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Sample records for kiv peeter nges

  1. Basic principles of the KIV model and its application to the navigation problem.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Robert; Freeman, Walter J

    2003-06-01

    EEG measurements indicate the presence of common-mode, coherent oscillations shared by multiple cortical areas. In previous studies the KIII model has been introduced, which interprets the experimental observations as nonlinear, spatially distributed dynamical oscillations of locally coupled neural populations. KIII can account for the fast and robust classification and pattern recognition in sensory cortices. In order to describe selection of action, planning, and spatial orientation functions, in this paper we expand KIII into the KIV model. KIV approximates the operation of the corticostriatal-hippocampal system. KIV consists of three KI, eight KII and three KIII components, including sensory and cortical systems, as well as the hippocampus, amygdala, and the septum. KIV implements various types of dynamic neural activities. The neural activity patterns determine the emergence of global spatial encoding to implement the orientation function of a simulated animal. Our results indicate the mechanisms, which we believe support the generation of cognitive maps in the hippocampus based on the sensory input-based destabilization of cortical spatio-temporal patterns. In this paper, we describe the conceptual design of the KIV model. We outline the biological background and motivation of the basic principles that are applied to design the KIV computational model. We use the KIV model to explain how the hippocampal neural circuitry functions are constructed and controlled by the corticostriatal-hippocampal loops, supplemented with specific subcortical units. In the second part, we implement these principles using the example of the hippocampal formation as a KIII unit. We demonstrate the learning and navigation principles using the Evolving Multi-module Mobile Agent (EMMA) in 2D software environment.

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) solution structure, dynamics, and binding properties of the kringle IV type 8 module of apolipoprotein(a).

    PubMed

    Chitayat, Seth; Kanelis, Voula; Koschinsky, Marlys L; Smith, Steven P

    2007-02-20

    The plasma lipoprotein lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] comprises a low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-like particle covalently attached to the glycoprotein apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)]. Apo(a) consists of multiple tandem repeating kringle modules, similar to plasminogen kringle IV (designated KIV1-KIV10), followed by modules homologous to the kringle V module and protease domain of plasminogen. The apo(a) KIV modules have been classified on the basis of their binding affinity for lysine and lysine analogues. The strong lysine-binding apo(a) KIV10 module mediates lysine-dependent interactions with fibrin and cell-surface receptors. Weak lysine-binding apo(a) KIV7 and KIV8 modules display a 2-3-fold difference in lysine affinity and play a direct role in the noncovalent step in Lp(a) assembly through binding to unique lysine-containing sequences in apolipoproteinB-100 (apoB-100). The present study describes the nuclear magnetic resonance solution structure of apo(a) KIV8 and its solution dynamics properties, the first for an apo(a) kringle module, and compares the effects of epsilon-aminocaproic acid (epsilon-ACA) binding on the backbone and side-chain conformation of KIV7 and KIV8 on a per residue basis. Apo(a) KIV8 adopts a well-ordered structure that shares the general tri-loop kringle topology with apo(a) KIV6, KIV7, and KIV10. Mapping of epsilon-ACA-induced chemical-shift changes on KIV7 and KIV8 indicate that the same residues are affected, despite a 2-3-fold difference in epsilon-ACA affinity. A unique loop conformation within KIV8, involving hydrophobic interactions with Tyr40, affects the positioning of Arg35 relative to the lysine-binding site (LBS). A difference in the orientation of the aromatic side chains comprising the hydrophobic center of the LBS in KIV8 decreases the size of the hydrophobic cleft compared to other apo(a) KIV modules. An exposed hydrophobic patch contiguous with the LBS in KIV8 and not conserved in other weak lysine-binding apo(a) kringle modules

  3. Apolipoprotein(a) Kringle-IV Type 2 Copy Number Variation Is Associated with Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Sticchi, Elena; Magi, Alberto; Kamstrup, Pia R.; Marcucci, Rossella; Prisco, Domenico; Martinelli, Ida; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Abbate, Rosanna; Giusti, Betti

    2016-01-01

    In addition to the established association between high lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] concentrations and coronary artery disease, an association between Lp(a) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) has also been described. Lp(a) is controlled by genetic variants in LPA gene, coding for apolipoprotein(a), including the kringle-IV type 2 (KIV-2) size polymorphism. Aim of the study was to investigate the role of LPA gene KIV-2 size polymorphism and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs1853021, rs1800769, rs3798220, rs10455872) in modulating VTE susceptibility. Five hundred and sixteen patients with VTE without hereditary and acquired thrombophilia and 1117 healthy control subjects, comparable for age and sex, were investigated. LPA KIV-2 polymorphism, rs3798220 and rs10455872 SNPs were genotyped by TaqMan technology. Concerning rs1853021 and rs1800769 SNPs, PCR-RFLP assay was used. LPA KIV-2 repeat number was significantly lower in patients than in controls [median (interquartile range) 11(6–17) vs 15(9–25), p<0.0001]. A significantly higher prevalence of KIV-2 repeat number ≤7 was observed in patients than in controls (33.5% vs 15.5%, p<0.0001). KIV-2 repeat number was independently associated with VTE (p = 4.36 x10-9), as evidenced by the general linear model analysis adjusted for transient risk factors. No significant difference in allele frequency for all SNPs investigated was observed. Haplotype analysis showed that LPA haplotypes rather than individual SNPs influenced disease susceptibility. Receiver operating characteristic curves analysis showed that a combined risk prediction model, including KIV-2 size polymorphism and clinical variables, had a higher performance in identifying subjects at VTE risk than a clinical-only model, also separately in men and women. PMID:26900838

  4. Apolipoprotein(a) Kringle-IV Type 2 Copy Number Variation Is Associated with Venous Thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Sticchi, Elena; Magi, Alberto; Kamstrup, Pia R; Marcucci, Rossella; Prisco, Domenico; Martinelli, Ida; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Abbate, Rosanna; Giusti, Betti

    2016-01-01

    In addition to the established association between high lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] concentrations and coronary artery disease, an association between Lp(a) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) has also been described. Lp(a) is controlled by genetic variants in LPA gene, coding for apolipoprotein(a), including the kringle-IV type 2 (KIV-2) size polymorphism. Aim of the study was to investigate the role of LPA gene KIV-2 size polymorphism and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs1853021, rs1800769, rs3798220, rs10455872) in modulating VTE susceptibility. Five hundred and sixteen patients with VTE without hereditary and acquired thrombophilia and 1117 healthy control subjects, comparable for age and sex, were investigated. LPA KIV-2 polymorphism, rs3798220 and rs10455872 SNPs were genotyped by TaqMan technology. Concerning rs1853021 and rs1800769 SNPs, PCR-RFLP assay was used. LPA KIV-2 repeat number was significantly lower in patients than in controls [median (interquartile range) 11(6-17) vs 15(9-25), p<0.0001]. A significantly higher prevalence of KIV-2 repeat number ≤7 was observed in patients than in controls (33.5% vs 15.5%, p<0.0001). KIV-2 repeat number was independently associated with VTE (p = 4.36 x10-9), as evidenced by the general linear model analysis adjusted for transient risk factors. No significant difference in allele frequency for all SNPs investigated was observed. Haplotype analysis showed that LPA haplotypes rather than individual SNPs influenced disease susceptibility. Receiver operating characteristic curves analysis showed that a combined risk prediction model, including KIV-2 size polymorphism and clinical variables, had a higher performance in identifying subjects at VTE risk than a clinical-only model, also separately in men and women.

  5. Systematic identification and correction of annotation errors in the genetic interaction map of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Atias, Nir; Kupiec, Martin; Sharan, Roded

    2016-01-01

    The yeast mutant collections are a fundamental tool in deciphering genomic organization and function. Over the last decade, they have been used for the systematic exploration of ∼6 000 000 double gene mutants, identifying and cataloging genetic interactions among them. Here we studied the extent to which these data are prone to neighboring gene effects (NGEs), a phenomenon by which the deletion of a gene affects the expression of adjacent genes along the genome. Analyzing ∼90,000 negative genetic interactions observed to date, we found that more than 10% of them are incorrectly annotated due to NGEs. We developed a novel algorithm, GINGER, to identify and correct erroneous interaction annotations. We validated the algorithm using a comparative analysis of interactions from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We further showed that our predictions are significantly more concordant with diverse biological data compared to their mis-annotated counterparts. Our work uncovered about 9500 new genetic interactions in yeast. PMID:26602688

  6. [Advances in the Association between Apolipoprotein (a) Gene Polymorphisms and Coronary Heart Disease].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li; L, Zhan; Song, Yong-yan

    2015-08-01

    Human apolipoprotein (a) (LPA) gene is highly polymorphic, and the polymorphic loci on this gene include the Kringle 4 subtype 2(KIV-2) repeat polymorphism, the pentanucleotide repeat (TTTTA)n polymorphism, and a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms. KIV-2 repeat polymorphism was found to be significantly associated with coronary heart disease(CHD), and the reducing number of KIV-2 repeats is a risk factor for CHD. Both the increase and decrease of the pentanucleotide repeat(TTTTA)n polymorphism repeats are possibly associated with CHD risk. In single nucleotide polymorphisms loci, the rs10455872 and rs3798220 loci were widely reported to be associated with CHD, while other loci were less reported. The association between LPA polymorphisms and CHD may be mediated by either the elevation of plasma LPA level or the change of LPA subtypes. This article reviews the association between the LPA polymorphisms and CHD and the underlying mechanisms.

  7. Army Modernization Strategy 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    forming a quantum leap in force effectiveness. The result is dominant landpower to defeat enemies across the full spectrum of conflict. Maintaining...form factor. The KIV 7M will be integrated into the Joint Network Node (JNN), HUB sites (collocated with Teleport reach back), the Single Shelter

  8. Risk factors for adult interpersonal violence in suicide attempters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicidal and violent behaviours are interlinked and share common biological underpinnings. In the present study we analysed the association between violent behaviour as a child, childhood trauma, adult psychiatric illness, and substance abuse in relation to interpersonal violence as an adult in suicide attempters with mood disorders. Methods A total of 161 suicide attempters were diagnosed with Structured Clinical Interviews and assessed with the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) measuring exposure to violence and expressed violent behaviour in childhood (between 6-14 years of age) and during adult life (15 years or older). Ninety five healthy volunteers were used as a comparison group. A logistic regression analysis was conducted with the two KIVS subscales, expressed violent behaviour as a child and exposure to violence in childhood together with substance abuse, personality disorder diagnoses and age as possible predictors of adult interpersonal violence in suicide attempters. Results Violent behaviour as a child, age and substance abuse were significant predictors of adult interpersonal violence. ROC analysis for the prediction model for adult violence with the KIVS subscale expressed violence as a child gave an AUC of 0.79. Using two predictors: violent behaviour as a child and substance abuse diagnosis gave an AUC of 0.84. The optimal cut-off for the KIVS subscale expressed violence as a child was higher for male suicide attempters. Conclusions Violent behaviour in childhood and substance abuse are important risk factors for adult interpersonal violent behaviour in suicide attempters. PMID:25001499

  9. Genetic variation in LPAL2, LPA, and PLG predicts plasma lipoprotein(a) level and carotid artery disease risk

    PubMed Central

    Ronald, James; Rajagopalan, Ramakrishnan; Cerrato, Felecia; Nord, Alex S.; Hatsukami, Thomas; Kohler, Ted; Marcovina, Santica; Heagerty, Patrick; Jarvik, Gail P.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose Lipoprotein(a) level (Lp(a)) is an established risk factor for coronary artery disease and has been implicated in carotid artery disease (CAAD). The relationship between genetic variation in the LPA gene region and CAAD risk remains unknown. Methods We genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the LPAL2, LPA, and PLG region in 530 individuals with severe CAAD and 770 controls and kringle IV type 2 (KIV2) repeat length in a subset of 90 individuals. Results Nine SNPs collectively accounted for 30% of the variance in Lp(a) level. Six SNPs were associated with Lp(a) level after accounting for KIV2 copy number, and the dominant KIV2 allele combined with these markers explained 60% of the variance in Lp(a) level. Five SNPs, including rs10455872, which had an odds ratio of 2.1 per minor allele, and haplotypes formed by rs10455872, rs6919346, and rs3123629 were significant predictors of CAAD. After accounting for Lp(a) level, all evidence of CAAD-genotype association in the LPA region was eliminated. Conclusions LPA region SNPs capture some but not all of the effect of KIV2 repeat length on Lp(a) level. There are associations between LPA region SNPs and CAAD which appear to be due to effects on Lp(a) level. PMID:21127300

  10. Selective Gene Regulation by Androgen Receptor in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    androgen receptor pathway in prostate cancer. Curr Opin Pharmacol, 2008. 8(4): p. 440-8. 6. Claessens, F., P. Alen , A. Devos, B. Peeters, G...Chem, 1996. 271(32): p. 19013-6. 7. Schoenmakers, E., P. Alen , G. Verrijdt, B. Peeters, G. Verhoeven, W. Rombauts, and F. Claessens, Differential DNA

  11. Thiamin-responsive maple-syrup-urine disease: decreased affinity of the mutant branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase for alpha-ketoisovalerate and thiamin pyrophosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, D T; Ku, L S; Cox, R P

    1982-01-01

    The biochemical basis for the therapeutic effects of thiamin in thiamin-responsive maple-syrup-urine disease (MSUD) was investigated in intact and disrupted fibroblast cultures from normals and patients with various forms of MSUD. Decarboxylation of alpha-keto[1-14C]isovalerate (KIV) by intact cells from a thiamin-responsive MSUD patient was at 30-40% of the normal rate with or without thiamin in the incubation medium. Under similar conditions, intact classical MSUD fibroblasts failed to decarboxylate KIV. Branched-chain alpha-keto acid (BCKA) dehydrogenase activity measured in disrupted cells from the thiamin-responsive subject showed sigmoidal kinetics in the absence of thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP), with an increased concentration of substrate needed for half-maximal velocity (K0.5 for KIV = 7 mM vs. 0.05 mM in normal cells). When assayed with 0.2 mM TPP present, the mutant enzyme showed (i) a shift in kinetics to near Michaelis-Menten type as observed with the normal BCKA dehydrogenase and (ii) a lower K0.5 value of 4 mM for KIV, suggesting a TPP-mediated increase in the mutant enzyme's affinity for substrate. By contrast, TPP increased only the Vmax and was without effect on the apparent Km for KIV of the BCKA dehydrogenase from cells of normals and patients with classical MSUD and variant thiamin-responsive MSUD (grade 3). Measurement of the apparent Km for TPP of the BCKA dehydrogenase from thiamin-responsive mutant MSUd cells showed a 16-fold increase in the constant to 25 microM compared to enzymes from normal or classical MSUD cells. These findings demonstrate that the primary defect in the thiamin-responsive MSUD patient is a reduced affinity of the mutant BCKA dehydrogenase for TPP that results in impaired oxidative decarboxylation of BCKA. PMID:6954481

  12. Multidisciplinary Design, Analysis, and Optimization Tool Development using a Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-gi; Li, Wesley

    2008-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization using a genetic algorithm is being developed at the National Aeronautics and Space A dministration Dryden Flight Research Center to automate analysis and design process by leveraging existing tools such as NASTRAN, ZAERO a nd CFD codes to enable true multidisciplinary optimization in the pr eliminary design stage of subsonic, transonic, supersonic, and hypers onic aircraft. This is a promising technology, but faces many challe nges in large-scale, real-world application. This paper describes cur rent approaches, recent results, and challenges for MDAO as demonstr ated by our experience with the Ikhana fire pod design.

  13. Supporting Command and Control (C2) of an Embarked Commander: Tunneling SIPRNet Data Across an UNCLAS Wireless LAN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    ability to exercise C2, a ship’s company technicians typically place a hub on the network to provide extra connection points. This procedure takes time...commander to exercise command and control of his assigned forces. This thesis examines the use of the KOV-26 Talon card and the KIV-54...enough classified computers or classified Local Area Network (LAN) connections. To facilitate improved ability to exercise C2, a ship’s company

  14. Metabolism of branched-chain keto acids in neonatal rat liver perfusions.

    PubMed

    Frost, S C; Wells, M A

    1983-10-15

    The ability of the neonatal rat to oxidize the branched-chain amino acids leucine and valine and their corresponding keto acids was evaluated. In vivo, about 20% of orally administered labeled amino or keto acids were oxidized in 6 h, after which time little further oxidation occurred. In perfused neonatal liver the amino acids were oxidized at only 5-10% the rate of the keto acids. The oxidation of the keto acids showed a saturable dependence on concentration. The decarboxylation of ketoisocaproate (KIC) had a maximal rate of 40.1 +/- 1.6 mumol/h/g liver with an apparent Km of 0.27 +/- 0.03 mM, and decarboxylation of ketoisovalerate (KIV) had a maximal rate of 37.9 +/- 1.9 mumol/h/g liver and an apparent Km of 0.28 +/- 0.04 mM. KIC was ketogenic, producing mainly acetoacetate at a maximal rate of 44.5 +/- 1.6 mumol/h/g liver with an apparent Km of 0.27 +/- 0.03 mM. On the other hand, KIV was not gluconeogenic, although the perfused neonatal liver was able to produce glucose from lactate. During liver perfusion, KIV did not produce measurable quantities of either propionic or beta-aminoisobutyric acids, which are possible end products of KIV metabolism. Decanoic acid inhibited the decarboxylation of both keto acids to the same extent with a maximal effect at 0.4 mM fatty acid. At saturating levels, KIC was less ketogenic than decanoate. Inhibition of endogenous fatty acid oxidation by 2-tetradecylglycidic acid had no effect on keto acid oxidation. These data suggest that branched-chain amino acids derived from milk proteins are probably not quantitatively significant sources of either ketone bodies or glucose in the neonatal rat.

  15. Antidepressive and BDNF effects of enriched environment treatment across ages in mice lacking BDNF expression through promoter IV

    PubMed Central

    Jha, S; Dong, B E; Xue, Y; Delotterie, D F; Vail, M G; Sakata, K

    2016-01-01

    Reduced promoter IV-driven expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in stress and major depression. We previously reported that defective promoter IV (KIV) caused depression-like behavior in young adult mice, which was reversed more effectively by enriched environment treatment (EET) than antidepressants. The effects of promoter IV-BDNF deficiency and EET over the life stages remain unknown. Since early-life development (ED) involves dynamic epigenetic processes, we hypothesized that EET during ED would provide maximum antidepressive effects that would persist later in life due to enhanced, long-lasting BDNF induction. We tested this hypothesis by determining EET effects across three life stages: ED (0–2 months), young adult (2–4 months), and old adult (12–14 months). KIV mice at all life stages showed depression-like behavior in the open-field and tail-suspension tests compared with wild-type mice. Two months of EET reduced depression-like behavior in ED and young adult, but not old adult mice, with the largest effect in ED KIV mice. This effect lasted for 1 month after discontinuance of EET only in ED mice. BDNF protein induction by EET in the hippocampus and frontal cortex was also the largest in ED mice and persisted only in the hippocampus of ED KIV mice after discontinuance of EET. No gender-specific effects were observed. The results suggest that defective promoter IV causes depression-like behavior, regardless of age and gender, and that EET during ED is particularly beneficial to individuals with promoter IV-BDNF deficiency, while additional treatment may be needed for older adults. PMID:27648918

  16. Critical role of promoter IV-driven BDNF transcription in GABAergic transmission and synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Kazuko; Woo, Newton H; Martinowich, Keri; Greene, Joshua S; Schloesser, Robert J; Shen, Liya; Lu, Bai

    2009-04-07

    Transcription of Bdnf is controlled by multiple promoters, which drive expression of multiple transcripts encoding for the same protein. Promoter IV contributes significantly to activity-dependent brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) transcription. We have generated promoter IV mutant mice (BDNF-KIV) by inserting a GFP-STOP cassette within the Bdnf exon IV locus. This genetic manipulation results in disruption of promoter IV-mediated Bdnf expression. BDNF-KIV animals exhibited significant deficits in GABAergic interneurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), particularly those expressing parvalbumin, a subtype implicated in executive function and schizophrenia. Moreover, disruption of promoter IV-driven Bdnf transcription impaired inhibitory but not excitatory synaptic transmission recorded from layer V pyramidal neurons in the PFC. The attenuation of GABAergic inputs resulted in an aberrant appearance of spike-timing-dependent synaptic potentiation (STDP) in PFC slices derived from BDNF-KIV, but not wild-type littermates. These results demonstrate the importance of promoter IV-dependent Bdnf transcription in GABAergic function and reveal an unexpected regulation of STDP in the PFC by BDNF.

