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Sample records for kiv peeter nges

  1. Basic principles of the KIV model and its application to the navigation problem.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Robert; Freeman, Walter J

    2003-06-01

    EEG measurements indicate the presence of common-mode, coherent oscillations shared by multiple cortical areas. In previous studies the KIII model has been introduced, which interprets the experimental observations as nonlinear, spatially distributed dynamical oscillations of locally coupled neural populations. KIII can account for the fast and robust classification and pattern recognition in sensory cortices. In order to describe selection of action, planning, and spatial orientation functions, in this paper we expand KIII into the KIV model. KIV approximates the operation of the corticostriatal-hippocampal system. KIV consists of three KI, eight KII and three KIII components, including sensory and cortical systems, as well as the hippocampus, amygdala, and the septum. KIV implements various types of dynamic neural activities. The neural activity patterns determine the emergence of global spatial encoding to implement the orientation function of a simulated animal. Our results indicate the mechanisms, which we believe support the generation of cognitive maps in the hippocampus based on the sensory input-based destabilization of cortical spatio-temporal patterns. In this paper, we describe the conceptual design of the KIV model. We outline the biological background and motivation of the basic principles that are applied to design the KIV computational model. We use the KIV model to explain how the hippocampal neural circuitry functions are constructed and controlled by the corticostriatal-hippocampal loops, supplemented with specific subcortical units. In the second part, we implement these principles using the example of the hippocampal formation as a KIII unit. We demonstrate the learning and navigation principles using the Evolving Multi-module Mobile Agent (EMMA) in 2D software environment. PMID:15011280

  2. Sequence variation within the KIV-2 copy number polymorphism of the human LPA gene in African, Asian, and European populations.

    PubMed

    Noureen, Asma; Fresser, Friedrich; Utermann, Gerd; Schmidt, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Amazingly little sequence variation is reported for the kringle IV 2 copy number variation (KIV 2 CNV) in the human LPA gene. Apart from whole genome sequencing projects, this region has only been analyzed in some detail in samples of European populations. We have performed a systematic resequencing study of the exonic and flanking intron regions within the KIV 2 CNV in 90 alleles from Asian, European, and four different African populations. Alleles have been separated according to their CNV length by pulsed field gel electrophoresis prior to unbiased specific PCR amplification of the target regions. These amplicons covered all KIV 2 copies of an individual allele simultaneously. In addition, cloned amplicons from genomic DNA of an African individual were sequenced. Our data suggest that sequence variation in this genomic region may be higher than previously appreciated. Detection probability of variants appeared to depend on the KIV 2 copy number of the analyzed DNA and on the proportion of copies carrying the variant. Asians had a high frequency of so-called KIV 2 type B and type C (together 70% of alleles), which differ by three or two synonymous substitutions respectively from the reference type A. This is most likely explained by the strong bottleneck suggested to have occurred when modern humans migrated to East Asia. A higher frequency of variable sites was detected in the Africans. In particular, two previously unreported splice site variants were found. One was associated with non-detectable Lp(a). The other was observed at high population frequencies (10% to 40%). Like the KIV 2 type B and C variants, this latter variant was also found in a high proportion of KIV 2 repeats in the affected alleles and in alleles differing in copy numbers. Our findings may have implications for the interpretation of SNP analyses in other repetitive loci of the human genome.

  3. Effects on hypothalamus when CPG is fed back to basal ganglia based on KIV model.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qiang; Li, Wenfeng; Tian, Juan; Zhang, Xixue

    2015-02-01

    The KIV model approximates the operation of the basic vertebrate forebrain together with the basal ganglia and motor systems. In KIV model, the hypothalamus and the basal ganglia which are two important parts in the midline forebrain are closely associated with the locomotion. The CPG model with time delay is established in this paper and the stability of this CPG model is discussed. The CPG output is treated as the proprioception and fed back to the basal ganglia. We focus on the effects on the hypothalamus and the basal ganglia when the time delay parameter a d , the CPG amplitude parameter e and the CPG frequency parameter T r are changed. Through analysis, we find that there exists optimum value of the parameters a d or T r which can make the synchronization of the hypothalamus optimum when the CPG is added into the basal ganglia. The results could have important implications for biological processes which are about interaction between the neural network and the CPG.

  4. Apolipoprotein(a) Kringle-IV Type 2 Copy Number Variation Is Associated with Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Sticchi, Elena; Magi, Alberto; Kamstrup, Pia R.; Marcucci, Rossella; Prisco, Domenico; Martinelli, Ida; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Abbate, Rosanna; Giusti, Betti

    2016-01-01

    In addition to the established association between high lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] concentrations and coronary artery disease, an association between Lp(a) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) has also been described. Lp(a) is controlled by genetic variants in LPA gene, coding for apolipoprotein(a), including the kringle-IV type 2 (KIV-2) size polymorphism. Aim of the study was to investigate the role of LPA gene KIV-2 size polymorphism and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs1853021, rs1800769, rs3798220, rs10455872) in modulating VTE susceptibility. Five hundred and sixteen patients with VTE without hereditary and acquired thrombophilia and 1117 healthy control subjects, comparable for age and sex, were investigated. LPA KIV-2 polymorphism, rs3798220 and rs10455872 SNPs were genotyped by TaqMan technology. Concerning rs1853021 and rs1800769 SNPs, PCR-RFLP assay was used. LPA KIV-2 repeat number was significantly lower in patients than in controls [median (interquartile range) 11(6–17) vs 15(9–25), p<0.0001]. A significantly higher prevalence of KIV-2 repeat number ≤7 was observed in patients than in controls (33.5% vs 15.5%, p<0.0001). KIV-2 repeat number was independently associated with VTE (p = 4.36 x10-9), as evidenced by the general linear model analysis adjusted for transient risk factors. No significant difference in allele frequency for all SNPs investigated was observed. Haplotype analysis showed that LPA haplotypes rather than individual SNPs influenced disease susceptibility. Receiver operating characteristic curves analysis showed that a combined risk prediction model, including KIV-2 size polymorphism and clinical variables, had a higher performance in identifying subjects at VTE risk than a clinical-only model, also separately in men and women. PMID:26900838

  5. Systematic identification and correction of annotation errors in the genetic interaction map of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Atias, Nir; Kupiec, Martin; Sharan, Roded

    2016-01-01

    The yeast mutant collections are a fundamental tool in deciphering genomic organization and function. Over the last decade, they have been used for the systematic exploration of ∼6 000 000 double gene mutants, identifying and cataloging genetic interactions among them. Here we studied the extent to which these data are prone to neighboring gene effects (NGEs), a phenomenon by which the deletion of a gene affects the expression of adjacent genes along the genome. Analyzing ∼90,000 negative genetic interactions observed to date, we found that more than 10% of them are incorrectly annotated due to NGEs. We developed a novel algorithm, GINGER, to identify and correct erroneous interaction annotations. We validated the algorithm using a comparative analysis of interactions from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We further showed that our predictions are significantly more concordant with diverse biological data compared to their mis-annotated counterparts. Our work uncovered about 9500 new genetic interactions in yeast. PMID:26602688

  6. Regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases by a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase cascade.

    PubMed Central

    Enslen, H; Tokumitsu, H; Stork, P J; Davis, R J; Soderling, T R

    1996-01-01

    Membrane depolarization of NG108 cells gives rapid (< 5 min) activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaM-KIV), as well as activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). To investigate whether the Ca2+-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK, JNK, and p38) might be mediated by the CaM kinase cascade, we have transfected PC12 cells, which lack CaM-KIV, with constitutively active mutants of CaM kinase kinase and/or CaM-KIV (CaM-KKc and CaM-KIVc, respectively). In the absence of depolarization, CaM-KKc transfection had no effect on Elk-dependent transcription of a luciferase reporter gene, whereas CaM-KIVc alone or in combination with CaM-KKc gave 7- to 10-fold and 60- to 80-fold stimulations, respectively, which were blocked by mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase phosphatase cotransfection. When epitope-tagged constructs of MAP kinases were co-transfected with CaM-KKc plus CaM-KIVc, the immunoprecipitated MAP kinases were activated 2-fold (ERK-2) and 7- to 10-fold (JNK-1 and p38). The JNK and p38 pathways were further investigated using specific c-Jun or ATF2-dependent transcriptional assays. We found that c-Jun/ATF2-dependent transcriptions were enhanced 7- to 10-fold by CaM-KIVc and 20- to 30-fold by CaM-KKc plus CaM-KIVc. In the case of the Jun-dependent transcription, this effect was not due to direct phosphorylation of c-Jun by activated CaM-KIV, since transcription was blocked by a dominant-negative JNK and by two MAP kinase phosphatases. Mutation of the phosphorylation site (Thr196) in CaM-KIV, which mediates its activation by CaM-KIV kinase, prevented activation of Elk-1, c-Jun, and ATF2 by the CaM kinase cascade. These results establish a new Ca2+-dependent mechanism for regulating MAP kinase pathways and resultant transcription. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8855261

  7. Multidisciplinary Design, Analysis, and Optimization Tool Development using a Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-gi; Li, Wesley

    2008-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization using a genetic algorithm is being developed at the National Aeronautics and Space A dministration Dryden Flight Research Center to automate analysis and design process by leveraging existing tools such as NASTRAN, ZAERO a nd CFD codes to enable true multidisciplinary optimization in the pr eliminary design stage of subsonic, transonic, supersonic, and hypers onic aircraft. This is a promising technology, but faces many challe nges in large-scale, real-world application. This paper describes cur rent approaches, recent results, and challenges for MDAO as demonstr ated by our experience with the Ikhana fire pod design.

  8. Antidepressive and BDNF effects of enriched environment treatment across ages in mice lacking BDNF expression through promoter IV.

    PubMed

    Jha, S; Dong, B E; Xue, Y; Delotterie, D F; Vail, M G; Sakata, K

    2016-01-01

    Reduced promoter IV-driven expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in stress and major depression. We previously reported that defective promoter IV (KIV) caused depression-like behavior in young adult mice, which was reversed more effectively by enriched environment treatment (EET) than antidepressants. The effects of promoter IV-BDNF deficiency and EET over the life stages remain unknown. Since early-life development (ED) involves dynamic epigenetic processes, we hypothesized that EET during ED would provide maximum antidepressive effects that would persist later in life due to enhanced, long-lasting BDNF induction. We tested this hypothesis by determining EET effects across three life stages: ED (0-2 months), young adult (2-4 months), and old adult (12-14 months). KIV mice at all life stages showed depression-like behavior in the open-field and tail-suspension tests compared with wild-type mice. Two months of EET reduced depression-like behavior in ED and young adult, but not old adult mice, with the largest effect in ED KIV mice. This effect lasted for 1 month after discontinuance of EET only in ED mice. BDNF protein induction by EET in the hippocampus and frontal cortex was also the largest in ED mice and persisted only in the hippocampus of ED KIV mice after discontinuance of EET. No gender-specific effects were observed. The results suggest that defective promoter IV causes depression-like behavior, regardless of age and gender, and that EET during ED is particularly beneficial to individuals with promoter IV-BDNF deficiency, while additional treatment may be needed for older adults. PMID:27648918

  9. Determinants of binding of oxidized phospholipids on apolipoprotein (a) and lipoprotein (a).

    PubMed

    Leibundgut, Gregor; Scipione, Corey; Yin, Huiyong; Schneider, Matthias; Boffa, Michael B; Green, Simone; Yang, Xiaohong; Dennis, Edward; Witztum, Joseph L; Koschinsky, Marlys L; Tsimikas, Sotirios

    2013-10-01

    Oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs) are present on apolipoprotein (a) [apo(a)] and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] but the determinants influencing their binding are not known. The presence of OxPLs on apo(a)/Lp(a) was evaluated in plasma from healthy humans, apes, monkeys, apo(a)/Lp(a) transgenic mice, lysine binding site (LBS) mutant apo(a)/Lp(a) mice with Asp(55/57)→Ala(55/57) substitution of kringle (K)IV10)], and a variety of recombinant apo(a) [r-apo(a)] constructs. Using antibody E06, which binds the phosphocholine (PC) headgroup of OxPLs, Western and ELISA formats revealed that OxPLs were only present in apo(a) with an intact KIV10 LBS. Lipid extracts of purified human Lp(a) contained both E06- and nonE06-detectable OxPLs by tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Trypsin digestion of 17K r-apo(a) showed PC-containing OxPLs covalently bound to apo(a) fragments by LC-MS/MS that could be saponified by ammonium hydroxide. Interestingly, PC-containing OxPLs were also present in 17K r-apo(a) with Asp(57)→Ala(57) substitution in KIV10 that lacked E06 immunoreactivity. In conclusion, E06- and nonE06-detectable OxPLs are present in the lipid phase of Lp(a) and covalently bound to apo(a). E06 immunoreactivity, reflecting pro-inflammatory OxPLs accessible to the immune system, is strongly influenced by KIV10 LBS and is unique to human apo(a), which may explain Lp(a)'s pro-atherogenic potential. PMID:23828779

  10. Antidepressive and BDNF effects of enriched environment treatment across ages in mice lacking BDNF expression through promoter IV.

    PubMed

    Jha, S; Dong, B E; Xue, Y; Delotterie, D F; Vail, M G; Sakata, K

    2016-09-20

    Reduced promoter IV-driven expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in stress and major depression. We previously reported that defective promoter IV (KIV) caused depression-like behavior in young adult mice, which was reversed more effectively by enriched environment treatment (EET) than antidepressants. The effects of promoter IV-BDNF deficiency and EET over the life stages remain unknown. Since early-life development (ED) involves dynamic epigenetic processes, we hypothesized that EET during ED would provide maximum antidepressive effects that would persist later in life due to enhanced, long-lasting BDNF induction. We tested this hypothesis by determining EET effects across three life stages: ED (0-2 months), young adult (2-4 months), and old adult (12-14 months). KIV mice at all life stages showed depression-like behavior in the open-field and tail-suspension tests compared with wild-type mice. Two months of EET reduced depression-like behavior in ED and young adult, but not old adult mice, with the largest effect in ED KIV mice. This effect lasted for 1 month after discontinuance of EET only in ED mice. BDNF protein induction by EET in the hippocampus and frontal cortex was also the largest in ED mice and persisted only in the hippocampus of ED KIV mice after discontinuance of EET. No gender-specific effects were observed. The results suggest that defective promoter IV causes depression-like behavior, regardless of age and gender, and that EET during ED is particularly beneficial to individuals with promoter IV-BDNF deficiency, while additional treatment may be needed for older adults.

  11. Antidepressive and BDNF effects of enriched environment treatment across ages in mice lacking BDNF expression through promoter IV

    PubMed Central

    Jha, S; Dong, B E; Xue, Y; Delotterie, D F; Vail, M G; Sakata, K

    2016-01-01

    Reduced promoter IV-driven expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in stress and major depression. We previously reported that defective promoter IV (KIV) caused depression-like behavior in young adult mice, which was reversed more effectively by enriched environment treatment (EET) than antidepressants. The effects of promoter IV-BDNF deficiency and EET over the life stages remain unknown. Since early-life development (ED) involves dynamic epigenetic processes, we hypothesized that EET during ED would provide maximum antidepressive effects that would persist later in life due to enhanced, long-lasting BDNF induction. We tested this hypothesis by determining EET effects across three life stages: ED (0–2 months), young adult (2–4 months), and old adult (12–14 months). KIV mice at all life stages showed depression-like behavior in the open-field and tail-suspension tests compared with wild-type mice. Two months of EET reduced depression-like behavior in ED and young adult, but not old adult mice, with the largest effect in ED KIV mice. This effect lasted for 1 month after discontinuance of EET only in ED mice. BDNF protein induction by EET in the hippocampus and frontal cortex was also the largest in ED mice and persisted only in the hippocampus of ED KIV mice after discontinuance of EET. No gender-specific effects were observed. The results suggest that defective promoter IV causes depression-like behavior, regardless of age and gender, and that EET during ED is particularly beneficial to individuals with promoter IV-BDNF deficiency, while additional treatment may be needed for older adults. PMID:27648918

  12. Role of mitochondrial transamination in branched chain amino acid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Hutson, S.M.; Fenstermacher, D.; Mahar, C.

    1988-03-15

    Oxidative decarboxylation and transamination of 1-/sup 14/C-branched chain amino and alpha-keto acids were examined in mitochondria isolated from rat heart. Transamination was inhibited by aminooxyacetate, but not by L-cycloserine. At equimolar concentrations of alpha-ketoiso(1-/sup 14/C)valerate (KIV) and isoleucine, transamination was increased by disrupting the mitochondria with detergent which suggests transport may be one factor affecting the rate of transamination. Next, the subcellular distribution of the aminotransferase(s) was determined. Branched chain aminotransferase activity was measured using two concentrations of isoleucine as amino donor and (1-/sup 14/C)KIV as amino acceptor. The data show that branched chain aminotransferase activity is located exclusively in the mitochondria in rat heart. Metabolism of extramitochondrial branched chain alpha-keto acids was examined using 20 microM (1-/sup 14/C)KIV and alpha-ketoiso(1-/sup 14/C)caproate (KIC). There was rapid uptake and oxidation of labeled branched chain alpha-keto acid, and, regardless of the experimental condition, greater than 90% of the labeled keto acid substrate was metabolized during the 20-min incubation. When a branched chain amino acid (200 microM) or glutamate (5 mM) was present, 30-40% of the labeled keto acid was transaminated while the remainder was oxidized. Provision of an alternate amino acceptor in the form of alpha-keto-glutarate (0.5 mM) decreased transamination of the labeled KIV or KIC and increased oxidation. Metabolism of intramitochondrially generated branched chain alpha-keto acids was studied using (1-/sup 14/C)leucine and (1-/sup 14/C)valine. Essentially all of the labeled branched chain alpha-keto acid produced by transamination of (1-/sup 14/C)leucine or (1-/sup 14/C)valine with a low concentration of unlabeled branched chain alpha-keto acid (20 microM) was oxidized.

  13. Regulation of valine and. alpha. -ketoisocaproate metabolism in rat kidney mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.H.; Harper, A.E. )

    1988-10-01

    Activities of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) aminotransferase (BCAT) and {alpha}-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD) were assayed in mitochondria isolated from kidneys of rats. Rates of transamination of valine and oxidation of keto acids {alpha}-ketoisocaproate (KIC) or {alpha}-ketoisovalerate (KIV) were estimated using radioactive tracers of the appropriate substrate from amounts of {sup 14}C-labeled products formed. Because of the high mitochondrial BCAT activity, an amino acceptor for BCAT, {alpha}-ketoglutarate ({alpha}-KG) or KIC, was added to the assay medium when valine was the substrate. Rates of valine transamination and subsequent oxidation of the KIV formed were determined with 0.5 mM {alpha}-KG as the amino acceptor; these rates were 5- to 50-fold those without added {alpha}-KG. Rates of CO{sub 2} evolution from valine also increased when KIC was present; however, with KIC concentrations above 0.2 mM, rates of CO{sub 2} evolution from valine declined although rates of transamination continued to rise. When 0.05 mM KIC was added to the assay medium, oxidation of KIC was suppressed by inclusion of valine or glutamate in the medium. When valine was present KIC was not oxidized preferentially, presumably because it was also serving as an amino acceptor for BCAT. These results indicate that as the supply of amino acceptor, {alpha}-KG or KIC, is increased in mitochondria not only is the rate of valine transamination stimulated but also the rate of oxidation of the KIV formed from valine. Thus the rate of oxidation of BCAA can be controlled by factors that influence the rate and direction of BCAA transamination and, thereby, the supply of substrate for BCKD.

