. However, confirmation of the presence within the seeds of various characteristic tropane and other alkaloids, including atropine, scopolamine, scopoline, tropine, tropinone, and tyramine, was accomplished by comparison of the in-source collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation patterns of authentic standards, to the fragmentation patterns observed in the seeds when analyzed under similar in-source CID conditions. The advantages, applications, and implications of the chemometric processing of DART-MS derived seed chemical signatures for species level identification and differentiation are discussed.

  5. Chemical, dimensional and morphological ultrafine particle characterization from a waste-to-energy plant

    SciTech Connect

    Buonanno, Giorgio; Stabile, Luca; Avino, Pasquale; Belluso, Elena

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Particle size distributions and total concentrations measurement at the stack and before the fabric filter of an incinerator. > Chemical characterization of UFPs in terms of heavy metal concentration through a nuclear method. > Mineralogical investigation through a Transmission Electron Microscope equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer. > Heavy metal concentrations on UFPs as function of the boiling temperature. > Different mineralogical and morphological composition amongst samples collected before the fabric filter and at the stack. - Abstract: Waste combustion processes are responsible of particles and gaseous emissions. Referring to the particle emission, in the last years specific attention was paid to ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter less than 0.1 {mu}m), mainly emitted by combustion processes. In fact, recent findings of toxicological and epidemiological studies indicate that fine and ultrafine particles could represent a risk for health and environment. Therefore, it is necessary to quantify particle emissions from incinerators also to perform an exposure assessment for the human populations living in their surrounding areas. To these purposes, in the present work an experimental campaign aimed to monitor UFPs was carried out at the incineration plant in San Vittore del Lazio (Italy). Particle size distributions and total concentrations were measured both at the stack and before the fabric filter inlet in order to evaluate the removal efficiency of the filter in terms of UFPs. A chemical characterization of UFPs in terms of heavy metal concentration was performed through a nuclear method, i.e. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), as well as a mineralogical investigation was carried out through a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) in order to evaluate shape, crystalline state and mineral compound of sampled particles. Maximum values of 2.7 x 10{sup 7} part. cm

  6. In Vivo Chemical and Structural Analysis of Plant Cuticular Waxes Using Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, Jessica C.; Perfect, Sarah; Seymour, Mark; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Love, John; Moger, Julian

    2015-01-01

    The cuticle is a ubiquitous, predominantly waxy layer on the aerial parts of higher plants that fulfils a number of essential physiological roles, including regulating evapotranspiration, light reflection, and heat tolerance, control of development, and providing an essential barrier between the organism and environmental agents such as chemicals or some pathogens. The structure and composition of the cuticle are closely associated but are typically investigated separately using a combination of structural imaging and biochemical analysis of extracted waxes. Recently, techniques that combine stain-free imaging and biochemical analysis, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy microscopy and coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy microscopy, have been used to investigate the cuticle, but the detection sensitivity is severely limited by the background signals from plant pigments. We present a new method for label-free, in vivo structural and biochemical analysis of plant cuticles based on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy. As a proof of principle, we used SRS microscopy to analyze the cuticles from a variety of plants at different times in development. We demonstrate that the SRS virtually eliminates the background interference compared with coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy imaging and results in label-free, chemically specific confocal images of cuticle architecture with simultaneous characterization of cuticle composition. This innovative use of the SRS spectroscopy may find applications in agrochemical research and development or in studies of wax deposition during leaf development and, as such, represents an important step in the study of higher plant cuticles. PMID:25783412

  7. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants

    SciTech Connect

    De Greef, J.; Villani, K.; Goethals, J.; Van Belle, H.; Van Caneghem, J.; Vandecasteele, C.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • WtE plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. • Emission and consumption data before and after 5 technical improvements are discussed. • Plant performance can be increased without introduction of new techniques or re-design. • Diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operation are essential. - Abstract: Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation – before and after optimisation – as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential.

  8. Environmental controls on plant chemical traits: Using the CAO-VSWIR to characterize patterns in a mediterranean-type ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlin, K.; Asner, G. P.; Field, C. B.

    2012-12-01

    Here we present results from a new imaging spectrometer, the Carnegie Airborne Observatory's (CAO) Visible-Short Wave Infrared (VSWIR) sensor, and we use these data to map key plant functional traits in a semi-arid ecosystem, Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve (Woodside, CA USA). We considered four fundamental plant traits: leaf nitrogen per mass (Nmass, %), leaf carbon per mass (Cmass, %), leaf water fraction (WL), and canopy water fraction (WC).With these maps we ask the following questions: (1) How do these traits vary with environmental gradients and land use history, independent of species composition? (2) Does information about plant community improve our ability to explain trait patterns? And (3) what does the variation within plant communities tell us about the underlying processes driving or limiting this ecosystem? We show that the new CAO-VSWIR combined with partial least squares regression can effectively map these four plant chemical traits across multiple plant functional types (observed v. predicted R2s ranging from 0.55 for WL to 0.84 for Cmass). To consider how these traits varied with environmental gradients we used simultaneous autoregressive modeling and found, in general, that environment and land-use history together explained about a quarter of the variation in each trait, but that information about plant community boundaries dramatically improved our predictive power. While 29 - 44% of the variation in these four traits remained unexplained, when we considered the trait distributions within each plant community we found that most plant communities were sharply peaked (leptokurtic) or near normal, while a few communities were more evenly distributed (platykurtic) for each trait. These results show that, even though environmental gradients play a small but significant role, most of the plant communities at Jasper Ridge are characterized by a narrow range of trait patterns. For the few communities that are highly divergent, possible causal

  9. Fitness costs of animal medication: antiparasitic plant chemicals reduce fitness of monarch butterfly hosts.

    PubMed

    Tao, Leiling; Hoang, Kevin M; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2016-09-01

    The emerging field of ecological immunology demonstrates that allocation by hosts to immune defence against parasites is constrained by the costs of those defences. However, the costs of non-immunological defences, which are important alternatives to canonical immune systems, are less well characterized. Estimating such costs is essential for our understanding of the ecology and evolution of alternative host defence strategies. Many animals have evolved medication behaviours, whereby they use antiparasitic compounds from their environment to protect themselves or their kin from parasitism. Documenting the costs of medication behaviours is complicated by natural variation in the medicinal components of diets and their covariance with other dietary components, such as macronutrients. In the current study, we explore the costs of the usage of antiparasitic compounds in monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus), using natural variation in concentrations of antiparasitic compounds among plants. Upon infection by their specialist protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, monarch butterflies can selectively oviposit on milkweed with high foliar concentrations of cardenolides, secondary chemicals that reduce parasite growth. Here, we show that these antiparasitic cardenolides can also impose significant costs on both uninfected and infected butterflies. Among eight milkweed species that vary substantially in their foliar cardenolide concentration and composition, we observed the opposing effects of cardenolides on monarch fitness traits. While high foliar cardenolide concentrations increased the tolerance of monarch butterflies to infection, they reduced the survival rate of caterpillars to adulthood. Additionally, although non-polar cardenolide compounds decreased the spore load of infected butterflies, they also reduced the life span of uninfected butterflies, resulting in a hump-shaped curve between cardenolide non-polarity and the life span of infected butterflies

  10. [Chemical composition of 6 unconventional plants from Oaxaca State, Mexico, as potential resources for animal feed].

    PubMed

    Arellano, M L; Carranco, J M; Pérez-Gil, R F; Hernández, P E; Partida, I H; Ripoll, S H

    1993-09-01

    Characteristics and distribution of six plants are described. The chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of leaf and stem of Polymnia maculata, Trigonospermum annuum, Buddleia parviflora Kunt, Canna indica L, Gnaphalium oxyphyllum y Saurauia scabrida Hensl., selected for farmers information, were analysed as a potential resources in animal feeding. The results in dry matter: Crude protein (%): Go and Ss 10.9, Bp 16.7, Pm 11.7 and Ta 11.3. Cell wall (%): Go 54.1, Ss 52.3, Ci 54.4, Bp 68.3, Pm 27.8 and Ta 30.9. Lignin (%): Go and Ss 16.6, Ci 15.5, Bp 10.4, Pm 10.6 and Ta 13.3. IN vitro dry matter digestibility (%): Go 55.1, Ss 37.6, Ci 55.4, Bp 46.5, Pm 82.4 and Ta 81.4. Calcium and phosphorus (mg/100g) respectively: Go 1095 and 379, Ss 1132 and 387, Ci 600 and 421, Bp 800 and 855, Pm 1146 and 421 and Ta 905 and 480. Tannic acid (mg/100g): Go 1450, Ss 1480, Bp 575, Ci 518, Pm 3329 and Ta 2760. Trypsin inhibitor (UIT/g): Go 22264, Ss 29720, Bp 755, Ci 4228, Pm 931 and Ta 4412. Hemagglutinins were detected in Pm and Ta. Alkaloids were detected as scarce in Bp, Ci and Pm, moderate in Ta. Saponins and Cyanogenic glucosides were not detected. It is concluded that Pm and Ta could be considered as a forage for ruminants; Go, Bp and Ci as a complement; recommended the voluntary intake, in vivo digestibility and weight increase trials.

  11. Nuclear fuel reprocessing deactivation plan for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, M.W.

    1994-10-01

    The decision was announced on April 28, 1992 to cease all United States Department of Energy (DOE) reprocessing of nuclear fuels. This decision leads to the deactivation of all fuels dissolution, solvent extraction, krypton gas recovery operations, and product denitration at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The reprocessing facilities will be converted to a safe and stable shutdown condition awaiting future alternate uses or decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). This ICPP Deactivation Plan includes the scope of work, schedule, costs, and associated staffing levels necessary to achieve a safe and orderly deactivation of reprocessing activities and the Waste Calcining Facility (WCF). Deactivation activities primarily involve shutdown of operating systems and buildings, fissile and hazardous material removal, and related activities. A minimum required level of continued surveillance and maintenance is planned for each facility/process system to ensure necessary environmental, health, and safety margins are maintained and to support ongoing operations for ICPP facilities that are not being deactivated. Management of the ICPP was transferred from Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) to Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) on October 1, 1994 as part of the INEL consolidated contract. This revision of the deactivation plan (formerly the Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Phaseout Plan for the ICPP) is being published during the consolidation of the INEL site-wide contract and the information presented here is current as of October 31, 1994. LITCO has adopted the existing plans for the deactivation of ICPP reprocessing facilities and the plans developed under WINCO are still being actively pursued, although the change in management may result in changes which have not yet been identified. Accordingly, the contents of this plan are subject to revision.

  12. Fitness costs of animal medication: antiparasitic plant chemicals reduce fitness of monarch butterfly hosts.

    PubMed

    Tao, Leiling; Hoang, Kevin M; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2016-09-01

    The emerging field of ecological immunology demonstrates that allocation by hosts to immune defence against parasites is constrained by the costs of those defences. However, the costs of non-immunological defences, which are important alternatives to canonical immune systems, are less well characterized. Estimating such costs is essential for our understanding of the ecology and evolution of alternative host defence strategies. Many animals have evolved medication behaviours, whereby they use antiparasitic compounds from their environment to protect themselves or their kin from parasitism. Documenting the costs of medication behaviours is complicated by natural variation in the medicinal components of diets and their covariance with other dietary components, such as macronutrients. In the current study, we explore the costs of the usage of antiparasitic compounds in monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus), using natural variation in concentrations of antiparasitic compounds among plants. Upon infection by their specialist protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, monarch butterflies can selectively oviposit on milkweed with high foliar concentrations of cardenolides, secondary chemicals that reduce parasite growth. Here, we show that these antiparasitic cardenolides can also impose significant costs on both uninfected and infected butterflies. Among eight milkweed species that vary substantially in their foliar cardenolide concentration and composition, we observed the opposing effects of cardenolides on monarch fitness traits. While high foliar cardenolide concentrations increased the tolerance of monarch butterflies to infection, they reduced the survival rate of caterpillars to adulthood. Additionally, although non-polar cardenolide compounds decreased the spore load of infected butterflies, they also reduced the life span of uninfected butterflies, resulting in a hump-shaped curve between cardenolide non-polarity and the life span of infected butterflies

  13. Egg Dispersal in the Phasmatodea: Convergence in Chemical Signaling Strategies Between Plants and Animals?

    PubMed

    Stanton, Anthony O; Dias, Daniel A; O'Hanlon, James C

    2015-08-01

    Numerous tree species' seeds contain an 'elaiosome' that acts as a food reward for ants and thus induces dispersal of the seeds. Many stick and leaf insect species appear to have evolved a convergent adaptation for dispersal whereby the egg 'capitulum' serves to induce ants to pick up and carry their eggs. Here, we investigated whether the capitulum facilitates egg dispersal by ants in the Australian stick insect Eurycnema goliath. The total fatty acid composition of E. goliath egg capsules and egg capitula were characterized to identify potential signaling compounds. Removing capitula from E. goliath eggs significantly reduced the likelihood of eggs being carried into the nests of Rhytidoponera metallica ants. Furthermore, attaching capitula to inert objects (polystyrene balls) resulted in these objects being carried into nests by R. metallica. Several fatty acids were present on the egg capsule surface in only trace amounts, whereas they made up over 10% of the dry weight of egg capitula. The fatty acid composition of egg capitula consisted mostly of palmitic acid (C16:0), linoleic acid (C18: 2n6c), oleic acid (C18:1n9c), linolenic acid (C18:3n3), and stearic acid (C18:0). Previously reported research has found that a diglyceride lipid species of oleic acid induces carrying behavior in R. metallica when added to inert artificial stimuli. Therefore, we propose that the dispersal mechanism of E. goliath eggs has converged upon the same chemical signaling pathway used by plants to exploit ant behavior. PMID:26245262

  14. Algological and mycological assessments of the soil state in the impact zone of the Kirovo-Chepetsk Chemical Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabakh, E. V.; Kondakova, L. V.; Domracheva, L. I.; Zlobin, S. S.

    2013-02-01

    The chemical and microbiological (on the basis of algae and micromycetes) analysis of the soils was carried out in the region of the Kirovo-Chepetsk Chemical Plant. It has been shown that the complex soil contamination resulted in essential changes in the algal-mycological complexes: the species diversity of the phototrophs decreased, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria practically disappeared from the algocenoses, and melanic forms of fungi dominated in the structure of the micromycetal communities. The higher sensitivity of the mycological indication method to the soil contamination was found in comparison with the methods of biotesting on the basis of protozoa and coliform bacteria.

  15. Dynamic Modeling and Plantwide Control of a Hybrid Power and Chemical Plant: An Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Coupled with a Methanol Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Patrick J.

    Gasification has been used in industry on a relatively limited scale for many years, but it is emerging as the premier unit operation in the energy and chemical industries. The switch from expensive and insecure petroleum to solid hydrocarbon sources (coal and biomass) is occurring due to the vast amount of domestic solid resources, national security and global warming issues. Gasification (or partial oxidation) is a vital component of "clean coal" technology. Sulfur and nitrogen emissions can be reduced, overall energy efficiency is increased and carbon dioxide recovery and sequestration are facilitated. Gasification units in an electric power generation plant produce a fuel gas for driving combustion turbines. Gasification units in a chemical plant generate synthesis gas, which can be used to produce a wide spectrum of chemical products. Future plants are predicted to be hybrid power/chemical plants with gasification as the key unit operation. The coupling of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) with a methanol plant can handle swings in power demand by diverting hydrogen gas from a combustion turbine and synthesis gas from the gasifier to a methanol plant for the production of an easily-stored, hydrogen-consuming liquid product. An additional control degree of freedom is provided with this hybrid plant, fundamentally improving the controllability of the process. The idea is to base-load the gasifier and use the more responsive gas-phase units to handle disturbances. During the summer days, power demand can fluctuate up to 50% over a 12-hour period. The winter provides a different problem where spikes of power demand can go up 15% within the hour. The following dissertation develops a hybrid IGCC / methanol plant model, validates the steady-state results with a National Energy Technical Laboratory study, and tests a proposed control structure to handle these significant disturbances. All modeling was performed in the widely used chemical process

  16. Influence of perennial plants on chemical properties of arid calcareous soils in Iran

    SciTech Connect

    Karimian, N.; Razmi, K. )

    1990-10-01

    The authors conducted a study in Bajgah to determine the influence of perennial plants on some selected properties of soils formed on the highly calcareous parent material. The major plant genera were determined to be Agropyron, Artemisia, Astragalus, Dianthus, Eryngium, Peganum, Polygonum, Stipa, and Thymus. Tops of plants genera were found to be significantly different in ash, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Mn, Zn, and Cu; the concentration of Fe was not significantly different. The authors found the plants to differ significantly in their influence on soil properties. Peganum caused an accumulation of organic matter (OM) as high as 7% in the soil, in an environment where the soils typically contain less than 1% OM. Soil concentrations of P, K, Mn, Zn, and Cu were also found to vary significantly beneath different plant genera. They suggest these differences in OM accumulation were caused by plant litter. Concentration of Fe in the soils formed beneath different plant genera was statistically unchanged.

  17. Volatile chemical cues guide host location and host selection by parasitic plants.

    PubMed

    Runyon, Justin B; Mescher, Mark C; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2006-09-29

    The importance of plant volatiles in mediating interactions between plant species is much debated. Here, we demonstrate that the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona (dodder) uses volatile cues for host location. Cuscuta pentagona seedlings exhibit directed growth toward nearby tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) and toward extracted tomato-plant volatiles presented in the absence of other cues. Impatiens (Impatiens wallerana) and wheat plants (Triticum aestivum) also elicit directed growth. Moreover, seedlings can distinguish tomato and wheat volatiles and preferentially grow toward the former. Several individual compounds from tomato and wheat elicit directed growth by C. pentagona, whereas one compound from wheat is repellent. These findings provide compelling evidence that volatiles mediate important ecological interactions among plant species.

  18. Inventory of chemicals used at Hanford Site production plants and support operations (1944-1980)

    SciTech Connect

    Klem, M. J.

    1990-04-01

    A complete list of chemicals used in the production facilities and support operations of the US Department of Energy Hanford Site is presented to aid development of plans for characterizing the radioactive liquid chemical wastes stored in the 149 single-shell tanks. The complete chemical list is compared to the list provided by the regulatory agencies to identify hazardous chemicals stored in the single-shell tanks. A reduced list has been developed by others and is used to identify the chemical constituents for analysis in the Waste Characterization Plan for the Hanford Site Single-Shell Tanks. The chemical list is based on chemical process flowsheets, essential material consumption records, letters, reports, and other historical data. 14 refs., 36 tabs.

  19. Dynamic chemical communication between plants and bacteria through airborne signals: induced resistance by bacterial volatiles.

    PubMed

    Farag, Mohamed A; Zhang, Huiming; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2013-07-01

    Certain plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) elicit induced systemic resistance (ISR) and plant growth promotion in the absence of physical contact with plants via volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. In this article, we review the recent progess made by research into the interactions between PGPR VOCs and plants, focusing on VOC emission by PGPR strains in plants. Particular attention is given to the mechanisms by which these bacterial VOCs elicit ISR. We provide an overview of recent progress in the elucidation of PGPR VOC interactions from studies utilizing transcriptome, metabolome, and proteome analyses. By monitoring defense gene expression patterns, performing 2-dimensional electrophoresis, and studying defense signaling null mutants, salicylic acid and ethylene have been found to be key players in plant signaling pathways involved in the ISR response. Bacterial VOCs also confer induced systemic tolerance to abiotic stresses, such as drought and heavy metals. A review of current analytical approaches for PGPR volatile profiling is also provided with needed future developments emphasized. To assess potential utilization of PGPR VOCs for crop plants, volatile suspensions have been applied to pepper and cucumber roots and found to be effective at protecting plants against plant pathogens and insect pests in the field. Taken together, these studies provide further insight into the biological and ecological potential of PGPR VOCs for enhancing plant self-immunity and/or adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses in modern agriculture.

  20. Geochemistry and stratigraphic correlation of basalt lavas beneath the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, M.F.; Bartholomay, R.C.; Hughes, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    Thirty-nine samples of basaltic core were collected from wells 121 and 123, located approximately 1.8 km apart north and south of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Samples were collected from depths ranging from 15 to 221 m below land surface for the purpose of establishing stratigraphic correlations between these two wells. Elemental analyses indicate that the basalts consist of three principal chemical types. Two of these types are each represented by a single basalt flow in each well. The third chemical type is represented by many basalt flows and includes a broad range of chemical compositions that is distinguished from the other two types. Basalt flows within the third type were identified by hierarchical K-cluster analysis of 14 representative elements: Fe, Ca, K, Na, Sc, Co, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Yb, Hf, Ta, and Th. Cluster analyses indicate correlations of basalt flows between wells 121 and 123 at depths of approximately 38-40 m, 125-128 m, 131-137 m, 149-158 m, and 183-198 m. Probable correlations also are indicated for at least seven other depth intervals. Basalt flows in several depth intervals do not correlate on the basis of chemical compositions, thus reflecting possible flow margins in the sequence between the wells. Multi-element chemical data provide a useful method for determining stratigraphic correlations of basalt in the upper 1-2 km of the eastern Snake River Plain.

  1. The evolution of plant secretory structures and emergence of terpenoid chemical diversity.

    PubMed

    Lange, Bernd Markus

    2015-01-01

    Secretory structures in terrestrial plants appear to have first emerged as intracellular oil bodies in liverworts. In vascular plants, internal secretory structures, such as resin ducts and laticifers, are usually found in conjunction with vascular bundles, whereas subepidermal secretory cavities and epidermal glandular trichomes generally have more complex tissue distribution patterns. The primary function of plant secretory structures is related to defense responses, both constitutive and induced, against herbivores and pathogens. The ability to sequester secondary (or specialized) metabolites and defense proteins in secretory structures was a critical adaptation that shaped plant-herbivore and plant-pathogen interactions. Although this review places particular emphasis on describing the evolution of pathways leading to terpenoids, it also assesses the emergence of other metabolite classes to outline the metabolic capabilities of different plant lineages. PMID:25621517

  2. Sulfonamides identified as plant immune-priming compounds in high-throughput chemical screening increase disease resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Noutoshi, Yoshiteru; Ikeda, Mika; Saito, Tamio; Osada, Hiroyuki; Shirasu, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Plant activators are agrochemicals that protect crops from diseases by activating the plant immune system. To isolate lead compounds for use as practical plant activators, we screened two different chemical libraries composed of various bioactive substances by using an established screening procedure that can selectively identify immune-priming compounds. We identified and characterized a group of sulfonamide compounds – sulfameter, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfabenzamide, and sulfachloropyridazine – among the various isolated candidate molecules. These sulfonamide compounds enhanced the avirulent Pseudomonas-induced cell death of Arabidopsis suspension cell cultures and increased disease resistance in Arabidopsis plants against both avirulent and virulent strains of the bacterium. These compounds did not prevent the growth of pathogenic bacteria in minimal liquid media at 200 μM. They also did not induce the expression of defense-related genes in Arabidopsis seedlings, at least not at 24 and 48 h after treatment, suggesting that they do not act as salicylic acid analogs. In addition, although sulfonamides are known to be folate biosynthesis inhibitors, the application of folate did not restore the potentiation effects of the sulfonamides on pathogen-induced cell death. Our data suggest that sulfonamides potentiate Arabidopsis disease resistance by their novel chemical properties. PMID:23118736

  3. The cost effectiveness of reducing public exposure to carcinogens in Harris County by a abating chemical plant emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Price, J.H. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The work examines the engineering reasonableness and the cost effectiveness of reducing public exposure to carcinogens n ambient air by abating emissions of organic chemicals in waste gas streams from chemical plants in Harris County, Texas, which contains the large chemical manufacturing complex in the Houston ship channel areas. The work also examined the cost effectiveness of reducing public exposure through changing the way vent streams are released to the atmosphere. The achievable exposure reductions are estimated by use of 1980 census data and of ambient concentration estimates. The ambient concentration estimates are calculated using the Texas Climatological Model Version 2 (TCM-2) and publicly available emissions inventory collected by the Texas Air Control Board. The TCM-2 is based on the steady state Gaussian plume hypothesis, Briggs plume rise formations, Pasquill-Gifford dispersion coefficient approximations, and first order pollutant decay. The cost estimates rely on published studies and on the waste gas stream parameters of the chemical plant vents. The cost effectiveness results are compared with the cost effectiveness of controls typically applied to new sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are controlled because of their contribution to ozone air pollution, not because of the carcinogenicity of their emissions.

  4. Secondary metabolites in plant innate immunity: conserved function of divergent chemicals.

    PubMed

    Piasecka, Anna; Jedrzejczak-Rey, Nicolas; Bednarek, Paweł

    2015-05-01

    Plant secondary metabolites carry out numerous functions in interactions between plants and a broad range of other organisms. Experimental evidence strongly supports the indispensable contribution of many constitutive and pathogen-inducible phytochemicals to plant innate immunity. Extensive studies on model plant species, particularly Arabidopsis thaliana, have brought significant advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underpinning pathogen-triggered biosynthesis and activation of defensive secondary metabolites. However, despite the proven significance of secondary metabolites in plant response to pathogenic microorganisms, little is known about the precise mechanisms underlying their contribution to plant immunity. This insufficiency concerns information on the dynamics of cellular and subcellular localization of defensive phytochemicals during the encounters with microbial pathogens and precise knowledge on their mode of action. As many secondary metabolites are characterized by their in vitro antimicrobial activity, these compounds were commonly considered to function in plant defense as in planta antibiotics. Strikingly, recent experimental evidence suggests that at least some of these compounds alternatively may be involved in controlling several immune responses that are evolutionarily conserved in the plant kingdom, including callose deposition and programmed cell death.

  5. The mechanisms and effects off the plant-activations of chemicals in the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plewa, Michael J.

    1993-12-01

    Plants can activate promutagens into stable mutagens and these genotoxic agents may be hazardous to the environment and to the public health. Plant systems have been widely employed in classical and environmental mutagenesis. However, the environmental and human health impact of plants exposed to environmental xenobiotics were not well recognized until the presence of pesticide contaminants in food supplies caused alarm. The capability of plants to bioconcentrate environmental agents and activate promutagens into toxic metabolites is significant when one realizes the immense diversity of xenobiotics to which plants are intentionally and unintentionally exposed. Finally, we all must be attentive to the effects that toxic agents may have on the biosphere and the grave global consequences that would result in a disruption in the carbon cycle.

  6. The First Step in the Final Shutdown of UP1 Plant: Rinsing with Chemical Reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Moulin, J.-P.; Hubert, N.; Huot, M.; Chany, P.; Oriol, C.; Vignau, B.

    2002-02-25

    The COGEMA UP1 reprocessing plant commissioned at Marcoule, France in 1958 handled roughly 20,000 metric tons of fuel from gas-cooled and research reactors. The commercial reprocessing activities of the UP1 plant ended in December 1997. CODEM , a joint venture created by the former users of the UP1 plant, including the utility Electricite de France (EDF), the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and COGEMA, was established to fund and supervise decommissioning of the plant. COGEMA was selected as the industrial operator of the decommissioning project, which is scheduled to span a period of about 40 years. COGEMA, with its CODEM partners, had made the decision to proceed to a ''Final Shutdown'' of the plant within a few years after the end of commercial operation. Final shutdown is intended to remove remaining fissile matter and highly radioactive materials, as well as some equipment, from the plant to ease the plant monitoring requirements compared with those applied when the plant was in operation. A two-step approach has been devised, including first the rinsing of the equipment with selected reagents in order to decrease the radiation exposure rate and contamination risk enough to allow further mechanical decontamination operations, such as high-pressure water scrubbing and equipment cutting. The reagents to be used and the methods employed to optimize their use in terms of quantities and sequence of use were selected by leveraging available experience, and by setting up a large-scale R&D program to test reagents both for general decontamination and for hot spots. This program also included treatment of the decontamination waste to demonstrate that this waste could be made compatible with solidification facilities of the UP1 plant, i. e., vitrification in the AVM facility and bituminization. The R&D results are described, as well as the initial results of plant decontamination.

  7. Occupational Lung Disease Risk and Exposure to Butter-Flavoring Chemicals After Implementation of Controls at a Microwave Popcorn Plant

    PubMed Central

    Kanwal, Richard; Kullman, Greg; Fedan, Kathleen B.; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives After an outbreak of severe lung disease among workers exposed to butter-flavoring chemicals at a microwave popcorn plant, we determined whether or not lung disease risk declined after implementation of exposure controls. Methods National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health staff performed eight serial cross-sectional medical and industrial hygiene surveys at the plant from November 2000 through August 2003. Medical surveys included standardized questionnaires and spirometry testing. Industrial hygiene surveys measured levels of production-related air contaminants, including butter-flavoring chemicals such as diacetyl. All diacetyl concentrations above detectable limits were corrected for the effects of absolute humidity and days to sample extraction. Results Ventilation and isolation of the production process resulted in one to three orders of magnitude reductions in diacetyl air concentrations in different areas of the plant. Workers with past high exposures had stable chest symptoms over time; nasal, eye, and skin irritation symptoms declined. New workers had lower symptom prevalences and higher lung function than workers with past high exposures, and they did not worsen over time. In workers who had at least three spirometry tests, those with past high exposures were more likely to experience rapid declines in lung function than new workers. Conclusions Implemented controls lowered exposures to butter-flavoring chemicals and decreased lung disease risk for much of the plant workforce. Some workers with continuing potential for intermittent, short-term peak and measurable time-weighted exposures remain at risk and should use respiratory protection and have regularly scheduled spirometry to detect rapid lung function declines that may be work-related. Close follow-up of such workers is likely to yield additional information on risks due to peak and time-weighted exposure levels. PMID:21800743

  8. Chemical Composition and Seasonality of Aromatic Mediterranean Plant Species by NMR-Based Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Scognamiglio, Monica; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Esposito, Assunta; Fiorentino, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    An NMR-based metabolomic approach has been applied to analyse seven aromatic Mediterranean plant species used in traditional cuisine. Based on the ethnobotanical use of these plants, the approach has been employed in order to study the metabolic changes during different seasons. Primary and secondary metabolites have been detected and quantified. Flavonoids (apigenin, quercetin, and kaempferol derivatives) and phenylpropanoid derivatives (e.g., chlorogenic and rosmarinic acid) are the main identified polyphenols. The richness in these metabolites could explain the biological properties ascribed to these plant species. PMID:25785229

  9. Use of chemical variation and predation as plant defenses byEncelia farinosa against a specialist herbivore.

    PubMed

    Wisdom, C S

    1985-11-01

    Larvae of the monophagous herbivore,Trirhabda geminata, selectively eat particular plants and plant parts of its natural host,Encelia farinosa. Measurements of leaf damage and larval positions on branches through time support this observation. Time-lapse movie photography revealed that larvae are sufficiently mobile to search most of a plant in a 48-hr period and that aggregations were the result of larval activity and not directly the result of oviposition. Experiments withT. geminata larvae on artificial diets containing a range of natural concentrations of chemical extracts fromE. farinosa leaves showed that the larvae grew significantly slower and had a lower overall survivorship at the high concentration. Combining the results of all choice tests, larvae appeared unable to distinguish between high- and low-concentration agar diets. Considered individually, larval preferences for natural production concentrations changed as the season progressed. Early-season larvae preferred low-concentration leaves, while late-season larvae preferred high-concentrations. Measurements of chemical and nitrogen content of leaves selected by larvae in the field confirmed this pattern. Percent parasitism in field-collected larvae increased with season as the larval population decreased. This combination of slowed growth and increasing parasitism and predation is a putative defense strategy ofEncelia farinosa to prevent adaptation by a specialist herbivore to the total range of compounds elaborated.