  17. A key mechanism underlying sensory experience-dependent maturation of neocortical GABAergic circuits in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Chunzhao; Wang, Xinjun; Sakata, Kazuko; Lu, Bai; Sun, Qian-Quan

    2011-07-19

    Mechanisms underlying experience-dependent refinement of cortical connections, especially GABAergic inhibitory circuits, are unknown. By using a line of mutant mice that lack activity-dependent BDNF expression (bdnf-KIV), we show that experience regulation of cortical GABAergic network is mediated by activity-driven BDNF expression. Levels of endogenous BDNF protein in the barrel cortex are strongly regulated by sensory inputs from whiskers. There is a severe alteration of excitation and inhibition balance in the barrel cortex of bdnf-KIV mice as a result of reduced inhibitory but not excitatory conductance. Within the inhibitory circuits, the mutant barrel cortex exhibits significantly reduced levels of GABA release only from the parvalbumin-expressing fast-spiking (FS) interneurons, but not other interneuron subtypes. Postnatal deprivation of sensory inputs markedly decreased perisomatic inhibition selectively from FS cells in wild-type but not bdnf-KIV mice. These results suggest that postnatal experience, through activity-driven BDNF expression, controls cortical development by regulating FS cell-mediated perisomatic inhibition in vivo.

  18. Development of a Fabry-Perot Interferometer for Ultra-Precise Measurements of Column CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Emily L.; Georgieva, Elena M.; Heaps, William S.

    2005-01-01

    A passive Fabry-Perot based instrument is described for detecting column CO2 through absorption measurements at 1.58 microns . In this design, solar flux reaches the instrument platform and is directed through two channels. In the first channel, transmittance fi5nges from a Fabry-Perot interferometer are aligned with CO2 absorption lines so that absorption due to CO2 is primarily detected. The second channel encompasses the same frequency region as the first, but is comparatively more sensitive to changes in the solar flux than absorption due to CO2. The ratio of these channels is sensitive to changes in the total CO2 column, but not to changes in solar flux. This inexpensive instrument will offer high precision measurements (error 4%) in a compact package. Design of this instrument and preliminary ground-based measurements of column CO2 are presented here as well as strategies for deployment on aircraft and satellite platforms.

  19. The apolipoprotein(a) component of lipoprotein(a) mediates binding to laminin: contribution to selective retention of lipoprotein(a) in atherosclerotic lesions.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Angela; Geroldi, Diego; Hancock, Mark A; Valtulina, Viviana; Cornaglia, Antonia I; Spencer, Craig A; Emanuele, Enzo; Calligaro, Alberto; Koschinsky, Marlys L; Speziale, Pietro; Visai, Livia

    2005-02-21

    Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] entrapment by vascular extracellular matrix may be important in atherogenesis. We sought to determine whether laminin, a major component of the basal membrane, may contribute to Lp(a) retention in the arterial wall. First, immunohistochemistry experiments were performed to examine the relative distribution of Lp(a) and laminin in human carotid artery specimens. There was a high degree of co-localization of Lp(a) and laminin in atherosclerotic specimens, but not in non-atherosclerotic sections. We then studied the binding interaction between Lp(a) and laminin in vitro. ELISA experiments showed that native Lp(a) particles and 17K and 12K recombinant apolipoprotein(a) [r-apo(a)] variants interacted strongly with laminin whereas LDL, apoB-100, and the truncated KIV(6-P), KIV(8-P), and KIV(9-P) r-apo(a) variants did not. Overall, the ELISA data demonstrated that Lp(a) binding to laminin is mediated by apo(a) and a combination of the lysine analogue epsilon-aminocaproic acid and salt effectively decreases apo(a) binding to laminin. Secondary binding analyses with 125I-labeled r-apo(a) revealed equilibrium dissociation constants (K(d)) of 180 and 360 nM for the 17K and 12K variants binding to laminin, respectively. Such similar K(d) values between these two r-apo(a) variants suggest that isoform size does not appear to influence apo(a) binding to laminin. In summary, our data suggest that laminin may bind to apo(a) in the atherosclerotic intima, thus contributing to the selective retention of Lp(a) in this milieu.

  20. Regulation of valine and. alpha. -ketoisocaproate metabolism in rat kidney mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.H.; Harper, A.E. )

    1988-10-01

    Activities of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) aminotransferase (BCAT) and {alpha}-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD) were assayed in mitochondria isolated from kidneys of rats. Rates of transamination of valine and oxidation of keto acids {alpha}-ketoisocaproate (KIC) or {alpha}-ketoisovalerate (KIV) were estimated using radioactive tracers of the appropriate substrate from amounts of {sup 14}C-labeled products formed. Because of the high mitochondrial BCAT activity, an amino acceptor for BCAT, {alpha}-ketoglutarate ({alpha}-KG) or KIC, was added to the assay medium when valine was the substrate. Rates of valine transamination and subsequent oxidation of the KIV formed were determined with 0.5 mM {alpha}-KG as the amino acceptor; these rates were 5- to 50-fold those without added {alpha}-KG. Rates of CO{sub 2} evolution from valine also increased when KIC was present; however, with KIC concentrations above 0.2 mM, rates of CO{sub 2} evolution from valine declined although rates of transamination continued to rise. When 0.05 mM KIC was added to the assay medium, oxidation of KIC was suppressed by inclusion of valine or glutamate in the medium. When valine was present KIC was not oxidized preferentially, presumably because it was also serving as an amino acceptor for BCAT. These results indicate that as the supply of amino acceptor, {alpha}-KG or KIC, is increased in mitochondria not only is the rate of valine transamination stimulated but also the rate of oxidation of the KIV formed from valine. Thus the rate of oxidation of BCAA can be controlled by factors that influence the rate and direction of BCAA transamination and, thereby, the supply of substrate for BCKD.

  1. Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Interpersonal Violence in Suicide Attempters.

    PubMed

    Sahlin, Hanna; Moberg, Tomas; Hirvikoski, Tatja; Jokinen, Jussi

    2015-01-01

    The current study compared characteristics of suicidal behavior and interpersonal violence in suicide attempters with and without a history of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). A total of 100 suicide attempters were assessed with Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) and Karolinska Suicide History Interview concerning interpersonal violence and NSSI. There was a high degree of comorbid NSSI in suicide attempters (44%). Suicide attempters with NSSI-history reported more interpersonal violence as adults and more severe suicidal behavior compared to suicide attempters without NSSI. Comorbid NSSI was related to severity of suicidal behavior in a gender specific manner. Comorbid NSSI in suicide attempters may increase suicide and violence risk.

  2. Navy Network Dependability: Models, Metrics, and Tools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    surveillance; TCDL = Tactical Common Data Link; UHF = ultra high frequency; UFO = ultra-high-frequency follow-on; WGS = Wideband Gapfiller Satellite. RAND...VOICE (DMR VALUES) UFO OE-82 UHF LOS VOICE (DMR VALUES) UHF SATCOM VOICE DMR UHF LOS VOICE DMR TVs ADMS KIV-7 COMSEC ADNS SW ADNS II HW ISNS SW ISNS HW...Data Link; UHF = ultra high frequency; UFO = ultra-high-frequency follow-on; WGS = Wideband Gapfiller Satellite. RAND MG1003-1.1 4 Navy Network

  3. [New method for measuring the cortical auditory evoked potentials: the HEARLab].

    PubMed

    Bach, Adám; Tóth, Ferenc; Matievics, Vera; Kiss, József Géza; Jóri, József; Szakál, Beáta; Balogh, Norbert; Soós, Alexandra; Rovó, László

    2014-09-21

    Bevezetés: Az akusztikusan kiváltott corticalis válaszok mérése objektív módon teszi lehetővé, hogy a hallórendszer legmagasabb szintjének működéséről kapjunk információkat. Célkitűzés: A szerzők célja egy új, a klinikai gyakorlatban is rutinszerűen alkalmazható, az akusztikusan kiváltott corticalis válaszok mérésére alkalmas eszköz, a HEARLab bemutatása és ép hallású egyénekben a vizsgált paraméterek standardjainak felállítása volt. Módszer: 25 ép hallású felnőtt beszédhangok által kiváltott válaszait vizsgálták, emellett frekvenciaspecifikus tesztelést is végeztek. Eredmények: A corticalis válaszok latenciájának és amplitúdójának elemzése során kapott eredmények alátámasztják a nemzetközileg is újnak számító eljárással kapcsolatban leírtakat. Következtetések: A HEARLab a hagyományos audiológiai vizsgálómódszerek nehezítettsége esetén kiváló segítség lehet. A vizsgálat kooperációra képtelen egyéneknél is elvégezhető, akár hallókészülék használata mellett is, továbbá a vizsgálat frekvenciaspecifikus és nem igényel altatást. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(38), 1524–1529.

  4. (1)H NMR-based metabolomic approach for understanding the fermentation behaviors of wine yeast strains.

    PubMed

    Son, Hong-Seok; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Kim, Ki Myong; Kim, Eun-Young; van den Berg, Frans; Park, Won-Mok; Lee, Cherl-Ho; Hong, Young-Shick

    2009-02-01

    (1)H NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical analysis was used for the first time to investigate metabolic changes in musts during alcoholic fermentation and wines during aging. Three Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains (RC-212, KIV-1116, and KUBY-501) were also evaluated for their impacts on the metabolic changes in must and wine. Pattern recognition (PR) methods, including PCA, PLS-DA, and OPLS-DA scores plots, showed clear differences for metabolites among musts or wines for each fermentation stage up to 6 months. Metabolites responsible for the differentiation were identified as valine, 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD), pyruvate, succinate, proline, citrate, glycerol, malate, tartarate, glucose, N-methylnicotinic acid (NMNA), and polyphenol compounds. PCA scores plots showed continuous movements away from days 1 to 8 in all musts for all yeast strains, indicating continuous and active fermentation. During alcoholic fermentation, the highest levels of 2,3-BD, succinate, and glycerol were found in musts with the KIV-1116 strain, which showed the fastest fermentation or highest fermentative activity of the three strains, whereas the KUBY-501 strain showed the slowest fermentative activity. This study highlights the applicability of NMR-based metabolomics for monitoring wine fermentation and evaluating the fermentative characteristics of yeast strains.

  5. Thyroid hormones and adult interpersonal violence among women with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Sinai, Cave; Hirvikoski, Tatja; Nordström, Anna-Lena; Nordström, Peter; Nilsonne, Åsa; Wilczek, Alexander; Åsberg, Marie; Jokinen, Jussi

    2015-06-30

    Elevated T3 levels have been reported in men with antisocial behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between thyroid hormones and expressed adult interpersonal violence in female patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Furthermore, expressed adult interpersonal violence in female BPD patients was compared to healthy female controls. A total of 92 clinically euthyroid women with BPD and 57 healthy women were assessed with the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scales (KIVS). Baseline thyroid function was evaluated by measuring plasma free and bound triiodothyronine (FT3 and T3), thyroxine (FT4 and T4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) with immunoassays in patients. Plasma cortisol was also measured. Among females with BPD, expressed interpersonal violence as an adult showed a significant positive correlation with the T3 levels. The mean expression of interpersonal violence as an adult was significantly higher in BPD patients as compared to healthy controls. The multiple regression model indicated that two independent predictors of KIVS expressed interpersonal violence as an adult: T3 and comorbid diagnosis of alcohol abuse. Association between T3 levels and violent/aggressive behavior earlier reported exclusively in male samples may be valid also in females with BPD.

  6. The characterization for the binding of calcium and terbium to Euplotes octocarinatus centrin.

    PubMed

    Yaqin, Zhao; Jiuying, Feng; Aihua, Liang; Binsheng, Yang

    2009-01-01

    Centrin is a member of the EF-hand superfamily that plays critical role in the centrosome duplication and separation. In the present paper, we characterized properties of metal ions binding to Euplotes octocarinatus centrin (EoCen) by fluorescence spectra and circular dichroism (CD) spectra. Changes of fluorescence spectra and alpha-helix contents of EoCen proved that Tb(3+) and Ca(2+) induced great conformational changes of EoCen resulting in exposing hydrophobic surfaces. At pH 7.4, Ca(2+) (and Tb(3+)) bond with EoCen at the ratio of 4:1. Equilibrium experiment indicated that Ca(2+) and Tb(3+) exhibited different binding capabilities for C- and N-terminal domains of protein. C-terminal domain bond with Ca(2+) or Tb(3+) approximately 100-fold more strongly than N-terminal. Aromatic residue-sensitized Tb(3+) energy transfer suggested that site IV bond to Tb(3+) or Ca(2+) more strongly than site III. Based on fluorescence titration curves, we reckoned the conditional binding constants of EoCen site IV quantitatively to be K(IV)=(1.23+/-0.51)x10(8)M(-1) and K(IV)=(6.82+/-0.33)x10(5)M(-1) with Tb(3+) and Ca(2+), respectively. Metal ions bond to EoCen in the order of IV>III>II, I.

  7. Interpersonal violence and the prediction of short-term risk of repeat suicide attempt

    PubMed Central

    Haglund, Axel; Lindh, Åsa U.; Lysell, Henrik; Renberg, Ellinor Salander; Jokinen, Jussi; Waern, Margda; Runeson, Bo

    2016-01-01

    In this multi-center cohort study, suicide attempters presenting to hospital (N = 355, 63% women) were interviewed using the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) and followed-up by medical record review. Main outcome was non-fatal or fatal repeat suicide attempt within six months. Also, repeat attempt using a violent method was used as an additional outcome in separate analyses. Data were analyzed for the total group and for men and women separately. Repeat attempts were observed within six months in 78 persons (22%) and 21 (6%) of these used a violent method. KIVS total score of 6 or more was associated with repeat suicide attempt within six months (OR = 1.81, CI 1.08–3.02) and predicted new attempts with a sensitivity of 62% and a specificity of 53%. A three-fold increase in odds ratio was observed for repeat attempt using a violent method (OR = 3.40, CI 1.22–9.49). An association between exposure to violence in adulthood and violent reattempt was seen in women (OR = 1.38, CI 1.06–1.82). The overall conclusions are that information about interpersonal violence may help predict short-term risk for repeat suicide attempt, and that structured assessment of interpersonal violence may be of value in risk assessment after attempted suicide. PMID:27841333

  8. "Build Me a Male Role Model!" A Critical Exploration of the Perceived Qualities/Characteristics of Men in the Early Years (0-8) in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownhill, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Young boys' "underachievement" and their disaffection with learning continue to dominate education agendas [Francis, B. 2006. "Stop That Sex Drive." "Times Educational Supplement" 30; Peeters, J. 2007. "Including Men in Early Childhood Education: Insights from the European Experience." "NZ Research in…

  9. The Cartographic Representation of Linguistic Data. Discussion Papers in Geolinguistics Nos. 19-21. Selected Papers from a Geolinguistic Seminar (Le Pailly, France, September 10-13, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peeters, Yvo J. D., Ed.; Williams, Colin H., Ed.

    Papers from a conference on cartography in geolinguistics include: "The Political Importance of Visualisation of Language Contact" (Yvo J. D. Peeters); "Some Considerations on People and Boundaries" (Guy Heraud); "Geolinguistic Developments and Cartographic Problems" (Colin H. Williams, John E. Ambrose); "A…

  10. Book Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Early Childhood, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Reviews "La Educacion Preescolar: Desafio y Aventura" (Lavanchy Bobsien); "Working towards Better Childcare" (Peeters and Vandenbroeck, editors); "Children's Savings: A Study in the Development of Economic Behavior" (Sonuga-Barke and Webley); "Curvas de Crecimiento Estaturo-ponderal en Escolares" (Saez Crespo and others); and "Helping Bereaved…

  11. Agent-based Approaches to Dynamic Team Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    behavior. The second section reviews agent-based models of teamwork describing work involving both teamwork approaches to design of multiagent systems...there is less direct evidence for teams. Hough (1992), for example, found that ratings on conscientiousness, emotional stability, and agreeableness...Peeters, Rutte, Tuijl, and Reymen (2006) who found agreeableness and emotional stability positively related to satisfaction with the team make

  12. Evidence for several independent genetic variants affecting lipoprotein (a) cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wensheng; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Chen, Keping; Wang, Hong; Gerhard, Glenn S; Still, Christopher D; Chu, Xin; Yang, Rongze; Parihar, Ankita; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Pollin, Toni I; Angles-Cano, Eduardo; Quon, Michael J; Mitchell, Braxton D; Shuldiner, Alan R; Fu, Mao

    2015-04-15

    Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis-related events that is under strong genetic control (heritability = 0.68-0.98). However, causal mutations and functional validation of biological pathways modulating Lp(a) metabolism are lacking. We performed a genome-wide association scan to identify genetic variants associated with Lp(a)-cholesterol levels in the Old Order Amish. We confirmed a previously known locus on chromosome 6q25-26 and found Lp(a) levels also to be significantly associated with a SNP near the APOA5-APOA4-APOC3-APOA1 gene cluster on chromosome 11q23 linked in the Amish to the APOC3 R19X null mutation. On 6q locus, we detected associations of Lp(a)-cholesterol with 118 common variants (P = 5 × 10(-8) to 3.91 × 10(-19)) spanning a ∼5.3 Mb region that included the LPA gene. To further elucidate variation within LPA, we sequenced LPA and identified two variants most strongly associated with Lp(a)-cholesterol, rs3798220 (P = 1.07 × 10(-14)) and rs10455872 (P = 1.85 × 10(-12)). We also measured copy numbers of kringle IV-2 (KIV-2) in LPA using qPCR. KIV-2 numbers were significantly associated with Lp(a)-cholesterol (P = 2.28 × 10(-9)). Conditional analyses revealed that rs3798220 and rs10455872 were associated with Lp(a)-cholesterol levels independent of each other and KIV-2 copy number. Furthermore, we determined for the first time that levels of LPA mRNA were higher in the carriers than non-carriers of rs10455872 (P = 0.0001) and were not different between carriers and non-carriers of rs3798220. Protein levels of apo(a) were higher in the carriers than non-carriers of both rs10455872 and rs3798220. In summary, we identified multiple independent genetic determinants for Lp(a)-cholesterol. These findings provide new insights into Lp(a) regulation.

  13. Evidence for several independent genetic variants affecting lipoprotein (a) cholesterol levels

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wensheng; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Chen, Keping; Wang, Hong; Gerhard, Glenn S.; Still, Christopher D.; Chu, Xin; Yang, Rongze; Parihar, Ankita; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Pollin, Toni I.; Angles-Cano, Eduardo; Quon, Michael J.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Fu, Mao

    2015-01-01

    Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis-related events that is under strong genetic control (heritability = 0.68–0.98). However, causal mutations and functional validation of biological pathways modulating Lp(a) metabolism are lacking. We performed a genome-wide association scan to identify genetic variants associated with Lp(a)-cholesterol levels in the Old Order Amish. We confirmed a previously known locus on chromosome 6q25-26 and found Lp(a) levels also to be significantly associated with a SNP near the APOA5–APOA4–APOC3–APOA1 gene cluster on chromosome 11q23 linked in the Amish to the APOC3 R19X null mutation. On 6q locus, we detected associations of Lp(a)-cholesterol with 118 common variants (P = 5 × 10−8 to 3.91 × 10−19) spanning a ∼5.3 Mb region that included the LPA gene. To further elucidate variation within LPA, we sequenced LPA and identified two variants most strongly associated with Lp(a)-cholesterol, rs3798220 (P = 1.07 × 10−14) and rs10455872 (P = 1.85 × 10−12). We also measured copy numbers of kringle IV-2 (KIV-2) in LPA using qPCR. KIV-2 numbers were significantly associated with Lp(a)-cholesterol (P = 2.28 × 10−9). Conditional analyses revealed that rs3798220 and rs10455872 were associated with Lp(a)-cholesterol levels independent of each other and KIV-2 copy number. Furthermore, we determined for the first time that levels of LPA mRNA were higher in the carriers than non-carriers of rs10455872 (P = 0.0001) and were not different between carriers and non-carriers of rs3798220. Protein levels of apo(a) were higher in the carriers than non-carriers of both rs10455872 and rs3798220. In summary, we identified multiple independent genetic determinants for Lp(a)-cholesterol. These findings provide new insights into Lp(a) regulation. PMID:25575512

  14. Aeromechanics Analysis of a Boundary Layer Ingesting Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakhle, Milind A.; Reddy, T. S. R.; Herrick, Gregory P.; Shabbir, Aamir; Florea, Razvan V.