  14. Development of a Fabry-Perot Interferometer for Ultra-Precise Measurements of Column CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Emily L.; Georgieva, Elena M.; Heaps, William S.

    2005-01-01

    A passive Fabry-Perot based instrument is described for detecting column CO2 through absorption measurements at 1.58 microns . In this design, solar flux reaches the instrument platform and is directed through two channels. In the first channel, transmittance fi5nges from a Fabry-Perot interferometer are aligned with CO2 absorption lines so that absorption due to CO2 is primarily detected. The second channel encompasses the same frequency region as the first, but is comparatively more sensitive to changes in the solar flux than absorption due to CO2. The ratio of these channels is sensitive to changes in the total CO2 column, but not to changes in solar flux. This inexpensive instrument will offer high precision measurements (error 4%) in a compact package. Design of this instrument and preliminary ground-based measurements of column CO2 are presented here as well as strategies for deployment on aircraft and satellite platforms.

  15. Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Interpersonal Violence in Suicide Attempters.

    PubMed

    Sahlin, Hanna; Moberg, Tomas; Hirvikoski, Tatja; Jokinen, Jussi

    2015-01-01

    The current study compared characteristics of suicidal behavior and interpersonal violence in suicide attempters with and without a history of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). A total of 100 suicide attempters were assessed with Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) and Karolinska Suicide History Interview concerning interpersonal violence and NSSI. There was a high degree of comorbid NSSI in suicide attempters (44%). Suicide attempters with NSSI-history reported more interpersonal violence as adults and more severe suicidal behavior compared to suicide attempters without NSSI. Comorbid NSSI was related to severity of suicidal behavior in a gender specific manner. Comorbid NSSI in suicide attempters may increase suicide and violence risk.

  16. (1)H NMR-based metabolomic approach for understanding the fermentation behaviors of wine yeast strains.

    PubMed

    Son, Hong-Seok; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Kim, Ki Myong; Kim, Eun-Young; van den Berg, Frans; Park, Won-Mok; Lee, Cherl-Ho; Hong, Young-Shick

    2009-02-01

    (1)H NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical analysis was used for the first time to investigate metabolic changes in musts during alcoholic fermentation and wines during aging. Three Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains (RC-212, KIV-1116, and KUBY-501) were also evaluated for their impacts on the metabolic changes in must and wine. Pattern recognition (PR) methods, including PCA, PLS-DA, and OPLS-DA scores plots, showed clear differences for metabolites among musts or wines for each fermentation stage up to 6 months. Metabolites responsible for the differentiation were identified as valine, 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD), pyruvate, succinate, proline, citrate, glycerol, malate, tartarate, glucose, N-methylnicotinic acid (NMNA), and polyphenol compounds. PCA scores plots showed continuous movements away from days 1 to 8 in all musts for all yeast strains, indicating continuous and active fermentation. During alcoholic fermentation, the highest levels of 2,3-BD, succinate, and glycerol were found in musts with the KIV-1116 strain, which showed the fastest fermentation or highest fermentative activity of the three strains, whereas the KUBY-501 strain showed the slowest fermentative activity. This study highlights the applicability of NMR-based metabolomics for monitoring wine fermentation and evaluating the fermentative characteristics of yeast strains.

  17. Thyroid hormones and adult interpersonal violence among women with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Sinai, Cave; Hirvikoski, Tatja; Nordström, Anna-Lena; Nordström, Peter; Nilsonne, Åsa; Wilczek, Alexander; Åsberg, Marie; Jokinen, Jussi

    2015-06-30

    Elevated T3 levels have been reported in men with antisocial behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between thyroid hormones and expressed adult interpersonal violence in female patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Furthermore, expressed adult interpersonal violence in female BPD patients was compared to healthy female controls. A total of 92 clinically euthyroid women with BPD and 57 healthy women were assessed with the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scales (KIVS). Baseline thyroid function was evaluated by measuring plasma free and bound triiodothyronine (FT3 and T3), thyroxine (FT4 and T4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) with immunoassays in patients. Plasma cortisol was also measured. Among females with BPD, expressed interpersonal violence as an adult showed a significant positive correlation with the T3 levels. The mean expression of interpersonal violence as an adult was significantly higher in BPD patients as compared to healthy controls. The multiple regression model indicated that two independent predictors of KIVS expressed interpersonal violence as an adult: T3 and comorbid diagnosis of alcohol abuse. Association between T3 levels and violent/aggressive behavior earlier reported exclusively in male samples may be valid also in females with BPD.

  18. The characterization for the binding of calcium and terbium to Euplotes octocarinatus centrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaqin, Zhao; Jiuying, Feng; Aihua, Liang; Binsheng, Yang

    2009-01-01

    Centrin is a member of the EF-hand superfamily that plays critical role in the centrosome duplication and separation. In the present paper, we characterized properties of metal ions binding to Euplotes octocarinatus centrin (EoCen) by fluorescence spectra and circular dichroism (CD) spectra. Changes of fluorescence spectra and α-helix contents of EoCen proved that Tb 3+ and Ca 2+ induced great conformational changes of EoCen resulting in exposing hydrophobic surfaces. At pH 7.4, Ca 2+ (and Tb 3+) bond with EoCen at the ratio of 4:1. Equilibrium experiment indicated that Ca 2+ and Tb 3+ exhibited different binding capabilities for C- and N-terminal domains of protein. C-terminal domain bond with Ca 2+ or Tb 3+ ˜ 100-fold more strongly than N-terminal. Aromatic residue-sensitized Tb 3+ energy transfer suggested that site IV bond to Tb 3+ or Ca 2+ more strongly than site III. Based on fluorescence titration curves, we reckoned the conditional binding constants of EoCen site IV quantitatively to be KIV = (1.23 ± 0.51) × 10 8 M -1 and KIV = (6.82 ± 0.33) × 10 5 M -1 with Tb 3+ and Ca 2+, respectively. Metal ions bond to EoCen in the order of IV > III > II, I.

  19. Book Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Early Childhood, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Reviews "La Educacion Preescolar: Desafio y Aventura" (Lavanchy Bobsien); "Working towards Better Childcare" (Peeters and Vandenbroeck, editors); "Children's Savings: A Study in the Development of Economic Behavior" (Sonuga-Barke and Webley); "Curvas de Crecimiento Estaturo-ponderal en Escolares" (Saez Crespo and others); and "Helping Bereaved…

  20. The Cartographic Representation of Linguistic Data. Discussion Papers in Geolinguistics Nos. 19-21. Selected Papers from a Geolinguistic Seminar (Le Pailly, France, September 10-13, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peeters, Yvo J. D., Ed.; Williams, Colin H., Ed.

    Papers from a conference on cartography in geolinguistics include: "The Political Importance of Visualisation of Language Contact" (Yvo J. D. Peeters); "Some Considerations on People and Boundaries" (Guy Heraud); "Geolinguistic Developments and Cartographic Problems" (Colin H. Williams, John E. Ambrose); "A Conceptual Home for Geolinguistics:…

  1. Comment on Turbulent Equipartition Theory of Toroidal Momentum Pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Hahm, T. S.; Diamond, P. H.; Gurcan, O. D.; Rewoldt, G.

    2009-03-12

    This response demonstrates that the comment by Peeters et al. contains an incorrect and misleading interpretation of our paper [Hahm et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 055902 (2008)] regarding the density gradient dependence of momentum pinch and the turbulent equipartition (TEP) theory.

  2. "Build Me a Male Role Model!" A Critical Exploration of the Perceived Qualities/Characteristics of Men in the Early Years (0-8) in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownhill, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Young boys' "underachievement" and their disaffection with learning continue to dominate education agendas [Francis, B. 2006. "Stop That Sex Drive." "Times Educational Supplement" 30; Peeters, J. 2007. "Including Men in Early Childhood Education: Insights from the European Experience." "NZ Research…

  3. Evidence for several independent genetic variants affecting lipoprotein (a) cholesterol levels

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wensheng; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Chen, Keping; Wang, Hong; Gerhard, Glenn S.; Still, Christopher D.; Chu, Xin; Yang, Rongze; Parihar, Ankita; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Pollin, Toni I.; Angles-Cano, Eduardo; Quon, Michael J.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Fu, Mao

    2015-01-01

    Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis-related events that is under strong genetic control (heritability = 0.68–0.98). However, causal mutations and functional validation of biological pathways modulating Lp(a) metabolism are lacking. We performed a genome-wide association scan to identify genetic variants associated with Lp(a)-cholesterol levels in the Old Order Amish. We confirmed a previously known locus on chromosome 6q25-26 and found Lp(a) levels also to be significantly associated with a SNP near the APOA5–APOA4–APOC3–APOA1 gene cluster on chromosome 11q23 linked in the Amish to the APOC3 R19X null mutation. On 6q locus, we detected associations of Lp(a)-cholesterol with 118 common variants (P = 5 × 10−8 to 3.91 × 10−19) spanning a ∼5.3 Mb region that included the LPA gene. To further elucidate variation within LPA, we sequenced LPA and identified two variants most strongly associated with Lp(a)-cholesterol, rs3798220 (P = 1.07 × 10−14) and rs10455872 (P = 1.85 × 10−12). We also measured copy numbers of kringle IV-2 (KIV-2) in LPA using qPCR. KIV-2 numbers were significantly associated with Lp(a)-cholesterol (P = 2.28 × 10−9). Conditional analyses revealed that rs3798220 and rs10455872 were associated with Lp(a)-cholesterol levels independent of each other and KIV-2 copy number. Furthermore, we determined for the first time that levels of LPA mRNA were higher in the carriers than non-carriers of rs10455872 (P = 0.0001) and were not different between carriers and non-carriers of rs3798220. Protein levels of apo(a) were higher in the carriers than non-carriers of both rs10455872 and rs3798220. In summary, we identified multiple independent genetic determinants for Lp(a)-cholesterol. These findings provide new insights into Lp(a) regulation. PMID:25575512

  4. Combining Task Execution and Background Knowledge for the Verification of Medical Guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommersom, Arjen; Groot, Perry; Lucas, Peter; Balser, Michael; Schmitt, Jonathan

    The use of a medical guideline can be seen as the execution of computational tasks, sequentially or in parallel, in the face of patient data. It has been shown that many of such guidelines can be represented as a 'network of tasks', i.e., as a number of steps that have a specific function or goal. To investigate the quality of such guidelines we propose a formalization of criteria for good practice medicine a guideline should comply to. We use this theory in conjunction with medical background knowledge to verify the quality of a guideline dealing with diabetes mellitus type 2 using the interactive theorem prover KIV. Verification using task execution and background knowledge is a novel approach to quality checking of medical guidelines.

  5. Bobcat (Felis rufus) ecology and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howell, Judd A.

    1997-01-01

    The bobcat (Felis rufus) is a medium sized predator in the family Felidae found exclusively in North America. Extensive natural history information is available and is summarized in several bibliographies and reviews (Sweeny and Poelker 1977, McCord and Cardoza 1982, Boddicker 1983, Anderson 1987, Rolley 1987). The bobcat is a spotted cat with a short white-tipped tail, small dark ear tufts and is about twice the size of the house cat (Felis domesticus) because of the bobcat’s longer bone structure (McCord and Cardoza 1982, Jameson and Peeters 1988). The bobcat weights between 5- 15 kg with males larger than females. TL 700- 1000, T 95-150, E (from crown) 60-75 (Jameson and Peeters 1988).

  6. Coupling the beam tracing code TORBEAM and the Fokker-Planck solver RELAX for fast electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maj, O.; Poli, E.; Westerhof, E.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper the interface between the beam tracing code TORBEAM [Poli, Peeters and Pereverzev, Comp. Phys. Comm. 136, 90 (2001)] and the quasi-linear Fokker-Planck solver RELAX [Westerhof, Peeters and Schippers, Rijnhuizen Report No. RR 92-211 CA, 1992] is presented together with preliminary testing results for electron cyclotron waves in ITER plasmas and their effects on the electron distribution function. The resulting numerical package allows us to account for diffraction effects in the construction of the quasi-linear wave-particle diffusion operator. The coupling of the paraxial-WKB code TORBEAM to the ray-based code RELAX requires a reinterpretation of the paraxial wave field in terms of extended rays, which are addressed in details.

  7. Aeromechanics Analysis of a Boundary Layer Ingesting Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakhle, Milind A.; Reddy, T. S. R.; Herrick, Gregory P.; Shabbir, Aamir; Florea, Razvan V.

    2013-01-01

    Boundary layer ingesting propulsion systems have the potential to significantly reduce fuel burn but these systems must overcome the challe nges related to aeromechanics-fan flutter stability and forced response dynamic stresses. High-fidelity computational analysis of the fan a eromechanics is integral to the ongoing effort to design a boundary layer ingesting inlet and fan for fabrication and wind-tunnel test. A t hree-dimensional, time-accurate, Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes computational fluid dynamics code is used to study aerothermodynamic and a eromechanical behavior of the fan in response to both clean and distorted inflows. The computational aeromechanics analyses performed in th is study show an intermediate design iteration of the fan to be flutter-free at the design conditions analyzed with both clean and distorte d in-flows. Dynamic stresses from forced response have been calculated for the design rotational speed. Additional work is ongoing to expan d the analyses to off-design conditions, and for on-resonance conditions.

  8. A Multi-Frequency Wide-Swath Spaceborne Cloud and Precipitation Imaging Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Lihua; Racette, Paul; Heymsfield, Gary; McLinden, Matthew; Venkatesh, Vijay; Coon, Michael; Perrine, Martin; Park, Richard; Cooley, Michael; Stenger, Pete; Spence, Thomas; Retelny, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Microwave and millimeter-wave radars have proven their effectiveness in cloud and precipitation observations. The NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey (DS) Aerosol, Cloud and Ecosystems (ACE) mission calls for a dual-frequency cloud radar (W band 94 GHz and Ka-band 35 GHz) for global measurements of cloud microphysical properties. Recently, there have been discussions of utilizing a tri-frequency (KuKaW-band) radar for a combined ACE and Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) follow-on mission that has evolved into the Cloud and Precipitation Process Mission (CaPPM) concept. In this presentation we will give an overview of the technology development efforts at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and at Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems (NGES) through projects funded by the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). Our primary objective of this research is to advance the key enabling technologies for a tri-frequency (KuKaW-band) shared-aperture spaceborne imaging radar to provide unprecedented, simultaneous multi-frequency measurements that will enhance understanding of the effects of clouds and precipitation and their interaction on Earth climate change. Research effort has been focused on concept design and trade studies of the tri-frequency radar; investigating architectures that provide tri-band shared-aperture capability; advancing the development of the Ka band active electronically scanned array (AESA) transmitreceive (TR) module, and development of the advanced radar backend electronics.

  9. Computational model of miniature pulsating heat pipes.

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Mario J.; Givler, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    The modeling work described herein represents Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) portion of a collaborative three-year project with Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems (NGES) and the University of Missouri to develop an advanced, thermal ground-plane (TGP), which is a device, of planar configuration, that delivers heat from a source to an ambient environment with high efficiency. Work at all three institutions was funded by DARPA/MTO; Sandia was funded under DARPA/MTO project number 015070924. This is the final report on this project for SNL. This report presents a numerical model of a pulsating heat pipe, a device employing a two phase (liquid and its vapor) working fluid confined in a closed loop channel etched/milled into a serpentine configuration in a solid metal plate. The device delivers heat from an evaporator (hot zone) to a condenser (cold zone). This new model includes key physical processes important to the operation of flat plate pulsating heat pipes (e.g. dynamic bubble nucleation, evaporation and condensation), together with conjugate heat transfer with the solid portion of the device. The model qualitatively and quantitatively predicts performance characteristics and metrics, which was demonstrated by favorable comparisons with experimental results on similar configurations. Application of the model also corroborated many previous performance observations with respect to key parameters such as heat load, fill ratio and orientation.

  10. Comment on 'Turbulent equipartition theory of toroidal momentum pinch' [Phys. Plasmas 15, 055902 (2008)

    SciTech Connect

    Peeters, A. G.; Angioni, C.; Strintzi, D.

    2009-03-15

    The comment addresses questions raised on the derivation of the momentum pinch velocity due to the Coriolis drift effect [A. G. Peeters et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 265003 (2007)]. These concern the definition of the gradient, and the scaling with the density gradient length. It will be shown that the turbulent equipartition mechanism is included within the derivation using the Coriolis drift, with the density gradient scaling being the consequence of drift terms not considered in [T. S. Hahm et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 055902 (2008)]. Finally the accuracy of the analytic models is assessed through a comparison with the full gyrokinetic solution.

  11. The 16th Werner Brandt Workshop on charged particle penetration phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the following topics: impact parameter dependence of charge transfer and energy loss; nonlinear dynamical response of the electron gas: comparison of some simple theories; stopping of ultrarelativistic ions in solids (33.2-TeV {sup 108}Pb); collective excitation in reduced dimensionality; collective states in atoms and cluster; plasmon coupling with external probes; atomic collisions with antiprotons; layer-number scaling in ultra-thin film stopping and energetics; atom-surface scattering under classical conditions; nonlinear effect of sweeping-out electrons in stopping power and electron emission in cluster impacts; electron emission from fast grazing collisions of ions with silicon surfaces; electron emission from ultra-thin carbon foils by kiV ions; Auger rates for highly charged ions in metals; Auger and plasmon assisted neutralization at surfaces; low energy (< 5eV) F{sup +} and F{sup -} ions transmission through condensed layers of water: enhancement and attenuation processes; charge transfer for H interacting with Al: atomic levels and linewidths; scattered projectile angular and charge state distributions for grazing collisions of multicharged ions with metal and insulator single crystal targets; the prolate hyperboloidat model in scanning probe microscopy; scanning probe microscopy of large biomolecules; microcantilever sensors; solution of the Fokker-Planck equation for electron transport using analytic spatial moments; and effective charge parametrization for z = 3-17 projectiles in composite targets.

  12. Radio Astrometry of the Triple Systems Algol and UX Arietis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, W. M.; Mutel, R. L.; Lestrade, J.-F.; Güdel, M.; Goss, W. M.

    2011-08-01

    We have used multi-epoch long-baseline radio interferometry to determine the proper motion and orbital elements of Algol and UX Arietis, two radio-bright, close binary stellar systems with distant tertiary components. For Algol, we refine the proper motion and outer orbit solutions, confirming the recent result of Zavala et al. that the inner orbit is retrograde. The radio centroid closely tracks the motion of the KIV secondary. In addition, the radio morphology varies from double-lobed at low flux level to crescent-shaped during active periods. These results are most easily interpreted as synchrotron emission from a large, co-rotating meridional loop centered on the K star. If this is correct, it provides a radio-optical frame tie candidate with an uncertainty ±0.5 mas. For UX Arietis, we find an outer orbit solution that accounts for previous very long baseline interferometry observations of an acceleration term in the proper motion fit. The outer orbit solution is also consistent with previously published radial velocity curves and speckle observations of a third body. The derived tertiary mass, 0.75 solar masses, is consistent with the K1 main-sequence star detected spectroscopically. The inner orbit solution favors radio emission from the active K0IV primary only. The radio morphology, consisting of a single, partially resolved emission region, may be associated with the persistent polar spot observed using Doppler imaging.