  10. Effect of storage on the chemical composition and biological activity of several popular South African medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Stafford, G I; Jäger, A K; van Staden, J

    2005-02-10

    The in vitro biological activity of nine frequently used medicinal plants in South Africa was assessed and re-assessed after various lengths of storage. The plants investigated were Alepidea amatymbica, Leonotis leonurus, Drimia robusta, Vernonia colorata, Merwilla natalensis, Eucomis autumnalis, Bowiea volubilis, Helichrysum cymosum and Siphonochilus aethiopicus. Water, ethanol and hexane extracts of fresh, 90-day-old and 1-year-old material were assayed for antibacterial activity against four strains of bacteria and for COX-1 inhibition activity. TLC-fingerprints of the fresh and stored extracts were produce to document chemical changes. Alepidea amatymbica, Eucomis autumnalis, Helichrysum cymosum, Leonotis leonurus, Siphonochilus aethiopicus and Vernonia colorata were investigated further as to the effect of 1 year's storage. Elevated temperature and humidity (55 degrees C and 100% relative humidity) were used to accelerate the ageing process of Alepidea amatymbica, Leonotis leonurus and Vernonia colorata plant material for further investigation. The TLC-fingerprints indicated that there was chemical breakdown during storage in certain species. The degree of changes in biological activity and chemistry due to storage were species-specific. In general, antibacterial activity was retained in most species while COX-1 inhibition activity was lost rapidly. PMID:15652284

  11. Chemical composition and bioethanol potential of different plant species found in Pacific Northwest conservation buffers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lands producing mixed lignocellulosic ethanol feedstocks may be able to produce more biomass with fewer resources than conventional monoculture crops, but lignocellulosic ethanol production processes and efficiencies can be highly dependent on feedstock composition. In this study, plants were collec...

  12. Assessment of chemical element migration in soil-plant complex of Urov endemic localities of East Transbaikalia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadim V., Ermakov; Valentina, Danilova; Sabsbakhor, Khushvakhtova; Aklexander, Degtyarev; Sergey, Tyutikov; Victor, Berezkin; Elena, Karpova

    2014-05-01

    The comparative evaluation of the levels of biologically active chemical elements and their migration in the soil-plant complex of two Urov endemic locations in East Transbaikalia (Zolinsky and Uryumkansky) and background areas (Western Baikal region and the western area of the Trans-Baikal region) was conducted. The predominant soil-forming rocks in East Transbaikalia are weathering products of Proterozoic carbonated granitoids PR2. The surface rocks consist from granite, granodiorite, diorite quartz diorite, gabbro, norite, gabbro-norite and other. Soils - mountain and cryogenic meadow forests, mountain permafrost taiga podzolised, meadow alluvial, peaty meadow [2]. The paludification of narrow valleys and thermokarst phenomena are typical in Urov endemic localities. It reflects on the spotted of soil and differentiation of chemical composition of soils and plants. Most of the chemical elements in soils were determined by means of X-ray fluorescence, and trace elements in soils and plants - by atomic absorption spectrometry. The selenium content was measured by spectrofluorimetric method [3]. The research processed by methods of variation statistics. It was found that the soils of two locations of the Urov subregion of the biosphere were more enriched with iron, barium, calcium, uranium, thorium, phosphorus, and to a lesser extent strontium compared to background soils. The ratio of Ca: P was significantly higher in the soil of background areas, and Ca: Sr, on the contrary, in endemic soils. In assessing the migration of trace elements in soil-plant complex by means of the total content of trace elements and biological absorption coefficient found a marked accumulation by plants manganese, chromium, arsenic and weak plants accumulation of cobalt and nickel. Soil landscape is not much different in content of selenium, but its migration in plants was reduced in places of spread of Urov disease [1]. The concentrators of cadmium (leaves of different species of willow

  13. Electrical and chemical signals involved in short-term systemic photosynthetic responses of tobacco plants to local burning.

    PubMed

    Hlavácková, Vladimíra; Krchnák, Pavel; Naus, Jan; Novák, Ondrej; Spundová, Martina; Strnad, Miroslav

    2006-12-01

    Short-term (up to 1 h) systemic responses of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun) plants to local burning of an upper leaf were studied by measuring the following variables in a distant leaf: extracellular electrical potentials (EEPs); gas exchange parameters; fast chlorophyll fluorescence induction; and endogenous concentrations of three putative chemical signaling compounds-abscisic (ABA), jasmonic (JA), and salicylic (SA) acids. The first detected response to local burning in the distant leaves was in EEP, which started to decline within 10-20 s of the beginning of the treatment, fell sharply for ca. 1-3 min, and then tended to recover within the following hour. The measured gasometric parameters (stomatal conductance and the rates of transpiration and CO(2) assimilation) started to decrease 5-7 min after local burning, suggesting that the electrical signals may induce stomatal closure. These changes were accompanied by systemic increases in the endogenous ABA concentration followed by huge systemic rises in endogenous JA levels started after ca. 15 min, providing the first evidence of short-term systemic accumulation of these plant hormones in responses to local burning. Furthermore, JA appears to have an inhibitory effect on CO(2) assimilation. The correlations between the kinetics of the systemic EEP, stomatal, photosynthetic, ABA, and JA responses suggest that (1) electrical signals (probably induced by a propagating hydraulic signal) may trigger chemical defense-related signaling pathways in tobacco plants; (2) both electrical and chemical signals are interactively involved in the induction of short-term systemic stomatal closure and subsequent reductions in the rate of transpiration and CO(2) assimilation after local burning events.

  14. New auxin analogs with growth-promoting effects in intact plants reveal a chemical strategy to improve hormone delivery

    PubMed Central

    Savaldi-Goldstein, Sigal; Baiga, Thomas J.; Pojer, Florence; Dabi, Tsegeye; Butterfield, Cristina; Parry, Geraint; Santner, Aaron; Dharmasiri, Nihal; Tao, Yi; Estelle, Mark; Noel, Joseph P.; Chory, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    Plant growth depends on the integration of environmental cues and phytohormone-signaling pathways. During seedling emergence, elongation of the embryonic stem (hypocotyl) serves as a readout for light and hormone-dependent responses. We screened 10,000 chemicals provided exogenously to light-grown seedlings and identified 100 compounds that promote hypocotyl elongation. Notably, one subset of these chemicals shares structural characteristics with the synthetic auxins, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (1-NAA); however, traditional auxins (e.g., indole-3-acetic acid [IAA], 2,4-D, 1-NAA) have no effect on hypocotyl elongation. We show that the new compounds act as “proauxins” akin to prodrugs. Our data suggest that these compounds diffuse efficiently to the hypocotyls, where they undergo cleavage at varying rates, releasing functional auxins. To investigate this principle, we applied a masking strategy and designed a pro-2,4-D. Unlike 2,4-D alone, this pro-2,4-D enhanced hypocotyl elongation. We further demonstrated the utility of the proauxins by characterizing auxin responses in light-grown hypocotyls of several auxin receptor mutants. These new compounds thus provide experimental access to a tissue previously inaccessible to exogenous application of auxins. Our studies exemplify the combined power of chemical genetics and biochemical analyses for discovering and refining prohormone analogs with selective activity in specific plant tissues. In addition to the utility of these compounds for addressing questions related to auxin and light-signaling interactions, one can envision using these simple principles to study other plant hormone and small molecule responses in temporally and spatially controlled ways. PMID:18818305

  15. Chemical form of technetium in corn (Zea mays) and the gastrointestinal absorption of plant-incorporated Tc by laboratory rats

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Myttenaere, C.; Vandecasteele, C.M.; Kirchmann, R.; Van Bruwaene, R.

    1984-01-01

    The food chain availability of technetium incorporated into plant tissue, its chemical form in corn leaves, and the potential for gastrointestinal absorption of plant-incorporated technetium was investigated. Technetium-95m was incorporated into corn leaves via root uptake. Chemical fractionation of the /sup 95m/Tc in leaves showed that 60% was extractable with boiling ethanol and weak mineral acids. The remainder was associated with cell walls and was extractable by harsh chemical treatment. Gel permeation chromatography of the cytosol, indicated that 50% of the /sup 95m/Tc co-chromatographed with anionic pertechnetate; however, it was impossible to distinguish if this pure pertechnetate or technetium complexed with organic molecules. Technetium-95m was administered to laboratory rats in a single dose as: (1) intravenous injection of pertechnetate, (2) pertechnetate mixed with standard laboratory food, and (3) a meal containing /sup 95m/Tc biologically incorporated into corn leaves. High concentrations of /sup 95m/Tc were found in the thyroids, hair, kidneys, and liver of rats. Technetium rapidly disappeared from the liver, kidneys, and other tissues, but remained in the thyroids and hair. Urinary excretion of technetium decreased, and fecal excretion increased when technetium was fed to rats as a /sup 95m/Tc incorporated into corn leaves. The percent of the administered dose absorbed into thyroid gland and the kidneys was less when technetium was biologically incorporated into corn leaves than when pertechnetate was mixed with food. Biological incorporation of technetium into plants appears to reduce its potential for food chain transfer by decreasing its availability for gastrointestinal absorption. 5 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Localization and chemical forms of cadmium in plant samples by combining analytical electron microscopy and X-ray spectromicroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Fayard, Barbara; Sarret, Géraldine; Pairis, Sébastien; Bourguignon, Jacques

    2006-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a metal of high toxicity for plants. Resolving its distribution and speciation in plants is essential for understanding the mechanisms involved in Cd tolerance, trafficking and accumulation. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana was exposed to cadmium under controlled conditions. Elemental distributions in the roots and in the leaves were determined using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EDX), and synchrotron-based micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF), which offers a better sensitivity. The chemical form(s) of cadmium was investigated using Cd L III-edge (3538 eV) micro X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES) spectroscopy. Plant μ-XANES spectra were fitted by linear combination of Cd reference spectra. Biological sample preparation and conditioning is a critical point because of possible artifacts. In this work we compared freeze-dried samples analyzed at ambient temperature and frozen hydrated samples analyzed at -170 °C. Our results suggest that in the roots Cd is localized in vascular bundles, and coordinated to S ligands. In the leaves, trichomes (epidermal hairs) represent the main compartment of Cd accumulation. In these specialized cells, μ-XANES results show that the majority of Cd is bound to O/N ligands likely provided by the cell wall, and a minor fraction could be bound to S-containing ligands. No significant difference in Cd speciation was observed between freeze-dried and frozen hydrated samples. This work illustrates the interest and the sensitivity of Cd L III-edge XANES spectroscopy, which is applied here for the first time to plant samples. Combining μ-XRF and Cd L III-edge μ-XANES spectroscopy offers promising tools to study Cd storage and trafficking mechanisms in plants and other biological samples.

  17. Medicinal Plants Recommended by the World Health Organization: DNA Barcode Identification Associated with Chemical Analyses Guarantees Their Quality

    PubMed Central

    Palhares, Rafael Melo; Gonçalves Drummond, Marcela; dos Santos Alves Figueiredo Brasil, Bruno; Pereira Cosenza, Gustavo; das Graças Lins Brandão, Maria; Oliveira, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used throughout the world, and the regulations defining their proper use, such as identification of the correct species and verification of the presence, purity and concentration of the required chemical compounds, are widely recognized. Herbal medicines are made from vegetal drugs, the processed products of medicinal species. These processed materials present a number of challenges in terms of botanical identification, and according to the World Health Organization (WHO), the use of incorrect species is a threat to consumer safety. The samples used in this study consisted of the dried leaves, flowers and roots of 257 samples from 8 distinct species approved by the WHO for the production of medicinal herbs and sold in Brazilian markets. Identification of the samples in this study using DNA barcoding (matK, rbcL and ITS2 regions) revealed that the level of substitutions may be as high as 71%. Using qualitative and quantitative chemical analyses, this study identified situations in which the correct species was being sold, but the chemical compounds were not present. Even more troubling, some samples identified as substitutions using DNA barcoding contained the chemical compounds from the correct species at the minimum required concentration. This last situation may lead to the use of unknown species or species whose safety for human consumption remains unknown. This study concludes that DNA barcoding should be used in a complementary manner for species identification with chemical analyses to detect and quantify the required chemical compounds, thus improving the quality of this class of medicines. PMID:25978064

  18. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria allow reduced application rates of chemical fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Adesemoye, A O; Torbert, H A; Kloepper, J W

    2009-11-01

    The search for microorganisms that improve soil fertility and enhance plant nutrition has continued to attract attention due to the increasing cost of fertilizers and some of their negative environmental impacts. The objectives of this greenhouse study with tomato were to determine (1) if reduced rates of inorganic fertilizer coupled with microbial inoculants will produce plant growth, yield, and nutrient uptake levels equivalent to those with full rates of the fertilizer and (2) the minimum level to which fertilizer could be reduced when inoculants were used. The microbial inoculants used in the study were a mixture of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains Bacillus amyloliquefaciens IN937a and Bacillus pumilus T4, a formulated PGPR product, and the arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus (AMF), Glomus intraradices. Results showed that supplementing 75% of the recommended fertilizer rate with inoculants produced plant growth, yield, and nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) uptake that were statistically equivalent to the full fertilizer rate without inoculants. When inoculants were used with rates of fertilizer below 75% of the recommended rate, the beneficial effects were usually not consistent; however, inoculation with the mixture of PGPR and AMF at 70% fertility consistently produced the same yield as the full fertility rate without inoculants. Without inoculants, use of fertilizer rates lower than the recommended resulted in significantly less plant growth, yield, and nutrient uptake or inconsistent impacts. The results suggest that PGPR-based inoculants can be used and should be further evaluated as components of integrated nutrient management strategies. PMID:19466478

  19. Manufacture of gasification briquettes from meager-lean coal for use in chemical fertilizer-plant gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Zesheng; Yang Qiaowen; Zhao Yinrong; Wang Xingou; Hu Kunmo; Wang Shiquan; Tao Xilo; Wang Guangnan; Meng Zhongze

    1998-12-31

    Chinese fertilizer plants, especially middle or small fertilizer plants, feed lump anthracite to atmospheric fixed bed gasifiers to produce fuel gas and syngas. However, the available lump coal meets less than one half the demand for fertilizer production, and the price of good lump anthracite has risen. Most good anthracite is produced in Shanxi Province. Chemical fertilizer plants in other areas pay high transportation costs and leave Shanxi mines with waste fine coal and slime that cause environmental pollution. So, it is important to fully utilize fine anthracite coal or bituminous coal to produce the industrial gasification briquettes. That may mitigate the disparity between supply and demand of lump coal, reduce the fertilizer production cost, and decrease the degree of environmental pollution. The briquettes don`t require heat-drying in their production and have the characteristics of high strength and water resistance. This technology is very important for local fertilizer plants where only meager-lean coal is produced. This paper discusses the processing technique and parameters, the quality standards and testing methods of briquettes made from meager-lean coal.

  20. Physical and chemical characteristics of fluorinel/sodium calcine generated during 30 cm Pilot-Plant Run 17

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, K.N.; Kessinger, G.F.; Littleton, L.L.; Olson, A.L.

    1993-07-01

    The 30 centimeter (cm) pilot plant calciner Run 17, of March 9, 1987, was performed to study the calcination of fluroinel-sodium blended waste blended at the ratio 3.5:1 fluorinel to sodium, respectively. The product of the run was analyzed by a variety of analytical techniques that included X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to deduce physical and chemical characteristics. The analytical data, as well as data analyses and conclusions drawn from the data, are presented.

  1. Geochemistry and migration of contaminants at the Weldon Spring chemical plant site, St. Charles County, Missouri, 1989--91

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, J.G.

    1993-12-31

    Investigations were conducted by the US Geological Survey in cooperation with the US Department of Energy at the Weldon Spring chemical plant site to determine the geochemistry of the shallow aquifer and geochemical controls on the migration of uranium and other constituents from the raffinate (waste) pits. Water-quality analyses from monitoring wells at the site and vicinity property indicate that water in the shallow aquifer is a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type that is at equilibrium with respect to calcite and slightly supersaturated with respect to dolomite.

  2. Effects of a chemical weapons incineration plant on red-tailed tropicbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreiber, E.A.; Doherty, P.F.; Schenk, G.A.

    2001-01-01

    From 1990 to 2000, the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS) incinerated part of the U.S. stockpile of chemical weapons on Johnston Atoll, central Pacific Ocean, which also is a National Wildlife Refuge and home to approximately a half-million breeding seabirds. The effect on wildlife of incineration of these weapons is unknown. Using a multi-strata mark-recapture analysis, we investigated the effects of JACADS on reproductive success, survival, and movement probabilities of red-tailed tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda) nesting both downwind and upwind of the incineration site. We found no effect of chemical incineration on these tropicbird demographic parameters over the 8 years of our study. An additional 3 years of monitoring tropicbird demography will take place, post-incineration.

  3. CASE STUDY. MERCURY POLLUTION NEAR A CHEMICAL PLANT IN NORTHERN KAZAKHSTAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    In northern Kazakhstan, there is a serious case of mercury pollution near Pavlodar City from an old mercury cell chlor-alkali plant. The soil, sediment, and water are contaminated with more than a thousand tons of mercury and mercury compounds as a result of the operation of the ...

  4. Experiments on rehabilitation of radioactive metallic waste (RMW) of reactor stainless steels of Siberian chemical plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolpakov, G. N.; Zakusilov, V. V.; Demyanenko, N. V.; Mishin, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    Stainless steel pipes, used to cool a reactor plant, have a high cost, and after taking a reactor out of service they must be buried together with other radioactive waste. Therefore, the relevant problem is the rinse of pipes from contamination, followed by returning to operation.

  5. Legal considerations involving chemical control of iron and other deficiencies in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A; Samman, Y. S.

    1981-01-01

    Four cases of lawsuits involving use of chelating agents in plant nutrition are discussed. Three of them involved use of iron. One concerned addition of FeDTPA to nursery trees in containers. One case involved foliar application of FeHEDTA to potatoes in July by airplane. Another case not involving iron chelate was with ZnEDTA and MnEDTA with Fe as FeSO/sub 4/ later as a foliar spray. The Zn and MnEDTA were applied as a band 8 inches (20 cm) on both sides of nursery tree rows just as the buds that had been placed in the fall began growing in the spring. In the fourth case, many tomato transplants died when the transplanting was done with about 120 ml per plant of transplant solution containing besides N, P and K, about 19 mg Zn as ZnEDTA, 14 mg Mn as MnEDTA and 7 mg Fe as FeHEDTA. Cases such as these will probably discourage use of chelating agents in plant nutrition even if the chelating agents were not the damaging agent. Not enough developmental work was done on the potential toxicities from metal chelates. This trend to lawsuits makes it even more important to solve iron chlorosis problems via plant breeding.

  6. Physical and chemical characterization of residual oil-fired power plant emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although the toxicity of oil combustion emissions is a significant public health concern, few studies characterize the emissions from plant-scale utility boilers firing residual oil. This study remedies that deficiency by sampling and monitoring stack emissions from a 432 Giga Jo...

  7. Application of Chemicals In-Season to Augment Pre-plant Fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybrid calla lily (Zantedeschia spp.) is grown on the central coast of California for cut flowers for the wholesale flower market and rhizomes for propagators of potted flowering plants. The crop is direct-seeded in the spring and the rhizomes are harvested after approximately 18 months. The crop ...

  8. Reducing Steam Pressure Saves $42,000 Annually at Vulcan Chemicals (VMC Geismar Plant)

    SciTech Connect

    2000-02-01

    As part of their Operational Excellence Program, Vulcan Chemicals, a business group of the Vulcan Materials Company, implemented a process optimization project involving two chloromethane production units. This four-month project required no capital investment and resulted in a reduction in process steam demand and significant cost savings.

  9. Differential Activation of TRP Channels in the Adult Rat Spinal Substantia Gelatinosa by Stereoisomers of Plant-Derived Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Kumamoto, Eiichi; Fujita, Tsugumi

    2016-01-01

    Activation of TRPV1, TRPA1 or TRPM8 channel expressed in the central terminal of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron increases the spontaneous release of l-glutamate onto spinal dorsal horn lamina II (substantia gelatinosa; SG) neurons which play a pivotal role in regulating nociceptive transmission. The TRP channels are activated by various plant-derived chemicals. Although stereoisomers activate or modulate ion channels in a distinct manner, this phenomenon is not fully addressed for TRP channels. By applying the whole-cell patch-clamp technique to SG neurons of adult rat spinal cord slices, we found out that all of plant-derived chemicals, carvacrol, thymol, carvone and cineole, increase the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current, a measure of the spontaneous release of l-glutamate from nerve terminals, by activating TRP channels. The presynaptic activities were different between stereoisomers (carvacrol and thymol; (−)-carvone and (+)-carvone; 1,8-cineole and 1,4-cineole) in the extent or the types of TRP channels activated, indicating that TRP channels in the SG are activated by stereoisomers in a distinct manner. This result could serve to know the properties of the central terminal TRP channels that are targets of drugs for alleviating pain. PMID:27483289

  10. Characterization and assessment of contaminated soil and groundwater at an organic chemical plant site in Chongqing, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Geng; Niu, Junjie; Zhang, Chao; Guo, Guanlin

    2016-04-01

    Contamination from organic chemical plants can cause serious pollution of soil and groundwater ecosystems. To characterize soil contamination and to evaluate the health risk posed by groundwater at a typical organic chemical plant site in Chongqing, China, 91 soil samples and seven groundwater samples were collected. The concentrations of different contaminants and their three-dimensional distribution were determined based on the 3D-krige method. Groundwater chemistry risk index (Chem RI) and cancer risk were calculated based on TRIAD and RBCA models. The chemistry risk indices of groundwater points SW5, SW18, SW22, SW39, SW52, SW80, and SW82 were 0.4209, 0.9972, 0.9324, 0.9990, 0.9991, 1.0000, and 1.0000, respectively, indicating that the groundwater has poor environmental status. By contrast, the reference Yangtse River water sample showed no pollution with a Chem RI of 0.1301. Benzene and 1,2-dichloroethane were the main contaminants in the groundwater and were responsible for the elevated cancer risk. The cumulative health risk of groundwater points (except SW5 and SW18) were all higher than the acceptable baselines of 10(-6), which indicates that the groundwater poses high cancer risk. Action is urgently required to control and remediate the risk for human health and groundwater ecosystems.

  11. Gelechiidae Moths Are Capable of Chemically Dissolving the Pollen of Their Host Plants: First Documented Sporopollenin Breakdown by an Animal

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shixiao; Li, Yongquan; Chen, Shi; Zhang, Dianxiang; Renner, Susanne S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Many insects feed on pollen surface lipids and contents accessible through the germination pores. Pollen walls, however, are not broken down because they consist of sporopollenin and are highly resistant to physical and enzymatic damage. Here we report that certain Microlepidoptera chemically dissolve pollen grains with exudates from their mouthparts. Methodology/Principal Findings Field observations and experiments in tropical China revealed that two species of Deltophora (Gelechioidea) are the exclusive pollinators of two species of Phyllanthus (Phyllanthaceae) on which their larvae develop and from which the adults take pollen and nectar. DNA sequences placed the moths and plants phylogenetically and confirmed that larvae were those of the pollinating moths; molecular clock dating suggests that the moth clade is younger than the plant clade. Captive moths with pollen on their mouthparts after 2-3 days of starvation no longer carried intact grains, and SEM photographs showed exine fragments on their proboscises. GC-MS revealed cis-β-ocimene as the dominant volatile in leaves and flowers, but GC-MS analyses of proboscis extracts failed to reveal an obvious sporopollenin-dissolving compound. A candidate is ethanolamine, which occurs in insect hemolymphs and is used to dissolve sporopollenin by palynologists. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report of any insect and indeed any animal chemically dissolving pollen. PMID:21552530

  12. Implementation of chemical controls through a backfill system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Bynum, R.V.; Stockman, C.; Wang, Yifeng; Peterson, A.; Krumhansl, J.; Nowak, J.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Cotton, J.; Patchet, S.J.

    1997-06-01

    A backfill system has been designed for the WIPP which will control the chemical environment of the post-closure repository to a domain where the actinide solubility is within its lowest region. The actinide solubility is highly dependent on the chemical species which constitute the fluid, the resulting pH of the fluid, and oxidation state of the actinide which is stable under the specific conditions. The implementation of magnesium oxide (MgO) as the backfill material not only controls the pH of the expected fluids but also effectively removes the carbonate from the system, which has a significant impact for actinide solubility. The selection process, emplacement system, design, and confirmatory experimental results are presented.

  13. Plant chemical defense against herbivores and pathogens: generalized defense or trade-offs?

    PubMed

    Biere, Arjen; Marak, Hamida B; van Damme, Jos M M

    2004-08-01

    Plants are often attacked by multiple enemies, including pathogens and herbivores. While many plant secondary metabolites show specific effects toward either pathogens or herbivores, some can affect the performance of both these groups of natural enemies and are considered to be "generalized defense compounds". We tested whether aucubin and catalpol, two iridoid glycosides present in ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata), confer in vivo resistance to both the generalist insect herbivore Spodoptera exigua and the biotrophic fungal pathogen Diaporthe adunca using plants from P. lanceolata lines that had been selected for high- and low-leaf iridoid glycoside concentrations for four generations. The lines differed approximately three-fold in the levels of these compounds. Plants from the high-selection line showed enhanced resistance to both S. exigua and D. adunca, as evidenced by a smaller lesion size and a lower fungal growth rate and spore production, and a lower larval growth rate and herbivory under both choice and no-choice conditions. Gravimetric analysis revealed that the iridoid glycosides acted as feeding deterrents to S. exigua, thereby reducing its food intake rate, rather than having post-ingestive toxic effects as predicted from in vitro effects of hydrolysis products. We suggest that the bitter taste of iridoid glycosides deters feeding by S. exigua, whereas the hydrolysis products formed after tissue damage following fungal infection mediate pathogen resistance. We conclude that iridoid glycosides in P. lanceolata can serve as broad-spectrum defenses and that selection for pathogen resistance could potentially result in increased resistance to generalist insect herbivores and vice versa, resulting in diffuse rather than pairwise coevolution. PMID:15146326

  14. Occupational exposure to solid chemical agents in biomass-fired power plants and associated health effects.

    PubMed

    Jumpponen, M; Rönkkömäki, H; Pasanen, P; Laitinen, J

    2014-06-01

    Occupational exposure to aluminium, arsenic, lead, cadmium, and manganese can increase the risk of numerous neurophysiological changes in workers, and may lead to conditions resembling Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. However, although the health hazard aspect of these agents has been examined, biomass-fired power plant workers' exposure to them remains a neglected issue. The purpose of this study was to measure maintenance and ash removal workers' multiple exposures to inhalable dust, metals, and crystalline silica during their work tasks in biomass-fired power plants. Maintenance and ash removal workers were exposed to high inhalable dust concentrations inside biomass-fired boilers. The median air inhalable dust concentration in workers' breathing zones were 33 mg m(-3) and 120 mg m(-3) in ash removal and maintenance tasks, respectively. The median concentration of manganese (0.31 mg m(-3)) exceeded the occupational exposure limit in worker's breathing zone samples in maintenance tasks. The most evident exposure-associated health risk from multiple exposures to metals was that of cancer, followed by central nervous system disorders, lower respiratory tract irritation, and finally upper respiratory tract irritation. To avoid the above mentioned health effects, powered air respirators with ABEK+P3 cartridges and carbon monoxide gas detectors are recommended as the minimum requirement for these work tasks. A compressed air breathing apparatus is the best form of protection for the most demanding work phases inside boilers in biomass-fired power plants.

  15. Chemical characteristics of organic aerosols in Algiers city area: influence of a fat manufacture plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yassaa, Noureddine; Meklati, Brahim Youcef; Cecinato, Angelo

    Total concentrations and homologue distributions of organic fraction constituents have been determined in particulate matter emitted from different units of a fat manufacturer (i.e. oils refining and conditioning plants, and production and conditioning units of a soap industry) located in Algiers area, as well as in atmospheric aerosols. In particular n-alkanes, n-alkanoic and n-alkenoic acids, n-alkan-2-ones and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were investigated. Organic aerosol contents varied broadly among the plant units, depending upon nature of the manufactured products. The percent composition of all classes of compounds investigated in ambient atmosphere was similar to those observed indoor at industrial plant units. Organic acids, n-alkanoic as well as n-alkenoic, appeared by far the most abundant organic constituents of aerosols, both indoor and outdoor, ranging from 7.7 to 19.8 and from 12.7 to 17.1 μg m -3, respectively. The huge occurrence of acids and n-alkanes in ambient aerosols was consistent with their high levels present in oil and fat materials. Among minor components of aerosols, n-alkan-2-ones and PAH, seemed to be related to thermally induced ageing and direct combustion of raw organic material used for oil and soap production.

  16. Historic American Engineering Record, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Stacy; Julie Braun

    2006-12-01

    Just as automobiles need fuel to operate, so do nuclear reactors. When fossil fuels such as gasoline are burned to power an automobile, they are consumed immediately and nearly completely in the process. When the fuel is gone, energy production stops. Nuclear reactors are incapable of achieving this near complete burn-up because as the fuel (uranium) that powers them is burned through the process of nuclear fission, a variety of other elements are also created and become intimately associated with the uranium. Because they absorb neutrons, which energize the fission process, these accumulating fission products eventually poison the fuel by stopping the production of energy from it. The fission products may also damage the structural integrity of the fuel elements. Even though the uranium fuel is still present, sometimes in significant quantities, it is unburnable and will not power a reactor unless it is separated from the neutron-absorbing fission products by a method called fuel reprocessing. Construction of the Fuel Reprocessing Complex at the Chem Plant started in 1950 with the Bechtel Corporation serving as construction contractor and American Cyanamid Company as operating contractor. Although the Foster Wheeler Corporation assumed responsibility for the detailed working design of the overall plant, scientists at Oak Ridge designed all of the equipment that would be employed in the uranium separations process. After three years of construction activity and extensive testing, the plant was ready to handle its first load of irradiated fuel.