    2013-01-01

    Boundary layer ingesting propulsion systems have the potential to significantly reduce fuel burn but these systems must overcome the challe nges related to aeromechanics-fan flutter stability and forced response dynamic stresses. High-fidelity computational analysis of the fan a eromechanics is integral to the ongoing effort to design a boundary layer ingesting inlet and fan for fabrication and wind-tunnel test. A t hree-dimensional, time-accurate, Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes computational fluid dynamics code is used to study aerothermodynamic and a eromechanical behavior of the fan in response to both clean and distorted inflows. The computational aeromechanics analyses performed in th is study show an intermediate design iteration of the fan to be flutter-free at the design conditions analyzed with both clean and distorte d in-flows. Dynamic stresses from forced response have been calculated for the design rotational speed. Additional work is ongoing to expan d the analyses to off-design conditions, and for on-resonance conditions.

  15. Computational model of miniature pulsating heat pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Mario J.; Givler, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    The modeling work described herein represents Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) portion of a collaborative three-year project with Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems (NGES) and the University of Missouri to develop an advanced, thermal ground-plane (TGP), which is a device, of planar configuration, that delivers heat from a source to an ambient environment with high efficiency. Work at all three institutions was funded by DARPA/MTO; Sandia was funded under DARPA/MTO project number 015070924. This is the final report on this project for SNL. This report presents a numerical model of a pulsating heat pipe, a device employing a two phase (liquid and its vapor) working fluid confined in a closed loop channel etched/milled into a serpentine configuration in a solid metal plate. The device delivers heat from an evaporator (hot zone) to a condenser (cold zone). This new model includes key physical processes important to the operation of flat plate pulsating heat pipes (e.g. dynamic bubble nucleation, evaporation and condensation), together with conjugate heat transfer with the solid portion of the device. The model qualitatively and quantitatively predicts performance characteristics and metrics, which was demonstrated by favorable comparisons with experimental results on similar configurations. Application of the model also corroborated many previous performance observations with respect to key parameters such as heat load, fill ratio and orientation.

  16. A Multi-Frequency Wide-Swath Spaceborne Cloud and Precipitation Imaging Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Lihua; Racette, Paul; Heymsfield, Gary; McLinden, Matthew; Venkatesh, Vijay; Coon, Michael; Perrine, Martin; Park, Richard; Cooley, Michael; Stenger, Pete; Spence, Thomas; Retelny, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Microwave and millimeter-wave radars have proven their effectiveness in cloud and precipitation observations. The NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey (DS) Aerosol, Cloud and Ecosystems (ACE) mission calls for a dual-frequency cloud radar (W band 94 GHz and Ka-band 35 GHz) for global measurements of cloud microphysical properties. Recently, there have been discussions of utilizing a tri-frequency (KuKaW-band) radar for a combined ACE and Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) follow-on mission that has evolved into the Cloud and Precipitation Process Mission (CaPPM) concept. In this presentation we will give an overview of the technology development efforts at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and at Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems (NGES) through projects funded by the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). Our primary objective of this research is to advance the key enabling technologies for a tri-frequency (KuKaW-band) shared-aperture spaceborne imaging radar to provide unprecedented, simultaneous multi-frequency measurements that will enhance understanding of the effects of clouds and precipitation and their interaction on Earth climate change. Research effort has been focused on concept design and trade studies of the tri-frequency radar; investigating architectures that provide tri-band shared-aperture capability; advancing the development of the Ka band active electronically scanned array (AESA) transmitreceive (TR) module, and development of the advanced radar backend electronics.

  17. Chromosome mapping of the owl monkey CSF1R and IL5 genes.

    PubMed

    Ma, N S; Lin, K C

    1992-08-01

    We mapped the owl monkey colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) locus to the proximal region of chromosome 3q of karyotype VI(K-VI) and karyotype V(K-V) and the interleukin 5 (IL5) locus to the mid-region of chromosome 3q(K-VI) and 19q(K-IV) using a combination of Southern hybridization of somatic cells and in situ chromosomal hybridization methodologies. The findings support the proposed evolution of owl monkey chromosome 3(K-VI) from a fusion of two smaller structures, the homologs of chromosomes 6 and 19 (K-IV). The data also indicate genomic conservation of the HSA 5q23-q35 segment in the higher primates.

  18. RADIO ASTROMETRY OF THE CLOSE ACTIVE BINARY HR 5110

    SciTech Connect

    Abbuhl, E.; Mutel, R. L.; Lynch, C.; Güedel, M.

    2015-09-20

    The close active binary HR 5110 was observed at six epochs over 26 days using a global very long baseline interferometry array at 15.4 GHz. We used phase referencing to determine the position of the radio centroid at each epoch with an uncertainty significantly smaller than the component separation. After correcting for proper motion and parallax, we find that the centroid locations of all six epochs have barycenter separations consistent with an emission source located on the KIV secondary, and not in an interaction region between the stars or on the F primary. We used a homogeneous power-law gyrosynchrotron emission model to reproduce the observed flux densities and fractional circular polarization. The resulting ranges of mean magnetic field strength and relativistic electron densities are of the order of 10 G and 10{sup 5} cm{sup −3}, respectively, in the source region.

  19. Combining Task Execution and Background Knowledge for the Verification of Medical Guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommersom, Arjen; Groot, Perry; Lucas, Peter; Balser, Michael; Schmitt, Jonathan

    The use of a medical guideline can be seen as the execution of computational tasks, sequentially or in parallel, in the face of patient data. It has been shown that many of such guidelines can be represented as a 'network of tasks', i.e., as a number of steps that have a specific function or goal. To investigate the quality of such guidelines we propose a formalization of criteria for good practice medicine a guideline should comply to. We use this theory in conjunction with medical background knowledge to verify the quality of a guideline dealing with diabetes mellitus type 2 using the interactive theorem prover KIV. Verification using task execution and background knowledge is a novel approach to quality checking of medical guidelines.

  20. Recombinant immunoglobulin variable domains generated from synthetic genes provide a system for in vitro characterization of light-chain amyloid proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, P. W.; Raffen, R.; Hanson, D. K.; Deng, Y. L.; Berrios-Hammond, M.; Westholm, F. A.; Murphy, C.; Eulitz, M.; Wetzel, R.; Solomon, A.

    1995-01-01

    The primary structural features that render human monoclonal light chains amyloidogenic are presently unknown. To gain further insight into the physical and biochemical factors that result in the pathologic deposition of these proteins as amyloid fibrils, we have selected for detailed study three closely homologous protein products of the light-chain variable-region single-gene family VkIV. Two of these proteins, REC and SMA, formed amyloid fibrils in vivo. The third protein, LEN, was excreted by the patient at levels of 50 g/day with no indication of amyloid deposits. Sequences of amyloidogenic proteins REC and SMA differed from the sequence of the nonpathogenic protein LEN at 14 and 8 amino acid positions, respectively, and these amino acid differences have been analyzed in terms of the three-dimensional structure of the LEN dimer. To provide a replenishable source of these human proteins, we constructed synthetic genes coding for the REC, SMA, and LEN variable domains and expressed these genes in Escherichia coli. Immunochemical and biophysical comparisons demonstrated that the recombinant VkIV products have tertiary structural features comparable to those of the patient-derived proteins. This well-defined set of three clinically characterized human kIV light chains, together with the capability to produce these kIV proteins recombinantly, provide a system for biophysical and structural comparisons of two different amyloidogenic light-chain proteins and a nonamyloidogenic protein of the same subgroup. This work lays the foundation for future investigations of the structural basis of light-chain amyloidogenicity. PMID:7795526

  1. Bobcat (Felis rufus) ecology and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howell, Judd A.

    1997-01-01

    The bobcat (Felis rufus) is a medium sized predator in the family Felidae found exclusively in North America. Extensive natural history information is available and is summarized in several bibliographies and reviews (Sweeny and Poelker 1977, McCord and Cardoza 1982, Boddicker 1983, Anderson 1987, Rolley 1987). The bobcat is a spotted cat with a short white-tipped tail, small dark ear tufts and is about twice the size of the house cat (Felis domesticus) because of the bobcat’s longer bone structure (McCord and Cardoza 1982, Jameson and Peeters 1988). The bobcat weights between 5- 15 kg with males larger than females. TL 700- 1000, T 95-150, E (from crown) 60-75 (Jameson and Peeters 1988).

  2. Relating Agulhas Leakage to the Agulhas Current Retroflection Location

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-03

    observations and oceanographic data for ocean circulations and climate stud- ies, chap. 5, Elsevier Oceanographic Series, 79–97, 2000. Garzoli, S. L. and...branch return flow of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (Gordon, 1986; Weijer et al., 1999; Peeters et al., 2004; Biastoch et al., 2008a...into the large-scale circulation . Both models have 46 vertical lay- ers, with layer thicknesses ranging from 6 m at the surface to 250 m at depth, and

  3. Alcohol consumption and the risk of renal cancers in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Wozniak MB, Brennan P, Brenner DR, Overvad K, Olsen A, Tjønneland A, Boutron-Ruault MC, Clavel-Chapelon F, Fagherazzi G, Katzke V, Kühn T, Boeing H, Bergmann MM, Steffen A, Naska A, Trichopoulou A, Trichopoulos D, Saieva C, Grioni S, Panico S, Tumino R, Vineis P, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Peeters PH, Hjartåker A, Weiderpass E, Arriola L, Molina-Montes E, Duell EJ, Santiuste C, Alonso de la Torre R, Barricarte Gurrea A, Stocks T, Johansson M, Ljungberg B, Wareham N, Khaw KT, Travis RC, Cross AJ, Murphy N, Riboli E, Scelo G.Int J Cancer. 2015 Oct 15;137(8):1953-66. [Epub 2015 Apr 28]. doi: 10.1002/ijc.29559.

    PubMed

    Jay, Raman; Brennan, P; Brenner; Overvad, K; Olsen, A; Tjønneland, A; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Fagherazzi; Katzke, V; Kühn, T; Boeing, H; Bergmann, M M; Steffen, A; Naska, A; Trichopoulou, A; Trichopoulos, D; Saieva, C; Grioni, S; Panico, S; Tumino, R; Vineis, P; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Peeters, P H; Hjartåker, A; Weiderpass, E; Arriola, L; Molina-Montes, E; Duell, E J; Santiuste, C; Alonso de la Torre, R; Barricarte Gurrea, A; Stocks, T; Johansson, M; Ljungberg, B; Wareham, N; Khaw, K T; Travis, R C; Cross, A J; Murphy, N; Riboli, E; Scelo, G

    2017-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported that moderate alcohol consumption is inversely associated with the risk of renal cancer. However, there is no information available on the associations in renal cancer subsites. From 1992 to 2010, 477,325 men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort were followed for incident renal cancers (n = 931). Baseline and lifetime alcohol consumption was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. Information on past alcohol consumption was collected by lifestyle questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models. In multivariate analysis, total alcohol consumption at baseline was inversely associated with renal cancer; the HR and 95% CI for the increasing categories of total alcohol consumption at recruitment vs. the light drinkers category were 0.78 (0.62-0.99), 0.82 (0.64-1.04), 0.70 (0.55-0.90), and 0.91 (0.63-1.30), respectively, (ptrend = 0.001). A similar relationship was observed for average lifetime alcohol consumption and for all renal cancer subsites combined or for renal parenchyma subsite. The trend was not observed in hypertensive individuals and not significant in smokers. In conclusion, moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a decreased risk of renal cancer.

  4. Calmodulin-mediated suppression of 2-ketoisovalerate reductase in Beauveria bassiana beauvericin biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyoung; Yoon, Deok-Hyo; Oh, Junsang; Hyun, Min-Woo; Han, Jae-Gu; Sung, Gi-Ho

    2016-11-01

    Ketoisovalerate reductase (KIVR, E.C. 1.2.7.7) mediates the specific reduction of 2-ketoisovalerate (2-Kiv) to d-hydroxyisovalerate (d-Hiv), a precursor for beauvericin biosynthesis. Beauvericin, a famous mycotoxin produced by many fungi, is a cyclooligomer depsipeptide, which has insecticidal, antimicrobial, antiviral, and cytotoxic activities. In this report, we demonstrated that Beauveria bassiana 2-ketoisovalerate reductase (BbKIVR) acts as a typical KIVR enzyme in the entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana. In addition, we found that BbKIVR interacts with calmodulin (CaM) in vitro and in vivo. The functional role of CaM-binding to BbKIVR was to negatively regulate the BbKIVR activity in B. bassiana. Environmental stimuli such as light and salt stress suppressed BbKIVR activity in B. bassiana. Interestingly, this negative effect of BbKIVR activity by light and salt stress was recovered by CaM inhibitors, suggesting that the inhibitory mechanism is mediated through stimulation of CaM activity. Therefore, this work suggests that BbKIVR plays an important role in the beauvericin biosynthetic pathway mediated by environmental stimuli such as light and salt stress via the CaM signaling pathway.

  5. Suicide Risk Associated with Experience of Violence and Impulsivity in Alcohol Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Khemiri, Lotfi; Jokinen, Jussi; Runeson, Bo; Jayaram-Lindström, Nitya

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) and aggression-impulsivity are both associated with increased suicide risk. There is a need to evaluate clinical tools in order to improve suicide risk assessment of AD patients. The present study consisted of 95 individuals with a diagnosis of AD, consecutively admitted for addiction treatment, compared with 95 healthy controls. Suicidal risk was assessed together with exposure of violence and impulsivity. AD patients reported significantly higher rates of exposure to violence in childhood, as measured by the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS), compared to HC. Within the AD group, individuals with history of suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior reported higher levels of violence experience compared to AD individuals without such history. AD patients with previous suicidal ideation scored higher on self-reported impulsivity as assessed by the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS). Our main finding was that experience of trauma and expression of violent behavior, coupled with increased impulsivity are associated with an elevated suicide risk in AD patients. Future longitudinal studies assessing these traits are needed to evaluate their potential role in identifying AD patients at risk of future suicide. PMID:26784730

  6. A large coronal loop in the Algol system.

    PubMed

    Peterson, W M; Mutel, R L; Güdel, M; Goss, W M

    2010-01-14

    The close binary Algol system contains a radio-bright KIV subgiant star in a very close (0.062 astronomical units) and rapid (2.86 day) orbit with a main sequence B8 star. Because the rotation periods of the two stars are tidally locked to the orbital period, the rapid rotation drives a magnetic dynamo. A large body of evidence points to the existence of an extended, complex coronal magnetosphere originating at the cooler K subgiant. The detailed morphology of the subgiant's corona and its possible interaction with its companion are unknown, though theory predicts that the coronal plasma should be confined in a magnetic loop structure, as seen on the Sun. Here we report multi-epoch radio imaging of the Algol system, in which we see a large, persistent coronal loop approximately one subgiant diameter in height, whose base is straddling the subgiant and whose apex is oriented towards the B8 star. This suggests that a persistent asymmetric magnetic field structure is aligned between the two stars. The loop is larger than anticipated theoretically, but the size may be the result of a magnetic interaction between the two stars.

  7. The 16th Werner Brandt Workshop on charged particle penetration phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the following topics: impact parameter dependence of charge transfer and energy loss; nonlinear dynamical response of the electron gas: comparison of some simple theories; stopping of ultrarelativistic ions in solids (33.2-TeV {sup 108}Pb); collective excitation in reduced dimensionality; collective states in atoms and cluster; plasmon coupling with external probes; atomic collisions with antiprotons; layer-number scaling in ultra-thin film stopping and energetics; atom-surface scattering under classical conditions; nonlinear effect of sweeping-out electrons in stopping power and electron emission in cluster impacts; electron emission from fast grazing collisions of ions with silicon surfaces; electron emission from ultra-thin carbon foils by kiV ions; Auger rates for highly charged ions in metals; Auger and plasmon assisted neutralization at surfaces; low energy (< 5eV) F{sup +} and F{sup -} ions transmission through condensed layers of water: enhancement and attenuation processes; charge transfer for H interacting with Al: atomic levels and linewidths; scattered projectile angular and charge state distributions for grazing collisions of multicharged ions with metal and insulator single crystal targets; the prolate hyperboloidat model in scanning probe microscopy; scanning probe microscopy of large biomolecules; microcantilever sensors; solution of the Fokker-Planck equation for electron transport using analytic spatial moments; and effective charge parametrization for z = 3-17 projectiles in composite targets.

  8. Insulin and glucagon in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid in suicide attempters and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Bendix, Marie; Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin; Petersson, Maria; Kaldo, Viktor; Åsberg, Marie; Jokinen, Jussi

    2017-03-23

    Mental disorders and related behaviors such as suicidality and violence have been associated to dysregulation of e g carbohydrate metabolism. We hypothesized that patients after suicide attempt, compared to healthy controls, would have higher insulin and lower glucagon levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid and that these changes would be associated to violent behavior. Twenty-eight medication-free patients (10 women, 18 men), hospitalized after suicide attempt, and 19 healthy controls (7 women, 12 men) were recruited with the aim to study risk factors for suicidal behavior. Psychological/psychiatric assessment was performed with SCID I and II or the SCID interview for healthy volunteers respectively, the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) for assessment of lifetime violence expression behavior, the Montgomery-Åsberg-Depression-Scale (MADRS) and the Comprehensive Psychological Rating Scale (CPRS) for symptomatic assessment of depression and appetite. Fasting levels of insulin and glucagon were measured in plasma (P) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Suicide attempters had higher insulin- and lower glucagon-levels in plasma- and CSF compared to controls. Except for P-glucagon these associations remained significant after adjusting for age and/or BMI. Patients reported significantly more expressed interpersonal violence compared to healthy volunteers. Expressed violence was significantly positively correlated with P- and CSF-insulin and showed a significant negative correlation with P-glucagon in study participants. These findings confirm and extend prior reports that higher insulin and lower glucagon levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid are associated with suicidal behavior pointing towards a potential autonomic dysregulation in the control of insulin and glucagon secretion in suicidal patients.

  9. Low CSF oxytocin reflects high intent in suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Jokinen, Jussi; Chatzittofis, Andreas; Hellström, Christer; Nordström, Peter; Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin; Asberg, Marie

    2012-04-01

    Data from animal studies suggest that oxytocin is an important modulating neuropeptide in regulation of social interaction. One human study has reported a negative correlation between CSF oxytocin levels, life history of aggression and suicidal behaviour. We hypothesized that CSF oxytocin levels would be related to suicidal behaviour, suicide intent, lifetime interpersonal violence and suicide risk. 28 medication free suicide attempters and 19 healthy volunteers participated in this cross sectional and longitudinal study. CSF and plasma morning basal levels of oxytocin were assessed with specific radio-immunoassays. The Beck Suicide Intent Scale (SIS), the Freeman scale and the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) were used to assess suicide intent and lifetime violent behaviour. All patients were followed up for cause of death. The mean follow-up was 21 years. Suicide attempters had lower CSF oxytocin levels compared to healthy volunteers p=0.077. In suicide attempters CSF oxytocin showed a significant negative correlation with the planning subscale of SIS. CSF oxytocin showed a significant negative correlation with suicide intent, the planning subscale of SIS and Freeman interruption probability in male suicide attempters. Correlations between plasma oxytocin levels and the planning subscale of SIS and Freeman interruption probability were significant in male suicide attempters. Lifetime violent behaviour showed a trend to negative correlation with CSF oxytocin. In the regression analysis suicide intent remained a significant predictor of CSF oxytocin corrected for age and gender whereas lifetime violent behaviour showed a trend to be a predictor of CSF oxytocin. Oxytocin levels did not differ significantly in suicide victims compared to survivors. CSF oxytocin may be an important modulator of suicide intent and interpersonal violence in suicide attempters.