  13. Cinnamic acid amides from Tribulus terrestris displaying uncompetitive α-glucosidase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Song, Yeong Hun; Kim, Dae Wook; Curtis-Long, Marcus J; Park, Chanin; Son, Minky; Kim, Jeong Yoon; Yuk, Heung Joo; Lee, Keun Woo; Park, Ki Hun

    2016-05-23

    The α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of Tribulus terrestris extracts has been reported but as yet the active ingredients are unknown. This study attempted to isolate the responsible metabolites and elucidate their inhibition mechanism of α-glucosidase. By fractionating T. terristris extracts, three cinnamic acid amide derivatives (1-3) were ascertained to be active components against α-glucosidase. The lead structure, N-trans-coumaroyltyramine 1, showed significant inhibition of α-glucosidase (IC50 = 0.42 μM). Moreover, all active compounds displayed uncompetitive inhibition mechanisms that have rarely been reported for α-glucosidase inhibitors. This kinetic behavior was fully demonstrated by showing a decrease of both Km and Vmax, and Kik/Kiv ratio ranging between 1.029 and 1.053. We progressed to study how chemical modifications to the lead structure 1 may impact inhibition. An α, β-unsaturation carbonyl group and hydroxyl group in A-ring of cinnamic acid amide emerged to be critical functionalities for α-glucosidase inhibition. The molecular modeling study revealed that the inhibitory activities are tightly related to π-π interaction as well as hydrogen bond interaction between enzyme and inhibitors.

  14. Suicide Risk Associated with Experience of Violence and Impulsivity in Alcohol Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Khemiri, Lotfi; Jokinen, Jussi; Runeson, Bo; Jayaram-Lindström, Nitya

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) and aggression-impulsivity are both associated with increased suicide risk. There is a need to evaluate clinical tools in order to improve suicide risk assessment of AD patients. The present study consisted of 95 individuals with a diagnosis of AD, consecutively admitted for addiction treatment, compared with 95 healthy controls. Suicidal risk was assessed together with exposure of violence and impulsivity. AD patients reported significantly higher rates of exposure to violence in childhood, as measured by the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS), compared to HC. Within the AD group, individuals with history of suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior reported higher levels of violence experience compared to AD individuals without such history. AD patients with previous suicidal ideation scored higher on self-reported impulsivity as assessed by the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS). Our main finding was that experience of trauma and expression of violent behavior, coupled with increased impulsivity are associated with an elevated suicide risk in AD patients. Future longitudinal studies assessing these traits are needed to evaluate their potential role in identifying AD patients at risk of future suicide. PMID:26784730

  15. Isobutanol production from an engineered Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jong-Min; Park, Hyojung; Seo, Hyung-Min; Kim, Jung-Ho; Bhatia, Shashi Kant; Sathiyanarayanan, Ganesan; Song, Hun-Suk; Park, Sung-Hee; Choi, Kwon-Young; Sang, Byoung-In; Yang, Yung-Hun

    2015-11-01

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is one of the most well-known metal-reducing bacteria and it has been extensively studied for microbial fuel cell and bioremediation aspects. In this study, we have examined S. oneidensis MR-1 as an isobutanol-producing host by assessing three key factors such as isobutanol synthetic genes, carbon sources, and electron supply systems. Heterologous Ehrlich pathway genes, kivD encoding ketoisovalerate decarboxylase and adh encoding alcohol dehydrogenase, were constructed in S. oneidensis MR-1. Among the composition of carbon sources examined, 2% of N-acetylglucosamine, 1.5% of pyruvate and 2% of lactate were found to be the most optimal nutrients and resulted in 10.3 mg/L of isobutanol production with 48 h of microaerobic incubation. Finally, the effects of metal ions (electron acceptor) and direct electron transfer systems on isobutanol production were investigated, and Fe(2+) ions increased the isobutanol production up to 35%. Interestingly, deletion of mtrA and mtrB, genes responsible for membrane transport systems, did not have significant impact on isobutanol production. Finally, we applied engineered S. oneidensis to a bioelectrical reactor system to investigate the effect of a direct electron supply system on isobutanol production, and it resulted in an increased growth and isobutanol production (up to 19.3 mg/L). This report showed the feasibility of S. oneidensis MR-1 as a genetic host to produce valuable biochemicals and combine an electron-supplying system with biotechnological applications.

  16. A large coronal loop in the Algol system.

    PubMed

    Peterson, W M; Mutel, R L; Güdel, M; Goss, W M

    2010-01-14

    The close binary Algol system contains a radio-bright KIV subgiant star in a very close (0.062 astronomical units) and rapid (2.86 day) orbit with a main sequence B8 star. Because the rotation periods of the two stars are tidally locked to the orbital period, the rapid rotation drives a magnetic dynamo. A large body of evidence points to the existence of an extended, complex coronal magnetosphere originating at the cooler K subgiant. The detailed morphology of the subgiant's corona and its possible interaction with its companion are unknown, though theory predicts that the coronal plasma should be confined in a magnetic loop structure, as seen on the Sun. Here we report multi-epoch radio imaging of the Algol system, in which we see a large, persistent coronal loop approximately one subgiant diameter in height, whose base is straddling the subgiant and whose apex is oriented towards the B8 star. This suggests that a persistent asymmetric magnetic field structure is aligned between the two stars. The loop is larger than anticipated theoretically, but the size may be the result of a magnetic interaction between the two stars. PMID:20075916

  17. RADIO ASTROMETRY OF THE TRIPLE SYSTEMS ALGOL AND UX ARIETIS

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, W. M.; Mutel, R. L.; Lestrade, J.-F.; Guedel, M.; Goss, W. M.

    2011-08-20

    We have used multi-epoch long-baseline radio interferometry to determine the proper motion and orbital elements of Algol and UX Arietis, two radio-bright, close binary stellar systems with distant tertiary components. For Algol, we refine the proper motion and outer orbit solutions, confirming the recent result of Zavala et al. that the inner orbit is retrograde. The radio centroid closely tracks the motion of the KIV secondary. In addition, the radio morphology varies from double-lobed at low flux level to crescent-shaped during active periods. These results are most easily interpreted as synchrotron emission from a large, co-rotating meridional loop centered on the K star. If this is correct, it provides a radio-optical frame tie candidate with an uncertainty {+-}0.5 mas. For UX Arietis, we find an outer orbit solution that accounts for previous very long baseline interferometry observations of an acceleration term in the proper motion fit. The outer orbit solution is also consistent with previously published radial velocity curves and speckle observations of a third body. The derived tertiary mass, 0.75 solar masses, is consistent with the K1 main-sequence star detected spectroscopically. The inner orbit solution favors radio emission from the active K0IV primary only. The radio morphology, consisting of a single, partially resolved emission region, may be associated with the persistent polar spot observed using Doppler imaging.

  18. Isobutanol production from an engineered Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jong-Min; Park, Hyojung; Seo, Hyung-Min; Kim, Jung-Ho; Bhatia, Shashi Kant; Sathiyanarayanan, Ganesan; Song, Hun-Suk; Park, Sung-Hee; Choi, Kwon-Young; Sang, Byoung-In; Yang, Yung-Hun

    2015-11-01

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is one of the most well-known metal-reducing bacteria and it has been extensively studied for microbial fuel cell and bioremediation aspects. In this study, we have examined S. oneidensis MR-1 as an isobutanol-producing host by assessing three key factors such as isobutanol synthetic genes, carbon sources, and electron supply systems. Heterologous Ehrlich pathway genes, kivD encoding ketoisovalerate decarboxylase and adh encoding alcohol dehydrogenase, were constructed in S. oneidensis MR-1. Among the composition of carbon sources examined, 2% of N-acetylglucosamine, 1.5% of pyruvate and 2% of lactate were found to be the most optimal nutrients and resulted in 10.3 mg/L of isobutanol production with 48 h of microaerobic incubation. Finally, the effects of metal ions (electron acceptor) and direct electron transfer systems on isobutanol production were investigated, and Fe(2+) ions increased the isobutanol production up to 35%. Interestingly, deletion of mtrA and mtrB, genes responsible for membrane transport systems, did not have significant impact on isobutanol production. Finally, we applied engineered S. oneidensis to a bioelectrical reactor system to investigate the effect of a direct electron supply system on isobutanol production, and it resulted in an increased growth and isobutanol production (up to 19.3 mg/L). This report showed the feasibility of S. oneidensis MR-1 as a genetic host to produce valuable biochemicals and combine an electron-supplying system with biotechnological applications. PMID:26280214

  19. Impact of the background toroidal rotation on particle and heat turbulent transport in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Camenen, Y.; Peeters, A. G.; Casson, F. J.; Hornsby, W. A.; Snodin, A. P.; Angioni, C.; Strintzi, D.

    2009-01-15

    Recent developments in the gyrokinetic theory have shown that, in a toroidal device, the Coriolis drift associated with the background plasma rotation significantly affects the small scale instabilities [A. G. Peeters et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 265003 (2007)]. The later study, which focuses on the effect of the Coriolis drift on toroidal momentum transport is extended in the present paper to heat and particle transport. It is shown numerically using the gyrokinetic flux-tube code GKW[A. G. Peeters and D. Strintzi, Phys. Plasmas 11, 3748 (2004)], and supported analytically, that the Coriolis drift and the parallel dynamics play a similar role in the coupling of density, temperature, and velocity perturbations. The effect on particle and heat fluxes increases with the toroidal rotation (directly) and with the toroidal rotation gradient (through the parallel mode structure), depends on the direction of propagation of the perturbation, increases with the impurity charge number and with the impurity mass to charge number ratio. The case of very high toroidal rotation, relevant to spherical tokamaks, is investigated by including the effect of the centrifugal force in a fluid model. The main effect of the centrifugal force is to decrease the local density gradient at the low field side midplane and to add an extra contribution to the fluxes. The conditions for which the inertial terms significantly affect the heat and particle fluxes are evidenced.

  20. On the evolution of the nova-like variable AE Aquarii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meintjes, P. J.

    2002-10-01

    A possible evolution for the enigmatic cataclysmic variable AE Aquarii is considered that may put into context the long orbital period and short white dwarf rotation period compared with other DQ Her systems. It has been shown that mass transfer could have been initiated when the secondary KIV-V star was already somewhat evolved when it established Roche lobe contact. In this initial phase the orbital period of the system was probably Porb,i~ 8.5 h, and the white dwarf rotation period P*,i > 1 h. Mass transfer in the form of diamagnetic gas blobs will result in an initial discless accretion process, resulting in an efficient drain of the binary orbital angular momentum. Since the initial mass ratio of the binary was probably qi~ 0.8, a high mass transfer rate and a slow expansion of the Roche lobe of the secondary star followed, accompanied by a fast expanding secondary following the mass loss. This could have resulted in the KIV-V secondary flooding its Roche surface, causing a run-away mass transfer of that lasted for approximately , during which time the binary expanded to an orbital period of approximately Porb~ 11 h. During this phase the mass accretion rate on to the surface of the white dwarf most probably exceeded the critical value for stable nuclear burning , which could have resulted in AE Aqr turning into an ultrasoft X-ray source. The high mass transfer terminated when a critical mass ratio of qcrit= 0.73 was reached. Disc torques spun-up the white dwarf to a period close to 33 s within the time-scale before the high mass transfer shut down when qcrit was reached. The decrease in the mass loss of the secondary allowed it to re-establish hydrostatic equilibrium on the dynamical time-scale (fraction of a day). From this point when qcrit is reached the mass transfer and binary evolution proceed at a slower rate since mass transfer from the secondary star is driven by magnetic braking of the secondary on a time-scale , which is the same as the thermal time

  1. Second-order and third-order elastic properties of diamond: An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerc, Daryl G.; Ledbetter, Hassel

    2005-10-01

    Diamond's second-order elastic properties, and several third-order properties associated with uniform deformation, were calculated using ab initio all-electron density-functional theory. The predicted second-order elastic properties and equilibrium lattice parameter, in units of GPa and nm, are c11=1043(5), c12=128(5), c44=534(17), bulk modulus B=433(5), shear modulus G=502(10), Poisson ratio μ=0.082(5), and a=0.35569(2), where the parenthetic number is the uncertainty. The second-order force constants, in units of GPa, are kI=3843(108), kII=2346(17), kIII=2847(35), and kIV=5635(45). Here, subscripts I IV denote four strains whose tensor elements are [ɛ, ɛ, ɛ, 0, 0, 0], [ɛ, ɛ, 0, 0, 0, 0], [ɛ, ɛ, -ɛ, 0, 0, 0], and [ɛ, ɛ, ɛ, ɛ, ɛ, ɛ], respectively, using 6-component notation in the format [ɛ1, ɛ2, ɛ3, ɛ4, ɛ5, ɛ6]. Predicted inelastic properties include the third-order force constant corresponding to uniform dilation gI=-55,000(3,500) GPa, the bulk-modulus pressure derivative ∂B/∂P=4.7(3), and the overall Gruneisen parameter γG=0.85(15). Both our second-order and third-order properties agree well with measured values obtained by ultrasonics and by Raman spectroscopy.

  2. Geophysical imaging of karst features in Missouri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obi, Jeremiah Chukwunonso

    Automated electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) supported with multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) and boring data were used to map karst related features in Missouri in order to understand karst processes better in Missouri. Previous works on karst in Missouri were mostly surficial mapping of bedrock outcrops and joints, which are not enough to define the internal structure of karst system, since most critical processes in karst occur underground. To understand these processes better, the density, placement and pattern of karst related features like solution-widened joints and voids, as well as top of bedrock were mapped. In the course of the study, six study sites were visited in Missouri. The sites were in Nixa, Gasconade River Bridge in Lebanon, Battlefield, Aurora, Protem and Richland. The case studies reflect to a large extent some of the problems inherent in karst terrain, ranging from environmental problems to structural problems especially sinkhole collapses. The result of the study showed that karst in Missouri is mostly formed as a result of piping of sediments through solution-widened joints, with a pattern showing that the joints/fractures are mostly filled with moist clay-sized materials of low resistivity values. The highest density of mapped solution-widened joints was one in every one hundred and fifty feet, and these areas are where intense dissolution is taking place, and bedrock pervasively fractured. The study also showed that interpreted solution-widened joints trend in different directions, and often times conform with known structural lineaments in the area. About 40% of sinkhole collapses in the study areas are anthropogenic. Karst in Missouri varies, and can be classified as a combination of kI (juvenile), kIII (mature) and kIV (complex) karsts.

  3. Functional and structural specific roles of activity-driven BDNF within circuits formed by single spiny stellate neurons of the barrel cortex

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qian-Quan; Zhang, Zhi; Sun, June; Nair, Anand S.; Petrus, Dan P.; Zhang, Chunzhao

    2014-01-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays key roles in several neurodevelopmental disorders and actions of pharmacological treatments. However, it is unclear how specific BDNF’s effects are on different circuit components. Current studies have largely focused on the role of BDNF in modification of synaptic development. The precise roles of BDNF in the refinement of a functional circuit in vivo remain unclear. Val66Met polymorphism of BDNF may be associated with increased risk for cognitive impairments and is mediated at least in part by activity-dependent trafficking and/or secretion of BDNF. Using mutant mice that lacked activity-driven BDNF expression (bdnf-KIV), we previously reported that experience regulation of the cortical GABAergic network is mediated by activity-driven BDNF expression. Here, we demonstrate that activity-driven BDNF’s effects on circuits formed by the layer IV spiny stellate cells are highly specific. Structurally, dendritic but not axonal morphology was altered in the mutant. Physiologically, GABAergic but not glutamatergic synapses were severely affected. The effects on GABA transmission occurs via presynaptic alteration of calcium-dependent release probability. These results suggest that neuronal activity through activity-driven BDNF expression, can selectively regulate specific features of layer IV circuits in vivo. We postulate that the role of activity-dependent BDNF is to modulate the computational ability of circuits that relate to the gain control (i.e., feed-forward inhibition); whereas the basic wiring of circuits relevant to the sensory pathway is spared. Gain control modulation within cortical circuits has broad impact on cognitive processing and brain state-transitions. Cognitive behavior and mode is determined by brain states, thus the studying of circuit alteration by endogenous BDNF provides insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of diseases mediated by BDNF. PMID:25414642

  4. On the nature of fermion-monopole supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plyushchay, M. S.

    2000-07-01

    It is shown that the generator of the nonstandard fermion-monopole supersymmetry uncovered by De Jonghe, Macfarlane, Peeters and van Holten, and the generator of its standard /N=1/2 supersymmetry have to be supplemented by their product operator to be treated as independent supercharge. As a result, the fermion-monopole system possesses the nonlinear /N=3/2 supersymmetry having the nature of the 3D spin-1/2 free particle's supersymmetry generated by the supercharges represented in a scalar form. Analyzing the supercharges' structure, we trace how under reduction of the fermion-monopole system to the spherical geometry the nonlinear /N=3/2 superalgebra comprising the Hamiltonian and the total angular momentum as even generators is transformed into the standard linear /N=1 superalgebra with the Hamiltonian to be the unique even generator.

  5. Nonlinear superconformal symmetry of a fermion in the field of a Dirac monopole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiva, Carlos; Plyushchay, Mikhail S.

    2004-02-01

    We study a longstanding problem of identification of the fermion-monopole symmetries. We show that the integrals of motion of the system generate a nonlinear classical Z2-graded Poisson, or quantum superalgebra, which may be treated as a nonlinear generalization of the osp(2|2)⊕su(2). In the nonlinear superalgebra, the shifted square of the full angular momentum plays the role of the central charge. Its square root is the even osp(2|2) spin generating the u(1) rotations of the supercharges. Classically, the central charge's square root has an odd counterpart whose quantum analog is, in fact, the same osp(2|2) spin operator. As an odd integral, the osp(2|2) spin generates a nonlinear supersymmetry of De Jonghe, Macfarlane, Peeters and van Holten, and may be identified as a grading operator of the nonlinear superconformal algebra.

  6. Gray Fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) ecology and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howell, Judd A.

    1997-01-01

    The gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) is a petite member of the family Canidae in the order Carnivora with a long muzzle and pointed ears (Samuel and Nelson 1982). The coat of the gray fox is silver gray across the back with significant amounts of rufus along the sides. This characteristic is often confused by people who see the flash of red and assume that the fox is a red fox (Vulpes vulpes). The gray fox has a black tipped tail with a dorsal black stripe that differentiates this species from the kit fox (Vulpes macrotis). The red fox has a white tipped tail. The gray fox weighs between 3-5 kg, occasionally to 7 kg. TL 800-1125, T 275-443, HF 100-150. (Jameson and Peeters 1988).

