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Sample records for klab maailm nii

  1. 78 FR 21320 - Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII) Devices in the 5 GHz Band

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... it first made spectrum available in the 5 GHz band for U-NII in 1997. The Commission believes that... spectrum, combined with the ease of deployment and operational flexibility provided by its U-NII rules... made available spectrum in the 5 GHz band for U-NII in 1997, it has gained much experience with...

  2. Energy utilities in the Internet and NII: Users or providers?

    SciTech Connect

    Aiken, R.J.; Cavallini, J.S.; Scott, M.A.

    1995-04-01

    In its bid to respond to evolving business requirements, the energy utility industry is exploring new ways to provide cost effective quality energy to its constituency while concurrently reducing the need for additional generation plants, consumption of non-renewable fuel resources, and generation of emissions. Their options cover a full spectrum that includes the utilities providing the ``last mile`` access to its customers for both generic internet access required for empowering the users as well as supporting the necessary utility applications. In one scenario the Energy utilities provide high speed NII access to both residences and industry over utility owned infrastructure in order to obtain the level off reliability they need as well as providing the infrastructure necessary to support real time energy supply and consumption management. In a second scenario, the energy utilities make use of a combination of their own infrastructure and that of existing service providers, such as cable and telecommunications companies to satisfy the same set of requirements. Either scenario can greatly increase the number of active nodes on the National Information Infrastructure (NII) and the Global Information Infrastructure (GII); and therefore have a large impact on the network. This paper will outline the major areas and issues with respect to (1) the energy utilities use and possible provision of network services, (2) the current major business and regulatory issues, (3) the technical challenges facing an utility company wishing to use the Internet, NII, and GII to support both its internal and customer based communications needs; and (4) explore what models and technologies are required by both the utilities and their customers (e.g. premises LAN, the gateway to the premises, and the utility infrastructure) to support both energy demand management and possibly generic Internet/NII/GII access to the end user.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NiI transition probability measurements (Wood+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, M. P.; Lawler, J. E.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J.

    2014-04-01

    As in much of our previous branching fraction work, this NiI branching fraction study makes use of archived FTS data from both the 1.0m Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) previously at the National Solar Observatory (NSO) on Kitt Peak and the Chelsea Instruments FT500 UV FTS at Lund University in Sweden. Table 1 lists the 37 FTS spectra used in our NiI branching fraction study. All NSO spectra, raw interferograms, and header files are available in the NSO electronic archives. The 80 CCD frames of spectra from commercial Ni HCD lamps of the echelle spectrograph are listed in Table 2. (6 data files).

  4. Field evaluations of a forestry version of DRAINMOD-NII model

    Treesearch

    S. Tian; M. A. Youssef; R.W. Skaggs; D.M. Amatya; G.M. Chescheir

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the performance of the newly developed forestry version of DRAINMOD-NII model using a long term (21-year) data set collected from an artificially drained loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation in eastern North Carolina, U.S.A. The model simulates the main hydrological and biogeochemical processes in drained forested lands. The...

  5. Protein kinase NII and the regulation of rDNA transcription in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Belenguer, P; Baldin, V; Mathieu, C; Prats, H; Bensaid, M; Bouche, G; Amalric, F

    1989-01-01

    Transcription of ribosomal RNA genes is generally accepted to correlate with cell growth. Using primary cultures of adult bovine aortic endothelial (ABAE) cells, we have shown that transcription of rDNA in confluent cells falls to 5% of the transcription level in growing cells. Protein kinase NII appears to be a limiting factor to promote rDNA transcription in isolated nuclei of confluent cells. Protein kinase NII was detected by immunocytochemistry in the cytoplasm, nuclei and nucleoli of growing cells while it was no longer present in nucleoli of confluent cells. The kinase activity, in isolated nuclei, was estimated by endogenous phosphorylation of a specific substrate, nucleolin. A 10% residual activity was present in confluent cell nuclei compared to growing cell nuclei. Concomitantly, the transcription 'in vitro' of rDNA in the corresponding nuclei was also highly reduced (by 85%). Addition of exogenous protein kinase NII to confluent cell nuclei induced a strong increase in the phosphorylation of specific proteins including nucleolin. In parallel, the transcription of rDNA was increased by a factor of 5, to nearly the level observed in nuclei prepared from growing cells. These data suggest that, in confluent cells, factors necessary for rDNA transcription machinery are present but inactive in the nucleolus and that the phosphorylation of one or several of these factors (nucleolin, topoisomerase I,...) by protein kinase NII is a key event in the regulation of rDNA transcription. Images PMID:2780290

  6. Crude oil biodegradation aided by biosurfactants from Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 or its culture broth.

    PubMed

    Sajna, Kuttuvan Valappil; Sukumaran, Rajeev Kumar; Gottumukkala, Lalitha Devi; Pandey, Ashok

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the biosurfactants produced by the yeast Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 for enhancing the degradation of crude oil by a model hydrocarbon degrading strain, Pseudomonas putida MTCC 1194. Pseudozyma biosurfactants were supplemented at various concentrations to the P. putida culture medium containing crude oil as sole carbon source. Supplementation of the biosurfactants enhanced the degradation of crude oil by P. putida; the maximum degradation of hydrocarbons was observed with a 2.5 mg L(-1) supplementation of biosurfactants. Growth inhibition constant of the Pseudozyma biosurfactants was 11.07 mg L(-1). It was interesting to note that Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 alone could also degrade diesel and kerosene. Culture broth of Pseudozyma containing biosurfactants resulted up to ∼46% improvement in degradation of C10-C24 alkanes by P. putida. The enhancement in degradation efficiency of the bacterium with the culture broth supplementation was even more pronounced than that with relatively purer biosurfactants.

  7. The fallacy of using NII in analyzing aircraft operations. [Noise Impact Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, R. G.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1984-01-01

    Three measures of noise annoyance (Noise Impact Index, Level-Weighted Population, and Annoyed Population Number) are compared, regarding their utility in assessing noise reduction schemes for aircraft operations. While NII is intended to measure the average annoyance per person in a community, it is found that the method of averaging can lead to erroneous conclusions, particularly if the population does not have uniform spatial distribution. Level-Weighted Population and Annoyed Population Number are shown to be better indicators of noise annoyance when rating different strategies for noise reduction in a given community.

  8. Isolation and characterization of plant growth-promoting strain Pantoea NII-186. From Western Ghat forest soil, India.

    PubMed

    Dastager, S G; Deepa, C K; Puneet, S C; Nautiyal, C S; Pandey, A

    2009-07-01

    To isolate plant growth-promoting bacterium from Western Ghat forests in India. A Gram-negative, rod shaped, cream white coloured strain Pantoea NII-186 isolated from Western Ghat soil sample. The taxonomic position of the bacterium was confirmed by sequencing of 16S rRNA and phylogenetic analysis. A strain grew at a wide range of temperature ranging from 5-40 degrees C, but optimum growth was observed at 28-30 degrees C. It showed multiple plant growth-promoting attributes such as phosphate solubilization activity, indole acetic acid (IAA) production, siderophore production and HCN production. It was able to solubilize (28 microg of Ca(3)PO(4) ml(-1) day(-1)), and produce IAA (59 microg) at 28 degrees C. The solubilization of insoluble phosphate was associates with a drop in the pH of the culture medium. Pantoea sp. NII-186 tolerate to different environmental stresses like 5-40 degrees C, 0-7% salt concentration and 4-12 pH range. The 16S rRNA gene sequence confirmed that the isolate NII-186 was belongs to Pantoea genus and showed considerable differences in physiological properties with previously reported species of this genus. Isolate NII-186 possessed multiple attributes of plant growth-promoting activity. Hence in the context it is proposed that Pantoea sp. NII-186, could be deployed as an inoculant to attain the desired plant growth-promoting activity in agricultural environment.

  9. Ni(I) Catalyzes the Regioselective Cross-Coupling of Alkylzinc Halides and Propargyl Bromides to Allenes.

    PubMed

    Soler-Yanes, Rita; Arribas-Álvarez, Iván; Guisán-Ceinos, Manuel; Buñuel, Elena; Cárdenas, Diego J

    2017-01-31

    We describe the unprecedented formation of allenes by Ni-catalyzed cross-coupling of propargyl bromides with alkylzinc halides. The reaction regioselectivity is complementary to the previously reported formation of propargyl-coupled compounds. Experiments support the formation of Ni(I) complexes as the active species and the participation of radical intermediates. Kinetic studies showed that the reaction is first order with respect to the electrophile, zero-order with respect to the nucleophile (fast transmetalation), and one-half order with respect to the metal catalyst. Mechanistic studies support a bimetallic Ni(I) -based pathway that involves fast homolytic cleavage of the C-Br bond by an alkyl-Ni(I) complex, followed by radical coordination to Ni(I) that determines the observed regioselectivity.

  10. Comparison of the performances of DRAINMOD-NII and ADAPT models in simulating nitrate losses from subsurface drainage systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adequate knowledge on the movement of nitrate under different subsurface (tile) drain configurations and management practices in the U.S. Midwest, is essential for developing remedial measures for reducing hypoxic conditions in the Gulf of Mexico. In this study, DRAINMOD-NII, a daily time-step soil ...

  11. ISM band to U-NII band frequency transverter and method of frequency transversion

    DOEpatents

    Stepp, Jeffrey David; Hensley, Dale

    2006-09-12

    A frequency transverter (10) and method for enabling bi-frequency dual-directional transfer of digitally encoded data on an RF carrier by translating between a crowded or otherwise undesirable first frequency band, such as the 2.4 GHz ISM band, and a less-crowded or otherwise desirable second frequency band, such as the 5.0 GHz 6.0 GHz U-NII band. In a preferred embodiment, the transverter (10) connects between an existing data radio (11) and its existing antenna (30), and comprises a bandswitch (12); an input RF isolating device (14); a transmuter (16); a converter (18); a dual output local oscillator (20); an output RF isolating device (22); and an antenna (24) tuned to the second frequency band. The bandswitch (12) allows for bypassing the transverter (10), thereby facilitating its use with legacy systems. The transmuter (14) and converter (16) are adapted to convert to and from, respectively, the second frequency band.

  12. ISM band to U-NII band frequency transverter and method of frequency transversion

    DOEpatents

    Stepp, Jeffrey David; Hensley, Dale

    2006-04-04

    A frequency transverter (10) and method for enabling bi-frequency dual-directional transfer of digitally encoded data on an RF carrier by translating between a crowded or otherwise undesirable first frequency band, such as the 2.4 GHz ISM band, and a less-crowded or otherwise desirable second frequency band, such as the 5.0 GHz-6.0 GHz U-NII band. In a preferred embodiment, the transverter (10) connects between an existing data radio (11) and its existing antenna (30), and comprises a bandswitch (12); an input RF isolating device (14); a transmuter (16); a converter (18); a dual output local oscillator (20); an output RF isolating device (22); and an antenna (24) tuned to the second frequency band. The bandswitch (12) allows for bypassing the transverter (10), thereby facilitating its use with legacy systems. The transmuter (14) and converter (16) are adapted to convert to and from, respectively, the second frequency band.

  13. The utility`s role in the future of PC services and the NII. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The paper is a report by C3 Communications (formerly CSW Communications) summarizing the experience and lessons learned during an 18 month Department of Energy Grant to evaluate how electric utilities can further the growth of the NII by developing a hybrid Internet-energy management service. In addition, the project was also expanded to include evaluation of residential gateway issues, in particular the energy management aspects of this developing area. The report is broken up into three sections, the first section focuses on the issues surrounding the start-up of a traditional ISP and provides a road map for utilities interested in this area. The second section provides an overview of the Internet energy management projects which were undertaken and the key lessons learned from each. Lastly, the third section outlines the gateway progress made during the grant and provides some of the recommendations which the work produced.

  14. The [CII]/[NII] far-infrared line ratio at z>5: extreme conditions for “normal” galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavesi, Riccardo; Riechers, Dominik; Capak, Peter L.; Carilli, Chris Luke; Sharon, Chelsea E.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Karim, Alexander; Scoville, Nicholas; Smolcic, Vernesa

    2017-01-01

    Thanks to the Atacama Large (sub-)Millimeter Array (ALMA), observations of atomic far-infrared fine structure lines are a very productive way of measuring physical properties of the interstellar medium (ISM) in galaxies at high redshift, because they provide an unobscured view into the physical conditions of star formation. While the bright [CII] line has become a routine probe of the dynamical properties of the gas, its intensity needs to be compared to other lines in order to establish the physical origin of the emission. [NII] selectively traces the emission coming from the ionized fraction of the [CII]-emitting gas, offering insight into the phase structure of the ISM. Here we present ALMA measurements of [NII] 205 μm fine structure line emission from a representative sample of galaxies at z=5-6 spanning two orders of magnitude in star formation rate (SFR). Our results show at least two different regimes of ionized gas properties for galaxies in the first billion years of cosmic time, separated by their L[CII]/L[NII] ratio. First, we find extremely low [NII] emission compared to [CII] from a “typical” Lyman Break Galaxy (LBG-1), likely due to low dust content and reminiscent of local dwarfs. Second, the dusty Lyman Break Galaxy HZ10 and the extreme starburst AzTEC-3 show ionized gas fractions typical of local star-forming galaxies and show hints of spatial variations in their [CII]/[NII] line ratio. These observations of far-infrared lines in “normal” galaxies at z>5 yield some of the first constraints on ISM models for young galaxies in the first billion years of cosmic time and shed light on the observed evolution of the dust and gas properties.

  15. Estimation of small business activity by county for the National Infrastructure Information System (NIIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, S.E.; Yoder, T.N.

    1992-09-01

    The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has commissioned the design of an assessment system to perform rapid analysis of the economic impacts of various disasters. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed the National Infrastructure Information System (NIIS) in response to this need. Its design includes several modules to support emergency assessment--the Facility Damage Assessment Module to provide rapid summaries of economic capacity at risk in a disaster area, the Regional Impacts Module (RIM) to estimate the change in a region`s production, consumption, and net exports as a result of capacity lost in the disaster area, the Inter-Regional Trade Flows Module to identify potential interruptions in commodity trade flows between regions, based on the results of the RIM analysis, and the National Economic Model to identify potential macroeconomic impacts of the disaster. In addition to the assessment system, FEMA needs a core data base that contains the comprehensive, county-level information required to conduct regional and national impact analyses. The effort is focused on a general overview of the seriousness of each disaster (e.g., how large is the relative impact) and not on detailed local effects. However, the core data file must be complete enough and accurate enough to support analysis of the relative costs of different disasters. Coverage must be comprehensive in order to address equity issues, as well as detailed in the specific industries that most affect the economy`s ability to respond to disaster.

  16. Estimation of small business activity by county for the National Infrastructure Information System (NIIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, S.E. ); Yoder, T.N. )

    1992-09-01

    The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has commissioned the design of an assessment system to perform rapid analysis of the economic impacts of various disasters. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed the National Infrastructure Information System (NIIS) in response to this need. Its design includes several modules to support emergency assessment--the Facility Damage Assessment Module to provide rapid summaries of economic capacity at risk in a disaster area, the Regional Impacts Module (RIM) to estimate the change in a region's production, consumption, and net exports as a result of capacity lost in the disaster area, the Inter-Regional Trade Flows Module to identify potential interruptions in commodity trade flows between regions, based on the results of the RIM analysis, and the National Economic Model to identify potential macroeconomic impacts of the disaster. In addition to the assessment system, FEMA needs a core data base that contains the comprehensive, county-level information required to conduct regional and national impact analyses. The effort is focused on a general overview of the seriousness of each disaster (e.g., how large is the relative impact) and not on detailed local effects. However, the core data file must be complete enough and accurate enough to support analysis of the relative costs of different disasters. Coverage must be comprehensive in order to address equity issues, as well as detailed in the specific industries that most affect the economy's ability to respond to disaster.

  17. Spermine stimulation of a nuclear NII kinase from pea plumules and its role in the phosphorylation of a nuclear polypeptide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Datta, N.; Schell, M. B.; Roux, S. J.

    1987-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that spermine stimulates the phosphorylation of a 47 kilodalton nuclear polypeptide from pea plumules (N Datta, LK Hardison, SJ Roux 1986 Plant Physiol 82: 681-684). In this paper we report that spermine stimulates the activity of a cyclic AMP independent casein kinase, partially purified from a chromatin fraction of pea plumule nuclei. This effect of spermine was substrate specific; i.e. with casein as substrate, spermine stimulated the kinase activity, and with phosvitin as substrate, spermine completely inhibited the activity. The stimulation by spermine of the casein kinase was, in part, due to the lowering of the Mg2+ requirement of the kinase. Heparin could partially inhibit this casein kinase activity and spermine completely overcame this inhibition. By further purification of the casein kinase extract on high performance liquid chromatography, we fractionated it into an NI and an NII kinase. Spermine stimulated the NII kinase by 5- to 6-fold but had no effect on the NI kinase. Using [gamma-32P]GTP, we have shown that spermine promotes the phosphorylation of the 47 kilodalton polypeptide(s) in isolated nuclei, at least in part by stimulating an NII kinase.

  18. Spermine stimulation of a nuclear NII kinase from pea plumules and its role in the phosphorylation of a nuclear polypeptide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Datta, N.; Schell, M. B.; Roux, S. J.

    1987-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that spermine stimulates the phosphorylation of a 47 kilodalton nuclear polypeptide from pea plumules (N Datta, LK Hardison, SJ Roux 1986 Plant Physiol 82: 681-684). In this paper we report that spermine stimulates the activity of a cyclic AMP independent casein kinase, partially purified from a chromatin fraction of pea plumule nuclei. This effect of spermine was substrate specific; i.e. with casein as substrate, spermine stimulated the kinase activity, and with phosvitin as substrate, spermine completely inhibited the activity. The stimulation by spermine of the casein kinase was, in part, due to the lowering of the Mg2+ requirement of the kinase. Heparin could partially inhibit this casein kinase activity and spermine completely overcame this inhibition. By further purification of the casein kinase extract on high performance liquid chromatography, we fractionated it into an NI and an NII kinase. Spermine stimulated the NII kinase by 5- to 6-fold but had no effect on the NI kinase. Using [gamma-32P]GTP, we have shown that spermine promotes the phosphorylation of the 47 kilodalton polypeptide(s) in isolated nuclei, at least in part by stimulating an NII kinase.

  19. Ni(II) and Ni(I) forms of pentaalkylamide derivatives of cofactor F430 of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, C L; Ma, L; Renner, M W; Scott, R A

    1991-07-08

    A series of pentaalkylamide forms of F430 and of its 12,13-diepimer have been generated and characterized. Carbodiimide-assisted N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide activation of all five peripheral carboxylates of the F430 macrocycle allows nucleophilic attack by a number of primary amines (RNH2, R- = CH3-, CH3CH2-, CF3CH2-, CH3(CH2)3-) generating the pentaalkylamide derivatives. The identity of each derivative has been verified by fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS). The solubility of these derivatives in aprotic organic solvents varies as the amine alkyl substituent (R-) is changed. Electrochemical measurements have shown that the Ni(II/I) reduction potentials in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) are approximately -1 V (Ag/AgCl). Reduction by sodium amalgam in THF generates the Ni(I) form of the F430 diepimer pentabutylamide. The visible and EPR spectra of this Ni(I) species are very similar to the corresponding spectra of Ni(I) F430M (Jaun, B. and Pfaltz, A. (1986) J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 1327-1329.).

  20. Replacement P212H altered the pH-temperature profile of phytase from Aspergillus niger NII 08121.

    PubMed

    Ushasree, Mrudula Vasudevan; Vidya, Jalaja; Pandey, Ashok

    2015-03-01

    Microbial phytase, a widely used animal feed enzyme, needs to be active and stable in the acidic milieu for better performance in the monogastric gut. Aspergillus niger phytases exhibit an activity dip in the pH range from 3.0 to 3.5. Replacement of amino acids, which changed the pKa of catalytic residues H82 and D362, resulted in alteration of the pH profile of a thermostable phytase from A. niger NII 08121. Substitution P212H in the protein loop at 14 Å distance to the active site amended the pH optimum from 2.5 to pH 3.2 nevertheless with a decrease in thermostability than the wild enzyme. This study described the utility of amino acid replacements based on pKa shifts of catalytic acid/base to modulate the pH profile of phytases.

  1. Comprehensive theoretical studies on the low-lying electronic states of NiF, NiCl, NiBr, and NiI.

    PubMed

    Zou, Wenli; Liu, Wenjian

    2006-04-21

    The low-lying electronic states of the nickel monohalides, i.e., NiF, NiCl, NiBr, and NiI, are investigated by using multireference second-order perturbation theory with relativistic effects taken into account. For the energetically lowest 11 lambda-S states and 26 omega states there into, the potential energy curves and corresponding spectroscopic constants (vertical and adiabatic excitation energies, equilibrium bond lengths, vibrational frequencies, and rotational constants) are reported. The calculated results are grossly in very good agreement with those solid experimental data. In particular, the ground state of NiI is shown to be different from those of NiF, NiCl, and NiBr, being in line with the recent experimental observation. Detailed analyses are provided on those states that either have not been assigned or have been incorrectly assigned by previous experiments.

  2. Emergency Preparedness technology support to the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) of the United Kingdom. Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    O`Kula, K.R.

    1994-03-01

    The Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) of the United Kingdom (UK) suggested the use of an accident progression logic model method developed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for K Reactor to predict the magnitude and timing of radioactivity releases (the source term) based on an advanced logic model methodology. Predicted releases are output from the personal computer-based model in a level-of-confidence format. Additional technical discussions eventually led to a request from the NII to develop a proposal for assembling a similar technology to predict source terms for the UK`s advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) type. To respond to this request, WSRC is submitting a proposal to provide contractual assistance as specified in the Scope of Work. The work will produce, document, and transfer technology associated with a Decision-Oriented Source Term Estimator for Emergency Preparedness (DOSE-EP) for the NII to apply to AGRs in the United Kingdom. This document, Appendix A is a part of this proposal.

  3. Geometric and Electronic Structures of the NiI and Methyl−NiIII Intermediates of Methyl-Coenzyme M Reductase†

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) catalyzes the terminal step in the formation of biological methane from methyl-coenzyme M (Me-SCoM) and coenzyme B (CoBSH). The active site in MCR contains a Ni−F430 cofactor, which can exist in different oxidation states. The catalytic mechanism of methane formation has remained elusive despite intense spectroscopic and theoretical investigations. On the basis of spectroscopic and crystallographic data, the first step of the mechanism is proposed to involve a nucleophilic attack of the NiI active state (MCRred1) on Me-SCoM to form a NiIII−methyl intermediate, while computational studies indicate that the first step involves the attack of NiI on the sulfur of Me-SCoM, forming a CH3• radical and a NiII−thiolate species. In this study, a combination of Ni K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopic (XAS) studies and density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed on the NiI (MCRred1), NiII (MCRred1−silent), and NiIII−methyl (MCRMe) states of MCR to elucidate the geometric and electronic structures of the different redox states. Ni K-edge EXAFS data are used to reveal a five-coordinate active site with an open upper axial coordination site in MCRred1. Ni K-pre-edge and EXAFS data and time-dependent DFT calculations unambiguously demonstrate the presence of a long Ni−C bond (∼2.04 Å) in the NiIII−methyl state of MCR. The formation and stability of this species support mechanism I, and the Ni−C bond length suggests a homolytic cleavage of the NiIII−methyl bond in the subsequent catalytic step. The XAS data provide insight into the role of the unique F430 cofactor in tuning the stability of the different redox states of MCR. PMID:19243132

  4. Geometric and electronic structures of the Ni(I) and methyl-Ni(III) intermediates of methyl-coenzyme M reductase.

    PubMed

    Sarangi, Ritimukta; Dey, Mishtu; Ragsdale, Stephen W

    2009-04-14

    Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) catalyzes the terminal step in the formation of biological methane from methyl-coenzyme M (Me-SCoM) and coenzyme B (CoBSH). The active site in MCR contains a Ni-F(430) cofactor, which can exist in different oxidation states. The catalytic mechanism of methane formation has remained elusive despite intense spectroscopic and theoretical investigations. On the basis of spectroscopic and crystallographic data, the first step of the mechanism is proposed to involve a nucleophilic attack of the Ni(I) active state (MCR(red1)) on Me-SCoM to form a Ni(III)-methyl intermediate, while computational studies indicate that the first step involves the attack of Ni(I) on the sulfur of Me-SCoM, forming a CH(3)(*) radical and a Ni(II)-thiolate species. In this study, a combination of Ni K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopic (XAS) studies and density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed on the Ni(I) (MCR(red1)), Ni(II) (MCR(red1-silent)), and Ni(III)-methyl (MCR(Me)) states of MCR to elucidate the geometric and electronic structures of the different redox states. Ni K-edge EXAFS data are used to reveal a five-coordinate active site with an open upper axial coordination site in MCR(red1). Ni K-pre-edge and EXAFS data and time-dependent DFT calculations unambiguously demonstrate the presence of a long Ni-C bond ( approximately 2.04 A) in the Ni(III)-methyl state of MCR. The formation and stability of this species support mechanism I, and the Ni-C bond length suggests a homolytic cleavage of the Ni(III)-methyl bond in the subsequent catalytic step. The XAS data provide insight into the role of the unique F(430) cofactor in tuning the stability of the different redox states of MCR.

  5. A structurally rigid bis(amido) ligand framework in low-coordinate Ni(I), Ni(II), and Ni(III) analogues provides access to a Ni(III) methyl complex via oxidative addition.

    PubMed

    Lipschutz, Michael I; Yang, Xinzheng; Chatterjee, Ruchira; Tilley, T Don

    2013-10-16

    A structurally persistent bis-amido ligand framework capable of supporting nickel compounds in three different oxidation states has been identified. A highly unusual, isolable Ni(III) alkyl species has been prepared and characterized via a rare example of a two-electron oxidative addition of MeI to Ni(I).

  6. Influence of Ring-Expanded N-Heterocyclic Carbenes on the Structures of Half-Sandwich Ni(I) Complexes: An X-ray, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), and Electron Nuclear Double Resonance (ENDOR) Study.

    PubMed

    Pelties, Stefan; Carter, Emma; Folli, Andrea; Mahon, Mary F; Murphy, Damien M; Whittlesey, Michael K; Wolf, Robert

    2016-11-07

    Potassium graphite reduction of the half-sandwich Ni(II) ring-expanded diamino/diamidocarbene complexes CpNi(RE-NHC)Br gave the Ni(I) derivatives CpNi(RE-NHC) (where RE-NHC = 6-Mes (1), 7-Mes (2), 6-MesDAC (3)) in yields of 40%-50%. The electronic structures of paramagnetic 1-3 were investigated by CW X-/Q-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and Q-band (1)H electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy. While small variations in the g-values were observed between the diaminocarbene complexes 1 and 2, pronounced changes in the g-values were detected between the almost isostructural species (1) and diamidocarbene species (3). These results highlight the sensitivity of the EPR g-tensor to changes in the electronic structure of the Ni(I) centers generated by incorporation of heteroatom substituents onto the backbone ring positions. Variable-temperature EPR analysis also revealed the presence of a second Ni(I) site in 3. The experimental g-values for these two Ni(I) sites detected by EPR in frozen solutions of 3 are consistent with resolution on the EPR time scale of the disordered components evident in the X-ray crystallographically determined structure and the corresponding density functional theory (DFT)-calculated g-tensor. Q-band (1)H ENDOR measurements revealed a small amount of unpaired electron spin density on the Cp rings, consistent with the calculated SOMO of complexes 1-3. The magnitude of the (1)H A values for 3 were also notably larger, compared to 1 and 2, again highlighting the influence of the diamidocarbene on the electronic properties of 3.

  7. Characterization of MspNI (G/GWCC) and MspNII (R/GATCY), novel thermostable Type II restriction endonucleases from Meiothermus sp., isoschizomers of AvaII and BstYI.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Richa; Xu, Shuang-Yong; Sharma, Prince; Capalash, Neena

    2012-05-01

    MspNI and MspNII, isoschizomers of prototype Type II restriction endonucleases AvaII and BstYI, were extracted from an extreme thermophile bacterium belonging to the genus Meiothermus, isolated from the hot sulphur springs in north Himalayan region of India where temperature and pH ranged from 60 to 80°C and 7.5 to 8.5, respectively. The two enzymes were purified to homogeneity using Cibacron-Blue 3GA Agarose, Q-Sepharose and SP-Sepharose chromatography and were homodimers with subunit molecular weights of 27 and 45 kDa, respectively. Restriction mapping and run-off sequencing of MspNI and MspNII cleaved pBR322 DNA showed that they recognized and cleaved 5'-G/GWCC-3' and 5'-R/GATCY-3' sites, respectively. MspNI and MspNII worked optimally at 60 and 70°C, 6 and 5 mM MgCl(2), respectively and showed no star activity in organic solvents. Both were resistant to sequence methylation and were stable up to 25 PCR cycles.

  8. First Detections of the [NII] 122 Micrometer Line at High Redshift: Demonstrating the Utility of the Line for Studying Galaxies in the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Brisbin, Drew; Nikola, Thomas; Parshley, Stephen C.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Phillips, Thomas G.; Falgarone, Edith; Benford, Dominic J.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Tucker, Carol E.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detections of the [NIl] 122 {\\mu} m line from a high redshift galaxy. The line was strongly (> 6{\\sigma}) detected from SMMJ02399-0136, and HI413+ 117 (the Cloverleaf QSO) using the Redshift(z) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS) on the CSO. The lines from both sources are quite bright with line-to-FIR continuum luminosity ratios that are approx.7.0x10(exp -4) (Cloverleaf) and 2.1x10(exp -3) (SMMJ02399). With ratios 2-10 times larger than the average value for nearby galaxies, neither source exhibits the line-to-continuum deficits seen in nearby sources. The line strengths also indicate large ionized gas fractions, approx.8 to 17% of the molecular gas mass. The [OIII]/[NII] line ratio is very sensitive to the effective temperature of ionizing stars and the ionization parameter for emission arising in the narrow-line region (NLR) of an AGN. Using our previous detection of the [01II] 88 {\\mu}m line, the [OIII]/ [NIl] line ratio for SMMJ02399-0136 indicates the dominant source of the line emission is either stellar HII regions ionized by 09.5 stars, or the NLR of the AGN with ionization parameter 10g(U) = -3.3 to -4.0. A composite system, where 30 to 50% of the FIR lines arise in the NLR also matches the data. The Cloverleaf is best modeled by a superposition of approx.200 M82like starbursts accounting for all of the FIR emission and 43% of the [NIl] line. The remainder may come from the NLR. This work demonstrates the utility of the [NIl] and [OIII] lines in constraining properties of the ionized medium.

  9. X-Ray Crystallographic, Multifrequency EPR, and DFT Characterization of the Ni(PCy2NtBu2)2n+ Hydrogen Oxidation Catalyst in the Ni(I) Oxidation State

    PubMed Central

    Niklas, Jens; Westwood, Mark; Mardis, Kristy L.; Brown, Tiara L.; Pitts-McCoy, Anthony M.; Hopkins, Michael D.; Poluektov, Oleg G.

    2016-01-01

    The Ni(I) hydrogen oxidation catalyst [Ni(PCy2NtBu2)2]+ (1+; PCy2NtBu2= 1,5bis(tert-butyl)-3,7-dicyclo-hexyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacychlooctane) has been studied using a combination of EPR techniques (X-, Q-, and D-band; electron-nuclear double resonance, hyperfine sublevel correlation spectroscopy), X-ray crystallography, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Crystallographic and DFT studies indicate that the molecular structure of 1+ is highly symmetrical. EPR spectroscopy has allowed determination of the electronic g-tensor and the spin density distribution on the ligands, and revealed that the Ni(I) center does not interact strongly with the potentially coordinating solvents acetonitrile and butyronitrile. The EPR spectra and magnetic parameters of 1+ are found to be distinctly different from those for the related compound [Ni(PPh2NPh2)2]+ (4+). One significant contributor to these differences is that the molecular structure of 4+ is unsymmetrical, unlike that of 1+. DFT calculations on derivatives in which the R and R′ groups are systematically varied have allowed elucidation of structure/substituent relationships and their corresponding influence on the magnetic resonance parameters. PMID:26098955

  10. Application of gas phase cryogenic vibrational spectroscopy to characterize the CO2, CO, N2 and N2O interactions with the open coordination site on a Ni(I) macrocycle using dual cryogenic ion traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Stephanie M.; Menges, Fabian S.; Johnson, Mark A.

    2017-02-01

    Recent advances in gas phase ion chemistry, coupled with cryogenic ion vibrational predissociation spectroscopy, provide a powerful way to characterize the structures of small molecules bound to open coordination sites of organometallic compounds. Here we extend our previous measurements on the relatively weakly interacting CO2 molecule with a Ni(I) tetraaza-macrocyclic compound to enable the characterization of more strongly interacting substrates. We first confirm the calculated η2-C,O binding motif of CO2 using isotopic labeling by direct, one photon vibrational predissociation of the Ni(I)-CO2 complex. We then apply this approach to study complexation of N2 at the active site. The generality of the method is then expanded to include application to more strongly bound systems that cannot be photodissociated with one IR photon. This involves implementation of a recently developed scheme (Marsh et al., 2015) involving two temperature-controlled ion traps. The first is optimized to complex the substrate molecule to the active site and the second is cooled to around 10 K to enable condensation of weakly bound "tag" molecules onto the target complex so as to enable its characterization by linear vibrational predissociation spectroscopy. We demonstrate this capability by applying it to the coordination of CO to the active Ni(I) site, as well as to elucidate the nature of the products that are formed upon reaction with N2O.

  11. Useful Method for the Preparation of Low-Coordinate Nickel(I) Complexes via Transformations of the Ni(I) Bis(amido) Complex K{Ni[N(SiMe3)(2,6- (i) Pr2-C6H3)]2}

    PubMed

    Lipschutz, Michael I; Tilley, T Don

    2014-10-13

    A convenient method of preparing two- and three-coordinate Ni(I) complexes of the form L-Ni(I)-X (L = P (t) Bu3, P (i) Pr3, DPPE, NHC; X = -N(SiMe3)(2,6- (i) Pr-C6H3), -O(2,6- (t) Bu2-4-Me-C6H2)) is reported. Protonation of the easily prepared anionic Ni(I) bis(amido) complex K{Ni[N(SiMe3)(2,6- (i) Pr-C6H3)]2} in the presence of an appropriate L-type ligand results in loss of HN(SiMe3)(2,6- (i) Pr-C6H3) and trapping of the resulting neutral Ni(I)-amido fragment to yield neutral, paramagnetic, two- and three-coordinate Ni(I) complexes. Protonation of these neutral amido complexes by the bulky phenol HO(2,6- (t) Bu2-4-Me-C6H2) results in loss of the second amido moiety and trapping by the resulting phenoxide to yield Ni(I)-O(2,6- (t) Bu2-4-Me-C6H2) complexes. The hapticity of the phenoxide ligand is influenced by the π-accepting ability of the L-type ligand. Where L = P (t) Bu3, a poor π-acceptor, the phenoxide acts as a π-acceptor and adopts a η(5)-bonding mode through dearomatization of the phenyl ring. When L = NHC, a competent π-acceptor, the phenoxide acts as a π-donor, adopting a η(1)-bonding mode through the O atom. The modular nature of this synthetic strategy allows variation of both the L- and X-type ligands of the complex in a stepwise fashion and should be extendable to a wide variety of ligand types for new Ni(I) complexes.

  12. Field-Induced Slow Magnetic Relaxation in the Ni(I) Complexes [NiCl(PPh3)2]·C4H8O and [Ni(N(SiMe3)2)(PPh3)2].

    PubMed

    Lin, Weiquan; Bodenstein, Tilmann; Mereacre, Valeriu; Fink, Karin; Eichhöfer, Andreas

    2016-03-07

    Direct current (dc) and alternating current (ac) magnetic measurements have been performed on the three Ni(I) complexes: [NiCl(PPh3)3], [NiCl(PPh3)2]·C4H8O, and [Ni(N(SiMe3)2)(PPh3)2]. Fits of the dc magnetic data suggest an almost similar behavior of the three compounds, which display only moderate deviations from the spin-only values. The ac magnetic investigations reveal that the two complexes with trigonal planar coordination--[NiCl(PPh3)2]·C4H8O and [Ni(N(SiMe3)2)(PPh3)2]--display slow magnetic relaxation at low temperatures under applied dc fields, whereas tetrahedral [NiCl(PPh3)3] does not. Ground and excited states as well as magnetic data were calculated by ab initio wave function based multi-configurational methods, including dynamic correlation as well as spin-orbit coupling. The two trigonal planar complexes comprise well-isolated S = (1)/2 ground states, whereas two S = (1)/2 states with a splitting of less than 100 cm(-1) were found in the tetrahedral compound.

  13. Carbon-carbon cross-coupling reactions catalyzed by a two-coordinate nickel(II)-bis(amido) complex via observable Ni(I) , Ni(II) , and Ni(III) intermediates.

    PubMed

    Lipschutz, Michael I; Tilley, T Don

    2014-07-07

    Recently, the development of more sustainable catalytic systems based on abundant first-row metals, especially nickel, for cross-coupling reactions has attracted significant interest. One of the key intermediates invoked in these reactions is a Ni(III) -alkyl species, but no such species that is part of a competent catalytic cycle has yet been isolated. Herein, we report a carbon-carbon cross-coupling system based on a two-coordinate Ni(II) -bis(amido) complex in which a Ni(III) -alkyl species can be isolated and fully characterized. This study details compelling experimental evidence of the role played by this Ni(III) -alkyl species as well as those of other key Ni(I) and Ni(II) intermediates. The catalytic cycle described herein is also one of the first examples of a two-coordinate complex that competently catalyzes an organic transformation, potentially leading to a new class of catalysts based on the unique ability of first-row transition metals to accommodate two-coordinate complexes. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Useful Method for the Preparation of Low-Coordinate Nickel(I) Complexes via Transformations of the Ni(I) Bis(amido) Complex K{Ni[N(SiMe3)(2,6-iPr2-C6H3)]2}

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A convenient method of preparing two- and three-coordinate Ni(I) complexes of the form L–NiI–X (L = PtBu3, PiPr3, DPPE, NHC; X = −N(SiMe3)(2,6-iPr-C6H3), −O(2,6-tBu2-4-Me-C6H2)) is reported. Protonation of the easily prepared anionic Ni(I) bis(amido) complex K{Ni[N(SiMe3)(2,6-iPr-C6H3)]2} in the presence of an appropriate L-type ligand results in loss of HN(SiMe3)(2,6-iPr-C6H3) and trapping of the resulting neutral Ni(I)-amido fragment to yield neutral, paramagnetic, two- and three-coordinate Ni(I) complexes. Protonation of these neutral amido complexes by the bulky phenol HO(2,6-tBu2-4-Me-C6H2) results in loss of the second amido moiety and trapping by the resulting phenoxide to yield Ni(I)-O(2,6-tBu2-4-Me-C6H2) complexes. The hapticity of the phenoxide ligand is influenced by the π-accepting ability of the L-type ligand. Where L = PtBu3, a poor π-acceptor, the phenoxide acts as a π-acceptor and adopts a η5-bonding mode through dearomatization of the phenyl ring. When L = NHC, a competent π-acceptor, the phenoxide acts as a π-donor, adopting a η1-bonding mode through the O atom. The modular nature of this synthetic strategy allows variation of both the L- and X-type ligands of the complex in a stepwise fashion and should be extendable to a wide variety of ligand types for new Ni(I) complexes. PMID:25328273

  15. NII Task Force Issues Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Presents the preliminary report of the National Information Infrastructure's Task Force on Intellectual Property. Topics addressed include current copyright law; distribution rights; publication; first sale doctrine; technological protection; copyright management information; public performance right; fair use; licensing; international issues;…

  16. Direct determination of the number of electrons needed to reduce coenzyme F430 pentamethyl ester to the Ni(I) species exhibiting the electron paramagnetic resonance and ultraviolet-visible spectra characteristic for the MCR(red1) state of methyl-coenzyme M reductase.

    PubMed

    Piskorski, Rafal; Jaun, Bernhard

    2003-10-29

    The UV-visible and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of MCR(red1), the catalytically active state of methyl-coenzyme M reductase, are almost identical to those observed when free coenzyme F430 or its pentamethyl ester (F430M) are reduced to the Ni(I) valence state. Investigations and proposals concerning the catalytic mechanism of MCR were therefore based on MCR(red1) containing Ni(I)F430 until, in a recent report, Tang et al. (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2002, 124, 13242) interpreted their resonance Raman data and titration experiments as indicating that, in MCR(red1), coenzyme F430 is not only reduced at the nickel center but at one of the C=N double bonds of the hydrocorphinoid macrocycle as well. To resolve this contradiction, we have investigated the stoichiometry of the reduction of coenzyme F430 pentamethyl ester (F430M) by three independent methods. Spectroelectrochemistry showed clean reduction to a single product that exhibits the UV-vis spectrum typical for MCR(red1). In three bulk electrolysis experiments, 0.96 +/- 0.1 F/mol was required to generate the reduced species. Reduction with decamethylcobaltocene in tetrahydrofuran (THF) consumed 1 mol of (Cp)(2)Co/mol of F430M, and the stoichiometry of the reoxidation of the reduced form with the two-electron oxidant methylene blue was 0.46 +/- 0.05 mol of methylene blue/mol of reduced F430M. These experiments demonstrate that the reduction of coenzyme F430M to the species having almost identical UV-vis and EPR spectra as MCR(red1) is a one-electron process and therefore inconsistent with a reduction of the macrocycle chromophore.

  17. (NII) Novel Catalytic, Synthesis Methods for Main Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-23

    this hydrodefluorination reaction has been rendered catalytic for fluorobenzene, as well as for 1,2- and 1,3-difluorobenzene, releasing benzene and...hydrodefluorination reaction has been rendered catalytic for fluorobenzene, as well as for 1,2- and 1,3-difluorobenzene, releasing benzene or fluorobenzene...respectively. In the case of the difluorobenzenes, further catalytic hydrodefluorination to benzene occurs, but at a significantly slower rate

  18. Herschel Galactic Plane Survey of [NII] Fine Structure Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, Paul F.; Yıldız, Umut A.; Langer, William D.; Pineda, Jorge L.

    2015-12-01

    We present the first large-scale high angular resolution survey of ionized nitrogen in the Galactic Plane through emission of its two fine structure transitions ([N ii]) at 122 and 205 μm. The observations were largely obtained with the PACS instrument onboard the Herschel Space Observatory. The lines of sight were in the Galactic plane, following those of the Herschel OTKP project GOT C+. Both lines are reliably detected at the 10-8-10-7 Wm-2 sr-1 level over the range -60° ≤ l ≤ 60°. The rms of the intensity among the 25 PACS spaxels of a given pointing is typically less than one third of the mean intensity, showing that the emission is extended. [N ii] is produced in gas in which hydrogen is ionized, and collisional excitation is by electrons. The ratio of the two fine structure transitions provides a direct measurement of the electron density, yielding n(e) largely in the range 10-50 cm-3 with an average value of 29 cm-3 and N+ column densities 1016-1017 cm-2. [N ii] emission is highly correlated with that of [C ii], and we calculate that between 1/3 and 1/2 of the [C ii] emission is associated with the ionized gas. The relatively high electron densities indicate that the source of the [N ii] emission is not the warm ionized medium (WIM), which has electron densities more than 100 times smaller. Possible origins of the observed [N ii] include the ionized surfaces of dense atomic and molecular clouds, the extended low-density envelopes of H ii regions, and low-filling factor high-density fluctuations of the WIM.

  19. XAS studies of Ni(I), Ni(II), and Ni(III) complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Furenlid, L.R.; Renner, M.W.; Fujita, E.

    1995-01-01

    XAS techniques for studying structural and electronic changes taking place during oxidation and reduction reactions of nickel complexes are described and applied to selected models for Factor 430, a nickel containing cofactor catalyzing an important step in the conversion of carbon dioxide to methane by methanogenic bacteria.

  20. A Practical and Cost Effective Demonstration of Efficient Energy Usage and Quality Management Using the NII

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    In order to be competitive in the changing electric power industry, and to promote energy efficiency and conservation, electric power providers need to have access to information on the power system to a level of detail that has not been available in the past. This level of detail extends beyond the usual voltage, current, power, and energy quantities obtained from traditional utility SCADA systems.

  1. Materials Data on NiI2 (SG:166) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-05

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CO, [CI] and [NII] lines from Herschel spectra (Kamenetzky+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenetzky, J.; Rangwala, N.; Glenn, J.; Maloney, P. R.; Conley, A.

    2016-11-01

    We compiled a list of successful extragalactic Herschel/SPIRE FTS proposals (301 spectra) and searched the Herschel Science Archive (HSA) for the available data. Table 1 lists the basic galaxy information and observation IDs for all galaxies for which at least one FTS line measurement or upper limit is reported. The bandpass of the Herschel FTS starts around the CO J=4-3 line, but the majority of the molecular mass in galaxies is cool and populates the lower rotational levels. We complement the line fluxes derived from the FTS with the CO J=1-0, J=2-1, and J=3-2 lines available from ground-based observatories. Many of these galaxies have already been studied in the literature, particularly in large CO surveys. For some galaxies, we also performed single-dish measurements using the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). Measurements of the CO J=1-0 line were conducted with the 12m dish on Kitt Peak in 2015 May, and those of CO J=2-1 and J=3-2 were conducted with the Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) located on Mt. Graham from 2014 November to 2015 February. (4 data files).

  3. 78 FR 37499 - Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII) Devices in the 5 GHz Band

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... period submitted by IEEE 802 and W-Fi Alliance. We find that good cause exist for an extension of the..., IEEE 802 requested that the reply comment deadline be extended by 30 days because in reviewing the... falls before both the 2013 Wi-Fi Alliance Member Meeting and IEEE 802's Plenary Session, and that...

  4. Use of the NII to study impacts of new technologies and policies on supply and demand of electric power

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, J.K. Jr.

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes a proposal to use an implementation of client-server technology on the Internet for simulating a number of aspects of electric power production, distribution, and consumption within a wholly new regulatory, financing, operating, and control environment. This approach would use a large number of people to generate strategies and decisions, in a real-time context, needed to drive the simulation. A World Wide Web server would provide background information about the simulation for those who chose to participate as actors in one of supported roles. Roles would be based on activities associated with different business areas and would include utility manager, independent power producer (entrepreneur), electric power futures trader, electric power futures investor, electric power wheeler, industrial customer, commercial customer, and residential customer. The simulation program would run on a system of high-performance computers (parallel computer system) that communicate between each other on a high speed communications bus. These computers would also be the server systems for the client programs used by the actors. People who want to be actors would be required to register before being given a client program, as a way to have some control over the simulation results. Each role will have its corresponding client program with graphical user interface. Each client program will support a common view of the simulation results and a role specific view.

  5. National Coordinating Committee for Technology in Education and Training (NCC-TET) Requirements for the National Information Infrastructure (NII).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yrchik, John; Cradler, John

    1994-01-01

    Discusses guidelines that were developed to ensure that the National Information Infrastructure provides expanded opportunities for education and training. Topics include access requirements for homes and work places as well as schools; education and training application requirements, including coordination by federal departments and agencies; and…

  6. The Russian Scientific Research Institue Of Parachute Design And Production (NII Parachutostroyeniya, NIIPC)- History, Research And Collaboration In Space Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyalin, V.; Ladygin, V.; Komarov, V.; Kuleshov, V.; Wong, H.; Offerman, J.; Thirkettle, A.

    2011-05-01

    NIIPC was established in 1946 for the development of paradrop equipment and is one of a few companies in the world to perform the full cycle of parachute development, including scientific research, design, manufacturing, test and modification. NIIPC produced the parachute systems for Yuri Gagarin and all of the Russian manned space missions, Vistok, Voshod and Soyuz. It produced the parachutes for unmanned missions, Almaz, Bion, Cosmos as well as the reentry modules for Mars, Venus and from the Moon. NIIPC has its own school for training of scientific personnel and large scientific and technical archive. The existing knowledge and computer codes are used for the development of prospective parachute systems. Research includes all aspects such as payload- parachute dynamics, inflation, clusters, gliding parachutes, and aeroballistic heating and strength of supersonic parachutes. International collaboration included the Ariane 5 booster parachutes with Dutch Space and development of the current supersonic parachute system for EXPERT. An Ariane 5 booster weighs 41 tonnes dry and involves a 3-stage parachute system. The EXPERT parachute deploys a drogue supersonic parachute at Mach 1.7, before extracting a main cross-shaped parachute. The test campaign for EXPERT started in 2010 and will be completed by summer 2011.

  7. Million Query Track 2008 Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    We used several standard Lemur built in systems (tfidf bm25, tfidf log, kl abs, kl dir, inquery, cos, okapi) and combined their output (metasearch...the Lemur implementations: a vector-space cosine similarity run (000cos), a language modeling run (000klabs), an Okapi formula run (000okapi), a BM25

  8. The Observations of the Supernova Remnant G65.2+5.7 in the Emission Lines of OIII NII and SII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitnik, T. G.; Klementeva, A. Y.; Toropova, M. S.

    1983-06-01

    Isophote charts in the [O III], [N II], and [S II] lines of the bright filament S 91 lying to the SE of the supernova remnant G 65.2+5.7 are constructed. The stratification of the emission regions in these lines is discovered. [O III] regions lie closer to the external ridge of the supernova remnant than the regions which emit the [N II] and [S II] lines. This displacement is explained as the observed cut of the radiative loss wave behind the shock front. The visible structure of [N II] and [S II] filaments is perhaps connected with radiative loss instabilities. The small (as compared to the [N II] lines) width of the [O III] filaments is explained by a greater value of the radiative losses in the [O III] lines.

  9. Asymmetric self-assembly with atmospheric CO2 fixation of a pentanuclear carbonate NiI) complex based on dissimilar building blocks.

    PubMed

    Fondo, Matilde; García-Deibe, Ana M; Ocampo, Noelia; Sanmartín, Jesús; Bermejo, Manuel R

    2007-01-28

    Formation in basic solution of an asymmetric pentanuclear carbonate Ni(II) complex with a compartmental ligand involves atmospheric CO(2) uptake, either by reaction of two slightly different dinuclear precursors that yield its di- and trinuclear "building blocks", or directly, by spontaneous self-organization of metal and ligand starting reactants.

  10. EEE Links, Volume 9, No. 1, January 2003 Focus on Plastic Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The January 2003 issue of Electronic, Electromechanical, Electric (EEE) Links is presented. The Programmable Logic Application Notes column has been reinstated in this newsletter. Written by Rich Katz of NASA's Office of Logic Design (OLD), the application notes offer technical tips intended to prevent flight design errors and enhance research, development, and use of programmable logic and elements for space flight applications. An archive of these notes columns from previous issues of EEE Links is available at http://www.klabs.org/richcontent/eeelink s/EEE Links.htm.

  11. EEE Links, Volume 9, No. 1, January 2003 Focus on Plastic Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The January 2003 issue of Electronic, Electromechanical, Electric (EEE) Links is presented. The Programmable Logic Application Notes column has been reinstated in this newsletter. Written by Rich Katz of NASA's Office of Logic Design (OLD), the application notes offer technical tips intended to prevent flight design errors and enhance research, development, and use of programmable logic and elements for space flight applications. An archive of these notes columns from previous issues of EEE Links is available at http://www.klabs.org/richcontent/eeelink s/EEE Links.htm.

  12. Negative Interpersonal Interactions in Student Training Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Patricia A.; Kline, Theresa J. B.

    2009-01-01

    Studies demonstrate that negative interpersonal interaction(s) (NII) such as bullying are frequent and harmful to individuals in workplace and higher education student settings. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether the degree of perceived severity of NII varies by the status of the actor. The present study explored the moderating effect of actor…

  13. The Enclosure of Cyberspace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettig, Ronald V.

    1997-01-01

    Explores the growing concentration of ownership and control over the National Information Infrastructure (NII). Examines efforts of copyright owners to extend their control over information and cultural products into new media markets. Discusses the commercialization of the NII, and points out concentration, commodification, and commercialization…

  14. The Uses of the National Information Infrastructure in Providing Services to Small Industry, State and Local Governments, and Education in Rural Areas. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session (Billings, Montana).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

    The Senate Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space held a hearing in Billings, Montana, on rural America's access to the National Information Infrastructure (NII) and uses of NII in the provision of rural education and services. An Assistant Secretary of Commerce discussed the development of the Internet, problems in rural access to the…

  15. Negative Interpersonal Interactions in Student Training Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Patricia A.; Kline, Theresa J. B.

    2009-01-01

    Studies demonstrate that negative interpersonal interaction(s) (NII) such as bullying are frequent and harmful to individuals in workplace and higher education student settings. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether the degree of perceived severity of NII varies by the status of the actor. The present study explored the moderating effect of actor…

  16. Statement of Principles on Technology in the Reform of Mathematics and Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA.

    The future National Information Infrastructure (NII) promises every business, government agency, hospital, home, library, and school in the United States access anywhere, anytime to voice, data, full-motion video, and multimedia applications. The impact of the NII in learning--for children, older students, and lifelong learners--will be…

  17. Justice and Social Equity in Cyberspace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doctor, Ronald

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the concept of information democracy, or access to information, in relation to information delivery; computerized community-based information systems, including grass-roots nonprofit organizations and private sector activities; the National Information Infrastructure (NII); empowerment; concepts of social justice; and designing the NII.…

  18. 47 CFR 15.405 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unlicensed National Information... only to the radio transmitter contained in the U-NII device. Other aspects of the operation of a U-NII... that includes digital circuitry not directly associated with the radio transmitter also is subject to...

  19. 47 CFR 15.405 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unlicensed National Information... only to the radio transmitter contained in the U-NII device. Other aspects of the operation of a U-NII... that includes digital circuitry not directly associated with the radio transmitter also is subject to...

  20. 47 CFR 15.405 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unlicensed National Information... only to the radio transmitter contained in the U-NII device. Other aspects of the operation of a U-NII... that includes digital circuitry not directly associated with the radio transmitter also is subject to...

  1. 47 CFR 15.405 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unlicensed National Information... only to the radio transmitter contained in the U-NII device. Other aspects of the operation of a U-NII... that includes digital circuitry not directly associated with the radio transmitter also is subject to...

  2. Putting the Information Infrastructure to Work. Report of the Information Infrastructure Task Force Committee on Applications and Technology. NIST Special Publication 857.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.

    An interconnection of computer networks, telecommunications services, and applications, the National Information Infrastructure (NII) can open up new vistas and profoundly change much of American life. This report explores some of the opportunities and obstacles to the use of the NII by people and organizations. The goal is to express how…

  3. Neuronal intranuclear inclusions are ultrastructurally and immunologically distinct from cytoplasmic inclusions of neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease.

    PubMed

    Mosaheb, Sabrina; Thorpe, Julian R; Hashemzadeh-Bonehi, Lida; Bigio, Eileen H; Gearing, Marla; Cairns, Nigel J

    2005-10-01

    Abnormal neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) containing aggregates of alpha-internexin and the neurofilament (NF) subunits, NF-H, NF-M, and NF-L, are the signature lesions of neuronal intermediate filament (IF) inclusion disease (NIFID). The disease has a clinically heterogeneous phenotype, including frontotemporal dementia, pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs presenting at a young age. NCIs are variably ubiquitinated and about half of cases also have neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NIIs), which are also ubiquitinated. NIIs have been described in polyglutamine-repeat expansion diseases, where they are strongly ubiquitin immunoreactive. The fine structure of NIIs of NIFID has not previously been described. Therefore, to determine the ultrastructure of NIIs, immunoelectron microscopy was undertaken on NIFID cases and normal aged control brains. Our results indicate that the NIIs of NIFID are strongly ubiquitin immunoreactive. However, unlike NCIs which contain ubiquitin, alpha-internexin and NF epitopes, NIIs contain neither epitopes of alpha-internexin nor NF subunits. Neither NIIs nor NCIs were recognised by antibodies to expanded polyglutamine repeats. The NII of NIFID lacks a limiting membrane and contains straight filaments of 20 nm mean width (range 11-35 nm), while NCIs contain filaments with a mean width of 10 nm (range 5-18 nm; t-test, P<0.001). Biochemistry revealed no differences in neuronal IF protein mobilities between NIFID and normal brain tissue. Therefore, NIIs of NIFID contain filaments morphologically and immunologically distinct from those of NCIs, and both types of inclusion lack expanded polyglutamine tracts of the triplet-repeat expansion diseases. These observations indicate that abnormal protein aggregation follows separate pathways in different neuronal compartments of NIFID.

  4. IC 1689: S0 galaxy with inner polar disk.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen-Thorn, V. A.; Reshetnikov, V. P.

    1997-03-01

    The results of spectroscopic observations of the S0 galaxy IC 1689 are given. The radial velocity curves constructed from the measurements of Hα and [NII]λ6583 lines show that in the galaxy interior there is a gas disk (r=~3kpc) rotating around the axis placed in the main plane of the galaxy (polar disk). Active star formation occurs in the outer part of the disk (in the ring). Both Hα and [NII]λ6583 emission lines are observed here. Only collisionally excited [NII] radiates in the inner regions of the disk.

  5. A systems configuration toolkit for modular integration of mechatronic resources

    SciTech Connect

    Oppel, F.J. III; Palmquist, R.

    1995-07-01

    The use of the NII (National Information Infrastructure) is growing rapidly in the number of users and in the areas in which it is being applied. Sandia is using, the NII to leverage the use of geographically distributed mechatronic (electromechanical) assets. This paper discusses the availability of networks, new challenges for robotics technology, and how the use of networks is helping to meet these challenges. A brief overview of the NII is provided, followed by a listing of ``needs`` within the intelligent systems community. An approach is then given for meeting, these needs and, finally, implementation, examples, and future research directions are discussed.

  6. Discovering the Lowest Metallicty z<1 Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirimba, Keith; Prochaska, Jason X.

    2017-01-01

    Through the use of the NII/Hα ratio, an empirical method used in calculating metallicity, a sample of single emission line galaxies from the DEEP2 survey (472 Objects) was examined in the pursuit of finding extremely metal poor (XMP) galaxies. We calculate the upper limits for the NII flux against our measurements of Hα for each object. Of the 166 objects containing Hα and NII wavelength coverage, one galaxy at z=0.08 is a terrific candidate, having maximum 12+log(O/H) ≤ 7.7.

  7. 47 CFR 15.407 - General technical requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... interval of continuous transmission using instrumentation calibrated in terms of an rms-equivalent voltage... U-NII devices using an AC power line are required to comply also with the conducted limits set forth...

  8. 47 CFR 15.407 - General technical requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... interval of continuous transmission using instrumentation calibrated in terms of an rms-equivalent voltage... U-NII devices using an AC power line are required to comply also with the conducted limits set forth...

  9. EFFECT OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS FLAME RETARDANTS ON NEURONAL DEVELOPMENT IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increased use of organophosphorus compounds as alternatives to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) has led to widespread human exposure, There is, however, limited information on their potential health effects. This study compared the effects of nii ne organophosphorus flame...

  10. EFFECT OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS FLAME RETARDANTS ON NEURONAL DEVELOPMENT IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increased use of organophosphorus compounds as alternatives to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) has led to widespread human exposure, There is, however, limited information on their potential health effects. This study compared the effects of nii ne organophosphorus flame...

  11. Búsqueda de regiones de baja excitación en nebulosas planetarias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vena Valdarenas, R. R.; Schmidt, E. O.; Volpe, M. G.; Weidmann, W.; Mudrik, A.

    2015-08-01

    We present early results from observations with narrow band filter ([NII], 6584 ) for a sample of austral planetary nebulae. The observations are being made from Bosque Alegre Astrophysical Station. The observation inherent aspects will be treated in detail.

  12. Determination of Electronic Temperature and Density in Narrow Line Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintero, S.; Higuera-G., Mario A.

    2017-07-01

    We use observations of forbidden emission lines: [SII], [OII], N[II] and [OIII] from a sample of objects located in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and determined the electronic temperature and densities.

  13. Analysis of NASA communications (Nascom) II network protocols and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidyar, Guy C.; Butler, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Communications (Nascom) Division of the Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate is to undertake a major initiative to develop the Nascom II (NII) network to achieve its long-range service objectives for operational data transport to support the Space Station Freedom Program, the Earth Observing System, and other projects. NII is the Nascom ground communications network being developed to accommodate the operational traffic of the mid-1990s and beyond. The authors describe various baseline protocol architectures based on current and evolving technologies. They address the internetworking issues suggested for reliable transfer of data over heterogeneous segments. They also describe the NII architecture, topology, system components, and services. A comparative evaluation of the current and evolving technologies was made, and suggestions for further study are described. It is shown that the direction of the NII configuration and the subsystem component design will clearly depend on the advances made in the area of broadband integrated services.

  14. Technical Note: On the possibly missing mechanism of 15 μm emission in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, R. D.

    2015-02-01

    Accurate knowledge of the rate as well as the mechanism of excitation of the bending mode of CO2 is necessary for reliable modeling of the mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT) region of the atmosphere. Assuming the excitation mechanism to be thermal collisions with atomic oxygen, the rate coefficient derived from the observed 15 μm emission by space-based experiments (kATM = 6.0 × 10-12 cm3s-1) differs from the laboratory measurements (kLAB =(1.5-2.5) × 10-12 cm3s-1) by a factor of 2-4. The general circulation models (GCMs) of Earth, Venus, and Mars have chosen to use a median value of kGCM = 3.0 × 10-12 cm3s-1 for this rate coefficient. As a first step to resolve the discrepancies between the three rate coefficients, we attempt to find the source of disagreement between the first two. It is pointed out that a large magnitude of the difference between these two rate coefficients (kx ≡ kATM - kLAB) requires that the unknown mechanism involve one or both major species: N2, O. Because of the rapidly decreasing volume mixing ratio (VMR) of CO2 with altitude, the exciting partner must be long lived and transfer energy efficiently. It is shown that thermal collisions with N2, mediated by a near-resonant rotation-to-vibration (RV) energy transfer process, while giving a reasonable rate coefficient kVR for de-excitation of the bending mode of CO2, lead to vibration-to-translation kVT rate coefficients in the terrestrial atmosphere that are 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than those observed in the laboratory. It is pointed out that the efficient near-resonant rotation-to-vibration (RV) energy transfer process has a chance of being the unknown mechanism if very high rotational levels of N2, produced by the reaction of N and NO and other collisional processes, have a super-thermal population and are long lived. Since atomic oxygen plays a critical role in the mechanisms discussed here, it suggested that its density be determined experimentally by ground- and space

  15. Estimation of waste component-specific landfill decay rates using laboratory-scale decomposition data.

    PubMed

    De la Cruz, Florentino B; Barlaz, Morton A

    2010-06-15

    The current methane generation model used by the U.S. EPA (Landfill Gas Emissions Model) treats municipal solid waste (MSW) as a homogeneous waste with one decay rate. However, component-specific decay rates are required to evaluate the effects of changes in waste composition on methane generation. Laboratory-scale rate constants, k(lab), for the major biodegradable MSW components were used to derive field-scale decay rates (k(field)) for each waste component using the assumption that the average of the field-scale decay rates for each waste component, weighted by its composition, is equal to the bulk MSW decay rate. For an assumed bulk MSW decay rate of 0.04 yr(-1), k(field) was estimated to be 0.298, 0.171, 0.015, 0.144, 0.033, 0.02, 0.122, and 0.029 yr(-1), for grass, leaves, branches, food waste, newsprint, corrugated containers, coated paper, and office paper, respectively. The effect of landfill waste diversion programs on methane production was explored to illustrate the use of component-specific decay rates. One hundred percent diversion of yard waste and food waste reduced the year 20 methane production rate by 45%. When a landfill gas collection schedule was introduced, collectable methane was most influenced by food waste diversion at years 10 and 20 and paper diversion at year 40.

  16. Sequence homology requirements for transcriptional silencing of 35S transgenes and post-transcriptional silencing of nitrite reductase (trans)genes by the tobacco 271 locus.

    PubMed

    Thierry, D; Vaucheret, H

    1996-12-01

    The transgene locus of the tobacco plant 271 (271 locus) is located on a telomere and consists of multiple copies of a plasmid carrying an NptII marker gene driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 19S promoter and the leaf-specific nitrite reductase Nii1 cDNA cloned in the antisense orientation under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter. Previous analysis of gene expression in leaves has shown that this locus triggers both post-transcriptional silencing of the host leaf-specific Nii genes and transcriptional silencing of transgenes driven by the 19S or 35S promoter irrespective of their coding sequence and of their location in the genome. In this paper we show that silencing of transgenes carrying Nii1 sequences occurs irrespective of the promoter driving their expression and of their location within the genome. This phenomenon occurs in roots as well as in leaves although root Nii genes share only 84% identity with leaf-specific Nii1 sequences carried by the 271 locus. Conversely, transgenes carrying the bean Nii gene (which shares 76% identity with the tobacco Nii1 gene) escape silencing by the 271 locus. We also show that transgenes driven by the figwort mosaic virus 34S promoter (which shares 63% identity with the 35S promoter) also escape silencing by the 271 locus. Taken together, these results indicate that a high degree of sequence similarity is required between the sequences of the silencing locus and of the target (trans)genes for both transcriptional and post-transcriptional silencing.

  17. Frequencies, Timing, and Spatial Patterns of Co-Suppression of Nitrate Reductase and Nitrite Reductase in Transgenic Tobacco Plants.

    PubMed Central

    Palauqui, J. C.; Elmayan, T.; De Borne, F. D.; Crete, P.; Charles, C.; Vaucheret, H.

    1996-01-01

    Frequencies, timing, and spatial patterns of co-suppression of the nitrate (Nia) and nitrite (Nii) genes were analyzed in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants carrying either Nia or Nii cDNAs under the control of the 35S promoter, or a Nii gene with its own regulatory signals (promoter, introns, and terminator) cloned downstream of two copies of the enhancer of the 35S promoter. We show that (a) the frequencies of transgenic lines affected by co- suppression are similar for the three constructs, ranging from 19 to 25%; (b) Nia and Nii co-suppression are triggered stochastically during a phenocritical period of 2 weeks between germination and flowering; (c) the timing of co-suppression (i.e. the percentage of isogenic plants affected by co-suppression reported as a function of the number of days of culture) differs from one transgenic line to another; (d) the percentage of isogenic plants affected by co-suppression is increased by growing the plants in vitro prior to their transfer to the greenhouse and to the field; and (e) at the end of the culture period, plants are either unaffected, completely co-suppressed, or variegated. Suppressed and nonsuppressed parts of these variegated plants are separated by a vertical plane through the stem in Nia co-suppression, and separated by a horizontal plane in Nii co-suppression. PMID:12226457

  18. Communications satellites in the national and global health care information infrastructure: their role, impact, and issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuzek, J. E.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1996-01-01

    Health care services delivered from a distance, known collectively as telemedicine, are being increasingly demonstrated on various transmission media. Telemedicine activities have included diagnosis by a doctor at a remote location, emergency and disaster medical assistance, medical education, and medical informatics. The ability of communications satellites to offer communication channels and bandwidth on demand, connectivity to mobile, remote and under served regions, and global access will afford them a critical role for telemedicine applications within the National and Global Information Infrastructure (NII/GII). The importance that communications satellites will have in telemedicine applications within the NII/GII the differences in requirements for NII vs. GII, the major issues such as interoperability, confidentiality, quality, availability, and costs, and preliminary conclusions for future usability based on the review of several recent trails at national and global levels are presented.

  19. EUV studies of N2 and O2 produced by low energy electron impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, H. D.; Mentall, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    The emission spectra resulting from electron impact excitation on molecular nitrogen and oxygen in the 500-1200 A spectral region are investigated. Electron energies are from 0 to 300 eV. Numerous bands of N2 are found between 800 and 1000 A. Excitation functions are measured for the NII 916 A, the OI 879 A, and the OII 834 multiplets, and nitrogen band emission. Cross sections were measured at 200 eV for several of the band emissions plus the NI 1135 A, NI 1164 A, NI 1177 A, NII 776 A, NII 1084 A, OI 1152 A, OI 1041 A, OI 999 A, OI 989 A, OI 879 A, OII 834 A, OII 616 A, OII 555 A, OII 539 A, and OII 718 A multiplets.

  20. EUV studies of N2 and O2 produced by low energy electron impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, H. D.; Mentall, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    The emission spectra resulting from electron impact excitation on molecular nitrogen and oxygen in the 500-1200 A spectral region are investigated. Electron energies are from 0 to 300 eV. Numerous bands of N2 are found between 800 and 1000 A. Excitation functions are measured for the NII 916 A, the OI 879 A, and the OII 834 multiplets, and nitrogen band emission. Cross sections were measured at 200 eV for several of the band emissions plus the NI 1135 A, NI 1164 A, NI 1177 A, NII 776 A, NII 1084 A, OI 1152 A, OI 1041 A, OI 999 A, OI 989 A, OI 879 A, OII 834 A, OII 616 A, OII 555 A, OII 539 A, and OII 718 A multiplets.

  1. Submillimeter and Far-Infrared Observations of the Carina Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberst, Thomas E.; Parshley, S. C.; Nikola, T.; Stacey, G. J.; Loehr, A.; Lane, A. P.; Stark, A. A.; Kamenetzky, J.

    2011-05-01

    We present the results of a 250 arcmin2 mapping of the 205 μm [NII] fine-structure emission over the northern Carina Nebula, including the Car I and Car II HII regions. Spectra were obtained using the South Pole Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (SPIFI) at the Antarctic Submillimeter Telescope and Remote Observatory (AST/RO) at South Pole. We supplement the 205 μm data with new reductions of far-IR fine-structure spectra from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) in 63 μm [OI], 122 μm [NII], 146 μm [OI], and 158 μm [CII]. Morphological comparisons are made with optical, radio continuum and CO maps. The 122 [NII] / 205 [NII] line ratio is used to probe the density of the low-ionization gas, and the 158 [C II] / 205 [NII] line ratio is used to probe the fraction of C+ arising from photodissociation regions (PDRs). From the [OI] and [CII] data, we construct a PDR model of Carina following Kaufman et al. (1999). When the PDR properties are compared with other sources, Carina is found to be more akin to 30 Doradus than Galactic star-forming regions such as the Orion Bar, M17, or W49; this is consistent with the view of Carina as a more evolved region, where much of the parent molecular cloud has been ionized or swept away. These data constitute the first ever ground-based detection of the 205 μm [NII] line, and only the third detection overall since those of the COBE FIRAS and the KAO in the early 1990s.

