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Sample records for klab maailm nii

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NiI transition probability measurements (Wood+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, M. P.; Lawler, J. E.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J.

    2014-04-01

    As in much of our previous branching fraction work, this NiI branching fraction study makes use of archived FTS data from both the 1.0m Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) previously at the National Solar Observatory (NSO) on Kitt Peak and the Chelsea Instruments FT500 UV FTS at Lund University in Sweden. Table 1 lists the 37 FTS spectra used in our NiI branching fraction study. All NSO spectra, raw interferograms, and header files are available in the NSO electronic archives. The 80 CCD frames of spectra from commercial Ni HCD lamps of the echelle spectrograph are listed in Table 2. (6 data files).

  2. Protein kinase NII and the regulation of rDNA transcription in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Belenguer, P; Baldin, V; Mathieu, C; Prats, H; Bensaid, M; Bouche, G; Amalric, F

    1989-01-01

    Transcription of ribosomal RNA genes is generally accepted to correlate with cell growth. Using primary cultures of adult bovine aortic endothelial (ABAE) cells, we have shown that transcription of rDNA in confluent cells falls to 5% of the transcription level in growing cells. Protein kinase NII appears to be a limiting factor to promote rDNA transcription in isolated nuclei of confluent cells. Protein kinase NII was detected by immunocytochemistry in the cytoplasm, nuclei and nucleoli of growing cells while it was no longer present in nucleoli of confluent cells. The kinase activity, in isolated nuclei, was estimated by endogenous phosphorylation of a specific substrate, nucleolin. A 10% residual activity was present in confluent cell nuclei compared to growing cell nuclei. Concomitantly, the transcription 'in vitro' of rDNA in the corresponding nuclei was also highly reduced (by 85%). Addition of exogenous protein kinase NII to confluent cell nuclei induced a strong increase in the phosphorylation of specific proteins including nucleolin. In parallel, the transcription of rDNA was increased by a factor of 5, to nearly the level observed in nuclei prepared from growing cells. These data suggest that, in confluent cells, factors necessary for rDNA transcription machinery are present but inactive in the nucleolus and that the phosphorylation of one or several of these factors (nucleolin, topoisomerase I,...) by protein kinase NII is a key event in the regulation of rDNA transcription. Images PMID:2780290

  3. Crude oil biodegradation aided by biosurfactants from Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 or its culture broth.

    PubMed

    Sajna, Kuttuvan Valappil; Sukumaran, Rajeev Kumar; Gottumukkala, Lalitha Devi; Pandey, Ashok

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the biosurfactants produced by the yeast Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 for enhancing the degradation of crude oil by a model hydrocarbon degrading strain, Pseudomonas putida MTCC 1194. Pseudozyma biosurfactants were supplemented at various concentrations to the P. putida culture medium containing crude oil as sole carbon source. Supplementation of the biosurfactants enhanced the degradation of crude oil by P. putida; the maximum degradation of hydrocarbons was observed with a 2.5 mg L(-1) supplementation of biosurfactants. Growth inhibition constant of the Pseudozyma biosurfactants was 11.07 mg L(-1). It was interesting to note that Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 alone could also degrade diesel and kerosene. Culture broth of Pseudozyma containing biosurfactants resulted up to ∼46% improvement in degradation of C10-C24 alkanes by P. putida. The enhancement in degradation efficiency of the bacterium with the culture broth supplementation was even more pronounced than that with relatively purer biosurfactants.

  4. The fallacy of using NII in analyzing aircraft operations. [Noise Impact Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, R. G.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1984-01-01

    Three measures of noise annoyance (Noise Impact Index, Level-Weighted Population, and Annoyed Population Number) are compared, regarding their utility in assessing noise reduction schemes for aircraft operations. While NII is intended to measure the average annoyance per person in a community, it is found that the method of averaging can lead to erroneous conclusions, particularly if the population does not have uniform spatial distribution. Level-Weighted Population and Annoyed Population Number are shown to be better indicators of noise annoyance when rating different strategies for noise reduction in a given community.

  5. Ni(I) Catalyzes the Regioselective Cross-Coupling of Alkylzinc Halides and Propargyl Bromides to Allenes.

    PubMed

    Soler-Yanes, Rita; Arribas-Álvarez, Iván; Guisán-Ceinos, Manuel; Buñuel, Elena; Cárdenas, Diego J

    2017-01-31

    We describe the unprecedented formation of allenes by Ni-catalyzed cross-coupling of propargyl bromides with alkylzinc halides. The reaction regioselectivity is complementary to the previously reported formation of propargyl-coupled compounds. Experiments support the formation of Ni(I) complexes as the active species and the participation of radical intermediates. Kinetic studies showed that the reaction is first order with respect to the electrophile, zero-order with respect to the nucleophile (fast transmetalation), and one-half order with respect to the metal catalyst. Mechanistic studies support a bimetallic Ni(I) -based pathway that involves fast homolytic cleavage of the C-Br bond by an alkyl-Ni(I) complex, followed by radical coordination to Ni(I) that determines the observed regioselectivity.

  6. Comparison of the performances of DRAINMOD-NII and ADAPT models in simulating nitrate losses from subsurface drainage systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adequate knowledge on the movement of nitrate under different subsurface (tile) drain configurations and management practices in the U.S. Midwest, is essential for developing remedial measures for reducing hypoxic conditions in the Gulf of Mexico. In this study, DRAINMOD-NII, a daily time-step soil ...

  7. The utility`s role in the future of PC services and the NII. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The paper is a report by C3 Communications (formerly CSW Communications) summarizing the experience and lessons learned during an 18 month Department of Energy Grant to evaluate how electric utilities can further the growth of the NII by developing a hybrid Internet-energy management service. In addition, the project was also expanded to include evaluation of residential gateway issues, in particular the energy management aspects of this developing area. The report is broken up into three sections, the first section focuses on the issues surrounding the start-up of a traditional ISP and provides a road map for utilities interested in this area. The second section provides an overview of the Internet energy management projects which were undertaken and the key lessons learned from each. Lastly, the third section outlines the gateway progress made during the grant and provides some of the recommendations which the work produced.

  8. ISM band to U-NII band frequency transverter and method of frequency transversion

    DOEpatents

    Stepp, Jeffrey David; Hensley, Dale

    2006-09-12

    A frequency transverter (10) and method for enabling bi-frequency dual-directional transfer of digitally encoded data on an RF carrier by translating between a crowded or otherwise undesirable first frequency band, such as the 2.4 GHz ISM band, and a less-crowded or otherwise desirable second frequency band, such as the 5.0 GHz 6.0 GHz U-NII band. In a preferred embodiment, the transverter (10) connects between an existing data radio (11) and its existing antenna (30), and comprises a bandswitch (12); an input RF isolating device (14); a transmuter (16); a converter (18); a dual output local oscillator (20); an output RF isolating device (22); and an antenna (24) tuned to the second frequency band. The bandswitch (12) allows for bypassing the transverter (10), thereby facilitating its use with legacy systems. The transmuter (14) and converter (16) are adapted to convert to and from, respectively, the second frequency band.

  9. ISM band to U-NII band frequency transverter and method of frequency transversion

    DOEpatents

    Stepp, Jeffrey David; Hensley, Dale

    2006-04-04

    A frequency transverter (10) and method for enabling bi-frequency dual-directional transfer of digitally encoded data on an RF carrier by translating between a crowded or otherwise undesirable first frequency band, such as the 2.4 GHz ISM band, and a less-crowded or otherwise desirable second frequency band, such as the 5.0 GHz-6.0 GHz U-NII band. In a preferred embodiment, the transverter (10) connects between an existing data radio (11) and its existing antenna (30), and comprises a bandswitch (12); an input RF isolating device (14); a transmuter (16); a converter (18); a dual output local oscillator (20); an output RF isolating device (22); and an antenna (24) tuned to the second frequency band. The bandswitch (12) allows for bypassing the transverter (10), thereby facilitating its use with legacy systems. The transmuter (14) and converter (16) are adapted to convert to and from, respectively, the second frequency band.

  10. The [CII]/[NII] far-infrared line ratio at z>5: extreme conditions for “normal” galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavesi, Riccardo; Riechers, Dominik; Capak, Peter L.; Carilli, Chris Luke; Sharon, Chelsea E.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Karim, Alexander; Scoville, Nicholas; Smolcic, Vernesa

    2017-01-01

    Thanks to the Atacama Large (sub-)Millimeter Array (ALMA), observations of atomic far-infrared fine structure lines are a very productive way of measuring physical properties of the interstellar medium (ISM) in galaxies at high redshift, because they provide an unobscured view into the physical conditions of star formation. While the bright [CII] line has become a routine probe of the dynamical properties of the gas, its intensity needs to be compared to other lines in order to establish the physical origin of the emission. [NII] selectively traces the emission coming from the ionized fraction of the [CII]-emitting gas, offering insight into the phase structure of the ISM. Here we present ALMA measurements of [NII] 205 μm fine structure line emission from a representative sample of galaxies at z=5-6 spanning two orders of magnitude in star formation rate (SFR). Our results show at least two different regimes of ionized gas properties for galaxies in the first billion years of cosmic time, separated by their L[CII]/L[NII] ratio. First, we find extremely low [NII] emission compared to [CII] from a “typical” Lyman Break Galaxy (LBG-1), likely due to low dust content and reminiscent of local dwarfs. Second, the dusty Lyman Break Galaxy HZ10 and the extreme starburst AzTEC-3 show ionized gas fractions typical of local star-forming galaxies and show hints of spatial variations in their [CII]/[NII] line ratio. These observations of far-infrared lines in “normal” galaxies at z>5 yield some of the first constraints on ISM models for young galaxies in the first billion years of cosmic time and shed light on the observed evolution of the dust and gas properties.

  11. Estimation of small business activity by county for the National Infrastructure Information System (NIIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, S.E.; Yoder, T.N.

    1992-09-01

    The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has commissioned the design of an assessment system to perform rapid analysis of the economic impacts of various disasters. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed the National Infrastructure Information System (NIIS) in response to this need. Its design includes several modules to support emergency assessment--the Facility Damage Assessment Module to provide rapid summaries of economic capacity at risk in a disaster area, the Regional Impacts Module (RIM) to estimate the change in a region`s production, consumption, and net exports as a result of capacity lost in the disaster area, the Inter-Regional Trade Flows Module to identify potential interruptions in commodity trade flows between regions, based on the results of the RIM analysis, and the National Economic Model to identify potential macroeconomic impacts of the disaster. In addition to the assessment system, FEMA needs a core data base that contains the comprehensive, county-level information required to conduct regional and national impact analyses. The effort is focused on a general overview of the seriousness of each disaster (e.g., how large is the relative impact) and not on detailed local effects. However, the core data file must be complete enough and accurate enough to support analysis of the relative costs of different disasters. Coverage must be comprehensive in order to address equity issues, as well as detailed in the specific industries that most affect the economy`s ability to respond to disaster.

  12. Estimation of small business activity by county for the National Infrastructure Information System (NIIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, S.E. ); Yoder, T.N. )

    1992-09-01

    The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has commissioned the design of an assessment system to perform rapid analysis of the economic impacts of various disasters. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed the National Infrastructure Information System (NIIS) in response to this need. Its design includes several modules to support emergency assessment--the Facility Damage Assessment Module to provide rapid summaries of economic capacity at risk in a disaster area, the Regional Impacts Module (RIM) to estimate the change in a region's production, consumption, and net exports as a result of capacity lost in the disaster area, the Inter-Regional Trade Flows Module to identify potential interruptions in commodity trade flows between regions, based on the results of the RIM analysis, and the National Economic Model to identify potential macroeconomic impacts of the disaster. In addition to the assessment system, FEMA needs a core data base that contains the comprehensive, county-level information required to conduct regional and national impact analyses. The effort is focused on a general overview of the seriousness of each disaster (e.g., how large is the relative impact) and not on detailed local effects. However, the core data file must be complete enough and accurate enough to support analysis of the relative costs of different disasters. Coverage must be comprehensive in order to address equity issues, as well as detailed in the specific industries that most affect the economy's ability to respond to disaster.

  13. Esterase Active in Polar Organic Solvents from the Yeast Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165

    PubMed Central

    Shainu, Anju; Pandey, Ashok; Sukumaran, Rajeev K.

    2014-01-01

    Esterases/lipases active in water miscible solvents are highly desired in biocatalysis where substrate solubility is limited and also when the solvent is desired as an acyl acceptor in transesterification reactions, as with the case of biodiesel production. We have isolated an esterase from the glycolipid producing yeast-Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 which in its crude form was alkali active, thermo stable, halo tolerant and also capable of acting in presence of high methanol concentration. The crude enzyme which maintained 90% of its original activity after being treated at 70°C was purified and the properties were characterized. The partially purified esterase preparation had temperature and pH optima of 60°C and 8.0 respectively. The enzyme retained almost complete activity in presence of 25% methanol and 80% activity in the same strength of ethanol. Conditions of enzyme production were optimized, which lead to 9 fold increase in the esterase yield. One of the isoforms of the enzyme LIP1 was purified to homogeneity and characterized. Purified LIP1 had a Km and Vmax of 0.01 and 1.12, respectively. The purified esterase lost its thermo and halo tolerance but interestingly, retained 97% activity in methanol. PMID:24800063

  14. Spermine stimulation of a nuclear NII kinase from pea plumules and its role in the phosphorylation of a nuclear polypeptide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Datta, N.; Schell, M. B.; Roux, S. J.

    1987-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that spermine stimulates the phosphorylation of a 47 kilodalton nuclear polypeptide from pea plumules (N Datta, LK Hardison, SJ Roux 1986 Plant Physiol 82: 681-684). In this paper we report that spermine stimulates the activity of a cyclic AMP independent casein kinase, partially purified from a chromatin fraction of pea plumule nuclei. This effect of spermine was substrate specific; i.e. with casein as substrate, spermine stimulated the kinase activity, and with phosvitin as substrate, spermine completely inhibited the activity. The stimulation by spermine of the casein kinase was, in part, due to the lowering of the Mg2+ requirement of the kinase. Heparin could partially inhibit this casein kinase activity and spermine completely overcame this inhibition. By further purification of the casein kinase extract on high performance liquid chromatography, we fractionated it into an NI and an NII kinase. Spermine stimulated the NII kinase by 5- to 6-fold but had no effect on the NI kinase. Using [gamma-32P]GTP, we have shown that spermine promotes the phosphorylation of the 47 kilodalton polypeptide(s) in isolated nuclei, at least in part by stimulating an NII kinase.

  15. Replacement P212H altered the pH-temperature profile of phytase from Aspergillus niger NII 08121.

    PubMed

    Ushasree, Mrudula Vasudevan; Vidya, Jalaja; Pandey, Ashok

    2015-03-01

    Microbial phytase, a widely used animal feed enzyme, needs to be active and stable in the acidic milieu for better performance in the monogastric gut. Aspergillus niger phytases exhibit an activity dip in the pH range from 3.0 to 3.5. Replacement of amino acids, which changed the pKa of catalytic residues H82 and D362, resulted in alteration of the pH profile of a thermostable phytase from A. niger NII 08121. Substitution P212H in the protein loop at 14 Å distance to the active site amended the pH optimum from 2.5 to pH 3.2 nevertheless with a decrease in thermostability than the wild enzyme. This study described the utility of amino acid replacements based on pKa shifts of catalytic acid/base to modulate the pH profile of phytases.

  16. Comprehensive theoretical studies on the low-lying electronic states of NiF, NiCl, NiBr, and NiI.

    PubMed

    Zou, Wenli; Liu, Wenjian

    2006-04-21

    The low-lying electronic states of the nickel monohalides, i.e., NiF, NiCl, NiBr, and NiI, are investigated by using multireference second-order perturbation theory with relativistic effects taken into account. For the energetically lowest 11 lambda-S states and 26 omega states there into, the potential energy curves and corresponding spectroscopic constants (vertical and adiabatic excitation energies, equilibrium bond lengths, vibrational frequencies, and rotational constants) are reported. The calculated results are grossly in very good agreement with those solid experimental data. In particular, the ground state of NiI is shown to be different from those of NiF, NiCl, and NiBr, being in line with the recent experimental observation. Detailed analyses are provided on those states that either have not been assigned or have been incorrectly assigned by previous experiments.

  17. Emergency Preparedness technology support to the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) of the United Kingdom. Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    O`Kula, K.R.

    1994-03-01

    The Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) of the United Kingdom (UK) suggested the use of an accident progression logic model method developed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for K Reactor to predict the magnitude and timing of radioactivity releases (the source term) based on an advanced logic model methodology. Predicted releases are output from the personal computer-based model in a level-of-confidence format. Additional technical discussions eventually led to a request from the NII to develop a proposal for assembling a similar technology to predict source terms for the UK`s advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) type. To respond to this request, WSRC is submitting a proposal to provide contractual assistance as specified in the Scope of Work. The work will produce, document, and transfer technology associated with a Decision-Oriented Source Term Estimator for Emergency Preparedness (DOSE-EP) for the NII to apply to AGRs in the United Kingdom. This document, Appendix A is a part of this proposal.

  18. Geometric and electronic structures of the Ni(I) and methyl-Ni(III) intermediates of methyl-coenzyme M reductase.

    PubMed

    Sarangi, Ritimukta; Dey, Mishtu; Ragsdale, Stephen W

    2009-04-14

    Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) catalyzes the terminal step in the formation of biological methane from methyl-coenzyme M (Me-SCoM) and coenzyme B (CoBSH). The active site in MCR contains a Ni-F(430) cofactor, which can exist in different oxidation states. The catalytic mechanism of methane formation has remained elusive despite intense spectroscopic and theoretical investigations. On the basis of spectroscopic and crystallographic data, the first step of the mechanism is proposed to involve a nucleophilic attack of the Ni(I) active state (MCR(red1)) on Me-SCoM to form a Ni(III)-methyl intermediate, while computational studies indicate that the first step involves the attack of Ni(I) on the sulfur of Me-SCoM, forming a CH(3)(*) radical and a Ni(II)-thiolate species. In this study, a combination of Ni K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopic (XAS) studies and density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed on the Ni(I) (MCR(red1)), Ni(II) (MCR(red1-silent)), and Ni(III)-methyl (MCR(Me)) states of MCR to elucidate the geometric and electronic structures of the different redox states. Ni K-edge EXAFS data are used to reveal a five-coordinate active site with an open upper axial coordination site in MCR(red1). Ni K-pre-edge and EXAFS data and time-dependent DFT calculations unambiguously demonstrate the presence of a long Ni-C bond ( approximately 2.04 A) in the Ni(III)-methyl state of MCR. The formation and stability of this species support mechanism I, and the Ni-C bond length suggests a homolytic cleavage of the Ni(III)-methyl bond in the subsequent catalytic step. The XAS data provide insight into the role of the unique F(430) cofactor in tuning the stability of the different redox states of MCR.

  19. Influence of Ring-Expanded N-Heterocyclic Carbenes on the Structures of Half-Sandwich Ni(I) Complexes: An X-ray, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), and Electron Nuclear Double Resonance (ENDOR) Study.

    PubMed

    Pelties, Stefan; Carter, Emma; Folli, Andrea; Mahon, Mary F; Murphy, Damien M; Whittlesey, Michael K; Wolf, Robert

    2016-11-07

    Potassium graphite reduction of the half-sandwich Ni(II) ring-expanded diamino/diamidocarbene complexes CpNi(RE-NHC)Br gave the Ni(I) derivatives CpNi(RE-NHC) (where RE-NHC = 6-Mes (1), 7-Mes (2), 6-MesDAC (3)) in yields of 40%-50%. The electronic structures of paramagnetic 1-3 were investigated by CW X-/Q-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and Q-band (1)H electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy. While small variations in the g-values were observed between the diaminocarbene complexes 1 and 2, pronounced changes in the g-values were detected between the almost isostructural species (1) and diamidocarbene species (3). These results highlight the sensitivity of the EPR g-tensor to changes in the electronic structure of the Ni(I) centers generated by incorporation of heteroatom substituents onto the backbone ring positions. Variable-temperature EPR analysis also revealed the presence of a second Ni(I) site in 3. The experimental g-values for these two Ni(I) sites detected by EPR in frozen solutions of 3 are consistent with resolution on the EPR time scale of the disordered components evident in the X-ray crystallographically determined structure and the corresponding density functional theory (DFT)-calculated g-tensor. Q-band (1)H ENDOR measurements revealed a small amount of unpaired electron spin density on the Cp rings, consistent with the calculated SOMO of complexes 1-3. The magnitude of the (1)H A values for 3 were also notably larger, compared to 1 and 2, again highlighting the influence of the diamidocarbene on the electronic properties of 3.

  20. First Detections of the [NII] 122 Micrometer Line at High Redshift: Demonstrating the Utility of the Line for Studying Galaxies in the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Brisbin, Drew; Nikola, Thomas; Parshley, Stephen C.; Stacey, Gordon J.; Phillips, Thomas G.; Falgarone, Edith; Benford, Dominic J.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Tucker, Carol E.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detections of the [NIl] 122 {\\mu} m line from a high redshift galaxy. The line was strongly (> 6{\\sigma}) detected from SMMJ02399-0136, and HI413+ 117 (the Cloverleaf QSO) using the Redshift(z) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS) on the CSO. The lines from both sources are quite bright with line-to-FIR continuum luminosity ratios that are approx.7.0x10(exp -4) (Cloverleaf) and 2.1x10(exp -3) (SMMJ02399). With ratios 2-10 times larger than the average value for nearby galaxies, neither source exhibits the line-to-continuum deficits seen in nearby sources. The line strengths also indicate large ionized gas fractions, approx.8 to 17% of the molecular gas mass. The [OIII]/[NII] line ratio is very sensitive to the effective temperature of ionizing stars and the ionization parameter for emission arising in the narrow-line region (NLR) of an AGN. Using our previous detection of the [01II] 88 {\\mu}m line, the [OIII]/ [NIl] line ratio for SMMJ02399-0136 indicates the dominant source of the line emission is either stellar HII regions ionized by 09.5 stars, or the NLR of the AGN with ionization parameter 10g(U) = -3.3 to -4.0. A composite system, where 30 to 50% of the FIR lines arise in the NLR also matches the data. The Cloverleaf is best modeled by a superposition of approx.200 M82like starbursts accounting for all of the FIR emission and 43% of the [NIl] line. The remainder may come from the NLR. This work demonstrates the utility of the [NIl] and [OIII] lines in constraining properties of the ionized medium.

  1. Application of gas phase cryogenic vibrational spectroscopy to characterize the CO2, CO, N2 and N2O interactions with the open coordination site on a Ni(I) macrocycle using dual cryogenic ion traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Stephanie M.; Menges, Fabian S.; Johnson, Mark A.

    2017-02-01

    Recent advances in gas phase ion chemistry, coupled with cryogenic ion vibrational predissociation spectroscopy, provide a powerful way to characterize the structures of small molecules bound to open coordination sites of organometallic compounds. Here we extend our previous measurements on the relatively weakly interacting CO2 molecule with a Ni(I) tetraaza-macrocyclic compound to enable the characterization of more strongly interacting substrates. We first confirm the calculated η2-C,O binding motif of CO2 using isotopic labeling by direct, one photon vibrational predissociation of the Ni(I)-CO2 complex. We then apply this approach to study complexation of N2 at the active site. The generality of the method is then expanded to include application to more strongly bound systems that cannot be photodissociated with one IR photon. This involves implementation of a recently developed scheme (Marsh et al., 2015) involving two temperature-controlled ion traps. The first is optimized to complex the substrate molecule to the active site and the second is cooled to around 10 K to enable condensation of weakly bound "tag" molecules onto the target complex so as to enable its characterization by linear vibrational predissociation spectroscopy. We demonstrate this capability by applying it to the coordination of CO to the active Ni(I) site, as well as to elucidate the nature of the products that are formed upon reaction with N2O.

  2. Field-Induced Slow Magnetic Relaxation in the Ni(I) Complexes [NiCl(PPh3)2]·C4H8O and [Ni(N(SiMe3)2)(PPh3)2].

    PubMed

    Lin, Weiquan; Bodenstein, Tilmann; Mereacre, Valeriu; Fink, Karin; Eichhöfer, Andreas

    2016-03-07

    Direct current (dc) and alternating current (ac) magnetic measurements have been performed on the three Ni(I) complexes: [NiCl(PPh3)3], [NiCl(PPh3)2]·C4H8O, and [Ni(N(SiMe3)2)(PPh3)2]. Fits of the dc magnetic data suggest an almost similar behavior of the three compounds, which display only moderate deviations from the spin-only values. The ac magnetic investigations reveal that the two complexes with trigonal planar coordination--[NiCl(PPh3)2]·C4H8O and [Ni(N(SiMe3)2)(PPh3)2]--display slow magnetic relaxation at low temperatures under applied dc fields, whereas tetrahedral [NiCl(PPh3)3] does not. Ground and excited states as well as magnetic data were calculated by ab initio wave function based multi-configurational methods, including dynamic correlation as well as spin-orbit coupling. The two trigonal planar complexes comprise well-isolated S = (1)/2 ground states, whereas two S = (1)/2 states with a splitting of less than 100 cm(-1) were found in the tetrahedral compound.

  3. Direct determination of the number of electrons needed to reduce coenzyme F430 pentamethyl ester to the Ni(I) species exhibiting the electron paramagnetic resonance and ultraviolet-visible spectra characteristic for the MCR(red1) state of methyl-coenzyme M reductase.

    PubMed

    Piskorski, Rafal; Jaun, Bernhard

    2003-10-29

    The UV-visible and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of MCR(red1), the catalytically active state of methyl-coenzyme M reductase, are almost identical to those observed when free coenzyme F430 or its pentamethyl ester (F430M) are reduced to the Ni(I) valence state. Investigations and proposals concerning the catalytic mechanism of MCR were therefore based on MCR(red1) containing Ni(I)F430 until, in a recent report, Tang et al. (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2002, 124, 13242) interpreted their resonance Raman data and titration experiments as indicating that, in MCR(red1), coenzyme F430 is not only reduced at the nickel center but at one of the C=N double bonds of the hydrocorphinoid macrocycle as well. To resolve this contradiction, we have investigated the stoichiometry of the reduction of coenzyme F430 pentamethyl ester (F430M) by three independent methods. Spectroelectrochemistry showed clean reduction to a single product that exhibits the UV-vis spectrum typical for MCR(red1). In three bulk electrolysis experiments, 0.96 +/- 0.1 F/mol was required to generate the reduced species. Reduction with decamethylcobaltocene in tetrahydrofuran (THF) consumed 1 mol of (Cp)(2)Co/mol of F430M, and the stoichiometry of the reoxidation of the reduced form with the two-electron oxidant methylene blue was 0.46 +/- 0.05 mol of methylene blue/mol of reduced F430M. These experiments demonstrate that the reduction of coenzyme F430M to the species having almost identical UV-vis and EPR spectra as MCR(red1) is a one-electron process and therefore inconsistent with a reduction of the macrocycle chromophore.

  4. Herschel Galactic Plane Survey of [NII] Fine Structure Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, Paul F.; Yıldız, Umut A.; Langer, William D.; Pineda, Jorge L.

    2015-12-01

    We present the first large-scale high angular resolution survey of ionized nitrogen in the Galactic Plane through emission of its two fine structure transitions ([N ii]) at 122 and 205 μm. The observations were largely obtained with the PACS instrument onboard the Herschel Space Observatory. The lines of sight were in the Galactic plane, following those of the Herschel OTKP project GOT C+. Both lines are reliably detected at the 10-8-10-7 Wm-2 sr-1 level over the range -60° ≤ l ≤ 60°. The rms of the intensity among the 25 PACS spaxels of a given pointing is typically less than one third of the mean intensity, showing that the emission is extended. [N ii] is produced in gas in which hydrogen is ionized, and collisional excitation is by electrons. The ratio of the two fine structure transitions provides a direct measurement of the electron density, yielding n(e) largely in the range 10-50 cm-3 with an average value of 29 cm-3 and N+ column densities 1016-1017 cm-2. [N ii] emission is highly correlated with that of [C ii], and we calculate that between 1/3 and 1/2 of the [C ii] emission is associated with the ionized gas. The relatively high electron densities indicate that the source of the [N ii] emission is not the warm ionized medium (WIM), which has electron densities more than 100 times smaller. Possible origins of the observed [N ii] include the ionized surfaces of dense atomic and molecular clouds, the extended low-density envelopes of H ii regions, and low-filling factor high-density fluctuations of the WIM.

  5. (NII) Novel Catalytic, Synthesis Methods for Main Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-23

    both organic and inorganic substrates. In our efforts to develop reactive group 5 systems, we discovered that the combination of an imido group and...applied in selective functionalization of organic molecules. In recent chemistry relevant to this problem, we reported remarkable reactivity leading to...Application of Fundamental Organometallic Chemistry to the Development of a Gold- Catalyzed Synthesis of Sulfinate Derivatives.” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl

  6. 78 FR 37499 - Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII) Devices in the 5 GHz Band

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ..., 2013, and released June 17, 2013. The full text of this document is available for inspection and... reply comment deadline to facilitate the development of a full and complete record. DATES: Reply...., Washington, DC 20554. The complete text of this document also may be purchased from the Commission's...

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CO, [CI] and [NII] lines from Herschel spectra (Kamenetzky+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenetzky, J.; Rangwala, N.; Glenn, J.; Maloney, P. R.; Conley, A.

    2016-11-01

    We compiled a list of successful extragalactic Herschel/SPIRE FTS proposals (301 spectra) and searched the Herschel Science Archive (HSA) for the available data. Table 1 lists the basic galaxy information and observation IDs for all galaxies for which at least one FTS line measurement or upper limit is reported. The bandpass of the Herschel FTS starts around the CO J=4-3 line, but the majority of the molecular mass in galaxies is cool and populates the lower rotational levels. We complement the line fluxes derived from the FTS with the CO J=1-0, J=2-1, and J=3-2 lines available from ground-based observatories. Many of these galaxies have already been studied in the literature, particularly in large CO surveys. For some galaxies, we also performed single-dish measurements using the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). Measurements of the CO J=1-0 line were conducted with the 12m dish on Kitt Peak in 2015 May, and those of CO J=2-1 and J=3-2 were conducted with the Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) located on Mt. Graham from 2014 November to 2015 February. (4 data files).

  8. A Practical and Cost Effective Demonstration of Efficient Energy Usage and Quality Management Using the NII

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    In order to be competitive in the changing electric power industry, and to promote energy efficiency and conservation, electric power providers need to have access to information on the power system to a level of detail that has not been available in the past. This level of detail extends beyond the usual voltage, current, power, and energy quantities obtained from traditional utility SCADA systems.

  9. Materials Data on NiI2 (SG:166) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-05

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  10. 78 FR 21320 - Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (U-NII) Devices in the 5 GHz Band

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... broadband use by the year 2020. The FCC's 2010 National Broadband Plan recommended that the Commission make... devices within localized indoor settings. Although that vision was reasonable at the time, the...

  11. The Russian Scientific Research Institue Of Parachute Design And Production (NII Parachutostroyeniya, NIIPC)- History, Research And Collaboration In Space Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyalin, V.; Ladygin, V.; Komarov, V.; Kuleshov, V.; Wong, H.; Offerman, J.; Thirkettle, A.

    2011-05-01

    NIIPC was established in 1946 for the development of paradrop equipment and is one of a few companies in the world to perform the full cycle of parachute development, including scientific research, design, manufacturing, test and modification. NIIPC produced the parachute systems for Yuri Gagarin and all of the Russian manned space missions, Vistok, Voshod and Soyuz. It produced the parachutes for unmanned missions, Almaz, Bion, Cosmos as well as the reentry modules for Mars, Venus and from the Moon. NIIPC has its own school for training of scientific personnel and large scientific and technical archive. The existing knowledge and computer codes are used for the development of prospective parachute systems. Research includes all aspects such as payload- parachute dynamics, inflation, clusters, gliding parachutes, and aeroballistic heating and strength of supersonic parachutes. International collaboration included the Ariane 5 booster parachutes with Dutch Space and development of the current supersonic parachute system for EXPERT. An Ariane 5 booster weighs 41 tonnes dry and involves a 3-stage parachute system. The EXPERT parachute deploys a drogue supersonic parachute at Mach 1.7, before extracting a main cross-shaped parachute. The test campaign for EXPERT started in 2010 and will be completed by summer 2011.

  12. Use of the NII to study impacts of new technologies and policies on supply and demand of electric power

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, J.K. Jr.

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes a proposal to use an implementation of client-server technology on the Internet for simulating a number of aspects of electric power production, distribution, and consumption within a wholly new regulatory, financing, operating, and control environment. This approach would use a large number of people to generate strategies and decisions, in a real-time context, needed to drive the simulation. A World Wide Web server would provide background information about the simulation for those who chose to participate as actors in one of supported roles. Roles would be based on activities associated with different business areas and would include utility manager, independent power producer (entrepreneur), electric power futures trader, electric power futures investor, electric power wheeler, industrial customer, commercial customer, and residential customer. The simulation program would run on a system of high-performance computers (parallel computer system) that communicate between each other on a high speed communications bus. These computers would also be the server systems for the client programs used by the actors. People who want to be actors would be required to register before being given a client program, as a way to have some control over the simulation results. Each role will have its corresponding client program with graphical user interface. Each client program will support a common view of the simulation results and a role specific view.

  13. Million Query Track 2008 Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    We used several standard Lemur built in systems (tfidf bm25, tfidf log, kl abs, kl dir, inquery, cos, okapi) and combined their output (metasearch...the Lemur implementations: a vector-space cosine similarity run (000cos), a language modeling run (000klabs), an Okapi formula run (000okapi), a BM25

  14. Asymmetric self-assembly with atmospheric CO2 fixation of a pentanuclear carbonate NiI) complex based on dissimilar building blocks.

    PubMed

    Fondo, Matilde; García-Deibe, Ana M; Ocampo, Noelia; Sanmartín, Jesús; Bermejo, Manuel R

    2007-01-28

    Formation in basic solution of an asymmetric pentanuclear carbonate Ni(II) complex with a compartmental ligand involves atmospheric CO(2) uptake, either by reaction of two slightly different dinuclear precursors that yield its di- and trinuclear "building blocks", or directly, by spontaneous self-organization of metal and ligand starting reactants.

  15. EEE Links, Volume 9, No. 1, January 2003 Focus on Plastic Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The January 2003 issue of Electronic, Electromechanical, Electric (EEE) Links is presented. The Programmable Logic Application Notes column has been reinstated in this newsletter. Written by Rich Katz of NASA's Office of Logic Design (OLD), the application notes offer technical tips intended to prevent flight design errors and enhance research, development, and use of programmable logic and elements for space flight applications. An archive of these notes columns from previous issues of EEE Links is available at http://www.klabs.org/richcontent/eeelink s/EEE Links.htm.

  16. Statement of Principles on Technology in the Reform of Mathematics and Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA.

    The future National Information Infrastructure (NII) promises every business, government agency, hospital, home, library, and school in the United States access anywhere, anytime to voice, data, full-motion video, and multimedia applications. The impact of the NII in learning--for children, older students, and lifelong learners--will be…

  17. The Uses of the National Information Infrastructure in Providing Services to Small Industry, State and Local Governments, and Education in Rural Areas. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session (Billings, Montana).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

    The Senate Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space held a hearing in Billings, Montana, on rural America's access to the National Information Infrastructure (NII) and uses of NII in the provision of rural education and services. An Assistant Secretary of Commerce discussed the development of the Internet, problems in rural access to the…

  18. Justice and Social Equity in Cyberspace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doctor, Ronald

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the concept of information democracy, or access to information, in relation to information delivery; computerized community-based information systems, including grass-roots nonprofit organizations and private sector activities; the National Information Infrastructure (NII); empowerment; concepts of social justice; and designing the NII.…

  19. Putting the Information Infrastructure to Work. Report of the Information Infrastructure Task Force Committee on Applications and Technology. NIST Special Publication 857.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.

    An interconnection of computer networks, telecommunications services, and applications, the National Information Infrastructure (NII) can open up new vistas and profoundly change much of American life. This report explores some of the opportunities and obstacles to the use of the NII by people and organizations. The goal is to express how…

  20. Negative Interpersonal Interactions in Student Training Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Patricia A.; Kline, Theresa J. B.

    2009-01-01

    Studies demonstrate that negative interpersonal interaction(s) (NII) such as bullying are frequent and harmful to individuals in workplace and higher education student settings. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether the degree of perceived severity of NII varies by the status of the actor. The present study explored the moderating effect of actor…

  1. Neuronal intranuclear inclusions are ultrastructurally and immunologically distinct from cytoplasmic inclusions of neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease.

    PubMed

    Mosaheb, Sabrina; Thorpe, Julian R; Hashemzadeh-Bonehi, Lida; Bigio, Eileen H; Gearing, Marla; Cairns, Nigel J

    2005-10-01

    Abnormal neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) containing aggregates of alpha-internexin and the neurofilament (NF) subunits, NF-H, NF-M, and NF-L, are the signature lesions of neuronal intermediate filament (IF) inclusion disease (NIFID). The disease has a clinically heterogeneous phenotype, including frontotemporal dementia, pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs presenting at a young age. NCIs are variably ubiquitinated and about half of cases also have neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NIIs), which are also ubiquitinated. NIIs have been described in polyglutamine-repeat expansion diseases, where they are strongly ubiquitin immunoreactive. The fine structure of NIIs of NIFID has not previously been described. Therefore, to determine the ultrastructure of NIIs, immunoelectron microscopy was undertaken on NIFID cases and normal aged control brains. Our results indicate that the NIIs of NIFID are strongly ubiquitin immunoreactive. However, unlike NCIs which contain ubiquitin, alpha-internexin and NF epitopes, NIIs contain neither epitopes of alpha-internexin nor NF subunits. Neither NIIs nor NCIs were recognised by antibodies to expanded polyglutamine repeats. The NII of NIFID lacks a limiting membrane and contains straight filaments of 20 nm mean width (range 11-35 nm), while NCIs contain filaments with a mean width of 10 nm (range 5-18 nm; t-test, P<0.001). Biochemistry revealed no differences in neuronal IF protein mobilities between NIFID and normal brain tissue. Therefore, NIIs of NIFID contain filaments morphologically and immunologically distinct from those of NCIs, and both types of inclusion lack expanded polyglutamine tracts of the triplet-repeat expansion diseases. These observations indicate that abnormal protein aggregation follows separate pathways in different neuronal compartments of NIFID.

  2. Discovering the Lowest Metallicty z<1 Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirimba, Keith; Prochaska, Jason X.

    2017-01-01

    Through the use of the NII/Hα ratio, an empirical method used in calculating metallicity, a sample of single emission line galaxies from the DEEP2 survey (472 Objects) was examined in the pursuit of finding extremely metal poor (XMP) galaxies. We calculate the upper limits for the NII flux against our measurements of Hα for each object. Of the 166 objects containing Hα and NII wavelength coverage, one galaxy at z=0.08 is a terrific candidate, having maximum 12+log(O/H) ≤ 7.7.

  3. A systems configuration toolkit for modular integration of mechatronic resources

    SciTech Connect

    Oppel, F.J. III; Palmquist, R.

    1995-07-01

    The use of the NII (National Information Infrastructure) is growing rapidly in the number of users and in the areas in which it is being applied. Sandia is using, the NII to leverage the use of geographically distributed mechatronic (electromechanical) assets. This paper discusses the availability of networks, new challenges for robotics technology, and how the use of networks is helping to meet these challenges. A brief overview of the NII is provided, followed by a listing of ``needs`` within the intelligent systems community. An approach is then given for meeting, these needs and, finally, implementation, examples, and future research directions are discussed.

  4. IC 1689: S0 galaxy with inner polar disk.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen-Thorn, V. A.; Reshetnikov, V. P.

    1997-03-01

    The results of spectroscopic observations of the S0 galaxy IC 1689 are given. The radial velocity curves constructed from the measurements of Hα and [NII]λ6583 lines show that in the galaxy interior there is a gas disk (r=~3kpc) rotating around the axis placed in the main plane of the galaxy (polar disk). Active star formation occurs in the outer part of the disk (in the ring). Both Hα and [NII]λ6583 emission lines are observed here. Only collisionally excited [NII] radiates in the inner regions of the disk.

  5. Búsqueda de regiones de baja excitación en nebulosas planetarias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vena Valdarenas, R. R.; Schmidt, E. O.; Volpe, M. G.; Weidmann, W.; Mudrik, A.

    2015-08-01

    We present early results from observations with narrow band filter ([NII], 6584 ) for a sample of austral planetary nebulae. The observations are being made from Bosque Alegre Astrophysical Station. The observation inherent aspects will be treated in detail.

  6. EFFECT OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS FLAME RETARDANTS ON NEURONAL DEVELOPMENT IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increased use of organophosphorus compounds as alternatives to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) has led to widespread human exposure, There is, however, limited information on their potential health effects. This study compared the effects of nii ne organophosphorus flame...

  7. Modeling the Effects of the Local Environment on a Received GNSS Signal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-18

    multipath estimation and mitigation performance in sensing through the use of radar. 151 Bibliography 1. P. Misra and P. Enge, Global Positioning System...NJ: Prentice Hall PTR, 2001. 4. Global Positioning System Standard Positioning Service Performance Standard, 4th ed., ASD(NII)/DASD (C3, Space, and...Spectrum), 2008. 5. Global Positioning System Precise Positioning Service Performance Standard, ASD(NII)/DASD (C3, Space, and Spectrum), 2007. 6. S

  8. Essential Gene Identification and Drug Target Prioritization in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wenqi; Sillaots, Susan; Lemieux, Sebastien; Davison, John; Kauffman, Sarah; Breton, Anouk; Linteau, Annie; Xin, Chunlin; Bowman, Joel; Becker, Jeff; Jiang, Bo; Roemer, Terry

    2007-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most prevalent airborne filamentous fungal pathogen in humans, causing severe and often fatal invasive infections in immunocompromised patients. Currently available antifungal drugs to treat invasive aspergillosis have limited modes of action, and few are safe and effective. To identify and prioritize antifungal drug targets, we have developed a conditional promoter replacement (CPR) strategy using the nitrogen-regulated A. fumigatus NiiA promoter (pNiiA). The gene essentiality for 35 A. fumigatus genes was directly demonstrated by this pNiiA-CPR strategy from a set of 54 genes representing broad biological functions whose orthologs are confirmed to be essential for growth in Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Extending this approach, we show that the ERG11 gene family (ERG11A and ERG11B) is essential in A. fumigatus despite neither member being essential individually. In addition, we demonstrate the pNiiA-CPR strategy is suitable for in vivo phenotypic analyses, as a number of conditional mutants, including an ERG11 double mutant (erg11BΔ, pNiiA-ERG11A), failed to establish a terminal infection in an immunocompromised mouse model of systemic aspergillosis. Collectively, the pNiiA-CPR strategy enables a rapid and reliable means to directly identify, phenotypically characterize, and facilitate target-based whole cell assays to screen A. fumigatus essential genes for cognate antifungal inhibitors. PMID:17352532

  9. Technical Note: On the possibly missing mechanism of 15 μm emission in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, R. D.

    2015-02-01

    Accurate knowledge of the rate as well as the mechanism of excitation of the bending mode of CO2 is necessary for reliable modeling of the mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT) region of the atmosphere. Assuming the excitation mechanism to be thermal collisions with atomic oxygen, the rate coefficient derived from the observed 15 μm emission by space-based experiments (kATM = 6.0 × 10-12 cm3s-1) differs from the laboratory measurements (kLAB =(1.5-2.5) × 10-12 cm3s-1) by a factor of 2-4. The general circulation models (GCMs) of Earth, Venus, and Mars have chosen to use a median value of kGCM = 3.0 × 10-12 cm3s-1 for this rate coefficient. As a first step to resolve the discrepancies between the three rate coefficients, we attempt to find the source of disagreement between the first two. It is pointed out that a large magnitude of the difference between these two rate coefficients (kx ≡ kATM - kLAB) requires that the unknown mechanism involve one or both major species: N2, O. Because of the rapidly decreasing volume mixing ratio (VMR) of CO2 with altitude, the exciting partner must be long lived and transfer energy efficiently. It is shown that thermal collisions with N2, mediated by a near-resonant rotation-to-vibration (RV) energy transfer process, while giving a reasonable rate coefficient kVR for de-excitation of the bending mode of CO2, lead to vibration-to-translation kVT rate coefficients in the terrestrial atmosphere that are 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than those observed in the laboratory. It is pointed out that the efficient near-resonant rotation-to-vibration (RV) energy transfer process has a chance of being the unknown mechanism if very high rotational levels of N2, produced by the reaction of N and NO and other collisional processes, have a super-thermal population and are long lived. Since atomic oxygen plays a critical role in the mechanisms discussed here, it suggested that its density be determined experimentally by ground- and space

  10. Sequence homology requirements for transcriptional silencing of 35S transgenes and post-transcriptional silencing of nitrite reductase (trans)genes by the tobacco 271 locus.

    PubMed

    Thierry, D; Vaucheret, H

    1996-12-01

    The transgene locus of the tobacco plant 271 (271 locus) is located on a telomere and consists of multiple copies of a plasmid carrying an NptII marker gene driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 19S promoter and the leaf-specific nitrite reductase Nii1 cDNA cloned in the antisense orientation under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter. Previous analysis of gene expression in leaves has shown that this locus triggers both post-transcriptional silencing of the host leaf-specific Nii genes and transcriptional silencing of transgenes driven by the 19S or 35S promoter irrespective of their coding sequence and of their location in the genome. In this paper we show that silencing of transgenes carrying Nii1 sequences occurs irrespective of the promoter driving their expression and of their location within the genome. This phenomenon occurs in roots as well as in leaves although root Nii genes share only 84% identity with leaf-specific Nii1 sequences carried by the 271 locus. Conversely, transgenes carrying the bean Nii gene (which shares 76% identity with the tobacco Nii1 gene) escape silencing by the 271 locus. We also show that transgenes driven by the figwort mosaic virus 34S promoter (which shares 63% identity with the 35S promoter) also escape silencing by the 271 locus. Taken together, these results indicate that a high degree of sequence similarity is required between the sequences of the silencing locus and of the target (trans)genes for both transcriptional and post-transcriptional silencing.

  11. Estimation of waste component-specific landfill decay rates using laboratory-scale decomposition data.

    PubMed

    De la Cruz, Florentino B; Barlaz, Morton A

    2010-06-15

    The current methane generation model used by the U.S. EPA (Landfill Gas Emissions Model) treats municipal solid waste (MSW) as a homogeneous waste with one decay rate. However, component-specific decay rates are required to evaluate the effects of changes in waste composition on methane generation. Laboratory-scale rate constants, k(lab), for the major biodegradable MSW components were used to derive field-scale decay rates (k(field)) for each waste component using the assumption that the average of the field-scale decay rates for each waste component, weighted by its composition, is equal to the bulk MSW decay rate. For an assumed bulk MSW decay rate of 0.04 yr(-1), k(field) was estimated to be 0.298, 0.171, 0.015, 0.144, 0.033, 0.02, 0.122, and 0.029 yr(-1), for grass, leaves, branches, food waste, newsprint, corrugated containers, coated paper, and office paper, respectively. The effect of landfill waste diversion programs on methane production was explored to illustrate the use of component-specific decay rates. One hundred percent diversion of yard waste and food waste reduced the year 20 methane production rate by 45%. When a landfill gas collection schedule was introduced, collectable methane was most influenced by food waste diversion at years 10 and 20 and paper diversion at year 40.

  12. Frequencies, Timing, and Spatial Patterns of Co-Suppression of Nitrate Reductase and Nitrite Reductase in Transgenic Tobacco Plants.

    PubMed Central

    Palauqui, J. C.; Elmayan, T.; De Borne, F. D.; Crete, P.; Charles, C.; Vaucheret, H.

    1996-01-01

    Frequencies, timing, and spatial patterns of co-suppression of the nitrate (Nia) and nitrite (Nii) genes were analyzed in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants carrying either Nia or Nii cDNAs under the control of the 35S promoter, or a Nii gene with its own regulatory signals (promoter, introns, and terminator) cloned downstream of two copies of the enhancer of the 35S promoter. We show that (a) the frequencies of transgenic lines affected by co- suppression are similar for the three constructs, ranging from 19 to 25%; (b) Nia and Nii co-suppression are triggered stochastically during a phenocritical period of 2 weeks between germination and flowering; (c) the timing of co-suppression (i.e. the percentage of isogenic plants affected by co-suppression reported as a function of the number of days of culture) differs from one transgenic line to another; (d) the percentage of isogenic plants affected by co-suppression is increased by growing the plants in vitro prior to their transfer to the greenhouse and to the field; and (e) at the end of the culture period, plants are either unaffected, completely co-suppressed, or variegated. Suppressed and nonsuppressed parts of these variegated plants are separated by a vertical plane through the stem in Nia co-suppression, and separated by a horizontal plane in Nii co-suppression. PMID:12226457

  13. EUV studies of N2 and O2 produced by low energy electron impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, H. D.; Mentall, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    The emission spectra resulting from electron impact excitation on molecular nitrogen and oxygen in the 500-1200 A spectral region are investigated. Electron energies are from 0 to 300 eV. Numerous bands of N2 are found between 800 and 1000 A. Excitation functions are measured for the NII 916 A, the OI 879 A, and the OII 834 multiplets, and nitrogen band emission. Cross sections were measured at 200 eV for several of the band emissions plus the NI 1135 A, NI 1164 A, NI 1177 A, NII 776 A, NII 1084 A, OI 1152 A, OI 1041 A, OI 999 A, OI 989 A, OI 879 A, OII 834 A, OII 616 A, OII 555 A, OII 539 A, and OII 718 A multiplets.

  14. Communications satellites in the national and global health care information infrastructure: their role, impact, and issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuzek, J. E.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1996-01-01

    Health care services delivered from a distance, known collectively as telemedicine, are being increasingly demonstrated on various transmission media. Telemedicine activities have included diagnosis by a doctor at a remote location, emergency and disaster medical assistance, medical education, and medical informatics. The ability of communications satellites to offer communication channels and bandwidth on demand, connectivity to mobile, remote and under served regions, and global access will afford them a critical role for telemedicine applications within the National and Global Information Infrastructure (NII/GII). The importance that communications satellites will have in telemedicine applications within the NII/GII the differences in requirements for NII vs. GII, the major issues such as interoperability, confidentiality, quality, availability, and costs, and preliminary conclusions for future usability based on the review of several recent trails at national and global levels are presented.