  7. Automatic vigilance: the attention-grabbing power of approach- and avoidance-related social information.

    PubMed

    Wentura, D; Rothermund, K; Bak, P

    2000-06-01

    The automatic processing of information was investigated, varying valence (positive vs. negative) and relevance (other-relevant traits [ORT] vs. possessor-relevant traits [PRT]; G. Peeters, 1983) of stimuli. ORTs denote unconditionally positive or negative consequences for persons in the social environment of the holder of the trait (e.g., honest, brutal) whereas PRTs denote unconditionally positive or negative consequences for the trait holder (e.g., happy, depressive). In 2 experiments using the Stroop paradigm, larger interference effects were found for ORTs than PRTs. This is due to the behavior-relatedness of ORTs. In a go/no-go lexical decision task (Experiment 3), participants either had to withdraw their finger from a pressed key (i.e., "avoid") or had to press a key (i.e., "approach") if a word was presented. Responses to negative ORTs were relatively faster in the withdraw condition, whereas positive ORTs were relatively faster in the press condition. PMID:10870906

  8. Low-volatility poly-oxygenates in the OH-initiated atmospheric oxidation of alpha-pinene: impact of non-traditional peroxyl radical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Vereecken, L; Müller, J F; Peeters, J

    2007-10-14

    Following new insights on non-traditional peroxyl radical chemistry, we present an update to our earlier OH-initiated alpha-pinene degradation mechanism (Peeters et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2001, 3, 5489), incorporating ring closure reactions and a fast H-shift isomerization in certain key peroxyl and oxy radical intermediates. These changes, affecting only a single branch of the comprehensive mechanism and based on extensive quantum-chemical and theoretical kinetic calculations, show significant formation, approximately 20% overall, of poly-oxygenated (hydro)peroxides in atmospheric conditions. These low-volatility compounds are expected to have a significant impact on aerosol formation, and are believed to be the high-mass product compounds observed in available experimental work. The proposed changes also affect the predicted acetone yield, matching the experimental data closely.

  9. Effects of Dietary Iron and Gamma Radiation on the Rat Retina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Jennifer; Marshall, Grace; Theriot, Corey A.; Chacon, Natalia; Zwart, Sara; Zanello, Susana B.

    2012-01-01

    indicated upregulation of ferritin light chain (P = 0.09) as a result of dietary iron but no change in e xpression of the gene for ferritin heavy chain. Immunolocalization of light chain and heavy chain of the iron storage protein ferritin showed the expected distribution in the choroid, photoreceptor layer, inn er nuclear layer and in the inner plexiform layer that corresponded t o the synaptic terminals of bipolar cells. Evidence of stress and damage in the retina was also suggested by a decrease in expression of th e survival marker Bcl2 (P = 0.01) and the protective proteins clusterin (P = 0.04) and heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1, P < 0.001), as a result o f increased dietary iron. The effect of increased iron on expression of the antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1) had a significant interaction with the effect of radiation (P < 0.001). In summary, the results of this study indicate that both gamma radiation exposure and a moderate increase in dietary iron can contribute to deleterious cha nges in retinal health and physiology.

  10. Differential Radiometers Using Fabry-Perot Interferometric Technique for Remote Sensing Determination of Various Atmospheric Trace Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgieva, E. M.; Heaps, W. S.; Wilson, E. L.

    2007-01-01

    New type of remote sensing instrument based upon the Fabry-Perot inte rferometric technique has been developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Fabry-Perot interferometry (FPI) is a well known, powerful spectroscopic technique and one of its many applications is to be use d to measure greenhouse gases and also some harmful species in the at mosphere. With this technique, absorption of particular species is me asured and related to its concentration. A solid Fabry-Perot etalon is used as a frequency filter to restrict the measurement to particular absorption bands of the gas of interest. With adjusting the thicknes s of the etalon that separation (in frequency) of the transmitted fri nges can be made equal to the almost constant separation of the gas a bsorption lines. By adjusting the temperature of the etalon, which changes the index of refi-action of its material, the transmission fring es can be brought into nearly exact correspondence with absorption li nes of the particular species. With this alignment between absorption lines and fringes, changes in the amount of a species in the atmosph ere strongly affect the amount of light transmitted by the etalon and can be related to gas concentration. The instrument that we have dev eloped detects the absorption of various atmospheric trace gases in d irect or reflected sunlight. Our instrument employing Fabry-Perot interferometer makes use of two features to achieve high sensitivity. The first is high spectral resolution enabling one to match the width of an atmospheric absorption feature by the instrumental band pass. The second is high optical throughput enabled by using multiple spectral lines simultaneously. For any species that one wishes to measure, thi s first feature is available while the use of multiple spectral features can be employed only for species with suitable spectra and freedom from interfering species in the same wavelength region. We have deve loped an instrument for use as ground based

  11. Characterization of recombinantly expressed dihydroxy-acid dehydratase from Sulfobus solfataricus-A key enzyme for the conversion of carbohydrates into chemicals.

    PubMed

    Carsten, Jörg M; Schmidt, Anja; Sieber, Volker

    2015-10-10

    Dihydroxyacid dehydratases (DHADs) are excellent biocatalysts for the defunctionalization of biomass. Here, we report on the recombinant production of DHAD from Sulfolobus solfataricus (SsDHAD) in E. coli and its characterization with special focus on activity toward non-natural substrates, thermo-stability, thermo-inactivation kinetics and activation capabilities and its application within multi-step cascades for chemicals production. Using a simple heat treatment of cell lysate as major purification step we achieved a specific activity of 4.4 units per gram cell mass toward the substrate d-gluconate. The optimal temperature and pH value for this reaction are 77°C and pH 6.2. The inhibitory concentration (IC50, 50% residual activity) of different alcohols was determined to be 15% (v/v) for ethanol, 4.5% (v/v) for butanol and 4% (v/v) for isobutanol. Besides d-gluconate and the natural substrate 2,3-dihydroxyisovalerate (DHIV) SsDHAD is able to convert the C3-sugar-acid d-glycerate to pyruvate, a reaction, which does not occur in natural metabolic pathways, with a specific activity of 10.7±0.4mU/mg. The specific activity of the enzyme can be increased 3-fold by incubation with 2-mercaptoethanol. The activation has no impact on temperature dependence, but modulates the thermo-inactivation tolerance at 50°C. The total turnover numbers for all of the three reactions was found to be 35.5×10(3)±1.0×10(3) for the conversion of d-gluconate to 2-keto-3-deoxygluconate (KDG), 28.2×10(3)±0.8×10(3) for DHIV to 2-ketovalerate (KIV) and 943±0.28×10(2) for d-glycerate to pyruvate. With activated SsDHAD these values could be further increased 5- and 4-fold for the d-gluconate and d-glycerate conversion, respectively.

  12. State of oral cavity hygiene, sIgA level, mineral content of oral fluid, and optimization of preventive intervention in children with enamel hypoplasia and underlying comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Liubarets, S F; Kopylova, O V; Belingio, T O; Kolbasynska, V M; Sechina, I M; Liubarets, T F

    2015-12-01

    Meta doslidzhennia. Pidvyshchyty efektyvnist' profilaktyky kariiesu u ditey z gipoplaziieiu emali shliakhom vprovad zhennia kompleksu zakhodiv, spriamovanykh na optymizatsiiu gigiieny porozhnyny rota, rivnia sIgA ta vmistu mineral' nykh skladovykh rotovoI ridyny.Materialy i metody. Ob’iekt doslidzhennia – gipoplaziia emali postiynykh zubiv. Predmet doslidzhennia – gigiienichnyy stan porozhnyny rota, sekretornyy imunoglobulin klasu A (sIgA), riven' zagal'nogo kal'tsiiu ta ortofosfativ v rotoviy ridyni. Metody doslidzhennia: vital'ne zabarvlennia emali, transiliuminatsiynyy, imunofermentnyy ta fo tometrychnyy metody, pokaznyky gigiienichnogo stanu porozhnyny rota (indeks Green Vermillion (1964), indeks Silness Loe (1964, 1967)). Provedena otsinka gigiienichnogo stanu porozhnyny rota ta vyznachennia rivnia sIgA, kal'tsiiu ta ortofosfativ v rotoviy ridyni 43 ditey vikom 6–14 rokiv (grupa No 1 – 21 osoba, grupa No 2 – 22 oso by) z systemnoiu gipoplaziieiu emali na tli dyfuznogo netoksychnogo vola, eutyreozu, narodzhenykh vid bat'kiv – uchasnykiv likvidatsiI naslidkiv avariI na ChAES ta evakuyovanykh z terytoriy obov’iazkovogo vidselennia. Grupa No 1 – dity, iakym pryznachavsia kompleks profilaktychnykh zakhodiv, shcho vkliuchav rekomendatsiI shchodo vyboru zasobiv i predmetiv dlia dogliadu za porozhnynoiu rota ta navchannia standartnomu metodu chyshchennia zubiv. Grupa No 2 – dity, u iakykh dodatkovo zastosovuvaly remineralizuiuchyy gel', shcho mistyt' kal'tsiy, fosfor, magniy ta ksylit („Vysno vok DerzhavnoI sanitarno epidemiologichnoI sluzhby UkraIny No05.03.02 03/9351 vid 07.02.2014r. ”). Rezul'taty. Gigiienichnyy stan porozhnyny rota ditey obokh grup buv otsinenyy zgidno z kryteriiem „nezadovil'nyy ” indeksu Green Vermillion ta kryteriiem „poganyy ” indeksu Silness Loe. Pislia provedennia profilaktychnykh zakhodiv u ditey grup No 1 ta No 2 pokrashchyvsia gigiienichnyy stan porozhnyny rota: suttieve znyzhennia indeksu Green Vermillion

  13. Characterization of recombinantly expressed dihydroxy-acid dehydratase from Sulfobus solfataricus-A key enzyme for the conversion of carbohydrates into chemicals.

    PubMed

    Carsten, Jörg M; Schmidt, Anja; Sieber, Volker

    2015-10-10

    Dihydroxyacid dehydratases (DHADs) are excellent biocatalysts for the defunctionalization of biomass. Here, we report on the recombinant production of DHAD from Sulfolobus solfataricus (SsDHAD) in E. coli and its characterization with special focus on activity toward non-natural substrates, thermo-stability, thermo-inactivation kinetics and activation capabilities and its application within multi-step cascades for chemicals production. Using a simple heat treatment of cell lysate as major purification step we achieved a specific activity of 4.4 units per gram cell mass toward the substrate d-gluconate. The optimal temperature and pH value for this reaction are 77°C and pH 6.2. The inhibitory concentration (IC50, 50% residual activity) of different alcohols was determined to be 15% (v/v) for ethanol, 4.5% (v/v) for butanol and 4% (v/v) for isobutanol. Besides d-gluconate and the natural substrate 2,3-dihydroxyisovalerate (DHIV) SsDHAD is able to convert the C3-sugar-acid d-glycerate to pyruvate, a reaction, which does not occur in natural metabolic pathways, with a specific activity of 10.7±0.4mU/mg. The specific activity of the enzyme can be increased 3-fold by incubation with 2-mercaptoethanol. The activation has no impact on temperature dependence, but modulates the thermo-inactivation tolerance at 50°C. The total turnover numbers for all of the three reactions was found to be 35.5×10(3)±1.0×10(3) for the conversion of d-gluconate to 2-keto-3-deoxygluconate (KDG), 28.2×10(3)±0.8×10(3) for DHIV to 2-ketovalerate (KIV) and 943±0.28×10(2) for d-glycerate to pyruvate. With activated SsDHAD these values could be further increased 5- and 4-fold for the d-gluconate and d-glycerate conversion, respectively. PMID:26102631

  14. Strategies towards advanced ion track-based biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonta, L.; Bukelman, O.; Chandra, A.; Fahrner, W. R.; Fink, D.; Fuks, D.; Golovanov, V.; Hnatowicz, V.; Hoppe, K.; Kiv, A.; Klinkovich, I.; Landau, M.; Morante, J. R.; Tkachenko, N. V.; Vacík, J.; Valden, M.

    Three approaches towards ion track-based biosensors appear to be feasible. The development of the first one began a decade ago [Siwy, Z.; Trofin, L.; Kohl, P.; Baker, L.A.; Martin, C.R.; Trautmann, C. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 5000-5001; Siwy, Z.S.; Harrell, C.C.; Heins, E.; Martin, C.R.; Schiedt, B.; Trautmann, C.; Trofin, L.; Polman, A. Presented at the 6th International Conference on Swift Heavy Ions in Matter, Aschaffenburg, Germany, May 28-31, 2005] and makes use of the concept that the presence of certain biomolecules within liquids can block the passage through narrow pores if being captured there, thus switching off the pore's electrical conductivity. The second, having been successfully tested half a year ago [Fink, D.; Klinkovich, I.; Bukelman, O.; Marks, R.S.; Fahrner, W.; Kiv, A.; Fuks, D.; Alfonta, L. Biosens. Bioelectron. 2009, 24, 2702-2706], is based on the accumulation of enzymatic reaction products within the confined volume of narrow etched ion tracks which modifies the pore's electrical conductivity. The third and most elegant, at present under development, will exploit the charge transfer from enzymes to semiconductors embedded within etched tracks, enabling the enzymes undergoing specific reactions with the biomolecules to be detected. These strategies can be realized either within carrier-free nanoporous polymeric membranes embedded in the corresponding bioliquids, or within contacted nanoporous insulating layers on semiconducting substrates, the so-called TEMPOS structures [Fink, D.; Petrov, A.; Hoppe, H.; Fahrner, W.R.; Papaleo, R.M.; Berdinsky, A.; Chandra, A.; Biswas, A.; Chadderton, L.T. Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 2004, 218, 355-361]. The latter have the advantage of exhibiting a number of peculiar electronic properties, such as the ability for logic and/or combination of input signals, tunable polarity, negative differential resistances, tunability by external parameters such as light, magnetic fields, etc. and self-pulsations, which

  15. The CaMKK2/CaMKIV Relay Is an Essential Regulator of Hepatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fumin; Marcelo, Kathrina L.; Rajapakshe, Kimal; Coarfa, Cristian; Dean, Adam; Wilganowski, Nathaniel; Robinson, Holly; Sevick, Eva; Bissig, Karl-Dimiter; Goldie, Lauren C.; Means, Anthony R.; York, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide. Here, we report that the expression of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2) is significantly up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and negatively correlated with HCC patient survival. The CaMKK2 protein is highly expressed in all eight hepatic cancer cell lines evaluated and is markedly up-regulated relative to normal primary hepatocytes. Loss of CaMKK2 function is sufficient to inhibit liver cancer cell growth, and the growth defect resulting from loss of CaMKK2 can be rescued by ectopic expression of wild-type CaMKK2 but not by kinase-inactive mutants. Cellular ablation of CaMKK2 using RNA interference yields a gene signature that correlates with improvement in HCC patient survival, and ablation or pharmacological inhibition of CaMKK2 with STO-609 impairs tumorigenicity of liver cancer cells in vivo. Moreover, CaMKK2 expression is up-regulated in a time-dependent manner in a carcinogen-induced HCC mouse model, and STO-609 treatment regresses hepatic tumor burden in this model. Mechanistically, CaMKK2 signals through Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 4 (CaMKIV) to control liver cancer cell growth. Further analysis revealed that CaMKK2 serves as a scaffold to assemble CaMKIV with key components of the mammalian target of rapamycin/ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 70 kDa, pathway and thereby stimulate protein synthesis through protein phosphorylation. Conclusion The CaMKK2/CaMKIV relay is an upstream regulator of the oncogenic mammalian target of rapamycin/ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 70 kDa, pathway, and the importance of this CaMKK2/CaM-KIV axis in HCC growth is confirmed by the potent growth inhibitory effects of genetically or pharmacologically decreasing CaMKK2 activity; collectively, these findings suggest that CaMKK2 and CaMKIV may represent potential targets for hepatic cancer. PMID:25847065

  16. [Urgent laparoscopic adrenalectomy in acute crisis caused by pheochromocytoma].

    PubMed

    Bereczky, Bíborka; Madách, Krisztina; Gál, János; István, Gábor; Sugár, István; Ondrejka, Pál; Vörös, Attila

    2014-06-01

    Esetismertetés: A szerzők egy 30 éves nőbeteg esetét mutatják be, akinek intenzív osztályos felvételére hypertoniás krízist kísérő mellkasi panaszok, cardialis decompensatio, progrediáló acut légzési elégtelenség és tudatzavar miatt került sor. A gyors kivizsgálás mellett azonnal megkezdett intenzív terápia ellenére a felvételt követő harmadik napra többszervi elégtelenség képe alakult ki. Miután a kórkép kialakulása a bal oldali mellékvese térfoglaló folyamatára volt visszavezethető, a multidiszciplináris konzílium acut laparoscopos adrenalectomia végzése mellett foglalt állást. Az eltávolított képlet szövettani diagnózisa phaeochromocytoma volt. A postoperativ időszakban a beteg állapota fokozatosan javult, tünetei, panaszai regrediáltak, majd gyógyultan távozott. Megbeszélés: A phaeochromocytoma diagnózisa nehéz feladat, az általa kiváltott tünetek és panaszok sok egyéb kórképre is utalhatnak. Az acut phaeochromocytomás krízis általában belgyógyászati, intenzív terápiás eszközökkel uralható. A súlyos, többszervi elégtelenséghez vezető esetekben indokolt az acut műtéti beavatkozás. Az ilyen beavatkozások rizikója igen magas, de korrekt intra- és postoperativ észleléssel, megfelelő intenzív terápiával a laparoscopos műtét ezekben az esetekben választható megoldás lehet.

  17. Infrared spectra of interstellar deuteronated PAHs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buragohain, Mridusmita; Pathak, Amit; Sarre, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules have emerged as a potential constituent of the ISM that emit strong features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.2 and 12.7 μm with weaker and blended features in the 3-20μm region. These features are proposed to arise from the vibrational relaxation of PAH molecules on absorption of background UV photons (Tielens 2008). These IR features have been observed towards almost all types of astronomical objects; say H II regions, photodissociation regions, reflection nebulae, planetary nebulae, young star forming regions, external galaxies, etc. A recent observation has proposed that interstellar PAHs are major reservoir for interstellar deuterium (D) (Peeters et al. 2004). According to the `deuterium depletion model' as suggested by Draine (2006), some of the Ds formed in the big bang are depleted in PAHs, which can account for the present value of D/H in the ISM. Hence, study of deuterated PAHs (PADs) is essential in order to measure D/H in the ISM.In this work, we consider another probable category of the large PAH family, i.e. Deuteronated PAHs (DPAH+). Onaka et al. have proposed a D/H ratio which is an order of magnitude smaller than the proposed value of D/H by Draine suggesting that if Ds are depleted in PAHs, they might be accommodated in large PAHs (Onaka et al. 2014). This work reports a `Density Functional Theory' calculation of large deuteronated PAHs (coronene, ovalene, circumcoronene and circumcircumcoronene) to determine the expected region of emission features and to find a D/H ratio that is comparable to the observational results. We present a detailed analysis of the IR spectra of these molecules and discuss the possible astrophysical implications.ReferencesDraine B. T. 2006, in ASP Conf. Ser. 348, Proc. Astrophysics in the Far Ultraviolet: Five Years of Discovery with FUSE, ed. G. Sonneborn, H. Moos, B-G Andersson (San Francisco, CA:ASP) 58Onaka T., Mori T. I., Sakon I., Ohsawa R., Kaneda H., Okada Y., Tanaka M

  18. Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy and Kinetics of HO_2+HCHO: Detection of the ν_1 and {A}- {X} Bands of HOCH_2OOCAVITY Ringdown Spectroscopy and Kinetics of HO_2+HCHO: Detection of the ν_1 and {A}- {X} Bands of HOCH_2OO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprague, Matthew K.; Okumura, Mitchio; Sander, Stanley P.