  2. [Ni(cod)2][Al(ORF)4], a Source for Naked Nickel(I) Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, Miriam M.; Himmel, Daniel; Kacprzak, Sylwia; Kratzert, Daniel; Radtke, Valentin; Weis, Philippe; Ray, Kallol; Scheidt, Ernst-Wilhelm; Scherer, Wolfgang; de Bruin, Bas; Weber, Stefan; Krossing, Ingo

    2015-10-13

    The straightforward synthesis of the cationic, purely organometallic NiI salt [Ni(cod)2]+[Al(ORF)4]- was realized through a reaction between [Ni(cod)2] and Ag[Al(ORF)4] (cod=1,5-cyclooctadiene). Crystal-structure analysis and EPR, XANES, and cyclic voltammetry studies confirmed the presence of a homoleptic NiI olefin complex. Weak interactions between the metal center, the ligands, and the anion provide a good starting material for further cationic NiI complexes.

  3. Integrating Programming Language and Operating System Information Security Mechanisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-31

    architecture to reason about information security. ACM...least 6 by PI Chong) on Shill and related research, including at Cornell University, NII Shonan ( Japan ), and Brown University. o Postdoctoral Fellow...of application architecture to enforce high-level application-specific information security guarantees (Chong and van der Meyden, 2015), the use

  4. Introduction of neutralizing immunogenicity index to the rational design of MERS coronavirus subunit vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lanying; Tai, Wanbo; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Guangyu; Zhu, Qing; Sun, Shihui; Liu, Chang; Tao, Xinrong; Tseng, Chien-Te K.; Perlman, Stanley; Jiang, Shibo; Zhou, Yusen; Li, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Viral subunit vaccines often contain immunodominant non-neutralizing epitopes that divert host immune responses. These epitopes should be eliminated in vaccine design, but there is no reliable method for evaluating an epitope's capacity to elicit neutralizing immune responses. Here we introduce a new concept ‘neutralizing immunogenicity index' (NII) to evaluate an epitope's neutralizing immunogenicity. To determine the NII, we mask the epitope with a glycan probe and then assess the epitope's contribution to the vaccine's overall neutralizing immunogenicity. As proof-of-concept, we measure the NII for different epitopes on an immunogen comprised of the receptor-binding domain from MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Further, we design a variant form of this vaccine by masking an epitope that has a negative NII score. This engineered vaccine demonstrates significantly enhanced efficacy in protecting transgenic mice from lethal MERS-CoV challenge. Our study may guide the rational design of highly effective subunit vaccines to combat MERS-CoV and other life-threatening viruses. PMID:27874853

  5. 47 CFR 15.405 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure Devices § 15.405 Cross reference. (a) The provisions of subparts A, B, and C of this part apply to unlicensed U-NII devices, except where specific provisions are contained in subpart E. Manufacturers should...

  6. 47 CFR 15.403 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... modulation symbols, during which the average symbol envelope power is constant. (q) RLAN. Radio Local Area Network. (r) Transmit Power Control (TPC). A feature that enables a U-NII device to dynamically switch... network. (b) Available Channel. A radio channel on which a Channel Availability Check has not...

  7. 47 CFR 15.403 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... modulation symbols, during which the average symbol envelope power is constant. (q) RLAN. Radio Local Area Network. (r) Transmit Power Control (TPC). A feature that enables a U-NII device to dynamically switch... network. (b) Available Channel. A radio channel on which a Channel Availability Check has not...

  8. 47 CFR 15.403 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... modulation symbols, during which the average symbol envelope power is constant. (q) RLAN. Radio Local Area Network. (r) Transmit Power Control (TPC). A feature that enables a U-NII device to dynamically switch... network. (b) Available Channel. A radio channel on which a Channel Availability Check has not...

  9. The Federal Government and Information Technology Standards: Building the National Information Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radack, Shirley M.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the role of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the development of the National Information Infrastructure (NII). Highlights include the standards process; voluntary standards; Open Systems Interconnection problems; Internet Protocol Suite; consortia; government's role; and network security. (16 references) (LRW)

  10. 47 CFR 15.403 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... spectral density, within the specified measurement bandwidth, within the U-NII device operating band. (n) Maximum Conducted Output Power. The total transmit power delivered to all antennas and antenna elements... power control level. Power must be summed across all antennas and antenna elements. The average must not...

  11. College Psychotherapy at a Taiwanese Counseling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yii-nii

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces Yii-nii Lin, Professor in the Center for Teacher Education at the National Tsing Hua University in Taiwan, and prior director of the university's counseling center for a 3 year term. She has worked as a university counselling psychologist for more than 15 years when she participated in an online interview that questioned…

  12. 20/20 Vision: The Development of a National Information Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Telecommunications and Information Administration (DOC), Washington, DC.

    After the publication of the Clinton Administration's "The National Information Infrastructure: Agenda for Action," a group of telecommunication specialists were asked to evaluate the proposals in order to broaden the policy discussion concerning the National Information Infrastructure (NII). This collection contains their visions of the…

  13. Children's Depression Screener (ChilD-S): Development and Validation of a Depression Screening Instrument for Children in Pediatric Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fruhe, Barbara; Allgaier, Antje-Kathrin; Pietsch, Kathrin; Baethmann, Martina; Peters, Jochen; Kellnar, Stephan; Heep, Axel; Burdach, Stefan; von Schweinitz, Dietrich; Schulte-Korne, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and validate the Children's Depression Screener (ChilD-S) for use in pediatric care. In two pediatric samples, children aged 9-12 (NI = 200; NII = 246) completed an explorative item pool (subsample I) and a revised item pool (subsample II). Diagnostic accuracy of each of the 22 items from the revised…

  14. Applications drivers for data parking on the Information Superhighway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Clark E., Jr.; Foeller, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    As the cost of data storage continues to decline (currently about one-millionth of its cost four decades ago) entirely new applications areas become economically feasible. Many of these new areas involved the extraordinarily high data rates and universal connectivity soon to be provided by the National Information Infrastructure (NII). The commonly held belief is that the main driver for the NII will be entertainment applications. We believe that entertainment applications as currently touted (multi-media, 500 video channels, video-on-demand, etc.) will play an important but far from dominant role in the development of the NII and its data storage components. The most pervasively effective drivers will be medical applications such as telemedicine and remote diagnosis, education and environmental monitoring. These applications have a significant funding base and offer a clearly perceived opportunity to improve the nation's standard of living. The NII's wideband connectivity both nationwide and worldwide requires a broad spectrum of data storage devices with a wide-range of performance capabilities. These storage centers will be dispersed throughout the system. Magnetic recording devices will fill the majority of these new data storage requirements for at least the rest of this century. The storage needs of various application areas and their respective market sizes will be explored. The comparative performance of various magnetic technologies and competitive alternative storage systems will be discussed.

  15. Analysis, Analysis Practices and Implications for Modeling and Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Jimmie McEver (EBR) Chris Chartier (NII) John Robertson (CAA) Ed Crowder (A-9) Vince Roske (IDA) Augie Fucci (DAMO CI) Scott Schutzmeister (AMSO...2000. Molander, Roger , Peter A. Wilson, B. David Mussington, and Richard Mesic, Strategic Information Warfare Rising, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND

  16. The Information Infrastructure: Reaching Society's Goals. A Report of the Information Infrastructure Task Force Committee on Applications and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.

    Intended for public comment and discussion, this document is the second volume of papers in which the Information Infrastructure Task Force has attempted to articulate in clear terms, with sufficient detail, how improvements in the National Information Infrastructure (NII) can help meet other social goals. These are not plans to be enacted, but…

  17. The National Information Infrastructure: Agenda for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Commerce, Washington, DC. Information Infrastructure Task Force.

    The National Information Infrastructure (NII) is planned as a web of communications networks, computers, databases, and consumer electronics that will put vast amounts of information at the users' fingertips. Private sector firms are beginning to develop this infrastructure, but essential roles remain for the Federal Government. The National…

  18. Department of Defense Financial Management Regulation. Volume 8. Civilian Pay Policy and Procedures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    sea. The NOL is 4 information and the DD/EITf muting number. served on thle civilian payroll office responsible for payments to the employee. The NOL...Johnston Atoll 67 Nevada NV 32 Midway Islands 71 New Hampshire NII 33 Puerto Rico 72 New Jersey NJ 34 Ryuku Islands, S,’uthern 73 New Mexico NM 35 Swan

  19. Defense Science Board 2006 Summer Study on Information Management for Net-Centric Operations. Volume 1: Main Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    Mr. Robert Lentz ODoD CIO Mr. David Mihelcic DISA Ms. Cecilia Phan JS J-6 Mr. Michael Ponti OASD NII Mr. Tony Sager NSA Mr. Thomas Scruggs ODoD...Ed Payne , Army, CIO-G6 LTC Harborth William, USA Army Knowledge Online (AKO) Kerim Tumay, VP Engineering Programs and Project Management Convera

  20. Atomic and Nuclear Interactions of High Energy Photons and Electrons with Matter.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-29

    IJ / VIh /hh1 ij~ ~ 111/ ~ ~~~~ ‘a” • •- • ~~ iitjiJ ~t~I~I1 J(I’,n) 17iTI~f ( ~ ,2n)II ~~~~~ I . a p g ~ ~ p p0 . — T:I Shacklston (Sh?t) LI

  1. Libraries and Their Role in the Information Infrastructure. Hearing on Examining the Role of Libraries in Developing America's New Information Infrastructure, before the Subcommittee on Education, Arts and Humanities of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    The purpose of this congressional hearing was to determine how libraries fit into the emerging national information infrastructure (NII). Testimony and prepared statements include those from Howard F. McGinn, Director, Emporia Public Library, Emporia, Kansas; James H. Billington, Librarian of Congress, Library of Congress, Washington D.C.,…

  2. Site preference of alloying elements in DO22-Ni3V phase: Phase-field and first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ding-Ni; Shangguan, Qian-Qian; Liu, Fu; Zhang, Ming-Yi

    2015-07-01

    Site preference of alloying elements in DO22-Ni3V phase was investigated using phase-field and first-principles method. The concentrations of alloying elements on sublattices of DO22-Ni3V phase were quantitatively studied using phase-field model based on microscopic diffusion equations. The phase-field computation results demonstrate that the concentration differences of alloying elements on the NiI and NiII site are attributed to the coordination environment difference. Host atoms Ni and substitutional ternary additions Al prefer to occupy NiI site. Antisite atoms V show site preference on the NiII site. Further reason of site preference of alloying elements on the two different Ni sites were studied using first-principles method to calculate the electronic structure of DO22-Ni3V phase. Calculation of density of states, orbitals population and charge population of the optimized Ni3V structure found that the electronic structures of NiI and NiII sites are different. Electronic structure difference, which is caused by coordination environment difference, is the essential reason for site selectivity behaviors of alloying elements on NiI and NiII sites.

  3. Improving Institutional Performance through IT-Enabled Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, William H.

    2005-01-01

    In its report "Innovate America," the National Innovation Initiative (NII) calls for an "innovation infrastructure" as the foundation for the nation's future productivity and competitiveness. The report notes: "Innovation generates the productivity that economists estimate has accounted for half of U.S. GDP growth over the past 50 years... It's…

  4. General Electromagnetic Model for the Analysis of Complex Systems (GEMACS) Computer Code Documentation (Version 3). Volume 3, Part 3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    NII I ,- V *m w m5 \\I ~ SPWDRV (MOM() RINP In-plane reflection coefficient ROUT Out-of-plane reflection coefficient RS Location of wave excitation...SPWDRV (MM) YW Y Component of ZC Z coordinate of field point ZR Z coordinate of specular point ZRSQRT Intermediate value in calculation of RINP and

  5. The Digital Preservation Consortium: Mission and Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Donald J.; Kenney, Anne

    The development of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) and the growing use of the Internet are creating a rapidly-changing environment for collaborative preservation and access. Within this environment, the Digital Preservation Consortium (DPC) seeks to advance the use and utility of digital technology for the preservation of and access…

  6. The High-Performance Computing and Communications program, the national information infrastructure and health care.

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, D A; Humphreys, B L

    1995-01-01

    The High-Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) program is a multiagency federal effort to advance the state of computing and communications and to provide the technologic platform on which the National Information Infrastructure (NII) can be built. The HPCC program supports the development of high-speed computers, high-speed telecommunications, related software and algorithms, education and training, and information infrastructure technology and applications. The vision of the NII is to extend access to high-performance computing and communications to virtually every U.S. citizen so that the technology can be used to improve the civil infrastructure, lifelong learning, energy management, health care, etc. Development of the NII will require resolution of complex economic and social issues, including information privacy. Health-related applications supported under the HPCC program and NII initiatives include connection of health care institutions to the Internet; enhanced access to gene sequence data; the "Visible Human" Project; and test-bed projects in telemedicine, electronic patient records, shared informatics tool development, and image systems. PMID:7614116

  7. The National Information Infrastructure: Requirements for Education and Training: Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TechTrends, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Includes 19 requirements prepared by the National Coordinating Committee for Technology in Education (NCC-TET) to ensure that the national information infrastructure (NII) provides expanded opportunities for education and training. The requirements, which cover access, education and training applications, and technical needs, are intended as…

  8. The National Information Infrastructure: Requirements for Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coordinating Committee on Technology in Education and Training, Alexandria, VA.

    The National Coordinating Committee for Technology in Education and Training (NCC-TET) has developed these requirements to ensure that the National Information Infrastructure (NII) provides expanded opportunities for education and training. A number of national organizations have contributed to these requirements, which are intended to be used in…

  9. Seeking Equity in the National Information Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doctor, Ronald D.

    1994-01-01

    Proposals for shaping the National Information Infrastructure (NII) lack sufficient provision for supporting locally controlled information delivery systems, which could serve all the people, regardless of class or community environment. A system of federally sponsored National and Regional Institutes for Information Democracy could help meet this…

  10. 77 FR 30297 - Privacy Act of 1974; U.S. Customs and Border Protection, DHS/CBP-006-Automated Targeting System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... System (ACS), Automated Export System (AES), Advance Passenger Information System (APIS), Border Crossing... different source systems. In some instances ATS is the official record for the information, while in other...), Global Enrollment System (GES), Non-Immigrant Information System (NIIS), historical National Security...

  11. 47 CFR 15.407 - General technical requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... provide critical communications services should determine if there are any nearby Government radar systems... systems with an e.i.r.p. of less than 500 mW. (2) Radar Detection Function of Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS). U-NII devices operating in the 5.25-5.35 GHz and 5.47-5.725 GHz bands shall employ a DFS radar...

  12. 47 CFR 15.403 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... carrier wave are varied among a set of predetermined discrete values in accordance with a digital... between several transmission power levels in the data transmission process. (s) U-NII devices. Intentional... modulation techniques and provide a wide array of high data rate mobile and fixed communications for...

  13. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, HOUSE & GARDEN BUG ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-19

    ... In tt. I ••••• n'"II when in.ect ..... t f.at. Sp, • ., lib.r.lly Into hidi", enell br._in. plec •• , con"ctl,.. .. nY in.ect. a. PO •• ibl •. Rape •••• nac ..... y. ...

  14. Children's Depression Screener (ChilD-S): Development and Validation of a Depression Screening Instrument for Children in Pediatric Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fruhe, Barbara; Allgaier, Antje-Kathrin; Pietsch, Kathrin; Baethmann, Martina; Peters, Jochen; Kellnar, Stephan; Heep, Axel; Burdach, Stefan; von Schweinitz, Dietrich; Schulte-Korne, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and validate the Children's Depression Screener (ChilD-S) for use in pediatric care. In two pediatric samples, children aged 9-12 (NI = 200; NII = 246) completed an explorative item pool (subsample I) and a revised item pool (subsample II). Diagnostic accuracy of each of the 22 items from the revised…

  15. 32 CFR 310.9 - Privacy boards and office, composition and responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Technology Management Directorate (ITMD), WHS. The designees also may be the principal POC for the DoD... Federal Information Security Management Agency (FISMA) Privacy Reports, as required by 44 U.S.C. 3544(c... Defense for Networks and Information Integration (ASD) (NII)/Chief Information Officer (CIO); the...

  16. 32 CFR 310.9 - Privacy boards and office, composition and responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Technology Management Directorate (ITMD), WHS. The designees also may be the principal POC for the DoD... Federal Information Security Management Agency (FISMA) Privacy Reports, as required by 44 U.S.C. 3544(c... Defense for Networks and Information Integration (ASD) (NII)/Chief Information Officer (CIO); the...

  17. 32 CFR 310.9 - Privacy boards and office, composition and responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Technology Management Directorate (ITMD), WHS. The designees also may be the principal POC for the DoD... Federal Information Security Management Agency (FISMA) Privacy Reports, as required by 44 U.S.C. 3544(c... Defense for Networks and Information Integration (ASD) (NII)/Chief Information Officer (CIO); the...

  18. 32 CFR 310.9 - Privacy boards and office, composition and responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Technology Management Directorate (ITMD), WHS. The designees also may be the principal POC for the DoD... Federal Information Security Management Agency (FISMA) Privacy Reports, as required by 44 U.S.C. 3544(c... Defense for Networks and Information Integration (ASD) (NII)/Chief Information Officer (CIO); the...

  19. Advanced Digital Video and the National Information Infrastructure. Report of the Information Infrastructure Task Force, Committee on Applications and Technology, Technology Policy Working Group. Draft for Public Comment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Science and Technology Policy, Washington, DC.

    The National Information Infrastructure (NII) vision encompasses an infrastructure providing seamless, interactive, user driven access to the widest range of information. Video will play a key role in distribution of educational information, government data, manufacturing information, and access to health care data and services. The Technology…

  20. Hα Star Formation Rates for z>1 Galaxy Clusters in the IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey Using WFC3 IR Grism Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeimann, Gregory; Stanford, A.; Brodwin, M.; Dey, A.; Stern, D.; Gonzalez, A.

    2011-05-01

    We present new HST WFC3 grism data for 17 z>1 galaxy clusters in the IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey (ISCS). Using the G141 grism (λ = 1.10 - 1.65 μm, 46.5 A/pixel), we identified ˜5-15 new cluster members in each cluster candidate with a visual inspection of emission line galaxies in the reduced 1-d and 2-d spectral extractions. Given the redshift range of the cluster candidates and the wavelength coverage of the G141 grism, the emission line most identified was the blended Hα+NII. Correlations found in the literature between the EW of Hα+NII and the line ratio of NII to Hα were used to deblend the two fluxes. Hα emission was used as an indicator of star formation. Our program is sensitive to an unobscured star formation rate of 4 M⊙ / Year for z=1.5 and a nominal 1:4 ratio of NII to Hα. Concurrent MIPS 24μm data allows for the comparison of different SFR tracers. Whenever possible, we also use the ratio of Hβ/Hα to estimate dust obscuration and correct the SFRs. This dataset allows the study of a wide-range of star formation rates in dense cluster cores during the peak epoch of galaxy formation.

  1. A Novel Multiple-Access Correlation-Delay-Shift-Keying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, J. Y.; Jiang, G. P.; Yang, H.

    In Correlation-Delay-Shift-Keying (CDSK), the reference signal and the information-bearing signal are added together during a certain time delay. Because the reference signal is not strictly orthogonal to the information-bearing signal, the cross-correlation between the adjacent chaotic signal (Intra-signal Interference, ISI) will be introduced into the demodulation at the receiver. Therefore, the Bit-Error Ratio (BER) of CDSK is higher than that of Differential-Chaos-Shift-Keying (DCSK). To avoid the ISI component and enhance the BER performance of CDSK in multiuser scenario, Multiple-Access CDSK with No Intra-signal Interference (MA-CDSK-NII) is proposed. By constructing the repeated chaotic generator and applying the Walsh code sequence to modulate the reference signal, in MA-CDSK-NII, the ISI component will be eliminated during the demodulation. Gaussian approximation method is adopted here to obtain the exact performance analysis of MA-CDSK-NII over additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel and Rayleigh multipath fading channels. Results show that, due to no ISI component and lower transmitting power, the BER performance of MA-CDSK-NII can be better than that of multiple-access CDSK and Code-Shifted Differential-Chaos-Shift-Keying (CS-DCSK).

  2. College Psychotherapy at a Taiwanese Counseling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yii-nii

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces Yii-nii Lin, Professor in the Center for Teacher Education at the National Tsing Hua University in Taiwan, and prior director of the university's counseling center for a 3 year term. She has worked as a university counselling psychologist for more than 15 years when she participated in an online interview that questioned…

  3. The Ghanaian Economic Recovery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    struggle for power between the Bretton Woods institutions and African leaders.28 20 Nii K. Sowa...Oriented Industrial Output in Ghana: The Case of Formal Wood Processing in an Era of Economic Recovery.” The Journal of Modern African Studies 39

  4. 47 CFR 15.401 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Infrastructure Devices § 15.401 Scope. This subpart sets out the regulations for unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII) devices operating in the 5.15-5.35 GHz, 5.47-5.725 GHz and 5.725-5.825 GHz bands. ...

  5. Combined Spectroscopic and Electrochemical Detection of a NiI•••H–N Bonding Interaction with Relevance to Electrocatalytic H2 Production

    SciTech Connect

    Kochem, Amelie; O'Hagan, Molly J.; Wiedner, Eric S.; van Gastel, Maurice

    2015-07-13

    The [Ni(PR2NR’2)2]2+ family of complexes are exceptionally active catalysts for proton reduction to H2. In this manuscript, we explore the first protonation step of the proposed catalytic cycle by using a catalytically inactive NiI complex possessing a sterically demanding variation of the ligand. Due to the paramagnetic nature of the NiI oxidation state, the protonated NiI intermediate has been characterized through a combination of cyclic voltammetry, ENDOR, and HYSCORE spectroscopy. Both the electrochemical and spectroscopic studies indicate that the NiI complex is protonated at a pendant amine that is endo to Ni, which suggests the presence of an intramolecular NiI•••HN bonding interaction. Using density functional theory, the proton was found to hydrogen bond to three doubly-occupied, localized molecular orbitals: the 3dxz, 3dz2, and 3dyz orbitals of nickel. These studies provide the first direct experimental evidence for this critical catalytic intermediate, and implications for catalytic H2 production are discussed. Research was supported by the Max Planck Society (EPR, ENDOR, and HYSCORE spectroscopy, computational studies), and as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (electrochemistry, NMR spectroscopy). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

  6. The Federal Government and Information Technology Standards: Building the National Information Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radack, Shirley M.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the role of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the development of the National Information Infrastructure (NII). Highlights include the standards process; voluntary standards; Open Systems Interconnection problems; Internet Protocol Suite; consortia; government's role; and network security. (16 references) (LRW)

  7. Using the National Information Infrastructure for social science, education, and informed decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.E.

    1994-01-07

    The United States has aggressively embarked on the challenging task of building a National Information Infrastructure (NII). This infrastructure will have many levels, extending from the building block capital stock that composes the telecommunications system to the multitude of higher tier applications hardware and software tied to this system. This ``White Paper`` presents a vision for a second and third tier national information infrastructure that focuses exclusively on the needs of social science, education, and decision making (NII-SSEDM). NII-SSEDM will provide the necessary data, information, and automated decision support and educational tools needed to help this nation solve its most pressing social problems. The proposed system has five components: `data collection systems; databases; statistical analysis and modeling tools; policy analysis and decision support tools; and materials and software specially designed for education. This paper contains: a vision statement for each component; comments on progress made on each component as of the early 1990s; and specific recommendations on how to achieve the goals described in the vision statements. The white paper also discusses how the NII-SSEDM could be used to address four major social concerns: ensuring economic prosperity; health care; reducing crime and violence; and K-12 education. Examples of near-term and mid-term goals (e.g., pre-and post Year 2000) are presented for consideration. Although the development of NII-SSEDM will require a concerted effort by government, the private sector, schools, and numerous other organizations, the success of NH-SSEDM is predicated upon the identification of an institutional ``champion`` to acquire and husband key resources and provide strong leadership and guidance.

  8. Space-based communications infrastructure for developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Keith; Barnes, Carl; Price, K. M.

    1995-08-01

    This study examines the potential use of satellites to augment the telecommunications infrastructure of developing countries with advanced satellites. The study investigated the potential market for using satellites in developing countries, the role of satellites in national information infrastructures (NII), the technical feasibility of augmenting NIIs with satellites, and a nation's financial conditions necessary for procuring satellite systems. In addition, the study examined several technical areas including onboard processing, intersatellite links, frequency of operation, multibeam and active antennas, and advanced satellite technologies. The marketing portion of this study focused on three case studies: China, Brazil, and Mexico. These cases represent countries in various stages of telecommunication infrastructure development. The study concludes by defining the needs of developing countries for satellites, and recommends steps that both industry and NASA can take to improve the competitiveness of U.S. satellite manufacturing.

  9. Near infrared and optical spectroscopy of FSC10214+4724

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soifer, B. T.; Cohen, J. G.; Armus, L.; Matthews, K.; Neugebauer, G.; Oke, J. B.

    1995-01-01

    New infrared and optical spectroscopic observations, obtained with the W.M. Keck Telescope, are reported for the highly luminous infrared source FSC10214+4724. The rest frame optical spectrum shows new emission lines of (NeIII, (NeV), (OI), (OII), (SII), and He(+) while the rest frame ultraviolet spectrum shows new lines of OIV+SiIV, NII, NIV, SiII, NeIV and possibly NII and (NeIII), as well as clearly showing the L alpha is self-absorbed. The emission line spectrum is most characteristic of a Seyfert 2 nucleus. The preponderance of spectroscopic evidence strengthens the case of a dust enshrouded AGN powering much or most of the observed luminosity. The various spectral lines lead to a wide range in the inferred reddening and ionization parameter for this system, suggesting that we are viewing several environments through differing extinctions.

  10. GENI-DB: a database of global events for epidemic intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Nigel; Doan, Son

    2012-01-01

    Summary: We present a novel public health database (GENI-DB) in which news events on the topic of over 176 infectious diseases and chemicals affecting human and animal health are compiled from surveillance of the global online news media in 10 languages. News event frequency data were gathered systematically through the BioCaster public health surveillance system from July 2009 to the present and is available to download by the research community for purposes of analyzing trends in the global burden of infectious diseases. Database search can be conducted by year, country, disease and language. Availability: The GENI-DB is freely available via a web portal at http://born.nii.ac.jp/ Contact: collier@nii.ac.jp Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:22383735

  11. Hα Kinematics of High-z Dusty Star Forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drew, Patrick; Casey, Caitlin; Hung, Chao-Ling; Cooray, Asantha R.; Sanders, David B.; Fu, Hai

    2017-01-01

    Dusty Star Forming Galaxies (DSFGs) have the highest star formation rates in the Universe, but compared with other star forming galaxies at z > ~1 they are difficult to characterize, physically. Their low number density and extreme dust obscuration has led to very few kinematic studies of DSFGs at optical wavelengths. We present a rest-frame optical kinematic analysis of 5 DSFGs at z ~1.5 using long slit spectroscopy obtained with MOSFIRE at Keck Observatory. From our high signal-to-noise spectra we simultaneously fit Hα, [NII] λ6548, and [NII] λ6583 along each slit to generate position-velocity diagrams. We infer the kinematic disturbances and derive dynamical masses in order to compare with other derived quantities such as fractional obscuration, stellar and gas fractions, and dust characteristics.

  12. Kinematics of the symbiotic system R Aqr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, S.; Corral, L. J.; Steffen, W.

    2014-04-01

    We present the results of the kinematical analysis of the symbiotic system R Aqr. We obtained high dispersion spectra with the MES spectrograph at the 2.1 m telescope of San Pedro Mártir (MEZCAL). The used filter were Ha + [NII], (λc = 6575Å, Δλ = 90Å). We analyse the [NII] λλ6583 line. When the observations are compared with previous ones by Solf (1992) we detected an important change in the projected velocities of the observed knots, supporting the idea of a precessing jet. We are working also in a 3-D kinematic model for the object using the measured velocities and the state of the model is presented.

  13. Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders Incidence by Sub-Populations in Israel 1992-2009: A Total Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Raz, Raanan; Weisskopf, Marc G; Davidovitch, Michael; Pinto, Ofir; Levine, Hagai

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed data from the Israeli National Insurance Institute (NII). Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) incidence was calculated for all children born in Israel 1992-2009, and by population groups. Overall, 9,109 ASD cases among 2,431,649 children were identified. ASD cumulative incidence by age 8 years increased 10-fold during 2000-2011, from 0.049% to 0.49%, while other child disabilities in NII increased only 1.65-fold. There was a consistent increase in ASD incidence with advancing birth cohorts born 1992-2004, stabilizing among those born 2005-2009. ASD rates among Israeli Arabs were substantially lower, and increased about 10 years later than the general population. The findings suggest a role for ASD awareness, accessing of the government benefit, or the way the concept of ASD is perceived. PMID:25287899

  14. Space-based Communications Infrastructure for Developing Countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, Keith; Barnes, Carl; Price, K. M.

    1995-01-01

    This study examines the potential use of satellites to augment the telecommunications infrastructure of developing countries with advanced satellites. The study investigated the potential market for using satellites in developing countries, the role of satellites in national information infractructures (NII), the technical feasibility of augmenting NIIs with satellites, and a nation's financial conditions necessary for procuring satellite systems. In addition, the study examined several technical areas including onboard processing, intersatellite links, frequency of operation, multibeam and active antennas, and advanced satellite technologies. The marketing portion of this study focused on three case studies: China, Brazil, and Mexico. These cases represent countries in various stages of telecommunication infrastructure development. The study concludes by defining the needs of developing countries for satellites, and recommends steps that both industry and NASA can take to improve the competitiveness of U.S. satellite manufacturing.

  15. Terahertz Ballooning: STO And GUSSTO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Christopher L.; Stratospheric TeraHertz Observatory (STO) Team; Gal/Xgal U/LDB Spectroscopic/Stratospheric THz Observatory (GUSSTO) Team

    2012-05-01

    With a long duration balloon launch from Antarctica in January 2012, the Stratospheric TeraHertz Observatory (STO) has completed its maiden science flight. Our team will present some of the first glimpses from this mission to map the interstellar medium (ISM) in [CII], [NII], and [CI] at high spectral and spatial resolution. Additionally, NASA announced this Fall the missions that will begin Phase A studies under the Explorer Program, which included the Gal/Xgal U/LDB Spectroscopic/Stratospheric THz Observatory (GUSSTO). GUSSTO is a balloon-borne, 1 m off-axis telescope that will survey 300 square degrees of the Milky Way and Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) in 3 important interstellar ines: [CII], [OI], and [NII] at 158, 63, and 205 microns, respectively. With these lines, GUSSTO will map the structure, dynamics, energy balance, pressure, and evolution of the ISM. Our poster will explain the concepts and plans for this exciting mission.

  16. Government Information Locator Service (GILS). Draft report to the Information Infrastructure Task Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a draft report on the Government Information Locator Service (GILS) to the National Information Infrastructure (NII) task force. GILS is designed to take advantage of internetworking technology known as client-server architecture which allows information to be distributed among multiple independent information servers. Two appendices are provided -- (1) A glossary of related terminology and (2) extracts from a draft GILS profile for the use of the American National Standard Information Retrieval Application Service Definition and Protocol Specification for Library Applications.

  17. Remote use of distributed robotics resources to enhance technology development and insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Harrigan, R.W.; McDonald, M.J.; Davies, B.R.

    1994-04-01

    This paper describes Virtual Collaborative Environments (VCEs), an information architecture that enables remote sharing of mechatronic (intelligent electrochemical devices) resources. This architecture will leverage the proposed National Information Infrastructure (NII) or Information Highway to share valuable resources and reduce product-to-market cycles. Benefits of sharing mechatronic resources with VCEs are explored. An existing prototype VCE is described and experimental and illustrative results from using the prototype VCE system are discussed.

  18. AFCRL Infrared Sky Survey. Volume I. Catalog of Observations at 4, 11, and 20 Microns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-14

    for the success of the rocket program. We wish to particularly acknowledge Paul Hartnett, Daniel Nardello, Ed LaBlanc, Larry Smart, and Thomaw...nnnAC CD’ NIIS V40c- " N 10- -2 MDI LW SOLOW -MW0 M40100 W M t10 to~1 t-- W 4M In.W-I’- 40-I (-MW too 0~~ SIn l Cl. m al 4w * OSO. - 40 CP m C4 f 0

  19. Novel method for quantitative ANA measurement using near-infrared imaging.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Lisa K; Wells, Daniel; Shaw, Laura; Velez, Maria-Gabriela; Harbeck, Ronald; Dragone, Leonard L

    2009-09-30

    Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) have been detected in patients with systemic rheumatic diseases and are used in the screening and/or diagnosis of autoimmunity in patients as well as mouse models of systemic autoimmunity. Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on HEp-2 cells is the gold standard for ANA screening. However, its usefulness is limited in diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of disease activity due to the lack of standardization in performing the technique, subjectivity in interpreting the results and the fact that it is only semi-quantitative. Various immunological techniques have been developed in an attempt to improve upon the method to quantify ANA, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), line immunoassays (LIAs), multiplexed bead immunoassays and IIF on substrates other than HEp-2 cells. Yet IIF on HEp-2 cells remains the most common screening method for ANA. In this study, we describe a simple quantitative method to detect ANA which combines IIF on HEp-2 coated slides with analysis using a near-infrared imaging (NII) system. Using NII to determine ANA titer, 86.5% (32 of 37) of the titers for human patient samples were within 2 dilutions of those determined by IIF, which is the acceptable range for proficiency testing. Combining an initial screening for nuclear staining using microscopy with titration by NII resulted in 97.3% (36 of 37) of the titers detected to be within two dilutions of those determined by IIF. The NII method for quantitative ANA measurements using serum from both patients and mice with autoimmunity provides a fast, relatively simple, objective, sensitive and reproducible assay, which could easily be standardized for comparison between laboratories.

  20. The Federal Role in Bringing Education into the National Information Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cradler, John

    1995-01-01

    One of the most important issues facing Congress is to work with business, education, and the states to enable the nation's shools to better prepare students for a technological work force and to ensure that education has a place on the National Information Infrastructure (NII). This document provides background and important information for national leaders concerned about education, the information infrastructure, and related issues for the Federal government.

  1. Evaluating and minimizing noise impact due to aircraft flyover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a study on the evaluation and reduction of noise impact to a community due to aircraft landing and takeoff operations are presented. The case of multiple aircrafts flying on several trajectories, for either approach/landings or takeoffs was examined. An extremely realistic model of the flight path was developed. The annoyance criterion used was the noise impact index (NII). The algorithm was applied to Patrick Henry International Airport.

  2. Electronic Commerce: A National Performance Review Initiative.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    This study of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) was conducted as part of IDA’s Central Research Program. Electronic commerce is one of... commerce is nothing more than conducting business via electronic means. An outgrowth of the NPR, the electronic commerce initiative, commits the...private, and public sectors are committed to implementing electronic commerce throughout the United States. The objective ol this paper is to enhance

  3. National Dam Inspection Report. Lake Ondawa Dam (NDI ID Number PA-517 DER ID Number 8-28) Susquehanna River Basin, Tributary Bentley Creek, Bradford County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    i " ’ i - - ~ ~, ,, -’ NU !|I ’ hs nI(I’ C;i o dd R / ,\\I C II " I . . . ../ 4P ’dN DAM SUAR REE DA AN LAE DAWA DA Ds , A". ’’ E ’ -i A~ F ,,, vat.. 1, P Codd,,4 014, 14, "I, C Tw 1- 04,shot *./A -e Ds I

  4. HPCC and the National Information Infrastructure: an overview.

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, D A

    1995-01-01

    The National Information Infrastructure (NII) or "information superhighway" is a high-priority federal initiative to combine communications networks, computers, databases, and consumer electronics to deliver information services to all U.S. citizens. The NII will be used to improve government and social services while cutting administrative costs. Operated by the private sector, the NII will rely on advanced technologies developed under the direction of the federal High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Program. These include computing systems capable of performing trillions of operations (teraops) per second and networks capable of transmitting billions of bits (gigabits) per second. Among other activities, the HPCC Program supports the national supercomputer research centers, the federal portion of the Internet, and the development of interface software, such as Mosaic, that facilitates access to network information services. Health care has been identified as a critical demonstration area for HPCC technology and an important application area for the NII. As an HPCC participant, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) assists hospitals and medical centers to connect to the Internet through projects directed by the Regional Medical Libraries and through an Internet Connections Program cosponsored by the National Science Foundation. In addition to using the Internet to provide enhanced access to its own information services, NLM sponsors health-related applications of HPCC technology. Examples include the "Visible Human" project and recently awarded contracts for test-bed networks to share patient data and medical images, telemedicine projects to provide consultation and medical care to patients in rural areas, and advanced computer simulations of human anatomy for training in "virtual surgery." PMID:7703935

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Nebular emission lines towards NGC3372 center (Damiani+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiani, F.; Bonito, R.; Magrini, L.; Prisinzano, L.; Mapelli, M.; Micela, G.; Kalari, V.; Maiz Apellaniz, J.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Alfaro, E.; Flaccomio, E.; Koposov, S.; Klutsch, A.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Pancino, E.; Sacco, G. G.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Casey, A. R.; Costado, M. T.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Worley, C.; Zaggia, S.; Zwitter, T.; Dorda, R.

    2016-04-01

    Nebular emission lines of H-alpha, [NII] 6584Å, HeI 6678Å, [SII] 6717Å, [SII] 6731Å, towards the center of Carina nebula, are modeled with two gaussians each ('blue' and 'red' components). Best-fit parameters are given in the table. Line widths include the instrumental width of the Giraffe spectrograph (7km/s). Radial velocities are heliocentric. (1 data file).

  6. Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders Incidence by Sub-Populations in Israel 1992-2009: A Total Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raz, Raanan; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Davidovitch, Michael; Pinto, Ofir; Levine, Hagai

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed data from the Israeli National Insurance Institute (NII). Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) incidence was calculated for all children born in Israel 1992-2009, and by population groups. Overall, 9,109 ASD cases among 2,431,649 children were identified. ASD cumulative incidence by age 8 years increased 10-fold during 2000-2011, from 0.49 %…

  7. Department of Defense counterdrug technology development of non-intrusive inspection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennella, John J.

    1997-02-01

    The Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division serves as the executive agent for the DoD's Contraband Detection and Cargo Container Inspection Technology Development Program. The goal of the DoD non-intrusive inspection (NII) program is to develop prototype equipment that can be used to inspect containers and vehicles, quickly and in large numbers without unnecessary delays in the movement of legitimate cargo. This paper summaries the past accomplishments of the program, current status, and future plans.

  8. Adaptive Data Broadcast in Hybrid Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-04-08

    the table 2. These correspond to a hybrid architecture like the DirecPC [Hug] of Hughes Network Systems . It can be easily computed that the broadcast...Infrastructure (NII/GII). The CSHCN 22 and Hughes Network Systems (HNS) co-developed hybrid networking products based on satel- lites [FAS+95] which...Francisco, California, May 1987. 25 [Hug] Hughes Network Systems . DirecPC. http://www.direcpc.com. [IB94] Tomasz Imielinski and B.R. Badrinath

  9. Taxonomic study on the leafhopper genus Cofana Melichar (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae) from China, with description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mao-Fa; Meng, Ze-Hong; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2015-07-31

    A review of the genus Cofana Melichar from China is presented. Ten species are recorded, of which two species are new: C. cheni sp. nov. and C. nii sp. nov. The type specimens of the new species are deposited in the Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, China (GUGC). In this paper, C. bidentata Krishnankutty & Viraktamath, 2008 is placed as junior synonym of C. yasumatsui Young, 1979. A key of all Chinese species of the genus is provided.

  10. NASA Scientific and Technical Publications: A Catalog of Special Publications, Reference Publications, Conference Publications, and Technical Papers 1991-1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    Research Center, Cleveland, Or-. THE 23 TO 300 C DEMAGNETIZATION RESISTANCE OF N91-27436*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. SAMARIUM...Markov Steady motionalt induction of geomagnetic chaos The 23 to 300 C demagnetization resistance of reliaoitity, models and the corresponding error...A spca ehrsIviid--nii The 23 to 300 C ’Iemagqr-tuza1rro resistance of bibliornainiepoainoaphy A NASA-al 26ho ,-D Ip’ sananrum-cobalt permaneint r

  11. Effect of PGBx on Local Contractile Abnormalities Following Graded Reduction in Coronary Blood Flow.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-02-26

    164, 1974. 3. Yamazaki H, Bodenheimer NM, Banka VS, Lewandowski J, Li JK- J, HeIf ant RE: Differential effects of graded coronary occlusion and...reperfusaon on epicardial and endocardial contraction. Chin Res 26:608A, 1978. 4. Banka VS, Bodenheimer NM, Ramanathan ICE, Eermann GA, Helfant RB: Professive...abnormalities. Am 3 Cardiol 40:200, 1977. 6. Helfant RH, Banka VS, Bodenheimer Nii~ Perplexities and complexities concerning the myocardial infarction

  12. Haloes of Planetary Nebulae from the INT WFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradi, R. L. M.

    2002-10-01

    The images of the three planetary nebulae displayed on the following page were obtained by Romano Corradi at the INT with the Wide Field Camera, that covers a field of view of 34*34 arcmin. They are very deep exposures (one to three hours exposure time) obtained through an Ha+[NII] narrow-band filter, and were aimed at studying the faint haloes that are known to surround a large fraction of planetary nebulae.

  13. Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Sections 26 and 25 Contamination Survey. Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    Contamination Sources RIC#83192R02 Gusewick, D.C., and Deeter, D.P. August 1982. Evaluation of Organic Vapor Emissions Basin F, Rocky Mountain Arsenal ...87343&01 2ND COPY I LITIGATION TECHNICAL SUPP, ,. , IROCKY MOUNTAIN ARSENAL SECTIONS 26 AND 35 _ CONTAMINATION SURVEY N-II I €FINAL TECHNICAL PLAN...SUPPORT AND SERVICES Rocky Mountain Arsenal Sections 26 and 35 Phase I Contamination Survey Final Technical Plan December 1987 Contract Number DAAKII-84-D

  14. Therapeutic Intervention in Sepsis with Antibody to Endotoxin: Is There a Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    explanation for this counterproductive. choice. Su’,,cqtieitly, there have been few attempts to In retrospect. it also appears that maiy antisepsis ...series.92 Of note, Dale and colleagues reported that fol- ation of recent trials of antisepsis products which may 0 lowing 3 consecutive daily...experimientally. W Antisepsis ini, iiii it nii.i ’k a cliniical effeit front the dnig. therapy may be analogoiis to combination cancer chie- ii 1 IVd Of li

  15. OSI and TCP/IP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randolph, Lynwood P.

    1994-01-01

    The Open Systems Interconnection Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (OSI TCP/IP) and the Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile (GOSIP) are compared and described in terms of Federal internetworking. The organization and functions of the Federal Internetworking Requirements Panel (FIRP) are discussed and the panel's conclusions and recommendations with respect to the standards and implementation of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) are presented.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Emission-line galaxies in ZwCl0024.0+1652 (Sanchez-Portal+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Portal, M.; Pintos-Castro, I.; Perez-Martinez, R.; Cepa, J.; Perez Garcia, A. M.; Dominguez-Sanchez, H.; Bongiovanni, A.; Serra, A. L.; Alfaro, E.; Altieri, B.; Aragon-Salamanca, A.; Balkowski, C.; Biviano, A.; Bremer, M.; Castander, F.; Castaneda, H.; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Chies-Santos, A. L.; Coia, D.; Diaferio, A.; Duc, P. A.; Ederoclite, A.; Geach, J.; Gonzalez-Serrano, I.; Haines, C. P.; McBreen, B.; Metcalfe, L.; Oteo, I.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Poggianti, B.; Polednikova, J.; Ramon-Perez, M.; Rodriguez-Espinosa, J. M.; Santos, J. S.; Smail, I.; Smith, G. P.; Temporin, S.; Valtchanov, I.

    2015-07-01

    Two OSIRIS/GTC pointings using the red TF were planned and executed towards Cl0024. The first one (carried out in GTC semesters 09B, 10A, and 13B; hereafter referred to as "centre position") targeted the Hα/[NII], Hα and [OIII] lines. The second pointing (hereafter referred to as "offset position") was carried out in semesters 10B and 13B, and it targeted the same emission lines. (1 data file).

  17. Government Information Locator Service (GILS). Draft report to the Information Infrastructure Task Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a draft report on the Government Information Locator Service (GILS) to the National Information Infrastructure (NII) task force. GILS is designed to take advantage of internetworking technology known as client-server architecture which allows information to be distributed among multiple independent information servers. Two appendices are provided -- (1) A glossary of related terminology and (2) extracts from a draft GILS profile for the use of the American National Standard Information Retrieval Application Service Definition and Protocol Specification for Library Applications.

  18. Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders Incidence by Sub-Populations in Israel 1992-2009: A Total Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raz, Raanan; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Davidovitch, Michael; Pinto, Ofir; Levine, Hagai

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed data from the Israeli National Insurance Institute (NII). Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) incidence was calculated for all children born in Israel 1992-2009, and by population groups. Overall, 9,109 ASD cases among 2,431,649 children were identified. ASD cumulative incidence by age 8 years increased 10-fold during 2000-2011, from 0.49 %…

  19. 16th International Command and Control Research Technology Symposium (ICCRTS) June 2011 Overseas Visit Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    support OASD (NII)-DoD CIO & Mr Garard Christman Program Manager and Senior Systems Engineer Femme Comp Inc (FCI) .... 3 4. TOPICS OF THE PARALLEL...Program Manager and Senior Systems Engineer Femme Comp Inc (FCI) This presentation focused on situational awareness for decision support...Electronics mervyncheah@stee.stengg.com 36 Christman Gerard Femme Comp gerard.christman.ctr@osd.mil 38 Clemente Mark Boeing mark.n.clemente

  20. Enhancing Collective C2 in the International Environment: Leveraging the Unclassified Information Sharing Enterprise Service

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Leveraging the Unclassified Information Sharing Enterprise Service Topics: 1) C2, Management, and Governance in Civil-Military Operations 2...Networks and Networking 3) Information and Knowledge Exploration By: Paul Chlebo Jr. Sr. Information Analyst, FCI OASD (NII) / DoD CIO, IIS...Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time

  1. An Analysis of Middle Ultraviolet Dayglow Spectra

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    1986) were used for the generation of Nitrogen Lyman-Birge- Hopfield and Nitric Oxide j,, 6, and E band emissions. The Nitrogen Vegard-Kaplan model ...for the following emissions: N2 Vegard-Kaplan; N2 Lyman-Birge- Hopfield ; NO -y, 6, and E; 01 2972A, 011 2470A; and NII 2143A. Altitude profiles for...16 2. Lyman-Birge- Hopfield .... ............ 17 3. Second Positive ..... .............. 17 B. ATOMIC NITROGEN ...... ................ 18 C. ATOMIC

  2. Neurobehavioral Effects of Carbon Monoxide (CO) Exposure in Humans: Elevated Carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and Cerebrovascular Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-19

    documents. I I i AD- NEUROBEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF CARBON MONOXIDE (CO) EXPOSURE IN HUMANS: ELEVATED CARBOXYHEMOGLOBIN (COHb) AND CEREBROVASCULAR RESPONSES...HUMANS: ELEVATED CARBOXYHEMOGLOBIN (COHb) AND CEREBROVASCULAR RESPONSES 12. PERSONAL AUTOR(S) Vernon A. Benignus, Matthew L. Petrovick and James D...y LVe 17- / IBrain Blood Flow, Cerebrovascular , 19. ABSTRACT (CM1 an seW90 If nftceuw OWd ldeNII& by bICW IWmbs A two-channel cranial impedance

  3. Bd +60 73 = Igr J00370+6122

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negueruela, Ignacio; Reig, Pablo

    2004-05-01

    A classification spectrum of BD +60 73, reported to be the optical counterpart to IGR J00370+6122 (ATel #281), was taken on the night of 2003 July 7th with the 2.5-m Issac Newton telescope at La Palma. The derived spectral type is BN0.5II-III, where the composite luminosity class indicates an intermediate luminosity. The Nitrogen enhancement is moderately high, with numerous NII lines being rather stronger than corresponds to the spectral type.

  4. A New Population of Old Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivans, I. I.; Sneden, C.; James, C. R.; Preston, G. W.; Fulbright, J. P.; Höflich, P. A.; Carney, B. W.; Wheeler, J. C.

    We report the results of a coherent study of three chemically anomalous metal-poor ([Fe/H] ˜--2) stars. These objects exhibit unusually low abundances of Mg, Si, Ca (α-elements) and Sr, Y, and Ba (neutron-capture elements). Our analyses confirm and expand upon earlier reports of atypical abundances in BD+80 245, G4-36, and CS22966-043. We also find that the latter two stars exhibit enhanced abundances of Cr, Mn, Ni, and Zn (iron-peak elements), along with what appears to be large abundances of Ga, with respect to the abundance of iron. Comparing the chemical abundances of these stars to supernova model yields, we derive supernovae ratios of Type Ia versus Type II events in the range of 0.6 <˜(NIa/NII)NewPop <˜1.3. Whereas, for the Sun, we derive supernovae ratios in good agreement with those found in the literature: 0.18 ±0.01 <(NIa/NII)odot <0.25 ±0.06. Given the relatively low metallicity and high (NIa/NII) rations of the low-α stars studied here, these objects may have witnessed, or been born from material produced in the yields of the earliest supernova Type Ia events.

  5. Impact of Incremental Perfusion Loss on Oxygen Transport in a Capillary Network Mathematical Model.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Graham M; Sharpe, Michael D; Goldman, Daniel; Ellis, Christopher G

    2015-07-01

    To quantify how incremental capillary PL, such as that seen in experimental models of sepsis, affects tissue oxygenation using a computation model of oxygen transport. A computational model was applied to capillary networks with dimensions 84 × 168 × 342 (NI) and 70 × 157 × 268 (NII) μm, reconstructed in vivo from rat skeletal muscle. FCD loss was applied incrementally up to ~40% and combined with high tissue oxygen consumption to simulate severe sepsis. A loss of ~40% FCD loss decreased median tissue PO2 to 22.9 and 20.1 mmHg in NI and NII compared to 28.1 and 27.5 mmHg under resting conditions. Increasing RBC SR to baseline levels returned tissue PO2 to within 5% of baseline. HC combined with a 40% FCD loss, resulted in tissue anoxia in both network volumes and median tissue PO2 of 11.5 and 8.9 mmHg in NI and NII respectively; median tissue PO2 was recovered to baseline levels by increasing total SR 3-4 fold. These results suggest a substantial increase in total SR is required in order to compensate for impaired oxygen delivery as a result of loss of capillary perfusion and increased oxygen consumption during sepsis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Probing the Ionized Medium in Early Universe with ZEUS(1 & 2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Brisbin, D.; Nikola, T.; Parshley, S.; Stacey, G.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Phillips, T. G.; Falgarone, E.; Benford, D.; Staguhn, J.; Irwin, K.; Cho, S.; Niemack, M.

    2012-05-01

    Using the first generation Redshift(z) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-1) on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory we made the first detections of the [NII] 122 μm and [OIII] 88 μm lines from galaxies in the early Universe. We detect both lines from SMMJ02399-0136 at z 2.8, while from H1413+117 (the Cloverleaf QSO) at z 2.6 and APM08279+5255 at z 3.9 we detect only the [NII] and [OIII] lines respectively. All three sources are lensed, IR-luminous with intrinsic far-infrared (FIR) luminosities >1012 Lsun, and contain both an active galactic nucleus (AGN) and star-forming component. The lines detected from the sources are bright with line to FIR continuum luminosity ratios ranging between 5×10-4 and 2×10-3. The [NII] and [OIII] lines are excellent probes of the state of the ionized gas. The strengths of the lines provide a minimum ionized-gas mass, which for our sources is large, 8%-17% of the molecular gas mass. The ratio of the lines is very sensitive to the effective temperature of ionizing stars and the ionization parameter for emission arising in the narrow-line region (NLR) of an AGN. The [OIII]/[NII] line ratio for SMMJ02399 indicates that the dominant source of the line emission is either stellar H II regions ionized by O9.5 stars, or the NLR of the AGN with ionization parameter log(U) = -3.3 to -4.0. Both the Cloverleaf and APM08279 exhibit starbursts similar to that found in M82 and are respectively best modeled by a superposition of 200 and 270 M82 like starbursts. Follow-up observations with Herschel and ALMA, will constrain the fraction of line emission arising in the starburst and NLR. Using ZEUS-2 (Ferkinhoff et al. 2010) we will expand our sample of high-redshift galaxies with [NII] and [OIII] detections to fully understand the state and evolution of ionized medium in the early Universe.

  7. Genetic and biochemical studies of nitrate reduction in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Pateman, J. A.; Rever, B. M.; Cove, D. J.

    1967-01-01

    1. In Aspergillus nidulans nitrate and nitrite induce nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase and hydroxylamine reductase, and ammonium represses the three enzymes. 2. Nitrate reductase can donate electrons to a wide variety of acceptors in addition to nitrate. These artificial acceptors include benzyl viologen, 2-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyltetrazolium chloride, cytochrome c and potassium ferricyanide. Similarly nitrite reductase and hydroxylamine reductase (which are possibly a single enzyme in A. nidulans) can donate electrons to these same artificial acceptors in addition to the substrates nitrite and hydroxylamine. 3. Nitrate reductase can accept electrons from reduced benzyl viologen in place of the natural donor NADPH. The NADPH–nitrate-reductase activity is about twice that of reduced benzyl viologen–nitrate reductase under comparable conditions. 4. Mutants at six gene loci are known that cannot utilize nitrate and lack nitrate-reductase activity. Most mutants in these loci are constitutive for nitrite reductase, hydroxylamine reductase and all the nitrate-induced NADPH-diaphorase activities. It is argued that mutants that lack nitrate-reductase activity are constitutive for the enzymes of the nitrate-reduction pathway because the functional nitrate-reductase molecule is a component of the regulatory system of the pathway. 5. Mutants are known at two gene loci, niiA and niiB, that cannot utilize nitrite and lack nitrite-reductase and hydroxylamine-reductase activities. 6. Mutants at the niiA locus possess inducible nitrate reductase and lack nitrite-reductase and hydroxylamine-reductase activities. It is suggested that a single enzyme protein is responsible for the reduction of nitrite to ammonium in A. nidulans and that the niiA locus is the structural gene for this enzyme. 7. Mutants at the niiB locus lack nitrate-reductase, nitrite-reductase and hydroxylamine-reductase activities. It is argued that the niiB gene is a regulator gene whose

  8. Genetic and biochemical studies of nitrate reduction in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Pateman, J A; Rever, B M; Cove, D J

    1967-07-01

    1. In Aspergillus nidulans nitrate and nitrite induce nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase and hydroxylamine reductase, and ammonium represses the three enzymes. 2. Nitrate reductase can donate electrons to a wide variety of acceptors in addition to nitrate. These artificial acceptors include benzyl viologen, 2-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyltetrazolium chloride, cytochrome c and potassium ferricyanide. Similarly nitrite reductase and hydroxylamine reductase (which are possibly a single enzyme in A. nidulans) can donate electrons to these same artificial acceptors in addition to the substrates nitrite and hydroxylamine. 3. Nitrate reductase can accept electrons from reduced benzyl viologen in place of the natural donor NADPH. The NADPH-nitrate-reductase activity is about twice that of reduced benzyl viologen-nitrate reductase under comparable conditions. 4. Mutants at six gene loci are known that cannot utilize nitrate and lack nitrate-reductase activity. Most mutants in these loci are constitutive for nitrite reductase, hydroxylamine reductase and all the nitrate-induced NADPH-diaphorase activities. It is argued that mutants that lack nitrate-reductase activity are constitutive for the enzymes of the nitrate-reduction pathway because the functional nitrate-reductase molecule is a component of the regulatory system of the pathway. 5. Mutants are known at two gene loci, niiA and niiB, that cannot utilize nitrite and lack nitrite-reductase and hydroxylamine-reductase activities. 6. Mutants at the niiA locus possess inducible nitrate reductase and lack nitrite-reductase and hydroxylamine-reductase activities. It is suggested that a single enzyme protein is responsible for the reduction of nitrite to ammonium in A. nidulans and that the niiA locus is the structural gene for this enzyme. 7. Mutants at the niiB locus lack nitrate-reductase, nitrite-reductase and hydroxylamine-reductase activities. It is argued that the niiB gene is a regulator gene whose

  9. Searching for the Nearest Extragalactic Binary Black Hole: A Spectroscopic Study of NGC 4736

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, Annika; Kwan, Teiler J.; Fisher, Robert Scott; Mason, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    In 1995 and 1996, Maoz et al. concluded that the nearby galaxy NGC 4736 (d=16 million light years) is in the late stages of a merger event. After further investigation, in 2005, Maoz et al. observed UV variability in the nuclear region of NGC 4736, revealing a second unknown source in the nucleus. Since late stage mergers are an ideal location to search for binary black holes (BBH), members of our team hypothesized that the second source could be a second black hole, making this a potential BBH system. This is important since observational evidence for their existence remains sparse, even though BBH are predicted by many theories and potentially play an important role in galaxy evolution. In January of 2008, NGC 4736 was observed with the GMOS-N instrument on Gemini North. Optical longslit spectra of the nuclear region were obtained with spatial resolution of 0.1454''/pixel and a spectral resolution of R~1700. At this resolution, the two nuclear sources are spatially resolved at a projected separation of 2.5''. As a result, we can classify the nature of the second source by looking at the optical line ratios following Ho et al. (1997). High signal-to-noise spectra of the unknown source displayed strong emission of [SII] and [NII], but an extremely weak [OIII] emission line. The unknown source has a calculated [NII]/[Hα] ratio of 1.37 and an upper limit of 0.6 for the [OIII]/[Hβ] ratio. Placing the unknown source on the BPT-NII diagram (Baldwin et al., 1981), we tentatively conclude that it is a low-luminosity second black hole potentially making NGC 4736 the nearest BBH system. The result will enable future high-spectral and spatial resolution observations of a low-luminosity system in extremely late stages of merging, which will be a significant step forward in validating models of galaxy mergers and AGN activity.

  10. The Impact of Diffuse Ionized Gas on Emission-line Ratios and Gas Metallicity Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Yan, Renbin; MaNGA Team

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse Ionized Gas (DIG) is prevalent in star-forming galaxies. Using a sample of galaxies observed by MaNGA, we demonstrate how DIG in star-forming galaxies impact the measurements of emission line ratios, hence the gas-phase metallicity measurements and the interpretation of diagnostic diagrams. We demonstrate that emission line surface brightness (SB) is a reasonably good proxy to separate HII regions from regions dominated by diffuse ionized gas. For spatially-adjacent regions or regions at the same radius, many line ratios change systematically with emission line surface brightness, reflecting a gradual increase of dominance by DIG towards low SB. DIG could significantly bias the measurement of gas metallicity and metallicity gradient. Because DIG tend to have a higher temperature than HII regions, at fixed metallicity DIG displays lower [NII]/[OII] ratios. DIG also show lower [OIII]/[OII] ratios than HII regions, due to extended partially-ionized regions that enhance all low-ionization lines ([NII], [SII], [OII], [OI]). The contamination by DIG is responsible for a substantial portion of the scatter in metallicity measurements. At different surface brightness, line ratios and line ratio gradients can differ systematically. As DIG fraction could change with radius, it can affect the metallicity gradient measurements in systematic ways. The three commonly used strong-line metallicity indicators, R23, [NII]/[OII], O3N2, are all affected in different ways. To make robust metallicity gradient measurements, one has to properly isolate HII regions and correct for DIG contamination. In line ratio diagnostic diagrams, contamination by DIG moves HII regions towards composite or LINER-like regions.

  11. Positioning the electric utility to build information infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    In two particular respects (briefly investigated in this study from a lawyer`s perspective), electric utilities appear uniquely well-positioned to contribute to the National Information Infrastructure (NII). First of all, utilities have legal powers derived from their charters and operating authorities, confirmed in their rights-of-way, to carry out activities and functions necessary for delivering electric service. These activities and functions include building telecommunications facilities and undertaking information services that have become essential to managing electricity demand and supply. The economic value of the efficiencies made possible by telecommunications and information could be substantial. How great remains to be established, but by many estimates electric utility applications could fund a significant share of the capital costs of building the NII. Though utilities` legal powers to pursue such efficiencies through telecommunications and information appear beyond dispute, it is likely that the effort to do so will produce substantial excess capacity. Who will benefit from this excess capacity is a potentially contentious political question that demands early resolution. Will this windfall go to the utility, the customer, or no one (because of political paralysis), or will there be some equitable and practical split? A second aspect of inquiry here points to another contemporary issue of very great societal importance that could very well become the platform on which the first question can be resolved fortuitously-how to achieve universal telecommunications service. In the effort to fashion the NII that will now continue, ways and means to maximize the unique potential contribution of electric utilities to meeting important social and economic needs--in particular, universal service--merit priority attention.

  12. Mode of action uncovered for the specific reduction of methane emissions from ruminants by the small molecule 3-nitrooxypropanol.

    PubMed

    Duin, Evert C; Wagner, Tristan; Shima, Seigo; Prakash, Divya; Cronin, Bryan; Yáñez-Ruiz, David R; Duval, Stephane; Rümbeli, Robert; Stemmler, René T; Thauer, Rudolf Kurt; Kindermann, Maik

    2016-05-31

    Ruminants, such as cows, sheep, and goats, predominantly ferment in their rumen plant material to acetate, propionate, butyrate, CO2, and methane. Whereas the short fatty acids are absorbed and metabolized by the animals, the greenhouse gas methane escapes via eructation and breathing of the animals into the atmosphere. Along with the methane, up to 12% of the gross energy content of the feedstock is lost. Therefore, our recent report has raised interest in 3-nitrooxypropanol (3-NOP), which when added to the feed of ruminants in milligram amounts persistently reduces enteric methane emissions from livestock without apparent negative side effects [Hristov AN, et al. (2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112(34):10663-10668]. We now show with the aid of in silico, in vitro, and in vivo experiments that 3-NOP specifically targets methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR). The nickel enzyme, which is only active when its Ni ion is in the +1 oxidation state, catalyzes the methane-forming step in the rumen fermentation. Molecular docking suggested that 3-NOP preferably binds into the active site of MCR in a pose that places its reducible nitrate group in electron transfer distance to Ni(I). With purified MCR, we found that 3-NOP indeed inactivates MCR at micromolar concentrations by oxidation of its active site Ni(I). Concomitantly, the nitrate ester is reduced to nitrite, which also inactivates MCR at micromolar concentrations by oxidation of Ni(I). Using pure cultures, 3-NOP is demonstrated to inhibit growth of methanogenic archaea at concentrations that do not affect the growth of nonmethanogenic bacteria in the rumen.

  13. Kinetic Analysis of Competitive Electrocatalytic Pathways: New Insights into Hydrogen Production with Nickel Electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedner, Eric S.; Brown, Houston J.; Helm, Monte L.

    2016-01-20

    The hydrogen production electrocatalyst Ni(PPh2NPh2)22+ (1) is capable of traversing multiple electrocatalytic pathways. When using dimethylformamidium, DMF(H)+, the mechanism of formation of H2 catalyzed by 1 changes from an ECEC to an EECC mechanism as the potential approaches the Ni(I/0) couple. Two recent electrochemical methods, current-potential analysis and foot-of-the-wave analysis (FOWA), were performed on 1 to measure the detailed chemical kinetics of the competing ECEC and EECC pathways. A sensitivity analysis was performed on the electrochemical methods using digital simulations to gain a better understanding of their strengths and limitations. Notably, chemical rate constants were significantly underestimated when not accounting for electron transfer kinetics, even when electron transfer was fast enough to afford a reversible non-catalytic wave. The EECC pathway of 1 was found to be faster than the ECEC pathway under all conditions studied. Using buffered DMF: DMF(H)+ mixtures led to an increase in the catalytic rate constant (kobs) of the EECC pathway, but kobs for the ECEC pathway did not change when using buffered acid. Further kinetic analysis of the ECEC path revealed that added base increases the rate of isomerization of the exo-protonated Ni(0) isomers to the catalytically active endo-isomers, but decreases the net rate of protonation of Ni(I). FOWA on 1 did not provide accurate rate constants due to incomplete reduction of the exo-protonated Ni(I) intermediate at the foot of the wave, but FOWA could be used to estimate the reduction potential of this previously undetected intermediate. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  14. Mode of action uncovered for the specific reduction of methane emissions from ruminants by the small molecule 3-nitrooxypropanol

    PubMed Central

    Duin, Evert C.; Wagner, Tristan; Shima, Seigo; Prakash, Divya; Cronin, Bryan; Yáñez-Ruiz, David R.; Duval, Stephane; Rümbeli, Robert; Stemmler, René T.; Thauer, Rudolf Kurt; Kindermann, Maik

    2016-01-01

    Ruminants, such as cows, sheep, and goats, predominantly ferment in their rumen plant material to acetate, propionate, butyrate, CO2, and methane. Whereas the short fatty acids are absorbed and metabolized by the animals, the greenhouse gas methane escapes via eructation and breathing of the animals into the atmosphere. Along with the methane, up to 12% of the gross energy content of the feedstock is lost. Therefore, our recent report has raised interest in 3-nitrooxypropanol (3-NOP), which when added to the feed of ruminants in milligram amounts persistently reduces enteric methane emissions from livestock without apparent negative side effects [Hristov AN, et al. (2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112(34):10663–10668]. We now show with the aid of in silico, in vitro, and in vivo experiments that 3-NOP specifically targets methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR). The nickel enzyme, which is only active when its Ni ion is in the +1 oxidation state, catalyzes the methane-forming step in the rumen fermentation. Molecular docking suggested that 3-NOP preferably binds into the active site of MCR in a pose that places its reducible nitrate group in electron transfer distance to Ni(I). With purified MCR, we found that 3-NOP indeed inactivates MCR at micromolar concentrations by oxidation of its active site Ni(I). Concomitantly, the nitrate ester is reduced to nitrite, which also inactivates MCR at micromolar concentrations by oxidation of Ni(I). Using pure cultures, 3-NOP is demonstrated to inhibit growth of methanogenic archaea at concentrations that do not affect the growth of nonmethanogenic bacteria in the rumen. PMID:27140643

  15. Supernovae and their host galaxies - II. The relative frequencies of supernovae types in spirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakobyan, A. A.; Nazaryan, T. A.; Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Petrosian, A. R.; Aramyan, L. S.; Kunth, D.; Mamon, G. A.; de Lapparent, V.; Bertin, E.; Gomes, J. M.; Turatto, M.

    2014-11-01

    We present an analysis of the relative frequencies of different supernova (SN) types in spirals with various morphologies and in barred or unbarred galaxies. We use a well-defined and homogeneous sample of spiral host galaxies of 692 SNe from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in different stages of galaxy-galaxy interaction and activity classes of nucleus. We propose that the underlying mechanisms shaping the number ratios of SNe types can be interpreted within the framework of interaction-induced star formation, in addition to the known relations between morphologies and stellar populations. We find a strong trend in behaviour of the NIa/NCC ratio depending on host morphology, such that early spirals include more Type Ia SNe. The NIbc/NII ratio is higher in a broad bin of early-type hosts. The NIa/NCC ratio is nearly constant when changing from normal, perturbed to interacting galaxies, then declines in merging galaxies, whereas it jumps to the highest value in post-merging/remnant galaxies. In contrast, the NIbc/NII ratio jumps to the highest value in merging galaxies and slightly declines in post-merging/remnant subsample. The interpretation is that the star formation rates and morphologies of galaxies, which are strongly affected in the final stages of interaction, have an impact on the number ratios of SNe types. The NIa/NCC (NIbc/NII) ratio increases (decreases) from star-forming to active galactic nuclei (AGN) classes of galaxies. These variations are consistent with the scenario of an interaction-triggered starburst evolving into AGN during the later stages of interaction, accompanied with the change of star formation and transformation of the galaxy morphology into an earlier type.

  16. Synthesis and magnetic properties of cobalt nickel nanoparticles prepared by chemical reduction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Jalpa Dipesh

    The purpose of this work was to prepare and characterise CoxNii.x/CoNiO core-shell magnetic nanoparticles which showed magnetic exchange bias. The particles were synthesised using a variety of stabilising surfactants and nucleating seeds, via the polyol reduction method. The surfactants were used to coat nanoparticles of various diameters, to prevent agglomeration and oxidation. A mixture of 1:1 oleic acid: oleylamine was found to be the best stabilising agent for the particles as it protected against complete oxidation whilst allowing a partial oxide shell to form. Phosphine-based surfactants yielded particles with spherical morphologies. However, these particles were too small to support oxide-shell growth, and oxidised fully to antiferromagnetic phases. The nucleation of particles was probed using homogeneous and heterogeneous methods. Homogeneous nucleation resulted in particles which had predominantly oxidised to the core, and therefore did not yield pronounced exchange bias effects. Heterogeneous nucleation was attempted using various seeding techniques and seed materials. Platinum seeds were found to be the most effective in controlling the size of CoxNii_x nanoparticles. They yielded larger particles with core-shell morphology. Following optimisation of the synthesis conditions, a compositional series of CoxNii.x nanoparticulate composite alloys were made. All samples were analysed using TEM to determine the size and structure of the individual particles. A number of other techniques including X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, Electron energy loss spectroscopy and Thermogravimetric magnetic analysis, were also used to fully characterise the phase, crystallinity, composition and oxidation in individual particles. The magnetic properties of the particles, made using the various reaction conditions, were measured using the SQUID technique. Exchange bias has been observed in several of the alloyed samples in

  17. Transfer and utilization of government technology assets to the private sector in the fields of health care and information technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, Luis G.