  15. Engineering Test Report Paint Waste Reduction Fluidized Bed Process Demonstration at Letterkenny Army Depot Chambersburg, Pennsylvania

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    of span % of span --------------------------.... "om."........... am------ ......- -aa an P eform linear regression of pr; etest cal, gas...Gross Wt.nii4947.4 me.. Date , Time of Wt,4/23/91, e145AM Beaker Gross Wt,1i14947.I ag ,0 Average Gross Wt.1104947.3 mg, Beaker Tare Wta114934,,0 mg,0

  16. Introduction of neutralizing immunogenicity index to the rational design of MERS coronavirus subunit vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lanying; Tai, Wanbo; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Guangyu; Zhu, Qing; Sun, Shihui; Liu, Chang; Tao, Xinrong; Tseng, Chien-Te K.; Perlman, Stanley; Jiang, Shibo; Zhou, Yusen; Li, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Viral subunit vaccines often contain immunodominant non-neutralizing epitopes that divert host immune responses. These epitopes should be eliminated in vaccine design, but there is no reliable method for evaluating an epitope's capacity to elicit neutralizing immune responses. Here we introduce a new concept ‘neutralizing immunogenicity index' (NII) to evaluate an epitope's neutralizing immunogenicity. To determine the NII, we mask the epitope with a glycan probe and then assess the epitope's contribution to the vaccine's overall neutralizing immunogenicity. As proof-of-concept, we measure the NII for different epitopes on an immunogen comprised of the receptor-binding domain from MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Further, we design a variant form of this vaccine by masking an epitope that has a negative NII score. This engineered vaccine demonstrates significantly enhanced efficacy in protecting transgenic mice from lethal MERS-CoV challenge. Our study may guide the rational design of highly effective subunit vaccines to combat MERS-CoV and other life-threatening viruses. PMID:27874853

  17. Advanced Digital Video and the National Information Infrastructure. Report of the Information Infrastructure Task Force, Committee on Applications and Technology, Technology Policy Working Group. Draft for Public Comment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Science and Technology Policy, Washington, DC.

    The National Information Infrastructure (NII) vision encompasses an infrastructure providing seamless, interactive, user driven access to the widest range of information. Video will play a key role in distribution of educational information, government data, manufacturing information, and access to health care data and services. The Technology…

  18. The National Information Infrastructure: Agenda for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Commerce, Washington, DC. Information Infrastructure Task Force.

    The National Information Infrastructure (NII) is planned as a web of communications networks, computers, databases, and consumer electronics that will put vast amounts of information at the users' fingertips. Private sector firms are beginning to develop this infrastructure, but essential roles remain for the Federal Government. The National…

  19. 47 CFR 15.407 - General technical requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... provide critical communications services should determine if there are any nearby Government radar systems... systems with an e.i.r.p. of less than 500 mW. (2) Radar Detection Function of Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS). U-NII devices operating in the 5.25-5.35 GHz and 5.47-5.725 GHz bands shall employ a DFS...

  20. The Digital Preservation Consortium: Mission and Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Donald J.; Kenney, Anne

    The development of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) and the growing use of the Internet are creating a rapidly-changing environment for collaborative preservation and access. Within this environment, the Digital Preservation Consortium (DPC) seeks to advance the use and utility of digital technology for the preservation of and access…

  1. Applications drivers for data parking on the Information Superhighway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Clark E., Jr.; Foeller, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    As the cost of data storage continues to decline (currently about one-millionth of its cost four decades ago) entirely new applications areas become economically feasible. Many of these new areas involved the extraordinarily high data rates and universal connectivity soon to be provided by the National Information Infrastructure (NII). The commonly held belief is that the main driver for the NII will be entertainment applications. We believe that entertainment applications as currently touted (multi-media, 500 video channels, video-on-demand, etc.) will play an important but far from dominant role in the development of the NII and its data storage components. The most pervasively effective drivers will be medical applications such as telemedicine and remote diagnosis, education and environmental monitoring. These applications have a significant funding base and offer a clearly perceived opportunity to improve the nation's standard of living. The NII's wideband connectivity both nationwide and worldwide requires a broad spectrum of data storage devices with a wide-range of performance capabilities. These storage centers will be dispersed throughout the system. Magnetic recording devices will fill the majority of these new data storage requirements for at least the rest of this century. The storage needs of various application areas and their respective market sizes will be explored. The comparative performance of various magnetic technologies and competitive alternative storage systems will be discussed.

  2. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, HOUSE & GARDEN BUG ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-19

    ... In tt. I ••••• n'"II when in.ect ..... t f.at. Sp, • ., lib.r.lly Into hidi", enell br._in. plec •• , con"ctl,.. .. nY in.ect. a. PO •• ibl •. Rape •••• nac ..... y. ...

  3. General Electromagnetic Model for the Analysis of Complex Systems (GEMACS) Computer Code Documentation (Version 3). Volume 3, Part 3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    NII I ,- V *m w m5 \\I ~ SPWDRV (MOM() RINP In-plane reflection coefficient ROUT Out-of-plane reflection coefficient RS Location of wave excitation...SPWDRV (MM) YW Y Component of ZC Z coordinate of field point ZR Z coordinate of specular point ZRSQRT Intermediate value in calculation of RINP and

  4. Site preference of alloying elements in DO22-Ni3V phase: Phase-field and first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ding-Ni; Shangguan, Qian-Qian; Liu, Fu; Zhang, Ming-Yi

    2015-07-01

    Site preference of alloying elements in DO22-Ni3V phase was investigated using phase-field and first-principles method. The concentrations of alloying elements on sublattices of DO22-Ni3V phase were quantitatively studied using phase-field model based on microscopic diffusion equations. The phase-field computation results demonstrate that the concentration differences of alloying elements on the NiI and NiII site are attributed to the coordination environment difference. Host atoms Ni and substitutional ternary additions Al prefer to occupy NiI site. Antisite atoms V show site preference on the NiII site. Further reason of site preference of alloying elements on the two different Ni sites were studied using first-principles method to calculate the electronic structure of DO22-Ni3V phase. Calculation of density of states, orbitals population and charge population of the optimized Ni3V structure found that the electronic structures of NiI and NiII sites are different. Electronic structure difference, which is caused by coordination environment difference, is the essential reason for site selectivity behaviors of alloying elements on NiI and NiII sites.

  5. Improving Institutional Performance through IT-Enabled Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, William H.

    2005-01-01

    In its report "Innovate America," the National Innovation Initiative (NII) calls for an "innovation infrastructure" as the foundation for the nation's future productivity and competitiveness. The report notes: "Innovation generates the productivity that economists estimate has accounted for half of U.S. GDP growth over the past 50 years... It's…

  6. MAGTF Meteorological and Oceanographic Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-30

    Division, MCCDC, world wide web home page which is found at the following universal refer- ence locator: http:// ismo -wwwl.quantico.usmc.niiI/docdiv...never be endangered. Know the ground, know the weather; Your victory will then be total." — Sun Tzu, The Art of War 1001. General 1003

  7. 32 CFR 310.9 - Privacy boards and office, composition and responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Technology Management Directorate (ITMD), WHS. The designees also may be the principal POC for the DoD... Federal Information Security Management Agency (FISMA) Privacy Reports, as required by 44 U.S.C. 3544(c... Defense for Networks and Information Integration (ASD) (NII)/Chief Information Officer (CIO); the...

  8. 32 CFR 310.9 - Privacy boards and office, composition and responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Technology Management Directorate (ITMD), WHS. The designees also may be the principal POC for the DoD... Federal Information Security Management Agency (FISMA) Privacy Reports, as required by 44 U.S.C. 3544(c... Defense for Networks and Information Integration (ASD) (NII)/Chief Information Officer (CIO); the...

  9. 32 CFR 310.9 - Privacy boards and office, composition and responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Technology Management Directorate (ITMD), WHS. The designees also may be the principal POC for the DoD... Federal Information Security Management Agency (FISMA) Privacy Reports, as required by 44 U.S.C. 3544(c... Defense for Networks and Information Integration (ASD) (NII)/Chief Information Officer (CIO); the...

  10. 32 CFR 310.9 - Privacy boards and office, composition and responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Technology Management Directorate (ITMD), WHS. The designees also may be the principal POC for the DoD... Federal Information Security Management Agency (FISMA) Privacy Reports, as required by 44 U.S.C. 3544(c... Defense for Networks and Information Integration (ASD) (NII)/Chief Information Officer (CIO); the...

  11. Defense Science Board 2006 Summer Study on Information Management for Net-Centric Operations. Volume 1: Main Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    Mr. Robert Lentz ODoD CIO Mr. David Mihelcic DISA Ms. Cecilia Phan JS J-6 Mr. Michael Ponti OASD NII Mr. Tony Sager NSA Mr. Thomas Scruggs ODoD...Ed Payne , Army, CIO-G6 LTC Harborth William, USA Army Knowledge Online (AKO) Kerim Tumay, VP Engineering Programs and Project Management Convera

  12. Innovation, TIDE Teachers, and the Global Economy: The Direct Ability of a TIDE Education to Create Investors and Innovators is Simply Overlooked and Underestimated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkweather, Kendall N.

    2005-01-01

    The National Innovation Initiative (NII) defines innovation as "the intersection of invention and insight, leading to the creation of social and economic value." Innovation has been fundamental in exploration, opportunity, and discovery. It is the story of how technology has advanced, is used, and powers the economic engines of a country. NII…

  13. 47 CFR 15.403 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 15.403 Section 15.403 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure Devices § 15.403 Definitions. (a) Access Point (AP). A U-NII transceiver that operates either as...

  14. The Information Infrastructure: Reaching Society's Goals. A Report of the Information Infrastructure Task Force Committee on Applications and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.

    Intended for public comment and discussion, this document is the second volume of papers in which the Information Infrastructure Task Force has attempted to articulate in clear terms, with sufficient detail, how improvements in the National Information Infrastructure (NII) can help meet other social goals. These are not plans to be enacted, but…

  15. Libraries and Their Role in the Information Infrastructure. Hearing on Examining the Role of Libraries in Developing America's New Information Infrastructure, before the Subcommittee on Education, Arts and Humanities of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    The purpose of this congressional hearing was to determine how libraries fit into the emerging national information infrastructure (NII). Testimony and prepared statements include those from Howard F. McGinn, Director, Emporia Public Library, Emporia, Kansas; James H. Billington, Librarian of Congress, Library of Congress, Washington D.C.,…

  16. 47 CFR 15.403 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... modulation symbols, during which the average symbol envelope power is constant. (q) RLAN. Radio Local Area Network. (r) Transmit Power Control (TPC). A feature that enables a U-NII device to dynamically switch... network. (b) Available Channel. A radio channel on which a Channel Availability Check has not...

  17. 47 CFR 15.403 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... modulation symbols, during which the average symbol envelope power is constant. (q) RLAN. Radio Local Area Network. (r) Transmit Power Control (TPC). A feature that enables a U-NII device to dynamically switch... network. (b) Available Channel. A radio channel on which a Channel Availability Check has not...

  18. 47 CFR 15.403 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... modulation symbols, during which the average symbol envelope power is constant. (q) RLAN. Radio Local Area Network. (r) Transmit Power Control (TPC). A feature that enables a U-NII device to dynamically switch... network. (b) Available Channel. A radio channel on which a Channel Availability Check has not...

  19. Analysis, Analysis Practices and Implications for Modeling and Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Jimmie McEver (EBR) Chris Chartier (NII) John Robertson (CAA) Ed Crowder (A-9) Vince Roske (IDA) Augie Fucci (DAMO CI) Scott Schutzmeister (AMSO...2000. Molander, Roger , Peter A. Wilson, B. David Mussington, and Richard Mesic, Strategic Information Warfare Rising, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND

  20. 32 CFR 310.9 - Privacy boards and office, composition and responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Defense for Networks and Information Integration (ASD) (NII)/Chief Information Officer (CIO); the Director, Executive Services and Communications Directorate, WHS; the GC, DoD; and the Director for Information Technology Management Directorate (ITMD), WHS. The designees also may be the principal POC for the...

  1. Seeking Equity in the National Information Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doctor, Ronald D.

    1994-01-01

    Proposals for shaping the National Information Infrastructure (NII) lack sufficient provision for supporting locally controlled information delivery systems, which could serve all the people, regardless of class or community environment. A system of federally sponsored National and Regional Institutes for Information Democracy could help meet this…

  2. The Federal Government and Information Technology Standards: Building the National Information Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radack, Shirley M.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the role of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the development of the National Information Infrastructure (NII). Highlights include the standards process; voluntary standards; Open Systems Interconnection problems; Internet Protocol Suite; consortia; government's role; and network security. (16 references) (LRW)

  3. Department of Defense Financial Management Regulation. Volume 8. Civilian Pay Policy and Procedures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    sea. The NOL is 4 information and the DD/EITf muting number. served on thle civilian payroll office responsible for payments to the employee. The NOL...Johnston Atoll 67 Nevada NV 32 Midway Islands 71 New Hampshire NII 33 Puerto Rico 72 New Jersey NJ 34 Ryuku Islands, S,’uthern 73 New Mexico NM 35 Swan

  4. 20/20 Vision: The Development of a National Information Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Telecommunications and Information Administration (DOC), Washington, DC.

    After the publication of the Clinton Administration's "The National Information Infrastructure: Agenda for Action," a group of telecommunication specialists were asked to evaluate the proposals in order to broaden the policy discussion concerning the National Information Infrastructure (NII). This collection contains their visions of the…

  5. College Psychotherapy at a Taiwanese Counseling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yii-nii

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces Yii-nii Lin, Professor in the Center for Teacher Education at the National Tsing Hua University in Taiwan, and prior director of the university's counseling center for a 3 year term. She has worked as a university counselling psychologist for more than 15 years when she participated in an online interview that questioned…

  6. Children's Depression Screener (ChilD-S): Development and Validation of a Depression Screening Instrument for Children in Pediatric Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fruhe, Barbara; Allgaier, Antje-Kathrin; Pietsch, Kathrin; Baethmann, Martina; Peters, Jochen; Kellnar, Stephan; Heep, Axel; Burdach, Stefan; von Schweinitz, Dietrich; Schulte-Korne, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and validate the Children's Depression Screener (ChilD-S) for use in pediatric care. In two pediatric samples, children aged 9-12 (NI = 200; NII = 246) completed an explorative item pool (subsample I) and a revised item pool (subsample II). Diagnostic accuracy of each of the 22 items from the revised…

  7. Combined Spectroscopic and Electrochemical Detection of a NiI•••H–N Bonding Interaction with Relevance to Electrocatalytic H2 Production

    SciTech Connect

    Kochem, Amelie; O'Hagan, Molly J.; Wiedner, Eric S.; van Gastel, Maurice

    2015-07-13

    The [Ni(PR2NR’2)2]2+ family of complexes are exceptionally active catalysts for proton reduction to H2. In this manuscript, we explore the first protonation step of the proposed catalytic cycle by using a catalytically inactive NiI complex possessing a sterically demanding variation of the ligand. Due to the paramagnetic nature of the NiI oxidation state, the protonated NiI intermediate has been characterized through a combination of cyclic voltammetry, ENDOR, and HYSCORE spectroscopy. Both the electrochemical and spectroscopic studies indicate that the NiI complex is protonated at a pendant amine that is endo to Ni, which suggests the presence of an intramolecular NiI•••HN bonding interaction. Using density functional theory, the proton was found to hydrogen bond to three doubly-occupied, localized molecular orbitals: the 3dxz, 3dz2, and 3dyz orbitals of nickel. These studies provide the first direct experimental evidence for this critical catalytic intermediate, and implications for catalytic H2 production are discussed. Research was supported by the Max Planck Society (EPR, ENDOR, and HYSCORE spectroscopy, computational studies), and as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (electrochemistry, NMR spectroscopy). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

  8. A Novel Multiple-Access Correlation-Delay-Shift-Keying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, J. Y.; Jiang, G. P.; Yang, H.

    In Correlation-Delay-Shift-Keying (CDSK), the reference signal and the information-bearing signal are added together during a certain time delay. Because the reference signal is not strictly orthogonal to the information-bearing signal, the cross-correlation between the adjacent chaotic signal (Intra-signal Interference, ISI) will be introduced into the demodulation at the receiver. Therefore, the Bit-Error Ratio (BER) of CDSK is higher than that of Differential-Chaos-Shift-Keying (DCSK). To avoid the ISI component and enhance the BER performance of CDSK in multiuser scenario, Multiple-Access CDSK with No Intra-signal Interference (MA-CDSK-NII) is proposed. By constructing the repeated chaotic generator and applying the Walsh code sequence to modulate the reference signal, in MA-CDSK-NII, the ISI component will be eliminated during the demodulation. Gaussian approximation method is adopted here to obtain the exact performance analysis of MA-CDSK-NII over additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel and Rayleigh multipath fading channels. Results show that, due to no ISI component and lower transmitting power, the BER performance of MA-CDSK-NII can be better than that of multiple-access CDSK and Code-Shifted Differential-Chaos-Shift-Keying (CS-DCSK).

  9. Using the National Information Infrastructure for social science, education, and informed decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.E.

    1994-01-07

    The United States has aggressively embarked on the challenging task of building a National Information Infrastructure (NII). This infrastructure will have many levels, extending from the building block capital stock that composes the telecommunications system to the multitude of higher tier applications hardware and software tied to this system. This ``White Paper`` presents a vision for a second and third tier national information infrastructure that focuses exclusively on the needs of social science, education, and decision making (NII-SSEDM). NII-SSEDM will provide the necessary data, information, and automated decision support and educational tools needed to help this nation solve its most pressing social problems. The proposed system has five components: `data collection systems; databases; statistical analysis and modeling tools; policy analysis and decision support tools; and materials and software specially designed for education. This paper contains: a vision statement for each component; comments on progress made on each component as of the early 1990s; and specific recommendations on how to achieve the goals described in the vision statements. The white paper also discusses how the NII-SSEDM could be used to address four major social concerns: ensuring economic prosperity; health care; reducing crime and violence; and K-12 education. Examples of near-term and mid-term goals (e.g., pre-and post Year 2000) are presented for consideration. Although the development of NII-SSEDM will require a concerted effort by government, the private sector, schools, and numerous other organizations, the success of NH-SSEDM is predicated upon the identification of an institutional ``champion`` to acquire and husband key resources and provide strong leadership and guidance.

  10. GENI-DB: a database of global events for epidemic intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Nigel; Doan, Son

    2012-01-01

    Summary: We present a novel public health database (GENI-DB) in which news events on the topic of over 176 infectious diseases and chemicals affecting human and animal health are compiled from surveillance of the global online news media in 10 languages. News event frequency data were gathered systematically through the BioCaster public health surveillance system from July 2009 to the present and is available to download by the research community for purposes of analyzing trends in the global burden of infectious diseases. Database search can be conducted by year, country, disease and language. Availability: The GENI-DB is freely available via a web portal at http://born.nii.ac.jp/ Contact: collier@nii.ac.jp Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:22383735

  11. Space-based Communications Infrastructure for Developing Countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, Keith; Barnes, Carl; Price, K. M.

    1995-01-01

    This study examines the potential use of satellites to augment the telecommunications infrastructure of developing countries with advanced satellites. The study investigated the potential market for using satellites in developing countries, the role of satellites in national information infractructures (NII), the technical feasibility of augmenting NIIs with satellites, and a nation's financial conditions necessary for procuring satellite systems. In addition, the study examined several technical areas including onboard processing, intersatellite links, frequency of operation, multibeam and active antennas, and advanced satellite technologies. The marketing portion of this study focused on three case studies: China, Brazil, and Mexico. These cases represent countries in various stages of telecommunication infrastructure development. The study concludes by defining the needs of developing countries for satellites, and recommends steps that both industry and NASA can take to improve the competitiveness of U.S. satellite manufacturing.

  12. Hα Kinematics of High-z Dusty Star Forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drew, Patrick; Casey, Caitlin; Hung, Chao-Ling; Cooray, Asantha R.; Sanders, David B.; Fu, Hai

    2017-01-01

    Dusty Star Forming Galaxies (DSFGs) have the highest star formation rates in the Universe, but compared with other star forming galaxies at z > ~1 they are difficult to characterize, physically. Their low number density and extreme dust obscuration has led to very few kinematic studies of DSFGs at optical wavelengths. We present a rest-frame optical kinematic analysis of 5 DSFGs at z ~1.5 using long slit spectroscopy obtained with MOSFIRE at Keck Observatory. From our high signal-to-noise spectra we simultaneously fit Hα, [NII] λ6548, and [NII] λ6583 along each slit to generate position-velocity diagrams. We infer the kinematic disturbances and derive dynamical masses in order to compare with other derived quantities such as fractional obscuration, stellar and gas fractions, and dust characteristics.

  13. Kinematics of the symbiotic system R Aqr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, S.; Corral, L. J.; Steffen, W.

    2014-04-01

    We present the results of the kinematical analysis of the symbiotic system R Aqr. We obtained high dispersion spectra with the MES spectrograph at the 2.1 m telescope of San Pedro Mártir (MEZCAL). The used filter were Ha + [NII], (λc = 6575Å, Δλ = 90Å). We analyse the [NII] λλ6583 line. When the observations are compared with previous ones by Solf (1992) we detected an important change in the projected velocities of the observed knots, supporting the idea of a precessing jet. We are working also in a 3-D kinematic model for the object using the measured velocities and the state of the model is presented.

  14. Programmable Image Processing Element.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    re’JAIiWnciiieiit Of ICrutS ill I (Jilitiwi 4~ 1 li, td / I(Hit: ROM relilired Ill 1il 3i 1, ds sil- her NIiS the lunilin.1,11 numIIber- oh input S , ahIeS as’i Cise...S -o TD A. B LOC K fjEQS DIAGRAM *FOR LATCH DLO ONLY CLR B. CIRCUIT SCHEMATIC Figure 39. C’ontroller 1)-Latch Diagram V DD MASTER I K IM3M6 CLOCKIIF...11111 rt’c-isttr. Ilit: outpuits 0t Citacl C Mei iISO C0iso ton t d 10 ile n parlliti-to->criai l it’c rsion wh~~tr \\iichil orili tlc tdata hbr RUM

  15. Space-based communications infrastructure for developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Keith; Barnes, Carl; Price, K. M.

    1995-08-01

    This study examines the potential use of satellites to augment the telecommunications infrastructure of developing countries with advanced satellites. The study investigated the potential market for using satellites in developing countries, the role of satellites in national information infrastructures (NII), the technical feasibility of augmenting NIIs with satellites, and a nation's financial conditions necessary for procuring satellite systems. In addition, the study examined several technical areas including onboard processing, intersatellite links, frequency of operation, multibeam and active antennas, and advanced satellite technologies. The marketing portion of this study focused on three case studies: China, Brazil, and Mexico. These cases represent countries in various stages of telecommunication infrastructure development. The study concludes by defining the needs of developing countries for satellites, and recommends steps that both industry and NASA can take to improve the competitiveness of U.S. satellite manufacturing.

  16. Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders Incidence by Sub-Populations in Israel 1992-2009: A Total Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Raz, Raanan; Weisskopf, Marc G; Davidovitch, Michael; Pinto, Ofir; Levine, Hagai

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed data from the Israeli National Insurance Institute (NII). Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) incidence was calculated for all children born in Israel 1992-2009, and by population groups. Overall, 9,109 ASD cases among 2,431,649 children were identified. ASD cumulative incidence by age 8 years increased 10-fold during 2000-2011, from 0.049% to 0.49%, while other child disabilities in NII increased only 1.65-fold. There was a consistent increase in ASD incidence with advancing birth cohorts born 1992-2004, stabilizing among those born 2005-2009. ASD rates among Israeli Arabs were substantially lower, and increased about 10 years later than the general population. The findings suggest a role for ASD awareness, accessing of the government benefit, or the way the concept of ASD is perceived. PMID:25287899

  17. Near infrared and optical spectroscopy of FSC10214+4724

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soifer, B. T.; Cohen, J. G.; Armus, L.; Matthews, K.; Neugebauer, G.; Oke, J. B.

    1995-01-01

    New infrared and optical spectroscopic observations, obtained with the W.M. Keck Telescope, are reported for the highly luminous infrared source FSC10214+4724. The rest frame optical spectrum shows new emission lines of (NeIII, (NeV), (OI), (OII), (SII), and He(+) while the rest frame ultraviolet spectrum shows new lines of OIV+SiIV, NII, NIV, SiII, NeIV and possibly NII and (NeIII), as well as clearly showing the L alpha is self-absorbed. The emission line spectrum is most characteristic of a Seyfert 2 nucleus. The preponderance of spectroscopic evidence strengthens the case of a dust enshrouded AGN powering much or most of the observed luminosity. The various spectral lines lead to a wide range in the inferred reddening and ionization parameter for this system, suggesting that we are viewing several environments through differing extinctions.

  18. Government Information Locator Service (GILS). Draft report to the Information Infrastructure Task Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a draft report on the Government Information Locator Service (GILS) to the National Information Infrastructure (NII) task force. GILS is designed to take advantage of internetworking technology known as client-server architecture which allows information to be distributed among multiple independent information servers. Two appendices are provided -- (1) A glossary of related terminology and (2) extracts from a draft GILS profile for the use of the American National Standard Information Retrieval Application Service Definition and Protocol Specification for Library Applications.

  19. National Dam Inspection Report. Lake Ondawa Dam (NDI ID Number PA-517 DER ID Number 8-28) Susquehanna River Basin, Tributary Bentley Creek, Bradford County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    i " ’ i - - ~ ~, ,, -’ NU !|I ’ hs nI(I’ C;i o dd R / ,\\I C II " I . . . ../ 4P ’dN DAM SUAR REE DA AN LAE DAWA DA Ds , A". ’’ E ’ -i A~ F ,,, vat.. 1, P Codd,,4 014, 14, "I, C Tw 1- 04,shot *./A -e Ds I

  20. NASA Scientific and Technical Publications: A Catalog of Special Publications, Reference Publications, Conference Publications, and Technical Papers 1991-1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    Research Center, Cleveland, Or-. THE 23 TO 300 C DEMAGNETIZATION RESISTANCE OF N91-27436*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration. SAMARIUM...Markov Steady motionalt induction of geomagnetic chaos The 23 to 300 C demagnetization resistance of reliaoitity, models and the corresponding error...A spca ehrsIviid--nii The 23 to 300 C ’Iemagqr-tuza1rro resistance of bibliornainiepoainoaphy A NASA-al 26ho ,-D Ip’ sananrum-cobalt permaneint r

  1. Therapeutic Intervention in Sepsis with Antibody to Endotoxin: Is There a Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    explanation for this counterproductive. choice. Su’,,cqtieitly, there have been few attempts to In retrospect. it also appears that maiy antisepsis ...series.92 Of note, Dale and colleagues reported that fol- ation of recent trials of antisepsis products which may 0 lowing 3 consecutive daily...experimientally. W Antisepsis ini, iiii it nii.i ’k a cliniical effeit front the dnig. therapy may be analogoiis to combination cancer chie- ii 1 IVd Of li

  2. Effects of Tributyltin Antifouling Paint Leachates on Pearl Harbor Organisms. Site-Specific Flowthrough Bioassay Tests.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    Organotin paint leachate. antifoulitip coa~tings. marine n~ii r, isms.A.benthicFIEL GRUP SB GOUP organisms. harbor pollutani fributt Iti omplx cmmuitie...of organotins should be closely monitored for ossible shifts in dominance of specific organisms- ~ 20 DISTRIBUJTION, AVAILABIUITY OF ABSTRACT 21...d* J 77. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Site-specific bioassay tests were performed to determine the effects of organotin paint leachate on complex communities of

  3. Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders Incidence by Sub-Populations in Israel 1992-2009: A Total Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raz, Raanan; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Davidovitch, Michael; Pinto, Ofir; Levine, Hagai

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed data from the Israeli National Insurance Institute (NII). Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) incidence was calculated for all children born in Israel 1992-2009, and by population groups. Overall, 9,109 ASD cases among 2,431,649 children were identified. ASD cumulative incidence by age 8 years increased 10-fold during 2000-2011, from 0.49 %…

  4. Department of Defense counterdrug technology development of non-intrusive inspection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennella, John J.

    1997-02-01

    The Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division serves as the executive agent for the DoD's Contraband Detection and Cargo Container Inspection Technology Development Program. The goal of the DoD non-intrusive inspection (NII) program is to develop prototype equipment that can be used to inspect containers and vehicles, quickly and in large numbers without unnecessary delays in the movement of legitimate cargo. This paper summaries the past accomplishments of the program, current status, and future plans.

  5. OSI and TCP/IP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randolph, Lynwood P.

    1994-01-01

    The Open Systems Interconnection Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (OSI TCP/IP) and the Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile (GOSIP) are compared and described in terms of Federal internetworking. The organization and functions of the Federal Internetworking Requirements Panel (FIRP) are discussed and the panel's conclusions and recommendations with respect to the standards and implementation of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) are presented.

  6. Taxonomic study on the leafhopper genus Cofana Melichar (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae) from China, with description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mao-Fa; Meng, Ze-Hong; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2015-07-31

    A review of the genus Cofana Melichar from China is presented. Ten species are recorded, of which two species are new: C. cheni sp. nov. and C. nii sp. nov. The type specimens of the new species are deposited in the Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang, China (GUGC). In this paper, C. bidentata Krishnankutty & Viraktamath, 2008 is placed as junior synonym of C. yasumatsui Young, 1979. A key of all Chinese species of the genus is provided.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Emission-line galaxies in ZwCl0024.0+1652 (Sanchez-Portal+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Portal, M.; Pintos-Castro, I.; Perez-Martinez, R.; Cepa, J.; Perez Garcia, A. M.; Dominguez-Sanchez, H.; Bongiovanni, A.; Serra, A. L.; Alfaro, E.; Altieri, B.; Aragon-Salamanca, A.; Balkowski, C.; Biviano, A.; Bremer, M.; Castander, F.; Castaneda, H.; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Chies-Santos, A. L.; Coia, D.; Diaferio, A.; Duc, P. A.; Ederoclite, A.; Geach, J.; Gonzalez-Serrano, I.; Haines, C. P.; McBreen, B.; Metcalfe, L.; Oteo, I.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Poggianti, B.; Polednikova, J.; Ramon-Perez, M.; Rodriguez-Espinosa, J. M.; Santos, J. S.; Smail, I.; Smith, G. P.; Temporin, S.; Valtchanov, I.

    2015-07-01

    Two OSIRIS/GTC pointings using the red TF were planned and executed towards Cl0024. The first one (carried out in GTC semesters 09B, 10A, and 13B; hereafter referred to as "centre position") targeted the Hα/[NII], Hα and [OIII] lines. The second pointing (hereafter referred to as "offset position") was carried out in semesters 10B and 13B, and it targeted the same emission lines. (1 data file).

  8. Novel method for quantitative ANA measurement using near-infrared imaging.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Lisa K; Wells, Daniel; Shaw, Laura; Velez, Maria-Gabriela; Harbeck, Ronald; Dragone, Leonard L

    2009-09-30

    Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) have been detected in patients with systemic rheumatic diseases and are used in the screening and/or diagnosis of autoimmunity in patients as well as mouse models of systemic autoimmunity. Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on HEp-2 cells is the gold standard for ANA screening. However, its usefulness is limited in diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of disease activity due to the lack of standardization in performing the technique, subjectivity in interpreting the results and the fact that it is only semi-quantitative. Various immunological techniques have been developed in an attempt to improve upon the method to quantify ANA, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), line immunoassays (LIAs), multiplexed bead immunoassays and IIF on substrates other than HEp-2 cells. Yet IIF on HEp-2 cells remains the most common screening method for ANA. In this study, we describe a simple quantitative method to detect ANA which combines IIF on HEp-2 coated slides with analysis using a near-infrared imaging (NII) system. Using NII to determine ANA titer, 86.5% (32 of 37) of the titers for human patient samples were within 2 dilutions of those determined by IIF, which is the acceptable range for proficiency testing. Combining an initial screening for nuclear staining using microscopy with titration by NII resulted in 97.3% (36 of 37) of the titers detected to be within two dilutions of those determined by IIF. The NII method for quantitative ANA measurements using serum from both patients and mice with autoimmunity provides a fast, relatively simple, objective, sensitive and reproducible assay, which could easily be standardized for comparison between laboratories.

  9. Remote use of distributed robotics resources to enhance technology development and insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Harrigan, R.W.; McDonald, M.J.; Davies, B.R.

    1994-04-01

    This paper describes Virtual Collaborative Environments (VCEs), an information architecture that enables remote sharing of mechatronic (intelligent electrochemical devices) resources. This architecture will leverage the proposed National Information Infrastructure (NII) or Information Highway to share valuable resources and reduce product-to-market cycles. Benefits of sharing mechatronic resources with VCEs are explored. An existing prototype VCE is described and experimental and illustrative results from using the prototype VCE system are discussed.

  10. Electronic Commerce: A National Performance Review Initiative.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    This study of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) was conducted as part of IDA’s Central Research Program. Electronic commerce is one of... commerce is nothing more than conducting business via electronic means. An outgrowth of the NPR, the electronic commerce initiative, commits the...private, and public sectors are committed to implementing electronic commerce throughout the United States. The objective ol this paper is to enhance

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Nebular emission lines towards NGC3372 center (Damiani+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiani, F.; Bonito, R.; Magrini, L.; Prisinzano, L.; Mapelli, M.; Micela, G.; Kalari, V.; Maiz Apellaniz, J.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Alfaro, E.; Flaccomio, E.; Koposov, S.; Klutsch, A.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Pancino, E.; Sacco, G. G.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Casey, A. R.; Costado, M. T.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Worley, C.; Zaggia, S.; Zwitter, T.; Dorda, R.

    2016-04-01

    Nebular emission lines of H-alpha, [NII] 6584Å, HeI 6678Å, [SII] 6717Å, [SII] 6731Å, towards the center of Carina nebula, are modeled with two gaussians each ('blue' and 'red' components). Best-fit parameters are given in the table. Line widths include the instrumental width of the Giraffe spectrograph (7km/s). Radial velocities are heliocentric. (1 data file).

  12. Local Electric Field Effects on Rhodium-Porphyrin and NHC-Gold Catalysts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-05

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0023 (NII) - Local Electric Field Effects on Rhodium-Porphyrin and NHC-Gold Catalysts MATTHEW KANAN LELAND STANFORD JUNIOR UNIV...Effects on Rhodium-Porphyrin and NHC-Gold Catalysts Principal Investigator: Matthew W. Kanan Project Publications: 1. “An Electric Field–Induced Change...design—i.e. controlling selectivity by changing the molecular structure of the reactants, catalysts or other reaction components. The overall goal of

  13. An Analysis of Middle Ultraviolet Dayglow Spectra

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    1986) were used for the generation of Nitrogen Lyman-Birge- Hopfield and Nitric Oxide j,, 6, and E band emissions. The Nitrogen Vegard-Kaplan model ...for the following emissions: N2 Vegard-Kaplan; N2 Lyman-Birge- Hopfield ; NO -y, 6, and E; 01 2972A, 011 2470A; and NII 2143A. Altitude profiles for...16 2. Lyman-Birge- Hopfield .... ............ 17 3. Second Positive ..... .............. 17 B. ATOMIC NITROGEN ...... ................ 18 C. ATOMIC

  14. C2 Agility: Related Hypotheses and Experimental Findings (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    corporation that operates three federally funded research and development centers to provide objective analyses of national security issues...Science Research Laboratory \\ 41 DoD CCRP ELICIT • The U.S. DoD (OASD/NII) Command and Control Research Program (CCRP) sponsored the design and...The purpose of ELICIT-related experimentation, teaching , and analysis is to investigate the cognitive and social impacts of C2 approach and

  15. The Federal Role in Bringing Education into the National Information Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cradler, John

    1995-01-01

    One of the most important issues facing Congress is to work with business, education, and the states to enable the nation's shools to better prepare students for a technological work force and to ensure that education has a place on the National Information Infrastructure (NII). This document provides background and important information for national leaders concerned about education, the information infrastructure, and related issues for the Federal government.

  16. Bd +60 73 = Igr J00370+6122

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negueruela, Ignacio; Reig, Pablo

    2004-05-01

    A classification spectrum of BD +60 73, reported to be the optical counterpart to IGR J00370+6122 (ATel #281), was taken on the night of 2003 July 7th with the 2.5-m Issac Newton telescope at La Palma. The derived spectral type is BN0.5II-III, where the composite luminosity class indicates an intermediate luminosity. The Nitrogen enhancement is moderately high, with numerous NII lines being rather stronger than corresponds to the spectral type.

  17. Transfer and utilization of government technology assets to the private sector in the fields of health care and information technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, Luis G.

    1995-10-01

    During the first Health Care Technology Policy conference last year, during health care reform, four major issues were brought up in regards to the efforts underway to develop a computer based patient record (CBPR), the National Information Infrastructure (NII) as part of the high performance computers and communications (HPCC), and the so-called 'patient card.' More specifically it was explained how a national information system will greatly affect the way health care delivery is provided to the United States public and reduce its costs. These four issues were: (1) Constructing a national information infrastructure (NII); (2) Building a computer based patient record system; (3) Bringing the collective resources of our national laboratories to bear in developing and implementing the NII and CBPR, as well as a security system with which to safeguard the privacy rights of patients and the physician-patient privilege; (4) Utilizing government (e.g., DOD, DOE) capabilities (technology and human resources) to maximize resource utilization, create new jobs, and accelerate technology transfer to address health care issues. This year a section of this conference entitled: 'Health Care Technology Assets of the Federal Government' addresses benefits of the technology transfer which should occur for maximizing already developed resources. This section entitled: 'Transfer and Utilization of Government Technology Assets to the Private Sector,' will look at both health care and non-health care related technologies since many areas such as information technologies (i.e. imaging, communications, archival/retrieval, systems integration, information display, multimedia, heterogeneous data bases, etc.) already exist and are part of our national labs and/or other federal agencies, i.e., ARPA. These technologies although they are not labeled under health care programs they could provide enormous value to address technical needs. An additional issue deals with both the technical

  18. Positioning the electric utility to build information infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    In two particular respects (briefly investigated in this study from a lawyer`s perspective), electric utilities appear uniquely well-positioned to contribute to the National Information Infrastructure (NII). First of all, utilities have legal powers derived from their charters and operating authorities, confirmed in their rights-of-way, to carry out activities and functions necessary for delivering electric service. These activities and functions include building telecommunications facilities and undertaking information services that have become essential to managing electricity demand and supply. The economic value of the efficiencies made possible by telecommunications and information could be substantial. How great remains to be established, but by many estimates electric utility applications could fund a significant share of the capital costs of building the NII. Though utilities` legal powers to pursue such efficiencies through telecommunications and information appear beyond dispute, it is likely that the effort to do so will produce substantial excess capacity. Who will benefit from this excess capacity is a potentially contentious political question that demands early resolution. Will this windfall go to the utility, the customer, or no one (because of political paralysis), or will there be some equitable and practical split? A second aspect of inquiry here points to another contemporary issue of very great societal importance that could very well become the platform on which the first question can be resolved fortuitously-how to achieve universal telecommunications service. In the effort to fashion the NII that will now continue, ways and means to maximize the unique potential contribution of electric utilities to meeting important social and economic needs--in particular, universal service--merit priority attention.

  19. Kinetic Analysis of Competitive Electrocatalytic Pathways: New Insights into Hydrogen Production with Nickel Electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedner, Eric S.; Brown, Houston J.; Helm, Monte L.

    2016-01-20

    The hydrogen production electrocatalyst Ni(PPh2NPh2)22+ (1) is capable of traversing multiple electrocatalytic pathways. When using dimethylformamidium, DMF(H)+, the mechanism of formation of H2 catalyzed by 1 changes from an ECEC to an EECC mechanism as the potential approaches the Ni(I/0) couple. Two recent electrochemical methods, current-potential analysis and foot-of-the-wave analysis (FOWA), were performed on 1 to measure the detailed chemical kinetics of the competing ECEC and EECC pathways. A sensitivity analysis was performed on the electrochemical methods using digital simulations to gain a better understanding of their strengths and limitations. Notably, chemical rate constants were significantly underestimated when not accounting for electron transfer kinetics, even when electron transfer was fast enough to afford a reversible non-catalytic wave. The EECC pathway of 1 was found to be faster than the ECEC pathway under all conditions studied. Using buffered DMF: DMF(H)+ mixtures led to an increase in the catalytic rate constant (kobs) of the EECC pathway, but kobs for the ECEC pathway did not change when using buffered acid. Further kinetic analysis of the ECEC path revealed that added base increases the rate of isomerization of the exo-protonated Ni(0) isomers to the catalytically active endo-isomers, but decreases the net rate of protonation of Ni(I). FOWA on 1 did not provide accurate rate constants due to incomplete reduction of the exo-protonated Ni(I) intermediate at the foot of the wave, but FOWA could be used to estimate the reduction potential of this previously undetected intermediate. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  20. Mode of action uncovered for the specific reduction of methane emissions from ruminants by the small molecule 3-nitrooxypropanol

    PubMed Central

    Duin, Evert C.; Wagner, Tristan; Shima, Seigo; Prakash, Divya; Cronin, Bryan; Yáñez-Ruiz, David R.; Duval, Stephane; Rümbeli, Robert; Stemmler, René T.; Thauer, Rudolf Kurt; Kindermann, Maik

    2016-01-01

    Ruminants, such as cows, sheep, and goats, predominantly ferment in their rumen plant material to acetate, propionate, butyrate, CO2, and methane. Whereas the short fatty acids are absorbed and metabolized by the animals, the greenhouse gas methane escapes via eructation and breathing of the animals into the atmosphere. Along with the methane, up to 12% of the gross energy content of the feedstock is lost. Therefore, our recent report has raised interest in 3-nitrooxypropanol (3-NOP), which when added to the feed of ruminants in milligram amounts persistently reduces enteric methane emissions from livestock without apparent negative side effects [Hristov AN, et al. (2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112(34):10663–10668]. We now show with the aid of in silico, in vitro, and in vivo experiments that 3-NOP specifically targets methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR). The nickel enzyme, which is only active when its Ni ion is in the +1 oxidation state, catalyzes the methane-forming step in the rumen fermentation. Molecular docking suggested that 3-NOP preferably binds into the active site of MCR in a pose that places its reducible nitrate group in electron transfer distance to Ni(I). With purified MCR, we found that 3-NOP indeed inactivates MCR at micromolar concentrations by oxidation of its active site Ni(I). Concomitantly, the nitrate ester is reduced to nitrite, which also inactivates MCR at micromolar concentrations by oxidation of Ni(I). Using pure cultures, 3-NOP is demonstrated to inhibit growth of methanogenic archaea at concentrations that do not affect the growth of nonmethanogenic bacteria in the rumen. PMID:27140643

  1. Supernovae and their host galaxies - II. The relative frequencies of supernovae types in spirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakobyan, A. A.; Nazaryan, T. A.; Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Petrosian, A. R.; Aramyan, L. S.; Kunth, D.; Mamon, G. A.; de Lapparent, V.; Bertin, E.; Gomes, J. M.; Turatto, M.

    2014-11-01

    We present an analysis of the relative frequencies of different supernova (SN) types in spirals with various morphologies and in barred or unbarred galaxies. We use a well-defined and homogeneous sample of spiral host galaxies of 692 SNe from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in different stages of galaxy-galaxy interaction and activity classes of nucleus. We propose that the underlying mechanisms shaping the number ratios of SNe types can be interpreted within the framework of interaction-induced star formation, in addition to the known relations between morphologies and stellar populations. We find a strong trend in behaviour of the NIa/NCC ratio depending on host morphology, such that early spirals include more Type Ia SNe. The NIbc/NII ratio is higher in a broad bin of early-type hosts. The NIa/NCC ratio is nearly constant when changing from normal, perturbed to interacting galaxies, then declines in merging galaxies, whereas it jumps to the highest value in post-merging/remnant galaxies. In contrast, the NIbc/NII ratio jumps to the highest value in merging galaxies and slightly declines in post-merging/remnant subsample. The interpretation is that the star formation rates and morphologies of galaxies, which are strongly affected in the final stages of interaction, have an impact on the number ratios of SNe types. The NIa/NCC (NIbc/NII) ratio increases (decreases) from star-forming to active galactic nuclei (AGN) classes of galaxies. These variations are consistent with the scenario of an interaction-triggered starburst evolving into AGN during the later stages of interaction, accompanied with the change of star formation and transformation of the galaxy morphology into an earlier type.

  2. Mode of action uncovered for the specific reduction of methane emissions from ruminants by the small molecule 3-nitrooxypropanol.

    PubMed

    Duin, Evert C; Wagner, Tristan; Shima, Seigo; Prakash, Divya; Cronin, Bryan; Yáñez-Ruiz, David R; Duval, Stephane; Rümbeli, Robert; Stemmler, René T; Thauer, Rudolf Kurt; Kindermann, Maik

    2016-05-31

    Ruminants, such as cows, sheep, and goats, predominantly ferment in their rumen plant material to acetate, propionate, butyrate, CO2, and methane. Whereas the short fatty acids are absorbed and metabolized by the animals, the greenhouse gas methane escapes via eructation and breathing of the animals into the atmosphere. Along with the methane, up to 12% of the gross energy content of the feedstock is lost. Therefore, our recent report has raised interest in 3-nitrooxypropanol (3-NOP), which when added to the feed of ruminants in milligram amounts persistently reduces enteric methane emissions from livestock without apparent negative side effects [Hristov AN, et al. (2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112(34):10663-10668]. We now show with the aid of in silico, in vitro, and in vivo experiments that 3-NOP specifically targets methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR). The nickel enzyme, which is only active when its Ni ion is in the +1 oxidation state, catalyzes the methane-forming step in the rumen fermentation. Molecular docking suggested that 3-NOP preferably binds into the active site of MCR in a pose that places its reducible nitrate group in electron transfer distance to Ni(I). With purified MCR, we found that 3-NOP indeed inactivates MCR at micromolar concentrations by oxidation of its active site Ni(I). Concomitantly, the nitrate ester is reduced to nitrite, which also inactivates MCR at micromolar concentrations by oxidation of Ni(I). Using pure cultures, 3-NOP is demonstrated to inhibit growth of methanogenic archaea at concentrations that do not affect the growth of nonmethanogenic bacteria in the rumen.

  3. Searching for the Nearest Extragalactic Binary Black Hole: A Spectroscopic Study of NGC 4736

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, Annika; Kwan, Teiler J.; Fisher, Robert Scott; Mason, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    In 1995 and 1996, Maoz et al. concluded that the nearby galaxy NGC 4736 (d=16 million light years) is in the late stages of a merger event. After further investigation, in 2005, Maoz et al. observed UV variability in the nuclear region of NGC 4736, revealing a second unknown source in the nucleus. Since late stage mergers are an ideal location to search for binary black holes (BBH), members of our team hypothesized that the second source could be a second black hole, making this a potential BBH system. This is important since observational evidence for their existence remains sparse, even though BBH are predicted by many theories and potentially play an important role in galaxy evolution. In January of 2008, NGC 4736 was observed with the GMOS-N instrument on Gemini North. Optical longslit spectra of the nuclear region were obtained with spatial resolution of 0.1454''/pixel and a spectral resolution of R~1700. At this resolution, the two nuclear sources are spatially resolved at a projected separation of 2.5''. As a result, we can classify the nature of the second source by looking at the optical line ratios following Ho et al. (1997). High signal-to-noise spectra of the unknown source displayed strong emission of [SII] and [NII], but an extremely weak [OIII] emission line. The unknown source has a calculated [NII]/[Hα] ratio of 1.37 and an upper limit of 0.6 for the [OIII]/[Hβ] ratio. Placing the unknown source on the BPT-NII diagram (Baldwin et al., 1981), we tentatively conclude that it is a low-luminosity second black hole potentially making NGC 4736 the nearest BBH system. The result will enable future high-spectral and spatial resolution observations of a low-luminosity system in extremely late stages of merging, which will be a significant step forward in validating models of galaxy mergers and AGN activity.

  4. When Weaker Can Be Tougher: The Role of Oxidation State (I) in P- vs N-Ligand-Derived Ni-Catalyzed Trifluoromethylthiolation of Aryl Halides

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The direct introduction of the valuable SCF3 moiety into organic molecules has received considerable attention. While it can be achieved successfully for aryl chlorides under catalysis with Ni0(cod)2 and dppf, this report investigates the Ni-catalyzed functionalization of the seemingly more reactive aryl halides ArI and ArBr. Counterintuitively, the observed conversion triggered by dppf/Ni0 is ArCl > ArBr > ArI, at odds with bond strength preferences. By a combined computational and experimental approach, the origin of this was identified to be due to the formation of (dppf)NiI, which favors β-F elimination as a competing pathway over the productive cross-coupling, ultimately generating the inactive complex (dppf)Ni(SCF2) as a catalysis dead end. The complexes (dppf)NiI–Br and (dppf)NiI–I were isolated and resolved by X-ray crystallography. Their formation was found to be consistent with a ligand-exchange-induced comproportionation mechanism. In stark contrast to these phosphine-derived Ni complexes, the corresponding nitrogen-ligand-derived species were found to be likely competent catalysts in oxidation state I. Our computational studies of N-ligand derived NiI complexes fully support productive NiI/NiIII catalysis, as the competing β-F elimination is disfavored. Moreover, N-derived NiI complexes are predicted to be more reactive than their Ni0 counterparts in catalysis. These data showcase fundamentally different roles of NiI in carbon–heteroatom bond formation depending on the ligand sphere. PMID:28286695

  5. Studies on the Preparation and Properties of RDX

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1943-08-24

    OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Report on " Studies on the Preparation and Properties of RDXn to August 15, 1942 by W. E. Bachmann OSRD...University of i"ichi|*an. I- i Roger Adaa»# Chairnan by Harris 1.. Chadwcll Technical .«tdo ! ’■JHUtNii/i : B. STUDIES ON THE PREPARATION AND...Rocovory of Anconiun Nitrate . . • »34 E. STUDIES ON BSX . . . . . • .35 1. Proparr.ticn of BSX . . • • • .36 2

  6. Fibers and materials of medical application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fridman, L. I.

    1993-01-01

    Efferent sorption methods of organism detoxication (by medical trend) are presented. Recently, specialists have shown their keen interest in the problem of treating exogenous and endogenous intoxications. This was stipulated by the growing production and accumulation of chemical products for industrial, agricultural, and domestic needs. To solve this problem the industrial production of carbon fibrous adsorbents was developed and implemented at NII Chimvolokno in St. Petersburg. A description of the carbon fibers is given. Also, application of modern composite materials for manufacturing compression-distraction apparatus used for setting fractured bones is described.