  17. The environmental behavior and chemical fate of energetic compounds (TNT, RDX, tetryl) in soil and plant systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cataldo, D.A.; Harvey, S.D.; Fellows, R.J.

    1993-06-01

    Munitions materials can accumulate or cycle in terrestrial environs at production and manufacturing facilities and thus pose potential heath and environmental concerns. To address questions related to food chain accumulation, the environmental behavior of energetic compounds (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene,TNT; hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, RDX; 2,4,6-trinitrophenylmethylnitramine, tetryl) was evaluated. Emphasis was placed on determining the potential for soil/plant transfer of munitions residues, translocation and distribution within the plant, the extent to which compounds were metabolized following accumulation, and the chemical nature and form of accumulated residues. Both TNT and tetryl undergo extensive chemical transformation in soil, forming aminodinitrotoluene isomers and N-methyl-2,4,6-trinitroaniline residues, respectively, along with a series of unknowns. After 60 days, only 30% of the amended TNT and 8% of the amended tetryl remained unchanged in the soil. In contrast, 78% of the soil-amended RDX remained unchanged after 60 days. After 60 days, plants grown in soils containing 10 ppm residues contained from 5 {mu}g TNT/g to 600 {mu}g RDX/G fresh wt. tissue. TNT and tetryl residues were primarily accumulated in roots (75%), while RDX was concentrated in leaves and seed. The principal transport form for TNT (root to shoot) was an acid labile conjugate of aminodinitrotoluene; RDX was transported unchanged. On accumulation in roots and leaves, highly polar and non-extractable TNT metabolites dominated, with the aminodinitrotoluene isomers accounting for less than 20% of the residues present. Only a few percent were present as the parent TNT. RDX was partitioned similarly to TNT, with 8 to 30% of the RDX appearing as polar metabolites, 20--50% as parent RDX, and the balance as non-extractable residues. Tetryl was metabolized to N-methyl-2,4,6-trinitroaniline and a variety of polar metabolites.

  18. [Effects of Different Modifier Concentrations on Lead-Zinc Tolerance, Subcellular Distribution and Chemical Forms for Four Kinds of Woody Plants].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-hua; Zhang, Fu-yun; Wu, Xiao-fu; Liang, Xi; Yuan, Si-wen

    2015-10-01

    Four kinds of lead-zinc tolerant woody plants: Nerium oleander, Koelreuteria paniculata, Paulownia and Boehmeria were used as materials to estimate their enrichment and transferable capacity of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) and analyze the subcellular distribution and chemical speciation of Zn and Ph in different parts of plants, under different modifier concentrations (CK group: 100% lead-zinc slag plus a small amount of phosphate fertilizer, improved one: 85% of lead-zinc slag ± 10% peat ± 5% bacterial manure plus a small amount of phosphate fertilizer, improved two: 75% lead-zinc slag ± 20% peat ± 5% bacterial manure ± a small amount of phosphate). Results showed that: (1) The content of Pb, Zn in matrix after planting four kinds of plants was lower than before, no significant difference between improved one and improved two of Nerium oleander and Boehmeria was found, but improved two was better than improved one of Paulownia, while improved one was better than improved two of Koelreuteria paniculata; Four plants had relatively low aboveground enrichment coefficient of Pb and Zn, but had a high transfer coefficient, showed that the appropriate modifier concentration was able to improve the Pb and Zn enrichment and transfer ability of plants. (2) In subcellular distribution, most of Pb and Zn were distributed in plant cell wall components and soluble components while the distribution in cell organelles such as mitochondria, chloroplasts and nucleus component were less. Compared with CK group, two improved group made soluble components of the cell walls of Pb fixation and retention of zinc role in the enhancement. (3) As for the chemical forms of Pb and Zn in plants, the main chemical forms of Pb were hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride and ethanol extractable forms, while other chemical form contents were few, the main chemical forms of Zn were different based on plant type. Compared with CK group, the proportion of the active Pb chemical form in different plant

  19. [Effects of Different Modifier Concentrations on Lead-Zinc Tolerance, Subcellular Distribution and Chemical Forms for Four Kinds of Woody Plants].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-hua; Zhang, Fu-yun; Wu, Xiao-fu; Liang, Xi; Yuan, Si-wen

    2015-10-01

    Four kinds of lead-zinc tolerant woody plants: Nerium oleander, Koelreuteria paniculata, Paulownia and Boehmeria were used as materials to estimate their enrichment and transferable capacity of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) and analyze the subcellular distribution and chemical speciation of Zn and Ph in different parts of plants, under different modifier concentrations (CK group: 100% lead-zinc slag plus a small amount of phosphate fertilizer, improved one: 85% of lead-zinc slag ± 10% peat ± 5% bacterial manure plus a small amount of phosphate fertilizer, improved two: 75% lead-zinc slag ± 20% peat ± 5% bacterial manure ± a small amount of phosphate). Results showed that: (1) The content of Pb, Zn in matrix after planting four kinds of plants was lower than before, no significant difference between improved one and improved two of Nerium oleander and Boehmeria was found, but improved two was better than improved one of Paulownia, while improved one was better than improved two of Koelreuteria paniculata; Four plants had relatively low aboveground enrichment coefficient of Pb and Zn, but had a high transfer coefficient, showed that the appropriate modifier concentration was able to improve the Pb and Zn enrichment and transfer ability of plants. (2) In subcellular distribution, most of Pb and Zn were distributed in plant cell wall components and soluble components while the distribution in cell organelles such as mitochondria, chloroplasts and nucleus component were less. Compared with CK group, two improved group made soluble components of the cell walls of Pb fixation and retention of zinc role in the enhancement. (3) As for the chemical forms of Pb and Zn in plants, the main chemical forms of Pb were hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride and ethanol extractable forms, while other chemical form contents were few, the main chemical forms of Zn were different based on plant type. Compared with CK group, the proportion of the active Pb chemical form in different plant

  20. Laboratory and field evaluations of chemical and plant-derived potential repellents against Culicoides biting midges in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    González, M; Venter, G J; López, S; Iturrondobeitia, J C; Goldarazena, A

    2014-12-01

    The efficacy of 23 compounds in repelling Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), particularly Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen) females, was determined by means of a Y-tube olfactometer. The 10 most effective compounds were further evaluated in landing bioassays. The six most promising compounds (including chemical and plant-derived repellents) were evaluated at 10% and 25% concentrations in field assays using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps. At least three compounds showed promising results against Culicoides biting midges with the methodologies used. Whereas olfactometer assays indicated DEET at 1 µg/µL to be the most effective repellent, filter paper landing bioassays showed plant-derived oils to be better. Light traps fitted with polyester mesh impregnated with a mixture of octanoic, decanoic and nonanoic fatty acids at 10% and 25% concentrations collected 2.2 and 3.6 times fewer midges than control traps and were as effective as DEET, which is presently considered the reference standard insect repellent. The best plant-derived product was lemon eucalyptus oil. Although these have been reported as safe potential repellents, the present results indicate DEET and the mixture of organic fatty acids to be superior and longer lasting. PMID:25079042

  1. A worldwide analysis of within-canopy variations in leaf structural, chemical and physiological traits across plant functional types.

    PubMed

    Niinemets, Ülo; Keenan, Trevor F; Hallik, Lea

    2015-02-01

    Extensive within-canopy light gradients importantly affect the photosynthetic productivity of leaves in different canopy positions and lead to light-dependent increases in foliage photosynthetic capacity per area (AA). However, the controls on AA variations by changes in underlying traits are poorly known. We constructed an unprecedented worldwide database including 831 within-canopy gradients with standardized light estimates for 304 species belonging to major vascular plant functional types, and analyzed within-canopy variations in 12 key foliage structural, chemical and physiological traits by quantitative separation of the contributions of different traits to photosynthetic acclimation. Although the light-dependent increase in AA is surprisingly similar in different plant functional types, they differ fundamentally in the share of the controls on AA by constituent traits. Species with high rates of canopy development and leaf turnover, exhibiting highly dynamic light environments, actively change AA by nitrogen reallocation among and partitioning within leaves. By contrast, species with slow leaf turnover exhibit a passive AA acclimation response, primarily determined by the acclimation of leaf structure to growth light. This review emphasizes that different combinations of traits are responsible for within-canopy photosynthetic acclimation in different plant functional types, and solves an old enigma of the role of mass- vs area-based traits in vegetation acclimation. PMID:25318596

  2. A worldwide analysis of within-canopy variations in leaf structural, chemical and physiological traits across plant functional types.

    PubMed

    Niinemets, Ülo; Keenan, Trevor F; Hallik, Lea

    2015-02-01

    Extensive within-canopy light gradients importantly affect the photosynthetic productivity of leaves in different canopy positions and lead to light-dependent increases in foliage photosynthetic capacity per area (AA). However, the controls on AA variations by changes in underlying traits are poorly known. We constructed an unprecedented worldwide database including 831 within-canopy gradients with standardized light estimates for 304 species belonging to major vascular plant functional types, and analyzed within-canopy variations in 12 key foliage structural, chemical and physiological traits by quantitative separation of the contributions of different traits to photosynthetic acclimation. Although the light-dependent increase in AA is surprisingly similar in different plant functional types, they differ fundamentally in the share of the controls on AA by constituent traits. Species with high rates of canopy development and leaf turnover, exhibiting highly dynamic light environments, actively change AA by nitrogen reallocation among and partitioning within leaves. By contrast, species with slow leaf turnover exhibit a passive AA acclimation response, primarily determined by the acclimation of leaf structure to growth light. This review emphasizes that different combinations of traits are responsible for within-canopy photosynthetic acclimation in different plant functional types, and solves an old enigma of the role of mass- vs area-based traits in vegetation acclimation.

  3. Near-term lander experiments for growing plants on Mars: requirements for information on chemical and physical properties of Mars regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuerger, Andrew C.; Ming, Douglas W.; Newsom, Horton E.; Ferl, Robert J.; McKay, Christopher P.

    2002-01-01

    In order to support humans for long-duration missions to Mars, bioregenerative Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems have been proposed that would use higher plants as the primary candidates for photosynthesis. Hydroponic technologies have been suggested as the primary method of plant production in ALS systems, but the use of Mars regolith as a plant growth medium may have several advantages over hydroponic systems. The advantages for using Mars regolith include the likely bioavailability of plant-essential ions, mechanical support for plants, and easy access of the material once on the surface. We propose that plant biology experiments must be included in near-term Mars lander missions in order to begin defining the optimum approach for growing plants on Mars. Second, we discuss a range of soil chemistry and soil physics tests that must be conducted prior to, or in concert with, a plant biology experiment in order to properly interpret the results of plant growth studies in Mars regolith. The recommended chemical tests include measurements on soil pH, electrical conductivity and soluble salts, redox potential, bioavailability of essential plant nutrients, and bioavailability of phytotoxic elements. In addition, a future plant growth experiment should include procedures for determining the buffering and leaching requirements of Mars regolith prior to planting. Soil physical tests useful for plant biology studies in Mars regolith include bulk density, particle size distribution, porosity, water retention, and hydraulic conductivity.

  4. Near-term lander experiments for growing plants on Mars: requirements for information on chemical and physical properties of Mars regolith.

    PubMed

    Schuerger, Andrew C; Ming, Douglas W; Newsom, Horton E; Ferl, Robert J; McKay, Christopher P

    2002-01-01

    In order to support humans for long-duration missions to Mars, bioregenerative Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems have been proposed that would use higher plants as the primary candidates for photosynthesis. Hydroponic technologies have been suggested as the primary method of plant production in ALS systems, but the use of Mars regolith as a plant growth medium may have several advantages over hydroponic systems. The advantages for using Mars regolith include the likely bioavailability of plant-essential ions, mechanical support for plants, and easy access of the material once on the surface. We propose that plant biology experiments must be included in near-term Mars lander missions in order to begin defining the optimum approach for growing plants on Mars. Second, we discuss a range of soil chemistry and soil physics tests that must be conducted prior to, or in concert with, a plant biology experiment in order to properly interpret the results of plant growth studies in Mars regolith. The recommended chemical tests include measurements on soil pH, electrical conductivity and soluble salts, redox potential, bioavailability of essential plant nutrients, and bioavailability of phytotoxic elements. In addition, a future plant growth experiment should include procedures for determining the buffering and leaching requirements of Mars regolith prior to planting. Soil physical tests useful for plant biology studies in Mars regolith include bulk density, particle size distribution, porosity, water retention, and hydraulic conductivity. PMID:12481805

  5. Near-term lander experiments for growing plants on Mars: requirements for information on chemical and physical properties of Mars regolith.

    PubMed

    Schuerger, Andrew C; Ming, Douglas W; Newsom, Horton E; Ferl, Robert J; McKay, Christopher P

    2002-01-01

    In order to support humans for long-duration missions to Mars, bioregenerative Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems have been proposed that would use higher plants as the primary candidates for photosynthesis. Hydroponic technologies have been suggested as the primary method of plant production in ALS systems, but the use of Mars regolith as a plant growth medium may have several advantages over hydroponic systems. The advantages for using Mars regolith include the likely bioavailability of plant-essential ions, mechanical support for plants, and easy access of the material once on the surface. We propose that plant biology experiments must be included in near-term Mars lander missions in order to begin defining the optimum approach for growing plants on Mars. Second, we discuss a range of soil chemistry and soil physics tests that must be conducted prior to, or in concert with, a plant biology experiment in order to properly interpret the results of plant growth studies in Mars regolith. The recommended chemical tests include measurements on soil pH, electrical conductivity and soluble salts, redox potential, bioavailability of essential plant nutrients, and bioavailability of phytotoxic elements. In addition, a future plant growth experiment should include procedures for determining the buffering and leaching requirements of Mars regolith prior to planting. Soil physical tests useful for plant biology studies in Mars regolith include bulk density, particle size distribution, porosity, water retention, and hydraulic conductivity.

  6. Investigation of mortality from cancer and other causes of death among workers employed at an east Texas chemical plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, M.H.; Beaumont, J.J.; Waxweiler, R.J.; Halperin, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    The cause-specific mortality of 2,510 males employed at an east Texas chemical plant was examined in a historical prospective study to evaluate a suspected increase in deaths from multiple myeloma and brain cancer. Potential exposures from chemicals, either used in manufacturing processes or produced during the study period 1952-1977, included the fuel additive tetraethyl lead, ethylene dibromide and dichloride, inorganic lead, and vinyl chloride monomer. Overall mortality for all workers (156 observed vs. 211.14 expected) and for workers first employed between 1952 and 1959 (131 observed vs. 167.33 expected) when tetraethyl lead was the single major product was lower than expected when compared to the United States general population. There were no significant increases in mortality from malignancies or other causes of death. The deficits may be due to the small number of total deaths, and the low power for detecting excess risk of mortality from multiple myeloma (Z1-beta = 27, alpha = .05), brain cancer (Z1-beta = 31, alpha = .05), or other rare causes of death; lack of complete workplace exposure data for production workers; and the absence of historical measurements on the extent of environmental exposure to tetraethyl lead and other chemicals.

  7. Preparing "Chameleon Balls" from Natural Plants: Simple Handmade pH Indicator and Teaching Material for Chemical Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanda, Naoki; Asano, Takayuki; Itoh, Toshiyuki; Onoda, Makoto

    1995-12-01

    Anthocyanins are found in the flowers and fruits of natural plants. Since their color depends on pH, they are sometines used as a pH indicator. Since these sequences are reversible, they are also useful in demonstrating chemical equilibrium in the repetitive color changes of anthocyanins from flowers by controlling pH conditions. We prepared the polysaccharide beads conatining water extracts of red cabbage as calcium alginate. The beads showed a clear red color under acidic conditions, turned blue at neutral pH of 7, and orange-yellow at pH of 13. This color change could be demonstrated over and over. Because the color changes of these polysaccharide beads depended darmatically on pH, junior high students in science classes called them "chameleon balls" when we demonstrated this reaction for them. In this paper we describe how polysaccharide beads, which are made from calcium alginate with natural pigments, served as a teaching tool for the chemical equilibrium of anthocyanins under different pH conditions. Preparation of the chameleon ball is very easy. The most important thing is that making the chameleon ball is great fun. The ball should therefore be viewed not only as a handmade pH indicator but also an interesting teaching tool of the chemical equilibrium reaction.

  8. Effect of woody and herbaceous plants on chemical weathering of basalt material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, N.; Dontsova, K.; Barron-Gafford, G. A.

    2011-12-01

    Worldwide, semi-arid landscapes are transitioning from shallow-rooted grasslands to mixed vegetation savannas composed of deeper-rooted shrubs. These contrasting growth forms differentially drive below-ground processes because they occupy different soil horizons, are differentially stressed by periods of drought, and unequally stimulate soil weathering. Our study aims to determine the effect of woody and herbaceous plants on weathering of granular basalt serving as a model for soil. We established pots with velvet mesquite (Prosopis veluntina), sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula), and bare-soil pots within two temperature treatments in University of Arizona Biosphere 2. The Desert biome served as the ambient temperature treatment, while the Savanna biome was maintained 4°C warmer to simulate projected air temperatures if climate change continues unabated. Rhizon water samplers were installed at a depth of one inch from the soil surface to monitor root zone exudates (total dissolved carbon and nitrogen), dissolved inorganic carbon, and lithogenic elements resulting from basalt weathering. Soil leachates were collected through the course of the experiment. The anion content of the leachates was determined using the ICS-5000 Reagent-Free ion chromatography system. Dissolved carbon and nitrogen were analyzed by combustion using the Shimadzu TOC-VCSH with TN module. Metals and metalloids were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Irrigation of the pots was varied in time to simulate periods of drought and determine the effect of stress on root exudation. Leachates from all treatments displayed higher pH and electrical conductivity than water used for irrigation indicating weathering. On average, leachates from the potted grasses displayed higher pH and electrical conductivity than mesquites. This agreed with higher concentrations of organic carbon, a measure of root exudation, and inorganic carbon, measure of soil respiration. Both organic

  9. Regulation of a chemical defense against herbivory produced by symbiotic fungi in grass plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-Xiu; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Schardl, Christopher L

    2009-06-01

    Neotyphodium uncinatum and Neotyphodium siegelii are fungal symbionts (endophytes) of meadow fescue (MF; Lolium pratense), which they protect from insects by producing loline alkaloids. High levels of lolines are produced following insect damage or mock herbivory (clipping). Although loline alkaloid levels were greatly elevated in regrowth after clipping, loline-alkaloid biosynthesis (LOL) gene expression in regrowth and basal tissues was similar to unclipped controls. The dramatic increase of lolines in regrowth reflected the much higher concentrations in young (center) versus older (outer) leaf blades, so LOL gene expression was compared in these tissues. In MF-N. siegelii, LOL gene expression was similar in younger and older leaf blades, whereas expression of N. uncinatum LOL genes and some associated biosynthesis genes was higher in younger than older leaf blades. Because lolines are derived from amino acids that are mobilized to new growth, we tested the amino acid levels in center and outer leaf blades. Younger leaf blades of aposymbiotic plants (no endophyte present) had significantly higher levels of asparagine and sometimes glutamine compared to older leaf blades. The amino acid levels were much lower in MF-N. siegelii and MF-N. uncinatum compared to aposymbiotic plants and MF with Epichloë festucae (a closely related symbiont), which lacked lolines. We conclude that loline alkaloid production in young tissue depleted these amino acid pools and was apparently regulated by availability of the amino acid substrates. As a result, lolines maximally protect young host tissues in a fashion similar to endogenous plant metabolites that conform to optimal defense theory. PMID:19403726

  10. Regulation of a chemical defense against herbivory produced by symbiotic fungi in grass plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-Xiu; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Schardl, Christopher L

    2009-06-01

    Neotyphodium uncinatum and Neotyphodium siegelii are fungal symbionts (endophytes) of meadow fescue (MF; Lolium pratense), which they protect from insects by producing loline alkaloids. High levels of lolines are produced following insect damage or mock herbivory (clipping). Although loline alkaloid levels were greatly elevated in regrowth after clipping, loline-alkaloid biosynthesis (LOL) gene expression in regrowth and basal tissues was similar to unclipped controls. The dramatic increase of lolines in regrowth reflected the much higher concentrations in young (center) versus older (outer) leaf blades, so LOL gene expression was compared in these tissues. In MF-N. siegelii, LOL gene expression was similar in younger and older leaf blades, whereas expression of N. uncinatum LOL genes and some associated biosynthesis genes was higher in younger than older leaf blades. Because lolines are derived from amino acids that are mobilized to new growth, we tested the amino acid levels in center and outer leaf blades. Younger leaf blades of aposymbiotic plants (no endophyte present) had significantly higher levels of asparagine and sometimes glutamine compared to older leaf blades. The amino acid levels were much lower in MF-N. siegelii and MF-N. uncinatum compared to aposymbiotic plants and MF with Epichloë festucae (a closely related symbiont), which lacked lolines. We conclude that loline alkaloid production in young tissue depleted these amino acid pools and was apparently regulated by availability of the amino acid substrates. As a result, lolines maximally protect young host tissues in a fashion similar to endogenous plant metabolites that conform to optimal defense theory.

  11. Chemical and mutagenic evaluation of sludge from a large wastewater treatment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ottaviani, M.; Crebelli, R.; Fuselli, S.; La Rocca, C.; Baldassarri, L.T. )

    1993-08-01

    Digested sludges from a wastewater treatment plant were analyzed to assess their level of contamination by some organic (polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides) and inorganic (heavy metals) micropollutants and their mutagenicity features. The heavy metal content in none of the samples exceeded the limits set out in EEC Directive 276/86; as far as PCBs are concerned, the sludges analyzed indicated a level of contamination up to two orders of magnitude higher than some Italian agricultural soils. Mutagenicity assays on either crude or fractionated sludge extracts using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 gave negative results, thus suggesting the absence of genotoxic contaminants in the samples investigated.

  12. Chemical constituents and some biological activities of plants from the genus Ceriops.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Li, Min-Yi; Wu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    In this review, the literature data on phytochemical and biological investigations of the genus Ceriops are compiled. The Ceriops species are mangrove plants widely distributed along the sea coasts of Africa, Madagascar, South Asia, and South Pacific islands. To date, 43 diterpenes and 29 triterpenes have been reported from the embryos, fruits, hypocotyls, roots, stems, and twigs of C. tagal and C. decandra. Diterpenoids and triterpenoids are the main constituents of this genus. The isolated terpenes showed an enormous structural diversity and exhibited various biological properties, such as antitumor, antibacterial, and larvicidal activities.

  13. Integrated transformations of plant biomass to valuable chemicals, biodegradable polymers and nanoporous carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, B. N.; Chesnokov, N. V.; Taraban'ko, V. E.; Kuznetsova, S. A.; Petrov, A. V.

    2013-03-01

    Integrated transformations of wood biomass to valuable chemicals and materials are described. They include the main biomass components separation, the conversion of cellulose to glucose, levulinic acid, biodegradable polymers and lignin - to nanoporous carbons. For wood fractionation on pure cellulose and low molecular mass lignin the methods of catalytic oxidation and exploded autohydrolysis are used. The processes of acid-catalysed hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose and levulinic acid were optimized. New methods of biodegradable polymers synthesis from lactone of levulinic acid and nanoporous carbons from lignin were suggested.

  14. Leachability of chemical constituents in soil–plant systems irrigated with synthetic graywater.

    PubMed

    Negahban-Azar, Masoud; Sharvelle, Sybil E; Qian, Yaling; Shogbon, Alicia

    2013-04-01

    Over recent years, reuse of graywater for irrigation has become increasingly widespread internationally. While this practice is rapidly growing, there remain unanswered questions with respect to impacts to environmental quality and human health. The objective of this research was to determine the leachability of graywater constituents after applied to soil through a set of controlled greenhouse experiments. Four plant species including bermudagrass, tall fescue, Meyer Lemon and Emerald Gaiety Euonymus were included in the study. Three replicate columns for each species were set up and irrigated either with synthetic graywater or potable water for a 17 month duration. Leachate quality was assessed for dissolved organic carbon, nitrate, ammonium, total phosphorous, boron, sodium adsorption ratio, conductivity, surfactants, and total dissolved solids. The same constituents and also organic matter were measured in soil samples collected at the end of experiments. Phosphorus did not leach through the 50 cm deep soil columns. Salts, including boron, showed potential to leach through graywater irrigated soil. A portion of the applied nitrogen was assimilated by plants, but leaching of nitrogen was still observed as documented by statistically higher nitrogen in leachate collected from graywater-irrigated columns compared to potable water-irrigated columns (P ≤ 0.05). A low percentage of surfactants added to columns leached through (7 ± 6% on average) and a mass balance on surfactant parent compounds showed that 92–96% of added surfactants were biodegraded. PMID:23653909

  15. Hormesis and a Chemical Raison D’être for Secondary Plant Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Hadacek, Franz; Bachmann, Gert; Engelmeier, Doris; Chobot, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    In plants, accumulation in specific compartments and huge structural diversity of secondary metabolites is one trait that is not understood yet. By exploring the diverse abiotic and biotic interactions of plants above- and belowground, we provide examples that are characterized by nonlinear effects of the secondary metabolites. We propose that redox chemistry, specifically the reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and, in their absence, reduction of molecular oxygen by the identical secondary metabolite, is an important component of the hormetic effects caused by these compounds. This is illustrated for selected phenols, terpenoids, and alkaloids. The redox reactions are modulated by the variable availability of transition metals that serve as donors of electrons in a Fenton reaction mode. Low levels of ROS stimulate growth, cell differentiation, and stress resistance; high levels induce programmed cell death. We propose that provision of molecules that can participate in this redox chemistry is the raison d’être for secondary metabolites. In this context, the presence or absence of functional groups in the molecule is more essential than the whole structure. Accordingly, there exist no constraints that limit structural diversity. Redox chemistry is ubiquitous, from the atmosphere to the soil. PMID:21431080

  16. Chemical Processing of Non-Crop Plants for Jet Fuel Blends Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulis, M. J.; Hepp, A. F.; McDowell, M.; Ribita, D.

    2009-01-01

    The use of Biofuels has been gaining in popularity over the past few years due to their ability to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels. Biofuels as a renewable energy source can be a viable option for sustaining long-term energy needs if they are managed efficiently. We describe our initial efforts to exploit algae, halophytes and other non-crop plants to produce synthetics for fuel blends that can potentially be used as fuels for aviation and non-aerospace applications. Our efforts have been dedicated to crafting efficient extraction and refining processes in order to extract constituents from the plant materials with the ultimate goal of determining the feasibility of producing biomass-based jet fuel from the refined extract. Two extraction methods have been developed based on communition processes, and liquid-solid extraction techniques. Refining procedures such as chlorophyll removal and transesterification of triglycerides have been performed. Gas chromatography in tandem with mass spectroscopy is currently being utilized in order to qualitatively determine the individual components of the refined extract. We also briefly discuss and compare alternative methods to extract fuel-blending agents from alternative biofuels sources.

  17. Identifying biological monitoring tools to evaluate the chronic effects of chemical exposures in terrestrial plants

    SciTech Connect

    Linder, G.

    1994-12-31

    When contamination of any habitat, such as a wetland impacted by heavy metals or a high desert disposal area impacted by chlorophenols and chlorophenoxy herbicides, is considered within an ecological risk assessment context, long-term land use goals should be included as part of the decision-making process, especially when remediation options are being considered for the site. If imminent threats to human health and the environment are highly unlikely, and environmental management and projected land use allow, remediation options and monitoring programs for a site should be developed that assure long-term habitat use, while continuing surveillance for evaluating potential chronic ecological effects. For example, at Milltown Reservoir wetlands on the Clark Fork River in western Montana the baseline ecological risk assessment suggested that no current adverse biological or ecological effects warranted extensive remediation at the site. But, given the land use goals currently anticipated for the wetland habitat and the hydroelectric facility located on the Clark Fork River, a program,should be developed that, in part, continues assessing plant communities and sublethal biological effects as cost-effective monitoring tools for evaluating long-term effects associated with metal-contaminated soils. Similarly, high desert sites that have been impacted by past disposal activities like that at Alkali Lake, Oregon, should be monitored using cost-effective methods that continue to monitor terrestrial plants as a field screening tool for evaluating soil and groundwater contaminated with chlorophenols and chlorophenoxy herbicides.

  18. What do microbes encounter at the plant surface? Chemical composition of pea leaf cuticular waxes.

    PubMed

    Gniwotta, Franka; Vogg, Gerd; Gartmann, Vanessa; Carver, Tim L W; Riederer, Markus; Jetter, Reinhard

    2005-09-01

    In the cuticular wax mixtures from leaves of pea (Pisum sativum) cv Avanta, cv Lincoln, and cv Maiperle, more than 70 individual compounds were identified. The adaxial wax was characterized by very high amounts of primary alcohols (71%), while the abaxial wax consisted mainly of alkanes (73%). An aqueous adhesive of gum arabic was employed to selectively sample the epicuticular wax layer on pea leaves and hence to analyze the composition of epicuticular crystals exposed at the outermost surface of leaves. The epicuticular layer was found to contain 74% and 83% of the total wax on adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively. The platelet-shaped crystals on the adaxial leaf surface consisted of a mixture dominated by hexacosanol, accompanied by substantial amounts of octacosanol and hentriacontane. In contrast, the ribbon-shaped wax crystals on the abaxial surface consisted mainly of hentriacontane (63%), with approximately 5% each of hexacosanol and octacosanol being present. Based on this detailed chemical analysis of the wax exposed at the leaf surface, their importance for early events in the interaction with host-specific pathogenic fungi can now be evaluated. On adaxial surfaces, approximately 80% of Erysiphe pisi spores germinated and 70% differentiated appressoria. In contrast, significantly lower germination efficiencies (57%) and appressoria formation rates (49%) were found for abaxial surfaces. In conclusion, the influence of the physical structure and the chemical composition of the host surface, and especially of epicuticular leaf waxes, on the prepenetration processes of biotrophic fungi is discussed.