    1995-10-01

    During the first Health Care Technology Policy conference last year, during health care reform, four major issues were brought up in regards to the efforts underway to develop a computer based patient record (CBPR), the National Information Infrastructure (NII) as part of the high performance computers and communications (HPCC), and the so-called 'patient card.' More specifically it was explained how a national information system will greatly affect the way health care delivery is provided to the United States public and reduce its costs. These four issues were: (1) Constructing a national information infrastructure (NII); (2) Building a computer based patient record system; (3) Bringing the collective resources of our national laboratories to bear in developing and implementing the NII and CBPR, as well as a security system with which to safeguard the privacy rights of patients and the physician-patient privilege; (4) Utilizing government (e.g., DOD, DOE) capabilities (technology and human resources) to maximize resource utilization, create new jobs, and accelerate technology transfer to address health care issues. This year a section of this conference entitled: 'Health Care Technology Assets of the Federal Government' addresses benefits of the technology transfer which should occur for maximizing already developed resources. This section entitled: 'Transfer and Utilization of Government Technology Assets to the Private Sector,' will look at both health care and non-health care related technologies since many areas such as information technologies (i.e. imaging, communications, archival/retrieval, systems integration, information display, multimedia, heterogeneous data bases, etc.) already exist and are part of our national labs and/or other federal agencies, i.e., ARPA. These technologies although they are not labeled under health care programs they could provide enormous value to address technical needs. An additional issue deals with both the technical

  18. When Weaker Can Be Tougher: The Role of Oxidation State (I) in P- vs N-Ligand-Derived Ni-Catalyzed Trifluoromethylthiolation of Aryl Halides

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The direct introduction of the valuable SCF3 moiety into organic molecules has received considerable attention. While it can be achieved successfully for aryl chlorides under catalysis with Ni0(cod)2 and dppf, this report investigates the Ni-catalyzed functionalization of the seemingly more reactive aryl halides ArI and ArBr. Counterintuitively, the observed conversion triggered by dppf/Ni0 is ArCl > ArBr > ArI, at odds with bond strength preferences. By a combined computational and experimental approach, the origin of this was identified to be due to the formation of (dppf)NiI, which favors β-F elimination as a competing pathway over the productive cross-coupling, ultimately generating the inactive complex (dppf)Ni(SCF2) as a catalysis dead end. The complexes (dppf)NiI–Br and (dppf)NiI–I were isolated and resolved by X-ray crystallography. Their formation was found to be consistent with a ligand-exchange-induced comproportionation mechanism. In stark contrast to these phosphine-derived Ni complexes, the corresponding nitrogen-ligand-derived species were found to be likely competent catalysts in oxidation state I. Our computational studies of N-ligand derived NiI complexes fully support productive NiI/NiIII catalysis, as the competing β-F elimination is disfavored. Moreover, N-derived NiI complexes are predicted to be more reactive than their Ni0 counterparts in catalysis. These data showcase fundamentally different roles of NiI in carbon–heteroatom bond formation depending on the ligand sphere. PMID:28286695

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Globulettes in the Carina nebula (Grenman+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenman, T.; Gahm, G. F.

    2014-09-01

    The optical images of the Carina complex were downloaded from the HST archive, cycle 13 and 14 programs GO-10241 and 10475 (principal investigator N. Smith) based on observations with the ACS/WFI camera, which contains two CCDs of 2048x4096 pixels glued together with a small gap in between. The pixel size corresponds to ~0.05 arcsec/pix, and the field of view is 202x202 arcsec. All images selected were exposed for 1000 s through the narrow-band filter F658N, covering the nebular emission lines of Hα and [NII]. (1 data file).

  20. Optimization of Thin-Film Transparent Plastic Honeycomb Covered Flat-Plate Solar Collectors. Phase 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-05-25

    2-nii film thickness (Ref. 6). Basic strength and optical tests were done with the reinfGorced Teflon cover. In a pull test the reinforced Teflon... thick . The pertinent optical properties of the three materials are given in Table 3-1, from which it can be seen that although the FEP Teflon has the...absorber with two covers, thick , and FEP Teflon 0.00265 cm (I mil) thick . In The cover materials used are either glass or plas- Table I the optical

  1. Wear Resistant Rubber Tank Track Pads

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-01

    100 lignin: rubber latex coprecipitates (National Research Council of Canada), Duoform 3/4 inch fiber wire (National Standards Co.)» brass-plated...i • {■ «IT \\£P»* ■ . R-TR-T6-028 WEAR RESISTANT RUBBER TANK TRACK PADS \\ ■ ■ ■. by EDWARD W. BERGSTROM OCTOBER 1975 D D C...im»>nii»> WEAR RESISTANT RUBBER TANK TRACK PADS.j ’■ ? - » * .s. ————— A Edward W./Bergstrom 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION

  2. Electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 with CCC-NHC pincer nickel complexes.

    PubMed

    Cope, James D; Liyanage, Nalaka P; Kelley, Paul J; Denny, Jason A; Valente, Edward J; Webster, Charles Edwin; Delcamp, Jared H; Hollis, T Keith

    2017-08-22

    A CCC-NHC pincer Ni(ii)Cl complex was prepared according to the metallation/transmetallation methodology. It was fully characterized by electrochemical, NMR spectroscopic, theoretical, and X-ray crystallographic methods. The complex and its cation were evaluated for electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 under a variety of conditions and found to provide some of the fastest catalytic rates and highest substrate selectivities (CO2vs. H(+)) reported. Rates improved in the presence of water and, significantly, catalysis occurred at the first reduction potential, presumably at the Ni(i) state. Controlled potential electrolysis (CPE) was found to yield CO at 34% and formate at 47% Faradaic efficiency (FE).

  3. Ternary semiconductors NiZrSn and CoZrBi with half-Heusler structure: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, Gregor; Kratzer, Peter

    2016-08-01

    The ternary semiconductors NiZrSn and CoZrBi with C 1b crystal structure are introduced by calculating their basic structural, electronic, and phononic properties using density functional theory. Both the gradient-corrected PBE functional and the hybrid functional HSE06 are employed. While NiZrSn is found to be a small-band-gap semiconductor (Eg=0.46 eV in PBE and 0.60 eV in HSE06), CoZrBi has a band gap of 1.01 eV in PBE (1.34 eV in HSE06). Moreover, effective masses and deformation potentials are reported. In both materials A B C , the intrinsic point defects introduced by species A (Ni or Co) are calculated. The Co-induced defects in CoZrBi are found to have a higher formation energy compared to Ni-induced defects in NiZrSn. The interstitial Ni atom (Nii) as well as the VNiNii complex introduce defect states in the band gap, whereas the Ni vacancy (VNi) only reduces the size of the band gap. While Nii is electrically active and may act as a donor, the other two types of defects may compensate extrinsic doping. In CoZrBi, only the VCoCoi complex introduces a defect state in the band gap. Motivated by the reported use of NiZrSn for thermoelectric applications, the Seebeck coefficient of both materials, both in the p -type and the n -type regimes, is calculated. We find that CoZrBi displays a rather large thermopower of up to 500 μ V /K when p doped, whereas NiZrSn possesses its maximum thermopower in the n -type regime. The reported difficulties in achieving p -type doping in NiZrSn could be rationalized by the unintended formation of Nii2 + in conjunction with extrinsic acceptors, resulting in their compensation. Moreover, it is found that all types of defects considered, when present in concentrations as large as 3%, tend to reduce the thermopower compared to ideal bulk crystals at T =600 K. For NiZrSn, the calculated thermodynamic data suggest that additional Ni impurities could be removed by annealing, leading to precipitation of a metallic Ni2ZrSn phase.

  4. Aviation Fuel Fire Behavior Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-02-01

    burning rate measurements were made by a weight loss method. 2 IO (a) Cirula Pan II, i , - - r I 611//’ \\ NIiF Steel Angle ReSinoforcement (a) Circular Pans...protective window materials (sapphire and quartz, respectively). The last type of radiometer was a series P-8400-B water-cooled, 1500 view angle...by Ansul Company, Marinette, Wisconsin. 8 Sapphlie Quartz S~lkon Window Window Window (a) Hy-Cal Series Mb NROL (c) Hy-CaI Series R-2002-B Calorimeters

  5. Structural dynamic testing of the Engineering Test Satellite-IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraki, K.; Mitsuma, H.; Matsushita, T.; Izumi, H.

    The Engineering Test Satellite-IV (ETS-IV) was the first large scale spacecraft developed and launched successfully in Japan on a new N-II launch vehicle. This paper presents an approach taken for the structural development of the ETS-IV. Extensive structural tests were performed to demonstrate that the ETS-IV spacecraft meets all design requirements and will survive all critical environments. Details of the static load test, vibration tests, acoustic test, and pyrotechnic shock test were described. The test results were compared with analyses and measured flight data.

  6. Orbital Stations: A Time of Quests and Accomplishments,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-25

    duvbTe system" of ap- plemaiTes ispertin of a ntnrb sai tation not bi ont. low clind 2 wit launc of sae sttow a carr erts rocet ;dub ut f ro t o -s...E408 AFWL 1 E41 0 AP/IND 1 E429 SO/IND 1 P005 DOE/ISA/DDI 1 P050 CIA./OCR/ADD/SD 2 AFIT/LDE 1 CCN 1 NIA/PHS 1 NIIS 2 LLNL/Ccxde L-389 1 NASA /NST-44 1 NSA/i 21 3/TDL 2 FTD-ID(RS) T-0288-83

  7. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and Public Key (PK) Enabling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    IA) Implementation," February 6, 2003 (c) DoD Directive 8190.3, " Smart Card Technology," August 31, 2002 (d) DoD Chief Information Officer...with the ASD(NII)/DoD CIO. 5.2.2. Maintain the design of the CAC and provide technical support on matters relating to smart card technology about...on its activities to the Board. DoDI 8520.2, April 1, 2004 ENCLOSURE 2 12 E2.1.7. Common Access Card (CAC). A Department-wide smart card used as

  8. Fibers and materials of medical application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fridman, L. I.

    1993-01-01

    Efferent sorption methods of organism detoxication (by medical trend) are presented. Recently, specialists have shown their keen interest in the problem of treating exogenous and endogenous intoxications. This was stipulated by the growing production and accumulation of chemical products for industrial, agricultural, and domestic needs. To solve this problem the industrial production of carbon fibrous adsorbents was developed and implemented at NII Chimvolokno in St. Petersburg. A description of the carbon fibers is given. Also, application of modern composite materials for manufacturing compression-distraction apparatus used for setting fractured bones is described.

  9. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, Fiscal Year 1985. Part 9 (Good-All Electric - Hi Grade Food Products).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    Hi Grade Food Products).F!8, in P C73b TIME COvERFD [1DATf OF REPORT (Year,MonthDy) S PAGE COUNT -~ . -tLFROM _ ___TO_ __ 985 I P’ 1, NOTATION 03AT...N4 NY N4NII 4 co Gmo ’ ooooooo.- .j 0 0 0-I 0 0 0 0-I 0 cc 400 C.) 000000000000< 04C 0 0 04r 0 0 0 04C 0 mWU000 000000000000I- 0t-- 0 0 01- 0 0 0 01

  10. Economic Evaluation of Proposed Helicopter Lidar Bathymeter System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    R’ .MPA .... AS 4 4 * ~ .~,VA A I- -~ flt3 .. AS ELY L i U IT 0F Z) FEDERAL . 0JECT- P ST (AAIA=VER)§ NS "#- " V I ? .......... " -’ cttUCsAc F~. A N...IIS, Figure E_-21 CORPS OF ENGINEERS US. A RMY I ARN1!! -HAR1BOR RO)UTCT I 614 OCt A 1,40 . 1 30 fT. vf,.II. 68 UU T f (0T3?1 OtIGL (rFrI CO I IfoR1 5

  11. Department of Defense Information Enterprise: Strategic Plan 2010-2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 i F O R E W O R D “Intelligence and information sharing have always been a vital...activities with enterprise priorities and warfighter requirements; and by managing risk. Develop the workforce by providing a continuum of IA learnin ...with ASD(NII)/DoD CIO contributed to this story. 10 Steve Muck with the Secretary of Navy DON CIO contributed to this story. 23 O P T I M I z E D I N V

  12. Z39.50 and GILS model. [Government Information Locator Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Eliot

    1994-01-01

    The Government Information Locator System (GILS) is a component of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) which provides electronic access to sources of publicly accessible information maintained throughout the Federal Government. GILS is an internetworking information resource that identifies other information resources, describes the information available in the referenced resources, and provides assistance in how to obtain the information either directly or through intermediaries. The GILS core content which references each Federal information system holding publicly accessible data or information is described in terms of mandatory and optional core elements.

  13. DoD Net-Centric Services Strategy Implementation in the C2 Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    NCDS ) in the C2 domain.2 It is anticipated that the results of this study will be used to develop guidance for implementing services in the C2...Two key issuances in this regard are the 2003 Net-Centric Data Strategy ( NCDS ) and the 2007 Net-Centric Services Strategy (NCSS).2 Implementing both...the NCDS and NCSS has proven to be complex and challenging. In 2008, the OASD(NII)/DoD CIO sponsored a study to determine an approach for

  14. Supersonic Jet Studies of Benzyl Alcohols: Minimum Energy Conformations and Torsional Motion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-13

    Since two 00 transitions are observed, 8 has two stable conformations in the ground state. CH 2OH CH2CH3 C. 4-, 3-, and 2- Methylbenzyl alcohols (9-11...The TOFMS of 9-11 are presented in Figures 4a, 4b, and 4c respectively. 4- Methylbenzyl alcohol (9) has the same symmetry group as 1 and thus only...NII 9 10 11 Figure 4b depicts the TOFMS of jet-cooled 3- methylbenzyl alcohol (10) around the origin of the S 1+ S0 transition. The symmetry group of

  15. Digitization, Learning Organizations and Leadership.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-12-15

    7 DIGITIZATION , LEARNING ORGANIZATIONS AND LEADERSHIP A Monograph by Major Jack L. Gumbert 1I Armor 19960617 064 School of Advanced Military Studies...ladcr devlopment and raning, included are idea for future digitized learning orgaization loader trining. ICNOOL 07 AV2AM nZLZTARY TUDIZZs IIEOGA3...signal andf aminanO and contTti pri’sL’ t ixw %,l 1b. �-N;.41t ml tlb. nii-a fultm. Sosm; nuxlctwnimtion through digitization is dircithy umidenay in

  16. Beach and Nearshore Survey Data: 1981-1984 CERC (Coastal Engineering Research Center) Field Research Facility.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    CC. 0 0 wi L (C’ 00 m N - W - N z N 3 -j -- W, cc ( IL m= -- L- I V. N c 03 U )- Zr Z. C3 MJ CD * Li Li Nr Cr 0. C rlfl nII Nl l N N- N N N~ - n wC w...554 5130 -617 5828 -803 6504 -750 40 39190 1513 7078 -953 7939-1178 8851-1253 9635-128710675-128911854-134313031-1445 97 39190 �-159015509

  17. Synthesis, electronic structure, and magnetism of [Ni(6-Mes)2]+: a two-coordinate nickel(I) complex stabilized by bulky N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    PubMed

    Poulten, Rebecca C; Page, Michael J; Algarra, Andrés G; Le Roy, Jennifer J; López, Isidoro; Carter, Emma; Llobet, Antoni; Macgregor, Stuart A; Mahon, Mary F; Murphy, Damien M; Murugesu, Muralee; Whittlesey, Michael K

    2013-09-18

    The two-coordinate cationic Ni(I) bis-N-heterocyclic carbene complex [Ni(6-Mes)2]Br (1) [6-Mes =1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-ylidene] has been structurally characterized and displays a highly linear geometry with a C-Ni-C angle of 179.27(13)°. Density functional theory calculations revealed that the five occupied metal-based orbitals are split in an approximate 2:1:2 pattern. Significant magnetic anisotropy results from this orbital degeneracy, leading to single-ion magnet (SIM) behavior.

  18. Corporate role in national competitiveness: smart people + good tools + information = profit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele-Vivas, Robert D.

    1994-03-01

    Our national competitiveness -- and the profits of many corporations managed and owned by U.S. citizens -- depend heavily on the outcome of Al Gore's efforts to `reinvent government,' and to create a National Information Infrastructure (NII). Both of these efforts depend in turn on many players, both in and out of government, but two of the players could have an especially substantive impact on how America does business as we enter the era of information warfare: the Secretary of Labor, and the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI).

  19. New Bedford Harbor Superfund Project, Acushnet River Estuary Engineering Feasibility Study of Dredging and Dredged Material Disposal Alternatives. Report 6. Laboratory Testing for Subaqueous Capping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    movement of PCB contaminants. 6 ’ ," - Accesion For NTIS CRA&I OTIC TAB 0 Uianno," d C1 Jnlstlllcdt d/ By AvW ’,b. ,’ des ni-i SECURlTY CLASSIPCATION...CSE 7.8 1. 11mld 0 1020304 CAPPINGA MATERIALS (CNTOL Figure 6 . Effect of cap thickness on orthophosphate-phosphorus release rate the capping material...ALTERNATIVES -~ Report 6 LABORATORY TESTING FOR SUBAQUEOUS CAPPINGi!I0by N ThormdS C. Sturgis, Douglas Gunnison Environmental Laboratory DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY

  20. Measurements of oscillator strengths for EUV emissions of ionized oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, L. J.; Cunningham, A. J.; Rayburn, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    Oscillator-strength determinations for EUV branching emissions of atomic oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur are reported. The transitions studied were excited using a beam-foil source and both branching ratios and radiative lifetimes were determined. Calculated transition-probability data for multiply-ionized neon and oxygen emissions were used to obtain an in situ relative sensitivity curve for the EUV detection system used. New oscillator strengths for NII, OII, SII, and SIII EUV branching emissions that terminate on metastable states of the respective ions are reported, together with new lifetime data for ionized sulfur emissions.

  1. U.S. FMS (Foreign Military Sales) and ROK (Republic of Korea) Economic Acquisition of Weapon Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    30 2.6 Channels of Request--All Other Foreign Military Sales.6 ................. 31 2.7 Flow of Funds. 9...Tok. COP f ]VO CfOu SeaP ’Govt. Ushum,’ * SOM4ty Ibm-wŜ ka O&Met Ihawn Tw A K I I wat GeV "e Cal PcAW A ’NII Der."a J Gala.. DSAA, Dfn. U SOuatW LA...qualitative increases in flows into these areas. [Ref. 13: pp.2-3] Lastly, in the mid-1980s commercial arms sales began to rival the long- dominant security

  2. Controlling First-Row Catalysts: Amination of Aryl and Heteroaryl Chlorides and Bromides with Primary Aliphatic Amines Catalyzed by a BINAP-Ligated Single-Component Ni(0) Complex

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    First-row metal complexes often undergo undesirable one-electron redox processes during two-electron steps of catalytic cycles. We report the amination of aryl chlorides and bromides with primary aliphatic amines catalyzed by a well-defined, single-component nickel precursor (BINAP)Ni(η2-NC-Ph) (BINAP = 2,2′-bis(biphenylphosphino)-1,1′-binaphthalene) that minimizes the formation of Ni(I) species and (BINAP)2Ni. The scope of the reaction encompasses electronically varied aryl chlorides and nitrogen-containing heteroaryl chlorides, including pyridine, quinoline, and isoquinoline derivatives. Mechanistic studies support the catalytic cycle involving a Ni(0)/Ni(II) couple for this nickel-catalyzed amination and are inconsistent with a Ni(I) halide intermediate. Monitoring the reaction mixture by 31P NMR spectroscopy identified (BINAP)Ni(η2-NC-Ph) as the resting state of the catalyst in the amination of both aryl chlorides and bromides. Kinetic studies showed that the amination of aryl chlorides and bromides is first order in both catalyst and aryl halide and zero order in base and amine. The reaction of a representative aryl chloride is inverse first order in PhCN, but the reaction of a representative aryl bromide is zero order in PhCN. This difference in the order of the reaction in PhCN indicates that the aryl chloride reacts with (BINAP)Ni(0), formed by dissociation PhCN from (BINAP)Ni(η2-NC-Ph), but the aryl bromide directly reacts with (BINAP)Ni(η2-NC-Ph). The overall kinetic behavior is consistent with turnover-limiting oxidative addition of the aryl halide to Ni(0). Several pathways for catalyst decomposition were identified, such as the formation of the catalytically inactive bis(amine)-ligated arylnickel(II) chloride, (BINAP)2Ni(0), and the Ni(I) species [(BINAP)Ni(μ-Cl)]2. By using a well-defined nickel complex as catalyst, the formation of (BINAP)2Ni(0) is avoided and the formation of the Ni(I) species [(BINAP)Ni(μ-Cl)]2 is minimized. PMID:24397570

  3. The Herschel Inner Galaxy Gas Survey (HIGGS): Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Christopher; Walker, C.; Kulesa, C.; Stark, A.; Smith, H.; Tolls, V.; White, G.; Israel, F.; Guesten, R.; Requenna-Torres, M.; Shaw, T.; Chen, S.; Schlawin, E.

    The Herschel Inner Galaxy Gas Survey (HIGGS) is a Herschel Open Time Key Programme to use the HIFI and PACS instruments to observe [CII], [NII], [OI], [OIII], and high-J CO emission lines in focused regions near the Galactic Center. By separating and evaluating the distinctly different roles of the central nuclear engine, the Galactic Bar, and dynamical stellar and interstellar feedback mechanisms, HIGGS will provide a high-resolution template for the physical processes in galactic nuclei throughout the local universe, in particular those engaged in starburst activity. We intend to present our early results along with a description of the data reduction and analysis tools that we have developed.

  4. An Analysis of the Career Transitions of U.S. Army Recruiters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    81 F 0 COLEMAN UNCLASSIFIDO USARCpAE-RE-SR-61-. NL Ell" nII lEEll " lin n E.inIIIIIIImI United States Army S Recruiting Command STUDY REPORT 81-4 AD...PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJECT. TASK AREA A WORK UNIT NUMBERS HQ, U.S. Army Recruiting Command AITN: USARCPAE-RE n/a Fort Sheridan, IL 60037 11. CONTROLLING...in this report are those of the author and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy, or decision, unless so

  5. An Elastic-Plastic Constitutive Relation for Transverse-Isotropic Three- Phase Earth Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    but the focus is on specific forms of the model’s response functions. For example, the definitions of the elastic and plastic pseudo stress invariants... pseudo stress deviation tensor and can be related to ij the stresses as E 0E /0 N nll = 3~ (2all " a22 " a33) n22 = " 3~ (all " ö22) + 3 (a22 " a33...which E ^2 E \\l = 3^-’ niJ E , E ^i. and nii (C7) where T\\,. is the pseudo stress deviation tensor (Equation B15), and ij

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Nuclear activity in isolated galaxies (Hernandez-Ibarra+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Ibarra, F. J.; Dultzin, D.; Krongold, Y.; Del Olmo, A.; Perea, J.; Gonzalez, J.

    2014-07-01

    We used two samples of rigorously defined isolated galaxies: the photometric catalogue of isolated galaxies (CIG) by Karachentseva (1973, Cat. VII/82) and the northern isolated disc galaxies compiled by Varela et al. (2004, Cat. J/A+A/420/873). We examined all of the spectra looking if emission lines were present. Within the spectral range covered by the SDSS spectra, we searched for Hβ, [OIII] λ5007Å, [OI] λ6300Å, [NII] λλ6548, 6584Å, Hα and the two sulphur ([SII] λλ6717, 6731Å) lines. (2 data files).

  7. 3D-spectroscopy of SBS star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakopian, S. A.; Dodonov, S. N.; Moiseev, A. V.; Smirnova, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    In the base of our studies of star-forming processes are the data provided by panoramic spectroscopy of galaxies composing our SBS subsample. Observations with multi-pupil spectrographs are organized in a way to obtain the spectral range centered in permitted hydrogen Hα Balmer line, by capturing at least the forbidden doublets of nitrogen [NII]6548,6583 and sulfur [SII]6716,6731. The results obtained are the spatial distributions across the targets of emission intensities and derived properties from line parameters such as radial velocities, which give us the possibility to explore gas kinematics and physical characteristics of HII regions.

  8. Z39.50 and GILS model. [Government Information Locator Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Eliot

    1994-01-01

    The Government Information Locator System (GILS) is a component of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) which provides electronic access to sources of publicly accessible information maintained throughout the Federal Government. GILS is an internetworking information resource that identifies other information resources, describes the information available in the referenced resources, and provides assistance in how to obtain the information either directly or through intermediaries. The GILS core content which references each Federal information system holding publicly accessible data or information is described in terms of mandatory and optional core elements.

  9. Studies on the Preparation and Properties of RDX

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1943-08-24

    OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Report on " Studies on the Preparation and Properties of RDXn to August 15, 1942 by W. E. Bachmann OSRD...University of i"ichi|*an. I- i Roger Adaa»# Chairnan by Harris 1.. Chadwcll Technical .«tdo ! ’■JHUtNii/i : B. STUDIES ON THE PREPARATION AND...Rocovory of Anconiun Nitrate . . • »34 E. STUDIES ON BSX . . . . . • .35 1. Proparr.ticn of BSX . . • • • .36 2

  10. Laser Physics and Laser Techniques.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-14

    n~lra*nii*j ’-ŕ ... .. " " . *.. .... .’. w c . * * 1-. -, ’h .... S . ... . TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION ....................... 2 I. REVIEW OF...sample was grown by A.C. Gossard at AT&T Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, NJ. The active region consisted of 100 100 GaAs wells between 200A AI.2eGa.7...grown for this work. 12 *16- . - ~ PHOTON ENERGY, eV 1.60 1.55 1.50 1.45 1.40 wI w z 4 nm w RESOLUTION M 0 600 850 900 WAVELENGTH, nm FIGURE 6 Time

  11. Collision-induced dissociation of sulfur-containing imidazolium ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Lesimple, Alain; He, Xun; Chan, Tak-Hang; Mamer, Orval

    2008-01-01

    A number of 1,2-dimethylimidazole ionic liquids substituted on N(II) with alkyl chains of varying lengths terminated with sulfur-containing groups were investigated by electrospray high-resolution tandem Fourier-transform mass spectrometry. Fragmentation pathways are strongly dependent on the oxidation state of the sulfur and the alkyl chain length. The dissociations detected are rationalized by deuterium labeling, comparisons between homologous compounds and accurate mass data. Several homolytic processes are reported, leading to distonic ions and loss of hydrogen, methyl and other free radicals.

  12. An analysis of emission lines in the spectrum of P Cygni.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markova, N.; de Groot, M.

    1997-10-01

    Using the coude spectrograph of the NAO 2m telescope at the Rhodope Mountains, Bulgaria, 9 spectra in the blue and 8 spectra in the red photographic region of P Cygni were obtained during 1990. By averaging the spectra in each set a S/N-ratio of about 45 was achieved. Comparing the lists of identifications published by Beals (1950PDAO....9....1B), de Groot (1969BAN....20..225D), Ozemre (1978PIstO.101....1O), Stahl et al. (1993A&AS...99..167S), Markova (1994A&AS..108..561M) and Markova & Zamanov (1995A&AS..114..499M), we conclude that the emission spectrum of P Cygni in our days is probably much richer and intensive than 60 years ago. A number of line parameters of the pure emission lines are measured. An estimate of the electron density and temperature in the region of [NII]-lines formation is obtained. Different velocity laws yielding similar density structures are discussed aiming to account for the results obtained on the basis of the [NII] lines. Possible mechanisms for the formation of the permitted pure emission-line spectrum are proposed.

  13. The nature of the emission-line nebulae in powerful far-infrared galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armus, Lee; Heckman, Timothy M.; Miley, George K.

    1990-01-01

    The authors discuss their program of narrow-band (H alpha + (NII)) imaging of a sample of 30 powerful far-infrared galaxies (FIRG's) chosen to have far-infrared spectral energy distributions similar to the prototype FIRG's Arp 220, NGC 3690, NGC 6240, and M82. The emission-line nebulae of these IR color-selected sample (ICSS) galaxies as a class are both impressively large (mean half light radius, r approx. 1.3 Kpc, and mean diameter, D approx. 16 Kpc) and luminous (L sub TOT approx. 10(exp 8) solar lumninosity; uncorrected for internal extinction). The mean total H alpha + (NII) luminosity of the FIRG's is comparable to that found for pairs of optically selected interacting galaxies (Bushouse, Lamb, and Werner 1988), but is a factor of approx. 5 greater than that of isolated spirals (Kennicutt and Kent 1983). Only approx. 25 percent of the nearby (z approx. less than 0.10) FIRG's have morphologies suggesting that large HII-regions contribute significantly to their emission-line appearance. The broad-band morphologies of our IR color-selected galaxies fall into three major categories. Nearly 75 percent are single galaxy systems, with the remaining FIRG's being either multiple nuclei systems, or members of interacting pairs. Since the authors saw few (10 percent) currently interacting FIRG's, yet many (80 percent) with highly distorted continuum morphologies, their IR color criteria may be preferentially selecting galaxies that have undergone highly inelastic, rapidly merging interactions.

  14. Formation of nanocrystalline phases during thermal decomposition of amorphous Ni-P alloys by isothermal annealing.

    PubMed

    Révész, A; Lendvai, J; Cziráki, A; Liebermann, H H; Bakonyi, I

    2001-06-01

    The microstructure and the average grain size were investigated by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy for nanocrystalline (n) Ni-P alloys with 18, 19, and 22 at.% P. A detailed study of the nanocrystalline states obtained along different heat treatment routes has been performed: (1) a-->ni by isothermal annealing of the melt-quenched amorphous (a) Ni-P alloys; (2) ni-->nii by isothermal annealing of the nanocrystalline ni state; (3) ni-->nii by linear heating of the ni state. The heats evolved during the structural transformations were determined by differential scanning calorimetry. From these studies, a scheme of the structural transformations and their energetics was constructed, which also includes previous results on phases obtained by linear heating of the as-quenched amorphous state of the same alloys. Grain boundary energies also have been estimated. In some cases it was necessary to assume a variation of the specific grain boundary energy during the phase transformation to understand the enthalpy and microstructure changes during the different heat treatments.

  15. Identifying Distant AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trouille, Laura; Barger, Amy; Tremonti, Christy

    2014-07-01

    The Baldwin, Phillips, and Terlevich emission-line ratio diagnostic ([OIII]/Hβ versus [NII]/Hα, hereafter BPT diagram) efficiently separates galaxies whose signal is dominated by star formation (BPT-SF) from those dominated by AGN activity (BPT-AGN). Yet the BPT diagram is limited to z<0.5, the redshift at which [NII]λ6584 leaves the optical spectral window. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we construct a new diagnostic, or TBT diagram, that is based on rest-frame g-z color, [NeIII]λ3869, and [OII]λλ3726+3729 and can be used for galaxies out to z<1.4. The TBT diagram identifies 98.7% of the SDSS BPT-AGN as TBT-AGN and 97% of the SDSS BPT-SF as TBT-SF. Furthermore, it identifies 97% of the OPTX Chandra X-ray selected AGNs as TBT-AGN. This is in contrast to the BPT diagram, which misidentifies 20% of X-ray selected AGNs as BPT-SF.

  16. Using Hubble Space Telescope Images to Test Theoretical Models of Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braxton, Kelsey M.; Balick, B.; Jacob, R.; Steffen, M.; Schonberner, D.

    2012-05-01

    Classical ionization models that predict the ionization structure of planetary nebulae generally assume constant gas density (or a central void and constant density) in the shell. More recently, Steffen, Jacob, Schoenberner (2005, A&A, 441, 573) have computed fully consistent one-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic ionization models (RHI models) with realistic stellar winds and evolving central stars. Their numerical results offer concrete predictions concerning the projected three-dimensional shapes of simple round and elliptical PNe. A first glance at their models shows them to be a superior way of modeling ionization structures in realistic PNe. We present high-spatial resolution and carefully flux calibrated images of PNe selected in Halpha, [OIII], and [NII] as well as the ratios [OIII]/Halpha and [NII]/Halpha in order to test the predictions of the RHI models. These were obtained uniformly and at the same epoch using the WFPC2 camera on the Hubble Space Telescope. Some of the targets are ionization bounded and others are density bounded. In the future these images will be compared to the models in detail. At this point we note many of the common features--some of them unexpected--that the models must explain.

  17. Assessing risks to adults and preschool children posed by PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during a biomass burning episode in Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pongpiachan, Siwatt; Tipmanee, Danai; Khumsup, Chukkapong; Kittikoon, Itthipon; Hirunyatrakul, Phoosak

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the potential cancer risk resulting from biomass burning, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) bound to fine particles (PM2.5) were assessed in nine administrative northern provinces (NNP) of Thailand, before (N-I) and after (N-II) a haze episode. The average values of Σ 3,4-ring PAHs and B[a] P Equivalent concentrations in world urban cities were significantly (p<0.05) much higher than those in samples collected from northern provinces during both sampling periods. Application of diagnostic binary ratios of PAHs underlined the predominant contribution of vehicular exhaust to PM2.5-bound PAH levels in NNP areas, even in the middle of the agricultural waste burning period. The proximity of N-I and N-II values in three-dimensional (3D) principal component analysis (PCA) plots also supports this conclusion. Although the excess cancer risk in NNP areas is much lower than those of other urban area and industrialized cities, there are nevertheless some concerns relating to adverse health impacts on preschool children due to non-dietary exposure to PAHs in home environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Kn 26, a new quadrupolar planetary nebula (Guerrero+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, M. A.; Miranda, L. F.; Ramos-Larios, G.; Vazquez, R.

    2013-03-01

    Narrow-band Hα, [NII] λ6583, and [OIII] λ5007 images of Kn 26 were acquired on June 21, 2009 using ALFOSC (Andalucia Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera) at the 2.56m Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) of the Observatorio de Roque de los Muchachos (ORM, La Palma, Spain). Narrow-band H2 2.1218um, Brγ 2.1658um, and K continuum at 2.270um images of Kn 26 were obtained on June 27, 2010 using LIRIS at the Cassegrain focus of the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) at the ORM. Intermediate-resolution long-slit spectra of Kn 26 were obtained on October 5, 2011 using the ALBIREO spectrograph at the 1.5m telescope of the Observatorio de Sierra Nevada (OSN), Granada, Spain. Long-slit high-dispersion spectroscopy on the Hα and [NII] λ6583 lines of Kn 26 has been acquired on June 13, 2010 using the Manchester Echelle Spectrometer (MES) mounted on the 2.1m (f/7.5) telescope at the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional de San Pedro Martir (OAN-SPM, Mexico). (2 data files).

  19. Large Magellanic Cloud observed by SOFIA/GREAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israel, Frank

    2015-10-01

    We request use of GREAT on SOFIA to make velocity-resolved [CII] and [NII] strip maps on three compact star-forming regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud. These will complement comparable stripmaps already obtained for five similar compact objects in the SMC. Our aim is to determine the effects of both metallicity and irradiation on the physics of the interstellar medium at neutral/ionized gas and atomic/molecular gas interfaces. (1) Observations of sources in the LMC and the SMC sample the ISM at distinctly different metallicities, both much lower than that of the Milky Way, that will provide a good handle on the effects of abundance. (2) The chosen fields sample gas exposed to distinctly different radiation field intensities, providing a handle on the effects of irradiation at different metallicities. (3) GREAT provides the high spectral resolution needed to disentangle [CII] from molecular and atomic components in the same line of sight, and resolve changes in physical parameters across boundaries. (4) The measurements complement a large existing data base of MC ISM observations. (5) We will analyze the [CII] and [NII] measurements in combination with available CO line and FIR continuum data using the Leiden and Cologne PDR/XDR models specifically developed for such application.

  20. Interstellar Deuterium, Nitrogen and Oxygen Towards HZ43A: Results from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruk, J. W.; Howk, J. C.; Andre, M.; Moos, H. W.; Oegerle, William R.; Oliveira, C.; Sembach, K. R.; Chayer, P.; Linsky, J. L.; Wood, B. E.

    2002-01-01

    We present an analysis of interstellar absorption along the line of sight to the nearby white dwarf star HZ43A. The distance to this star is 68+/-13 pc, and the line of sight extends toward the north Galactic pole. Column densities of O(I), N(I), and N(II) were derived from spectra obtained by the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), the column density of D(I) was derived from a combination of our FUSE spectra and an archival HST GARDENS spectrum, and the column density of H(I) was derived from a combination of the GARDENS spectrum and values derived from EUVE data obtained from the literature. We find the following abundance ratios (with 2 sigma uncertainties): D(I)/H(I)=(1.66+/-0.28)x10(exp -5), O(I)/H(I)=(3.63+/-0.84)x10(exp -4), and N(I)/H(I)=(3.80+/-0.74)x10(exp -5). The N(II) column density was slightly greater than that of N(I), indicating that ionization corrections are important when deriving nitrogen abundances. Other interstellar species detected along the line of sight were C(II), C(III), O(VI), Si(II), Ar(I), Mg(II) and Fe(II); an upper limit was determined for N(III). No elements other than H(I) were detected in the stellar photosphere.

  1. Efficient convex-elastic net algorithm to solve the Euclidean traveling salesman problem.

    PubMed

    Al-Mulhem, M; Al-Maghrabi, T

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a hybrid algorithm that combines an adaptive-type neural network algorithm and a nondeterministic iterative algorithm to solve the Euclidean traveling salesman problem (E-TSP). It begins with a brief introduction to the TSP and the E-TSP. Then, it presents the proposed algorithm with its two major components: the convex-elastic net (CEN) algorithm and the nondeterministic iterative improvement (NII) algorithm. These two algorithms are combined into the efficient convex-elastic net (ECEN) algorithm. The CEN algorithm integrates the convex-hull property and elastic net algorithm to generate an initial tour for the E-TSP. The NII algorithm uses two rearrangement operators to improve the initial tour given by the CEN algorithm. The paper presents simulation results for two instances of E-TSP: randomly generated tours and tours for well-known problems in the literature. Experimental results are given to show that the proposed algorithm ran find the nearly optimal solution for the E-TSP that outperform many similar algorithms reported in the literature. The paper concludes with the advantages of the new algorithm and possible extensions.

  2. Terahertz Ballooning: STO And GUSSTO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Christopher L.; Stratospheric TeraHertz Observatory STO Team; Gal/Xgal U/LDB Spectroscopic/Stratospheric THz Observatory GUSSTO Team

    2012-01-01

    With a long duration balloon launch from Antarctica in December 2011, the Stratospheric TeraHertz Observatory (STO) is expected to have just completed its maiden science flight by the time of the AAS meeting. Our team will present some of the first glimpses from this mission to map the interstellar medium (ISM) in [CII], [NII], and [CI] at high spectral and spatial resolution. Additionally, NASA recently announced the missions that will begin Phase A studies under the Explorer Program, which included the Gal/Xgal U/LDB Spectroscopic/Stratospheric THz Observatory (GUSSTO). GUSSTO is a balloon-borne, 1 m off-axis telescope that will survey 300 square degrees of the Milky Way and Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) in 3 important interstellar ines: [CII], [OI], and [NII] at 158, 63, and 205 microns, respectively. With these lines, GUSSTO will map the structure, dynamics, energy balance, pressure, and evolution of the ISM. Our poster will explain the concepts and plans for this exciting mission.

  3. Charge separation related to photocatalytic H2 production from a Ru–apoflavodoxin–Ni biohybrid

    DOE PAGES

    Soltau, Sarah R.; Niklas, Jens; Dahlberg, Peter D.; ...

    2016-12-27

    The direct creation of a fuel from sunlight and water via photochemical energy conversion provides a sustainable method for producing a clean source of energy. Here we report the preparation of a solar fuel biohybrid that embeds a nickel diphosphine hydrogen evolution catalyst into the cofactor binding pocket of the electron shuttle protein, flavodoxin (Fld). The system is made photocatalytic by linking a cysteine residue in Fld to a ruthenium photosensitizer. Importantly, the protein environment enables the otherwise insoluble Ni catalyst to perform photocatalysis in aqueous solution over a pH range of 3.5–12.0, with optimal turnover frequency 410 ± 30more » h–1 and turnover number 620 ± 80 mol H2/mol hybrid observed at pH 6.2. For the first time, a reversible light-induced charge-separated state involving a Ni(I) intermediate was directly monitored by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. As a result, transient optical measurements reflect two conformational states, with a Ni(I) state formed in ~1.6 or ~185 μs that persists for several milliseconds as a long-lived charge-separated state facilitated by the protein matrix.« less

  4. Charge separation related to photocatalytic H2 production from a Ru–apoflavodoxin–Ni biohybrid

    SciTech Connect

    Soltau, Sarah R.; Niklas, Jens; Dahlberg, Peter D.; Mulfort, Karen L.; Poluektov, Oleg G.; Utschig, Lisa M.

    2016-12-27

    The direct creation of a fuel from sunlight and water via photochemical energy conversion provides a sustainable method for producing a clean source of energy. Here we report the preparation of a solar fuel biohybrid that embeds a nickel diphosphine hydrogen evolution catalyst into the cofactor binding pocket of the electron shuttle protein, flavodoxin (Fld). The system is made photocatalytic by linking a cysteine residue in Fld to a ruthenium photosensitizer. Importantly, the protein environment enables the otherwise insoluble Ni catalyst to perform photocatalysis in aqueous solution over a pH range of 3.5–12.0, with optimal turnover frequency 410 ± 30 h–1 and turnover number 620 ± 80 mol H2/mol hybrid observed at pH 6.2. For the first time, a reversible light-induced charge-separated state involving a Ni(I) intermediate was directly monitored by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. As a result, transient optical measurements reflect two conformational states, with a Ni(I) state formed in ~1.6 or ~185 μs that persists for several milliseconds as a long-lived charge-separated state facilitated by the protein matrix.

  5. Fine structural analysis of the neuronal inclusions of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Helen; Atherton, Joe; Cairns, Nigel J.

    2009-01-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) is a major component of the pathological inclusions of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 proteinopathy, also called FTLD with ubiquitin-positive, tau-negative inclusions (FTLD-U), and motor neuron disease (MND). TDP-43 is predominantly expressed in the nucleus and regulates gene expression and splicing. In FTLD with TDP-43 proteinopathy, neuronal inclusions present variably as cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs), dystrophic neurites (DNs), and intranuclear inclusions (NIIs), leading to a fourfold neuropathological classification correlating with genotype. There have been few fine structural studies of these inclusions. Thus, we undertook an immunoelectron microscopic study of FTLD with TDP-43 proteinopathy, including sporadic and familial cases with progranulin (GRN) mutation. TDP-43-immunoreactive inclusions comprised two components: granular and filamentous. Filament widths, expressed as mean (range) were: NCI, 9 nm (4–16 nm); DN, 10 nm (5–16 nm); NII, 18 nm (9–50 nm). Morphologically distinct inclusion components may reflect the process of TDP-43 aggregation and interaction with other proteins: determining these latter may contribute towards understanding the heterogeneous pathogenesis of FTLD with TDP-43 proteinopathy. PMID:18974920

  6. Spectroscopic study in the visible and near infrared wavelength of an Hα-selected sample of star-forming galaxies at z = 0.84

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Gallego, J.; Villar, V.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Zamorano, J.; Cardiel, N.; Acosta Pulido, J. A.

    2013-05-01

    In this work we study the physical properties of star-forming galaxies selected in an Hα near-infrared narrow-band survey tuned for redshift z=0.84 (Villar et al. 2008, 2011). Also, we present a sample at z˜1 with mass greater than 10^{10} M_{⊙} with Hα emission. The observations were carried out with WHT/LIRIS (see Sánchez de Miguel et al. 2011, in Highlights of Spanish Astrophysics VI). The rest of the data from the spectra archive of the RAINBOW Cosmological Survey database (Pérez-González et al. 2005, 2008; Barro et al. 2011ab). According to the redshift distribution of these galaxies, 65% of the galaxies are in a redshift range of 0.005. This velocity range corresponds to less than 25% of the effective volume. Which could be indicative of the presence of substructure. A total of 48 galaxies have detected Hα emission and other 12 show [NII]6584. To complete our multi-wavelength sample we found 23 galaxies with Hβ, [OIII]5007 or [OII]3727 detections. Using this photometry from ancillary data we will calculate nebular and stellar extinctions. We have calculated metallicities using the [NII]/Hα ratio and the Pettini & Pagel (2004) calibrations. The metallicity of samples are compatible with the local galaxies. We found that in all the diagnostic diagrams galaxies have similar properties to the local ones, except they are intrinsically brighter for the same equivalent width [OII]3727.

  7. Coordination and binding geometry of methyl-coenzyme M in the red1m state of methyl-coenzyme M reductase.

    PubMed

    Hinderberger, Dariush; Ebner, Sieglinde; Mayr, Stefan; Jaun, Bernhard; Reiher, Markus; Goenrich, Meike; Thauer, Rudolf K; Harmer, Jeffrey

    2008-11-01

    Methane formation in methanogenic Archaea is catalyzed by methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) and takes place via the reduction of methyl-coenzyme M (CH3-S-CoM) with coenzyme B (HS-CoB) to methane and the heterodisulfide CoM-S-S-CoB. MCR harbors the nickel porphyrinoid coenzyme F430 as a prosthetic group, which has to be in the Ni(I) oxidation state for the enzyme to be active. To date no intermediates in the catalytic cycle of MCRred1 (red for reduced Ni) have been identified. Here, we report a detailed characterization of MCRred1m ("m" for methyl-coenzyme M), which is the complex of MCRred1a ("a" for absence of substrate) with CH3-S-CoM. Using continuous-wave and pulse electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in combination with selective isotope labeling (13C and 2H) of CH3-S-CoM, it is shown that CH3-S-CoM binds in the active site of MCR such that its thioether sulfur is weakly coordinated to the Ni(I) of F430. The complex is stable until the addition of the second substrate, HS-CoB. Results from EPR spectroscopy, along with quantum mechanical calculations, are used to characterize the electronic and geometric structure of this complex, which can be regarded as the first intermediate in the catalytic mechanism.

  8. Oxygen abundances of zCOSMOS galaxies at z ~ 1.4 based on five lines and implications for the fundamental metallicity relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Christian; Lilly, Simon J.; Ziegler, Bodo L.

    2015-02-01

    A relation between the stellar mass M and the gas-phase metallicity Z of galaxies, the MZR, is observed up to higher redshifts. It is a matter of debate, however, if the SFR is a second parameter in the MZR. To explore this issue at z > 1, we used VLT-SINFONI near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy of eight zCOSMOS galaxies at 1.3 < z < 1.4 to measure the strengths of four emission lines: Hβ, [OIII]λ5007, Hα, and [NII]λ6584, additional to [OII]λ3727 measured from VIMOS. We derive reliable O/H metallicities based on five lines, and also SFRs from extinction corrected Hα measurements. We find that the MZR of these star-forming galaxies at z ~ 1.4 is lower than the local SDSS MZR by a factor of three to five, a larger change than reported in the literature using [NII]/Hα-based metallicities from individual and stacked spectra. Correcting N2-based O/Hs using recent results by Newman et al. (2014), also the larger FMOS sample at z ~ 1.4 of Zahid et al. (2014) shows a similar evolution of the MZR like the zCOSMOS objects. These observations seem also in agreement with a non-evolving FMR using the physically motivated formulation of the FMR from Lilly et al. (2013).

  9. PDR Emission from the Arched-Filaments and Nearby Positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Pablo; Röllig, Markus; Abel, Nicholas; Steinke, Martin; Burton, Michael; Blackwell, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the physical conditions of the gas, atomic and molecular, in the filaments in the context of Photo-Dissociation Regions (PDRs) using the KOSMA-PDR mode of clumpy clouds. We also compare the [CII] vs. [NII] integrated intensity predictions in Abel et al. 2005 for HII regions and adjacent PDRs in the Galactic disk, and check for their applicability under the extreme physical conditions present in the GC. Our preliminary results show that observed integrated intensities are well reproduced by the PDR model. The gas is exposed to a relatively low Far-UV field between 102 - 103 Draine fields. The total volume hydrogen density is well constrained between 104 - 105 cm-3. The hydrogen ionization rate due to cosmic-rays varies between 10-15 and 4× 10-15 s-1, with the highest value ~ 10-14 s-1 found towards G0.07+0.04. Our results show that the line-of-sight contribution to the total distance of the filaments to the Arches Cluster is not negligible. The spatial distribution of the [CII]/[NII] ratio shows that the integrated intensity ratios are fairly homogeneously distributed for values below 10 in energy units. Calculations including variation on the [C/N] abundance ratio show that tight constraints on this ratio are needed to reproduce the observations.

  10. Oxygen abundance from strong-line methods at extremely low metallicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Luis, A. B.; Sánchez Almeida, J.; Pérez Montero, E.; Muñoz-Tuñon, C.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Vilchez, J. M.; Terlevich, E.; Terlevich, R.

    2013-05-01

    The determination of oxygen abundance in nebulae requires measuring a significant number of emission lines distributed along a wide spectral range. The required measurements are hard to obtain at high redshift, where sources are very faint, and where the accessible spectral range is limited. These difficulties are often overcome using empirical relationships between the oxygen abundance and the fluxes in a small number of strong lines. The so-called strong-line methods are often the only practical alternative for metallicity estimate at high redshift. In this sense, the low metallicities range is particularly important since high redshift objects are primitive and so of low metallic content. One of the most widely used relationships links the oxygen with the ratio between [NII]6583 and Hα. This relationship shows a large scatter at low metallicity. In an effort to bring down the errors, we re-calibrated the relationship using a large sample of extremely metal-poor galaxies. The SDSS spectra of the galaxies were all analyzed in the same way to minimize systematic errors. To our surprise, the decrease of scatter reveals that the ratio [N{II}]6583 to Hα seems to be independent of metallicity at low oxygen abundance (12+log[{O}/{H}] < 7.6). This result casts doubts on the metallicities of high-redshift objects based on the relationship. We explain how the re-calibration was carried (including the sample selection and the abundance determinations). In addition, we try explain what produces the lack of correlation.

  11. Security Assessment Simulation Toolkit (SAST) Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Meitzler, Wayne D.; Ouderkirk, Steven J.; Hughes, Chad O.

    2009-11-15

    The Department of Defense Technical Support Working Group (DoD TSWG) investment in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Security Assessment Simulation Toolkit (SAST) research planted a technology seed that germinated into a suite of follow-on Research and Development (R&D) projects culminating in software that is used by multiple DoD organizations. The DoD TSWG technology transfer goal for SAST is already in progress. The Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA), the Defense-wide Information Assurance Program (DIAP), the Marine Corps, Office Of Naval Research (ONR) National Center For Advanced Secure Systems Research (NCASSR) and Office Of Secretary Of Defense International Exercise Program (OSD NII) are currently investing to take SAST to the next level. PNNL currently distributes the software to over 6 government organizations and 30 DoD users. For the past five DoD wide Bulwark Defender exercises, the adoption of this new technology created an expanding role for SAST. In 2009, SAST was also used in the OSD NII International Exercise and is currently scheduled for use in 2010.

  12. Resolved line profiles of PNe in NGC6822.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Duran, S.; Peña, M.; Hernández-Martínez, L.; García-Rojas, J.; Ruiz, M. T.

    2014-04-01

    "Using high resolution spectroscopic data obtained with Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) at the Magellan telescope at Las Campanas Observatory it was possible to resolve the emission line profiles of [OIII] 5007, Ha and [NII] 6583 in two planetary nebulae belonging to the Local Group galaxy NGC 6822 (Flores-Durán et al. submitted). The two PNe, called PN4 and PN7 were identified after Leisy et al. (2005, A&A, x436, 437). In the case of PN4, it presents wide lines that show a structure with three components. The [NII] 6583 line profile clearly shows a central component surrounded by what appears to be a shell with an expantion velocity of 25 km s-1. For PN7, the [OIII] emission lines present two very close components differing in velocity by about 15 km s-1 and, in the [N II] 6583 profile a faint very-wide component is apparent. This latter component represents a sort of bipolar outflow at high velocities (about 140 km s-1) as the case of the galactic M1-32, M3-15 and others (Medina et al. 2006, RMAA, 42, 53; Akras & López 2012, MNRAS, 425, 2197; Rechy-García et al., this meeting)."

  13. The Long-Term Care Insurance Program in Israel: solidarity with the elderly in a changing society

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Long-Term Care Insurance Program (LTCIP) in Israel is a social security program administered by the National Insurance Institute (NII) since 1988. LTCIP focuses on home-based personal care services. Differently from most other programs under the responsibility of the NII, LTCIP benefits are in-kind benefits and are delivered via multiple for-profit and not-for-profit organizations. In recent years LTCIP has been the target of various legal amendments and numerous administrative changes. While many of these changes may have had significant effects on individuals, they have not altered the fundamental principles of the program. Thus, many of the characteristics of beneficiaries have remained quite stable over the years; other characteristics of the population of beneficiaries have changed over the years reflecting the aging of Israeli society. A central issue related to LTCIP is whether benefits are adequate to meet the needs of the growing elderly population of Israel. While the generosity of LTCIP benefits is questionable, economic and political struggles have limited the scope of changes introduced thus far. PMID:23343104

  14. Role of Radical Species in Salicylaldiminato Ni(II) Mediated Polymer Chain Growth: A Case Study for the Migratory Insertion Polymerization of Ethylene in the Presence of Methyl Methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Ölscher, Franz; Göttker-Schnetmann, Inigo; Monteil, Vincent; Mecking, Stefan

    2015-11-25

    To date, an inconclusive and partially contradictive picture exists on the behavior of neutral Ni(II) insertion polymerization catalysts toward methyl methacrylate (MMA). We shed light on this issue by a combination of comprehensive mechanistic NMR and EPR studies, isolation of a key Ni(I) intermediate, and pressure reactor studies with ethylene and MMA, followed by detailed polymer analysis. An interlocking mechanistic picture of an insertion and a free radical polymerization is revealed. Both polymerizations run simultaneously (25 bar ethylene, neat MMA, 70 °C); however, the chain growth cycles are independent of each other, and therefore exclusively a physical mixture of homo-PE and homo-PMMA is obtained. A Ni-C bond cleavage was excluded as a free radical source. Rather a homolytic P-C bond cleavage in the labile aryl phosphine ligand and the reaction of low-valent Ni(0/I) species with specific iodo substituted N^O (Ar-I) ligands were shown to initiate radical MMA polymerizations. Several reductive elimination decomposition pathways of catalyst precursor or active intermediates were shown to form low-valent Ni species. One of those pathways is a bimolecular reductive coupling via intermediate (N^O)Ni(I) formation. These intermediate Ni(I) species can be prevented from ultimate decomposition by capturing with organic radical sources, forming insertion polymerization active [(N^O)Ni(II)-R] species and prolonging the ethylene polymerization activity.

  15. Spectral analysis of the Stromlo-APM Survey - I. Spectral properties of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tresse, L.; Maddox, S.; Loveday, J.; Singleton, C.

    1999-11-01

    We analyse spectral properties of 1671 galaxies from the Stromlo-APM Survey, selected to have 15<=bJ<=17.15 and having a mean redshift z=0.05. This is a representative local sample of field galaxies, so the global properties of the galaxy population provide a comparative point for analysis of more distant surveys. We measure Hα, [Oii] λ3727, [Sii] λλ6716, 6731, [Nii] λ6583 and [Oi] λ6300 equivalent widths and the D4000 break index. The 5-Å-resolution spectra use an 8-arcsec slit, which typically covers 40-50per cent of the galaxy area. We find no evidence for systematic trends depending on the fraction of galaxy covered by the slit, and further analysis suggests that our spectra are representative of integrated galaxy spectra. We classify spectra according to their Hα emission, which is closely related to massive star formation. Overall we find that 61per cent of galaxies are Hα emitters with rest-frame equivalent widths EW(Hα) >~2Å. The emission-line galaxy (ELG) fraction is smaller than seen in the Canada-France Redshift Survey (CFRS) at z=0.2, and is consistent with a rapid evolution of Hα luminosity density. The ELG fraction and EW(Hα) increase at fainter absolute magnitudes, smaller projected area and smaller D4000. In the local Universe, faint, small galaxies are dominated by star formation activity, while bright, large galaxies are more quiescent. This picture of the local Universe is quite different from that of the distant one; bright galaxies appear to show rapidly increasing activity as one moves further back in time. We find that the ratio [Nii] λ6583/Hα is anticorrelated with EW(Hα), and that the value of 0.5 commonly used to remove the [Nii] contribution from blended Hα+[Nii] λλ6548, 6583 applies only for samples with an EW distribution similar to that seen at low redshift. We show that the [Oii], [Nii], [Sii] and Hα EWs are correlated, but with large dispersions (~50per cent) owing to the diversity of galaxy contents sampled. Our

  16. Spectral nuclear properties of NLS1 galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, E. O.; Ferreiro, D.; Vega Neme, L.; Oio, G. A.

    2016-12-01

    Context. It is not yet well known whether narrow line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies follow the MBH - σ⋆ relation found for normal galaxies. Emission lines, such as [SII] or [OIII]λ5007, have been used as a surrogate of the stellar velocity dispersion and various results have been obtained. On the other hand, some active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have shown Balmer emission with an additional intermediate component (IC) besides the well-known narrow and broad lines. The properties of this IC have not yet been fully studied. Aims: In order to re-examine the location of NLS1 in the MBH - σ⋆ relation, we test some emission lines, such as the narrow component (NC) of Hα and the forbidden [NII]λλ6548,6584 and [SII]λλ6716,6731 lines, as replacements for σ⋆. On the other hand, we study the properties of the IC of Hα found in 14 galaxies of the sample to find a link between this component, the central engine, and the remaining lines. We also compare the emission among the broad component (BC) of Hα and those emitted at the narrow line region (NLR) to detect differences in the ionizing source in each emitting region. Methods: We have obtained and studied medium-resolution spectra (170 km s-1 FWHM at Hα) of 36 NLS1 galaxies in the optical range 5800-6800 Å. We performed a Gaussian decomposition of the Hα +[NII]λλ6548,6584 profile to study the distinct components of Hα and [NII] lines. We also measured the [SII] lines. Results: We obtained black hole (BH) masses in the range log (MBH/M⊙) = 5.4-7.5 for our sample. We found that, in general, most of the galaxies lie below the MBH - σ⋆ relation when the NC of Hα and [NII] lines are used as a surrogate of σ⋆. The objects are closer to the relation when [SII] lines are used. Nevertheless, the galaxies are still below this relation and we do not see a clear correlation between the BH masses and FWHM[SII]. Besides this, we found that 13 galaxies show an IC, most of which are in the velocity range 700-1500 km s

  17. A comparison of FUV dayglows measured by STSAT-1/FIMS with the AURIC model in a geomagnetic quiet condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kam, Hosik; Kim, Yong Ha; Hong, Jun-Seok; Lee, Joon-Chan; Choi, Yeon-Ju; Min, Kyung Wook

    2014-09-01

    The Korea scientific microsatellite, STSAT-1 (Science and Technology Satellite-1), was launched in 2003 and observed far ultraviolet (FUV) airglow from the upper atmosphere with a Far-ultraviolet IMaging Spectrograph (FIMS) at an altitude of 690 km. The FIMS consists of a dual-band imaging spectrograph of 900-1150 Å (S-band) and 1340-1715 Å (L-band). Limb scanning observations were performed only at the S-band, resulting in intensity profiles of OI 989 Å, OI 1026 Å, NII 1085 Å and NI 1134 Å emission lines near the horizon. We compare these emission intensities with those computed by using a theoretical model, the AURIC (Atmospheric Ultraviolet Radiance Integrated Code). The intensities of the OI 1026 Å, NII 1085 Å and NI 1134 Å emissions measured by using the FIMS are overall consistent with the values computed by using AURIC under the thermospheric and solar activity conditions on August 6, 1984, which is close to the FIMS's observation condition. We find that the FIMS dayglow intensity profiles match reasonably well with AURIC intensity profiles for the MSIS90 oxygen atom density profiles within factors of 0.5 and 2. However, the FIMS intensities of the OI 989 Å line are about 2 ˜ 4 times stronger than the AURIC intensities, which is expected because AURIC does not properly simulate resonance scattering of airglow and solar photons at 989 Å by atomic oxygen in the thermosphere. We also find that the maximum tangential altitudes of the oxygen bearing dayglows (OI 989 Å, OI 1026 Å) are higher than those of the nitrogen-bearing dayglows (NII 1085 Å, NI 1134 Å), which is confirmed by using AURIC model calculations. This is expected because the oxygen atoms are distributed at higher altitudes in the thermosphere than the nitrogen molecules. Validations of the qualities of both the FIMS instrument and the AURIC model indicate that AURIC should be updated with improved thermospheric models and with measured solar FUV spectra for better agreement with the

  18. Chemical Substructure in the Milky Way Halo: A New Population of Old Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivans, Inese I.; Sneden, Christopher; James, C. Renée; Preston, George W.; Fulbright, Jon P.; Höflich, Peter A.; Carney, Bruce W.; Wheeler, J. Craig

    2003-08-01

    We report the results of a coherent study of a new class of halo stars defined on the basis of the chemical compositions of three metal-poor objects ([Fe/H]~=-2) that exhibit unusually low abundances of α-element (Mg, Si, Ca) and neutron-capture (Sr, Y, Ba) material. Our analyses confirm and expand on earlier reports of atypical α- and neutron-capture abundances in BD +80°245, G4-36, and CS 22966-043. We also find that the latter two stars exhibit unusual relative abundance enhancements within the iron peak (Cr, Mn, Ni, Zn), along with what may be large abundances of Ga, an element not previously reported as being observed in any metal-poor star. These results provide further evidence that chemical enrichment and star formation histories varied from region to region within the Milky Way halo. Comparing the chemical abundances of the newly identified stellar population to supernova model yields, we derive supernova ratios of Type Ia versus Type II events in the range of 0.6<~(NIa/NII)NewPop<~1.3. For the Sun, we derive 0.18+/-0.01<(NIa/NII)solar<0.25+/-0.06, supernova ratios in good agreement with values found in the literature. Given the relatively low metallicity and relatively high Ia/NII> ratios of the low-α stars studied here, these objects may have been born from material produced in the yields of the earliest Type Ia supernova events. We also report the results of a preliminary attempt to employ the observed chemical abundances of low-metallicity stars in the identification, and possible cosmic evolution, of Type Ia supernova progenitors, and we discuss the limitations of current model yields. Based on data acquired at the following facilities: McDonald Observatory, which is operated by the University of Texas at Austin; Las Campanas Observatory, which is operated by the Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington; W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University

  19. On the nitrogen abundance of fast, low-ionization emission regions: the outer knots of the planetary nebula NGC 7009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, D. R.; Ercolano, B.; Carnero, A.; Mampaso, A.; Corradi, R. L. M.

    2006-01-01

    We have constructed a 3D photoionization model of a planetary nebula (PN) similar in structure to NGC 7009 with its outer pair of knots (also known as FLIERs - fast, low-ionization emission regions). The work is motivated by the fact that the strong [NII]λ6583 line emission from FLIERs in many PNe has been attributed to a significant local overabundance of nitrogen. We explore the possibility that the apparent enhanced nitrogen abundance previously reported in the FLIERs may be due to ionization effects. The model is constrained by the results obtained by Gonçalves et al. from the analysis of both Hubble Space Telescope (HST) [OIII] and [NII] images, and long-slit spectra of NGC 7009. Our model is indeed able to reproduce the main spectroscopic and imaging characteristics of the bright inner rim of NGC 7009 and its outer pairs of knots, assuming homogeneous elemental abundances throughout the nebula, for nitrogen as well as all the other elements included in the model. We also study the effects of a narrow slit on our non-spherically symmetric density distribution, via the convolution of the model results with the profile of the long slit used to obtain the spectroscopic observations that constrained our model. This effect significantly enhances the [NII]/Hβ emission, more in the FLIERs than in the inner rim. Because of the fact that the (N+/N)/(O+/O) ratio predicted by our models is 0.60 for the rim and is 0.72 for the knots, so clearly in disagreement with the N+/N = O+/O assumption of the ionization correction factor (icf) method, the icfs will be underestimated by the empirical scheme, in both components, rim and knots, but more so in the knots. This effect is partly responsible for the apparent inhomogeneous N abundance empirically derived. The differences in the above ratio in these two components of the nebula may be due to a number of effects including charge exchange - as pointed out previously by other authors - and the difference in the ionization

  20. Effects of inorganic nitrogen sources on the production of PP-V [(10Z)-12-carboxyl-monascorubramine] and the Expression of the nitrate assimilation gene cluster by Penicillium sp. AZ.

    PubMed

    Arai, Teppei; Umemura, Sara; Ota, Tamaki; Ogihara, Jun; Kato, Jun; Kasumi, Takafumi

    2012-01-01

    A fungal strain, Penicillium sp. AZ, produced the azaphilone Monascus pigment homolog when cultured in a medium composed of soluble starch, ammonium nitrate, yeast extract, and citrate buffer, pH 5.0. One of the typical features of violet pigment PP-V [(10Z)-12-carboxyl-monascorubramine] is that pyranoid oxygen is replaced with nitrogen. In this study, we found that ammonia and nitrate nitrogen are available for PP-V biosynthesis, and that ammonia nitrogen was much more effective than nitrate nitrogen. Further, we isolated nitrate assimilation gene cluster, niaD, niiA, and crnA, and analyzed the expression of these genes. The expression levels of all these genes increased with sodium nitrate addition to the culture medium. The results obtained here strongly suggest that Penicillium sp. AZ produced PP-V using nitrate in the form of ammonium reduced from nitrate through a bioprocess assimilatory reaction.

  1. Stochastic Adaptive Control and Estimation Enhancement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    total Zu(N-J)’Gj’Q(N)FxIN-1)ou (N-I)I’[ R (N- 1) ’(N I Gil probability theorem to (4.3) yields J*(k.k 3 - min ( Ejx(kl 0(k)x(k) - u(k)’R(klu(k) trQ(N)VI m...Is Independent of Mil), I-k*2 .... N If Dec. 1988. [ Gil N.H. Gholson and R.L. Moose, "ManeuveringM(k.1J Is known, thus Target Tracking Using Adaptive...Control and A(t) =_ J1N X(i,t) is uniformly bounded. Quasi-Variational Inequalities, Gauthier- Villars , . (t9. tER4 , exits 0’ at most a countable

  2. Information Infrastructure Technology and Applications (IITA) Program: Annual K-12 Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Paul; Likens, William; Leon, Mark

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the K-12 workshop is to stimulate a cross pollination of inter-center activity and introduce the regional centers to curing edge K-1 activities. The format of the workshop consists of project presentations, working groups, and working group reports, all contained in a three day period. The agenda is aggressive and demanding. The K-12 Education Project is a multi-center activity managed by the Information Infrastructure Technology and Applications (IITA)/K-12 Project Office at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). this workshop is conducted in support of executing the K-12 Education element of the IITA Project The IITA/K-12 Project funds activities that use the National Information Infrastructure (NII) (e.g., the Internet) to foster reform and restructuring in mathematics, science, computing, engineering, and technical education.

  3. The radical mechanism of biological methane synthesis by methyl-coenzyme M reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Wongnate, T.; Sliwa, D.; Ginovska, B.; Smith, D.; Wolf, M. W.; Lehnert, N.; Raugei, S.; Ragsdale, S. W.

    2016-05-19

    Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR), the rate-limiting enzyme in methanogenesis and anaerobic methane oxidation, is responsible for the production of over one billion tons of methane per year. The mechanism of methane synthesis is unknown, with the two leading proposals involving either a methyl-nickel(III) (Mechanism I) or methyl radical/Ni(II)-thiolate (Mechanism II) intermediate(s). When the reaction between the active Ni(I) enzyme with substrates was studied by transient kinetic, spectroscopic and computational methods, formation of an EPR-silent Ni(II)-thiolate intermediate was positively identified by magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy. There was no evidence for an EPR-active methyl-Ni(III) species. Temperature-dependent transient kinetic studies revealed that the activation energy for the initial catalytic step closely matched the value computed by density functional theory for Mechanism II. Thus, our results demonstrate that biological methane synthesis occurs by generation of a methyl radical.

  4. SPACE-R nuclear power system TFE mock-up SC-320 demonstration test

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, Y.V.; Eremin, S.A.; Kolesov, V.S.; Lapochkin, N.V.; Izhvanov, O.L.; Semin, R.N.; Androsov, V.N.; Agafonov, V.N.; Koester, J.K.

    1996-03-01

    As a result of its 1993{endash}94 work, NII NPO {open_quote}{open_quote}LUCH{close_quote}{close_quote} developed a thermionic fuel element (TFE) SC-320 intended for use as part of a nuclear thermionic reactor-converter known as SPACE-R designed in the US and rated at 40 kW of output electric power. This paper presents the results of the demonstration electric power tests of the SC-320 TFE mock-up conducted in the US at the TSET testing facility located at the University of New Mexico. The data obtained are compared to the calculated characteristics as well as the output parameters of the Topaz-2 NPS TFEs. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. The warm ISM in the Sgr A region: mid-J CO, atomic carbon, ionized atomic carbon, and ionized nitrogen line observations with the Herschel/HIFI and NANTEN2/SMART Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Pablo; Simon, Robert; Stutzki, Jürgen; Requena-Torres, Miguel; Güsten, Rolf; Fukui, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Bertoldi, Frank; Burton, Michael; Bronfman, Leonardo; Ogawa, Hideo

    2014-05-01

    We present Herschel/HIFI sub-mm atomic carbon ([Ci] 3 P 1 - 3 P 0 and [Ci] 3 P 2 - 3 P 1), ionized carbon ([Cii] 2 P 3/2 - 2 P 1/2), and ionized nitrogen ([Nii] 3 P 1 - 3 P 0) line observations obtained in the frame of the Herschel Guaranteed Time HEXGAL (Herschel EXtraGALactic) key program (P. I. Rolf Güsten, MPIfR), and NANTEN2/SMART carbon monoxide (CO(J = 4 - 3)) observations of the warm gas around the Sgr A region. The spectrally resolved emission from all lines, and the corresponding line intensity ratios, show a very complex morphology. The determination of spatial and spectral (anti)correlation with known sources in the Sgr A region such as the Arched Filaments, NTF filaments, the Sickle, Quintuplet cluster, CND clouds, is ongoing work.

  6. The Implications of Using Integrated Software Support Environment for Design of Guidance and Control Systems Software

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    United States - AccessionFor John T.Shepherd. NTIS Research Director DTIC TA:, (EC-Marconi Limited U1 Elstree Way jul ifi~t i Boreham~lood Hertfordshire WI ...d)l X" fi ))Uif .11 ltClniiicjI,IJI’,L, J cICxIULxiC. I)) 1tm NA\\I( I~I~ nnl i) mncnhcr nii))nxl ITT )IITIL1CLj[))l \\%Il lii CNCA)!Ih 1 dx I)))1...1 OSIloo UNIVAC 1100 3 OS-MVTOS/VSIOS/VS 2 IBM 360,370, et al. 4 KRONOS , NOS (except BE) CDC 6000, CYBER 70,170 5 UNIX-BERKELEY DEC VAX-11 8

  7. On-Board Switching and Routing Advanced Technology Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yegenoglu, F.; Inukai, T.; Kaplan, T.; Redman, W.; Mitchell, C.

    1998-01-01

    Future satellite communications is expected to be fully integrated into National and Global Information Infrastructures (NII/GII). These infrastructures will carry multi gigabit-per-second data rates, with integral switching and routing of constituent data elements. The satellite portion of these infrastructures must, therefore, be more than pipes through the sky. The satellite portion will also be required to perform very high speed routing and switching of these data elements to enable efficient broad area coverage to many home and corporate users. The technology to achieve the on-board switching and routing must be selected and developed specifically for satellite application within the next few years. This report presents evaluation of potential technologies for on-board switching and routing applications.