  10. Competitive protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitors, prenylated caged xanthones from Garcinia hanburyi and their inhibitory mechanism.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xue Fei; Uddin, Zia; Park, Chanin; Song, Yeong Hun; Son, Minky; Lee, Keun Woo; Park, Ki Hun

    2017-04-15

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) plays important role in diabetes, obesity and cancer. The methanol extract of the gum resin of Garcinia hanburyi (G. hanburyi) showed potent PTP1B inhibition at 10µg/ml. The active compounds were identified as prenylated caged xanthones (1-9) which inhibited PTP1B in dose-dependent manner. Carboxybutenyl group within caged motif (A ring) was found to play a critical role in enzyme inhibition such as 1-6 (IC50s=0.47-4.69µM), whereas compounds having hydroxymethylbutenyl 7 (IC50=70.25µM) and methylbutenyl 8 (IC50>200µM) showed less activity. The most potent inhibitor, gambogic acid 1 (IC50=0.47µM) showed 30-fold more potency than ursolic acid (IC50=15.5µM), a positive control. In kinetic study, all isolated xanthones behaved as competitive inhibitors which were fully demonstrated with Km, Vmax and Kik/Kiv ratio. It was also proved that inhibitor 1 operated under the enzyme isomerization model having k5=0.0751µM(-)(1)S(-)(1), k6=0.0249µM(-)(1)S(-)(1) and Ki(app)=0.499µM. To develop a pharmacophore model, we explored the binding sites of compound 1 and 7 in PTP1B. These modeling results were in agreement with our findings, which revealed that the inhibitory activities are tightly related to caged motif and prenyl group in A ring.

  11. Functional and structural specific roles of activity-driven BDNF within circuits formed by single spiny stellate neurons of the barrel cortex.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qian-Quan; Zhang, Zhi; Sun, June; Nair, Anand S; Petrus, Dan P; Zhang, Chunzhao

    2014-01-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays key roles in several neurodevelopmental disorders and actions of pharmacological treatments. However, it is unclear how specific BDNF's effects are on different circuit components. Current studies have largely focused on the role of BDNF in modification of synaptic development. The precise roles of BDNF in the refinement of a functional circuit in vivo remain unclear. Val66Met polymorphism of BDNF may be associated with increased risk for cognitive impairments and is mediated at least in part by activity-dependent trafficking and/or secretion of BDNF. Using mutant mice that lacked activity-driven BDNF expression (bdnf-KIV), we previously reported that experience regulation of the cortical GABAergic network is mediated by activity-driven BDNF expression. Here, we demonstrate that activity-driven BDNF's effects on circuits formed by the layer IV spiny stellate cells are highly specific. Structurally, dendritic but not axonal morphology was altered in the mutant. Physiologically, GABAergic but not glutamatergic synapses were severely affected. The effects on GABA transmission occurs via presynaptic alteration of calcium-dependent release probability. These results suggest that neuronal activity through activity-driven BDNF expression, can selectively regulate specific features of layer IV circuits in vivo. We postulate that the role of activity-dependent BDNF is to modulate the computational ability of circuits that relate to the gain control (i.e., feed-forward inhibition); whereas the basic wiring of circuits relevant to the sensory pathway is spared. Gain control modulation within cortical circuits has broad impact on cognitive processing and brain state-transitions. Cognitive behavior and mode is determined by brain states, thus the studying of circuit alteration by endogenous BDNF provides insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of diseases mediated by BDNF.

  12. Geophysical imaging of karst features in Missouri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obi, Jeremiah Chukwunonso

    Automated electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) supported with multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) and boring data were used to map karst related features in Missouri in order to understand karst processes better in Missouri. Previous works on karst in Missouri were mostly surficial mapping of bedrock outcrops and joints, which are not enough to define the internal structure of karst system, since most critical processes in karst occur underground. To understand these processes better, the density, placement and pattern of karst related features like solution-widened joints and voids, as well as top of bedrock were mapped. In the course of the study, six study sites were visited in Missouri. The sites were in Nixa, Gasconade River Bridge in Lebanon, Battlefield, Aurora, Protem and Richland. The case studies reflect to a large extent some of the problems inherent in karst terrain, ranging from environmental problems to structural problems especially sinkhole collapses. The result of the study showed that karst in Missouri is mostly formed as a result of piping of sediments through solution-widened joints, with a pattern showing that the joints/fractures are mostly filled with moist clay-sized materials of low resistivity values. The highest density of mapped solution-widened joints was one in every one hundred and fifty feet, and these areas are where intense dissolution is taking place, and bedrock pervasively fractured. The study also showed that interpreted solution-widened joints trend in different directions, and often times conform with known structural lineaments in the area. About 40% of sinkhole collapses in the study areas are anthropogenic. Karst in Missouri varies, and can be classified as a combination of kI (juvenile), kIII (mature) and kIV (complex) karsts.

  13. Structure-based approach to the identification of a novel group of selective glucosamine analogue inhibitors of Trypanosoma cruzi glucokinase.

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, Edward L; Deinema, Mason S; Kearns, Sean P; Frey, Tyler A; Tanghe, Scott; Perry, Kay; Roy, Timothy A; Gracz, Hanna S; Rodriguez, Ana; D'Antonio, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    Glucokinase and hexokinase from pathogenic protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi are potential drug targets for antiparasitic chemotherapy of Chagas' disease. These glucose kinases phosphorylate d-glucose with co-substrate ATP and yield glucose 6-phosphate and are involved in essential metabolic pathways, such as glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway. An inhibitor class was conceived that is selective for T. cruzi glucokinase (TcGlcK) using structure-based drug design involving glucosamine having a linker from the C2 amino that terminates with a hydrophobic group either being phenyl, p-hydroxyphenyl, or dioxobenzo[b]thiophenyl groups. The synthesis and characterization for two of the four compounds are presented while the other two compounds were commercially available. Four high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of TcGlcK inhibitor complexes are reported along with enzyme inhibition constants (Ki) for TcGlcK and Homo sapiens hexokinase IV (HsHxKIV). These glucosamine analogue inhibitors include three strongly selective TcGlcK inhibitors and a fourth inhibitor, benzoyl glucosamine (BENZ-GlcN), which is a similar variant exhibiting a shorter linker. Carboxybenzyl glucosamine (CBZ-GlcN) was found to be the strongest glucokinase inhibitor known to date, having a Ki of 0.71±0.05μM. Also reported are two biologically active inhibitors against in vitro T. cruzi culture that were BENZ-GlcN and CBZ-GlcN, with intracellular amastigote growth inhibition IC50 values of 16.08±0.16μM and 48.73±0.69μM, respectively. These compounds revealed little to no toxicity against mammalian NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and provide a key starting point for further drug development with this class of compound.

  14. Engineering the leucine biosynthetic pathway for isoamyl alcohol overproduction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jifeng; Mishra, Pranjul; Ching, Chi Bun

    2017-01-01

    Isoamyl alcohol can be used not only as a biofuel, but also as a precursor for various chemicals. Saccharomyces cerevisiae inherently produces a small amount of isoamyl alcohol via the leucine degradation pathway, but the yield is very low. In the current study, several strategies were devised to overproduce isoamyl alcohol in budding yeast. The engineered yeast cells with the cytosolic isoamyl alcohol biosynthetic pathway produced significantly higher amounts of isobutanol over isoamyl alcohol, suggesting that the majority of the metabolic flux was diverted to the isobutanol biosynthesis due to the broad substrate specificity of Ehrlich pathway enzymes. To channel the key intermediate 2-ketosiovalerate (KIV) towards α-IPM biosynthesis, we introduced an artificial protein scaffold to pull dihydroxyacid dehydratase and α-IPM synthase into the close proximity, and the resulting strain yielded more than twofold improvement of isoamyl alcohol. The best isoamyl alcohol producer yielded 522.76 ± 38.88 mg/L isoamyl alcohol, together with 540.30 ± 48.26 mg/L isobutanol and 82.56 ± 8.22 mg/L 2-methyl-1-butanol. To our best knowledge, our work represents the first study to bypass the native compartmentalized α-IPM biosynthesis pathway for the isoamyl alcohol overproduction in budding yeast. More importantly, artificial protein scaffold based on the feature of quaternary structure of enzymes would be useful in improving the catalytic efficiency and the product specificity of other enzymatic reactions.

  15. Functional and structural specific roles of activity-driven BDNF within circuits formed by single spiny stellate neurons of the barrel cortex

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qian-Quan; Zhang, Zhi; Sun, June; Nair, Anand S.; Petrus, Dan P.; Zhang, Chunzhao

    2014-01-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays key roles in several neurodevelopmental disorders and actions of pharmacological treatments. However, it is unclear how specific BDNF’s effects are on different circuit components. Current studies have largely focused on the role of BDNF in modification of synaptic development. The precise roles of BDNF in the refinement of a functional circuit in vivo remain unclear. Val66Met polymorphism of BDNF may be associated with increased risk for cognitive impairments and is mediated at least in part by activity-dependent trafficking and/or secretion of BDNF. Using mutant mice that lacked activity-driven BDNF expression (bdnf-KIV), we previously reported that experience regulation of the cortical GABAergic network is mediated by activity-driven BDNF expression. Here, we demonstrate that activity-driven BDNF’s effects on circuits formed by the layer IV spiny stellate cells are highly specific. Structurally, dendritic but not axonal morphology was altered in the mutant. Physiologically, GABAergic but not glutamatergic synapses were severely affected. The effects on GABA transmission occurs via presynaptic alteration of calcium-dependent release probability. These results suggest that neuronal activity through activity-driven BDNF expression, can selectively regulate specific features of layer IV circuits in vivo. We postulate that the role of activity-dependent BDNF is to modulate the computational ability of circuits that relate to the gain control (i.e., feed-forward inhibition); whereas the basic wiring of circuits relevant to the sensory pathway is spared. Gain control modulation within cortical circuits has broad impact on cognitive processing and brain state-transitions. Cognitive behavior and mode is determined by brain states, thus the studying of circuit alteration by endogenous BDNF provides insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of diseases mediated by BDNF. PMID:25414642

  16. A triclinic polymorph of (−)-(S)-N-benzyl-2-[(R)-6-fluoro­chroman-2-yl]-2-hy­droxy­ethanaminium bromide

    PubMed Central

    Rousselin, Yoann; Laureano, Hugo; Clavel, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    The title salt, C18H21FNO2 +·Br−, determined at 115 K, crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1. The previously reported polymorph occurs in the monoclinic space group P21 and has two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit [Peeters et al. (1993 ▶). Acta Cryst. C49, 2157–2160]. In the title molecule, the pyran rings adopt half-chair conformations. The absolute configuration is S for the hy­droxy-bearing C atom and R for the asymmetric C atom in the di­hydro­pyran unit. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H⋯Br and O—H⋯Br hydrogen bonds, forming chains along the c-axis direction. The crystal studied was refined as an inversion twin. PMID:24860291

  17. Normal Modes of Magnetized Finite Two-Dimensional Yukawa Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marleau, Gabriel-Dominique; Kaehlert, Hanno; Bonitz, Michael

    2009-11-01

    The normal modes of a finite two-dimensional dusty plasma in an isotropic parabolic confinement, including the simultaneous effects of friction and an external magnetic field, are studied. The ground states are found from molecular dynamics simulations with simulated annealing, and the influence of screening, friction, and magnetic field on the mode frequencies is investigated in detail. The two-particle problem is solved analytically and the limiting cases of weak and strong magnetic fields are discussed.[4pt] [1] C. Henning, H. K"ahlert, P. Ludwig, A. Melzer, and M.Bonitz. J. Phys. A 42, 214023 (2009)[2] B. Farokhi, M. Shahmansouri, and P. K. Shukla. Phys.Plasmas 16, 063703 (2009)[3] L. Cândido, J.-P. Rino, N. Studart, and F. M. Peeters. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 10, 11627--11644 (1998)

  18. Gray Fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) ecology and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howell, Judd A.

    1997-01-01

    The gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) is a petite member of the family Canidae in the order Carnivora with a long muzzle and pointed ears (Samuel and Nelson 1982). The coat of the gray fox is silver gray across the back with significant amounts of rufus along the sides. This characteristic is often confused by people who see the flash of red and assume that the fox is a red fox (Vulpes vulpes). The gray fox has a black tipped tail with a dorsal black stripe that differentiates this species from the kit fox (Vulpes macrotis). The red fox has a white tipped tail. The gray fox weighs between 3-5 kg, occasionally to 7 kg. TL 800-1125, T 275-443, HF 100-150. (Jameson and Peeters 1988).

  19. A triclinic polymorph of (-)-(S)-N-benzyl-2-[(R)-6-fluoro-chroman-2-yl]-2-hy-droxy-ethanaminium bromide.

    PubMed

    Rousselin, Yoann; Laureano, Hugo; Clavel, Alexandre

    2013-12-01

    The title salt, C18H21FNO2 (+)·Br(-), determined at 115 K, crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1. The previously reported polymorph occurs in the monoclinic space group P21 and has two independent mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit [Peeters et al. (1993 ▶). Acta Cryst. C49, 2157-2160]. In the title molecule, the pyran rings adopt half-chair conformations. The absolute configuration is S for the hy-droxy-bearing C atom and R for the asymmetric C atom in the di-hydro-pyran unit. In the crystal, the components are linked by N-H⋯Br and O-H⋯Br hydrogen bonds, forming chains along the c-axis direction. The crystal studied was refined as an inversion twin.

  20. Effects of Dietary Iron and Gamma Radiation on the Rat Retina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Jennifer; Marshall, Grace; Theriot, Corey A.; Chacon, Natalia; Zwart, Sara; Zanello, Susana B.

    2012-01-01

    indicated upregulation of ferritin light chain (P = 0.09) as a result of dietary iron but no change in e xpression of the gene for ferritin heavy chain. Immunolocalization of light chain and heavy chain of the iron storage protein ferritin showed the expected distribution in the choroid, photoreceptor layer, inn er nuclear layer and in the inner plexiform layer that corresponded t o the synaptic terminals of bipolar cells. Evidence of stress and damage in the retina was also suggested by a decrease in expression of th e survival marker Bcl2 (P = 0.01) and the protective proteins clusterin (P = 0.04) and heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1, P < 0.001), as a result o f increased dietary iron. The effect of increased iron on expression of the antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase 1 (Hmox1) had a significant interaction with the effect of radiation (P < 0.001). In summary, the results of this study indicate that both gamma radiation exposure and a moderate increase in dietary iron can contribute to deleterious cha nges in retinal health and physiology.

  1. Differential Radiometers Using Fabry-Perot Interferometric Technique for Remote Sensing Determination of Various Atmospheric Trace Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgieva, E. M.; Heaps, W. S.; Wilson, E. L.

    2007-01-01

    New type of remote sensing instrument based upon the Fabry-Perot inte rferometric technique has been developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Fabry-Perot interferometry (FPI) is a well known, powerful spectroscopic technique and one of its many applications is to be use d to measure greenhouse gases and also some harmful species in the at mosphere. With this technique, absorption of particular species is me asured and related to its concentration. A solid Fabry-Perot etalon is used as a frequency filter to restrict the measurement to particular absorption bands of the gas of interest. With adjusting the thicknes s of the etalon that separation (in frequency) of the transmitted fri nges can be made equal to the almost constant separation of the gas a bsorption lines. By adjusting the temperature of the etalon, which changes the index of refi-action of its material, the transmission fring es can be brought into nearly exact correspondence with absorption li nes of the particular species. With this alignment between absorption lines and fringes, changes in the amount of a species in the atmosph ere strongly affect the amount of light transmitted by the etalon and can be related to gas concentration. The instrument that we have dev eloped detects the absorption of various atmospheric trace gases in d irect or reflected sunlight. Our instrument employing Fabry-Perot interferometer makes use of two features to achieve high sensitivity. The first is high spectral resolution enabling one to match the width of an atmospheric absorption feature by the instrumental band pass. The second is high optical throughput enabled by using multiple spectral lines simultaneously. For any species that one wishes to measure, thi s first feature is available while the use of multiple spectral features can be employed only for species with suitable spectra and freedom from interfering species in the same wavelength region. We have deve loped an instrument for use as ground based

  2. Crustal and uppermost mantle structure in the Middle East: assessing constraints provided by jointly modelling Ps and Sp receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Mohit; Pulliam, Jay; Sen, Mrinal K.; Dutta, Utpal; Pasyanos, Michael E.; Mellors, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Seismic velocity models are found, along with uncertainty estimates, for 11 sites in the Middle East by jointly modelling Ps and Sp receiver functions and surface (Rayleigh) wave group velocity dispersion. The approach performs a search for models that satisfy goodness-of-fit criteria guided by a variant of simulated annealing and uses statistical tools to assess these products of searches. These tools, a parameter correlation matrix and marginal posterior probability density (PPD) function, allow us to evaluate quantitatively the constraints that each data type imposes on model parameters and to identify portions of each model that are well-constrained relative to other portions. This joint modelling technique, which we call `multi-objective optimization for seismology', does not require a good starting solution, although such a model can be incorporated easily, if available, and can reduce the computation time significantly. Applying the process described above to broadband seismic data reveals that crustal thickness varies from 15 km beneath Djibouti (station ATD) to 45 km beneath Saudi Arabia (station RAYN). A pronounced low velocity zone for both Vp and Vs is present at a depth of ˜12 km beneath station KIV located in northern part of greater Caucasus, which may be due to the presence of a relatively young volcano. Similarly, we also noticed a 6-km-thick low velocity zone for Vp beginning at 20 km depth beneath seismic station AGIN, on the Anatolian plateau, while positive velocity gradients prevail elsewhere in eastern Turkey. Beneath station CSS, located in Cyprus, an anomalously slow layer is found in the uppermost mantle, which may indicate the presence of altered lithospheric material. Crustal P- and S-wave velocities beneath station D2, located in the northeastern portion of central Zagros, range between 5.2-6.2 and 3.2-3.8 km s-1, respectively. In Oman, we find a Moho depth of 34.0 ± 1.0 km and 25.0 ± 1.0 to 30.0 ± 1.0 km beneath stations S02 and S

  3. Observation and modelling of OH and HO2 concentrations in the Pearl River Delta 2006: a missing OH source in a VOC rich atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, K. D.; Rohrer, F.; Holland, F.; Fuchs, H.; Bohn, B.; Brauers, T.; Chang, C. C.; Häseler, R.; Hu, M.; Kita, K.; Kondo, Y.; Li, X.; Lou, S. R.; Nehr, S.; Shao, M.; Zeng, L. M.; Wahner, A.; Zhang, Y. H.; Hofzumahaus, A.

    2011-04-01

    Ambient OH and HO2 concentrations were measured by laser induced fluorescence (LIF) during the PRIDE-PRD2006 (Program of Regional Integrated Experiments of Air Quality over the Pearl River Delta, 2006) campaign at a rural site downwind of the megacity of Guangzhou in Southern China. The observed OH concentrations reached daily peak values of (15-26) × 106 cm-3 which are among the highest values so far reported for urban and suburban areas. The observed OH shows a consistent high correlation with j(O1D) over a broad range of NOx conditions. The correlation cannot be reproduced by model simulations, indicating that OH stabilizing processes are missing in current models. The observed OH exhibited a weak dependence on NOx in contrast to model predictions. While modelled and measured OH agree well at NO mixing ratios above 1 ppb, a continuously increasing underprediction of the observed OH is found towards lower NO concentrations, reaching a factor of 8 at 0.02 ppb NO. A dependence of the modelled-to-measured OH ratio on isoprene cannot be concluded from the PRD data. However, the magnitude of the ratio fits into the isoprene dependent trend that was reported from other campaigns in forested regions. Hofzumahaus et al. (2009) proposed an unknown OH recycling process without NO, in order to explain the high OH levels at PRD in the presence of high VOC reactivity and low NO. Taking a recently discovered interference in the LIF measurement of HO2 into account, the need for an additional HO2 → OH recycling process persists, but the required source strength may be up to 20% larger than previously determined. Recently postulated isoprene mechanisms by Lelieveld et al. (2008) and Peeters and Müller (2010) lead to significant enhancements of OH expected for PRD, but an underprediction of the observed OH by a factor of two remains at low NO (0.1-0.2 ppb). If the photolysis of hydroperoxy aldehydes from isoprene is as efficient as proposed by Peeters and Müller (2010), the

  4. Observation and modelling of OH and HO2 concentrations in the Pearl River Delta 2006: a missing OH source in a VOC rich atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, K. D.; Rohrer, F.; Holland, F.; Fuchs, H.; Bohn, B.; Brauers, T.; Chang, C. C.; Häseler, R.; Hu, M.; Kita, K.; Kondo, Y.; Li, X.; Lou, S. R.; Nehr, S.; Shao, M.; Zeng, L. M.; Wahner, A.; Zhang, Y. H.; Hofzumahaus, A.