  19. Chemical Constituents of the Rare Cliff Plant Oresitrophe rupifraga and Their Antineuroinflammatory Activity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xi-Ying; Xiong, Juan; Liu, Xin-Hua; Hu, Jin-Feng

    2016-08-01

    Four new (1 - 4) and thirteen known (5 - 17) compounds were isolated from a rare cliff plant, Oresitrophe rupifraga. Based on spectroscopic evidence, the new structures were established to be [(2S,3R,4R)-4-(4-methoxybenzyl)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-tetrahydrofuran-3-yl]methanol (1), (3α)-23-(acetyloxy)-3-hydroxyolean-12-en-29-oic acid (2), 3α,23-(isopropylidenedioxy)olean-12-en-29-oic acid (3, artifact of isolation), and (3β,15β)-3-hydroxycholest-5-en-15-yl β-d-glucopyranoside (4), respectively. Among the isolates, compounds 1, 4, epieudesmin (7), and 1-O-(9Z,12Z,15Z-octadecatrienoyl)glycerol (17) were found to show significant antineuroinflammatory effects by inhibiting the NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine BV-2 microglial cells, with IC50 values of 7.21, 9.39, 4.96, and 8.51 μm, respectively.

  20. Chemical durability of Savannah River Plant waste glass as a function of groundwater pH

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, G G; O'Rourke, P E; Whitkop, P G

    1982-01-01

    The leachability of Savannah River Plant (SRP) waste glass was assessed for leachants in the pH range of 3 to 11. A parabolic relationship was observed between leachability and solution pH in this range. At 40/sup 0/C, leachability was lowest within a pH range of approximately 5 to 9. Most of the groundwaters in potential repository locations have pH values in this range. Below pH 5 and above pH 9, leachability of the waste glass increases. Leachability as a function of solution pH was studied first at room temperature and then in more detail at 40/sup 0/C, 90/sup 0/C, and 150/sup 0/C using abbreviated MCC-1 and MCC-2 static leaching tests. These data were then correlated with the formation and stabilization of surface layers that are produced on the waste glass during leaching.

  1. [Hygienic evaluation of technological, design and sanitary-technical solutions for large-scale chemical plants].

    PubMed

    Mikhaĭluts, A P

    1990-01-01

    Complexes of technologic solution for the construction of large-scale plants producing ammonia, nitric and sulfuric acids, ammonium nitrate, carbomide and caprolactam , are characterized by both positive and negative hygienic features. The hygienic shortcomings reveal themselves in sporadic increases of hazardous ingredients in concentrations up to the MAC and higher levels, as well as in unfavorable labour conditions when dealing with catalysts, storage operations, inter-enterprise transportation, dispatching of raw materials and finished products, in the contamination of the in-going ventilation air, and in the compound influence of low temperatures and toxic substances. The concentration of several large-capacity enterprises in the same area entails large-scale discharges in the atmosphere with subsequent contamination of the surrounding protection areas. The author proposes a set of major preventive measures.

  2. [Sensitivity of Pseudomonas chlororaphis to antibiotics and chemical tools of plant protection].

    PubMed

    Shepelevich, V V; Kiprianova, E A; Iaroshenko, L V; Avdeeva, L V

    2012-01-01

    Examination of sensitivity of 10 Pseudomonas chlororaphis strains belonging to different subspecies to 54 antibiotics has shown that all studied representatives of Pchlororaphis subsp. chlororaphis, P. chlororaphis subsp. aureofaciens and Pchlororaphis subsp. aurantiaca were sensitive to aminoglycoside antibiotics and fluoroquinolones derivatives. Only part of studied strains has shown sensitivity to some beta-lactam antibiotics, imipeneme and meropeneme. In contrast to representatives of two other subspecies both strains of P. chlororaphis subsp. chlororaphis proved to be sensitive to chlortetracycline and cefepime that allows to consider this difference as the characteristic useful for differentiation. All studied P. chlororaphis strains were resistant to chemical fungicides (Scor and Svitch) and the insect growth regulators (Match, Lufox, Engio, Actellik). Resistance of bacteria to these herbicides gives evidence that their combined use is possible.

  3. Occurrence and fate of emerging trace organic chemicals in wastewater plants in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Anumol, Tarun; Vijayanandan, Arya; Park, Minkyu; Philip, Ligy; Snyder, Shane A

    2016-01-01

    The presence of pharmaceuticals, hormones, pesticides and industrial contaminants collectively termed as trace organic compounds (TOrCs) in wastewater has been well-documented in USA, Europe, China and other regions. However, data from India, the second most populous country in the world is severely lacking. This study investigated the occurrence and concentrations of twenty-two indicator TOrCs at three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in South India serving diverse communities across three sampling campaigns. Samples were collected after each WWTP treatment unit and removal efficiencies for TOrCs were determined. Eleven TOrCs were detected in every sample from every location at all sites, while only five TOrCs were detected consistently in effluent samples. Caffeine was present at greatest concentration in the influent of all three plants with average concentrations ranging between 56 and 65μg/L. In contrast, the x-ray contrast media pharmaceutical, iohexol, was the highest detected compound on average in the effluent at all three WWTPs (2.1-8.7μg/L). TOrCs were not completely removed in the WWTPs with removal efficiencies being compound specific and most of the attenuation being attributed to the biological treatment processes. Caffeine and triclocarban were well removed (>80%), while other compounds were poorly removed (acesulfame, sucralose, iohexol) or maybe even formed (carbamazepine) within the WWTPs. The effluent composition of the 22 TOrCs were similar within the three WWTPs but quite different to those seen in the US, indicating the importance of region-specific monitoring. Diurnal trends indicated that variability is compound specific but trended within certain classes of compounds (artificial sweeteners, and pharmaceuticals). The data collected on TOrCs from this study can be used as a baseline to identify potential remediation and regulatory strategies in this understudied region of India.

  4. Occurrence and fate of emerging trace organic chemicals in wastewater plants in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Anumol, Tarun; Vijayanandan, Arya; Park, Minkyu; Philip, Ligy; Snyder, Shane A

    2016-01-01

    The presence of pharmaceuticals, hormones, pesticides and industrial contaminants collectively termed as trace organic compounds (TOrCs) in wastewater has been well-documented in USA, Europe, China and other regions. However, data from India, the second most populous country in the world is severely lacking. This study investigated the occurrence and concentrations of twenty-two indicator TOrCs at three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in South India serving diverse communities across three sampling campaigns. Samples were collected after each WWTP treatment unit and removal efficiencies for TOrCs were determined. Eleven TOrCs were detected in every sample from every location at all sites, while only five TOrCs were detected consistently in effluent samples. Caffeine was present at greatest concentration in the influent of all three plants with average concentrations ranging between 56 and 65μg/L. In contrast, the x-ray contrast media pharmaceutical, iohexol, was the highest detected compound on average in the effluent at all three WWTPs (2.1-8.7μg/L). TOrCs were not completely removed in the WWTPs with removal efficiencies being compound specific and most of the attenuation being attributed to the biological treatment processes. Caffeine and triclocarban were well removed (>80%), while other compounds were poorly removed (acesulfame, sucralose, iohexol) or maybe even formed (carbamazepine) within the WWTPs. The effluent composition of the 22 TOrCs were similar within the three WWTPs but quite different to those seen in the US, indicating the importance of region-specific monitoring. Diurnal trends indicated that variability is compound specific but trended within certain classes of compounds (artificial sweeteners, and pharmaceuticals). The data collected on TOrCs from this study can be used as a baseline to identify potential remediation and regulatory strategies in this understudied region of India. PMID:27054837

  5. Quantitative genetic parameters for yield, plant growth and cone chemical traits in hop (Humulus lupulus L.)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Most traits targeted in the genetic improvement of hop are quantitative in nature. Improvement based on selection of these traits requires a comprehensive understanding of their inheritance. This study estimated quantitative genetic parameters for 20 traits related to three key objectives for the genetic improvement of hop: cone chemistry, cone yield and agronomic characteristics. Results Significant heritable genetic variation was identified for α-acid and β-acid, as well as their components and relative proportions. Estimates of narrow-sense heritability for these traits (h 2  = 0.15 to 0.29) were lower than those reported in previous hop studies, but were based on a broader suite of families (108 from European, North American and hybrid origins). Narrow-sense heritabilities are reported for hop growth traits for the first time (h 2  = 0.04 to 0.20), relating to important agronomic characteristics such as emergence, height and lateral morphology. Cone chemistry and growth traits were significantly genetically correlated, such that families with more vigorous vegetative growth were associated with lower α-acid and β-acid levels. This trend may reflect the underlying population structure of founder genotypes (European and North American origins) as well as past selection in the Australian environment. Although male and female hop plants are thought to be indistinguishable until flowering, sex was found to influence variation in many growth traits, with male and female plants displaying differences in vegetative morphology from emergence to cone maturity. Conclusions This study reveals important insights into the genetic control of quantitative hop traits. The information gained will provide hop breeders with a greater understanding of the additive genetic factors which affect selection of cone chemistry, yield and agronomic characteristics in hop, aiding in the future development of improved cultivars. PMID:24524684

  6. Investigation of chemical rinses suitable for very small meat plants to reduce pathogens on beef surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Sally F; Henning, William R; Mills, Edward W; Doores, Stephanie; Ostiguy, Nancy; Cutter, Catherine N

    2012-01-01

    Numerous antimicrobial interventions are capable of reducing the prevalence of harmful bacteria on raw meat products. There is a need to identify effective and inexpensive antimicrobial interventions that could, in practice, be used in very small meat plants because of limited financial, space, and labor resources. Eight antimicrobial compounds (acetic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, peroxyacetic acid, acidified sodium chlorite, chlorine dioxide, sodium hypochlorite, and aqueous ozone) were applied at various concentrations with small, hand-held spraying equipment, and bactericidal effectiveness was examined. Beef plate pieces were inoculated with fecal slurry containing a pathogen cocktail (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter jejuni) and natural populations of aerobic plate counts, coliforms, and E. coli. Antimicrobial solutions were applied to beef surfaces via a portable, pressurized hand-held spray tank, and treated surfaces were subjected to appropriate methods for the enumeration and isolation of pathogens and hygiene indicators. Relative antimicrobial effectiveness was determined (from greatest to least): (i) organic acids, (ii) peroxyacetic acid, (iii) chlorinated compounds, and (iv) aqueous ozone. Using the equipment described, a 2% lactic acid rinse provided 3.5- to 6.4-log CFU/cm(2) reductions across all bacterial populations studied. Conversely, aqueous ozone yielded 0.02- to 2.9-log CFU/cm(2) reductions in pathogens and hygiene indicators, and did not differ significantly from a control tap water rinse (P = 0.055 to 0.731). This 2% lactic acid rinse will be subsequently combined with a previously described water wash to create a multistep antimicrobial intervention that will be examined under laboratory conditions and validated in very small meat plants. PMID:22221350

  7. Chemical composition and minerals in pyrite ash of an abandoned sulphuric acid production plant.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcos L S; Ward, Colin R; Izquierdo, Maria; Sampaio, Carlos H; de Brum, Irineu A S; Kautzmann, Rubens M; Sabedot, Sydney; Querol, Xavier; Silva, Luis F O

    2012-07-15

    The extraction of sulphur produces a hematite-rich waste, known as roasted pyrite ash, which contains significant amounts of environmentally sensitive elements in variable concentrations and modes of occurrence. Whilst the mineralogy of roasted pyrite ash associated with iron or copper mining has been studied, as this is the main source of sulphur worldwide, the mineralogy, and more importantly, the characterization of submicron, ultrafine and nanoparticles, in coal-derived roasted pyrite ash remain to be resolved. In this work we provide essential data on the chemical composition and nanomineralogical assemblage of roasted pyrite ash. XRD, HR-TEM and FE-SEM were used to identify a large variety of minerals of anthropogenic origin. These phases result from highly complex chemical reactions occurring during the processing of coal pyrite of southern Brazil for sulphur extraction and further manufacture of sulphuric acid. Iron-rich submicron, ultrafine and nanoparticles within the ash may contain high proportions of toxic elements such as As, Se, U, among others. A number of elements, such as As, Cr, Cu, Co, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, Zn, and Zr, were found to be present in individual nanoparticles and submicron, ultrafine and nanominerals (e.g. oxides, sulphates, clays) in concentrations of up to 5%. The study of nanominerals in roasted pyrite ash from coal rejects is important to develop an understanding on the nature of this by-product, and to assess the interaction between emitted nanominerals, ultra-fine particles, and atmospheric gases, rain or body fluids, and thus to evaluate the environmental and health impacts of pyrite ash materials.

  8. Chemical characterization and bioactive properties of two aromatic plants: Calendula officinalis L. (flowers) and Mentha cervina L. (leaves).

    PubMed

    Miguel, María; Barros, Lillian; Pereira, Carla; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Garcia, Pablo A; Castro, MaÁngeles; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-05-18

    The chemical composition and bioactive properties of two plants (Calendula officinalis L. and Mentha cervina L.) were studied. Their nutritional value revealed a high content of carbohydrates and low fat levels, and very similar energy values. However, they presented different profiles in phenolic compounds and fatty acids; C. officinalis presented mainly glycosylated flavonols and saturated fatty acids, while M. cervina presented mainly caffeoyl derivatives and polyunsaturated fatty acids. M. cervina showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds while C. officinalis presented higher amounts of sugars, organic acids and tocopherols. The highest antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were obtained for the hydromethanolic extract of M. cervina, which presented the lowest values of EC50 and exhibited cytotoxicity against the four tumor cell lines tested. Infusions showed no cytotoxicity for the tumor cell lines, and none of the extracts showed toxicity against non-tumor cells. This study contributes to expand the knowledge on both natural sources and therefore their use. PMID:27110832

  9. Chemical characterization and bioactive properties of two aromatic plants: Calendula officinalis L. (flowers) and Mentha cervina L. (leaves).

    PubMed

    Miguel, María; Barros, Lillian; Pereira, Carla; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Garcia, Pablo A; Castro, MaÁngeles; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-05-18

    The chemical composition and bioactive properties of two plants (Calendula officinalis L. and Mentha cervina L.) were studied. Their nutritional value revealed a high content of carbohydrates and low fat levels, and very similar energy values. However, they presented different profiles in phenolic compounds and fatty acids; C. officinalis presented mainly glycosylated flavonols and saturated fatty acids, while M. cervina presented mainly caffeoyl derivatives and polyunsaturated fatty acids. M. cervina showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds while C. officinalis presented higher amounts of sugars, organic acids and tocopherols. The highest antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were obtained for the hydromethanolic extract of M. cervina, which presented the lowest values of EC50 and exhibited cytotoxicity against the four tumor cell lines tested. Infusions showed no cytotoxicity for the tumor cell lines, and none of the extracts showed toxicity against non-tumor cells. This study contributes to expand the knowledge on both natural sources and therefore their use.

  10. Development of a strategy for biological monitoring in a chemical plant producing 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine dihydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Knoell, Kristian F; Will, Norbert; Leng, Gabriele; Selinski, Silvia; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus; Bolt, Hermann M

    2012-01-01

    In a chemical plant in Germany producing 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine dihydrochloride for the manufacture of colorants, blood and urine samples were taken for biological monitoring. 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (DBZ) was analyzed in urine by thin-layer chromatography and subsequently further combined with analysis of adducts of 3,3'-DBZ in hemoglobin. Data highlight current ranges of industrial exposure to 3,3'-DBZ in Germany and demonstrate the applicability of biological monitoring to minimize this exposure. Effective biological monitoring was achieved by a combination of monitoring hemoglobin adducts with spot samplings of urinary 3,3'-DBZ excretion in cases of reported exposure periods. Data presented might help to identify biological guidance values (BGV/BAR) for 3,3'-DBZ-exposed individuals.

  11. Exposure to o-toluidine, aniline, and nitrobenzene in a rubber chemical manufacturing plant: a retrospective exposure assessment update.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Kevin W; Viet, Susan M; Hein, Misty J; Carreón, Tania; Ruder, Avima M

    2012-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health previously conducted a retrospective cancer incidence and mortality study of workers employed at a rubber chemical manufacturing plant. Compared with New York State incidence, the bladder cancer risk was 6.5 times higher for workers considered to have definite exposure to ortho-toluidine and aniline, and 4 times higher for workers with possible exposure. Exposure characterization in the original study utilized a surrogate measure based only on departments in which each worker was ever employed. As part of an update of that study, some departments in the three original exposure groups were reclassified based on a follow-up site visit; interviews with employees, management, and union representatives; and review of records including exposure data. An additional evaluation of department-job combinations, rather than only departments, was used to stratify exposure into four categories. An approximate rank of "relative" exposure level for each department-job-year combination was also assigned using a ranking scale of 0 to 10. The ranks were supported by quantitative exposure levels and by professional judgment. The numerical ranking scale was applied to each worker by multiplying the exposure rank by duration for each job held based on comprehensive individual work histories. The cumulative rank scores for this cohort ranged from 0 to 300 unit-years. The medians of the cumulative rank scores for the exposure categories showed very good agreement with increasing exposure classifications (e.g., 0.72, 4.6, 11, 14 unit-years for the four exposure categories). Workers' breathing zone air sampling data collected at this plant from 1976-2004 were well below published occupational exposure limits for these chemicals, but additional cases of bladder cancer have been reported. The exposure assessment revisions and rank estimates will be used to analyze the updated bladder cancer incidence data.

  12. Chemical characterization and bioactive properties of Geranium molle L.: from the plant to the most active extract and its phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Graça, V C; Barros, Lillian; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Dias, Maria Inês; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Santos, P F

    2016-05-18

    After a period of indifference, in which synthetic compounds were favored, there is an increasing interest in the study of the biological properties of plants and the active principles responsible for their therapeutic properties. Geranium molle L. has been used in the Portuguese folk medicine for the treatment of various ailments including cancer but, unlike many of the species from the Geranium genus, its phytochemical characterization and biological activity are virtually unexplored. In this study a G. molle sample from Trás-os-Montes, north-eastern Portugal, was chemically characterized regarding nutritional value, free sugars, organic acids, fatty acids and tocopherols, and several aqueous (decoction, infusion) and organic (n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol) extracts of the plant were assessed for their bioactive properties. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by means of the free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The cytotoxicity of the different extracts was assessed in vitro against several human cancer cell lines (breast, lung, cervical and hepatocellular carcinomas) and, additionally, their hepatotoxicity was evaluated using a porcine liver primary cell culture. G. molle was shown to be rich in carbohydrates and proteins, providing tocopherols and essential fatty acids. Amongst the various extracts, the acetone extract was found to have the highest content of phenolic compounds (mainly ellagitannins, but also some flavone and flavonol glycosides) as well as the highest antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the chemical composition and bioactive properties of G. molle. PMID:27094513

  13. Effect of Vanadium on Growth, Chemical Composition, and Metabolic Processes of Mature Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Singh, B.; Wort, D. J.

    1969-01-01

    As measured 7, 14, and 21 days after the application of 10−2 M vanadyl sulfate solution to the foliage of 4.5-month-old sugar beet plants, significantly less growth of the leaves and an increase in the sucrose content of the storage root resulted. Accompanying these alterations were a higher rate of carbon dioxide fixation, a lower rate of respiration, and a decreased rate of nitrate reductase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, phosphatase, and invertase activity. The enzymes of sucrose synthesis, sucrose synthetase, sucrose phosphate synthetase and uridine diphosphate glucose-pyrophosphorylase were stimulated. The content of reducing sugar, nitrite N, amino acids and protein was less, and that of nitrate N was greater in the vanadium-treated plants. In the majority of cases the greatest magnitude of change occurred during the first 7 days following treatment. The changes in growth and chemical composition are believed to be closely related to the stimulation or inhibition of the various enzymes by vanadyl sulfate. PMID:16657205

  14. Supramolecular Interactions in Secondary Plant Cell Walls: Effect of Lignin Chemical Composition Revealed with the Molecular Theory of Solvation.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Rodrigo L; Stoyanov, Stanislav R; Gusarov, Sergey; Skaf, Munir S; Kovalenko, Andriy

    2015-01-01

    Plant biomass recalcitrance, a major obstacle to achieving sustainable production of second generation biofuels, arises mainly from the amorphous cell-wall matrix containing lignin and hemicellulose assembled into a complex supramolecular network that coats the cellulose fibrils. We employed the statistical-mechanical, 3D reference interaction site model with the Kovalenko-Hirata closure approximation (or 3D-RISM-KH molecular theory of solvation) to reveal the supramolecular interactions in this network and provide molecular-level insight into the effective lignin-lignin and lignin-hemicellulose thermodynamic interactions. We found that such interactions are hydrophobic and entropy-driven, and arise from the expelling of water from the mutual interaction surfaces. The molecular origin of these interactions is carbohydrate-π and π-π stacking forces, whose strengths are dependent on the lignin chemical composition. Methoxy substituents in the phenyl groups of lignin promote substantial entropic stabilization of the ligno-hemicellulosic matrix. Our results provide a detailed molecular view of the fundamental interactions within the secondary plant cell walls that lead to recalcitrance.

  15. Supramolecular Interactions in Secondary Plant Cell Walls: Effect of Lignin Chemical Composition Revealed with the Molecular Theory of Solvation.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Rodrigo L; Stoyanov, Stanislav R; Gusarov, Sergey; Skaf, Munir S; Kovalenko, Andriy

    2015-01-01

    Plant biomass recalcitrance, a major obstacle to achieving sustainable production of second generation biofuels, arises mainly from the amorphous cell-wall matrix containing lignin and hemicellulose assembled into a complex supramolecular network that coats the cellulose fibrils. We employed the statistical-mechanical, 3D reference interaction site model with the Kovalenko-Hirata closure approximation (or 3D-RISM-KH molecular theory of solvation) to reveal the supramolecular interactions in this network and provide molecular-level insight into the effective lignin-lignin and lignin-hemicellulose thermodynamic interactions. We found that such interactions are hydrophobic and entropy-driven, and arise from the expelling of water from the mutual interaction surfaces. The molecular origin of these interactions is carbohydrate-π and π-π stacking forces, whose strengths are dependent on the lignin chemical composition. Methoxy substituents in the phenyl groups of lignin promote substantial entropic stabilization of the ligno-hemicellulosic matrix. Our results provide a detailed molecular view of the fundamental interactions within the secondary plant cell walls that lead to recalcitrance. PMID:26263115

  16. Disruption of web structure and predatory behavior of a spider by plant-derived chemical defenses of an aposematic aphid.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, S B

    1989-06-01

    Two toxic and bitter-tasting cardenolides (cardiac-active steroids) were sequestered by the brightly colored oleander aphid,Aphis nerii B. de F., from the neotropical milkweed host plantAsclepias curassavica L. After feeding on milkweed-reared aphids, the orb-web spiderZygiella x-notata (Clerck) built severely disrupted webs and attacked fewer nontoxic, control aphids, whereas the webs of spiders fed only nontoxic aphids remained intact. The regularity and size of the prey-trapping area of webs were reduced significantly in proportion to the amount of toxic aphids eaten. The effects of toxic aphids on spider web structure were mimicked by feeding spiders the bitter-tasting cardenolide digitoxin, a cardenolide with similar steroidal structure and pharmacological activity to the two aphid cardenolides. These results show that the well-known effects of psychoactive drugs on spider web structure are more than interesting behavioral assays of drag activity. Similar effects, produced by plant-derived chemicals in the spider's aphid prey, are relevant to the ecology and evolution of interactions between prey defense and predator foraging.

  17. Effects of chemical and biological pesticides on plant growth parameters and rhizospheric bacterial community structure in Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-06-30

    With increasing application of pesticides in agriculture, their non-target effects on soil microbial communities are critical to soil health maintenance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and a biological pesticide (azadirachtin) on growth parameters and the rhizospheric bacterial community of Vigna radiata. Qualitative and quantitative analysis by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and q-PCR, respectively, of the 16S rRNA gene and transcript were performed to study the impact of these pesticides on the resident and active rhizospheric bacterial community. While plant parameters were not affected significantly by the pesticides, a shift in the bacterial community structure was observed with an adverse effect on the abundance of 16S rRNA gene and transcripts. Chlorpyrifos showed almost complete degradation toward the end of the experiment. These non-target impacts on soil ecosystems and the fact that the effects of the biopesticide mimic those of chemical pesticides raise serious concerns regarding their application in agriculture. PMID:25791643

  18. Effects of chemical and biological pesticides on plant growth parameters and rhizospheric bacterial community structure in Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-06-30

    With increasing application of pesticides in agriculture, their non-target effects on soil microbial communities are critical to soil health maintenance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and a biological pesticide (azadirachtin) on growth parameters and the rhizospheric bacterial community of Vigna radiata. Qualitative and quantitative analysis by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and q-PCR, respectively, of the 16S rRNA gene and transcript were performed to study the impact of these pesticides on the resident and active rhizospheric bacterial community. While plant parameters were not affected significantly by the pesticides, a shift in the bacterial community structure was observed with an adverse effect on the abundance of 16S rRNA gene and transcripts. Chlorpyrifos showed almost complete degradation toward the end of the experiment. These non-target impacts on soil ecosystems and the fact that the effects of the biopesticide mimic those of chemical pesticides raise serious concerns regarding their application in agriculture.

  19. A biological and chemical characterization strategy for small and medium-sized industries connected to municipal sewage treatment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tarkpea, M.; Eklund, B.; Andren, C.; Gravenfors, E.; Kukulska, Z.

    1998-02-01

    A cost-effective strategy for the characterization of wastewater from small and medium-sized industries is described. A mobile laboratory, equipped for performing on-site biological tests, was established near wastewater treatment facilities in two cities in Sweden for 1 week each in November 1992 and November 1993. The biological and chemical characterization was done on 24-h samples from 29 industries representing 12 types of activity with a bias toward the surface treatment and graphics industries. The biological testing program included a modified nitrification test, the Microtox test, and a modified growth inhibition test using Selenastrum capricornutum (an alga test). A Ceriodaphnia dubia (crustacean) test was also used for some industries. Different chemical assessments, aimed at indicating toxic, persistent, and bioaccumulating substances, were chosen for each industry on the basis of information they provided. Results show that sampling period and time are important factors to consider when designing a characterization strategy. Twenty-four-hour sampling is preferred to weekly sampling because highly toxic emissions of short duration that are detrimental to the biological treatment plant may occur. Variability in emissions was shown in this study but would not have been detected by a study based on weekly sampling. The strategy developed in this study was shown to be both a cost-effective and efficient tool for characterizing effluents from small and medium-sized industries.

  20. Geochemistry and migration of contaminants at the Weldon Spring chemical plant site, St. Charles County, Missouri, 1989-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumacher, John G.

    1993-01-01

    The geochemistry of the shallow aquifer and geochemical controls on the migration of uranium and other constituents from raffinate pits were determined at the Weldon Spring chemical plant site. Surface-water samples from the raffinate pits con- tained large concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, sulfate, nitrite, lithium, moly- bdenum, strontium, vanadium, and uranium. Analyses of interstitial-water samples from raffinate pit 3 indicated that concentrations of most constituents increased with increasing depth below the water- sediment interface. Nitrate and uranium were not chemically reduced and attenuated within the raffinate pits and can be expected to migrate into the overburden. Laboratory sorption experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of pH value on the sorption of several raffinate constituents by the overburden. No sorption of calcium, sodium, sulfate, nitrate, or lithium was observed. Sorption of molybdenum was dependent on solution pH and sorption of uranium was dependent on solution pH and carbonate concentration. The sorption of uranium and molybdenum was consistent with sorption controlled by oxyhydroxides. The quality of water collected in overburden lysimeters near raffinate pit 4 can be modeled as a mixture of water from raffinate pits 3 and 4, and an uncontaminated com- ponent in a system at equilibrium with ferrihydrite and calcite. Increased constituent concentrations in a perennial spring north of the site were the result of a subsurface connection between the spring and several losing stream segments receiving runoff from the site, in addition to seepage from the raffinate pits.

  1. Assessment of endocrine-disrupting chemicals attenuation in a coastal plain stream prior to wastewater treatment plant closure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste A.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a combined pre/post-closure assessment at a long-term wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) site at Fort Gordon near Augusta, Georgia. Here, we assess select endocrine-active chemicals and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure prior to closure of the WWTP. Substantial downstream transport and limited instream attenuation of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) was observed in Spirit Creek over a 2.2-km stream segment downstream of the WWTP outfall. A modest decline (less than 20% in all cases) in surface water detections was observed with increasing distance downstream of the WWTP and attributed to partitioning to the sediment. Estrogens detected in surface water in this study included estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3). The 5 ng/l and higher mean estrogen concentrations observed in downstream locations indicated that the potential for endocrine disruption was substantial. Concentrations of alkylphenol ethoxylate (APE) metabolite EDCs also remained statistically elevated above levels observed at the upstream control site. Wastewater-derived pharmaceutical and APE metabolites were detected in the outflow of Spirit Lake, indicating the potential for EDC transport to aquatic ecosystems downstream of Fort Gordon. The results indicate substantial EDC occurrence, downstream transport, and persistence under continuous supply conditions and provide a baseline for a rare evaluation of ecosystem response to WWTP closure.

  2. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of plant extracts from Clausena dentata (Willd) (Rutaceae) against dengue, malaria, and filariasis vectors.

    PubMed

    Manjari, Murugesan Susitra; Karthi, Sengodan; Ramkumar, Govindaraju; Muthusamy, Ranganathan; Natarajan, Devarajan; Shivakumar, Muthugoundar Subramanian

    2014-07-01

    Mosquitoes in the larval stage are attractive targets for pesticides because mosquitoes breed in water, and thus, it is easy to deal with them in this habitat. The use of conventional pesticides in the water sources, however, introduces many risks to people and/or the environment. Natural pesticides, especially those derived from plants, are more promising in this aspect. Aromatic plants and their essential oils are very important sources of many compounds that are used in different respects. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative to chemical insecticides. Acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and petroleum benzine leaf extracts of Clausena dentata were tested against the fourth instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The highest larval mortality was found in acetone leaf extract, C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 0.150278 mg/ml; LC90 = 7.302613 mg/ml), A. aegypti (LC50 = 0.169495 mg/ml; LC90 = 1.10034 mg/ml), and A. stephensi (LC50 = 0.045684 mg/ml; LC90 = 0.045684 mg/ml). GC-MS analysis of plant extracts of acetone solvent revealed 16 compounds, of which the major compounds were benzene,1,2,3-trimethoxy-5-(2-propenyl) (14.97%), Z,Z-6,28-heptatriactontadien-2-one (6.81%), 2-allyl-4-methylphenol (28.14%), 2-allyl-4-methylphenol (17.34%), and 2,6,10,14,18,22-tetracosahexaene, 2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl (10.35%). Our result shows acetone leaf extracts of C. dentata have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for mosquito control. PMID:24802866

  3. Chemical Interactions of Uranium in Water, Sediments, and Plants Along a Watershed Adjacent to the Abandoned Jackpile Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, J.; De Vore, C. L.; Avasarala, S.; Ali, A.; Roldan, C.; Bowers, F.; Spilde, M.; Artyushkova, K.; Cerrato, J.