  7. The Herschel Inner Galaxy Gas Survey (HIGGS): Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Christopher; Walker, C.; Kulesa, C.; Stark, A.; Smith, H.; Tolls, V.; White, G.; Israel, F.; Guesten, R.; Requenna-Torres, M.; Shaw, T.; Chen, S.; Schlawin, E.

    The Herschel Inner Galaxy Gas Survey (HIGGS) is a Herschel Open Time Key Programme to use the HIFI and PACS instruments to observe [CII], [NII], [OI], [OIII], and high-J CO emission lines in focused regions near the Galactic Center. By separating and evaluating the distinctly different roles of the central nuclear engine, the Galactic Bar, and dynamical stellar and interstellar feedback mechanisms, HIGGS will provide a high-resolution template for the physical processes in galactic nuclei throughout the local universe, in particular those engaged in starburst activity. We intend to present our early results along with a description of the data reduction and analysis tools that we have developed.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Nuclear activity in isolated galaxies (Hernandez-Ibarra+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Ibarra, F. J.; Dultzin, D.; Krongold, Y.; Del Olmo, A.; Perea, J.; Gonzalez, J.

    2014-07-01

    We used two samples of rigorously defined isolated galaxies: the photometric catalogue of isolated galaxies (CIG) by Karachentseva (1973, Cat. VII/82) and the northern isolated disc galaxies compiled by Varela et al. (2004, Cat. J/A+A/420/873). We examined all of the spectra looking if emission lines were present. Within the spectral range covered by the SDSS spectra, we searched for Hβ, [OIII] λ5007Å, [OI] λ6300Å, [NII] λλ6548, 6584Å, Hα and the two sulphur ([SII] λλ6717, 6731Å) lines. (2 data files).

  9. Supersonic Jet Studies of Benzyl Alcohols: Minimum Energy Conformations and Torsional Motion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-13

    Since two 00 transitions are observed, 8 has two stable conformations in the ground state. CH 2OH CH2CH3 C. 4-, 3-, and 2- Methylbenzyl alcohols (9-11...The TOFMS of 9-11 are presented in Figures 4a, 4b, and 4c respectively. 4- Methylbenzyl alcohol (9) has the same symmetry group as 1 and thus only...NII 9 10 11 Figure 4b depicts the TOFMS of jet-cooled 3- methylbenzyl alcohol (10) around the origin of the S 1+ S0 transition. The symmetry group of

  10. Corporate role in national competitiveness: smart people + good tools + information = profit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele-Vivas, Robert D.

    1994-03-01

    Our national competitiveness -- and the profits of many corporations managed and owned by U.S. citizens -- depend heavily on the outcome of Al Gore's efforts to `reinvent government,' and to create a National Information Infrastructure (NII). Both of these efforts depend in turn on many players, both in and out of government, but two of the players could have an especially substantive impact on how America does business as we enter the era of information warfare: the Secretary of Labor, and the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI).

  11. Ternary semiconductors NiZrSn and CoZrBi with half-Heusler structure: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, Gregor; Kratzer, Peter

    2016-08-01

    The ternary semiconductors NiZrSn and CoZrBi with C 1b crystal structure are introduced by calculating their basic structural, electronic, and phononic properties using density functional theory. Both the gradient-corrected PBE functional and the hybrid functional HSE06 are employed. While NiZrSn is found to be a small-band-gap semiconductor (Eg=0.46 eV in PBE and 0.60 eV in HSE06), CoZrBi has a band gap of 1.01 eV in PBE (1.34 eV in HSE06). Moreover, effective masses and deformation potentials are reported. In both materials A B C , the intrinsic point defects introduced by species A (Ni or Co) are calculated. The Co-induced defects in CoZrBi are found to have a higher formation energy compared to Ni-induced defects in NiZrSn. The interstitial Ni atom (Nii) as well as the VNiNii complex introduce defect states in the band gap, whereas the Ni vacancy (VNi) only reduces the size of the band gap. While Nii is electrically active and may act as a donor, the other two types of defects may compensate extrinsic doping. In CoZrBi, only the VCoCoi complex introduces a defect state in the band gap. Motivated by the reported use of NiZrSn for thermoelectric applications, the Seebeck coefficient of both materials, both in the p -type and the n -type regimes, is calculated. We find that CoZrBi displays a rather large thermopower of up to 500 μ V /K when p doped, whereas NiZrSn possesses its maximum thermopower in the n -type regime. The reported difficulties in achieving p -type doping in NiZrSn could be rationalized by the unintended formation of Nii2 + in conjunction with extrinsic acceptors, resulting in their compensation. Moreover, it is found that all types of defects considered, when present in concentrations as large as 3%, tend to reduce the thermopower compared to ideal bulk crystals at T =600 K. For NiZrSn, the calculated thermodynamic data suggest that additional Ni impurities could be removed by annealing, leading to precipitation of a metallic Ni2ZrSn phase.

  12. 3D-spectroscopy of SBS star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakopian, S. A.; Dodonov, S. N.; Moiseev, A. V.; Smirnova, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    In the base of our studies of star-forming processes are the data provided by panoramic spectroscopy of galaxies composing our SBS subsample. Observations with multi-pupil spectrographs are organized in a way to obtain the spectral range centered in permitted hydrogen Hα Balmer line, by capturing at least the forbidden doublets of nitrogen [NII]6548,6583 and sulfur [SII]6716,6731. The results obtained are the spatial distributions across the targets of emission intensities and derived properties from line parameters such as radial velocities, which give us the possibility to explore gas kinematics and physical characteristics of HII regions.

  13. Expert Systems on Multiprocessor Architectures. Volume 2. Technical Reports

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    interpretations of continuous streams of er- rorful data, a class of applications which curr-ntly run too slowly on serial black - board systems to be of practical...for distributed memory multi-procesor machinesiRice 881 [Nii 881. 2-16 other KS executions. KSs contain condition-action rules that can read the black ...KSs which interprets the data up the black - board’s levels of abstraction. KSs in Cage can be executed in parallel with or without synchronization at

  14. Department of Defense Information Enterprise: Strategic Plan 2010-2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 i F O R E W O R D “Intelligence and information sharing have always been a vital...activities with enterprise priorities and warfighter requirements; and by managing risk. Develop the workforce by providing a continuum of IA learnin ...with ASD(NII)/DoD CIO contributed to this story. 10 Steve Muck with the Secretary of Navy DON CIO contributed to this story. 23 O P T I M I z E D I N V

  15. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments, Number 52, March - April 1981.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-17

    of patients with rheumatoid arthritis . VKFLFK, no. 6, 1980, 17-20. 266. Il’yasova, Sh.G., and M.F. Popova (602). Effect of He-Ne laser beams on the...no. 6, 1980, 22-24. 273. Krylov, O.A. (605). Ways of studying the mechanism of the action of laser irradiation [in physiotherapy . VKFLFK, no. 6, 1980...Orthopedics (Kazanskiy NII travmatologii i ortopedii). 605. Central Institute of Health Resort Treatment and Physiotherapy , Moscow (Tsentral’nyy institut

  16. Economic Evaluation of Proposed Helicopter Lidar Bathymeter System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    R’ .MPA .... AS 4 4 * ~ .~,VA A I- -~ flt3 .. AS ELY L i U IT 0F Z) FEDERAL . 0JECT- P ST (AAIA=VER)§ NS "#- " V I ? .......... " -’ cttUCsAc F~. A N...IIS, Figure E_-21 CORPS OF ENGINEERS US. A RMY I ARN1!! -HAR1BOR RO)UTCT I 614 OCt A 1,40 . 1 30 fT. vf,.II. 68 UU T f (0T3?1 OtIGL (rFrI CO I IfoR1 5

  17. DoD Net-Centric Services Strategy Implementation in the C2 Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    NCDS ) in the C2 domain.2 It is anticipated that the results of this study will be used to develop guidance for implementing services in the C2...Two key issuances in this regard are the 2003 Net-Centric Data Strategy ( NCDS ) and the 2007 Net-Centric Services Strategy (NCSS).2 Implementing both...the NCDS and NCSS has proven to be complex and challenging. In 2008, the OASD(NII)/DoD CIO sponsored a study to determine an approach for

  18. Controlling First-Row Catalysts: Amination of Aryl and Heteroaryl Chlorides and Bromides with Primary Aliphatic Amines Catalyzed by a BINAP-Ligated Single-Component Ni(0) Complex

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    First-row metal complexes often undergo undesirable one-electron redox processes during two-electron steps of catalytic cycles. We report the amination of aryl chlorides and bromides with primary aliphatic amines catalyzed by a well-defined, single-component nickel precursor (BINAP)Ni(η2-NC-Ph) (BINAP = 2,2′-bis(biphenylphosphino)-1,1′-binaphthalene) that minimizes the formation of Ni(I) species and (BINAP)2Ni. The scope of the reaction encompasses electronically varied aryl chlorides and nitrogen-containing heteroaryl chlorides, including pyridine, quinoline, and isoquinoline derivatives. Mechanistic studies support the catalytic cycle involving a Ni(0)/Ni(II) couple for this nickel-catalyzed amination and are inconsistent with a Ni(I) halide intermediate. Monitoring the reaction mixture by 31P NMR spectroscopy identified (BINAP)Ni(η2-NC-Ph) as the resting state of the catalyst in the amination of both aryl chlorides and bromides. Kinetic studies showed that the amination of aryl chlorides and bromides is first order in both catalyst and aryl halide and zero order in base and amine. The reaction of a representative aryl chloride is inverse first order in PhCN, but the reaction of a representative aryl bromide is zero order in PhCN. This difference in the order of the reaction in PhCN indicates that the aryl chloride reacts with (BINAP)Ni(0), formed by dissociation PhCN from (BINAP)Ni(η2-NC-Ph), but the aryl bromide directly reacts with (BINAP)Ni(η2-NC-Ph). The overall kinetic behavior is consistent with turnover-limiting oxidative addition of the aryl halide to Ni(0). Several pathways for catalyst decomposition were identified, such as the formation of the catalytically inactive bis(amine)-ligated arylnickel(II) chloride, (BINAP)2Ni(0), and the Ni(I) species [(BINAP)Ni(μ-Cl)]2. By using a well-defined nickel complex as catalyst, the formation of (BINAP)2Ni(0) is avoided and the formation of the Ni(I) species [(BINAP)Ni(μ-Cl)]2 is minimized. PMID:24397570

  19. Collision-induced dissociation of sulfur-containing imidazolium ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Lesimple, Alain; He, Xun; Chan, Tak-Hang; Mamer, Orval

    2008-01-01

    A number of 1,2-dimethylimidazole ionic liquids substituted on N(II) with alkyl chains of varying lengths terminated with sulfur-containing groups were investigated by electrospray high-resolution tandem Fourier-transform mass spectrometry. Fragmentation pathways are strongly dependent on the oxidation state of the sulfur and the alkyl chain length. The dissociations detected are rationalized by deuterium labeling, comparisons between homologous compounds and accurate mass data. Several homolytic processes are reported, leading to distonic ions and loss of hydrogen, methyl and other free radicals.

  20. Orbital Stations: A Time of Quests and Accomplishments,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-25

    duvbTe system" of ap- plemaiTes ispertin of a ntnrb sai tation not bi ont. low clind 2 wit launc of sae sttow a carr erts rocet ;dub ut f ro t o -s...E408 AFWL 1 E41 0 AP/IND 1 E429 SO/IND 1 P005 DOE/ISA/DDI 1 P050 CIA./OCR/ADD/SD 2 AFIT/LDE 1 CCN 1 NIA/PHS 1 NIIS 2 LLNL/Ccxde L-389 1 NASA /NST-44 1 NSA/i 21 3/TDL 2 FTD-ID(RS) T-0288-83

  1. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place, Fiscal Year 1985. Part 9 (Good-All Electric - Hi Grade Food Products).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    Hi Grade Food Products).F!8, in P C73b TIME COvERFD [1DATf OF REPORT (Year,MonthDy) S PAGE COUNT -~ . -tLFROM _ ___TO_ __ 985 I P’ 1, NOTATION 03AT...N4 NY N4NII 4 co Gmo ’ ooooooo.- .j 0 0 0-I 0 0 0 0-I 0 cc 400 C.) 000000000000< 04C 0 0 04r 0 0 0 04C 0 mWU000 000000000000I- 0t-- 0 0 01- 0 0 0 01

  2. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and Public Key (PK) Enabling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    IA) Implementation," February 6, 2003 (c) DoD Directive 8190.3, " Smart Card Technology," August 31, 2002 (d) DoD Chief Information Officer...with the ASD(NII)/DoD CIO. 5.2.2. Maintain the design of the CAC and provide technical support on matters relating to smart card technology about...on its activities to the Board. DoDI 8520.2, April 1, 2004 ENCLOSURE 2 12 E2.1.7. Common Access Card (CAC). A Department-wide smart card used as

  3. Structural dynamic testing of the Engineering Test Satellite-IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraki, K.; Mitsuma, H.; Matsushita, T.; Izumi, H.

    The Engineering Test Satellite-IV (ETS-IV) was the first large scale spacecraft developed and launched successfully in Japan on a new N-II launch vehicle. This paper presents an approach taken for the structural development of the ETS-IV. Extensive structural tests were performed to demonstrate that the ETS-IV spacecraft meets all design requirements and will survive all critical environments. Details of the static load test, vibration tests, acoustic test, and pyrotechnic shock test were described. The test results were compared with analyses and measured flight data.

  4. Z39.50 and GILS model. [Government Information Locator Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Eliot

    1994-01-01

    The Government Information Locator System (GILS) is a component of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) which provides electronic access to sources of publicly accessible information maintained throughout the Federal Government. GILS is an internetworking information resource that identifies other information resources, describes the information available in the referenced resources, and provides assistance in how to obtain the information either directly or through intermediaries. The GILS core content which references each Federal information system holding publicly accessible data or information is described in terms of mandatory and optional core elements.

  5. Laser Physics and Laser Techniques.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-14

    n~lra*nii*j ’-ŕ ... .. " " . *.. .... .’. w c . * * 1-. -, ’h .... S . ... . TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION ....................... 2 I. REVIEW OF...sample was grown by A.C. Gossard at AT&T Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, NJ. The active region consisted of 100 100 GaAs wells between 200A AI.2eGa.7...grown for this work. 12 *16- . - ~ PHOTON ENERGY, eV 1.60 1.55 1.50 1.45 1.40 wI w z 4 nm w RESOLUTION M 0 600 850 900 WAVELENGTH, nm FIGURE 6 Time

  6. Interstellar Deuterium, Nitrogen and Oxygen Towards HZ43A: Results from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruk, J. W.; Howk, J. C.; Andre, M.; Moos, H. W.; Oegerle, William R.; Oliveira, C.; Sembach, K. R.; Chayer, P.; Linsky, J. L.; Wood, B. E.

    2002-01-01

    We present an analysis of interstellar absorption along the line of sight to the nearby white dwarf star HZ43A. The distance to this star is 68+/-13 pc, and the line of sight extends toward the north Galactic pole. Column densities of O(I), N(I), and N(II) were derived from spectra obtained by the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), the column density of D(I) was derived from a combination of our FUSE spectra and an archival HST GARDENS spectrum, and the column density of H(I) was derived from a combination of the GARDENS spectrum and values derived from EUVE data obtained from the literature. We find the following abundance ratios (with 2 sigma uncertainties): D(I)/H(I)=(1.66+/-0.28)x10(exp -5), O(I)/H(I)=(3.63+/-0.84)x10(exp -4), and N(I)/H(I)=(3.80+/-0.74)x10(exp -5). The N(II) column density was slightly greater than that of N(I), indicating that ionization corrections are important when deriving nitrogen abundances. Other interstellar species detected along the line of sight were C(II), C(III), O(VI), Si(II), Ar(I), Mg(II) and Fe(II); an upper limit was determined for N(III). No elements other than H(I) were detected in the stellar photosphere.

  7. Coordination and binding geometry of methyl-coenzyme M in the red1m state of methyl-coenzyme M reductase.

    PubMed

    Hinderberger, Dariush; Ebner, Sieglinde; Mayr, Stefan; Jaun, Bernhard; Reiher, Markus; Goenrich, Meike; Thauer, Rudolf K; Harmer, Jeffrey

    2008-11-01

    Methane formation in methanogenic Archaea is catalyzed by methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) and takes place via the reduction of methyl-coenzyme M (CH3-S-CoM) with coenzyme B (HS-CoB) to methane and the heterodisulfide CoM-S-S-CoB. MCR harbors the nickel porphyrinoid coenzyme F430 as a prosthetic group, which has to be in the Ni(I) oxidation state for the enzyme to be active. To date no intermediates in the catalytic cycle of MCRred1 (red for reduced Ni) have been identified. Here, we report a detailed characterization of MCRred1m ("m" for methyl-coenzyme M), which is the complex of MCRred1a ("a" for absence of substrate) with CH3-S-CoM. Using continuous-wave and pulse electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in combination with selective isotope labeling (13C and 2H) of CH3-S-CoM, it is shown that CH3-S-CoM binds in the active site of MCR such that its thioether sulfur is weakly coordinated to the Ni(I) of F430. The complex is stable until the addition of the second substrate, HS-CoB. Results from EPR spectroscopy, along with quantum mechanical calculations, are used to characterize the electronic and geometric structure of this complex, which can be regarded as the first intermediate in the catalytic mechanism.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Kn 26, a new quadrupolar planetary nebula (Guerrero+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, M. A.; Miranda, L. F.; Ramos-Larios, G.; Vazquez, R.

    2013-03-01

    Narrow-band Hα, [NII] λ6583, and [OIII] λ5007 images of Kn 26 were acquired on June 21, 2009 using ALFOSC (Andalucia Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera) at the 2.56m Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) of the Observatorio de Roque de los Muchachos (ORM, La Palma, Spain). Narrow-band H2 2.1218um, Brγ 2.1658um, and K continuum at 2.270um images of Kn 26 were obtained on June 27, 2010 using LIRIS at the Cassegrain focus of the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) at the ORM. Intermediate-resolution long-slit spectra of Kn 26 were obtained on October 5, 2011 using the ALBIREO spectrograph at the 1.5m telescope of the Observatorio de Sierra Nevada (OSN), Granada, Spain. Long-slit high-dispersion spectroscopy on the Hα and [NII] λ6583 lines of Kn 26 has been acquired on June 13, 2010 using the Manchester Echelle Spectrometer (MES) mounted on the 2.1m (f/7.5) telescope at the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional de San Pedro Martir (OAN-SPM, Mexico). (2 data files).

  9. Identifying Distant AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trouille, Laura; Barger, Amy; Tremonti, Christy

    2014-07-01

    The Baldwin, Phillips, and Terlevich emission-line ratio diagnostic ([OIII]/Hβ versus [NII]/Hα, hereafter BPT diagram) efficiently separates galaxies whose signal is dominated by star formation (BPT-SF) from those dominated by AGN activity (BPT-AGN). Yet the BPT diagram is limited to z<0.5, the redshift at which [NII]λ6584 leaves the optical spectral window. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we construct a new diagnostic, or TBT diagram, that is based on rest-frame g-z color, [NeIII]λ3869, and [OII]λλ3726+3729 and can be used for galaxies out to z<1.4. The TBT diagram identifies 98.7% of the SDSS BPT-AGN as TBT-AGN and 97% of the SDSS BPT-SF as TBT-SF. Furthermore, it identifies 97% of the OPTX Chandra X-ray selected AGNs as TBT-AGN. This is in contrast to the BPT diagram, which misidentifies 20% of X-ray selected AGNs as BPT-SF.

  10. Resolved line profiles of PNe in NGC6822.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Duran, S.; Peña, M.; Hernández-Martínez, L.; García-Rojas, J.; Ruiz, M. T.

    2014-04-01

    "Using high resolution spectroscopic data obtained with Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) at the Magellan telescope at Las Campanas Observatory it was possible to resolve the emission line profiles of [OIII] 5007, Ha and [NII] 6583 in two planetary nebulae belonging to the Local Group galaxy NGC 6822 (Flores-Durán et al. submitted). The two PNe, called PN4 and PN7 were identified after Leisy et al. (2005, A&A, x436, 437). In the case of PN4, it presents wide lines that show a structure with three components. The [NII] 6583 line profile clearly shows a central component surrounded by what appears to be a shell with an expantion velocity of 25 km s-1. For PN7, the [OIII] emission lines present two very close components differing in velocity by about 15 km s-1 and, in the [N II] 6583 profile a faint very-wide component is apparent. This latter component represents a sort of bipolar outflow at high velocities (about 140 km s-1) as the case of the galactic M1-32, M3-15 and others (Medina et al. 2006, RMAA, 42, 53; Akras & López 2012, MNRAS, 425, 2197; Rechy-García et al., this meeting)."

  11. PDR Emission from the Arched-Filaments and Nearby Positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Pablo; Röllig, Markus; Abel, Nicholas; Steinke, Martin; Burton, Michael; Blackwell, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the physical conditions of the gas, atomic and molecular, in the filaments in the context of Photo-Dissociation Regions (PDRs) using the KOSMA-PDR mode of clumpy clouds. We also compare the [CII] vs. [NII] integrated intensity predictions in Abel et al. 2005 for HII regions and adjacent PDRs in the Galactic disk, and check for their applicability under the extreme physical conditions present in the GC. Our preliminary results show that observed integrated intensities are well reproduced by the PDR model. The gas is exposed to a relatively low Far-UV field between 102 - 103 Draine fields. The total volume hydrogen density is well constrained between 104 - 105 cm-3. The hydrogen ionization rate due to cosmic-rays varies between 10-15 and 4× 10-15 s-1, with the highest value ~ 10-14 s-1 found towards G0.07+0.04. Our results show that the line-of-sight contribution to the total distance of the filaments to the Arches Cluster is not negligible. The spatial distribution of the [CII]/[NII] ratio shows that the integrated intensity ratios are fairly homogeneously distributed for values below 10 in energy units. Calculations including variation on the [C/N] abundance ratio show that tight constraints on this ratio are needed to reproduce the observations.

  12. Efficient convex-elastic net algorithm to solve the Euclidean traveling salesman problem.

    PubMed

    Al-Mulhem, M; Al-Maghrabi, T

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a hybrid algorithm that combines an adaptive-type neural network algorithm and a nondeterministic iterative algorithm to solve the Euclidean traveling salesman problem (E-TSP). It begins with a brief introduction to the TSP and the E-TSP. Then, it presents the proposed algorithm with its two major components: the convex-elastic net (CEN) algorithm and the nondeterministic iterative improvement (NII) algorithm. These two algorithms are combined into the efficient convex-elastic net (ECEN) algorithm. The CEN algorithm integrates the convex-hull property and elastic net algorithm to generate an initial tour for the E-TSP. The NII algorithm uses two rearrangement operators to improve the initial tour given by the CEN algorithm. The paper presents simulation results for two instances of E-TSP: randomly generated tours and tours for well-known problems in the literature. Experimental results are given to show that the proposed algorithm ran find the nearly optimal solution for the E-TSP that outperform many similar algorithms reported in the literature. The paper concludes with the advantages of the new algorithm and possible extensions.

  13. Using Hubble Space Telescope Images to Test Theoretical Models of Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braxton, Kelsey M.; Balick, B.; Jacob, R.; Steffen, M.; Schonberner, D.

    2012-05-01

    Classical ionization models that predict the ionization structure of planetary nebulae generally assume constant gas density (or a central void and constant density) in the shell. More recently, Steffen, Jacob, Schoenberner (2005, A&A, 441, 573) have computed fully consistent one-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic ionization models (RHI models) with realistic stellar winds and evolving central stars. Their numerical results offer concrete predictions concerning the projected three-dimensional shapes of simple round and elliptical PNe. A first glance at their models shows them to be a superior way of modeling ionization structures in realistic PNe. We present high-spatial resolution and carefully flux calibrated images of PNe selected in Halpha, [OIII], and [NII] as well as the ratios [OIII]/Halpha and [NII]/Halpha in order to test the predictions of the RHI models. These were obtained uniformly and at the same epoch using the WFPC2 camera on the Hubble Space Telescope. Some of the targets are ionization bounded and others are density bounded. In the future these images will be compared to the models in detail. At this point we note many of the common features--some of them unexpected--that the models must explain.

  14. An analysis of emission lines in the spectrum of P Cygni.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markova, N.; de Groot, M.

    1997-10-01

    Using the coude spectrograph of the NAO 2m telescope at the Rhodope Mountains, Bulgaria, 9 spectra in the blue and 8 spectra in the red photographic region of P Cygni were obtained during 1990. By averaging the spectra in each set a S/N-ratio of about 45 was achieved. Comparing the lists of identifications published by Beals (1950PDAO....9....1B), de Groot (1969BAN....20..225D), Ozemre (1978PIstO.101....1O), Stahl et al. (1993A&AS...99..167S), Markova (1994A&AS..108..561M) and Markova & Zamanov (1995A&AS..114..499M), we conclude that the emission spectrum of P Cygni in our days is probably much richer and intensive than 60 years ago. A number of line parameters of the pure emission lines are measured. An estimate of the electron density and temperature in the region of [NII]-lines formation is obtained. Different velocity laws yielding similar density structures are discussed aiming to account for the results obtained on the basis of the [NII] lines. Possible mechanisms for the formation of the permitted pure emission-line spectrum are proposed.

  15. Security Assessment Simulation Toolkit (SAST) Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Meitzler, Wayne D.; Ouderkirk, Steven J.; Hughes, Chad O.

    2009-11-15

    The Department of Defense Technical Support Working Group (DoD TSWG) investment in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Security Assessment Simulation Toolkit (SAST) research planted a technology seed that germinated into a suite of follow-on Research and Development (R&D) projects culminating in software that is used by multiple DoD organizations. The DoD TSWG technology transfer goal for SAST is already in progress. The Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA), the Defense-wide Information Assurance Program (DIAP), the Marine Corps, Office Of Naval Research (ONR) National Center For Advanced Secure Systems Research (NCASSR) and Office Of Secretary Of Defense International Exercise Program (OSD NII) are currently investing to take SAST to the next level. PNNL currently distributes the software to over 6 government organizations and 30 DoD users. For the past five DoD wide Bulwark Defender exercises, the adoption of this new technology created an expanding role for SAST. In 2009, SAST was also used in the OSD NII International Exercise and is currently scheduled for use in 2010.

  16. Oxygen abundance from strong-line methods at extremely low metallicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Luis, A. B.; Sánchez Almeida, J.; Pérez Montero, E.; Muñoz-Tuñon, C.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Vilchez, J. M.; Terlevich, E.; Terlevich, R.

    2013-05-01

    The determination of oxygen abundance in nebulae requires measuring a significant number of emission lines distributed along a wide spectral range. The required measurements are hard to obtain at high redshift, where sources are very faint, and where the accessible spectral range is limited. These difficulties are often overcome using empirical relationships between the oxygen abundance and the fluxes in a small number of strong lines. The so-called strong-line methods are often the only practical alternative for metallicity estimate at high redshift. In this sense, the low metallicities range is particularly important since high redshift objects are primitive and so of low metallic content. One of the most widely used relationships links the oxygen with the ratio between [NII]6583 and Hα. This relationship shows a large scatter at low metallicity. In an effort to bring down the errors, we re-calibrated the relationship using a large sample of extremely metal-poor galaxies. The SDSS spectra of the galaxies were all analyzed in the same way to minimize systematic errors. To our surprise, the decrease of scatter reveals that the ratio [N{II}]6583 to Hα seems to be independent of metallicity at low oxygen abundance (12+log[{O}/{H}] < 7.6). This result casts doubts on the metallicities of high-redshift objects based on the relationship. We explain how the re-calibration was carried (including the sample selection and the abundance determinations). In addition, we try explain what produces the lack of correlation.

  17. Oxygen abundances of zCOSMOS galaxies at z ~ 1.4 based on five lines and implications for the fundamental metallicity relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Christian; Lilly, Simon J.; Ziegler, Bodo L.

    2015-02-01

    A relation between the stellar mass M and the gas-phase metallicity Z of galaxies, the MZR, is observed up to higher redshifts. It is a matter of debate, however, if the SFR is a second parameter in the MZR. To explore this issue at z > 1, we used VLT-SINFONI near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy of eight zCOSMOS galaxies at 1.3 < z < 1.4 to measure the strengths of four emission lines: Hβ, [OIII]λ5007, Hα, and [NII]λ6584, additional to [OII]λ3727 measured from VIMOS. We derive reliable O/H metallicities based on five lines, and also SFRs from extinction corrected Hα measurements. We find that the MZR of these star-forming galaxies at z ~ 1.4 is lower than the local SDSS MZR by a factor of three to five, a larger change than reported in the literature using [NII]/Hα-based metallicities from individual and stacked spectra. Correcting N2-based O/Hs using recent results by Newman et al. (2014), also the larger FMOS sample at z ~ 1.4 of Zahid et al. (2014) shows a similar evolution of the MZR like the zCOSMOS objects. These observations seem also in agreement with a non-evolving FMR using the physically motivated formulation of the FMR from Lilly et al. (2013).

  18. The Long-Term Care Insurance Program in Israel: solidarity with the elderly in a changing society

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Long-Term Care Insurance Program (LTCIP) in Israel is a social security program administered by the National Insurance Institute (NII) since 1988. LTCIP focuses on home-based personal care services. Differently from most other programs under the responsibility of the NII, LTCIP benefits are in-kind benefits and are delivered via multiple for-profit and not-for-profit organizations. In recent years LTCIP has been the target of various legal amendments and numerous administrative changes. While many of these changes may have had significant effects on individuals, they have not altered the fundamental principles of the program. Thus, many of the characteristics of beneficiaries have remained quite stable over the years; other characteristics of the population of beneficiaries have changed over the years reflecting the aging of Israeli society. A central issue related to LTCIP is whether benefits are adequate to meet the needs of the growing elderly population of Israel. While the generosity of LTCIP benefits is questionable, economic and political struggles have limited the scope of changes introduced thus far. PMID:23343104

  19. Role of Radical Species in Salicylaldiminato Ni(II) Mediated Polymer Chain Growth: A Case Study for the Migratory Insertion Polymerization of Ethylene in the Presence of Methyl Methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Ölscher, Franz; Göttker-Schnetmann, Inigo; Monteil, Vincent; Mecking, Stefan

    2015-11-25

    To date, an inconclusive and partially contradictive picture exists on the behavior of neutral Ni(II) insertion polymerization catalysts toward methyl methacrylate (MMA). We shed light on this issue by a combination of comprehensive mechanistic NMR and EPR studies, isolation of a key Ni(I) intermediate, and pressure reactor studies with ethylene and MMA, followed by detailed polymer analysis. An interlocking mechanistic picture of an insertion and a free radical polymerization is revealed. Both polymerizations run simultaneously (25 bar ethylene, neat MMA, 70 °C); however, the chain growth cycles are independent of each other, and therefore exclusively a physical mixture of homo-PE and homo-PMMA is obtained. A Ni-C bond cleavage was excluded as a free radical source. Rather a homolytic P-C bond cleavage in the labile aryl phosphine ligand and the reaction of low-valent Ni(0/I) species with specific iodo substituted N^O (Ar-I) ligands were shown to initiate radical MMA polymerizations. Several reductive elimination decomposition pathways of catalyst precursor or active intermediates were shown to form low-valent Ni species. One of those pathways is a bimolecular reductive coupling via intermediate (N^O)Ni(I) formation. These intermediate Ni(I) species can be prevented from ultimate decomposition by capturing with organic radical sources, forming insertion polymerization active [(N^O)Ni(II)-R] species and prolonging the ethylene polymerization activity.

  20. Spectral nuclear properties of NLS1 galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, E. O.; Ferreiro, D.; Vega Neme, L.; Oio, G. A.

    2016-12-01

    Context. It is not yet well known whether narrow line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies follow the MBH - σ⋆ relation found for normal galaxies. Emission lines, such as [SII] or [OIII]λ5007, have been used as a surrogate of the stellar velocity dispersion and various results have been obtained. On the other hand, some active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have shown Balmer emission with an additional intermediate component (IC) besides the well-known narrow and broad lines. The properties of this IC have not yet been fully studied. Aims: In order to re-examine the location of NLS1 in the MBH - σ⋆ relation, we test some emission lines, such as the narrow component (NC) of Hα and the forbidden [NII]λλ6548,6584 and [SII]λλ6716,6731 lines, as replacements for σ⋆. On the other hand, we study the properties of the IC of Hα found in 14 galaxies of the sample to find a link between this component, the central engine, and the remaining lines. We also compare the emission among the broad component (BC) of Hα and those emitted at the narrow line region (NLR) to detect differences in the ionizing source in each emitting region. Methods: We have obtained and studied medium-resolution spectra (170 km s-1 FWHM at Hα) of 36 NLS1 galaxies in the optical range 5800-6800 Å. We performed a Gaussian decomposition of the Hα +[NII]λλ6548,6584 profile to study the distinct components of Hα and [NII] lines. We also measured the [SII] lines. Results: We obtained black hole (BH) masses in the range log (MBH/M⊙) = 5.4-7.5 for our sample. We found that, in general, most of the galaxies lie below the MBH - σ⋆ relation when the NC of Hα and [NII] lines are used as a surrogate of σ⋆. The objects are closer to the relation when [SII] lines are used. Nevertheless, the galaxies are still below this relation and we do not see a clear correlation between the BH masses and FWHM[SII]. Besides this, we found that 13 galaxies show an IC, most of which are in the velocity range 700-1500 km s

  1. Spectral analysis of the Stromlo-APM Survey - I. Spectral properties of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tresse, L.; Maddox, S.; Loveday, J.; Singleton, C.

    1999-11-01

    We analyse spectral properties of 1671 galaxies from the Stromlo-APM Survey, selected to have 15<=bJ<=17.15 and having a mean redshift z=0.05. This is a representative local sample of field galaxies, so the global properties of the galaxy population provide a comparative point for analysis of more distant surveys. We measure Hα, [Oii] λ3727, [Sii] λλ6716, 6731, [Nii] λ6583 and [Oi] λ6300 equivalent widths and the D4000 break index. The 5-Å-resolution spectra use an 8-arcsec slit, which typically covers 40-50per cent of the galaxy area. We find no evidence for systematic trends depending on the fraction of galaxy covered by the slit, and further analysis suggests that our spectra are representative of integrated galaxy spectra. We classify spectra according to their Hα emission, which is closely related to massive star formation. Overall we find that 61per cent of galaxies are Hα emitters with rest-frame equivalent widths EW(Hα) >~2Å. The emission-line galaxy (ELG) fraction is smaller than seen in the Canada-France Redshift Survey (CFRS) at z=0.2, and is consistent with a rapid evolution of Hα luminosity density. The ELG fraction and EW(Hα) increase at fainter absolute magnitudes, smaller projected area and smaller D4000. In the local Universe, faint, small galaxies are dominated by star formation activity, while bright, large galaxies are more quiescent. This picture of the local Universe is quite different from that of the distant one; bright galaxies appear to show rapidly increasing activity as one moves further back in time. We find that the ratio [Nii] λ6583/Hα is anticorrelated with EW(Hα), and that the value of 0.5 commonly used to remove the [Nii] contribution from blended Hα+[Nii] λλ6548, 6583 applies only for samples with an EW distribution similar to that seen at low redshift. We show that the [Oii], [Nii], [Sii] and Hα EWs are correlated, but with large dispersions (~50per cent) owing to the diversity of galaxy contents sampled. Our

  2. A comparison of FUV dayglows measured by STSAT-1/FIMS with the AURIC model in a geomagnetic quiet condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kam, Hosik; Kim, Yong Ha; Hong, Jun-Seok; Lee, Joon-Chan; Choi, Yeon-Ju; Min, Kyung Wook

    2014-09-01

    The Korea scientific microsatellite, STSAT-1 (Science and Technology Satellite-1), was launched in 2003 and observed far ultraviolet (FUV) airglow from the upper atmosphere with a Far-ultraviolet IMaging Spectrograph (FIMS) at an altitude of 690 km. The FIMS consists of a dual-band imaging spectrograph of 900-1150 Å (S-band) and 1340-1715 Å (L-band). Limb scanning observations were performed only at the S-band, resulting in intensity profiles of OI 989 Å, OI 1026 Å, NII 1085 Å and NI 1134 Å emission lines near the horizon. We compare these emission intensities with those computed by using a theoretical model, the AURIC (Atmospheric Ultraviolet Radiance Integrated Code). The intensities of the OI 1026 Å, NII 1085 Å and NI 1134 Å emissions measured by using the FIMS are overall consistent with the values computed by using AURIC under the thermospheric and solar activity conditions on August 6, 1984, which is close to the FIMS's observation condition. We find that the FIMS dayglow intensity profiles match reasonably well with AURIC intensity profiles for the MSIS90 oxygen atom density profiles within factors of 0.5 and 2. However, the FIMS intensities of the OI 989 Å line are about 2 ˜ 4 times stronger than the AURIC intensities, which is expected because AURIC does not properly simulate resonance scattering of airglow and solar photons at 989 Å by atomic oxygen in the thermosphere. We also find that the maximum tangential altitudes of the oxygen bearing dayglows (OI 989 Å, OI 1026 Å) are higher than those of the nitrogen-bearing dayglows (NII 1085 Å, NI 1134 Å), which is confirmed by using AURIC model calculations. This is expected because the oxygen atoms are distributed at higher altitudes in the thermosphere than the nitrogen molecules. Validations of the qualities of both the FIMS instrument and the AURIC model indicate that AURIC should be updated with improved thermospheric models and with measured solar FUV spectra for better agreement with the

  3. Hα imaging of the Herschel Reference Survey. The star formation properties of a volume-limited, K-band-selected sample of nearby late-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boselli, A.; Fossati, M.; Gavazzi, G.; Ciesla, L.; Buat, V.; Boissier, S.; Hughes, T. M.

    2015-07-01

    We present new Hα+[NII] imaging data of late-type galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey aimed at studying the star formation properties of a K-band-selected, volume-limited sample of nearby galaxies. The Hα+[NII] data are corrected for [NII] contamination and dust attenuation using different recipes based on the Balmer decrement and the 24 μm luminosities. We show that the Hα luminosities derived with different corrections give consistent results only whenever the uncertainty on the estimate of the Balmer decrement is σ [C(Hβ)] ≤ 0.1. We used these data to derive the star formation rate of the late-type galaxies of the sample and compare these estimates to those determined using independent monochromatic tracers (far-UV, radio continuum) or the output of spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting codes. This comparison suggests that the 24 μm based dust extinction correction for the Hα data might not be universal and that it should be used with caution in all objects with a low star formation activity, where dust heating can be dominated by the old stellar population. Furthermore, because of the sudden truncation of the star formation activity of cluster galaxies occurring after their interaction with the surrounding environment, the stationarity conditions required to transform monochromatic fluxes into star formation rates might not always be satisfied in tracers other than the Hα luminosity. In a similar way, the parametrisation of the star formation history generally used in SED fitting codes might not be adequate for these recently interacting systems. We then use the derived star formation rates to study the star formation rate luminosity distribution and the typical scaling relations of the late-type galaxies of the HRS. We observe a systematic decrease of the specific star formation rate with increasing stellar mass, stellar mass surface density, and metallicity. We also observe an increase of the asymmetry and smoothness parameters measured

  4. On-Board Switching and Routing Advanced Technology Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yegenoglu, F.; Inukai, T.; Kaplan, T.; Redman, W.; Mitchell, C.

    1998-01-01

    Future satellite communications is expected to be fully integrated into National and Global Information Infrastructures (NII/GII). These infrastructures will carry multi gigabit-per-second data rates, with integral switching and routing of constituent data elements. The satellite portion of these infrastructures must, therefore, be more than pipes through the sky. The satellite portion will also be required to perform very high speed routing and switching of these data elements to enable efficient broad area coverage to many home and corporate users. The technology to achieve the on-board switching and routing must be selected and developed specifically for satellite application within the next few years. This report presents evaluation of potential technologies for on-board switching and routing applications.

  5. Dust and ionized gas in active radio elliptical galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, D. A.; Sparks, W. B.; Macchetto, F. D.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present broad and narrow bandwidth imaging of three southern elliptical galaxies which have flat-spectrum active radio cores (NGC 1052, IC 1459 and NGC 6958). All three contain dust and extended low excitation optical line emission, particularly extensive in the case of NGC 1052 which has a large H alpha + (NII) luminosity. Both NGC 1052 and IC 1459 have a spiral morphology in emission-line images. All three display independent strong evidence that a merger or infall event has recently occurred, i.e., extensive and infalling HI gas in NGC 1052, a counter-rotating core in IC 1459 and Malin-Carter shells in NGC 6958. This infall event is the most likely origin for the emission-line gas and dust, and the authors are currently investigating possible excitation mechanisms (Sparks et al. 1990).

  6. The Hawaii Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (HIFI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland, Jonathan; Cecil, Gerald; Tully, Brent

    1990-07-01

    At Mauna Kea Observatory, researchers conducted optical, imaging spectrophotometric studies of selected active galaxies using both the Canada-France-Hawaii 3.6m and University of Hawaii 2.2m telecopes (Tully, Bland and Cecil 1988). To maximize spatial resolution, researchers select galaxies independent of luminosity but known to possess interesting morphologies or high-velocity, extranuclear ionized gas (Walker 1968; Rubin and Ford 1968). They study both the large-scale patterns produced in IR-luminous, starburst systems (e.g., M82, NGC 253, NGC 6240) and those with compact, but spatially extended, circumnuclear, narrow line regions (e.g., M51, NGC 1068, NGC 4151). Current studies are restricted to the optical (SII), (NII) and (OIII) lines and the brightest Balmer recombination lines. These lines are, in principle, sufficient to constrain the dynamical structure and dominant excitation mechanism of the ionized component.

  7. Construction of a predictive model for concentration of nickel and vanadium in vacuum residues of crude oils using artificial neural networks and LIBS.

    PubMed

    Tarazona, José L; Guerrero, Jáder; Cabanzo, Rafael; Mejía-Ospino, E

    2012-03-01

    A predictive model to determine the concentration of nickel and vanadium in vacuum residues of Colombian crude oils using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) with nodes distributed in multiple layers (multilayer perceptron) is presented. ANN inputs are intensity values in the vicinity of the emission lines 300.248, 301.200 and 305.081 nm of the Ni(I), and 309.310, 310.229, and 311.070 nm of the V(II). The effects of varying number of nodes and the initial weights and biases in the ANNs were systematically explored. Average relative error of calibration/prediction (REC/REP) and average relative standard deviation (RSD) metrics were used to evaluate the performance of the ANN in the prediction of concentrations of two elements studied here.

  8. Prime Contract Awards Over $25,000 by Major System, Contractor and State, Fiscal Year 1987. Part 2. BSP-SMZ.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    00000000000 % 4 0 < I I I (A4 440. V0. cn0 cn 4444 4444 44 w m nII Iaaa Zw00.WU Wo 0~0WWLL w uw L LUWWW WWWWWWWWWWW 00. WI X:W W(1)(1) cn> > > W>> > ) W U1) 0W...414 a -I4 ID 044)() -4-4 0- (AI4-J. 0( W )~0 0 /) 0 4 IAAA .44 Wz><"< - CL "A w VU j-i-" Q JJ 𔃾K 4 -1-11-16~W AW4-4--4 OW4-4L> > W " i w 0 0 < < w 0

  9. Research in Inorganic Fluorine Chemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-28

    c5(jjcrcDinno~a3cacMo>f-.co(OüCMoa)Kri — CM to ■c coco CM — — — CM CM «- co eocM — — — — *- — — *- m tn co — COCOCM — — co TT...iao>’-i^ ^ — *- — — n co CM ^ ^^CM — — coco — — — ifeo — — — —CM — — ^- — — — .’-CM — — ^^,— rvTTOCMO^o — oococMTrr-Trninair...M ^ ^ ^ COCO — — — CM — — — — — ü)0(D(OU)(D(Ott^u»irt(niniAinirt<nii>inii)uiintnin(nin(nin^r7,7Tr7n,^Tj’TrTrTr7n,^,7CTrTr^r^r 1 1 1

  10. Hydrocarbon-soluble nanocatalysts with no bulk phase: coplanar, two-coordinate arrays of the base metals.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Bunquin, Jeffrey; Ferguson, Michael J; Stryker, Jeffrey M

    2013-04-17

    A structurally unique class of hydrocarbon-soluble, ancillary-ligand-free, tetrametallic Co(I) and Ni(I) clusters is reported. The highly unsaturated complexes are supported by simple, sterically bulky phosphoranimide ligands, one per metal. The electron-rich nitrogen centers are strongly bridging but sterically limited to bimetallic interactions. The hydrocarbon-soluble clusters consist of four coplanar metal centers, mutually bridged by single nitrogen atoms. Each metal center is monovalent, rigorously linear, and two-coordinate. The clusters are in essence two-dimensional atomic-scale "molecular squares," a structural motif adapted from supramolecular chemistry. Both clusters exhibit high solution-phase magnetic susceptibility at room temperature, suggesting the potential for applications in molecular electronics. Designed to be catalyst precursors, both clusters exhibit high activity for catalytic hydrogenation of unsaturated hydrocarbons at low pressure and temperature.

  11. Role of Communications Satellites in the National and Global Information Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Early in 1995, the Satellite Industry Task Force (SITF) was initiated by executives of the satellite industry to define the role for communication satellites in the National and Global Information Infrastructure (NII/GII). Satellites are essential to this information network because they offer ubiquitous coverage and less time to market. SITF, which was chaired by Dr. Thomas Brackey of the Hughes Space and Communication Division, grew out of a series of workshops held during the summer of 1994 by the communication industry, NASA, and the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA). Experts were convened from 20 companies representing satellite and terrestrial network builders, operators, and users. For 8 months they worked to identify challenges for the satellite industry to play a pivotal role in the National and Global Information Infrastructure. NASA Lewis Research Center personnel helped out with technical and policy matters.

  12. The radical mechanism of biological methane synthesis by methyl-coenzyme M reductase.

    PubMed

    Wongnate, Thanyaporn; Sliwa, Dariusz; Ginovska, Bojana; Smith, Dayle; Wolf, Matthew W; Lehnert, Nicolai; Raugei, Simone; Ragsdale, Stephen W

    2016-05-20

    Methyl-coenzyme M reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in methanogenesis and anaerobic methane oxidation, is responsible for the biological production of more than 1 billion tons of methane per year. The mechanism of methane synthesis is thought to involve either methyl-nickel(III) or methyl radical/Ni(II)-thiolate intermediates. We employed transient kinetic, spectroscopic, and computational approaches to study the reaction between the active Ni(I) enzyme and substrates. Consistent with the methyl radical-based mechanism, there was no evidence for a methyl-Ni(III) species; furthermore, magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy identified the Ni(II)-thiolate intermediate. Temperature-dependent transient kinetics also closely matched density functional theory predictions of the methyl radical mechanism. Identifying the key intermediate in methanogenesis provides fundamental insights to develop better catalysts for producing and activating an important fuel and potent greenhouse gas.

  13. Biochemistry of methyl-coenzyme M reductase: the nickel metalloenzyme that catalyzes the final step in synthesis and the first step in anaerobic oxidation of the greenhouse gas methane.

    PubMed

    Ragsdale, Stephen W

    2014-01-01

    Methane, the major component of natural gas, has been in use in human civilization since ancient times as a source of fuel and light. Methanogens are responsible for synthesis of most of the methane found on Earth. The enzyme responsible for catalyzing the chemical step of methanogenesis is methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR), a nickel enzyme that contains a tetrapyrrole cofactor called coenzyme F430, which can traverse the Ni(I), (II), and (III) oxidation states. MCR and methanogens are also involved in anaerobic methane oxidation. This review describes structural, kinetic, and computational studies aimed at elucidating the mechanism of MCR. Such studies are expected to impact the many ramifications of methane in our society and environment, including energy production and greenhouse gas warming.

  14. Conceptualizing the Pathways and Processes Between Language Barriers and Health Disparities: Review, Synthesis, and Extension.

    PubMed

    Terui, Sachiko

    2017-02-01

    While many may view language barriers in healthcare settings (LBHS) as a simple, practical problem, they present unique challenges to theoretical development and practice implications in healthcare delivery, especially when one considers the implications and impacts of specific contextual factors. By exploring the differences of contextual factors in the US and Japan, this review explores and highlights how such differences may entail different impacts on patients' quality of care and require different solutions. I conduct narrative review through library database, Google Scholar, and CiNii (a Japanese library database) with multiple search terms, including language barriers, healthcare, medical interpreter, and immigrant. I first present a diagram to show the pathways and process between language barriers and health disparities, using the literature reported in the US. Then, I examined the literature reported in Japan and discuss the needs for re-conceptualizing LBHS. The implications for future research will be discussed.

  15. Reductive nitrosylation of nickel(ii) complex by nitric oxide followed by nitrous oxide release.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Somnath; Deka, Hemanta; Dangat, Yuvraj B; Saha, Soumen; Gogoi, Kuldeep; Vanka, Kumar; Mondal, Biplab

    2016-06-21

    Ni(ii) complex of ligand ( = bis(2-ethyl-4-methylimidazol-5-yl)methane) in methanol solution reacts with an equivalent amount of NO resulting in a corresponding Ni(i) complex. Adding further NO equivalent affords a Ni(i)-nitrosyl intermediate with the {NiNO}(10) configuration. This nitrosyl intermediate upon subsequent reaction with additional NO results in the release of N2O and formation of a Ni(ii)-nitrito complex. Crystallographic characterization of the nitrito complex revealed a symmetric η(2)-O,O-nitrito bonding to the metal ion. This study demonstrates the reductive nitrosylation of a Ni(ii) center followed by N2O release in the presence of excess NO.