    2012-02-01

    Ambient OH and HO2 concentrations were measured by laser induced fluorescence (LIF) during the PRIDE-PRD2006 (Program of Regional Integrated Experiments of Air Quality over the Pearl River Delta, 2006) campaign at a rural site downwind of the megacity of Guangzhou in Southern China. The observed OH concentrations reached daily peak values of (15-26) × 106 cm-3 which are among the highest values so far reported for urban and suburban areas. The observed OH shows a consistent high correlation with j(O1D) over a broad range of NOx conditions. The correlation cannot be reproduced by model simulations, indicating that OH stabilizing processes are missing in current models. The observed OH exhibited a weak dependence on NOx in contrast to model predictions. While modelled and measured OH agree well at NO mixing ratios above 1 ppb, a continuously increasing underprediction of the observed OH is found towards lower NO concentrations, reaching a factor of 8 at 0.02 ppb NO. A dependence of the modelled-to-measured OH ratio on isoprene cannot be concluded from the PRD data. However, the magnitude of the ratio fits into the isoprene dependent trend that was reported from other campaigns in forested regions. Hofzumahaus et al. (2009) proposed an unknown OH recycling process without NO, in order to explain the high OH levels at PRD in the presence of high VOC reactivity and low NO. Taking a recently discovered interference in the LIF measurement of HO2 into account, the need for an additional HO2 → OH recycling process persists, but the required source strength may be up to 20% larger than previously determined. Recently postulated isoprene mechanisms by Lelieveld et al. (2008) and Peeters and Müller (2010) lead to significant enhancements of OH expected for PRD, but an underprediction of the observed OH by a factor of two remains at low NO (0.1-0.2 ppb). If the photolysis of hydroperoxy aldehydes from isoprene is as efficient as proposed by Peeters and Müller (2010), the

  5. Past changes of landscape due to increased dynamics of erosion processes in the Bezděz-Doksy region (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vysloužilová, Barbora; Dreslerová, Dagmar; Kozáková, Radka; Poništiak, Štefan; Chuman, Tomáš; Šefrna, Luděk

    2016-04-01

    This study broadens the archaeological research of the the Bezděz - Doksy region in Northern Bohemia, Czech Republic (Dreslerová et al., 2013). Extensive field works between 2008 and 2012 showed that the region has been settled since the La Tène period. Survey of the alluvial plain of the Robečský stream revealed a record of two intensive erosion episodes in the catchment. We suppose that the first episode may be connected to land use changes and the beginnings of agriculture at the site in the La Tène period. The second episode may be connected to the foundation of the medieval village of Okna, which came into existence in the vicinity of the La Tène settlement. The accelerated erosion of former albeluvisols (on loess) led to significant changes of landscape in the region. The aim of this contribution is to bring a reconstruction of soils, vegetation and relief at the site of Okna before the human occupancy and to detect landscape changes over the time. It focuses on the hypothesis that the accelerated soil erosion has been occurring at the site since the first anthropogenic influence like it is demonstrated by other studies in Europe (e.g. Leopold and Völkel, 2007; Boardman, 2013). An abrupt change of land use from forest to arable land is proved by palynological records. Simultaneously there are buried soil horizons and alluvial sediments which can be studied as geoarchives. The difficulties in reconstruction of relief and quantification of the historical erosion effects are faced by applying GIS and model approaches (Peeters et al., 2003). References Boardman, J., 2013. Soil Erosion in Britain: Updating the Record. Agriculture 3, 418-442. doi:10.3390/agriculture3030418 Dreslerová, D., Waldhauser, J., Abraham, V., Kočár, P., Křivánek, R., Meduna, P., Sádlo, J., 2013. The Bezděz - Doksy region (Northern Bohemia) in prehistory and the La Tène settlement at Okna (in Czech). Archeologické rozhledy LXV, 535-573. Leopold, M., Völkel, J., 2007

  6. Infrared spectra of interstellar deuteronated PAHs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buragohain, Mridusmita; Pathak, Amit; Sarre, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules have emerged as a potential constituent of the ISM that emit strong features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.2 and 12.7 μm with weaker and blended features in the 3-20μm region. These features are proposed to arise from the vibrational relaxation of PAH molecules on absorption of background UV photons (Tielens 2008). These IR features have been observed towards almost all types of astronomical objects; say H II regions, photodissociation regions, reflection nebulae, planetary nebulae, young star forming regions, external galaxies, etc. A recent observation has proposed that interstellar PAHs are major reservoir for interstellar deuterium (D) (Peeters et al. 2004). According to the `deuterium depletion model' as suggested by Draine (2006), some of the Ds formed in the big bang are depleted in PAHs, which can account for the present value of D/H in the ISM. Hence, study of deuterated PAHs (PADs) is essential in order to measure D/H in the ISM.In this work, we consider another probable category of the large PAH family, i.e. Deuteronated PAHs (DPAH+). Onaka et al. have proposed a D/H ratio which is an order of magnitude smaller than the proposed value of D/H by Draine suggesting that if Ds are depleted in PAHs, they might be accommodated in large PAHs (Onaka et al. 2014). This work reports a `Density Functional Theory' calculation of large deuteronated PAHs (coronene, ovalene, circumcoronene and circumcircumcoronene) to determine the expected region of emission features and to find a D/H ratio that is comparable to the observational results. We present a detailed analysis of the IR spectra of these molecules and discuss the possible astrophysical implications.ReferencesDraine B. T. 2006, in ASP Conf. Ser. 348, Proc. Astrophysics in the Far Ultraviolet: Five Years of Discovery with FUSE, ed. G. Sonneborn, H. Moos, B-G Andersson (San Francisco, CA:ASP) 58Onaka T., Mori T. I., Sakon I., Ohsawa R., Kaneda H., Okada Y., Tanaka M

  7. [Lipid-lowering therapy and patient adherence in the MULTI GAP 2013 trial].

    PubMed

    Simonyi, Gábor

    2014-04-27

    Bevezetés: A dyslipidaemia ismert cardiovascularis kockázati tényező. A lipidterápiában a célértékek elérésének fontos tényezője a megfelelő betegadherencia. Célkitűzés: A MULTI GAP (MULTI Goal Attainment Problem) 2013-as vizsgálatban atheroscleroticus betegségben szenvedő betegek esetében a statinterápia adherenciájának és perzisztenciájának felmérése, amely részben a vizsgálatban részt vevő orvosok becslésén, illetve 319, a megelőző évben elvégzett MULTI GAP vizsgálatban részt vett beteg esetében az Országos Egészségbiztosítási Pénztár vénykiváltási adatbázisán alapult. Módszer: A MULTI GAP 2013 vizsgálatban standard, strukturált kérdőívek segítségével 1519 beteg adatai kerültek feldolgozásra. Az elemzésben kiértékelésre kerültek az egyes ellátási szinteken elért lipidértékek, a kezelőorvos által vélt betegadherencia, a 319 beteg Országos Egészségbiztosítási Pénztár vénykiváltási adataira támaszkodó valós adherencia, a kezelőorvosok elégedettsége a statinterápia eredményeivel, illetve az adherencia és a lipideredmények összevetése. Eredmények: Az elmúlt 7 év felméréseinek adatait is figyelembe véve előtérbe kerültek a hatékonyabb statinok; az atorvastatin és rozuvastatin alkalmazásának összesített aránya 49%-ról 83%-ra, azaz mintegy 70%-kal nőtt. A betegadherencia vonatkozásában kimutatták, hogy a 2,5 mmol/l alatti LDL-koleszterin-értékeket elért betegeknél az 1 év alatt kiváltott receptek száma mintegy nyolc gyógyszertári beváltást jelentett. Ehhez képest a 2,5 mmol/l feletti LDL-koleszterin-értékű csoportban a gyógyszerkiváltás lényegesen alacsonyabb volt (5,3 és 6,3 közötti). Éves szinten a 10–12 és a 7–9 gyógyszerkiváltás szignifikánsan alacsonyabb LDL-koleszterin-szintet jelentett a semennyit (0), illetve az 1–3 receptet éves szinten kiváltók csoportjaihoz képest. A kezelőorvosok által 100%-os

  8. Purification of rat liver particulate neutral ribonuclease and comparison of properties with pancreas and serum ribonucleases.

    PubMed Central

    Bartholeyns, J; Baudhuin, P

    1977-01-01

    Rat liver particulate neutral ribonuclease (EC 3.1.4.22) was extensively purified (up to 40000-fold). It is shown to be an endonuclease, specific for pyrimidine bases, hydrolysing 5'-phosphate ester bonds. The enzyme specificity, Km, pH optimum, stability in acid medium and thermal stability at high temperature are the same as those of rat pancreatic and serum ribonucleases. Like pancreatic and serum neutral ribonucleases, the hepatic enzyme is sensitive to the liver natural inhibitor. This inhibitor was purified 8000-fold; its association with ribonuclease follows zero-order kinetics. These identical properties for ribonuclease of rat liver, pancreas and serum support the hypothesis [Bartholeyns, Peeters-Joris & Baudhuin (1975) Eur. J. Biochem. 60, 385-393] of an extrahepatic origin for the liver enzyme, the plasma ribonuclease of pancreatic origin being taken up by endocytosis in the liver. Neutral ribonuclease activity was detected in all rat organs investigated; its distribution among tissues is different from the distribution of the natural ribonuclear inhibitor. PMID:19011

  9. Diphthongs in the repopulated vowel space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogacka, Anna

    2005-04-01

    The study examined 8 British English diphthongs produced by Polish learners of English, testing the diphthongs' quality, duration, nasalization, and occurrence of glottal stops before the diphthongs. There were twelve conditions in which the diphthongs were tested: word-initial, word-final, before a voiced obstruent, before a voiceless obstruent, before a nasal consonant, and before a nasal consonant followed by a fricative, and each of these conditions was tested in a stressed and unstressed position. The diphthongs were tested in real words, embedded in sentences, controlled for the stress position, rhythmic units, and length. The sentences were read by 8 female and 8 male Polish learners of English and control subjects. The aim of the phonetic analysis done with Praat, and employing the methodologies used by Flege (1995) for SLA and Peeters (1991) and Jacewicz, Fujimara, and Fox (2003) for diphthongs, is to examine the shape of the restructured vowel space (Liljencrants and Lindblom 1972; Stevens 1989). The approach taken here is termed Vowel Space Repopulation to emphasize that the vowel space of Polish speakers of English is re-structured by new categories in complex ways which are not adequately captured by traditional notions such as ``transfer,'' ``interference,'' or ``interlanguage.''

  10. Gyrokinetic theory and simulation of angular momentum transport

    SciTech Connect

    Waltz, R. E.; Staebler, G. M.; Candy, J.; Hinton, F. L.

    2007-12-15

    A gyrokinetic theory of turbulent toroidal angular momentum transport as well as modifications to neoclassical poloidal rotation from turbulence is formulated starting from the fundamental six-dimensional kinetic equation. The gyro-Bohm scaled transport is evaluated from toroidal delta-f gyrokinetic simulations using the GYRO code [Candy and Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)]. The simulations recover two pinch mechanisms in the radial transport of toroidal angular momentum: The slab geometry ExB shear pinch [Dominguez and Staebler, Phys. Fluids B 5, 387 (1993)] and the toroidal geometry 'Coriolis' pinch [Peeters, Angioni, and Strintzi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 265003 (2007)]. The pinches allow the steady state null stress (or angular momentum transport flow) condition required to understand intrinsic (or spontaneous) toroidal rotation in heated tokamak without an internal source of torque [Staebler, Kinsey, and Waltz, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 46, 221 (2001)]. A predicted turbulent shift in the neoclassical poloidal rotation [Staebler, Phys. Plasmas 11, 1064 (2004)] appears to be small at the finite relative gyroradius (rho-star) of current experiments.

  11. Frequency bands of strongly nonlinear homogeneous granular systems.

    PubMed

    Lydon, Joseph; Jayaprakash, K R; Ngo, Duc; Starosvetsky, Yuli; Vakakis, Alexander F; Daraio, Chiara

    2013-07-01

    Recent numerical studies on an infinite number of identical spherical beads in Hertzian contact showed the presence of frequency bands [Jayaprakash, Starosvetsky, Vakakis, Peeters, and Kerschen, Nonlinear Dyn. 63, 359 (2011)]. These bands, denoted here as propagation and attenuation bands (PBs and ABs), are typically present in linear or weakly nonlinear periodic media; however, their counterparts are not intuitive in essentially nonlinear periodic media where there is a complete lack of classical linear acoustics, i.e., in "sonic vacua." Here, we study the effects of PBs and ABs on the forced dynamics of ordered, uncompressed granular systems. Through numerical and experimental techniques, we find that the dynamics of these systems depends critically on the frequency and amplitude of the applied harmonic excitation. For fixed forcing amplitude, at lower frequencies, the oscillations are large in amplitude and governed by strongly nonlinear and nonsmooth dynamics, indicating PB behavior. At higher frequencies the dynamics is weakly nonlinear and smooth, in the form of compressed low-amplitude oscillations, indicating AB behavior. At the boundary between the PB and the AB large-amplitude oscillations due to resonance occur, giving rise to collisions between beads and chaotic dynamics; this renders the forced dynamics sensitive to initial and forcing conditions, and hence unpredictable. Finally, we study asymptotically the near field standing wave dynamics occurring for high frequencies, well inside the AB.

  12. [Evaluation of the usefulness of the EOS 2D/3D system for the measurement of lower limbs anatomical and biomechanical parameters in children].

    PubMed

    Schlégl, Adám Tibor; Szuper, Kinga; Somoskeöy, Szabolcs; Than, Péter

    2014-10-26

    Bevezetés: Az alsó végtag anatómiai és biomechanikai paraméterei számos gyermekortopédiai betegség kulcstényezői, így pontos mérésük elengedhetetlen. Célkitűzés: A szerzők célja a rendelkezésükre álló 3D rekonstrukcióra képes képalkotó eszköz, az EOS 2D/3D System gyermekkori alkalmazhatóságának vizsgálata volt. Módszer: A 2–16 éves korcsoportba tartozó 523 egyén 3D modellezését végezték el, akiknél az alsó végtag biomechanikáját befolyásoló eltérés nem igazolódott. Az adatok statisztikai feldolgozásához intraclass korrelációs vizsgálatot, páros t-próbát, Spearman-korrelációt, illetve Welch-tesztet alkalmaztak. Eredmények: A megbízhatósági vizsgálat során az operátor minden paraméter esetében kiváló eredményt ért el. A képalkotás során alkalmazott előrelépett pozíció egyedül a sagittalis tibifemoralis szögnél okozott eltérést. A szerzők által vizsgált összes paraméter összefüggést mutatott a korral és a nemmel. Ezzel szemben a magassággal nem mutatott összefüggést a collodiaphysealis szög, a csípő-térd eltolódás és a femoralis és tibialis torzió. Következtetések: Az EOS-technológia alkalmas módszernek bizonyult az alsó végtag anatómiai paramétereinek mérésére gyermekkorban. Ezek változása összefügg a nemmel és a korral egyaránt. Orv., Hetil., 2014, 155(43), 1701–1711.

  13. [Cognitive functions in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Kálcza-Jánosi, Kinga; Lukács, Andrea; Barkai, László; Szamosközi, István

    2013-05-05

    Bevezetés: A cukorbetegséget különféle kognitív károsodásokkal társítják. Célkitűzés: A szerzők 1-es és 2-es típusú diabetesben a kognitív működés közötti különbségek pontosítását tűzték ki célul. Módszer: Metaanalízis a Medline, PubMed és ScienceDirect felhasználásával (három tanulmány az 1-es és hat tanulmány a 2-es típusú cukorbetegséggel kapcsolatban). Eredmények: Az 1-es típusú cukorbeteg felnőttek teljesítménye gyengébb volt a kontrollokhoz képest az összes mért területen. A hatásméret a pszichomotoros aktivitásnál volt a legmagasabb (D = –0,69). Kicsi volt a hatásméret a késleltetett verbális memória (D = –0,48), figyelem (D = –0,47), nyelv (D = –0,44), vizuális feldolgozás (D = –0,35), azonnali verbális memória (D = –0,30), munkamemória (D = –0,27) és a végrehajtó funkcióknál (D = –0,26). A felnőtt 2-es típusú cukorbetegek teljesítménye gyengébb volt, mint a kontrolloké a munkamemória kivételével (D = +0,03) az összes kognitív területen. Legmagasabb hatásméretet az azonnali verbális memória (D = –1,12), pszichomotoros aktivitás (D = –0,82) és a késleltetett verbális memória (D = –0,81) mutatott. Közepes volt a hatásméret az általános intellektuális képességek (D = –0,68) területén, míg kicsi volt a hatásméret az általános memória (D = –0,37), a figyelem (D = –0,35), nyelv (D = –0,35), vizuális feldolgozás (D = –0,33) és a végrehajtó funkciók (D = –0,33) terén. Következtetés: Mindkét típusú cukorbetegség csökkent teljesítménnyel társul számos kognitív területen. Orv. Hetil., 2013, 154, 694–699.

  14. [Mini-laparoscopic cholecystectomy as an innovative method in minimally invasive abdominal surgery].

    PubMed

    Andrási, László; Ábrahám, Szabolcs; Lázár, György

    2014-12-01

    Bevezetés: Vizsgálatunkban a minilaparoscopos módon (portok számának és méretének csökkentése révén) végzett laparoscopos cholecystectomiák (LC) eredményeit mutatjuk be. Elemeztük a mini-LC előnyeit és hátrányait a hagyományos LC-vel összehasonlítva. Betegek és módszerek: Mini-LC során összesen 3 portot (11, 5 és 3,5 mm) alkalmaztunk. Tíz esetben végzett mini-LC eredményeit hasonlítottuk össze 10 konvencionális LC eredményeivel. A betegválogatás alapját a nem, az életkor, a BMI és az ASA-beosztás képezte, amely mindkét vizsgált csoportot homogénné tett. Összehasonlítottuk a két eljárás átlagos műtéti időtartamát, a segédport szükségességét, a konverziós arányt, a postoperativ fájdalomcsillapító-igényt, a korai/késői szövődmények előfordulásának gyakoriságát és a kozmetikai eredményeket. Eredmények: A műtéti időtartam, vérveszteség, kórházi tartózkodás, szövődmények vonatkozásában nem észleltünk szignifikáns különbséget a két csoport között. A sebészi metszések összesített mérete mini-LC során 19,5 mm, míg az LC-csoportban 41 mm, a szöveti károsodás mértéke pedig 124,2 mm2 és 448,2 mm2 volt a két csoportban. Mindezek jelentősen javították a mini-LC kozmetikai eredményét. A hagyományos LC után a betegek szignifikánsan nagyobb arányban igényeltek postoperativ fájdalomcsillapítást. Következtetések: A mini-LC biztonságos, kiváló kozmetikai eredményeket adó eljárás, amely kisebb postoperativ fájdalomcsillapító-igénnyel jár. Válogatott esetekben ez a műtéti típus ajánlott eljárás lehet a konvencionális LC-vel szemben.

  15. [Effectiveness of pentoxifylline and of bio-electromagnetic therapy in lower limb obliterative arterial disease].