    2015-12-01

    The chemical interactions, mobility, and plant uptake of uranium (U) near abandoned mine wastes was investigated along the Rio Paguate, adjacent to the Jackpile Mine, located in Laguna Pueblo, New Mexico. Elevated U concentrations in surface water adjacent to mine waste range from 30 to 710 μg/L seasonally and decrease to 5.77 to 10.0 μg/L at a wetland 4.5 kilometers downstream of the mine. Although U concentrations in stream water are elevated, aqua regia acid digestions performed on co-located stream bed and stream bank sediments reveal that there is limited U accumulation on sediments along the reach between the mine and wetland, with most sediment concentrations being near the 3 mg/kg crustal average. However, U concentrations in sediments in the wetland are 4 times the background concentrations in the area. Individual results from salt cedar roots, stems, and leaves collected along the river transect show higher U concentrations in the roots adjacent to the mine waste (20 and 55 mg/kg) and lower in the stems and leaves. Translocation values calculated below 1 are evident in many of the plant samples, suggesting that U root to shoot translocation is minimal and U is accumulating in the roots. Concentrations of U in salt cedar roots from downstream of the mine waste decrease to 15 mg/kg. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis on sediment samples adjacent to the mine waste show a 75:25% ratio of Fe(III) to Fe(II), which can have an effect on adsorption properties. Electron microprobe results suggest that the ore in this area is present as a uranium-phosphate phase. Our results suggest that dilution, uptake by plants, and U sorption to wetland sediments are the dominant factors that help to decrease the U concentrations downstream of the mine.

  4. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of plant extracts from Clausena dentata (Willd) (Rutaceae) against dengue, malaria, and filariasis vectors.

    PubMed

    Manjari, Murugesan Susitra; Karthi, Sengodan; Ramkumar, Govindaraju; Muthusamy, Ranganathan; Natarajan, Devarajan; Shivakumar, Muthugoundar Subramanian

    2014-07-01

    Mosquitoes in the larval stage are attractive targets for pesticides because mosquitoes breed in water, and thus, it is easy to deal with them in this habitat. The use of conventional pesticides in the water sources, however, introduces many risks to people and/or the environment. Natural pesticides, especially those derived from plants, are more promising in this aspect. Aromatic plants and their essential oils are very important sources of many compounds that are used in different respects. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative to chemical insecticides. Acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and petroleum benzine leaf extracts of Clausena dentata were tested against the fourth instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The highest larval mortality was found in acetone leaf extract, C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 0.150278 mg/ml; LC90 = 7.302613 mg/ml), A. aegypti (LC50 = 0.169495 mg/ml; LC90 = 1.10034 mg/ml), and A. stephensi (LC50 = 0.045684 mg/ml; LC90 = 0.045684 mg/ml). GC-MS analysis of plant extracts of acetone solvent revealed 16 compounds, of which the major compounds were benzene,1,2,3-trimethoxy-5-(2-propenyl) (14.97%), Z,Z-6,28-heptatriactontadien-2-one (6.81%), 2-allyl-4-methylphenol (28.14%), 2-allyl-4-methylphenol (17.34%), and 2,6,10,14,18,22-tetracosahexaene, 2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl (10.35%). Our result shows acetone leaf extracts of C. dentata have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for mosquito control.

  5. Candidate glass-ceramic waste forms for immobilization of the calcines stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Vinjamuri, K.

    1995-11-01

    Candidate glass-ceramic waste forms for immobilizaion of the major types of calcines stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) were synthesized and characterized. The waste forms were prepared by hot isostatically pressing a mixture 70 wt% of precompacted simulated non-radioactive calcine and 30 wt% additives (Silica and Al or Ti metal powders). The types of calcines stored in stainless steel Bin Sets at the ICPP are fluorinel/sodium (Fl/Na), alumina, zirconia, zirconia/sodium (Zr/Na), and zirconia-alumina (Zr-AD. In addition to the silica additive, glass-ceramics for Fl/NA and alumina calcines were prepared and characterized using ICPP soil and clay additives. The characteristics of the waste forms including density, elastic properties, chemical durability, glass and crystalline phases, phases separation, and the microstructure were investigated. The 28-day MCC-1 test for chemical durability was used for all the waste forms. In addition, the Product Consistency Test (PCI) was conducted for the glass-ceramics, and the normalized elemental releases in g/m{sup 2} were compared with the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. The characteristics of the soil and clay glass-ceramics appear to be as good as the waste forms prepared with silica. The glass-ceramic waste forms recommended are: 5Ti-Clay, or 5Ti-SoiL or 5Ti-Silica for the fluorinel/sodium calcine-, Clay or silica for the alumina calcine; and 5Ti-Silica for the zirconia, Zr/Na, and Zr-Al calcines. Soil- and clay-based glass- ceramics offer an opportunity to incorporate contaminated waste into durable low volume waste forms.

  6. Performance evaluation of vinasse treatment plant integrated with physico-chemical methods.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Sanjay Kumar; Mishra, Snehasish; Kumar, Satish; Mohanty, Shakti Shankar; Sarkar, Biplab; Singh, Monika; Chaudhury, Gautam Roy

    2015-11-01

    With an objective to assess environmental management criteria of a vinasse treatment plant (VTP) and to evaluate the critical environmental parameters, a study was undertaken in a multi-product (packaged apple juice, distillery, brewery, packaged drinking water) brewery-cum-distillery unit. The facility with a volumetric loading rate of 11-15 kg COD m(-3).day, 3.6-4.5 h hydraulic retention time and 20 g l(-1) VSS had a scientifically managed technically sound effluent treatment system. While the water quality parameters were found within the acceptable limits, there was 99.07% reduction in BOD, from 43140.0 to 398.0 mg l(-1) and 98.61% reduction in COD from 98003.0 to 1357.0 mg l(-1). There was appreciable improvement in mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS), mixed liquorvolatile suspended solids (MLVSS) and sludge volume index (SVI). A striking feature was the integrated aerobic-anaerobic highly efficient Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) treatment for biodegradation and energy production that reduced energy and space needs, producing utilisable end-products and net savings on the operational cost. The end-point waste management included terminal products such as fertile sludge, cattle feed supplement, recyclable water and biogas. Vast lagoons with combined aerobic-anaerobic approaches, biogasification unit, sludge recovery, remediated irrigable water were the notable attributes. PMID:26688960

  7. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from the edible aromatic plant Aristolochia delavayi.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Jian; Njateng, Guy S S; He, Wen-Jia; Zhang, Hong-Xia; Gu, Jian-Long; Chen, Shan-Na; Du, Zhi-Zhi

    2013-11-01

    The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Aristolochia delavayi Franch. (Aristolochiaceae), a unique edible aromatic plant consumed by the Nakhi (Naxi) people in Yunnan, China, was investigated using GC/MS analysis. In total, 95 components, representing more than 95% of the oil composition, were identified, and the main constituents found were (E)-dec-2-enal (52.0%), (E)-dodec-2-enal (6.8%), dodecanal (3.35%), heptanal (2.88%), and decanal (2.63%). The essential oil showed strong inhibitory activity (96% reduction) of the production of bacterial volatile sulfide compounds (VSC) by Klebsiella pneumoniae, an effect that was comparable with that of the reference compound citral (91% reduction). Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and the isolated major compound against eight bacterial and six fungal strains were evaluated. The essential oil showed significant antibacterial activity against Providencia stuartii and Escherichia coli, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 3.9 to 62.5 μg/ml. The oil also showed strong inhibitory activity against the fungal strains Trichophyton ajelloi, Trichophyton terrestre, Candida glabrata, Candida guilliermondii, and Cryptococcus neoformans, with MIC values ranging from 3.9 to 31.25 μg/ml, while (E)-dec-2-enal presented a lower antifungal activity than the essential oil. PMID:24243612

  8. Chemical constitution and effect of extracts of tomato plants byproducts on the enteric viral surrogates.

    PubMed

    Silva-Beltrán, Norma Patricia; Ruiz-Cruz, Saul; Chaidez, Cristobal; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús; López-Mata, Marco A; Márquez-Ríos, Enrique; Estrada, Maria Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Byproducts of tomato are known to include phenolic compounds but have not been studied in depth. In this study, the phenolic compositions of (stem, leaf, root, and whole plant) of two tomato cultivars, Pitenza and Floradade, were analyzed by HPLC-DAD. In parallel, the antiviral effects of crude extracts on viral surrogates, the bacteriophages MS2 and Av-05 were evaluated. The leaf extracts from the two varieties showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds. The compounds identified were gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, cafeic acid, rutin, and quercetin, and they represented 3174.3 and 1057.9 mg/100 g dried weight of the Pitenza and Floradade cultivars, respectively. MS2 and Av-05 titers at 5 mg/mL were reduced by 3.47 and 5.78 log10 PFU/mL and 3.78 and 4.93 log10 PFU/mL by Pitenza and Floradade cultivar leaf extract, respectively. These results show that tomato extracts are natural sources of bioactive substances with antiviral activity.

  9. Chemical characterization of emissions from a municipal solid waste treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Moreno, A I; Arnáiz, N; Font, R; Carratalá, A

    2014-11-01

    Gaseous emissions are an important problem in municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment plants. The sources points of emissions considered in the present work are: fresh compost, mature compost, landfill leaks and leachate ponds. Hydrogen sulphide, ammonia and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analysed in the emissions from these sources. Hydrogen sulphide and ammonia were important contributors to the total emission volume. Landfill leaks are significant source points of emissions of H2S; the average concentration of H2S in biogas from the landfill leaks is around 1700 ppmv. The fresh composting site was also an important contributor of H2S to the total emission volume; its concentration varied between 3.2 and 1.7 ppmv and a decrease with time was observed. The mature composting site showed a reduction of H2S concentration (<0.1 ppmv). Leachate pond showed a low concentration of H2S (in order of ppbv). Regarding NH3, composting sites and landfill leaks are notable source points of emissions (composting sites varied around 30-600 ppmv; biogas from landfill leaks varied from 160 to 640 ppmv). Regarding VOCs, the main compounds were: limonene, p-cymene, pinene, cyclohexane, reaching concentrations around 0.2-4.3 ppmv. H2S/NH3, limonene/p-cymene, limonene/cyclohexane ratios can be useful for analysing and identifying the emission sources.

  10. Chemical constitution and effect of extracts of tomato plants byproducts on the enteric viral surrogates.

    PubMed

    Silva-Beltrán, Norma Patricia; Ruiz-Cruz, Saul; Chaidez, Cristobal; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús; López-Mata, Marco A; Márquez-Ríos, Enrique; Estrada, Maria Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Byproducts of tomato are known to include phenolic compounds but have not been studied in depth. In this study, the phenolic compositions of (stem, leaf, root, and whole plant) of two tomato cultivars, Pitenza and Floradade, were analyzed by HPLC-DAD. In parallel, the antiviral effects of crude extracts on viral surrogates, the bacteriophages MS2 and Av-05 were evaluated. The leaf extracts from the two varieties showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds. The compounds identified were gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, cafeic acid, rutin, and quercetin, and they represented 3174.3 and 1057.9 mg/100 g dried weight of the Pitenza and Floradade cultivars, respectively. MS2 and Av-05 titers at 5 mg/mL were reduced by 3.47 and 5.78 log10 PFU/mL and 3.78 and 4.93 log10 PFU/mL by Pitenza and Floradade cultivar leaf extract, respectively. These results show that tomato extracts are natural sources of bioactive substances with antiviral activity. PMID:25059828

  11. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS FROM LAMIACEAE FAMILY.

    PubMed

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Laudy, Agnieszka E; Przybył, Jarosław; Ziarno, Małgorzata; Majewska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of aqueous (ethanolic and methanolic) extracts from herbs often used in Polish cuisine and traditional herbal medicine including thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) and sage (Salvia officinalis L.) were compared. The aqueous ethanolic extracts contained slightly higher levels of phenolics compared to the aqueous methanolic extracts. In turn, GC-MS analysis showed that the aqueous methanolic extracts of thyme, rosemary and sage contained several additional compounds such as eugenol or ledol. The present studies also indicated that the bacterial species applied in the experiment exhibited different sensitivities towards tested extracts. Staphylococcus aureus strains were found to be the most sensitive bacteria to aqueous (ethanolic and methanolic) rosemary and sage extracts and aqueous methanolic thyme extract. Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883 and Proteus vulgaris NCTC 4635 were more susceptible to the aqueous methanolic thyme extract. However, Listeria monocytogenes 1043S was the most sensitive to the aqueous ethanolic rosemary extract. Gram-positive bacteria were generally more sensitive to the tested extracts than Gram-negative ones. PMID:26647633

  12. Bioactivity of chemically transformed humic matter from vermicompost on plant root growth.

    PubMed

    Dobbss, Leonardo Barros; Pasqualoto Canellas, Luciano; Lopes Olivares, Fábio; Oliveira Aguiar, Natália; Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira; Azevedo, Mariana; Spaccini, Riccardo; Piccolo, Alessandro; Façanha, Arnoldo R

    2010-03-24

    Chemical reactions (hydrolysis, oxidation, reduction, methylation, alkyl compounds detachment) were applied to modify the structure of humic substances (HS) isolated from vermicompost. Structural and conformational changes of these humic derivatives were assessed by elemental analyses, size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC), solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C CPMAS-NMR), and diffusion ordered spectroscopy (DOSY-NMR), whereas their bioactivity was evaluated by changes in root architecture and proton pump activation of tomato and maize. All humic derivatives exhibited a large bioactivity compared to original HS, both KMnO(4)-oxidized and methylated materials being the most effective. Whereas no general relationship was found between bioactivity and humic molecular sizes, the hydrophobicity index was significantly related with proton pump stimulation. It is suggested that the hydrophobic domain can preserve bioactive molecules such as auxins in the humic matter. In contact with root-exuded organic acids the hydrophobic weak forces could be disrupted, releasing bioactive compounds from humic aggregates. These findings were further supported by the fact that HS and all derivatives used in this study activated the auxin synthetic reporter DR5::GUS. PMID:20232906

  13. Industrial-hygiene survey report of Borg Warner Chemicals, Inc. , Woodmar Plant, Washington, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.

    1986-08-01

    Due to possible worker exposure to 1,3-butadiene, a walk-through industrial-hygiene survey was conducted at Borg Warner Chemicals Woodmar Facility, Washington, West Virginia. The primary products of the facility are ABS plastics, polybutadiene latex and styrene butadiene rubber latex. In September 1981, a butadiene recovery system was added to the process vent streams. Of the total work force, 54 employees have potential for exposure to 1,3-butadiene. The mean 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) of 23 personal samples collected during several periods in 1983 and 1985 was 4.5 parts per million (ppm). Analysis of a bulk sample showed traces of 1,3-butadiene, in the 0.04 to 0.2 nanograms/milligram range. The exposures to 1,3-butadiene were greater than 10ppm for two job classifications, control room and high heat operators. The company has accurate records on terminated and current employees. The author concludes that the facility is a candidate for inclusion in an in-depth industrial hygiene survey regarding 1,3-butadiene. Recommendations were given.

  14. Power-plant fly-ash utilization: a chemical processing perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Burnet, G.; Murtha, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The 1976 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) deals with the management of solid and hazardous wastes, and encourages energy and resource recovery. Recent research has indicated that solid wastes from coal combustion, including fly ash, could be classified as hazardous under present EPA definitions. The seriousness of this possibility has been recognized and new rules for coal ash waste disposal are being considered. Ames Laboratory research on fly ash utilization as an alternative to disposal includes extraction of metals from the ash and discovery of uses for the process residues. Recovery of alumina and iron oxides by physical and chemical processing would permit large scale utilization of fly ash and help reduce dependency on imports. One of the processes investigated uses a lime-soda sinter method to form soluble aluminate compounds from mixtures of fly ash, limestone, and soda ash. The aluminates are extracted, treated to remove silicates, and precipitated: the precipitate is calcined to metallurgical grade alumina. The extract residue shows promise as a raw material for the production of Portland cement. Process economics are presented, and the effects of alumina and silica contents of the fly ash, sintering temperatures and time, and sales credits for by-products are discussed.

  15. Plant absorption of trace elements in sludge amended soils and correlation with soil chemical speciation.

    PubMed

    Torri, Silvana; Lavado, Raúl

    2009-07-30

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between Lolium perenne L. uptake of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in sludge amended soils and soil availability of these elements assessed by soil sequential extraction. A greenhouse experiment was set with three representative soils of the Pampas Region, Argentina, amended with sewage sludge and sewage sludge enriched with its own incinerated ash. After the stabilization period of 60 days, half of the pots were sampled for soil analysis; the rest of the pots were sown with L. perenne and harvested 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks after sowing, by cutting just above the soil surface. Cadmium and Pb concentrations in aerial tissues of L. perenne were below detection limits, in good agreement with the soil fractionation study. Copper and Zn concentration in the first harvest were significantly higher in the coarse textured soil compared to the fine textured soil, in contrast with soil chemical speciation. In the third harvest, there was a positive correlation between Cu and Zn concentration in aerial biomass and soil fractions usually considered of low availability. We conclude that the most available fractions obtained by soil sequential extraction did not provide the best indicator of Cu and Zn availability to L. perenne.

  16. Bioactivity of chemically transformed humic matter from vermicompost on plant root growth.

    PubMed

    Dobbss, Leonardo Barros; Pasqualoto Canellas, Luciano; Lopes Olivares, Fábio; Oliveira Aguiar, Natália; Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira; Azevedo, Mariana; Spaccini, Riccardo; Piccolo, Alessandro; Façanha, Arnoldo R

    2010-03-24

    Chemical reactions (hydrolysis, oxidation, reduction, methylation, alkyl compounds detachment) were applied to modify the structure of humic substances (HS) isolated from vermicompost. Structural and conformational changes of these humic derivatives were assessed by elemental analyses, size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC), solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C CPMAS-NMR), and diffusion ordered spectroscopy (DOSY-NMR), whereas their bioactivity was evaluated by changes in root architecture and proton pump activation of tomato and maize. All humic derivatives exhibited a large bioactivity compared to original HS, both KMnO(4)-oxidized and methylated materials being the most effective. Whereas no general relationship was found between bioactivity and humic molecular sizes, the hydrophobicity index was significantly related with proton pump stimulation. It is suggested that the hydrophobic domain can preserve bioactive molecules such as auxins in the humic matter. In contact with root-exuded organic acids the hydrophobic weak forces could be disrupted, releasing bioactive compounds from humic aggregates. These findings were further supported by the fact that HS and all derivatives used in this study activated the auxin synthetic reporter DR5::GUS.

  17. Mercury speciation in highly contaminated soils from chlor-alkali plants using chemical extractions.

    PubMed

    Neculita, Carmen-Mihaela; Zagury, Gérald J; Deschênes, Louise

    2005-01-01

    A four-step novel sequential extraction procedure (SEP) was developed to assess Hg fractionation and mobility in three highly contaminated soils from chlor-alkali plants (CAPs). The SEP was validated using a certified reference material (CRM) and pure Hg compounds. Total, volatile, and methyl Hg concentrations were also determined using single extractions. Mercury was separated into four fractions defined as water-soluble (F1), exchangeable (F2) (0.5 M NH4Ac-EDTA and 1 M CaCl2 were tested), organic (F3) (successive extractions with 0.2 M NaOH and CH3COOH 4% [v/v]), and residual (F4) (HNO3 + H2SO4 + HClO4). The soil characterization revealed extremely contaminated (295 +/- 18 to 11 500 +/- 500 mg Hg kg(-1)) coarse-grained sandy soils having an alkaline pH (7.9-9.1), high chloride concentrations (5-35 mg kg(-1)), and very low organic carbon content (0.00-18.2 g kg(-1)). Methyl Hg concentrations were low (0.2-19.3 microg kg(-1)) in all soils. Sequential extractions indicated that the majority of the Hg was associated with the residual fraction (F4). In Soils 1 and 3, however, high percentages (88-98%) of the total Hg were present as volatile Hg. Therefore, in these two soils, a high proportion of volatile Hg was present in the residual fraction. The nonresidual fraction (F1 + F2 + F3) was most abundant in Soil 1 (14-42%), suggesting a higher availability of Hg in this soil. The developed and validated SEP was reproducible and efficient for highly contaminated samples. Recovery ranged between 93 and 98% for the CRM and 70 and 130% for the CAP-contaminated soils.

  18. Chemical composition and efficacy of some selected plant oils against Pediculus humanus capitis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yones, Doaa A; Bakir, Hanaa Y; Bayoumi, Soad A L

    2016-08-01

    Natural compounds have been suggested as alternative sources for pediculosis capitis control. We aimed to investigate the chemical composition and evaluate the pediculicidal activity of spearmint, clove, cassia, thyme, eucalyptus, and anise essential oils in addition to sesame oil against human head lice in vitro. A filter paper contact bioassay method was used by applying 0.25 and 0.5 mg/cm(2) of each tested oil to filter paper in Petri dishes with 15 females head lice and another with ten nits. The lice mortalities were reported every 5 min for 180 min. The percentage of inhibition of hatch (PIH) was used to calculate ovicidal activity by daily microscopic inspections 5 days after the hatching of controls. Comparison with the widely used pediculicide (malathion) was performed. The most effective essential oil was spearmint followed by cassia and clove with KT50 values of 4.06, 7.62, and 12.12 at 0.5 mg/cm(2) and 8.84, 11.38, and 19.73 at 0.25 mg/cm(2), respectively. Thyme, eucalyptus, and anise were also effective adulticides with KT50 values of 18.61, 32.65, and 37.34 at 0.5 mg/cm(2) and 29.92, 43.16, and 45.37 at 0.25 mg/cm(2), respectively. Essential oils were also successful in inhibiting nymph emergence. Spearmint oil was the most effective, with a complete inhibition of emergence at 0.5 mg/cm(2). Sesame fixed oil did not show any adulticidal or ovicidal activity against head lice in vitro. The observed insecticidal activity was comparable to malathion. The results herein described the effectiveness of these essential oils as potential pediculicides for head lice control. Incorporation of essential oils in pediculicide formulations needs proper formulation and clinical trials. PMID:27112758

  19. Reconstructing the Fastest Chemical and Electrical Signalling Responses to Microgravity Stress in Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugnai, Sergio; Pandolfi, Camilla; Masi, Elisa; Azzarello, Elisa; Voigt, Boris; Baluska, Frantisek; Volkmann, Dieter; Mancuso, Stefano

    Plants are particularly suited to study the response of a living organism to gravity as they are extremely sensitive to its changes. Gravity perception is a well-studied phenomenon, but the chain of events related to signal transduction and transmission still suffers lack of information. Preliminary results obtained in previous parabolic flight campaigns (PFCs) by our Lab show that microgravity (¡0.05g), but not hypergravity (1.8g), repeatedly induced immediate (less than 1.5 s) oxygen bursts when maize roots experienced loss of gravity forces. Interestingly, these changes were located exclusively in the apex, but not in the mature zone of the root. Ground experiments have also revealed the onset of strong and rapid electrical responses in maize root apices subjected to stress, which lead to the hypothesis of an intrinsic capacity of the root apex to generate functional networks. Experiments during the 49th and 51st ESA PFCs were aimed 1) to find out if the different consumption of oxygen at root level recorded in the previous PFCs can lead to a subsequent local emissions of ROS in living root apices; 2) to study the space-temporal pattern of the neuronal network generated by roots under gravity changing conditions; 3) to evaluate the onset of synchronization events during gravity changes conditions. Concerning oxygen bursts, results indicate that they probably implicate a strong generation of ROS (such as nitric oxide) matching exactly the microgravity events suggesting that the sensing mechanism is not only related to a general mechanical stress (i.e. tensegrity model, present also during hypergravity), but can be specific for the microgravity event. To further investigate this hypothesis we studied the distributed/synchronized electrical activity of cells by the use of a Multi-Electrode Array (MEA). The main results obtained are: root transition zone (TZ) showed a higher spike rate activity compared to the mature zone (MZ). Also, microgravity appeared to

  20. Testing of different plants to determine influence of physico-chemical properties and contaminants content on municipal sewage sludges phytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2010-02-01

    This study attempts to evaluate the Phytotoxkit as a tool for measuring the toxicity of municipal sewage sludges using 10 common plants: mustard, turnip, cress, red clover, cucumber, tomato, radish, sorrel, and spinach. The results were used to determine a germination index (GI) and a median effective concentration (EC) value for each plant. The trace metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminant content and the physical-chemical properties were examined. Most sewage sludges were characterized by an unfavorable electrical conductivity value of about 5.2 mS/cm(-1). The most abundant trace metals were zinc (Zn) at 871-1680 mg kg(-1), manganese (Mn) at 245-661 mg kg(-1), and copper (Cu) at 88.2-161.0 mg kg(-1). The lowest values were determined for cobalt (Co) at 2.9-3.8 mg kg(-1) and cadmium (Cd) at 0.7-3.7 mg kg(-1). The PAH sum was based on 10 individual compounds (USE EPA), and the PAH content ranged from 4.76 to 27.95 mg kg(-1), most of the sewage sludges showing a predomination by carcinogenic PAHs. The GI values, based on seed germination and root growth inhibition bioassays, showed increasing plant sensitivity to the tested sewage sludges in the following order: cress > turnip > mustard > sorrel > tomato > sorgo > red clover > radish > cucumber > spinach. The EC50 sewage sludge values lay in the range 31-404 g/kg of soil, and significant relationships were found for most of the plants between EC50 and the magnesium content (Mg(2+): alpha = 0.888-0.924, P = 0.05), calcium content (Ca(2+): alpha = 0.813-0.911, P < or = 0.05), and pH (alpha = -0.913-0.948, P = 0.05). In the case of sewage sludge pollutants, significant relationships were found for trace metals such as: strontium (Sr: alpha = 0.851-0.948, P < or = 0.05), chromium (Cr: alpha = 0.858, P < or = 0.05), and nickel (Ni: alpha = 0.955, P = 0.05), as well as pyrene (PAHs). PMID:19161235

  1. Enzymes from fungal and plant origin required for chemical diversification of insecticidal loline alkaloids in grass-Epichloë symbiota.

    PubMed

    Pan, Juan; Bhardwaj, Minakshi; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Grossman, Robert B; Schardl, Christopher L

    2014-01-01

    The lolines are a class of bioprotective alkaloids that are produced by Epichloë species, fungal endophytes of grasses. These alkaloids are saturated 1-aminopyrrolizidines with a C2 to C7 ether bridge, and are structurally differentiated by the various modifications of the 1-amino group: -NH2 (norloline), -NHCH3 (loline), -N(CH3)2 (N-methylloline), -N(CH3)Ac (N-acetylloline), -NHAc (N-acetylnorloline), and -N(CH3)CHO (N-formylloline). Other than the LolP cytochrome P450, which is required for conversion of N-methylloline to N-formylloline, the enzymatic steps for loline diversification have not yet been established. Through isotopic labeling, we determined that N-acetylnorloline is the first fully cyclized loline alkaloid, implying that deacetylation, methylation, and acetylation steps are all involved in loline alkaloid diversification. Two genes of the loline alkaloid biosynthesis (LOL) gene cluster, lolN and lolM, were predicted to encode an N-acetamidase (deacetylase) and a methyltransferase, respectively. A knockout strain lacking both lolN and lolM stopped the biosynthesis at N-acetylnorloline, and complementation with the two wild-type genes restored production of N-formylloline and N-acetylloline. These results indicated that lolN and lolM are required in the steps from N-acetylnorloline to other lolines. The function of LolM as an N-methyltransferase was confirmed by its heterologous expression in yeast resulting in conversion of norloline to loline, and of loline to N-methylloline. One of the more abundant lolines, N-acetylloline, was observed in some but not all plants with symbiotic Epichloë siegelii, and when provided with exogenous loline, asymbiotic meadow fescue (Lolium pratense) plants produced N-acetylloline, suggesting that a plant acetyltransferase catalyzes N-acetylloline formation. We conclude that although most loline alkaloid biosynthesis reactions are catalyzed by fungal enzymes, both fungal and plant enzymes are responsible for the

  2. Enzymes from Fungal and Plant Origin Required for Chemical Diversification of Insecticidal Loline Alkaloids in Grass-Epichloë Symbiota

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Juan; Bhardwaj, Minakshi; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Grossman, Robert B.; Schardl, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    The lolines are a class of bioprotective alkaloids that are produced by Epichloë species, fungal endophytes of grasses. These alkaloids are saturated 1-aminopyrrolizidines with a C2 to C7 ether bridge, and are structurally differentiated by the various modifications of the 1-amino group: -NH2 (norloline), -NHCH3 (loline), -N(CH3)2 (N-methylloline), -N(CH3)Ac (N-acetylloline), -NHAc (N-acetylnorloline), and -N(CH3)CHO (N-formylloline). Other than the LolP cytochrome P450, which is required for conversion of N-methylloline to N-formylloline, the enzymatic steps for loline diversification have not yet been established. Through isotopic labeling, we determined that N-acetylnorloline is the first fully cyclized loline alkaloid, implying that deacetylation, methylation, and acetylation steps are all involved in loline alkaloid diversification. Two genes of the loline alkaloid biosynthesis (LOL) gene cluster, lolN and lolM, were predicted to encode an N-acetamidase (deacetylase) and a methyltransferase, respectively. A knockout strain lacking both lolN and lolM stopped the biosynthesis at N-acetylnorloline, and complementation with the two wild-type genes restored production of N-formylloline and N-acetylloline. These results indicated that lolN and lolM are required in the steps from N-acetylnorloline to other lolines. The function of LolM as an N-methyltransferase was confirmed by its heterologous expression in yeast resulting in conversion of norloline to loline, and of loline to N-methylloline. One of the more abundant lolines, N-acetylloline, was observed in some but not all plants with symbiotic Epichloë siegelii, and when provided with exogenous loline, asymbiotic meadow fescue (Lolium pratense) plants produced N-acetylloline, suggesting that a plant acetyltransferase catalyzes N-acetylloline formation. We conclude that although most loline alkaloid biosynthesis reactions are catalyzed by fungal enzymes, both fungal and plant enzymes are responsible for the

  3. Do chemical gradients within soil aggregates reflect plant/soil interactions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Jaane; Hallas, Till; Kinsch, Lena; Stahr, Simon; Prietzel, Jörg; Lang, Friederike

    2016-04-01

    -specific: On P-rich study sites the results reveal a significant depletion of citric acid-extractable PO4 and P on aggregate surfaces in subsoil horizons, while at the other study sites a slight enrichment at the aggregate surfaces could be observed. Total P concentrations show no distinct gradients within topsoil aggregates, but a slight P enrichment at the surface of subsoil aggregates at the P-rich site. A strong correlation with the total Al concentrations may indicate a P speciation change within aggregates (e.g., due to acidification processes). These results were also confirmed by P K-edge XANES spectra of aggregate core and shell samples of the P-rich site: In the aggregate shells of topsoil as well as subsoil aggregates, organic P forms are most dominant (82 and 80 %, respectively) than in the aggregate interior (54 and 66%, respectively). Moreover, P in the shell seems to be completely associated to Al, whereas some of the P in the aggregate interior is bound to Fe and/or Ca. Overall, our results show that plant/soil interactions impact on small-scale distribution and bioavailability of nutrients by root uptake and root-induced aggregate engineering.