  8. Lidar observation of marine mixed layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamagishi, Susumu; Yamanouchi, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Masayuki

    1992-01-01

    Marine mixed layer is known to play an important role in the transportation of pollution exiting ship funnels. The application of a diffusion model is critically dependent upon a reliable estimate of a lid. However, the processes that form lids are not well understood, though considerable progress toward marine boundary layer has been achieved. This report describes observations of the marine mixed layer from the course Ise-wan to Nii-jima with the intention of gaining a better understanding of their structure by a shipboard lidar. These observations were made in the summer of 1991. One interesting feature of the observations was that the multiple layers of aerosols, which is rarely numerically modeled, was encountered. No attempt is yet made to present a systematic analysis of all the data collected. Instead we focus on observations that seem to be directly relevant to the structure of the mixed layer.

  9. GENI-DB: a database of global events for epidemic intelligence.

    PubMed

    Collier, Nigel; Doan, Son

    2012-04-15

    We present a novel public health database (GENI-DB) in which news events on the topic of over 176 infectious diseases and chemicals affecting human and animal health are compiled from surveillance of the global online news media in 10 languages. News event frequency data were gathered systematically through the BioCaster public health surveillance system from July 2009 to the present and is available to download by the research community for purposes of analyzing trends in the global burden of infectious diseases. Database search can be conducted by year, country, disease and language. The GENI-DB is freely available via a web portal at http://born.nii.ac.jp/.

  10. A black hole in NGC 4697 from stellar and gas kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkney, J.; Gebhardt, K.; Richstone, D.; Nuker Team

    2000-12-01

    We have obtained STIS spectroscopy of NGC 4697 in two spectral ranges which allow independent mass measurements of the central dark object. The near-IR range allows stellar kinematics to be derived from the shape of the Ca triplet absorption lines. 3-integral modelling places this galaxy slightly above the Mbh -- σ relationship (Gebhardt et al. 2000) with Mbh=1.2x 108 Msun. The other spectral range contains prominent [NII] (6583 Å ) emission. Assuming the emitting gas is coplanar with the nuclear dust disk, and in circular motion, we can constrain the BH mass. We model both the gas rotation curve and the shape of the emission lines to find a Mbh in good agreement with the stellar value. We acknowledge support from HST grant GO-07388.01 and LTSA grant NAG5-8238 to D. Richstone.

  11. An analysis of middle ultraviolet dayglow spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walden, Billie S.

    1991-12-01

    Middle ultraviolet spectra from 1800 to 3400A are analyzed. These spectra were obtained from the March 1990 rocket flight of the NPS MUSTANG instrument over the altitudes 105km to 315km. The data were compared with computer generated synthetic spectra. A least squares fitting procedure was developed for this purpose. Each data point was weighted using the standard deviation of the means. Synthetic spectra were generated for the following emissions: N2 Vegard-Kaphan; N2 Lyman-Birge-Hopfield; NO gamma, delta, and epsilon; OI 2972A, OII 2470A; and NII 2143A. Altitude profiles for the emissions were obtained. Tentative identification was made of the OIII 2853A emission. A comparison of VK and LBH profiles demonstrates the process of N2 A-state quenching by atomic oxygen.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: FIR spectra of AGNs from Herschel (Fernandez-Ontiveros+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Ontiveros, J. A.; Spinoglio, L.; Pereira-Santaella, M.; Malkan, M. A.; Andreani, P.; Dasyra, K. M.

    2016-11-01

    The combination of Herschel/PACS during its 3.5yr of operational life and Spitzer/IRS allows us to cover the fine-structure emission lines from the mid- to the far-IR (10-200um in the rest-frame) for all the galaxies in the sample. This database was completed with the Herschel/SPIRE published values of the [NII]205um, and [CI]371,609um line fluxes (mainly from Kamenetzky+ 2016ApJ...829...93K). Table 8 collects published mid-IR (10-35um) fine-structure line fluxes measured with Spitzer/IRS for our samples of AGN and starburst galaxies. These values were complemented with unpublished IRS observations from the Spitzer archive. (10 data files).

  13. AGARD (Advisory Group for Aerospace Research & Development) Engine Disc Cooperative Test Programme,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    4薗ii 759 so A AOR!nRU spa A44 IFOR I L J32 I 2 11I1L2 1. 1111. BBIC fiLL W;UV AGARM36R-766 AGARD REPORT No.766 AGARD Engine Disc Cooperative Test...J \\ND MlR I ItON \\I (MROi\\NIS.\\I ION 1)t I RiNI Ir iIM I 1~ .\\%NII I NORIp A(6ARI) Report No.700 AGARD ENGINE DISC (’O )PERAI IVE TEST PROG;RAMME h...cim p, met for manyv years. In I 9X2 a Suh-comrnittee on ’-Damage Tolerance Concepts for Critical Engine Comiponents’ "as formed ito studs the

  14. Long-Term Movement of Satellite-Tracked Buoys in the Beaufort Sea.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    REPORT 6. Pffor,,,qOrgen,e.en Code 8. Per/orm0nq Orgern0=° , 0o s Reo.r N. 7 . A tire s) D.L. MURPHY, P.A. TEBEAU, and I.M. LISSAUER CGR&DC 12/81 9 ...Cy NC 0,- X - 0--ece 0 o ~z w m > C Dh. > U) z, CL NII CD E E C Z2 0C ii Ca 0 C V c 0 1 E 06 .C- z 5 0 lea a O z B S& LL L C. CL zL L OL 9 a. 1 C(AII z...Small Buoy Hull Used in this Study 5 4 Release Site in the Southeastern Beaufort Sea 7 5 Tracks of Buoys Released on 9 August 1979 8 6 Tracks of Buoys

  15. Are E-test and Vitek2 good choices for tigecycline susceptibility testing when comparing broth microdilution for MDR and XDR Acinetobacter baumannii?

    PubMed

    Grandesso, Stefano; Sapino, Barbara; Amici, Gianpaolo; Mazzucato, Sandra; Solinas, Maria; Gion, Massimo

    2014-10-01

    This study reports the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 10 MDR and 74 XDR Acinetobacter bauman- nii clinical isolates from our hospital routine. We used three different methods: two automated systems (Sensititre and VITEK 2) and one standardized manual method (E-test). Since many published papers refer to in vitro tests performed by E-test, the aim of this study was to test if this method is reliable for testing tigecycline. The results obtained show that E-test significantly overestimates the MIC of the broth microdilution (reference test), thus ob- taining a significant number of major errors (resistant instead of sensitive). VITEK 2 also shows the same problem, but it is less critical. We therefore conclude that these methods do not seem to be very reliable in the performance of susceptibility testing of MDR and XDR Acinetobacter baumannii against tigecycline.

  16. Reductive nitrosylation of nickel(ii) complex by nitric oxide followed by nitrous oxide release.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Somnath; Deka, Hemanta; Dangat, Yuvraj B; Saha, Soumen; Gogoi, Kuldeep; Vanka, Kumar; Mondal, Biplab

    2016-06-21

    Ni(ii) complex of ligand ( = bis(2-ethyl-4-methylimidazol-5-yl)methane) in methanol solution reacts with an equivalent amount of NO resulting in a corresponding Ni(i) complex. Adding further NO equivalent affords a Ni(i)-nitrosyl intermediate with the {NiNO}(10) configuration. This nitrosyl intermediate upon subsequent reaction with additional NO results in the release of N2O and formation of a Ni(ii)-nitrito complex. Crystallographic characterization of the nitrito complex revealed a symmetric η(2)-O,O-nitrito bonding to the metal ion. This study demonstrates the reductive nitrosylation of a Ni(ii) center followed by N2O release in the presence of excess NO.

  17. Esterases immobilized on aminosilane modified magnetic nanoparticles as a catalyst for biotransformation reactions.

    PubMed

    Alex, Deepthy; Mathew, Abraham; Sukumaran, Rajeev K

    2014-09-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles were prepared by reacting ferrous and ferric salts in presence of aqueous ammonia. The magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were amino functionalized by treating with 3-aminopropyl triethoxy silane (APTES) and was coupled with glutaraldehyde. A novel solvent tolerant esterase from Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 was immobilized on the MNPs through covalent bonding to the glutaraldehyde. The magnetite nanoparticles had a size range of 10-100 nm, confirmed by DLS. Lipases immobilized on MNPs were evaluated for biotransformation reactions including synthesis of ethyl acetate and transesterification of vegetable oil for producing biodiesel. The MNP immobilized esterase had prolonged shelf life and there was no loss in enzyme activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Hawaii Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (HIFI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, Jonathan; Cecil, Gerald; Tully, Brent

    1990-01-01

    At Mauna Kea Observatory, researchers conducted optical, imaging spectrophotometric studies of selected active galaxies using both the Canada-France-Hawaii 3.6m and University of Hawaii 2.2m telecopes (Tully, Bland and Cecil 1988). To maximize spatial resolution, researchers select galaxies independent of luminosity but known to possess interesting morphologies or high-velocity, extranuclear ionized gas (Walker 1968; Rubin and Ford 1968). They study both the large-scale patterns produced in IR-luminous, starburst systems (e.g., M82, NGC 253, NGC 6240) and those with compact, but spatially extended, circumnuclear, narrow line regions (e.g., M51, NGC 1068, NGC 4151). Current studies are restricted to the optical (SII), (NII) and (OIII) lines and the brightest Balmer recombination lines. These lines are, in principle, sufficient to constrain the dynamical structure and dominant excitation mechanism of the ionized component.

  19. Atomic and nuclear polarization of /sup 12/C, /sup 13/C, and /sup 15/N by beam-foil interaction at 300--400 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, F.Q.; Tang, J.Y.; Deutch, B.I.

    1982-03-01

    Induced nuclear spin polarization P by hyperfine interaction following passage of 0.5 ..mu..A 300--keV beams of /sup 12/C/sup +/, /sup 13/C/sup +/, and /sup 15/N/sup +/ through single tilted carbon foils yields Vertical BarPVertical Bar = (0.4 +- 0.8)%, (3.2 +- 0.6)%, and (5.7 +- 0.9)%, respectively. The nuclear polarizations were enhanced by passage through two tilted foils, and the sign of the polarization flipped by a simple flip of the foil direction with respect to the beam direction. From quantum-beat measurements with circularly polarized light, experimental quantum beat frequencies ..omega.. = 6790 +- 570 and 747 +- 62 MHz for the unresolved 6578--6583 A doublet in CII, and ..omega..(5667 A) = 2860 +- 240, ..omega..(5680 A) = 4810 +- 40 MHz in NII are determined.

  20. Role of Communications Satellites in the National and Global Information Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Early in 1995, the Satellite Industry Task Force (SITF) was initiated by executives of the satellite industry to define the role for communication satellites in the National and Global Information Infrastructure (NII/GII). Satellites are essential to this information network because they offer ubiquitous coverage and less time to market. SITF, which was chaired by Dr. Thomas Brackey of the Hughes Space and Communication Division, grew out of a series of workshops held during the summer of 1994 by the communication industry, NASA, and the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA). Experts were convened from 20 companies representing satellite and terrestrial network builders, operators, and users. For 8 months they worked to identify challenges for the satellite industry to play a pivotal role in the National and Global Information Infrastructure. NASA Lewis Research Center personnel helped out with technical and policy matters.

  1. Integral Manifolds of Slow Adaptation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    If(t.x) I < PF(D) = ( 1ri + 11 nII + D)( 1 n,-v,,, I + D) (2.9)) af (t.x)i p(l))= ir i + in,IIl + In 2 -,,l + 21) .(291) Then. under Assumption 2.2...Of) V(t.O.F) = t pi(O,w) WCL(U’,joI) eM (2.107) WE f? R(Off) = q j(0.-w) ¢ Ir (0.,W WCL(".j’). (2.108) Hence, the matrix R(0.0o) is easily computed if...max lb..( 0)11 1 ’ B, ir ,7" with v and from Assumption 2.2. then % .. ?CI ,W", 44 (i) the averaged system (2.94) has a u.a.s. equilibrium Y" such

  2. Word Frequency Analysis. MOS: 32H. Skill Levels 1 & 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    Ir A- 1 I Alas 7 Ar...r9l%-’ 17 r r-1’’~ "I rit.r’C~qrn IC CIO-,r2IT I 4 "I S riQ r 2#( I Tor1~I :111,r ~~~ r1i’C r- %1t Ct-1448l/TSC756cr.,’ Ir -A- Pe" r~’K’ 4 M~’V r...1101 C u1n’r.Iwn’ wsirvm C.0nii,4 wtn4 I I .irre~ I r,o.rim Ia rr r-u-.o , A itnCj rPY~r 1 ~ ir rittj r t 7(lirnc rn I fr7"rt Ifl 1 ro-~rr?

  3. Dust and ionized gas in active radio elliptical galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, D. A.; Sparks, W. B.; Macchetto, F. D.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present broad and narrow bandwidth imaging of three southern elliptical galaxies which have flat-spectrum active radio cores (NGC 1052, IC 1459 and NGC 6958). All three contain dust and extended low excitation optical line emission, particularly extensive in the case of NGC 1052 which has a large H alpha + (NII) luminosity. Both NGC 1052 and IC 1459 have a spiral morphology in emission-line images. All three display independent strong evidence that a merger or infall event has recently occurred, i.e., extensive and infalling HI gas in NGC 1052, a counter-rotating core in IC 1459 and Malin-Carter shells in NGC 6958. This infall event is the most likely origin for the emission-line gas and dust, and the authors are currently investigating possible excitation mechanisms (Sparks et al. 1990).

  4. Biochemistry of methyl-coenzyme M reductase: the nickel metalloenzyme that catalyzes the final step in synthesis and the first step in anaerobic oxidation of the greenhouse gas methane.

    PubMed

    Ragsdale, Stephen W

    2014-01-01

    Methane, the major component of natural gas, has been in use in human civilization since ancient times as a source of fuel and light. Methanogens are responsible for synthesis of most of the methane found on Earth. The enzyme responsible for catalyzing the chemical step of methanogenesis is methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR), a nickel enzyme that contains a tetrapyrrole cofactor called coenzyme F430, which can traverse the Ni(I), (II), and (III) oxidation states. MCR and methanogens are also involved in anaerobic methane oxidation. This review describes structural, kinetic, and computational studies aimed at elucidating the mechanism of MCR. Such studies are expected to impact the many ramifications of methane in our society and environment, including energy production and greenhouse gas warming.

  5. The Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS): A Bright Lensed Submillimeter Galaxy in the Field of Abell 773

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawle, Tim; Egami, E.; Rex, M.; Combes, F.; Boone, F.; Smail, I.; Lensing Survey, Herschel

    2012-05-01

    The Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS; PI: Egami) is observing more than 50 massive galaxy clusters with deep PACS and SPIRE (100-500um) imaging, and a further 500 clusters in a SPIRE snapshot program ( 20 deg^2 of far-infrared cluster observations in total). Here, we present a discussion of an exceptionally bright ( 200mJy at 500um) source behind the cluster Abell 773, which is a strongly lensed submillimeter galaxy (SMG) at z=5.2. The source has an intrinsic infrared luminosity L_FIR 1e13 L_sun, with a total magnification factor of 11. We combine Herschel-SMA-IRAM observations of the dust continuum and gas excitation line emission, including multiple CO transitions, [CII] and [NII] (detected for the first time at high-z), to explore the morphology, star formation and ISM in this SMG.

  6. Evolution of In-Situ Generated Reinforcement Precipitates in Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, S.; Kar, S. K.; Catalina, A. V.; Stefanescu, D. M.; Dhindaw, B. K.

    2004-01-01

    Due to certain inherent advantages, in-situ production of Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) have received considerable attention in the recent past. ln-situ techniques typically involve a chemical reaction that results in precipitation of a ceramic reinforcement phase. The size and spatial distribution of these precipitates ultimately determine the mechanical properties of these MMCs. In this paper we will investigate the validity of using classical growth laws and analytical expressions to describe the interaction between a precipitate and a solid-liquid interface (SLI) to predict the size and spatial evolution of the in-situ generated precipitates. Measurements made on size and distribution of Tic precipitates in a Ni&I matrix will be presented to test the validity of such an approach.

  7. Conceptualizing the Pathways and Processes Between Language Barriers and Health Disparities: Review, Synthesis, and Extension.

    PubMed

    Terui, Sachiko

    2017-02-01

    While many may view language barriers in healthcare settings (LBHS) as a simple, practical problem, they present unique challenges to theoretical development and practice implications in healthcare delivery, especially when one considers the implications and impacts of specific contextual factors. By exploring the differences of contextual factors in the US and Japan, this review explores and highlights how such differences may entail different impacts on patients' quality of care and require different solutions. I conduct narrative review through library database, Google Scholar, and CiNii (a Japanese library database) with multiple search terms, including language barriers, healthcare, medical interpreter, and immigrant. I first present a diagram to show the pathways and process between language barriers and health disparities, using the literature reported in the US. Then, I examined the literature reported in Japan and discuss the needs for re-conceptualizing LBHS. The implications for future research will be discussed.

  8. Developmental Test of the Honeywell Laser Inertial Navigation System (LINS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-01

    c4 Tl A 0 *~ (W)-0 NII~ +I - ++ +f El w 0 IX...Ix I ’, 0 839 41-013 IV) ’,t K..-I - 4 *V: +L - -’- / -/ + IE-- ,-j ~~~~~~E 0- Z Cy~ -- a I 4o . o _ I IB- -) - I,.I "+ Z L’+ I - A Z- wuV~tV) Z- c4 ...C) ___ __ 4 Lfl -ro c ’ CI .Sb E3_ __ _ _ _ 00~U0 i CM 0: I I I r- - r - LJ~ I (W )8, NOllS- I. 1-u-103 UK:- 00 ("Jo0 1 N-.15 "J10 I~ ~~r T’ji-,II C4

  9. AGNs with composite spectra.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veron, P.; Goncalves, A. C.; Veron-Cetty, M.-P.

    1997-03-01

    The use of the Baldwin et al. (1981PASP...93....5B) or Veilleux & Osterbrock (1987ApJS...63..295V) diagnostic diagrams allows the unambiguous classification of the nuclear emission line regions of most galaxies into one of three categories: nuclear HII regions or starbursts, Seyfert 2 galaxies and Liners. However, a small fraction of them have a "transition" spectrum. We present spectral observations of 15 "transition" objects at high-dispersion (66Å/mm) around the Hα, [NII]λλ6548,6584 and/or Hβ, [OIII]λλ4959,5007 emission lines. We show that most of these spectra are composite, due to the simultaneous presence on the slit of a Seyfert nucleus and a HII region. Seyfert 2s and Liners seem to occupy relatively small and distinct volumes in the three-dimensional space λ5007/Hβ, λ6584/Hα, λ6300/Hα.

  10. The Design of Shape from Motion Constraints

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    HIV, kolifi I u~li ci e’. lie Ii uu’i . lilwul lleeli. iii-’ plI leI - il..iiiililI ic (.1-. 1/.eiuie (lie opi l le L!.iillf andiI’ a lIt- -1uLll lIii...all (class I ) so I hial oiil\\- lit’ tlt’sjrt’I p~at Ii Imsse IrI1oul11gl I It’I ft’et’d’er. 5. Remove other paths: If th l mnt’lailliug pathls...or. /niI all jug) ImIl lie! I lie 1hi1lt rlilill ed pat h. ) ’I’lis (tleftl~Sto at (lass 3~ fee( lei . (g~(~)lIIwtIX l’mi ’Fiii lli 1.2. (ii) Redirect

  11. Star Forming Galaxies and AGN Hosts: The Seagull Wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasińska, Grazyna; Cid Fernandes, Roberto; Mateus, Abîlio; Sodré, Laerte; Asari, Natalia V.

    2007-05-01

    We discuss the spectral signatures of normal star forming (NSF) galaxies and of AGN hosts of and present physically motivated techniques to distinguish these two classes of galaxies. We have determined the emission line intensities for a complete sample of galaxies extracted from the Sloan Digital sky Survey, after subtracting the stellar continuum obtained from spectral synthesis. With the help of sequences of photoionization models, we explain why, in the famous [OIII]/Hbeta vs [NII]/Halpha diagram, NSF galaxies and AGN hosts form two separate sequences, which look like the open wings of a seagull. We also examine other techniques to distinguish star forming galaxies from AGN hosts. Finally, we propose a new diagnostic diagram which can be used with optical spectra of galaxies with redshifts up to z=1.3. This new diagram has also the advantage of allowing one to show all the galaxies of a sample in one plot, including passive galaxies.

  12. A Structural Weight Estimation Program (SWEEP) for Aircraft. Volume 6 - Wing and Empennage Module. Appendix D: Program Flow Charts, Overlay (18,0)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-01

    I • I. II 3r «auoii • in M.UOIII «aion • in i (mom »ILUOli • III i tllUOIII tlUOll • III ■ siuoin w,,7r’-" i •• texi rr - rim HCltA...C>OI|.NI • ».«•tni-ci.ai».Ni lUI ^CNOK.NII «#«||<M (»» • ItlO’CHOlS.NI « (.0>CHI-Ch-<I1,NI • (HI*Cinri,H>i •I.O’CIPI«! (i? • <C(NIMEL0

  13. Hydrocarbon-soluble nanocatalysts with no bulk phase: coplanar, two-coordinate arrays of the base metals.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Bunquin, Jeffrey; Ferguson, Michael J; Stryker, Jeffrey M

    2013-04-17

    A structurally unique class of hydrocarbon-soluble, ancillary-ligand-free, tetrametallic Co(I) and Ni(I) clusters is reported. The highly unsaturated complexes are supported by simple, sterically bulky phosphoranimide ligands, one per metal. The electron-rich nitrogen centers are strongly bridging but sterically limited to bimetallic interactions. The hydrocarbon-soluble clusters consist of four coplanar metal centers, mutually bridged by single nitrogen atoms. Each metal center is monovalent, rigorously linear, and two-coordinate. The clusters are in essence two-dimensional atomic-scale "molecular squares," a structural motif adapted from supramolecular chemistry. Both clusters exhibit high solution-phase magnetic susceptibility at room temperature, suggesting the potential for applications in molecular electronics. Designed to be catalyst precursors, both clusters exhibit high activity for catalytic hydrogenation of unsaturated hydrocarbons at low pressure and temperature.

  14. Qualitative spectroscopic study of magnetic nozzle flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umeki, T.; Turchi, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    The physics of the magnetic nozzle flow for a 100-kW-level quasi-steady MPD thruster was studied by photographic spectroscopy focusing on the plasma model in the flow and the acceleration mechanism. Spectroscopic visualization for the flow-species analysis indicates that the plasma-exhaust flow dominated by NII species were confined by the magnetic nozzle effect to collimate the flow for the better thruster performance. Inside the nozzle, the plasma flow was found to be in nonhomogeneous collisional-radiative condition. There appears to be a substantial flow acceleration from the magnetic nozzle inlet to the outlet with slight expansion. This suggests that the flow resembles that of constant area supersonic duct flow with cooling.

  15. Spectroscopic pilot study in the near infrared of a sample of star-forming galaxies at z = 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, J.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Cardiel, N.; Barro, G.

    2011-11-01

    In this work we present the results of the spectroscopic analysis inthe near-infrared K band of a sample of 12 active star forminggalaxies at z ˜ 2. The sample was selected by using photometricredshifts, blue colors and large fluxes in the 24 μ m band ofMIPS/Spitzer. To analyze their physical properties we have computedtheir sizes, colors, stellar masses, extinctions and other parametersavailable in literature and in the "Rainbow" database. We computeHα luminosities and star formation rates for all galaxies atthat redshift. We were able to estimate metallicities from [NII]6584for a sub sample of the objects. In particular the dependence of the metallicitywith the stellar mass has been studied and compared with the results of other samples ofgalaxies at several redshifts. For a fixed mass, the metallicities ofour galaxies are compatible than those similar at the corresponding redshift, following the general trend of lower metallicities for higher redshifts.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: LAMOST metal-poor galaxies sample (Gao+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.-L.; Lian, J.-H.; Kong, X.; Lin, Z.-S.; Hu, N.; Liu, H.-Y.; Wang, E.-C.; Cao, Z.-H.; Hou, Y.-H.; Wang, Y.-F.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-08-01

    Among all galaxies from the LAMOST ExtraGAlactic Surveys (LEGAS), we first select a subsample of metal-poor galaxies with emission line flux ratios [NII]λ6583/Hα<=0.1, which yields 665 galaxies. Among them, we identify 237 objects with [OIII]λ4363 detection at >=3σ. We inspect these 237 objects visually, and find 73 of them are false detections. We also exclude 115 objects that are HI regions in nearby large galaxies using optical images with SDSS SkyServer. Finally, we check the right ascension and declination of the remaining sources, and note that one object was observed twice by LAMOST. We keep the observation that has better spectral quality. As a consequence, our final sample consists of 48 galaxies, making up only 0.05% of all the LAMOST galaxies until DR4 Q2. (1 data file).

  17. Construction of a predictive model for concentration of nickel and vanadium in vacuum residues of crude oils using artificial neural networks and LIBS.

    PubMed

    Tarazona, José L; Guerrero, Jáder; Cabanzo, Rafael; Mejía-Ospino, E

    2012-03-01

    A predictive model to determine the concentration of nickel and vanadium in vacuum residues of Colombian crude oils using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) with nodes distributed in multiple layers (multilayer perceptron) is presented. ANN inputs are intensity values in the vicinity of the emission lines 300.248, 301.200 and 305.081 nm of the Ni(I), and 309.310, 310.229, and 311.070 nm of the V(II). The effects of varying number of nodes and the initial weights and biases in the ANNs were systematically explored. Average relative error of calibration/prediction (REC/REP) and average relative standard deviation (RSD) metrics were used to evaluate the performance of the ANN in the prediction of concentrations of two elements studied here.

  18. The radical mechanism of biological methane synthesis by methyl-coenzyme M reductase.

    PubMed

    Wongnate, Thanyaporn; Sliwa, Dariusz; Ginovska, Bojana; Smith, Dayle; Wolf, Matthew W; Lehnert, Nicolai; Raugei, Simone; Ragsdale, Stephen W

    2016-05-20

    Methyl-coenzyme M reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in methanogenesis and anaerobic methane oxidation, is responsible for the biological production of more than 1 billion tons of methane per year. The mechanism of methane synthesis is thought to involve either methyl-nickel(III) or methyl radical/Ni(II)-thiolate intermediates. We employed transient kinetic, spectroscopic, and computational approaches to study the reaction between the active Ni(I) enzyme and substrates. Consistent with the methyl radical-based mechanism, there was no evidence for a methyl-Ni(III) species; furthermore, magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy identified the Ni(II)-thiolate intermediate. Temperature-dependent transient kinetics also closely matched density functional theory predictions of the methyl radical mechanism. Identifying the key intermediate in methanogenesis provides fundamental insights to develop better catalysts for producing and activating an important fuel and potent greenhouse gas.

  19. Organometallic nickel(III) complexes relevant to cross-coupling and carbon-heteroatom bond formation reactions.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bo; Tang, Fengzhi; Luo, Jia; Schultz, Jason W; Rath, Nigam P; Mirica, Liviu M

    2014-04-30

    Nickel complexes have been widely employed as catalysts in C-C and C-heteroatom bond formation reactions. In addition to Ni(0) and Ni(II) intermediates, several Ni-catalyzed reactions are proposed to also involve odd-electron Ni(I) and Ni(III) oxidation states. We report herein the isolation, structural and spectroscopic characterization, and organometallic reactivity of Ni(III) complexes containing aryl and alkyl ligands. These Ni(III) species undergo transmetalation and/or reductive elimination reactions to form new C-C or C-heteroatom bonds and are also competent catalysts for Kumada and Negishi cross-coupling reactions. Overall, these results provide strong evidence for the direct involvement of organometallic Ni(III) species in cross-coupling reactions and oxidatively induced C-heteroatom bond formation reactions.

  20. Design, synthesis, and carbon-heteroatom coupling reactions of organometallic nickel(IV) complexes.

    PubMed

    Camasso, Nicole M; Sanford, Melanie S

    2015-03-13

    Homogeneous nickel catalysis is used for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, natural products, and polymers. These reactions generally proceed via nickel intermediates in the Ni(0), Ni(I), Ni(II), and/or Ni(III) oxidation states. In contrast, Ni(IV) intermediates are rarely accessible. We report herein the design, synthesis, and characterization of a series of organometallic Ni(IV) complexes, accessed by the reaction of Ni(II) precursors with the widely used oxidant S-(trifluoromethyl)dibenzothiophenium triflate. These Ni(IV) complexes undergo highly selective carbon(sp(3))-oxygen, carbon(sp(3))-nitrogen, and carbon(sp(3))-sulfur coupling reactions with exogenous nucleophiles. The observed reactivity has the potential for direct applications in the development of nickel-catalyzed carbon-heteroatom coupling reactions.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Warm ISM in the Sagittarius A Complex (Garcia+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, P.; Simon, R.; Stutzki, J.; Gusten, R.; Requena-Torres, M. A.; Higgins, R.

    2016-03-01

    Files contain the observations of CI 1-0 and CI 2-1, NII 1-0, and CII 3/2-1/2 observed with Herschel-HIFI and 12CO 4-3 observed with NANTEN2/SMART telescope of the SgrA Complex in the GC. The data analysis was done via GILDAS-CLASS, where raw data are processed to obtain regularly sampled data. ************************* IMPORTANT NOTE ************************ These data sets have been blocked until 31.12.16 as agreed on with the A&A Editor. Access to channel maps of all observed transitions is immediately available in electronic format in the link provided in the paper, https://www.astro.uni-koeln.de/online-data/GarciaPSgrA_AA588/. For contact information refer to Dr. Pablo Garcia e-mail: pgarcia@iram.es ******************************************************************* Available here on 03-Jan-2017. (2 data files).

  2. Laser operation by dissociation of metal complexes. II - New transitions in Cd, Fe, Ni, Se, Sn, Te, V, and Zn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, M. S.; Cool, T. A.

    1977-01-01

    The reported investigation is a continuation of a study conducted by Chou and Cool (1976). The experimental results discussed are partly related to laser transitions in Cd(I), Cd(II), and Zn(II). Laser transitions in Fe(I), Ni(I), Sn(I), Te(I), and V(I) are also considered along with the observation of a laser pulse with two peaks in connection with the study of laser transitions in Se(I). Experiments related to prospective visible laser operation in thallium at 6550 and 6714 are also discussed, giving attention to spontaneous emission measurements at 6550 and 5350 A, the effects of additive molecules, and laser cavity experiments at 6550 and 6714 A.

  3. Evolution of In-Situ Generated Reinforcement Precipitates in Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, S.; Kar, S. K.; Catalina, A. V.; Stefanescu, D. M.; Dhindaw, B. K.

    2004-01-01

    Due to certain inherent advantages, in-situ production of Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) have received considerable attention in the recent past. ln-situ techniques typically involve a chemical reaction that results in precipitation of a ceramic reinforcement phase. The size and spatial distribution of these precipitates ultimately determine the mechanical properties of these MMCs. In this paper we will investigate the validity of using classical growth laws and analytical expressions to describe the interaction between a precipitate and a solid-liquid interface (SLI) to predict the size and spatial evolution of the in-situ generated precipitates. Measurements made on size and distribution of Tic precipitates in a Ni&I matrix will be presented to test the validity of such an approach.

  4. Department of the Army Procurement Programs Exhibit P-1, Supporting Data for FY 83 Budget Estimate; The President’s Budget, February 1982.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    CURRiNT YEAR PROGRAM 369.4 49.5 308.6 402.9 10 nII-40A (FLACK MeARK) (MYP) (A0302) soV POC (Uk Vo 26.0 60.6 207.6 128.9 I i1lICOP8t8 |9PotO019 lIGHT ...48 1680200) A 254 !3.0 2 rANIt.l (OMMAND POST LIGHT , IT, A 206140 114 ?3.5 57YA2 (680300) 3 CARI(ER. PERSONkL, IT, AIRM, A 176923 52l 92.0 4113A2...0H-58 (1(0.4*) AA47 12 4 liILICITPItR. IMPROVtO LIGHT COMBAT. MODS A AOI .91 n ’ ?4 4 Ull-ICIA01.ACK HAWK) N4ODS AAC0SS0 16 I. AIftPLAht. ul1I[I. Ui

  5. The Hawaii Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (HIFI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland, Jonathan; Cecil, Gerald; Tully, Brent

    1990-07-01

    At Mauna Kea Observatory, researchers conducted optical, imaging spectrophotometric studies of selected active galaxies using both the Canada-France-Hawaii 3.6m and University of Hawaii 2.2m telecopes (Tully, Bland and Cecil 1988). To maximize spatial resolution, researchers select galaxies independent of luminosity but known to possess interesting morphologies or high-velocity, extranuclear ionized gas (Walker 1968; Rubin and Ford 1968). They study both the large-scale patterns produced in IR-luminous, starburst systems (e.g., M82, NGC 253, NGC 6240) and those with compact, but spatially extended, circumnuclear, narrow line regions (e.g., M51, NGC 1068, NGC 4151). Current studies are restricted to the optical (SII), (NII) and (OIII) lines and the brightest Balmer recombination lines. These lines are, in principle, sufficient to constrain the dynamical structure and dominant excitation mechanism of the ionized component.

  6. Military Standard Generators Prototype Modifications. Volume 2. 30 kW DoD Generator Set

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-31

    S -94 OCPLIF’ 1 &-.Z JAN es ±94:49tc...V %𔃺 ri -. v’ S . .5 I. . -2II,: Iv t t1 ~ 𔃾 NI.I itL I *4 IQI 4z.~ .. 1Vivi %c o~ ,:P., ~4 iTI CZN es , S Qa ’’t Z N r a...644:23 Ef>) SCAN GROUP ± ±7 NOI 87 ±7:19:45’ S 7E• " prr = I, c it C ES C W 1[:7 N O V 3D 7 .1.7 : 1 14 5-, S -:;t 17’ H00~ 27 :16: 44:2 &" 7

  7. Electrospray mass spectral fragmentation study of N,N'-disubstituted imidazolium ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Lesimple, Alain; Mamer, Orval; Miao, Weishi; Chan, Tak Hang

    2006-01-01

    The tandem positive electrospray mass spectrometry (ESMS(n)) fragmentation of ionic liquids incorporating the 1-methyl-imidazolium ring substituted on N(II) with an alkyl chain functionalized with an alcohol, carboxylic acid, or an iodobenzyl or iodobenzoyl ester is presented for the first time. The influence of chain length and function is studied. Esterified structures led to intense CID fragments lacking the imidazolium ring allowing full characterization of the ester moiety. Fragment ion compositions for this interesting and newly important class of compounds are established through accurate mass data and deuterium labeling. The presence of the cationic ring system produces intense even electron molecular cations in electrospray that undergo multiple stages of CID to yield fragments which often are radical cations. Unusual losses of methyl and hydrogen radicals are frequently noted.

  8. Hydride reactivity of Ni(II)-X-Ni(II) entities: mixed-valent hydrido complexes and reversible metal reduction.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Henrike; Metzinger, Ramona; Herwig, Christian; Intemann, Julia; Harder, Sjoerd; Limberg, Christian

    2013-01-28

    After the lithiation of PYR-H(2) (PYR(2-) =[{NC(Me)C(H)C(Me)NC(6)H(3)(iPr)(2)}(2)(C(5)H(3)N)](2-)), which is the precursor of an expanded β-diketiminato ligand system with two binding pockets, its reaction with [NiBr(2) (dme)] led to a dinuclear nickel(II)-bromide complex, [(PYR)Ni(μ-Br)NiBr] (1). The bridging bromide ligand could be selectively exchanged for a thiolate ligand to yield [(PYR)Ni(μ-SEt)NiBr] (3). In an attempt to introduce hydride ligands, both compounds were treated with KHBEt(3). This treatment afforded [(PYR)Ni(μ-H)Ni] (2), which is a mixed valent Ni(I)-μ-H-Ni(II) complex, and [(PYR-H)Ni(μ-SEt)Ni] (4), in which two tricoordinated Ni(I) moieties are strongly antiferromagnetically coupled. Compound 4 is the product of an initial salt metathesis, followed by an intramolecular redox process that separates the original hydride ligand into two electrons, which reduce the metal centres, and a proton, which is trapped by one of the binding pockets, thereby converting it into an olefin ligand on one of the Ni(I) centres. The addition of a mild acid to complex 4 leads to the elimination of H(2) and the formation of a Ni(II)Ni(II) compound, [(PYR)Ni(μ-SEt)NiOTf] (5), so that the original Ni(II) (μ-SEt)Ni(II) X core of compound 3 is restored. All of these compounds were fully characterized, including by X-ray diffraction, and their molecular structures, as well as their formation processes, are discussed.

  9. An Overview of the Dwarf Galaxy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, S. C.; Rémy-Ruyer, A.; Galametz, M.; Cormier, D.; Lebouteiller, V.; Galliano, F.; Hony, S.; Bendo, G. J.; Smith, M. W. L.; Pohlen, M.; Roussel, H.; Sauvage, M.; Wu, R.; Sturm, E.; Poglitsch, A.; Contursi, A.; Doublier, V.; Baes, M.; Barlow, M. J.; Boselli, A.; Boquien, M.; Carlson, L. R.; Ciesla, L.; Cooray, A.; Cortese, L.; de Looze, I.; Irwin, J. A.; Isaak, K.; Kamenetzky, J.; Karczewski, O. Ł.; Lu, N.; MacHattie, J. A.; O'Halloran, B.; Parkin, T. J.; Rangwala, N.; Schirm, M. R. P.; Schulz, B.; Spinoglio, L.; Vaccari, M.; Wilson, C. D.; Wozniak, H.

    2013-06-01

    The Dwarf Galaxy Survey (DGS) program is studying low-metallicity galaxies using 230 hr of far-infrared (FIR) and submillimetre (submm) photometric and spectroscopic observations of the Herschel Space Observatory and draws from this a rich database of a wide range of wavelengths tracing the dust, gas and stars. This sample of 50 galaxies includes the largest metallicity range achievable in the local Universe including the lowest metallicity ( Z) galaxies, 1/50 Z⊙, and spans four orders of magnitude in star formation rates. The survey is designed to get a handle on the physics of the interstellar medium (ISM) of low metallicity dwarf galaxies, especially their dust and gas properties and the ISM heating and cooling processes. The DGS produces PACS and SPIRE maps of low-metallicity galaxies observed at 70, 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm with the highest sensitivity achievable to date in the FIR and submm. The FIR fine-structure lines, [CII] 158 μm, [OI] 63 μm, [OI] 145 μm, [OIII] 88 μm, [NIII] 57 μm, and [NII] 122 and 205 μm have also been observed with the aim of studying the gas cooling in the neutral and ionized phases. The SPIRE FTS observations include many CO lines ( J = 4-3 to J = 13-12), [NII] 205 μm, and [CI] lines at 370 and 609 μm. This paper describes the sample selection and global properties of the galaxies and the observing strategy as well as the vast ancillary database available to complement the Herschel observations. The scientific potential of the full DGS survey is described with some example results included.

  10. Perfis de temperatura eletrônica em regiões HII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copetti, M. V. F.

    2003-08-01

    As flutuações de temperatura eletrônica em regiões HII, inicialmente propostas para explicar as discrepâncias entre os valores de temperatura obtidos por diferentes métodos, têm sido apontadas como a causa mais provável das enormes diferenças encontradas entre as abundâncias químicas medidas através de linhas excitadas colisionalmente e de linhas de recombinação. Recentemente têm sido reportadas tentativas de detecção e quantificação diretas das flutuações de temperatura eletrônica através de medidas ponto a ponto, obtidas por meio de espectroscopia de fenda longa, das razões de linhas [OIII]l4263/l5007 e [NII]l5755/l6584, principais sensores de temperatura. Neste trabalho, utilizamos o código numérico de fotoionização Cloudy para avaliar a confiabilidade desse procedimento. Concluímos que, para valores de densidade eletrônica e de temperatura efetiva da estrela ionizante típicos das regiões HII, os perfis superficiais de temperatura obtidos via medidas do sensor [OIII]l4263/l5007 são bons traçadores dos gradientes internos de temperatura eletrônica. Já os perfis de temperatura eletrônica medidos por meio da razão [NII]l5755/l6584 não reproduzem os gradientes verdadeiros de temperatura.

  11. Statistics of Widths and Separations of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles Detected by the C/NOFS Planar Langmuir Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, E.; Roddy, P. A.; Ballenthin, J.; Groves, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    Summary data from the Planar Langmuir Probe (PLP) onboard the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite are immediately available in individual daily files with 1-Hz resolution. Each 1-s record associates the Universal Time (s) to the corresponding average ion density Ni (cm-3), standard deviation of the ion density DNi (cm-3), ratio DNi/Ni, as well as satellite latitude (degrees), longitude (degrees), and altitude (km). Two different years of PLP data from (01 October 2008 to 30 September 2009 and 01 January 2012 to 31 December 2012) were selected for analysis. The first data set corresponds to solar minimum conditions and the second one is close to solar maximum conditions of solar cycle 24. Initially, a low-pass filtered version i> of the one-second average ion density Ni data will be determined to represent the slowly varying ambient ion density. The time series (i>-Ni) and Ni/i> (absolute and normalized time series, respectively) will indicate depths and durations of plasma bubbles with respect to the ambient ion density. A level-crossing analysis will then be applied to these time series, as well as to that of a smoothed version of the standard deviation of the ion density DNi, assuming different thresholds. The results from the analysis will describe the statistical distributions of durations of (i>-Ni), Ni/i> and DNi, both below (within a depletion) and above (between consecutive depletions) for each assumed threshold. Since the C/NOFS satellite position can be determined from the data, the time baseline can also be mapped into distance along the orbit. Thus, statistics of numbers and widths of plasma bubbles, as well as of separations between them will also be determined. This study will classify results according to different combinations of: (i) solar activity; (ii) altitude range; (iii) longitude sector; (iv) local time interval; (v) geomagnetic latitude interval; and (vi) season, when applicable.

  12. Pushing the Limit: A New & Reliable High-Redshift Emission Line Diagnostic for Separating AGNs from Star Formers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trouille, Laura; Barger, A.; Tremonti, C.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate identification of active galaxies is essential for properly assessing their impact on galaxy evolution. Classic optical emission line diagnostics for separating AGN-dominated sources from those dominated by star formation are limited to z<0.5 (e.g., in the BPT diagram, [OIII]/Hb versus [NII]/Ha, [NII] leaves the optical spectral window at z=0.5). In this talk, we present our new diagnostic based on [NeIII], [OII], and g-z color, which cleanly separates AGNs from star formers (SFs) out to z<1.4. We test our diagnostic on the SDSS DR7 galaxies. Using their BPT classification as AGNs or SFs as reference, we find that our new diagnostic reproduces the classification for 98% of the SDSS-AGNs and 96% of the SDSS-SFs. We also apply our new diagnostic to the OPTX (CDF-N, CLANS, and CLASXS) sample, a highly spectroscopically complete sample of Chandra X-ray selected AGNs. We find that all but one of our 457 X-ray selected AGNs lies in the AGN-dominated regime of our new diagnostic, while 20% would be classified as SFs using the BPT diagram (see also Winter2010 Swift-BAT results). Our new optical diagnostic thus provides a highly reliable method for distinguishing AGNs from SFs out to z<1.4. We use this new diagnostic in combination with X-ray stacking to probe sources that lie in the ambiguous region of the BPT diagram, between the AGN and SF regimes (as designated by the Kewley01 and Kauffman03 divisions). Previous optical studies suggest that these sources are SF dominated. However, we find that the stacked signal for these sources is X-ray hard, and furthermore the majority are identified as AGNs by our new diagnostic. These findings suggest that their radiation field is dominated by AGN activity, and therefore these sources should be included in AGN samples.

  13. The nickel enzyme methyl-coenzyme M reductase from methanogenic archaea: in vitro interconversions among the EPR detectable MCR-red1 and MCR-red2 states.

    PubMed

    Mahlert, Felix; Grabarse, Wolfgang; Kahnt, Jörg; Thauer, Rudolf K; Duin, Evert C

    2002-01-01

    Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) catalyzes the formation of methane from methyl-coenzyme M and coenzyme B in methanogenic archaea. The enzyme contains tightly bound the nickel porphinoid F430. The nickel enzyme has been shown to be active only when its prosthetic group is in the Ni(I) reduced state. In this state MCR exhibits the nickel-based EPR signal red1. We report here for the MCR from Methanothermobacter marburgensis that the EPR spectrum of the active enzyme changed upon addition or removal of coenzyme M, methyl coenzyme M and/or coenzyme B. In the presence of methyl-coenzyme M the red1 signal showed a more resolved 14N-superhyperfine splitting than in the presence of coenzyme M indicating a possible axial ligation of the substrate to the Ni(I). In the presence of methyl-coenzyme M and coenzyme B the red1 signal was the same as in the presence of methyl-coenzyme M alone. However, in the presence of coenzyme M and coenzyme B a highly rhombic EPR signal, MCR-red2, was induced, which was found to be light sensitive and appeared to be formed at the expense of the MCR-red1 signal. Upon addition of methyl-coenzyme M, the red2 signal disappeared and the red1 signal increased again. The red2 signal of MCR with 61Ni-labeled cofactor was significantly broadened indicating that the signal is nickel or nickel-ligand based.

  14. Identification and multi-filter photometry of HII regions from nearby galaxies with J-PLUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logroño-García, R.; Vilella-Rojo, G.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Varela, J.; Muniesa, D.; Lamadrid, J. L.; Cenarro, A. J.; J-PLUS, T.

    2017-03-01

    The Javalambre Photometric Local Universe Survey (J-PLUS) has already started the data acquisition phase at the Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre (OAJ) in Teruel, Spain. Benefiting from the large field of view (2 deg^2) and the 12 filters set of the T80Cam at the T80/JAST telescope, we aim to study the properties of HII regions in nearby galaxies (z < 0.015). In this poster, we apply our procedures to the galaxy Messier 101. We have developed a fully automatized pipeline to identify and characterize the nearby universe HII regions. This pipeline: (1) Homogenizes the PSF in the 12 images of the different filters. (2) Estimates realistic photometric errors following Labbé et al. (2003) method. (3) Constructs a detection image showing the excess of Hα+[NII], following Vilella-Rojo et al. (2015) prescriptions. (4) Performs the photometry in the 12 J-PLUS bands using as reference the Hα+NII detection image. (5) Constructs the photo-spectra for each identified HII region. We demonstrate the capabilities of this method by comparing synthetic aperture photometry from SDSS spectra with the Hα flux measured with J-PLUS data. Such comparison can be found in the poster by Vilella-Rojo et al. Once the pipeline is implemented, we will generate a catalog of nearby HII regions at z<0.015 in the 8500deg^2 of J-PLUS. With this catalog, we will study the impact of environment in the 2D star formation properties of nearby galaxies, taking advantage of the unprecedented large contiguous area that J-PLUS will offer.

  15. The spectrum and severity of FUS-immunoreactive inclusions in the frontal and temporal lobes of ten cases of neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Richard A; Gearing, Marla; Bigio, Eileen H; Cruz-Sanchez, Felix F; Duyckaerts, Charles; Mackenzie, Ian R A; Perry, Robert H; Skullerud, Kari; Yokoo, Hedeaki; Cairns, Nigel J

    2011-02-01

    Neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease (NIFID), a rare form of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), is characterized neuropathologically by focal atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes, neuronal loss, gliosis, and neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCI) containing epitopes of ubiquitin and neuronal intermediate filament proteins. Recently, the 'fused in sarcoma' (FUS) protein (encoded by the FUS gene) has been shown to be a component of the inclusions of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with FUS mutation, NIFID, basophilic inclusion body disease, and atypical FTLD with ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions (aFTLD-U). To further characterize FUS proteinopathy in NIFID, and to determine whether the pathology revealed by FUS immunohistochemistry (IHC) is more extensive than α-internexin, we have undertaken a quantitative assessment of ten clinically and neuropathologically well-characterized cases using FUS IHC. The densities of NCI were greatest in the dentate gyrus (DG) and in sectors CA1/2 of the hippocampus. Anti-FUS antibodies also labeled glial inclusions (GI), neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NII), and dystrophic neurites (DN). Vacuolation was extensive across upper and lower cortical layers. Significantly greater densities of abnormally enlarged neurons and glial cell nuclei were present in the lower compared with the upper cortical laminae. FUS IHC revealed significantly greater numbers of NCI in all brain regions especially the DG. Our data suggest: (1) significant densities of FUS-immunoreactive NCI in NIFID especially in the DG and CA1/2; (2) infrequent FUS-immunoreactive GI, NII, and DN; (3) widely distributed vacuolation across the cortex, and (4) significantly more NCI revealed by FUS than α-internexin IHC.

  16. First-row transition-metal chloride complexes of the wide bite-angle diphosphine (iPr)DPDBFphos and reactivity studies of monovalent nickel.

    PubMed

    Marlier, Elodie E; Tereniak, Stephen J; Ding, Keying; Milliken, Jenna E; Mulliken, Jenna E; Lu, Connie C

    2011-10-03

    The diphosphine 4,6-bis(3-diisopropylphosphinophenyl)dibenzofuran (abbreviated as (iPr)DPDBFphos) has been metalated with transition metal dichlorides of zinc, cobalt, and nickel to yield ((iPr)DPDBFphos)MCl(2) complexes. Within these compounds, the diphosphine (iPr)DPDBFphos adapts a wide range of bite angles (115 to 180°) as determined by X-ray crystallography. A three-coordinate planar Ni(I) species was isolated from the reduction of ((iPr)DPDBFphos)NiCl(2) with KC(8). Low-temperature electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements of ((iPr)DPDBFphos)NiCl allow the determination of g values (2.09, 2.14, 2.37) and hyperfine coupling constants to two (31)P nuclei, A(iso) = 46 × 10(-4) cm(-1), and one (37)Cl/(35)Cl nucleus, A = (12, 0.7, 35) × 10(-4) cm(-1). Density functional theory (DFT) studies reveal the nature of the magnetic orbital to be d(xy), which has σ-antibonding and π(∥)-antibonding interactions with the phosphorus and chloride atoms, respectively. The monovalent nickel complex reacts with substrates containing C-X bonds; and in the case of vinyl chloride, a Ni(II) vinyl species ((iPr)DPDBFphos)Ni(CH═CH(2))Cl is generated along with the Ni(II) dichloride complex. The monovalent Ni(I) chloride is an active catalyst in the Kumada cross-coupling reaction of vinyl chloride and phenyl Grignard reagent.

  17. Comparison of cumulative dissipated energy delivered by active-fluidic pressure control phacoemulsification system versus gravity-fluidics.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Salinas, Roberto; Garza-Leon, Manuel; Saenz-de-Viteri, Manuel; Solis-S, Juan C; Gulias-Cañizo, Rosario; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo

    2017-08-22

    To compare the cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), aspiration time and estimated aspiration fluid utilized during phacoemulsification cataract surgery using two phacoemulsification systems . A total of 164 consecutive eyes of 164 patients undergoing cataract surgery, 82 in the active-fluidics group and 82 in the gravity-fluidics group were enrolled in this study. Cataracts graded NII to NIII using LOCS II were included. Each subject was randomly assigned to one of the two platforms with a specific configuration: the active-fluidics Centurion (®) phacoemulsification system or the gravity-fluidics Infiniti (®) Vision System. CDE, aspiration time (AT) and the mean estimated aspiration fluid (EAF) were registered and compared. A mean age of 68.3 ± 9.8 years was found (range 57-92 years), and no significant difference was evident between both groups. A positive correlation between the CDE values obtained by both platforms was verified (r = 0.271, R (2) = 0.073, P = 0.013). Similarly, a significant correlation was evidenced for the EAF (r = 0.334, R (2) = 0.112, P = 0.046) and AT values (r = 0.156, R (2) = 0.024, P = 0.161). A statistically significantly lower CDE count, aspiration time and estimated fluid were obtained using the active-fluidics configuration when compared to the gravity-fluidics configuration by 19.29, 12.10 and 9.29%, respectively (P = 0.001, P < 0.0001 and P = 0.001). The active-fluidics Centurion (®) phacoemulsification system achieved higher surgical efficiency than the gravity-fluidics Infiniti (®) IP system for NII and NIII cataracts.

  18. Infrared photometric study of SDSS selected narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P. S.; Liu, J. Y.; Shan, H. G.

    2017-07-01

    The infrared photometric study of SDSS selected Narrow Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies (NLS1s) is presented in this paper. We have made cross-identifications for such NLS1s with 2MASS and WISE observations. Finally 992 NLS1s have 2MASS and WISE counterparts. Comparisons of NLS1s with the Broad Line Seyfert 1 (BLS1s) and Seyfert 2 galaxies are made. It is shown that from 1 μm to 5 μm NLS1s are redder than BLS1s and Seyfert 2 galaxies possibly due to the richer dust environment in NLS1 nuclei or to the orientation effect while in the longer wavelengths those three kinds of sources have quite similar behavior indicative of radiation mainly from the similar warm starburst-related dust and the related AGN dust. In addition, relations between infrared colors and related (to Hβ) strengths of some important lines are also investigated. The results show that the related strengths of [FeII] 4570 Å are positively correlated with infrared colors in the 1-5 μm region, but negatively correlated with infrared colors in the 12-22 μm region; the related strength of [OIII] 5007 Å are negatively correlated with infrared colors in the 1-5 μm region, but positively correlated with infrared colors in the 12-22 μm region; the related strength of [NII]6583 Å are also negatively correlated with infrared colors in the 1-5 μm region, but positively correlated with infrared colors in the 12-22 μm region. Therefore it is indicated that the behavior of [FeII] 4570 Å is just opposed to that for [OIII] 5007 Å and [NII] 6583 Å This result may be caused by different origins of such lines.

  19. The outflow of gas from the Centaurus A circumnuclear disk. Atomic spectral line maps from Herschel/PACS and APEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israel, F. P.; Güsten, R.; Meijerink, R.; Requena-Torres, M. A.; Stutzki, J.

    2017-02-01

    The physical state of the gas in the central 500 pc of NGC 5128 (the radio galaxy Centaurus A), was investigated using the fine-structure lines of carbon [CI], [CII]; oxygen [OI], [OIII], and nitrogen [NII], [NIII] as well as the 12CO(4-3) molecular line. The circumnuclear disk (CND) is traced by emission from dust and the neutral gas ([CI] and 12CO). A gas outflow with a line-of-sight velocity of 60 km s-1 is evident in both lines. The [CI] emission from the CND is unusually strong with respect to that from CO. The center of the CND (R < 90 pc) is bright in [OI], [OIII], and [CII]; [OI] λ63 μm emission dominates that of [CII] even though it is absorbed with optical depths τ = 1.0-1.5. The outflow is well-traced by the [NII] and [NIII] lines and also seen in the [CII] and [OIII] lines that peak in the center. Ionized gas densities are highest in the CND (about 100 cm-3) and low everywhere else. Neutral gas densities range from 4000 cm-3 (outflow, extended thin disk ETD) to 20 000 cm-3 (CND). The CND radiation field (Go ≈ 4) is weak compared to the ETD starburst field (Go ≈ 40). The outflow has a much stronger radiation field (Go = 130). The total mass of all the CND gas is 9.1 ± 0.9×107M⊙ but the mass of the outflowing gas is only 15-30% of that. The outflow most likely originates from the shock-dominated CND cavity surrounding the central black hole. With a factor of three uncertainty, the mass outflow rate is ≈ 2 M⊙ yr-1, a thousand times higher than the accretion rate of the black hole. Without replenishment, the CND will be depleted in 15-120 million years. However, the outflow velocity is well below the escape velocity.

  20. Circumnuclear ionized gas in starburst nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taniguchi, Yoshiaki

    1990-01-01

    In order to study kinematical properties of starburst nuclei (SBNs), researchers made high-resolution spectroscopy of fifteen SBNs in the H alpha region using an intensified Reticon system attached to the coude focus of the 188-cm reflector at the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory. The instrumental resolution is 21 km s(-1) Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM) at lambda sub H alpha. As for the archetypical SBN, Mrk 538 (=NGC 7714), researchers present high-resolution emission line profiles of several species of ions such as (OIII), (NII), (SII), and (OII). Main results and conclusions are summarized. It has been known that emission-line profiles of SBNs are symmetrical and narrow. However, this high-resolution spectroscopy shows that the observed emission-line profiles of the SBNs have the following asymmetrical patterns; blueward, redward, and double-peaked. It is known that such features have been observed for narrow line regions (NLRs) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). There is no remarkable correlation between the asymmetry index and the reddening indicator such as a Balmer decrement. Thus the line asymmetry is not attributed to inhomogeneous obscuration in the emitting regions. The observed FWHMs of the H alpha emission lines cover a range from 85 km s(-1) to 318 km s(-1) and are slightly larger than those of (NII) lambda 6584A emission except for the double-peaked SBNs. The FWHMs of H alpha emission show a good correlation with sin i (i is an inclination angle of galaxy). This correlation means that the FWHMs of the SBNs suffer significantly from rotational broadening. Mrk 52 is an anomalous SBN because it has narrow emission line widths for its high inclination angle (cf. Taniguchi 1987). From the above correlation, it is estimated that the intrinsic (i.e., rotation free) FWHMs of H alpha emission are about 50 km s(-1).

  1. Circumnuclear ionized gas in starburst nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Yoshiaki

    1990-07-01

    In order to study kinematical properties of starburst nuclei (SBNs), researchers made high-resolution spectroscopy of fifteen SBNs in the H alpha region using an intensified Reticon system attached to the coude focus of the 188-cm reflector at the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory. The instrumental resolution is 21 km s(-1) Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM) at lambdaH alpha. As for the archetypical SBN, Mrk 538 (=NGC 7714), researchers present high-resolution emission line profiles of several species of ions such as (OIII), (NII), (SII), and (OII). Main results and conclusions are summarized. It has been known that emission-line profiles of SBNs are symmetrical and narrow. However, this high-resolution spectroscopy shows that the observed emission-line profiles of the SBNs have the following asymmetrical patterns; blueward, redward, and double-peaked. It is known that such features have been observed for narrow line regions (NLRs) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). There is no remarkable correlation between the asymmetry index and the reddening indicator such as a Balmer decrement. Thus the line asymmetry is not attributed to inhomogeneous obscuration in the emitting regions. The observed FWHMs of the H alpha emission lines cover a range from 85 km s(-1) to 318 km s(-1) and are slightly larger than those of (NII) lambda 6584A emission except for the double-peaked SBNs. The FWHMs of H alpha emission show a good correlation with sin i (i is an inclination angle of galaxy). This correlation means that the FWHMs of the SBNs suffer significantly from rotational broadening. Mrk 52 is an anomalous SBN because it has narrow emission line widths for its high inclination angle (cf. Taniguchi 1987). From the above correlation, it is estimated that the intrinsic (i.e., rotation free) FWHMs of H alpha emission are about 50 km s(-1).

  2. Role of information systems in controlling costs: the electronic medical record (EMR) and the high-performance computing and communications (HPCC) efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, Luis G.

    1994-12-01

    On October 18, 1991, the IEEE-USA produced an entity statement which endorsed the vital importance of the High Performance Computer and Communications Act of 1991 (HPCC) and called for the rapid implementation of all its elements. Efforts are now underway to develop a Computer Based Patient Record (CBPR), the National Information Infrastructure (NII) as part of the HPCC, and the so-called `Patient Card'. Multiple legislative initiatives which address these and related information technology issues are pending in Congress. Clearly, a national information system will greatly affect the way health care delivery is provided to the United States public. Timely and reliable information represents a critical element in any initiative to reform the health care system as well as to protect and improve the health of every person. Appropriately used, information technologies offer a vital means of improving the quality of patient care, increasing access to universal care and lowering overall costs within a national health care program. Health care reform legislation should reflect increased budgetary support and a legal mandate for the creation of a national health care information system by: (1) constructing a National Information Infrastructure; (2) building a Computer Based Patient Record System; (3) bringing the collective resources of our National Laboratories to bear in developing and implementing the NII and CBPR, as well as a security system with which to safeguard the privacy rights of patients and the physician-patient privilege; and (4) utilizing Government (e.g. DOD, DOE) capabilities (technology and human resources) to maximize resource utilization, create new jobs and accelerate technology transfer to address health care issues.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Hα in HII regions in spiral galaxies (Marquez+, 2002)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Moles, M.; Varela, J.; Bettoni, D.; Galletta, G.

    2002-07-01

    In this paper we study long slit spectra in the region of Hα emission line of a sample of 111 spiral galaxies with recognizable and well defined spiral morphology and with a well determined environmental status, ranging from isolation to non-disruptive interaction with satellites or companions. The form and properties of the rotation curves are considered as a function of the isolation degree, morphological type and luminosity. The line ratios are used to estimate the metallicity of all the detected H II regions, thus producing a composite metallicity profile for different types of spirals. We have found that isolated galaxies tend to be of later types and lower luminosity than the interacting galaxies. The outer parts of the rotation curves of isolated galaxies tend to be flatter than in interacting galaxies, but they show similar relations between global parameters. The scatter of the Tully-Fisher relation defined by isolated galaxies is significantly lower than that of interacting galaxies. The [NII]/Hα ratios, used as a metallicity indicator, show a clear trend between Z and morphological type, t, with earlier spirals showing higher ratios; this trend is tighter when instead of t the gradient of the inner rotation curve, G, is used; no trend is found with the change in interaction status. The Z-gradient of the disks depends on the type, being almost flat for early spirals, and increasing for later types. The [NII]/Hα ratios measured for disk H II regions of interacting galaxies are higher than for normal/isolated objects, even if all the galaxy families present similar distributions of Hα equivalent width. (1 data file).

  4. Identification of hypoxia-inducible target genes of Aspergillus fumigatus by transcriptome analysis reveals cellular respiration as an important contributor to hypoxic survival.

    PubMed

    Kroll, Kristin; Pähtz, Vera; Hillmann, Falk; Vaknin, Yakir; Schmidt-Heck, Wolfgang; Roth, Martin; Jacobsen, Ilse D; Osherov, Nir; Brakhage, Axel A; Kniemeyer, Olaf

    2014-09-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic, airborne pathogen that causes invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. During the infection process, A. fumigatus is challenged by hypoxic microenvironments occurring in inflammatory, necrotic tissue. To gain further insights into the adaptation mechanism, A. fumigatus was cultivated in an oxygen-controlled chemostat under hypoxic and normoxic conditions. Transcriptome analysis revealed a significant increase in transcripts associated with cell wall polysaccharide metabolism, amino acid and metal ion transport, nitrogen metabolism, and glycolysis. A concomitant reduction in transcript levels was observed with cellular trafficking and G-protein-coupled signaling. To learn more about the functional roles of hypoxia-induced transcripts, we deleted A. fumigatus genes putatively involved in reactive nitrogen species detoxification (fhpA), NAD(+) regeneration (frdA and osmA), nitrogen metabolism (niaD and niiA), and respiration (rcfB). We show that the nitric oxygen (NO)-detoxifying flavohemoprotein gene fhpA is strongly induced by hypoxia independent of the nitrogen source but is dispensable for hypoxic survival. By deleting the nitrate reductase gene niaD, the nitrite reductase gene niiA, and the two fumarate reductase genes frdA and osmA, we found that alternative electron acceptors, such as nitrate and fumarate, do not have a significant impact on growth of A. fumigatus during hypoxia, but functional mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes are essential under these conditions. Inhibition studies indicated that primarily complexes III and IV play a crucial role in the hypoxic growth of A. fumigatus.

  5. Catalysis by methyl-coenzyme M reductase: a theoretical study for heterodisulfide product formation.

    PubMed

    Pelmenschikov, Vladimir; Siegbahn, Per E M

    2003-07-01

    Hybrid density functional theory has been used to investigate the catalytic mechanism of methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR), an essential enzyme in methanogenesis. In a previous study of methane formation, a scheme was suggested involving oxidation of Ni(I) in the starting square-planar coordination to the high-spin Ni(II) form in the CoM-S-Ni(II)F(430) octahedral intermediate. The methyl radical, concomitantly released by methyl-coenzyme M (CoM), is rapidly quenched by hydrogen atom transfer from the coenzyme B (CoB) thiol group, yielding methane as the first product of the reaction. The present investigation primarily concerns the second and final step of the reaction: oxidation of CoB and CoM to the CoB-S-S-CoM heterodisulfide product and reduction of nickel back to the Ni(I) square-planar form. The activation energy for the second step is found to be around 10 kcal/mol, implying that the first step of methane formation with an activation energy of 20 kcal/mol should be rate-limiting. An oxygen of the Gln147 residue, occupying the rear axial position in the oxidized Ni(II) state, is shown to stabilize the intermediate by 6 kcal/mol, thereby slightly decreasing the barrier for the preceding rate-limiting transition state. The mechanism suggested is discussed in the context of available experimental data. An analysis of the flexibility of the F(430) cofactor during the reaction cycle is also given.

  6. Decommissioning at AWE

    SciTech Connect

    Biles, K.; Hedges, M.; Campbell, C

    2008-07-01

    AWE (A) has been at the heart of the UK Nuclear deterrent since it was established in the early 1950's. It is a nuclear licensed site and is governed by the United Kingdoms Nuclear Installation Inspectorate (NII). AWE plc on behalf of the Ministry of Defence (MOD) manages the AWE (A) site and all undertakings including decommissioning. Therefore under NII license condition 35 'Decommissioning', AWE plc is accountable to make and implement adequate arrangements for the decommissioning of any plant or process, which may affect safety. The majority of decommissioning projects currently being undertaken are to do with Hazard category 3, 4 or 5 facilities, systems or plant that have reached the end of their operational span and have undergone Post-Operational Clean-Out (POCO). They were either built for the production of fissile components, for supporting the early reactor fuels programmes or for processing facility waste arisings. They either contain redundant contaminated gloveboxes associated process areas, process plant or systems or a combination of all. In parallel with decommissioning project AWE (A) are undertaking investigation into new technologies to aid decommissioning projects; to remove the operative from hands on operations; to develop and implement modifications to existing process and techniques used. AWE (A) is currently going thorough a sustained phase of upgrading its facilities to enhance its scientific capability, with older facilities, systems and plant being replaced, making decommissioning a growth area. It is therefore important to the company to reduce these hazards progressively and safety over the coming years, making decommissioning an important feature of the overall legacy management aspects of AWE PLC's business. This paper outlines the current undertakings and progress of Nuclear decommissioning on the AWE (A) site. (authors)

  7. The Conditions Underpinning Extreme Star Formation in ULIRGs and LIRGs as Revealed by Herschel Far-Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasquez, Gabriel A.; Ashby, Matthew; Smith, Howard Alan; McTier, Moiya; Melendez, Marcio

    2016-01-01

    We present a systematic survey of molecular and atomic line fluxes in all star-forming galaxies observed by the Herschel PACs instrument with detectable OH lines that also contain Herschel SPIRE FTS spectra, to determine how physical conditions vary as a function of star formation rate. Specifically, we measured selected CO, H2O, [CI], and [NII] integrated line fluxes in a sample of 145 star-forming galaxies covering a range of far-infrared luminosities ranging from 109 to above 1012 LSun . Thus, our sample includes typical, quiescent galaxies as well as Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs) and Ultra Luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs), known to be creating stars extremely rapidly. We find evidence suggesting that ULIRGs with far-infrared luminosities of LFIR> 1012 LSun require an additional heating mechanism other than UV heating from star formation, while LIRGs and less luminous star-forming galaxies may be heated primarily by their star formation. We also find that the [NII] 3P1 - 3P0 fine structure line flux and those of the CO J=5-4, CO J=7-6, and CO J=8-7 transitions are generally weaker for ULIRGs compared to LIRGs and less luminous star-forming galaxies, while we find the CO J=11-10, CO J=12-11, and CO J=13-12 transitions are generally stronger. In all these respects, ULIRGs are shown to differ significantly from other galaxies undergoing less extreme star formation. This work was supported in part by the NSF REU and DoD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  8. Spatially resolved physical conditions of molecular gas and potential star formation tracers in M 83, revealed by the Herschel SPIRE FTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, R.; Madden, S. C.; Galliano, F.; Wilson, C. D.; Kamenetzky, J.; Lee, M.-Y.; Schirm, M.; Hony, S.; Lebouteiller, V.; Spinoglio, L.; Cormier, D.; Glenn, J.; Maloney, P. R.; Pereira-Santaella, M.; Rémy-Ruyer, A.; Baes, M.; Boselli, A.; Bournaud, F.; De Looze, I.; Hughes, T. M.; Panuzzo, P.; Rangwala, N.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the physical properties of the molecular and ionized gas, and their relationship to the star formation and dust properties in M 83, based on submillimeter imaging spectroscopy from within the central 3.5' (~4 kpc in diameter) around the starburst nucleus. The observations use the Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) of the Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver (SPIRE) onboard the Herschel Space Observatory. The newly observed spectral lines include [CI] 370 μm, [CI] 609 μm, [NII] 205 μm, and CO transitions from J = 4-3 to J = 13-12. Combined with previously observed J = 1-0 to J = 3-2 transitions, the CO spectral line energy distributions are translated to spatially resolved physical parameters, column density of CO, N(CO), and molecular gas thermal pressure, Pth, with a non-local thermal equilibrium (non-LTE) radiative transfer model, RADEX. Our results show that there is a relationship between the spatially resolved intensities of [NII] 205 μm and the surface density of the star formation rate (SFR), ΣSFR. This relation, when compared to integrated properties of ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), exhibits a different slope, because the [NII] 205 μm distribution is more extended than the SFR. The spatially resolved [CI] 370 μm, on the other hand, shows a generally linear relationship with ΣSFR and can potentially be a good SFR tracer. Compared with the dust properties derived from broad-band images, we find a positive trend between the emissivity of CO in the J = 1-0 transition with the average intensity of interstellar radiation field (ISRF), ⟨ U ⟩. This trend implies a decrease in the CO-to-H2 conversion factor, XCO, when ⟨ U ⟩ increases. We estimate the gas-to-dust mass ratios to be 77 ± 33 within the central 2 kpc and 93 ± 19 within the central 4 kpc of M 83, which implies a Galactic dust-to-metal mass ratio within the observed region of M 83. The estimated gas-depletion time for the M 83 nucleus is 1.13 ± 0.6 Gyr

  9. Warm ISM in the Sagittarius A Complex. I. Mid-J CO, atomic carbon, ionized atomic carbon, and ionized nitrogen sub-mm/FIR line observations with the Herschel-HIFI and NANTEN2/SMART telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, P.; Simon, R.; Stutzki, J.; Güsten, R.; Requena-Torres, M. A.; Higgins, R.