  16. AGARD (Advisory Group for Aerospace Research & Development) Engine Disc Cooperative Test Programme,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    4薗ii 759 so A AOR!nRU spa A44 IFOR I L J32 I 2 11I1L2 1. 1111. BBIC fiLL W;UV AGARM36R-766 AGARD REPORT No.766 AGARD Engine Disc Cooperative Test...J \\ND MlR I ItON \\I (MROi\\NIS.\\I ION 1)t I RiNI Ir iIM I 1~ .\\%NII I NORIp A(6ARI) Report No.700 AGARD ENGINE DISC (’O )PERAI IVE TEST PROG;RAMME h...cim p, met for manyv years. In I 9X2 a Suh-comrnittee on ’-Damage Tolerance Concepts for Critical Engine Comiponents’ "as formed ito studs the

  17. A black hole in NGC 4697 from stellar and gas kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkney, J.; Gebhardt, K.; Richstone, D.; Nuker Team

    2000-12-01

    We have obtained STIS spectroscopy of NGC 4697 in two spectral ranges which allow independent mass measurements of the central dark object. The near-IR range allows stellar kinematics to be derived from the shape of the Ca triplet absorption lines. 3-integral modelling places this galaxy slightly above the Mbh -- σ relationship (Gebhardt et al. 2000) with Mbh=1.2x 108 Msun. The other spectral range contains prominent [NII] (6583 Å ) emission. Assuming the emitting gas is coplanar with the nuclear dust disk, and in circular motion, we can constrain the BH mass. We model both the gas rotation curve and the shape of the emission lines to find a Mbh in good agreement with the stellar value. We acknowledge support from HST grant GO-07388.01 and LTSA grant NAG5-8238 to D. Richstone.

  18. An analysis of middle ultraviolet dayglow spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walden, Billie S.

    1991-12-01

    Middle ultraviolet spectra from 1800 to 3400A are analyzed. These spectra were obtained from the March 1990 rocket flight of the NPS MUSTANG instrument over the altitudes 105km to 315km. The data were compared with computer generated synthetic spectra. A least squares fitting procedure was developed for this purpose. Each data point was weighted using the standard deviation of the means. Synthetic spectra were generated for the following emissions: N2 Vegard-Kaphan; N2 Lyman-Birge-Hopfield; NO gamma, delta, and epsilon; OI 2972A, OII 2470A; and NII 2143A. Altitude profiles for the emissions were obtained. Tentative identification was made of the OIII 2853A emission. A comparison of VK and LBH profiles demonstrates the process of N2 A-state quenching by atomic oxygen.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: FIR spectra of AGNs from Herschel (Fernandez-Ontiveros+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Ontiveros, J. A.; Spinoglio, L.; Pereira-Santaella, M.; Malkan, M. A.; Andreani, P.; Dasyra, K. M.

    2016-11-01

    The combination of Herschel/PACS during its 3.5yr of operational life and Spitzer/IRS allows us to cover the fine-structure emission lines from the mid- to the far-IR (10-200um in the rest-frame) for all the galaxies in the sample. This database was completed with the Herschel/SPIRE published values of the [NII]205um, and [CI]371,609um line fluxes (mainly from Kamenetzky+ 2016ApJ...829...93K). Table 8 collects published mid-IR (10-35um) fine-structure line fluxes measured with Spitzer/IRS for our samples of AGN and starburst galaxies. These values were complemented with unpublished IRS observations from the Spitzer archive. (10 data files).

  20. The Hawaii Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (HIFI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, Jonathan; Cecil, Gerald; Tully, Brent

    1990-01-01

    At Mauna Kea Observatory, researchers conducted optical, imaging spectrophotometric studies of selected active galaxies using both the Canada-France-Hawaii 3.6m and University of Hawaii 2.2m telecopes (Tully, Bland and Cecil 1988). To maximize spatial resolution, researchers select galaxies independent of luminosity but known to possess interesting morphologies or high-velocity, extranuclear ionized gas (Walker 1968; Rubin and Ford 1968). They study both the large-scale patterns produced in IR-luminous, starburst systems (e.g., M82, NGC 253, NGC 6240) and those with compact, but spatially extended, circumnuclear, narrow line regions (e.g., M51, NGC 1068, NGC 4151). Current studies are restricted to the optical (SII), (NII) and (OIII) lines and the brightest Balmer recombination lines. These lines are, in principle, sufficient to constrain the dynamical structure and dominant excitation mechanism of the ionized component.

  1. All Prime Contract Awards by State or Country, Place, and Contractor. Part 6 (Washington, DC-Palm Beach, Florida)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    AD-A236 303 :UMENTAT𔄀WPAGE I Form Approve - ~~ Oer MB No. 0704-0 188 thdU s b,rdpn ?,I ; r - . rr ,n e T , % AGL!NY ON 2. EPORT DATE ~ 3 .REPO RT...4 -4 -aN -10.- 4-4 .- C 444 g 4 C- 4-4 -4 4 4 -4-4 1-4 -4 - -4 - -4 - -4 1 0 00-4 4 OWO E 60 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 003 COW< 64 3 30 3oocc 000000000000 *D a...000000000 00000t000000))0000) ZilsEt IUN NZZZ>0ZZc)0ZMU00-0))0)0)OZZZZZZZZ&0>ZwZ0-0-zzzzzzzz0z Ofl c IN Nc Is w Ns E I UN- NII 3 1AU.4f44 LU N O -I ON N L-4

  2. Miami International Airport Data Package Number 7. Airport Improvement Task Force Delay Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    NIf ~v ____ I I-- --.....-. 13 -L-2-.... .- . CICD C~ .7 .................. .77< W iONO 7.Lj OLhuI a \\. IC...13 YA I a 81 -4 "A$ --- r- - IQ cZ.J 2 7 .. o o. -~--r - .- 64I m ca -7-. 0)r CC~ 0 3 -,. S 4,p 1 -2w I- 0A ___z LL21~~ 41 ms~~~T~27L - 0’ a ir C1 ...000000000, 0 a0 0 0 000000000 .4 ~ C1 xI NII) . 11 I 000000000 000000000 A- 13I (Y) -. .4 ic0q r ON 0 Cl) >- C,4T . . . . . . iC Lu -" M u)n r4 M - -j

  3. The Design of Shape from Motion Constraints

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    HIV, kolifi I u~li ci e’. lie Ii uu’i . lilwul lleeli. iii-’ plI leI - il..iiiililI ic (.1-. 1/.eiuie (lie opi l le L!.iillf andiI’ a lIt- -1uLll lIii...all (class I ) so I hial oiil\\- lit’ tlt’sjrt’I p~at Ii Imsse IrI1oul11gl I It’I ft’et’d’er. 5. Remove other paths: If th l mnt’lailliug pathls...or. /niI all jug) ImIl lie! I lie 1hi1lt rlilill ed pat h. ) ’I’lis (tleftl~Sto at (lass 3~ fee( lei . (g~(~)lIIwtIX l’mi ’Fiii lli 1.2. (ii) Redirect

  4. Atomic and nuclear polarization of /sup 12/C, /sup 13/C, and /sup 15/N by beam-foil interaction at 300--400 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, F.Q.; Tang, J.Y.; Deutch, B.I.

    1982-03-01

    Induced nuclear spin polarization P by hyperfine interaction following passage of 0.5 ..mu..A 300--keV beams of /sup 12/C/sup +/, /sup 13/C/sup +/, and /sup 15/N/sup +/ through single tilted carbon foils yields Vertical BarPVertical Bar = (0.4 +- 0.8)%, (3.2 +- 0.6)%, and (5.7 +- 0.9)%, respectively. The nuclear polarizations were enhanced by passage through two tilted foils, and the sign of the polarization flipped by a simple flip of the foil direction with respect to the beam direction. From quantum-beat measurements with circularly polarized light, experimental quantum beat frequencies ..omega.. = 6790 +- 570 and 747 +- 62 MHz for the unresolved 6578--6583 A doublet in CII, and ..omega..(5667 A) = 2860 +- 240, ..omega..(5680 A) = 4810 +- 40 MHz in NII are determined.

  5. The Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS): A Bright Lensed Submillimeter Galaxy in the Field of Abell 773

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawle, Tim; Egami, E.; Rex, M.; Combes, F.; Boone, F.; Smail, I.; Lensing Survey, Herschel

    2012-05-01

    The Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS; PI: Egami) is observing more than 50 massive galaxy clusters with deep PACS and SPIRE (100-500um) imaging, and a further 500 clusters in a SPIRE snapshot program ( 20 deg^2 of far-infrared cluster observations in total). Here, we present a discussion of an exceptionally bright ( 200mJy at 500um) source behind the cluster Abell 773, which is a strongly lensed submillimeter galaxy (SMG) at z=5.2. The source has an intrinsic infrared luminosity L_FIR 1e13 L_sun, with a total magnification factor of 11. We combine Herschel-SMA-IRAM observations of the dust continuum and gas excitation line emission, including multiple CO transitions, [CII] and [NII] (detected for the first time at high-z), to explore the morphology, star formation and ISM in this SMG.

  6. Long-Term Movement of Satellite-Tracked Buoys in the Beaufort Sea.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    REPORT 6. Pffor,,,qOrgen,e.en Code 8. Per/orm0nq Orgern0=° , 0o s Reo.r N. 7 . A tire s) D.L. MURPHY, P.A. TEBEAU, and I.M. LISSAUER CGR&DC 12/81 9 ...Cy NC 0,- X - 0--ece 0 o ~z w m > C Dh. > U) z, CL NII CD E E C Z2 0C ii Ca 0 C V c 0 1 E 06 .C- z 5 0 lea a O z B S& LL L C. CL zL L OL 9 a. 1 C(AII z...Small Buoy Hull Used in this Study 5 4 Release Site in the Southeastern Beaufort Sea 7 5 Tracks of Buoys Released on 9 August 1979 8 6 Tracks of Buoys

  7. Information Infrastructure Technology and Applications (IITA) Program: Annual K-12 Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Paul; Likens, William; Leon, Mark

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the K-12 workshop is to stimulate a cross pollination of inter-center activity and introduce the regional centers to curing edge K-1 activities. The format of the workshop consists of project presentations, working groups, and working group reports, all contained in a three day period. The agenda is aggressive and demanding. The K-12 Education Project is a multi-center activity managed by the Information Infrastructure Technology and Applications (IITA)/K-12 Project Office at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). this workshop is conducted in support of executing the K-12 Education element of the IITA Project The IITA/K-12 Project funds activities that use the National Information Infrastructure (NII) (e.g., the Internet) to foster reform and restructuring in mathematics, science, computing, engineering, and technical education.

  8. Electrospray mass spectral fragmentation study of N,N'-disubstituted imidazolium ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Lesimple, Alain; Mamer, Orval; Miao, Weishi; Chan, Tak Hang

    2006-01-01

    The tandem positive electrospray mass spectrometry (ESMS(n)) fragmentation of ionic liquids incorporating the 1-methyl-imidazolium ring substituted on N(II) with an alkyl chain functionalized with an alcohol, carboxylic acid, or an iodobenzyl or iodobenzoyl ester is presented for the first time. The influence of chain length and function is studied. Esterified structures led to intense CID fragments lacking the imidazolium ring allowing full characterization of the ester moiety. Fragment ion compositions for this interesting and newly important class of compounds are established through accurate mass data and deuterium labeling. The presence of the cationic ring system produces intense even electron molecular cations in electrospray that undergo multiple stages of CID to yield fragments which often are radical cations. Unusual losses of methyl and hydrogen radicals are frequently noted.

  9. Lidar observation of marine mixed layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamagishi, Susumu; Yamanouchi, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Masayuki

    1992-01-01

    Marine mixed layer is known to play an important role in the transportation of pollution exiting ship funnels. The application of a diffusion model is critically dependent upon a reliable estimate of a lid. However, the processes that form lids are not well understood, though considerable progress toward marine boundary layer has been achieved. This report describes observations of the marine mixed layer from the course Ise-wan to Nii-jima with the intention of gaining a better understanding of their structure by a shipboard lidar. These observations were made in the summer of 1991. One interesting feature of the observations was that the multiple layers of aerosols, which is rarely numerically modeled, was encountered. No attempt is yet made to present a systematic analysis of all the data collected. Instead we focus on observations that seem to be directly relevant to the structure of the mixed layer.

  10. The radical mechanism of biological methane synthesis by methyl-coenzyme M reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Wongnate, T.; Sliwa, D.; Ginovska, B.; Smith, D.; Wolf, M. W.; Lehnert, N.; Raugei, S.; Ragsdale, S. W.

    2016-05-19

    Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR), the rate-limiting enzyme in methanogenesis and anaerobic methane oxidation, is responsible for the production of over one billion tons of methane per year. The mechanism of methane synthesis is unknown, with the two leading proposals involving either a methyl-nickel(III) (Mechanism I) or methyl radical/Ni(II)-thiolate (Mechanism II) intermediate(s). When the reaction between the active Ni(I) enzyme with substrates was studied by transient kinetic, spectroscopic and computational methods, formation of an EPR-silent Ni(II)-thiolate intermediate was positively identified by magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy. There was no evidence for an EPR-active methyl-Ni(III) species. Temperature-dependent transient kinetic studies revealed that the activation energy for the initial catalytic step closely matched the value computed by density functional theory for Mechanism II. Thus, our results demonstrate that biological methane synthesis occurs by generation of a methyl radical.

  11. The warm ISM in the Sgr A region: mid-J CO, atomic carbon, ionized atomic carbon, and ionized nitrogen line observations with the Herschel/HIFI and NANTEN2/SMART Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Pablo; Simon, Robert; Stutzki, Jürgen; Requena-Torres, Miguel; Güsten, Rolf; Fukui, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Bertoldi, Frank; Burton, Michael; Bronfman, Leonardo; Ogawa, Hideo

    2014-05-01

    We present Herschel/HIFI sub-mm atomic carbon ([Ci] 3 P 1 - 3 P 0 and [Ci] 3 P 2 - 3 P 1), ionized carbon ([Cii] 2 P 3/2 - 2 P 1/2), and ionized nitrogen ([Nii] 3 P 1 - 3 P 0) line observations obtained in the frame of the Herschel Guaranteed Time HEXGAL (Herschel EXtraGALactic) key program (P. I. Rolf Güsten, MPIfR), and NANTEN2/SMART carbon monoxide (CO(J = 4 - 3)) observations of the warm gas around the Sgr A region. The spectrally resolved emission from all lines, and the corresponding line intensity ratios, show a very complex morphology. The determination of spatial and spectral (anti)correlation with known sources in the Sgr A region such as the Arched Filaments, NTF filaments, the Sickle, Quintuplet cluster, CND clouds, is ongoing work.

  12. Stochastic Adaptive Control and Estimation Enhancement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    total Zu(N-J)’Gj’Q(N)FxIN-1)ou (N-I)I’[ R (N- 1) ’(N I Gil probability theorem to (4.3) yields J*(k.k 3 - min ( Ejx(kl 0(k)x(k) - u(k)’R(klu(k) trQ(N)VI m...Is Independent of Mil), I-k*2 .... N If Dec. 1988. [ Gil N.H. Gholson and R.L. Moose, "ManeuveringM(k.1J Is known, thus Target Tracking Using Adaptive...Control and A(t) =_ J1N X(i,t) is uniformly bounded. Quasi-Variational Inequalities, Gauthier- Villars , . (t9. tER4 , exits 0’ at most a countable

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Warm ISM in the Sagittarius A Complex (Garcia+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, P.; Simon, R.; Stutzki, J.; Gusten, R.; Requena-Torres, M. A.; Higgins, R.

    2016-03-01

    Files contain the observations of CI 1-0 and CI 2-1, NII 1-0, and CII 3/2-1/2 observed with Herschel-HIFI and 12CO 4-3 observed with NANTEN2/SMART telescope of the SgrA Complex in the GC. The data analysis was done via GILDAS-CLASS, where raw data are processed to obtain regularly sampled data. ************************* IMPORTANT NOTE ************************ These data sets have been blocked until 31.12.16 as agreed on with the A&A Editor. Access to channel maps of all observed transitions is immediately available in electronic format in the link provided in the paper, https://www.astro.uni-koeln.de/online-data/GarciaPSgrA_AA588/. For contact information refer to Dr. Pablo Garcia e-mail: pgarcia@iram.es ******************************************************************* Available here on 03-Jan-2017. (2 data files).

  14. Laser operation by dissociation of metal complexes. II - New transitions in Cd, Fe, Ni, Se, Sn, Te, V, and Zn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, M. S.; Cool, T. A.

    1977-01-01

    The reported investigation is a continuation of a study conducted by Chou and Cool (1976). The experimental results discussed are partly related to laser transitions in Cd(I), Cd(II), and Zn(II). Laser transitions in Fe(I), Ni(I), Sn(I), Te(I), and V(I) are also considered along with the observation of a laser pulse with two peaks in connection with the study of laser transitions in Se(I). Experiments related to prospective visible laser operation in thallium at 6550 and 6714 are also discussed, giving attention to spontaneous emission measurements at 6550 and 5350 A, the effects of additive molecules, and laser cavity experiments at 6550 and 6714 A.

  15. Organometallic nickel(III) complexes relevant to cross-coupling and carbon-heteroatom bond formation reactions.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bo; Tang, Fengzhi; Luo, Jia; Schultz, Jason W; Rath, Nigam P; Mirica, Liviu M

    2014-04-30

    Nickel complexes have been widely employed as catalysts in C-C and C-heteroatom bond formation reactions. In addition to Ni(0) and Ni(II) intermediates, several Ni-catalyzed reactions are proposed to also involve odd-electron Ni(I) and Ni(III) oxidation states. We report herein the isolation, structural and spectroscopic characterization, and organometallic reactivity of Ni(III) complexes containing aryl and alkyl ligands. These Ni(III) species undergo transmetalation and/or reductive elimination reactions to form new C-C or C-heteroatom bonds and are also competent catalysts for Kumada and Negishi cross-coupling reactions. Overall, these results provide strong evidence for the direct involvement of organometallic Ni(III) species in cross-coupling reactions and oxidatively induced C-heteroatom bond formation reactions.

  16. Design, synthesis, and carbon-heteroatom coupling reactions of organometallic nickel(IV) complexes.

    PubMed

    Camasso, Nicole M; Sanford, Melanie S

    2015-03-13

    Homogeneous nickel catalysis is used for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, natural products, and polymers. These reactions generally proceed via nickel intermediates in the Ni(0), Ni(I), Ni(II), and/or Ni(III) oxidation states. In contrast, Ni(IV) intermediates are rarely accessible. We report herein the design, synthesis, and characterization of a series of organometallic Ni(IV) complexes, accessed by the reaction of Ni(II) precursors with the widely used oxidant S-(trifluoromethyl)dibenzothiophenium triflate. These Ni(IV) complexes undergo highly selective carbon(sp(3))-oxygen, carbon(sp(3))-nitrogen, and carbon(sp(3))-sulfur coupling reactions with exogenous nucleophiles. The observed reactivity has the potential for direct applications in the development of nickel-catalyzed carbon-heteroatom coupling reactions.

  17. Evolution of In-Situ Generated Reinforcement Precipitates in Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, S.; Kar, S. K.; Catalina, A. V.; Stefanescu, D. M.; Dhindaw, B. K.

    2004-01-01

    Due to certain inherent advantages, in-situ production of Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) have received considerable attention in the recent past. ln-situ techniques typically involve a chemical reaction that results in precipitation of a ceramic reinforcement phase. The size and spatial distribution of these precipitates ultimately determine the mechanical properties of these MMCs. In this paper we will investigate the validity of using classical growth laws and analytical expressions to describe the interaction between a precipitate and a solid-liquid interface (SLI) to predict the size and spatial evolution of the in-situ generated precipitates. Measurements made on size and distribution of Tic precipitates in a Ni&I matrix will be presented to test the validity of such an approach.

  18. Department of the Army Procurement Programs Exhibit P-1, Supporting Data for FY 83 Budget Estimate; The President’s Budget, February 1982.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    CURRiNT YEAR PROGRAM 369.4 49.5 308.6 402.9 10 nII-40A (FLACK MeARK) (MYP) (A0302) soV POC (Uk Vo 26.0 60.6 207.6 128.9 I i1lICOP8t8 |9PotO019 lIGHT ...48 1680200) A 254 !3.0 2 rANIt.l (OMMAND POST LIGHT , IT, A 206140 114 ?3.5 57YA2 (680300) 3 CARI(ER. PERSONkL, IT, AIRM, A 176923 52l 92.0 4113A2...0H-58 (1(0.4*) AA47 12 4 liILICITPItR. IMPROVtO LIGHT COMBAT. MODS A AOI .91 n ’ ?4 4 Ull-ICIA01.ACK HAWK) N4ODS AAC0SS0 16 I. AIftPLAht. ul1I[I. Ui

  19. Role of information systems in controlling costs: the electronic medical record (EMR) and the high-performance computing and communications (HPCC) efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, Luis G.

    1994-12-01

    On October 18, 1991, the IEEE-USA produced an entity statement which endorsed the vital importance of the High Performance Computer and Communications Act of 1991 (HPCC) and called for the rapid implementation of all its elements. Efforts are now underway to develop a Computer Based Patient Record (CBPR), the National Information Infrastructure (NII) as part of the HPCC, and the so-called `Patient Card'. Multiple legislative initiatives which address these and related information technology issues are pending in Congress. Clearly, a national information system will greatly affect the way health care delivery is provided to the United States public. Timely and reliable information represents a critical element in any initiative to reform the health care system as well as to protect and improve the health of every person. Appropriately used, information technologies offer a vital means of improving the quality of patient care, increasing access to universal care and lowering overall costs within a national health care program. Health care reform legislation should reflect increased budgetary support and a legal mandate for the creation of a national health care information system by: (1) constructing a National Information Infrastructure; (2) building a Computer Based Patient Record System; (3) bringing the collective resources of our National Laboratories to bear in developing and implementing the NII and CBPR, as well as a security system with which to safeguard the privacy rights of patients and the physician-patient privilege; and (4) utilizing Government (e.g. DOD, DOE) capabilities (technology and human resources) to maximize resource utilization, create new jobs and accelerate technology transfer to address health care issues.

  20. The spectrum and severity of FUS-immunoreactive inclusions in the frontal and temporal lobes of ten cases of neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Richard A; Gearing, Marla; Bigio, Eileen H; Cruz-Sanchez, Felix F; Duyckaerts, Charles; Mackenzie, Ian R A; Perry, Robert H; Skullerud, Kari; Yokoo, Hedeaki; Cairns, Nigel J

    2011-02-01

    Neuronal intermediate filament inclusion disease (NIFID), a rare form of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), is characterized neuropathologically by focal atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes, neuronal loss, gliosis, and neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCI) containing epitopes of ubiquitin and neuronal intermediate filament proteins. Recently, the 'fused in sarcoma' (FUS) protein (encoded by the FUS gene) has been shown to be a component of the inclusions of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with FUS mutation, NIFID, basophilic inclusion body disease, and atypical FTLD with ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions (aFTLD-U). To further characterize FUS proteinopathy in NIFID, and to determine whether the pathology revealed by FUS immunohistochemistry (IHC) is more extensive than α-internexin, we have undertaken a quantitative assessment of ten clinically and neuropathologically well-characterized cases using FUS IHC. The densities of NCI were greatest in the dentate gyrus (DG) and in sectors CA1/2 of the hippocampus. Anti-FUS antibodies also labeled glial inclusions (GI), neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NII), and dystrophic neurites (DN). Vacuolation was extensive across upper and lower cortical layers. Significantly greater densities of abnormally enlarged neurons and glial cell nuclei were present in the lower compared with the upper cortical laminae. FUS IHC revealed significantly greater numbers of NCI in all brain regions especially the DG. Our data suggest: (1) significant densities of FUS-immunoreactive NCI in NIFID especially in the DG and CA1/2; (2) infrequent FUS-immunoreactive GI, NII, and DN; (3) widely distributed vacuolation across the cortex, and (4) significantly more NCI revealed by FUS than α-internexin IHC.

  1. Catalysis by methyl-coenzyme M reductase: a theoretical study for heterodisulfide product formation.

    PubMed

    Pelmenschikov, Vladimir; Siegbahn, Per E M

    2003-07-01

    Hybrid density functional theory has been used to investigate the catalytic mechanism of methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR), an essential enzyme in methanogenesis. In a previous study of methane formation, a scheme was suggested involving oxidation of Ni(I) in the starting square-planar coordination to the high-spin Ni(II) form in the CoM-S-Ni(II)F(430) octahedral intermediate. The methyl radical, concomitantly released by methyl-coenzyme M (CoM), is rapidly quenched by hydrogen atom transfer from the coenzyme B (CoB) thiol group, yielding methane as the first product of the reaction. The present investigation primarily concerns the second and final step of the reaction: oxidation of CoB and CoM to the CoB-S-S-CoM heterodisulfide product and reduction of nickel back to the Ni(I) square-planar form. The activation energy for the second step is found to be around 10 kcal/mol, implying that the first step of methane formation with an activation energy of 20 kcal/mol should be rate-limiting. An oxygen of the Gln147 residue, occupying the rear axial position in the oxidized Ni(II) state, is shown to stabilize the intermediate by 6 kcal/mol, thereby slightly decreasing the barrier for the preceding rate-limiting transition state. The mechanism suggested is discussed in the context of available experimental data. An analysis of the flexibility of the F(430) cofactor during the reaction cycle is also given.

  2. Identification and multi-filter photometry of HII regions from nearby galaxies with J-PLUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logroño-García, R.; Vilella-Rojo, G.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Varela, J.; Muniesa, D.; Lamadrid, J. L.; Cenarro, A. J.; J-PLUS, T.

    2017-03-01

    The Javalambre Photometric Local Universe Survey (J-PLUS) has already started the data acquisition phase at the Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre (OAJ) in Teruel, Spain. Benefiting from the large field of view (2 deg^2) and the 12 filters set of the T80Cam at the T80/JAST telescope, we aim to study the properties of HII regions in nearby galaxies (z < 0.015). In this poster, we apply our procedures to the galaxy Messier 101. We have developed a fully automatized pipeline to identify and characterize the nearby universe HII regions. This pipeline: (1) Homogenizes the PSF in the 12 images of the different filters. (2) Estimates realistic photometric errors following Labbé et al. (2003) method. (3) Constructs a detection image showing the excess of Hα+[NII], following Vilella-Rojo et al. (2015) prescriptions. (4) Performs the photometry in the 12 J-PLUS bands using as reference the Hα+NII detection image. (5) Constructs the photo-spectra for each identified HII region. We demonstrate the capabilities of this method by comparing synthetic aperture photometry from SDSS spectra with the Hα flux measured with J-PLUS data. Such comparison can be found in the poster by Vilella-Rojo et al. Once the pipeline is implemented, we will generate a catalog of nearby HII regions at z<0.015 in the 8500deg^2 of J-PLUS. With this catalog, we will study the impact of environment in the 2D star formation properties of nearby galaxies, taking advantage of the unprecedented large contiguous area that J-PLUS will offer.

  3. The Conditions Underpinning Extreme Star Formation in ULIRGs and LIRGs as Revealed by Herschel Far-Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasquez, Gabriel A.; Ashby, Matthew; Smith, Howard Alan; McTier, Moiya; Melendez, Marcio

    2016-01-01

    We present a systematic survey of molecular and atomic line fluxes in all star-forming galaxies observed by the Herschel PACs instrument with detectable OH lines that also contain Herschel SPIRE FTS spectra, to determine how physical conditions vary as a function of star formation rate. Specifically, we measured selected CO, H2O, [CI], and [NII] integrated line fluxes in a sample of 145 star-forming galaxies covering a range of far-infrared luminosities ranging from 109 to above 1012 LSun . Thus, our sample includes typical, quiescent galaxies as well as Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs) and Ultra Luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs), known to be creating stars extremely rapidly. We find evidence suggesting that ULIRGs with far-infrared luminosities of LFIR> 1012 LSun require an additional heating mechanism other than UV heating from star formation, while LIRGs and less luminous star-forming galaxies may be heated primarily by their star formation. We also find that the [NII] 3P1 - 3P0 fine structure line flux and those of the CO J=5-4, CO J=7-6, and CO J=8-7 transitions are generally weaker for ULIRGs compared to LIRGs and less luminous star-forming galaxies, while we find the CO J=11-10, CO J=12-11, and CO J=13-12 transitions are generally stronger. In all these respects, ULIRGs are shown to differ significantly from other galaxies undergoing less extreme star formation. This work was supported in part by the NSF REU and DoD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  4. Identification of hypoxia-inducible target genes of Aspergillus fumigatus by transcriptome analysis reveals cellular respiration as an important contributor to hypoxic survival.

    PubMed

    Kroll, Kristin; Pähtz, Vera; Hillmann, Falk; Vaknin, Yakir; Schmidt-Heck, Wolfgang; Roth, Martin; Jacobsen, Ilse D; Osherov, Nir; Brakhage, Axel A; Kniemeyer, Olaf

    2014-09-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic, airborne pathogen that causes invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. During the infection process, A. fumigatus is challenged by hypoxic microenvironments occurring in inflammatory, necrotic tissue. To gain further insights into the adaptation mechanism, A. fumigatus was cultivated in an oxygen-controlled chemostat under hypoxic and normoxic conditions. Transcriptome analysis revealed a significant increase in transcripts associated with cell wall polysaccharide metabolism, amino acid and metal ion transport, nitrogen metabolism, and glycolysis. A concomitant reduction in transcript levels was observed with cellular trafficking and G-protein-coupled signaling. To learn more about the functional roles of hypoxia-induced transcripts, we deleted A. fumigatus genes putatively involved in reactive nitrogen species detoxification (fhpA), NAD(+) regeneration (frdA and osmA), nitrogen metabolism (niaD and niiA), and respiration (rcfB). We show that the nitric oxygen (NO)-detoxifying flavohemoprotein gene fhpA is strongly induced by hypoxia independent of the nitrogen source but is dispensable for hypoxic survival. By deleting the nitrate reductase gene niaD, the nitrite reductase gene niiA, and the two fumarate reductase genes frdA and osmA, we found that alternative electron acceptors, such as nitrate and fumarate, do not have a significant impact on growth of A. fumigatus during hypoxia, but functional mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes are essential under these conditions. Inhibition studies indicated that primarily complexes III and IV play a crucial role in the hypoxic growth of A. fumigatus.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Hα in HII regions in spiral galaxies (Marquez+, 2002)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Moles, M.; Varela, J.; Bettoni, D.; Galletta, G.

    2002-07-01

    In this paper we study long slit spectra in the region of Hα emission line of a sample of 111 spiral galaxies with recognizable and well defined spiral morphology and with a well determined environmental status, ranging from isolation to non-disruptive interaction with satellites or companions. The form and properties of the rotation curves are considered as a function of the isolation degree, morphological type and luminosity. The line ratios are used to estimate the metallicity of all the detected H II regions, thus producing a composite metallicity profile for different types of spirals. We have found that isolated galaxies tend to be of later types and lower luminosity than the interacting galaxies. The outer parts of the rotation curves of isolated galaxies tend to be flatter than in interacting galaxies, but they show similar relations between global parameters. The scatter of the Tully-Fisher relation defined by isolated galaxies is significantly lower than that of interacting galaxies. The [NII]/Hα ratios, used as a metallicity indicator, show a clear trend between Z and morphological type, t, with earlier spirals showing higher ratios; this trend is tighter when instead of t the gradient of the inner rotation curve, G, is used; no trend is found with the change in interaction status. The Z-gradient of the disks depends on the type, being almost flat for early spirals, and increasing for later types. The [NII]/Hα ratios measured for disk H II regions of interacting galaxies are higher than for normal/isolated objects, even if all the galaxy families present similar distributions of Hα equivalent width. (1 data file).

  6. Circumnuclear ionized gas in starburst nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taniguchi, Yoshiaki

    1990-01-01

    In order to study kinematical properties of starburst nuclei (SBNs), researchers made high-resolution spectroscopy of fifteen SBNs in the H alpha region using an intensified Reticon system attached to the coude focus of the 188-cm reflector at the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory. The instrumental resolution is 21 km s(-1) Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM) at lambda sub H alpha. As for the archetypical SBN, Mrk 538 (=NGC 7714), researchers present high-resolution emission line profiles of several species of ions such as (OIII), (NII), (SII), and (OII). Main results and conclusions are summarized. It has been known that emission-line profiles of SBNs are symmetrical and narrow. However, this high-resolution spectroscopy shows that the observed emission-line profiles of the SBNs have the following asymmetrical patterns; blueward, redward, and double-peaked. It is known that such features have been observed for narrow line regions (NLRs) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). There is no remarkable correlation between the asymmetry index and the reddening indicator such as a Balmer decrement. Thus the line asymmetry is not attributed to inhomogeneous obscuration in the emitting regions. The observed FWHMs of the H alpha emission lines cover a range from 85 km s(-1) to 318 km s(-1) and are slightly larger than those of (NII) lambda 6584A emission except for the double-peaked SBNs. The FWHMs of H alpha emission show a good correlation with sin i (i is an inclination angle of galaxy). This correlation means that the FWHMs of the SBNs suffer significantly from rotational broadening. Mrk 52 is an anomalous SBN because it has narrow emission line widths for its high inclination angle (cf. Taniguchi 1987). From the above correlation, it is estimated that the intrinsic (i.e., rotation free) FWHMs of H alpha emission are about 50 km s(-1).

  7. Circumnuclear ionized gas in starburst nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Yoshiaki

    1990-07-01

    In order to study kinematical properties of starburst nuclei (SBNs), researchers made high-resolution spectroscopy of fifteen SBNs in the H alpha region using an intensified Reticon system attached to the coude focus of the 188-cm reflector at the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory. The instrumental resolution is 21 km s(-1) Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM) at lambdaH alpha. As for the archetypical SBN, Mrk 538 (=NGC 7714), researchers present high-resolution emission line profiles of several species of ions such as (OIII), (NII), (SII), and (OII). Main results and conclusions are summarized. It has been known that emission-line profiles of SBNs are symmetrical and narrow. However, this high-resolution spectroscopy shows that the observed emission-line profiles of the SBNs have the following asymmetrical patterns; blueward, redward, and double-peaked. It is known that such features have been observed for narrow line regions (NLRs) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). There is no remarkable correlation between the asymmetry index and the reddening indicator such as a Balmer decrement. Thus the line asymmetry is not attributed to inhomogeneous obscuration in the emitting regions. The observed FWHMs of the H alpha emission lines cover a range from 85 km s(-1) to 318 km s(-1) and are slightly larger than those of (NII) lambda 6584A emission except for the double-peaked SBNs. The FWHMs of H alpha emission show a good correlation with sin i (i is an inclination angle of galaxy). This correlation means that the FWHMs of the SBNs suffer significantly from rotational broadening. Mrk 52 is an anomalous SBN because it has narrow emission line widths for its high inclination angle (cf. Taniguchi 1987). From the above correlation, it is estimated that the intrinsic (i.e., rotation free) FWHMs of H alpha emission are about 50 km s(-1).

  8. The outflow of gas from the Centaurus A circumnuclear disk. Atomic spectral line maps from Herschel/PACS and APEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israel, F. P.; Güsten, R.; Meijerink, R.; Requena-Torres, M. A.; Stutzki, J.

    2017-02-01

    The physical state of the gas in the central 500 pc of NGC 5128 (the radio galaxy Centaurus A), was investigated using the fine-structure lines of carbon [CI], [CII]; oxygen [OI], [OIII], and nitrogen [NII], [NIII] as well as the 12CO(4-3) molecular line. The circumnuclear disk (CND) is traced by emission from dust and the neutral gas ([CI] and 12CO). A gas outflow with a line-of-sight velocity of 60 km s-1 is evident in both lines. The [CI] emission from the CND is unusually strong with respect to that from CO. The center of the CND (R < 90 pc) is bright in [OI], [OIII], and [CII]; [OI] λ63 μm emission dominates that of [CII] even though it is absorbed with optical depths τ = 1.0-1.5. The outflow is well-traced by the [NII] and [NIII] lines and also seen in the [CII] and [OIII] lines that peak in the center. Ionized gas densities are highest in the CND (about 100 cm-3) and low everywhere else. Neutral gas densities range from 4000 cm-3 (outflow, extended thin disk ETD) to 20 000 cm-3 (CND). The CND radiation field (Go ≈ 4) is weak compared to the ETD starburst field (Go ≈ 40). The outflow has a much stronger radiation field (Go = 130). The total mass of all the CND gas is 9.1 ± 0.9×107M⊙ but the mass of the outflowing gas is only 15-30% of that. The outflow most likely originates from the shock-dominated CND cavity surrounding the central black hole. With a factor of three uncertainty, the mass outflow rate is ≈ 2 M⊙ yr-1, a thousand times higher than the accretion rate of the black hole. Without replenishment, the CND will be depleted in 15-120 million years. However, the outflow velocity is well below the escape velocity.

  9. Hydride reactivity of Ni(II)-X-Ni(II) entities: mixed-valent hydrido complexes and reversible metal reduction.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Henrike; Metzinger, Ramona; Herwig, Christian; Intemann, Julia; Harder, Sjoerd; Limberg, Christian

    2013-01-28

    After the lithiation of PYR-H(2) (PYR(2-) =[{NC(Me)C(H)C(Me)NC(6)H(3)(iPr)(2)}(2)(C(5)H(3)N)](2-)), which is the precursor of an expanded β-diketiminato ligand system with two binding pockets, its reaction with [NiBr(2) (dme)] led to a dinuclear nickel(II)-bromide complex, [(PYR)Ni(μ-Br)NiBr] (1). The bridging bromide ligand could be selectively exchanged for a thiolate ligand to yield [(PYR)Ni(μ-SEt)NiBr] (3). In an attempt to introduce hydride ligands, both compounds were treated with KHBEt(3). This treatment afforded [(PYR)Ni(μ-H)Ni] (2), which is a mixed valent Ni(I)-μ-H-Ni(II) complex, and [(PYR-H)Ni(μ-SEt)Ni] (4), in which two tricoordinated Ni(I) moieties are strongly antiferromagnetically coupled. Compound 4 is the product of an initial salt metathesis, followed by an intramolecular redox process that separates the original hydride ligand into two electrons, which reduce the metal centres, and a proton, which is trapped by one of the binding pockets, thereby converting it into an olefin ligand on one of the Ni(I) centres. The addition of a mild acid to complex 4 leads to the elimination of H(2) and the formation of a Ni(II)Ni(II) compound, [(PYR)Ni(μ-SEt)NiOTf] (5), so that the original Ni(II) (μ-SEt)Ni(II) X core of compound 3 is restored. All of these compounds were fully characterized, including by X-ray diffraction, and their molecular structures, as well as their formation processes, are discussed.

  10. Perfis de temperatura eletrônica em regiões HII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copetti, M. V. F.

    2003-08-01

    As flutuações de temperatura eletrônica em regiões HII, inicialmente propostas para explicar as discrepâncias entre os valores de temperatura obtidos por diferentes métodos, têm sido apontadas como a causa mais provável das enormes diferenças encontradas entre as abundâncias químicas medidas através de linhas excitadas colisionalmente e de linhas de recombinação. Recentemente têm sido reportadas tentativas de detecção e quantificação diretas das flutuações de temperatura eletrônica através de medidas ponto a ponto, obtidas por meio de espectroscopia de fenda longa, das razões de linhas [OIII]l4263/l5007 e [NII]l5755/l6584, principais sensores de temperatura. Neste trabalho, utilizamos o código numérico de fotoionização Cloudy para avaliar a confiabilidade desse procedimento. Concluímos que, para valores de densidade eletrônica e de temperatura efetiva da estrela ionizante típicos das regiões HII, os perfis superficiais de temperatura obtidos via medidas do sensor [OIII]l4263/l5007 são bons traçadores dos gradientes internos de temperatura eletrônica. Já os perfis de temperatura eletrônica medidos por meio da razão [NII]l5755/l6584 não reproduzem os gradientes verdadeiros de temperatura.

  11. Decommissioning at AWE

    SciTech Connect

    Biles, K.; Hedges, M.; Campbell, C

    2008-07-01

    AWE (A) has been at the heart of the UK Nuclear deterrent since it was established in the early 1950's. It is a nuclear licensed site and is governed by the United Kingdoms Nuclear Installation Inspectorate (NII). AWE plc on behalf of the Ministry of Defence (MOD) manages the AWE (A) site and all undertakings including decommissioning. Therefore under NII license condition 35 'Decommissioning', AWE plc is accountable to make and implement adequate arrangements for the decommissioning of any plant or process, which may affect safety. The majority of decommissioning projects currently being undertaken are to do with Hazard category 3, 4 or 5 facilities, systems or plant that have reached the end of their operational span and have undergone Post-Operational Clean-Out (POCO). They were either built for the production of fissile components, for supporting the early reactor fuels programmes or for processing facility waste arisings. They either contain redundant contaminated gloveboxes associated process areas, process plant or systems or a combination of all. In parallel with decommissioning project AWE (A) are undertaking investigation into new technologies to aid decommissioning projects; to remove the operative from hands on operations; to develop and implement modifications to existing process and techniques used. AWE (A) is currently going thorough a sustained phase of upgrading its facilities to enhance its scientific capability, with older facilities, systems and plant being replaced, making decommissioning a growth area. It is therefore important to the company to reduce these hazards progressively and safety over the coming years, making decommissioning an important feature of the overall legacy management aspects of AWE PLC's business. This paper outlines the current undertakings and progress of Nuclear decommissioning on the AWE (A) site. (authors)

  12. Warm ISM in the Sagittarius A Complex. I. Mid-J CO, atomic carbon, ionized atomic carbon, and ionized nitrogen sub-mm/FIR line observations with the Herschel-HIFI and NANTEN2/SMART telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, P.; Simon, R.; Stutzki, J.; Güsten, R.; Requena-Torres, M. A.; Higgins, R.

    2016-04-01

    Aims: We investigate the spatial and spectral distribution of the local standard of rest (LSR) velocity resolved submillimetre emission from the warm (25-90 K) gas in the Sgr A Complex, located in the Galactic centre. Methods: We present large-scale submillimetre heterodyne observations towards the Sgr A Complex covering ~300 arcmin2. These data were obtained in the frame of the Herschel EXtraGALactic guaranteed time key program (HEXGAL) with the Herschel-HIFI satellite and are complemented with submillimetre observations obtained with the NANTEN2/SMART telescope as part of the NANTEN2/SMART Central Nuclear Zone Survey. The observed species are CO(J = 4-3) at 461.0 GHz observed with the NANTEN2/SMART telescope, and [CI] 3P1-3P0 at 492.2 GHz, [CI] 3P2-3P1 at 809.3 GHz, [NII] 3P1-3P0 at 1461.1 GHz, and [CII] 2P3/2-2P1/2 at 1900.5 GHz observed with the Herschel-HIFI satellite. The observations are presented in a 1 km s-1 spectral resolution and a spatial resolution ranging from 46 arcsec to 28 arcsec. The spectral coverage of the three lower frequency lines is ±200 km s-1, while in the two high frequency lines, the upper LSR velocity limit is +94 km s-1 and +145 km s-1 for the [NII] and [CII] lines, respectively. Results: The spatial distribution of the emission in all lines is very widespread. The bulk of the carbon monoxide emission is found towards Galactic latitudes below the Galactic plane, and all the known molecular clouds are identified. Both neutral atomic carbon lines have their brightest emission associated with the +50 km s-1 cloud. Their spatial distribution at this LSR velocity describes a crescent-shape structure, which is probably the result of interaction with the energetic event (one or several supernovae explosions) that gave origin to the non-thermal Sgr A-East source. The [CII] and [NII] emissions have most of their flux associated with the thermal arched-filaments and the H region and bright spots in [CII] emission towards the central nuclear

  13. Development of the 2nd generation z(Redshift) and early universe spectrometer & the study of far-IR fine structure emission in high-z galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl

    The 2nd generation z (Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-2), is a long-slit echelle-grating spectrometer (R~1000) for observations at submillimeter wavelengths from 200 to 850 microm. Its design is optimized for the detection of redshifted far-infrared spectral lines from galaxies in the early universe. Combining exquisite sensitivity, broad wavelength coverage, and large (˜2.5%) instantaneous bandwidth, ZEUS-2 is uniquely suited for studying galaxies between z˜0.2 and 5---spanning the peaks in both the star formation rate and number of AGN in the universe. ZEUS-2 saw first light at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) in the Spring of 2012 and was commissioned on the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) in November 2012. Here we detail the design and performance of ZEUS-2, first however we discuss important science results that are examples of the science enabled by ZEUS-2. Using the first generation z (Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-1) we made the first high-z detections of the [NII] 122 microm and [OIII] 88 microm lines. We detect these lines from starburst galaxies between z ˜2.5 and 4 demonstrating the utility of these lines for characterizing the properties of early galaxies. Specifically we are able to determine the most massive star still on the main sequence, the number of those stars and a lower limit on the mass of ionized gas in the source. Next we present ZEUS-2's first science result. Using ZEUS-2 on APEX we have detected the [CII] 158 microm line from the z = 1.78 galaxy H-ATLAS J091043.1-000322 with a line flux of (6.44 +/- 0.42) ˜ 10-18 W m-2. Combined with its far-infrared luminosity and a new Herschel-PACS detection of the [OI] 63 microm line we are able to conclude that H-ATLAS J091043.1-000322 is a high redshift analogue of a local ultra-luminous infrared galaxy, i.e. it is likely the site of a compact starburst due to a major merger. This detection, combined with the ZEUS-1 observations of the [NII

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Growth curves of CALIFA spiral galaxies (Iglesias-Paramo+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias-Paramo, J.; Vilchez, J. M.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Sanchez, S. F.; Duarte Puertas, S.; Petropoulou, V.; Gil de Paz, A.; Galbany, L.; Molla, M.; Catalan-Torrecilla, C.; Castillo Morales, A.; Mast, D.; Husemann, B.; Garcia-Benito, R.; Mendoza, M. A.; Kehrig, C.; Perez-Montero, E.; Papaderos, P.; Gomes, J. M.; Walcher, C. J.; Gonzalez Delgado, R. M.; Marino, R. A.; Lopez-Sanchez, A. R.; Ziegler, B.; Flores, H.; Alves, J.

    2016-09-01

    This paper aims to provide aperture corrections for emission lines in a sample of spiral galaxies from the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area Survey (CALIFA; Sanchez+, 2012A&A...538A...8S) database. In particular, we explore the behavior of the log([OIII]λ5007/Hβ)/([NII]λ6583/Hα) (O3N2) and log[NII]λ6583/Hα (N2) flux ratios since they are closely connected to different empirical calibrations of the oxygen abundances in star-forming galaxies. We compute the median growth curves of Hα, Hα/Hβ, O3N2, and N2 up to 2.5R50 and 1.5 disk Reff. These distances cover most of the optical spatial extent of the CALIFA galaxies. The growth curves simulate the effect of observing galaxies through apertures of varying radii. We split these growth curves by morphological types and stellar masses to check if there is any dependence on these properties. The median growth curve of the Hα flux shows a monotonous increase with radius with no strong dependence on galaxy inclination, morphological type, and stellar mass. The median growth curve of the Hα/Hβ ratio monotonically decreases from the center toward larger radii, showing for small apertures a maximum value of ~10% larger than the integrated one. It does not show any dependence on inclination, morphological type, and stellar mass. The median growth curve of N2 shows a similar behavior, decreasing from the center toward larger radii. No strong dependence is seen on the inclination, morphological type, and stellar mass. Finally, the median growth curve of O3N2 increases monotonically with radius, and it does not show dependence on the inclination. However, at small radii it shows systematically higher values for galaxies of earlier morphological types and for high stellar mass galaxies. Applying our aperture corrections to a sample of galaxies from the SDSS survey at 0.02<=z<=0.3 shows that the average difference between fiber-based and aperture-corrected oxygen abundances, for different galaxy stellar mass and

  15. Optical Imaging and Spectroscopy of the Edge-on Sbc Galaxy UGC 10043: Evidence for a Galactic Wind and a Peculiar Triaxial Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, L. D.; de Grijs, R.

    2004-07-01

    We present new optical imaging and spectroscopy of the peculiar, edge-on Sbc galaxy UGC 10043. Using the WIYN telescope, we have obtained B, R, and Hα+[NII] images, together with DensePak integral field spectroscopic measurements of the stellar Ca II infrared triplet and the Hα and [N II] lines from the ionized gas. The imaging observations show that the inner bulge of UGC 10043 (a<=7.5") is elongated perpendicular to the galaxy major axis. At larger r the bulge isophotes twist to become oblate and nearly circular, suggesting the bulge is triaxial. The bulge shows no clear evidence for rotation about either its major or minor axis. The inner, southwestern quadrant of the bulge is girdled by a narrow dust lane parallel to the minor axis; unsharp masking reveals that this minor-axis dust lane may be part of an inner polar ring, although we find no unambiguous kinematic evidence of orthogonally rotating material. The stellar disk of UGC 10043 has a rather low optical surface brightness [μ(0)R,i~23.2 mag arcsec-2], a small scale height (hz=395 pc for D=33.4 Mpc), and a mild integral sign warp. A dusty, inner disk component that appears tilted relative to the outlying disk is also seen. The Hα and [N II] emission lines in UGC 10043 resolve into multiple velocity components, indicating the presence of a large-scale galactic wind with an outflow velocity of Vout>~104 km s-1. Hα+[NII] imaging reaffirms this picture by revealing ionized gas extended to |z|~3.5 kpc in the form of a roughly biconical structure. The [N II]/Hα line intensity ratio increases with increasing distance from the plane, reaching values as high as 1.7. Unlike most galaxies with large-scale winds, UGC 10043 has only a modest global star formation rate (<~1 Msolar yr-1), implying the wind is powered by a rather feeble central starburst. We discuss evolutionary scenarios that could account for both the structural complexities of UGC 10043 and its large-scale wind. The most plausible scenarios

  16. Detection of organometallic and radical intermediates in the catalytic mechanism of methyl-coenzyme M reductase using the natural substrate methyl-coenzyme M and a coenzyme B substrate analogue.