    PubMed

    Bernát, Sándor Iván

    2013-10-20

    Bevezetés: A mikrocirkuláció javítására korlátozottak a terápiás lehetőségek. Célkitűzés: A vizsgálat elsősorban arra irányult, hogy bizonyítható-e a változó mágneses tér kedvező hatása az alsó végtagi obliteratív érbetegségben szenvedő betegek mikrokeringésére. Módszer: Harminc, alsó végtagi obliteratív érbetegségben (Fontaine IIa és IIb) szenvedő beteget vontak be a vizsgálatba. Megmérték a betegek fájdalmatlan és maximális járástávolságát treadmill készülék segítségével. Placeboperiódust követően nyolc alkalommal részesültek a betegek bioelektromágnes-regulációs terápiában, majd infúziós pentoxifillinterápiában, és minden kezelés után megmérték a betegek fájdalommentes és maximális járástávolságát. Eredmények: A bioelektromágnes-regulációs kezelés hatására a fájdalommentes és maximális járástávolság 57,4%-kal (p = 0,005), illetve 36,6%-kal (p = 0,042) nőtt. A kombinált (bioelektromágnes-regulációs+reológiai) kezelés összesen 81,9%-kal, illetve 84,0%-kal növelte a mért értékeket. A kombinált kezelés a terápia előttihez képest jelentős mértékben javította a járásképességet (p = 0,000373 és p = 0,00741). Következtetések: A bioelektromágnes-regulációs terápia elsősorban a mikrokeringés ereire, a pentoxifillin inkább a haemorrheologiára hat kedvezően. A kombinált kezelés jól kiegészíti egymást, és 70%-ban jó, illetve kiváló terápiás hatást eredményez. Orv. Hetil., 2013, 154, 1674–1679.

  16. [Use of hysteroscopy at the office in gynaecological practice].

    PubMed

    Török, Péter

    2014-10-05

    Bevezetés: Az office hiszteroszkópia a méhűri vizsgálatot gyorsabbá teszi, alacsonyabb költségigényű, a betegek számára pedig kevesebb megterheléssel jár. Célkitűzés: A szerző célja volt a vizsgálatok közben tapasztalt fájdalomérzetek elemzése, új eljárás kidolgozása a petevezető-átjárhatóság ambuláns vizsgálatára. Módszer: A vizsgálatok a Debreceni Egyetem, Szülészeti és Nőgyógyászati Klinikáján történtek, ambuláns körülmények között, anesztézia nélkül. A 400 vizsgálat eredményének elemzése a hagyományos módszernél ismert javallatok alapján készült. A szerző a vizsgálatokhoz 2,7 mm átmérőjű optikát használt diagnosztikus, illetve operatív hüvellyel, és a fájdalomérzet objektivizálására 70 betegnél VAS-t alkalmazott. A petevezető-átjárhatósági vizsgálat során 70 esetben hasonlította az új módszert a laparoszkópos változathoz. Eredmények: Az office hiszteroszkópia alkalmazható ambuláns körülmények között, anesztézia nélkül. A tapasztalt fájdalomértékek az alcsoportokban (nem szült, szült, posztmenopauza, diagnosztikus/operatív alcsoport) szignifikánsan nem különböztek, átlagértékük 3,5±1,01 volt (p=0,34). A szelektív pertubáció a laparoszkópos kromohidrotubációhoz viszonyítva 92,06% pontosságúnak bizonyult. Következtetések: Az office hiszteroszkópia gyorsasága, fájdalommentessége az új eljárás széles körű alkalmazását támasztja alá. Meddőségi kivizsgálásban kiválthatja a műtői körülményeket igénylő beavatkozásokat. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(40), 1589–1597.

  17. [Connection between cancer- and alcohol-related mortality in a rural practice of a South-Hungarian village].

    PubMed

    Péter, Arpád

    2013-05-05

    Bevezetés: A több mint negyedszázada ugyanazon egykörzetes községben dolgozó szerző az 1987 és 1999 közötti vizsgálati periódusban a daganatos halálozásnak az alkohollal kapcsolatos halálozással összefüggő hányadát férfiak körében 50%-nak, nők körében 7,9%-nak találta. Célkitűzés: A szerző célként tűzte ki a halálozás e két meghatározó tényezőjének hosszabb távú nyomon követéséhez és elemzéséhez a halálozási mutatók ismételt felmérését a 2000 és 2011 közötti időszakra vonatkozóan. Módszer: Az elhunyt betegek valamennyi fontos előzményi adatát összefoglaló háziorvosi halotti epikrízisekbe tömörítette és a halálokok kiválasztásakor ezeket döntő súllyal vette figyelembe. Eredmények: A vizsgált 12 év alatt a szerző úgynevezett „tisztított praxislakossága” körében 326 ember halt meg (167 férfi, 159 nő). Bár a részeredményeket tekintve is jelentős átstruktúrálódás következett be a daganatos és alkoholos halálozási kategóriákon belül, és ezek összes halálozáson belüli aránya is megváltozott (az alkohollal kapcsolatos halálozásé számottevően csökkent, míg a daganatos halálozásé kisebb mértékben nőtt), az újabb vizsgálati periódusban a daganatos halálozásnak alkohollal kapcsolatos hányada mindkét nemben nőtt (a férfiak körében 60%-ra, a nők körében 9,1%-ra). Következtetés: Legfőbb epidemiológiai következtetésként megerősítést nyert, hogy a daganatos betegségek megelőzésének, különösen bizonyos lokalizációjú daganatok mint halálokok csökkentésének egyik kulcskérdése – megkülönböztetetten a férfiak körében – az alkoholabúzus visszaszorítása. Orv. Hetil., 2013, 154, 700–706.

  18. Hydroxyl Radical Regeneration in Isoprene Oxidation: the Upgraded Mechanism LIM1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeters, J.; Nguyen, S.; Nguyen, T.; Stavrakou, T.; Muller, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    Measured hydroxyl radical concentrations in isoprene-rich areas are much higher than predicted by existing chemical models, to the extent that the global oxidizing capacity of our atmosphere should be significantly revised upwards. The OH regeneration that clearly occurs in isoprene oxidation at low/moderate NO is attributed in the Leuven Isoprene Mechanism to novel, theoretically characterized chemical pathways (LIM0: Peeters et al. 2009; Peeters and Muller 2010). The key new features of LIM0 are (i) thermal equilibration of the labile beta-OH- and delta-OH-isoprenylperoxy isomers; (ii) 1,6-H shift isomerisation of the Z-delta-OH-peroxy isomers to yield hydroperoxy-methyl-butenals (HPALDs); (iii) fast photolysis of the HPALDs resulting overall in several OH radicals per HPALD. The OH-regeneration through photolabile HPALDs has recently found experimental support, but the peroxy isomerisation rate, HPALD yield and the extent of OH recycling are still uncertain (Crounse et al. 2011; Wolfe et al. 2012). In this work, the upgraded LIM1 mechanism is presented. Based on better levels of theory, the crucial equilibrium ratio of the isomerising Z-delta-OH-peroxys over the majority beta-OH-isoprenylperoxys had to be reduced by a factor of about 5 compared to LIM0, while the isomerisation rate of the Z-delta-OH-peroxys adopted from Taraborrelli et al. (2012) is about 3 times lower than in LIM0. The chemistry following the 1,6-H shift of the Z-delta-OH-peroxys is much expanded and extended. Firstly, LIM1 introduces other pathways beside HPALD formation following the Z-delta-OH-peroxy isomerisation, resulting likewise in OH recycling. This, together with the revised Z-delta-OH- equilibrium and isomerisation data above, affords a close model-reproduction of the HPALD and other product yields observed by Crounse et al. (2011). Secondly, LIM1 proposes new fast reactions of HO2 with the alpha-oxoketene products from the peroxy isomerisation routes; these reactions are shown to

  19. Impacts of mechanistic changes on HOx formation and recycling in the oxidation of isoprene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archibald, A. T.; Cooke, M. C.; Utembe, S. R.; Shallcross, D. E.; Derwent, R. G.; Jenkin, M. E.

    2010-09-01

    Recently reported model-measurement discrepancies for the concentrations of the HOx radical species (OH and HO2) in locations characterized by high emission rates of isoprene have indicated possible deficiencies in the representation of OH recycling and formation in isoprene mechanisms currently employed in numerical models; particularly at low levels of NOx. Using version 3.1 of the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3.1) as a base mechanism, the sensitivity of the system to a number of detailed mechanistic changes is examined for a wide range of NOx levels, using a simple box model. The studies consider sensitivity tests in relation to three general areas for which experimental and/or theoretical evidence has been reported in the peer-reviewed literature, as follows: (1) implementation of propagating channels for the reactions of HO2 with acyl and β-oxo peroxy radicals with HO2, with support from a number of studies; (2) implementation of the OH-catalysed conversion of isoprene-derived hydroperoxides to isomeric epoxydiols, as characterised by Paulot et al.~(2009a); and (3) implementation of a mechanism involving respective 1,5 and 1,6 H atom shift isomerisation reactions of the β-hydroxyalkenyl and cis-δ-hydroxyalkenyl peroxy radical isomers, formed from the sequential addition of OH and O2 to isoprene, based on the theoretical study of Peeters et al. (2009). All the considered mechanistic changes lead to simulated increases in the concentrations of OH, with (1) and (2) resulting in respective increases of up to about 7% and 16%, depending on the level of NOx. (3) is found to have potentially much greater impacts, with enhancements in OH concentrations of up to a factor of about 3.3, depending on the level of NOx, provided the (crucial) rapid photolysis of the hydroperoxy-methyl-butenal products of the cis-δ-hydroxyalkenyl peroxy radical isomerisation reactions is represented, as also postulated by Peeters et al.~(2009). Additional tests suggest that the

  20. Hydrophysical and hydrochemical features of Lake Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan) as revealed by field survey of June, 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavialov, Peter; Makkaveev, Petr; Rimskiy-Korsakov, Nikolay; Alymkulov, Salmor; Izhitskiy, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    cycle. However, the vertical profiles of dissolved oxygen indicated that the most intense photosynthetic activity took place in the intermediate layers, while in the surface layer it was suppressed, hypothetically, by excessive insolation. The ionic salt content of the Issyk-Kul waters was essentially uniform throughout the water column, which points towards efficient mixing in the cold period. In summer season, temperature stratification was sufficiently strong to provide for significant reduction of dissolved oxygen and increase of nutrients in the bottom layer. Samples collected and analyzed for dissolved methane generally yielded low concentrations below 0.5 μl/l at the surface and 0.2 μl/l in the bottom layer, however, values as high as to 3.9 μl/l were documented in some samples corresponding to near-shore stations at depths of about 70 m. We also used a towed side-looking sonar to obtain detailed maps of bathymetric features, including the channels formed by ancient beds of the Tyup and the Dzhergalan Rivers. These channels are believed to represent important pathways for ventilated water and terrigenic substances penetrating into the deep central part of the lake following seasonal differential cooling on the eastern shelf (Peeters et al., 2003). Quantitative assessment of this plausible mechanism is subject to future work. References Oberhansli, H., and P. Molnar (2012) Climate evolution in Central Asia during the past few million years: A case study from Issyk-Kul. Scientific Drilling, 13, doi: 10.2204/iodp/sd.13.09.2011 Peeters F, Finger D, Hofer M, Brennwald M, Livingstone DM, Kipfer R (2003) Deep-water renewal in Lake Issyk-Kul driven by differential cooling. Limnol. and Oceanogr. 48: 1419- 1431.

  1. The sensitivity of laser induced fluorescence instruments at low pressure to RO2 radicals and the use of this detection method to determine the yield of HO2 during OH-initiated isoprene oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heard, D. E.; Whalley, L. K.; Blitz, M. A.; Seakins, P. W.

    2011-12-01

    a dry air flow at variable positions along the flow-tube; Isoprene was added downstream of the lamp. Theoretical studies (Peeters et al., 2009) suggest an HO2 yield of 0.7 on a time-scale of a few seconds. Results from the recent laboratory studies will be discussed. Fuchs, H., Bohn, B., Hofzumahaus, A., Holland, F., Lu, K., Nehr, S., Rohrer, F., and Wahner, A.: Detection of HO2 by laser-induced fluorescence: Calibration and interferences from RO2 radicals, Atmos Meas Tech Discuss, 4, 1255-1302, 2011. Heard, D. E., and Pilling, M. J.: Measurement of OH and HO2 in the troposphere, Chem Rev, 103, 5163-5198, 2003. Peeters, J., Nguyen, T. L., and Vereecken, L.: HOx radical regeneration in the oxidation of isoprene, Phys Chem Chem Phys, 11, 5935-5939, 2009.

  2. PREFACE: 21st Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XXI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, J. Albino

    2014-04-01

    Colombia e-mail: dalandinezt@unal.edu.co Professor Laura T Corredor Bohórquez Departamento de Física Universidade Federal de Pernambuco 50670-901 Recife PE Brazil e-mail: ltcorredorb@df.ufpe.br Professor Arkady Shanenko Departamento de Física Universidade Federal de Pernambuco 50670-901 Recife PE Brazil e-mail: arkadyshanenko@df.ufpe.br Professor Renato F Jardim Instituto de Física Universidade de S\\~ao Paulo CP 66318 S\\~ao Paulo SP Brazil e-mail: rjardim@if.usp.br Professor Francois Peeters Department Fysica Universiteit Antwerpen Groneneborgerlann 171 B-2020, Antwerpen Belgium e-mail: francois.peeters@uantwerpen.be Organizing committee ChairmanCarlos Arturo Parra Vargas Proceedings EditorJosé Albino Aguiar Program ChairJairo Roa-Rojas SecretaryAura Janeth Barón González TreasurerArmando Sarmiento Santos Speaker ChairRafael González Hernández Fernando Naranjo Mayorga David A Landínez Téllez Jesús Oswaldo Morán José Sierra Ortega

  3. Decadal- to biennial scale variability of planktic foraminifera in the northeastern Arabian Sea during the last two millennia: evidence for winter monsoon forcing mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munz, Philipp; Lückge, Andreas; Siccha, Michael; Kucera, Michal; Schulz, Hartmut

    2015-04-01

    The Asian monsoon system is controlling the hydrologic cycle, and thus the agricultural and economic prosperity of the worlds most densely populated region. Strong and moisture-laden winds from the southwest induce upwelling and significant productivity in the western Arabian Sea during boreal summer. During boreal winter, weaker dry and cold surface winds from the northeast nourish ocean productivity mainly in the northeastern Arabian Sea. Instrumental records spanning the last century are too short to understand how the monsoon system reacts to external forcing mechanisms and to accurately determine its natural variability. Compared to the summer monsoon component, the dynamics of the winter monsoon are virtually unknown, due to the lack of adequate archives that are affected only by winter conditions. Here we present a decadal- to biennial-scale resolution record of past winter monsoon variability over the last two millennia, based on census counts of planktic foraminifera from two laminated sediment cores collected offshore Pakistan. One shorter box core (SO90-39KG) spans the last 250 years with an average ~2-year resolution, whereas the longer piston core (SO130-275KL) spans the last 2,100 years with a 10-year resolution. We use Globigerina falconensis as a faunal indicator for winter conditions, a species that is most abundant during winter in the NE Arabian Sea (Peeters and Brummer, 2002; Schulz et al., 2002). Our results show that during the past 2,100 years G. falconensis varied with significant periodicities centered on ˜ 60, ˜ 53, ˜ 40, ˜ 34 and ˜ 29 years per cycle. Some of these periods closely match cycles that are known from proxy records of solar irradiance, suggesting a solar forcing on winter monsoon variability. During the past 250 years G. falconensis varied in correlation with the (11-year) Schwabe and the (22-year) Hale solar cycles. Furthermore, a significant ˜ 7 year cyclicity could indicate a teleconnection to the El Niño Southern

  4. Hydroxyl radical regeneration in isoprene oxidation: upgraded mechanism LIM1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeters, Jozef; Son Nguyen, Vinh; Nguyen, Thanh Lam; Stravrakou, Trissevgeni; Muller, Jean-Francois

    2013-04-01

    The OH regeneration known to occur in isoprene oxidation at low/moderate NO is attributed in the Leuven Isoprene Mechanism to novel, theoretically characterized chemical pathways (LIM0: Peeters et al. 2009; Peeters and Muller 2010). Its key new features are (i) quasi-equilibration of the thermally labile beta-OH- and delta-OH-isoprenylperoxy isomers; (ii) 1,6-H shift isomerisation of the Z-delta-OH-peroxy isomers to yield hydroperoxy-methyl-butenals (HPALDs); (iii) fast photolysis of the HPALDs resulting overall in several OH radicals per HPALD. The OH-regeneration through photolabile HPALDs has recently found experimental support, but the peroxy isomerisation rate, HPALD yield and extent of OH recycling are still uncertain (Crounse et al. 2011; Wolfe et al. 2012). In this work, the upgraded LIM1 mechanism is presented. Based on much higher levels of theory that fully account for dispersion effects, the crucial equilibrium ratio of the isomerising Z-delta-OH-peroxys over the majority beta-OH-isoprenylperoxys is reduced by a factor ≈5 and the isomerisation rate of the Z-delta-OH-peroxys by a factor ≈1.5 compared to LIM0. The chemistry following the 1,6-H shift of the Z-delta-OH-peroxys is also much expanded and extended. Firstly, LIM1 introduces other pathways beside HPALD formation following the Z-delta-OH-peroxy isomerisation, but resulting likewise in OH recycling. This, together with the revised Z-delta-OH- equilibrium and isomerisation data above, affords a fair model-reproduction of the HPALD and other product yields observed by Crounse et al. (2011). Secondly, LIM1 proposes new fast reactions of HO2 with the alpha-oxoketene products from the peroxy isomerisation routes; these reactions are shown to efficiently convert HO2 into OH and are prime candidates for the unknown X + HO2 → OH + ... hydroxyl-recycling routes invoked in recent studies (Hofzumahaus et al.2009; Whalley et al. 2011). Modeling results using the IMAGES global CTM will be presented on

  5. Large effect of irradiance on hydrogen isotope fractionation of alkenones in Emiliania huxleyi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meer, Marcel T. J.; Benthien, Albert; French, Katherine L.; Epping, Eric; Zondervan, Ingrid; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Bijma, Jelle; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Schouten, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    The hydrogen isotopic (δD) composition of long-chain alkenones produced by certain haptophyte algae has been suggested as a potential proxy for reconstructing paleo sea surface salinity. However, environmental parameters other than salinity may also affect the δD of alkenones. We investigated the impact of the level of irradiance on hydrogen isotopic fractionation of alkenones versus growth water by cultivating two strains of the cosmopolitan haptophyte Emiliania huxleyi at different light intensities. The hydrogen isotope fractionation decreased by approximately 40‰ when irradiance was increased from 15 to 200 μmol photons m-2 s-1 above which it was relatively constant. The response is likely a direct effect of photosystem I and II activity as the relationship of the fractionation factor α versus light intensity can be described by an Eilers-Peeters photosynthesis model. This irradiance effect is in agreement with published δD data of alkenones derived from suspended particulate matter collected from different depths in the photic zone of the Gulf of California and the eastern tropical North Pacific. However, haptophyte algae tend to bloom at relatively high light intensities (>500 μmol photons m-2 s-1) occurring at the sea surface, at which hydrogen isotope fractionation is relatively constant and not affected by changes in light intensity. Alkenones accumulating in the sediment are likely mostly derived from these surface water haptophyte blooms, when the largest amount of biomass is produced. Therefore, the observed irradiance effect is unlikely to affect the applicability of the hydrogen isotopic composition of sedimentary long chain alkenones as a proxy for paleosalinity.

  6. Perturbative studies of toroidal momentum transport using neutral beam injection modulation in the Joint European Torus: Experimental results, analysis methodology, and first principles modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Mantica, P.; Ferreira, J. S.; Salmi, A.; Strintzi, D.; Weiland, J.; Brix, M.; Giroud, C.; Corrigan, G.; Zastrow, K.-D.; Tardini, G.

    2010-09-15

    Perturbative experiments have been carried out in the Joint European Torus [Fusion Sci. Technol. 53(4) (2008)] in order to identify the diffusive and convective components of toroidal momentum transport. The torque source was modulated either by modulating tangential neutral beam power or by modulating in antiphase tangential and normal beams to produce a torque perturbation in the absence of a power perturbation. The resulting periodic perturbation in the toroidal rotation velocity was modeled using time-dependent transport simulations in order to extract empirical profiles of momentum diffusivity and pinch. Details of the experimental technique, data analysis, and modeling are provided. The momentum diffusivity in the core region (0.2<{rho}<0.8) was found to be close to the ion heat diffusivity ({chi}{sub {phi}/{chi}i{approx}}0.7-1.7) and a significant inward momentum convection term, up to 20 m/s, was found, leading to an effective momentum diffusivity significantly lower than the ion heat diffusivity ({chi}{sub {phi}}{sup eff}/{chi}{sub i}{sup eff{approx}}0.4). These results have significant implications on the prediction of toroidal rotation velocities in future tokamaks and are qualitatively consistent with recent developments in momentum transport theory. Detailed quantitative comparisons with the theoretical predictions of the linear gyrokinetic code GKW [A. G. Peeters et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 180, 2650 (2009)] and of the quasilinear fluid Weiland model [J. Weiland, Collective Modes in Inhomogeneous Plasmas (IOP, Bristol, 2000)] are presented for two analyzed discharges.