    2016-04-01

    Aims: We investigate the spatial and spectral distribution of the local standard of rest (LSR) velocity resolved submillimetre emission from the warm (25-90 K) gas in the Sgr A Complex, located in the Galactic centre. Methods: We present large-scale submillimetre heterodyne observations towards the Sgr A Complex covering ~300 arcmin2. These data were obtained in the frame of the Herschel EXtraGALactic guaranteed time key program (HEXGAL) with the Herschel-HIFI satellite and are complemented with submillimetre observations obtained with the NANTEN2/SMART telescope as part of the NANTEN2/SMART Central Nuclear Zone Survey. The observed species are CO(J = 4-3) at 461.0 GHz observed with the NANTEN2/SMART telescope, and [CI] 3P1-3P0 at 492.2 GHz, [CI] 3P2-3P1 at 809.3 GHz, [NII] 3P1-3P0 at 1461.1 GHz, and [CII] 2P3/2-2P1/2 at 1900.5 GHz observed with the Herschel-HIFI satellite. The observations are presented in a 1 km s-1 spectral resolution and a spatial resolution ranging from 46 arcsec to 28 arcsec. The spectral coverage of the three lower frequency lines is ±200 km s-1, while in the two high frequency lines, the upper LSR velocity limit is +94 km s-1 and +145 km s-1 for the [NII] and [CII] lines, respectively. Results: The spatial distribution of the emission in all lines is very widespread. The bulk of the carbon monoxide emission is found towards Galactic latitudes below the Galactic plane, and all the known molecular clouds are identified. Both neutral atomic carbon lines have their brightest emission associated with the +50 km s-1 cloud. Their spatial distribution at this LSR velocity describes a crescent-shape structure, which is probably the result of interaction with the energetic event (one or several supernovae explosions) that gave origin to the non-thermal Sgr A-East source. The [CII] and [NII] emissions have most of their flux associated with the thermal arched-filaments and the H region and bright spots in [CII] emission towards the central nuclear

  10. Spectroscopic and Computational Studies of Reduction of the Metal versus the Tetrapyrrole Ring of Coenzyme F430 from Methyl-Coenzyme M Reductase†

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Mishtu; Kunz, Ryan; Van Heuvelen, Katherine M.; Craft, Jennifer L.; Horng, Yih-Chern; Tang, Qun; Bocian, David F.; George, Simon J.; Brunold, Thomas C.; Ragsdale, Stephen W.

    2008-01-01

    Methyl-Coenzyme M reductase (MCR) catalyzes the final step in methane biosynthesis by methanogenic archaea and contains a redox-active nickel tetrahydrocorphin, Coenzyme F430, at its active site. Spectroscopic and computational methods have been used to study a novel form of the Coenzyme, called F330, which is obtained by reducing F430 with sodium borohydride (NaBH4). F330 exhibits a prominent absorption peak at 330 nm, which is blue shifted by 100 nm relative to F430. Mass spectrometric studies demonstrate that the tetrapyrrole ring in F330 has undergone reduction, based on the incorporation of protium (or deuterium), upon treatment of F430 with NaBH4 (or NaBD4). One- and two-dimensional NMR studies show that the site of reduction is the exocyclic ketone group of the tetrahydrocorphin. Resonance Raman studies indicate that elimination of this π-bond increases the overall π-bond order in the conjugative framework. X-ray absorption, magnetic circular dichroism, and computational results show that F330 contains low-spin Ni(II). Thus, conversion of F430 to F330 reduces the hydrocorphin ring but not the metal. Conversely, reduction of F430 with Ti(III) citrate to generate F380 (corresponding to the active MCRred1 state) reduces the Ni(II) to Ni(I), but does not reduce the tetrapyrrole ring system, which is consistent with other studies (Piskorski, R. and Jaun, B. (2003) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125:13120-5 and Craft, J. L. et al. (2004) J. Biol. Inorg. Chem. 9:77-89). The distinct origins of the absorption band shifts associated with the formation of F330 and F380 are discussed within the framework of our computational results. These studies on the nature of the product(s) of reduction of F430 are of interest in the context of the mechanism of methane formation by MCR and in relation to the chemistry of hydroporphinoid systems in general. The spectroscopic and time dependent DFT calculations add important insight into the electronic structure of the Ni-hydrocorphinate in

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Growth curves of CALIFA spiral galaxies (Iglesias-Paramo+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias-Paramo, J.; Vilchez, J. M.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Sanchez, S. F.; Duarte Puertas, S.; Petropoulou, V.; Gil de Paz, A.; Galbany, L.; Molla, M.; Catalan-Torrecilla, C.; Castillo Morales, A.; Mast, D.; Husemann, B.; Garcia-Benito, R.; Mendoza, M. A.; Kehrig, C.; Perez-Montero, E.; Papaderos, P.; Gomes, J. M.; Walcher, C. J.; Gonzalez Delgado, R. M.; Marino, R. A.; Lopez-Sanchez, A. R.; Ziegler, B.; Flores, H.; Alves, J.

    2016-09-01

    This paper aims to provide aperture corrections for emission lines in a sample of spiral galaxies from the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area Survey (CALIFA; Sanchez+, 2012A&A...538A...8S) database. In particular, we explore the behavior of the log([OIII]λ5007/Hβ)/([NII]λ6583/Hα) (O3N2) and log[NII]λ6583/Hα (N2) flux ratios since they are closely connected to different empirical calibrations of the oxygen abundances in star-forming galaxies. We compute the median growth curves of Hα, Hα/Hβ, O3N2, and N2 up to 2.5R50 and 1.5 disk Reff. These distances cover most of the optical spatial extent of the CALIFA galaxies. The growth curves simulate the effect of observing galaxies through apertures of varying radii. We split these growth curves by morphological types and stellar masses to check if there is any dependence on these properties. The median growth curve of the Hα flux shows a monotonous increase with radius with no strong dependence on galaxy inclination, morphological type, and stellar mass. The median growth curve of the Hα/Hβ ratio monotonically decreases from the center toward larger radii, showing for small apertures a maximum value of ~10% larger than the integrated one. It does not show any dependence on inclination, morphological type, and stellar mass. The median growth curve of N2 shows a similar behavior, decreasing from the center toward larger radii. No strong dependence is seen on the inclination, morphological type, and stellar mass. Finally, the median growth curve of O3N2 increases monotonically with radius, and it does not show dependence on the inclination. However, at small radii it shows systematically higher values for galaxies of earlier morphological types and for high stellar mass galaxies. Applying our aperture corrections to a sample of galaxies from the SDSS survey at 0.02<=z<=0.3 shows that the average difference between fiber-based and aperture-corrected oxygen abundances, for different galaxy stellar mass and

  12. Development of the 2nd generation z(Redshift) and early universe spectrometer & the study of far-IR fine structure emission in high-z galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl

    The 2nd generation z (Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-2), is a long-slit echelle-grating spectrometer (R~1000) for observations at submillimeter wavelengths from 200 to 850 microm. Its design is optimized for the detection of redshifted far-infrared spectral lines from galaxies in the early universe. Combining exquisite sensitivity, broad wavelength coverage, and large (˜2.5%) instantaneous bandwidth, ZEUS-2 is uniquely suited for studying galaxies between z˜0.2 and 5---spanning the peaks in both the star formation rate and number of AGN in the universe. ZEUS-2 saw first light at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) in the Spring of 2012 and was commissioned on the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) in November 2012. Here we detail the design and performance of ZEUS-2, first however we discuss important science results that are examples of the science enabled by ZEUS-2. Using the first generation z (Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-1) we made the first high-z detections of the [NII] 122 microm and [OIII] 88 microm lines. We detect these lines from starburst galaxies between z ˜2.5 and 4 demonstrating the utility of these lines for characterizing the properties of early galaxies. Specifically we are able to determine the most massive star still on the main sequence, the number of those stars and a lower limit on the mass of ionized gas in the source. Next we present ZEUS-2's first science result. Using ZEUS-2 on APEX we have detected the [CII] 158 microm line from the z = 1.78 galaxy H-ATLAS J091043.1-000322 with a line flux of (6.44 +/- 0.42) ˜ 10-18 W m-2. Combined with its far-infrared luminosity and a new Herschel-PACS detection of the [OI] 63 microm line we are able to conclude that H-ATLAS J091043.1-000322 is a high redshift analogue of a local ultra-luminous infrared galaxy, i.e. it is likely the site of a compact starburst due to a major merger. This detection, combined with the ZEUS-1 observations of the [NII

  13. Optical Imaging and Spectroscopy of the Edge-on Sbc Galaxy UGC 10043: Evidence for a Galactic Wind and a Peculiar Triaxial Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, L. D.; de Grijs, R.

    2004-07-01

    We present new optical imaging and spectroscopy of the peculiar, edge-on Sbc galaxy UGC 10043. Using the WIYN telescope, we have obtained B, R, and Hα+[NII] images, together with DensePak integral field spectroscopic measurements of the stellar Ca II infrared triplet and the Hα and [N II] lines from the ionized gas. The imaging observations show that the inner bulge of UGC 10043 (a<=7.5") is elongated perpendicular to the galaxy major axis. At larger r the bulge isophotes twist to become oblate and nearly circular, suggesting the bulge is triaxial. The bulge shows no clear evidence for rotation about either its major or minor axis. The inner, southwestern quadrant of the bulge is girdled by a narrow dust lane parallel to the minor axis; unsharp masking reveals that this minor-axis dust lane may be part of an inner polar ring, although we find no unambiguous kinematic evidence of orthogonally rotating material. The stellar disk of UGC 10043 has a rather low optical surface brightness [μ(0)R,i~23.2 mag arcsec-2], a small scale height (hz=395 pc for D=33.4 Mpc), and a mild integral sign warp. A dusty, inner disk component that appears tilted relative to the outlying disk is also seen. The Hα and [N II] emission lines in UGC 10043 resolve into multiple velocity components, indicating the presence of a large-scale galactic wind with an outflow velocity of Vout>~104 km s-1. Hα+[NII] imaging reaffirms this picture by revealing ionized gas extended to |z|~3.5 kpc in the form of a roughly biconical structure. The [N II]/Hα line intensity ratio increases with increasing distance from the plane, reaching values as high as 1.7. Unlike most galaxies with large-scale winds, UGC 10043 has only a modest global star formation rate (<~1 Msolar yr-1), implying the wind is powered by a rather feeble central starburst. We discuss evolutionary scenarios that could account for both the structural complexities of UGC 10043 and its large-scale wind. The most plausible scenarios

  14. Rotation curves and metallicity gradients from HII regions in spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Moles, M.; Varela, J.; Bettoni, D.; Galletta, G.

    2002-10-01

    In this paper we study long slit spectra in the region of Hα emission line of a sample of 111 spiral galaxies with recognizable and well defined spiral morphology and with a well determined environmental status, ranging from isolation to non-disruptive interaction with satellites or companions. The form and properties of the rotation curves are considered as a function of the isolation degree, morphological type and luminosity. The line ratios are used to estimate the metallicity of all the detected HII regions, thus producing a composite metallicity profile for different types of spirals. We have found that isolated galaxies tend to be of later types and lower luminosity than the interacting galaxies. The outer parts of the rotation curves of isolated galaxies tend to be flatter than in interacting galaxies, but they show similar relations between global parameters. The scatter of the Tully-Fisher relation defined by isolated galaxies is significantly lower than that of interacting galaxies. The [NII]/Hα ratios, used as a metallicity indicator, show a clear trend between Z and morphological type, t, with earlier spirals showing higher ratios; this trend is tighter when instead of t the gradient of the inner rotation curve, G, is used; no trend is found with the change in interaction status. The Z-gradient of the disks depends on the type, being almost flat for early spirals, and increasing for later types. The [NII]/Hα ratios measured for disk HII regions of interacting galaxies are higher than for normal/isolated objects, even if all the galaxy families present similar distributions of Hα Equivalent Width. Tables 3 and 4 and Figs. 6, 7 and 21 are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org. Table 5 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/393/389 Based on data obtained Asiago/Ekar Observatory. Also based on observations made

  15. Diel vertical distribution and migration of a euphausiid Euphausia pacifica in the Southern Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui-Lian; Sun, Song

    2010-04-01

    Stage-specific differences in the diel vertical distribution and migration of a euphausiid, Euphausia pacifica, were studied at a single station (E2, 70 m water depth) in the South Yellow Sea, by sampling with a conical closing net from five discrete strata, every 3 h, for 24 h, on 2-3 May 2001. Environmental data were collected simultaneously with the net sampling. Results showed that eggs contributed a large proportion of the numerical abundance of the Euphausia pacifica population throughout the investigation. They were mainly distributed below 20 m depth, and concentrated in the 30-50 m strata throughout the day and night. Nauplius stage I (NI) was distributed below 10 m, and seldom occurred in the upper 10 m. Nauplius stage II (NII) and Metanauplius stage (MN) extended their distribution to nearly the whole water column; however, the MN resided somewhat shallower than NII. The majority of calyptopis stages I to III (CI to CIII ) and early furcilia stages I to III (FI to FIII) were restricted to the upper 30 m throughout the day. The weighted mean depth tended to increase as the stage progressed from stage FI onward. Calyptopis stages showed a weak or moderate diel vertical migration behavior, and the onset of an obvious diel vertical migration took place in FII stage. The amplitude of the diel vertical migration varied with developmental stages. Stages after FIV were often absent from samples during the investigation, but from the limited available data, DVM occurred from stages FIV-VI and female adults. However, the male adults showed a somewhat different migration behavior. In summary, an ontogenetic migration pattern is obvious from this high-frequency sampling: spawning took place at 20-50 m depth, hatched nauplii sank a little, metanauplius began moving toward the surface, and calyptopis larvae reached the uppermost layer. Furcilia larvae began DVM and deepened their daytime residence depth with age. The vertical distribution of Euphausia pacifica seemed

  16. Pressure-induced Mott transition in transition-metal iodides (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasternak, M. P.; Taylor, R. D.; Jeanloz, Raymond

    1991-11-01

    Many of the transition-metal (TM) compounds, because of exchange and correlation interactions within the narrow and poorly overlapping d bands, become antiferromagnetic insulators, the Mott insulators (MI). The properties of the MI and their gradual transition into the noncorrelated metallic state (the Mott transition) are of crucial importance for the elucidation of high-temperature superconducting materials features in particular and to magnetism in general. The transition of the MI into a metal can be achieved either by doping or by high pressure. The first method is definitely inappropriate for studying the nature of the Mott transition; for the narrow-band materials the electronic and structural disorder inherent in doping has a strongly perturbing effect. To yield the definitive data on the Mott transition, high-pressure work on well-characterized materials should be sought. The present studies provide for the first time extensive information on the Mott-Hubbard gap closure induced by high pressure. High-pressure studies using diamond anvil cells were conducted with several (TM)I2 compounds. They all have layered structures and order antiferromagnetically at ambient pressure. 129I Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS) was used to study the properties of the (TM)2+ sublattice magnetization as a function of pressure and temperature, and x-ray diffraction was used to look for possible crystallographic transitions and to obtain the equation of state. Results show that the high-pressure transition at Pc from a magnetic to a nonmagnetic state is not accompanied by crystallographic changes. Previous studies [M. P. Pasternak et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 790 (1990)] with NiI2 have confirmed the presence of a metallic state at P ≳ Pc. Inherent to the pressure behavior of the magnetic state is the gradual increase of TN in all cases and a slight increase in the TM2+ moments with pressure increase. The collapse of the magnetic state is abrupt for some cases (NiI2) and gradual

  17. Detection of organometallic and radical intermediates in the catalytic mechanism of methyl-coenzyme M reductase using the natural substrate methyl-coenzyme M and a coenzyme B substrate analogue.

    PubMed

    Dey, Mishtu; Li, Xianghui; Kunz, Ryan C; Ragsdale, Stephen W

    2010-12-28

    Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) from methanogenic archaea catalyzes the terminal step in methanogenesis using coenzyme B (CoBSH) as the two-electron donor to reduce methyl-coenzyme M (methyl-SCoM) to form methane and the heterodisulfide, CoBS-SCoM. The active site of MCR contains an essential redox-active nickel tetrapyrrole cofactor, coenzyme F(430), which is active in the Ni(I) state (MCR(red1)). Several catalytic mechanisms have been proposed for methane synthesis that mainly differ in whether an organometallic methyl-Ni(III) or a methyl radical is the first catalytic intermediate. A mechanism was recently proposed in which methyl-Ni(III) undergoes homolysis to generate a methyl radical (Li, X., Telser, J., Kunz, R. C., Hoffman, B. M., Gerfen, G., and Ragsdale, S. W. (2010) Biochemistry 49, 6866-6876). Discrimination among these mechanisms requires identification of the proposed intermediates, none of which have been observed with native substrates. Apparently, intermediates form and decay too rapidly to accumulate to detectible amounts during the reaction between methyl-SCoM and CoBSH. Here, we describe the reaction of methyl-SCoM with a substrate analogue (CoB(6)SH) in which the seven-carbon heptanoyl moiety of CoBSH has been replaced with a hexanoyl group. When MCR(red1) is reacted with methyl-SCoM and CoB(6)SH, methanogenesis occurs 1000-fold more slowly than with CoBSH. By transient kinetic methods, we observe decay of the active Ni(I) state coupled to formation and subsequent decay of alkyl-Ni(III) and organic radical intermediates at catalytically competent rates. The kinetic data also revealed substrate-triggered conformational changes in active Ni(I)-MCR(red1). Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies coupled with isotope labeling experiments demonstrate that the radical intermediate is not tyrosine-based. These observations provide support for a mechanism for MCR that involves methyl-Ni(III) and an organic radical as catalytic intermediates

  18. Sharing lattice QCD data over a widely distributed file system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amagasa, T.; Aoki, S.; Aoki, Y.; Aoyama, T.; Doi, T.; Fukumura, K.; Ishii, N.; Ishikawa, K.-I.; Jitsumoto, H.; Kamano, H.; Konno, Y.; Matsufuru, H.; Mikami, Y.; Miura, K.; Sato, M.; Takeda, S.; Tatebe, O.; Togawa, H.; Ukawa, A.; Ukita, N.; Watanabe, Y.; Yamazaki, T.; Yoshie, T.

    2015-12-01

    JLDG is a data-grid for the lattice QCD (LQCD) community in Japan. Several large research groups in Japan have been working on lattice QCD simulations using supercomputers distributed over distant sites. The JLDG provides such collaborations with an efficient method of data management and sharing. File servers installed on 9 sites are connected to the NII SINET VPN and are bound into a single file system with the GFarm. The file system looks the same from any sites, so that users can do analyses on a supercomputer on a site, using data generated and stored in the JLDG at a different site. We present a brief description of hardware and software of the JLDG, including a recently developed subsystem for cooperating with the HPCI shared storage, and report performance and statistics of the JLDG. As of April 2015, 15 research groups (61 users) store their daily research data of 4.7PB including replica and 68 million files in total. Number of publications for works which used the JLDG is 98. The large number of publications and recent rapid increase of disk usage convince us that the JLDG has grown up into a useful infrastructure for LQCD community in Japan.

  19. Spectroscopy of planetary nebulae in the region of Canis Major

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniazev, A. Yu.

    2012-11-01

    We present the results of a pilot project of spectroscopic observations for planetary nebulae (PNe) and PN candidates in Canis Major, a sky region where the remnant of a disrupted dwarf galaxy cannibalized by the Milky Way may be located. The spectra of seven objects were taken while testing the SALT spectrograph (South African Astronomical Observatory). All elemental abundances have been obtained by the T e method, where the electron temperature is calculated directly using the measured weak auroral [OIII] λ 4363 Å and/or [NII] λ 5755 Å lines. We have measured the intensities of all the detected emission lines and determined the abundances of oxygen and several other elements (N, Ne, S, Cl, C, and He) in all PNe. The radial velocity for one PN has been measured for the first time and the velocities for all of the remaining PNe have been measured with a considerably better accuracy than that of the previously published ones. The elemental abundances for three PNe have been calculated for the first time and the accuracies of determining the abundances for three others have been improved. The measured heavy-element abundance ratios (S/O, Ne/O, Cl/O) are in good agreement with their typical values for HII regions. Among the PNe studied, ESO 428-05 is the first and so far the most likely candidate for belonging to the remnants of a possible dwarf galaxy disrupted by the tidal interaction with the Milky Way.

  20. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Psychiatric Nursing in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yoshinaga, Naoki; Nosaki, Akiko; Hayashi, Yuta; Tanoue, Hiroki; Shimizu, Eiji; Kunikata, Hiroko; Okada, Yoshie; Shiraishi, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric nurses have played a significant role in disseminating cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in Western countries; however, in Japan, the application, practice, efficiency, and quality control of CBT in the psychiatric nursing field are unclear. This study conducted a literature review to assess the current status of CBT practice and research in psychiatric nursing in Japan. Three English databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO) and two Japanese databases (Ichushi-Web and CiNii) were searched with predetermined keywords. Fifty-five articles met eligibility criteria: 46 case studies and 9 comparative studies. It was found that CBT took place primarily in inpatient settings and targeted schizophrenia and mood disorders. Although there were only a few comparative studies, each concluded that CBT was effective. However, CBT recipients and outcome measures were diverse, and nurses were not the only CBT practitioners in most reports. Only a few articles included the description of CBT training and supervision. This literature review clarified the current status of CBT in psychiatric nursing in Japan and identified important implications for future practice and research: performing CBT in a variety of settings and for a wide range of psychiatric disorders, conducting randomized controlled trials, and establishing pre- and postqualification training system. PMID:26798512

  1. An Infrared Method for Discovering AGN: Lick Spectroscopy of New Seyfert I’s in the Kepler Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsan, Tran; Edelson, Rick; Smith, Krista Lynne; Malkan, Matthew Arnold

    2016-06-01

    Spectra of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) candidates in the Kepler fields were observed at Lick Observatory. We used the Shane 3.0-meter telescope with the Kast double spectrograph, covering from 0.35-0.8 μm. Using IRAF, we extracted 1D spectra from the original 2D long-slit images of the candidates. Our main goals are to determine the redshift of the candidates and identify any new AGN. The wavelength and flux calibration are fairly accurate, and most spectra have a good signal-to-noise ratio. Twenty- seven nights of data (consisting of 106 candidates) have been analyzed. For 89% of them, we have determined the redshifts to a precision of δz = 0.0005 in most cases. The rest give inconclusive results. 19 of the candidates turn out to be galactic stars. The most commonly identified emission lines are Hα+[NII], the [OIII] doublet, and Hβ. 44 of the candidates show a Broad Line Region, meaning that their wide permitted lines classify them as either Seyfert I’s or quasars. 6 of these have redshifts above 0.5, indicating that they are highly luminous quasars. One candidate appears to be a bl-lac object. We are now analyzing the Kepler light curves of these Seyfert galaxies.

  2. OT2_jpineda_2: Large-scale dynamics and the formation of clouds and stars in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda, J.

    2011-09-01

    Understanding the processes governing the formation of clouds and stars in merging systems is key for the study of how galaxies evolved in the early Universe. The 30 Doradus region in the low-metallicity Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is the nearest example of this process, resulting from the interaction between the LMC and the halo of the Milky Way. This makes 30 Doradus the prime laboratory to study these large-scale dynamical processes under conditions that are similar to those at early cosmological times. We propose to use Herschel to obtain a large-scale uniform sampling of this region in [CII] 158um, [NII] 122um and 205um, and [OI] 63um and 146um lines with PACS, and at selected positions in [CII] with HIFI. With this data we will derive the large-scale distribution of the density and pressure of the low-metallicity gas revealing the characteristic signatures of shocked gas. This will then be used to determine the relationships among the diffuse, "dark H2", and dense molecular gas in the 30 Doradus region. We will also derive the electron density distribution of the gas and from this the contribution from ionized gas to the observed [CII] emission. The proposed observations will allow us to study the effect of large-scale gas compression in the multiphase, low-metallicity interstellar medium of 30 Doradus. This information will be valuable for the interpretation of future observations of [CII] in high-redshift galaxies made with ALMA

  3. Acupuncture for treating sciatica: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Zongshi; Liu, Xiaoxu; Yao, Qin; Zhai, Yanbing; Liu, Zhishun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This systematic review aims to assess the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for treating sciatica. Methods The following nine databases will be searched from their inception to 30 October 2014: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), the Chinese Medical Current Content (CMCC), the Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP database), the Wan-Fang Database, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Citation Information by National Institute of Informatics (CiNii). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of acupuncture for sciatica in English, Chinese or Japanese without restriction of publication status will be included. Two researchers will independently undertake study selection, extraction of data and assessment of study quality. Meta-analysis will be conducted after screening of studies. Data will be analysed using risk ratio for dichotomous data, and standardised mean difference or weighted mean difference for continuous data. Dissemination This systematic review will be disseminated electronically through a peer-reviewed publication or conference presentations. Trial registration number PROSPERO CRD42014015001. PMID:25922105

  4. Flue-gas and direct-air capture of CO2 by porous metal-organic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, David G.; Scott, Hayley S.; Kumar, Amrit; Chen, Kai-Jie; Sanii, Rana; Bajpai, Alankriti; Lusi, Matteo; Curtin, Teresa; Perry, John J.; Zaworotko, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Sequestration of CO2, either from gas mixtures or directly from air (direct air capture), is a technological goal important to large-scale industrial processes such as gas purification and the mitigation of carbon emissions. Previously, we investigated five porous materials, three porous metal-organic materials (MOMs), a benchmark inorganic material, Zeolite 13X and a chemisorbent, TEPA-SBA-15, for their ability to adsorb CO2 directly from air and from simulated flue-gas. In this contribution, a further 10 physisorbent materials that exhibit strong interactions with CO2 have been evaluated by temperature-programmed desorption for their potential utility in carbon capture applications: four hybrid ultramicroporous materials, SIFSIX-3-Cu, DICRO-3-Ni-i, SIFSIX-2-Cu-i and MOOFOUR-1-Ni; five microporous MOMs, DMOF-1, ZIF-8, MIL-101, UiO-66 and UiO-66-NH2; an ultramicroporous MOM, Ni-4-PyC. The performance of these MOMs was found to be negatively impacted by moisture. Overall, we demonstrate that the incorporation of strong electrostatics from inorganic moieties combined with ultramicropores offers improved CO2 capture performance from even moist gas mixtures but not enough to compete with chemisorbents. This article is part of the themed issue 'Coordination polymers and metal-organic frameworks: materials by design'.

  5. Motivational, proteostatic and transcriptional deficits precede synapse loss, gliosis and neurodegeneration in the B6.HttQ111/+ model of Huntington’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Bragg, Robert M.; Coffey, Sydney R.; Weston, Rory M.; Ament, Seth A.; Cantle, Jeffrey P.; Minnig, Shawn; Funk, Cory C.; Shuttleworth, Dominic D.; Woods, Emily L.; Sullivan, Bonnie R.; Jones, Lindsey; Glickenhaus, Anne; Anderson, John S.; Anderson, Michael D.; Dunnett, Stephen B.; Wheeler, Vanessa C.; MacDonald, Marcy E.; Brooks, Simon P.; Price, Nathan D.; Carroll, Jeffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the appearance and progression of disease-relevant signs in the B6.HttQ111/+ mouse, a genetically precise model of the mutation that causes Huntington’s disease (HD). We find that B6.HttQ111/+ mice are healthy, show no overt signs of central or peripheral inflammation, and no gross motor impairment as late as 12 months of age. Behaviorally, we find that 4–9 month old B6.HttQ111/+ mice have normal activity levels and show no clear signs of anxiety or depression, but do show clear signs of reduced motivation. The neuronal density, neuronal size, synaptic density and number of glia is normal in B6.HttQ111/+ striatum, the most vulnerable brain region in HD, up to 12 months of age. Despite this preservation of the synaptic and cellular composition of the striatum, we observe clear progressive, striatal-specific transcriptional dysregulation and accumulation of neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NIIs). Simulation studies suggest these molecular endpoints are sufficiently robust for future preclinical studies, and that B6.HttQ111/+ mice are a useful tool for modeling disease-modifying or neuroprotective strategies for disease processes before the onset of overt phenotypes. PMID:28176805

  6. Role of pendant proton relays and proton-coupled electron transfer on the hydrogen evolution reaction by nickel hangman porphyrins

    PubMed Central

    Bediako, D. Kwabena; Solis, Brian H.; Dogutan, Dilek K.; Roubelakis, Manolis M.; Maher, Andrew G.; Lee, Chang Hoon; Chambers, Matthew B.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon; Nocera, Daniel G.

    2014-01-01

    The hangman motif provides mechanistic insights into the role of pendant proton relays in governing proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) involved in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). We now show improved HER activity of Ni compared with Co hangman porphyrins. Cyclic voltammogram data and simulations, together with computational studies using density functional theory, implicate a shift in electrokinetic zone between Co and Ni hangman porphyrins due to a change in the PCET mechanism. Unlike the Co hangman porphyrin, the Ni hangman porphyrin does not require reduction to the formally metal(0) species before protonation by weak acids in acetonitrile. We conclude that protonation likely occurs at the Ni(I) state followed by reduction, in a stepwise proton transfer–electron transfer pathway. Spectroelectrochemical and computational studies reveal that upon reduction of the Ni(II) compound, the first electron is transferred to a metal-based orbital, whereas the second electron is transferred to a molecular orbital on the porphyrin ring. PMID:25298534

  7. Dust processing in the Carina nebula region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onaka, Takashi; Mori, Tamami I.; Okada, Yoko

    2015-10-01

    Dust processing in the Carina nebula is investigated based on mid- to far-infrared spectroscopy with Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). Mapping observations over a central 40‧ ×20‧ area of the nebula with PHT-S, SWS, and LWS onboard ISO not only reveal spectroscopically that the mid-infrared unidentified infrared (UIR) bands at 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 μm are absent in the ionized region, but also indicate that the 11.3 μm may behave differently from the other three UIR bands near the edge of the ionized region, suggesting a variation either in the size distribution or in the ionization fraction of the band carriers. The correlation of [NII]122 μm and [SiII]35 μm line emissions observed with SWS and LWS is reinvestigated based on the recent atomic data as well as the latest cosmic abundance, suggesting that a large fraction (> 70%), if not all, of silicon returns to the gas phase in the Carina nebula, suggesting that silicates cannot survive under harsh conditions, such as massive star-forming regions. The present observations clearly show dust processing taking place in active regions in the Galaxy.

  8. Physical Parameters of the Pre-WN Candidate HD326823

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Araujo, F. X.; Marcolino, W. L. F.; Borges Fernándes, M.

    2006-06-01

    HD326823 is a massive and luminous star characterized mainly by the presence of very intense HeI emission lines. From qualitative spectroscopic studies it was proposed by Lopes et al. (1992, A&A, 261, 482) and Borges Fernándes et al. (2001, ApJS, 136, 747) that this interesting object is in a pre-WN stage of evolution. In the present work we reinforce this conclusion, thanks to the estimate of its physical parameters like mass loss rate and especially chemical abundances. The data analysed by us were obtained at ESO 2.2-m telescope, with the spectrograph FEROS (R=48000) on April, 2005. The method employed to obtain the parameters is the fitting of HI, HeI and NII emission lines. In order to do this we have used the CMFGEN code, developed by J. Hilliers and colaborators (see, for instance, Hiller & Miller 1998, ApJ, 496, 407). This code is adequate for the modelling of lines produced in an expanding atmosphere and it includes important effects like line-blanketting and clumping. Preliminary results indicate a mass loss rate in the range and a clear overabundance of helium. As nitrogen abundance is concerned, it also indicates a tendency of increased abundance, but the result is not so firm in this case.

  9. Flue-gas and direct-air capture of CO2 by porous metal-organic materials.

    PubMed

    Madden, David G; Scott, Hayley S; Kumar, Amrit; Chen, Kai-Jie; Sanii, Rana; Bajpai, Alankriti; Lusi, Matteo; Curtin, Teresa; Perry, John J; Zaworotko, Michael J

    2017-01-13

    Sequestration of CO2, either from gas mixtures or directly from air (direct air capture), is a technological goal important to large-scale industrial processes such as gas purification and the mitigation of carbon emissions. Previously, we investigated five porous materials, three porous metal-organic materials (MOMs), a benchmark inorganic material, ZEOLITE 13X: and a chemisorbent, TEPA-SBA-15: , for their ability to adsorb CO2 directly from air and from simulated flue-gas. In this contribution, a further 10 physisorbent materials that exhibit strong interactions with CO2 have been evaluated by temperature-programmed desorption for their potential utility in carbon capture applications: four hybrid ultramicroporous materials, SIFSIX-3-CU: , DICRO-3-NI-I: , SIFSIX-2-CU-I: and MOOFOUR-1-NI: ; five microporous MOMs, DMOF-1: , ZIF-8: , MIL-101: , UIO-66: and UIO-66-NH2: ; an ultramicroporous MOM, NI-4-PYC: The performance of these MOMs was found to be negatively impacted by moisture. Overall, we demonstrate that the incorporation of strong electrostatics from inorganic moieties combined with ultramicropores offers improved CO2 capture performance from even moist gas mixtures but not enough to compete with chemisorbents.This article is part of the themed issue 'Coordination polymers and metal-organic frameworks: materials by design'.

  10. Exercise upregulates salivary amylase in humans (Review)

    PubMed Central

    KOIBUCHI, ERI; SUZUKI, YOSHIO

    2014-01-01

    The secretion of salivary α-amylase is influenced by adrenergic regulation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; thus, exercise affects the levels of salivary α-amylase. Granger et al published a review in 2007 that focused attention on salivary α-amylase. In addition, a portable system for monitoring salivary α-amylase activity was launched in Japan at the end of 2005. The correlation between exercise and salivary α-amylase has since been extensively investigated. The present review summarizes relevant studies published in the English and Japanese literature after 2006. A search of the PubMed and CiNii databases identified 54 articles, from which 15 original articles were selected. The findings described in these publications indicate that exercise consistently increases mean salivary α-amylase activities and concentrations, particularly at an intensity of >70% VO2max in healthy young individuals. Thus, these studies have confirmed that salivary α-amylase levels markedly increase in response to physical stress. Salivary α-amylase levels may therefore serve as an effective indicator in the non-invasive assessment of physical stress. PMID:24669232

  11. Magnetic field measurements in sunspots using spectral lines with different Lande factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozitsky, V.; Osipov, S.

    2017-06-01

    Results of direct measurements of magnetic fields in sunspots are presented. Observations were carried out in June-July 2015 on Horizontal Solar Telescope AtsU-5 of Main Astronomical Observatory of National Academy of Science of Ukraine. Magnetic fields were measured by the Zeeman splitting of some spectral lines of FeI, MnI and NiI placed nearly FeI 5434.5 Å and FeI 6093.66 Å Effective Lande factors of these lines, geff, are in range from -0.22 - 2.14. Significant differences were found both for lines with different and closest values of geff. In some places of sunspots, FeI 5434.5 Å line (geff = -0.014) displays a realible splitting which corresponds to magnetic field strengths up to 2.5 kG. In all cases under study, FeI 6094.419 Å line with negative Lande factor (geff = -0.22) has the sign of splitting as a line with positive Lande factor (geff > 0). The possible reasons of this effect are discussed.

  12. The power absorption and the penetration depth of electromagnetic radiation in lead telluride under cyclotron resonance conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özalp, S.; Güngör, A.

    1999-10-01

    Cyclotron resonance absorption in n- and p-type PbTe was observed by Nii and was analysed under classical skin effect conditions. When the values of DC magnetic field corresponding to peaks are plotted against the field directions, a close fit is obtained between the calculated and observed results based on the assumption of a <1 1 1> ellipsoids of revolution model for the both conduction and valance band extrema. From the best fit mt=0.024 m0 and 0.03 m0 for the transverse effective masses and K= ml/ mt=9.8 and 12.2 for the anisotropic mass rations are obtained for the conduction and valance band, respectively. The observed absorption curve shows weak structures at low magnetic field. They are supposed to be due to second harmonics of Azbel'-Kaner cyclotron resonance. However, it turns out to be unnecessary to introduce other bands to explain the experimental results. The applicability of the classical magneto-optical theory is examined by calculating the power absorption coefficient and penetration depth as a function of DC magnetic field.

  13. National Information Infrastructure Education Forum: A summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.E.; Oliver, C.E.

    1994-05-01

    The National Information Infrastructure (NII) Education Forum was held on October 6-8, 1993, in Arlington, Virginia. The Forum was sponsored by the Office of Scientific Computing, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Its purpose was to discuss technology for K-12 education and what role DOE and its national laboratories could play in developing, disseminating, and using technology for K-12. The Forum brought together over 120 people from across the nation. Participants represented six groups: national laboratories; education research institutions; K-12 teachers and administrators; industry; federal agencies; and other institutions. The Forum consisted of a series of structured presentations from each of these six groups; technology demonstrations; and open, small group discussions. The presentations covered the following: important K-12 education and computing issues, national laboratory capabilities, other federal sector initiatives, and industry perspectives. The demonstration room had over 20 computers networked to the Internet. Workshop participants were shown (1) how to use the Internet to access resources anywhere in the world, (2) state-of-the-art network video teleconferencing technology, (3) multi-media technology, and (4) various other educational software systems.

  14. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 12 (International Insignia Corp -Korea Guano Co Ltd)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    4.- 4 I N4C~ It 0.(0 It ~-4 -4 - -4 N-4I -4 -1NI.I. . IC1,1 IN4 𔃾 00 It 1 L-L.L aULA - U- LA- wo Lj.4ɜɜɜɜɜɜɜ< 1< LL4 4 ɘ( ɜ < lf Umi It...8217)\\S ONz 1-C’ LO)Z* LNz zz z 1-l .4 5z 1000 U I(4 11 Co. ɘ - tic - CLO 0 10 Z 1. 04 O O O 0O I * O- (04 In 000) 0 (7.1 0 ) 00 0 )000000M 04 4) 1 moo t...6 -1 -ILil ’-4. ’-0 1-4411m 1-4 (n (0 Z 00 00 0 -0 00 4 0 w~ -4 I -(0 -1 0-1 > 0 C. 00I (𔃻 140 (0 00 0 00 , NO Co.aI0- to N 0 ZO -1 tiC xC0C 0 0-0

  15. SBSPKS: structure based sequence analysis of polyketide synthases

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Swadha; Prasad, M. V. R.; Yadav, Gitanjali; Kumar, Narendra; Shehara, Jyoti; Ansari, Md. Zeeshan; Mohanty, Debasisa

    2010-01-01

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) catalyze biosynthesis of a diverse family of pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites. Bioinformatics analysis of sequence and structural features of PKS proteins plays a crucial role in discovery of new natural products by genome mining, as well as in design of novel secondary metabolites by biosynthetic engineering. The availability of the crystal structures of various PKS catalytic and docking domains, and mammalian fatty acid synthase module prompted us to develop SBSPKS software which consists of three major components. Model_3D_PKS can be used for modeling, visualization and analysis of 3D structure of individual PKS catalytic domains, dimeric structures for complete PKS modules and prediction of substrate specificity. Dock_Dom_Anal identifies the key interacting residue pairs in inter-subunit interfaces based on alignment of inter-polypeptide linker sequences to the docking domain structure. In case of modular PKS with multiple open reading frames (ORFs), it can predict the cognate order of substrate channeling based on combinatorial evaluation of all possible interface contacts. NRPS–PKS provides user friendly tools for identifying various catalytic domains in the sequence of a Type I PKS protein and comparing them with experimentally characterized PKS/NRPS clusters cataloged in the backend databases of SBSPKS. SBSPKS is available at http://www.nii.ac.in/sbspks.html. PMID:20444870

  16. Neuropathology of some hereditary conditions affecting central and peripheral nervous system.

    PubMed

    Martin, J J; Ceuterick, C

    2002-03-01

    Neuropathology plays a crucial role in the phenotypic individualization of hereditary disorders affecting the central and peripheral nervous system even if molecular genetics represents the most essential step in describing the genotypes. The neuropathological description of phenotypes and genotypes can be used for refining clinical skills and understanding many clinical, neurophysiological and neuroradiological features. It contributes to the diagnosis of such disorders. The use of immunohistochemical techniques in combination with molecular genetics improves also our knowledge of their pathogenesis and might participate to the future development of therapeutic strategies. We discuss new features of spino-cerebellar ataxia (SCA) type 7 and of a recently identified SCA17 in order to illustrate the significance of the neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NIIs) described in various CAG/polyglutamine repeat expansion diseases. In the field of the peripheral neuropathies we present data on a newly described autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT4F) with mutations in the periaxin gene. We document a dysjunction between myelin loops and axolemma with disappearance of the septate-like junctions or transverse bands. The significance of this dysjunction is not yet elucidated. We hope to show by these examples that the combination of classical and new neuropathological methods is useful in the study of hereditary disorders of the nervous system.

  17. Narrow-Band Imaging and Spatially Resolved Spectra of Nova Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillwig, T. C.; Honeycutt, R. K.; Shore, S. N.

    2000-12-01

    Observations of nova shells were made at the WIYN Observatory using the WIYN Imager, the ``naked'' DensePak fiber array, and a Barlow 4x magnifying assembly used with DensePak. DensePak was used to obtain spatially resolved spectra of several nova shells at wavelengths including the Hα , Hβ , [OIII], and [NII] emission lines. The purpose is to derive true shapes and sizes of the nova shells, velocity structure, and abundance structure. The ability to spatially resolve the shell with spectroscopy, with the accuracy and resolution available to DensePak is a useful and unique tool. The velocity structure of the shell provides data which can be compared to models of expected shell structure. Measuring abundances in different, spatially resolved portions of the shell can give indications of the cause of the structure. For example, in shaping by a fast wind, we may expect to see different abundances in the slowly moving ejected material than in the material comprising the fast wind (which becomes apparent in planetary nebulae with wind-blown bubbles). Imaging also provides, along with comparison to velocity structure, an additional constraint on the determination of parallax distances, and the narrow-band imaging can supply estimates of excitation levels in various regions of the shells. All of these are important contributors to the determination of the physical mechanism responsible for the nova shell structure. The first phase of this research is presented here.

  18. The SPT+ALMA CO Redshift Survey of Dusty Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Joaquin

    2017-06-01

    In a 2500 square degree cosmological survey, the South Pole Telescope has systematically identified a large number (100) of high-redshift strongly gravitationally lensed sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs). We are conducting a unique spectroscopic redshift survey with ALMA, targeting carbon monoxide (CO) line emission in these sources, across the 3mm spectral window. To date, we have obtained spectroscopic redshifts for 54 sources from 1.84 and extends into the epoch of re-ionization. Once we determine the redshift for these sources, we are able to obtain high-resolution CO, [CII], [NII], H_2O, OH, and HCN for these sources with ALMA, making this the largest and most well-studied samples of high-redshift starburst galaxies. We are undertaking a comprehensive and systematic followup campaign to use these ``cosmic magnifying glasses'' to study the physical conditions and chemical evolution of the dust-obscured universe in unprecedented detail. I will describe our team's method for obtaining and confirming spectroscopic redshifts, detail our current knowledge of the redshifts distribution of SMGs, present a method for selecting the highest redshift SMGs, describe our high-resolution imaging of molecular lines, and discuss future directions for obtaining large samples of mm-wave spectra.

  19. Gas and Stellar Kinematics in the Giant Spiral Galaxy NGC 1961

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacash, Brian; Pinkney, Jason

    2009-04-01

    Long-slit spectroscopy and CCD imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope and the MDM Observatory is presented for the massive spiral galaxy NGC 1961. We aimed to measure the mass of the central supermassive black hole (SMBH). We have developed our own software for spectral extraction and for the fitting of absorption and emission lines. The program subtracts the absorption-line (stellar) component from the emission-line spectra to improve the fidelity of our emission line measurements. We present our line centroids (velocities), widths (velocity dispersions), and strengths for the most prominent emission lines (Hα, [NII], and [SII]). The rotation curve from the ground-based data is in good agreement with previous work by Rubin (1979); its asymmetric appearance suggests a tidal interaction or merger. We use the rotation curve and surface photometry to estimate the enclosed mass profile of the galaxy. The emission lines near the nucleus broaden indicating more intrinsic dispersion than expected for a cold, gas disk. We estimate the BH mass using simple gas disk models. However, the high dispersion and the asymmetry in its inner rotation curve suggest that this approach is unreliable.

  20. Spin tuning of electron-doped metal-phthalocyanine layers.

    PubMed

    Stepanow, Sebastian; Lodi Rizzini, Alberto; Krull, Cornelius; Kavich, Jerald; Cezar, Julio C; Yakhou-Harris, Flora; Sheverdyaeva, Polina M; Moras, Paolo; Carbone, Carlo; Ceballos, Gustavo; Mugarza, Aitor; Gambardella, Pietro

    2014-04-09

    The spin state of organic-based magnets at interfaces is to a great extent determined by the organic environment and the nature of the spin-carrying metal center, which is further subject to modifications by the adsorbate-substrate coupling. Direct chemical doping offers an additional route for tailoring the electronic and magnetic characteristics of molecular magnets. Here we present a systematic investigation of the effects of alkali metal doping on the charge state and crystal field of 3d metal ions in Cu, Ni, Fe, and Mn phthalocyanine (Pc) monolayers adsorbed on Ag. Combined X-ray absorption spectroscopy and ligand field multiplet calculations show that Cu(II), Ni(II), and Fe(II) ions reduce to Cu(I), Ni(I), and Fe(I) upon alkali metal adsorption, whereas Mn maintains its formal oxidation state. The strength of the crystal field at the Ni, Fe, and Mn sites is strongly reduced upon doping. The combined effect of these changes is that the magnetic moment of high- and low-spin ions such as Cu and Ni can be entirely turned off or on, respectively, whereas the magnetic configuration of MnPc can be changed from intermediate (3/2) to high (5/2) spin. In the case of FePc a 10-fold increase of the orbital magnetic moment accompanies charge transfer and a transition to a high-spin state.

  1. Role of pendant proton relays and proton-coupled electron transfer on the hydrogen evolution reaction by nickel hangman porphyrins

    SciTech Connect

    Bediako, D. Kwabena; Solis, Brian H.; Dogutan, Dilek K.; Roubelakis, Manolis M.; Maher, Andrew G.; Lee, Chang Hoon; Chambers, Matthew B.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon; Nocera, Daniel G.

    2014-10-08

    Here, the hangman motif provides mechanistic insights into the role of pendant proton relays in governing proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) involved in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). We now show improved HER activity of Ni compared with Co hangman porphyrins. Cyclic voltammogram data and simulations, together with computational studies using density functional theory, implicate a shift in electrokinetic zone between Co and Ni hangman porphyrins due to a change in the PCET mechanism. Unlike the Co hangman porphyrin, the Ni hangman porphyrin does not require reduction to the formally metal(0) species before protonation by weak acids in acetonitrile. We conclude that protonation likely occurs at the Ni(I) state followed by reduction, in a stepwise proton transfer–electron transfer pathway. Spectroelectrochemical and computational studies reveal that upon reduction of the Ni(II) compound, the first electron is transferred to a metal-based orbital, whereas the second electron is transferred to a molecular orbital on the porphyrin ring.

  2. Visual Communications for Heterogeneous Networks/Visually Optimized Scalable Image Compression. Final Report for September 1, 1995 - February 28, 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Hemami, S. S.

    2003-06-03

    The authors developed image and video compression algorithms that provide scalability, reconstructibility, and network adaptivity, and developed compression and quantization strategies that are visually optimal at all bit rates. The goal of this research is to enable reliable ''universal access'' to visual communications over the National Information Infrastructure (NII). All users, regardless of their individual network connection bandwidths, qualities-of-service, or terminal capabilities, should have the ability to access still images, video clips, and multimedia information services, and to use interactive visual communications services. To do so requires special capabilities for image and video compression algorithms: scalability, reconstructibility, and network adaptivity. Scalability allows an information service to provide visual information at many rates, without requiring additional compression or storage after the stream has been compressed the first time. Reconstructibility allows reliable visual communications over an imperfect network. Network adaptivity permits real-time modification of compression parameters to adjust to changing network conditions. Furthermore, to optimize the efficiency of the compression algorithms, they should be visually optimal, where each bit expended reduces the visual distortion. Visual optimality is achieved through first extensive experimentation to quantify human sensitivity to supra-threshold compression artifacts and then incorporation of these experimental results into quantization strategies and compression algorithms.

  3. An estimation of the average residence times and onshore-offshore diffusivities of beached microplastics based on the population decay of tagged meso- and macrolitter.

    PubMed

    Hinata, Hirofumi; Mori, Keita; Ohno, Kazuki; Miyao, Yasuyuki; Kataoka, Tomoya

    2017-09-15

    Residence times of microplastics were estimated based on the dependence of meso- and macrolitter residence times on their upward terminal velocities (UTVs) in the ocean obtained by one- and two-year mark-recapture experiments conducted on Wadahama Beach, Nii-jima Island, Japan. A significant linear relationship between the residence time and UTV was found in the velocity range of about 0.3-0.9ms(-1), while there was no significant difference between the residence times obtained in the velocity range of about 0.9-1.4ms(-1). This dependence on the UTV would reflect the uprush-backwash response of the target items to swash waves on the beach. By extrapolating the linear relationship down to the velocity range of microplastics, the residence times of microplastics and the 1D onshore-offshore diffusion coefficients were inferred, and are one to two orders of magnitude greater than the coefficients of the macroplastics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The federal role in the health information infrastructure: a debate of the pros and cons of government intervention.

    PubMed Central

    Shortliffe, E H; Bleich, H L; Caine, C G; Masys, D R; Simborg, D W

    1996-01-01

    Some observers feel that the federal government should play a more active leadership role in educating the medical community and in coordinating and encouraging a more rapid and effective implementation of clinically relevant applications of wide-area networking. Other people argue that the private sector is recognizing the importance of these issues and will, when the market demands it, adopt and enhance the telecommunications systems that are needed to produce effective uses of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) by the healthcare community. This debate identifies five areas for possible government involvement: convening groups for the development of standards; providing funding for research and development; ensuring the equitable distribution of resources, particularly to places and people considered by private enterprise to provide low opportunities for profit; protecting rights of privacy, intellectual property, and security; and overcoming the jurisdictional barriers to cooperation, particularly when states offer conflicting regulations. Arguments against government involvement include the likely emergence of an adequate infrastructure under free market forces, the often stifling effect of regulation, and the need to avoid a common-and-control mentality in an infrastructure that is best promoted collaboratively. PMID:8816347

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: S7 observations with WiFeS of active galaxies (Dopita+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dopita, M. A.; Shastri, P.; Davies, R.; Kewley, L.; Hampton, E.; Scharwachter, J.; Sutherland, R.; Kharb, P.; Jose, J.; Bhatt, H.; Ramya, S.; Jin, C.; Banfield, J.; Zaw, I.; Juneau, S.; James, B.; Srivastava, S.

    2015-04-01

    Here we describe the Siding Spring Southern Seyfert Spectroscopic Snapshot Survey (S7) and present results on 64 galaxies drawn from the first data release. The S7 uses the Wide Field Spectrograph (WiFeS) mounted on the ANU 2.3m telescope located at the Siding Spring Observatory to deliver an integral field of 38x25 arcsec at a spectral resolution of R=7000 in the red (530-710nm), and R=3000 in the blue (340-560nm). From these data cubes we have extracted the narrow-line region spectra from a 4 arcsec aperture centered on the nucleus. We also determine the Hβ and [OIII]λ5007 fluxes in the narrow lines, the nuclear reddening, the reddening-corrected relative intensities of the observed emission lines, and the Hβ and [OIII]λ5007 luminosities determined from spectra for which the stellar continuum has been removed. We present a set of images of the galaxies in [OIII]λ5007, [NII]λ6584, and Hα, which serve to delineate the spatial extent of the extended narrow-line region and also to reveal the structure and morphology of the surrounding HII regions. Finally, we provide a preliminary discussion of those Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies that display coronal emission lines in order to explore the origin of these lines. (3 data files).

  6. Control of spoilage fungi by protective lactic acid bacteria displaying probiotic properties.

    PubMed

    Varsha, Kontham Kulangara; Priya, Sulochana; Devendra, Leena; Nampoothiri, Kesavan Madhavan

    2014-04-01

    Thirty-six lactic acid bacteria belong to Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, and Pediococcus were isolated, and the spectrum of antifungal activity was verified against Fusarium oxysporum (KACC 42109), Aspergillus niger (KACC 42589), Fusarium moniliforme (KACC 08141), Penicillium chrysogenum (NII 08137), and the yeast Candida albicans (MTCC 3017). Three isolates, identified as Pediococcus pentosaceus (TG2), Lactobacillus casei (DY2), and Lactococcus (BSN) were selected further, and their antifungal compounds were identified by ESI-MS and HPLC analysis as a range of carboxylic acids along with some unidentified, higher molecular weight compounds. An attempt to check out the shelf life extension of wheat bread without fungal spoilage was performed by fermenting the dough with the Lactococcus isolate. Apart from growth in low pH and tolerance to bile salts, probiotic potential of these three isolates was further substantiated by in vitro screening methods that include transit tolerance to the conditions in the upper human gastrointestinal tract and bacterial adhesion capacity to human intestinal cell lines.

  7. novPTMenzy: a database for enzymes involved in novel post-translational modifications

    PubMed Central

    Khater, Shradha; Mohanty, Debasisa

    2015-01-01

    With the recent discoveries of novel post-translational modifications (PTMs) which play important roles in signaling and biosynthetic pathways, identification of such PTM catalyzing enzymes by genome mining has been an area of major interest. Unlike well-known PTMs like phosphorylation, glycosylation, SUMOylation, no bioinformatics resources are available for enzymes associated with novel and unusual PTMs. Therefore, we have developed the novPTMenzy database which catalogs information on the sequence, structure, active site and genomic neighborhood of experimentally characterized enzymes involved in five novel PTMs, namely AMPylation, Eliminylation, Sulfation, Hydroxylation and Deamidation. Based on a comprehensive analysis of the sequence and structural features of these known PTM catalyzing enzymes, we have created Hidden Markov Model profiles for the identification of similar PTM catalyzing enzymatic domains in genomic sequences. We have also created predictive rules for grouping them into functional subfamilies and deciphering their mechanistic details by structure-based analysis of their active site pockets. These analytical modules have been made available as user friendly search interfaces of novPTMenzy database. It also has a specialized analysis interface for some PTMs like AMPylation and Eliminylation. The novPTMenzy database is a unique resource that can aid in discovery of unusual PTM catalyzing enzymes in newly sequenced genomes. Database URL: http://www.nii.ac.in/novptmenzy.html PMID:25931459

  8. The Far Infrared Spectroscopic Explorer (FIRSPEX): probing the lifecycle of the ISM in the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigopoulou, D.; Caldwell, M.; Ellison, B.; Pearson, C.; Caux, E.; Cooray, A.; Gallego, J. D.; Gerin, M.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Goldsmith, P.; Kramer, C.; Lis, D. C.; Molinari, S.; Ossenkopf-Okada, V.; Savini, G.; Tan, B. K.; Tielens, X.; Viti, S.; Wiedner, M.; Yassin, G.

    2016-07-01

    The Far Infrared Spectroscopic Explorer (FIRSPEX) is a novel European-led astronomy mission concept developed to enable large area ultra high spectroscopic resolution surveys in the THz regime. FIRSPEX opens up a relatively unexplored spectral and spatial parameter space that will produce an enormously significant scientific legacy by focusing on the properties of the multi-phase ISM, the assembly of molecular clouds in our Galaxy and the onset of star formation; topics which are fundamental to our understanding of galaxy evolution. The mission uses a heterodyne instrument and a ~1.2 m primary antenna to scan large areas of the sky in a number of discreet spectroscopic channels from L2. The FIRSPEX bands centered at [CI] 809 GHz, [NII]1460 GHz, [CII]1900 GHz and [OI]4700 GHz have been carefully selected to target key atomic and ionic fine structure transitions difficult or impossible to access from the ground but fundamental to the study of the multi-phase ISM in the Universe. The need for state-of-the-art sensitivity dictates the use of superconducting mixers configured either as tunnel junctions or hot electron bolometers. This technology requires cooling to low temperatures, approaching 4K, in order to operate. The receivers will operate in double sideband configuration providing a total of 7 pixels on the sky. FIRSPEX will operate from L2 in both survey and pointed mode enabling velocity resolved spectroscopy of large areas of sky as well as targeted observations.

  9. Mapping the Extent of M82's outlfows with VIRUS-P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indahl, Briana; Hill, Gary J.; Drory, Niv; McLinden, Emily

    2017-06-01

    Starburst-driven outflows (SBDOs) and other feedback processes play a critical role in the evolution of galaxies through the regulation and disruption of star formation. However, our ability to observe and quantify feedback from SBDOs directly has been limited by the inability to obtain the spectroscopy needed for physical diagnostics over the large areas of local SBDOs. We present integral field spectroscopy taken with the George and Cynthia Mitchell Spectrograph (VIRUS-P) on the 2.7 meter Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory mapping the full extent of M82’s northern outflow out to ~12kpc covering ~139 square arcminutes. We measured line ratios ([OIII]/Hβ, [OI]/Hα, [NII]/Hα), [SII]/Hα) for each spaxel in our fields. Using Ionization Diagnostic Diagrams (IDDs) we spatially map shock dominated regions which we show trace the biconical structure of the outflow. M82 is a local galaxy (z~0.000677) and the classical example of a starburst galaxy with vigorous outflows. As a result it has been comprehensively studied for nearly 50 years. However, we present the most sensitive and extensive map of the warm ionized gas to date from the disk to the Hα cap at ~12kpc.

  10. Weak hydrogen bond topology in 1,1-difluoroethane dimer: A rotational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junhua; Zheng, Yang; Wang, Juan; Feng, Gang; Xia, Zhining; Gou, Qian

    2017-09-01

    The rotational spectrum of the 1,1-difluoroethane dimer has been investigated by pulsed-jet Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Two most stable isomers have been detected, which are both stabilized by a network of three C—H⋯F—C weak hydrogen bonds: in the most stable isomer, two difluoromethyl C—H groups and one methyl C—H group act as the weak proton donors whilst in the second isomer, two methyl C—H groups and one difluoromethyl C—H group act as the weak proton donors. For the global minimum, the measurements have also been extended to its four 13C isotopologues in natural abundance, allowing a precise, although partial, structural determination. Relative intensity measurements on a set of μa-type transitions allowed estimating the relative population ratio of the two isomers as NI/NII ˜ 6/1 in the pulsed jet, indicating a much larger energy gap between these two isomers than that expected from ab initio calculation, consistent with the result from pseudo-diatomic dissociation energies estimation.

  11. Narrow-band Imagery of the ISM using the RCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, D. K.; Gelderman, R.; Guinan, E.; Howell, S.; Mattox, J. R.; McGruder, C. H., III; Davis, D.; Everett, M.

    2003-05-01

    We present the first results of imaging the Interstellar Medium (ISM) using narrow-band filters with the Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT). The RCT is the recently refurbished 1.3-meter telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory. Details regarding the RCT can be found elsewhere at this meeting (Gelderman, R. et al.). Our filters are centered on diagnostic, nebular emission lines of the ions H+, He+, S+, N+ and O++. Objects of interest in the galactic and extragalactic ISM were observed including the starburst galaxy NGC 4449. Ionization ratio maps include [OIII]/Hβ, [NII]/Hα and the C(Hβ) extinction map from the ratio of Hα/Hβ. Electron densities are derived from the ratio of images taken through filters centered on the sulfur lines at 671.7 and 673.1 nm. Refurbishment of the RCT has been made possible by NASA NAG 58-762. Funding for filters and additional equipment has been made possible by NASA OSS NAG 5-10145 and NASA MU-SPIN NCC 5-534.

  12. Defining information security education, training, and awareness needs using electronic meeting space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schou, Corey D.; Frost, James; Wingert, Nathan; Maconachy, W. V.

    1999-01-01

    The United States is at target. For those of us who grew up curing the cold war this is not news; however, the threat is different than it has been in the past. Now it may be another super power or it may be a teenage child with a personal computer. Both government and civilian entities are potential targets. The national information infrastructure (NII) is the real target. The determined hacker can bring down not only government systems, but the power-grid, the financial system, or the air traffic control system as well. All organizations must be aware of the threat and be prepared to react appropriately. Of course, the federal government has begun to protect their critical systems. However, many American corporations have not yet fully protected their systems. Since there is a common threat, common standards for countermeasures are applicable. This paper reports on the use of an electronic meeting room technology by government, industry, and academia to establish a national training standard. If you are a CIO or advise one about security matters, these standards are important.

  13. ZEUS-2: a second generation submillimeter grating spectrometer for exploring distant galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Nikola, Thomas; Parshley, Stephen C.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Irwin, Kent D.; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Halpern, Mark

    2010-07-01

    ZEUS-2, the second generation (z)Redshift and Early Universe Spectrometer, like its predecessor is a moderate resolution (R~1000) long-slit, echelle grating spectrometer optimized for the detection of faint, broad lines from distant galaxies. It is designed for studying star-formation across cosmic time. ZEUS-2 employs three TES bolometer arrays (555 pixels total) to deliver simultaneous, multi-beam spectra in up to 4 submillimeter windows. The NIST Boulder-built arrays operate at ~100mK and are readout via SQUID multiplexers and the Multi-Channel Electronics from the University of British Columbia. The instrument is cooled via a pulse-tube cooler and two-stage ADR. Various filter configurations give ZEUS-2 access to 7 different telluric windows from 200 to 850 micron enabling the simultaneous mapping of lines from extended sources or the simultaneous detection of the 158 micron [CII] line and the [NII] 122 or 205 micron lines from z = 1-2 galaxies. ZEUS-2 is designed for use on the CSO, APEX and possibly JCMT.

  14. Observing Nearby Galaxies with CCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armus, Lee; Stacey, G. J.; Wilson, C.; Bolatto, A. D.; Rangwala, N.; Nikola, T.; Kauffmann, J.; Bertoldi, F.; Glenn, J.; CCAT Team

    2013-01-01

    CCAT, with its 25m primary, advanced detectors and fast mapping speed will be extremely adept at deep, large-scale surveys for distant, dusty galaxies in the early Universe, and the most deeply buried star-forming complexes in the Milky Way. However, since it will also be sensitive to low surface brightness emission from diffuse dust, and the key far-infrared and mm cooling lines of the ISM, CCAT will also be a superb telescope for studying nearby galaxies in exquisite detail. For the nearest systems (e.g. M83), CCAT will be able to produce diffraction-limited maps in the mid-J CO rotational lines, and the [CI] and [NII] fine-structure lines on physical scales approaching those of individual molecular clouds. For samples of luminous starburst galaxies out to 0.3-0.5, CCAT will offer unprecedented sensitivity and spatial resolution in the high-J CO lines which are critical for pinpointing X-ray dissociation regions heated by AGN. Here, we will outline the strong scientific case for using CCAT to map the cold dust, the molecular gas and the ionized and atomic interstellar medium in local galaxies.

  15. Development of the 2nd Generation Redshift(z) and Early Universe Spectrometer and the Detailed Study of Far-IR Fine-Structure Lines in High-z Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Brisbin, D.; Nikola, T.; Parshley, S.; Stacey, G. J.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S. J.; Irwin, K. D.; Cho, H.; Niemack, M.; Benford, D. J.; Staguhn, J.; Phillips, T. G.; Falgarone, E.

    2013-01-01

    The 2nd generation Redshift(z) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-2), is a long-slit echelle grating spectrometer ( 1000) for observations at submillimeter wavelengths from 200 to 850 μm. Its design is optimized for the detection of redshifted far-infrared spectral lines from galaxies in the early universe. Combined with its exquisite sensitivity, broad wavelength coverage, and large 2.5%) instantaneous bandwidth, ZEUS-2 is uniquely suited for studying galaxies between 0.2 and 5—spanning the peaks in both the star formation rate and AGN activity in the universe. ZEUS-2 saw first light at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) in the spring of 2012 and was commissioned on the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) this past November. Here we report on the instrument development and performance as well as initial scientific results from the APEX commissioning. We also discuss our ZEUS-1 (the first generation Redshift(z) and Early Universe Spectrometer) detections of the [NII] 122 μm and [OIII] 88 μm lines from starburst galaxies at redshifts between ~2.5 and 4. These are the first high-z detections of these lines and they are examples of work we plan to continue with ZEUS-2. As such, they demonstrate the potential of ZEUS-2 for increasing our understanding of galaxies and galaxy evolution over cosmic time.

  16. Probing Star Formation in the Early Universe with Far-IR Spectroscopy using ZEUS-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwas, Amit; Ferkinhoff, Carl; Nikola, Thomas; Parshley, Stephen; Schoenwald, Justin Paul; Stacey, Gordon J.; Higdon, James L.; Higdon, Sarah; Brisbin, Drew; Verma, Aprajita; Riechers, Dominik A.; Hailey-Dunsheath, Steve; Menten, Karl; Güsten, Rolf; Weiss, Axel; Irwin, Kent; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Niemack, Michael D.; Halpern, Mark; Amiri, Mandana; Hasselfield, Matthew; Wiebe, Donald V.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Tucker, Carole E.

    2015-01-01

    ZEUS-2 is a long slit, direct detection, grating spectrometer for submillimeter wavelengths between 200-850 μm. At present, ZEUS-2 employs a single TES bolometer array that addresses only the 350 and 450 μm windows. Here we report the first science obtained with this array on the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) telescope, and our progress towards implementing a second TES array that will open up the 200, 230, 640, 850 μm windows for direct detection spectroscopy on APEX.Our investigations focus on detecting faint and broad far-infrared (FIR) fine structure lines of ionized carbon [CII] at 158 μm, nitrogen [NII] at 122 and 205 μm and doubly ionized oxygen [OIII] at 52 and 88 μm from distant galaxies as the lines are redshifted into the submm telluric windows. We are primarily interested in the redshift 1 to 4 interval which encompasses the epoch of maximum star formation rate per unit co-moving volume in the Universe. These far infrared lines are important gas coolants, and powerful probes of the physical conditions of the interstellar medium and the starlight that heats the gas. Here we report detections of the [CII] and [OIII] 88 μm lines from sources at redshift 1.8 to 4.3, and show how the lines can be used to trace both the spatial extent of the star formation and the hardness of the ambient radiation fields.

  17. The ZINGRS Radio Survey: Probing metallicities at high-z with far-IR fine-structure lines and the radio continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Higdon, Sarah; Higdon, James L.; Tidwell, Hannah; Rangel, Miguel; Vishwas, Amit; Nikola, Thomas; Stacey, Gordon J.; Brisbin, Drew

    2017-01-01

    The present day Universe is rich in metals that enable efficient cooling of gas in the ISM in order to form stars, create planets and make the building blocks of life as we know it. The Universe did not start in this state - we know that metals had to build up over time with successive generations of stars. Revealing the details of this evolution, however, is challenging and requires probes of metallicity that are not susceptible to dust extinction nor exhibit the degeneracies common to tracers in the visible regime. One possible indicator combines the far-IR fine structure lines with the radio continuum. Recently we have undertaken a multi-band radio continuum survey with the JVLA of high-z galaxies from ZINGRS. These observations will constrain the galaxies’ thermal and nonthermal radio emissions and demonstrate the use of far-IR lines together with radio continuum as a metallicity indicator. ZINGRS, the ZEUS 1 and 2 INvestigated Galaxy Reference Sample, includes ~30 galaxies from z ~ 1 - 4.5 for which the far-IR fine-structure lines (e.g. [CII] 158, [NII] 122, [OIII] 88) have been observed with the ZEUS-1 and 2 instruments. This is the largest collection of far-IR fine-structure line detections at high-z and is ideal for demonstrating the use of this new indicator. Here we describe the theory behind the new indicator, give an overview of ZINGRS, and report on the status of our radio survey.

  18. Discovery of a high velocity, spatially extended emission ``shell'' in front of the southeast lobe of the eta Carinae Homunculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, D. G.; Dorland, B. N.; Kaufer, A.

    2002-07-01

    We report the discovery of the eta Carinae ``Ghost Shell,'' a high-velocity, spatially extended emission feature that lies in front of the southeast lobe of the eta Carinae Homunculus. Using data obtained with ``Kueyen,'' one of the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope 8.2 m telescopes and its Ultraviolet and Visible Echelle Spectrograph instrument, we have observed a structure in velocity space of width ~35 km s-1 and with Doppler velocities ranging from -675 <= v <= -850 km s-1. This is up to 500 km s-1 faster than the Homunculus front wall. The structure is distinct from the front wall in velocity space, and extends beyond the Homunculus' spatial boundaries. The Ghost Shell has been detected in emission for multiple allowed Balmer lines and in forbidden lines of [NII], [SII], and [ArIII]. The feature is also associated with a complex absorption structure in Ca H and K lines. We propose that the Ghost Shell lies outside the Homunculus and represents the forward shock between the fast stellar wind of the Great Eruption epoch and the older slow massive stellar wind. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory at Paranal, Chile (UVES commissioning II).

  19. Weak hydrogen bond topology in 1,1-difluoroethane dimer: A rotational study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junhua; Zheng, Yang; Wang, Juan; Feng, Gang; Xia, Zhining; Gou, Qian

    2017-09-07

    The rotational spectrum of the 1,1-difluoroethane dimer has been investigated by pulsed-jet Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Two most stable isomers have been detected, which are both stabilized by a network of three C-H⋯F-C weak hydrogen bonds: in the most stable isomer, two difluoromethyl C-H groups and one methyl C-H group act as the weak proton donors whilst in the second isomer, two methyl C-H groups and one difluoromethyl C-H group act as the weak proton donors. For the global minimum, the measurements have also been extended to its four (13)C isotopologues in natural abundance, allowing a precise, although partial, structural determination. Relative intensity measurements on a set of μa-type transitions allowed estimating the relative population ratio of the two isomers as NI/NII ∼ 6/1 in the pulsed jet, indicating a much larger energy gap between these two isomers than that expected from ab initio calculation, consistent with the result from pseudo-diatomic dissociation energies estimation.

  20. Completing comprehensive survey of star formation and metallicity at z~1.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    We propose to complete our ongoing FMOS program (S12A-026) to comprehensively study star formation and metallicity at z~1.5, since two thirds of the time allocated in April 2012 was lost because of poor conditions. Star formation activity and metal enrichment can provide us with important clues to understand processes of galaxy evolution. However, current measurements of such properties for galaxies at z~1.5 have large uncertainties and are biased toward massive galaxies due to the lack of spectroscopic samples with major nebular emission lines in rest-frame optical wavelengths. We thus plan to conduct deep NIR spectroscopy of [OII] emitters at z=1.47 and 1.62 in the Subaru Deep Field (SDF), aiming to detect all of H beta, [OIII], H alpha, and [NII] lines for star-forming galaxies in the epoch when galaxies and AGNs are the most active over the cosmic history. The SDF is an ideal field because the deep multi-band data are perfectly matched to what FMOS requires for maximum efficiency. With the full set of major nebular lines, we will reveal (1) star formation activity reliably corrected for dust extinction, (2) gas metallicity, and (3) a contribution of AGNs, and investigate a correlation between them. We finally aim to understand critical processes which play an important role in galaxy evolution.