  4. Chemical interactions in isolated coal-fired power plant plumes: conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfate aerosols. Volume II. Data supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Meagher, J.F.; Bailey, E.M.; Stockburger, L. III

    1981-03-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has conducted several field experiments to examine the chemical interactions in isolated coal-fired power plant plumes, Particularly the conversion of sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) to sulfate (SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/) aerosols. Six field studies have been conducted at three TVA power plants - Cumberland, paradise, and Colbert Steam Plants - each of which has a different boiler configuration. Studies were conducted during all seasons of the year. Samples were usually collected between sunrise and noon; however, at Cumberland and Paradise Steam Plants, samples were also collected in the afternoon and after sunset. The effect of several meteorological parameters on the conversion rate was investigated from the results of these studies. During one study at Cumberland Steam Plant, samples were taken during periods of reduced and normal electrostatic precipitator (ESP) operation; results from this study were used to investigate the effect of particle loading in the plume on the conversion rate.

  5. Chemical inducible promoter used to obtain transgenic plants with a silent marker and organisms and cells and methods of using same for screening for mutations

    DOEpatents

    Zuo, Jianru; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2007-06-12

    Disclosed is a chemically inducible promoter for transforming plants or plant cells with genes which are regulatable by adding the plants or cells to a medium containing an inducer or by removing them from such medium. The promoter is inducible by a glucocorticoid, estrogen or inducer not endogenous to plants. Such promoters may be used with any plant genes that can promote shoot regeneration and development to induce shoot formation in the presence of a glucocorticoid, estrogen or inducer. The promoter may be used with antibiotic or herbicide resistance genes or other genes which are regulatable by the presence or absence of a given inducer. Also presented are organisms or cells comprising a gene wherein the natural promoter of the gene is disrupted and the gene is placed under the control of a transgenic inducible promoter. These organisms and cells and their progeny are useful for screening for conditional gain of function and loss of function mutations.

  6. Proposed plan for remedial action for the Groundwater Operable Unit at the Chemical Plant Area of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    1999-08-10

    This Proposed Plan addresses the remediation of groundwater contamination at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site is located approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis in St. Charles County . Remedial activities at the site will be conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of the Army (DA), conducted a joint remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) to allow for a comprehensive evaluation of groundwater conditions at the Weldon Spring chemical plant area and the Weldon Spring ordnance works area, which is an Army site adjacent to the chemical plant area. Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. That is, the analysis conducted and presented in the RVFS reports included an evaluation of environmental impacts that is comparable to that performed under NEPA. This Proposed Plan summarizes information about chemical plant area groundwater that is presented in the following documents: (1) The Remedial Investigation (RI), which presents information on the nature and extent of contamination; (2) The Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA), which evaluates impacts to human health and the environment that could occur if no cleanup action of the groundwater were taken (DOE and DA 1997a); and (3) The Feasibility Study (FS) and the Supplemental FS, which develop and evaluate remedial action alternatives for groundwater remediation.

  7. Chemical and plant tests to assess the viability of amendments to reduce metal availability in mine soils and tailings.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Luis; Gómez, Rocío; Sánchez, Virtudes; Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this research was to assess the potential of several industrial wastes to immobilise metals in two polluted soils deriving from an old Pb/Zn mine. Two different approaches were used to assess the performance of different amendments: a chemical one, using extraction by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and a biological one, using Lupinus albus as a bio-indicator. Four amendments were used: inorganic sugar production waste (named 'sugar foam', SF), sludge from a drinking water treatment sludge (DWS), organic waste from olive mill waste (OMW) and paper mill sludge (PMS). Amendment to soil ratios ranged from 0.1 to 0.3 (w/w). All the amendments were capable of significantly decreasing (p < 0.05) EDTA-extractable Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations in the two soils used, with decreases in ranges 21-100, 25-100 and 2-100 % for Pb, Zn and Cu, respectively. The amendments tested were also effective in reducing the bioavailability of Pb and Zn for L. albus, which gave rise to a decrease in shoot metal accumulation by the lupine plants compared to that found in the control soil. That decrease reached up to 5.6 and 2.8 times for Pb and Zn, respectively, being statistically significant in most cases. Moreover, application of the OMW, DWS and SF amendments led to higher average values of plant biomass (up to 71%) than those obtained in the control soil. The results obtained showed the technology put forward to be a viable means of remediating mine soils as it led to a decrease in the availability and toxicity of metals and, thus, facilitated the growth of a vegetation layer. PMID:25772873

  8. Chemical, biomedical and ecological studies of SRC-I materials from the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant: a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Mahlum, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    This document discusses studies performed with solvent refined coal (SRC) materials obtained from the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant during operation in the SRC-I mode. The development of analytical methodology is presented as well as results obtained from the application of these methods to light oil (LO), wash solvent (WS) and process solvent (PS). Results of cellular and animal studies with LO, WS and PS are included, along with a description of methods for the generation and characterization of LO and PS aerosols, and for exposing rats, mice and guinea pigs to these aerosols. The effects of SRC-I product on seed germination and plant growth which have also been studied are discussed. The SRC-I product, feed coal and the mineral residue have been analyzed for organic and inorganic constituents. The higher-boiling-point material, PS, exhibited significant mutagenic activity in the Ames assay; LO and WS were inactive. Process solvent also caused transformation of cultured Syrian hamster embryo cells. Additional chemical fractionation studies suggest that primary aromatic amines are major determinants of the observed mutagenic activity. Skin-painting studies with SRC-II naphtha, heavy distillate, shale oil and petroleum crude indicate a good correlation between the results of the cellular assays and skin carcinogenesis in mice. Wash solvent was more toxic after oral administration to rats than was light oil or process solvent. The effects of LO, WS and PS on development were studied after administration to pregnant rats. The tissue distribution of a number of components of PS was studied after oral administration of PS to rats. The effect of SRC-I product on the germination and growth of barley was investigated by mixing or layering the product with soil and placing the mixture in a field lysimeter.

  9. Feeding on Host Plants with Different Concentrations and Structures of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids Impacts the Chemical-Defense Effectiveness of a Specialist Herbivore

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Beatriz P.; Solferini, Vera N.

    2015-01-01

    Sequestration of chemical defenses from host plants is a strategy widely used by herbivorous insects to avoid predation. Larvae of the arctiine moth Utetheisa ornatrix feeding on unripe seeds and leaves of many species of Crotalaria (Leguminosae) sequester N-oxides of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from these host plants, and transfer them to adults through the pupal stage. PAs confer protection against predation on all life stages of U. ornatrix. As U. ornatrix also uses other Crotalaria species as host plants, we evaluated whether the PA chemical defense against predation is independent of host plant use. We fed larvae from hatching to pupation with either leaves or seeds of one of eight Crotalaria species (C. incana, C. juncea, C. micans, C. ochroleuca, C. pallida, C. paulina, C. spectabilis, and C. vitellina), and tested if adults were preyed upon or released by the orb-weaving spider Nephila clavipes. We found that the protection against the spider was more effective in adults whose larvae fed on seeds, which had a higher PA concentration than leaves. The exceptions were adults from larvae fed on C. paulina, C. spectabilis and C. vitellina leaves, which showed high PA concentrations. With respect to the PA profile, we describe for the first time insect-PAs in U. ornatrix. These PAs, biosynthesized from the necine base retronecine of plant origin, or monocrotaline- and senecionine-type PAs sequestered from host plants, were equally active in moth chemical defense, in a dose-dependent manner. These results are also partially explained by host plant phylogeny, since PAs of the host plants do have a phylogenetic signal (clades with high and low PA concentrations in leaves) which is reflected in the adult defense. PMID:26517873

  10. Feeding on Host Plants with Different Concentrations and Structures of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids Impacts the Chemical-Defense Effectiveness of a Specialist Herbivore.

    PubMed

    Martins, Carlos H Z; Cunha, Beatriz P; Solferini, Vera N; Trigo, José R

    2015-01-01

    Sequestration of chemical defenses from host plants is a strategy widely used by herbivorous insects to avoid predation. Larvae of the arctiine moth Utetheisa ornatrix feeding on unripe seeds and leaves of many species of Crotalaria (Leguminosae) sequester N-oxides of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from these host plants, and transfer them to adults through the pupal stage. PAs confer protection against predation on all life stages of U. ornatrix. As U. ornatrix also uses other Crotalaria species as host plants, we evaluated whether the PA chemical defense against predation is independent of host plant use. We fed larvae from hatching to pupation with either leaves or seeds of one of eight Crotalaria species (C. incana, C. juncea, C. micans, C. ochroleuca, C. pallida, C. paulina, C. spectabilis, and C. vitellina), and tested if adults were preyed upon or released by the orb-weaving spider Nephila clavipes. We found that the protection against the spider was more effective in adults whose larvae fed on seeds, which had a higher PA concentration than leaves. The exceptions were adults from larvae fed on C. paulina, C. spectabilis and C. vitellina leaves, which showed high PA concentrations. With respect to the PA profile, we describe for the first time insect-PAs in U. ornatrix. These PAs, biosynthesized from the necine base retronecine of plant origin, or monocrotaline- and senecionine-type PAs sequestered from host plants, were equally active in moth chemical defense, in a dose-dependent manner. These results are also partially explained by host plant phylogeny, since PAs of the host plants do have a phylogenetic signal (clades with high and low PA concentrations in leaves) which is reflected in the adult defense.

  11. Hydrogen production by the solar-powered hybrid sulfur process: Analysis of the integration of the CSP and chemical plants in selected scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberatore, Raffaele; Lanchi, Michela; Turchetti, Luca

    2016-05-01

    The Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) is a water splitting process for hydrogen production powered with high temperature nuclear heat and electric power; among the numerous thermo-chemical and thermo-electro-chemical cycles proposed in the literature, such cycle is considered to have a particularly high potential also if powered by renewable energy. SOL2HY2 (Solar to Hydrogen Hybrid Cycles) is a 3 year research project, co-funded by the Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking (FCH JU). A significant part of the project activities are devoted to the analysis and optimization of the integration of the solar power plant with the chemical, hydrogen production plant. This work reports a part of the results obtained in such research activity. The analysis presented in this work builds on previous process simulations used to determine the energy requirements of the hydrogen production plant in terms of electric power, medium (<550°C) and high (>550°C) temperature heat. For the supply of medium temperature (MT) heat, a parabolic trough CSP plant using molten salts as heat transfer and storage medium is considered. A central receiver CSP (Concentrated Solar Power) plant is considered to provide high temperature (HT) heat, which is only needed for sulfuric acid decomposition. Finally, electric power is provided by a power block included in the MT solar plant and/or drawn from the grid, depending on the scenario considered. In particular, the analysis presented here focuses on the medium temperature CSP plant, possibly combined with a power block. Different scenarios were analysed by considering plants with different combinations of geographical location and sizing criteria.

  12. Disease incidence and severity of rice plants in conventional chemical fertilizer input compared with organic farming systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xue-Feng; Luo, Fan

    2015-04-01

    To study the impacts of different fertilizer applications on rice growth and disease infection, a 3-year field experiment of rice cultivation was carried out in the suburb of Shanghai from 2012-2014. No any pesticides and herbicides were applied during the entire experiment to prevent their disturbance to rice disease. Compared with green (GM) and cake manures (CM), the application of chemical fertilizer (CF) stimulated the photosysthesis and vegetative growth of rice plants more effectively. Chlorophyll content, height and tiller number of the rice plants treated with the CF were generally higher than those treated with the GM and CM and the control; the contents of nitrate (NO3--N), ammonium (NH4+-N), Kjeldahl nitrogen (KN) and soluble protein treated with the CF were also higher than those with the others during the 3-year experiment. The 3-year experiment also indicated that the incidences of stem borers, shreath blight, leaf rollers and planthoppers of the rice treated with the CF were signficantly higher than those treated with the GM and CM and the control. Especially in 2012 and 2014, the incidences of rice pests and diseases treated with the CF were far more severe than those with the others. As a result, the grain yield treated with the CF was not only lower than that treated with the GM and CM, but also lower than that of the no-fertilizer control. This might be attributed to two reasons: Pests favor the rice seedlings with sufficient N-related nutrients caused by CF application; the excessive accumulation of nutrients in the seedlings might have toxic effects and weaken their immune systems, thus making them more vulnerable to pests and diseases. In comparison, the plants treated with a suitable amount of organic manure showed a better capability of disease resistance and grew more healthy. In addition, the incidences of rice pests and diseases might also be related to climatic conditions. Shanghai was hit by strong subtropical storms in the summer of

  13. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study for the groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (CE) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties, the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, located adjacent to one another in St. Charles County, Missouri. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE and CE are evaluating conditions and potential responses at the chemical plant area and at the ordnance works area, respectively, to address groundwater and surface water contamination. This work plan provides a comprehensive evaluation of areas that are relevant to the (GWOUs) of both the chemical plant and the ordnance works area. Following areas or media are addressed in this work plan: groundwater beneath the chemical plant area (including designated vicinity properties described in Section 5 of the RI for the chemical plant area [DOE 1992d]) and beneath the ordnance works area; surface water and sediment at selected springs, including Burgermeister Spring. The organization of this work plan is as follows: Chapter 1 discusses the objectives for conducting the evaluation, including a summary of relevant site information and overall environmental compliance activities to be undertaken; Chapter 2 presents a history and a description of the site and areas addressed within the GWOUs, along with currently available data; Chapter 3 presents a preliminary evaluation of areas included in the GWOUs, which is based on information given in Section 2, and discusses data requirements; Chapter 4 presents rationale for data collection or characterization activities to be carried out in the remedial investigation (RI) phase, along with brief summaries of supporting documents ancillary to this work plan; Chapter 5 discusses the activities planned for GWOUs under each of the 14 tasks for an remedial (RI/FS); Chapter 6 presents proposed schedules for RI/FS for the GWOUS; and Chapter 7 explains the project management structure.

  14. Lagrangian sampling of wastewater treatment plant effluent in Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek, Iowa, during the summer of 2003 and spring of 2005--Hydrological and chemical data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber, Larry B.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Flynn, Jennifer L.; Brown, Gregory K.; Furlong, Edward T.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Gray, James L.; Meyer, Michael T.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Taylor, Howard E.; Zaugg, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents methods and data for a Lagrangian sampling investigation into chemical loading and in-stream attenuation of inorganic and organic contaminants in two wastewater treatment-plant effluent-dominated streams: Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek, Iowa. Water-quality sampling was timed to coincide with low-flow conditions when dilution of the wastewater treatment-plant effluent by stream water was at a minimum. Sample-collection times corresponded to estimated travel times (based on tracer tests) to allow the same "parcel" of water to reach downstream sampling locations. The water-quality data are linked directly to stream discharge using flow- and depth-integrated composite sampling protocols. A range of chemical analyses was made for nutrients, carbon, major elements, trace elements, biological components, acidic and neutral organic wastewater compounds, antibiotic compounds, pharmaceutical compounds, steroid and steroidal-hormone compounds, and pesticide compounds. Physical measurements were made for field conditions, stream discharge, and time-of-travel studies. Two Lagrangian water samplings were conducted in each stream, one in the summer of 2003 and the other in the spring of 2005. Water samples were collected from five sites in Boulder Creek: upstream from the wastewater treatment plant, the treatment-plant effluent, and three downstream sites. Fourmile Creek had seven sampling sites: upstream from the wastewater treatment plant, the treatment-plant effluent, four downstream sites, and a tributary. At each site, stream discharge was measured, and equal width-integrated composite water samples were collected and split for subsequent chemical, physical, and biological analyses. During the summer of 2003 sampling, Boulder Creek downstream from the wastewater treatment plant consisted of 36 percent effluent, and Fourmile Creek downstream from the respective wastewater treatment plant was 81 percent effluent. During the spring of 2005

  15. A comparative evaluation of conceptual models for the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, INEL

    SciTech Connect

    Prahl, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Geologic and hydrologic data collected by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) are used to evaluate the existing ground water monitoring well network completed in the upper portion of the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) beneath the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The USGS data analyzed and compared in this study include: (a) lithologic, geophysical, and stratigraphic information, including the conceptual geologic models intrawell, ground water flow measurement (Tracejector tests) and (c) dedicated, submersible, sampling group elevations. Qualitative evaluation of these data indicate that the upper portion of the SRPA is both heterogeneous and anisotropic at the scale of the ICPP monitoring well network. Tracejector test results indicate that the hydraulic interconnection and spatial configuration of water-producing zones is extremely complex within the upper portion of the SRPA. The majority of ICPP monitoring wells currently are equipped to sample ground water only the upper lithostratigraphic intervals of the SRPA, primarily basalt flow groups E, EF, and F. Depth-specific hydrogeochemical sampling and analysis are necessary to determine if ground water quality varies significantly between the various lithostratigraphic units adjacent to individual sampling pumps.

  16. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patrícia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane dos Santos; do Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonça; Monteiro, Odair dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50) ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors. PMID:25949264

  17. Upper respiratory cancer among refinery and chemical plant workers: a case-control study in Baton Rouge, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Soskolne, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    Upper respiratory cancer (URC) specific to workers employed on an ethanol unit at a large southern United States refinery and chemical plant was associated with exposure to strong concentrations of sulfuric acid used as a reactant in this process. The carcinogen implicated by indirect evidence was diethyl sulfate. However, additional URC cases were subsequently found that could not be associated with employment on the former ethanol unit. This fact, together with the continued use of sulfuric acid in strong, intermediate, and weak concentrations in the same industrial complex, motivated the present investigation. In particular, hypotheses concerning an association between laryngeal cancer and industrial exposure to the three concentrations of sulfuric acid present in the complex have been tested. The study is a multiple-matched case-control design with a minimum of three controls individually matched to each case on race, sex, date of birth, date of initial employment and duration of employment. Results indicate significant associations between sulfuric acid exposure and URC with odds ratio exceeding four. Strong collinearity among the three acid concentrations has rendered any separation of independent acid strength effects impossible. None of the other exposures examined in this study, including asbestos, nickel or wood dust, revealed significant associations. There is a strong possibility that the association is specific for laryngeal cancer.

  18. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patrícia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane Dos Santos; do Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonça; Monteiro, Odair Dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50) ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors. PMID:25949264

  19. Bioactive polysaccharides from the stems of the Thai medicinal plant Acanthus ebracteatus: their chemical and physical features.

    PubMed

    Hokputsa, Sanya; Harding, Stephen E; Inngjerdingen, Kari; Jumel, Kornelia; Michaelsen, Terje E; Heinze, Thomas; Koschella, Andreas; Paulsen, Berit S

    2004-03-15

    Crude water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated from Acanthus ebracteatus by hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation after pre-treatment with 80% ethanol. The crude polysaccharides were separated into neutral and acidic polysaccharides by anion-exchange chromatography. The neutral polysaccharide (A1001) was rich in galactose, 3-O-methylgalactose and arabinose, whereas the acidic polysaccharide (A1002) consisted mainly of galacturonic acid along with rhamnose, arabinose and galactose as minor components indicating a pectin-type polysaccharide with rhamnogalacturonan type I (RG-1) backbone. 3-O-Methylgalactose is also present in the acidic fraction. Both neutral and acidic fractions showed potent effects on the complement system using pectic polysaccharide PM II from Plantago major as a positive control. A small amount of 3-O-methylgalactose present in the pectin seemed to be of importance for activity enhancement in addition to the amount of neutral sugar side chains attached to RG-1. The relationship between chemical structure and effect on the complement system of the isolated polysaccharides is considered in the light of these data. The presence of the rare monosaccharide 3-O-methylgalactose may indicate that this can be used as a chemotaxonomic marker. The traditional way of using this plant as a medical remedy appears to have a scientific basis. PMID:14980816

  20. Evaluating the impact of a fluoropolymer plant on a river macrobenthic community by a combined chemical, ecological and genetic approach.

    PubMed

    Rusconi, Marianna; Marziali, Laura; Stefani, Fabrizio; Valsecchi, Sara; Bettinetti, Roberta; Mazzoni, Michela; Rosignoli, Federica; Polesello, Stefano

    2015-12-15

    Effect-based monitoring is a recommended approach suggested in European Guidelines to assess the response of ecosystem affected by a pollution source, considering the effects at community, population, individual but also at suborganism level. A combined chemical, ecological and genetic approach was applied in order to assess the impact of a fluoropolymer plant on the macrobenthic community of the Northern Italian river Bormida (Piedmont region). The macrobenthic community living downstream of the industrial discharge was chronically exposed to a mixture of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), with perfluorooctanoic acid as the main compound, at concentrations up to several μgL(-1). Ecological assessment proved that the downstream community was not substantially different from that living upstream of the pollution source. The impact on community is not quantifiable with the traditional monitoring methods used for ecological classification under European regulation because macrobenthic communities showed only slight differences in their structure. In order to highlight effects on genetic variability of the native population, a subcellular analysis by using the AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) genetic technique was applied to genotype of individuals of a selected species (Hydropsyche modesta, Trichoptera) collected in the two sampling sites. Percentage of variation between the two populations was 6.8%, a threshold compatible with a genetic drift induced in the downstream population. The genetic study carried out in field identified a significant divergence between exposed and non-exposed populations, but at present it is not possible to associate this divergence to a specific effect induced by PFAS.

  1. Initial evaluation of dry storage issues for spent nuclear fuels in wet storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, R J; Johnson, Jr, A B; Lund, A L; Gilbert, E R

    1996-07-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has evaluated the basis for moving selected spent nuclear fuels in the CPP-603 and CPP-666 storage pools at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from wet to dry interim storage. This work is being conducted for the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company as part of the effort to determine appropriate conditioning and dry storage requirements for these fuels. These spent fuels are from 22 test reactors and include elements clad with aluminum or stainless steel and a wide variety of fuel materials: UAl{sub x}, UAl{sub x}-Al and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al cermets, U-5% fissium, UMo, UZrH{sub x}, UErZrH, UO{sub 2}-stainless steel cermet, and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-stainless steel cermet. The study also included declad uranium-zirconium hydride spent fuel stored in the CPP-603 storage pools. The current condition and potential failure mechanisms for these spent fuels were evaluated to determine the impact on conditioning and dry storage requirements. Initial recommendations for conditioning and dry storage requirements are made based on the potential degradation mechanisms and their impacts on moving the spent fuel from wet to dry storage. Areas needing further evaluation are identified.

  2. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange.... 110, App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange Enrichment... chemical exchange and solid-liquid ion exchange. A. In the liquid-liquid chemical exchange...

  3. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange.... 110, App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange Enrichment... chemical exchange and solid-liquid ion exchange. A. In the liquid-liquid chemical exchange...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange.... 110, App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange Enrichment... chemical exchange and solid-liquid ion exchange. A. In the liquid-liquid chemical exchange...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange.... 110, App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange Enrichment... chemical exchange and solid-liquid ion exchange. A. In the liquid-liquid chemical exchange...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange.... 110, App. E Appendix E to Part 110—Illustrative List of Chemical Exchange or Ion Exchange Enrichment... chemical exchange and solid-liquid ion exchange. A. In the liquid-liquid chemical exchange...

  7. [Microbiological and chemical studies of a water treatment plant with a wastewater pond containing plants during the winter of 1983-1984].

    PubMed

    Bauerfeind, S

    1986-04-01

    First results of investigations in a small sewage plant (500 inhabitants) are presented. It has a special construction, since in addition to a trickling filter it is equipped with a waste water lagoon planted with marsh plants as a second biological treatment step. During the first winter after construction the BOD5 and the fecal indicator bacteria were reduced by 80% in the whole system. These values are comparable to those expected in conventional secondary treatment plants. The plant nutrients phosphate and ammonia were reduced far less by only 40%. Therefore additional investigations are planned for the next winter to show, whether the further development of plant roots within the pond will induce even higher reduction values.

  8. Endocrine active chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and other chemicals of concern in surface water, wastewater-treatment plant effluent, and bed sediment, and biological characteristics in selected streams, Minnesota-design, methods, and data, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Kathy E.; Langer, Susan K.; Barber, Larry B.; Writer, Jeff H.; Ferrey, Mark L.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Furlong, Edward T.; Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.; Martinovic, Dalma; Woodruff, Olivia R.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Brown, Greg K.; Taylor, Howard E.; Ferrer, Imma; Thurman, E. Michael

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the study design, environmental data, and quality-assurance data for an integrated chemical and biological study of selected streams or lakes that receive wastewater-treatment plant effluent in Minnesota. This study was a cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, St. Cloud State University, the University of St. Thomas, and the University of Colorado. The objective of the study was to identify distribution patterns of endocrine active chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and other organic and inorganic chemicals of concern indicative of wastewater effluent, and to identify biological characteristics of estrogenicity and fish responses in the same streams. The U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed water, bed-sediment, and quality-assurance samples, and measured or recorded streamflow once at each sampling location from September through November 2009. Sampling locations included surface water and wastewater-treatment plant effluent. Twenty-five wastewater-treatment plants were selected to include continuous flow and periodic release facilities with differing processing steps (activated sludge or trickling filters) and plant design flows ranging from 0.002 to 10.9 cubic meters per second (0.04 to 251 million gallons per day) throughout Minnesota in varying land-use settings. Water samples were collected from the treated effluent of the 25 wastewater-treatment plants and at one point upstream from and one point downstream from wastewater-treatment plant effluent discharges. Bed-sediment samples also were collected at each of the stream or lake locations. Water samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pharmaceuticals, phytoestrogens and pharmaceuticals, alkylphenols and other neutral organic chemicals, carboxylic acids, and steroidal hormones. A subset (25 samples) of the bed-sediment samples were analyzed for carbon, wastewater-indicator chemicals, and steroidal hormones; the

  9. Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit to Pulverized Coal Power Plants for In-Situ CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Liang; Li, Fanxing; Kim, Ray; Bayham, Samuel; McGiveron, Omar; Tong, Andrew; Connell, Daniel; Luo, Siwei; Sridhar, Deepak; Wang, Fei; Sun, Zhenchao; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2013-09-30

    A novel Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) system is proposed to effectively capture CO2 from existing PC power plants. The work during the past three years has led to an oxygen carrier particle with satisfactory performance. Moreover, successful laboratory, bench scale, and integrated demonstrations have been performed. The proposed project further advanced the novel CDCL technology to sub-pilot scale (25 kWth). To be more specific, the following objectives attained in the proposed project are: 1. to further improve the oxygen carrying capacity as well as the sulfur/ash tolerance of the current (working) particle; 2. to demonstrate continuous CDCL operations in an integrated mode with > 99% coal (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite) conversion as well as the production of high temperature exhaust gas stream that is suitable for steam generation in existing PC boilers; 3. to identify, via demonstrations, the fate of sulfur and NOx; 4. to conduct thorough techno-economic analysis that validates the technical and economical attractiveness of the CDCL system. The objectives outlined above were achieved through collaborative efforts among all the participants. CONSOL Energy Inc. performed the techno-economic analysis of the CDCL process. Shell/CRI was able to perform feasibility and economic studies on the large scale particle synthesis and provide composite particles for the sub-pilot scale testing. The experience of B&W (with boilers) and Air Products (with handling gases) assisted the retrofit system design as well as the demonstration unit operations. The experience gained from the sub-pilot scale demonstration of the Syngas Chemical Looping (SCL) process at OSU was able to ensure the successful handling of the solids. Phase 1 focused on studies to improve the current particle to better suit the CDCL operations. The optimum operating conditions for the reducer reactor such as the temperature, char gasification enhancer type, and flow rate were identified. The

  10. COMPREHENSIVE CHEMICAL PROFILING OF GRAMINEOUS PLANT ROOT EXUDATES USING HIGH-RESOLUTION NMR AND MS. (R825433C007)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Root exudates released into soil have important functions in mobilizing metal micronutrients and for causing selective enrichment of plant beneficial soil micro-organisms that colonize the rhizosphere. Analysis of plant root exudates typically has involved chromatographic meth...

  11. [Influence of Professional Contact with Plutonium-239 on Indicators of the Immune Status of the Personnel at Siberian Chemical Plant].

    PubMed

    Oradovskaya, I V; Radzivil, T T

    2015-01-01

    The results of the examination and monitoring of the personnel at the Siberian Chemical Plant (SChP) and adult population of Seversk are presented. The results of primary examination of the personnel who professionally contact the ionizing radiation (IR) from external sources and incorporated 239Pu showed that clinical symptoms of dysfunction of the immune system manifested themselves with a frequency of 75.30%. Infectious-inflammatory diseases (46.95%) and the combined pathology of infectious and allergic character (20.12%) were the most widespread. The allergic diseases (AD) without manifestations of an infectious component were observed not often (7.62%). The monitoring which was carried out for 10 years revealed a decrease in a percentage of persons with clinical signs of disorders of the immune system up to 60.68% among the personnel at the Chemical-Steel Plant and even more among the whole group of the studied personnel at SChP--49.68% (389 : 783). Among the population their frequency made up 51.78%. Features of clinical manifestations of dysfunction ofthe immune system depending on accumulation of 239Pu in the organism are established. Similar dynamics of infectious and infectious and allergic syndromes is revealed when the activity of 239Pu is 40 nCi. AD frequency reliably increased .when the activity of 239Pu is 20 nCi, but if accumulation is higher than 20-40 nCi it decreases and again increases when the activity is over 40 nCi. Pathologies of infectious and allergic genesis are most often observed when the content of 239Pu in an organism is over 40 nCi. Indicators of the immune status (IS) of the personnel at SChP with incorporated 239Pu are analyzed. 59 people--carriers of 239Pu and 408 people without 239Pu accumulated in an organism are examined. In comparison with the control, IS indicators characteristic for all dose loading groups are revealed: increase of lymphocytes, existence of dissociation in indicators of relative and absolute values of the T

  12. [Influence of Professional Contact with Plutonium-239 on Indicators of the Immune Status of the Personnel at Siberian Chemical Plant].