  7. Pedagogy with babies: perspectives of eight nursery managers.

    PubMed

    Elfer, Peter; Page, Jools

    2015-12-02

    The last 30 years have seen a significant increase in babies attending nursery, with corresponding questions about the aims and organisation of practice. Research broadly agrees on the importance of emotionally consistent, sensitive and responsive interactions between staff and babies. Policy objectives for nursery and expectations of parents and staff give rise to different and sometimes conflicting aims for such interactions; for example attachments to staff, peer interactions or early learning. Research shows marked variations of pedagogy aims and organisation with babies in nurseries in different national and cultural contexts. It also demonstrates variation between nurseries in similar contexts and between staff in their beliefs and values about work with babies. This paper reports on an exploratory study of the beliefs, aspirations and approaches of eight managers concerning pedagogy with babies in two similar English local authorities. These managers spoke of the importance of being responsive to the concerns and priorities of parents, whilst being sensitive to the demands of the work on their staff. The main finding was of the contradictions and confusions managers felt were inherent in the work, arising from both conflicting policy objectives and personal beliefs and aspirations; sometimes their own and sometimes those of individual staff and parents. Urban, Vandenbroeck, Van Laere, Lazzari, and Peeters' [(2012). Towards competent systems in early childhood education and care. Implications for policy and practice. European Journal of Education, 47(4), 508-526.] concept of the 'competent system' is used to recommend a grounded approach to the development of a more culturally, socially and individually responsive pedagogy with babies than appears to exist at present.

  8. HOx regeneration in the oxidation of isoprene III: theoretical study of the key isomerisation of the Z-δ-hydroxy-peroxy isoprene radicals.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh Lam; Vereecken, Luc; Peeters, Jozef

    2010-12-17

    As a sequel to our communication on a proposed new isoprene oxidation mechanism aiming to rationalize the unexpectedly high OH and HO(2) levels observed in isoprene-rich areas (J. Peeters, T. L. Nguyen, L. Vereecken, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2009, 11, 5935), we report herein the detailed quantum chemical and statistical kinetics characterization of the crucial 1,6-H shifts in the two Z-δ-hydroxy-peroxy radicals from isoprene. Geometries, energies and vibration frequencies of all conformers of the reactant radicals and transition states are computed at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory and the energies of the lowest-lying conformers are then refined at various higher levels of theory, including CBS-QB3, IRCMax(CBS-QB3//B3LYP) and CBS-APNO. The rate coefficients over a wide temperature range are calculated using multi-conformer transition state theory with WKB tunneling factors evaluated for the barrier shape found by CBS-QB3//B3LYP IRC analyses. The WKB tunneling factors for these allyl-stabilisation-assisted reactions are about 25 at ambient temperatures. The rate coefficients can be represented by Arrhenius expressions over the 250-350 K range: k(T)=1.4×10(9) exp(-6380/T) s(-1) for the Z-1-OH-4-OO(·)-isoprene radical, and k(T)=0.72×10(9) exp(-5520/T) s(-1) for Z-1-OH-4-OO(·)-isoprene. With the k(1,6-H) of order 1 s(-1) at ambient temperatures, these isomerisations can compete with and even outrun the traditional peroxy reactions at low and moderate NO levels. The importance of these reactions as key processes in the newly proposed, OH-regenerating isoprene oxidation scheme is discussed.

  9. Pedagogy with babies: perspectives of eight nursery managers

    PubMed Central

    Elfer, Peter; Page, Jools

    2015-01-01

    The last 30 years have seen a significant increase in babies attending nursery, with corresponding questions about the aims and organisation of practice. Research broadly agrees on the importance of emotionally consistent, sensitive and responsive interactions between staff and babies. Policy objectives for nursery and expectations of parents and staff give rise to different and sometimes conflicting aims for such interactions; for example attachments to staff, peer interactions or early learning. Research shows marked variations of pedagogy aims and organisation with babies in nurseries in different national and cultural contexts. It also demonstrates variation between nurseries in similar contexts and between staff in their beliefs and values about work with babies. This paper reports on an exploratory study of the beliefs, aspirations and approaches of eight managers concerning pedagogy with babies in two similar English local authorities. These managers spoke of the importance of being responsive to the concerns and priorities of parents, whilst being sensitive to the demands of the work on their staff. The main finding was of the contradictions and confusions managers felt were inherent in the work, arising from both conflicting policy objectives and personal beliefs and aspirations; sometimes their own and sometimes those of individual staff and parents. Urban, Vandenbroeck, Van Laere, Lazzari, and Peeters' [(2012). Towards competent systems in early childhood education and care. Implications for policy and practice. European Journal of Education, 47(4), 508–526.] concept of the ‘competent system’ is used to recommend a grounded approach to the development of a more culturally, socially and individually responsive pedagogy with babies than appears to exist at present. PMID:26692633

  10. EDITORIAL: Special issue containing papers presented at the 4th IAEA Technical Meeting on the Theory of Plasma Instabilities Special issue containing papers presented at the 4th IAEA Technical Meeting on the Theory of Plasma Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, K.; Wilson, H. R.

    2010-05-01

    The 4th IAEA technical meeting (TM) on the Theory of Plasma Instabilities was held in Kyoto, May 18th--20th 2009, following the first (Seeon), second (Trieste) and third (York) meetings in this series. This IAEA-TM was motivated by the recent advances in theoretical methodology, the rapid progress in observations of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas and the evolution of fusion research as we approach the ITER era. The international advisory committee (IAC) and local organizing committee (LOC), the members of which are listed below, collaborated to define the scope and the content of the scientific programme. Young scientists were actively encouraged to participate in this TM to help stimulate their future research careers and raise their international profiles. Through these young scientists, the IAEA-TM planned to identify the future directions of research. About 90 researchers, from 13 countries and the IAEA, participated in this IAEA-TM, with 72 scientific presentations. The talks and posters generated enthusiastic discussions, contributing to the vibrancy of the meeting. This special issue of Nuclear Fusion consists of a cluster of papers, reporting some of the main contributions to the IAEA-TM. The articles in this cluster are representative of the scientific width of presentations at the meeting, spanning topics from micro-turbulence to large-scale MHD dynamics and from transport to detailed analysis of diagnostics. They demonstrate the quality and depth of the research presented at the conference. List of IAC (alphabetical order): B. Breizman (USA), S. Guenter (Germany), T. S. Hahm (USA), K. Itoh (Japan, Chair of 2009), Ya. I. Kolesnichenko (Ukraine), A. G. Peeters (UK), H. Wilson (UK) List of LOC (alphabetical order): A. Fukuyama, R. Horiuchi, S.-I. Itoh, N. Kasuya, Y. Kishimoto (co-chair), K. Kusano, J. Li, K. Mima, S. Murakami, H. Naitou, N. Nakajima, Y. Nakamura, H. Ohtani, S. Okamura, T. Ozeki, S. Sudo (co-chair), H. Sugama, Y. Todo, S. Tokuda, S

  11. Combining Ambient Measurements of OH Radicals and OH Reactivity in a Tropical Rainforest during the OP-3 Project: Resolving the Magnitude of the Missing OH Sources and Sinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalley, L. K.; Edwards, P.; Furneaux, K. L.; Goddard, A.; George, I. J.; Evans, M. J.; Heard, D. E.; Team Op-3

    2010-12-01

    effect of 0.74 ppbv of NO. The model is unable to account for all of the OH reactivity; to simulate the OH reactivity a range of unmeasured sinks must be invoked. In general we believe that the simultaneous measurement of OH reactivity and OH concentration enables the separation of OH sources and sinks, allowing a more comprehensive test of our understanding of the radical chemistry occurring in this chemically complex environment. [1] J. Lelieveld, T. M. Butler, J. N. Crowley et al.: Nature, 2008, 452, p.737 - 740 [2] J. Peeters, T. L. Nguyen & L. Vereecken, PCCP, 2009, 11, p.5935 - 5939

  12. Comparisons of observed and modeled OH and HO2 concentrations during the ambient measurement period of the HOxComp field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaya, Y.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Dorn, H.-P.; Brauers, T.; Fuchs, H.; Holland, F.; Rohrer, F.; Bohn, B.; Tillmann, R.; Wegener, R.; Wahner, A.; Kajii, Y.; Miyamoto, K.; Nishida, S.; Watanabe, K.; Yoshino, A.; Kubistin, D.; Martinez, M.; Rudolf, M.; Harder, H.; Berresheim, H.; Elste, T.; Plass-Dülmer, C.; Stange, G.; Kleffmann, J.; Elshorbany, Y.; Schurath, U.

    2012-03-01

    A photochemical box model constrained by ancillary observations was used to simulate OH and HO2 concentrations for three days of ambient observations during the HOxComp field campaign held in Jülich, Germany in July 2005. Daytime OH levels observed by four instruments were fairly well reproduced to within 33% by a base model run (Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism with updated isoprene chemistry adapted from Master Chemical Mechanism ver. 3.1) with high R2 values (0.72-0.97) over a range of isoprene (0.3-2 ppb) and NO (0.1-10 ppb) mixing ratios. Daytime HO2(*) levels, reconstructed from the base model results taking into account the sensitivity toward speciated RO2 (organic peroxy) radicals, as recently reported from one of the participating instruments in the HO2 measurement mode, were 93% higher than the observations made by the single instrument. This also indicates an overprediction of the HO2 to OH recycling. Together with the good model-measurement agreement for OH, it implies a missing OH source in the model. Modeled OH and HO2(*) could only be matched to the observations by addition of a strong unknown loss process for HO2(*) that recycles OH at a high yield. Adding to the base model, instead, the recently proposed isomerization mechanism of isoprene peroxy radicals (Peeters and Müller, 2010) increased OH and HO2(*) by 28% and 13% on average. Although these were still only 4% higher than the OH observations made by one of the instruments, larger overestimations (42-70%) occurred with respect to the OH observations made by the other three instruments. The overestimation in OH could be diminished only when reactive alkanes (HC8) were solely introduced to the model to explain the missing fraction of observed OH reactivity. Moreover, the overprediction of HO2(*) became even larger than in the base case. These analyses imply that the rates of the isomerization are not readily supported by the ensemble of radical observations. One of the measurement days

  13. Micro Flow Cytometry Miniaturisation - Towards in-situ Optical Phytoplankton Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmijan, R.; Abi Kaed Bey, S.; Mowlem, M. C.; Morgan, H.

    2012-04-01

    The use of flow cytometry for studies of temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton populations is a valuable tool contributing to research relating carbon biogeochemistry and climate change. Early designs and marine deployments of such devices started over two decades ago [1-3]. Miniaturisation and cost reduction without sacrificing performance remains a major challenge but would enable mass production and deployment. Large numbers of measurement nodes (e.g. as part of a global ocean observation system) would be possible which would increase data available over both spatial and temporal scales. This research presents two different design approaches for miniaturisation and integration of optics into a microfluidic cytometer chip. The proposed solutions are suitable for micro cytometers with external components coupled with optical fibres and were simulated and optimised using ray tracing software (Zemax). The two designs address light delivery for excitation of particles within the measurement region of the cytometer. One uses an integrated micro lens (fabricated in the chip) and the other a ball shaped micro lens manufactured separately and then inserted into the chip. Both approaches collimate the excitation light beam (from an off chip diode laser coupled with an optical fibre) into the fluidic channel. The predicted (by ray tracing) excitation beam widths are 70 and 80 µm for the integrated and the ball lens respectively, and are in agreement with experimental data presented. The proposed cytometer chip design is compatible with low cost materials (acrylic glass, cyclo-olefines) and manufacturing methods (micro milling, hot embossing, injection moulding). 1. Dubelaar, G.B.J. and P.L. Gerritzen, CytoBuoy: a step forward towards using flow cytometry in operational oceanography. Scientia Marina, 2000. 64(2): p. 255-265. 2. Peeters, J.C.H., et al., Optical Plankton Analyzer - a Flow Cytometer for Plankton Analysis .1. Design Considerations. Cytometry, 1989

  14. Unusually fast 1,6-h shifts of enolic hydrogens in peroxy radicals: formation of the first-generation C2 and C3 carbonyls in the oxidation of isoprene.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Jozef; Nguyen, Thanh Lam

    2012-06-21

    In a theoretical investigation using the CBS-QB3//UB3LYP/6-31+G** method supported by higher-level computations such as CBS-QB3//UQCISD/6-31+G**, the 1,6-H shifts of the enolic hydrogen in peroxy radicals of the type Z-HO-CH═CH-CH(2)-OO(•) were found to face exceptionally low energy barriers of only about 11 kcal mol(-1)--i.e., 6-9 kcal mol(-1) lower than the barriers for similar shifts of alkane hydrogens--such that they can proceed at unequaled rates of order 10(5) to 10(6) s(-1) at ambient temperatures. The unusually low barriers for enolic 1,6-H shifts in peroxy radicals, characterized here for the first time to our knowledge, are rationalized. As cases in point, the secondary peroxy radicals Z-HO-CH═C(CH(3))-CH(OO(•))-CH(2)OH (case A) and Z-HO-CH═CH-C(CH(3))(OO(•))-CH(2)OH (case B) derived from the primary Z-δ-hydroxy-peroxy radicals in the oxidation of isoprene, are predicted to undergo 1,6-H shifts of their enolic hydrogens at TST-calculated rates in the range 270-320 K of k(T)(A) = 5.4 × 10(-4) × T(5.04) × exp(-1990/T) s(-1) and k(T)(B) = 109 × T(3.13) × exp(-3420/T) s(-1), respectively, i.e., 2.0 × 10(6) and 6.2 × 10(4) s(-1), respectively, at 298 K, far outrunning in all relevant atmospheric and laboratory conditions their reactions with NO proposed earlier as their dominant pathways (Dibble J. Phys. Chem. A 2004, 108, 2199). These fast enolic-H shifts are shown to provide the explanation for the first-generation formation of methylglyoxal + glycolaldehyde, and glyoxal + hydroxyacetone in the oxidation of isoprene under high-NO conditions, recently determined by several groups. However, under moderate- and low-NO atmospheric conditions, the fast interconversion and equilibration of the various thermally labile, initial peroxy conformers/isomers from isoprene and the isomerization of the initial Z-δ-hydroxy-peroxy radicals, both recently proposed by us (Peeters et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2009, 11, 5935), are expected to

  15. Effects of climate change on deep-water oxygen and winter mixing in a deep lake (Lake Geneva)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwefel, Robert; Alfred, Wüest; Damien, Bouffard

    2016-04-01

    Oxygen is the most important dissolved gas for lake ecosystems. Because low oxygen concentrations are an ongoing problem in many parts of the oceans and numerous lakes, oxygen depletion processes have been intensively studied over the last decades and were mainly attributed to high nutrient loads. Recently, climate-induced changes in stratification and mixing behavior were recognized as additional thread to hypolimnetic oxygen budgets in lakes and reservoirs [Matzinger et al., 2007; Zhang et al., 2015]. Observational data of Lake Geneva, a deep perialpine lake situated between France and Switzerland showed no decreasing trend in hypoxia over the last 43 years, despite an impressive reduction in nutrient input during this period. Instead, hypoxic conditions were predominantly controlled by deep mixing end of winter and in turn by winter temperatures. To test the sensitivity of Lake Geneva on future climate change and changes in water transparency, we simulated the hydrodynamics and temperature of Lake Geneva under varying conditions for atmospheric temperature and water clarity performed with the one-dimensional model SIMSTRAT [Goudsmit, 2002]. The results show, that the stratification in lakes is only weakly affected by changes in light absorption due to varying water quality. For conditions expected for the end of the century, a decrease in the annual mean deep convective mixing of up to 45 m is predicted. Also complete mixing events over the whole lake are less likely to occur. A change in the hypolimnetic oxygen concentration of up to 20% can thus be expected in the future. These results show, that changes in deep mixing have an equally strong impact as eutrophication on the deep-water oxygen development of oligomictic lakes and have to be considered in the prediction of the future development of lakes. References: Goudsmit, G. H., H. Burchard, F. Peeters, and A. Wüest (2002), Application of k-ɛ turbulence models to enclosed basins: The role of internal

  16. [Low persistence of simvastatin and ezetimibe fixed combination in the lipid lowering therapy].

    PubMed

    Simonyi, Gábor; Ferenci, Tamás

    2015-01-25

    Bevezetés: Jól ismert, hogy a magas koleszterinszint fontos módosítható cardiovascularis kockázati tényező. A lipidcsökkentő kezelés során a cardiovascularis kockázat csökkentése miatt fontos a betegek terápiahűsége. Célkitűzés: A szerzők célja a simvastatin/ezetimib szabad és fix kombinációk, illetve a leghatékonyabb statin, a rozuvastatin egyéves perzisztenciájának összehasonlítása volt. Módszer: Az Országos Egészségbiztosítási Pénztár vényforgalmi adataira támaszkodva 2012. október 1. és 2013. szeptember 30. között első alkalommal a simvastatin/ezetimib szabad és fix kombinációi és a rozuvastatinmonoterápia receptjeit kiváltó betegeket választották ki, akik az ezt megelőző egy évben hasonló hatóanyaggal végzett antilipaemiás terápiában nem részesültek. A perzisztenciagörbéket Kaplan–Meier-becsléssel határozták meg, 95%-os, log-skálán számolt pontonkénti konfidenciaintervallummal. Cenzoráltnak azokat a betegeket vették, akik a vizsgálat záró időpontjában is perzisztensek voltak. A görbék modellezéséhez félparaméteres eljárást, Cox-regressziót használtak, ahol az egyetlen – kategoriális – magyarázó változó a terápia volt; referenciacsoportnak a simvastatin/ezetimib fix kombinációt vették. Eredmények: A bevonási kritériumoknak összesen 204 699 beteg felelt meg. E betegek közül 10 030 beteg kezdett simvastatin/ezetimib szabad, 7613 beteg simvastatin/ezetimib fix, illetve 187 056 beteg rozuvastatinmonoterápiát. Az egyéves perzisztencia a simvastatin/ezetimib szabad kombináció esetében 10,97%, a simvastatin/ezetimib fix kombinációt szedőkben 24,35%, míg a rozuvastatinmonoterápián lévők esetében 30,47% volt. A simvastatin/ezetimib fix kombinációhoz képest a simvastatin/ezetimib szabad kombináció elhagyásának az esélye 73%-kal volt nagyobb (kockázatarány = 1,73 [95% konfidenciaintervallum: 1,61–1,85], p<0,0001), míg a

  17. [Treatment outcome in primary testicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Iványi, János László; Marton, Eva; Plander, Márk; Engert, Zoltán Vendel; Tóth, Csaba

    2013-10-20

    Bevezetés: A primer herelymphoma ritkán előforduló extranodalis non-Hodgkin-lymphoma-entitás. Legtöbbször idős férfiakban fordul elő, nagy malignitású szövettani képpel és kedvezőtlen kórlefolyással. Az érintett here eltávolítása után alkalmazott immunkemoterápia ellenére a betegek kezelési eredményei elmaradnak más extranodalis lymphomásokétól. Célkitűzés: Retrospektív felmérésben a szerzők célul tűzték ki 2000 és 2012 között kórismézett és kezelt herelymphomás betegeik klinikopatológiai és kezelési eredményeinek felmérését. Módszer: Ezen időszak alatt 334 agresszív non-Hodgkin-lymphomás betegből nyolc esetben (8/334, 2,39%) kórisméztek primer herelymphomát (diffúz nagysejtes B-sejtes hét esetben, Burkitt-típusú egy esetben). A betegek medián életkora 60 év (23 és 86 év között) volt. Korai I–IIE hét betegben, előrehaladott stádium egy betegben fordult elő. Egy beteg kivételével (csak radioterápia) minden beteg kemoterápiát kapott (rituximab+CHOP, hat–nyolc ciklus 21 vagy 28 naponként). Mindössze egy beteg részesült központi idegrendszeri kemoterápiás profilaxisban, preventív ellenoldali hereirradiációt nem alkalmaztak. Eredmények: Ötven hónapos medián követés alatt semicastratiót követő rituximab- és CHOP-kúra után hét beteg került komplett remisszióba, két beteg elhunyt (egy beteg a lymphoma progressziója következtében, a remisszióban levő másik beteg szekunder tüdőtumor miatt). Komplett remissziót a betegek 87,5%-ában értek el. A betegségmentes túlélés 13–152 hónap között (medián 38 hónap), az összesített túlélés 17–156 hónap között (medián 43 hónap), az ötéves betegségmentes és összesített túlélés pedig egyaránt 37,5% volt. Következtetések: A viszonylag kedvező kezelési eredmények hátterében a korai stádium túlsúlya, a lymphoma urológiai sebészi eltávolítása, az immunkemoterápia hat

  18. [Medication adherence with the fixed combination of ramipril and amlodipine].