  1. Comprehensive survey of star formation and metallicity at z~1.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Masao

    2012-06-01

    Star formation activity and metal enrichment can provide us with important clues to understand processes of galaxy evolution. However, current measurements of such properties for galaxies at z~1.5 have large uncertainties and are biased toward massive galaxies due to the lack of spectroscopic samples with major nebular emission lines in rest-frame optical wavelengths. Thus, we propose deep near-infrared spectroscopy of [OII] emitters at z=1.47 and 1.62 in the Subaru Deep Field (SDF) with FMOS. We aim to detect all of H beta, [OIII], H alpha, [NII], and [SII] lines for star-forming galaxies in the epoch when galaxies and AGNs are the most active over the cosmic history. Because the redshifts of targets are already known and nebular emissions can be surely estimated from their [OII] fluxes, the emission line galaxies are ideal targets to address the issue. Also, the SDF is an ideal field because the deep multi-band data are perfectly matched to what FMOS requires for maximum efficiency. With the full set of major nebular lines, we will reveal (1) star formation activity reliably corrected for dust extinction, (2) gas metallicity, and (3) a contribution of AGNs, and investigate a correlation between them. We aim to understand critical processes which play an important role in galaxy evolution.

  2. Broadband Satellite Technologies and Markets Assessed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallett, Thomas M.

    1999-01-01

    The current usage of broadband (data rate greater than 64 kilobits per second (kbs)) for multimedia network computer applications is increasing, and the need for network communications technologies and systems to support this use is also growing. Satellite technology will likely be an important part of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) and the Global Information Infrastructure (GII) in the next decade. Several candidate communications technologies that may be used to carry a portion of the increased data traffic have been reviewed, and estimates of the future demand for satellite capacity have been made. A study was conducted by the NASA Lewis Research Center to assess the satellite addressable markets for broadband applications. This study effort included four specific milestones: (1) assess the changing nature of broadband applications and their usage, (2) assess broadband satellite and terrestrial technologies, (3) estimate the size of the global satellite addressable market from 2000 to 2010, and (4) identify how the impact of future technology developments could increase the utility of satellite-based transport to serve this market.

  3. Completing comprehensive survey of star formation and metallicity at z 1.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Masao

    2014-01-01

    We propose to complete our ongoing FMOS program (S12A-026) to comprehensively study star formation and metallicity at z~1.5, since two thirds of the time allocated in April 2012 was lost because of poor conditions. Star formation activity and metal enrichment can provide us with important clues to understand processes of galaxy evolution. However, current measurements of such properties for galaxies at z~1.5 have large uncertainties and are biased toward massive galaxies due to the lack of spectroscopic samples with major nebular emission lines in rest-frame optical wavelengths. We thus plan to conduct deep NIR spectroscopy of [OII] emitters at z=1.47 and 1.62 in the Subaru Deep Field (SDF), aiming to detect all of Hβ, [OIII], Hα, and [NII] lines for star-forming galaxies at z~1.5. The SDF is an ideal field because the deep multi-band data are perfectly matched to what FMOS requires for maximum efficiency. With the full set of major nebular lines, we will reveal (1) star formation activity reliably corrected for dust extinction, (2) ionization state of HII regions, (3) gas metallicity, and (4) a contribution of AGNs, and then investigate a correlation between them. We finally aim to understand critical processes which play an important role in galaxy evolution.

  4. Production and application of chemical fibers with special properties for manufacturing composite materials and goods of different usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levit, R.

    1993-01-01

    The development of modern technologies demands the creation of new nonmetallic, fibrous materials with specific properties. The fibers and materials developed by NII 'Chimvolokno', St. Petersburg, can be divided into two groups. The first group includes heat-resistant fibers, fire-resistant fibers, thermotropic fibers, fibers for medical application, and textile structures. The second group contains refractory fibers, chemoresistant and antifriction fibers, fibers on the basis of polyvinyl alcohol, microfiltering films, and paperlike and nonwoven materials. In cooperation with NPO 'Chimvolokno' MYTITSHI, we developed and started producing heat-resistant high-strength fibers on the base of polyhetarearilin and aromatic polyimides (SVM and terlon); heat-resistant fibers on the base of polyemede (aramid); fire-retardant fibers (togilen); chemoresistant and antifriction fibers on the basis of homo and copolymers of polytetrafluoroethylene (polyfen and ftorin); and water soluble, acetylated, and high-modulus fibers from polyvinyl alcohol (vylen). Separate reports will deal with textile structures and thermotropic fibers, as well as with medical fibers. One of the groups of refractory fibers carbon fibers (CF) and the corresponding paperlike nonwoven materials are discussed in detail. Also, composite materials (CM) and their base, which is the subject of the author's research since 1968, is discussed.

  5. Curva de rotación de la Galaxia Eso 321-25

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, R.; Carranza, G.; Ahumada, J.; Arreguine, V.

    Se presenta la curva de rotación de esta galaxia, generada a partir de espectros obtenidos con el Espectrógrafo Multifunción del telescopio de 1.54 m de Bosque Alegre. El análisis de las curvas de velocidad radial obtenidas muestra que el núcleo no coincide con el centro de simetría de las mismas, lo que es consistente con el aspecto morfológico exhibido por la galaxia en imágenes de banda ancha. En estas últimas, el núcleo muestra una estructura peculiar y no coincidiría con el centro geométrico del disco aparente. Los flujos relativos de líneas (Hα /[NII]λ 6583 y [SII]λ 6731/λ 6716) indicarían niveles de excitación y densidad electrónica normales en regiones HII, aún en la zona nuclear. Este trabajo forma parte de un programa de estudio de cinemática, excitación y densidad electrónica del gas ionizado en galaxias peculiares del Atlas de Galaxias Australes de Sérsic.

  6. Shock Energy in Merging Systems: The Elephant in the Room.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kewley, Lisa

    2011-10-01

    The relationship between shocks, star formation and the evolution of merging galaxies is not well understood. We are now poised to gain major insight in this area, thanks to the high resolution narrow-band imaging capabilities of WFC3 and recent major advances in theoretical shock and and photoionization models. Shocks and star formation in merging galaxies are regulated by fundamental physical properties of the ISM such as dust, gas density, ionized gas structure, and the presence of galactic winds and outflows. We aim to uncover the relationship between shocks, galactic winds, and the fundamental ISM properties in two famous mergers NGC 6240 and Arp 220. These two galaxies are currently transitioning from disk galaxies into spheroids and they are close enough to achieve the spatial scales required to resolve individual supernova remnants with WFC3 imaging. We propose to image NGC 6240 and Arp 220 in key shock and photoionization sensitive diagnostic lines [OII], [OIII], H-beta, [NII]+H-alpha, [SII], and {where possible} [OI] to {1} resolve the source of the ionizing radiation field {shocks versus photoionization by hot stars} at spatial scales of 25-35 pc, and {2} map the distribution of the star formation and ionized gas to search for links with merger-driven shocks and large-scale gas flows.

  7. Towards cross-lingual alerting for bursty epidemic events

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Online news reports are increasingly becoming a source for event-based early warning systems that detect natural disasters. Harnessing the massive volume of information available from multilingual newswire presents as many challanges as opportunities due to the patterns of reporting complex spatio-temporal events. Results In this article we study the problem of utilising correlated event reports across languages. We track the evolution of 16 disease outbreaks using 5 temporal aberration detection algorithms on text-mined events classified according to disease and outbreak country. Using ProMED reports as a silver standard, comparative analysis of news data for 13 languages over a 129 day trial period showed improved sensitivity, F1 and timeliness across most models using cross-lingual events. We report a detailed case study analysis for Cholera in Angola 2010 which highlights the challenges faced in correlating news events with the silver standard. Conclusions The results show that automated health surveillance using multilingual text mining has the potential to turn low value news into high value alerts if informed choices are used to govern the selection of models and data sources. An implementation of the C2 alerting algorithm using multilingual news is available at the BioCaster portal http://born.nii.ac.jp/?page=globalroundup. PMID:22166371

  8. Dielectric and electrophoretic properties of wax dispersions in the presence of pour depressants

    SciTech Connect

    Agaev, S.G.; Taranova, L.V.

    1987-05-01

    It appeared to be of interest to evaluate the depressant efficiency of additives on the basis of results obtained in studying electrophoretic and dielectric properties of wax-containing systems when these additives are present. The electrical properties of dispersion of a petroleum paraffin wax (mp 56/sup 0/C) in n-heptane were investigated in the presence of the commercial pour depressants PMD D (specification TU 01-270-68) (a polymethyacrylate) and AzNII (GOST (All-Union State Standard) 8443-57) (condensation product from chlorinated wax and naphthalene), and two ester-type additives synthesized in the laboratory: TyumII 79, which is bis(diacylpentarythritol 4-nitrophthalate) and TyumII 222, which is bis(diacylpentarythritol succinate). The pour depressants TyumII 79 and TyumII 222 are products obtained by condensation of C/sub 21/-C/sub 26/ synthetic fatty acids, pentaerythritol, and a dicarboxylic acid (4-nitrophthalic acid or succinic acid), with component ratio 2.1:1:1 and 2.1:1:0.55, respectively.

  9. Structural phase transitions of sodium nitride at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajenine, G. V.; Wang, X.; Efthimiopoulos, I.; Karmakar, S.; Syassen, K.; Hanfland, M.

    2009-06-01

    The structural evolution of recently characterized sodium nitride Na3N as a function of pressure was investigated at room temperature by the angle-dispersive powder x-ray diffraction in a diamond-anvil cell up to 36 GPa. The rather open cubic anti- ReO3 -type structure stable at ambient pressure is followed by a series of four high-pressure modifications. Along the route, the coordination number for the nitride anion increases from 6 in Na3N-I to 8 in hexagonal Li3N -type Na3N-II , 9 in orthorhombic anti- YF3 -type Na3N-III , 11 in hexagonal Cu3P -type Na3N-IV , and finally 14 in cubic Li3Bi -type Na3N-V structures. The experimental data are compared to the results of total-energy calculations and are discussed with regard to the structural details of the five phases and their equations of state.

  10. Acupuncture for treating sciatica: a systematic review protocol.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zongshi; Liu, Xiaoxu; Yao, Qin; Zhai, Yanbing; Liu, Zhishun

    2015-04-28

    This systematic review aims to assess the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for treating sciatica. The following nine databases will be searched from their inception to 30 October 2014: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), the Chinese Medical Current Content (CMCC), the Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP database), the Wan-Fang Database, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Citation Information by National Institute of Informatics (CiNii). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of acupuncture for sciatica in English, Chinese or Japanese without restriction of publication status will be included. Two researchers will independently undertake study selection, extraction of data and assessment of study quality. Meta-analysis will be conducted after screening of studies. Data will be analysed using risk ratio for dichotomous data, and standardised mean difference or weighted mean difference for continuous data. This systematic review will be disseminated electronically through a peer-reviewed publication or conference presentations. PROSPERO CRD42014015001. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Super Massive Black Holes in Disk Galaxies: HST/STIS Observations for 3 new Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coccato, L.; Sarzi, M.; Corsini, E. M.; Pizzella, A.; Bertola, F.

    We present long-slit HST/STIS measurements of the ionized-gas kinematics in the nucleus of three disk galaxies, namely NGC 2179, NGC 4343, NGC 4435. The sample galaxies have been selected on the basis of their ground-based spectroscopy, for displaying a strong central velocity gradient for the ionized gas, which is consistent with the presence of a circumnuclear Keplerian disk (CNKD, Bertola et al. 1998; Funes et al. 2002) rotating around a super massive black hole (SMBH). For each target galaxy we obtained the Hα and [NII] 6583A kinematics along the major axis and two 0.25'' parallel offset positions. Out of three objects only NGC 4435 turned out to have a disk of ionized gas in regular motion and a regular dust-lane morphology. Preliminary modeling indicates a SMBH mass (MBH) one order of magnitude lower than the one expected from the MBH - αc relation for galaxies (Ferrarese & Merritt 2000; Gebhardt et al. 2000).

  12. Motivational, proteostatic and transcriptional deficits precede synapse loss, gliosis and neurodegeneration in the B6.Htt(Q111/+) model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Bragg, Robert M; Coffey, Sydney R; Weston, Rory M; Ament, Seth A; Cantle, Jeffrey P; Minnig, Shawn; Funk, Cory C; Shuttleworth, Dominic D; Woods, Emily L; Sullivan, Bonnie R; Jones, Lindsey; Glickenhaus, Anne; Anderson, John S; Anderson, Michael D; Dunnett, Stephen B; Wheeler, Vanessa C; MacDonald, Marcy E; Brooks, Simon P; Price, Nathan D; Carroll, Jeffrey B

    2017-02-08

    We investigated the appearance and progression of disease-relevant signs in the B6.Htt(Q111/+) mouse, a genetically precise model of the mutation that causes Huntington's disease (HD). We find that B6.Htt(Q111/+) mice are healthy, show no overt signs of central or peripheral inflammation, and no gross motor impairment as late as 12 months of age. Behaviorally, we find that 4-9 month old B6.Htt(Q111/+) mice have normal activity levels and show no clear signs of anxiety or depression, but do show clear signs of reduced motivation. The neuronal density, neuronal size, synaptic density and number of glia is normal in B6.Htt(Q111/+) striatum, the most vulnerable brain region in HD, up to 12 months of age. Despite this preservation of the synaptic and cellular composition of the striatum, we observe clear progressive, striatal-specific transcriptional dysregulation and accumulation of neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NIIs). Simulation studies suggest these molecular endpoints are sufficiently robust for future preclinical studies, and that B6.Htt(Q111/+) mice are a useful tool for modeling disease-modifying or neuroprotective strategies for disease processes before the onset of overt phenotypes.

  13. Combined Spectroscopic and Electrochemical Detection of a Ni I ---H-N Bonding Interaction with Relevance to Electrocatalytic H 2 Production

    SciTech Connect

    Kochem, Amélie; O'Hagan, Molly; Wiedner, Eric S.; van Gastel, Maurice

    2015-06-03

    The [Ni(PR2NR'2)2]2+ family of complexes are exceptionally active catalysts for proton reduction to H2. In this manuscript, we explore the first protonation step of the proposed catalytic cycle by using a catalytically inactive NiI complex possessing a sterically demanding variation of the ligand. Due to the paramagnetic nature of the NiI oxidation state, the protonated NiI intermediate has been characterized through a combination of cyclic voltammetry, electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy, and hyperfine sublevel correlation (HYSCORE) spectroscopy. Both the electrochemical and spectroscopic studies indicate that the NiI complex is protonated at a pendant amine that is endo to Ni, which suggests the presence of an intramolecular NiI---HN bonding interaction. Using density functional theory, the hydrogen bond was found to involve three doubly-occupied, localized molecular orbitals: the 3dxz, 3dz2, and 3dyz orbitals of nickel. These studies provide the first direct experimental evidence for this critical catalytic intermediate, and implications for catalytic H2 production are discussed.

  14. Medium-resolution studies of extreme ultraviolet emission from N2 by electron impact - Vibrational perturbations and cross sections of the c4-prime 1Sigma(+)u and b-prime 1Sigma(+)u states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajello, Joseph M.; James, Geoffrey K.; Franklin, Brian O.; Shemansky, Donald E.

    1989-01-01

    In a crossed-beam experiment the electron-impact-induced fluorescence spectrum of N2 in the extreme ultraviolet is studied at a spectral resolution of up to 0.03 nm. The optically thin experiment obtained the highest-resolution electron-impact emission spectrum of the Rydberg and valence states of N2. The spectral measurements provide the emission cross sections of each of the vibrational transitions of the Carroll-Yoshino and the Birge-Hopfield-II band systems. Laboratory vibrational-excitation cross sections arising from the mutual perturbation of the c4-prime 1Sigma(+)u and b-prime 1Sigma(+)u states by homogeneous configuration interactions are measured from 10 to 400 eV, and a modified Born approximation analytic model is given for them. The analysis leads to accurate band-system oscillator strengths. The relative emission and excitation cross sections each of the vibrational levels are compared. In addition, low-resolution measurements of the cross section of the atomic dissociation fragments (NI, NII, NIII) from 40 to 102 nm are made, and medium-resolution measurements are made of the emission cross section of the c4 1Pi(u), c5-prime 1Sigma(+)u, c5 1Pi(u), and c6-prime 1Sigma(+)u to X 1Sigma(+)g (0,0) transitions.

  15. A study on an unusual SN2 mechanism in the methylation of benzyne through nickel-complexation.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Makoto; Sakamoto, Yuki; Ogata, Koji; Sumida, Yuto; Sumida, Tomoe; Hosoya, Takamitsu; Nakamura, Shinichiro

    2017-09-28

    In this study, three reaction mechanisms of a benzyne-nickel (Ni) complex ([Ni(C6H4)(dcpe)]) with iodomethane during the methylation process were investigated, namely (a) SN2 reaction of the benzyne-Ni complex with iodomethane, (b) concerted σ-bond metathesis during the bond breaking/forming processes, and (c) oxidative addition of iodomethane to the Ni-center and the subsequent reductive elimination process. DFT calculations revealed that the reaction barrier of the SN2 reaction is slightly lower than those of the other mechanisms. The results of orbital analyses suggest that [Ni(C6H4)(dcpe)] forms a metallacycle structure between benzyne and the Ni(II) (3d(8)) center instead of the η(2)-structure with the Ni(0) (3d(10)) center. The metallacycle structures became inappropriate as the intermediates of oxidative addition in the formation of the Ni(II)-Me bond, avoiding further oxidation to the high-valent Ni(IV). The high free energy along σ-bond metathesis was generated from the steric hindrance, thus invoking methylation and Ni-I bond formation concertedly.

  16. Spectroscopically and spatially resolved optical line emission in the Superantennae (IRAS 19254-7245)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendo, George J.; Clements, David L.; Khan, Sophia A.

    2009-10-01

    We present Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph integral-field spectroscopic observations of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) pair IRAS 19254-7245 (the Superantennae). We resolve Hα, [NII], [OI] and [SII] emission both spatially and spectroscopically, and separate the emission into multiple velocity components. We identify spectral line emission characteristic of star formation associated with both galaxies, broad spectral line emission from the nucleus of the southern progenitor and potential outflows with shock-excited spectral features near both nuclei. We estimate that <~10 per cent of the 24 μm flux density originates from star formation, implying that most of the 24 μm emission originates from the active galactic nuclei in the southern nucleus. We also measure a gas consumption time of ~1 Gyr, which is consistent with other measurements of ULIRGs. Based on observations collected at the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern hemisphere, Chile [080.B-0085]. E-mail: g.bendo@imperial.ac.uk ‡ ALMA fellow.

  17. Hidden Star Formation in High-Velocity Gas Clouds in Clump 2 near the Edge of the CMZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolls, Volker; Smith, Howard Alan; Stark, Antony A.; Martin, Christopher L.; HIGGS Team

    2016-01-01

    The inner Galaxy can be divided into two main regions, the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ; Morris and Serabyn 1996) and the Galactic Bar region. Gas and dust moves from the end points of the Galactic Bar on dust lanes towards the CMZ, where it merges with the gas and dust located on a 100-pc molecular ring. The stream of gas and dust on the dust lanes is not continuous, but fragments into irregularly separated clumps of varying sizes. One of the most significant aggregations of clumps is the Clump 2 region (Roogour 1964, Bania 1977). Although the gas and dust clouds in this region are very dense, they were always considered quiet with no ongoing star formation. Selected regions of Clump 2 were the targets of Herschel HIFI and PACS observations of CO J=7-6, CI, CII, OI, NII, and OIII as part of the Herschel Inner Galactic Gas Survey (HIGGS). This poster will present an update of the ongoing data analysis, which may have yielded some surprising results.

  18. Redox, haem and CO in enzymatic catalysis and regulation

    PubMed Central

    Ragsdale, Stephen W.; Yi, Li; Bender, Güneş; Gupta, Nirupama; Kung, Yan; Yan, Lifen; Stich, Troy A.; Doukov, Tzanko; Leichert, Lars; Jenkins, Paul M.; Bianchetti, Christopher M.; George, Simon J.; Cramer, Stephen P.; Britt, R. David; Jakob, Ursula; Martens, Jeffrey R.; Phillips, George N.; Drennan, Catherine L.

    2013-01-01

    The present paper describes general principles of redox catalysis and redox regulation in two diverse systems. The first is microbial metabolism of CO by the Wood–Ljungdahl pathway, which involves the conversion of CO or H2/CO2 into acetyl-CoA, which then serves as a source of ATP and cell carbon. The focus is on two enzymes that make and utilize CO, CODH (carbon monoxide dehydrogenase) and ACS (acetyl-CoA synthase). In this pathway, CODH converts CO2 into CO and ACS generates acetyl-CoA in a reaction involving Ni·CO, methyl-Ni and acetyl-Ni as catalytic intermediates. A 70 Å (1 Å = 0.1 nm) channel guides CO, generated at the active site of CODH, to a CO ‘cage’ near the ACS active site to sequester this reactive species and assure its rapid availability to participate in a kinetically coupled reaction with an unstable Ni(I) state that was recently trapped by photolytic, rapid kinetic and spectroscopic studies. The present paper also describes studies of two haem-regulated systems that involve a principle of metabolic regulation interlinking redox, haem and CO. Recent studies with HO2 (haem oxygenase-2), a K+ ion channel (the BK channel) and a nuclear receptor (Rev-Erb) demonstrate that this mode of regulation involves a thiol–disulfide redox switch that regulates haem binding and that gas signalling molecules (CO and NO) modulate the effect of haem. PMID:22616859

  19. Variability of the planetary nebula NGC 6572 and its central star during the interval covered by optical observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipova, V. P.; Kostyakova, E. B.; Burlak, M. A.; Esipov, V. F.; Ikonnikova, N. P.

    2014-10-01

    Estimates of relative line intensities available in the literature and integrated H β fluxes of the planetary nebula NGC 6572 during the time covered by optical observations (1938-2013) are compared to search for possible variations. Line intensities measured from observations obtained at the Crimean Station of the Sternberg Astronomical Institute in 2013 are presented, as well as previously unpublished photographic spectroscopic data obtained 1972-2005. Our analysis of all the available data shows that the line intensities do not vary within the observational uncertainties, with the possible exception of the [OIII] 4959 and 5007 Å lines, which show a tendency for their intensity increase with time. This can be interpreted as a manifestation of a temperature increase of the central star, or radial stratification of the [OIII] emission in the nebula, with the latter explanation being less probable. However, stratification is clearly visible in the [OII] and [NII] line intensities. The integrated H β flux is most probably constant at F(H β) = (1.50 ± 0.03) × 10-10 erg cm-2 s-1. A refined estimate of the interstellar extinction toward NGC 6572 has been obtained from radio and optical data, c(H β) = 0.42 ± 0.03. The MAST spectroscopy data were used to derive the central star's UBV magnitudes in 2004. Integrated photoelectric UBV observations of the nebula and central star for 1971-2005 are presented.

  20. Can retired galaxies mimic active galaxies? Clues from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasińska, G.; Vale Asari, N.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Gomes, J. M.; Schlickmann, M.; Mateus, A.; Schoenell, W.; Sodré, L., Jr.; Seagal Collaboration

    2008-11-01

    The classification of galaxies as star forming or active is generally done in the ([OIII]/Hβ, [NII]/Hα) plane. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has revealed that, in this plane, the distribution of galaxies looks like the two wings of a seagull. Galaxies in the right wing are referred to as Seyfert/LINERs, leading to the idea that non-stellar activity in galaxies is a very common phenomenon. Here, we argue that a large fraction of the systems in the right wing could actually be galaxies which stopped forming stars. The ionization in these `retired' galaxies would be produced by hot post-asymptotic giant branch stars and white dwarfs. Our argumentation is based on a stellar population analysis of the galaxies via our STARLIGHT code and on photoionization models using the Lyman continuum radiation predicted for this population. The proportion of LINER galaxies that can be explained in such a way is, however, uncertain. We further show how observational selection effects account for the shape of the right wing. Our study suggests that nuclear activity may not be as common as thought. If retired galaxies do explain a large part of the seagull's right wing, some of the work concerning nuclear activity in galaxies, as inferred from SDSS data, will have to be revised.

  1. Beyond telecommuting: A new paradigm for the effect of telecommunications on travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niles, J. S.

    1994-09-01

    Conventional wisdom about social and economic behavior holds that the use of telecommunications is a natural substitute for transportation. For example, telephone calls can replace travel to meetings, and facsimile or electronic-mail transmission of documents substitutes for courier or postal delivery. The moving of information can replace the moving of people and goods. Vehicle traffic on the national transportation infrastructure can be replaced by digital traffic on what is now called the national information infrastructure (NII). A leading example is telecommuting. This means using telecommunications to replace commuting between home and work. Telecommuting is an optional way of expanding employees' work locations in those circumstances where it yields both improved organizational performance and employee satisfaction. Telecommuting accounts for 7.6 million U.S. workers as of early 1993, up 15% from the 6.6 million counted in 1992. The growth of telecommuting has been strong for the past five years. No one has identified any reasons to suggest that this growth will abate in the forseeable future.

  2. Aspergillus fumigatus transcriptome response to a higher temperature during the earliest steps of germination monitored using a new customized expression microarray.

    PubMed

    Sueiro-Olivares, Mónica; Fernandez-Molina, Jimena V; Abad-Diaz-de-Cerio, Ana; Gorospe, Eva; Pascual, Elisabeth; Guruceaga, Xabier; Ramirez-Garcia, Andoni; Garaizar, Javier; Hernando, Fernando L; Margareto, Javier; Rementeria, Aitor

    2015-03-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is considered to be the most prevalent airborne pathogenic fungus and can cause invasive diseases in immunocompromised patients. It is known that its virulence is multifactorial, although the mechanisms of pathogenicity remain unclear. With the aim of improving our understanding of these mechanisms, we designed a new expression microarray covering the entire genome of A. fumigatus. In this first study, we analysed the transcriptomes of this fungus at the first steps of germination after being grown at 24 and 37 °C. The microarray data revealed that 1249 genes were differentially expressed during growth at these two temperatures. According to our results, A. fumigatus modified significantly the expression of genes related to metabolism to adapt to new conditions. The high percentages of genes that encoded hypothetical or unclassified proteins differentially expressed implied that many as yet unknown genes were involved in the establishment of A. fumigatus infection. Furthermore, amongst the genes implicated in virulence upregulated at 37 °C on the microarray, we found those that encoded proteins mainly related to allergens (Asp F1, Asp F2 and MnSOD), gliotoxin biosynthesis (GliP and GliZ), nitrogen (NiiA and NiaD) or iron (HapX, SreA, SidD and SidC) metabolism. However, gene expression in iron and nitrogen metabolism might be influenced not only by heat shock, but also by the availability of nutrients in the medium, as shown by the addition of fresh medium.

  3. novPTMenzy: a database for enzymes involved in novel post-translational modifications.

    PubMed

    Khater, Shradha; Mohanty, Debasisa

    2015-01-01

    With the recent discoveries of novel post-translational modifications (PTMs) which play important roles in signaling and biosynthetic pathways, identification of such PTM catalyzing enzymes by genome mining has been an area of major interest. Unlike well-known PTMs like phosphorylation, glycosylation, SUMOylation, no bioinformatics resources are available for enzymes associated with novel and unusual PTMs. Therefore, we have developed the novPTMenzy database which catalogs information on the sequence, structure, active site and genomic neighborhood of experimentally characterized enzymes involved in five novel PTMs, namely AMPylation, Eliminylation, Sulfation, Hydroxylation and Deamidation. Based on a comprehensive analysis of the sequence and structural features of these known PTM catalyzing enzymes, we have created Hidden Markov Model profiles for the identification of similar PTM catalyzing enzymatic domains in genomic sequences. We have also created predictive rules for grouping them into functional subfamilies and deciphering their mechanistic details by structure-based analysis of their active site pockets. These analytical modules have been made available as user friendly search interfaces of novPTMenzy database. It also has a specialized analysis interface for some PTMs like AMPylation and Eliminylation. The novPTMenzy database is a unique resource that can aid in discovery of unusual PTM catalyzing enzymes in newly sequenced genomes. Database URL: http://www.nii.ac.in/novptmenzy.html © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Differential Toxicities of Nickel Salts to the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Dean; Birdsey, Jennifer M; Wendolowski, Mark A; Dobbin, Kevin K; Williams, Phillip L

    2016-08-01

    This study focused on assessing whether nickel (Ni) toxicity to the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was affected by the molecular structure of the Ni salt used. Nematodes were exposed to seven Ni salts [Ni sulfate hexahydrate (NiSO4·6H2O), Ni chloride hexahydrate (NiCl2·6H2O), Ni acetate tetrahydrate (Ni(OCOCH3)2·4H2O), Ni nitrate hexahydrate (N2NiO6·6H2O), anhydrous Ni iodide (NiI2), Ni sulfamate hydrate (Ni(SO3NH2)2·H2O), and Ni fluoride tetrahydrate (NiF2·4H2O)] in an aquatic medium for 24 h, and lethality curves were generated and analyzed. Ni fluoride, Ni iodide, and Ni chloride were most toxic to C. elegans, followed by Ni nitrate, Ni sulfamate, Ni acetate, and Ni sulfate. The LC50 values of the halogen-containing salts were statistically different from the corresponding value of the least toxic salt, Ni sulfate. This finding is consistent with the expected high bioavailability of free Ni ions in halide solutions. We recommend that the halide salts be used in future Ni testing involving aquatic invertebrates.

  5. Heme-Biosynthetic Porphobilinogen Deaminase Protects Aspergillus nidulans from Nitrosative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shengmin; Narukami, Toshiaki; Nameki, Misuzu; Ozawa, Tomoko; Kamimura, Yosuke; Hoshino, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms have developed mechanisms to combat reactive nitrogen species (RNS); however, only a few of the fungal genes involved have been characterized. Here we screened RNS-resistant Aspergillus nidulans strains from fungal transformants obtained by introducing a genomic DNA library constructed in a multicopy vector. We found that the AN0121.3 gene (hemC) encodes a protein similar to the heme biosynthesis enzyme porphobilinogen deaminase (PBG-D) and facilitates RNS-tolerant fungal growth. The overproduction of PBG-D in A. nidulans promoted RNS tolerance, whereas PBG-D repression caused growth that was hypersensitive to RNS. PBG-D levels were comparable to those of cellular protoheme synthesis as well as flavohemoglobin (FHb; encoded by fhbA and fhbB) and nitrite reductase (NiR; encoded by niiA) activities. Both FHb and NiR are hemoproteins that consume nitric oxide and nitrite, respectively, and we found that they are required for maximal growth in the presence of RNS. The transcription of hemC was upregulated by RNS. These results demonstrated that PBG-D is a novel NO-tolerant protein that modulates the reduction of environmental NO and nitrite levels by FHb and NiR. PMID:22038601

  6. A nuclear inspector's perspective on decommissioning at UK nuclear sites.

    PubMed

    Robinson, I F

    1999-09-01

    The legislative framework used to regulate decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the UK is described. Pre-licensing requirements are outlined and the operation of a nuclear site licence is described. Mention is made of safety assessment and the published principles which are NII's view of what constitutes good practice within the nuclear industry. HSE's approach to the regulation of nuclear decommissioning is described before discussing issues associated with optioneering, the timing of decommissioning, occupational doses and public doses. It is noted that the professional approach taken by the nuclear industry within the framework of the existing regulatory requirements has resulted in considerable reductions in occupational dose over the last few years. The de-licensing process is described in the context of terminating a licensee's period of responsibility for safety, and principles by which 'no danger' may be judged are described. Impending new legislation on environmental impact assessment in relation to decommissioning nuclear reactors is mentioned. It is concluded that a powerful and flexible method of regulatory control is in place with regard to nuclear decommissioning.

  7. The Seyfert II Nature of the IRAS Source FSC10214+4724

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhardt, P.; Elston, R.; McCarthy, P.; Dickinson, M.; Spinrad, H.; Jannuzi, B.; Maloney, P.

    1993-05-01

    We (Elston et al. 1993) have observed the rest frame optical and UV spectra of the luminous, high redshift IRAS galaxy FSC10214+4724. We find the [NII]/Hα and [OIII]/Hβ emission line ratios to be typical of those found in Seyfert II galaxies. The large Hα /Hβ ratio suggests substantial reddening of the narrow line region. The rest-frame optical emission is unpolarized (P=2.6+/-3.0%). These properties are very similar to those of the infrared luminous galaxies found at lower redshift, suggesting that FSC10214+4724 is the luminous extreme of the same population. A deep 1.6microns image of the field shows FSC10214+4724 to be unresolved with two nearby companions and several other faint objects within 10('') of the point source. These could be a a foreground group of galaxies or galaxies physically associated with FSC10214+4724. This aggregate of objects may have contributed some of the far-infrared flux detected within the large beam of IRAS. If there is a foreground group gravitational lensing may contribute to the large luminosity of FSC10214+4724.

  8. A nickel hydride complex in the active site of methyl-coenzyme m reductase: implications for the catalytic cycle.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Jeffrey; Finazzo, Cinzia; Piskorski, Rafal; Ebner, Sieglinde; Duin, Evert C; Goenrich, Meike; Thauer, Rudolf K; Reiher, Markus; Schweiger, Arthur; Hinderberger, Dariush; Jaun, Bernhard

    2008-08-20

    Methanogenic archaea utilize a specific pathway in their metabolism, converting C1 substrates (i.e., CO2) or acetate to methane and thereby providing energy for the cell. Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) catalyzes the key step in the process, namely methyl-coenzyme M (CH3-S-CoM) plus coenzyme B (HS-CoB) to methane and CoM-S-S-CoB. The active site of MCR contains the nickel porphinoid F430. We report here on the coordinated ligands of the two paramagnetic MCR red2 states, induced when HS-CoM (a reversible competitive inhibitor) and the second substrate HS-CoB or its analogue CH3-S-CoB are added to the enzyme in the active MCR red1 state (Ni(I)F430). Continuous wave and pulse EPR spectroscopy are used to show that the MCR red2a state exhibits a very large proton hyperfine interaction with principal values A((1)H) = [-43,-42,-5] MHz and thus represents formally a Ni(III)F430 hydride complex formed by oxidative addition to Ni(I). In view of the known ability of nickel hydrides to activate methane, and the growing body of evidence for the involvement of MCR in "reverse" methanogenesis (anaerobic oxidation of methane), we believe that the nickel hydride complex reported here could play a key role in helping to understand both the mechanism of "reverse" and "forward" methanogenesis.

  9. Herschel observations of FIR emission lines in brightest cluster galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edge, A. C.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Mittal, R.; Allen, S. W.; Baum, S. A.; Böhringer, H.; Bregman, J. N.; Bremer, M. N.; Combes, F.; Crawford, C. S.; Donahue, M.; Egami, E.; Fabian, A. C.; Ferland, G. J.; Hamer, S. L.; Hatch, N. A.; Jaffe, W.; Johnstone, R. M.; McNamara, B. R.; O'Dea, C. P.; Popesso, P.; Quillen, A. C.; Salomé, P.; Sarazin, C. L.; Voit, G. M.; Wilman, R. J.; Wise, M. W.

    2010-07-01

    The question of how much gas cools in the cores of clusters of galaxies has been the focus of many, multiwavelength studies in the past 30 years. In this letter we present the first detections of the strongest atomic cooling lines, [Cii], [Oi] and [Nii] in two strong cooling flow clusters, A1068 and A2597, using Herschel-PACS. These spectra indicate that the substantial mass of cold molecular gas (> 109 M_⊙) known to be present in these systems is being irradiated by intense UV radiation, most probably from young stars. The line widths of these FIR lines indicate that they share dynamics similar but not identical to other ionised and molecular gas traced by optical, near-infrared and CO lines. The relative brightness of the FIR lines compared to CO and FIR luminosity is consistent with other star-forming galaxies indicating that the properties of the molecular gas clouds in cluster cores and the stars they form are not unusual. These results provide additional evidence for a reservoir of cold gas that is fed by the cooling of gas in the cores of the most compact clusters and provide important diagnostics of the temperature and density of the dense clouds this gas resides in. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  10. Quasar feedback at the peak of the galaxy formation epoch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandroff, Rachael; Zakamska, Nadia; Liu, Guilin; Greene, Jenny; Strauss, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Feedback from accreting supermassive black holes is now a standard ingredient in galaxy formation models. It is seen as necessary for limiting the maximal masses of galaxies and for establishing the black- hole / bulge correlations. Using Gemini GMOS, we demonstrated that powerful ionized gas winds are a ubiquitous feature in luminous obscured z=0.5 quasars. We now propose to extend this discovery to the epoch of peak galaxy formation and quasar activity - to the era at which feedback was most prominent and the galaxy / black hole correlations were established. We request 4.5 hours of Gemini-NIFS LGS adaptive- optics observations of an extremely luminous moderately obscured quasar at z=2.3 to map the morphology and kinematics of the ionized gas and to determine whether it exhibits the signs of black hole feedback in the form of an unbound ionized gas outflow. We will observe H(beta) and [OIII](lambda)5007Ain the H-band and H(alpha) and [NII](lambda)(lambda)6548,6583Ain the K-band on sub-galactic and galaxy-wide scales (spatial resolution 0.8 kpc, field of view 24 kpc). Obscured quasars likely constitute the majority of the quasar population and may represent the relatively early enshrouded phase of the black hole growth; thus, luminous obscured quasars are the most likely sites of quasar feedback, in agreement with our findings at low redshift.

  11. National Security Science and Technology Initiative: Air Cargo Screening, Final Report for CRADA Number NFE-07-01081

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, Philip; Bush, John; Bowerman, Biays; Cespedes, Ernesto; White, Timothy

    2004-12-01

    The non-intrusive inspection (NII) of consolidated air cargo carried on commercial passenger aircraft continues to be a technically challenging, high-priority requirement of the Department of Homeland Security’s Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T), the Transportation Security Agency and the Federal Aviation Administration. The goal of deploying a screening system that can reliably and cost-effectively detect explosive threats in consolidated cargo without adversely affecting the flow of commerce will require significant technical advances that will take years to develop. To address this critical National Security need, the Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle), under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with four of its associated US Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, Idaho, and Brookhaven), conducted a research and development initiative focused on identifying, evaluating, and integrating technologies for screening consolidated air cargo for the presence of explosive threats. Battelle invested $8.5M of internal research and development funds during fiscal years 2007 through 2009.

  12. Development of a polarization resolved spectroscopic diagnostic for measurements of the magnetic field in the Caltech coaxial magnetized plasma jet experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikama, Taiichi; Bellan, Paul M.

    2011-11-01

    Measurements of the magnetic field strength in current-carrying magnetically confined plasmas are necessary for understanding the underlying physics governing the dynamical behavior. Such a measurement would be particularly useful in the Caltech coaxial magnetized plasma gun, an experiment used for fundamental studies relevant to spheromak formation, astrophysical jet formation/propagation, solar coronal physics, and the general behavior of twisted magnetic flux tubes that intercept a boundary. In order to measure the field strength in the Caltech experiment, a non-perturbing spectroscopic method is being implemented to observe the Zeeman splitting in the emission spectra. The method is based on polarization-resolving spectroscopy of the Zeeman-split σ components, a technique previously used in both solar and laboratory plasmas. We have designed and constructed an optical system that can simultaneously detect left- and right-circularly polarized emission with both high throughput and small extinction ratio. The system will be used on the 489.5 nm NII line, chosen because of its simple Zeeman structure and minimal Stark broadening.

  13. Publicly available database for spectral line measurements of SDSS DR7 galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Kyuseok; Sarzi, Marc; Schawinski, Kevin; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2012-08-01

    We present a new database of absorption and emission-line measurements based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) 7th data release of galaxies within a redshift of 0.2. Using the publicly available penalized pixel-fitting (pPXF) and gas and absorption line fitting (gandalf) codes, our work improve the existing measurements for stellar kinematics, the strength of various absorption line features, and the flux and width of the emissions from different species of ionised gas. Most notable of our work is that, we provide quality of the fit to assess reliability of the measurements. The quality assessment can be highly effective for finding new classes of objects. For example, based on the quality assessment around the Ha and [NII] nebular lines, we found approximately 1% of the SDSS spectra which classified as galaxies by the SDSS pipeline are in fact type I Seyfert AGN. This paper presents a summary of the recent paper, Oh et al.(2011). The database is publicly available at http://gem.yonsei.ac.kr/ossy/.

  14. Hot Post-AGB Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, M.; Gauba, G.; Fujii, T.; Nakada, Y.

    2001-08-01

    From the study of IRAS sources with far-IR colors similar to planetary nebulae (PNe), several proto-planetary nebulae with hot (OB) post-AGB central stars have been detected. These stars form an evolutionary link between the cooler G,F,A supergiant stars that have evolved off the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) and the hot (OB) central stars of PNe. The optical spectra of these objects show strong Balmer emission lines and in some cases low excitation nebular emission lines such as [NII] and [SII] superposed on the OB stellar continuum. The absence of of [OIII] 5007Å line and the presence of low excitation nebular emission lines indicate that photoionisation has just started. The UV(IUE) spectra of some of these objects revealed violet shifted stellar wind P-Cygni profiles of CIV, SiIV and NV, indicating hot and fast stellar wind and post-AGB mass loss. These objects appear to be rapildy evolving into the early stages of PNe similar to that observed in the case of Hen1357 IRAS 17119-5926 (Stingray Nebula) and IRAS 18062+2410 SAO85766.

  15. The Sunrise project: An R&D project for a national information infrastructure prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Juhnyoung

    1995-02-01

    Sunrise is a Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) project started in October 1993. It is intended to a prototype National Information Infrastructure (NII) development project. A main focus of Sunrise is to tie together enabling technologies (networking, object-oriented distributed computing, graphical interfaces, security, multimedia technologies, and data mining technologies) with several specific applications. A diverse set of application areas was chosen to ensure that the solutions developed in the project are as generic as possible. Some of the application areas are materials modeling, medical records and image analysis, transportation simulations, and education. This paper provides a description of Sunrise and a view of the architecture and objectives of this evolving project. The primary objectives of Sunrise are three-fold: (1) To develop common information-enabling tools for advanced scientific research and its applications to industry; (2) To enhance the capabilities of important research programs at the Laboratory; and (3) To define a new way of collaboration between computer science and industrially relevant research.

  16. Dust In Hell: Discovery Of Dust In Hot Gas Around Group-Centered Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temi, Pasquale; Brighenti, F.; Mathews, W. G.

    2007-05-01

    Observations with the Spitzer infrared telescope reveal extended internally produced dust in the hot gas (KT 1 KeV) atmospheres surrounding two optically normal galaxies, NGC 5044 and NGC 4636. We interpret this as a dusty buoyant outflow resulting from energy released by gas accretion onto supermassive black holes in the galaxy cores. Both galaxies have highly disturbed, transient activities in the hot gas and contain strong dust emission at 70 and 160 microns in excess of what expected from normal stellar mass loss. The 70 micron image is clearly extended. The lifetime of dust in hot (KT=1KeV) interstellar gas to destruction by sputtering (ion impacts), 10 million years, establishes the time when the dust first entered the hot gas. Remarkably, in NGC 5044 we observe interstellar PAH dust-molecular emission at 8 microns out to about 5 Kpc that is spatially coincident with extended Halpha+[NII] emission from warm gas. We propose that this dust comes from the destruction and heating of dusty disks in the nuclei of these galaxies, followed by buoyant transport. A simple calculation shows that dust-assisted cooling in outflowing buoyant gas in NGC 5044 can cool the gas within a few Kpc in about 10 million years, explaining the optical line emission observed.

  17. Beyond telecommuting: A new paradigm for the effect of telecommunications on travel

    SciTech Connect

    Niles, J.S.

    1994-09-01

    Conventional wisdom about social and economic behavior holds that the use of telecommunications is a natural substitute for transportation. For example, telephone calls can replace travel to meetings, and facsimile or electronic-mail transmission of documents substitutes for courier or postal delivery. The moving of information can replace the moving of period and goods. Vehicle traffic on the national transportation infrastructure can be replaced by digital traffic on what is now called the National Information Infrastructure (NII). A leading example is telecommuting. This means using telecommunications to replace commuting between home and work. Telecommuting is an optional way of expanding employees` work locations in those circumstances where it yields both improved organizational performance and employee satisfication. Telecommuting accounts for 7.6 million U.S. workers as of early 1993, up 15% from the 6.6 million counted in 1992. The growth of telecommuting has been strong for the past five years. No one has identified any reasons to suggest that this growth will abate in the forseeable future.

  18. Spectrophotometric study in the near-IR of a sample of H alpha-selected galaxies with active star formation at z = 0.84

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Gallego, J.; Villar, V.; Zamorano, J.; Acosta, J.; Pérez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Barro, G.

    2011-11-01

    In this work we present the results of the spectroscopic analysis in the near-infrared J band of a sample of 48 star forming galaxies at z = 0.84. Half of the sample was selected by a narrow-band filter tuned to Hα at that redshift and the other half was selected by photometric redshifts at the same redshift. We provide Hα luminosities and star formation rates for all galaxies at that redshift. We were able to estimate metallicities from [NII]6584 Å for a sub sample of eight galaxies, two of the galaxies were from neckband selection. To analyze their physical properties we have computed their sizes, colors, stellar masses, extinctions and other parameters available in literature and in the Rainbow database. In particular the dependence of the stellar mass with the specific star formation rate and metallicity have been studied and compared with the results of other samples of galaxies at several redshifts. For a fixed mass, the metallicities of our galaxies are compatible than those similar at the local Universe, although with higher dispersion. This fact implies that selection in Hα is less biased than a selection in UV, since it includes galaxies with more evolved populations besides objects dominated by star formation. The comparison of the observed properties with models of evolution leads us to think that z = 0.8 star-forming galaxies have already undergone significant changes and begin to developed in a more passive way.

  19. Expansion Velocity Investigation of the Elliptical Planetary Nebula NGC 6803

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Younsu Choi; Lee, Seong-Jae; Hyung, Siek

    2008-12-01

    Using the spectral data in the 3700 to 10050 Å wavelength range secured with the Hamilton Echelle Spectrograph (HES) at the Lick observatory, we have investigated the expansion velocities and the physical conditions of the elliptical planetary nebula NGC 6803. Various forbidden and permitted lines, e.g. HI, HeI, HeII, [OIII], [NII], [ArIII], and [SII], indicate complicated but systematic physical conditions variation: electron temperatures T_{ɛ} ˜ 9000 - 11,000 K and electron number densities N_{ɛ} ˜ 2000 - 9000 cm^{-3}. The line profile analysis of these ions also indicates the systematic change or the acceleration of the expansion velocities in the range of 10 - 22 kms. We show that the velocity gradient and physical condition found in various ions are closely related to the prolate ellipsoidal structure of NGC 6803. The expansion velocity and the ionic abundance of O^{2+} were derived based on the OII and [OIII] lines. In spite of the discrepancy of ionic abundances derived by the two cases and their line profiles, the expansion velocities of them agree well. We find that the ratios of the red to blue line component of the HeII & OII lines are different from those of the [OIII] or other forbidden lines that indicates a possible involvement of emission of HeII & OII lines. This subtle difference and the different physical condition of the lines are likely to be caused by the elongated geometry and the latitude dependence of the emission zone.

  20. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: Publicly Available Spatially Resolved Emission Line Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medling, Anne; Green, Andrew W.; Ho, I.-Ting; Groves, Brent; Croom, Scott; SAMI Galaxy Survey Team

    2017-01-01

    The SAMI Galaxy Survey is collecting optical integral field spectroscopy of up to 3400 nearby (z<0.1) galaxies with a range of stellar masses and in a range of environments. The first public data release contains nearly 800 galaxies from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) Survey. In addition to releasing the reduced data cubes, we also provide emission line fits (flux and kinematic maps of strong emission lines including Halpha and Hbeta, [OII]3726,29, [OIII]4959,5007, [OI]6300, [NII]6548,83, and [SII]6716,31), extinction maps, star formation classification masks, and star formation rate maps. We give an overview of the data available for your favorite emission line science and present a few early science results. For example, a sample of edge-on disk galaxies show enhanced extraplanar emission related to SF-driven outflows, which are correlated with a bursty star formation history and higher star formation rate surface densities. Interestingly, the star formation rate surface densities of these wind hosts are 5-100 times lower than the canonical threshold for driving winds (0.1 MSun/yr/kpc2), indicating that galactic winds may be more important in normal star-forming galaxies than previously thought.

  1. Role of pendant proton relays and proton-coupled electron transfer on the hydrogen evolution reaction by nickel hangman porphyrins

    DOE PAGES

    Bediako, D. Kwabena; Solis, Brian H.; Dogutan, Dilek K.; ...

    2014-10-08

    Here, the hangman motif provides mechanistic insights into the role of pendant proton relays in governing proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) involved in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). We now show improved HER activity of Ni compared with Co hangman porphyrins. Cyclic voltammogram data and simulations, together with computational studies using density functional theory, implicate a shift in electrokinetic zone between Co and Ni hangman porphyrins due to a change in the PCET mechanism. Unlike the Co hangman porphyrin, the Ni hangman porphyrin does not require reduction to the formally metal(0) species before protonation by weak acids in acetonitrile. We concludemore » that protonation likely occurs at the Ni(I) state followed by reduction, in a stepwise proton transfer–electron transfer pathway. Spectroelectrochemical and computational studies reveal that upon reduction of the Ni(II) compound, the first electron is transferred to a metal-based orbital, whereas the second electron is transferred to a molecular orbital on the porphyrin ring.« less

  2. Geoengineering and seismological aspects of the Niigata-Ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake of 16 July 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kayen, R.; Brandenberg, S.J.; CoIlins, B.D.; Dickenson, S.; Ashford, S.; Kawamata, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Koumoto, H.; Abrahamson, N.; Cluff, L.; Tokimatsu, K.

    2009-01-01

    The M6.6 Niigata-Ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake of 16 July 2007 occurred off the west coast of Japan with a focal depth of 10 km, immediately west of Kashiwazaki City and Kariwa Village in southern Niigata Prefecture. Peak horizontal ground accelerations of 0.68 g were measured in Kashiwazaki City, as well as at the reactor floor level of the world's largest nuclear reactor, located on the coast at Kariwa Village. Liquefaction of historic and modern river deposits, aeolian dune sand, and manmade fill was widespread in the coastal region nearest the epicenter and caused ground deformations that damaged bridges, embankments, roadways, buildings, ports, railways and utilities. Landslides along the coast of southern Niigata Prefecture and in mountainous regions inland of Kashiwazaki were also widespread affecting transportation infrastructure. Liquefaction and a landslide also damaged the nuclear power plant sites. This paper, along with a companion digital map database available at http://walrus.wr.usgs.gOv/infobank/n/nii07jp/html/n-ii-07-jp.sites.kmz, describes the seismological and geo-engineering aspects of the event. ?? 2009, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  3. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 2 (Allied Supply Co Inc-Ashley Machine & Tool Co)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

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  4. STO-2: Support for 4th Year Operations, Recovery, and Science JHU/APL Co-I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernasconi, Pietro

    This is a collaboration Co-I Institution proposal for the proposal "STO-2: Support for 4th Year Operations, Recovery, and Science" whose lead proposal is submitted by the University of Arizona with Dr. Christofer Walker as PI. STO-2 was flight-ready in the 2015-2016 austral summer. However, due to the late establishment of the stratospheric anti-cyclone and poor surface conditions, STO-2 was unable to launch. The decision was made to winter-over the STO-2 payload in its hangar for launch during the 2016-2017 Antarctic campaign. Funds to cover preparations and deployment of key members of the instrument team in support of the campaign are being provided by NASA under the existing grant. However, these funds are only sufficient to cover expenses up to approximately December 31st. Here we request supplemental funds to cover costs associated with STO-2 operations and recovery beyond this date. STO-2 will address a key problem in modern astrophysics, understanding the Life Cycle of the Interstellar Medium (ISM). STO-2 will survey approximately 1/4 of the Southern Galactic Plane in the dominant interstellar cooling line [CII] (158 μm) and the important star formation tracer [NII] (205 μm). In addition, STO-2 will perform path finding observations of the 63 μm [OI] line toward selected regions. With 1 arcminute angular resolution, STO-2 will spatially resolve atomic, ionic and molecular clouds out to 10 kpc. The STO-2 survey will be conducted at unparalleled sensitivity levels. STO-2 will uniquely probe the pivotal formative and disruptive stages in the life cycle of interstellar clouds and the relationship between global star formation rates and the properties of the ISM. Combined with previous HI and CO surveys, STO-2 will create 3-dimensional maps of the structure, dynamics, turbulence, energy balance, and pressure of the Milky Way's ISM, as well as the star formation rate. Once we gain an understanding of the relationship between ISM properties and star formation

  5. Reflight of the Stratospheric TeraHertz Observatory: STO-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groppi, Christopher

    This is the Lead Proposal for the "Reflight of the Stratospheric TeraHertz Observatory: STO-2". STO-2 will address a key problem in modern astrophysics, understanding the Life Cycle of the Interstellar Medium (ISM). STO-2 will survey approximately 1/4 of the Southern Galactic plane in the dominant interstellar cooling line [CII] (158 μm) and the important star formation tracer [NII] (205 μm). With ~1 arcminute angular resolution, STO-2 will spatially resolve atomic, ionic and molecular clouds out to 10 kpc. Taking advantage of its enhanced, extended lifetime cryogenic receivers, the STO-2 survey will be conducted at unparalleled sensitivity levels. STO- 2 will uniquely probe the pivotal formative and disruptive stages in the life cycle of interstellar clouds and the relationship between global star formation rates and the properties of the ISM. Combined with previous HI and CO surveys, STO-2 will create 3-dimensional maps of the structure, dynamics, turbulence, energy balance, and pressure of the Milky Way's ISM, as well as the star formation rate. Once we gain an understanding of the relationship between ISM properties and star formation in the Milky Way, we can better interpret observations of nearby galaxies and the distant universe. The mission goals for these surveys are to: 1) Determine the life cycle of Galactic interstellar gas, 2) Study the creation and disruption of star-forming clouds in the Galaxy, 3) Determine the parameters that affect the star formation rate in the galaxy, and 4) Provide templates for star formation and stellar/interstellar feedback in other galaxies. STO-2 will re-use the 80cm telescope, gondola, and subsystems from STO-1. For the STO-2 flight, STO-1 s high spectral resolution (<1 km/s) heterodyne receiver system will be upgraded for extended cryogenic lifetime, enhanced sensitivity, and greater reliability. The flight receiver has eight, cryogenic HEB mixers; four optimized for the [CII] line and four for the [NII] line. STO-2

  6. Reflight of the Stratospheric TeraHertz Observatory: STO-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollenbach, David

    This is the Lead Proposal for the "Reflight of the Stratospheric TeraHertz Observatory: STO-2". STO-2 will address a key problem in modern astrophysics, understanding the Life Cycle of the Interstellar Medium (ISM). STO-2 will survey approximately 1&/ of the Southern Galactic plane in the dominant interstellar cooling line [CII] (158 μm) and the important star formation tracer [NII] (205 μm). With ~1 arcminute angular resolution, STO-2 will spatially resolve atomic, ionic and molecular clouds out to 10 kpc. Taking advantage of its enhanced, extended lifetime cryogenic receivers, the STO-2 survey will be conducted at unparalleled sensitivity levels. STO- 2 will uniquely probe the pivotal formative and disruptive stages in the life cycle of interstellar clouds and the relationship between global star formation rates and the properties of the ISM. Combined with previous HI and CO surveys, STO-2 will create 3-dimensional maps of the structure, dynamics, turbulence, energy balance, and pressure of the Milky Way's ISM, as well as the star formation rate. Once we gain an understanding of the relationship between ISM properties and star formation in the Milky Way, we can better interpret observations of nearby galaxies and the distant universe. The mission goals for these surveys are to: 1) Determine the life cycle of Galactic interstellar gas, 2) Study the creation and disruption of star-forming clouds in the Galaxy, 3) Determine the parameters that affect the star formation rate in the galaxy, and 4) Provide templates for star formation and stellar/interstellar feedback in other galaxies. STO-2 will re-use the 80cm telescope, gondola, and subsystems from STO-1. For the STO-2 flight, STO-1 s high spectral resolution (<1 km/s) heterodyne receiver system will be upgraded for extended cryogenic lifetime, enhanced sensitivity, and greater reliability. The flight receiver has eight, cryogenic HEB mixers; four optimized for the [CII] line and four for the [NII] line. STO-2

  7. STO-2: Support for 4th Year Operations, Recovery, and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Christopher

    The Stratospheric TeraHertz Observatory was ready for its second Antarctic flight (STO- 2) in the 2015-2016 austral summer. However, due to the late establishment of the stratospheric anti-cyclone and poor surface conditions, STO-2 was unable to launch. The decision was made to winter-over the STO-2 payload in its hangar for launch during the 2016-2017 Antarctic campaign. Funds to cover preparations and deployment of key members of the instrument team in support of the campaign are being provided by NASA under the existing grant. However, these funds are only sufficient to cover expenses up to December 31st, 2016. Here, we request resources for calendar year 2017 to support mission operations, payload recovery, and science operations. These elements will enable the team to deliver fully on STO-2's science mission, and maximize NASA's demonstrated investment in STO-2's success. STO-2 addresses a key problem in modern astrophysics: understanding the Life Cycle of the Interstellar Medium (ISM). STO-2 will survey approximately ˜ of the Southern Galactic Plane in the dominant interstellar cooling line [CII] (158 μm) and the important star formation tracer [NII] (205 μm). In addition, STO-2 will perform path finding observations of the 63 μm [OI] line toward selected regions. With 1 arcminute angular resolution, STO-2 will spatially resolve atomic, ionic and molecular clouds out to 10 kpc. The STO-2 survey will be conducted at unparalleled sensitivity levels. STO-2 will uniquely probe the pivotal formative and disruptive stages in the life cycle of interstellar clouds and the relationship between global star formation rates and the properties of the ISM. Combined with previous HI and CO surveys, STO-2 will create 3- dimensional maps of the structure, dynamics, turbulence, energy balance, and pressure of the Milky Way's ISM, as well as the star formation rate. Once we gain an understanding of the relationship between ISM properties and star formation in the Milky Way

  8. STO-2: Support for 4th Year Operations, Recovery, and Science (JPL co-I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Jonathan

    Here we propose "STO-2: Support for 4th Year Operations, Recovery, and Science," a project being led by Dr. Christopher Walker of the University of Arizona. The Stratospheric TeraHertz Observatory was ready for its second Antarctic flight (STO-2) in the 2015-2016 austral summer. However, due to the late establishment of the stratospheric anti-cyclone and poor surface conditions, STO-2 was unable to launch. The decision was made to winter-over the STO-2 payload in its hangar for launch during the 2016-2017 Antarctic campaign. Funds to cover preparations and deployment of key members of the instrument team in support of the campaign are being provided by NASA under the existing grant. However, these funds are only sufficient to cover expenses up to December 31st, 2016. Here, we request resources for calendar year 2017 to support mission operations, payload recovery, and science operations. These elements will enable the team to deliver fully on STO-2's science mission, and maximize NASA's demonstrated investment in STO-2's success. STO-2 addresses a key problem in modern astrophysics: understanding the Life Cycle of the Interstellar Medium (ISM). STO-2 will survey approximately ˜ of the Southern Galactic Plane in the dominant interstellar cooling line [CII] (158 μm) and the important star formation tracer [NII] (205 μm). In addition, STO-2 will perform path finding observations of the 63 μm [OI] line toward selected regions. With 1 arcminute angular resolution, STO-2 will spatially resolve atomic, ionic and molecular clouds out to 10 kpc. The STO-2 survey will be conducted at unparalleled sensitivity levels. STO-2 will uniquely probe the pivotal formative and disruptive stages in the life cycle of interstellar clouds and the relationship between global star formation rates and the properties of the ISM. Combined with previous HI and CO surveys, STO-2 will create 3- dimensional maps of the structure, dynamics, turbulence, energy balance, and pressure of the Milky

  9. Insights into gas heating and cooling in the disc of NGC 891 from Herschel far-infrared spectroscopy⋆⋆⋆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, T. M.; Foyle, K.; Schirm, M. R. P.; Parkin, T. J.; De Looze, I.; Wilson, C. D.; Bendo, G. J.; Baes, M.; Fritz, J.; Boselli, A.; Cooray, A.; Cormier, D.; Karczewski, O. Ł.; Lebouteiller, V.; Lu, N.; Madden, S. C.; Spinoglio, L.; Viaene, S.

    2015-03-01

    We present Herschel PACS and SPIRE spectroscopy of the most important far-infrared cooling lines in the nearby, edge-on spiral galaxy, NGC 891: [Cii] 158 μm, [Nii] 122, 205 μm, [Oi] 63, 145 μm, and [Oiii] 88 μm. We find that the photoelectric heating efficiency of the gas, traced via the ([Cii]+[Oi]63)/FTIR ratio, varies from a mean of 3.5 × 10-3 in the centre up to 8 × 10-3 at increasing radial and vertical distances in the disc. A decrease in ([Cii]+[Oi]63)/FTIR but constant ([Cii]+[Oi]63)/FPAH with increasing FIR colour suggests that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may become important for gas heating in the central regions. We compare the observed flux of the FIR cooling lines and total IR emission with the predicted flux from a PDR model to determine the gas density, surface temperature and the strength of the incident far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation field, G0. Resolving details on physical scales of ~0.6 kpc, a pixel-by-pixel analysis reveals that the majority of the PDRs in NGC 891's disc have hydrogen densities of 1 < log (n/ cm-3) < 3.5 experiencing an incident FUV radiation field with strengths of 1.7 < log G0< 3. Although these values we derive for most of the disc are consistent with the gas properties found in PDRs in the spiral arms and inter-arm regions of M 51, observed radial trends in n and G0 are shown to be sensitive to varying optical thickness in the lines, demonstrating the importance of accurately accounting for optical depth effects when interpreting observations of high inclination systems. Increasing the coverage of our analysis by using an empirical relationship between the MIPS 24 μm and [Nii] 205 μm emission, we estimate an enhancement of the FUV radiation field strength in the far north-eastern side of the disc relative to the rest of the disc that coincides with the above-average star formation rate surface densities and gas-to-dust ratios. However, an accurate interpretation remains difficult due to optical depth

  10. Reflight of the Stratospheric TeraHertz Observatory: STO-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfire, Mark

    This is the Lead Proposal for the "Reflight of the Stratospheric TeraHertz Observatory: STO-2". STO-2 will address a key problem in modern astrophysics, understanding the Life Cycle of the Interstellar Medium (ISM). STO-2 will survey approximately 1/4 of the Southern Galactic plane in the dominant interstellar cooling line [CII] (158 μm) and the important star formation tracer [NII] (205 μm). With ~1 arcminute angular resolution, STO-2 will spatially resolve atomic, ionic and molecular clouds out to 10 kpc. Taking advantage of its enhanced, extended lifetime cryogenic receivers, the STO-2 survey will be conducted at unparalleled sensitivity levels. STO- 2 will uniquely probe the pivotal formative and disruptive stages in the life cycle of interstellar clouds and the relationship between global star formation rates and the properties of the ISM. Combined with previous HI and CO surveys, STO-2 will create 3-dimensional maps of the structure, dynamics, turbulence, energy balance, and pressure of the Milky Way's ISM, as well as the star formation rate. Once we gain an understanding of the relationship between ISM properties and star formation in the Milky Way, we can better interpret observations of nearby galaxies and the distant universe. The mission goals for these surveys are to: 1) Determine the life cycle of Galactic interstellar gas, 2) Study the creation and disruption of star-forming clouds in the Galaxy, 3) Determine the parameters that affect the star formation rate in the galaxy, and 4) Provide templates for star formation and stellar/interstellar feedback in other galaxies. STO-2 will re-use the 80cm telescope, gondola, and subsystems from STO-1. For the STO-2 flight, STO-1 s high spectral resolution (<1 km/s) heterodyne receiver system will be upgraded for extended cryogenic lifetime, enhanced sensitivity, and greater reliability. The flight receiver has eight, cryogenic HEB mixers; four optimized for the [CII] line and four for the [NII] line. STO-2

  11. Faint supernovae and supernova impostors: case studies of SN 2002kg/NGC 2403-V37 and SN 2003gm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maund, J. R.; Smartt, S. J.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Pastorello, A.; Nelemans, G.; Bresolin, F.; Patat, F.; Gilmore, G. F.; Benn, C. R.

    2006-06-01

    Photometric and spectroscopic observations of the faint Supernovae (SNe) 2002kg and 2003gm, and their precursors, in NGC 2403 and NGC 5334, respectively, are presented. The properties of these SNe are discussed in the context of previously proposed scenarios for faint SNe: low-mass progenitors producing underenergetic SNe; SNe with ejecta constrained by a circumstellar medium; and outbursts of massive Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs). The last scenario has been referred to as `Type V SNe', `SN impostors' or `fake SNe'. The faint SN 2002kg reached a maximum brightness of MV = -9.6, much fainter than normal Type II SNe. The precursor of SN 2002kg is confirmed to be, as shown in previous work, the LBV NGC 2403-V37. Late-time photometry of SN 2002kg shows it to be only 0.6 mag fainter at 500 d than at the epoch of discovery. Two spectra of SN 2002kg, with an approximately 1-yr interval between observations, show only minor differences. Strong FeII lines are observed in the spectra of SN 2002kg, similar to both the LBV NGC 2363-V1 and the Type IIn SN 1995G. The spectrum of SN 2002kg does show strong resolved [NII] at λλ6549,6583 Å. The identified progenitor of SN 2003gm is a bright yellow star, consistent with a F5-G2 supergiant, similar to the identified progenitor of SN 2004et. SN 2003gm, at the epoch of discovery, was of similar brightness to the possible fake SN 1997bs and the Type IIP SNe 1999br and 2005cs. Photometrically SN 2003gm shows the same decrease in brightness, over the same time period as SN 1997bs. The light curve and the spectral properties of SN 2003gm are also consistent with some intrinsically faint and low-velocity Type II SNe. The early-time spectra of SN 2003gm are dominated by Balmer emission lines, which at the observed resolution, appear similar to SN 2000ch. On the basis of the post-discovery photometric and spectroscopic observations presented here, we suggest that SN 2003gm is a similar event to SN 1997bs, although the SN/LBV nature of

  12. Variance of vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials.

    PubMed

    Ochi, K; Ohashi, T; Nishino, H

    2001-03-01

    Vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) has been thought to originate from sacculus. The variance of this potential and the effectiveness of the adjustments of pInII amplitudes using average muscle tonus of ipsilateral sternocleidomastoid muscle were evaluated. In addition, clinical application of VEMP was examined in patients with acoustic tumors (ATs) and vestibular neurolabyrinthitis (VNL). Prospective evaluation of the VEMP in 18 normal volunteers and 6 patients. Variance and left-right difference of each parameter, including pI latency, nII latency, pInII amplitude, and threshold, was analyzed. Input-output function of pInII amplitude was evaluated. Average muscle tonus was calculated in 20 ears and applied for adjustment of pInII amplitude. Sensitivity of each parameter of VEMP was examined in 3 patients with ATs and 3 patients with VNL. VEMP was present in all 36 ears of 18 control subjects. Thresholds of VEMP for normal subjects were 80 to 95 dB normal hearing level (nHL). The muscle tonus affected pInII amplitude significantly; however, no statistically significant improvement was observed in test-retest investigation after adjustment using muscle tonus. The threshold of the affected side was elevated compared with the non-affected side in all patients with ATs, whereas 2 of 3 patients showed normal pInII-ratio. One patient with VNL presented normal VEMP, whereas 2 patients presented no VEMP to the highest stimulus intensity. Interaural difference of thresholds might be the most useful parameters. Adjustment using average muscle tonus is not necessary when the subject is able to get sufficient muscle tonus.

  13. Retrieval Success from a 1950's UK Fuel Storage Pond: Blazing a Trail for Early Hazard Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, S.

    2006-07-01

    Work has begun to tackle one of the biggest challenges in the UK nuclear cleanup program: the retrieval of spent nuclear fuel from the First Generation Magnox Fuel Storage Pond at Sellafield. The UK Government regulatory body, Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) considers this pond to be the country's highest priority in terms of Hazard Reduction, a view supported by the facility owner, UK Government's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). Remotely operated submersible vehicles (ROV's) were used by British Nuclear Group to assess the condition of stored fuel in First Generation Magnox Storage Ponds (1945-60's build). The ROV survey showed fuel condition was better than expected, and engineers were able to prototype retrieval on a selected skip (container) of fuel. The retrieval and subsequent export to the Fuel Handling Plant (FHP) was executed in November 2005 and was completely successful. The next stage is to reprocess the fuel using the Magnox Reprocessing Plant. If this is successful the prototype retrieval will have demonstrated that: - British Nuclear Group can safely retrieve fuel from its legacy ponds; - British Nuclear Group can safely transport retrieved legacy fuel between facilities; - British Nuclear Group can eliminate the hazard presented by this legacy fuel by use of existing on-site reprocessing facilities. This in turn enables the option to commence larger-scale fuel retrievals from these legacy ponds years ahead of the current plan which assumes new plants to be available to handle all arisings from the legacy ponds in 2015. This hazard reduction could commence as early as 2008. (authors)

  14. The CCAT-prime Extreme Field-of-View Submillimeter Telescope on Cerro Chajnantor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopman, Brian; Bertoldi, Frank; Chapman, Scott; Fich, Michel; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Herter, Terry L.; Murray, Norman W.; Niemack, Michael D.; Riechers, Dominik; Schilke, Peter; Stacey, Gordon J.; Stutzki, Juergen; CCAT-prime Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    CCAT-prime is a six meter aperture off-axis submillimeter telescope that we plan to build at 5600m elevation on Cerro Chajnantor in Chile. The CCAT-prime optics are based on a cross-Dragone design with high throughput and a wide field-of-view optimized to increase the mapping speed of next generation cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations. These characteristics make CCAT-prime an excellent platform for a wide range of next generation millimeter and submillimeter science goals, and a potential platform for CMB stage-IV measurements. Here we present the telescope design for CCAT-prime and review the science goals.Taking advantage of the high elevation site, the first generation instrument for CCAT-prime will measure seven different frequency bands from 350um to 3mm. These seven bands will enable precise measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effects (SZE) by separating contributions from CMB, thermal SZE, kinetic SZE, bright submm galaxies, and radio sources with a goal of extracting the peculiar velocities from a large number of galaxy clusters. Additional science priorities for CCAT-prime include: Galactic Ecology studies of the dynamic intersteller medium by mapping the fine structure lines [CI], [CII] and [NII] as well as high-excitation CO lines at the shortest wavelength bands; high redshift intensity mapping of [CII] emission from star-forming galaxies that likely dominates cosmic reionization at z~5-9 to probe the Epoch of Reionization; and next generation CMB polarization measurements to constrain inflation and cosmological models. The CCAT-prime facility will further our understanding of astrophysical processes from moments after the Big Bang to the present-day evolution of the Milky Way.