    PubMed

    Dey, Mishtu; Li, Xianghui; Kunz, Ryan C; Ragsdale, Stephen W

    2010-12-28

    Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) from methanogenic archaea catalyzes the terminal step in methanogenesis using coenzyme B (CoBSH) as the two-electron donor to reduce methyl-coenzyme M (methyl-SCoM) to form methane and the heterodisulfide, CoBS-SCoM. The active site of MCR contains an essential redox-active nickel tetrapyrrole cofactor, coenzyme F(430), which is active in the Ni(I) state (MCR(red1)). Several catalytic mechanisms have been proposed for methane synthesis that mainly differ in whether an organometallic methyl-Ni(III) or a methyl radical is the first catalytic intermediate. A mechanism was recently proposed in which methyl-Ni(III) undergoes homolysis to generate a methyl radical (Li, X., Telser, J., Kunz, R. C., Hoffman, B. M., Gerfen, G., and Ragsdale, S. W. (2010) Biochemistry 49, 6866-6876). Discrimination among these mechanisms requires identification of the proposed intermediates, none of which have been observed with native substrates. Apparently, intermediates form and decay too rapidly to accumulate to detectible amounts during the reaction between methyl-SCoM and CoBSH. Here, we describe the reaction of methyl-SCoM with a substrate analogue (CoB(6)SH) in which the seven-carbon heptanoyl moiety of CoBSH has been replaced with a hexanoyl group. When MCR(red1) is reacted with methyl-SCoM and CoB(6)SH, methanogenesis occurs 1000-fold more slowly than with CoBSH. By transient kinetic methods, we observe decay of the active Ni(I) state coupled to formation and subsequent decay of alkyl-Ni(III) and organic radical intermediates at catalytically competent rates. The kinetic data also revealed substrate-triggered conformational changes in active Ni(I)-MCR(red1). Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies coupled with isotope labeling experiments demonstrate that the radical intermediate is not tyrosine-based. These observations provide support for a mechanism for MCR that involves methyl-Ni(III) and an organic radical as catalytic intermediates

  17. OT2_jpineda_2: Large-scale dynamics and the formation of clouds and stars in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda, J.

    2011-09-01

    Understanding the processes governing the formation of clouds and stars in merging systems is key for the study of how galaxies evolved in the early Universe. The 30 Doradus region in the low-metallicity Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is the nearest example of this process, resulting from the interaction between the LMC and the halo of the Milky Way. This makes 30 Doradus the prime laboratory to study these large-scale dynamical processes under conditions that are similar to those at early cosmological times. We propose to use Herschel to obtain a large-scale uniform sampling of this region in [CII] 158um, [NII] 122um and 205um, and [OI] 63um and 146um lines with PACS, and at selected positions in [CII] with HIFI. With this data we will derive the large-scale distribution of the density and pressure of the low-metallicity gas revealing the characteristic signatures of shocked gas. This will then be used to determine the relationships among the diffuse, "dark H2", and dense molecular gas in the 30 Doradus region. We will also derive the electron density distribution of the gas and from this the contribution from ionized gas to the observed [CII] emission. The proposed observations will allow us to study the effect of large-scale gas compression in the multiphase, low-metallicity interstellar medium of 30 Doradus. This information will be valuable for the interpretation of future observations of [CII] in high-redshift galaxies made with ALMA

  18. Aspergillus fumigatus transcriptome response to a higher temperature during the earliest steps of germination monitored using a new customized expression microarray.

    PubMed

    Sueiro-Olivares, Mónica; Fernandez-Molina, Jimena V; Abad-Diaz-de-Cerio, Ana; Gorospe, Eva; Pascual, Elisabeth; Guruceaga, Xabier; Ramirez-Garcia, Andoni; Garaizar, Javier; Hernando, Fernando L; Margareto, Javier; Rementeria, Aitor

    2015-03-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is considered to be the most prevalent airborne pathogenic fungus and can cause invasive diseases in immunocompromised patients. It is known that its virulence is multifactorial, although the mechanisms of pathogenicity remain unclear. With the aim of improving our understanding of these mechanisms, we designed a new expression microarray covering the entire genome of A. fumigatus. In this first study, we analysed the transcriptomes of this fungus at the first steps of germination after being grown at 24 and 37 °C. The microarray data revealed that 1249 genes were differentially expressed during growth at these two temperatures. According to our results, A. fumigatus modified significantly the expression of genes related to metabolism to adapt to new conditions. The high percentages of genes that encoded hypothetical or unclassified proteins differentially expressed implied that many as yet unknown genes were involved in the establishment of A. fumigatus infection. Furthermore, amongst the genes implicated in virulence upregulated at 37 °C on the microarray, we found those that encoded proteins mainly related to allergens (Asp F1, Asp F2 and MnSOD), gliotoxin biosynthesis (GliP and GliZ), nitrogen (NiiA and NiaD) or iron (HapX, SreA, SidD and SidC) metabolism. However, gene expression in iron and nitrogen metabolism might be influenced not only by heat shock, but also by the availability of nutrients in the medium, as shown by the addition of fresh medium.

  19. The ZINGRS Radio Survey: Probing metallicities at high-z with far-IR fine-structure lines and the radio continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Higdon, Sarah; Higdon, James L.; Tidwell, Hannah; Rangel, Miguel; Vishwas, Amit; Nikola, Thomas; Stacey, Gordon J.; Brisbin, Drew

    2017-01-01

    The present day Universe is rich in metals that enable efficient cooling of gas in the ISM in order to form stars, create planets and make the building blocks of life as we know it. The Universe did not start in this state - we know that metals had to build up over time with successive generations of stars. Revealing the details of this evolution, however, is challenging and requires probes of metallicity that are not susceptible to dust extinction nor exhibit the degeneracies common to tracers in the visible regime. One possible indicator combines the far-IR fine structure lines with the radio continuum. Recently we have undertaken a multi-band radio continuum survey with the JVLA of high-z galaxies from ZINGRS. These observations will constrain the galaxies’ thermal and nonthermal radio emissions and demonstrate the use of far-IR lines together with radio continuum as a metallicity indicator. ZINGRS, the ZEUS 1 and 2 INvestigated Galaxy Reference Sample, includes ~30 galaxies from z ~ 1 - 4.5 for which the far-IR fine-structure lines (e.g. [CII] 158, [NII] 122, [OIII] 88) have been observed with the ZEUS-1 and 2 instruments. This is the largest collection of far-IR fine-structure line detections at high-z and is ideal for demonstrating the use of this new indicator. Here we describe the theory behind the new indicator, give an overview of ZINGRS, and report on the status of our radio survey.

  20. Spectroscopically and spatially resolved optical line emission in the Superantennae (IRAS 19254-7245)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendo, George J.; Clements, David L.; Khan, Sophia A.

    2009-10-01

    We present Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph integral-field spectroscopic observations of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) pair IRAS 19254-7245 (the Superantennae). We resolve Hα, [NII], [OI] and [SII] emission both spatially and spectroscopically, and separate the emission into multiple velocity components. We identify spectral line emission characteristic of star formation associated with both galaxies, broad spectral line emission from the nucleus of the southern progenitor and potential outflows with shock-excited spectral features near both nuclei. We estimate that <~10 per cent of the 24 μm flux density originates from star formation, implying that most of the 24 μm emission originates from the active galactic nuclei in the southern nucleus. We also measure a gas consumption time of ~1 Gyr, which is consistent with other measurements of ULIRGs. Based on observations collected at the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern hemisphere, Chile [080.B-0085]. E-mail: g.bendo@imperial.ac.uk ‡ ALMA fellow.

  1. Sharing lattice QCD data over a widely distributed file system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amagasa, T.; Aoki, S.; Aoki, Y.; Aoyama, T.; Doi, T.; Fukumura, K.; Ishii, N.; Ishikawa, K.-I.; Jitsumoto, H.; Kamano, H.; Konno, Y.; Matsufuru, H.; Mikami, Y.; Miura, K.; Sato, M.; Takeda, S.; Tatebe, O.; Togawa, H.; Ukawa, A.; Ukita, N.; Watanabe, Y.; Yamazaki, T.; Yoshie, T.

    2015-12-01

    JLDG is a data-grid for the lattice QCD (LQCD) community in Japan. Several large research groups in Japan have been working on lattice QCD simulations using supercomputers distributed over distant sites. The JLDG provides such collaborations with an efficient method of data management and sharing. File servers installed on 9 sites are connected to the NII SINET VPN and are bound into a single file system with the GFarm. The file system looks the same from any sites, so that users can do analyses on a supercomputer on a site, using data generated and stored in the JLDG at a different site. We present a brief description of hardware and software of the JLDG, including a recently developed subsystem for cooperating with the HPCI shared storage, and report performance and statistics of the JLDG. As of April 2015, 15 research groups (61 users) store their daily research data of 4.7PB including replica and 68 million files in total. Number of publications for works which used the JLDG is 98. The large number of publications and recent rapid increase of disk usage convince us that the JLDG has grown up into a useful infrastructure for LQCD community in Japan.

  2. National Security Science and Technology Initiative: Air Cargo Screening, Final Report for CRADA Number NFE-07-01081

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, Philip; Bush, John; Bowerman, Biays; Cespedes, Ernesto; White, Timothy

    2004-12-01

    The non-intrusive inspection (NII) of consolidated air cargo carried on commercial passenger aircraft continues to be a technically challenging, high-priority requirement of the Department of Homeland Security’s Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T), the Transportation Security Agency and the Federal Aviation Administration. The goal of deploying a screening system that can reliably and cost-effectively detect explosive threats in consolidated cargo without adversely affecting the flow of commerce will require significant technical advances that will take years to develop. To address this critical National Security need, the Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle), under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with four of its associated US Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, Idaho, and Brookhaven), conducted a research and development initiative focused on identifying, evaluating, and integrating technologies for screening consolidated air cargo for the presence of explosive threats. Battelle invested $8.5M of internal research and development funds during fiscal years 2007 through 2009.

  3. Medium-resolution studies of extreme ultraviolet emission from N2 by electron impact - Vibrational perturbations and cross sections of the c4-prime 1Sigma(+)u and b-prime 1Sigma(+)u states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajello, Joseph M.; James, Geoffrey K.; Franklin, Brian O.; Shemansky, Donald E.

    1989-01-01

    In a crossed-beam experiment the electron-impact-induced fluorescence spectrum of N2 in the extreme ultraviolet is studied at a spectral resolution of up to 0.03 nm. The optically thin experiment obtained the highest-resolution electron-impact emission spectrum of the Rydberg and valence states of N2. The spectral measurements provide the emission cross sections of each of the vibrational transitions of the Carroll-Yoshino and the Birge-Hopfield-II band systems. Laboratory vibrational-excitation cross sections arising from the mutual perturbation of the c4-prime 1Sigma(+)u and b-prime 1Sigma(+)u states by homogeneous configuration interactions are measured from 10 to 400 eV, and a modified Born approximation analytic model is given for them. The analysis leads to accurate band-system oscillator strengths. The relative emission and excitation cross sections each of the vibrational levels are compared. In addition, low-resolution measurements of the cross section of the atomic dissociation fragments (NI, NII, NIII) from 40 to 102 nm are made, and medium-resolution measurements are made of the emission cross section of the c4 1Pi(u), c5-prime 1Sigma(+)u, c5 1Pi(u), and c6-prime 1Sigma(+)u to X 1Sigma(+)g (0,0) transitions.

  4. Geoengineering and seismological aspects of the Niigata-Ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake of 16 July 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kayen, R.; Brandenberg, S.J.; CoIlins, B.D.; Dickenson, S.; Ashford, S.; Kawamata, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Koumoto, H.; Abrahamson, N.; Cluff, L.; Tokimatsu, K.

    2009-01-01

    The M6.6 Niigata-Ken Chuetsu-Oki earthquake of 16 July 2007 occurred off the west coast of Japan with a focal depth of 10 km, immediately west of Kashiwazaki City and Kariwa Village in southern Niigata Prefecture. Peak horizontal ground accelerations of 0.68 g were measured in Kashiwazaki City, as well as at the reactor floor level of the world's largest nuclear reactor, located on the coast at Kariwa Village. Liquefaction of historic and modern river deposits, aeolian dune sand, and manmade fill was widespread in the coastal region nearest the epicenter and caused ground deformations that damaged bridges, embankments, roadways, buildings, ports, railways and utilities. Landslides along the coast of southern Niigata Prefecture and in mountainous regions inland of Kashiwazaki were also widespread affecting transportation infrastructure. Liquefaction and a landslide also damaged the nuclear power plant sites. This paper, along with a companion digital map database available at http://walrus.wr.usgs.gOv/infobank/n/nii07jp/html/n-ii-07-jp.sites.kmz, describes the seismological and geo-engineering aspects of the event. ?? 2009, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  5. Differential Toxicities of Nickel Salts to the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Dean; Birdsey, Jennifer M; Wendolowski, Mark A; Dobbin, Kevin K; Williams, Phillip L

    2016-08-01

    This study focused on assessing whether nickel (Ni) toxicity to the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was affected by the molecular structure of the Ni salt used. Nematodes were exposed to seven Ni salts [Ni sulfate hexahydrate (NiSO4·6H2O), Ni chloride hexahydrate (NiCl2·6H2O), Ni acetate tetrahydrate (Ni(OCOCH3)2·4H2O), Ni nitrate hexahydrate (N2NiO6·6H2O), anhydrous Ni iodide (NiI2), Ni sulfamate hydrate (Ni(SO3NH2)2·H2O), and Ni fluoride tetrahydrate (NiF2·4H2O)] in an aquatic medium for 24 h, and lethality curves were generated and analyzed. Ni fluoride, Ni iodide, and Ni chloride were most toxic to C. elegans, followed by Ni nitrate, Ni sulfamate, Ni acetate, and Ni sulfate. The LC50 values of the halogen-containing salts were statistically different from the corresponding value of the least toxic salt, Ni sulfate. This finding is consistent with the expected high bioavailability of free Ni ions in halide solutions. We recommend that the halide salts be used in future Ni testing involving aquatic invertebrates.

  6. Heme-Biosynthetic Porphobilinogen Deaminase Protects Aspergillus nidulans from Nitrosative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shengmin; Narukami, Toshiaki; Nameki, Misuzu; Ozawa, Tomoko; Kamimura, Yosuke; Hoshino, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms have developed mechanisms to combat reactive nitrogen species (RNS); however, only a few of the fungal genes involved have been characterized. Here we screened RNS-resistant Aspergillus nidulans strains from fungal transformants obtained by introducing a genomic DNA library constructed in a multicopy vector. We found that the AN0121.3 gene (hemC) encodes a protein similar to the heme biosynthesis enzyme porphobilinogen deaminase (PBG-D) and facilitates RNS-tolerant fungal growth. The overproduction of PBG-D in A. nidulans promoted RNS tolerance, whereas PBG-D repression caused growth that was hypersensitive to RNS. PBG-D levels were comparable to those of cellular protoheme synthesis as well as flavohemoglobin (FHb; encoded by fhbA and fhbB) and nitrite reductase (NiR; encoded by niiA) activities. Both FHb and NiR are hemoproteins that consume nitric oxide and nitrite, respectively, and we found that they are required for maximal growth in the presence of RNS. The transcription of hemC was upregulated by RNS. These results demonstrated that PBG-D is a novel NO-tolerant protein that modulates the reduction of environmental NO and nitrite levels by FHb and NiR. PMID:22038601

  7. Structural phase transitions of sodium nitride at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajenine, G. V.; Wang, X.; Efthimiopoulos, I.; Karmakar, S.; Syassen, K.; Hanfland, M.

    2009-06-01

    The structural evolution of recently characterized sodium nitride Na3N as a function of pressure was investigated at room temperature by the angle-dispersive powder x-ray diffraction in a diamond-anvil cell up to 36 GPa. The rather open cubic anti- ReO3 -type structure stable at ambient pressure is followed by a series of four high-pressure modifications. Along the route, the coordination number for the nitride anion increases from 6 in Na3N-I to 8 in hexagonal Li3N -type Na3N-II , 9 in orthorhombic anti- YF3 -type Na3N-III , 11 in hexagonal Cu3P -type Na3N-IV , and finally 14 in cubic Li3Bi -type Na3N-V structures. The experimental data are compared to the results of total-energy calculations and are discussed with regard to the structural details of the five phases and their equations of state.

  8. Gene therapy by proteasome activator, PA28γ, improves motor coordination and proteasome function in Huntington's disease YAC128 mice.

    PubMed

    Jeon, J; Kim, W; Jang, J; Isacson, O; Seo, H

    2016-06-02

    Huntington's disease (HD) is neurologically characterized by involuntary movements, associated with degeneration of the medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) and ubiquitin-positive neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NIIs). It has been reported that the proteolytic activities of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) are generally inhibited in HD patient's brain. We previously discovered that a proteasome activator (PA), PA28γ enhances proteasome activities and cell survival in in vitro HD model. In this study, we aimed to find whether PA28γ gene transfer improves the proteasome activities and pathological symptoms in in vivo HD model. We stereotaxically injected lenti-PA28γ virus into the striatum of mutant (MT) YAC128 HD mice and littermate (LM) controls at 14-18months of age, and validated their behavioral and biochemical changes at 12weeks after the injection. YAC128 mice showed a significant increase in their peptidyl-glutamyl preferring hydrolytic (PGPH) proteasome activity and the mRNA or protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and pro-BDNF after lenti-PA28γ injection. The number of ubiquitin-positive inclusion bodies was reduced in the striatum of YAC128 mice after lenti-PA28γ injection. YAC128 mice showed significant improvement of latency to fall on the rota-rod test after lenti-PA28γ injection. These data demonstrate that the gene therapy with PA, PA28γ can improve UPS function as well as behavioral abnormalities in HD model mice.

  9. Motivational, proteostatic and transcriptional deficits precede synapse loss, gliosis and neurodegeneration in the B6.Htt(Q111/+) model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Bragg, Robert M; Coffey, Sydney R; Weston, Rory M; Ament, Seth A; Cantle, Jeffrey P; Minnig, Shawn; Funk, Cory C; Shuttleworth, Dominic D; Woods, Emily L; Sullivan, Bonnie R; Jones, Lindsey; Glickenhaus, Anne; Anderson, John S; Anderson, Michael D; Dunnett, Stephen B; Wheeler, Vanessa C; MacDonald, Marcy E; Brooks, Simon P; Price, Nathan D; Carroll, Jeffrey B

    2017-02-08

    We investigated the appearance and progression of disease-relevant signs in the B6.Htt(Q111/+) mouse, a genetically precise model of the mutation that causes Huntington's disease (HD). We find that B6.Htt(Q111/+) mice are healthy, show no overt signs of central or peripheral inflammation, and no gross motor impairment as late as 12 months of age. Behaviorally, we find that 4-9 month old B6.Htt(Q111/+) mice have normal activity levels and show no clear signs of anxiety or depression, but do show clear signs of reduced motivation. The neuronal density, neuronal size, synaptic density and number of glia is normal in B6.Htt(Q111/+) striatum, the most vulnerable brain region in HD, up to 12 months of age. Despite this preservation of the synaptic and cellular composition of the striatum, we observe clear progressive, striatal-specific transcriptional dysregulation and accumulation of neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NIIs). Simulation studies suggest these molecular endpoints are sufficiently robust for future preclinical studies, and that B6.Htt(Q111/+) mice are a useful tool for modeling disease-modifying or neuroprotective strategies for disease processes before the onset of overt phenotypes.

  10. Production and application of chemical fibers with special properties for manufacturing composite materials and goods of different usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levit, R.

    1993-01-01

    The development of modern technologies demands the creation of new nonmetallic, fibrous materials with specific properties. The fibers and materials developed by NII 'Chimvolokno', St. Petersburg, can be divided into two groups. The first group includes heat-resistant fibers, fire-resistant fibers, thermotropic fibers, fibers for medical application, and textile structures. The second group contains refractory fibers, chemoresistant and antifriction fibers, fibers on the basis of polyvinyl alcohol, microfiltering films, and paperlike and nonwoven materials. In cooperation with NPO 'Chimvolokno' MYTITSHI, we developed and started producing heat-resistant high-strength fibers on the base of polyhetarearilin and aromatic polyimides (SVM and terlon); heat-resistant fibers on the base of polyemede (aramid); fire-retardant fibers (togilen); chemoresistant and antifriction fibers on the basis of homo and copolymers of polytetrafluoroethylene (polyfen and ftorin); and water soluble, acetylated, and high-modulus fibers from polyvinyl alcohol (vylen). Separate reports will deal with textile structures and thermotropic fibers, as well as with medical fibers. One of the groups of refractory fibers carbon fibers (CF) and the corresponding paperlike nonwoven materials are discussed in detail. Also, composite materials (CM) and their base, which is the subject of the author's research since 1968, is discussed.

  11. Development of a polarization resolved spectroscopic diagnostic for measurements of the magnetic field in the Caltech coaxial magnetized plasma jet experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikama, Taiichi; Bellan, Paul M.

    2011-11-01

    Measurements of the magnetic field strength in current-carrying magnetically confined plasmas are necessary for understanding the underlying physics governing the dynamical behavior. Such a measurement would be particularly useful in the Caltech coaxial magnetized plasma gun, an experiment used for fundamental studies relevant to spheromak formation, astrophysical jet formation/propagation, solar coronal physics, and the general behavior of twisted magnetic flux tubes that intercept a boundary. In order to measure the field strength in the Caltech experiment, a non-perturbing spectroscopic method is being implemented to observe the Zeeman splitting in the emission spectra. The method is based on polarization-resolving spectroscopy of the Zeeman-split σ components, a technique previously used in both solar and laboratory plasmas. We have designed and constructed an optical system that can simultaneously detect left- and right-circularly polarized emission with both high throughput and small extinction ratio. The system will be used on the 489.5 nm NII line, chosen because of its simple Zeeman structure and minimal Stark broadening.

  12. Shock Energy in Merging Systems: The Elephant in the Room.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kewley, Lisa

    2011-10-01

    The relationship between shocks, star formation and the evolution of merging galaxies is not well understood. We are now poised to gain major insight in this area, thanks to the high resolution narrow-band imaging capabilities of WFC3 and recent major advances in theoretical shock and and photoionization models. Shocks and star formation in merging galaxies are regulated by fundamental physical properties of the ISM such as dust, gas density, ionized gas structure, and the presence of galactic winds and outflows. We aim to uncover the relationship between shocks, galactic winds, and the fundamental ISM properties in two famous mergers NGC 6240 and Arp 220. These two galaxies are currently transitioning from disk galaxies into spheroids and they are close enough to achieve the spatial scales required to resolve individual supernova remnants with WFC3 imaging. We propose to image NGC 6240 and Arp 220 in key shock and photoionization sensitive diagnostic lines [OII], [OIII], H-beta, [NII]+H-alpha, [SII], and {where possible} [OI] to {1} resolve the source of the ionizing radiation field {shocks versus photoionization by hot stars} at spatial scales of 25-35 pc, and {2} map the distribution of the star formation and ionized gas to search for links with merger-driven shocks and large-scale gas flows.

  13. Probing Star Formation in the Early Universe with Far-IR Spectroscopy using ZEUS-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwas, Amit; Ferkinhoff, Carl; Nikola, Thomas; Parshley, Stephen; Schoenwald, Justin Paul; Stacey, Gordon J.; Higdon, James L.; Higdon, Sarah; Brisbin, Drew; Verma, Aprajita; Riechers, Dominik A.; Hailey-Dunsheath, Steve; Menten, Karl; Güsten, Rolf; Weiss, Axel; Irwin, Kent; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Niemack, Michael D.; Halpern, Mark; Amiri, Mandana; Hasselfield, Matthew; Wiebe, Donald V.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Tucker, Carole E.

    2015-01-01

    ZEUS-2 is a long slit, direct detection, grating spectrometer for submillimeter wavelengths between 200-850 μm. At present, ZEUS-2 employs a single TES bolometer array that addresses only the 350 and 450 μm windows. Here we report the first science obtained with this array on the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) telescope, and our progress towards implementing a second TES array that will open up the 200, 230, 640, 850 μm windows for direct detection spectroscopy on APEX.Our investigations focus on detecting faint and broad far-infrared (FIR) fine structure lines of ionized carbon [CII] at 158 μm, nitrogen [NII] at 122 and 205 μm and doubly ionized oxygen [OIII] at 52 and 88 μm from distant galaxies as the lines are redshifted into the submm telluric windows. We are primarily interested in the redshift 1 to 4 interval which encompasses the epoch of maximum star formation rate per unit co-moving volume in the Universe. These far infrared lines are important gas coolants, and powerful probes of the physical conditions of the interstellar medium and the starlight that heats the gas. Here we report detections of the [CII] and [OIII] 88 μm lines from sources at redshift 1.8 to 4.3, and show how the lines can be used to trace both the spatial extent of the star formation and the hardness of the ambient radiation fields.

  14. Towards cross-lingual alerting for bursty epidemic events

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Online news reports are increasingly becoming a source for event-based early warning systems that detect natural disasters. Harnessing the massive volume of information available from multilingual newswire presents as many challanges as opportunities due to the patterns of reporting complex spatio-temporal events. Results In this article we study the problem of utilising correlated event reports across languages. We track the evolution of 16 disease outbreaks using 5 temporal aberration detection algorithms on text-mined events classified according to disease and outbreak country. Using ProMED reports as a silver standard, comparative analysis of news data for 13 languages over a 129 day trial period showed improved sensitivity, F1 and timeliness across most models using cross-lingual events. We report a detailed case study analysis for Cholera in Angola 2010 which highlights the challenges faced in correlating news events with the silver standard. Conclusions The results show that automated health surveillance using multilingual text mining has the potential to turn low value news into high value alerts if informed choices are used to govern the selection of models and data sources. An implementation of the C2 alerting algorithm using multilingual news is available at the BioCaster portal http://born.nii.ac.jp/?page=globalroundup. PMID:22166371

  15. The federal role in the health information infrastructure: a debate of the pros and cons of government intervention.

    PubMed Central

    Shortliffe, E H; Bleich, H L; Caine, C G; Masys, D R; Simborg, D W

    1996-01-01

    Some observers feel that the federal government should play a more active leadership role in educating the medical community and in coordinating and encouraging a more rapid and effective implementation of clinically relevant applications of wide-area networking. Other people argue that the private sector is recognizing the importance of these issues and will, when the market demands it, adopt and enhance the telecommunications systems that are needed to produce effective uses of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) by the healthcare community. This debate identifies five areas for possible government involvement: convening groups for the development of standards; providing funding for research and development; ensuring the equitable distribution of resources, particularly to places and people considered by private enterprise to provide low opportunities for profit; protecting rights of privacy, intellectual property, and security; and overcoming the jurisdictional barriers to cooperation, particularly when states offer conflicting regulations. Arguments against government involvement include the likely emergence of an adequate infrastructure under free market forces, the often stifling effect of regulation, and the need to avoid a common-and-control mentality in an infrastructure that is best promoted collaboratively. PMID:8816347

  16. Narrow-band Imagery of the ISM using the RCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, D. K.; Gelderman, R.; Guinan, E.; Howell, S.; Mattox, J. R.; McGruder, C. H., III; Davis, D.; Everett, M.

    2003-05-01

    We present the first results of imaging the Interstellar Medium (ISM) using narrow-band filters with the Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT). The RCT is the recently refurbished 1.3-meter telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory. Details regarding the RCT can be found elsewhere at this meeting (Gelderman, R. et al.). Our filters are centered on diagnostic, nebular emission lines of the ions H+, He+, S+, N+ and O++. Objects of interest in the galactic and extragalactic ISM were observed including the starburst galaxy NGC 4449. Ionization ratio maps include [OIII]/Hβ, [NII]/Hα and the C(Hβ) extinction map from the ratio of Hα/Hβ. Electron densities are derived from the ratio of images taken through filters centered on the sulfur lines at 671.7 and 673.1 nm. Refurbishment of the RCT has been made possible by NASA NAG 58-762. Funding for filters and additional equipment has been made possible by NASA OSS NAG 5-10145 and NASA MU-SPIN NCC 5-534.

  17. Publicly available database for spectral line measurements of SDSS DR7 galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Kyuseok; Sarzi, Marc; Schawinski, Kevin; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2012-08-01

    We present a new database of absorption and emission-line measurements based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) 7th data release of galaxies within a redshift of 0.2. Using the publicly available penalized pixel-fitting (pPXF) and gas and absorption line fitting (gandalf) codes, our work improve the existing measurements for stellar kinematics, the strength of various absorption line features, and the flux and width of the emissions from different species of ionised gas. Most notable of our work is that, we provide quality of the fit to assess reliability of the measurements. The quality assessment can be highly effective for finding new classes of objects. For example, based on the quality assessment around the Ha and [NII] nebular lines, we found approximately 1% of the SDSS spectra which classified as galaxies by the SDSS pipeline are in fact type I Seyfert AGN. This paper presents a summary of the recent paper, Oh et al.(2011). The database is publicly available at http://gem.yonsei.ac.kr/ossy/.

  18. Broadband Satellite Technologies and Markets Assessed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallett, Thomas M.

    1999-01-01

    The current usage of broadband (data rate greater than 64 kilobits per second (kbs)) for multimedia network computer applications is increasing, and the need for network communications technologies and systems to support this use is also growing. Satellite technology will likely be an important part of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) and the Global Information Infrastructure (GII) in the next decade. Several candidate communications technologies that may be used to carry a portion of the increased data traffic have been reviewed, and estimates of the future demand for satellite capacity have been made. A study was conducted by the NASA Lewis Research Center to assess the satellite addressable markets for broadband applications. This study effort included four specific milestones: (1) assess the changing nature of broadband applications and their usage, (2) assess broadband satellite and terrestrial technologies, (3) estimate the size of the global satellite addressable market from 2000 to 2010, and (4) identify how the impact of future technology developments could increase the utility of satellite-based transport to serve this market.

  19. Curva de rotación de la Galaxia Eso 321-25

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, R.; Carranza, G.; Ahumada, J.; Arreguine, V.

    Se presenta la curva de rotación de esta galaxia, generada a partir de espectros obtenidos con el Espectrógrafo Multifunción del telescopio de 1.54 m de Bosque Alegre. El análisis de las curvas de velocidad radial obtenidas muestra que el núcleo no coincide con el centro de simetría de las mismas, lo que es consistente con el aspecto morfológico exhibido por la galaxia en imágenes de banda ancha. En estas últimas, el núcleo muestra una estructura peculiar y no coincidiría con el centro geométrico del disco aparente. Los flujos relativos de líneas (Hα /[NII]λ 6583 y [SII]λ 6731/λ 6716) indicarían niveles de excitación y densidad electrónica normales en regiones HII, aún en la zona nuclear. Este trabajo forma parte de un programa de estudio de cinemática, excitación y densidad electrónica del gas ionizado en galaxias peculiares del Atlas de Galaxias Australes de Sérsic.

  20. A nickel hydride complex in the active site of methyl-coenzyme m reductase: implications for the catalytic cycle.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Jeffrey; Finazzo, Cinzia; Piskorski, Rafal; Ebner, Sieglinde; Duin, Evert C; Goenrich, Meike; Thauer, Rudolf K; Reiher, Markus; Schweiger, Arthur; Hinderberger, Dariush; Jaun, Bernhard

    2008-08-20

    Methanogenic archaea utilize a specific pathway in their metabolism, converting C1 substrates (i.e., CO2) or acetate to methane and thereby providing energy for the cell. Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) catalyzes the key step in the process, namely methyl-coenzyme M (CH3-S-CoM) plus coenzyme B (HS-CoB) to methane and CoM-S-S-CoB. The active site of MCR contains the nickel porphinoid F430. We report here on the coordinated ligands of the two paramagnetic MCR red2 states, induced when HS-CoM (a reversible competitive inhibitor) and the second substrate HS-CoB or its analogue CH3-S-CoB are added to the enzyme in the active MCR red1 state (Ni(I)F430). Continuous wave and pulse EPR spectroscopy are used to show that the MCR red2a state exhibits a very large proton hyperfine interaction with principal values A((1)H) = [-43,-42,-5] MHz and thus represents formally a Ni(III)F430 hydride complex formed by oxidative addition to Ni(I). In view of the known ability of nickel hydrides to activate methane, and the growing body of evidence for the involvement of MCR in "reverse" methanogenesis (anaerobic oxidation of methane), we believe that the nickel hydride complex reported here could play a key role in helping to understand both the mechanism of "reverse" and "forward" methanogenesis.

  1. Beyond telecommuting: A new paradigm for the effect of telecommunications on travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niles, J. S.

    1994-09-01

    Conventional wisdom about social and economic behavior holds that the use of telecommunications is a natural substitute for transportation. For example, telephone calls can replace travel to meetings, and facsimile or electronic-mail transmission of documents substitutes for courier or postal delivery. The moving of information can replace the moving of people and goods. Vehicle traffic on the national transportation infrastructure can be replaced by digital traffic on what is now called the national information infrastructure (NII). A leading example is telecommuting. This means using telecommunications to replace commuting between home and work. Telecommuting is an optional way of expanding employees' work locations in those circumstances where it yields both improved organizational performance and employee satisfaction. Telecommuting accounts for 7.6 million U.S. workers as of early 1993, up 15% from the 6.6 million counted in 1992. The growth of telecommuting has been strong for the past five years. No one has identified any reasons to suggest that this growth will abate in the forseeable future.

  2. National Information Infrastructure Education Forum: A summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.E.; Oliver, C.E.

    1994-05-01

    The National Information Infrastructure (NII) Education Forum was held on October 6-8, 1993, in Arlington, Virginia. The Forum was sponsored by the Office of Scientific Computing, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Its purpose was to discuss technology for K-12 education and what role DOE and its national laboratories could play in developing, disseminating, and using technology for K-12. The Forum brought together over 120 people from across the nation. Participants represented six groups: national laboratories; education research institutions; K-12 teachers and administrators; industry; federal agencies; and other institutions. The Forum consisted of a series of structured presentations from each of these six groups; technology demonstrations; and open, small group discussions. The presentations covered the following: important K-12 education and computing issues, national laboratory capabilities, other federal sector initiatives, and industry perspectives. The demonstration room had over 20 computers networked to the Internet. Workshop participants were shown (1) how to use the Internet to access resources anywhere in the world, (2) state-of-the-art network video teleconferencing technology, (3) multi-media technology, and (4) various other educational software systems.

  3. Flue-gas and direct-air capture of CO2 by porous metal-organic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, David G.; Scott, Hayley S.; Kumar, Amrit; Chen, Kai-Jie; Sanii, Rana; Bajpai, Alankriti; Lusi, Matteo; Curtin, Teresa; Perry, John J.; Zaworotko, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Sequestration of CO2, either from gas mixtures or directly from air (direct air capture), is a technological goal important to large-scale industrial processes such as gas purification and the mitigation of carbon emissions. Previously, we investigated five porous materials, three porous metal-organic materials (MOMs), a benchmark inorganic material, Zeolite 13X and a chemisorbent, TEPA-SBA-15, for their ability to adsorb CO2 directly from air and from simulated flue-gas. In this contribution, a further 10 physisorbent materials that exhibit strong interactions with CO2 have been evaluated by temperature-programmed desorption for their potential utility in carbon capture applications: four hybrid ultramicroporous materials, SIFSIX-3-Cu, DICRO-3-Ni-i, SIFSIX-2-Cu-i and MOOFOUR-1-Ni; five microporous MOMs, DMOF-1, ZIF-8, MIL-101, UiO-66 and UiO-66-NH2; an ultramicroporous MOM, Ni-4-PyC. The performance of these MOMs was found to be negatively impacted by moisture. Overall, we demonstrate that the incorporation of strong electrostatics from inorganic moieties combined with ultramicropores offers improved CO2 capture performance from even moist gas mixtures but not enough to compete with chemisorbents. This article is part of the themed issue 'Coordination polymers and metal-organic frameworks: materials by design'.

  4. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Psychiatric Nursing in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yoshinaga, Naoki; Nosaki, Akiko; Hayashi, Yuta; Tanoue, Hiroki; Shimizu, Eiji; Kunikata, Hiroko; Okada, Yoshie; Shiraishi, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric nurses have played a significant role in disseminating cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in Western countries; however, in Japan, the application, practice, efficiency, and quality control of CBT in the psychiatric nursing field are unclear. This study conducted a literature review to assess the current status of CBT practice and research in psychiatric nursing in Japan. Three English databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO) and two Japanese databases (Ichushi-Web and CiNii) were searched with predetermined keywords. Fifty-five articles met eligibility criteria: 46 case studies and 9 comparative studies. It was found that CBT took place primarily in inpatient settings and targeted schizophrenia and mood disorders. Although there were only a few comparative studies, each concluded that CBT was effective. However, CBT recipients and outcome measures were diverse, and nurses were not the only CBT practitioners in most reports. Only a few articles included the description of CBT training and supervision. This literature review clarified the current status of CBT in psychiatric nursing in Japan and identified important implications for future practice and research: performing CBT in a variety of settings and for a wide range of psychiatric disorders, conducting randomized controlled trials, and establishing pre- and postqualification training system. PMID:26798512

  5. Gas and Stellar Kinematics in the Giant Spiral Galaxy NGC 1961

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacash, Brian; Pinkney, Jason

    2009-04-01

    Long-slit spectroscopy and CCD imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope and the MDM Observatory is presented for the massive spiral galaxy NGC 1961. We aimed to measure the mass of the central supermassive black hole (SMBH). We have developed our own software for spectral extraction and for the fitting of absorption and emission lines. The program subtracts the absorption-line (stellar) component from the emission-line spectra to improve the fidelity of our emission line measurements. We present our line centroids (velocities), widths (velocity dispersions), and strengths for the most prominent emission lines (Hα, [NII], and [SII]). The rotation curve from the ground-based data is in good agreement with previous work by Rubin (1979); its asymmetric appearance suggests a tidal interaction or merger. We use the rotation curve and surface photometry to estimate the enclosed mass profile of the galaxy. The emission lines near the nucleus broaden indicating more intrinsic dispersion than expected for a cold, gas disk. We estimate the BH mass using simple gas disk models. However, the high dispersion and the asymmetry in its inner rotation curve suggest that this approach is unreliable.

  6. Narrow-Band Imaging and Spatially Resolved Spectra of Nova Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillwig, T. C.; Honeycutt, R. K.; Shore, S. N.

    2000-12-01

    Observations of nova shells were made at the WIYN Observatory using the WIYN Imager, the ``naked'' DensePak fiber array, and a Barlow 4x magnifying assembly used with DensePak. DensePak was used to obtain spatially resolved spectra of several nova shells at wavelengths including the Hα , Hβ , [OIII], and [NII] emission lines. The purpose is to derive true shapes and sizes of the nova shells, velocity structure, and abundance structure. The ability to spatially resolve the shell with spectroscopy, with the accuracy and resolution available to DensePak is a useful and unique tool. The velocity structure of the shell provides data which can be compared to models of expected shell structure. Measuring abundances in different, spatially resolved portions of the shell can give indications of the cause of the structure. For example, in shaping by a fast wind, we may expect to see different abundances in the slowly moving ejected material than in the material comprising the fast wind (which becomes apparent in planetary nebulae with wind-blown bubbles). Imaging also provides, along with comparison to velocity structure, an additional constraint on the determination of parallax distances, and the narrow-band imaging can supply estimates of excitation levels in various regions of the shells. All of these are important contributors to the determination of the physical mechanism responsible for the nova shell structure. The first phase of this research is presented here.

  7. Role of pendant proton relays and proton-coupled electron transfer on the hydrogen evolution reaction by nickel hangman porphyrins

    SciTech Connect

    Bediako, D. Kwabena; Solis, Brian H.; Dogutan, Dilek K.; Roubelakis, Manolis M.; Maher, Andrew G.; Lee, Chang Hoon; Chambers, Matthew B.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon; Nocera, Daniel G.

    2014-10-08

    Here, the hangman motif provides mechanistic insights into the role of pendant proton relays in governing proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) involved in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). We now show improved HER activity of Ni compared with Co hangman porphyrins. Cyclic voltammogram data and simulations, together with computational studies using density functional theory, implicate a shift in electrokinetic zone between Co and Ni hangman porphyrins due to a change in the PCET mechanism. Unlike the Co hangman porphyrin, the Ni hangman porphyrin does not require reduction to the formally metal(0) species before protonation by weak acids in acetonitrile. We conclude that protonation likely occurs at the Ni(I) state followed by reduction, in a stepwise proton transfer–electron transfer pathway. Spectroelectrochemical and computational studies reveal that upon reduction of the Ni(II) compound, the first electron is transferred to a metal-based orbital, whereas the second electron is transferred to a molecular orbital on the porphyrin ring.

  8. Defining information security education, training, and awareness needs using electronic meeting space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schou, Corey D.; Frost, James; Wingert, Nathan; Maconachy, W. V.

    1999-01-01

    The United States is at target. For those of us who grew up curing the cold war this is not news; however, the threat is different than it has been in the past. Now it may be another super power or it may be a teenage child with a personal computer. Both government and civilian entities are potential targets. The national information infrastructure (NII) is the real target. The determined hacker can bring down not only government systems, but the power-grid, the financial system, or the air traffic control system as well. All organizations must be aware of the threat and be prepared to react appropriately. Of course, the federal government has begun to protect their critical systems. However, many American corporations have not yet fully protected their systems. Since there is a common threat, common standards for countermeasures are applicable. This paper reports on the use of an electronic meeting room technology by government, industry, and academia to establish a national training standard. If you are a CIO or advise one about security matters, these standards are important.

  9. An Infrared Method for Discovering AGN: Lick Spectroscopy of New Seyfert I’s in the Kepler Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsan, Tran; Edelson, Rick; Smith, Krista Lynne; Malkan, Matthew Arnold

    2016-06-01

    Spectra of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) candidates in the Kepler fields were observed at Lick Observatory. We used the Shane 3.0-meter telescope with the Kast double spectrograph, covering from 0.35-0.8 μm. Using IRAF, we extracted 1D spectra from the original 2D long-slit images of the candidates. Our main goals are to determine the redshift of the candidates and identify any new AGN. The wavelength and flux calibration are fairly accurate, and most spectra have a good signal-to-noise ratio. Twenty- seven nights of data (consisting of 106 candidates) have been analyzed. For 89% of them, we have determined the redshifts to a precision of δz = 0.0005 in most cases. The rest give inconclusive results. 19 of the candidates turn out to be galactic stars. The most commonly identified emission lines are Hα+[NII], the [OIII] doublet, and Hβ. 44 of the candidates show a Broad Line Region, meaning that their wide permitted lines classify them as either Seyfert I’s or quasars. 6 of these have redshifts above 0.5, indicating that they are highly luminous quasars. One candidate appears to be a bl-lac object. We are now analyzing the Kepler light curves of these Seyfert galaxies.

  10. Acupuncture for treating sciatica: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Zongshi; Liu, Xiaoxu; Yao, Qin; Zhai, Yanbing; Liu, Zhishun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This systematic review aims to assess the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for treating sciatica. Methods The following nine databases will be searched from their inception to 30 October 2014: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), the Chinese Medical Current Content (CMCC), the Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP database), the Wan-Fang Database, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Citation Information by National Institute of Informatics (CiNii). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of acupuncture for sciatica in English, Chinese or Japanese without restriction of publication status will be included. Two researchers will independently undertake study selection, extraction of data and assessment of study quality. Meta-analysis will be conducted after screening of studies. Data will be analysed using risk ratio for dichotomous data, and standardised mean difference or weighted mean difference for continuous data. Dissemination This systematic review will be disseminated electronically through a peer-reviewed publication or conference presentations. Trial registration number PROSPERO CRD42014015001. PMID:25922105

  11. Beyond telecommuting: A new paradigm for the effect of telecommunications on travel

    SciTech Connect

    Niles, J.S.

    1994-09-01

    Conventional wisdom about social and economic behavior holds that the use of telecommunications is a natural substitute for transportation. For example, telephone calls can replace travel to meetings, and facsimile or electronic-mail transmission of documents substitutes for courier or postal delivery. The moving of information can replace the moving of period and goods. Vehicle traffic on the national transportation infrastructure can be replaced by digital traffic on what is now called the National Information Infrastructure (NII). A leading example is telecommuting. This means using telecommunications to replace commuting between home and work. Telecommuting is an optional way of expanding employees` work locations in those circumstances where it yields both improved organizational performance and employee satisfication. Telecommuting accounts for 7.6 million U.S. workers as of early 1993, up 15% from the 6.6 million counted in 1992. The growth of telecommuting has been strong for the past five years. No one has identified any reasons to suggest that this growth will abate in the forseeable future.

  12. Motivational, proteostatic and transcriptional deficits precede synapse loss, gliosis and neurodegeneration in the B6.HttQ111/+ model of Huntington’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Bragg, Robert M.; Coffey, Sydney R.; Weston, Rory M.; Ament, Seth A.; Cantle, Jeffrey P.; Minnig, Shawn; Funk, Cory C.; Shuttleworth, Dominic D.; Woods, Emily L.; Sullivan, Bonnie R.; Jones, Lindsey; Glickenhaus, Anne; Anderson, John S.; Anderson, Michael D.; Dunnett, Stephen B.; Wheeler, Vanessa C.; MacDonald, Marcy E.; Brooks, Simon P.; Price, Nathan D.; Carroll, Jeffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the appearance and progression of disease-relevant signs in the B6.HttQ111/+ mouse, a genetically precise model of the mutation that causes Huntington’s disease (HD). We find that B6.HttQ111/+ mice are healthy, show no overt signs of central or peripheral inflammation, and no gross motor impairment as late as 12 months of age. Behaviorally, we find that 4–9 month old B6.HttQ111/+ mice have normal activity levels and show no clear signs of anxiety or depression, but do show clear signs of reduced motivation. The neuronal density, neuronal size, synaptic density and number of glia is normal in B6.HttQ111/+ striatum, the most vulnerable brain region in HD, up to 12 months of age. Despite this preservation of the synaptic and cellular composition of the striatum, we observe clear progressive, striatal-specific transcriptional dysregulation and accumulation of neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NIIs). Simulation studies suggest these molecular endpoints are sufficiently robust for future preclinical studies, and that B6.HttQ111/+ mice are a useful tool for modeling disease-modifying or neuroprotective strategies for disease processes before the onset of overt phenotypes. PMID:28176805

  13. Hidden Star Formation in High-Velocity Gas Clouds in Clump 2 near the Edge of the CMZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolls, Volker; Smith, Howard Alan; Stark, Antony A.; Martin, Christopher L.; HIGGS Team

    2016-01-01

    The inner Galaxy can be divided into two main regions, the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ; Morris and Serabyn 1996) and the Galactic Bar region. Gas and dust moves from the end points of the Galactic Bar on dust lanes towards the CMZ, where it merges with the gas and dust located on a 100-pc molecular ring. The stream of gas and dust on the dust lanes is not continuous, but fragments into irregularly separated clumps of varying sizes. One of the most significant aggregations of clumps is the Clump 2 region (Roogour 1964, Bania 1977). Although the gas and dust clouds in this region are very dense, they were always considered quiet with no ongoing star formation. Selected regions of Clump 2 were the targets of Herschel HIFI and PACS observations of CO J=7-6, CI, CII, OI, NII, and OIII as part of the Herschel Inner Galactic Gas Survey (HIGGS). This poster will present an update of the ongoing data analysis, which may have yielded some surprising results.

  14. Physical Parameters of the Pre-WN Candidate HD326823

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Araujo, F. X.; Marcolino, W. L. F.; Borges Fernándes, M.

    2006-06-01

    HD326823 is a massive and luminous star characterized mainly by the presence of very intense HeI emission lines. From qualitative spectroscopic studies it was proposed by Lopes et al. (1992, A&A, 261, 482) and Borges Fernándes et al. (2001, ApJS, 136, 747) that this interesting object is in a pre-WN stage of evolution. In the present work we reinforce this conclusion, thanks to the estimate of its physical parameters like mass loss rate and especially chemical abundances. The data analysed by us were obtained at ESO 2.2-m telescope, with the spectrograph FEROS (R=48000) on April, 2005. The method employed to obtain the parameters is the fitting of HI, HeI and NII emission lines. In order to do this we have used the CMFGEN code, developed by J. Hilliers and colaborators (see, for instance, Hiller & Miller 1998, ApJ, 496, 407). This code is adequate for the modelling of lines produced in an expanding atmosphere and it includes important effects like line-blanketting and clumping. Preliminary results indicate a mass loss rate in the range and a clear overabundance of helium. As nitrogen abundance is concerned, it also indicates a tendency of increased abundance, but the result is not so firm in this case.

  15. Completing comprehensive survey of star formation and metallicity at z~1.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    We propose to complete our ongoing FMOS program (S12A-026) to comprehensively study star formation and metallicity at z~1.5, since two thirds of the time allocated in April 2012 was lost because of poor conditions. Star formation activity and metal enrichment can provide us with important clues to understand processes of galaxy evolution. However, current measurements of such properties for galaxies at z~1.5 have large uncertainties and are biased toward massive galaxies due to the lack of spectroscopic samples with major nebular emission lines in rest-frame optical wavelengths. We thus plan to conduct deep NIR spectroscopy of [OII] emitters at z=1.47 and 1.62 in the Subaru Deep Field (SDF), aiming to detect all of H beta, [OIII], H alpha, and [NII] lines for star-forming galaxies in the epoch when galaxies and AGNs are the most active over the cosmic history. The SDF is an ideal field because the deep multi-band data are perfectly matched to what FMOS requires for maximum efficiency. With the full set of major nebular lines, we will reveal (1) star formation activity reliably corrected for dust extinction, (2) gas metallicity, and (3) a contribution of AGNs, and investigate a correlation between them. We finally aim to understand critical processes which play an important role in galaxy evolution.