    PubMed

    Oradovskaya, I V; Radzivil, T T

    2015-01-01

    The results of the examination and monitoring of the personnel at the Siberian Chemical Plant (SChP) and adult population of Seversk are presented. The results of primary examination of the personnel who professionally contact the ionizing radiation (IR) from external sources and incorporated 239Pu showed that clinical symptoms of dysfunction of the immune system manifested themselves with a frequency of 75.30%. Infectious-inflammatory diseases (46.95%) and the combined pathology of infectious and allergic character (20.12%) were the most widespread. The allergic diseases (AD) without manifestations of an infectious component were observed not often (7.62%). The monitoring which was carried out for 10 years revealed a decrease in a percentage of persons with clinical signs of disorders of the immune system up to 60.68% among the personnel at the Chemical-Steel Plant and even more among the whole group of the studied personnel at SChP--49.68% (389 : 783). Among the population their frequency made up 51.78%. Features of clinical manifestations of dysfunction ofthe immune system depending on accumulation of 239Pu in the organism are established. Similar dynamics of infectious and infectious and allergic syndromes is revealed when the activity of 239Pu is 40 nCi. AD frequency reliably increased .when the activity of 239Pu is 20 nCi, but if accumulation is higher than 20-40 nCi it decreases and again increases when the activity is over 40 nCi. Pathologies of infectious and allergic genesis are most often observed when the content of 239Pu in an organism is over 40 nCi. Indicators of the immune status (IS) of the personnel at SChP with incorporated 239Pu are analyzed. 59 people--carriers of 239Pu and 408 people without 239Pu accumulated in an organism are examined. In comparison with the control, IS indicators characteristic for all dose loading groups are revealed: increase of lymphocytes, existence of dissociation in indicators of relative and absolute values of the T

  13. Biotechnology of flavonoids and other phenylpropanoid-derived natural products. Part I: Chemical diversity, impacts on plant biology and human health.

    PubMed

    Ververidis, Filippos; Trantas, Emmanouil; Douglas, Carl; Vollmer, Guenter; Kretzschmar, Georg; Panopoulos, Nickolas

    2007-10-01

    Plant natural products derived from phenylalanine and the phenylpropanoid pathway are impressive in their chemical diversity and are the result of plant evolution, which has selected for the acquisition of large repertoires of pigments, structural and defensive compounds, all derived from a phenylpropanoid backbone via the plant-specific phenylpropanoid pathway. These compounds are important in plant growth, development and responses to environmental stresses and thus can have large impacts on agricultural productivity. While plant-based medicines containing phenylpropanoid-derived active components have long been used by humans, the benefits of specific flavonoids and other phenylpropanoid-derived compounds to human health and their potential for long-term health benefits have been only recognized more recently. In this part of the review, we discuss the diversity and biosynthetic origins of phenylpropanoids and particularly of the flavonoid and stilbenoid natural products. We then review data pertaining to the modes of action and biological properties of these compounds, referring on their effects on human health and physiology and their roles as plant defense and antimicrobial compounds. This review continues in Part II discussing the use of biotechnological tools targeting the rational reconstruction of multienzyme pathways in order to modify the production of such compounds in plants and model microbial systems for the benefit of agriculture and forestry.

  14. NITRO-HYDROLYSIS: AN ENERGY EFFICIENT SOURCE REDUCTION AND CHEMICAL PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT BIOSOLIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, KT

    2003-03-10

    The nitro-hydrolysis process has been demonstrated in the laboratory in batch tests on one municipal waste stream. This project was designed to take the next step toward commercialization for both industrial and municipal wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) by demonstrating the feasibility of the process on a small scale. In addition, a 1-lb/hr continuous treatment system was constructed at University of Tennessee to treat the Kuwahee WWTF (Knoxville, TN) sludge in future work. The nitro-hydrolysis work was conducted at University of Tennessee in the Chemical Engineering Department and the gas and liquid analysis were performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Nitro-hydrolysis of sludge proved a very efficient way of reducing sludge volume, producing a treated solution which contained unreacted solids (probably inorganics such as sand and silt) that settled quickly. Formic acid was one of the main organic acid products of reaction when larger quantities of nitric acid were used in the nitrolysis. When less nitric acid was used formic acid was initially produced but was later consumed in the reactions. The other major organic acid produced was acetic acid which doubled in concentration during the reaction when larger quantities of nitric acid were used. Propionic acid and butyric acid were not produced or consumed in these experiments. It is projected that the commercial use of nitro-hydrolysis at municipal wastewater treatment plants alone would result in a total estimated energy savings of greater than 20 trillion Btu/yr. A net reduction of 415,000 metric tons of biosolids per year would be realized and an estimated annual cost reduction of $122M/yr.

  15. Chemical composition and physical properties of filter fly ashes from eight grate-fired biomass combustion plants.

    PubMed

    Lanzerstorfer, Christof

    2015-04-01

    For the handling, treatment and utilization of fly ash from biomass combustion its chemical composition and physical properties are important. In this study eight filter fly ashes from different grate-fired biomass combustion plants were investigated. In fly ash from straw combustion high concentrations of (K) were found, whereas in the fly ash from wood combustion the concentrations of Ca and Mg were higher. The average concentration of PO4(3-) was similar in both types of fly ashes. In all wood fly ashes some measured heavy metal concentrations were above the limits for utilization. The straw fly ashes were much less contaminated and can be utilized. For wood fly ash most parameters showed little variation, except from one fly ash where the dust pre-separator is in poor condition. The average values were: mass median diameter 4.3±0.8 μm, spread of particle size distribution 19±11, particle density 2620±80 kg/m3 and angle of repose 50°±1°. The density of the straw fly ashes is lower (2260±80 kg/m3) and the spread of the size distribution is higher (72±24). For one straw combustion fly ash the values of the mass median diameter and the angle of repose were similar to the values of wood combustion fly ash, for the other straw fly ash the values differed considerably. While the particle size of this fly ash was much smaller, surprisingly the angle of repose was also lower. This can be attributed to the formation of small agglomerates in this fly ash, which were not disintegrated without a certain stress.

  16. Plant-Symbiotic Fungi as Chemical Engineers: Multi-Genome Analysis of the Clavicipitaceae Reveals Dynamics of Alkaloid Loci

    PubMed Central

    Schardl, Christopher L.; Young, Carolyn A.; Hesse, Uljana; Amyotte, Stefan G.; Andreeva, Kalina; Calie, Patrick J.; Fleetwood, Damien J.; Haws, David C.; Moore, Neil; Oeser, Birgitt; Panaccione, Daniel G.; Schweri, Kathryn K.; Voisey, Christine R.; Farman, Mark L.; Jaromczyk, Jerzy W.; Roe, Bruce A.; O'Sullivan, Donal M.; Scott, Barry; Tudzynski, Paul; An, Zhiqiang; Arnaoudova, Elissaveta G.; Bullock, Charles T.; Charlton, Nikki D.; Chen, Li; Cox, Murray; Dinkins, Randy D.; Florea, Simona; Glenn, Anthony E.; Gordon, Anna; Güldener, Ulrich; Harris, Daniel R.; Hollin, Walter; Jaromczyk, Jolanta; Johnson, Richard D.; Khan, Anar K.; Leistner, Eckhard; Leuchtmann, Adrian; Li, Chunjie; Liu, JinGe; Liu, Jinze; Liu, Miao; Mace, Wade; Machado, Caroline; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Pan, Juan; Schmid, Jan; Sugawara, Koya; Steiner, Ulrike; Takach, Johanna E.; Tanaka, Eiji; Webb, Jennifer S.; Wilson, Ella V.; Wiseman, Jennifer L.; Yoshida, Ruriko; Zeng, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    The fungal family Clavicipitaceae includes plant symbionts and parasites that produce several psychoactive and bioprotective alkaloids. The family includes grass symbionts in the epichloae clade (Epichloë and Neotyphodium species), which are extraordinarily diverse both in their host interactions and in their alkaloid profiles. Epichloae produce alkaloids of four distinct classes, all of which deter insects, and some—including the infamous ergot alkaloids—have potent effects on mammals. The exceptional chemotypic diversity of the epichloae may relate to their broad range of host interactions, whereby some are pathogenic and contagious, others are mutualistic and vertically transmitted (seed-borne), and still others vary in pathogenic or mutualistic behavior. We profiled the alkaloids and sequenced the genomes of 10 epichloae, three ergot fungi (Claviceps species), a morning-glory symbiont (Periglandula ipomoeae), and a bamboo pathogen (Aciculosporium take), and compared the gene clusters for four classes of alkaloids. Results indicated a strong tendency for alkaloid loci to have conserved cores that specify the skeleton structures and peripheral genes that determine chemical variations that are known to affect their pharmacological specificities. Generally, gene locations in cluster peripheries positioned them near to transposon-derived, AT-rich repeat blocks, which were probably involved in gene losses, duplications, and neofunctionalizations. The alkaloid loci in the epichloae had unusual structures riddled with large, complex, and dynamic repeat blocks. This feature was not reflective of overall differences in repeat contents in the genomes, nor was it characteristic of most other specialized metabolism loci. The organization and dynamics of alkaloid loci and abundant repeat blocks in the epichloae suggested that these fungi are under selection for alkaloid diversification. We suggest that such selection is related to the variable life histories of the

  17. Chemical composition and physical properties of filter fly ashes from eight grate-fired biomass combustion plants.

    PubMed

    Lanzerstorfer, Christof

    2015-04-01

    For the handling, treatment and utilization of fly ash from biomass combustion its chemical composition and physical properties are important. In this study eight filter fly ashes from different grate-fired biomass combustion plants were investigated. In fly ash from straw combustion high concentrations of (K) were found, whereas in the fly ash from wood combustion the concentrations of Ca and Mg were higher. The average concentration of PO4(3-) was similar in both types of fly ashes. In all wood fly ashes some measured heavy metal concentrations were above the limits for utilization. The straw fly ashes were much less contaminated and can be utilized. For wood fly ash most parameters showed little variation, except from one fly ash where the dust pre-separator is in poor condition. The average values were: mass median diameter 4.3±0.8 μm, spread of particle size distribution 19±11, particle density 2620±80 kg/m3 and angle of repose 50°±1°. The density of the straw fly ashes is lower (2260±80 kg/m3) and the spread of the size distribution is higher (72±24). For one straw combustion fly ash the values of the mass median diameter and the angle of repose were similar to the values of wood combustion fly ash, for the other straw fly ash the values differed considerably. While the particle size of this fly ash was much smaller, surprisingly the angle of repose was also lower. This can be attributed to the formation of small agglomerates in this fly ash, which were not disintegrated without a certain stress. PMID:25872727

  18. Indonesian medicinal plants. I. Chemical structures of calotroposides A and B, two new oxypregnane-oligoglycosides from the root of Calotropis gigantea (Asclepiadaceae).

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, I; Zhang, R S; Park, J D; Baek, N I; Takeda, Y; Yoshikawa, M; Shibuya, H

    1992-08-01

    Two new oxypregnane-oligoglycosides named calotroposides A (1) and B (2) have been isolated from the root of Calotropis gigantea (Asclepiadaceae), an Indonesian medicinal plant, and their chemical structures have been elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods as 12-O-benzoyllineolon 3-O-beta-D-cymaropyranosyl(1----4)-beta-D-oleandropyranosyl( 1----4)- beta-D-oleandropyranosyl(1----4)-beta-D-cymaropyranosyl(1--- -4)-beta-D- cymaropyranoside and 12-O-benzoyldeacetylmetaplexigenin 3-O-beta-D-cymaropyranosyl(1---4)-beta-D-oleandropyranosyl(- ---4)- beta-D-oleandropyranosyl(1----4)-beta-D-cymaropyranosyl(1--- -4)- beta-D-cymaropyranoside, respectively.

  19. Studies on the Influence of Host Plants and Effect of Chemical Stimulants on the Feeding Behavior in the Muga Silkworm, Antheraea assamensis

    PubMed Central

    Neog, Kartik; Unni, Balagopalan; Ahmed, Giasuddin

    2011-01-01

    The feeding habits of Antheraea assamensis, Helfer (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) larvae towards the leaves of its four different host plants, Persea bombycina King ex. Hook (Laurales: Lauraceae), Litsea polhantha Jussieu, L. salicifolia Roxburgh ex. Nees and L. citrata Blume, and the chemical basis of feeding preference were investigated. Nutritional superiority of young and medium leaves with respect to soluble protein, total phenol and phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity was observed in the leaves of P. bombycina compared to other host plants. Attraction and feeding tests with detached leaves and artificial diet with different chemical stimulants revealed that a mixture of the flavonoids, myrcetin, and 7, 2', 4' trimethoxy dihydroxy flavone with sterol compound β-sitosterol elicited the most biting behavior by A. assamensis larvae. While linalyl acetate alone attracted larvae towards the leaves of the host plants, a mixture of caryophyllene, decyl aldehyde and dodecyl aldehyde was found to both attract them to the host leaves and cause biting behavior. Azaindole was found to deter them from the host plants. PMID:22243364

  20. Chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils of plants from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Bayala, Bagora; Bassole, Imaël Henri Nestor; Gnoula, Charlemagne; Nebie, Roger; Yonli, Albert; Morel, Laurent; Figueredo, Gilles; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A; Simpore, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils from leaves of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum americanum, Hyptis spicigera, Lippia multiflora, Ageratum conyzoides, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Zingiber officinale. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. Major constituents were α-terpineol (59.78%) and β-caryophyllene (10.54%) for Ocimum basilicum; 1, 8-cineol (31.22%), camphor (12.730%), α-pinene (6.87%) and trans α-bergamotene (5.32%) for Ocimum americanum; β-caryophyllene (21%), α-pinene (20.11%), sabinene (10.26%), β-pinene (9.22%) and α-phellandrene (7.03%) for Hyptis spicigera; p-cymene (25.27%), β-caryophyllene (12.70%), thymol (11.88), γ-terpinene (9.17%) and thymyle acetate (7.64%) for Lippia multiflora; precocene (82.10%)for Ageratum conyzoides; eucalyptol (59.55%), α-pinene (9.17%) and limonene (8.76%) for Eucalyptus camaldulensis; arcurcumene (16.67%), camphene (12.70%), zingiberene (8.40%), β-bisabolene (7.83%) and β-sesquiphellandrène (5.34%) for Zingiber officinale. Antioxidant activities were examined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) methods. O. basilicum and L. multiflora exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS tests, respectively. Anti-inflammatory properties were evaluated by measuring the inhibition of lipoxygenase activity and essential oil of Z. officinale was the most active. Anti-proliferative effect was assayed by the measurement of MTT on LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines, and SF-763 and SF-767 glioblastoma cell lines. Essential oils from A. conyzoides and L. multiflora were the most active on LNCaP and PC-3 cell lines, respectively. The SF-767 glioblastoma cell line was the most sensitive to O. basilicum and L. multiflora EOs while essential oil of A. conyzoides

  1. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Bayala, Bagora; Bassole, Imaël Henri Nestor; Gnoula, Charlemagne; Nebie, Roger; Yonli, Albert; Morel, Laurent; Figueredo, Gilles; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A.; Simpore, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils from leaves of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum americanum, Hyptis spicigera, Lippia multiflora, Ageratum conyzoides, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Zingiber officinale. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and gas chromatography–flame ionization detector. Major constituents were α-terpineol (59.78%) and β-caryophyllene (10.54%) for Ocimum basilicum; 1, 8-cineol (31.22%), camphor (12.730%), α-pinene (6.87%) and trans α-bergamotene (5.32%) for Ocimum americanum; β-caryophyllene (21%), α-pinene (20.11%), sabinene (10.26%), β-pinene (9.22%) and α-phellandrene (7.03%) for Hyptis spicigera; p-cymene (25.27%), β-caryophyllene (12.70%), thymol (11.88), γ-terpinene (9.17%) and thymyle acetate (7.64%) for Lippia multiflora; precocene (82.10%)for Ageratum conyzoides; eucalyptol (59.55%), α-pinene (9.17%) and limonene (8.76%) for Eucalyptus camaldulensis; arcurcumene (16.67%), camphene (12.70%), zingiberene (8.40%), β-bisabolene (7.83%) and β-sesquiphellandrène (5.34%) for Zingiber officinale. Antioxidant activities were examined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) methods. O. basilicum and L. multiflora exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS tests, respectively. Anti-inflammatory properties were evaluated by measuring the inhibition of lipoxygenase activity and essential oil of Z. officinale was the most active. Anti-proliferative effect was assayed by the measurement of MTT on LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines, and SF-763 and SF-767 glioblastoma cell lines. Essential oils from A. conyzoides and L. multiflora were the most active on LNCaP and PC-3 cell lines, respectively. The SF-767 glioblastoma cell line was the most sensitive to O. basilicum and L. multiflora EOs while essential oil of A. conyzoides

  2. Chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils of plants from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Bayala, Bagora; Bassole, Imaël Henri Nestor; Gnoula, Charlemagne; Nebie, Roger; Yonli, Albert; Morel, Laurent; Figueredo, Gilles; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A; Simpore, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils from leaves of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum americanum, Hyptis spicigera, Lippia multiflora, Ageratum conyzoides, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Zingiber officinale. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. Major constituents were α-terpineol (59.78%) and β-caryophyllene (10.54%) for Ocimum basilicum; 1, 8-cineol (31.22%), camphor (12.730%), α-pinene (6.87%) and trans α-bergamotene (5.32%) for Ocimum americanum; β-caryophyllene (21%), α-pinene (20.11%), sabinene (10.26%), β-pinene (9.22%) and α-phellandrene (7.03%) for Hyptis spicigera; p-cymene (25.27%), β-caryophyllene (12.70%), thymol (11.88), γ-terpinene (9.17%) and thymyle acetate (7.64%) for Lippia multiflora; precocene (82.10%)for Ageratum conyzoides; eucalyptol (59.55%), α-pinene (9.17%) and limonene (8.76%) for Eucalyptus camaldulensis; arcurcumene (16.67%), camphene (12.70%), zingiberene (8.40%), β-bisabolene (7.83%) and β-sesquiphellandrène (5.34%) for Zingiber officinale. Antioxidant activities were examined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) methods. O. basilicum and L. multiflora exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS tests, respectively. Anti-inflammatory properties were evaluated by measuring the inhibition of lipoxygenase activity and essential oil of Z. officinale was the most active. Anti-proliferative effect was assayed by the measurement of MTT on LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines, and SF-763 and SF-767 glioblastoma cell lines. Essential oils from A. conyzoides and L. multiflora were the most active on LNCaP and PC-3 cell lines, respectively. The SF-767 glioblastoma cell line was the most sensitive to O. basilicum and L. multiflora EOs while essential oil of A. conyzoides

  3. Steam sauna and mother roasting in Lao PDR: practices and chemical constituents of essential oils of plant species used in postpartum recovery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Fundamental in traditional postpartum recovery in Lao PDR is the use of hotbeds, mother roasting, steam sauna and steam baths. During these treatments medicinal plants play a crucial role, but little has been published about how the treatments are carried out precisely, which species are used, the medicinal properties of these species, and the medicinal efficacy of their chemical constituents. Methods Sixty-five interviews, in 15 rural villages, with women of 4 different ethnic groups were conducted to survey confinement rituals, and postpartum plant use and salience. Essential oils from the main species used were extracted using steam distillation and the main chemical constituents characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results A total of 10 different species were used by three or more of the ethnic groups included in this study. All species were used in steam sauna and bath, but only 3 species were used in hotbed and mother roasting. Essential oils of Amomum villosum, Amomum microcarpum and Blumea balsamifera were found to contain significant amounts of the following terpenes: β-pinene, camphor, bornyl acetate, borneol, linalool, D-limonene, fenchone, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpinene. Conclusions Many of these terpenes have documented antimicrobial and analgesic properties, and some have also synergistic interactions with other terpenes. The mode of application in hotbed and mother roasting differs from the documented mechanisms of action of these terpenes. Plants in these two practices are likely to serve mainly hygienic purposes, by segregating the mother from infection sources such as beds, mats, stools, cloth and towels. Steam sauna medicinal plant use through inhalation of essential oils vapors can possibly have medicinal efficacy, but is unlikely to alleviate the ailments commonly encountered during postpartum convalescence. Steam sauna medicinal plant use through dermal condensation of essential oils, and steam bath

  4. Changes in growth, physiological parameters and the hormonal status of Myrtus communis L. plants irrigated with water with different chemical compositions.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Motos, José Ramón; Ortuño, María Fernanda; Álvarez, Sara; López-Climent, María Fernanda; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Sánchez-Blanco, María Jesús

    2016-02-01

    Myrtus communis, an important Mediterranean ornamental shrub, was used to study the effect of irrigation water with different chemical compositions in the plant response. A treatment with NaCl was used to establish the plant resistance to high salinity at long term. Plants were subjected to four irrigation treatments with drainage for three months: Control (0.8 dS m(-1)); two treatments using reclaimed water (RWs): RW1 (2.0 dS m(-1)) and RW2 (5.0 dS m(-1)); and NaCl (10.0 dS m(-1)). High levels of electric conductivity of RWs not affected plant growth, while NaCl decreased leaf dry weight. Coinciding with the accumulation of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the roots, soil water potential decreased, which hinders the mobilization of water to the leaves, decreasing leaf water potential. The osmotic adjustment in the NaCl treatment was due to Na(+) and Cl(-) ions, although the proline could contribute as an Osmo compatible solute, increasing the turgor plants. Also changes in cell walls rigidity minimize the negative effects on the water balance; however, a higher lipid peroxidation was observed in these plants. Stomatal closure was associated with a decrease in K(+) and an increase in abscisic acid. NaCl produced an increase in salicylic acid and did not affect jasmonic acid contents at the end of the experiment. Similar behavior in soil and leaf water potentials, although less pronounced than in NaCl, was shown in RW2 plants. The abscisic acid increased in the RW2 with respect to the control and a decrease in stomatal conductance was observed at the end of the experiment. Plants irrigated with RW1 behaved similarly to the control.

  5. Changes in growth, physiological parameters and the hormonal status of Myrtus communis L. plants irrigated with water with different chemical compositions.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Motos, José Ramón; Ortuño, María Fernanda; Álvarez, Sara; López-Climent, María Fernanda; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Sánchez-Blanco, María Jesús

    2016-02-01

    Myrtus communis, an important Mediterranean ornamental shrub, was used to study the effect of irrigation water with different chemical compositions in the plant response. A treatment with NaCl was used to establish the plant resistance to high salinity at long term. Plants were subjected to four irrigation treatments with drainage for three months: Control (0.8 dS m(-1)); two treatments using reclaimed water (RWs): RW1 (2.0 dS m(-1)) and RW2 (5.0 dS m(-1)); and NaCl (10.0 dS m(-1)). High levels of electric conductivity of RWs not affected plant growth, while NaCl decreased leaf dry weight. Coinciding with the accumulation of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the roots, soil water potential decreased, which hinders the mobilization of water to the leaves, decreasing leaf water potential. The osmotic adjustment in the NaCl treatment was due to Na(+) and Cl(-) ions, although the proline could contribute as an Osmo compatible solute, increasing the turgor plants. Also changes in cell walls rigidity minimize the negative effects on the water balance; however, a higher lipid peroxidation was observed in these plants. Stomatal closure was associated with a decrease in K(+) and an increase in abscisic acid. NaCl produced an increase in salicylic acid and did not affect jasmonic acid contents at the end of the experiment. Similar behavior in soil and leaf water potentials, although less pronounced than in NaCl, was shown in RW2 plants. The abscisic acid increased in the RW2 with respect to the control and a decrease in stomatal conductance was observed at the end of the experiment. Plants irrigated with RW1 behaved similarly to the control. PMID:26703779

  6. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils from Leaves of Edible (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Perennial (Arachis glabrata Benth.) Peanut Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts or groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) are a valuable oilseed crop, but other than the seed, the rest of the plant is of minimal value. Plant material including the leaves is used as mulch or as animal feed. Perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth) known as forage or rhizoma peanut produces...

  7. ESTE: Verification of Portable Optical and Thermal Imaging Devices for Leak Detection at Petroleum Refineries and Chemical Plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is an ESTE project summary brief. EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) is verifying the performance of portable optical and thermal imaging devices for leak detection at petroleum refineries and chemical plans. Industrial facilities, such as chemical p...

  8. The use of natural abundance stable isotopic ratios to indicate the presence of oxygen-containing chemical linkages between cellulose and lignin in plant cell walls.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Youping; Stuart-Williams, Hilary; Farquhar, Graham D; Hocart, Charles H

    2010-06-01

    Qualitative and quantitative understanding of the chemical linkages between the three major biochemical components (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) of plant cell walls is crucial to the understanding of cell wall structure. Although there is convincing evidence for chemical bonds between hemicellulose and lignin and the absence of chemical bonds between hemicellulose and cellulose, there is no conclusive evidence for the presence of covalent bonds between cellulose and lignin. This is caused by the lack of selectivity of current GC/MS-, NMR- and IR-based methods for lignin characterisation as none of these techniques directly targets the possible ester and ether linkages between lignin and cellulose. We modified the widely-accepted "standard" three-step extraction method for isolating cellulose from plants by changing the order of the steps for hemicellulose and lignin removal (solubilisation with concentrated NaOH and oxidation with acetic acid-containing NaClO(2), respectively) so that cellulose and lignin could be isolated with the possible chemical bonds between them intact. These linkages were then cleaved with NaClO(2) reagent in aqueous media of contrasting (18)O/(16)O ratios. We produced cellulose with higher purity (a lower level of residual hemicellulose and no detectable lignin) than that produced by the "standard" method. Oxidative artefacts may potentially be introduced at the lignin removal stage; but testing showed this to be minimal. Cellulose samples isolated from processing plant-derived cellulose-lignin mixtures in media of contrasting (18)O/(16)O ratios were compared to provide the first quantitative evidence for the presence of oxygen-containing ester and ether bonds between cellulose and lignin in Zea mays leaves. However, no conclusive evidence for the presence or lack of similar bonds in Araucaria cunninghamii wood was obtained.

  9. Weed host specificity of the aphid, Aphis spiraecola: developmental and reproductive performance of aphids in relation to plant growth and leaf chemicals of the Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata.

    PubMed

    Agarwala, B K; Das, Jhuma

    2012-01-01

    Density, distribution, and nutritional quality of plants are the causal basis of host plant selection in aphids. Nutritional qualities of a plant vary according to its growth stage and also in response to seasonal variation. How host plant growth stages shape aphid performance was studied in Aphis spiraecola Patch (Homoptera: Aphididae) on the perennial Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and Robinson (Asterales: Asteraceae). This plant species is the preferred host in the hot and humid tropical parts of northeast and southern India. Variations in developmental and reproductive performances in apterous viviparous female aphids were recorded in relation to differences in leaf chemicals in different growth stages of C. odorata. Aphids reproduced at higher rates in the vegetative stage of C. odorata when developmental time was shortest, and fecundity was higher in a longer reproductive time. Intrinsic rate of increase and net reproductive rate were also recorded to be higher in the vegetative stage of the weed host. In the vegetative stage, leaves contained higher quantity of proteins and nitrogen, which are vital for insect reproduction. Results of this study have demonstrated that A spiraecola showed synchronization of its developmental and reproductive performances to growth stages of C. odorata, which occur in high abundance in the study area.

  10. The prospect of applying chemical elicitors and plant strengtheners to enhance the biological control of crop pests

    PubMed Central

    Sobhy, Islam S.; Erb, Matthias; Lou, Yonggen; Turlings, Ted C. J.

    2014-01-01

    An imminent food crisis reinforces the need for novel strategies to increase crop yields worldwide. Effective control of pest insects should be part of such strategies, preferentially with reduced negative impact on the environment and optimal protection and utilization of existing biodiversity. Enhancing the presence and efficacy of native biological control agents could be one such strategy. Plant strengthener is a generic term for several commercially available compounds or mixtures of compounds that can be applied to cultivated plants in order to ‘boost their vigour, resilience and performance’. Studies into the consequences of boosting plant resistance against pests and diseases on plant volatiles have found a surprising and dramatic increase in the plants' attractiveness to parasitic wasps. Here, we summarize the results from these studies and present new results from assays that illustrate the great potential of two commercially available resistance elicitors. We argue that plant strengtheners may currently be the best option to enhance the attractiveness of cultivated plants to biological control agents. Other options, such as the genetic manipulation of the release of specific volatiles may offer future solutions, but in most systems, we still miss fundamental knowledge on which key attractants should be targeted for this approach. PMID:24535390

  11. Indoor-biofilter growth and exposure to airborne chemicals drive similar changes in plant root bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Russell, Jacob A; Hu, Yi; Chau, Linh; Pauliushchyk, Margarita; Anastopoulos, Ioannis; Anandan, Shivanthi; Waring, Michael S

    2014-08-01

    Due to the long durations spent inside by many humans, indoor air quality has become a growing concern. Biofiltration has emerged as a potential mechanism to clean indoor air of harmful volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are typically found at concentrations higher indoors than outdoors. Root-associated microbes are thought to drive the functioning of plant-based biofilters, or biowalls, converting VOCs into biomass, energy, and carbon dioxide, but little is known about the root microbial communities of such artificially grown plants, how or whether they differ from those of plants grown in soil, and whether any changes in composition are driven by VOCs. In this study, we investigated how bacterial communities on biofilter plant roots change over time and in response to VOC exposure. Through 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, we compared root bacterial communities from soil-grown plants with those from two biowalls, while also comparing communities from roots exposed to clean versus VOC-laden air in a laboratory biofiltration system. The results showed differences in bacterial communities between soil-grown and biowall-grown plants and between bacterial communities from plant roots exposed to clean air and those from VOC-exposed plant roots. Both biowall-grown and VOC-exposed roots harbored enriched levels of bacteria from the genus Hyphomicrobium. Given their known capacities to break down aromatic and halogenated compounds, we hypothesize that these bacteria are important VOC degraders. While different strains of Hyphomicrobium proliferated in the two studied biowalls and our lab experiment, strains were shared across plant species, suggesting that a wide range of ornamental houseplants harbor similar microbes of potential use in living biofilters. PMID:24878602

  12. Indoor-biofilter growth and exposure to airborne chemicals drive similar changes in plant root bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Russell, Jacob A; Hu, Yi; Chau, Linh; Pauliushchyk, Margarita; Anastopoulos, Ioannis; Anandan, Shivanthi; Waring, Michael S

    2014-08-01

    Due to the long durations spent inside by many humans, indoor air quality has become a growing concern. Biofiltration has emerged as a potential mechanism to clean indoor air of harmful volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are typically found at concentrations higher indoors than outdoors. Root-associated microbes are thought to drive the functioning of plant-based biofilters, or biowalls, converting VOCs into biomass, energy, and carbon dioxide, but little is known about the root microbial communities of such artificially grown plants, how or whether they differ from those of plants grown in soil, and whether any changes in composition are driven by VOCs. In this study, we investigated how bacterial communities on biofilter plant roots change over time and in response to VOC exposure. Through 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, we compared root bacterial communities from soil-grown plants with those from two biowalls, while also comparing communities from roots exposed to clean versus VOC-laden air in a laboratory biofiltration system. The results showed differences in bacterial communities between soil-grown and biowall-grown plants and between bacterial communities from plant roots exposed to clean air and those from VOC-exposed plant roots. Both biowall-grown and VOC-exposed roots harbored enriched levels of bacteria from the genus Hyphomicrobium. Given their known capacities to break down aromatic and halogenated compounds, we hypothesize that these bacteria are important VOC degraders. While different strains of Hyphomicrobium proliferated in the two studied biowalls and our lab experiment, strains were shared across plant species, suggesting that a wide range of ornamental houseplants harbor similar microbes of potential use in living biofilters.