  15. Describing the Gas Kinematics and Excitation of the Inner Kiloparsec of the Post-Starburst Quasar SDSS J170328.95+614109.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Pamela Soto; Sanmartim, David

    2016-01-01

    Post-Starburst Quasars (PSQs) are hypothesized to represent a stage in the evolution of massive galaxies in which both star formation and nuclear activity have been triggered and are visible simultaneously before one or the other fades. We present preliminary results for the study of the kinematics and excitation of the gas present in the PSQ J1703+6141 in order to understand which are the excitation mechanisms in the central region of this object (starburst or/and AGN?). For this purpose we have used optical Integral Field Spectroscopy (IFS) obtained with the GMOS-IFU at Gemini North telescope and performed IDL codes to analyze the spectra. We have found that the [OIII] emission line can be observed all around the object and that it presents a higher blueshift to the South West direction. On the other hand, the Hβ line is better observed around the nucleus and it presents an apparent rotation. Also, the ratio between these two emission lines is typical of a Seyfert galaxy according to the BPT diagram and typical of an AGN based on the study of Lamareille et al. 2004, that uses the ratio between [OII]3727 and Hβ for the study instead of [NII]/Hα like the BPT diagram does. Ionization models are necessary to analyze the gas excitation and to distinguish what are the main mechanisms working in the central region of this PSQ. Also, further studies will be conducted to analyze the stellar kinematics and the history of star formation in the central kpc of this PSQ.

  16. Review of telemedicine projects in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, H S; Guo, F R; Chen, C Y; Chen, J H; Kuo, T S

    2001-05-01

    Taiwan is a heavily populated country, with a small land area and many mountains and isolated islands. Because medical resources are unequally distributed, high quality accessible medical care is a major problem in rural areas. Medical personnel are unwilling to practice in rural areas because of fear of isolation from peers and lack of continuing medical education (CME) in those areas. Telemedicine provides a timeless and spaceless measure for teleconsultation and education. The development of telemedicine in Taiwan began under the National Information Infrastructure (NII) Project. Distance education and teleconsultation were the first experimental projects during the initiation research stage. The cost and effectiveness of the hardware and network bandwidth were evaluated. In the promotion research stage, applications in different medical disciplines were tested to promote multipoint videoconference, electronic journals and VOD. Investigation of user satisfaction put on more emphasis on improving application functions. In 1998, a new Cyber Medical Center (CMC) international collaboration project was begun, integrating technologies of multimedia, networking, database management, and the World Wide Web. The aim of the CMC is to create a multimedia network system for the management of electronic patient records, teleconsultation, online continuing medical education, and information services on the web. A Taiwan mirror site of Virtual Hospital and two international telemedicine trials through Next Generation Internet (NGI) were done at the end of 1998. In the future, telemedicine systems in Taiwan are expected to combine the Internet and broadband CATV, ADSL, and DBS networking to connect clinics, hospitals, insurance organizations, and public health administrations; and, finally, to extend to every household.

  17. SINFONI spectra of heavily obscured AGNs in COSMOS: Evidence of outflows in a MIR/O target at z ~ 2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, M.; Brusa, M.; Salvato, M.; Cresci, G.; Lanzuisi, G.; Berta, S.; Delvecchio, I.; Fiore, F.; Lutz, D.; Le Floc'h, E.; Mainieri, V.; Riguccini, L.

    2015-11-01

    Aims: We present new data for four candidate obscured Compton-Thick (CT) quasars at z ~ 1-2.5 observed with the SINFONI VLT spectrograph in adaptive optics (AO) mode. These sources were selected from a 24 μm Spitzer MIPS survey of the COSMOS field, on the basis of red mid-infrared to optical and optical to near-infrared colours, with the intention of identifying active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in dust enshrouded environments, where most of the black hole mass is assembled. Methods: Near-infrared spectra were analysed to check for emission line features and to search for broad components in the [OIII]-Hβ and Hα-[NII] regions. We also employed X-ray spectral analysis, radio and MIR diagnostics, and SED fitting to study the nature of the sources. Results: We successfully identified three objects for which we had only a photometric redshift estimate. Based on their emission line diagnostics and on ancillary multi-wavelength constraints, we find that all four targets harbour obscured AGNs. Broad profiles, which could be attributed to the effects of outflows, are revealed in only one target, MIRO20581. In particular, we clearly resolved a fast (~1600 km s-1) and extended (~5 kpc) outflow in the [OIII]5007 emission line. This feature, the commonly used indicator for ionised outflowing gas, was only sampled and detected for this target; hence, we cannot exclude the presence of outflows in the other sources. Overall, the constraints we obtain from our targets and from other comparative samples from the literature suggest that these optically faint luminous infrared galaxies, hosting obscured AGNs, may represent a brief evolutionary phase between the post-merger starburst and the unobscured quasar phases. Based on observations with SINFONI VLT spectrograph, ESO program 092.A-0884(A).

  18. EPR Spectroscopy of catalytic systems based on nickel complexes of 1,4-diaza-1,3-butadiene (α-diimine) ligands in hydrogenation and polymerization reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titova, Yu. Yu.; Belykh, L. B.; Schmidt, F. K.

    2015-01-01

    EPR spectroscopy is used to study catalytic hydration and polymerization reaction systems based on α-diimine complexes of Ni(0) and Ni(II) with the general formula NiBr2(DAD-R) (R = -C3H7 or -CH3) or Ni(DAD-CH3)2 (DAD(-C3H7) = 1,4-bis(2,6-diiso-propylphenyl)-2,3-(dimethyl-1,4-diazabuta-1,3-diene, DAD(-CH3) = 1,4-bis(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2,3-dimethyl-1,4-diazabuta-1,3-diene)), in combination with Lewis acids (AlEt3, AlEt2Cl, AlEtCl2, B(F5C6)3, BF3.OEt2). Ni(I) complexes of the form (DAD-R)NiX2AlX'y(C2H5)3-y composition (an aluminum atom can be replaced by a boron atom) were identified, where R = -CH3 or -C3H7, X = Br, and X' = Cl or -C2H5 and α-diimine anion radicals are included in derivatives of aluminum or boron. Oxidation reactions of the Ni(DAD-CH3)2 complex with aluminum alkyl halides and boron derivatives with formation of paramagnetic nickel complexes are observed. It is found that there is no direct relationship between the polymerization activity of ethylene or hydration of the alkenes and the concentration of paramagnetic particles.

  19. Spectroscopic Studies of Abell Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Way, Michael Joseph

    The objectives of this work are to use spectroscopic techniques to accurately categorize galaxies as either HII region star forming galaxies or as Active Galactic Nuclei powered via a black hole, and to use radial velocities and projected positions of galaxies in clusters to obtain the total cluster mass and its distribution. The masses and distributions compare well to X-ray mass measurements. The commonly used Dressler, A., Thompson, I. & Shectman, S. 1985, ApJ, 288, 481 technique for discriminating between Active Galactic Nuclei and HII region galaxies uses the measurement of the equivalent width of the emission lines (OII) 3727 A, H/beta, and (OIII) 5007 A. High quality spectra from 42 galaxies were taken and it is shown that their method is not capable of distinguishing between Active Galactic Nuclei and HII region galaxies. The emission line flux from H/beta, (OIII) 5007 A, (OI) 6300 A, Hα, (NII) 6583 A, and (SII) 6716+6731 A in combination with the method of Veilleux, S. & Osterbrock, D. E. 1987, ApJS, 63, 295 must be used to accurately distinguish between Active Galactic Nuclei and HII region galaxies. Galaxy radial velocities from spectroscopic data and their projected 2-D positions in clusters are used to obtain robust estimates of the total mass and mass distribution in two clusters. The total mass is calculated using the Virial theorem after removing substructure. The mass distribution is estimated via several robust statistical tests for 1-D, 2-D and 3-D structure. It is shown that the derived mass estimates agree well with those found independently from hot X-ray gas emission in clusters.

  20. The reaction mechanism of methyl-coenzyme M reductase: How an enzyme enforces strict binding order

    DOE PAGES

    Wongnate, Thanyaporn; Ragsdale, Stephen W.

    2015-02-17

    Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) is a nickel tetrahydrocorphinoid (coenzyme F430) containing enzyme involved in the biological synthesis and anaerobic oxidation of methane. MCR catalyzes the conversion of methyl-2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (methyl-SCoM) and N-7-mercaptoheptanoylthreonine phosphate (CoB7SH) to CH4 and the mixed disulfide CoBS-SCoM. In this study, the reaction of MCR from Methanothermobacter marburgensis, with its native substrates was investigated using static binding, chemical quench, and stopped-flow techniques. Rate constants were measured for each step in this strictly ordered ternary complex catalytic mechanism. Surprisingly, in the absence of the other substrate, MCR can bind either substrate; however, only one binary complex (MCR·methyl-SCoM) is productivemore » whereas the other (MCR·CoB7SH) is inhibitory. Moreover, the kinetic data demonstrate that binding of methyl-SCoM to the inhibitory MCR·CoB7SH complex is highly disfavored (Kd = 56 mM). However, binding of CoB7SH to the productive MCR·methyl-SCoM complex to form the active ternary complex (CoB7SH·MCR(NiI)·CH3SCoM) is highly favored (Kd = 79 μM). Only then can the chemical reaction occur (kobs = 20 s-1 at 25 °C), leading to rapid formation and dissociation of CH4 leaving the binary product complex (MCR(NiII)·CoB7S-·SCoM), which undergoes electron transfer to regenerate Ni(I) and the final product CoBS-SCoM. In conclusion, this first rapid kinetics study of MCR with its natural substrates describes how an enzyme can enforce a strictly ordered ternary complex mechanism and serves as a template for identification of the reaction intermediates.« less

  1. ISO-LWS Observations Of Gas And Dust In The Galactic Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etxaluze Azkonaga, Mireya; Smith, H.; Gonzalez-Alfonso, E.; White, G. J.

    2011-01-01

    The ISO-LWS observed Sagittarius A* over the wavelength range of 46-197 μm. These previously unpublished spectra contain about 22 spectral lines in emission of atomic and ionic species (OI, OIII, CII, NII and NIII), as well as emission and absorption lines from molecular species (OH, CH, CO and o-H2O). ISO mapped the region in a 40 position, half-beam sampled grid, and used both the grating and Fabry-Perot modules. We have prepared spectral maps of most of the lines, but here discuss primarily the radiative transfer modelling of radiation within the central beam on Sgr A*. We used ISO-LWS spectra to constrain the physical conditions in Sgr A* by comparing the observed spectra with the emission and the absorption line intensities predicted via radiative transfer simulations. Preliminary results show that the spectral energy distribution of Sgr A* within the 80" ISO beam that includes the CND is due to thermal dust emission that can be fitted by the sum of an 85 K modified blackbody arising from a central cavity of r=1.2 pc in radius with a low column density of N(H2)=4.0x1021 cm2, and a 40.5 K modified blackbody curve and a higher column density, N(H2)= 3.0x1022 cm2. This simple model is able to reproduce most of the ionic lines, which are excited in the CND; the central cavity provides only a small contribution to the intensity of the spectral lines. The molecular lines, and in particular the OH absorption features, require substantive additional contributions from foreground absorption that is consistent with a visual extinction AV 30, the same value that is derived from other studies.

  2. The evolution of emission lines in massive early-type red galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konidaris, Nicholas Pelopidas, II

    2008-12-01

    This thesis performs a look-back study on the forbidden [O II ] l3727 Å emission line in massive early-type red galaxies (MERGs) at z ~ 0.1 and z ~ 0.8. At z ~ 0, MERGs show young stellar populations. By looking back in time, at z ~ 0.8 MERGs it is possible to find signs of these young stars being formed. It is commonly thought, that [O II] luminosity traces the star formation rate; however, for z ~ 0.1 and z ~ 0.8 MERGs this is largely not the case. A variety of techniques are brought to bear on this issue. First, the evolution of the average [O II] luminosity density in MERGs from z ~ 0.8 to z ~ 0.1is (1 + z) ~1-2 , which evolves less than the global evolution of star formation of (1 + z) 4 . Second, a new star formation diagnostic is created based on line ratios. Ideally, our z ~ 0.8 MERG spectra would allow us to create a full diagnostic diagram (Ha/[NII] versus [O III]/Hb). Instead of using Ha, which is redshifted out of the visible, out new technique is calibrated on mass, color, and the emission line [O III]/Hb ratio in z ~ 0.1 massive red galaxies. The z ~ 0.8 MERGs are similar in mass, color, and [O III]/Hb ratio to the z ~ 0.1 massive red galaxies that are not forming stars. Third, the [O II] emission line is found to be physically extended in a deeply observed sample of z ~ 0.8 MERGs, suggesting that [O II] is produced by both nuclear and extended sources. In conclusion, I argue that the young stellar populations found in local MERGs are produced either by the continual addition of galaxies with young stars added to the MERG population. Or if they are form in the MERGs themselves, are formed during rare bursts.

  3. Effect of excess iodine intake on thyroid diseases in different populations: A systematic review and meta-analyses including observational studies.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Ryoko; Yuan, Xiaoyi; Kobayashi, Satomi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Although several reports concerning the association of iodine excess and thyroid disease have appeared, no systematic review of the association between iodine excess intake and thyroid diseases, especially hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, has yet been reported. We conducted a systematic search of Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases, Ichushi-Web and CiNii database for intervention trials and observational studies. Search terms were constructed from related words for excess AND iodine intake or excretion AND thyroid hormones or diseases AND study designs. After considering the qualitative heterogeneity among studies, a meta-analysis was conducted and odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated in random-effects models. A protocol was registered with PROSPERO (No. CRD42015028081). 50 articles were included, including three intervention trials, six case-control studies, six follow-up studies and 35 cross-sectional studies. Three cross-sectional studies in adults included in meta-analysis. Odds ratio of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism between excess and adequate populations were 2.78 (CI:1.47 to 5.27) and 2.03 (CI:1.58 to 2.62) in adults, respectively. Source of excess iodine status was mainly iodized salt or water in included studies. Although universal salt iodization has improved goiter rates, chronic exposure to excess iodine from water or poorly monitored salt are risk factors for hypothyroidism in free-living populations. Monitoring of both iodine concentration in salt as well as the iodine concentration in local drinking water are essential to preventing thyroid diseases. Hypothyroidism should be also carefully monitored in areas with excess iodine. Because of the low quality and limited number of included studies, further evidence and review are required.

  4. Two sub-states of the red2 state of methyl-coenzyme M reductase revealed by high-field EPR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kern, Denise I; Goenrich, Meike; Jaun, Bernhard; Thauer, Rudolf K; Harmer, Jeffrey; Hinderberger, Dariush

    2007-11-01

    Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) catalyzes the formation of methane from methyl-coenzyme M and coenzyme B in methanogenic archaea. The enzyme has two structurally interlinked active sites embedded in an alpha(2)beta(2)gamma(2) subunit structure. Each active site has the nickel porphyrinoid F(430) as a prosthetic group. In the active state, F(430) contains the transition metal in the Ni(I) oxidation state. The active enzyme exhibits an axial Ni(I)-based continuous wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal, called red1a in the absence of substrates or red1c in the presence of coenzyme M. Addition of coenzyme B to the MCR-red1 state can partially and reversibly convert it into the MCR-red2 form, which shows a rhombic Ni(I)-based EPR signal (at X-band microwave frequencies of approximately 9.4 GHz). In this report we present evidence from high-field/high-frequency CW EPR spectroscopy (W-band, microwave frequency of approximately 94 GHz) that the red2 state consists of two substates that could not be resolved by EPR spectroscopy at X-band frequencies. At W-band it becomes apparent that upon addition of coenzyme B to MCR in the red1c state, two red2 EPR signals are induced, not one as was previously believed. The first signal is the well-characterized (ortho)rhombic EPR signal, thus far called red2, while the second previously unidentified signal is axial. We have named the two substates MCR-red2r and MCR-red2a after their rhombic and axial signals, respectively.

  5. Hα3: an Hα imaging survey of HI selected galaxies from ALFALFA . V. The Coma supercluster survey completion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavazzi, Giuseppe; Consolandi, Guido; Viscardi, Elisa; Fossati, Matteo; Savorgnan, Giulia; Fumagalli, Michele; Gutierrez, Leonel; Hernandez Toledo, Hector; Boselli, Alessandro; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.

    2015-04-01

    Neutral hydrogen represents the major observable baryonic constituent of galaxies that fuels the formation of stars through transformation of molecular hydrogen. The emission of the hydrogen recombination line Hα is the most direct tracer of the process that transforms gas (fuel) into stars. We continue to present Hα3 (acronym for Hα - αα), an extensive Hα+[NII] narrow-band imaging campaign of galaxies selected from the HI Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey (ALFALFA), using the instrumentation available at the San Pedro Martir (SPM) observatory (Mexico). In 48 nights since 2011 we were able to carry out the Hα imaging observations of 724 galaxies in the region of the Coma supercluster 10h < RA < 16h ; 24° < Dec < 28° and 3900

  6. Virtual collaborative environments: programming and controlling robotic devices remotely

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Brady R.; McDonald, Michael J., Jr.; Harrigan, Raymond W.

    1995-12-01

    This paper describes a technology for remote sharing of intelligent electro-mechanical devices. An architecture and actual system have been developed and tested, based on the proposed National Information Infrastructure (NII) or Information Highway, to facilitate programming and control of intelligent programmable machines (like robots, machine tools, etc.). Using appropriate geometric models, integrated sensors, video systems, and computing hardware; computer controlled resources owned and operated by different (in a geographic sense as well as legal sense) entities can be individually or simultaneously programmed and controlled from one or more remote locations. Remote programming and control of intelligent machines will create significant opportunities for sharing of expensive capital equipment. Using the technology described in this paper, university researchers, manufacturing entities, automation consultants, design entities, and others can directly access robotic and machining facilities located across the country. Disparate electro-mechanical resources will be shared in a manner similar to the way supercomputers are accessed by multiple users. Using this technology, it will be possible for researchers developing new robot control algorithms to validate models and algorithms right from their university labs without ever owning a robot. Manufacturers will be able to model, simulate, and measure the performance of prospective robots before selecting robot hardware optimally suited for their intended application. Designers will be able to access CNC machining centers across the country to fabricate prototypic parts during product design validation. An existing prototype architecture and system has been developed and proven. Programming and control of a large gantry robot located at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, was demonstrated from such remote locations as Washington D.C., Washington State, and Southern California.

  7. The N/O Ratio in Early B-Type Main Sequence Stars as an Indicator of Their Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimkov, L. S.

    2016-12-01

    It is shown that, in the case of early B-type main-sequence stars, of the three ratios N/C, C/O, and N/O which are regarded as indicators of stellar evolution, the ratio N/O is more reliable since it seems to be insensitive to overionization of the NII and OII ions. On the other hand, the N/C and C/O ratios, which include carbon, may contain systematic errors for stars with Teff > 18500 K because of neglected overionization of CII ions. The ratio N/O is studied in the atmospheres of 46 early main-sequence B stars. These values of N/O are examined as functions of the effective temperature, age, rotation speed, and mass of the stars. Most early B-stars in the main sequence are found to have [N/O] ≈ 0, which indicates that N/O varies little during the main sequence stage, and this result is independent of the basic parameters listed above. There are two explanations for the large number of stars with [N/O] ≈ 0 : it is predicted theoretically that for an initial rotation velocity V0 < 100 km/s, N/O varies little toward the end of the main sequence stage ([N/O] < 0.2) and observations show that most early main-sequence B-stars do actually have low initial rotation velocities V0. The few early main-sequence B-stars with higher [N/O] = 0.4-0.8 correspond to models with rotation velocities V0 = 200-300 km/s. This conclusion is consistent with earlier data for stars with the same masses in a later stage of evolution: the AFGsupergiant and bright giant stage.

  8. NRPS-PKS: a knowledge-based resource for analysis of NRPS/PKS megasynthases.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mohd Zeeshan; Yadav, Gitanjali; Gokhale, Rajesh S; Mohanty, Debasisa

    2004-07-01

    NRPS-PKS is web-based software for analysing large multi-enzymatic, multi-domain megasynthases that are involved in the biosynthesis of pharmaceutically important natural products such as cyclosporin, rifamycin and erythromycin. NRPS-PKS has been developed based on a comprehensive analysis of the sequence and structural features of several experimentally characterized biosynthetic gene clusters. The results of these analyses have been organized as four integrated searchable databases for elucidating domain organization and substrate specificity of nonribosomal peptide synthetases and three types of polyketide synthases. These databases work as the backend of NRPS-PKS and provide the knowledge base for predicting domain organization and substrate specificity of uncharacterized NRPS/PKS clusters. Benchmarking on a large set of biosynthetic gene clusters has demonstrated that, apart from correct identification of NRPS and PKS domains, NRPS-PKS can also predict specificities of adenylation and acyltransferase domains with reasonably high accuracy. These features of NRPS-PKS make it a valuable resource for identification of natural products biosynthesized by NRPS/PKS gene clusters found in newly sequenced genomes. The training and test sets of gene clusters included in NRPS-PKS correlate information on 307 open reading frames, 2223 functional protein domains, 68 starter/extender precursors and their specific recognition motifs, and also the chemical structure of 101 natural products from four different families. NRPS-PKS is a unique resource which provides a user-friendly interface for correlating chemical structures of natural products with the domains and modules in the corresponding nonribosomal peptide synthetases or polyketide synthases. It also provides guidelines for domain/module swapping as well as site-directed mutagenesis experiments to engineer biosynthesis of novel natural products. NRPS-PKS can be accessed at http://www.nii.res.in/nrps-pks.html.

  9. A far-infrared mapping spectrometer for SOFIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikola, Thomas; Stacey, Gordon J.; Herter, Terry

    2007-09-01

    We present a concept for a far-IR integral field spectrograph for SOFIA, the Cornell Mapping Spectrometer (CMS). CMS takes advantage of the next generation of large bolometer arrays to deliver moderate resolution spectroscopy in the wavelength range between 40 μm and 220 μm over a large field of view. Two separate wavelength channels with each employing six SCUBA-2-like bolometer arrays will provide 64 element spectra over a 10 × 12 spatial pixel footprint. By matching the pixel size to the beam size the field of view obtained is 190" × 160" at the important [CII] line in the long-λ channel and 77" × 64" at the [OI] line in the short-λ channel. The sliced image is fed into an R2 echelle spectrometer of modest resolving power (R ~ 2000). The grating will operate in 4th order at 158 μm in the long-λ channel and 4th order at 63 μm in the short-λ channel. This results in nearly matching orders for other important fine-structure lines of [NII] and [OIII]. Filterwheels are placed right in front of the detector arrays to separate the orders. By subdividing the detector assemblies and appropriately placing the 3 × 1 detector sub-assemblies it is possible to observe four fine-structure lines simultaneously. CMS combines the advantages of a FIFI-LS design (instantaneous spatial and spectral coverage) with the sensitivity advantage of bolometers over photo-conductors. This will make CMS the instrument of choice for deep spectroscopic integrations of extended regions in galaxies.

  10. ISM Properties of Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Santos, Tanio; Armus, Lee; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Elbaz, David; Malhotra, Sangeeta

    2015-08-01

    Luminous and Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxies ((U)LIRGs) represent the most important galaxy population at redshifts z > 1 as they account for more than 50% of all star formation produced in the Universe at those epochs; and encompass what it is called the main-sequence (MS) of star-forming galaxies. Investigating their local counterparts -low luminosity LIRGs- is therefore key to understand the physical properties and phases of their inter-stellar medium (ISM) - a task that is rather challenging in the distant Universe. On the other hand, high-z star-bursting (out of the MS) systems, although small in number, account for a modest yet still significant fraction of the total energy production. Here I present far-IR line emission observations ([CII]158μm, [OI]63μm, [OIII]88μm and [NII]122μm) obtained with Herschel for two large samples of nearby LIRGs: The Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS), a sample of more than 240 relatively cold LIRGs, and a survey of 30 LIRGs selected to have very warm mid- to far-IR colors, suggestive of an ongoing intense nuclear starburst and/or an AGN. Using photo-dissociation region (PDR) models we derive the basic characteristics of the ISM (ionization intensity and density) for both samples and study differences among systems as a function of AGN activity, merger stage, dust temperature, and compactness of the starburst - parameters that are thought to control the life cycle of galaxies moving in and out of the MS, locally and at high-z.

  11. Herbal medicine (Danggui Shaoyao San) for treating primary dysmenorrhea: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Won; Jun, Ji Hee; Kil, Ki-Jung; Ko, Byong-Seob; Lee, Choong Hwan; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2016-03-01

    Danggui Shaoyao San (DSS), a traditional herbal prescription, has long been used to treat menopause-related symptoms, including dysmenorrhea. We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy of DSS for dysmenorrhea. We searched the following electronic databases through October 2015: PubMed; EMBASE; the Cochrane Library; AMED; five Korean databases (KoreaMed, DBPIA, OASIS, RISS, and KISS); three Chinese databases (CNKI, Wan Fang Database, and VIP), and one Japanese database (CiNii). The Cochrane criteria were used to assess the risk of bias for the individual studies. All randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of DSS or modified DSS were included. Data from all articles were extracted by two independent reviewers. Meta-analysis was used to pool the data. A total of 746 potentially relevant studies were identified, and four RCTs met our inclusion criteria. All of the included RCTs had a high risk of bias across their domains. Three RCTs showed favourable effects of DSS on response rate compared with conventional medicine, and a meta-analysis showed that DSS had superior effects compared to analgesics (RR: 1.31, 95%CI, 1.06-1.63, I(2)=73%). One RCT showed a beneficial effect of DSS on pain compared with placebo control. Our systematic review and meta-analysis provided suggestive evidence of the superiority of DSS over analgesics or placebo for dysmenorrhea. The quality of evidence for this finding was low to moderate because of a high risk of bias. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanistic enzymology of CO dehydrogenase from Clostridium thermoaceticum. Progress report, March 25, 1993--March 24, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Ragsdale, S.W.

    1994-04-01

    Anaerobic acetogenic bacteria can convert carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide to cell carbon by a pathway which is called the acetyl-CoA pathway. With this pathway they convert monosaccharides and the methoxy group of lignin derived aromatics into acetic acid. The acetic acid is then used by a number of organisms, including methanogens, as a carbon and energy source. Therefore, the acetyl-CoA pathway links the biodegradation of complex macromolecules like cellulose and lignin to the utilization of simple two carbon units. The final steps in acetyl-CoA biosynthesis by anaerobic bacteria are performed by carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH), a nickel/iron-sulfur protein. We have previously demonstrate that the conversion of CH{sub 3}-H{sub 4} folate, CO and CoA to acetyl-CoA involves enzyme-bound intermediates that the one- and two-carbon precursors of acetyl-CoA are organometallic complexes, and that the site for assembly of acetyl-CoA is a novel Ni-Fe-S cluster which binds CO as a terminal carbonyl, i.e., M-C {equivalent_to} O. In the past year we have shown that the activities for CO oxidation and acetyl-CoA synthesis sites occur at separate sites, that it is a Fe, not a Ni, site in the Ni-Fe-S cluster which binds CO for acetyl-CoA synthesis, and that carbon disulfide (CS2) reacts with CODH at the Ni-Fe-S site to generate an isolated Ni(I) species. We also determined that CS{sub 2} is competitive with CO at the acetyl-CoA synthesis site and does not bind to the CO oxidation/CO{sub 2} reduction site.

  13. Application of bimodal distribution to the detection of changes in uranium concentration in drinking water collected by random daytime sampling method from a large water supply zone.

    PubMed

    Garboś, Sławomir; Święcicka, Dorota

    2015-11-01

    The random daytime (RDT) sampling method was used for the first time in the assessment of average weekly exposure to uranium through drinking water in a large water supply zone. Data set of uranium concentrations determined in 106 RDT samples collected in three runs from the water supply zone in Wroclaw (Poland), cannot be simply described by normal or log-normal distributions. Therefore, a numerical method designed for the detection and calculation of bimodal distribution was applied. The extracted two distributions containing data from the summer season of 2011 and the winter season of 2012 (nI=72) and from the summer season of 2013 (nII=34) allowed to estimate means of U concentrations in drinking water: 0.947 μg/L and 1.23 μg/L, respectively. As the removal efficiency of uranium during applied treatment process is negligible, the effect of increase in uranium concentration can be explained by higher U concentration in the surface-infiltration water used for the production of drinking water. During the summer season of 2013, heavy rains were observed in Lower Silesia region, causing floods over the territory of the entire region. Fluctuations in uranium concentrations in surface-infiltration water can be attributed to releases of uranium from specific sources - migration from phosphate fertilizers and leaching from mineral deposits. Thus, exposure to uranium through drinking water may increase during extreme rainfall events. The average chronic weekly intakes of uranium through drinking water, estimated on the basis of central values of the extracted normal distributions, accounted for 3.2% and 4.1% of tolerable weekly intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A study of the trace sulfide mineral assemblages in the Stillwater Complex, Montana, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aird, Hannah M.; Ferguson, Katherine M.; Lehrer, Malia L.; Boudreau, Alan E.

    2016-07-01

    The sulfide assemblages of the Stillwater Complex away from the well-studied ore zones are composed mainly of variable proportions of pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, pentlandite, and ±pyrite. Excluding vein assemblages and those affected by greenschist and lower temperature alteration, the majority can be classified into two broad assemblages, defined here as pristine (multiphase, often globular in shape) or volatile-bearing (multiphase, high-temperature, volatile-rich minerals such as biotite, hornblende, or an unmixed calcite-dolomite assemblage). The volatile-bearing assemblages are mainly found within and below the J-M reef, where native copper and sphalerite are also locally present. Pristine sulfides are found throughout the stratigraphy. Both groups can be affected by apparent S loss in the form of pyrite being converted to magnetite and chalcopyrite to a Cu-Fe-oxide (delafossite), with little to no silicate alteration. An upward trend from pentlandite-rich to pyrrhotite-rich to pyrite-rich assemblages is observed in the footwall rocks in upper GN-I, and the same trend repeats from just below the reef and continues into the overlying N-II and GN-II. Modeling suggests that the sulfide Ni in the Peridotite Zone is largely controlled by silicate Ni. When taken together, observations are most readily explained by the remobilization of selected elements by a high-temperature fluid with the apparent loss of S > Cu > Ni. This could concentrate ore metals by vapor refining, eventually producing a platinum group element-enriched sulfide ore zone, such as the J-M reef.

  15. Optically Sectioning Ocular Fluorometer Microscope: Applications To The Cornea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Barry R.

    1988-06-01

    An optically sectioning ocular fluorometer microscope is described with the capability of measuring the emission spectra of molecules in planes along the microscope axis. Its unique feature is that the objective is attached to a piezoelectric driver and scans from the tear film to the aqueous humor. This permits measurements on living animals and adoption for clinical use. The excitation light from a laser (nitrogen, dye, argon or helium cadmium) couples to the microscope via a quartz optical fiber. The light is projected through a 100 PM slit on the excitation side, through one half of the objective. The emitted light is collected by the second half of the objective and passes a second 100 pm slit in the conjugate plane of the eyepiece. The depth resolution is 6 um with an 100x objective, and 18 PM with a 50 power objective. The fluorescence is coupled by a quartz fiber to an optical spectrum analyzer. It consists of a monochromator with two microchannel plates attached to a linear diode array. The photocathode of the detector is gated for use with pulsed lasers or it can operate in the continuous mode. The applications include fluorescence measurements on thin layered structures. The present study involves the noninvasive measurement of oxidative metabolism of the component layers of the in vivo cornea. This is based on fluorescence measurements of the reduced pyridine nucleotide in the cornea. The fluorescence signals from the corneal epithelial (30 μm) and endothelial (4 μm) are clearly defined. Other applications to ophthalmology include studies of the fluorescence form the component layers of the ocular lens. Support from N.I.I. EY06958.

  16. High-J CO Intensity Measurements for Galaxies Observed by the Herschel FTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenetzky, Julia; Rangwala, Naseem; Glenn, Jason; Maloney, Philip; Conley, Alex

    Molecular gas is the raw material for star formation and is commonly traced by the carbon monoxide (CO) molecule. The atmosphere blocks all but the lowest-J transitions of CO for observatories on the ground, but the launch of the Herschel Space Observatory revealed the CO emission of nearby galaxies from J = 4-3 to J = 13-12. Herschel showed that mid- and high-J CO lines in nearby galaxies are emitted from warm gas, accounting for approximately 10% of the molecular mass, but the majority of the CO luminosity. The energy budget of this warm, highly-excited gas is a significant window into the feedback interactions among molecular gas, star formation, and galaxy evolution. Likely, mechanical heating is required to explain the excitation. Such gas has also been observed in star forming regions within our galaxy. We have examined all ~300 spectra of galaxies from the Herschel Fourier Transform Spectrometer and measured line fluxes or upper limits for the CO J = 4-3 to J = 13-12, [CI], and [NII] 205 micron lines in ~200 galaxies, taking systematic effects of the FTS into account. We will present our line fitting method, illustrate trends available so far in this large sample, and preview the full 2-component radiative transfer likelihood modeling of the CO emission using an illustrative sample of 20 galaxies, including comparisons to well-resolved galactic regions. This work is a comprehensive study of mid- and high-J CO emission among a variety of galaxy types, and can be used as a resource for future (sub)millimeter studies of galaxies with ground-based instruments.

  17. L'CO/LFIR Relations with CO Rotational Ladders of Galaxies Across the Herschel SPIRE Archive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamenetzky, J.; Rangwala, N.; Glenn, J.; Maloney, P. R.; Conley, A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a catalog of all CO (carbon monoxide) (J (total angular momentum quantum number) equals 1-0 through J equals 13-12), [CI], and [NII] lines available from extragalactic spectra from the Herschel SPIRE (Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver) Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) archive combined with observations of the low-J CO lines from the literature and from the Arizona Radio Observatory. This work examines the relationships between L (sub FIR (Far Infra Red)), L prime (sub CO), and L (sub CO) / L (sub CO, 1-0). We also present a new method for estimating probability distribution functions (PDFs) from marginal signal-to-noise ratio Herschel FTS spectra, which takes into account the instrumental "ringing" and the resulting highly correlated nature of the spectra. The slopes of Log (L (sub FIR)) versus Log (L prime (sub CO)) are linear for all mid- to high-J CO lines. The mid- to high-J CO luminosity relative to CO J equals 1-0 increases with increasing L (sub FIR), indicating higher excitement of the molecular gas, though these ratios do not exceed approximately 100. The luminosities relative to CO J equals 1-0 remain relatively at from J equals 6-5 through J equals13-2, across many orders of magnitude of L (sub FIR). Qualitative comparisons to current theoretical models do not match these flat SLED (spectral line energy distributions) shapes, indicating the need for more comprehensive modeling of the excitation processes of warm molecular gas in nearby galaxies.

  18. Two Pathways for Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Hydrogen by a Nickel Bis(diphosphine) Complex with Pendant Amines in the Second Coordination Sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jenny Y.; Smith, Stuart E.; Liu, Tianbiao L.; Dougherty, William G.; Hoffert, Wesley A.; Kassel, W. S.; Rakowski DuBois, Mary; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2013-07-03

    A nickel bis(diphosphine) complex containing pendant amines in the second coordination sphere, [Ni(PCy2Nt-Bu2)2](BF4)2 (PCy2Nt-Bu2 = 1,5-di(tert-butyl)-3,7-dicyclohexyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane), is an electrocatalyst for hydrogen oxidation. Under 1.0 atm H2 using NEt3 as a base and with added water, a turnover frequency of 45 s-1 is observed at 23 °C; this is the fastest observed for a molecular catalyst. The addition of hydrogen to the NiII complex gives thee isomers of the doubly protonated Ni0 complex [Ni(PCy2HNt-Bu2)2](BF4)2; these complexes have been studied by 1H and 31P NMR spectroscopy, and for one isomer, an X-ray diffraction study. Using the pKa values and NiII/I and NiI/0 redox potentials in a thermochemical cycle, the free energy of hydrogen addition to [Ni(PCy2Nt-Bu2)2]2+ was determined to be -7.9 kcal mol-1. The catalytic rate observed in dry acetonitrile for the oxidation of H2 at the NiII/I couple depends on base size, with larger bases (NEt3, tert-BuNH2) resulting in slower catalysis than n-BuNH2. Addition of water accelerates the rate of catalysis, especially for the larger bases. The results of these studies provide important insights into the design of catalysts for hydrogen oxidation that facilitate proton movement and operate at moderate potentials. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  19. Biosensing and bioremediation of Cr(VI) by cell free extract of Enterobacter aerogenes T2.

    PubMed

    Panda, Jigisha; Sarkar, Priyabrata

    2014-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium or Cr(VI) enters the environment through several anthropogenic activities and it is highly toxic and carcinogenic. Hence it is required to be detected and remediated from the environment. In this study, low-cost and environment-friendly methods of biosensing and bioremediation of Cr(VI) have been proposed. Crude cell free extract (CFE) of previously isolated Enterobacter aerogenes T2 (GU265554; NII 1111) was prepared and exploited to develop a stable biosensor for direct estimation of Cr(VI) in waste water, by using three electrodes via cyclic voltammetry. For bioremediation studies, a homogeneous solution of commercially available sodium alginate and CFE was added dropwise in a continuously stirred calcium chloride solution. Biologically modified calcium alginate beads were produced and these were further utilized for bioremediation studies. The proposed sensor showed linear response in the range of 10-40 μg L(-1) Cr(VI) and the limit of detection was found to be 6.6 μg L(-1) Cr(VI). No interference was observed in presence of metal ions, e.g., lead, cadmium, arsenic, tin etc., except for insignificant interference with molybdenum and manganese. In bioremediation studies, modified calcium alginate beads showed encouraging removal rate 900 mg Cr(VI)/m(3) water per day with a removal efficiency of 90%, much above than reported in literature. The proposed sensing system could be a viable alternative to costly measurement procedures. Calcium alginate beads, modified with CFE of E. aerogenes, could be used in bioremediation of Cr(VI) since it could work in real conditions with extraordinarily high capacity.

  20. A traditional herbal medication, Maekmoondong-tang, for cough: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwan-Il; Shin, Seungwon; Lee, Nara; Lee, Beom-Joon; Lee, Junhee; Lee, Hyangsook

    2016-02-03

    Maekmoondong-tang (MMDT) is a traditional herbal medication widely used to improve cough in Korea, Japan, and China. It is composed of six herbs (Ophiopogonis Tuber, Pinelliae Tuber, Glycyrrhizae Radix, Zizyphi Fructus, Ginseng Radix, and Oryzae Semen). This study is aimed to systematically review the relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the effectiveness and safety of MMDT for cough. Electronic and hand-searching of 7 databases (Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, OASIS, RISS, CNKI and CiNii) was systematically conducted up to February 2015 for RCTs testing MMDT in patients with cough. The primary outcome was cough symptom improvement using cough diary, visual analog scale, or response rate. Risk of bias of the included trials was evaluated with the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool. The dichotomous data were pooled to obtain a risk ratio (RR) of cough persisting after treatment, with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Nine RCTs involving 2453 participants were included. The methodological quality was largely poor for a majority of the studies. MMDT reduced the severity of cough by 74% compared with the conventional antitussive medications in various conditions (n=1145; RR of cough persisting after treatment=0.26; 95% CI, 0.19-0.34, I(2)=0%). The addition of MMDT to conventional medication in patients with postinfectious cough significantly alleviated symptoms up to day 5 but the effect was not maintained one week afterwards. For other diseases/conditions including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer surgery, and asthma, the evidence is inconsistent for MMDT/mMMDT for cough. Adverse events appear to be rare but the reporting was poor. The current evidence from our systematic review and meta-analysis on MMDT for cough is inconclusive and we propose that rigorously designed, placebo-controlled trials of MMDT should be conducted to establish its place in management of cough. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  1. Dust attenuation in z ~ 1 galaxies from Herschel and 3D-HST Hα measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, A.; Rodighiero, G.; Franceschini, A.; Talia, M.; Cimatti, A.; Baronchelli, I.; Daddi, E.; Renzini, A.; Schawinski, K.; Mancini, C.; Silverman, J.; Gruppioni, C.; Lutz, D.; Berta, S.; Oliver, S. J.

    2016-02-01

    We combined the spectroscopic information from the 3D-HST survey with Herschel data to characterize the Hα dust attenuation properties of a sample of 79 main sequence star-forming galaxies at z ~ 1 in the GOODS-S field. The sample was selected in the far-IR at λ = 100 and/or 160 μm and only includes galaxies with a secure Hα detection (S/N > 3). From the low resolution 3D-HST spectra we measured the redshifts and the Hα fluxes for the whole sample. (A factor of 1/1.2 was applied to the observed fluxes to remove the [NII] contamination.) The stellar masses (M⋆), infrared (LIR), and UV luminosities (LUV) were derived from the spectral energy distributions by fitting multiband data from GALEX near-UV to SPIRE 500 μm. We estimated the continuum extinction Estar(B-V) from both the IRX = LIR/LUV ratio and the UV-slope, β, and found excellent agreement between the two. The nebular extinction was estimated from comparison of the observed SFRHα and SFRUV. We obtained f = Estar(B-V) /Eneb(B-V) = 0.93 ± 0.06, which is higher than the canonical value of f = 0.44 measured in the local Universe. Our derived dust correction produces good agreement between the Hα and IR+UV SFRs for galaxies with SFR ≳ 20M⊙/yr and M⋆ ≳ 5 × 1010M⊙, while objects with lower SFR and M⋆ seem to require a smaller f-factor (i.e. higher Hα extinction correction). Our results then imply that the nebular extinction for our sample is comparable to extinction in the optical-UV continuum and suggest that the f-factor is a function of both M⋆ and SFR, in agreement with previous studies.

  2. Design and Analysis Tools for Concurrent Blackboard Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McManus, John W.

    1991-01-01

    A blackboard system consists of a set of knowledge sources, a blackboard data structure, and a control strategy used to activate the knowledge sources. The blackboard model of problem solving is best described by Dr. H. Penny Nii of the Stanford University AI Laboratory: "A Blackboard System can be viewed as a collection of intelligent agents who are gathered around a blackboard, looking at pieces of information written on it, thinking about the current state of the solution, and writing their conclusions on the blackboard as they generate them. " The blackboard is a centralized global data structure, often partitioned in a hierarchical manner, used to represent the problem domain. The blackboard is also used to allow inter-knowledge source communication and acts as a shared memory visible to all of the knowledge sources. A knowledge source is a highly specialized, highly independent process that takes inputs from the blackboard data structure, performs a computation, and places the results of the computation in the blackboard data structure. This design allows for an opportunistic control strategy. The opportunistic problem-solving technique allows a knowledge source to contribute towards the solution of the current problem without knowing which of the other knowledge sources will use the information. The use of opportunistic problem-solving allows the data transfers on the blackboard to determine which processes are active at a given time. Designing and developing blackboard systems is a difficult process. The designer is trying to balance several conflicting goals and achieve a high degree of concurrent knowledge source execution while maintaining both knowledge and semantic consistency on the blackboard. Blackboard systems have not attained their apparent potential because there are no established tools or methods to guide in their construction or analyze their performance.

  3. Imaging ultrafast excited state pathways in transition metal complexes by X-ray transient absorption and scattering using X-ray free electron laser source.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin X; Shelby, Megan L; Lestrange, Patrick J; Jackson, Nicholas E; Haldrup, Kristoffer; Mara, Michael W; Stickrath, Andrew B; Zhu, Diling; Lemke, Henrik; Chollet, Matthieu; Hoffman, Brian M; Li, Xiaosong

    2016-12-16

    This report will describe our recent studies of transition metal complex structural dynamics on the fs and ps time scales using an X-ray free electron laser source, Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Ultrafast XANES spectra at the Ni K-edge of nickel(ii) tetramesitylporphyrin (NiTMP) were measured for optically excited states at a timescale from 100 fs to 50 ps, providing insight into its sub-ps electronic and structural relaxation processes. Importantly, a transient reduced state Ni(i) (π, 3dx(2)-y(2)) electronic state is captured through the interpretation of a short-lived excited state absorption on the low-energy shoulder of the edge, which is aided by the computation of X-ray transitions for postulated excited electronic states. The observed and computed inner shell to valence orbital transition energies demonstrate and quantify the influence of the electronic configuration on specific metal orbital energies. A strong influence of the valence orbital occupation on the inner shell orbital energies indicates that one should not use the transition energy from 1s to other orbitals to draw conclusions about the d-orbital energies. For photocatalysis, a transient electronic configuration could influence d-orbital energies up to a few eV and any attempt to steer the reaction pathway should account for this to ensure that external energies can be used optimally in driving desirable processes. NiTMP structural evolution and the influence of the porphyrin macrocycle conformation on relaxation kinetics can be likewise inferred from this study.

  4. Satellite-Terrestrial Network Interoperability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonDeak, Thomas C.

    1998-01-01

    The developing national and global information infrastructures (NII/GII) are being built upon the asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) telecommunications protocol and associated protocol standards. These protocols are themselves under development through the telecommunications standards process defined by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), which as a body is sanctioned by the United Nations. All telecommunications manufacturers use these standards to create products that can interoperate. The ITU has recognized the ATM Forum as the instrument for the development of ATM protocols. This forum is a consortium of industry, academia, and government entities formed to quickly develop standards for the ATM infrastructure. However, because the participants represent a predominately terrestrial network viewpoint, the use of satellites in the national and global information infrastructures could be severely compromised. Consequently, through an ongoing task order, the NASA Lewis Research Center asked Sterling Software, Inc., to communicate with the ATM Forum in support of the interoperability of satellite-terrestrial networks. This year, Dr. Raj Jain of the Ohio State University, under contract to Sterling, authored or coauthored 32 explanatory documents delivered to the ATM Forum in the areas of Guaranteed Frame Rate for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), Available Bit Rate, performance testing, Variable Bit Rate voice over ATM, TCP over Unspecified Bit Rate+, Virtual Source/Virtual Destination, and network management. These contributions have had a significant impact on the content of the standards that the ATM Forum is developing. Some of the more significant accomplishments have been: (1) The adoption by the ATM Forum of a new definition for Message-In, Message-Out latency; and (2) Improved text (clearer wording and newly defined terms) for measurement procedures, foreground and background traffic, and scalable configuration in the

  5. Preparation for Retrievals from Sellafield Legacy Ponds Installation of the Gantry Refurbishment System

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, M.

    2008-07-01

    Retrieval of sludge and fuel from the First Generation Magnox Fuel Storage Pond, and its safe long term storage is one of the NDA's top priorities in the UK clean up programme. The plant is currently undergoing a series of major modifications in preparation for the retrievals operations. The most visible example of these modifications is the Gantry Refurbishment System (GRS), a major work platform which has recently been lifted onto the pond long travel girders used by the Skip Handler. This paper describes the design, manufacture, works test, and site installation of this major piece of equipment. The installation lift, involving the use of an 800Te crane was one of the largest lifts undertaken at Sellafield. The GRS is a mobile platform structure which is designed to be pushed or pulled along the long travel girders by the Skip Handler. Its principle function is to provide a safe and shielded working platform from which to undertake refurbishment of the Skip Handler long travel girders and support structure. The potential hazards and consequences resulting from the modification were fully understood and controls were put in place to ensure that the risk of carrying out the work was as low as reasonably practicable. The work was authorised by the NII, Sellafield Nuclear Safety Committee and an independent readiness review panel. Despite less than perfect weather in the run up to the lift, the GRS was successfully and safely lifted onto the pond on 18 October 2006, the culmination of three years of planning, engineering and construction. (authors)

  6. [Occupational exposure to carcinogenic metals and metalloids in refining of heavy metals].

    PubMed

    Gaweda, Ewa

    2005-01-01

    The article presents the results of measurements of carcinogenic metals (cadmium, nickel) and metalloids (arsenic) concentrations in the workplace air in processes of heavy metals refining. The tests were conducted in two large Polish plants (copper smelter--Plant I, non-ferrous metals smelter--Plant II) at a few dozen workstations in copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, silver refining, sulphate Ni(I), and selenium production. The tested elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite tube (AAS-GT). Air samples were taken according to the principles of personal dosimetry. The presence of arsenic in the workplace air was found in both plants. In Plant I, exposure to arsenic was diversified--from very low in copper electro-refining processes, to higher than the Polish MAC value in copper, and higher than 0.5 Polish MAC value in silver refining processes. In Plant II, the amounts of arsenic determined in the air were smaller, however, the average values of occupational exposure factor were frequently higher than Polish MAC value of 0.1. Exposure to cadmium occurs only in Plant II. The highest exposure was found at workstations in the lead and cadmium refining processes. But even in these processes, occupational exposure factors Cw did not exceed the Polish MAC value for cadmium. The presence of nickel was found only at workstations with NiSO4 production, however, its concentrations were very low (fractions of the Polish MAC value). The results of the tests show that routine measurements of arsenic concentrations should be recommended at all workstations in the production processes of metals with a high degree of purity.

  7. Satellite-Terrestrial Network Interoperability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonDeak, Thomas C.

    1998-01-01

    The developing national and global information infrastructures (NII/GII) are being built upon the asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) telecommunications protocol and associated protocol standards. These protocols are themselves under development through the telecommunications standards process defined by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), which as a body is sanctioned by the United Nations. All telecommunications manufacturers use these standards to create products that can interoperate. The ITU has recognized the ATM Forum as the instrument for the development of ATM protocols. This forum is a consortium of industry, academia, and government entities formed to quickly develop standards for the ATM infrastructure. However, because the participants represent a predominately terrestrial network viewpoint, the use of satellites in the national and global information infrastructures could be severely compromised. Consequently, through an ongoing task order, the NASA Lewis Research Center asked Sterling Software, Inc., to communicate with the ATM Forum in support of the interoperability of satellite-terrestrial networks. This year, Dr. Raj Jain of the Ohio State University, under contract to Sterling, authored or coauthored 32 explanatory documents delivered to the ATM Forum in the areas of Guaranteed Frame Rate for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), Available Bit Rate, performance testing, Variable Bit Rate voice over ATM, TCP over Unspecified Bit Rate+, Virtual Source/Virtual Destination, and network management. These contributions have had a significant impact on the content of the standards that the ATM Forum is developing. Some of the more significant accomplishments have been: (1) The adoption by the ATM Forum of a new definition for Message-In, Message-Out latency; and (2) Improved text (clearer wording and newly defined terms) for measurement procedures, foreground and background traffic, and scalable configuration in the

  8. The Reaction Mechanism of Methyl-Coenzyme M Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Wongnate, Thanyaporn; Ragsdale, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) is a nickel tetrahydrocorphinoid (coenzyme F430) containing enzyme involved in the biological synthesis and anaerobic oxidation of methane. MCR catalyzes the conversion of methyl-2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (methyl-SCoM) and N-7-mercaptoheptanoylthreonine phosphate (CoB7SH) to CH4 and the mixed disulfide CoBS-SCoM. In this study, the reaction of MCR from Methanothermobacter marburgensis, with its native substrates was investigated using static binding, chemical quench, and stopped-flow techniques. Rate constants were measured for each step in this strictly ordered ternary complex catalytic mechanism. Surprisingly, in the absence of the other substrate, MCR can bind either substrate; however, only one binary complex (MCR·methyl-SCoM) is productive whereas the other (MCR·CoB7SH) is inhibitory. Moreover, the kinetic data demonstrate that binding of methyl-SCoM to the inhibitory MCR·CoB7SH complex is highly disfavored (Kd = 56 mm). However, binding of CoB7SH to the productive MCR·methyl-SCoM complex to form the active ternary complex (CoB7SH·MCR(NiI)·CH3SCoM) is highly favored (Kd = 79 μm). Only then can the chemical reaction occur (kobs = 20 s−1 at 25 °C), leading to rapid formation and dissociation of CH4 leaving the binary product complex (MCR(NiII)·CoB7S−·SCoM), which undergoes electron transfer to regenerate Ni(I) and the final product CoBS-SCoM. This first rapid kinetics study of MCR with its natural substrates describes how an enzyme can enforce a strictly ordered ternary complex mechanism and serves as a template for identification of the reaction intermediates. PMID:25691570

  9. German influence in USSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertok, B.

    2004-08-01

    In June 1945 this author was one of the organizers of the, first in the postwar history, Soviet-German institute RABE. The main task of its activity was to study the history of the German rocket technology developments and rebuild the technology of the long range ballistic missiles V-2. This work was supported by the Soviet military authorities and also by the Soviet government. In the Turingia region of Germany a big institute, "Nordhausen", was established, in which Soviet and German specialists jointly worked on the rocket technology problems. In November 1947 a big group of German specialists was transferred to the Soviet Union. All the works in Germany were cancelled. German specialists took part in the preparation and running of the flight test of rocket V-2 in October-November of 1947 on Kapustin Yar test range. Until the beginning of the 50s a big group of German specialists worked in the daughter institute of the leading Soviet research institute on rocket technique, NII-88, under the management of Helmut Grettrupe, one of the former von Braun employees. They worked out the design of ballistic missiles of range up to 800 km with principally new guidance system. Germans also took part in the development of the technology of fluid rocket engine production. In 1952-1953 German specialists returned to Germany and rocket technology in the USSR matured independently. The Soviet and German scientists cooperation resumed in 1960s after manned space flights were started. The author was one of the leading participants in those joint works.

  10. A study of the trace sulfide mineral assemblages in the Stillwater Complex, Montana, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aird, Hannah M.; Ferguson, Katherine M.; Lehrer, Malia L.; Boudreau, Alan E.

    2017-03-01

    The sulfide assemblages of the Stillwater Complex away from the well-studied ore zones are composed mainly of variable proportions of pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, pentlandite, and ±pyrite. Excluding vein assemblages and those affected by greenschist and lower temperature alteration, the majority can be classified into two broad assemblages, defined here as pristine (multiphase, often globular in shape) or volatile-bearing (multiphase, high-temperature, volatile-rich minerals such as biotite, hornblende, or an unmixed calcite-dolomite assemblage). The volatile-bearing assemblages are mainly found within and below the J-M reef, where native copper and sphalerite are also locally present. Pristine sulfides are found throughout the stratigraphy. Both groups can be affected by apparent S loss in the form of pyrite being converted to magnetite and chalcopyrite to a Cu-Fe-oxide (delafossite), with little to no silicate alteration. An upward trend from pentlandite-rich to pyrrhotite-rich to pyrite-rich assemblages is observed in the footwall rocks in upper GN-I, and the same trend repeats from just below the reef and continues into the overlying N-II and GN-II. Modeling suggests that the sulfide Ni in the Peridotite Zone is largely controlled by silicate Ni. When taken together, observations are most readily explained by the remobilization of selected elements by a high-temperature fluid with the apparent loss of S > Cu > Ni. This could concentrate ore metals by vapor refining, eventually producing a platinum group element-enriched sulfide ore zone, such as the J-M reef.

  11. Observation of Organometallic and Radical Intermediates Formed during the Reaction of Methyl-Coenzyme M Reductase with Bromoethanesulfonate†

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xianghui; Telser, Joshua; Hoffman, Brian M.; Gerfen, Gary; Ragsdale, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) from methanogenic archaea catalyzes the final step of methane formation, in which methyl-coenzyme M (2-methylthioethane sulfonate, methyl-SCoM) is reduced with coenzyme B (N-7-mercaptoheptanolyl-threonine phosphate, CoBSH) to form methane and the heterodisulfide CoBS-SCoM. The active dimeric form of MCR contains two Ni(I)-F430 prosthetic groups, one in each monomer. This manuscript describes studies of the reaction of the active Ni(I) state of MCR (MCRred1) with BES (2-bromoethanesulfonate) and CoBSH or its analog, CoB6SH (N-6-mercaptohexanolyl-threonine phosphate), by transient kinetic measurements using EPR and UV-visible spectroscopy and by global fits of the data. This reaction is shown to lead to the formation of three intermediates, the first of which is assigned as an alkyl-Ni(III) species that forms as the active Ni(I)-MCRred1 state of the enzyme decays. Subsequently, a radical (MCRBES radical) is formed that was characterized by multifrequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies at X (~ 9 GHz)-, Q (~35 GHz)- and D (~135 GHz)-bands and by electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy. The MCRBES radical is characterized by g-values at 2.00340 and 1.99832 and includes a strongly coupled non-exchangeable proton with a hyperfine coupling constant of 50 MHz. Based on transient kinetic measurements, the formation and decay of the radical coincides with a species that exhibits absorption peaks at 426 nm and 575 nm. Isotopic substitution, multifrequency EPR and ENDOR spectroscopic experiments rule out the possibility that MCRBES is a tyrosyl radical and indicate that if a tyrosyl radical is formed during the reaction, it does not accumulate to detectable levels. The results provide support for a hybrid mechanism of methanogenesis by MCR that includes both alkyl-Ni and radical intermediates. PMID:20597483

  12. L'CO/LFIR Relations with CO Rotational Ladders of Galaxies Across the Herschel SPIRE Archive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamenetzky, J.; Rangwala, N.; Glenn, J.; Maloney, P. R.; Conley, A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a catalog of all CO (carbon monoxide) (J (total angular momentum quantum number) equals 1-0 through J equals 13-12), [CI], and [NII] lines available from extragalactic spectra from the Herschel SPIRE (Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver) Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) archive combined with observations of the low-J CO lines from the literature and from the Arizona Radio Observatory. This work examines the relationships between L (sub FIR (Far Infra Red)), L prime (sub CO), and L (sub CO) / L (sub CO, 1-0). We also present a new method for estimating probability distribution functions (PDFs) from marginal signal-to-noise ratio Herschel FTS spectra, which takes into account the instrumental "ringing" and the resulting highly correlated nature of the spectra. The slopes of Log (L (sub FIR)) versus Log (L prime (sub CO)) are linear for all mid- to high-J CO lines. The mid- to high-J CO luminosity relative to CO J equals 1-0 increases with increasing L (sub FIR), indicating higher excitement of the molecular gas, though these ratios do not exceed approximately 100. The luminosities relative to CO J equals 1-0 remain relatively at from J equals 6-5 through J equals13-2, across many orders of magnitude of L (sub FIR). Qualitative comparisons to current theoretical models do not match these flat SLED (spectral line energy distributions) shapes, indicating the need for more comprehensive modeling of the excitation processes of warm molecular gas in nearby galaxies.

  13. [A collective review of Vibrio vulnificus infection in Japan].

    PubMed

    Oishi, Hirotaka; Ura, Yukiko; Mitsumizo, Shinji; Nakashima, Mikio

    2006-11-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is found globally in marine coastal waters. Infection with this organism, via ingestion of raw shellfish or exposure to marine water, can cause necrotizing fasciitis and sepsis, which have high mortality and short latency. In Japan, many cases have been reported since 1980, mainly from hospitals in western prefectures. However, because of the sporadic nature of infection outbreaks, a thorough epidemiologic survey has not been done. We studied the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of Vibrio vulnificus infections reported in Japan from 1975 to 2005. We identified 185 cases using the medical article search engines Ichushi (Japan Medical Abstracts Society), CiNii (Citation Information by National Institute of Informatics), and PubMed over 30 years. The median age of patients was 59. The number of male patients was eight times the number of female patients; however, no significant difference in mortality was found between genders. In yearly distributions of patients, 20 cases were reported in 2001, a year in which we experienced more rainfall and a longer rainy season in Northern Kyushu. In monthly distribution, about 80% of cases were reported from July to September when sea water temperatures rise. About 40% of cases were reported in four prefectures around the Ariake Sea. The underlying disease indicated liver dysfunction in 90% of patients, but mortality was the same regardless of the infection pathway (oral ingestion or wound). Because of its rapid aggravation and high mortality rate, public education is important to prevent new cases. It is also highly recommended that patients with preexisting liver dysfunction avoid raw fish and limit exposure to marine water during the summer.

  14. Studies on Anthropogenic Impact on Water Quality in Hilo (Hawaii) Bay and Mapping the Study Stations Using Geospatial Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartier, A. J.; Williams, M. S.; Adolf, J.; Sriharan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Hilo Bay has uncharacteristically brown waters compared to other waters found in Hawai'i. The majority of the freshwater entering Hilo Bay is from storm and surface water runoff. The anthropogenic impact on water quality at Hilo Bay is due to sediment entrance, cesspools (Bacteria), and invasive species (Albizia). This poster presentation will focus on the water quality and phytoplankton collected on a weekly basis at a buoy positioned one meter from the shore of Hilo Bay, preserving the phytoplankton intact, concentrating and dehydrating the sample with ethanol, and viewing the phytoplankton with a scanning electron microscope (Hitachi S-3400NII). The GPS (Global Positioning System) points were collected at the sampling stations. Three transects on three separate dates were performed in Hilo Bay with salinity, percent dissolved oxygen, turbidity, secchi depth, temperature, and chlorophyll fluorescence data collected at each sampling station. A consistent trend observed in all transects was as distance from the river increased turbidity decreased and salinity increased. The GPS data on June 30, 2015 showed a major correlation between stations and their distance from shore. There is a decrease in the turbidity but not the temperature for these stations. The GPS points collected on July 7, 2015 at thirteen stations starting with station one being at the shore to the water, showed that the salinity concentration fluctuate noticeably at the first 6 stations. As we proceed further away from the shore, the salinity concentration increases from stations seven through thirteen. The water temperature shows little variation throughout the thirteen stations. The turbidity level was high at the shore and shows a noticeable drop at station thirteen.

  15. The Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster: a Compilation of Published Literature on Health Needs and Relief Activities, March 2011-September 2012

    PubMed Central

    Ochi, Sae; Murray, Virginia; Hodgson, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of the health needs following the Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster and the lessons identified. Methods The relevant of peer review and grey literature articles in English and Japanese, and books in Japanese, published from March 2011 to September 2012 were searched. Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and HMIC were searched for journal articles in English, CiNii for those in Japanese, and Amazon.co.jp. for books. Descriptions of the health needs at the time of the disaster were identified using search terms and relevant articles were reviewed. Findings 85 English articles, 246 Japanese articles and 13 books were identified, the majority of which were experience/activity reports. Regarding health care needs, chronic conditions such as hypertension and diabetes were reported to be the greatest burden from the early stages of the disaster. Loss of medication and medical records appeared to worsen the situation. Many sub-acute symptoms were attributed to the contaminated sludge of the tsunamis and the poor living environment at the evacuation centres. Particularly vulnerable groups were identified as the elderly, those with mental health illnesses and the disabled. Although the response of the rescue activities was prompt, it sometimes failed to meet the on-site needs due to the lack of communication and coordination. Conclusion The lessons identified from this mega-disaster highlighted the specific health needs of the vulnerable populations, particularly the elderly and those with non-communicable diseases. Further research is needed so that the lessons identified can be incorporated into future contingency plans in Japan and elsewhere. PMID:23787732

  16. What's unusual in online disease outbreak news?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Accurate and timely detection of public health events of international concern is necessary to help support risk assessment and response and save lives. Novel event-based methods that use the World Wide Web as a signal source offer potential to extend health surveillance into areas where traditional indicator networks are lacking. In this paper we address the issue of systematically evaluating online health news to support automatic alerting using daily disease-country counts text mined from real world data using BioCaster. For 18 data sets produced by BioCaster, we compare 5 aberration detection algorithms (EARS C2, C3, W2, F-statistic and EWMA) for performance against expert moderated ProMED-mail postings. Results We report sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), mean alerts/100 days and F1, at 95% confidence interval (CI) for 287 ProMED-mail postings on 18 outbreaks across 14 countries over a 366 day period. Results indicate that W2 had the best F1 with a slight benefit for day of week effect over C2. In drill down analysis we indicate issues arising from the granular choice of country-level modeling, sudden drops in reporting due to day of week effects and reporting bias. Automatic alerting has been implemented in BioCaster available from http://born.nii.ac.jp. Conclusions Online health news alerts have the potential to enhance manual analytical methods by increasing throughput, timeliness and detection rates. Systematic evaluation of health news aberrations is necessary to push forward our understanding of the complex relationship between news report volumes and case numbers and to select the best performing features and algorithms. PMID:20618980

  17. Dust and ionized gas in elliptical galaxies: Signatures of merging collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goudfrooij, Paul; Dejong, Teije

    1993-01-01

    Traditionally elliptical galaxies were thought to be essentially devoid of interstellar matter. However, recent advances in instrumental sensitivity have caused a renaissance of interest in dust and gas in - or associated with - elliptical galaxies. In particular, the technique of co-adding IRAS survey scans has led to the detection of more than half of all ellipticals with BT less than 11 mag. in the Revised Shapley-Ames catalog, indicating the presence of 10(exp 7) - 10(exp 8) solar mass of cold interstellar matter (Jura et al. 1987). In addition, CCD multi-color surface photometry shows dust patches in about 30 percent of the cases studied to date (e.g., Veron-Cetty & Veron 1988). Thorough study of the gas and dust in ellipticals is important to (1) determine its origin (mass-loss from late-type stars, merging collisions with other galaxies or accretion inflows from cooling X-ray gas), and (2) investigate the 3-D shape of ellipticals, as can be derived from the orientation of the dust lanes and the 2-D velocity field of the gas. An important result of our comprehensive CCD imaging program is that a relevant fraction (approximately 40 percent) of the sample objects exhibits dust patches within extended H-alpha+(NII) line-emitting filaments. This common occurrence can be easily accounted for if the dust and gas have an external origin, i.e., mergers or interactions with gas-rich galaxies. Evidence supporting this suggestion: (1) the ionized gas is usually dynamically decoupled from the stellar velocity field (see, e.g., Sharples et al. 1983, Bertola & Bettoni 1988); (2) it is shown in a companion paper (Goudfrooij et al. 1992) that internal stellar mass loss alone can not account for the dust content of elliptical galaxies.

  18. Análise da cinemática interna das regiões HII gigantes e das galáxias HII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plana, H.; Telles, E.; Maíz-Apellániz, J.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho nós mostramos os primeiros resultados de um estudo sobre a cinemática das Regiões HII Gigantes (GHIIRs) em galáxias próximas. Essas regiões HII têm um diâmetro médio entre 100 pc e 1000 pc e uma taxa de formação estelar de 106 M¤ / ano sendo equivalente à observada em galáxias de tipo tardio correspondendo a uma taxa de formação estelar por unidade de volume uma ordem de magnitude maior que a observada em regiões HII normais. Usando espectros de fenda longas em várias posições, nós construímos mapas de velocidades, de dispersão e de intensidade para várias linhas de emissão como Ha, Hb, [NII]6584 Å, [OIII]5007 Å e o doublet de [SII], para cinco regiões gigantes: NGC 2403 II e IV, NGC 595, NGC 5461, NGC 5471, NGC 5455. O estudo da cinemática (mapas de velocidades e da dispersão) mostrou, por exemplo, a presença de cascas em expansão em NGC 595 ou perfis de emissão com várias componentes em NGC 5461. Os perfis de emissão também mostram velocidades supersônicas. Os resultados são discutidos em comparação com os de estudos anteriores realizados.

  19. Fungal ammonia fermentation, a novel metabolic mechanism that couples the dissimilatory and assimilatory pathways of both nitrate and ethanol. Role of acetyl CoA synthetase in anaerobic ATP synthesis.

    PubMed

    Takasaki, Kazuto; Shoun, Hirofumi; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Takeo, Kanji; Nakamura, Akira; Hoshino, Takayuki; Takaya, Naoki

    2004-03-26

    Fungal ammonia fermentation is a novel dissimilatory metabolic mechanism that supplies energy under anoxic conditions. The fungus Fusarium oxysporum reduces nitrate to ammonium and simultaneously oxidizes ethanol to acetate to generate ATP (Zhou, Z., Takaya, N., Nakamura, A., Yamaguchi, M., Takeo, K., and Shoun, H. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 1892-1896). We identified the Aspergillus nidulans genes involved in ammonia fermentation by analyzing fungal mutants. The results showed that assimilatory nitrate and nitrite reductases (the gene products of niaD and niiA) were essential for reducing nitrate and for anaerobic cell growth during ammonia fermentation. We also found that ethanol oxidation is coupled with nitrate reduction and catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase, coenzyme A (CoA)-acylating aldehyde dehydrogenase, and acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs). This is similar to the mechanism suggested in F. oxysporum except A. nidulans uses Acs to produce ATP instead of the ADP-dependent acetate kinase of F. oxysporum. The production of Acs requires a functional facA gene that encodes Acs and that is involved in ethanol assimilation and other metabolic processes. We purified the gene product of facA (FacA) from the fungus to show that the fungus acetylates FacA on its lysine residue(s) specifically under conditions of ammonia fermentation to regulate its substrate affinity. Acetylated FacA had higher affinity for acetyl-CoA than for acetate, whereas non-acetylated FacA had more affinity for acetate. Thus, the acetylated variant of the FacA protein is responsible for ATP synthesis during fungal ammonia fermentation. These results showed that the fungus ferments ammonium via coupled dissimilatory and assimilatory mechanisms.

  20. ISO-LWS observations of Herbig Ae/Be stars. I. Fine structure lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzetti, D.; Tommasi, E.; Giannini, T.; Nisini, B.; Benedettini, M.; Pezzuto, S.; Strafella, F.; Barlow, M.; Clegg, P. E.; Cohen, M.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Liseau, R.; Molinari, S.; Palla, F.; Saraceno, P.; Smith, H. A.; Spinoglio, L.; White, G. J.