    2011-06-01

    The reactions of HO_2 with carbonyl compounds are believed to be a sink for carbonyl compounds in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. These reactions proceed through a hydrogen bound intermediate before isomerizing. The reaction of HO_2 + formaldehyde (HCHO) serves as a prototype for this class of reactions, forming the isomerization product hydroxymethylperoxy (HOCH_2OO, HMP). Previous studies measured the spectrum and kinetics of HMP using either FTIR detection of the end products or direct detection of HMP by the unstructured tilde{B}-tilde{X} transition. Despite these studies, considerable uncertainty exists in the rate constant of HMP formation (±80%, 2σ). In this talk, we report the first detection of the ν_1 (OH stretch) and tilde{A}-tilde{X} electronic spectra of the HMP radical. The OH stretch spectrum is broad and featureless, while the tilde{A}(0)-tilde{X}(0) origin and combination band with the OOCO torsion tilde{A}(NOOCO=1)-tilde{X}(0) are rotationally resolved. Quantum chemistry calculations have been performed on both the tilde{A} and tilde{X} states as a function of the OOCO and HOCO dihedral angles to estimate the tilde{A}-tilde{X} transition frequency and to assess the coupling between the two torsional modes. We also present kinetics data showing the rates of production and destruction of HMP. I. Hermans, J. F. Muller, T. L. Nguyen, P. A. Jacobs, and J. Peeters. J. Phys. Chem. A 2005, 109, 4303. F. Su, J. G. Calvert, and J. H. Shaw J. Phys. Chem. 1979, 83, 3185. B. Veyret, R. Lesclaux, M. T. Rayez, J. C. Rayez, R. A. Cox, and G. K. Moortgat J. Phys. Chem. 1989, 93, 2368. J. P. Burrows, G. K. Moortgat, G. S. Tyndall, R. A. Cox, M. E. Jenkin, G. D. Hayman, and B. Veyret J. Phys. Chem. 1989, 93, 2375 S. P. Sander, B. J. Finlayson-Pitts, D. M. Golden, R. E. Huie, C. E. Kolb, M. J. Kurylo, M. J. Molina, et al. Chemical Kinetics and Photochemical Data for Use in Atmospheric Studies, Evaluation Number 16, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2009 I

  19. Past changes of landscape due to increased dynamics of erosion processes in the Bezděz-Doksy region (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vysloužilová, Barbora; Dreslerová, Dagmar; Kozáková, Radka; Poništiak, Štefan; Chuman, Tomáš; Šefrna, Luděk

    2016-04-01

    This study broadens the archaeological research of the the Bezděz - Doksy region in Northern Bohemia, Czech Republic (Dreslerová et al., 2013). Extensive field works between 2008 and 2012 showed that the region has been settled since the La Tène period. Survey of the alluvial plain of the Robečský stream revealed a record of two intensive erosion episodes in the catchment. We suppose that the first episode may be connected to land use changes and the beginnings of agriculture at the site in the La Tène period. The second episode may be connected to the foundation of the medieval village of Okna, which came into existence in the vicinity of the La Tène settlement. The accelerated erosion of former albeluvisols (on loess) led to significant changes of landscape in the region. The aim of this contribution is to bring a reconstruction of soils, vegetation and relief at the site of Okna before the human occupancy and to detect landscape changes over the time. It focuses on the hypothesis that the accelerated soil erosion has been occurring at the site since the first anthropogenic influence like it is demonstrated by other studies in Europe (e.g. Leopold and Völkel, 2007; Boardman, 2013). An abrupt change of land use from forest to arable land is proved by palynological records. Simultaneously there are buried soil horizons and alluvial sediments which can be studied as geoarchives. The difficulties in reconstruction of relief and quantification of the historical erosion effects are faced by applying GIS and model approaches (Peeters et al., 2003). References Boardman, J., 2013. Soil Erosion in Britain: Updating the Record. Agriculture 3, 418-442. doi:10.3390/agriculture3030418 Dreslerová, D., Waldhauser, J., Abraham, V., Kočár, P., Křivánek, R., Meduna, P., Sádlo, J., 2013. The Bezděz - Doksy region (Northern Bohemia) in prehistory and the La Tène settlement at Okna (in Czech). Archeologické rozhledy LXV, 535-573. Leopold, M., Völkel, J., 2007

  20. [Lipid-lowering therapy and patient adherence in the MULTI GAP 2013 trial].

    PubMed

    Simonyi, Gábor

    2014-04-27

    Bevezetés: A dyslipidaemia ismert cardiovascularis kockázati tényező. A lipidterápiában a célértékek elérésének fontos tényezője a megfelelő betegadherencia. Célkitűzés: A MULTI GAP (MULTI Goal Attainment Problem) 2013-as vizsgálatban atheroscleroticus betegségben szenvedő betegek esetében a statinterápia adherenciájának és perzisztenciájának felmérése, amely részben a vizsgálatban részt vevő orvosok becslésén, illetve 319, a megelőző évben elvégzett MULTI GAP vizsgálatban részt vett beteg esetében az Országos Egészségbiztosítási Pénztár vénykiváltási adatbázisán alapult. Módszer: A MULTI GAP 2013 vizsgálatban standard, strukturált kérdőívek segítségével 1519 beteg adatai kerültek feldolgozásra. Az elemzésben kiértékelésre kerültek az egyes ellátási szinteken elért lipidértékek, a kezelőorvos által vélt betegadherencia, a 319 beteg Országos Egészségbiztosítási Pénztár vénykiváltási adataira támaszkodó valós adherencia, a kezelőorvosok elégedettsége a statinterápia eredményeivel, illetve az adherencia és a lipideredmények összevetése. Eredmények: Az elmúlt 7 év felméréseinek adatait is figyelembe véve előtérbe kerültek a hatékonyabb statinok; az atorvastatin és rozuvastatin alkalmazásának összesített aránya 49%-ról 83%-ra, azaz mintegy 70%-kal nőtt. A betegadherencia vonatkozásában kimutatták, hogy a 2,5 mmol/l alatti LDL-koleszterin-értékeket elért betegeknél az 1 év alatt kiváltott receptek száma mintegy nyolc gyógyszertári beváltást jelentett. Ehhez képest a 2,5 mmol/l feletti LDL-koleszterin-értékű csoportban a gyógyszerkiváltás lényegesen alacsonyabb volt (5,3 és 6,3 közötti). Éves szinten a 10–12 és a 7–9 gyógyszerkiváltás szignifikánsan alacsonyabb LDL-koleszterin-szintet jelentett a semennyit (0), illetve az 1–3 receptet éves szinten kiváltók csoportjaihoz képest. A kezelőorvosok által 100%-os

  1. The influence of the self-consistent mode structure on the Coriolis pinch effect

    SciTech Connect

    Peeters, A. G.; Camenen, Y.; Casson, F. J.; Hornsby, W. A.; Snodin, A. P.; Angioni, C.; Strintzi, D.

    2009-06-15

    This paper discusses the effect of the mode structure on the Coriolis pinch effect [A. G. Peeters, C. Angioni, and D. Strintzi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 265003 (2007)]. It is shown that the Coriolis drift effect can be compensated for by a finite parallel wave vector, resulting in a reduced momentum pinch velocity. Gyrokinetic simulations in full toroidal geometry reveal that parallel dynamics effectively removes the Coriolis pinch for the case of adiabatic electrons, while the compensation due to the parallel dynamics is incomplete for the case of kinetic electrons, resulting in a finite pinch velocity. The finite flux in the case of kinetic electrons is interpreted to be related to the electron trapping, which prevents a strong asymmetry in the electrostatic potential with respect to the low field side position. The physics picture developed here leads to the discovery and explanation of two unexpected effects: First the pinch velocity scales with the trapped particle fraction (root of the inverse aspect ratio), and second there is no strong collisionality dependence. The latter is related to the role of the trapped electrons, which retain some symmetry in the eigenmode, but play no role in the perturbed parallel velocity.

  2. Influence of the centrifugal force and parallel dynamics on the toroidal momentum transport due to small scale turbulence in a tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Peeters, A. G.; Camenen, Y.; Casson, F. J.; Hornsby, W. A.; Snodin, A. P.; Strintzi, D.; Angioni, C.

    2009-04-15

    The paper derives the gyro-kinetic equation in the comoving frame of a toroidally rotating plasma, including both the Coriolis drift effect [A. G. Peeters et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 265003 (2007)] as well as the centrifugal force. The relation with the laboratory frame is discussed. A low field side gyro-fluid model is derived from the gyro-kinetic equation and applied to the description of parallel momentum transport. The model includes the effects of the Coriolis and centrifugal force as well as the parallel dynamics. The latter physics effect allows for a consistent description of both the Coriolis drift effect as well as the ExB shear effect [R. R. Dominguez and G. M. Staebler, Phys. Fluids B 5, 3876 (1993)] on the momentum transport. Strong plasma rotation as well as parallel dynamics reduce the Coriolis (inward) pinch of momentum and can lead to a sign reversal generating an outward pinch velocity. Also, the ExB shear effect is, in a similar manner, reduced by the parallel dynamics and stronger rotation.

  3. Gyrokinetic theory and simulation of angular momentum transport

    SciTech Connect

    Waltz, R. E.; Staebler, G. M.; Candy, J.; Hinton, F. L.

    2007-12-15

    A gyrokinetic theory of turbulent toroidal angular momentum transport as well as modifications to neoclassical poloidal rotation from turbulence is formulated starting from the fundamental six-dimensional kinetic equation. The gyro-Bohm scaled transport is evaluated from toroidal delta-f gyrokinetic simulations using the GYRO code [Candy and Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)]. The simulations recover two pinch mechanisms in the radial transport of toroidal angular momentum: The slab geometry ExB shear pinch [Dominguez and Staebler, Phys. Fluids B 5, 387 (1993)] and the toroidal geometry 'Coriolis' pinch [Peeters, Angioni, and Strintzi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 265003 (2007)]. The pinches allow the steady state null stress (or angular momentum transport flow) condition required to understand intrinsic (or spontaneous) toroidal rotation in heated tokamak without an internal source of torque [Staebler, Kinsey, and Waltz, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 46, 221 (2001)]. A predicted turbulent shift in the neoclassical poloidal rotation [Staebler, Phys. Plasmas 11, 1064 (2004)] appears to be small at the finite relative gyroradius (rho-star) of current experiments.

  4. Frequency bands of strongly nonlinear homogeneous granular systems.

    PubMed

    Lydon, Joseph; Jayaprakash, K R; Ngo, Duc; Starosvetsky, Yuli; Vakakis, Alexander F; Daraio, Chiara

    2013-07-01

    Recent numerical studies on an infinite number of identical spherical beads in Hertzian contact showed the presence of frequency bands [Jayaprakash, Starosvetsky, Vakakis, Peeters, and Kerschen, Nonlinear Dyn. 63, 359 (2011)]. These bands, denoted here as propagation and attenuation bands (PBs and ABs), are typically present in linear or weakly nonlinear periodic media; however, their counterparts are not intuitive in essentially nonlinear periodic media where there is a complete lack of classical linear acoustics, i.e., in "sonic vacua." Here, we study the effects of PBs and ABs on the forced dynamics of ordered, uncompressed granular systems. Through numerical and experimental techniques, we find that the dynamics of these systems depends critically on the frequency and amplitude of the applied harmonic excitation. For fixed forcing amplitude, at lower frequencies, the oscillations are large in amplitude and governed by strongly nonlinear and nonsmooth dynamics, indicating PB behavior. At higher frequencies the dynamics is weakly nonlinear and smooth, in the form of compressed low-amplitude oscillations, indicating AB behavior. At the boundary between the PB and the AB large-amplitude oscillations due to resonance occur, giving rise to collisions between beads and chaotic dynamics; this renders the forced dynamics sensitive to initial and forcing conditions, and hence unpredictable. Finally, we study asymptotically the near field standing wave dynamics occurring for high frequencies, well inside the AB. PMID:23944453

  5. Purification of rat liver particulate neutral ribonuclease and comparison of properties with pancreas and serum ribonucleases.

    PubMed Central

    Bartholeyns, J; Baudhuin, P

    1977-01-01

    Rat liver particulate neutral ribonuclease (EC 3.1.4.22) was extensively purified (up to 40000-fold). It is shown to be an endonuclease, specific for pyrimidine bases, hydrolysing 5'-phosphate ester bonds. The enzyme specificity, Km, pH optimum, stability in acid medium and thermal stability at high temperature are the same as those of rat pancreatic and serum ribonucleases. Like pancreatic and serum neutral ribonucleases, the hepatic enzyme is sensitive to the liver natural inhibitor. This inhibitor was purified 8000-fold; its association with ribonuclease follows zero-order kinetics. These identical properties for ribonuclease of rat liver, pancreas and serum support the hypothesis [Bartholeyns, Peeters-Joris & Baudhuin (1975) Eur. J. Biochem. 60, 385-393] of an extrahepatic origin for the liver enzyme, the plasma ribonuclease of pancreatic origin being taken up by endocytosis in the liver. Neutral ribonuclease activity was detected in all rat organs investigated; its distribution among tissues is different from the distribution of the natural ribonuclear inhibitor. PMID:19011

  6. Diphthongs in the repopulated vowel space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogacka, Anna

    2005-04-01

    The study examined 8 British English diphthongs produced by Polish learners of English, testing the diphthongs' quality, duration, nasalization, and occurrence of glottal stops before the diphthongs. There were twelve conditions in which the diphthongs were tested: word-initial, word-final, before a voiced obstruent, before a voiceless obstruent, before a nasal consonant, and before a nasal consonant followed by a fricative, and each of these conditions was tested in a stressed and unstressed position. The diphthongs were tested in real words, embedded in sentences, controlled for the stress position, rhythmic units, and length. The sentences were read by 8 female and 8 male Polish learners of English and control subjects. The aim of the phonetic analysis done with Praat, and employing the methodologies used by Flege (1995) for SLA and Peeters (1991) and Jacewicz, Fujimara, and Fox (2003) for diphthongs, is to examine the shape of the restructured vowel space (Liljencrants and Lindblom 1972; Stevens 1989). The approach taken here is termed Vowel Space Repopulation to emphasize that the vowel space of Polish speakers of English is re-structured by new categories in complex ways which are not adequately captured by traditional notions such as ``transfer,'' ``interference,'' or ``interlanguage.''

  7. [Connection between cancer- and alcohol-related mortality in a rural practice of a South-Hungarian village].

    PubMed

    Péter, Arpád

    2013-05-01

    Bevezetés: A több mint negyedszázada ugyanazon egykörzetes községben dolgozó szerző az 1987 és 1999 közötti vizsgálati periódusban a daganatos halálozásnak az alkohollal kapcsolatos halálozással összefüggő hányadát férfiak körében 50%-nak, nők körében 7,9%-nak találta. Célkitűzés: A szerző célként tűzte ki a halálozás e két meghatározó tényezőjének hosszabb távú nyomon követéséhez és elemzéséhez a halálozási mutatók ismételt felmérését a 2000 és 2011 közötti időszakra vonatkozóan. Módszer: Az elhunyt betegek valamennyi fontos előzményi adatát összefoglaló háziorvosi halotti epikrízisekbe tömörítette és a halálokok kiválasztásakor ezeket döntő súllyal vette figyelembe. Eredmények: A vizsgált 12 év alatt a szerző úgynevezett „tisztított praxislakossága” körében 326 ember halt meg (167 férfi, 159 nő). Bár a részeredményeket tekintve is jelentős átstruktúrálódás következett be a daganatos és alkoholos halálozási kategóriákon belül, és ezek összes halálozáson belüli aránya is megváltozott (az alkohollal kapcsolatos halálozásé számottevően csökkent, míg a daganatos halálozásé kisebb mértékben nőtt), az újabb vizsgálati periódusban a daganatos halálozásnak alkohollal kapcsolatos hányada mindkét nemben nőtt (a férfiak körében 60%-ra, a nők körében 9,1%-ra). Következtetés: Legfőbb epidemiológiai következtetésként megerősítést nyert, hogy a daganatos betegségek megelőzésének, különösen bizonyos lokalizációjú daganatok mint halálokok csökkentésének egyik kulcskérdése – megkülönböztetetten a férfiak körében – az alkoholabúzus visszaszorítása. Orv. Hetil., 2013, 154, 700–706.

  8. [Cognitive functions in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Kálcza-Jánosi, Kinga; Lukács, Andrea; Barkai, László; Szamosközi, István

    2013-05-01

    Bevezetés: A cukorbetegséget különféle kognitív károsodásokkal társítják. Célkitűzés: A szerzők 1-es és 2-es típusú diabetesben a kognitív működés közötti különbségek pontosítását tűzték ki célul. Módszer: Metaanalízis a Medline, PubMed és ScienceDirect felhasználásával (három tanulmány az 1-es és hat tanulmány a 2-es típusú cukorbetegséggel kapcsolatban). Eredmények: Az 1-es típusú cukorbeteg felnőttek teljesítménye gyengébb volt a kontrollokhoz képest az összes mért területen. A hatásméret a pszichomotoros aktivitásnál volt a legmagasabb (D = –0,69). Kicsi volt a hatásméret a késleltetett verbális memória (D = –0,48), figyelem (D = –0,47), nyelv (D = –0,44), vizuális feldolgozás (D = –0,35), azonnali verbális memória (D = –0,30), munkamemória (D = –0,27) és a végrehajtó funkcióknál (D = –0,26). A felnőtt 2-es típusú cukorbetegek teljesítménye gyengébb volt, mint a kontrolloké a munkamemória kivételével (D = +0,03) az összes kognitív területen. Legmagasabb hatásméretet az azonnali verbális memória (D = –1,12), pszichomotoros aktivitás (D = –0,82) és a késleltetett verbális memória (D = –0,81) mutatott. Közepes volt a hatásméret az általános intellektuális képességek (D = –0,68) területén, míg kicsi volt a hatásméret az általános memória (D = –0,37), a figyelem (D = –0,35), nyelv (D = –0,35), vizuális feldolgozás (D = –0,33) és a végrehajtó funkciók (D = –0,33) terén. Következtetés: Mindkét típusú cukorbetegség csökkent teljesítménnyel társul számos kognitív területen. Orv. Hetil., 2013, 154, 694–699.

  9. [Changing times - changing diseases. Review of the neuropathological autopsy documentations at the Markusovszky University Teaching Hospital (1964-2014)].