    PubMed

    Simonyi, Gábor; Ferenci, Tamás

    2014-11-23

    Bevezetés: Az olyan krónikus betegségek, mint a hypertonia kezelése során is kiemelkedő jelentőséggel bír a megfelelő betegadherencia, mivel csak tartós és hatásos gyógyszerszedés segítségével érhető el a célvérnyomás és a cardiovascularis kockázat csökkenése. Jól ismert, hogy a hypertonia az egyik legfontosabb cardiovascularis kockázati tényező. Nemzetközi adatok szerint a fix kombinációval végzett antihipertenzív terápia mintegy 20%-kal javítja a betegadherenciát a szabad kombinációhoz képest. Célkitűzés: A szerzők célja a hypertoniaindikációban indított ramipril és amlodipin szabad és fix kombinációk egyéves perzisztenciájának összehasonlítása volt. Módszer: Az Országos Egészségbiztosítási Pénztár adatbázisából a vényforgalmi adatokra támaszkodva hypertoniaindikációban, 2012. október 1. és 2013. szeptember 30. között első alkalommal ramipril és amlodipin szabad, illetve ramipril és amlodipin fix kombináció receptjeit kiváltó betegeket választották ki, akik az ezt megelőző egy évben hasonló hatóanyaggal végzett antihipertenzív terápiában nem részesültek. A perzisztenciagörbéket Kaplan–Meier-becsléssel határozták meg, 95%-os, log-skálán számolt pontonkénti konfidenciaintervallummal. Cenzoráltnak azokat a betegeket vették, akik a vizsgálat záró időpontjában is perzisztensek voltak. A görbék modellezéséhez félparaméteres eljárást, Cox-regressziót használtak, ahol az egyetlen – kategoriális – magyarázó változó a terápia volt; referenciacsoportnak a fix kombinációt vették. Eredmények: A vizsgált időszakban 20 096 beteg kezdett ramipril és amlodipin szabad kombinációs, míg 10 449 beteg kezdett ramipril és amlodipin fix kombinációs antihipertenzív terápiát. A megfigyelési időszakban a ramipril és az amlodipin szabad kombinációja esetén az egyéves perzisztencia 34%-os volt, míg a fix kombinációt szedőknél ez

  19. Petrochemical types of kimberlites and their diamond-bearing capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrovitsky, Sergey

    2010-05-01

    kimberlites, varying in the rate of diamond capacity, are indistinguishable in the content of incompatible elements or differ slightly (Kostrovitsky et al, 2007). There is no correlation relationship between the microelement composition (from some incoherent elements) and diamond-bearing capacity of kimberlites. The efficiency of applying petrochemical and mineralogical criteria of diamond-bearing capacity is explained considering the genesis of kimberlite rock formation. It is assumed that the asthenosphere kimberlite-forming fluid-melt displayed capacity of fluid brecciation of rocks of lithosphere mantle. The composition of kimberlites and their diamond-bearing capacity also depend on the fact, which rocks of the mantle are largely brecciated and captured by the fluid melt. While kimberlite pipes Aikhal and International were formed, these were basically the rocks of high-Mg dunite-harzburgite diamondiferous paragenesis, which experienced brecciation. This predetermined both the petrochemical type of kimberlites and diamond-bearing capacity of these pipes. Thus, we suppose, that kimberlites, traditionally referred to group I, are not similar. Within this group it is feasible to recognize petrochemical types differing in mineralogical composition and the rate of potential diamond-bearing capacity. References Ilupin, I.P., Kaminsky, F.V., Frantsesson, E.V. (1978) Geochemistry of kimberlites [in Russian]. Nedra, Moscow. Khar'kiv, A.D., Zuenko, V.V., Zinchuk, N.N., Kryuchkov, A.I., Ukhanov, V.A. (1991). Petrochemistry of kimberlites [in Russian]. Nedra, Moscow. Kostrovitsky S.I., T. Morikiyo, I.V. Serov, D.A. Yakovlev, A.A. Amirzhanov. (2007) Isotope-geochemical systematics of kimberlites and related rocks from the Siberian Platform. Russian Geology and Geophysics. V. 48. P. 272-290. Krivonos V.F. (1999) Petrochemical criteria of diamond content in the kimberlites and lamproites. Geology and Geophysics. [in Russian] № 2. P. 187-200. Meyer, H.O.A. Chrome pyrope: an inclusion

  20. Electrical control of spin in topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Kai

    2012-02-01

    by changing the gate voltage. It provides us a new way to control surface magnetism electrically. The gap opened by doped magnetic ions can lead to a short-range Bloembergen-Rowland interaction. The competition among the Heisenberg, Ising, and DM terms leads to rich spin configurations and an anomalous Hall effect on different lattices [4]. There are many proposals for quantum computation scheme are based on the spin in semiconductor quantum dots. Topological insulator quantum dots display a very different behavior with that of conventional semiconductor quantum dots [5]. In sharp contrast to conventional semiconductor quantum dots, the quantum states in the gap of the HgTe QD are fully spin-polarized and show ring-like density distributions near the boundary of the QD and optically dark. The persistent charge currents and magnetic moments, i.e., the Aharonov-Bohm effect, can be observed in such a QD structure. This feature offers us a practical way to detect these exotic ring-like edge states by using the SQUID technique. [0pt]Refs: [1] W. Yang, Kai Chang, and S. C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 056602 (2008); J. Li and Kai Chang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 222110 (2009). [2] L. B. Zhang, Kai Chang, X. C. Xie, H. Buhmann and L. W. Molenkamp, New J. Phys. 12, 083058 (2010). [3] L. B. Zhang, F. Cheng, F. Zhai and Kai Chang, Phys. Rev. B 83 081402(R) (2011); Z. H. Wu, F. Zhai, F. M. Peeters, H. Q. Xu and Kai Chang, Phys, Rev. Lett. 106, 176802 (2011). [4] J. J. Zhu, D. X. Yao, S. C. Zhang, and Kai Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 097201 (2011). [5] Kai Chang, and Wen-Kai Lou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 206802 (2011).

  1. EDITORIAL: Focus on Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, N. M. R.; Ribeiro, Ricardo M.

    2009-09-01

    lattice models and quantum spin chains Mahdi Zarea and Nancy Sandler On the universal ac optical background in graphene V P Gusynin, S G Sharapov and J P Carbotte Heat conduction in graphene: experimental study and theoretical interpretation S Ghosh, D L Nika, E P Pokatilov and A A Balandin Calculation of the Raman G peak intensity in monolayer graphene: role of Ward identities D M Basko Electronic transport in bilayer graphene Mikito Koshino Magnetic Kronig-Penney model for Dirac electrons in single-layer graphene M Ramezani Masir, P Vasilopoulos and F M Peeters Electrical transport in high-quality graphene pnp junctions Jairo Velasco Jr, Gang Liu, Wenzhong Bao and Chun Ning Lau Local density of states and scanning tunneling currents in graphene N M R Peres, Ling Yang and Shan-Wen Tsai Gaps and tails in graphene and graphane B Dóra and K Ziegler Quasi-ferromagnet spintronics in the graphene nanodisc-lead system Motohiko Ezawa Range and correlation effects in edge disordered graphene nanoribbons Alessandro Cresti and Stephan Roche Remarks on the tight-binding model of graphene Cristina Bena and Gilles Montambaux

  2. Land - Ocean Climate Linkages and the Human Evolution - New ICDP and IODP Drilling Initiatives in the East African Rift Valley and SW Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahn, R.; Feibel, C.; Co-Pis, Icdp/Iodp

    2009-04-01

    enable us to establish the linkages between the ocean climatology of the SW Indian and terrestrial climates of Eastern Africa during key periods of global climate change. Combining the ICDP records of East African terrestrial climate at key hominin sites with IODP records of marine climate variability at the SE African continental margin will help to test if pulses of hominin evolutionary innovation were linked with periods of enhanced variability of local terrestrial environments and marine climatology of the Indian Ocean. * co-PIs of the ICDP initiative HSPDP are A.S. Cohen, R. Arrowsmith, A.K. Behrensmeyer, C. Feibel, R. Johnson, Z. Kubsa, D. Olago, R. Potts, R. Renaut * co-PIs of the IODP initiative SAFARI are R. Zahn, I. Hall, R. Schneider, M. Á. Bárcena, S. Barker, A. Biastoch, Chr. Charles, J. Compton, R. Cowling, P. Diz, L. Dupont, J.-A. Flores, S. Goldstein, S. Hemming, K. Holmgren, J. Lee-Thorp, G. Knorr, C. Lear, A. Mazaud, G. Mortyn, F. Peeters, B. Preu, R. Rickaby, J. Rogers, A. Rosell-Mele, Chr. Reason, V. Spiess, M. Trauth, G. Uenzelmann-Neben, S. Weldeab, P. Ziveri

  3. COST Action MP0806 'Particles in Turbulence': International Conference on Fundamentals, Experiments, Numeric and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Markus; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Toschi, Federico

    2011-12-01

    also like to thank the students from Potsdam University for their exquisite help. We are very thankful to Anita Peeters for her unwavering support and help in the organization of this particular event, as well as, for the efforts ensuring the smooth running of the COST Action 'Particles in turbulence'. Markus Abel, Eberhard Bodenschatz, Federico Toschi The PDF files of the conference program and conference poster are attached.

  4. Sleep on the right side-Get cancer on the left?

    PubMed

    Hallberg, Orjan; Johansson, Olle

    2010-06-01

    Breast cancer frequently occurs in the left breast among both women and men [R. Roychoudhuri, V. Putcha, H. Møller, Cancer and laterality: a study of the five major paired organs (UK), Cancer Causes Control 17 (2006) 655-662; M.T. Goodman, K.H. Tung, L.R. Wilkens, Comparative epidemiology of breast cancer among men and women in the US, 1996 to 2000, Cancer Causes Control 17 (2006) 127-136; C.I. Perkins, J. Hotes, B.A. Kohler, H.L. Howe, Association between breast cancer laterality and tumor location, United States, 1994-1998, Cancer Causes Control 15 (2004) 637-645; H.A. Weiss, S.S. Devesa, L.A. Brinton, Laterality of breast cancer in the United States, Cancer Causes Control 7 (1996) 539-543; A. Ekbom, H.O. Adami, D. Trichopoulos, M. Lambe, C.C. Hsieh, J. Pontén, Epidemiologic correlates of breast cancer laterality (Sweden), Cancer Causes Control 5 (1994) 510-516]. Moreover, recent results showed that the left side of the body is more prone to melanoma than the right side [D.H. Brewster, M.J. Horner, S. Rowan, P. Jelfs, E. de Vries, E. Pukkala, Left-sided excess of invasive cutaneous melanoma in six countries, Eur. J. Cancer 43 (2007) 2634-2637]. Current explanations for left-sided breast cancer include handedness [L. Titus-Ernstoff, P.A. Newcomb, K.M. Egan, et al., Left-handedness in relation to breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women, Epidemiology 11 (2000) 181-184; M.A. Kramer, S. Albrecht, R.A. Miller, Handedness and the laterality of breast cancer in women, Nurs. Res. 34 (1985) 333-337; M.K. Ramadhani, S.G. Elias, P.A. van Noord, D.E. Grobbee, P.H. Peeters, C.S. Uiterwaal, Innate left handedness and risk of breast cancer: case-cohort study, BMJ 331 (2005) 882-883], size difference, nursing preference, and brain structure. However, men are affected even more by left laterality than women, thus many of these explanations are unconvincing. Increasing rates of skin melanoma have been associated with immune-disruptive radiation from FM/TV transmitters [O

  5. Fullerenes, Organics and the Diffuse Interstellar Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    2016-07-01

    ; [12] Krelowski, J. et al. 1999A&A 347, 235; [13] Sonnentrucker, P., Cami, J., Ehrenfreund, P., Foing, B. H. 1997 A&A 327, 1215; [14] Sonnentrucker, P., Foing, B. H., Breitfellner, M., Ehrenfreund, P. 1999 A&A 346, 936; [15] Cox, N. et al. 2007 A&A 470, 941; [16] Ehrenfreund, P. et al. 2002 ApJ 576 L117; [17] Ehrenfreund, P.; Foing, B. H. 1996 A&A 307 L25; [18] Sarre, P. J. et al. 1995 MNRAS.277 L41; [19] Cossart-Magos, C. & Leach, S. 1990 A&A 233, 559; [20] Cox, N. L., Ehrenfreund, P., Foing, B. H. et al. 2011 A&A 531, 25; [21] Cox, N. L., Boudin, N., Foing, B. H. et al. 2007 A&A 465, 899; [22] Ehrenfreund, P. & Charnley, S. 2000 ANRAA 38, 427; [23] Scarrott, S. M., Watkin, S., Miles, J. R., Sarre, P. J. 1992 MNRAS 255, 11; [25] Planck Collaboration, 2011 A&A 536 20 (Planck early results. XX.); [26] Ehrenfreund, P. et al. 1995 A&A 299; 213; [27] Ehrenfreund, P. & Foing, B. H 1995 P&SS 43, 1183; [28] van der Zwet, G. P., Allamandola, L. J. 1985 A&A 146 76; [29] Salama, F. et al. 1996 ApJ 458, 621; [30] Ruiterkamp, R. et al. 2005 A&A 432, 515; [31] Ruiterkamp, R. et al. 2002 A&A 390, 1153; [32] Vuong, M. H. & Foing, B. H 2000 A&A 363, L5; [33] Le Page, V. et al 2001 ApJS 132, 233; [34] Ehrenfreund, P et al. 2007 P&SS 55, 383; [35] Bryson, K. L., Peeters, Z., Salama, F., Foing, B., Ehrenfreund, P. et al. 2011 AdSpR 48, 1980; [36] Mattioda, A., Cook, A., Ehrenfreund, P. et al. 2012 AsBio 12, 841.

  6. A new noble gas paleoclimate record in Texas — Basic assumptions revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Maria Clara; Hall, Chris Michael; Patriarche, Delphine; Goblet, Patrick; Ellis, Brian Robert

    2007-05-01

    A generally accepted basic principle in relation to the use of the noble gas thermometer in groundwater flow systems is that high-frequency noble gas climatic signals are lost due to the effect of dispersion. This loss of signal, combined with 14C dating issues, makes it only suited to identify major climatic events such as the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Consequently, the identification of significant noble gas temperature (NGT) cooling (≥ 5 °C) with respect to present time has systematically been associated with the occurrence of the LGM even when reasonable water age controls were unavailable. It has also become apparent at a number of studied sites that modern NGTs estimated through standard models [M. Stute, P. Schlosser, Principles and applications of the noble gas paleothermometer, in: P.K. Swart, K.C. Lohmann, J.A. McKenzie, S. Savin, (Eds), Climate change in continental isotopic records, Geophysical monograph 78, AGU (1993) 89-100.; W. Aeschbach-Hertig, F. Peeters, U. Beyerle, R. Kipfer, Paleotemperature reconstruction from noble gases in ground water taking into account equilibration with entrapped air, Nature 405(6790) (2000) 1040-1044.] are unable to reproduce ground temperatures at the interface with the unsaturated zone, a basic requirement for proper paleoclimate reconstruction through noble gases. Instead, a systematic bias to low NGTs in recharge areas is observed. The Carrizo aquifer, in which the LGM was previously identified [M. Stute, P. Schlosser, J.F. Clark, W.S. Broecker, Paleotemperatures in the Southwestern United States derived from noble gases in ground water, Science 256(5059) (1992) 1000-1001.] and which presents an NGT bias of over 4 °C, is an ideal setting to analyze and revise basic principles and assumptions in relation with the use of the noble gas thermometer. Here, we present a new noble gas data set (49 measurements) collected at 20 different locations in the Carrizo aquifer. This new data set together with previously

  7. PREFACE: XXXth International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics (ICGTMP) (Group30)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brackx, Fred; De Schepper, Hennie; Van der Jeugt, Joris

    2015-04-01

    Christophe Peeters, Deputy Mayor of the City of Ghent, was followed by a reception in the historical "Pacificatiezaal" of the City Hall. On Wednesday afternoon the participants had the opportunity to take a guided tour through medieval Ghent, admiring its wide range of monuments. The tour was followed by a much-appreciated boat trip exploring the canals and rivers of Ghent, all in sunny weather. On Thursday evening the conference banquet was held in the "Brasserie HA". Located in the Handelsbeurs Ghent. In the majestic banquet hall, the participants were not only treated to an exclusive dinner, but also to some fine piano music by Dmitry Gal'tsov and Richard Kerner. The conference was sponsored by: American Institute of Physics (AIP Publishing), Clay Mathematics Institute, Clifford Research Group - Faculty of Engineering and Architecture (Ghent Unviversity), Elsevier, Faculty of Sciences (Ghent University), Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS), Foundation Compositio Mathematica, FWO Research Foundation - Flanders, International Association of Mathematical Physics, International Solvay Institutes, International Union of Pure and Applied Physics, National Science Foundation (USA) and Springer Birkhäuser. We would like to thank all our sponsors for their generous support. It took more than two years to organise a conference of such a size and importance. We express our gratitude to the International Advisory Committee for its help in selecting the plenary speakers and to the external members of the Organising Committee for their helpful suggestions and advice. We thank Wouter Dewolf for his devoted secretarial, administrative and organisational work and Vera Vanden Driessche for arranging the "Accompanying persons' programme". Finally, a big 'thank you' to all the local people (administrative and technical staff, research assistants and research students) for their devoted and tireless work in preparing and running the conference. Fred Brackx, Hennie De Schepper and Joris

  8. Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benage, J. F.; Dufty, J. W.; Murillo, M. S.

    2003-06-01

    , Israel N W Ashcroft Cornell University, USA J Bollinger NIST, Boulder, USA J-M Caillol Université Paris XI, France D M Ceperley University of Illinois, USA G Chabrier Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, France J Clerouin CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, France S das Sarma University of Maryland, USA A DeSilva University of Maryland, USA H DeWitt Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA D Dubin University of California, USA J Dufty University of Florida, USA W Ebeling Humboldt University, Germany V Filinov Institute of High Temperature Physics, Russia M Fisher University of Maryland, USA V E Fortov Institute of High Temperature Physics, Russia K Golden University of Vermont, USA J-P Hansen Cambridge University, UK F Hensel Philipps-Universität, Germany G Kalman Boston College, USA W Kohn University of California, USA H Lowen University of Dusseldorf, Germany G Morfill Max Planck Institute of Extraterrestrial Physics, Germany D Neilson University of New South Wales, Australia G Patey University of British Columbia, Canada F Peeters University of Antwerp, Germany D Pines Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA G Roepke University of Rostock, Germany M Rosenberg University of California, USA Y Rosenfeld Negev Nuclear Research Center, Israel M Schlanges University of Greifswald, Germany G Senatore University of Trieste, France H Totsuji Okayama University, Japan J Weisheit Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA Obituary Forty years of plasma line broadening---in memory of Professor Charles Hooper Jr Our friend and colleague, Charles Hooper Jr, died on 5 May 2002 after a long illness and a valiant battle against it. This presentation is a brief look back at the issues in plasma line broadening over the past forty years, and the contributions to them by Chuck and his students. Chuck graduated from Dartmouth College in 1954. He served in the US Navy for two years before receiving a PhD from Johns Hopkins University in 1963. He then joined the faculty at the University of Florida where his