    1999-06-01

    We present the results of the first spectrophotometric survey of a sample of eleven Herbig Ae/Be stars (HAEBE) obtained with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). The [OI] 63mu m and the [CII] 158mu m lines are observed in all the investigated sources, while the [OI] 145mu m transition, due to its relative faintness, sometimes remains undetected. By comparing line intensity ratios with model predictions, photodissociation, due to the UV photons from the central star, results the dominating excitation mechanism although contributions of C-shocks to the [OI] emission cannot be ruled out. A clear example for the presence of a photodissociation region (PDR) illuminated by an HAEBE is shown by LWS spectroscopic mapping of NGC 7129. Some diagnostic probes of the radiation field and density are provided for the objects in our sample: these substantially agree with the known characteristics of both the star and its circumstellar environment, although the observed ratio [OI]63/[OI]145 tends to be smaller than predicted by PDR models. The most likely explanation for this behaviour is self-absorption at 63mu m by cold atomic oxygen. Fine structure lines of the ionised species [OIII], [NII] were detected whenever the star had a spectral type of B0 or earlier; in particular, around the star CoD-42(deg) 11721, besides a compact HII region, evidence is given for an extended low electron density ionised region. Finally, molecular line emission is associated with stars powering a CO outflow, and clumpy PDR models, better than C-shock models, predict for them relative cooling (CO vs OI and CO vs OH) similar to the observed ones. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States and with the participation of ISAS and NASA}

  1. The reaction mechanism of methyl-coenzyme M reductase: how an enzyme enforces strict binding order.

    PubMed

    Wongnate, Thanyaporn; Ragsdale, Stephen W

    2015-04-10

    Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) is a nickel tetrahydrocorphinoid (coenzyme F430) containing enzyme involved in the biological synthesis and anaerobic oxidation of methane. MCR catalyzes the conversion of methyl-2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (methyl-SCoM) and N-7-mercaptoheptanoylthreonine phosphate (CoB7SH) to CH4 and the mixed disulfide CoBS-SCoM. In this study, the reaction of MCR from Methanothermobacter marburgensis, with its native substrates was investigated using static binding, chemical quench, and stopped-flow techniques. Rate constants were measured for each step in this strictly ordered ternary complex catalytic mechanism. Surprisingly, in the absence of the other substrate, MCR can bind either substrate; however, only one binary complex (MCR·methyl-SCoM) is productive whereas the other (MCR·CoB7SH) is inhibitory. Moreover, the kinetic data demonstrate that binding of methyl-SCoM to the inhibitory MCR·CoB7SH complex is highly disfavored (Kd = 56 mM). However, binding of CoB7SH to the productive MCR·methyl-SCoM complex to form the active ternary complex (CoB7SH·MCR(Ni(I))·CH3SCoM) is highly favored (Kd = 79 μM). Only then can the chemical reaction occur (kobs = 20 s(-1) at 25 °C), leading to rapid formation and dissociation of CH4 leaving the binary product complex (MCR(Ni(II))·CoB7S(-)·SCoM), which undergoes electron transfer to regenerate Ni(I) and the final product CoBS-SCoM. This first rapid kinetics study of MCR with its natural substrates describes how an enzyme can enforce a strictly ordered ternary complex mechanism and serves as a template for identification of the reaction intermediates.

  2. On the influence of resonant scattering on cosmic microwave background polarization anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Sunyaev, R. A.

    2007-10-01

    We implement the theory of resonant scattering in the context of cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization anisotropies. We compute the changes in the E-mode polarization (EE) and temperature E-mode (TE) CMB power spectra introduced by the scattering on a resonant transition with a given optical depth τX and polarization coefficient E1. The latter parameter, accounting for how anisotropic the scattering is, depends on the exchange of angular momentum in the transition, enabling observational discrimination between different resonances. We use this formalism in two different scenarios: cosmological recombination and cosmological re-ionization. In the context of cosmological recombination, we compute predictions in frequency and multipole space for the change in the TE and EE power spectra introduced by scattering on the Hα and Pα lines of hydrogen. This constitutes a fundamental test of the standard model of recombination, and the sensitivity it requires is comparable to that needed in measuring the primordial CMB B-mode polarization component. In the context of re-ionization, we study the scattering off metals and ions produced by the first stars, and find that polarization anisotropies, apart from providing a consistency test for intensity measurements, give some insight on how re-ionization evolved. Since polarization anisotropies have memory of how anisotropic the line scattering is, they should be able to discern the OI 63.2-μm transition from other possible transitions associated to OIII, NII, NIII, etc. The amplitude of these signals are, however, between 10 and 100 times below the (already challenging) level of CMB B-mode polarization anisotropies.

  3. Education in nuclear decommissioning in the north of Scotland

    SciTech Connect

    Catlow, F.; Reeves, G.M.

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes the work covered and experience gained in the first two years of operation of DERC, a Centre for Decommissioning and Environmental Remediation in the Highlands of Scotland. The Centre is a unique development which was set up to teach nuclear decommissioning as a separate discipline, address the problem of a declining skills base in the field of nuclear technologies and to take advantage of the unique and exceptional innovative, technical and research opportunities offered through the decommissioning of Britain's fast reactor site at Dounreay. The Centre is an offshoot from North Highland College which is a member of UHI, the University in embryo of the Highlands and Islands. The Centre currently supports ten PhD students completing various diverse projects mainly in the field of nuclear environmental remediation. In addition there area number of full and part time MSc students who participate in NTEC (Nuclear Technology Education Consortium) a consortium of British Universities set up specifically to engender interest and skills in nuclear technology at postgraduate level. At undergraduate level, courses are offered in Nuclear Decommissioning and related subjects as part of Electrical and Mechanical degree courses. In addition to our relationship with the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) the Dounreay site licensee, we have links with Rolls-Royce and the Ministry of Defence who also share the Dounreay site and with other stakeholders such as, the UK regulator (HSE/NII), the Scottish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA), local and international contractors and we liaise with the newly formed Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), who provide some sponsorship and support. We possess our own equipment and laboratories for taking and analysing soil samples and for conducting environmental surveys. Recently we commissioned an aerial survey of contamination in the locality from natural sources, other background levels such as

  4. Young Stellar Objects in Lynds 1641: Disks and Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Min; Kim, Jinyoung Serena; van Boekel, Roy; Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Henning, Thomas; Flaherty, Kevin

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Lynds 1641 (L1641) cloud using multi-wavelength data including Spitzer, WISE, 2MASS, and XMM covering 1390 YSOs across a range of evolutionary stages. In addition, we targeted a sub-sample of YSOs for optical spectroscopy with the MMT/Hectospec and the MMT/Hectochelle. We use this data, along with archival photometric data, to derive spectral types, masses, ages and extinction values. We also use the H_alpha and H_beta lines to derive accretion rates. We calculate the disk fraction as N(II)/N(II+III), where N(II) and N(III) are numbers of Class\\ II and Class\\ III sources, respectively, and obtain a disk fraction of 50% in L1641. We find that the disk frequency is almost constant as a function of stellar mass with a slight peak at log(M_*/M_sun) -0.25. The analysis of multi-epoch data indicates that the accretion variability of YSOs cannot explain the two orders of magnitude of scatter for YSOs with similar masses in the M_acc vs. M_* plot. Forty-six new transition disk objects are confirmed in our spectroscopic survey and we find that the fraction of transition disks that are actively accreting is lower than for optically thick disks (40-45% vs. 77-79% respectively). We confirm our previous result that the accreting YSOs with transition disks have a similar median accretion rate to normal optically thick disks. Analyzing the age distributions of various populations, we find that the diskless YSOs are statistically older than the YSOs with optically-thick disks and the transition disk objects have a median age which is intermediate between the two populations.

  5. Marine actinobacteria showing phosphate-solubilizing efficiency in Chorao Island, Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Dastager, Syed G; Damare, Samir

    2013-05-01

    The occurrence and distribution of an actinobacteria group of bacteria capable of dissolving insoluble phosphates were investigated in this study in marine environments, especially in sediments of Chorao Island, Goa Province, India. A total of 200 bacterial isolates of actinobacteria was isolated. All isolates were screened for phosphate-solubilizing activity on Pikovskaya's agar. Thirteen different isolates exhibiting maximum formation of halos (zone of solubilization) around the bacterial colonies were selected for quantitative estimations of P-solubilization. Quantitative estimations for P-solubilization were analyzed for up to 10 days at intervals of 24 h. Maximum solubilization from 89.3 ± 3.1 to 164.1 ± 4.1 μg ml(-1) was observed after 6 days of incubation in six of all isolates, while the isolate NII-1020 showed maximum P-solubilization. The increase in solubilization coincided with the drop in pH. Many of these species showed wide range of tolerance to temperature, pH, and salt concentrations. Further, 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses were carried to identify the bacterial groups which are actively solubilized phosphate in vitro. Gene sequencing results reveal that all isolates were clustered into six different actinobacterial genera: Streptomyces, Microbacterium, Angustibacter, Kocuria, Isoptericola, and Agromyces. The presence of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms and their ability to solubilize phosphate were indicative of the important role played by bacteria in the biogeochemical cycle of phosphorus and the plant growth in coastal ecosystems.

  6. Effect of excess iodine intake on thyroid diseases in different populations: A systematic review and meta-analyses including observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Katagiri, Ryoko; Yuan, Xiaoyi; Kobayashi, Satomi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Background Although several reports concerning the association of iodine excess and thyroid disease have appeared, no systematic review of the association between iodine excess intake and thyroid diseases, especially hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, has yet been reported. Method We conducted a systematic search of Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases, Ichushi-Web and CiNii database for intervention trials and observational studies. Search terms were constructed from related words for excess AND iodine intake or excretion AND thyroid hormones or diseases AND study designs. After considering the qualitative heterogeneity among studies, a meta-analysis was conducted and odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated in random-effects models. A protocol was registered with PROSPERO (No. CRD42015028081). Results 50 articles were included, including three intervention trials, six case-control studies, six follow-up studies and 35 cross-sectional studies. Three cross-sectional studies in adults included in meta-analysis. Odds ratio of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism between excess and adequate populations were 2.78 (CI:1.47 to 5.27) and 2.03 (CI:1.58 to 2.62) in adults, respectively. Source of excess iodine status was mainly iodized salt or water in included studies. Conclusion Although universal salt iodization has improved goiter rates, chronic exposure to excess iodine from water or poorly monitored salt are risk factors for hypothyroidism in free-living populations. Monitoring of both iodine concentration in salt as well as the iodine concentration in local drinking water are essential to preventing thyroid diseases. Hypothyroidism should be also carefully monitored in areas with excess iodine. Because of the low quality and limited number of included studies, further evidence and review are required. PMID:28282437

  7. University Science Research and Education Beyond 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Paul

    1998-03-01

    The American university system has become the envy of the world over the past five decades for its leadership in scientific research and graduate education. Today, the environment and circumstances underlying that leadership are experiencing dramatic change, posing serious challenges to the role and indeed the future of the research university. In this talk we will discuss these changes - end of the Cold War, globalization of industrial operations, outsourcing of R&D, US budget deficits, reexamination of National Laboratory and funding agency missions, reductions in industrial basic research efforts, etc.- in terms of new modes of research support and execution that they are engendering. Numerous studies and government programs have encouraged formation of inter-organization partnerships to enable more efficient use of research dollars. The results have thus far been mixed at best. While much research has thus been brought 'closer to the customer', concerns about long-term and idea-driven research remain, particularly in the case of small science. We will discuss 'pro's and con's' of research partnering. Also even as undergraduate enrollments in science and engineering have declined, career opportunities for graduates have expanded. However, university curricula and research programs have tended to follow rather than drive, those opportunities. Some examples of and suggestions for evolving university science research and education together will be discussed. References: "Driving Innovation Through Materials Research"-Proceedings of the 1996 Solid State Sciences Forum, National Academy Press, Washington D.C.,1996 "Endless Frontier, Limited Resources", Council on Competitiveness, Washington, D.C., April 1996 http://nii.nist.gov/pubs/coc_rd/

  8. Imaging ultrafast excited state pathways in transition metal complexes by X-ray transient absorption and scattering using X-ray free electron laser source

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Lin X.; Shelby, Megan L.; Lestrange, Patrick J.; Jackson, Nicholas E.; Haldrup, Kristoffer; Mara, Michael W.; Stickrath, Andrew B.; Zhu, Diling; Lemke, Henrik; Chollet, Matthieu; Hoffman, Brian M.; Li, Xiaosong

    2016-01-01

    This report will describe our recent studies of transition metal complex structural dynamics on the fs and ps time scales using an X-ray free electron laser source, Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Ultrafast XANES spectra at the Ni K-edge of nickel(II) tetramesitylporphyrin (NiTMP) were successfully measured for optically excited state at a timescale from 100 fs to 50 ps, providing insight into its sub-ps electronic and structural relaxation processes. Importantly, a transient reduced state Ni(I) (π, 3dx2-y2) electronic state is captured through the interpretation of a short-lived excited state absorption on the low-energy shoulder of the edge, which is aided by the computation of X-ray transitions for postulated excited electronic states. The observed and computed inner shell to valence orbital transition energies demonstrate and quantify the influence of electronic configuration on specific metal orbital energies. A strong influence of the valence orbital occupation on the inner shell orbital energies indicates that one should not use the transition energy from 1s to other orbitals to draw conclusions about the d-orbital energies. For photocatalysis, a transient electronic configuration could influence d-orbital energies up to a few eV and any attempt to steer the reaction pathway should account for this to ensure that external energies can be used optimally in driving desirable processes. NiTMP structural evolution and the influence of the porphyrin macrocycle conformation on relaxation kinetics can be likewise inferred from this study.

  9. Gene therapy by proteasome activator, PA28γ, improves motor coordination and proteasome function in Huntington's disease YAC128 mice.

    PubMed

    Jeon, J; Kim, W; Jang, J; Isacson, O; Seo, H

    2016-06-02

    Huntington's disease (HD) is neurologically characterized by involuntary movements, associated with degeneration of the medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) and ubiquitin-positive neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NIIs). It has been reported that the proteolytic activities of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) are generally inhibited in HD patient's brain. We previously discovered that a proteasome activator (PA), PA28γ enhances proteasome activities and cell survival in in vitro HD model. In this study, we aimed to find whether PA28γ gene transfer improves the proteasome activities and pathological symptoms in in vivo HD model. We stereotaxically injected lenti-PA28γ virus into the striatum of mutant (MT) YAC128 HD mice and littermate (LM) controls at 14-18months of age, and validated their behavioral and biochemical changes at 12weeks after the injection. YAC128 mice showed a significant increase in their peptidyl-glutamyl preferring hydrolytic (PGPH) proteasome activity and the mRNA or protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and pro-BDNF after lenti-PA28γ injection. The number of ubiquitin-positive inclusion bodies was reduced in the striatum of YAC128 mice after lenti-PA28γ injection. YAC128 mice showed significant improvement of latency to fall on the rota-rod test after lenti-PA28γ injection. These data demonstrate that the gene therapy with PA, PA28γ can improve UPS function as well as behavioral abnormalities in HD model mice. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Japan Data Exchange Network JDXnet and Cloud-type Data Relay Server for Earthquake Observation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, K.; Urabe, T.; Tsuruoka, H.; Nakagawa, S.

    2015-12-01

    In Japan, high-sensitive seismic observation and broad-band seismic observation are carried out by several organization such as Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) , National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED), nine National Universities, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) , etc. The total number of the observation station is about 1400 points. The total volume of the seismic waveform data collected from all these observation station is about 1MByte for 1 second (about 8 to 10Mbps) by using the WIN system(Urabe 1991). JDXnet is the Japan Data eXchange network for earthquake observation data. JDXnet was started from 2007 by cooperation of the researchers of each organization. All the seismic waveform data are available at the all organizations in real-time. The core of JDXnet is the broadcast type real-time data exchange by using the nationwide L2-VPN service offered in JGN-X of NICT and SINET4 of NII. Before the Tohoku earthquake, the nine national universities had collected seismic data to each data center and then exchanged with other universities and institutions by JDXnet. However, in this case, if the center of the university was stopped, all data of the university could not use even though there are some alive observation stations. Because of this problem, we have prepared the data relay server in the data center of SINET4 ie the cloud center. This data relay server collects data directly from the observation stations of the universities and delivers data to all universities and institutions by JDXnet. By using the relay server on cloud center, even if some universities are affected by a large disaster, it is eliminated that the data of the living station is lost. If the researchers set up seismometers and send data to the relay server, then data are available to all researchers. This mechanism promotes the joint use of the seismometers and joint research activities in nationwide researchers.

  11. Continuous Emission Monitor for Toxic Metals in the Off-Gases of Thermal Treatment Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Loge

    1998-12-01

    Self-calibration procedures for continuous monitoring of toxic metals in the off-gases of thermal treatment facilities using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) were tested. The tests were performed using a heated aerosol/gas flow system that generated simulated off-gas conditions with calibrated amounts of metal in an optical cell. Calibration curves of LIBS signal for metal concentration in the cell were obtained for various gas and optical conditions. Gas conditions that were varied include water in either vapor and condensed aerosol droplet form, the presence of easily ionizable elements (i. e., potassium), speciation of the metal analyte, and the gas temperature. In addition, laser pulse energy, focal length, and detector alignment were independently varied. Two different sets of calibration curves were obtained, one set with Mn(II) and N(II) emission obtained simultaneously and a second set with Cd(I) and Cd(II) emission obtained simultaneously with N(I) emission obtained in a sequential manner. For both sets of data, calibration curves were obtained using 1) single line intensities, 2) the ratio of metal single line intensity to nitrogen single line intensity, and 3) the ratio of total metal emission to total nitrogen emission obtained using the temperature and electron density. Results show that correction using the ratio of metal single line intensity to nitrogen single line intensity does help in maintaining a constant slope of calibration curves for various conditions. However, the total emission self-calibration procedure shows better performance in most cases.

  12. A Multiwavelength Study of the OH Megamaser Galaxy IRAS16399-0937

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sales, D.

    2015-09-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the morphology and spectral energy distribution (SED) of the OH Megamaser galaxy (OHMG) IRAS16399- 0937, based on new HST ACS broad band (F814W) and emission line (Halpha+[NII]) images and archive data from HST, 2MASS, Spitzer, Herschel and the VLA (Fig. 1). This system has a double nucleus, whose northern (IRAS16399N) and southern (IRAS16399S) components have a projected separation of 6" (3.4 kpc) and have previously been optically identified as a Low Ionization Nuclear Emission Line Region (LINER) and Starburst (SB) nucleus, respectively. The nuclei are embedded in a tidally distorted common envelope, in which star formation activity is widespread, but mostly heavily obscured (Fig. 1). The infrared spectrum is dominated by strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features, but deep silicate absorption and absorption features due to water ice and hydrogenated amorphous carbon grains are also present, and are strongest in the IRAS16399N nucleus (Fig. 2 and 3). The radio emission, including the compact component associated with the IRAS16399N nucleus, is generally consistent with star formation. The global star formation rate (SFR) is 20M(sun)/yr, with the two nuclei accounting for 40% of the total (Table 2). The 0.435 - 500 micron SED was fitted with a model including stellar, dusty+PAH ISM and AGN torus components using our new Markov Chain Monte Carlo code, clumpyDREAM (Fig. 4). The results indicate that the IRAS16399N nucleus contains an AGN of bolometric luminosity (Lbol 10^{44} ergs/s), which is deeply embedded in a quasi-spherical distribution of optically thick clumps with a covering fraction 1 (Table 1). We suggest that these clumps are the source of the OH megamaser emission in IRAS16399-0937. The high torus covering fraction precludes AGN photoionization as the origin of the LINER spectrum, however, the spectrum is consistent with shocks of velocity 100 - 200 km/s. The SED fits indicate SFRs of 2.9 and 2.4 M

  13. Homogeneous Electrocatalytic Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Carbon Monoxide by Ni(cyclam)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froehlich, Jesse Dan

    The homogeneous electrochemical reduction of CO2 by the molecular catalyst [Ni(cyclam)]2+ was studied by electrochemistry and infrared spectroelectrochemistry. This catalyst has been previously shown to have increased CO2 reduction activity when adsorbed on a mercury electrode. The homogeneous reactivity, without a mercury electrode, was often ignored in the literature. Ni(cyclam) was found to efficiently and selectively produce CO at moderate overpotentials in both aqueous and mixed organic solvent systems in a homogenous fashion at an inert glassy carbon electrode. Methylated analogs of Ni(cyclam) were also studied and observed to have more positive reduction potentials and attenuated CO2 reduction activity. The electrochemical kinetics were probed by varying CO2 substrate and proton concentrations. Products of CO2 reduction are observed in infrared spectra obtained from spectroelectrochemical experiments. The two major species observed were a Ni(I) carbonyl, [Ni(cyclam)(CO)]+, and a Ni(II) coordinated bicarbonate, [Ni(cyclam)(CO2OH)] +. The rate-limiting step during electrocatalysis was determined to be CO loss from the deactivated species, [Ni(cyclam)(CO)]+, to produce the active catalyst, [Ni(cyclam)]+. Another macrocyclic complex, [Ni(TMC)]+, was deployed as a CO scavenger in order to inhibit the deactivation of [Ni(cyclam)] + by CO. Addition of the CO scavenger was shown to dramatically increase the catalytic current observed for CO2 reduction by [Ni(cyclam)] +. Evidence for the [Ni(TMC)]+ acting as a CO scavenger includes the observation of [Ni(TMC)(CO)]+ by IR. Density functional theory calculations, probing the optimized geometry of the [Ni(cyclam)(CO)] + species, are also presented. These findings have implications on the increased activity for CO2 reduction when [Ni(cyclam)] + is adsorbed on a mercury electrode. The [Ni(cyclam)(CO)] + structure has significant distortion of the Ni center out of the plane of the cyclam nitrogens. This distortion

  14. Modelling the population dynamics of Temora longicornis in the Basin Gdańsk (southern Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, L.; Lemieszek, A.; Kalarus, M.; Żmijewska, I. M.

    2013-07-01

    The ecosystem model 3-D CEMBS connected with the population model, described in this paper, was used to determine the temporal distributions of T. longicornis in the Gdańsk Basin (the southern Baltic Sea) divided into the coastal zone P2 (the Gulf of Gdańsk) and the open sea P1 (Gdańsk Deep). The population model for T. longicornis consists of twelve equations for twelve states of variables, six for the mass Wi and six for the abundance Zi, i.e. two states of variables Wi and Zi, for each of the six model stages of the development; the stages were grouped as follows: eggs - Egg, stages not taking food - NI-NII, subsequent stages of nauplii - NIII-NVI, two copepodid stages - CI-CIII and CIV-CV and the last stage of adult organisms - CVI. Seasonal dynamics of T. longicornis is described by average changes in the total biomass as a sum of biomass of the examined ontogenesis stages, which are the sum of the products of the mass Wi and the abundance Zi of individual organisms at a given stage. The empirical verification of the population model based on in situ data obtained from the analysis of biological material collected in 2010-2011 in the region of Gdańsk Deep (P1) and in the western part of Gdańsk Bay (P2), and in 2006-2007 - only in Gdańsk Bay (P2). The highest values of the modelled T. longicornis biomass occurred in the period of high temperatures, i.e. in summer, in June 2010 and July 2011 in the Bay of Gdańsk - at station P2, and between late June and early July, and for almost the whole summer in Gdańsk Deep - at station P1, and amounted to respectively ca. 5200 mgw.w. m-2 and 6300 mgw.w. m-2 at station P2 and 24 500 mgw.w. m-2 and 27 800 mgw.w. m-2 at station P1. In 2006 and 2007 at station P2 the highest numerical values were recorded between late July and early August, exactly at the same time as environmental data, and amounted to 4300 mgw.w. m-2 and 5800 mgw.w. m-2, respectively. The results determined from the model are 0.25-2 times higher

  15. Feeding and feedback in radio galaxies of the local universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couto, Guilherme dos Santos

    2016-10-01

    We present integral field spectroscopic data covering the inner kiloparsecs of four radio galaxies of the local Universe (z<0.07), Arp 102B, Pictor A, 3C 33 and 4C +29.30, obtained with the GMOS-IFU instrument of the Gemini telescopes. We use these data to analyze the gas excitation and kinematics via two-dimensional maps. Using the flux distributions of the emission lines, we identify extended emission in ionized gas up to the edges of the observed field, which corresponds to 1.7 kpc x 2.5 kpc for Arp 102B, 2.5 kpc x 3.4 kpc for Pictor A, 4.0 kpc x 5.8 kpc for 3C 33 and 4.3 kpc x 6.2 kpc for 4C +29.30. The extended line emitting gas displays structures resembling rotating disks, spiral arms and bars. Line ratios indicate that both photons from the nuclear source and shocks originated in the interaction of the radio jet with circumnuclear gas are ionizing mechanisms of the gas. Line ratio values are typical of Seyfert galaxies for 3C 33 and 4C +29.30, while intermediate values between Seyferts and LINERs are observed in Arp 102B. Pictor A galaxy, however, shows low values of [NII]/Ha=0.15-0.25, expected for HII regions. We suggest that these values are observed due to the low gas metallicity (12+log(O/H)=8.39). Centroid velocity maps show that the gas kinematics is dominated by rotation only in Arp 102B and 3C 33. Outflows are observed in the galaxies Arp 102B, 3C 33 and 4C +29.30. We obtain mass outflow rates of 0.32-0.49 Msun per year, but the outflow kinetic power is small, ranging 0.04-0.07% of the AGN bolometric luminosity, indicating that the feedback has little impact in the host galaxies evolution. The high masses of ionized gas, ranging from 7.4E7 to 4.6E8 Msun, and the fact that these galaxies are early-type, suggest an external origin of the gas. Indeed, it is observed evidence of interaction with companion galaxies in Arp 102B, Pictor A and 4C +29.30. We suggest that the capture of mass has triggered the nuclear activity in these galaxies, with the high

  16. Natural 'background' soil water repellency in conifer forests: its prediction and relationship to wildfire occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerr, Stefan; Woods, Scott; Martin, Deborah; Casimiro, Marta

    2013-04-01

    Soils under a wide range of vegetation types exhibit water repellency following the passage of a fire. This is viewed by many as one of the main causes for accelerated post-fire runoff and soil erosion and it has often been assumed that strong soil water repellency present after wildfire is fire-induced. However, high levels of repellency have also been reported under vegetation types not affected by fire, and the question arises to what degree the water repellency observed at burnt sites actually results from fire. This study aimed at determining 'natural background' water repellency in common coniferous forest types in the north-western USA. Mature or semi-mature coniferous forest sites (n = 81), which showed no evidence of recent fires and had at least some needle cast cover, were sampled across six states. After careful removal of litter and duff at each site, soil water repellency was examined in situ at the mineral soil surface using the Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT) method for three sub-sites, followed by col- lecting near-surface mineral soil layer samples (0-3 cm depth). Following air-drying, samples were fur- ther analyzed for repellency using WDPT and contact angle (hsl) measurements. Amongst other variables examined were dominant tree type, ground vegetation, litter and duff layer depth, slope angle and aspect, elevation, geology, and soil texture, organic carbon content and pH. 'Natural background' water repellency (WDPT > 5 s) was detected in situ and on air-dry samples at 75% of all sites examined irrespective of dominant tree species (Pinus ponderosa, Pinus contorta, Picea engelma- nii and Pseudotsuga menziesii). These findings demonstrate that the soil water repellency commonly observed in these forest types following burning is not necessarily the result of recent fire but can instead be a natural characteristic. The notion of a low background water repellency being typical for long- unburnt conifer forest soils of the north-western USA is

  17. Carbon–Hydrogen Bond Activation, C–N Bond Coupling, and Cycloaddition Reactivity of a Three-Coordinate Nickel Complex Featuring a Terminal Imido Ligand

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The three-coordinate imidos (dtbpe)Ni=NR (dtbpe = tBu2PCH2CH2PtBu2, R = 2,6-iPr2C6H3, 2,4,6-Me3C6H2 (Mes), and 1-adamantyl (Ad)), which contain a legitimate Ni–N double bond as well as basic imido nitrogen based on theoretical analysis, readily deprotonate HC≡CPh to form the amide acetylide species (dtbpe)Ni{NH(Ar)}(C≡CPh). In the case of R = 2,6-iPr2C6H3, reductive carbonylation results in formation of the (dtbpe)Ni(CO)2 along with the N–C coupled product keteneimine PhCH=C=N(2,6- iPr2C6H3). Given the ability of the Ni=N bond to have biradical character as suggested by theoretical analysis, H atom abstraction can also occur in (dtbpe)Ni=N{2,6-iPr2C6H3} when this species is treated with HSn(nBu)3. Likewise, the microscopic reverse reaction—conversion of the Ni(I) anilide (dtbpe)Ni{NH(2,6-iPr2C6H3)} to the imido (dtbpe)Ni=N{2,6-iPr2C6H3}—is promoted when using the radical Mes*O• (Mes* = 2,4,6-tBu3C6H2). Reactivity studies involving the imido complexes, in particular (dtbpe)Ni=N{2,6-iPr2C6H3}, are also reported with small, unsaturated molecules such as diphenylketene, benzylisocyanate, benzaldehyde, and carbon dioxide, including the formation of C–N and N–N bonds by coupling reactions. In addition to NMR spectroscopic data and combustion analysis, we also report structural studies for all the cycloaddition reactions involving the imido (dtbpe)Ni=N{2,6-iPr2C6H3}. PMID:25437507

  18. Impact Program: The Outer CMZ C+ Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, John

    The Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) contains the densest, most turbulent, and highest pressure clouds in our Galaxy. Although the CMZ extends to a radius of R 250 pc from the Galactic Center, most star formation occurs within R 100 pc. The CMZ is asymmetric; more than two-thirds of the dense gas is at positive longitudes while the majority of massive stars traced by compact 24 um emission are at negative longitudes. This program will test the hypothesis that the positive-longitude part of the CMZ up-plane from Sgr B2 is pre-star-forming while the negative longitude portion down-plane from Sgr C is post-starburst and has disrupted its natal clouds. The observations will search for mass outflow from the CMZ starburst regions that could mass-load and fuel the Fermi-LAT bubbles. We will obtain seven strip-maps and target sixty compact 24 um sources in three fields in [CII] with the upGREAT LFA and [NII] and CO with the L1 channel. Field 1 extends from Sgr B2 to longitude l=2 to study the dense complexes at positive longitudes to determine if they are condensing to form future star forming CMZ clouds. Field 2 probes negative longitudes to investigate the nature of the compact 24 micron sources and to determine if massive star feedback had disrupted this portion of the CMZ dense cloud population. Field 3 probes the kinematics of ionized and atomic gas above and below the molecular layer to see if star formation feedback is fueling and mass-loading the Fermi-LAT bubbles. SOFIA upGREAT is the best facility to address these issues. The proposed 35 hour program complements the 20 hours of observations in the ROC by investigating the outer CMZ and its vertical structure to answer fundamental questions about dynamics, the formation and destruction of the dense clouds, the recent star-formation history, the role of feedback, and the origin of the kpc-scale Fermi-LAT bubble.

  19. Carbon–hydrogen bond activation, C–N bond coupling, and cycloaddition reactivity of a three-coordinate nickel complex featuring a terminal imido ligand

    DOE PAGES

    Mindiola, Daniel J.; Waterman, Rory; Iluc, Vlad M.; ...

    2014-12-01

    Here, the three-coordinate imidos (dtbpe)Ni=NR (dtbpe = tBu2PCH2CH2PtBu2, R = 2,6-iPr2C6H3, 2,4,6-Me3C6H2 (Mes), and 1-adamantyl (Ad)), which contain a legitimate Ni–N double bond as well as basic imido nitrogen based on theoretical analysis, readily deprotonate HC≡CPh to form the amide acetylide species (dtbpe)Ni{NH(Ar)}(C≡CPh). In the case of R = 2,6-iPr2C6H3, reductive carbonylation results in formation of the (dtbpe)Ni(CO)2 along with the N–C coupled product keteneimine PhCH=C=N(2,6- iPr2C6H3). Given the ability of the Ni=N bond to have biradical character as suggested by theoretical analysis, H atom abstraction can also occur in (dtbpe)Ni=N{2,6-iPr2C6H3} when this species is treated with HSn(nBu)3. Likewise, themore » microscopic reverse reaction—conversion of the Ni(I) anilide (dtbpe)Ni{NH(2,6-iPr2C6H3)} to the imido (dtbpe)Ni=N{2,6-iPr2C6H3}—is promoted when using the radical Mes*O• (Mes* = 2,4,6-tBu3C6H2). Reactivity studies involving the imido complexes, in particular (dtbpe)Ni=N{2,6-iPr2C6H3}, are also reported with small, unsaturated molecules such as diphenylketene, benzylisocyanate, benzaldehyde, and carbon dioxide, including the formation of C–N and N–N bonds by coupling reactions. In addition to NMR spectroscopic data and combustion analysis, we also report structural studies for all the cycloaddition reactions involving the imido (dtbpe)Ni=N{2,6-iPr2C6H3}.« less

  20. Genome scale prediction of substrate specificity for acyl adenylate superfamily of enzymes based on active site residue profiles.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Pankaj; Gokhale, Rajesh S; Mohanty, Debasisa

    2010-01-27

    based prediction tool http://www.nii.res.in/pred_acs_substr.html has been developed for automated functional classification of ACS enzymes. We have developed a novel computational protocol for predicting substrate preference for ACS superfamily of enzymes using a limited number of SDRs. Using this approach substrate preference can be assigned to a large number of ACS enzymes present in various genomes. It can potentially help in rational design of novel proteins with altered substrate specificities.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Star-forming dwarfs at intermediate-z in VUDS (Calabro+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabro, A.; Amorin, R.; Fontana, A.; Perez-Montero, E.; Lemaux, B. C.; Ribeiro, B.; Bardelli, S.; Castellano, M.; Contini, T.; de Barros, S.; Garilli, B.; Grazian, A.; Guaita, L.; Hathi, N. P.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Le Fevre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Pentericci, L.; Schaerer, D.; Talia, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Zucca, E.

    2017-02-01

    Stellar masses (Ms) and 1-sigma uncertainties have been derived from the SED fitting code Le Phare (Ilbert et al., 2006A&A...524A..76B). A Chabrier (2003PASP..115..763C) IMF and Calzetti et al. (2000ApJ...533..682C) extinction law are adopted, while the contribution of emission lines to the stellar templates have been considered following Ilbert et al. (2009ApJ..690..1236I). Typical 1-sigma uncertainties in Ms are ~0.2dex and are obtained from the median of the probability distribution function (PDF). Thus, they do not account for possible systematic error (e.g., IMF variations). Star formation rates have been derived from Hα or Hβ luminosity (IMF from Chabrier et al. (2003PASP..115..763C) and assuming a theoretical ratio Hα/Hβ=2.82) following Kennicutt (1998ApJ...498..541K). Uncertainties in SFR account for the propagation of errors in line fluxes. Gas-phase metallicities, ionization parameters, and their uncertainties, have been derived using the code HII-CHI-mistry (HCm, Perez-Montero et al., 2014MNRAS.441.2663P), which is based on the comparison between a set of observed line ratios ([OII]3727,[OIII]4363,[OIII]5007,[NII]6584, [SII]6717+6731, all relative to Hβ) and the predictions of photoionization models. HCm provides abundances that are consistent with those derived from the direct method. Morphological type for each galaxy is based on HST-ACS F814W band images, available for COSMOS and ECDFS fields, and follows the criteria of Amorin et al. (2015A&A...578A.105A). The effective radius and axis ratio have been derived on the same images using GALFIT (Peng et al., 2002AJ....124..266P, 2010AJ....139.2097P) , following the methodology presented in Ribeiro et al. (2016A&A...593A..22R), in those cases when no error is found in the fitting procedure. The gas surface densities 'sgas' and total gas masses 'Mgas' were derived by inverting an assumedly non-variable Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) law (Kennicutt & Evans, 2012ARA&A..50..531K) with exponent n=1.4. Then, gas

  2. Systematic Review of Acupuncture for Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Zongshi; Wu, Jiani; Zhou, Jing; Liu, Zhishun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Acupuncture is a promising therapy for relieving symptoms in chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), which affects >15% of adult men worldwide. The aim of the study was to assess the effects and safety of the use of acupuncture for CP/CPPS. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, Web of Science, CBM, CNKI, Wang-Fang Database, JCRM, and CiNii were searched from their inception through 30 November 2015. Grey literature databases and websites were also searched. No language limits were applied. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with CP/CPPS treated by acupuncture were included. Two reviewers extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of RCTs using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tools, respectively. Seven trials were included, involving 471 participants. The result of meta-analysis indicated that compared with sham acupuncture (MD: −6.09 [95%CI: −8.12 to −5.68]) and medicine (Levofloxacinand, Ibuprofen, and Tamsulosin) (MD: −4.57 [95%CI: −7.58 to −1.56]), acupuncture was more effective at decreasing the total NIH-CPSI score. Real acupuncture was superior to sham acupuncture in improving symptoms (pain, voiding) and quality of life (Qof) domain subscores. Compared to sham acupuncture and medicine, acupuncture appears to be more effective at improving the global assessment. Two trials found that there is no significant difference between acupuncture and sham acupuncture in decreasing the IPSS score. Acupuncture failed to show more favorable effects in improving both symptoms and the Qof domain compared with medicine. Overall, current evidence supports acupuncture as an effective treatment for CP/CPPS-induced symptoms, particularly in relieving pain. Based on the meta-analysis, acupuncture is superior to sham acupuncture in improving symptoms and Qof. Acupuncture might be similar to medicine (Levofloxacinand, Ibuprofen, and Tamsulosin) in its long-term effects, but evidence was limited due to high ROB among included trials as well as

  3. Radiative and mechanical feedback into the molecular gas in the Large Magellanic Cloud. I. N159W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M.-Y.; Madden, S. C.; Lebouteiller, V.; Gusdorf, A.; Godard, B.; Wu, R.; Galametz, M.; Cormier, D.; Le Petit, F.; Roueff, E.; Bron, E.; Carlson, L.; Chevance, M.; Fukui, Y.; Galliano, F.; Hony, S.; Hughes, A.; Indebetouw, R.; Israel, F. P.; Kawamura, A.; Le Bourlot, J.; Lesaffre, P.; Meixner, M.; Muller, E.; Nayak, O.; Onishi, T.; Roman-Duval, J.; Sewiło, M.

    2016-12-01

    We present Herschel SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) observations of N159W, an active star-forming region in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). In our observations, a number of far-infrared cooling lines, including carbon monoxide (CO) J = 4 → 3 to J = 12 → 11, [CI] 609 μm and 370 μm, and [NII] 205 μm, are clearly detected. With an aim of investigating the physical conditions and excitation processes of molecular gas, we first construct CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) on 10 pc scales by combining the FTS CO transitions with ground-based low-J CO data and analyze the observed CO SLEDs using non-LTE (local thermodynamic equilibrium) radiative transfer models. We find that the CO-traced molecular gas in N159W is warm (kinetic temperature of 153-754 K) and moderately dense (H2 number density of (1.1-4.5) × 103 cm-3). To assess the impact of the energetic processes in the interstellar medium on the physical conditions of the CO-emitting gas, we then compare the observed CO line intensities with the models of photodissociation regions (PDRs) and shocks. We first constrain the properties of PDRs by modeling Herschel observations of [OI] 145 μm, [CII] 158 μm, and [CI] 370 μm fine-structure lines and find that the constrained PDR components emit very weak CO emission. X-rays and cosmic-rays are also found to provide a negligible contribution to theCO emission, essentially ruling out ionizing sources (ultraviolet photons, X-rays, and cosmic-rays) as the dominant heating source for CO in N159W. On the other hand, mechanical heating by low-velocity C-type shocks with 10 km s-1 appears sufficient enough to reproduce the observed warm CO. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.The final reduced Herschel data (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or

  4. Polytetrafluoroethylene fume-induced pulmonary edema: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hamaya, Rikuta; Ono, Yuko; Chida, Yasuyuki; Inokuchi, Ryota; Kikuchi, Ken; Tameda, Tadanobu; Tase, Choichiro; Shinohara, Kazuaki

    2015-05-14

    Polytetrafluoroethylene is ubiquitous in materials commonly used in cooking and industrial applications. Overheated polytetrafluoroethylene can generate toxic fumes, inducing acute pulmonary edema in some cases. However, neither the etiology nor the radiological features of this condition have been determined. For clarification, we report an illustrative case, together with the first comprehensive literature review. A previously healthy 35-year-old Japanese man who developed severe dyspnea presented to our hospital. He had left a polytetrafluoroethylene-coated pan on a gas-burning stove for 10 hours while unconscious. Upon admission, he was in severe respiratory distress. A chest computed tomographic scan showed massive bilateral patchy consolidations with ground-glass opacities and peripheral area sparing. A diagnosis of polytetrafluoroethylene fume-induced pulmonary edema was made. He was treated with non-invasive positive pressure ventilation and a neutrophil elastase inhibitor, which dramatically alleviated his symptoms and improved his oxygenation. He was discharged without sequelae on hospital day 11. A literature review was performed to survey all reported cases of polytetrafluoroethylene fume-induced pulmonary edema. We searched the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and OvidSP databases for reports posted between the inception of the databases and 30 September 2014, as well as several Japanese databases (Ichushi Web, J-STAGE, Medical Online, and CiNii). Two radiologists independently interpreted all chest computed tomographic images. Eighteen relevant cases (including the presently reported case) were found. Our search revealed that (1) systemic inflammatory response syndrome was frequently accompanied by pulmonary edema, and (2) common computed tomography findings were bilateral ground-glass opacities, patchy consolidation and peripheral area sparing. Pathophysiological and radiological features were consistent with the exudative phase of acute respiratory

  5. SFR Relation with Galaxy Environment and Colour at z between 0.03 and 0.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premadi, Premana W.; Maryam, A. Sitti

    2007-05-01

    This work is a preliminary result of our attempt to examine the use of SFR in the study of galaxy evolution. For this purpose we use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 2 (SDSS DR2) (Abazajian et al (2004)) and the SFR Catalogue generated from this data set by Brinchmann et al (2004) and Kaufmann et al (2003 a,b). Following Kewley et al (2001) we use the Diagnostic Diagram, log ([OIII]/Hβ) vs log ([NII]/Hα), to separate the star forming galaxies from other emission lines sources such as AGN. Choosing only those with S/N > 3 out of the Brinchman et al (2004) catalogue, we arrive at about 200 thousand galaxies as our starting SFR subsample. With 0.05 < z < 0.22 and limit at r = 17.77, the subsample can be used to reconstruct the properties of a volume limited sample of galaxies with M[* ]= M[solar]. We benefit from the fact that Brinchmann et al (2004) SFR Catalogue has already been aperture-corrected using the likelihood distribution P(SFR/L[i]/colour) scheme. For the environment, we use the data generated by Kaufmann et al (2003a), and arrive at about 40 thousand target galaxies. In this work the environment is characterised by the number (N =0-30) of neighbouring galaxies within a projected radius of 2 Mpc and velocity difference of 500km/s from each target galaxy, and the magnitude limit is14.5 < r < 17.77. Our resulting correlation between SFR and N shows rough downward slope at the lower N, followed by gentler downward slope at higher N, which is similar to the result shown by Gomez et al (2002), and supports the more general finding that SFR goes down as density increases. As an important part of our work, we complement our study of SFR vs. density with a study of SFR vs. colour, where colour is expected to represent galaxy type. The colours of the galaxy are taken in u-g and g-r, and we use Strateva et al (2001) scheme to identify the galaxies as either early type or late type. We then plot the SFR against u-r colour to see the dependence of SFR on

  6. Functional Characterization of Aspergillus nidulans ypkA, a Homologue of the Mammalian Kinase SGK

    PubMed Central

    Colabardini, Ana Cristina; Brown, Neil Andrew; Savoldi, Marcela; Goldman, Maria Helena S.; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2013-01-01

    The serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated protein kinase (SGK) is an AGC kinase involved in signal cascades regulated by glucocorticoid hormones and serum in mammals. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ypk1 and ypk2 genes were identified as SGK homologues and Ypk1 was shown to regulate the balance of sphingolipids between the inner and outer plasma membrane. This investigation characterized the Aspergillus nidulans YPK1 homologue, YpkA, representing the first filamentous fungal YPK1 homologue. Two conditional mutant strains were constructed by replacing the endogenous ypk1 promoter with two different regulatable promoters, alcA (from the alcohol dehydrogenase gene) and niiA (from the nitrate reductase gene). Both constructs confirmed that ypkA was an essential gene in A. nidulans. Repression of ypkA caused decreased radial growth, a delay in conidial germination, deficient polar axis establishment, intense branching during late stages of growth, a lack of asexual spores, and a terminal phenotype. Membrane lipid polarization, endocytosis, eisosomes and vacuolar distribution were also affected by ypkA repression, suggesting that YpkA plays a role in hyphal morphogenesis via coordinating the delivery of cell membrane and wall constituents to the hyphal apex. The A. nidulans Pkh1 homologue pkhA was also shown to be an essential gene, and preliminary genetic analysis suggested that the ypkA gene is not directly downstream of pkhA or epistatic to pkhA, rather, ypkA and pkhA are genetically independent or in parallel. BarA is a homologue of the yeast Lag1 acyl-CoA-dependent ceramide synthase, which catalyzes the condensation of phytosphingosine with a fatty acyl-CoA to form phytoceramide. When barA was absent, ypkA repression was lethal to the cell. Therefore, there appears to be a genetic interaction between ypkA, barA, and the sphingolipid synthesis. Transcriptional profiling of ypkA overexpression and down-regulation revealed several putative YpkA targets associated with the

  7. X-shooter spectroscopy of the puzzling gamma-ray source 3FGL1603.9-4903/PMN J1603-4904

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldoni, P.; Pita, S.; Boisson, C.; Müller, C.; Dauser, T.; Jung, I.; Krauss, F.; Lenain, J.-P.; Sol, H.

    2016-08-01

    The Fermi/LAT instrument has detected about two thousand extragalactic high energy (E > 100 MeV) gamma-ray sources. 3FGL 1603.9-4903 is a very hard and bright one and it is associated to the radio source PMN J1603-4904. Its nature is not yet clear as it could be either a very peculiar BL Lac or a compact symmetric object radio source which are considered as the early stage of a radio galaxy. The latter, if confirmed, would be the first detection in gamma-rays for this class of objects. A redshift z=0.18 +/- 0.01 has recently been claimed on the basis of the detection of a single X-ray line at 5.44 +/- 0.05 keV which has been interpreted as a 6.4 keV (rest frame) fluorescent line. We observed PMN J1603-4904 with the UV-NIR VLT/X-shooter spectrograph for two hours. We extracted spectra in the visible and NIR range that we calibrated in flux and corrected for telluric absorption. We systematically searched for absorption and emission features. The source was detected starting from ~ 6300 Ang down to 24000 Ang with an intensity similar to that of its 2MASS counterpart and a mostly featureless spectrum. The continuum lacks absorption features and thus is non-stellar in origin and most likely non-thermal. In addition to this spectrum, we detected three emission lines that we interpret as the Halpha-[NII] complex, the [SII] 6716,6731 doublet and the [SIII] 9530 line; we obtain a redshift estimate of z= 0.2321 +/- 0.0004. The line ratios suggest that a LINER/Seyfert nucleus powers the emission. This new redshift measurement implies that the X-ray line previously detected should be interpreted as a 6.7 keV line which is very peculiar but not impossible for this kind of source.

  8. Optical spectral evolution of Nova Cygni 1992 = V 1974 Cygni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafanelli, P.; Rosino, L.; Radovich, M.

    1995-02-01

    We report the results of the optical spectrophotometric observations of N Cyg 1992 = V 1974 Cyg performed at Asiago between 6 and 670 days after its visual maximum (1992 February 22, mv approximately 4.4). On 1992 February 28, during the first decline the spectrum of the nova was characterized by the presence over a strong continuum of wide emission lines of HI (Balmer), FeII, NaI, CaII, flanked by two systems of P Cyg absorptions with mean radial velocities of -1250 and -1900 km/s. The transition phase was reached at the beginning of April with a gradual fading of the lines of lower ionization potential and the emerging of the HeI, NII, NIII lines. P Cygni absorption features with radial velocity higher than in February were still perceptible. The nova entered the nebular stage some weeks later, at the end of April. The presence in the spectrum, besides (OIII) lambda lambda 4959, 5007, of strong forbidden lines of (NeIII) at lambda lambda 3869, 3968, left no doubt of its classification as a 'neon nova' similar to QU Vul. The evolution of the spectrum in the next months was characterized by the progressive growth of the ionization degree. Following the forbidden lines of (NeIII) and (OIII), also those of (NeIV), (FeVI), (FeVII) and (NeV) became outstanding. The highest degree of ionization was attained on 1993 July, about 500 days from visual maximum, when the coronal lines of (FeX), (FeXI), (AX) reached their highest strength. The steadily decline of the degree of ionization began about one-hundred days later, with the rapid disappearance of the coronal lines and the progressive fading of the lines of highest ionization potential. The intensities of the emission lines during the nova evolution are reported. The discussion concerns the determination of: color excess, absolute magnitude and distance (2.8 kpc) of the nova; effective temperature of the contracting photosphere; and abundance in the ejecta of He, O, N, and Ne, relative to H.

  9. Studies of a Series of [Ni(PR2NPh2)2(CH3CN)]2+ Complexes as Electrocatalysts for H2 Production: Substituent Variation at the Phosphorus Atom of the P2N2 Ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgore, Uriah J.; Stewart, Michael P.; Helm, Monte L.; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. S.; Rakowski DuBois, Mary; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2011-11-07

    A series of [Ni(PR2NPh2)2(CH3CN)](BF4)2 complexes containing the cyclic diphosphine ligands (PR2NPh2 = 1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane; R = benzyl (Bn), n-butyl (n-Bu), 2-phenylethyl (PE), 2,4,4-trimethylpentyl (TP), and cyclohexyl (Cy)) have been synthesized and characterized. X-ray diffraction studies reveal that the cations of [Ni(PBn2NPh2)2(CH3CN)](BF4)2 and [Ni(Pn-Bu2NPh2)2(CH3CN)](BF4)2 have distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometries. The Ni(0) complex [Ni(PBn2NPh2)2 (CH3CN)] was also synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction studies and shown to have a distorted tetrahedral structure. These complexes, with the exception of [Ni(PCy2NPh2)2(CH3CN)](BF4)2, all exhibit reversible electron transfer processes for both the Ni(II/I) and Ni(I/0) couples and are electrocatalysts for the production of H2 in acidic acetonitrile solutions. The heterolytic cleavage of H2 by [Ni(PR2NPh2)2(CH3CN)](BF4)2 complexes in the presence of p-anisidine or p-bromoaniline was used to determine the hydride donor abilities of the corresponding [HNi(PR2NPh2)2](BF4) complexes. However, the failure to observe a strong correlation between the turnover frequencies for H2 production and the hydride donor abilities, along with structural features of [Ni(PBn2NPh2)2(CH3CN)], suggest that steric interactions between the alkyl substituents on phosphorus and the nitrogen atom of the pendant amines play an important role in determining the overall catalytic rate. This material is based upon work supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  10. VLT/FLAMES-ARGUS observations of stellar wind-ISM cloud interactions in NGC 6357

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westmoquette, M. S.; Slavin, J. D.; Smith, L. J.; Gallagher, J. S., III

    2010-02-01

    We present optical/near-IR integral field unit observations of a gas pillar in the Galactic HII region NGC 6357 containing the young open star cluster Pismis 24. These observations have allowed us to examine in detail the gas conditions of the strong wind-clump interactions taking place on its surface. By accurately decomposing the Hα line profile, we identify the presence of a narrow (~20kms-1) and broad (50-150kms-1) component, both of which we can associate with the pillar and its surroundings. Furthermore, the broadest broad component widths are found in a region that follows the shape of the eastern pillar edge. These connections have allowed us to firmly associate the broad component with emission from ionized gas within turbulent mixing layers on the pillar's surface set up by the shear flows of the winds from the O stars in the cluster. We discuss the implications of our findings in terms of the broad emission-line component that is increasingly found in extragalactic starburst environments. Although the broad linewidths found here are narrower, we conclude that the mechanisms producing both must be the same. The difference in linewidths may result from the lower total mechanical wind energy produced by the O stars in Pismis 24 compared to that from a typical young massive star cluster found in a starburst galaxy. The pillar's edge is also clearly defined by dense (<~5000cm-3), hot (>~20000K) and excited (via the [NII]/Hα and [SII]/Hα ratios) gas conditions, implying the presence of a D-type ionization front propagating into the pillar surface. Although there must be both photoevaporation outflows produced by the ionization front and mass loss through mechanical ablation, we see no evidence for any significant bulk gas motions on or around the pillar. We postulate that the evaporated/ablated gas must be rapidly heated before being entrained. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere

  11. A 2 THz Heterodyne Array Receiver for SOFIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Christopher K.

    1996-01-01

    We proposed to perform a comprehensive design study of a 16-element heterodyne array receiver for SOFIA. The array was designed to utilize hot-electron bolometers in an efficient, low-cost waveguide mount to achieve low noise performance between approx. 1500 and 2400 GHz. Due to the prevailing physical conditions in the interstellar medium, this frequency range is one of the richest in the FIR portion of the spectrum. An array designed for this wavelength range will make excellent use of the telescope and the available atmospheric transmission, and will provide a new perspective on stellar, chemical, and galaxy evolution in the present as well as past epochs. A few of the most important molecular and atomic species which the instrument will sample are CII, OI, CO, OH, NII, and CH. The system used the most sensitive detectors available in an efficient optical system. The local oscillator was a compact CO2 pumped far-infrared laser currently under development for SOFIA. The backend spectrometer was an array acousto-optic spectrometer (aAOS). The spectrometer utilizes proven hardware and technologies to provide broadband performance (greater than or equal to 1 GHz per AOS channel) and high spectral resolution (1 MHz) with the maximum sensitivity and minimum complexity and cost. The proposed instrument would be the fastest and most sensitive heterodyne receiver ever to operate in the 1.5 - 2.4 THz band. One of the key technologies developed for the proposed instrument is the laser micromachining of waveguide structures. These structures provide both the optical link between the instrument and the telescope (via an array of efficient feedhorns) and the impedance transformation between the detectors and free space. With the assistance of funds provided from this grant, we were able to fabricate and test the world's first laser micromachined feedhorns. The quality of the waveguide structure is far better than that obtainable using any other fabrication technique. The beam

  12. A 2 THz Heterodyne Array Receiver for SOFIA: Summary of Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Christopher K.

    1998-01-01

    We proposed to perform a comprehensive design study of a 16-element heterodyne array receiver for SOFIA. The array was designed to utilize hot-electron bolometers in an efficient, low-cost waveguide mount to achieve low noise performance between approximately 1500 and 2400 GHz. Due to the prevailing physical conditions in the interstellar medium, this frequency range is one of the richest in the Far-Infra Red (FIR) portion of the spectrum. An array designed for this wavelength range will make excellent use of the telescope and the available atmospheric transmission, and will provide a new perspective on stellar, chemical, and galactic evolution in the present as well as past epochs. A few of the most important molecular and atomic species which the instrument will sample are CII, OI, CO, OH, NII, and CH. The system used the most sensitive detectors available in an efficient optical system. The local oscillator was a compact CO2 pumped far-infrared laser currently under development for SOFIA. The backend spectrometer was an array acousto-optic spectrometer (aAOS). The spectrometer utilizes proven hardware and technologies to provide broadband performance (> 1 GHz per AOS channel) and high spectral resolution (1 MHz) with the maximum sensitivity and minimum complexity and cost. The proposed instrument would be the fastest and most sensitive heterodyne receiver ever to operate in the 1.5 - 2.4 THz band. One of the key technologies developed for the proposed instrument is the laser micromachining of waveguide structures. These structures provide both the optical link between the instrument and the telescope (via an array of efficient feedhorns) and the impedance transformation between the detectors and free space. With the assistance of funds provided from this grant, we were able to fabricate and test the world's first laser micromachined feedhorns. The quality of the waveguide structure is far better than that obtainable using any other fabrication technique. The

  13. Dithiolato- and halogenido-bridged nickel-iron complexes related to the active site of [NiFe]-H2ases: preparation, structures, and electrocatalytic H2 production.

    PubMed

    Song, Li-Cheng; Han, Xiao-Feng; Chen, Wei; Li, Jia-Peng; Wang, Xu-Yong

    2017-08-14

    A new series of the structural and functional models for the active site of [NiFe]-H2ases has been prepared by a simple and convenient synthetic route. Thus, treatment of diphosphines RN(PPh2)2 (1a, R = p-MeC6H4CH2; 1b, R = EtO2CCH2) with an equimolar NiCl2·6H2O, NiBr2·3H2O, and NiI2 in refluxing CH2Cl2/MeOH or EtOH gave the mononuclear Ni complexes RN(PPh2)2NiX2 (2a, R = p-MeC6H4CH2, X = Cl; 2b, R = EtO2CCH2, X = Cl; 3a, R = p-MeC6H4CH2, X = Br; 3b, R = EtO2CCH2, X = Br; 4a, R = p-MeC6H4CH2, X = I; 4b, R = EtO2CCH2, X = I) in 67-97% yields. Further treatment of complexes 2a,b-4a,b with an equimolar mononuclear Fe complex (dppv)(CO)2Fe(pdt) and NaBF4 resulted in formation of the targeted model complexes [RN(PPh2)2Ni(μ-pdt)(μ-X)Fe(CO)(dppv)](BF4) (5a, R = p-MeC6H4CH2, X = Cl; 5b, R = EtO2CCH2, X = Cl; 6a, R = p-MeC6H4CH2, X = Br; 6b, R = EtO2CCH2, X = Br; 7a, R = p-MeC6H4CH2, X = I; 7b, R = EtO2CCH2, X = I) in 60-96% yields. All the new complexes 3a,b-4a,b and 5a,b-7a,b have been characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopy, and particularly for some of them (3a,b/4a,b and 5b/6b) by X-ray crystallography. More interestingly, the electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of such halogenido-bridged model complexes are first studied systematically and particularly they have been found to be pre-catalysts for proton reduction to H2 under CV conditions.

  14. Correlation Between Bone Density and Instantaneous Torque at Implant Site Preparation: A Validation on Polyurethane Foam Blocks of a Device Assessing Density of Jawbones.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, Danilo Alessio; Arosio, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Bone density at implant placement sites is one of the key factors affecting implant primary stability, which is a determinant for implant osseointegration and rehabilitation success. Site-specific bone density assessment is, therefore, of paramount importance. Recently, an implant micromotor endowed with an instantaneous torque-measuring system has been introduced. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of this system. Five blocks with different densities (0.16, 0.26, 0.33, 0.49, and 0.65 g/cm(3)) were used. A single trained operator measured the density of one of them (0.33 g/cm(3)), by means of five different devices (20 measurements/device). The five resulting datasets were analyzed through the analysis of variance (ANOVA) model to investigate interdevice variability. As differences were not significant (P = .41), the five devices were each assigned to a different operator, who collected 20 density measurements for each block, both under irrigation (I) and without irrigation (NI). Measurements were pooled and averaged for each block, and their correlation with the actual block-density values was investigated using linear regression analysis. The possible effect of irrigation on density measurement was additionally assessed. Different devices provided reproducible, homogenous results. No significant interoperator variability was observed. Within the physiologic range of densities (> 0.30 g/cm(3)), the linear regression analysis showed a significant linear correlation between the mean torque measurements and the actual bone densities under both drilling conditions (r = 0.990 [I], r = 0.999 [NI]). Calibration lines were drawn under both conditions. Values collected under irrigation were lower than those collected without irrigation at all densities. The NI/I mean torque ratio was shown to decrease linearly with density (r = 0.998). The mean error introduced by the device-operator system was less than 10% in the range of normal jawbone density

  15. Correlation between patients' reasons for encounters/health problems and population density in Japan: a systematic review of observational studies coded by the International Classification of Health Problems in Primary Care (ICHPPC) and the International Classification of Primary care (ICPC).

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Makoto; Ohta, Ryuichi; Nago, Naoki; Fukushi, Motoharu; Matsushima, Masato

    2017-09-13

    The Japanese health care system has yet to establish structured training for primary care physicians; therefore, physicians who received an internal medicine based training program continue to play a principal role in the primary care setting. To promote the development of a more efficient primary health care system, the assessment of its current status in regard to the spectrum of patients' reasons for encounters (RFEs) and health problems is an important step. Recognizing the proportions of patients' RFEs and health problems, which are not generally covered by an internist, can provide valuable information to promote the development of a primary care physician-centered system. We conducted a systematic review in which we searched six databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, Ichushi-Web, JDreamIII and CiNii) for observational studies in Japan coded by International Classification of Health Problems in Primary Care (ICHPPC) and International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) up to March 2015. We employed population density as index of accessibility. We calculated Spearman's rank correlation coefficient to examine the correlation between the proportion of "non-internal medicine-related" RFEs and health problems in each study area in consideration of the population density. We found 17 studies with diverse designs and settings. Among these studies, "non-internal medicine-related" RFEs, which was not thought to be covered by internists, ranged from about 4% to 40%. In addition, "non-internal medicine-related" health problems ranged from about 10% to 40%. However, no significant correlation was found between population density and the proportion of "non-internal medicine-related" RFEs and health problems. This is the first systematic review on RFEs and health problems coded by ICHPPC and ICPC undertaken to reveal the diversity of health problems in Japanese primary care. These results suggest that primary care physicians in some rural areas of Japan

  16. Extended Red Emission in the Evil Eye Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierini, D.; Majeed, A.; Boroson, T. A.; Witt, A. N.

    2001-05-01

    The Evil Eye Galaxy (NGC 4826) is a nearby galaxy with an asymmetrically placed, strongly absorbing dust lane across its prominent bulge, associated to an active star formation (SF) region. We obtained accurate low--resolution (4.2 Å/pixel) spectroscopy (KPNO 4-m) of NGC 4826 in the wavelength range 5300--9100Å with a slit of 4.4' length, positioned across the nucleus of the galaxy and encompassing its bulge size. We were able to study the wavelength dependent effects of absorption and scattering by the dust by comparing the stellar SEDs at corresponding positions on the bulge, symmetrically placed with respect to the nucleus, under the assumption that the intrinsic (i.e. unobscured by the dust lane) ISRF is radially symmetric, except for the ongoing SF region. We report on the detection of strong extended red emission (ERE) from the dust lane of NGC 4826 within a radial distance of about 15{' '} from its nucleus, adjacent to the active SF region. At the nucleus, the ERE band extends from about 5800 Å to 9100 Å, with peak near 8300 Å, and the ERE-to-scattered light integrated intensity ratio is about 0.7. At farther distances, approaching the ongoing SF region, the ERE band and peak shift to longer wavelengths, while the integrated ERE intensity diminishes and, finally, vanishes there. The H α line intensity and the index [NII]λ 6583/H α constrain the Lyman continuum photon rate and the effective temperatures of the OB association stars. The ERE-to-scattered light ratio decreases as well but shows a secondary maximum where the opacity of the dust lane peaks. We interpret the ERE nature as photoluminescence by nanometer--sized clusters, illuminated by UV/visible photons of the local radiation field. When examined within the context of ERE observations in the diffuse ISM of our Galaxy and in a variety of other dusty environments, we conclude that the ERE photon conversion efficiency in NGC 4826 is as high as found elsewhere, but that the characteristic size

  17. A bright z = 5.2 lensed submillimeter galaxy in the field of Abell 773. HLSJ091828.6+514223

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combes, F.; Rex, M.; Rawle, T. D.; Egami, E.; Boone, F.; Smail, I.; Richard, J.; Ivison, R. J.; Gurwell, M.; Casey, C. M.; Omont, A.; Berciano Alba, A.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.; Edge, A. C.; Fazio, G. G.; Kneib, J.-P.; Okabe, N.; Pelló, R.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Schaerer, D.; Smith, G. P.; Swinbank, A. M.; van der Werf, P.

    2012-02-01

    During our Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS) of massive galaxy clusters, we have discovered an exceptionally bright source behind the z = 0.22 cluster Abell 773, which appears to be a strongly lensed submillimeter galaxy (SMG) at z = 5.2429. This source is unusual compared to most other lensed sources discovered by Herschel so far, because of its higher submm flux (~200 mJy at 500 μm) and its high redshift. The dominant lens is a foreground z = 0.63 galaxy, not the cluster itself. The source has a far-infrared (FIR) luminosity of LFIR = 1.1 × 1014/μ L⊙, where μ is the magnification factor, likely ~11. We report here the redshift identification through CO lines with the IRAM-30 m, and the analysis of the gas excitation, based on CO(7-6), CO(6-5), CO(5-4) detected at IRAM and the CO(2-1) at the EVLA. All lines decompose into a wide and strong red component, and a narrower and weaker blue component, 540 km s-1 apart. Assuming the ultraluminous galaxy (ULIRG) CO-to-H2 conversion ratio, the H2 mass is 5.8 × 1011/μ M⊙, of which one third is in a cool component. From the C I(3P2-3P1) line we derive a C I/H2 number abundance of 6 × 10-5 similar to that in other ULIRGs. The H2Op(2,0,2-1,1,1) line is strong only in the red velocity component, with an intensity ratio I(H2O)/I(CO) ~ 0.5, suggesting a strong local FIR radiation field, possibly from an active nucleus (AGN) component. We detect the [NII]205 μm line for the first time at high-z. It shows comparable blue and red components, with a strikingly broad blue one, suggesting strong ionized gas flows.

  18. Optical-NIR spectroscopy of the puzzling γ-ray source 3FGL 1603.9-4903/PMN J1603-4904 with X-Shooter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldoni, P.; Pita, S.; Boisson, C.; Müller, C.; Dauser, T.; Jung, I.; Krauß, F.; Lenain, J.-P.; Sol, H.

    2016-02-01

    Context. The Fermi/LAT instrument has detected about two thousand extragalactic high energy (E ≥ 100 MeV) γ-ray sources. One of the brightest is 3FGL J1603.9-4903; it is associated to the radio source PMN J1603-4904. Its nature is not yet clear, it could be either a very peculiar BL Lac or a compact symmetric object radio source which are considered as the early stage of a radio galaxy. The latter, if confirmed, would be the first detection in γ-rays for this class of objects. A redshift z = 0.18 ± 0.01 has recently been claimed on the basis of the detection of a single X-ray line at 5.44 ± 0.05 keV which has been interpreted as a 6.4 keV (rest frame) fluorescent line. Aims: We aim to investigate the nature of 3FGL J1603.9-4903/PMN J1603-4904 using optical-to near-IR (NIR) spectroscopy. Methods: We observed PMN J1603-4904 with the UV-NIR VLT/X-Shooter spectrograph for two hours. We extracted spectra in the visible and NIR range that we calibrated in flux and corrected for telluric absorption. We systematically searched for absorption and emission features. Results: The source was detected starting from ~6300 Å down to 24 000 Å with an intensity similar to that of its 2MASS counterpart and a mostly featureless spectrum. The continuum lacks absorption features and thus is non-stellar in origin and most likely non-thermal. In addition to this spectrum, we detected three emission lines that we interpret as the Hα-[NII] complex, the [SII]λ,λ6716, 6731 doublet and the [SIII]λ 9530 line; we obtain a redshift estimate of z = 0.2321 ± 0.0004. The line ratios suggest that a LINER/Seyfert nucleus powers the emission. This new redshift measurement implies that the X-ray line previously detected should be interpreted as a 6.7 keV line which is very peculiar. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, under program 095.B-0400(A). The raw FITS data files are available in the ESO archive.

  19. Constraining Stellar Feedbacks: Photo-ionization vs. Shock-ionization in Local Starburst Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sungryong; Calzetti, D.; Chandar, R.; Gallagher, J. S.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Martin, C.; Pellerin, A.; Strickland, D.; Dopita, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the small- and intermediate-scale structure of interstellar medium(ISM) of five local starburst galaxies; NGC1569, NGC4449, Holmberg II, NGC5236, and HE2-10. Each galaxy has four narrow band images for H-beta(4861A), [OIII](5007A), H-alpha(6563A), and [SII](6717,6731A) (or [NII](6583A)), imaged by Advanced Camera for Survey(ACS), Wide Field Planetary Camera 2(WFPC2), and Wide Field Camera 3(WFC3) of the Hubble Space Telescope(HST). We produce line diagnostics diagrams from those narrow band images on a pixel-by-pixel basis and discriminate shock-ionized gas (pixels) by using the ``maximum starburst line'' of Kewley et al. (2001). The properties of line ratios, [SII]/H-alpha vs [OIII]/H-beta, H-alpha vs [OIII]/H-beta, and H-alpha vs [SII]/H-alpha, for photo-ionized gas are well explained by the photo-ionization model of Kewley et al. (2001). When comparing the four galaxies, NGC3077, NGC4214, NGC5236, and NGC5253, previously studied in Calzetti et al. (2004) with our galaxies, we have found similar groups which share the same trend in line ratio plots. The origin of the groups can be explained by the effects of different metallicity and different starforming strength with respect to potential depth, which are strongly related to cooling rate and galactic wind driving mechanism. We compare the shock-ionized gas with shock-ionization model of Allen et al. (2008). Although the ``maximum starburst line'' gives us conservative estimation of shock-ionized gas, our rough estimation of shock velocity 250km/s of HE2-10 is consistent with Mendez et al. (1999). As an Appendix, we present a new objective technique for continuum subtraction from narrow-band image. We have found that skewness values of continuum subtracted images show a transitional feature around the optimal subtraction. We present some real applications and discuss about the strong points and the weak points of this technique.

  20. modPDZpep: a web resource for structure based analysis of human PDZ-mediated interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Sain, Neetu; Mohanty, Debasisa

    2016-09-21

    PDZ domains recognize short sequence stretches usually present in C-terminal of their interaction partners. Because of the involvement of PDZ domains in many important biological processes, several attempts have been made for developing bioinformatics tools for genome-wide identification of PDZ interaction networks. Currently available tools for prediction of interaction partners of PDZ domains utilize machine learning approach. Since, they have been trained using experimental substrate specificity data for specific PDZ families, their applicability is limited to PDZ families closely related to the training set. These tools also do not allow analysis of PDZ-peptide interaction interfaces. We have used a structure based approach to develop modPDZpep, a program to predict the interaction partners of human PDZ domains and analyze structural details of PDZ interaction interfaces. modPDZpep predicts interaction partners by using structural models of PDZ-peptide complexes and evaluating binding energy scores using residue based statistical pair potentials. Since, it does not require training using experimental data on peptide binding affinity, it can predict substrates for diverse PDZ families. Because of the use of simple scoring function for binding energy, it is also fast enough for genome scale structure based analysis of PDZ interaction networks. Benchmarking using artificial as well as real negative datasets indicates good predictive power with ROC-AUC values in the range of 0.7 to 0.9 for a large number of human PDZ domains. Another novel feature of modPDZpep is its ability to map novel PDZ mediated interactions in human protein-protein interaction networks, either by utilizing available experimental phage display data or by structure based predictions. In summary, we have developed modPDZpep, a web-server for structure based analysis of human PDZ domains. It is freely available at http://www.nii.ac.in/modPDZpep.html or http://202.54.226.235/modPDZpep.html . This