    PubMed

    Garzuly, Ferenc; Schneider, Ferenc; Iványi, János László; Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Varga, Mariann; Sütő, Krisztián; Tolvaj, Balázs; Kálmán, Bernadette

    2014-10-26

    Bevezetés: A Markusovszky Egyetemi Oktatókórház Neuropatológiai Laboratóriumában az elmúlt 50 évben közel 6000 esetben történt autopsziás vizsgálat. Célkitűzés: A szerzők célja azon korábban gyakori, magas mortalitású betegségek bemutatása, amelyek ma már megelőzhetőek vagy kezelhetőek. Módszer: A neuropatológiai dokumentáció retrospektív áttekintése. Eredmények: A morbilli vírusa okozta szubakut szklerotizáló panencephalitis miatt 13 beteg halt meg, az utolsó haláleset 1991-ben volt. A kötelező védőoltás bevezetése vetett véget a halálos megbetegedésnek. Herpes simplex encephalitis miatt 14-en vesztették életüket, az utolsó 1999-ben. A korai diagnosztizálás feltételeinek javulása és az aciclovirkezelés tette lehetővé a halálesetek elkerülését. Meningitis basilaris tuberculosa szórványosan, de az utóbbi években is előfordult. Felismerése nem könnyű, ritkasága miatt kikerült a rutindiagnosztika gondolatmenetből. Kullancsencephalitisben a védőoltások elérhetővé válása folyamatosan tovább csökkentette a különben is ritka, összesen 8 esetben dokumentált halálos esetek számát. Fatális kimenetelű neuroluessel az 1990-es években találkoztak utoljára, de a syphilis nem tűnt el, sőt a friss fertőzések száma emelkedik. A meningiosis leukaemica kivédését az intrathecalis methotrexat adása és radioterápia tette lehetővé, amelyek alkalmazása azonban óvatosságot igényel, a szerzők esetei között is jegyzett disszeminált nekrotizáló leukoencephalopathia kialakulásának lehetősége miatt. Következtetések: A Neuropatológiai Laboratórium 50 éves dokumentációja tükrözi a betegségek előfordulásának változásait, és felhívja a figyelmet azokra a kórképekre, amelyek ma már megelőzhetők vagy kezelhetők, de diagnosztikus kihívást is jelenthetnek. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(43), 1722–1728.

  10. [Use of hysteroscopy at the office in gynaecological practice].

    PubMed

    Török, Péter

    2014-10-01

    Bevezetés: Az office hiszteroszkópia a méhűri vizsgálatot gyorsabbá teszi, alacsonyabb költségigényű, a betegek számára pedig kevesebb megterheléssel jár. Célkitűzés: A szerző célja volt a vizsgálatok közben tapasztalt fájdalomérzetek elemzése, új eljárás kidolgozása a petevezető-átjárhatóság ambuláns vizsgálatára. Módszer: A vizsgálatok a Debreceni Egyetem, Szülészeti és Nőgyógyászati Klinikáján történtek, ambuláns körülmények között, anesztézia nélkül. A 400 vizsgálat eredményének elemzése a hagyományos módszernél ismert javallatok alapján készült. A szerző a vizsgálatokhoz 2,7 mm átmérőjű optikát használt diagnosztikus, illetve operatív hüvellyel, és a fájdalomérzet objektivizálására 70 betegnél VAS-t alkalmazott. A petevezető-átjárhatósági vizsgálat során 70 esetben hasonlította az új módszert a laparoszkópos változathoz. Eredmények: Az office hiszteroszkópia alkalmazható ambuláns körülmények között, anesztézia nélkül. A tapasztalt fájdalomértékek az alcsoportokban (nem szült, szült, posztmenopauza, diagnosztikus/operatív alcsoport) szignifikánsan nem különböztek, átlagértékük 3,5±1,01 volt (p=0,34). A szelektív pertubáció a laparoszkópos kromohidrotubációhoz viszonyítva 92,06% pontosságúnak bizonyult. Következtetések: Az office hiszteroszkópia gyorsasága, fájdalommentessége az új eljárás széles körű alkalmazását támasztja alá. Meddőségi kivizsgálásban kiválthatja a műtői körülményeket igénylő beavatkozásokat. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(40), 1589–1597.

  11. [Effectiveness of pentoxifylline and of bio-electromagnetic therapy in lower limb obliterative arterial disease].

    PubMed

    Bernát, Sándor Iván

    2013-10-20

    Bevezetés: A mikrocirkuláció javítására korlátozottak a terápiás lehetőségek. Célkitűzés: A vizsgálat elsősorban arra irányult, hogy bizonyítható-e a változó mágneses tér kedvező hatása az alsó végtagi obliteratív érbetegségben szenvedő betegek mikrokeringésére. Módszer: Harminc, alsó végtagi obliteratív érbetegségben (Fontaine IIa és IIb) szenvedő beteget vontak be a vizsgálatba. Megmérték a betegek fájdalmatlan és maximális járástávolságát treadmill készülék segítségével. Placeboperiódust követően nyolc alkalommal részesültek a betegek bioelektromágnes-regulációs terápiában, majd infúziós pentoxifillinterápiában, és minden kezelés után megmérték a betegek fájdalommentes és maximális járástávolságát. Eredmények: A bioelektromágnes-regulációs kezelés hatására a fájdalommentes és maximális járástávolság 57,4%-kal (p = 0,005), illetve 36,6%-kal (p = 0,042) nőtt. A kombinált (bioelektromágnes-regulációs+reológiai) kezelés összesen 81,9%-kal, illetve 84,0%-kal növelte a mért értékeket. A kombinált kezelés a terápia előttihez képest jelentős mértékben javította a járásképességet (p = 0,000373 és p = 0,00741). Következtetések: A bioelektromágnes-regulációs terápia elsősorban a mikrokeringés ereire, a pentoxifillin inkább a haemorrheologiára hat kedvezően. A kombinált kezelés jól kiegészíti egymást, és 70%-ban jó, illetve kiváló terápiás hatást eredményez. Orv. Hetil., 2013, 154, 1674–1679.

  12. PREFACE: 21st Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XXI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, J. Albino

    2014-04-01

    Colombia e-mail: dalandinezt@unal.edu.co Professor Laura T Corredor Bohórquez Departamento de Física Universidade Federal de Pernambuco 50670-901 Recife PE Brazil e-mail: ltcorredorb@df.ufpe.br Professor Arkady Shanenko Departamento de Física Universidade Federal de Pernambuco 50670-901 Recife PE Brazil e-mail: arkadyshanenko@df.ufpe.br Professor Renato F Jardim Instituto de Física Universidade de S\\~ao Paulo CP 66318 S\\~ao Paulo SP Brazil e-mail: rjardim@if.usp.br Professor Francois Peeters Department Fysica Universiteit Antwerpen Groneneborgerlann 171 B-2020, Antwerpen Belgium e-mail: francois.peeters@uantwerpen.be Organizing committee ChairmanCarlos Arturo Parra Vargas Proceedings EditorJosé Albino Aguiar Program ChairJairo Roa-Rojas SecretaryAura Janeth Barón González TreasurerArmando Sarmiento Santos Speaker ChairRafael González Hernández Fernando Naranjo Mayorga David A Landínez Téllez Jesús Oswaldo Morán José Sierra Ortega

  13. Decadal- to biennial scale variability of planktic foraminifera in the northeastern Arabian Sea during the last two millennia: evidence for winter monsoon forcing mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munz, Philipp; Lückge, Andreas; Siccha, Michael; Kucera, Michal; Schulz, Hartmut

    2015-04-01

    The Asian monsoon system is controlling the hydrologic cycle, and thus the agricultural and economic prosperity of the worlds most densely populated region. Strong and moisture-laden winds from the southwest induce upwelling and significant productivity in the western Arabian Sea during boreal summer. During boreal winter, weaker dry and cold surface winds from the northeast nourish ocean productivity mainly in the northeastern Arabian Sea. Instrumental records spanning the last century are too short to understand how the monsoon system reacts to external forcing mechanisms and to accurately determine its natural variability. Compared to the summer monsoon component, the dynamics of the winter monsoon are virtually unknown, due to the lack of adequate archives that are affected only by winter conditions. Here we present a decadal- to biennial-scale resolution record of past winter monsoon variability over the last two millennia, based on census counts of planktic foraminifera from two laminated sediment cores collected offshore Pakistan. One shorter box core (SO90-39KG) spans the last 250 years with an average ~2-year resolution, whereas the longer piston core (SO130-275KL) spans the last 2,100 years with a 10-year resolution. We use Globigerina falconensis as a faunal indicator for winter conditions, a species that is most abundant during winter in the NE Arabian Sea (Peeters and Brummer, 2002; Schulz et al., 2002). Our results show that during the past 2,100 years G. falconensis varied with significant periodicities centered on ˜ 60, ˜ 53, ˜ 40, ˜ 34 and ˜ 29 years per cycle. Some of these periods closely match cycles that are known from proxy records of solar irradiance, suggesting a solar forcing on winter monsoon variability. During the past 250 years G. falconensis varied in correlation with the (11-year) Schwabe and the (22-year) Hale solar cycles. Furthermore, a significant ˜ 7 year cyclicity could indicate a teleconnection to the El Niño Southern

  14. The sensitivity of laser induced fluorescence instruments at low pressure to RO2 radicals and the use of this detection method to determine the yield of HO2 during OH-initiated isoprene oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heard, D. E.; Whalley, L. K.; Blitz, M. A.; Seakins, P. W.

    2011-12-01

    a dry air flow at variable positions along the flow-tube; Isoprene was added downstream of the lamp. Theoretical studies (Peeters et al., 2009) suggest an HO2 yield of 0.7 on a time-scale of a few seconds. Results from the recent laboratory studies will be discussed. Fuchs, H., Bohn, B., Hofzumahaus, A., Holland, F., Lu, K., Nehr, S., Rohrer, F., and Wahner, A.: Detection of HO2 by laser-induced fluorescence: Calibration and interferences from RO2 radicals, Atmos Meas Tech Discuss, 4, 1255-1302, 2011. Heard, D. E., and Pilling, M. J.: Measurement of OH and HO2 in the troposphere, Chem Rev, 103, 5163-5198, 2003. Peeters, J., Nguyen, T. L., and Vereecken, L.: HOx radical regeneration in the oxidation of isoprene, Phys Chem Chem Phys, 11, 5935-5939, 2009.

  15. Hydrophysical and hydrochemical features of Lake Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan) as revealed by field survey of June, 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavialov, Peter; Makkaveev, Petr; Rimskiy-Korsakov, Nikolay; Alymkulov, Salmor; Izhitskiy, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    cycle. However, the vertical profiles of dissolved oxygen indicated that the most intense photosynthetic activity took place in the intermediate layers, while in the surface layer it was suppressed, hypothetically, by excessive insolation. The ionic salt content of the Issyk-Kul waters was essentially uniform throughout the water column, which points towards efficient mixing in the cold period. In summer season, temperature stratification was sufficiently strong to provide for significant reduction of dissolved oxygen and increase of nutrients in the bottom layer. Samples collected and analyzed for dissolved methane generally yielded low concentrations below 0.5 μl/l at the surface and 0.2 μl/l in the bottom layer, however, values as high as to 3.9 μl/l were documented in some samples corresponding to near-shore stations at depths of about 70 m. We also used a towed side-looking sonar to obtain detailed maps of bathymetric features, including the channels formed by ancient beds of the Tyup and the Dzhergalan Rivers. These channels are believed to represent important pathways for ventilated water and terrigenic substances penetrating into the deep central part of the lake following seasonal differential cooling on the eastern shelf (Peeters et al., 2003). Quantitative assessment of this plausible mechanism is subject to future work. References Oberhansli, H., and P. Molnar (2012) Climate evolution in Central Asia during the past few million years: A case study from Issyk-Kul. Scientific Drilling, 13, doi: 10.2204/iodp/sd.13.09.2011 Peeters F, Finger D, Hofer M, Brennwald M, Livingstone DM, Kipfer R (2003) Deep-water renewal in Lake Issyk-Kul driven by differential cooling. Limnol. and Oceanogr. 48: 1419- 1431.

  16. Hydroxyl Radical Regeneration in Isoprene Oxidation: the Upgraded Mechanism LIM1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeters, J.; Nguyen, S.; Nguyen, T.; Stavrakou, T.; Muller, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    Measured hydroxyl radical concentrations in isoprene-rich areas are much higher than predicted by existing chemical models, to the extent that the global oxidizing capacity of our atmosphere should be significantly revised upwards. The OH regeneration that clearly occurs in isoprene oxidation at low/moderate NO is attributed in the Leuven Isoprene Mechanism to novel, theoretically characterized chemical pathways (LIM0: Peeters et al. 2009; Peeters and Muller 2010). The key new features of LIM0 are (i) thermal equilibration of the labile beta-OH- and delta-OH-isoprenylperoxy isomers; (ii) 1,6-H shift isomerisation of the Z-delta-OH-peroxy isomers to yield hydroperoxy-methyl-butenals (HPALDs); (iii) fast photolysis of the HPALDs resulting overall in several OH radicals per HPALD. The OH-regeneration through photolabile HPALDs has recently found experimental support, but the peroxy isomerisation rate, HPALD yield and the extent of OH recycling are still uncertain (Crounse et al. 2011; Wolfe et al. 2012). In this work, the upgraded LIM1 mechanism is presented. Based on better levels of theory, the crucial equilibrium ratio of the isomerising Z-delta-OH-peroxys over the majority beta-OH-isoprenylperoxys had to be reduced by a factor of about 5 compared to LIM0, while the isomerisation rate of the Z-delta-OH-peroxys adopted from Taraborrelli et al. (2012) is about 3 times lower than in LIM0. The chemistry following the 1,6-H shift of the Z-delta-OH-peroxys is much expanded and extended. Firstly, LIM1 introduces other pathways beside HPALD formation following the Z-delta-OH-peroxy isomerisation, resulting likewise in OH recycling. This, together with the revised Z-delta-OH- equilibrium and isomerisation data above, affords a close model-reproduction of the HPALD and other product yields observed by Crounse et al. (2011). Secondly, LIM1 proposes new fast reactions of HO2 with the alpha-oxoketene products from the peroxy isomerisation routes; these reactions are shown to

  17. Hydroxyl radical regeneration in isoprene oxidation: upgraded mechanism LIM1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeters, Jozef; Son Nguyen, Vinh; Nguyen, Thanh Lam; Stravrakou, Trissevgeni; Muller, Jean-Francois

    2013-04-01

    The OH regeneration known to occur in isoprene oxidation at low/moderate NO is attributed in the Leuven Isoprene Mechanism to novel, theoretically characterized chemical pathways (LIM0: Peeters et al. 2009; Peeters and Muller 2010). Its key new features are (i) quasi-equilibration of the thermally labile beta-OH- and delta-OH-isoprenylperoxy isomers; (ii) 1,6-H shift isomerisation of the Z-delta-OH-peroxy isomers to yield hydroperoxy-methyl-butenals (HPALDs); (iii) fast photolysis of the HPALDs resulting overall in several OH radicals per HPALD. The OH-regeneration through photolabile HPALDs has recently found experimental support, but the peroxy isomerisation rate, HPALD yield and extent of OH recycling are still uncertain (Crounse et al. 2011; Wolfe et al. 2012). In this work, the upgraded LIM1 mechanism is presented. Based on much higher levels of theory that fully account for dispersion effects, the crucial equilibrium ratio of the isomerising Z-delta-OH-peroxys over the majority beta-OH-isoprenylperoxys is reduced by a factor ≈5 and the isomerisation rate of the Z-delta-OH-peroxys by a factor ≈1.5 compared to LIM0. The chemistry following the 1,6-H shift of the Z-delta-OH-peroxys is also much expanded and extended. Firstly, LIM1 introduces other pathways beside HPALD formation following the Z-delta-OH-peroxy isomerisation, but resulting likewise in OH recycling. This, together with the revised Z-delta-OH- equilibrium and isomerisation data above, affords a fair model-reproduction of the HPALD and other product yields observed by Crounse et al. (2011). Secondly, LIM1 proposes new fast reactions of HO2 with the alpha-oxoketene products from the peroxy isomerisation routes; these reactions are shown to efficiently convert HO2 into OH and are prime candidates for the unknown X + HO2 → OH + ... hydroxyl-recycling routes invoked in recent studies (Hofzumahaus et al.2009; Whalley et al. 2011). Modeling results using the IMAGES global CTM will be presented on

  18. Hydroxyl radical recycling in isoprene oxidation driven by hydrogen bonding and hydrogen tunneling: the upgraded LIM1 mechanism.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Jozef; Müller, Jean-François; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Nguyen, Vinh Son

    2014-09-25

    The Leuven isoprene mechanism, proposed earlier to aid in rationalizing the unexpectedly high hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations in isoprene-rich, low-nitric-oxide (NO) regions ( Peeters ; et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys . 2009 , 11 , 5935 ), is presented in an upgraded and extended version, LIM1. The kinetics of the crucial reactions in the proposed isoprene-peroxy radical interconversion and isomerization pathways are re-evaluated theoretically, on the basis of energy barriers computed at the much higher CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ//QCISD/6-311G(d,p) level of theory, and using multiconformer partition functions obtained at the M06-2X/6-311++G(3df,2p) level that, different from the B3LYP level used in our earlier work, accounts for the crucial London dispersion effects in the H-bonded systems involved. The steady-state fraction of the specific Z-δ-OH-peroxy radical isomers/conformers that can isomerize by a 1,6-H shift is shown to be largely governed by hydrogen-bond strengths, whereas their isomerization itself is found to occur quasi-exclusively by hydrogen atom tunneling. The isomer-specific Z-δ-OH-peroxy 1,6-H-shift rate coefficients are predicted to be of the order of 1 s(-1) at 298 K, but the experimentally accessible bulk rate coefficients, which have to be clearly distinguished from the former, are 2 orders of magnitude lower due to the very low Z-δ-OH-peroxy steady-state fractions that are only around or below 0.01 at low to moderate NO and depend on the peroxy lifetime. Two pathways subsequent to the peroxy radical 1,6-H shift are identified, the earlier predicted route yielding the photolabile hydroperoxy-methylbutenals (HPALDs), and a second, about equally important path, to dihydroperoxy-carbonyl peroxy radicals (di-HPCARP). Taking this into account, our predicted bulk peroxy isomerization rate coefficients are about a factor 1.8 higher than the available experimental results for HPALD production ( Crounse ; et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2011 , 13 , 13607

  19. Pedagogy with babies: perspectives of eight nursery managers

    PubMed Central

    Elfer, Peter; Page, Jools

    2015-01-01

    The last 30 years have seen a significant increase in babies attending nursery, with corresponding questions about the aims and organisation of practice. Research broadly agrees on the importance of emotionally consistent, sensitive and responsive interactions between staff and babies. Policy objectives for nursery and expectations of parents and staff give rise to different and sometimes conflicting aims for such interactions; for example attachments to staff, peer interactions or early learning. Research shows marked variations of pedagogy aims and organisation with babies in nurseries in different national and cultural contexts. It also demonstrates variation between nurseries in similar contexts and between staff in their beliefs and values about work with babies. This paper reports on an exploratory study of the beliefs, aspirations and approaches of eight managers concerning pedagogy with babies in two similar English local authorities. These managers spoke of the importance of being responsive to the concerns and priorities of parents, whilst being sensitive to the demands of the work on their staff. The main finding was of the contradictions and confusions managers felt were inherent in the work, arising from both conflicting policy objectives and personal beliefs and aspirations; sometimes their own and sometimes those of individual staff and parents. Urban, Vandenbroeck, Van Laere, Lazzari, and Peeters' [(2012). Towards competent systems in early childhood education and care. Implications for policy and practice. European Journal of Education, 47(4), 508–526.] concept of the ‘competent system’ is used to recommend a grounded approach to the development of a more culturally, socially and individually responsive pedagogy with babies than appears to exist at present. PMID:26692633

  20. Large effect of irradiance on hydrogen isotope fractionation of alkenones in Emiliania huxleyi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meer, Marcel T. J.; Benthien, Albert; French, Katherine L.; Epping, Eric; Zondervan, Ingrid; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Bijma, Jelle; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Schouten, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    The hydrogen isotopic (δD) composition of long-chain alkenones produced by certain haptophyte algae has been suggested as a potential proxy for reconstructing paleo sea surface salinity. However, environmental parameters other than salinity may also affect the δD of alkenones. We investigated the impact of the level of irradiance on hydrogen isotopic fractionation of alkenones versus growth water by cultivating two strains of the cosmopolitan haptophyte Emiliania huxleyi at different light intensities. The hydrogen isotope fractionation decreased by approximately 40‰ when irradiance was increased from 15 to 200 μmol photons m-2 s-1 above which it was relatively constant. The response is likely a direct effect of photosystem I and II activity as the relationship of the fractionation factor α versus light intensity can be described by an Eilers-Peeters photosynthesis model. This irradiance effect is in agreement with published δD data of alkenones derived from suspended particulate matter collected from different depths in the photic zone of the Gulf of California and the eastern tropical North Pacific. However, haptophyte algae tend to bloom at relatively high light intensities (>500 μmol photons m-2 s-1) occurring at the sea surface, at which hydrogen isotope fractionation is relatively constant and not affected by changes in light intensity. Alkenones accumulating in the sediment are likely mostly derived from these surface water haptophyte blooms, when the largest amount of biomass is produced. Therefore, the observed irradiance effect is unlikely to affect the applicability of the hydrogen isotopic composition of sedimentary long chain alkenones as a proxy for paleosalinity.