  16. Comprehensive survey of star formation and metallicity at z~1.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Masao

    2012-06-01

    Star formation activity and metal enrichment can provide us with important clues to understand processes of galaxy evolution. However, current measurements of such properties for galaxies at z~1.5 have large uncertainties and are biased toward massive galaxies due to the lack of spectroscopic samples with major nebular emission lines in rest-frame optical wavelengths. Thus, we propose deep near-infrared spectroscopy of [OII] emitters at z=1.47 and 1.62 in the Subaru Deep Field (SDF) with FMOS. We aim to detect all of H beta, [OIII], H alpha, [NII], and [SII] lines for star-forming galaxies in the epoch when galaxies and AGNs are the most active over the cosmic history. Because the redshifts of targets are already known and nebular emissions can be surely estimated from their [OII] fluxes, the emission line galaxies are ideal targets to address the issue. Also, the SDF is an ideal field because the deep multi-band data are perfectly matched to what FMOS requires for maximum efficiency. With the full set of major nebular lines, we will reveal (1) star formation activity reliably corrected for dust extinction, (2) gas metallicity, and (3) a contribution of AGNs, and investigate a correlation between them. We aim to understand critical processes which play an important role in galaxy evolution.

  17. Super Massive Black Holes in Disk Galaxies: HST/STIS Observations for 3 new Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coccato, L.; Sarzi, M.; Corsini, E. M.; Pizzella, A.; Bertola, F.

    We present long-slit HST/STIS measurements of the ionized-gas kinematics in the nucleus of three disk galaxies, namely NGC 2179, NGC 4343, NGC 4435. The sample galaxies have been selected on the basis of their ground-based spectroscopy, for displaying a strong central velocity gradient for the ionized gas, which is consistent with the presence of a circumnuclear Keplerian disk (CNKD, Bertola et al. 1998; Funes et al. 2002) rotating around a super massive black hole (SMBH). For each target galaxy we obtained the Hα and [NII] 6583A kinematics along the major axis and two 0.25'' parallel offset positions. Out of three objects only NGC 4435 turned out to have a disk of ionized gas in regular motion and a regular dust-lane morphology. Preliminary modeling indicates a SMBH mass (MBH) one order of magnitude lower than the one expected from the MBH - αc relation for galaxies (Ferrarese & Merritt 2000; Gebhardt et al. 2000).

  18. Exercise upregulates salivary amylase in humans (Review)

    PubMed Central

    KOIBUCHI, ERI; SUZUKI, YOSHIO

    2014-01-01

    The secretion of salivary α-amylase is influenced by adrenergic regulation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; thus, exercise affects the levels of salivary α-amylase. Granger et al published a review in 2007 that focused attention on salivary α-amylase. In addition, a portable system for monitoring salivary α-amylase activity was launched in Japan at the end of 2005. The correlation between exercise and salivary α-amylase has since been extensively investigated. The present review summarizes relevant studies published in the English and Japanese literature after 2006. A search of the PubMed and CiNii databases identified 54 articles, from which 15 original articles were selected. The findings described in these publications indicate that exercise consistently increases mean salivary α-amylase activities and concentrations, particularly at an intensity of >70% VO2max in healthy young individuals. Thus, these studies have confirmed that salivary α-amylase levels markedly increase in response to physical stress. Salivary α-amylase levels may therefore serve as an effective indicator in the non-invasive assessment of physical stress. PMID:24669232

  19. Spectroscopy of planetary nebulae in the region of Canis Major

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniazev, A. Yu.

    2012-11-01

    We present the results of a pilot project of spectroscopic observations for planetary nebulae (PNe) and PN candidates in Canis Major, a sky region where the remnant of a disrupted dwarf galaxy cannibalized by the Milky Way may be located. The spectra of seven objects were taken while testing the SALT spectrograph (South African Astronomical Observatory). All elemental abundances have been obtained by the T e method, where the electron temperature is calculated directly using the measured weak auroral [OIII] λ 4363 Å and/or [NII] λ 5755 Å lines. We have measured the intensities of all the detected emission lines and determined the abundances of oxygen and several other elements (N, Ne, S, Cl, C, and He) in all PNe. The radial velocity for one PN has been measured for the first time and the velocities for all of the remaining PNe have been measured with a considerably better accuracy than that of the previously published ones. The elemental abundances for three PNe have been calculated for the first time and the accuracies of determining the abundances for three others have been improved. The measured heavy-element abundance ratios (S/O, Ne/O, Cl/O) are in good agreement with their typical values for HII regions. Among the PNe studied, ESO 428-05 is the first and so far the most likely candidate for belonging to the remnants of a possible dwarf galaxy disrupted by the tidal interaction with the Milky Way.

  20. Role of pendant proton relays and proton-coupled electron transfer on the hydrogen evolution reaction by nickel hangman porphyrins

    PubMed Central

    Bediako, D. Kwabena; Solis, Brian H.; Dogutan, Dilek K.; Roubelakis, Manolis M.; Maher, Andrew G.; Lee, Chang Hoon; Chambers, Matthew B.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon; Nocera, Daniel G.

    2014-01-01

    The hangman motif provides mechanistic insights into the role of pendant proton relays in governing proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) involved in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). We now show improved HER activity of Ni compared with Co hangman porphyrins. Cyclic voltammogram data and simulations, together with computational studies using density functional theory, implicate a shift in electrokinetic zone between Co and Ni hangman porphyrins due to a change in the PCET mechanism. Unlike the Co hangman porphyrin, the Ni hangman porphyrin does not require reduction to the formally metal(0) species before protonation by weak acids in acetonitrile. We conclude that protonation likely occurs at the Ni(I) state followed by reduction, in a stepwise proton transfer–electron transfer pathway. Spectroelectrochemical and computational studies reveal that upon reduction of the Ni(II) compound, the first electron is transferred to a metal-based orbital, whereas the second electron is transferred to a molecular orbital on the porphyrin ring. PMID:25298534

  1. Discovery of a high velocity, spatially extended emission ``shell'' in front of the southeast lobe of the eta Carinae Homunculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, D. G.; Dorland, B. N.; Kaufer, A.

    2002-07-01

    We report the discovery of the eta Carinae ``Ghost Shell,'' a high-velocity, spatially extended emission feature that lies in front of the southeast lobe of the eta Carinae Homunculus. Using data obtained with ``Kueyen,'' one of the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope 8.2 m telescopes and its Ultraviolet and Visible Echelle Spectrograph instrument, we have observed a structure in velocity space of width ~35 km s-1 and with Doppler velocities ranging from -675 <= v <= -850 km s-1. This is up to 500 km s-1 faster than the Homunculus front wall. The structure is distinct from the front wall in velocity space, and extends beyond the Homunculus' spatial boundaries. The Ghost Shell has been detected in emission for multiple allowed Balmer lines and in forbidden lines of [NII], [SII], and [ArIII]. The feature is also associated with a complex absorption structure in Ca H and K lines. We propose that the Ghost Shell lies outside the Homunculus and represents the forward shock between the fast stellar wind of the Great Eruption epoch and the older slow massive stellar wind. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory at Paranal, Chile (UVES commissioning II).

  2. Prime Contract Awards Alphabetically by Contractor, by State or Country, and Place. Part 12 (International Insignia Corp -Korea Guano Co Ltd)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

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  3. Flue-gas and direct-air capture of CO2 by porous metal-organic materials.

    PubMed

    Madden, David G; Scott, Hayley S; Kumar, Amrit; Chen, Kai-Jie; Sanii, Rana; Bajpai, Alankriti; Lusi, Matteo; Curtin, Teresa; Perry, John J; Zaworotko, Michael J

    2017-01-13

    Sequestration of CO2, either from gas mixtures or directly from air (direct air capture), is a technological goal important to large-scale industrial processes such as gas purification and the mitigation of carbon emissions. Previously, we investigated five porous materials, three porous metal-organic materials (MOMs), a benchmark inorganic material, ZEOLITE 13X: and a chemisorbent, TEPA-SBA-15: , for their ability to adsorb CO2 directly from air and from simulated flue-gas. In this contribution, a further 10 physisorbent materials that exhibit strong interactions with CO2 have been evaluated by temperature-programmed desorption for their potential utility in carbon capture applications: four hybrid ultramicroporous materials, SIFSIX-3-CU: , DICRO-3-NI-I: , SIFSIX-2-CU-I: and MOOFOUR-1-NI: ; five microporous MOMs, DMOF-1: , ZIF-8: , MIL-101: , UIO-66: and UIO-66-NH2: ; an ultramicroporous MOM, NI-4-PYC: The performance of these MOMs was found to be negatively impacted by moisture. Overall, we demonstrate that the incorporation of strong electrostatics from inorganic moieties combined with ultramicropores offers improved CO2 capture performance from even moist gas mixtures but not enough to compete with chemisorbents.This article is part of the themed issue 'Coordination polymers and metal-organic frameworks: materials by design'.

  4. The power absorption and the penetration depth of electromagnetic radiation in lead telluride under cyclotron resonance conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özalp, S.; Güngör, A.

    1999-10-01

    Cyclotron resonance absorption in n- and p-type PbTe was observed by Nii and was analysed under classical skin effect conditions. When the values of DC magnetic field corresponding to peaks are plotted against the field directions, a close fit is obtained between the calculated and observed results based on the assumption of a <1 1 1> ellipsoids of revolution model for the both conduction and valance band extrema. From the best fit mt=0.024 m0 and 0.03 m0 for the transverse effective masses and K= ml/ mt=9.8 and 12.2 for the anisotropic mass rations are obtained for the conduction and valance band, respectively. The observed absorption curve shows weak structures at low magnetic field. They are supposed to be due to second harmonics of Azbel'-Kaner cyclotron resonance. However, it turns out to be unnecessary to introduce other bands to explain the experimental results. The applicability of the classical magneto-optical theory is examined by calculating the power absorption coefficient and penetration depth as a function of DC magnetic field.

  5. Role of pendant proton relays and proton-coupled electron transfer on the hydrogen evolution reaction by nickel hangman porphyrins

    DOE PAGES

    Bediako, D. Kwabena; Solis, Brian H.; Dogutan, Dilek K.; ...

    2014-10-08

    Here, the hangman motif provides mechanistic insights into the role of pendant proton relays in governing proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) involved in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). We now show improved HER activity of Ni compared with Co hangman porphyrins. Cyclic voltammogram data and simulations, together with computational studies using density functional theory, implicate a shift in electrokinetic zone between Co and Ni hangman porphyrins due to a change in the PCET mechanism. Unlike the Co hangman porphyrin, the Ni hangman porphyrin does not require reduction to the formally metal(0) species before protonation by weak acids in acetonitrile. We concludemore » that protonation likely occurs at the Ni(I) state followed by reduction, in a stepwise proton transfer–electron transfer pathway. Spectroelectrochemical and computational studies reveal that upon reduction of the Ni(II) compound, the first electron is transferred to a metal-based orbital, whereas the second electron is transferred to a molecular orbital on the porphyrin ring.« less

  6. The Far Infrared Spectroscopic Explorer (FIRSPEX): probing the lifecycle of the ISM in the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigopoulou, D.; Caldwell, M.; Ellison, B.; Pearson, C.; Caux, E.; Cooray, A.; Gallego, J. D.; Gerin, M.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Goldsmith, P.; Kramer, C.; Lis, D. C.; Molinari, S.; Ossenkopf-Okada, V.; Savini, G.; Tan, B. K.; Tielens, X.; Viti, S.; Wiedner, M.; Yassin, G.

    2016-07-01

    The Far Infrared Spectroscopic Explorer (FIRSPEX) is a novel European-led astronomy mission concept developed to enable large area ultra high spectroscopic resolution surveys in the THz regime. FIRSPEX opens up a relatively unexplored spectral and spatial parameter space that will produce an enormously significant scientific legacy by focusing on the properties of the multi-phase ISM, the assembly of molecular clouds in our Galaxy and the onset of star formation; topics which are fundamental to our understanding of galaxy evolution. The mission uses a heterodyne instrument and a ~1.2 m primary antenna to scan large areas of the sky in a number of discreet spectroscopic channels from L2. The FIRSPEX bands centered at [CI] 809 GHz, [NII]1460 GHz, [CII]1900 GHz and [OI]4700 GHz have been carefully selected to target key atomic and ionic fine structure transitions difficult or impossible to access from the ground but fundamental to the study of the multi-phase ISM in the Universe. The need for state-of-the-art sensitivity dictates the use of superconducting mixers configured either as tunnel junctions or hot electron bolometers. This technology requires cooling to low temperatures, approaching 4K, in order to operate. The receivers will operate in double sideband configuration providing a total of 7 pixels on the sky. FIRSPEX will operate from L2 in both survey and pointed mode enabling velocity resolved spectroscopy of large areas of sky as well as targeted observations.

  7. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: Publicly Available Spatially Resolved Emission Line Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medling, Anne; Green, Andrew W.; Ho, I.-Ting; Groves, Brent; Croom, Scott; SAMI Galaxy Survey Team

    2017-01-01

    The SAMI Galaxy Survey is collecting optical integral field spectroscopy of up to 3400 nearby (z<0.1) galaxies with a range of stellar masses and in a range of environments. The first public data release contains nearly 800 galaxies from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) Survey. In addition to releasing the reduced data cubes, we also provide emission line fits (flux and kinematic maps of strong emission lines including Halpha and Hbeta, [OII]3726,29, [OIII]4959,5007, [OI]6300, [NII]6548,83, and [SII]6716,31), extinction maps, star formation classification masks, and star formation rate maps. We give an overview of the data available for your favorite emission line science and present a few early science results. For example, a sample of edge-on disk galaxies show enhanced extraplanar emission related to SF-driven outflows, which are correlated with a bursty star formation history and higher star formation rate surface densities. Interestingly, the star formation rate surface densities of these wind hosts are 5-100 times lower than the canonical threshold for driving winds (0.1 MSun/yr/kpc2), indicating that galactic winds may be more important in normal star-forming galaxies than previously thought.

  8. Hot Post-AGB Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, M.; Gauba, G.; Fujii, T.; Nakada, Y.

    2001-08-01

    From the study of IRAS sources with far-IR colors similar to planetary nebulae (PNe), several proto-planetary nebulae with hot (OB) post-AGB central stars have been detected. These stars form an evolutionary link between the cooler G,F,A supergiant stars that have evolved off the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) and the hot (OB) central stars of PNe. The optical spectra of these objects show strong Balmer emission lines and in some cases low excitation nebular emission lines such as [NII] and [SII] superposed on the OB stellar continuum. The absence of of [OIII] 5007Å line and the presence of low excitation nebular emission lines indicate that photoionisation has just started. The UV(IUE) spectra of some of these objects revealed violet shifted stellar wind P-Cygni profiles of CIV, SiIV and NV, indicating hot and fast stellar wind and post-AGB mass loss. These objects appear to be rapildy evolving into the early stages of PNe similar to that observed in the case of Hen1357 IRAS 17119-5926 (Stingray Nebula) and IRAS 18062+2410 SAO85766.

  9. Spectrophotometric study in the near-IR of a sample of H alpha-selected galaxies with active star formation at z = 0.84

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Gallego, J.; Villar, V.; Zamorano, J.; Acosta, J.; Pérez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Barro, G.

    2011-11-01

    In this work we present the results of the spectroscopic analysis in the near-infrared J band of a sample of 48 star forming galaxies at z = 0.84. Half of the sample was selected by a narrow-band filter tuned to Hα at that redshift and the other half was selected by photometric redshifts at the same redshift. We provide Hα luminosities and star formation rates for all galaxies at that redshift. We were able to estimate metallicities from [NII]6584 Å for a sub sample of eight galaxies, two of the galaxies were from neckband selection. To analyze their physical properties we have computed their sizes, colors, stellar masses, extinctions and other parameters available in literature and in the Rainbow database. In particular the dependence of the stellar mass with the specific star formation rate and metallicity have been studied and compared with the results of other samples of galaxies at several redshifts. For a fixed mass, the metallicities of our galaxies are compatible than those similar at the local Universe, although with higher dispersion. This fact implies that selection in Hα is less biased than a selection in UV, since it includes galaxies with more evolved populations besides objects dominated by star formation. The comparison of the observed properties with models of evolution leads us to think that z = 0.8 star-forming galaxies have already undergone significant changes and begin to developed in a more passive way.

  10. STO-2: Support for 4th Year Operations, Recovery, and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Christopher

    The Stratospheric TeraHertz Observatory was ready for its second Antarctic flight (STO- 2) in the 2015-2016 austral summer. However, due to the late establishment of the stratospheric anti-cyclone and poor surface conditions, STO-2 was unable to launch. The decision was made to winter-over the STO-2 payload in its hangar for launch during the 2016-2017 Antarctic campaign. Funds to cover preparations and deployment of key members of the instrument team in support of the campaign are being provided by NASA under the existing grant. However, these funds are only sufficient to cover expenses up to December 31st, 2016. Here, we request resources for calendar year 2017 to support mission operations, payload recovery, and science operations. These elements will enable the team to deliver fully on STO-2's science mission, and maximize NASA's demonstrated investment in STO-2's success. STO-2 addresses a key problem in modern astrophysics: understanding the Life Cycle of the Interstellar Medium (ISM). STO-2 will survey approximately ˜ of the Southern Galactic Plane in the dominant interstellar cooling line [CII] (158 μm) and the important star formation tracer [NII] (205 μm). In addition, STO-2 will perform path finding observations of the 63 μm [OI] line toward selected regions. With 1 arcminute angular resolution, STO-2 will spatially resolve atomic, ionic and molecular clouds out to 10 kpc. The STO-2 survey will be conducted at unparalleled sensitivity levels. STO-2 will uniquely probe the pivotal formative and disruptive stages in the life cycle of interstellar clouds and the relationship between global star formation rates and the properties of the ISM. Combined with previous HI and CO surveys, STO-2 will create 3- dimensional maps of the structure, dynamics, turbulence, energy balance, and pressure of the Milky Way's ISM, as well as the star formation rate. Once we gain an understanding of the relationship between ISM properties and star formation in the Milky Way

  11. STO-2: Support for 4th Year Operations, Recovery, and Science (JPL co-I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Jonathan

    Here we propose "STO-2: Support for 4th Year Operations, Recovery, and Science," a project being led by Dr. Christopher Walker of the University of Arizona. The Stratospheric TeraHertz Observatory was ready for its second Antarctic flight (STO-2) in the 2015-2016 austral summer. However, due to the late establishment of the stratospheric anti-cyclone and poor surface conditions, STO-2 was unable to launch. The decision was made to winter-over the STO-2 payload in its hangar for launch during the 2016-2017 Antarctic campaign. Funds to cover preparations and deployment of key members of the instrument team in support of the campaign are being provided by NASA under the existing grant. However, these funds are only sufficient to cover expenses up to December 31st, 2016. Here, we request resources for calendar year 2017 to support mission operations, payload recovery, and science operations. These elements will enable the team to deliver fully on STO-2's science mission, and maximize NASA's demonstrated investment in STO-2's success. STO-2 addresses a key problem in modern astrophysics: understanding the Life Cycle of the Interstellar Medium (ISM). STO-2 will survey approximately ˜ of the Southern Galactic Plane in the dominant interstellar cooling line [CII] (158 μm) and the important star formation tracer [NII] (205 μm). In addition, STO-2 will perform path finding observations of the 63 μm [OI] line toward selected regions. With 1 arcminute angular resolution, STO-2 will spatially resolve atomic, ionic and molecular clouds out to 10 kpc. The STO-2 survey will be conducted at unparalleled sensitivity levels. STO-2 will uniquely probe the pivotal formative and disruptive stages in the life cycle of interstellar clouds and the relationship between global star formation rates and the properties of the ISM. Combined with previous HI and CO surveys, STO-2 will create 3- dimensional maps of the structure, dynamics, turbulence, energy balance, and pressure of the Milky

  12. STO-2: Support for 4th Year Operations, Recovery, and Science JHU/APL Co-I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernasconi, Pietro

    This is a collaboration Co-I Institution proposal for the proposal "STO-2: Support for 4th Year Operations, Recovery, and Science" whose lead proposal is submitted by the University of Arizona with Dr. Christofer Walker as PI. STO-2 was flight-ready in the 2015-2016 austral summer. However, due to the late establishment of the stratospheric anti-cyclone and poor surface conditions, STO-2 was unable to launch. The decision was made to winter-over the STO-2 payload in its hangar for launch during the 2016-2017 Antarctic campaign. Funds to cover preparations and deployment of key members of the instrument team in support of the campaign are being provided by NASA under the existing grant. However, these funds are only sufficient to cover expenses up to approximately December 31st. Here we request supplemental funds to cover costs associated with STO-2 operations and recovery beyond this date. STO-2 will address a key problem in modern astrophysics, understanding the Life Cycle of the Interstellar Medium (ISM). STO-2 will survey approximately 1/4 of the Southern Galactic Plane in the dominant interstellar cooling line [CII] (158 μm) and the important star formation tracer [NII] (205 μm). In addition, STO-2 will perform path finding observations of the 63 μm [OI] line toward selected regions. With 1 arcminute angular resolution, STO-2 will spatially resolve atomic, ionic and molecular clouds out to 10 kpc. The STO-2 survey will be conducted at unparalleled sensitivity levels. STO-2 will uniquely probe the pivotal formative and disruptive stages in the life cycle of interstellar clouds and the relationship between global star formation rates and the properties of the ISM. Combined with previous HI and CO surveys, STO-2 will create 3-dimensional maps of the structure, dynamics, turbulence, energy balance, and pressure of the Milky Way's ISM, as well as the star formation rate. Once we gain an understanding of the relationship between ISM properties and star formation

  13. Reflight of the Stratospheric TeraHertz Observatory: STO-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groppi, Christopher

    This is the Lead Proposal for the "Reflight of the Stratospheric TeraHertz Observatory: STO-2". STO-2 will address a key problem in modern astrophysics, understanding the Life Cycle of the Interstellar Medium (ISM). STO-2 will survey approximately 1/4 of the Southern Galactic plane in the dominant interstellar cooling line [CII] (158 μm) and the important star formation tracer [NII] (205 μm). With ~1 arcminute angular resolution, STO-2 will spatially resolve atomic, ionic and molecular clouds out to 10 kpc. Taking advantage of its enhanced, extended lifetime cryogenic receivers, the STO-2 survey will be conducted at unparalleled sensitivity levels. STO- 2 will uniquely probe the pivotal formative and disruptive stages in the life cycle of interstellar clouds and the relationship between global star formation rates and the properties of the ISM. Combined with previous HI and CO surveys, STO-2 will create 3-dimensional maps of the structure, dynamics, turbulence, energy balance, and pressure of the Milky Way's ISM, as well as the star formation rate. Once we gain an understanding of the relationship between ISM properties and star formation in the Milky Way, we can better interpret observations of nearby galaxies and the distant universe. The mission goals for these surveys are to: 1) Determine the life cycle of Galactic interstellar gas, 2) Study the creation and disruption of star-forming clouds in the Galaxy, 3) Determine the parameters that affect the star formation rate in the galaxy, and 4) Provide templates for star formation and stellar/interstellar feedback in other galaxies. STO-2 will re-use the 80cm telescope, gondola, and subsystems from STO-1. For the STO-2 flight, STO-1 s high spectral resolution (<1 km/s) heterodyne receiver system will be upgraded for extended cryogenic lifetime, enhanced sensitivity, and greater reliability. The flight receiver has eight, cryogenic HEB mixers; four optimized for the [CII] line and four for the [NII] line. STO-2

  14. Reflight of the Stratospheric TeraHertz Observatory: STO-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollenbach, David

    This is the Lead Proposal for the "Reflight of the Stratospheric TeraHertz Observatory: STO-2". STO-2 will address a key problem in modern astrophysics, understanding the Life Cycle of the Interstellar Medium (ISM). STO-2 will survey approximately 1&/ of the Southern Galactic plane in the dominant interstellar cooling line [CII] (158 μm) and the important star formation tracer [NII] (205 μm). With ~1 arcminute angular resolution, STO-2 will spatially resolve atomic, ionic and molecular clouds out to 10 kpc. Taking advantage of its enhanced, extended lifetime cryogenic receivers, the STO-2 survey will be conducted at unparalleled sensitivity levels. STO- 2 will uniquely probe the pivotal formative and disruptive stages in the life cycle of interstellar clouds and the relationship between global star formation rates and the properties of the ISM. Combined with previous HI and CO surveys, STO-2 will create 3-dimensional maps of the structure, dynamics, turbulence, energy balance, and pressure of the Milky Way's ISM, as well as the star formation rate. Once we gain an understanding of the relationship between ISM properties and star formation in the Milky Way, we can better interpret observations of nearby galaxies and the distant universe. The mission goals for these surveys are to: 1) Determine the life cycle of Galactic interstellar gas, 2) Study the creation and disruption of star-forming clouds in the Galaxy, 3) Determine the parameters that affect the star formation rate in the galaxy, and 4) Provide templates for star formation and stellar/interstellar feedback in other galaxies. STO-2 will re-use the 80cm telescope, gondola, and subsystems from STO-1. For the STO-2 flight, STO-1 s high spectral resolution (<1 km/s) heterodyne receiver system will be upgraded for extended cryogenic lifetime, enhanced sensitivity, and greater reliability. The flight receiver has eight, cryogenic HEB mixers; four optimized for the [CII] line and four for the [NII] line. STO-2

  15. The CCAT-prime Extreme Field-of-View Submillimeter Telescope on Cerro Chajnantor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopman, Brian; Bertoldi, Frank; Chapman, Scott; Fich, Michel; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Herter, Terry L.; Murray, Norman W.; Niemack, Michael D.; Riechers, Dominik; Schilke, Peter; Stacey, Gordon J.; Stutzki, Juergen; CCAT-prime Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    CCAT-prime is a six meter aperture off-axis submillimeter telescope that we plan to build at 5600m elevation on Cerro Chajnantor in Chile. The CCAT-prime optics are based on a cross-Dragone design with high throughput and a wide field-of-view optimized to increase the mapping speed of next generation cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations. These characteristics make CCAT-prime an excellent platform for a wide range of next generation millimeter and submillimeter science goals, and a potential platform for CMB stage-IV measurements. Here we present the telescope design for CCAT-prime and review the science goals.Taking advantage of the high elevation site, the first generation instrument for CCAT-prime will measure seven different frequency bands from 350um to 3mm. These seven bands will enable precise measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effects (SZE) by separating contributions from CMB, thermal SZE, kinetic SZE, bright submm galaxies, and radio sources with a goal of extracting the peculiar velocities from a large number of galaxy clusters. Additional science priorities for CCAT-prime include: Galactic Ecology studies of the dynamic intersteller medium by mapping the fine structure lines [CI], [CII] and [NII] as well as high-excitation CO lines at the shortest wavelength bands; high redshift intensity mapping of [CII] emission from star-forming galaxies that likely dominates cosmic reionization at z~5-9 to probe the Epoch of Reionization; and next generation CMB polarization measurements to constrain inflation and cosmological models. The CCAT-prime facility will further our understanding of astrophysical processes from moments after the Big Bang to the present-day evolution of the Milky Way.

  16. L'CO/LFIR Relations with CO Rotational Ladders of Galaxies Across the Herschel SPIRE Archive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamenetzky, J.; Rangwala, N.; Glenn, J.; Maloney, P. R.; Conley, A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a catalog of all CO (carbon monoxide) (J (total angular momentum quantum number) equals 1-0 through J equals 13-12), [CI], and [NII] lines available from extragalactic spectra from the Herschel SPIRE (Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver) Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) archive combined with observations of the low-J CO lines from the literature and from the Arizona Radio Observatory. This work examines the relationships between L (sub FIR (Far Infra Red)), L prime (sub CO), and L (sub CO) / L (sub CO, 1-0). We also present a new method for estimating probability distribution functions (PDFs) from marginal signal-to-noise ratio Herschel FTS spectra, which takes into account the instrumental "ringing" and the resulting highly correlated nature of the spectra. The slopes of Log (L (sub FIR)) versus Log (L prime (sub CO)) are linear for all mid- to high-J CO lines. The mid- to high-J CO luminosity relative to CO J equals 1-0 increases with increasing L (sub FIR), indicating higher excitement of the molecular gas, though these ratios do not exceed approximately 100. The luminosities relative to CO J equals 1-0 remain relatively at from J equals 6-5 through J equals13-2, across many orders of magnitude of L (sub FIR). Qualitative comparisons to current theoretical models do not match these flat SLED (spectral line energy distributions) shapes, indicating the need for more comprehensive modeling of the excitation processes of warm molecular gas in nearby galaxies.

  17. Effect of excess iodine intake on thyroid diseases in different populations: A systematic review and meta-analyses including observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Katagiri, Ryoko; Yuan, Xiaoyi; Kobayashi, Satomi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Background Although several reports concerning the association of iodine excess and thyroid disease have appeared, no systematic review of the association between iodine excess intake and thyroid diseases, especially hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, has yet been reported. Method We conducted a systematic search of Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases, Ichushi-Web and CiNii database for intervention trials and observational studies. Search terms were constructed from related words for excess AND iodine intake or excretion AND thyroid hormones or diseases AND study designs. After considering the qualitative heterogeneity among studies, a meta-analysis was conducted and odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated in random-effects models. A protocol was registered with PROSPERO (No. CRD42015028081). Results 50 articles were included, including three intervention trials, six case-control studies, six follow-up studies and 35 cross-sectional studies. Three cross-sectional studies in adults included in meta-analysis. Odds ratio of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism between excess and adequate populations were 2.78 (CI:1.47 to 5.27) and 2.03 (CI:1.58 to 2.62) in adults, respectively. Source of excess iodine status was mainly iodized salt or water in included studies. Conclusion Although universal salt iodization has improved goiter rates, chronic exposure to excess iodine from water or poorly monitored salt are risk factors for hypothyroidism in free-living populations. Monitoring of both iodine concentration in salt as well as the iodine concentration in local drinking water are essential to preventing thyroid diseases. Hypothyroidism should be also carefully monitored in areas with excess iodine. Because of the low quality and limited number of included studies, further evidence and review are required. PMID:28282437

  18. Satellite-Terrestrial Network Interoperability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonDeak, Thomas C.

    1998-01-01

    The developing national and global information infrastructures (NII/GII) are being built upon the asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) telecommunications protocol and associated protocol standards. These protocols are themselves under development through the telecommunications standards process defined by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), which as a body is sanctioned by the United Nations. All telecommunications manufacturers use these standards to create products that can interoperate. The ITU has recognized the ATM Forum as the instrument for the development of ATM protocols. This forum is a consortium of industry, academia, and government entities formed to quickly develop standards for the ATM infrastructure. However, because the participants represent a predominately terrestrial network viewpoint, the use of satellites in the national and global information infrastructures could be severely compromised. Consequently, through an ongoing task order, the NASA Lewis Research Center asked Sterling Software, Inc., to communicate with the ATM Forum in support of the interoperability of satellite-terrestrial networks. This year, Dr. Raj Jain of the Ohio State University, under contract to Sterling, authored or coauthored 32 explanatory documents delivered to the ATM Forum in the areas of Guaranteed Frame Rate for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), Available Bit Rate, performance testing, Variable Bit Rate voice over ATM, TCP over Unspecified Bit Rate+, Virtual Source/Virtual Destination, and network management. These contributions have had a significant impact on the content of the standards that the ATM Forum is developing. Some of the more significant accomplishments have been: (1) The adoption by the ATM Forum of a new definition for Message-In, Message-Out latency; and (2) Improved text (clearer wording and newly defined terms) for measurement procedures, foreground and background traffic, and scalable configuration in the

  19. Design and Analysis Tools for Concurrent Blackboard Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McManus, John W.

    1991-01-01

    A blackboard system consists of a set of knowledge sources, a blackboard data structure, and a control strategy used to activate the knowledge sources. The blackboard model of problem solving is best described by Dr. H. Penny Nii of the Stanford University AI Laboratory: "A Blackboard System can be viewed as a collection of intelligent agents who are gathered around a blackboard, looking at pieces of information written on it, thinking about the current state of the solution, and writing their conclusions on the blackboard as they generate them. " The blackboard is a centralized global data structure, often partitioned in a hierarchical manner, used to represent the problem domain. The blackboard is also used to allow inter-knowledge source communication and acts as a shared memory visible to all of the knowledge sources. A knowledge source is a highly specialized, highly independent process that takes inputs from the blackboard data structure, performs a computation, and places the results of the computation in the blackboard data structure. This design allows for an opportunistic control strategy. The opportunistic problem-solving technique allows a knowledge source to contribute towards the solution of the current problem without knowing which of the other knowledge sources will use the information. The use of opportunistic problem-solving allows the data transfers on the blackboard to determine which processes are active at a given time. Designing and developing blackboard systems is a difficult process. The designer is trying to balance several conflicting goals and achieve a high degree of concurrent knowledge source execution while maintaining both knowledge and semantic consistency on the blackboard. Blackboard systems have not attained their apparent potential because there are no established tools or methods to guide in their construction or analyze their performance.

  20. Análise da cinemática interna das regiões HII gigantes e das galáxias HII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plana, H.; Telles, E.; Maíz-Apellániz, J.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho nós mostramos os primeiros resultados de um estudo sobre a cinemática das Regiões HII Gigantes (GHIIRs) em galáxias próximas. Essas regiões HII têm um diâmetro médio entre 100 pc e 1000 pc e uma taxa de formação estelar de 106 M¤ / ano sendo equivalente à observada em galáxias de tipo tardio correspondendo a uma taxa de formação estelar por unidade de volume uma ordem de magnitude maior que a observada em regiões HII normais. Usando espectros de fenda longas em várias posições, nós construímos mapas de velocidades, de dispersão e de intensidade para várias linhas de emissão como Ha, Hb, [NII]6584 Å, [OIII]5007 Å e o doublet de [SII], para cinco regiões gigantes: NGC 2403 II e IV, NGC 595, NGC 5461, NGC 5471, NGC 5455. O estudo da cinemática (mapas de velocidades e da dispersão) mostrou, por exemplo, a presença de cascas em expansão em NGC 595 ou perfis de emissão com várias componentes em NGC 5461. Os perfis de emissão também mostram velocidades supersônicas. Os resultados são discutidos em comparação com os de estudos anteriores realizados.

  1. Dust and ionized gas in elliptical galaxies: Signatures of merging collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goudfrooij, Paul; Dejong, Teije

    1993-01-01

    Traditionally elliptical galaxies were thought to be essentially devoid of interstellar matter. However, recent advances in instrumental sensitivity have caused a renaissance of interest in dust and gas in - or associated with - elliptical galaxies. In particular, the technique of co-adding IRAS survey scans has led to the detection of more than half of all ellipticals with BT less than 11 mag. in the Revised Shapley-Ames catalog, indicating the presence of 10(exp 7) - 10(exp 8) solar mass of cold interstellar matter (Jura et al. 1987). In addition, CCD multi-color surface photometry shows dust patches in about 30 percent of the cases studied to date (e.g., Veron-Cetty & Veron 1988). Thorough study of the gas and dust in ellipticals is important to (1) determine its origin (mass-loss from late-type stars, merging collisions with other galaxies or accretion inflows from cooling X-ray gas), and (2) investigate the 3-D shape of ellipticals, as can be derived from the orientation of the dust lanes and the 2-D velocity field of the gas. An important result of our comprehensive CCD imaging program is that a relevant fraction (approximately 40 percent) of the sample objects exhibits dust patches within extended H-alpha+(NII) line-emitting filaments. This common occurrence can be easily accounted for if the dust and gas have an external origin, i.e., mergers or interactions with gas-rich galaxies. Evidence supporting this suggestion: (1) the ionized gas is usually dynamically decoupled from the stellar velocity field (see, e.g., Sharples et al. 1983, Bertola & Bettoni 1988); (2) it is shown in a companion paper (Goudfrooij et al. 1992) that internal stellar mass loss alone can not account for the dust content of elliptical galaxies.

  2. Dust attenuation in z ~ 1 galaxies from Herschel and 3D-HST Hα measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglisi, A.; Rodighiero, G.; Franceschini, A.; Talia, M.; Cimatti, A.; Baronchelli, I.; Daddi, E.; Renzini, A.; Schawinski, K.; Mancini, C.; Silverman, J.; Gruppioni, C.; Lutz, D.; Berta, S.; Oliver, S. J.

    2016-02-01

    We combined the spectroscopic information from the 3D-HST survey with Herschel data to characterize the Hα dust attenuation properties of a sample of 79 main sequence star-forming galaxies at z ~ 1 in the GOODS-S field. The sample was selected in the far-IR at λ = 100 and/or 160 μm and only includes galaxies with a secure Hα detection (S/N > 3). From the low resolution 3D-HST spectra we measured the redshifts and the Hα fluxes for the whole sample. (A factor of 1/1.2 was applied to the observed fluxes to remove the [NII] contamination.) The stellar masses (M⋆), infrared (LIR), and UV luminosities (LUV) were derived from the spectral energy distributions by fitting multiband data from GALEX near-UV to SPIRE 500 μm. We estimated the continuum extinction Estar(B-V) from both the IRX = LIR/LUV ratio and the UV-slope, β, and found excellent agreement between the two. The nebular extinction was estimated from comparison of the observed SFRHα and SFRUV. We obtained f = Estar(B-V) /Eneb(B-V) = 0.93 ± 0.06, which is higher than the canonical value of f = 0.44 measured in the local Universe. Our derived dust correction produces good agreement between the Hα and IR+UV SFRs for galaxies with SFR ≳ 20M⊙/yr and M⋆ ≳ 5 × 1010M⊙, while objects with lower SFR and M⋆ seem to require a smaller f-factor (i.e. higher Hα extinction correction). Our results then imply that the nebular extinction for our sample is comparable to extinction in the optical-UV continuum and suggest that the f-factor is a function of both M⋆ and SFR, in agreement with previous studies.

  3. Imaging ultrafast excited state pathways in transition metal complexes by X-ray transient absorption and scattering using X-ray free electron laser source.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin X; Shelby, Megan L; Lestrange, Patrick J; Jackson, Nicholas E; Haldrup, Kristoffer; Mara, Michael W; Stickrath, Andrew B; Zhu, Diling; Lemke, Henrik; Chollet, Matthieu; Hoffman, Brian M; Li, Xiaosong

    2016-12-16

    This report will describe our recent studies of transition metal complex structural dynamics on the fs and ps time scales using an X-ray free electron laser source, Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Ultrafast XANES spectra at the Ni K-edge of nickel(ii) tetramesitylporphyrin (NiTMP) were measured for optically excited states at a timescale from 100 fs to 50 ps, providing insight into its sub-ps electronic and structural relaxation processes. Importantly, a transient reduced state Ni(i) (π, 3dx(2)-y(2)) electronic state is captured through the interpretation of a short-lived excited state absorption on the low-energy shoulder of the edge, which is aided by the computation of X-ray transitions for postulated excited electronic states. The observed and computed inner shell to valence orbital transition energies demonstrate and quantify the influence of the electronic configuration on specific metal orbital energies. A strong influence of the valence orbital occupation on the inner shell orbital energies indicates that one should not use the transition energy from 1s to other orbitals to draw conclusions about the d-orbital energies. For photocatalysis, a transient electronic configuration could influence d-orbital energies up to a few eV and any attempt to steer the reaction pathway should account for this to ensure that external energies can be used optimally in driving desirable processes. NiTMP structural evolution and the influence of the porphyrin macrocycle conformation on relaxation kinetics can be likewise inferred from this study.

  4. Retrieval Success from a 1950's UK Fuel Storage Pond: Blazing a Trail for Early Hazard Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, S.

    2006-07-01

    Work has begun to tackle one of the biggest challenges in the UK nuclear cleanup program: the retrieval of spent nuclear fuel from the First Generation Magnox Fuel Storage Pond at Sellafield. The UK Government regulatory body, Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) considers this pond to be the country's highest priority in terms of Hazard Reduction, a view supported by the facility owner, UK Government's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). Remotely operated submersible vehicles (ROV's) were used by British Nuclear Group to assess the condition of stored fuel in First Generation Magnox Storage Ponds (1945-60's build). The ROV survey showed fuel condition was better than expected, and engineers were able to prototype retrieval on a selected skip (container) of fuel. The retrieval and subsequent export to the Fuel Handling Plant (FHP) was executed in November 2005 and was completely successful. The next stage is to reprocess the fuel using the Magnox Reprocessing Plant. If this is successful the prototype retrieval will have demonstrated that: - British Nuclear Group can safely retrieve fuel from its legacy ponds; - British Nuclear Group can safely transport retrieved legacy fuel between facilities; - British Nuclear Group can eliminate the hazard presented by this legacy fuel by use of existing on-site reprocessing facilities. This in turn enables the option to commence larger-scale fuel retrievals from these legacy ponds years ahead of the current plan which assumes new plants to be available to handle all arisings from the legacy ponds in 2015. This hazard reduction could commence as early as 2008. (authors)

  5. Optically Sectioning Ocular Fluorometer Microscope: Applications To The Cornea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Barry R.

    1988-06-01

    An optically sectioning ocular fluorometer microscope is described with the capability of measuring the emission spectra of molecules in planes along the microscope axis. Its unique feature is that the objective is attached to a piezoelectric driver and scans from the tear film to the aqueous humor. This permits measurements on living animals and adoption for clinical use. The excitation light from a laser (nitrogen, dye, argon or helium cadmium) couples to the microscope via a quartz optical fiber. The light is projected through a 100 PM slit on the excitation side, through one half of the objective. The emitted light is collected by the second half of the objective and passes a second 100 pm slit in the conjugate plane of the eyepiece. The depth resolution is 6 um with an 100x objective, and 18 PM with a 50 power objective. The fluorescence is coupled by a quartz fiber to an optical spectrum analyzer. It consists of a monochromator with two microchannel plates attached to a linear diode array. The photocathode of the detector is gated for use with pulsed lasers or it can operate in the continuous mode. The applications include fluorescence measurements on thin layered structures. The present study involves the noninvasive measurement of oxidative metabolism of the component layers of the in vivo cornea. This is based on fluorescence measurements of the reduced pyridine nucleotide in the cornea. The fluorescence signals from the corneal epithelial (30 μm) and endothelial (4 μm) are clearly defined. Other applications to ophthalmology include studies of the fluorescence form the component layers of the ocular lens. Support from N.I.I. EY06958.

  6. The Local Interstellar Medium Legacy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, B.

    We propose to provide a legacy database of far ultraviolet absorption spectra (912 - 1100AA) of 44 bright early-type B stars residing within sim 50pc of the Sun. These spectra will primarily be used to map the physical and chemical characteristics of the neutral and ionized interstellar gas that lies both within and just beyond the contours of the Local Bubble region. Of particular importance will be the detection of the OVI ion, which is known to trace highly ionized, hot (sim 300,000K) interstellar gas. We shall produce plots of the spatial distribution of the OVI ion with respect to the cold and dense neutral boundary to the rarefied Local Bubble cavity. This information will provide new insights into the possible production mechanisms for this ion that is widely believed to be formed at the conductive interfaces of evaporating gas clouds. Our database will also allow study of the spatial distribution of the ions of ArI, OI, FeII, CII, CIII, NI and NII, such that both diffuse neutral and ionized local gas can be probed in order to determine if photo-ionization conditions dominate within the local cavity. These data will also allow an investigation of the gas phase element abundances in the local gas, such that we will be able to compare their relative depletion patterns with both the galactic disk and halo gas. In addition to these prime science objectives these data will also provide a large database of observations of local H_2 molecular absorption, as well as a large, high SN set of early-type star spectra that can be modelled with appropriate stellar atmospheres.

  7. Biosensing and bioremediation of Cr(VI) by cell free extract of Enterobacter aerogenes T2.

    PubMed

    Panda, Jigisha; Sarkar, Priyabrata

    2014-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium or Cr(VI) enters the environment through several anthropogenic activities and it is highly toxic and carcinogenic. Hence it is required to be detected and remediated from the environment. In this study, low-cost and environment-friendly methods of biosensing and bioremediation of Cr(VI) have been proposed. Crude cell free extract (CFE) of previously isolated Enterobacter aerogenes T2 (GU265554; NII 1111) was prepared and exploited to develop a stable biosensor for direct estimation of Cr(VI) in waste water, by using three electrodes via cyclic voltammetry. For bioremediation studies, a homogeneous solution of commercially available sodium alginate and CFE was added dropwise in a continuously stirred calcium chloride solution. Biologically modified calcium alginate beads were produced and these were further utilized for bioremediation studies. The proposed sensor showed linear response in the range of 10-40 μg L(-1) Cr(VI) and the limit of detection was found to be 6.6 μg L(-1) Cr(VI). No interference was observed in presence of metal ions, e.g., lead, cadmium, arsenic, tin etc., except for insignificant interference with molybdenum and manganese. In bioremediation studies, modified calcium alginate beads showed encouraging removal rate 900 mg Cr(VI)/m(3) water per day with a removal efficiency of 90%, much above than reported in literature. The proposed sensing system could be a viable alternative to costly measurement procedures. Calcium alginate beads, modified with CFE of E. aerogenes, could be used in bioremediation of Cr(VI) since it could work in real conditions with extraordinarily high capacity.

  8. Two Pathways for Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Hydrogen by a Nickel Bis(diphosphine) Complex with Pendant Amines in the Second Coordination Sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jenny Y.; Smith, Stuart E.; Liu, Tianbiao L.; Dougherty, William G.; Hoffert, Wesley A.; Kassel, W. S.; Rakowski DuBois, Mary; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2013-07-03

    A nickel bis(diphosphine) complex containing pendant amines in the second coordination sphere, [Ni(PCy2Nt-Bu2)2](BF4)2 (PCy2Nt-Bu2 = 1,5-di(tert-butyl)-3,7-dicyclohexyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane), is an electrocatalyst for hydrogen oxidation. Under 1.0 atm H2 using NEt3 as a base and with added water, a turnover frequency of 45 s-1 is observed at 23 °C; this is the fastest observed for a molecular catalyst. The addition of hydrogen to the NiII complex gives thee isomers of the doubly protonated Ni0 complex [Ni(PCy2HNt-Bu2)2](BF4)2; these complexes have been studied by 1H and 31P NMR spectroscopy, and for one isomer, an X-ray diffraction study. Using the pKa values and NiII/I and NiI/0 redox potentials in a thermochemical cycle, the free energy of hydrogen addition to [Ni(PCy2Nt-Bu2)2]2+ was determined to be -7.9 kcal mol-1. The catalytic rate observed in dry acetonitrile for the oxidation of H2 at the NiII/I couple depends on base size, with larger bases (NEt3, tert-BuNH2) resulting in slower catalysis than n-BuNH2. Addition of water accelerates the rate of catalysis, especially for the larger bases. The results of these studies provide important insights into the design of catalysts for hydrogen oxidation that facilitate proton movement and operate at moderate potentials. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  9. Preparation for Retrievals from Sellafield Legacy Ponds Installation of the Gantry Refurbishment System

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, M.

    2008-07-01

    Retrieval of sludge and fuel from the First Generation Magnox Fuel Storage Pond, and its safe long term storage is one of the NDA's top priorities in the UK clean up programme. The plant is currently undergoing a series of major modifications in preparation for the retrievals operations. The most visible example of these modifications is the Gantry Refurbishment System (GRS), a major work platform which has recently been lifted onto the pond long travel girders used by the Skip Handler. This paper describes the design, manufacture, works test, and site installation of this major piece of equipment. The installation lift, involving the use of an 800Te crane was one of the largest lifts undertaken at Sellafield. The GRS is a mobile platform structure which is designed to be pushed or pulled along the long travel girders by the Skip Handler. Its principle function is to provide a safe and shielded working platform from which to undertake refurbishment of the Skip Handler long travel girders and support structure. The potential hazards and consequences resulting from the modification were fully understood and controls were put in place to ensure that the risk of carrying out the work was as low as reasonably practicable. The work was authorised by the NII, Sellafield Nuclear Safety Committee and an independent readiness review panel. Despite less than perfect weather in the run up to the lift, the GRS was successfully and safely lifted onto the pond on 18 October 2006, the culmination of three years of planning, engineering and construction. (authors)

  10. The Reaction Mechanism of Methyl-Coenzyme M Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Wongnate, Thanyaporn; Ragsdale, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) is a nickel tetrahydrocorphinoid (coenzyme F430) containing enzyme involved in the biological synthesis and anaerobic oxidation of methane. MCR catalyzes the conversion of methyl-2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (methyl-SCoM) and N-7-mercaptoheptanoylthreonine phosphate (CoB7SH) to CH4 and the mixed disulfide CoBS-SCoM. In this study, the reaction of MCR from Methanothermobacter marburgensis, with its native substrates was investigated using static binding, chemical quench, and stopped-flow techniques. Rate constants were measured for each step in this strictly ordered ternary complex catalytic mechanism. Surprisingly, in the absence of the other substrate, MCR can bind either substrate; however, only one binary complex (MCR·methyl-SCoM) is productive whereas the other (MCR·CoB7SH) is inhibitory. Moreover, the kinetic data demonstrate that binding of methyl-SCoM to the inhibitory MCR·CoB7SH complex is highly disfavored (Kd = 56 mm). However, binding of CoB7SH to the productive MCR·methyl-SCoM complex to form the active ternary complex (CoB7SH·MCR(NiI)·CH3SCoM) is highly favored (Kd = 79 μm). Only then can the chemical reaction occur (kobs = 20 s−1 at 25 °C), leading to rapid formation and dissociation of CH4 leaving the binary product complex (MCR(NiII)·CoB7S−·SCoM), which undergoes electron transfer to regenerate Ni(I) and the final product CoBS-SCoM. This first rapid kinetics study of MCR with its natural substrates describes how an enzyme can enforce a strictly ordered ternary complex mechanism and serves as a template for identification of the reaction intermediates. PMID:25691570

  11. The reaction mechanism of methyl-coenzyme M reductase: How an enzyme enforces strict binding order

    DOE PAGES

    Wongnate, Thanyaporn; Ragsdale, Stephen W.