  13. Indoor-Biofilter Growth and Exposure to Airborne Chemicals Drive Similar Changes in Plant Root Bacterial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yi; Chau, Linh; Pauliushchyk, Margarita; Anastopoulos, Ioannis; Anandan, Shivanthi; Waring, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the long durations spent inside by many humans, indoor air quality has become a growing concern. Biofiltration has emerged as a potential mechanism to clean indoor air of harmful volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are typically found at concentrations higher indoors than outdoors. Root-associated microbes are thought to drive the functioning of plant-based biofilters, or biowalls, converting VOCs into biomass, energy, and carbon dioxide, but little is known about the root microbial communities of such artificially grown plants, how or whether they differ from those of plants grown in soil, and whether any changes in composition are driven by VOCs. In this study, we investigated how bacterial communities on biofilter plant roots change over time and in response to VOC exposure. Through 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, we compared root bacterial communities from soil-grown plants with those from two biowalls, while also comparing communities from roots exposed to clean versus VOC-laden air in a laboratory biofiltration system. The results showed differences in bacterial communities between soil-grown and biowall-grown plants and between bacterial communities from plant roots exposed to clean air and those from VOC-exposed plant roots. Both biowall-grown and VOC-exposed roots harbored enriched levels of bacteria from the genus Hyphomicrobium. Given their known capacities to break down aromatic and halogenated compounds, we hypothesize that these bacteria are important VOC degraders. While different strains of Hyphomicrobium proliferated in the two studied biowalls and our lab experiment, strains were shared across plant species, suggesting that a wide range of ornamental houseplants harbor similar microbes of potential use in living biofilters. PMID:24878602

  14. Elevated CO(2) and drought stress effects on the chemical composition of maize plants, their ruminal fermentation and microbial diversity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Meibaum, Birgit; Riede, Susanne; Schröder, Bernd; Manderscheid, Remy; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Breves, Gerhard

    2012-12-01

    Climate changes are supposed to influence productivity and chemical composition of plants. In the present experiments, it was hypothesised that the incubation of plants exposed to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations ([CO₂]) and drought stress will result in different ruminal fermentation pattern and microbial diversity compared to unaffected plants. Maize plants were grown, well-watered under ambient (380 ppm CO₂, Variant A) and elevated [CO₂] (550 ppm CO₂, Variant B). Furthermore, each CO₂ treatment was also exposed to drought stress (380 ppm and 550 ppm CO₂,Variants C and D, respectively), which received only half as much water as the well-watered plants. Plant material from these treatments was incubated in a semi-continuous in vitro fermentation experiment using the rumen simulation technique. Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis was conducted for Bacteria and Archaea specific profiles. The analysis of crude nutrients showed higher contents of fibre fraction in drought stress Variants C and D. Crude protein content was increased by drought stress under ambient but not under elevated [CO₂]. Fermentation of drought stress variants resulted in significantly increased pH values, decreased digestibilities of organic matter and increased ammonia-N (NH₃-N) concentrations compared with well-watered variants. Additionally, the 550 ppm CO₂ Variants B and D showed significantly lower NH₃-N concentrations than Variants A and C. The Bacteria- and Archaea-specific SSCP profiles as well as the production rates of short-chain fatty acids and their molar percentages were not affected by treatments. During the first four days of equilibration period, a decrease of molar percentage of acetate and increased molar percentages of propionate were observed for all treatments. These alterations might have been induced by adaptation of the in vitro system to the new substrate. The rumen microflora appeared to be highly adaptive and

  15. Kodak: MotorMaster+ is the Foundation for Energy Efficiency at a Chemical and Imaging Technologies Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2006-10-01

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how Kodak is saving 5.8 million kWh and $664,000 annually after upgrading or replacing inefficient motors in its Rochester, New York, plant.

  16. Kodak: MotorMaster+ Is the Foundation for Energy Efficiency at a Chemical and Imaging Technologies Plant (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-02-01

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how Kodak is saving 5.8 million kWh and $664,000 annually after upgrading or replacing inefficient motors in its Rochester, New York, plant.

  17. WHAT GOES UP MUST COME DOWN: A LAGRANGIAN STUDY OF POTENTIAL CHEMICAL IDICATORS OF FECAL CONTAMINATION DOWNSTREAM FROM WASTEWATER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In earlier studies, we have determined that pharmaceuticals and other compounds found in household wastewater (such as surfactants, disinfectants, and scenting agents) are present in the effluent from wastewater treatment plants, and persist downstream from the facilities. To ob...

  18. Plant-symbiotic fungi as chemical engineers: multi-genome analysis of the Clavicipitaceae reveals dynamics of alkaloid loci

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal family Clavicipitaceae includes plant symbionts and pathogens that produce neurotropic alkaloids with diverse effects on vertebrate and invertebrate animals. For example, ergot alkaloids are historically linked to mass poisonings (St. Anthony's fire) and sociological effects such as the ...

  19. Analytical and Radio-Histo-Chemical Experiments of Plants and Tissue Culture Cells Treated with Lunar and Terrestrial Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halliwell, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    The nature and mechanisms of the apparent simulation of growth originally observed in plants growing in contact with lunar soil during the Apollo project quarantine are examined. Preliminary experiments employing neutron activated lunar soil indicate uptake of a few elements by plants. It was found that while the preliminary neutron activation technique allowed demonstration of uptake of minerals it presented numerous disadvantages for use in critical experiments directed at elucidating possible mechanisms of stimulation.

  20. Measured and estimated benzene and volatile organic carbon (VOC) emissions at a major U.S. refinery/chemical plant: Comparison and prioritization.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Daniel; Raun, Loren H

    2015-08-01

    Estimates of emissions for processes and point sources at petroleum refineries and chemical plants provide the foundation for many other environmental evaluations and policy decisions. The most commonly used method, based on emission factors, results in unreliable estimates. More information regarding the actual emissions within a facility is necessary to provide a foundation for improving emission factors and prioritizing which emission factors most need improvement. Identification of which emission factors both perform poorly and introduce the largest error is needed to provide such a prioritization. To address this need, benzene and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions within a major chemical plant/refinery were measured and compared with emission factor estimates. The results of this study indicate estimated emissions were never higher and commonly lower than the measured emissions. At one source location, VOC emissions were found to be largely representative of those measured (i.e., the catalytic reformer), but more often, emissions were significantly underestimated (e.g., up to 448 times greater than estimated at a floating roof tank). The sources with both the largest relative error between the estimate and the measurement and the largest magnitude of emissions in this study were a wastewater treatment process, an aromatics concentration unit and benzene extraction unit process area, and two sets of tanks (sets 7 and 8). Emission factors for these sources are priorities for further evaluation and improvement in this chemical plant/refinery. This study presents empirical data that demonstrate the need to validate and improve emission factors. Emission factors needing improvement are prioritized by identifying those that are weak models and introduce the largest error in magnitude of emissions. The results can also be used to prioritize evaluations of the emissions sources and controls, and any operational conditions or erroneous assumptions that may be

  1. Impacts of chemical amendment and plant growth on lead speciation and enzyme activities in a shooting range soil: an x-ray absorption fine structure investigation.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yohey; Matsufuru, Hiroki; Takaoka, Masaki; Tanida, Hajime; Sato, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    In situ chemical immobilization is a practical remediation technology for metal-contaminated soils because of its capability to reduce cost and environmental impacts. We assessed the immobilization effects of poultry waste amendment and plant growth (Panicum maximum Jacq.) on Pb speciation and enzyme activities in shooting range soils. Soil contaminated with Pb was obtained from the top 20 cm of a shooting range. To evaluate Pb mobility in the soil profile treated with plants and immobilizing amendment, we used large columns filled with Pb-contaminated soil (0-20 cm, surface soils) and non-contaminated soil (20-75 cm, subsurface soils). The column study demonstrated that the amendment reduced the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure-extractable Pb in the surface soil by 90% of the Control soil. Lead mobility from the surface to subsurface profiles was significantly attenuated by plant growth but was promoted by the amendment without plant application. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis revealed that the amendment reduced the proportion of PbCO(3) and Pb-organic complexes and transformed them into a more geochemically stable species of Pb(5)(PO(4))(3)Cl with 30 to 35% of the total Pb species. Applications of plant and amendment increased activities of dehydrogenase and phosphatase in the surface soil with 2.7- and 1.1-fold greater than those in Control, respectively. The use of amendments in combination with plant growth may have potential as an integrated remediation strategy that enables Pb immobilization and soil biological restoration in shooting range soils.

  2. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Wild Growing Aromatic Plant Species of Skimmia laureola and Juniperus macropoda from Western Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Stappen, Iris; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Ali, Abbas; Wedge, David E; Wanner, Jürgen; Kaul, Vijay K; Lal, Brij; Jaitak, Vikas; Gochev, Velizar K; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold

    2015-06-01

    The Himalayan region is very rich in a great variety of medicinal plants. In this investigation the essential oils of two selected species are described for their antimicrobial and larvicidal as well as biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the odors are characterized. Analyzed by simultaneous GC-MS and GC-FID, the essential oils' chemical compositions are given. The main components of Skimmia laureola oil were linalool and linalyl acetate whereas sabinene was found as the main compound for Juniperus macropoda essential oil. Antibacterial testing by agar dilution assay revealed highest activity of S. laureola oil against all tested bacteria, followed by J. macropoda oil. Antifungal activity was evaluated against the strawberry anthracnose causing plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides. Juniperus macropoda essential oil indicated higher antifungal activity against all three pathogens than S. laureola oil. Both essential oils showed biting deterrent activity above solvent control but low larvicidal activity.

  3. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Wild Growing Aromatic Plant Species of Skimmia laureola and Juniperus macropoda from Western Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Stappen, Iris; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Ali, Abbas; Wedge, David E; Wanner, Jürgen; Kaul, Vijay K; Lal, Brij; Jaitak, Vikas; Gochev, Velizar K; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold

    2015-06-01

    The Himalayan region is very rich in a great variety of medicinal plants. In this investigation the essential oils of two selected species are described for their antimicrobial and larvicidal as well as biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the odors are characterized. Analyzed by simultaneous GC-MS and GC-FID, the essential oils' chemical compositions are given. The main components of Skimmia laureola oil were linalool and linalyl acetate whereas sabinene was found as the main compound for Juniperus macropoda essential oil. Antibacterial testing by agar dilution assay revealed highest activity of S. laureola oil against all tested bacteria, followed by J. macropoda oil. Antifungal activity was evaluated against the strawberry anthracnose causing plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides. Juniperus macropoda essential oil indicated higher antifungal activity against all three pathogens than S. laureola oil. Both essential oils showed biting deterrent activity above solvent control but low larvicidal activity. PMID:26197554

  4. Automatic chemical monitoring in the composition of functions performed by the unit level control system in the new projects of nuclear power plant units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova, L. G.; Khrennikov, N. N.

    2014-08-01

    The article presents information on the state of regulatory framework and development of a subsystem for automated chemical monitoring of water chemistries in the primary and secondary coolant circuits used as part of the automatic process control system in new projects of VVER reactor-based nuclear power plant units. For the strategy of developing and putting in use the water chemistry-related part of the automated process control system within the standard AES-2006 nuclear power plant project to be implemented, it is necessary to develop regulatory documents dealing with certain requirements imposed on automatic water chemistry monitoring systems in accordance with the requirements of federal codes and regulations in the field of using atomic energy.

  5. Assessment of the abiotic and biotic effects of sodium metabisulphite pulses discharged from desalination plant chemical treatments on seagrass (Cymodocea nodosa) habitats in the Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Portillo, E; Ruiz de la Rosa, M; Louzara, G; Ruiz, J M; Marín-Guirao, L; Quesada, J; González, J C; Roque, F; González, N; Mendoza, H

    2014-03-15

    Reverse osmosis membranes at many desalination plants are disinfected by periodic shock treatments with sodium metabisulphite, which have potentially toxic effects to the environment for marine life, although no empirical and experimental evidence for this is yet available. The aim of this study was to characterise for the first time, the physico-chemical modification of the marine environment and its biological effects, caused by hypersaline plumes during these membrane cleaning treatments. The case study was the Maspalomas II desalination plant, located in the south of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain). Toxicity bioassays were performed on marine species characteristic for the infralittoral soft bottoms influenced by the brine plume (Synodus synodus and Cymodocea nodosa), and revealed a high sensitivity to short-term exposure to low sodium metabisulphite concentrations. The corrective measure of incorporating a diffusion system with Venturi Eductors reduced nearly all the areas of influence, virtually eliminating the impact of the disinfectant. PMID:24495930

  6. Comparative analysis of chemical compositions between non-transgenic soybean seeds and those from plants over-expressing AtJMT, the gene for jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kyong-Hee; Kim, Do Young; Pack, In-Soon; Park, Jung-Ho; Seo, Jun Sung; Choi, Yang Do; Cheong, Jong-Joo; Kim, Chung Ho; Kim, Chang-Gi

    2016-04-01

    Transgenic overexpression of the Arabidopsis gene for jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (AtJMT) is involved in regulating jasmonate-related plant responses. To examine its role in the compositional profile of soybean (Glycine max), we compared the seeds from field-grown plants that over-express AtJMT with those of the non-transgenic, wild-type (WT) counterpart. Our analysis of chemical compositions included proximates, amino acids, fatty acids, isoflavones, and antinutrients. Overexpression of AtJMT in the seeds resulted in decreased amounts of tryptophan, palmitic acid, linolenic acid, and stachyose, but increased levels of gadoleic acid and genistein. In particular, seeds from the transgenic soybeans contained 120.0-130.5% more genistein and 60.5-82.1% less stachyose than the WT. A separate evaluation of ingredient values showed that all were within the reference ranges reported for commercially available soybeans, thereby demonstrating the substantial equivalence of these transgenic and non-transgenic seeds.

  7. Assessment of the abiotic and biotic effects of sodium metabisulphite pulses discharged from desalination plant chemical treatments on seagrass (Cymodocea nodosa) habitats in the Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Portillo, E; Ruiz de la Rosa, M; Louzara, G; Ruiz, J M; Marín-Guirao, L; Quesada, J; González, J C; Roque, F; González, N; Mendoza, H

    2014-03-15

    Reverse osmosis membranes at many desalination plants are disinfected by periodic shock treatments with sodium metabisulphite, which have potentially toxic effects to the environment for marine life, although no empirical and experimental evidence for this is yet available. The aim of this study was to characterise for the first time, the physico-chemical modification of the marine environment and its biological effects, caused by hypersaline plumes during these membrane cleaning treatments. The case study was the Maspalomas II desalination plant, located in the south of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain). Toxicity bioassays were performed on marine species characteristic for the infralittoral soft bottoms influenced by the brine plume (Synodus synodus and Cymodocea nodosa), and revealed a high sensitivity to short-term exposure to low sodium metabisulphite concentrations. The corrective measure of incorporating a diffusion system with Venturi Eductors reduced nearly all the areas of influence, virtually eliminating the impact of the disinfectant.

  8. An integrated approach to safer plant production on metal contaminated soils using species selection and chemical immobilization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyuck Soo; Seo, Byoung-Hwan; Bae, Jun-Sik; Kim, Won-Il; Owens, Gary; Kim, Kwon-Rae

    2016-09-01

    In order to examine the species specific accumulation of heavy metals in medicinal crops, seven different common medicinal plants were cultivated on a Cd (55mgkg(-1)) and Pb (1283mgkg(-1)) contaminated soil. Subsequently, the effect of various immobilizing agents, applied in isolation and in combination, on Cd and Pb uptake by two medicinal plant species was examined. Cadmium and Pb root concentrations in medicinal plants grown in the control soil varied between 0.5 and 2.6mgkg(-1) for Cd and 3.2 and 36.4mgkg(-1) for Pb. The highest accumulation occurred in Osterici Radix (Ostericum koreanum) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and the lowest in Yam (Dioscorea batatas). Application of immobilizing agents significantly reduced both Cd and Pb concentrations in all medicinal plants examined, where the most effective single immobilizing agent was lime fertilizer (LF). Application of combination treatments involving sorption agents such as compost together with lime further decreased Cd and Pb concentrations from 1.3 and 25.3mgkg(-1) to 0.2 and 4.3mgkg(-1), respectively, which was well below the corresponding WHO guidelines. Thus appropriate immobilizing agents in combination with species selection can be practically used for safer medicinal plant production. PMID:27213564

  9. In vitro genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of five new chemical compounds of plant origin by means of the human lymphocyte micronucleus assay.

    PubMed

    Scarpato, R; Pistelli, L; Bertoli, A; Nieri, E; Migliore, L

    1998-04-01

    The micronucleus test in human peripheral lymphocytes is widely used in toxicology for the assessment of the genotoxic profile of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic, cytotoxic and antimitotic activity of five new compounds isolated from Prunus africana Hook or from Bupleurum fruticosum L. The experiments were conducted only in vitro. Results showed that none of the plant extracts, tested over a wide range of concentrations, increased the frequency of micronuclei. Only compounds 2 and 5 were found to be toxic for phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes at the maximum dose used. reserved.

  10. Environmental evaluation of alternatives for long-term management of Defense high-level radioactive wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the selection of a strategy for the long-term management of the defense high-level wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). This report describes the environmental impacts of alternative strategies. These alternative strategies include leaving the calcine in its present form at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), or retrieving and modifying the calcine to a more durable waste form and disposing of it either at the INEL or in an offsite repository. This report addresses only the alternatives for a program to manage the high-level waste generated at the ICPP. 24 figures, 60 tables.

  11. Azadirachta indica plant-assisted green synthesis of Mn3O4 nanoparticles: Excellent thermal catalytic performance and chemical sensing behavior.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jitendra Kumar; Srivastava, Pratibha; Ameen, Sadia; Akhtar, M Shaheer; Singh, Gurdip; Yadava, Sudha

    2016-06-15

    The leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) plant was utilized as reducing agent for the green synthesis of Mn3O4 nanoparticles (NPs). The crystalline analysis demonstrated the typical tetragonal hausmannite crystal structure of Mn3O4, which confirmed the formation of Mn3O4 NPs without the existence of other oxides. Green synthesized Mn3O4 NPs were applied for the catalytic thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and as working electrode for fabricating the chemical sensor. The excellent catalytic effect for the thermal decomposition of AP was observed by decreasing the decomposition temperature by 175 °C with single decomposing step. The fabricated chemical sensor based on green synthesized Mn3O4 NPs displayed high, reliable and reproducible sensitivity of ∼569.2 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) with reasonable limit of detection (LOD) of ∼22.1 μM and the response time of ∼10 s toward the detection of 2-butanone chemical. A relatively good linearity in the ranging from ∼20 to 160 μM was detected for Mn3O4 NPs electrode based 2-butanone chemical sensor.

  12. Statistical association between cancer incidence and major-cause mortality, and estimated residential exposure to air emissions from petroleum and chemical plants.

    PubMed Central

    Kaldor, J; Harris, J A; Glazer, E; Glaser, S; Neutra, R; Mayberry, R; Nelson, V; Robinson, L; Reed, D

    1984-01-01

    An ecologic study design was used to investigate the relationship between exposure to air emissions produced by the petroleum and chemical industries, and average annual cancer incidence and major cause mortality rates among whites in Contra Costa County, California. Estimates for the exposure to major industrial sources of sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen were used to subdivide the county by level of exposure to petroleum refinery and chemical plant emissions. Cancer incidence and major cause mortality rates were then calculated for whites in each of the exposure areas. In both males and females, residential exposure to petroleum and chemical air emissions was associated with an increased incidence of cancer of the buccal cavity and pharynx. In males, age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers of the stomach, lung, prostate and kidney and urinary organs were also associated with petroleum and chemical plant air emission exposures. In both sexes, we found a strong positive association between degree of residential exposure and death rates from cardiovascular disease and cancer, and a less strong positive association between exposure and death rates from cerebrovascular disease. There was also a positive association in men for deaths from cirrhosis of the liver. Although these observed associations occurred across areas of similar socioeconomic and broad occupational class, confounding variables and the "ecologic fallacy" must be considered as possible explanations. In particular, the stronger findings in men suggest an occupational explanation of the cancer incidence trends, and the effect observed in cirrhosis mortality suggests that lifestyle variables such as alcohol consumption were not adequately controlled for. While the public health implications of our findings remain unclear, the evidence presented is sufficient to warrant follow-up studies based on individual data in which possible biases can be more readily controlled. PMID:6734567

  13. Statistical association between cancer incidence and major-cause mortality, and estimated residential exposure to air emissions from petroleum and chemical plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kaldor, J.; Harris, J.A.; Glazer, E.; Glaser, S.; Neutra, R.; Mayberry, R.; Nelson, V.; Robinson, L.; Reed, D.

    1984-03-01

    An ecologic study design was used to investigate the relationship between exposure to air emissions produced by the petroleum and chemical industries, and average annual cancer incidence and major cause mortality rates among whites in Contra Costa County, California. Estimates for the exposure to major industrial sources of sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen were used to subdivide the county by level of exposure to petroleum refinery and chemical plant emissions. Cancer incidence and major cause mortality rates were then calculated for whites in each of the exposure areas. In both males and females, residential exposure to petroleum and chemical air emissions was associated with an increased incidence of cancer of the buccal cavity and pharynx. In males, age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers of the stomach, lung, prostate and kidney and urinary organs were also associated with petroleum and chemical plant air emission exposures. In both sexes, a strong positive association was found between degree of residential exposure and death rates from cardiovascular disease and cancer, and a less strong positive association between exposure and death rates from cerebrovascular disease. There was also a positive association in men for deaths from cirrhosis of the liver. Although these observed associations occurred across areas of similar socioeconomic and broad occupational class, confounding variables and the ecologic fallacy must be considered as possible explanations. In particular, the strong findings in men suggest an occupational explanation of the cancer incidence trends, and the effect observed in cirrhosis mortality suggests that lifestyle variables such as alcohol consumption were not adequately controlled for. 26 references, 1 figure, 6 tables.

  14. The physical and chemical features of Cannabis plants grown in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from seeds of known origin--Part III: Third and fourth generation studies.

    PubMed

    Taylor, B J; Neal, J D; Gough, T A

    1985-01-01

    Two further generations of Cannabis plants have been grown from seeds produced by earlier generation plants which were raised in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in 1980 and 1981. The original seedstocks were from known countries of origin. Although there are exceptions, both the physical and chemical characteristics of the third and fourth generation plants generally resemble those of their parents. The yields of cannabis vary substantially from year to year. The total tetrahydrocannabinol contents also vary, but are comparable with the levels in the original plants. Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid continues to predominate over free tetrahydrocannabinol and is much higher than in the original plants.

  15. Effects of fire and three fire-fighting chemicals on main soil properties, plant nutrient content and vegetation growth and cover after 10 years.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fernández, M; Gómez-Rey, M X; González-Prieto, S J

    2015-05-15

    The study addresses a knowledge-gap in the long-term ecological consequences of fire and fire-fighting chemicals. Ten years after a prescribed fire and the application of three fire-fighting chemicals, their effects on the soil-plant system were evaluated. Five treatments were established: unburnt soils (US) and burnt soils treated with water alone (BS), foaming agent (BS+Fo), Firesorb (BS+Fi) and ammonium polyphosphate (BS+Ap). Soils (0-2 cm depth) and foliar material of shrubs (Erica umbellata, Pterospartum tridentatum and Ulex micranthus) and trees (Pinus pinaster) were analysed for total N, δ(15)N, and soil-available and plant total macronutrients and trace elements. Soil pH, NH₄(+)-N and NO₃(-)-N; pine basal diameter and height; and shrub cover and height were also measured. Compared with US plots, burnt soils had less nitrates and more Mo. Although differences were not always significant, BS+Ap had the highest levels of soil available P, Na and Al. Plants from BS+Ap plots had higher values of δ(15)N (P. pinaster and E. umbellata), P (all species), Na (P. tridentatum and U. micranthus) and Mg (E. umbellata and P. tridentatum) than other treatments; while K in plants from BS+Ap plots was the highest among treatments for P. pinaster and the lowest for the shrubs. Pines in US plots were higher and wider than in burnt treatments, except for BS+Ap, where the tallest and widest trees were found, although half of them were either dead (the second highest mortality after BS+Fi) or had a distorted trunk. BS+Ap was the treatment with strongest effects on plants, showing E. umbellata the lowest coverage and height, P. tridentatum the highest coverage, U. micranthus one of the lowest coverages and being the only treatment where Genista triacanthos was absent. Consequently, it is concluded that both fire and ammonium polyphosphate application had significant effects on the soil-plant system after 10 years.

  16. Plant-symbiotic fungi as chemical engineers: multi-genome analysis of the Clavicipitaceae reveals dynamics of alkaloid loci

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal family Clavicipitaceae includes plant symbionts and parasites that produce several potent psychoactive and bioprotective alkaloids. The family includes grass-symbiotic epichloae (Epichloë and Neotyphodium species), which have highly diverse chemotypes with four distinct classes of anti-in...

  17. Impact of pesticides on plant growth promotion of Vigna radiata and non-target microbes: comparison between chemical- and bio-pesticides.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sukriti; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi

    2014-08-01

    To compare the target and non-target effects of two chemical-pesticides (chlorpyrifos and endosulfan) with that of a bio-pesticide (azadirachtin), Vigna radiata (mung bean) was grown in a randomized pot experiment with recommended and higher application rates of pesticides. Colony counts enumerating specific microbial populations, viz. fungi, Pseudomonas, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms, were performed. In addition, several plant growth parameters such as root and shoot lengths were also monitored. It was observed that the pesticides exerted a suppressive effect on different microbial communities under study in the initial 30 days period. The bacterial and fungal populations in chlorpyrifos treated plants increased thereafter. Endosulfan resulted in enhancement of fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, although phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms were suppressed at higher application rates. Azadirachtin, which is gaining popularity owing to its biological origin, did not result in enhancement of any microbial populations; on the other hand, it had a deleterious effect on phosphate-solubilizing bacteria. This study is the first to evaluate the non-target effects of pesticides with a comparison between chemical- and bio-pesticides, and also stresses the importance of critical investigation of bio-pesticides before their wide spread application in agriculture. PMID:24799184

  18. Remedial investigation concept plan for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties--the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area (the latter includes the training area)--located in the Weldon Spring area in St. Charles County, Missouri. These areas are on the National Priorities List (NPL), and cleanup activities at both areas are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE and DA are conducting a joint remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the groundwater operable units for the two areas. This joint effort will optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts and facilitate overall remedial decision making since the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. A Work Plan issued jointly in 1995 by DOE and the DA discusses the results of investigations completed at the time of preparation of the report. The investigations were necessary to provide an understanding of the groundwater system beneath the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area. The Work Plan also identifies additional data requirements for verification of the evaluation presented.

  19. Impact of pesticides on plant growth promotion of Vigna radiata and non-target microbes: comparison between chemical- and bio-pesticides.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sukriti; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi

    2014-08-01

    To compare the target and non-target effects of two chemical-pesticides (chlorpyrifos and endosulfan) with that of a bio-pesticide (azadirachtin), Vigna radiata (mung bean) was grown in a randomized pot experiment with recommended and higher application rates of pesticides. Colony counts enumerating specific microbial populations, viz. fungi, Pseudomonas, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms, were performed. In addition, several plant growth parameters such as root and shoot lengths were also monitored. It was observed that the pesticides exerted a suppressive effect on different microbial communities under study in the initial 30 days period. The bacterial and fungal populations in chlorpyrifos treated plants increased thereafter. Endosulfan resulted in enhancement of fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, although phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms were suppressed at higher application rates. Azadirachtin, which is gaining popularity owing to its biological origin, did not result in enhancement of any microbial populations; on the other hand, it had a deleterious effect on phosphate-solubilizing bacteria. This study is the first to evaluate the non-target effects of pesticides with a comparison between chemical- and bio-pesticides, and also stresses the importance of critical investigation of bio-pesticides before their wide spread application in agriculture.

  20. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed management of 15 nonprocess buildings (15 series) at the Weldon Spring Site Chemical Plant, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonell, M M; Peterson, J M

    1989-05-01

    The US Department of Energy, under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP), is responsible for cleanup activities at the Weldon-Spring site, located near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site consists of two noncontiguous areas: (1) a raffinate pits and chemical plant area and (2) a quarry. This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) report has been prepared to support a proposed removal action to manage 15 nonprocess buildings, identified as the 15 Series buildings, at the chemical plant on the Weldon Spring site. These buildings have been nonoperational for more than 20 years, and the deterioration that has occurred during this time has resulted in a potential threat to site workers, the general public, and the environment. The EE/CA documentation of this proposed action is consistent with guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that addresses removal actions at sites subject to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. Actions at the Weldon Spring site are subject to CERCLA requirements because the site is on the EPA`s National Priorities List. The objectives of this report are to (1) identify alternatives for management of the nonprocess buildings; (2) document the selection of response activities that will mitigate the potential threat to workers, the public, and the environment associated with these buildings; and (3) address environmental impacts associated with the proposed action.