  1. Combining Ambient Measurements of OH Radicals and OH Reactivity in a Tropical Rainforest during the OP-3 Project: Resolving the Magnitude of the Missing OH Sources and Sinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalley, L. K.; Edwards, P.; Furneaux, K. L.; Goddard, A.; George, I. J.; Evans, M. J.; Heard, D. E.; Team Op-3

    2010-12-01

    effect of 0.74 ppbv of NO. The model is unable to account for all of the OH reactivity; to simulate the OH reactivity a range of unmeasured sinks must be invoked. In general we believe that the simultaneous measurement of OH reactivity and OH concentration enables the separation of OH sources and sinks, allowing a more comprehensive test of our understanding of the radical chemistry occurring in this chemically complex environment. [1] J. Lelieveld, T. M. Butler, J. N. Crowley et al.: Nature, 2008, 452, p.737 - 740 [2] J. Peeters, T. L. Nguyen & L. Vereecken, PCCP, 2009, 11, p.5935 - 5939

  2. Unusually fast 1,6-h shifts of enolic hydrogens in peroxy radicals: formation of the first-generation C2 and C3 carbonyls in the oxidation of isoprene.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Jozef; Nguyen, Thanh Lam

    2012-06-21

    In a theoretical investigation using the CBS-QB3//UB3LYP/6-31+G** method supported by higher-level computations such as CBS-QB3//UQCISD/6-31+G**, the 1,6-H shifts of the enolic hydrogen in peroxy radicals of the type Z-HO-CH═CH-CH(2)-OO(•) were found to face exceptionally low energy barriers of only about 11 kcal mol(-1)--i.e., 6-9 kcal mol(-1) lower than the barriers for similar shifts of alkane hydrogens--such that they can proceed at unequaled rates of order 10(5) to 10(6) s(-1) at ambient temperatures. The unusually low barriers for enolic 1,6-H shifts in peroxy radicals, characterized here for the first time to our knowledge, are rationalized. As cases in point, the secondary peroxy radicals Z-HO-CH═C(CH(3))-CH(OO(•))-CH(2)OH (case A) and Z-HO-CH═CH-C(CH(3))(OO(•))-CH(2)OH (case B) derived from the primary Z-δ-hydroxy-peroxy radicals in the oxidation of isoprene, are predicted to undergo 1,6-H shifts of their enolic hydrogens at TST-calculated rates in the range 270-320 K of k(T)(A) = 5.4 × 10(-4) × T(5.04) × exp(-1990/T) s(-1) and k(T)(B) = 109 × T(3.13) × exp(-3420/T) s(-1), respectively, i.e., 2.0 × 10(6) and 6.2 × 10(4) s(-1), respectively, at 298 K, far outrunning in all relevant atmospheric and laboratory conditions their reactions with NO proposed earlier as their dominant pathways (Dibble J. Phys. Chem. A 2004, 108, 2199). These fast enolic-H shifts are shown to provide the explanation for the first-generation formation of methylglyoxal + glycolaldehyde, and glyoxal + hydroxyacetone in the oxidation of isoprene under high-NO conditions, recently determined by several groups. However, under moderate- and low-NO atmospheric conditions, the fast interconversion and equilibration of the various thermally labile, initial peroxy conformers/isomers from isoprene and the isomerization of the initial Z-δ-hydroxy-peroxy radicals, both recently proposed by us (Peeters et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2009, 11, 5935), are expected to

  3. Post-glacial coast development and human settling of the North European Ice Marginal Landscape (IML)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bregman, I. Kant Baltic Federal State University, Kaliningrad, Russia, E. P. H.; Netherlands, Utrecht University, the; Druzhinina, I. Kant Baltic Federal State University, Kaliningrad, Russia, O. A.

    2012-04-01

    In North Europe, in the Ice Marginal Landscapes (IML) from the Netherlands to Estonia, human settling is in the Late-Pleistocene - Holocene strongly influenced by post-glacial relative coast development(MESO, 2010; SINCOS, 2002-2009; Machu, 2006-2009, IGCP project 346, CoPaF, 2009-2012) and glacio-isostasy. Geological processes like updoming and tectonic block displacements not only influenced sedimentation of river systems in delta's (e.g. Cohen, 2003), but influenced coastal development and human settling too in the North Sea area (e.g. Peeters, 2009; Hijma e.a., 2011) the Wadden areas (e.g. de Langen, 2011) and lagoons (e.g. Druzhinina, 2010). An overview of shoreline development at the distal side of the Late Glacial forbulge related to glaciological and geophysical processes however does not exist and coastal development models are also not correlated with human settling. Our project( 2012 - 2018) has the aim to describe the influence of shifting coast on the way of settling and living of ancient man in the IML. The main questions to be answered are as follow: (i) Is coast development influenced by glaciations a result of interaction between endo- and exogenic (glaciological-, geological-, and geophysical) forces in general and at the local scale of morphological elements? (ii) Did ancient man adept to changes in natural circumstances and what did that mean for his social behavior and economy? (iii) Were forms of human society and economy in the IML primarily dependent on the natural environment with regard to geophysical and geological differences and related to post-glacial response of the earth crust? Detailed integrated studying of "key-areas", with attention to deep geology, will allow to get new insight of the impact of post-glacial shoreline changes and history of man on the coast in the IML with focus on his past (history of relations) and future (impact of climate change. The project is an international project, with participation of institutes all

  4. Modeling serotonin uptake in the lung shows endothelial transporters dominate over cleft permeation

    PubMed Central

    Bassingthwaighte, James B.

    2013-01-01

    A four-region (capillary plasma, endothelium, interstitial fluid, cell) multipath model was configured to describe the kinetics of blood-tissue exchange for small solutes in the lung, accounting for regional flow heterogeneity, permeation of cell membranes and through interendothelial clefts, and intracellular reactions. Serotonin uptake data from the Multiple indicator dilution “bolus sweep” experiments of Rickaby and coworkers (Rickaby DA, Linehan JH, Bronikowski TA, Dawson CA. J Appl Physiol 51: 405–414, 1981; Rickaby DA, Dawson CA, and Linehan JH. J Appl Physiol 56: 1170–1177, 1984) and Malcorps et al. (Malcorps CM, Dawson CA, Linehan JH, Bronikowski TA, Rickaby DA, Herman AG, Will JA. J Appl Physiol 57: 720–730, 1984) were analyzed to distinguish facilitated transport into the endothelial cells (EC) and the inhibition of tracer transport by nontracer serotonin in the bolus of injectate from the free uninhibited permeation through the clefts into the interstitial fluid space. The permeability-surface area products (PS) for serotonin via the inter-EC clefts were ∼0.3 ml·g−1·min−1, low compared with the transporter-mediated maximum PS of 13 ml·g−1·min−1 (with Km = ∼0.3 μM and Vmax = ∼4 nmol·g−1·min−1). The estimates of serotonin PS values for EC transporters from their multiple data sets were similar and were influenced only modestly by accounting for the cleft permeability in parallel. The cleft PS estimates in these Ringer-perfused lungs are less than half of those for anesthetized dogs (Yipintsoi T. Circ Res 39: 523–531, 1976) with normal hematocrits, but are compatible with passive noncarrier-mediated transport observed later in the same laboratory (Dawson CA, Linehan JH, Rickaby DA, Bronikowski TA. Ann Biomed Eng 15: 217–227, 1987; Peeters FAM, Bronikowski TA, Dawson CA, Linehan JH, Bult H, Herman AG. J Appl Physiol 66: 2328–2337, 1989) The identification and quantitation of the cleft pathway conductance from these

  5. EVAPORISATION: a new vapor pressure model taking into account neighbour effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compernolle, Steven; Ceulemans, Karl; Muller, Jean-Francois

    2010-05-01

    pressure method can have a major impact on aerosol yield, considerably larger than the choice of activity coefficient model (Compernolle et al. 2009). M. Capouet and J.-F. Muller, Atm. Chem. Phys. 6, 1455-1467 (2006) M. Capouet, J.-F. Muller, K. Ceulemans, S. Compernolle, L. Vereecken and J. Peeters, J. Geophys. Res. 113, D02308 (2008) S. Compernolle, K. Ceulemans and J. Muller, Atm. Chem. Phys. 9, 1325-1388 (2009) S.H. Hilal, S.W. Karickhoff and L.A. Carreira , QSAR Comb. Sci. 22, 565-574 (2003) P.B. Myrdal and S.H. Yalkowsky, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 36, 2494-2499 (1997) Y. Nannoolal, J. Rarey and D. Ramjugernath, Fluid Phase Eq. 269, 117-133 (2008) B. Moller, J. Rarey and D. Ramjugernath, J. Mol. Liq. 143, 52-63 (2008)

  6. Towards a better understanding of isoprene emissions and chemistry above tropical forests with the TM5 model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Geel, M. H. A.; Boersma, K. F.; Williams, J. E.; Huijnen, V.; van Noije, T. P. C.; VilÖGuerau de Arellano, J.; Parker, D. J.; Reeves, C. E.; Schlager, H.; Lichtenstern, M.; Murphy, J. G.; Mills, G.; Heard, D. E.; Ingham, T.; Commane, R.

    2012-04-01

    , TM5 overestimates HCHO by a factor 2. In line with previous studies we find that the TM5 model, as many other models, simulates insufficient OH over tropical forests, which results in too high isoprene concentrations, and an erroneous yield of HCHO from isoprene that would strongly bias the inversion. We are therefore implementing a number of recently proposed isoprene oxidation schemes to replace the standard TM5 CBM-IV isoprene + OH reaction. Preliminary results indicate that the epoxide-formation scheme proposed by Paulot et al. [2009] does not resolve discrepancies between the simulations and observations. We will discuss the success of the Leuven Isoprene Mechanism (LIM0) by Peeters et al. [2009], and the general implications of our findings for providing constraints on isoprene emissions in low-NOx regions.

  7. Effects of climate change on deep-water oxygen and winter mixing in a deep lake (Lake Geneva)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwefel, Robert; Alfred, Wüest; Damien, Bouffard

    2016-04-01

    Oxygen is the most important dissolved gas for lake ecosystems. Because low oxygen concentrations are an ongoing problem in many parts of the oceans and numerous lakes, oxygen depletion processes have been intensively studied over the last decades and were mainly attributed to high nutrient loads. Recently, climate-induced changes in stratification and mixing behavior were recognized as additional thread to hypolimnetic oxygen budgets in lakes and reservoirs [Matzinger et al., 2007; Zhang et al., 2015]. Observational data of Lake Geneva, a deep perialpine lake situated between France and Switzerland showed no decreasing trend in hypoxia over the last 43 years, despite an impressive reduction in nutrient input during this period. Instead, hypoxic conditions were predominantly controlled by deep mixing end of winter and in turn by winter temperatures. To test the sensitivity of Lake Geneva on future climate change and changes in water transparency, we simulated the hydrodynamics and temperature of Lake Geneva under varying conditions for atmospheric temperature and water clarity performed with the one-dimensional model SIMSTRAT [Goudsmit, 2002]. The results show, that the stratification in lakes is only weakly affected by changes in light absorption due to varying water quality. For conditions expected for the end of the century, a decrease in the annual mean deep convective mixing of up to 45 m is predicted. Also complete mixing events over the whole lake are less likely to occur. A change in the hypolimnetic oxygen concentration of up to 20% can thus be expected in the future. These results show, that changes in deep mixing have an equally strong impact as eutrophication on the deep-water oxygen development of oligomictic lakes and have to be considered in the prediction of the future development of lakes. References: Goudsmit, G. H., H. Burchard, F. Peeters, and A. Wüest (2002), Application of k-ɛ turbulence models to enclosed basins: The role of internal

  8. [Comparison of the effectiveness of two internationally recommended screening methods for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes].

    PubMed

    Salamon, Mónika; Soós, Zsuzsanna; Oláh, Roland; Hazai, Máté; Sóvágó, László; Kovács, Dóra; Pál, Borbála; Baranyi, Eva; Lintner, Ferenc; Winkler, Gábor

    2013-05-19

    Bevezetés: A terhességi cukorbetegség időben történő felismerése és megfelelő kezelése az anya és a magzat számára egyaránt kiemelkedő fontosságú. Noha nemzetközi és nemzeti szaktársasági állásfoglalások születtek az időben történő felismerés módszertanáról, az esetek egy része az Egészségügyi Világszervezet által ajánlott (1. ajánlás) s ma legáltalánosabban használt módszerrel is rejtve maradhat. Több vizsgálatban összefüggést találtak az anyai vércukorszint és a halvaszülések, a praeeclampsia-előfordulás, illetve a születési időre számított nagy súlyú újszülöttek világrahozatala között, a legnagyobb visszhangot a Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes vizsgálat hozta. Megállapításai nyomán a Diabéteszes Terhességgel Foglalkozó Munkacsoportok Nemzetközi Szövetsége a 75 grammos cukorterhelésen alapuló, de az 1. ajánlásban szereplőtől eltérő kritériumrendszerű szűrést javasolt (2. ajánlás). Célkitűzés: A vizsgálat célja várandósok terhességi kimenetelének elemzésével a két szűrési eljárás hatékonyságának összevetése volt. Módszerek: Egyszeres terhességet hordozó 1107 várandóst, 831 normális glükóztoleranciájú és 276, a két szűrés valamelyikével gestatiós diabetesesnek minősülő terhest vizsgáltak, részletesen elemezve a terhességi kimenetel anyai (koraszülés, túlhordás, sectio caesarea, toxaemia) és magzati mutatóit (születési súly, újszülöttkori hypoglykaemia). Eredmények: A születési időre számított nagy súlyú magzatok prevalenciája kivételével – melynek csökkentésében a 2. ajánlás, illetve az ennek alapján megkezdett gondozás hatékonyabbnak bizonyult – a két szűrési eljárás eredményességében érdemi különbség nem volt kimutatható. Következtetés: Az új ajánlás szerinti szűrés a glükózanyagcsere-zavar biztonságosabb felismerését eredményezheti, az egyértelmű

  9. [Medication adherence with the fixed combination of ramipril and amlodipine].

    PubMed

    Simonyi, Gábor; Ferenci, Tamás

    2014-11-23

    Bevezetés: Az olyan krónikus betegségek, mint a hypertonia kezelése során is kiemelkedő jelentőséggel bír a megfelelő betegadherencia, mivel csak tartós és hatásos gyógyszerszedés segítségével érhető el a célvérnyomás és a cardiovascularis kockázat csökkenése. Jól ismert, hogy a hypertonia az egyik legfontosabb cardiovascularis kockázati tényező. Nemzetközi adatok szerint a fix kombinációval végzett antihipertenzív terápia mintegy 20%-kal javítja a betegadherenciát a szabad kombinációhoz képest. Célkitűzés: A szerzők célja a hypertoniaindikációban indított ramipril és amlodipin szabad és fix kombinációk egyéves perzisztenciájának összehasonlítása volt. Módszer: Az Országos Egészségbiztosítási Pénztár adatbázisából a vényforgalmi adatokra támaszkodva hypertoniaindikációban, 2012. október 1. és 2013. szeptember 30. között első alkalommal ramipril és amlodipin szabad, illetve ramipril és amlodipin fix kombináció receptjeit kiváltó betegeket választották ki, akik az ezt megelőző egy évben hasonló hatóanyaggal végzett antihipertenzív terápiában nem részesültek. A perzisztenciagörbéket Kaplan–Meier-becsléssel határozták meg, 95%-os, log-skálán számolt pontonkénti konfidenciaintervallummal. Cenzoráltnak azokat a betegeket vették, akik a vizsgálat záró időpontjában is perzisztensek voltak. A görbék modellezéséhez félparaméteres eljárást, Cox-regressziót használtak, ahol az egyetlen – kategoriális – magyarázó változó a terápia volt; referenciacsoportnak a fix kombinációt vették. Eredmények: A vizsgált időszakban 20 096 beteg kezdett ramipril és amlodipin szabad kombinációs, míg 10 449 beteg kezdett ramipril és amlodipin fix kombinációs antihipertenzív terápiát. A megfigyelési időszakban a ramipril és az amlodipin szabad kombinációja esetén az egyéves perzisztencia 34%-os volt, míg a fix kombinációt szedőknél ez

  10. [Low persistence of simvastatin and ezetimibe fixed combination in the lipid lowering therapy].