    2015-02-17

    Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) is a nickel tetrahydrocorphinoid (coenzyme F430) containing enzyme involved in the biological synthesis and anaerobic oxidation of methane. MCR catalyzes the conversion of methyl-2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (methyl-SCoM) and N-7-mercaptoheptanoylthreonine phosphate (CoB7SH) to CH4 and the mixed disulfide CoBS-SCoM. In this study, the reaction of MCR from Methanothermobacter marburgensis, with its native substrates was investigated using static binding, chemical quench, and stopped-flow techniques. Rate constants were measured for each step in this strictly ordered ternary complex catalytic mechanism. Surprisingly, in the absence of the other substrate, MCR can bind either substrate; however, only one binary complex (MCR·methyl-SCoM) is productivemore » whereas the other (MCR·CoB7SH) is inhibitory. Moreover, the kinetic data demonstrate that binding of methyl-SCoM to the inhibitory MCR·CoB7SH complex is highly disfavored (Kd = 56 mM). However, binding of CoB7SH to the productive MCR·methyl-SCoM complex to form the active ternary complex (CoB7SH·MCR(NiI)·CH3SCoM) is highly favored (Kd = 79 μM). Only then can the chemical reaction occur (kobs = 20 s-1 at 25 °C), leading to rapid formation and dissociation of CH4 leaving the binary product complex (MCR(NiII)·CoB7S-·SCoM), which undergoes electron transfer to regenerate Ni(I) and the final product CoBS-SCoM. In conclusion, this first rapid kinetics study of MCR with its natural substrates describes how an enzyme can enforce a strictly ordered ternary complex mechanism and serves as a template for identification of the reaction intermediates.« less

  12. The reaction mechanism of methyl-coenzyme M reductase: how an enzyme enforces strict binding order.

    PubMed

    Wongnate, Thanyaporn; Ragsdale, Stephen W

    2015-04-10

    Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) is a nickel tetrahydrocorphinoid (coenzyme F430) containing enzyme involved in the biological synthesis and anaerobic oxidation of methane. MCR catalyzes the conversion of methyl-2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (methyl-SCoM) and N-7-mercaptoheptanoylthreonine phosphate (CoB7SH) to CH4 and the mixed disulfide CoBS-SCoM. In this study, the reaction of MCR from Methanothermobacter marburgensis, with its native substrates was investigated using static binding, chemical quench, and stopped-flow techniques. Rate constants were measured for each step in this strictly ordered ternary complex catalytic mechanism. Surprisingly, in the absence of the other substrate, MCR can bind either substrate; however, only one binary complex (MCR·methyl-SCoM) is productive whereas the other (MCR·CoB7SH) is inhibitory. Moreover, the kinetic data demonstrate that binding of methyl-SCoM to the inhibitory MCR·CoB7SH complex is highly disfavored (Kd = 56 mM). However, binding of CoB7SH to the productive MCR·methyl-SCoM complex to form the active ternary complex (CoB7SH·MCR(Ni(I))·CH3SCoM) is highly favored (Kd = 79 μM). Only then can the chemical reaction occur (kobs = 20 s(-1) at 25 °C), leading to rapid formation and dissociation of CH4 leaving the binary product complex (MCR(Ni(II))·CoB7S(-)·SCoM), which undergoes electron transfer to regenerate Ni(I) and the final product CoBS-SCoM. This first rapid kinetics study of MCR with its natural substrates describes how an enzyme can enforce a strictly ordered ternary complex mechanism and serves as a template for identification of the reaction intermediates.

  13. Studies on Anthropogenic Impact on Water Quality in Hilo (Hawaii) Bay and Mapping the Study Stations Using Geospatial Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartier, A. J.; Williams, M. S.; Adolf, J.; Sriharan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Hilo Bay has uncharacteristically brown waters compared to other waters found in Hawai'i. The majority of the freshwater entering Hilo Bay is from storm and surface water runoff. The anthropogenic impact on water quality at Hilo Bay is due to sediment entrance, cesspools (Bacteria), and invasive species (Albizia). This poster presentation will focus on the water quality and phytoplankton collected on a weekly basis at a buoy positioned one meter from the shore of Hilo Bay, preserving the phytoplankton intact, concentrating and dehydrating the sample with ethanol, and viewing the phytoplankton with a scanning electron microscope (Hitachi S-3400NII). The GPS (Global Positioning System) points were collected at the sampling stations. Three transects on three separate dates were performed in Hilo Bay with salinity, percent dissolved oxygen, turbidity, secchi depth, temperature, and chlorophyll fluorescence data collected at each sampling station. A consistent trend observed in all transects was as distance from the river increased turbidity decreased and salinity increased. The GPS data on June 30, 2015 showed a major correlation between stations and their distance from shore. There is a decrease in the turbidity but not the temperature for these stations. The GPS points collected on July 7, 2015 at thirteen stations starting with station one being at the shore to the water, showed that the salinity concentration fluctuate noticeably at the first 6 stations. As we proceed further away from the shore, the salinity concentration increases from stations seven through thirteen. The water temperature shows little variation throughout the thirteen stations. The turbidity level was high at the shore and shows a noticeable drop at station thirteen.

  14. The Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster: a Compilation of Published Literature on Health Needs and Relief Activities, March 2011-September 2012

    PubMed Central

    Ochi, Sae; Murray, Virginia; Hodgson, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of the health needs following the Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster and the lessons identified. Methods The relevant of peer review and grey literature articles in English and Japanese, and books in Japanese, published from March 2011 to September 2012 were searched. Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and HMIC were searched for journal articles in English, CiNii for those in Japanese, and Amazon.co.jp. for books. Descriptions of the health needs at the time of the disaster were identified using search terms and relevant articles were reviewed. Findings 85 English articles, 246 Japanese articles and 13 books were identified, the majority of which were experience/activity reports. Regarding health care needs, chronic conditions such as hypertension and diabetes were reported to be the greatest burden from the early stages of the disaster. Loss of medication and medical records appeared to worsen the situation. Many sub-acute symptoms were attributed to the contaminated sludge of the tsunamis and the poor living environment at the evacuation centres. Particularly vulnerable groups were identified as the elderly, those with mental health illnesses and the disabled. Although the response of the rescue activities was prompt, it sometimes failed to meet the on-site needs due to the lack of communication and coordination. Conclusion The lessons identified from this mega-disaster highlighted the specific health needs of the vulnerable populations, particularly the elderly and those with non-communicable diseases. Further research is needed so that the lessons identified can be incorporated into future contingency plans in Japan and elsewhere. PMID:23787732

  15. On the influence of resonant scattering on cosmic microwave background polarization anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Sunyaev, R. A.

    2007-10-01

    We implement the theory of resonant scattering in the context of cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization anisotropies. We compute the changes in the E-mode polarization (EE) and temperature E-mode (TE) CMB power spectra introduced by the scattering on a resonant transition with a given optical depth τX and polarization coefficient E1. The latter parameter, accounting for how anisotropic the scattering is, depends on the exchange of angular momentum in the transition, enabling observational discrimination between different resonances. We use this formalism in two different scenarios: cosmological recombination and cosmological re-ionization. In the context of cosmological recombination, we compute predictions in frequency and multipole space for the change in the TE and EE power spectra introduced by scattering on the Hα and Pα lines of hydrogen. This constitutes a fundamental test of the standard model of recombination, and the sensitivity it requires is comparable to that needed in measuring the primordial CMB B-mode polarization component. In the context of re-ionization, we study the scattering off metals and ions produced by the first stars, and find that polarization anisotropies, apart from providing a consistency test for intensity measurements, give some insight on how re-ionization evolved. Since polarization anisotropies have memory of how anisotropic the line scattering is, they should be able to discern the OI 63.2-μm transition from other possible transitions associated to OIII, NII, NIII, etc. The amplitude of these signals are, however, between 10 and 100 times below the (already challenging) level of CMB B-mode polarization anisotropies.

  16. A study of the trace sulfide mineral assemblages in the Stillwater Complex, Montana, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aird, Hannah M.; Ferguson, Katherine M.; Lehrer, Malia L.; Boudreau, Alan E.

    2017-03-01

    The sulfide assemblages of the Stillwater Complex away from the well-studied ore zones are composed mainly of variable proportions of pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, pentlandite, and ±pyrite. Excluding vein assemblages and those affected by greenschist and lower temperature alteration, the majority can be classified into two broad assemblages, defined here as pristine (multiphase, often globular in shape) or volatile-bearing (multiphase, high-temperature, volatile-rich minerals such as biotite, hornblende, or an unmixed calcite-dolomite assemblage). The volatile-bearing assemblages are mainly found within and below the J-M reef, where native copper and sphalerite are also locally present. Pristine sulfides are found throughout the stratigraphy. Both groups can be affected by apparent S loss in the form of pyrite being converted to magnetite and chalcopyrite to a Cu-Fe-oxide (delafossite), with little to no silicate alteration. An upward trend from pentlandite-rich to pyrrhotite-rich to pyrite-rich assemblages is observed in the footwall rocks in upper GN-I, and the same trend repeats from just below the reef and continues into the overlying N-II and GN-II. Modeling suggests that the sulfide Ni in the Peridotite Zone is largely controlled by silicate Ni. When taken together, observations are most readily explained by the remobilization of selected elements by a high-temperature fluid with the apparent loss of S > Cu > Ni. This could concentrate ore metals by vapor refining, eventually producing a platinum group element-enriched sulfide ore zone, such as the J-M reef.

  17. Young Stellar Objects in Lynds 1641: Disks and Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Min; Kim, Jinyoung Serena; van Boekel, Roy; Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Henning, Thomas; Flaherty, Kevin

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Lynds 1641 (L1641) cloud using multi-wavelength data including Spitzer, WISE, 2MASS, and XMM covering 1390 YSOs across a range of evolutionary stages. In addition, we targeted a sub-sample of YSOs for optical spectroscopy with the MMT/Hectospec and the MMT/Hectochelle. We use this data, along with archival photometric data, to derive spectral types, masses, ages and extinction values. We also use the H_alpha and H_beta lines to derive accretion rates. We calculate the disk fraction as N(II)/N(II+III), where N(II) and N(III) are numbers of Class\\ II and Class\\ III sources, respectively, and obtain a disk fraction of 50% in L1641. We find that the disk frequency is almost constant as a function of stellar mass with a slight peak at log(M_*/M_sun) -0.25. The analysis of multi-epoch data indicates that the accretion variability of YSOs cannot explain the two orders of magnitude of scatter for YSOs with similar masses in the M_acc vs. M_* plot. Forty-six new transition disk objects are confirmed in our spectroscopic survey and we find that the fraction of transition disks that are actively accreting is lower than for optically thick disks (40-45% vs. 77-79% respectively). We confirm our previous result that the accreting YSOs with transition disks have a similar median accretion rate to normal optically thick disks. Analyzing the age distributions of various populations, we find that the diskless YSOs are statistically older than the YSOs with optically-thick disks and the transition disk objects have a median age which is intermediate between the two populations.

  18. Fungal ammonia fermentation, a novel metabolic mechanism that couples the dissimilatory and assimilatory pathways of both nitrate and ethanol. Role of acetyl CoA synthetase in anaerobic ATP synthesis.

    PubMed

    Takasaki, Kazuto; Shoun, Hirofumi; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Takeo, Kanji; Nakamura, Akira; Hoshino, Takayuki; Takaya, Naoki

    2004-03-26

    Fungal ammonia fermentation is a novel dissimilatory metabolic mechanism that supplies energy under anoxic conditions. The fungus Fusarium oxysporum reduces nitrate to ammonium and simultaneously oxidizes ethanol to acetate to generate ATP (Zhou, Z., Takaya, N., Nakamura, A., Yamaguchi, M., Takeo, K., and Shoun, H. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 1892-1896). We identified the Aspergillus nidulans genes involved in ammonia fermentation by analyzing fungal mutants. The results showed that assimilatory nitrate and nitrite reductases (the gene products of niaD and niiA) were essential for reducing nitrate and for anaerobic cell growth during ammonia fermentation. We also found that ethanol oxidation is coupled with nitrate reduction and catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase, coenzyme A (CoA)-acylating aldehyde dehydrogenase, and acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs). This is similar to the mechanism suggested in F. oxysporum except A. nidulans uses Acs to produce ATP instead of the ADP-dependent acetate kinase of F. oxysporum. The production of Acs requires a functional facA gene that encodes Acs and that is involved in ethanol assimilation and other metabolic processes. We purified the gene product of facA (FacA) from the fungus to show that the fungus acetylates FacA on its lysine residue(s) specifically under conditions of ammonia fermentation to regulate its substrate affinity. Acetylated FacA had higher affinity for acetyl-CoA than for acetate, whereas non-acetylated FacA had more affinity for acetate. Thus, the acetylated variant of the FacA protein is responsible for ATP synthesis during fungal ammonia fermentation. These results showed that the fungus ferments ammonium via coupled dissimilatory and assimilatory mechanisms.

  19. NRPS-PKS: a knowledge-based resource for analysis of NRPS/PKS megasynthases.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mohd Zeeshan; Yadav, Gitanjali; Gokhale, Rajesh S; Mohanty, Debasisa

    2004-07-01

    NRPS-PKS is web-based software for analysing large multi-enzymatic, multi-domain megasynthases that are involved in the biosynthesis of pharmaceutically important natural products such as cyclosporin, rifamycin and erythromycin. NRPS-PKS has been developed based on a comprehensive analysis of the sequence and structural features of several experimentally characterized biosynthetic gene clusters. The results of these analyses have been organized as four integrated searchable databases for elucidating domain organization and substrate specificity of nonribosomal peptide synthetases and three types of polyketide synthases. These databases work as the backend of NRPS-PKS and provide the knowledge base for predicting domain organization and substrate specificity of uncharacterized NRPS/PKS clusters. Benchmarking on a large set of biosynthetic gene clusters has demonstrated that, apart from correct identification of NRPS and PKS domains, NRPS-PKS can also predict specificities of adenylation and acyltransferase domains with reasonably high accuracy. These features of NRPS-PKS make it a valuable resource for identification of natural products biosynthesized by NRPS/PKS gene clusters found in newly sequenced genomes. The training and test sets of gene clusters included in NRPS-PKS correlate information on 307 open reading frames, 2223 functional protein domains, 68 starter/extender precursors and their specific recognition motifs, and also the chemical structure of 101 natural products from four different families. NRPS-PKS is a unique resource which provides a user-friendly interface for correlating chemical structures of natural products with the domains and modules in the corresponding nonribosomal peptide synthetases or polyketide synthases. It also provides guidelines for domain/module swapping as well as site-directed mutagenesis experiments to engineer biosynthesis of novel natural products. NRPS-PKS can be accessed at http://www.nii.res.in/nrps-pks.html.

  20. German influence in USSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertok, B.

    2004-08-01

    In June 1945 this author was one of the organizers of the, first in the postwar history, Soviet-German institute RABE. The main task of its activity was to study the history of the German rocket technology developments and rebuild the technology of the long range ballistic missiles V-2. This work was supported by the Soviet military authorities and also by the Soviet government. In the Turingia region of Germany a big institute, "Nordhausen", was established, in which Soviet and German specialists jointly worked on the rocket technology problems. In November 1947 a big group of German specialists was transferred to the Soviet Union. All the works in Germany were cancelled. German specialists took part in the preparation and running of the flight test of rocket V-2 in October-November of 1947 on Kapustin Yar test range. Until the beginning of the 50s a big group of German specialists worked in the daughter institute of the leading Soviet research institute on rocket technique, NII-88, under the management of Helmut Grettrupe, one of the former von Braun employees. They worked out the design of ballistic missiles of range up to 800 km with principally new guidance system. Germans also took part in the development of the technology of fluid rocket engine production. In 1952-1953 German specialists returned to Germany and rocket technology in the USSR matured independently. The Soviet and German scientists cooperation resumed in 1960s after manned space flights were started. The author was one of the leading participants in those joint works.

  1. Hα3: an Hα imaging survey of HI selected galaxies from ALFALFA . V. The Coma supercluster survey completion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavazzi, Giuseppe; Consolandi, Guido; Viscardi, Elisa; Fossati, Matteo; Savorgnan, Giulia; Fumagalli, Michele; Gutierrez, Leonel; Hernandez Toledo, Hector; Boselli, Alessandro; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.

    2015-04-01

    Neutral hydrogen represents the major observable baryonic constituent of galaxies that fuels the formation of stars through transformation of molecular hydrogen. The emission of the hydrogen recombination line Hα is the most direct tracer of the process that transforms gas (fuel) into stars. We continue to present Hα3 (acronym for Hα - αα), an extensive Hα+[NII] narrow-band imaging campaign of galaxies selected from the HI Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey (ALFALFA), using the instrumentation available at the San Pedro Martir (SPM) observatory (Mexico). In 48 nights since 2011 we were able to carry out the Hα imaging observations of 724 galaxies in the region of the Coma supercluster 10h < RA < 16h ; 24° < Dec < 28° and 3900

  2. A study of the trace sulfide mineral assemblages in the Stillwater Complex, Montana, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aird, Hannah M.; Ferguson, Katherine M.; Lehrer, Malia L.; Boudreau, Alan E.

    2016-07-01

    The sulfide assemblages of the Stillwater Complex away from the well-studied ore zones are composed mainly of variable proportions of pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, pentlandite, and ±pyrite. Excluding vein assemblages and those affected by greenschist and lower temperature alteration, the majority can be classified into two broad assemblages, defined here as pristine (multiphase, often globular in shape) or volatile-bearing (multiphase, high-temperature, volatile-rich minerals such as biotite, hornblende, or an unmixed calcite-dolomite assemblage). The volatile-bearing assemblages are mainly found within and below the J-M reef, where native copper and sphalerite are also locally present. Pristine sulfides are found throughout the stratigraphy. Both groups can be affected by apparent S loss in the form of pyrite being converted to magnetite and chalcopyrite to a Cu-Fe-oxide (delafossite), with little to no silicate alteration. An upward trend from pentlandite-rich to pyrrhotite-rich to pyrite-rich assemblages is observed in the footwall rocks in upper GN-I, and the same trend repeats from just below the reef and continues into the overlying N-II and GN-II. Modeling suggests that the sulfide Ni in the Peridotite Zone is largely controlled by silicate Ni. When taken together, observations are most readily explained by the remobilization of selected elements by a high-temperature fluid with the apparent loss of S > Cu > Ni. This could concentrate ore metals by vapor refining, eventually producing a platinum group element-enriched sulfide ore zone, such as the J-M reef.

  3. Mechanistic enzymology of CO dehydrogenase from Clostridium thermoaceticum. Progress report, March 25, 1993--March 24, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Ragsdale, S.W.

    1994-04-01

    Anaerobic acetogenic bacteria can convert carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide to cell carbon by a pathway which is called the acetyl-CoA pathway. With this pathway they convert monosaccharides and the methoxy group of lignin derived aromatics into acetic acid. The acetic acid is then used by a number of organisms, including methanogens, as a carbon and energy source. Therefore, the acetyl-CoA pathway links the biodegradation of complex macromolecules like cellulose and lignin to the utilization of simple two carbon units. The final steps in acetyl-CoA biosynthesis by anaerobic bacteria are performed by carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH), a nickel/iron-sulfur protein. We have previously demonstrate that the conversion of CH{sub 3}-H{sub 4} folate, CO and CoA to acetyl-CoA involves enzyme-bound intermediates that the one- and two-carbon precursors of acetyl-CoA are organometallic complexes, and that the site for assembly of acetyl-CoA is a novel Ni-Fe-S cluster which binds CO as a terminal carbonyl, i.e., M-C {equivalent_to} O. In the past year we have shown that the activities for CO oxidation and acetyl-CoA synthesis sites occur at separate sites, that it is a Fe, not a Ni, site in the Ni-Fe-S cluster which binds CO for acetyl-CoA synthesis, and that carbon disulfide (CS2) reacts with CODH at the Ni-Fe-S site to generate an isolated Ni(I) species. We also determined that CS{sub 2} is competitive with CO at the acetyl-CoA synthesis site and does not bind to the CO oxidation/CO{sub 2} reduction site.

  4. Review of telemedicine projects in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, H S; Guo, F R; Chen, C Y; Chen, J H; Kuo, T S

    2001-05-01

    Taiwan is a heavily populated country, with a small land area and many mountains and isolated islands. Because medical resources are unequally distributed, high quality accessible medical care is a major problem in rural areas. Medical personnel are unwilling to practice in rural areas because of fear of isolation from peers and lack of continuing medical education (CME) in those areas. Telemedicine provides a timeless and spaceless measure for teleconsultation and education. The development of telemedicine in Taiwan began under the National Information Infrastructure (NII) Project. Distance education and teleconsultation were the first experimental projects during the initiation research stage. The cost and effectiveness of the hardware and network bandwidth were evaluated. In the promotion research stage, applications in different medical disciplines were tested to promote multipoint videoconference, electronic journals and VOD. Investigation of user satisfaction put on more emphasis on improving application functions. In 1998, a new Cyber Medical Center (CMC) international collaboration project was begun, integrating technologies of multimedia, networking, database management, and the World Wide Web. The aim of the CMC is to create a multimedia network system for the management of electronic patient records, teleconsultation, online continuing medical education, and information services on the web. A Taiwan mirror site of Virtual Hospital and two international telemedicine trials through Next Generation Internet (NGI) were done at the end of 1998. In the future, telemedicine systems in Taiwan are expected to combine the Internet and broadband CATV, ADSL, and DBS networking to connect clinics, hospitals, insurance organizations, and public health administrations; and, finally, to extend to every household.

  5. Describing the Gas Kinematics and Excitation of the Inner Kiloparsec of the Post-Starburst Quasar SDSS J170328.95+614109.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Pamela Soto; Sanmartim, David

    2016-01-01

    Post-Starburst Quasars (PSQs) are hypothesized to represent a stage in the evolution of massive galaxies in which both star formation and nuclear activity have been triggered and are visible simultaneously before one or the other fades. We present preliminary results for the study of the kinematics and excitation of the gas present in the PSQ J1703+6141 in order to understand which are the excitation mechanisms in the central region of this object (starburst or/and AGN?). For this purpose we have used optical Integral Field Spectroscopy (IFS) obtained with the GMOS-IFU at Gemini North telescope and performed IDL codes to analyze the spectra. We have found that the [OIII] emission line can be observed all around the object and that it presents a higher blueshift to the South West direction. On the other hand, the Hβ line is better observed around the nucleus and it presents an apparent rotation. Also, the ratio between these two emission lines is typical of a Seyfert galaxy according to the BPT diagram and typical of an AGN based on the study of Lamareille et al. 2004, that uses the ratio between [OII]3727 and Hβ for the study instead of [NII]/Hα like the BPT diagram does. Ionization models are necessary to analyze the gas excitation and to distinguish what are the main mechanisms working in the central region of this PSQ. Also, further studies will be conducted to analyze the stellar kinematics and the history of star formation in the central kpc of this PSQ.

  6. The N/O Ratio in Early B-Type Main Sequence Stars as an Indicator of Their Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimkov, L. S.

    2016-12-01

    It is shown that, in the case of early B-type main-sequence stars, of the three ratios N/C, C/O, and N/O which are regarded as indicators of stellar evolution, the ratio N/O is more reliable since it seems to be insensitive to overionization of the NII and OII ions. On the other hand, the N/C and C/O ratios, which include carbon, may contain systematic errors for stars with Teff > 18500 K because of neglected overionization of CII ions. The ratio N/O is studied in the atmospheres of 46 early main-sequence B stars. These values of N/O are examined as functions of the effective temperature, age, rotation speed, and mass of the stars. Most early B-stars in the main sequence are found to have [N/O] ≈ 0, which indicates that N/O varies little during the main sequence stage, and this result is independent of the basic parameters listed above. There are two explanations for the large number of stars with [N/O] ≈ 0 : it is predicted theoretically that for an initial rotation velocity V0 < 100 km/s, N/O varies little toward the end of the main sequence stage ([N/O] < 0.2) and observations show that most early main-sequence B-stars do actually have low initial rotation velocities V0. The few early main-sequence B-stars with higher [N/O] = 0.4-0.8 correspond to models with rotation velocities V0 = 200-300 km/s. This conclusion is consistent with earlier data for stars with the same masses in a later stage of evolution: the AFGsupergiant and bright giant stage.

  7. Marine actinobacteria showing phosphate-solubilizing efficiency in Chorao Island, Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Dastager, Syed G; Damare, Samir

    2013-05-01

    The occurrence and distribution of an actinobacteria group of bacteria capable of dissolving insoluble phosphates were investigated in this study in marine environments, especially in sediments of Chorao Island, Goa Province, India. A total of 200 bacterial isolates of actinobacteria was isolated. All isolates were screened for phosphate-solubilizing activity on Pikovskaya's agar. Thirteen different isolates exhibiting maximum formation of halos (zone of solubilization) around the bacterial colonies were selected for quantitative estimations of P-solubilization. Quantitative estimations for P-solubilization were analyzed for up to 10 days at intervals of 24 h. Maximum solubilization from 89.3 ± 3.1 to 164.1 ± 4.1 μg ml(-1) was observed after 6 days of incubation in six of all isolates, while the isolate NII-1020 showed maximum P-solubilization. The increase in solubilization coincided with the drop in pH. Many of these species showed wide range of tolerance to temperature, pH, and salt concentrations. Further, 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses were carried to identify the bacterial groups which are actively solubilized phosphate in vitro. Gene sequencing results reveal that all isolates were clustered into six different actinobacterial genera: Streptomyces, Microbacterium, Angustibacter, Kocuria, Isoptericola, and Agromyces. The presence of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms and their ability to solubilize phosphate were indicative of the important role played by bacteria in the biogeochemical cycle of phosphorus and the plant growth in coastal ecosystems.

  8. Virtual collaborative environments: programming and controlling robotic devices remotely

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Brady R.; McDonald, Michael J., Jr.; Harrigan, Raymond W.

    1995-12-01

    This paper describes a technology for remote sharing of intelligent electro-mechanical devices. An architecture and actual system have been developed and tested, based on the proposed National Information Infrastructure (NII) or Information Highway, to facilitate programming and control of intelligent programmable machines (like robots, machine tools, etc.). Using appropriate geometric models, integrated sensors, video systems, and computing hardware; computer controlled resources owned and operated by different (in a geographic sense as well as legal sense) entities can be individually or simultaneously programmed and controlled from one or more remote locations. Remote programming and control of intelligent machines will create significant opportunities for sharing of expensive capital equipment. Using the technology described in this paper, university researchers, manufacturing entities, automation consultants, design entities, and others can directly access robotic and machining facilities located across the country. Disparate electro-mechanical resources will be shared in a manner similar to the way supercomputers are accessed by multiple users. Using this technology, it will be possible for researchers developing new robot control algorithms to validate models and algorithms right from their university labs without ever owning a robot. Manufacturers will be able to model, simulate, and measure the performance of prospective robots before selecting robot hardware optimally suited for their intended application. Designers will be able to access CNC machining centers across the country to fabricate prototypic parts during product design validation. An existing prototype architecture and system has been developed and proven. Programming and control of a large gantry robot located at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, was demonstrated from such remote locations as Washington D.C., Washington State, and Southern California.

  9. EPR Spectroscopy of catalytic systems based on nickel complexes of 1,4-diaza-1,3-butadiene (α-diimine) ligands in hydrogenation and polymerization reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titova, Yu. Yu.; Belykh, L. B.; Schmidt, F. K.

    2015-01-01

    EPR spectroscopy is used to study catalytic hydration and polymerization reaction systems based on α-diimine complexes of Ni(0) and Ni(II) with the general formula NiBr2(DAD-R) (R = -C3H7 or -CH3) or Ni(DAD-CH3)2 (DAD(-C3H7) = 1,4-bis(2,6-diiso-propylphenyl)-2,3-(dimethyl-1,4-diazabuta-1,3-diene, DAD(-CH3) = 1,4-bis(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2,3-dimethyl-1,4-diazabuta-1,3-diene)), in combination with Lewis acids (AlEt3, AlEt2Cl, AlEtCl2, B(F5C6)3, BF3.OEt2). Ni(I) complexes of the form (DAD-R)NiX2AlX'y(C2H5)3-y composition (an aluminum atom can be replaced by a boron atom) were identified, where R = -CH3 or -C3H7, X = Br, and X' = Cl or -C2H5 and α-diimine anion radicals are included in derivatives of aluminum or boron. Oxidation reactions of the Ni(DAD-CH3)2 complex with aluminum alkyl halides and boron derivatives with formation of paramagnetic nickel complexes are observed. It is found that there is no direct relationship between the polymerization activity of ethylene or hydration of the alkenes and the concentration of paramagnetic particles.

  10. Spectroscopic Studies of Abell Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Way, Michael Joseph

    The objectives of this work are to use spectroscopic techniques to accurately categorize galaxies as either HII region star forming galaxies or as Active Galactic Nuclei powered via a black hole, and to use radial velocities and projected positions of galaxies in clusters to obtain the total cluster mass and its distribution. The masses and distributions compare well to X-ray mass measurements. The commonly used Dressler, A., Thompson, I. & Shectman, S. 1985, ApJ, 288, 481 technique for discriminating between Active Galactic Nuclei and HII region galaxies uses the measurement of the equivalent width of the emission lines (OII) 3727 A, H/beta, and (OIII) 5007 A. High quality spectra from 42 galaxies were taken and it is shown that their method is not capable of distinguishing between Active Galactic Nuclei and HII region galaxies. The emission line flux from H/beta, (OIII) 5007 A, (OI) 6300 A, Hα, (NII) 6583 A, and (SII) 6716+6731 A in combination with the method of Veilleux, S. & Osterbrock, D. E. 1987, ApJS, 63, 295 must be used to accurately distinguish between Active Galactic Nuclei and HII region galaxies. Galaxy radial velocities from spectroscopic data and their projected 2-D positions in clusters are used to obtain robust estimates of the total mass and mass distribution in two clusters. The total mass is calculated using the Virial theorem after removing substructure. The mass distribution is estimated via several robust statistical tests for 1-D, 2-D and 3-D structure. It is shown that the derived mass estimates agree well with those found independently from hot X-ray gas emission in clusters.

  11. SINFONI spectra of heavily obscured AGNs in COSMOS: Evidence of outflows in a MIR/O target at z ~ 2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, M.; Brusa, M.; Salvato, M.; Cresci, G.; Lanzuisi, G.; Berta, S.; Delvecchio, I.; Fiore, F.; Lutz, D.; Le Floc'h, E.; Mainieri, V.; Riguccini, L.

    2015-11-01

    Aims: We present new data for four candidate obscured Compton-Thick (CT) quasars at z ~ 1-2.5 observed with the SINFONI VLT spectrograph in adaptive optics (AO) mode. These sources were selected from a 24 μm Spitzer MIPS survey of the COSMOS field, on the basis of red mid-infrared to optical and optical to near-infrared colours, with the intention of identifying active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in dust enshrouded environments, where most of the black hole mass is assembled. Methods: Near-infrared spectra were analysed to check for emission line features and to search for broad components in the [OIII]-Hβ and Hα-[NII] regions. We also employed X-ray spectral analysis, radio and MIR diagnostics, and SED fitting to study the nature of the sources. Results: We successfully identified three objects for which we had only a photometric redshift estimate. Based on their emission line diagnostics and on ancillary multi-wavelength constraints, we find that all four targets harbour obscured AGNs. Broad profiles, which could be attributed to the effects of outflows, are revealed in only one target, MIRO20581. In particular, we clearly resolved a fast (~1600 km s-1) and extended (~5 kpc) outflow in the [OIII]5007 emission line. This feature, the commonly used indicator for ionised outflowing gas, was only sampled and detected for this target; hence, we cannot exclude the presence of outflows in the other sources. Overall, the constraints we obtain from our targets and from other comparative samples from the literature suggest that these optically faint luminous infrared galaxies, hosting obscured AGNs, may represent a brief evolutionary phase between the post-merger starburst and the unobscured quasar phases. Based on observations with SINFONI VLT spectrograph, ESO program 092.A-0884(A).

  12. ISO-LWS Observations Of Gas And Dust In The Galactic Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etxaluze Azkonaga, Mireya; Smith, H.; Gonzalez-Alfonso, E.; White, G. J.

    2011-01-01

    The ISO-LWS observed Sagittarius A* over the wavelength range of 46-197 μm. These previously unpublished spectra contain about 22 spectral lines in emission of atomic and ionic species (OI, OIII, CII, NII and NIII), as well as emission and absorption lines from molecular species (OH, CH, CO and o-H2O). ISO mapped the region in a 40 position, half-beam sampled grid, and used both the grating and Fabry-Perot modules. We have prepared spectral maps of most of the lines, but here discuss primarily the radiative transfer modelling of radiation within the central beam on Sgr A*. We used ISO-LWS spectra to constrain the physical conditions in Sgr A* by comparing the observed spectra with the emission and the absorption line intensities predicted via radiative transfer simulations. Preliminary results show that the spectral energy distribution of Sgr A* within the 80" ISO beam that includes the CND is due to thermal dust emission that can be fitted by the sum of an 85 K modified blackbody arising from a central cavity of r=1.2 pc in radius with a low column density of N(H2)=4.0x1021 cm2, and a 40.5 K modified blackbody curve and a higher column density, N(H2)= 3.0x1022 cm2. This simple model is able to reproduce most of the ionic lines, which are excited in the CND; the central cavity provides only a small contribution to the intensity of the spectral lines. The molecular lines, and in particular the OH absorption features, require substantive additional contributions from foreground absorption that is consistent with a visual extinction AV 30, the same value that is derived from other studies.

  13. Japan Data Exchange Network JDXnet and Cloud-type Data Relay Server for Earthquake Observation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, K.; Urabe, T.; Tsuruoka, H.; Nakagawa, S.

    2015-12-01

    In Japan, high-sensitive seismic observation and broad-band seismic observation are carried out by several organization such as Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) , National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED), nine National Universities, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) , etc. The total number of the observation station is about 1400 points. The total volume of the seismic waveform data collected from all these observation station is about 1MByte for 1 second (about 8 to 10Mbps) by using the WIN system(Urabe 1991). JDXnet is the Japan Data eXchange network for earthquake observation data. JDXnet was started from 2007 by cooperation of the researchers of each organization. All the seismic waveform data are available at the all organizations in real-time. The core of JDXnet is the broadcast type real-time data exchange by using the nationwide L2-VPN service offered in JGN-X of NICT and SINET4 of NII. Before the Tohoku earthquake, the nine national universities had collected seismic data to each data center and then exchanged with other universities and institutions by JDXnet. However, in this case, if the center of the university was stopped, all data of the university could not use even though there are some alive observation stations. Because of this problem, we have prepared the data relay server in the data center of SINET4 ie the cloud center. This data relay server collects data directly from the observation stations of the universities and delivers data to all universities and institutions by JDXnet. By using the relay server on cloud center, even if some universities are affected by a large disaster, it is eliminated that the data of the living station is lost. If the researchers set up seismometers and send data to the relay server, then data are available to all researchers. This mechanism promotes the joint use of the seismometers and joint research activities in nationwide researchers.

  14. University Science Research and Education Beyond 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Paul

    1998-03-01

    The American university system has become the envy of the world over the past five decades for its leadership in scientific research and graduate education. Today, the environment and circumstances underlying that leadership are experiencing dramatic change, posing serious challenges to the role and indeed the future of the research university. In this talk we will discuss these changes - end of the Cold War, globalization of industrial operations, outsourcing of R&D, US budget deficits, reexamination of National Laboratory and funding agency missions, reductions in industrial basic research efforts, etc.- in terms of new modes of research support and execution that they are engendering. Numerous studies and government programs have encouraged formation of inter-organization partnerships to enable more efficient use of research dollars. The results have thus far been mixed at best. While much research has thus been brought 'closer to the customer', concerns about long-term and idea-driven research remain, particularly in the case of small science. We will discuss 'pro's and con's' of research partnering. Also even as undergraduate enrollments in science and engineering have declined, career opportunities for graduates have expanded. However, university curricula and research programs have tended to follow rather than drive, those opportunities. Some examples of and suggestions for evolving university science research and education together will be discussed. References: "Driving Innovation Through Materials Research"-Proceedings of the 1996 Solid State Sciences Forum, National Academy Press, Washington D.C.,1996 "Endless Frontier, Limited Resources", Council on Competitiveness, Washington, D.C., April 1996 http://nii.nist.gov/pubs/coc_rd/

  15. Application of bimodal distribution to the detection of changes in uranium concentration in drinking water collected by random daytime sampling method from a large water supply zone.

    PubMed

    Garboś, Sławomir; Święcicka, Dorota

    2015-11-01

    The random daytime (RDT) sampling method was used for the first time in the assessment of average weekly exposure to uranium through drinking water in a large water supply zone. Data set of uranium concentrations determined in 106 RDT samples collected in three runs from the water supply zone in Wroclaw (Poland), cannot be simply described by normal or log-normal distributions. Therefore, a numerical method designed for the detection and calculation of bimodal distribution was applied. The extracted two distributions containing data from the summer season of 2011 and the winter season of 2012 (nI=72) and from the summer season of 2013 (nII=34) allowed to estimate means of U concentrations in drinking water: 0.947 μg/L and 1.23 μg/L, respectively. As the removal efficiency of uranium during applied treatment process is negligible, the effect of increase in uranium concentration can be explained by higher U concentration in the surface-infiltration water used for the production of drinking water. During the summer season of 2013, heavy rains were observed in Lower Silesia region, causing floods over the territory of the entire region. Fluctuations in uranium concentrations in surface-infiltration water can be attributed to releases of uranium from specific sources - migration from phosphate fertilizers and leaching from mineral deposits. Thus, exposure to uranium through drinking water may increase during extreme rainfall events. The average chronic weekly intakes of uranium through drinking water, estimated on the basis of central values of the extracted normal distributions, accounted for 3.2% and 4.1% of tolerable weekly intake.

  16. Imaging ultrafast excited state pathways in transition metal complexes by X-ray transient absorption and scattering using X-ray free electron laser source

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Lin X.; Shelby, Megan L.; Lestrange, Patrick J.; Jackson, Nicholas E.; Haldrup, Kristoffer; Mara, Michael W.; Stickrath, Andrew B.; Zhu, Diling; Lemke, Henrik; Chollet, Matthieu; Hoffman, Brian M.; Li, Xiaosong

    2016-01-01

    This report will describe our recent studies of transition metal complex structural dynamics on the fs and ps time scales using an X-ray free electron laser source, Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Ultrafast XANES spectra at the Ni K-edge of nickel(II) tetramesitylporphyrin (NiTMP) were successfully measured for optically excited state at a timescale from 100 fs to 50 ps, providing insight into its sub-ps electronic and structural relaxation processes. Importantly, a transient reduced state Ni(I) (π, 3dx2-y2) electronic state is captured through the interpretation of a short-lived excited state absorption on the low-energy shoulder of the edge, which is aided by the computation of X-ray transitions for postulated excited electronic states. The observed and computed inner shell to valence orbital transition energies demonstrate and quantify the influence of electronic configuration on specific metal orbital energies. A strong influence of the valence orbital occupation on the inner shell orbital energies indicates that one should not use the transition energy from 1s to other orbitals to draw conclusions about the d-orbital energies. For photocatalysis, a transient electronic configuration could influence d-orbital energies up to a few eV and any attempt to steer the reaction pathway should account for this to ensure that external energies can be used optimally in driving desirable processes. NiTMP structural evolution and the influence of the porphyrin macrocycle conformation on relaxation kinetics can be likewise inferred from this study.

  17. The diffuse ionized interstellar medium perpendicular to the plane of NGC 891

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dettmar, Ralf-Juergen; Keppel, Jean; Roberts, Morton S.; Gallagher, John S., III

    1990-01-01

    In an attempt to study the structure and the properties of the diffuse ionized interstellar medium perpendicular to the plane of disk galaxies researchers obtained H alpha images and spectra of NGC 891. Perhaps the most remarkable property of the H alpha emission line in NGC 891 is its extension out of the plane of the galaxy: researchers are able to measure the H alpha line out to more than 30 seconds (1.4 kpc) from the midplane. This means that the ionized hydrogen extends at least four times higher than the neutral hydrogen layer. An anomalously large scale-height for the ionized gas of approx. equals 1 kpc is also found in the Milky Way. The echelle spectra show a changing ratio of NII to H alpha. This excludes the possibility that the large scaleheight of the emission is due to scattering of disk emission by dust high above the plane. The z-extent of the H alpha emission is confirmed by the imaging result. The large z-extent of the ionized gas is confined to the inner half of the visible disk. In this inner region the H alpha distribution also shows a filamentary structure of the diffuse ionized medium. These filaments, sticking out of the plane, originate in HII regions in the plane. The H alpha image also shows a large scale asymmetry if the NE and SW parts of the disk are compared. The NE part is more prominent and extended in H alpha. The same asymmetry is also seen in the radio continuum distribution. This correlation between the diffuse ionized medium and the distribution of relativistic electrons is one example of a relation between star formation processes in the disk and the various components of the halo. Thermal filaments or spurs which are related to HII regions are also known in the Galaxy. These filamentary structures perpendicular to the galactic planes may represent the chimneys which result in the supernova dominated model of the Interstellar Medium by Norman and Ikeuchi (1989).

  18. Relationship between the bite size of diphosphine ligands and tetrahedral distortions of square-planar nickel(II) complexes: Stabilization of nickel(I) and palladium(I) complexes using diphosphine ligands with large bites

    SciTech Connect

    Miedaner, A.; DuBois, D.L. ); Haltiwanger, R.C. )

    1991-02-06

    Nickel and palladium complexes of the type (M(L{sub 2}){sub 2})(BF{sub 4}){sub 2} and (M(L{sub 2})(L{sub 2}{prime}))(BF{sub 4}){sub 2} (where L{sub 2} and L{sub 2}{prime} are diphosphine ligands) have been synthesized. The lowest energy electronic absorption band for the nickel complexes decreases in energy as the bite size of the diphosphine ligand increases. Similarly, the half-wave potentials for the Ni(II/I) and Pd(II/O) couples become more positive as the bite size increases. Structural studies of (Ni(dppm){sub 2})(BF{sub 4}){sub 2} (where dppm is bis(diphenylphosphino)methane) and (Ni-(dppb){sub 2})(PF{sub 6}){sub 2} (where dppb is 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)benzene) show that increasing the bite size of the diphosphine ligands results in larger tetrahedral distortions. The crystal structure of (Ni(Dppm){sub 2})(BF{sub 4}){sub 2}(C{sub 50}H{sub 44}B{sub 2}F{sub 8}NiP{sub 4}) and (Ni(Dppb){sub 2})(PF{sub 6}){sub 2}(C{sub 74}H{sub 64}F{sub 12}NiP{sub 6}) were measured and are reported herein. Calculations made using the extended Huckel theory indicate that the observed distortions may have an electronic as well as a steric component. The calculations also allow rationalization of the electronic absorption spectra, electrochemical data, and the stability of the Ni(I) and Pd(I) complexes (Ni(dppp){sub 2})(BF{sub 4}) (where dppp is 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane) and (Pd(dppx){sub 2})(BF{sub 4}) (where dppx is {alpha},{alpha}{prime}-bis(diphenylphosphino)-o-xylene). Complexes containing the ligand dppm have a marked tendency to become five-coordinate, as indicated by the structural determination of (Ni(dppm){sub 2}(CH{sub 3}CN))(PF{sub 6}){sub 2}. The crystal structure for the latter complex is reported.

  19. Physical Conditions in the Narrow Line Region of M51

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, L. D., II; Kaiser, M. E.; Baan, W. A.

    2001-12-01

    We present long-slit Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and Very Large Array (VLA) observations of the near-nuclear region of M51 obtained to study the kinematic and ionization structure of multiple emission line clouds in the narrow line region (NLR). The STIS spectra were obtained at a single position angle (166o) which intersects the nucleus and several NLR clouds. Low-dispersion G430L and G750L spectra provide continuous wavelength coverage from 2900 Å to 1 micron, while G430M spectra of [OIII] (66 km s-1 resolution) were used to more precisely determine the velocity structure of the emission-line clouds. The VLA radio continuum observations obtained at 3.6 cm with a resolution of 0.24'' complement our high spatial resolution (0.1\\arcsec) HST/STIS spectra. M51 possesses a biconical ionization cone (Ford et al. 1985, Cecil 1988) typical of Seyferts and Liners. This near-nuclear emission is comprised of multiple knots spanning 3.0" (122 pc) with cloud separations ranging from 0.1" (4 pc) to 0.75" (31 pc). Our 3.6 cm radio observations exhibit elongated nuclear emission with a similar PA. In agreement with earlier lower resolution 6 cm data (Crane & van der Hulst 1992), a weak radio jet, ~2.5" in extent, connects the near-nuclear emission with a diffuse (lobe) structure which spans ~4'' (163 pc). Close to the northern edge of this diffuse structure lies a radio knot which is identified with the extra-nuclear cloud (XNC) detected in Hα + [NII] and [OIII] imaging (Ford et al. 1985; Grillmair et al. 1997) and the X-ray (Terashima & Wilson 2001). We also detect weak radio emission extending to the north of the nucleus roughly opposite the southern jet. This northern 10μ Jy radio contour encompasses the [OIII] emission structure ~1.2'' north of the nucleus. Cloud velocities, velocity dispersions, emission line flux ratios, and photoionization modelling will be presented and discussed to explore the physical conditions (reddening, temperature, density, and

  20. Radiative and mechanical feedback into the molecular gas in the Large Magellanic Cloud. I. N159W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M.-Y.; Madden, S. C.; Lebouteiller, V.; Gusdorf, A.; Godard, B.; Wu, R.; Galametz, M.; Cormier, D.; Le Petit, F.; Roueff, E.; Bron, E.; Carlson, L.; Chevance, M.; Fukui, Y.; Galliano, F.; Hony, S.; Hughes, A.; Indebetouw, R.; Israel, F. P.; Kawamura, A.; Le Bourlot, J.; Lesaffre, P.; Meixner, M.; Muller, E.; Nayak, O.; Onishi, T.; Roman-Duval, J.; Sewiło, M.

    2016-12-01

    We present Herschel SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) observations of N159W, an active star-forming region in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). In our observations, a number of far-infrared cooling lines, including carbon monoxide (CO) J = 4 → 3 to J = 12 → 11, [CI] 609 μm and 370 μm, and [NII] 205 μm, are clearly detected. With an aim of investigating the physical conditions and excitation processes of molecular gas, we first construct CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) on 10 pc scales by combining the FTS CO transitions with ground-based low-J CO data and analyze the observed CO SLEDs using non-LTE (local thermodynamic equilibrium) radiative transfer models. We find that the CO-traced molecular gas in N159W is warm (kinetic temperature of 153-754 K) and moderately dense (H2 number density of (1.1-4.5) × 103 cm-3). To assess the impact of the energetic processes in the interstellar medium on the physical conditions of the CO-emitting gas, we then compare the observed CO line intensities with the models of photodissociation regions (PDRs) and shocks. We first constrain the properties of PDRs by modeling Herschel observations of [OI] 145 μm, [CII] 158 μm, and [CI] 370 μm fine-structure lines and find that the constrained PDR components emit very weak CO emission. X-rays and cosmic-rays are also found to provide a negligible contribution to theCO emission, essentially ruling out ionizing sources (ultraviolet photons, X-rays, and cosmic-rays) as the dominant heating source for CO in N159W. On the other hand, mechanical heating by low-velocity C-type shocks with 10 km s-1 appears sufficient enough to reproduce the observed warm CO. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.The final reduced Herschel data (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or

  1. Abundâncias espectroscópicas de simbióticas amarelas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calbo, S. R.; Costa, R. D. D.

    2003-08-01

    Este trabalho consiste no estudo de uma amostra de estrelas simbióticas amarelas cujas componentes frias apresentam tipos espectrais G ou K. Uma amostra de 20 estrelas foi usada, o que corresponde ao conjunto completo de estrelas simbióticas amarelas visíveis no hemisfério sul presentes no catálogo de Belczynski et al (2000 A&A Suppl. 146, 407). Os espectros estelares foram obtidos por observações usando os telescópios de 1,6 m do LNA e 1,52 m do ESO e os dados fornecidos pelo satélite IUE (International Ultraviolet Explorer) e posteriormente reduzidos no IAG. Os fluxos das linhas medidas de cada espectro foram calibrados em fluxo (com as correções de avermelhamento baseados no trabalho de Pacheco e Costa 1992, A&A 257, 619), e os parâmetros físicos (temperatura e densidade eletrônica) das nebulosas que envolvem os sistemas simbióticos determinados, usando-se fluxos medidos de OIII e NII da parte visível do espectro. Para a determinação das razões de abundâncias de C/N e O/N aplicou-se o método de Nussbaumer et al. (1988, A&A 198, 179). As razões de abundâncias foram derivadas das linhas de emissão (NIV, CIV, OIII, NIII e CIII) dos espectros IUE. Numa última fase plotou-se o diagrama C/N-O/N onde comparou-se a abundância química das simbióticas amarelas obtidas neste trabalho com as de gigantes normais. Os resultados mostram abundâncias compatíveis com aquelas derivadas para nebulosas planetárias do bojo, indicando que o material nebular é originado das gigantes vermelhas de cada sistema, e não da fonte quente. (FAPESP, CNPq)

  2. A 2 THz Heterodyne Array Receiver for SOFIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Christopher K.

    1996-01-01

    We proposed to perform a comprehensive design study of a 16-element heterodyne array receiver for SOFIA. The array was designed to utilize hot-electron bolometers in an efficient, low-cost waveguide mount to achieve low noise performance between approx. 1500 and 2400 GHz. Due to the prevailing physical conditions in the interstellar medium, this frequency range is one of the richest in the FIR portion of the spectrum. An array designed for this wavelength range will make excellent use of the telescope and the available atmospheric transmission, and will provide a new perspective on stellar, chemical, and galaxy evolution in the present as well as past epochs. A few of the most important molecular and atomic species which the instrument will sample are CII, OI, CO, OH, NII, and CH. The system used the most sensitive detectors available in an efficient optical system. The local oscillator was a compact CO2 pumped far-infrared laser currently under development for SOFIA. The backend spectrometer was an array acousto-optic spectrometer (aAOS). The spectrometer utilizes proven hardware and technologies to provide broadband performance (greater than or equal to 1 GHz per AOS channel) and high spectral resolution (1 MHz) with the maximum sensitivity and minimum complexity and cost. The proposed instrument would be the fastest and most sensitive heterodyne receiver ever to operate in the 1.5 - 2.4 THz band. One of the key technologies developed for the proposed instrument is the laser micromachining of waveguide structures. These structures provide both the optical link between the instrument and the telescope (via an array of efficient feedhorns) and the impedance transformation between the detectors and free space. With the assistance of funds provided from this grant, we were able to fabricate and test the world's first laser micromachined feedhorns. The quality of the waveguide structure is far better than that obtainable using any other fabrication technique. The beam

  3. A 2 THz Heterodyne Array Receiver for SOFIA: Summary of Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Christopher K.