    PubMed

    Simonyi, Gábor; Ferenci, Tamás

    2015-01-25

    Bevezetés: Jól ismert, hogy a magas koleszterinszint fontos módosítható cardiovascularis kockázati tényező. A lipidcsökkentő kezelés során a cardiovascularis kockázat csökkentése miatt fontos a betegek terápiahűsége. Célkitűzés: A szerzők célja a simvastatin/ezetimib szabad és fix kombinációk, illetve a leghatékonyabb statin, a rozuvastatin egyéves perzisztenciájának összehasonlítása volt. Módszer: Az Országos Egészségbiztosítási Pénztár vényforgalmi adataira támaszkodva 2012. október 1. és 2013. szeptember 30. között első alkalommal a simvastatin/ezetimib szabad és fix kombinációi és a rozuvastatinmonoterápia receptjeit kiváltó betegeket választották ki, akik az ezt megelőző egy évben hasonló hatóanyaggal végzett antilipaemiás terápiában nem részesültek. A perzisztenciagörbéket Kaplan–Meier-becsléssel határozták meg, 95%-os, log-skálán számolt pontonkénti konfidenciaintervallummal. Cenzoráltnak azokat a betegeket vették, akik a vizsgálat záró időpontjában is perzisztensek voltak. A görbék modellezéséhez félparaméteres eljárást, Cox-regressziót használtak, ahol az egyetlen – kategoriális – magyarázó változó a terápia volt; referenciacsoportnak a simvastatin/ezetimib fix kombinációt vették. Eredmények: A bevonási kritériumoknak összesen 204 699 beteg felelt meg. E betegek közül 10 030 beteg kezdett simvastatin/ezetimib szabad, 7613 beteg simvastatin/ezetimib fix, illetve 187 056 beteg rozuvastatinmonoterápiát. Az egyéves perzisztencia a simvastatin/ezetimib szabad kombináció esetében 10,97%, a simvastatin/ezetimib fix kombinációt szedőkben 24,35%, míg a rozuvastatinmonoterápián lévők esetében 30,47% volt. A simvastatin/ezetimib fix kombinációhoz képest a simvastatin/ezetimib szabad kombináció elhagyásának az esélye 73%-kal volt nagyobb (kockázatarány = 1,73 [95% konfidenciaintervallum: 1,61–1,85], p<0,0001), míg a

  11. Global modelling of secondary organic aerosol from α-pinene oxidation using a parameterization based on a detailed chemical mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceulemans, Karl; Müller, Jean-Francois; Compernolle, Steven; Stavrakou, Jenny

    2010-05-01

    sesquiterpenes we use two-product parameterizations based on smog chamber studies. Irreversible SOA formation due to polymerization of short-chained aldehydes (glyoxal, methylglyoxal, etc.) and direct emission of POA are also considered. Monoterpenes are estimated to contribute about 20-40 TgOA/year globally, i.e. a factor 2-4 higher than in previous modeling studies. This large contribution stems from the high SOA yields (of the order of 50% in atmospheric conditions) obtained using BOREAM at low NOx in the the oxidation of α-pinene by OH. These high yields result from the predicted formation of highly condensable polyfunctional compounds (e.g. hydroxy-dihydroperoxides). Possible uncertainties on these estimates will be discussed on the basis of sensitivity tests with the full mechanism. The calculated OA concentrations are compared with a large number of ground-based (IMPROVE, CARBOSOL, etc.) and aircraft (INTEX-A and ACE-1) measurements. Whereas a relatively good agreement is found over both Eastern and Western US, large OA underestimations are generally found over Europe, Africa and Asia. Possible causes will be discussed. Capouet, M. and J.-F. Müller, A group contribution method for estimating the vapour pressures of α-pinene oxidation products, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 1455-1467, 2006. Capouet, M., J.-F. Müller, K. Ceulemans, S. Compernolle, L. Vereecken, J. Peeters, Modeling aerosol formation in α-pinene photooxidation experiments, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D02308, 2008. Ceulemans, K., S. Compernolle, J. Peeters, and J.-F. Müller, Evaluation of a detailed model of secondary aerosol formation from α-pinene against dark ozonolysis experiments, submitted to Atmos. Environ., 2009. Compernolle, S., K. Ceulemans, and J.-F. Müller, Influence of non-ideality on aerosol growth, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 1325-1337, 2009. Odum, J. R., T. Hoffmann, F. Bowman, D. Collins, R. C. Flagan, and J. H. Seinfeld, Gas/particle partitioning and secondary organic aerosol AMFs, Environ. Sci

  12. Natural-Cause Mortality and Long-Term Exposure to Particle Components: An Analysis of 19 European Cohorts within the Multi-Center ESCAPE Project

    PubMed Central

    Hoek, Gerard; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Stafoggia, Massimo; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Hoffmann, Barbara; Wolf, Kathrin; Samoli, Evangelia; Fischer, Paul H.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Xun, Wei W.; Katsouyanni, Klea; Dimakopoulou, Konstantina; Marcon, Alessandro; Vartiainen, Erkki; Lanki, Timo; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Oftedal, Bente; Schwarze, Per E.; Nafstad, Per; De Faire, Ulf; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Fratiglioni, Laura; Penell, Johanna; Korek, Michal; Pershagen, Göran; Eriksen, Kirsten Thorup; Overvad, Kim; Sørensen, Mette; Eeftens, Marloes; Peeters, Petra H.; Meliefste, Kees; Wang, Meng; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Sugiri, Dorothea; Krämer, Ursula; Heinrich, Joachim; de Hoogh, Kees; Key, Timothy; Peters, Annette; Hampel, Regina; Concin, Hans; Nagel, Gabriele; Jaensch, Andrea; Ineichen, Alex; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.; Schindler, Christian; Ragettli, Martina S.; Vilier, Alice; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Declercq, Christophe; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Galassi, Claudia; Migliore, Enrica; Ranzi, Andrea; Cesaroni, Giulia; Badaloni, Chiara; Forastiere, Francesco; Katsoulis, Michail; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Keuken, Menno; Jedynska, Aleksandra; Kooter, Ingeborg M.; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Sokhi, Ranjeet S.; Vineis, Paolo; Brunekreef, Bert

    2015-01-01

    , Pershagen G, Eriksen KT, Overvad K, Sørensen M, Eeftens M, Peeters PH, Meliefste K, Wang M, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Sugiri D, Krämer U, Heinrich J, de Hoogh K, Key T, Peters A, Hampel R, Concin H, Nagel G, Jaensch A, Ineichen A, Tsai MY, Schaffner E, Probst-Hensch NM, Schindler C, Ragettli MS, Vilier A, Clavel-Chapelon F, Declercq C, Ricceri F, Sacerdote C, Galassi C, Migliore E, Ranzi A, Cesaroni G, Badaloni C, Forastiere F, Katsoulis M, Trichopoulou A, Keuken M, Jedynska A, Kooter IM, Kukkonen J, Sokhi RS, Vineis P, Brunekreef B. 2015. Natural-cause mortality and long-term exposure to particle components: an analysis of 19 European cohorts within the Multi-Center ESCAPE Project. Environ Health Perspect 123:525–533; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408095 PMID:25712504

  13. EDITORIAL: Focus on Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, N. M. R.; Ribeiro, Ricardo M.

    2009-09-01

    lattice models and quantum spin chains Mahdi Zarea and Nancy Sandler On the universal ac optical background in graphene V P Gusynin, S G Sharapov and J P Carbotte Heat conduction in graphene: experimental study and theoretical interpretation S Ghosh, D L Nika, E P Pokatilov and A A Balandin Calculation of the Raman G peak intensity in monolayer graphene: role of Ward identities D M Basko Electronic transport in bilayer graphene Mikito Koshino Magnetic Kronig-Penney model for Dirac electrons in single-layer graphene M Ramezani Masir, P Vasilopoulos and F M Peeters Electrical transport in high-quality graphene pnp junctions Jairo Velasco Jr, Gang Liu, Wenzhong Bao and Chun Ning Lau Local density of states and scanning tunneling currents in graphene N M R Peres, Ling Yang and Shan-Wen Tsai Gaps and tails in graphene and graphane B Dóra and K Ziegler Quasi-ferromagnet spintronics in the graphene nanodisc-lead system Motohiko Ezawa Range and correlation effects in edge disordered graphene nanoribbons Alessandro Cresti and Stephan Roche Remarks on the tight-binding model of graphene Cristina Bena and Gilles Montambaux

  14. Electrical control of spin in topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Kai

    2012-02-01

    by changing the gate voltage. It provides us a new way to control surface magnetism electrically. The gap opened by doped magnetic ions can lead to a short-range Bloembergen-Rowland interaction. The competition among the Heisenberg, Ising, and DM terms leads to rich spin configurations and an anomalous Hall effect on different lattices [4]. There are many proposals for quantum computation scheme are based on the spin in semiconductor quantum dots. Topological insulator quantum dots display a very different behavior with that of conventional semiconductor quantum dots [5]. In sharp contrast to conventional semiconductor quantum dots, the quantum states in the gap of the HgTe QD are fully spin-polarized and show ring-like density distributions near the boundary of the QD and optically dark. The persistent charge currents and magnetic moments, i.e., the Aharonov-Bohm effect, can be observed in such a QD structure. This feature offers us a practical way to detect these exotic ring-like edge states by using the SQUID technique. [0pt]Refs: [1] W. Yang, Kai Chang, and S. C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 056602 (2008); J. Li and Kai Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 222110 (2009). [2] L. B. Zhang, Kai Chang, X. C. Xie, H. Buhmann and L. W. Molenkamp, New J. Phys. 12, 083058 (2010). [3] L. B. Zhang, F. Cheng, F. Zhai and Kai Chang, Phys. Rev. B 83 081402(R) (2011); Z. H. Wu, F. Zhai, F. M. Peeters, H. Q. Xu and Kai Chang, Phys, Rev. Lett. 106, 176802 (2011). [4] J. J. Zhu, D. X. Yao, S. C. Zhang, and Kai Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 097201 (2011). [5] Kai Chang, and Wen-Kai Lou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 206802 (2011).

  15. Using noble gases in the pore water of ocean sediments to characterize CH4 seepage off the coast of New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomonaga, Yama; Brennwald, Matthias S.; Kipfer, Rolf

    2013-04-01

    Newly developed analytical techniques to determine the abundances of noble gases in sediment pore water [1, 5] allow noble-gas concentrations and isotope ratios to be measured easily and routinely in unconsolidated lacustrine sediments [6, 7]. We applied these techniques for the first time to ocean sediments to investigate an active cold methane seepage system located in the South Pacific off the coast of New Zealand using 3He-4He ratios determined in the sediment pore water. Our results [8] show that more 3He-rich fluids are released in the vicinity of the Pacific-Australian subduction zone than at the forearc stations located closer to the New Zealand coast. However, the 3He-4He isotope signature in the sediment column indicates that only a minor part of the He emanating from deeper strata originates from a (depleted) mantle source. Hence, most He in the pore water is produced locally by the radioactive decay of U and Th in the sediment minerals or in the underlying crustal rocks. Such an occurrence of isotopically heavy crustal He also suggests that the source of the largest fraction of methane is a near-surface geochemical reservoir. This finding is in line with a previous δ13C study in the water column which concluded that the emanating methane is most likely of biological origin and is formed in the upper few meters of the sediment column [2]. The prevalence of isotopically heavy He agrees well with the outcome of other previous studies on island arc systems [3, 4] which indicate that the forearc regions are characterized by crustal He emission, whereas the volcanic arc region is characterized by the presence of mantle He associated with rising magma. References [1] Brennwald, M. S., Hofer, M., Peeters, F., Aeschbach-Hertig, W., Strassmann, K., Kipfer, R., and Imboden, D. M. (2003). Analysis of dissolved noble gases in the pore water of lacustrine sediments. Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 1, 51-62. [2] Faure, K., Greinert, J., Schneider von Deimling, J., Mc

  16. COST Action MP0806 'Particles in Turbulence': International Conference on Fundamentals, Experiments, Numeric and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Markus; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Toschi, Federico

    2011-12-01

    also like to thank the students from Potsdam University for their exquisite help. We are very thankful to Anita Peeters for her unwavering support and help in the organization of this particular event, as well as, for the efforts ensuring the smooth running of the COST Action 'Particles in turbulence'. Markus Abel, Eberhard Bodenschatz, Federico Toschi The PDF files of the conference program and conference poster are attached.

  17. Fullerenes, Organics and the Diffuse Interstellar Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    2016-07-01

    ; [12] Krelowski, J. et al. 1999A&A 347, 235; [13] Sonnentrucker, P., Cami, J., Ehrenfreund, P., Foing, B. H. 1997 A&A 327, 1215; [14] Sonnentrucker, P., Foing, B. H., Breitfellner, M., Ehrenfreund, P. 1999 A&A 346, 936; [15] Cox, N. et al. 2007 A&A 470, 941; [16] Ehrenfreund, P. et al. 2002 ApJ 576 L117; [17] Ehrenfreund, P.; Foing, B. H. 1996 A&A 307 L25; [18] Sarre, P. J. et al. 1995 MNRAS.277 L41; [19] Cossart-Magos, C. & Leach, S. 1990 A&A 233, 559; [20] Cox, N. L., Ehrenfreund, P., Foing, B. H. et al. 2011 A&A 531, 25; [21] Cox, N. L., Boudin, N., Foing, B. H. et al. 2007 A&A 465, 899; [22] Ehrenfreund, P. & Charnley, S. 2000 ANRAA 38, 427; [23] Scarrott, S. M., Watkin, S., Miles, J. R., Sarre, P. J. 1992 MNRAS 255, 11; [25] Planck Collaboration, 2011 A&A 536 20 (Planck early results. XX.); [26] Ehrenfreund, P. et al. 1995 A&A 299; 213; [27] Ehrenfreund, P. & Foing, B. H 1995 P&SS 43, 1183; [28] van der Zwet, G. P., Allamandola, L. J. 1985 A&A 146 76; [29] Salama, F. et al. 1996 ApJ 458, 621; [30] Ruiterkamp, R. et al. 2005 A&A 432, 515; [31] Ruiterkamp, R. et al. 2002 A&A 390, 1153; [32] Vuong, M. H. & Foing, B. H 2000 A&A 363, L5; [33] Le Page, V. et al 2001 ApJS 132, 233; [34] Ehrenfreund, P et al. 2007 P&SS 55, 383; [35] Bryson, K. L., Peeters, Z., Salama, F., Foing, B., Ehrenfreund, P. et al. 2011 AdSpR 48, 1980; [36] Mattioda, A., Cook, A., Ehrenfreund, P. et al. 2012 AsBio 12, 841.

  18. Land - Ocean Climate Linkages and the Human Evolution - New ICDP and IODP Drilling Initiatives in the East African Rift Valley and SW Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahn, R.; Feibel, C.; Co-Pis, Icdp/Iodp

    2009-04-01

    enable us to establish the linkages between the ocean climatology of the SW Indian and terrestrial climates of Eastern Africa during key periods of global climate change. Combining the ICDP records of East African terrestrial climate at key hominin sites with IODP records of marine climate variability at the SE African continental margin will help to test if pulses of hominin evolutionary innovation were linked with periods of enhanced variability of local terrestrial environments and marine climatology of the Indian Ocean. * co-PIs of the ICDP initiative HSPDP are A.S. Cohen, R. Arrowsmith, A.K. Behrensmeyer, C. Feibel, R. Johnson, Z. Kubsa, D. Olago, R. Potts, R. Renaut * co-PIs of the IODP initiative SAFARI are R. Zahn, I. Hall, R. Schneider, M. Á. Bárcena, S. Barker, A. Biastoch, Chr. Charles, J. Compton, R. Cowling, P. Diz, L. Dupont, J.-A. Flores, S. Goldstein, S. Hemming, K. Holmgren, J. Lee-Thorp, G. Knorr, C. Lear, A. Mazaud, G. Mortyn, F. Peeters, B. Preu, R. Rickaby, J. Rogers, A. Rosell-Mele, Chr. Reason, V. Spiess, M. Trauth, G. Uenzelmann-Neben, S. Weldeab, P. Ziveri

  19. PREFACE: XXXth International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics (ICGTMP) (Group30)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brackx, Fred; De Schepper, Hennie; Van der Jeugt, Joris

    2015-04-01

    Christophe Peeters, Deputy Mayor of the City of Ghent, was followed by a reception in the historical "Pacificatiezaal" of the City Hall. On Wednesday afternoon the participants had the opportunity to take a guided tour through medieval Ghent, admiring its wide range of monuments. The tour was followed by a much-appreciated boat trip exploring the canals and rivers of Ghent, all in sunny weather. On Thursday evening the conference banquet was held in the "Brasserie HA". Located in the Handelsbeurs Ghent. In the majestic banquet hall, the participants were not only treated to an exclusive dinner, but also to some fine piano music by Dmitry Gal'tsov and Richard Kerner. The conference was sponsored by: American Institute of Physics (AIP Publishing), Clay Mathematics Institute, Clifford Research Group - Faculty of Engineering and Architecture (Ghent Unviversity), Elsevier, Faculty of Sciences (Ghent University), Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS), Foundation Compositio Mathematica, FWO Research Foundation - Flanders, International Association of Mathematical Physics, International Solvay Institutes, International Union of Pure and Applied Physics, National Science Foundation (USA) and Springer Birkhäuser. We would like to thank all our sponsors for their generous support. It took more than two years to organise a conference of such a size and importance. We express our gratitude to the International Advisory Committee for its help in selecting the plenary speakers and to the external members of the Organising Committee for their helpful suggestions and advice. We thank Wouter Dewolf for his devoted secretarial, administrative and organisational work and Vera Vanden Driessche for arranging the "Accompanying persons' programme". Finally, a big 'thank you' to all the local people (administrative and technical staff, research assistants and research students) for their devoted and tireless work in preparing and running the conference. Fred Brackx, Hennie De Schepper and Joris

  20. Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benage, J. F.; Dufty, J. W.; Murillo, M. S.

    2003-06-01

    , Israel N W Ashcroft Cornell University, USA J Bollinger NIST, Boulder, USA J-M Caillol Université Paris XI, France D M Ceperley University of Illinois, USA G Chabrier Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, France J Clerouin CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, France S das Sarma University of Maryland, USA A DeSilva University of Maryland, USA H DeWitt Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA D Dubin University of California, USA J Dufty University of Florida, USA W Ebeling Humboldt University, Germany V Filinov Institute of High Temperature Physics, Russia M Fisher University of Maryland, USA V E Fortov Institute of High Temperature Physics, Russia K Golden University of Vermont, USA J-P Hansen Cambridge University, UK F Hensel Philipps-Universität, Germany G Kalman Boston College, USA W Kohn University of California, USA H Lowen University of Dusseldorf, Germany G Morfill Max Planck Institute of Extraterrestrial Physics, Germany D Neilson University of New South Wales, Australia G Patey University of British Columbia, Canada F Peeters University of Antwerp, Germany D Pines Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA G Roepke University of Rostock, Germany M Rosenberg University of California, USA Y Rosenfeld Negev Nuclear Research Center, Israel M Schlanges University of Greifswald, Germany G Senatore University of Trieste, France H Totsuji Okayama University, Japan J Weisheit Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA Obituary Forty years of plasma line broadening---in memory of Professor Charles Hooper Jr Our friend and colleague, Charles Hooper Jr, died on 5 May 2002 after a long illness and a valiant battle against it. This presentation is a brief look back at the issues in plasma line broadening over the past forty years, and the contributions to them by Chuck and his students. Chuck graduated from Dartmouth College in 1954. He served in the US Navy for two years before receiving a PhD from Johns Hopkins University in 1963. He then joined the faculty at the University of Florida where his