    1998-01-01

    We proposed to perform a comprehensive design study of a 16-element heterodyne array receiver for SOFIA. The array was designed to utilize hot-electron bolometers in an efficient, low-cost waveguide mount to achieve low noise performance between approximately 1500 and 2400 GHz. Due to the prevailing physical conditions in the interstellar medium, this frequency range is one of the richest in the Far-Infra Red (FIR) portion of the spectrum. An array designed for this wavelength range will make excellent use of the telescope and the available atmospheric transmission, and will provide a new perspective on stellar, chemical, and galactic evolution in the present as well as past epochs. A few of the most important molecular and atomic species which the instrument will sample are CII, OI, CO, OH, NII, and CH. The system used the most sensitive detectors available in an efficient optical system. The local oscillator was a compact CO2 pumped far-infrared laser currently under development for SOFIA. The backend spectrometer was an array acousto-optic spectrometer (aAOS). The spectrometer utilizes proven hardware and technologies to provide broadband performance (> 1 GHz per AOS channel) and high spectral resolution (1 MHz) with the maximum sensitivity and minimum complexity and cost. The proposed instrument would be the fastest and most sensitive heterodyne receiver ever to operate in the 1.5 - 2.4 THz band. One of the key technologies developed for the proposed instrument is the laser micromachining of waveguide structures. These structures provide both the optical link between the instrument and the telescope (via an array of efficient feedhorns) and the impedance transformation between the detectors and free space. With the assistance of funds provided from this grant, we were able to fabricate and test the world's first laser micromachined feedhorns. The quality of the waveguide structure is far better than that obtainable using any other fabrication technique. The

  4. Spectroscopic and computational studies of reduction of the metalversus the tetrapyrrole ring of coenzyme F-430 from methyl-coenzyme Mreductase

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, Mishtu; Kunz, Ryan C.; van Heuvelen, Katherine M.; Craft,Jennifer L.; Horng, Yih-Chern; Tang, Qun; Bocian, David F.; George, SimonJ.; Brunold, Thomas C.; Ragsdale, Stephen W.

    2006-06-30

    Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) catalyzes the final stepin methane biosynthesis by methanogenic archaea and contains aredox-active nickel tetrahydrocorphin, coenzyme F430, at its active site.Spectroscopic and computational methods have been used to study a novelform of the coenzyme, called F330, which is obtained by reducing F430with sodium borohydride (NaBH4). F330 exhibits a prominent absorptionpeak at 330 nm, which is blue shifted by 100 nm relative to F430. Massspectrometric studies demonstrate that the tetrapyrrole ring in F330 hasundergone reduction, on the basis of the incorporation of protium (ordeuterium), upon treatment of F430 with NaBH4 (or NaBD4). One- andtwo-dimensional NMR studies show that the site of reduction is theexocyclic ketone group of the tetrahydrocorphin. Resonance Raman studiesindicate that elimination of this pibond increases the overall pi-bondorder in the conjugative framework. X-ray absorption, magnetic circulardichroism, and computational results show that F330 contains low-spinNi(II). Thus, conversion of F430 to F330 reduces the hydrocorphin ringbut not the metal. Conversely, reduction of F430 with Ti(III) citrate togenerate F380 (corresponding to the active MCRred1 state) reduces theNi(II) to Ni(I) but does not reduce the tetrapyrrole ring system, whichis consistent with other studies [Piskorski, R., and Jaun, B. (2003) J.Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 13120-13125; Craft, J. L., et al. (2004) J. Biol.Inorg. Chem. 9, 77-89]. The distinct origins of the absorption bandshifts associated with the formation of F330 and F380 are discussedwithin the framework of our computational results. These studies on thenature of the product(s) of reduction of F430 are of interest in thecontext of the mechanism of methane formation by MCR and in relation tothe chemistry of hydroporphinoid systems in general. The spectroscopicand time-dependent DFT calculations add important insight into theelectronic structure of the nickel hydrocorphinate in its Ni(II) and

  5. Uncertainties in pixel-based source reconstruction for gravitationally lensed objects and applications to lensed galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagore, Amitpal Singh

    Gravitational lens modeling of spatially resolved sources is a challenging inverse problem that can involve many observational constraints and model parameters. I present a new software package, pixsrc, that works in conjunction with the lensmodel software and builds on established pixel-based source reconstruction (PBSR) algorithms for de-lensing a source and constraining lens model parameters. Using test data, I explore statistical and systematic uncertainties associated with gridding, source regularization, interpolation errors, noise, and telescope pointing. I compare two gridding schemes in the source plane: a fully adaptive grid and an adaptive Cartesian grid. I also consider regularization schemes that minimize derivatives of the source and introduce a scheme that minimizes deviations from an analytic source profile. Careful choice of gridding and regularization can reduce "discreteness noise" in the chi2 surface that is inherent in the pixel-based methodology. With a gridded source, errors due to interpolation need to be taken into account (especially for high S/N data). Different realizations of noise and telescope pointing lead to slightly different values for lens model parameters, and the scatter between different "observations" can be comparable to or larger than the model uncertainties themselves. The same effects create scatter in the lensing magnification at the level of a few percent for a peak S/N of 10. I then apply pixsrc to observations of lensed, high-redshift galaxies. SDSS J0901+1814, is an ultraluminous infrared galaxy at z=2.26 that is also UV-bright, and it is lensed by a foreground group of galaxies at z=0.35. I constrain the lens model using maps of CO(3-2) rotational line emission and optical imaging and apply the lens model to observations of CO(1-0), H-alpha, and [NII] line emission as well. Using the de-lensed images, I calculate properties of the source, such as the gas mass fraction and dynamical mass. Finally, I examine a

  6. Optical-NIR spectroscopy of the puzzling γ-ray source 3FGL 1603.9-4903/PMN J1603-4904 with X-Shooter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldoni, P.; Pita, S.; Boisson, C.; Müller, C.; Dauser, T.; Jung, I.; Krauß, F.; Lenain, J.-P.; Sol, H.

    2016-02-01

    Context. The Fermi/LAT instrument has detected about two thousand extragalactic high energy (E ≥ 100 MeV) γ-ray sources. One of the brightest is 3FGL J1603.9-4903; it is associated to the radio source PMN J1603-4904. Its nature is not yet clear, it could be either a very peculiar BL Lac or a compact symmetric object radio source which are considered as the early stage of a radio galaxy. The latter, if confirmed, would be the first detection in γ-rays for this class of objects. A redshift z = 0.18 ± 0.01 has recently been claimed on the basis of the detection of a single X-ray line at 5.44 ± 0.05 keV which has been interpreted as a 6.4 keV (rest frame) fluorescent line. Aims: We aim to investigate the nature of 3FGL J1603.9-4903/PMN J1603-4904 using optical-to near-IR (NIR) spectroscopy. Methods: We observed PMN J1603-4904 with the UV-NIR VLT/X-Shooter spectrograph for two hours. We extracted spectra in the visible and NIR range that we calibrated in flux and corrected for telluric absorption. We systematically searched for absorption and emission features. Results: The source was detected starting from ~6300 Å down to 24 000 Å with an intensity similar to that of its 2MASS counterpart and a mostly featureless spectrum. The continuum lacks absorption features and thus is non-stellar in origin and most likely non-thermal. In addition to this spectrum, we detected three emission lines that we interpret as the Hα-[NII] complex, the [SII]λ,λ6716, 6731 doublet and the [SIII]λ 9530 line; we obtain a redshift estimate of z = 0.2321 ± 0.0004. The line ratios suggest that a LINER/Seyfert nucleus powers the emission. This new redshift measurement implies that the X-ray line previously detected should be interpreted as a 6.7 keV line which is very peculiar. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, under program 095.B-0400(A). The raw FITS data files are available in the ESO archive.

  7. Studies of a Series of [Ni(PR2NPh2)2(CH3CN)]2+ Complexes as Electrocatalysts for H2 Production: Substituent Variation at the Phosphorus Atom of the P2N2 Ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgore, Uriah J.; Stewart, Michael P.; Helm, Monte L.; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. S.; Rakowski DuBois, Mary; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2011-11-07

    A series of [Ni(PR2NPh2)2(CH3CN)](BF4)2 complexes containing the cyclic diphosphine ligands (PR2NPh2 = 1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane; R = benzyl (Bn), n-butyl (n-Bu), 2-phenylethyl (PE), 2,4,4-trimethylpentyl (TP), and cyclohexyl (Cy)) have been synthesized and characterized. X-ray diffraction studies reveal that the cations of [Ni(PBn2NPh2)2(CH3CN)](BF4)2 and [Ni(Pn-Bu2NPh2)2(CH3CN)](BF4)2 have distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometries. The Ni(0) complex [Ni(PBn2NPh2)2 (CH3CN)] was also synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction studies and shown to have a distorted tetrahedral structure. These complexes, with the exception of [Ni(PCy2NPh2)2(CH3CN)](BF4)2, all exhibit reversible electron transfer processes for both the Ni(II/I) and Ni(I/0) couples and are electrocatalysts for the production of H2 in acidic acetonitrile solutions. The heterolytic cleavage of H2 by [Ni(PR2NPh2)2(CH3CN)](BF4)2 complexes in the presence of p-anisidine or p-bromoaniline was used to determine the hydride donor abilities of the corresponding [HNi(PR2NPh2)2](BF4) complexes. However, the failure to observe a strong correlation between the turnover frequencies for H2 production and the hydride donor abilities, along with structural features of [Ni(PBn2NPh2)2(CH3CN)], suggest that steric interactions between the alkyl substituents on phosphorus and the nitrogen atom of the pendant amines play an important role in determining the overall catalytic rate. This material is based upon work supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  8. VLT/FLAMES-ARGUS observations of stellar wind-ISM cloud interactions in NGC 6357

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westmoquette, M. S.; Slavin, J. D.; Smith, L. J.; Gallagher, J. S., III

    2010-02-01

    We present optical/near-IR integral field unit observations of a gas pillar in the Galactic HII region NGC 6357 containing the young open star cluster Pismis 24. These observations have allowed us to examine in detail the gas conditions of the strong wind-clump interactions taking place on its surface. By accurately decomposing the Hα line profile, we identify the presence of a narrow (~20kms-1) and broad (50-150kms-1) component, both of which we can associate with the pillar and its surroundings. Furthermore, the broadest broad component widths are found in a region that follows the shape of the eastern pillar edge. These connections have allowed us to firmly associate the broad component with emission from ionized gas within turbulent mixing layers on the pillar's surface set up by the shear flows of the winds from the O stars in the cluster. We discuss the implications of our findings in terms of the broad emission-line component that is increasingly found in extragalactic starburst environments. Although the broad linewidths found here are narrower, we conclude that the mechanisms producing both must be the same. The difference in linewidths may result from the lower total mechanical wind energy produced by the O stars in Pismis 24 compared to that from a typical young massive star cluster found in a starburst galaxy. The pillar's edge is also clearly defined by dense (<~5000cm-3), hot (>~20000K) and excited (via the [NII]/Hα and [SII]/Hα ratios) gas conditions, implying the presence of a D-type ionization front propagating into the pillar surface. Although there must be both photoevaporation outflows produced by the ionization front and mass loss through mechanical ablation, we see no evidence for any significant bulk gas motions on or around the pillar. We postulate that the evaporated/ablated gas must be rapidly heated before being entrained. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere

  9. Systematic Review of Acupuncture for Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Zongshi; Wu, Jiani; Zhou, Jing; Liu, Zhishun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Acupuncture is a promising therapy for relieving symptoms in chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), which affects >15% of adult men worldwide. The aim of the study was to assess the effects and safety of the use of acupuncture for CP/CPPS. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, Web of Science, CBM, CNKI, Wang-Fang Database, JCRM, and CiNii were searched from their inception through 30 November 2015. Grey literature databases and websites were also searched. No language limits were applied. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with CP/CPPS treated by acupuncture were included. Two reviewers extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of RCTs using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tools, respectively. Seven trials were included, involving 471 participants. The result of meta-analysis indicated that compared with sham acupuncture (MD: −6.09 [95%CI: −8.12 to −5.68]) and medicine (Levofloxacinand, Ibuprofen, and Tamsulosin) (MD: −4.57 [95%CI: −7.58 to −1.56]), acupuncture was more effective at decreasing the total NIH-CPSI score. Real acupuncture was superior to sham acupuncture in improving symptoms (pain, voiding) and quality of life (Qof) domain subscores. Compared to sham acupuncture and medicine, acupuncture appears to be more effective at improving the global assessment. Two trials found that there is no significant difference between acupuncture and sham acupuncture in decreasing the IPSS score. Acupuncture failed to show more favorable effects in improving both symptoms and the Qof domain compared with medicine. Overall, current evidence supports acupuncture as an effective treatment for CP/CPPS-induced symptoms, particularly in relieving pain. Based on the meta-analysis, acupuncture is superior to sham acupuncture in improving symptoms and Qof. Acupuncture might be similar to medicine (Levofloxacinand, Ibuprofen, and Tamsulosin) in its long-term effects, but evidence was limited due to high ROB among included trials as well as

  10. SFR Relation with Galaxy Environment and Colour at z between 0.03 and 0.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premadi, Premana W.; Maryam, A. Sitti

    2007-05-01

    This work is a preliminary result of our attempt to examine the use of SFR in the study of galaxy evolution. For this purpose we use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 2 (SDSS DR2) (Abazajian et al (2004)) and the SFR Catalogue generated from this data set by Brinchmann et al (2004) and Kaufmann et al (2003 a,b). Following Kewley et al (2001) we use the Diagnostic Diagram, log ([OIII]/Hβ) vs log ([NII]/Hα), to separate the star forming galaxies from other emission lines sources such as AGN. Choosing only those with S/N > 3 out of the Brinchman et al (2004) catalogue, we arrive at about 200 thousand galaxies as our starting SFR subsample. With 0.05 < z < 0.22 and limit at r = 17.77, the subsample can be used to reconstruct the properties of a volume limited sample of galaxies with M[* ]= M[solar]. We benefit from the fact that Brinchmann et al (2004) SFR Catalogue has already been aperture-corrected using the likelihood distribution P(SFR/L[i]/colour) scheme. For the environment, we use the data generated by Kaufmann et al (2003a), and arrive at about 40 thousand target galaxies. In this work the environment is characterised by the number (N =0-30) of neighbouring galaxies within a projected radius of 2 Mpc and velocity difference of 500km/s from each target galaxy, and the magnitude limit is14.5 < r < 17.77. Our resulting correlation between SFR and N shows rough downward slope at the lower N, followed by gentler downward slope at higher N, which is similar to the result shown by Gomez et al (2002), and supports the more general finding that SFR goes down as density increases. As an important part of our work, we complement our study of SFR vs. density with a study of SFR vs. colour, where colour is expected to represent galaxy type. The colours of the galaxy are taken in u-g and g-r, and we use Strateva et al (2001) scheme to identify the galaxies as either early type or late type. We then plot the SFR against u-r colour to see the dependence of SFR on

  11. Functional Characterization of Aspergillus nidulans ypkA, a Homologue of the Mammalian Kinase SGK

    PubMed Central

    Colabardini, Ana Cristina; Brown, Neil Andrew; Savoldi, Marcela; Goldman, Maria Helena S.; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2013-01-01

    The serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated protein kinase (SGK) is an AGC kinase involved in signal cascades regulated by glucocorticoid hormones and serum in mammals. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ypk1 and ypk2 genes were identified as SGK homologues and Ypk1 was shown to regulate the balance of sphingolipids between the inner and outer plasma membrane. This investigation characterized the Aspergillus nidulans YPK1 homologue, YpkA, representing the first filamentous fungal YPK1 homologue. Two conditional mutant strains were constructed by replacing the endogenous ypk1 promoter with two different regulatable promoters, alcA (from the alcohol dehydrogenase gene) and niiA (from the nitrate reductase gene). Both constructs confirmed that ypkA was an essential gene in A. nidulans. Repression of ypkA caused decreased radial growth, a delay in conidial germination, deficient polar axis establishment, intense branching during late stages of growth, a lack of asexual spores, and a terminal phenotype. Membrane lipid polarization, endocytosis, eisosomes and vacuolar distribution were also affected by ypkA repression, suggesting that YpkA plays a role in hyphal morphogenesis via coordinating the delivery of cell membrane and wall constituents to the hyphal apex. The A. nidulans Pkh1 homologue pkhA was also shown to be an essential gene, and preliminary genetic analysis suggested that the ypkA gene is not directly downstream of pkhA or epistatic to pkhA, rather, ypkA and pkhA are genetically independent or in parallel. BarA is a homologue of the yeast Lag1 acyl-CoA-dependent ceramide synthase, which catalyzes the condensation of phytosphingosine with a fatty acyl-CoA to form phytoceramide. When barA was absent, ypkA repression was lethal to the cell. Therefore, there appears to be a genetic interaction between ypkA, barA, and the sphingolipid synthesis. Transcriptional profiling of ypkA overexpression and down-regulation revealed several putative YpkA targets associated with the

  12. A Multiwavelength Study of the OH Megamaser Galaxy IRAS16399-0937

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sales, D.

    2015-09-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the morphology and spectral energy distribution (SED) of the OH Megamaser galaxy (OHMG) IRAS16399- 0937, based on new HST ACS broad band (F814W) and emission line (Halpha+[NII]) images and archive data from HST, 2MASS, Spitzer, Herschel and the VLA (Fig. 1). This system has a double nucleus, whose northern (IRAS16399N) and southern (IRAS16399S) components have a projected separation of 6" (3.4 kpc) and have previously been optically identified as a Low Ionization Nuclear Emission Line Region (LINER) and Starburst (SB) nucleus, respectively. The nuclei are embedded in a tidally distorted common envelope, in which star formation activity is widespread, but mostly heavily obscured (Fig. 1). The infrared spectrum is dominated by strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features, but deep silicate absorption and absorption features due to water ice and hydrogenated amorphous carbon grains are also present, and are strongest in the IRAS16399N nucleus (Fig. 2 and 3). The radio emission, including the compact component associated with the IRAS16399N nucleus, is generally consistent with star formation. The global star formation rate (SFR) is 20M(sun)/yr, with the two nuclei accounting for 40% of the total (Table 2). The 0.435 - 500 micron SED was fitted with a model including stellar, dusty+PAH ISM and AGN torus components using our new Markov Chain Monte Carlo code, clumpyDREAM (Fig. 4). The results indicate that the IRAS16399N nucleus contains an AGN of bolometric luminosity (Lbol 10^{44} ergs/s), which is deeply embedded in a quasi-spherical distribution of optically thick clumps with a covering fraction 1 (Table 1). We suggest that these clumps are the source of the OH megamaser emission in IRAS16399-0937. The high torus covering fraction precludes AGN photoionization as the origin of the LINER spectrum, however, the spectrum is consistent with shocks of velocity 100 - 200 km/s. The SED fits indicate SFRs of 2.9 and 2.4 M

  13. Homogeneous Electrocatalytic Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Carbon Monoxide by Ni(cyclam)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froehlich, Jesse Dan

    The homogeneous electrochemical reduction of CO2 by the molecular catalyst [Ni(cyclam)]2+ was studied by electrochemistry and infrared spectroelectrochemistry. This catalyst has been previously shown to have increased CO2 reduction activity when adsorbed on a mercury electrode. The homogeneous reactivity, without a mercury electrode, was often ignored in the literature. Ni(cyclam) was found to efficiently and selectively produce CO at moderate overpotentials in both aqueous and mixed organic solvent systems in a homogenous fashion at an inert glassy carbon electrode. Methylated analogs of Ni(cyclam) were also studied and observed to have more positive reduction potentials and attenuated CO2 reduction activity. The electrochemical kinetics were probed by varying CO2 substrate and proton concentrations. Products of CO2 reduction are observed in infrared spectra obtained from spectroelectrochemical experiments. The two major species observed were a Ni(I) carbonyl, [Ni(cyclam)(CO)]+, and a Ni(II) coordinated bicarbonate, [Ni(cyclam)(CO2OH)] +. The rate-limiting step during electrocatalysis was determined to be CO loss from the deactivated species, [Ni(cyclam)(CO)]+, to produce the active catalyst, [Ni(cyclam)]+. Another macrocyclic complex, [Ni(TMC)]+, was deployed as a CO scavenger in order to inhibit the deactivation of [Ni(cyclam)] + by CO. Addition of the CO scavenger was shown to dramatically increase the catalytic current observed for CO2 reduction by [Ni(cyclam)] +. Evidence for the [Ni(TMC)]+ acting as a CO scavenger includes the observation of [Ni(TMC)(CO)]+ by IR. Density functional theory calculations, probing the optimized geometry of the [Ni(cyclam)(CO)] + species, are also presented. These findings have implications on the increased activity for CO2 reduction when [Ni(cyclam)] + is adsorbed on a mercury electrode. The [Ni(cyclam)(CO)] + structure has significant distortion of the Ni center out of the plane of the cyclam nitrogens. This distortion

  14. X-shooter spectroscopy of the puzzling gamma-ray source 3FGL1603.9-4903/PMN J1603-4904

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldoni, P.; Pita, S.; Boisson, C.; Müller, C.; Dauser, T.; Jung, I.; Krauss, F.; Lenain, J.-P.; Sol, H.

    2016-08-01

    The Fermi/LAT instrument has detected about two thousand extragalactic high energy (E > 100 MeV) gamma-ray sources. 3FGL 1603.9-4903 is a very hard and bright one and it is associated to the radio source PMN J1603-4904. Its nature is not yet clear as it could be either a very peculiar BL Lac or a compact symmetric object radio source which are considered as the early stage of a radio galaxy. The latter, if confirmed, would be the first detection in gamma-rays for this class of objects. A redshift z=0.18 +/- 0.01 has recently been claimed on the basis of the detection of a single X-ray line at 5.44 +/- 0.05 keV which has been interpreted as a 6.4 keV (rest frame) fluorescent line. We observed PMN J1603-4904 with the UV-NIR VLT/X-shooter spectrograph for two hours. We extracted spectra in the visible and NIR range that we calibrated in flux and corrected for telluric absorption. We systematically searched for absorption and emission features. The source was detected starting from ~ 6300 Ang down to 24000 Ang with an intensity similar to that of its 2MASS counterpart and a mostly featureless spectrum. The continuum lacks absorption features and thus is non-stellar in origin and most likely non-thermal. In addition to this spectrum, we detected three emission lines that we interpret as the Halpha-[NII] complex, the [SII] 6716,6731 doublet and the [SIII] 9530 line; we obtain a redshift estimate of z= 0.2321 +/- 0.0004. The line ratios suggest that a LINER/Seyfert nucleus powers the emission. This new redshift measurement implies that the X-ray line previously detected should be interpreted as a 6.7 keV line which is very peculiar but not impossible for this kind of source.

  15. Impact Program: The Outer CMZ C+ Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, John

    The Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) contains the densest, most turbulent, and highest pressure clouds in our Galaxy. Although the CMZ extends to a radius of R 250 pc from the Galactic Center, most star formation occurs within R 100 pc. The CMZ is asymmetric; more than two-thirds of the dense gas is at positive longitudes while the majority of massive stars traced by compact 24 um emission are at negative longitudes. This program will test the hypothesis that the positive-longitude part of the CMZ up-plane from Sgr B2 is pre-star-forming while the negative longitude portion down-plane from Sgr C is post-starburst and has disrupted its natal clouds. The observations will search for mass outflow from the CMZ starburst regions that could mass-load and fuel the Fermi-LAT bubbles. We will obtain seven strip-maps and target sixty compact 24 um sources in three fields in [CII] with the upGREAT LFA and [NII] and CO with the L1 channel. Field 1 extends from Sgr B2 to longitude l=2 to study the dense complexes at positive longitudes to determine if they are condensing to form future star forming CMZ clouds. Field 2 probes negative longitudes to investigate the nature of the compact 24 micron sources and to determine if massive star feedback had disrupted this portion of the CMZ dense cloud population. Field 3 probes the kinematics of ionized and atomic gas above and below the molecular layer to see if star formation feedback is fueling and mass-loading the Fermi-LAT bubbles. SOFIA upGREAT is the best facility to address these issues. The proposed 35 hour program complements the 20 hours of observations in the ROC by investigating the outer CMZ and its vertical structure to answer fundamental questions about dynamics, the formation and destruction of the dense clouds, the recent star-formation history, the role of feedback, and the origin of the kpc-scale Fermi-LAT bubble.

  16. A bright z = 5.2 lensed submillimeter galaxy in the field of Abell 773. HLSJ091828.6+514223

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combes, F.; Rex, M.; Rawle, T. D.; Egami, E.; Boone, F.; Smail, I.; Richard, J.; Ivison, R. J.; Gurwell, M.; Casey, C. M.; Omont, A.; Berciano Alba, A.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.; Edge, A. C.; Fazio, G. G.; Kneib, J.-P.; Okabe, N.; Pelló, R.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Schaerer, D.; Smith, G. P.; Swinbank, A. M.; van der Werf, P.

    2012-02-01

    During our Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS) of massive galaxy clusters, we have discovered an exceptionally bright source behind the z = 0.22 cluster Abell 773, which appears to be a strongly lensed submillimeter galaxy (SMG) at z = 5.2429. This source is unusual compared to most other lensed sources discovered by Herschel so far, because of its higher submm flux (~200 mJy at 500 μm) and its high redshift. The dominant lens is a foreground z = 0.63 galaxy, not the cluster itself. The source has a far-infrared (FIR) luminosity of LFIR = 1.1 × 1014/μ L⊙, where μ is the magnification factor, likely ~11. We report here the redshift identification through CO lines with the IRAM-30 m, and the analysis of the gas excitation, based on CO(7-6), CO(6-5), CO(5-4) detected at IRAM and the CO(2-1) at the EVLA. All lines decompose into a wide and strong red component, and a narrower and weaker blue component, 540 km s-1 apart. Assuming the ultraluminous galaxy (ULIRG) CO-to-H2 conversion ratio, the H2 mass is 5.8 × 1011/μ M⊙, of which one third is in a cool component. From the C I(3P2-3P1) line we derive a C I/H2 number abundance of 6 × 10-5 similar to that in other ULIRGs. The H2Op(2,0,2-1,1,1) line is strong only in the red velocity component, with an intensity ratio I(H2O)/I(CO) ~ 0.5, suggesting a strong local FIR radiation field, possibly from an active nucleus (AGN) component. We detect the [NII]205 μm line for the first time at high-z. It shows comparable blue and red components, with a strikingly broad blue one, suggesting strong ionized gas flows.

  17. Carbon–Hydrogen Bond Activation, C–N Bond Coupling, and Cycloaddition Reactivity of a Three-Coordinate Nickel Complex Featuring a Terminal Imido Ligand

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The three-coordinate imidos (dtbpe)Ni=NR (dtbpe = tBu2PCH2CH2PtBu2, R = 2,6-iPr2C6H3, 2,4,6-Me3C6H2 (Mes), and 1-adamantyl (Ad)), which contain a legitimate Ni–N double bond as well as basic imido nitrogen based on theoretical analysis, readily deprotonate HC≡CPh to form the amide acetylide species (dtbpe)Ni{NH(Ar)}(C≡CPh). In the case of R = 2,6-iPr2C6H3, reductive carbonylation results in formation of the (dtbpe)Ni(CO)2 along with the N–C coupled product keteneimine PhCH=C=N(2,6- iPr2C6H3). Given the ability of the Ni=N bond to have biradical character as suggested by theoretical analysis, H atom abstraction can also occur in (dtbpe)Ni=N{2,6-iPr2C6H3} when this species is treated with HSn(nBu)3. Likewise, the microscopic reverse reaction—conversion of the Ni(I) anilide (dtbpe)Ni{NH(2,6-iPr2C6H3)} to the imido (dtbpe)Ni=N{2,6-iPr2C6H3}—is promoted when using the radical Mes*O• (Mes* = 2,4,6-tBu3C6H2). Reactivity studies involving the imido complexes, in particular (dtbpe)Ni=N{2,6-iPr2C6H3}, are also reported with small, unsaturated molecules such as diphenylketene, benzylisocyanate, benzaldehyde, and carbon dioxide, including the formation of C–N and N–N bonds by coupling reactions. In addition to NMR spectroscopic data and combustion analysis, we also report structural studies for all the cycloaddition reactions involving the imido (dtbpe)Ni=N{2,6-iPr2C6H3}. PMID:25437507

  18. Feeding and feedback in radio galaxies of the local universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couto, Guilherme dos Santos

    2016-10-01

    We present integral field spectroscopic data covering the inner kiloparsecs of four radio galaxies of the local Universe (z<0.07), Arp 102B, Pictor A, 3C 33 and 4C +29.30, obtained with the GMOS-IFU instrument of the Gemini telescopes. We use these data to analyze the gas excitation and kinematics via two-dimensional maps. Using the flux distributions of the emission lines, we identify extended emission in ionized gas up to the edges of the observed field, which corresponds to 1.7 kpc x 2.5 kpc for Arp 102B, 2.5 kpc x 3.4 kpc for Pictor A, 4.0 kpc x 5.8 kpc for 3C 33 and 4.3 kpc x 6.2 kpc for 4C +29.30. The extended line emitting gas displays structures resembling rotating disks, spiral arms and bars. Line ratios indicate that both photons from the nuclear source and shocks originated in the interaction of the radio jet with circumnuclear gas are ionizing mechanisms of the gas. Line ratio values are typical of Seyfert galaxies for 3C 33 and 4C +29.30, while intermediate values between Seyferts and LINERs are observed in Arp 102B. Pictor A galaxy, however, shows low values of [NII]/Ha=0.15-0.25, expected for HII regions. We suggest that these values are observed due to the low gas metallicity (12+log(O/H)=8.39). Centroid velocity maps show that the gas kinematics is dominated by rotation only in Arp 102B and 3C 33. Outflows are observed in the galaxies Arp 102B, 3C 33 and 4C +29.30. We obtain mass outflow rates of 0.32-0.49 Msun per year, but the outflow kinetic power is small, ranging 0.04-0.07% of the AGN bolometric luminosity, indicating that the feedback has little impact in the host galaxies evolution. The high masses of ionized gas, ranging from 7.4E7 to 4.6E8 Msun, and the fact that these galaxies are early-type, suggest an external origin of the gas. Indeed, it is observed evidence of interaction with companion galaxies in Arp 102B, Pictor A and 4C +29.30. We suggest that the capture of mass has triggered the nuclear activity in these galaxies, with the high

  19. Natural 'background' soil water repellency in conifer forests: its prediction and relationship to wildfire occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerr, Stefan; Woods, Scott; Martin, Deborah; Casimiro, Marta

    2013-04-01

    Soils under a wide range of vegetation types exhibit water repellency following the passage of a fire. This is viewed by many as one of the main causes for accelerated post-fire runoff and soil erosion and it has often been assumed that strong soil water repellency present after wildfire is fire-induced. However, high levels of repellency have also been reported under vegetation types not affected by fire, and the question arises to what degree the water repellency observed at burnt sites actually results from fire. This study aimed at determining 'natural background' water repellency in common coniferous forest types in the north-western USA. Mature or semi-mature coniferous forest sites (n = 81), which showed no evidence of recent fires and had at least some needle cast cover, were sampled across six states. After careful removal of litter and duff at each site, soil water repellency was examined in situ at the mineral soil surface using the Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT) method for three sub-sites, followed by col- lecting near-surface mineral soil layer samples (0-3 cm depth). Following air-drying, samples were fur- ther analyzed for repellency using WDPT and contact angle (hsl) measurements. Amongst other variables examined were dominant tree type, ground vegetation, litter and duff layer depth, slope angle and aspect, elevation, geology, and soil texture, organic carbon content and pH. 'Natural background' water repellency (WDPT > 5 s) was detected in situ and on air-dry samples at 75% of all sites examined irrespective of dominant tree species (Pinus ponderosa, Pinus contorta, Picea engelma- nii and Pseudotsuga menziesii). These findings demonstrate that the soil water repellency commonly observed in these forest types following burning is not necessarily the result of recent fire but can instead be a natural characteristic. The notion of a low background water repellency being typical for long- unburnt conifer forest soils of the north-western USA is

  20. The reaction mechanism of methyl-coenzyme M reductase: How an enzyme enforces strict binding order

    SciTech Connect

    Wongnate, Thanyaporn; Ragsdale, Stephen W.

    2015-02-17

    Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) is a nickel tetrahydrocorphinoid (coenzyme F430) containing enzyme involved in the biological synthesis and anaerobic oxidation of methane. MCR catalyzes the conversion of methyl-2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (methyl-SCoM) and N-7-mercaptoheptanoylthreonine phosphate (CoB7SH) to CH4 and the mixed disulfide CoBS-SCoM. In this study, the reaction of MCR from Methanothermobacter marburgensis, with its native substrates was investigated using static binding, chemical quench, and stopped-flow techniques. Rate constants were measured for each step in this strictly ordered ternary complex catalytic mechanism. Surprisingly, in the absence of the other substrate, MCR can bind either substrate; however, only one binary complex (MCR·methyl-SCoM) is productive whereas the other (MCR·CoB7SH) is inhibitory. Moreover, the kinetic data demonstrate that binding of methyl-SCoM to the inhibitory MCR·CoB7SH complex is highly disfavored (Kd = 56 mM). However, binding of CoB7SH to the productive MCR·methyl-SCoM complex to form the active ternary complex (CoB7SH·MCR(NiI)·CH3SCoM) is highly favored (Kd = 79 μM). Only then can the chemical reaction occur (kobs = 20 s-1 at 25 °C), leading to rapid formation and dissociation of CH4 leaving the binary product complex (MCR(NiII)·CoB7S-·SCoM), which undergoes electron transfer to regenerate Ni(I) and the final product CoBS-SCoM. In conclusion, this first rapid kinetics study of MCR with its natural substrates describes how an enzyme can enforce a strictly ordered ternary complex mechanism and serves as a template for identification of the reaction intermediates.

  1. [Ni(PPh2NC6H4X2)2]2+ Complexes as Electrocatalysts for H2 Production: Effect of Substituents, Acids, and Water on Catalytic Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgore, Uriah J.; Roberts, John A.; Pool, Douglas H.; Appel, Aaron M.; Stewart, Michael P.; Rakowski DuBois, Mary; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. S.; Bullock, R. Morris; DuBois, Daniel L.

    2011-04-20

    A series of mononuclear nickel(II) bis(diphosphine) complexes [Ni(PPh2NPhX2)2](BF4)2 (PPh2NPhX2 = 1,5-di(para¬-X-phenyl)-3,7-diphenyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane; X = OMe, Me, CH2P(O)(OEt)2, Br, and CF3) have been synthesized and characterized. X-ray diffraction studies reveal that [Ni(PPh2NPhMe2)2](BF4)2 and [Ni(PPh2NPhOMe2)2](BF4)2 are tetracoordinate with distorted square planar geometries. The Ni(II/I) and Ni(I/0) redox couples of each complex are electrochemically reversible in acetonitrile (0.2 M tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate) with potentials that are increasingly cathodic as the electron-donating character of X is increased. All of these complexes are efficient electrocatalysts for hydrogen production, with rates generally increasing as the electron-donating character of X is decreased. Catalytic studies using 2,6-dichloroanilinium triflate (2,6-Cl2AnH+OTf , pKaMeCN = 5.0) 4-cyanoanilinium tetrafluoroborate (4-CNAnH+OTf , pKaMeCN = 7.0) and protonated dimethylformamide ([(DMF)H]+OTf , pKaMeCN = 6.1) reveal that turnover frequencies do not correlate with substrate acid pKa values, but are highly dependent on the acid structure, with this effect being related to substrate size. Addition of water is shown to dramatically increase catalytic rates for all catalysts. With [Ni(PPh2NPhCH2P(O)(OEt)22)2](BF4)2 using [(DMF)H]+OTf as acid and with added water, a turnover frequency of 1850 s-1 was obtained. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences Division. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  2. HST/WFPC2 Observations of Asymmetric Planetary and Proto-Planetary Nebulae: NGC3132, HEN 401 and Roberts 22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, R.; Trauger, J.; Bujarrabal, V.; WFPC2 Id Team

    1997-12-01

    As part of a continuing effort to understand how planetary nebulae acquire their complex shapes and symmetries, we have obtained high-resolution images of the planetary nebula NGC3132, and the proto-planetary nebulae Hen 401 and Roberts 22, with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The images have been taken through a variety of narrow emission-line filters and a medium or broad continuum filter. All 3 objects have substantial quantities of cold, dense molecular gas detected via mm-wave CO line emission. The Hubble images reveal a rich and complex morphological structure of the circumstellar material in these objects. The NGC3132 images show a bright elliptical shape, surrounded by fainter filamentary, elliptical structures with position angles different from the main structure. New features uncovered by HST in this well-observed (from the ground) extended nebula, include a wide pillar-like structure lying roughly along the major axis of the nebula in [OIII]lambda5007 and Hα , but not in the low-excitation [OI]lambda6300 & [NII]lambda6584 lines. The latter show a thin equatorial band of material girdling the main nebula around its waist, and a fine jet-like feature extending radially outwards from the equatorial girdle. Both protoplanetary nebulae, Hen 401 and Roberts 22, seen mostly in scattered light from dust, are bipolar. The bipolar lobes in Hen 401 are long and cylindrical (length/width~14), with frayed ends; the visible central star is surrounded by a bipolar skirt-like structure, co-axial with the lobes. In Roberts 22, the lobes are shaped like a butterfly's wings, separated by a dark ``body'' of dense dust which hides the central star, and multiple shell structures can be seen in the fainter nebulosity surrounding the main lobes. We will discuss the implications of the remarkable structures seen in these 3 nebulae for current theories for the formation and shaping of planetary nebulae.

  3. Intense accretion and mass loss of a very low mass young stellar object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, M.; Comerón, F.

    2001-12-01

    We present visible and near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy of LS-RCrA 1, a faint, very late-type object (M 6.5-M 7) seen in the direction of the R Coronae Australis star forming complex. While its emission spectrum shows prominent features of accretion and mass loss typical of young stellar objects, its underlying continuum and photometric properties are puzzling when trying to derive a mass and age based on pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks: the object appears to be far too faint for a young member of the R Coronae Australis complex of its spectral type. We speculate that this may be due to either its evolution along pre-main sequence tracks being substantially altered by the intense accretion, or to a combination of partial blocking and scattering of the light of the object by a nearly edge-on circumstellar disk. The rich emission line spectrum superimposed on the stellar continuum is well explained by an intense accretion process: the Halpha , CaII infrared triplet, and HeI 6678 lines show equivalent widths typical of very active classical T Tauri stars. The near-infrared observations show anomalously weak spectral features and no significant excess emission in the K band, which we tentatively interpret as indicating line filling due to emission in a magnetic accretion funnel flow. At the same time, numerous, strong forbidden optical lines ([OI], [NII] and [SII]) and H2 emission at 2.12 mu m suggest that the object is simultaneously undergoing mass loss, providing another example that shows that mass loss and accretion are closely related processes. Such an intense accretion and mass loss activity is observed for the first time in a young stellar object in the transition region between low mass stars and brown dwarfs, and provides a valuable observational test on the effects of accretion on the evolution of objects with such low masses. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory in La Silla and Cerro Paranal (Chile), in

  4. Measuring the Evolution of Stellar Populations And Gas Metallicity in Galaxies with Far-Infrared Space Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, Gordon

    We propose a study of the evolution of stellar populations and gas metallicities in about 80 nearby star forming galaxies based on mining the NASA data archives for observations of the [NIII] 57 µm, [OIII] 52 µm and/or 88 µm, [NII] 122 and [CII] 158 µm far-infrared (FIR) fine- structure lines and other archives for thermal radio continuum. These lines are powerful probes of both stellar populations and gas properties and our primary science derives from these tracers. For sources that show both signs of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and star formation, we will take advantage of the readily available NASA Spitzer IRS data base that includes mid-IR [NeII] 12.8 µm, [NeIII] 15.6 µm and [NeV] 14.3 µm, [OIV] 25.9 µm and PAH observations. These complementary data reveal the relative fractions of the FIR line emission that might arise from star formation and the narrow line regions (NLR) associated with an AGN, thereby providing a robust set of observations to compare with star formation models. Subsets of the FIR lines have been detected from hundreds of nearby galaxies. From both theoretical studies and the results of these pioneering observations we know that these lines can be powerful probes of stellar populations and star formation in galaxies. Here we plan to use various combinations of the lines to constrain (1) the age of the stellar populations (through lines that trace the hardness of the stellar radiation fields, hence stellar spectral type), (2) the degree of processing of the interstellar medium (through lines that trace growth of secondary to primary element abundances for example, the N/O ratio), (3) the efficiency of star formation (through growth in absolute abundances of N and O, the N/H and O/H ratios), and (4) the current day mass function of upper main sequence stars. Surprisingly, there has been no systematic study of the large sample of these line detections made with PACS on Herschel in order to truly assess and calibrate their diagnostic

  5. A 2 THz Heterodyne Array Receiver for SOFIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Christopher K.

    1998-01-01

    We proposed to perform a comprehensive design study of a 16-element heterodyne array receiver for SOFIA. The array was designed to utilize hot-electron bolometers in an efficient, low-cost waveguide mount to achieve low noise performance between approx. 1500 and 2400 GHz. Due to the prevailing physical conditions in the interstellar medium, this frequency range is one of the richest in the FIR portion of the spectrum. An array designed for this wavelength range will make excellent use of the telescope and the available atmospheric transmission, and will provide a new perspective on stellar, chemical, and galaxy evolution in the present as well as past epochs. A few of the most important molecular and atomic species which the instrument will sample are CII, OI, CO, OH, NII, and CH. The system used the most sensitive detectors available in an efficient optical system. The local oscillator was a compact CO2 pumped far-infrared laser currently under development for SOFIA. The backend spectrometer was an array acousto-optic spectrometer (aAOS). The spectrometer utilizes proven hardware and technologies to provide broadband performance (greater than or equal to 1 GHz per AOS channel) and high spectral resolution (1 MHz) with the maximum sensitivity and minimum complexity and cost. The proposed instrument would be the fastest and most sensitive heterodyne receiver ever to operate in the 1.5 - 2.4 THz band. One of the key technologies developed for the proposed instrument is the laser micromachining of waveguide structures. These structures provide both the optical link between the instrument and the telescope (via an array of efficient feedhorns) and the impedance transformation between the detectors and free space. With the assistance of funds provided from this grant, we were able to fabricate and test the world's first laser micromachined feedhorns. Figure 1 is a photograph of the 2 THz double feedhorn structure designed and constructed under the auspices of this grant

  6. Enhancing the Legacy of Spitzer and Herschel with the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Naveen

    The next frontier for comprehensive galaxy surveys is the epoch at z~1.5-3.5, the peak of star formation and black hole activity. Despite the new windows that Spitzer and Herschel have opened up into the stellar and dust emission of distant galaxies and AGN during this key epoch, these studies have been limited by the lack of spectroscopic redshifts and the unknown physical conditions (e.g., metallicities, ionization) within the targeted galaxies. To realize the full potential of Spitzer and Herschel, we require a large spectroscopic survey that will: (a) efficiently assemble spectroscopic redshifts for large samples of galaxies at z=1.4-3.8; (b) yield the physical conditions, including the ionization and metallicities of these galaxies; and (c) easily obtain spectroscopic redshifts even for very dusty/confused galaxies. To this end, our team has been allocated a large program of 47 Keck nights with the multi-object near-IR spectrograph MOSFIRE to carry out the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field Survey (MOSDEF) in three of the Hubble CANDELS fields. MOSDEF will obtain rest-optical spectra of ~1500 galaxies at redshifts z=1.4-3.8, targeting many of the optical nebular emission lines and continuum features (e.g., [OII], [OIII], H-beta, H-alpha, [NII], [SII], 4000 Angstrom break, Ca H and K, and Mbg) that until now have been inaccessible for large samples of distant galaxies, but which are routinely used to measure the SFRs, dust attenuation, metal and gas content, and ionization and dynamical properties in nearby galaxies. MOSDEF spectroscopy provides a critical supporting role for the analysis of Spitzer and Herschel observations of distant galaxies. With this transformative dataset, we will perform the following analyses. First, we will use Spitzer and Herschel imaging, aided with spectroscopic redshifts from MOSDEF, to construct individual and mean dust SEDs for galaxies at redshifts 1.4

  7. Far-infrared Study of High Velocity Ejecta Associated with Cold Dust in Young Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rho, Jeonghee

    2014-10-01

    velocity ejecta lines of [N II] at 57, 122 micron, [OIII] at 52, 88 micron, [O I] at 63 micron: some of these lines do not exhibit broadening within the ISO spectral resolution. We propose to observe [OIII], [OI], [CII], and [NII] lines towards the four SNRs in the sample with the SOFIA FIFI-LS: this instrument offers superior spectral resolution and higher sensitivity. Carbon and nitrogen lines are uniquely to be observed in far-infrared and critical in understanding CNO cycles of nucleosynthesis. Our observational goals are i) to identify high velocity ejecta emission and its physical conditions; ii) to examine dynamics of ejecta for comparison with SN explosion models; iii) to estimate ejecta mass of each element, and infer the progenitor mass of the SNR through comparisons with nucleosysnthesis models; iv) to correlate heavy elements in SNe and dust composition; v) to estimate efficiency of dust formation by comparing ejecta and dust masses and finally, vi) to test if SNe are the primary dust producer from ejecta in the early Universe.

  8. Si-H bond activation at {(NHC)₂Ni⁰} leading to hydrido silyl and bis(silyl) complexes: a versatile tool for catalytic Si-H/D exchange, acceptorless dehydrogenative coupling of hydrosilanes, and hydrogenation of disilanes to hydrosilanes.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, David; Zell, Thomas; Schaub, Thomas; Radius, Udo

    2014-07-28

    The unique reactivity of the nickel(0) complex [Ni2(iPr2Im)4(COD)] (1) (iPr2Im = 1,3-di-isopropyl-imidazolin-2-ylidene) towards hydrosilanes in stoichiometric and catalytic reactions is reported. A series of nickel hydrido silyl complexes cis-[Ni(iPr2Im)2(H)(SiH(n-1)R(4-n))] (n = 1, 2) and nickel bis(silyl) complexes cis-[Ni(iPr2Im)2(SiH(n-1)R(4-n))2] (n = 1, 2, 3) were synthesized by stoichiometric reactions of 1 with hydrosilanes H(n)SiR(4-n), and fully characterized by X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic methods. These hydrido silyl complexes are examples where the full oxidative addition step is hindered. They have, as a result of the remaining Si-H interactions, remarkably short Si-H distances and feature a unique dynamic behavior in solution. Cis-[Ni(iPr2Im)2(H)(SiMePh2)] (cis-5) shows in solution at room temperature a dynamic site exchange of the NHC ligands, H-D exchange with C6D6 to give the deuteride complex cis-[Ni(iPr2Im)2(D)(SiMePh2)] (cis-5-D), and at elevated temperatures an irreversible isomerization to trans-[Ni(iPr2Im)2(D)(SiMePh2)] (trans-5-D). Reactions with sterically less demanding silanes give cis-configured bis(silyl) complexes accompanied by the release of dihydrogen. These complexes display, similarly to the hydrido silyl complexes, interestingly short Si-Si distances. Complex 1 reacts with 4 eq. HSi(OEt)3, in contrast to all the other silanes used in this study, to give the trans-configured bis(silyl) complex trans-[Ni(iPr2Im)2Ni(Si(OEt)3)2] (trans-12). The addition of two equivalents of Ph2SiH2 to 1 results, at elevated temperatures, in the formation of the dinuclear complex [{(iPr2Im)Ni-μ(2)-(HSiPh2)}2] (6). This diamagnetic, formal Ni(I) complex exhibits a long Ni-Ni bond in the solid state, as established by X-ray diffraction. The capability of the electron rich {Ni(iPr2Im)2} complex fragment to activate Si-H bonds was applied catalytically in the deuteration of Et3Si-H to Et3Si-D employing C6D6 as a convenient deuterium source

  9. ALMA reveals a warm and compact starburst around a heavily obscured supermassive black hole at z = 4.75

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilli, R.; Norman, C.; Vignali, C.; Vanzella, E.; Calura, F.; Pozzi, F.; Massardi, M.; Mignano, A.; Casasola, V.; Daddi, E.; Elbaz, D.; Dickinson, M.; Iwasawa, K.; Maiolino, R.; Brusa, M.; Vito, F.; Fritz, J.; Feltre, A.; Cresci, G.; Mignoli, M.; Comastri, A.; Zamorani, G.

    2014-02-01

    km s-1 velocity shift observed between the Lyα emission and the submm lines ([CII], CO(2-1), [NII]) and with the highly-ionized Fe emission line at ~6.9 keV rest-frame tentatively observed in the X-ray spectrum. Finally, our observations show that, besides the mass, star formation rate and gas depletion timescale, XID403 has also the right size to be one of the progenitors of the compact quiescent massive galaxies seen at z ~ 3.

  10. MDI and GOLF simulation and intercomparison via the Mt. Wilson 150-foot tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Scott Edward

    A 24 channel analyzer (Evans and Ulrich, 1995) was designed and built for the Mt. Wilson 150-foot solar tower. This instrument has 4 channels dedicated to the continuance of the existing dataset for the CrII and FeI solar lines. Additionally, the instrument employs 10 channels each for NaD1 and NiI. The latter two lines are those studied by the SOHO instruments GOLF and MDI respectively. Ten-point line profiles are taken for both Ni and NaD1 and analyzed using computer simulations of both the MDI and GOLF instruments. Since the data are taken simultaneously and for a resolved sun, the signal derived from the MDI simulation can be compared on a pixel by pixel basis to the GOLF single wing signal. A correlation is found between MDI Id and GOLF single wing intensity. By removing the Id contribution to the GOLF signal, we hope to achieve a purer velocity signal in GOLF and hence raise the signal to noise ratio. The roll angle of MDI has not been accurately measured due to the failure of SOHO's gyros. At present, a single guide star is being used for spacecraft pointing and the error in roll angle is unkown. Previously (Ulrich and Henney, 1994) the MDI roll angle was estimated by comparing magnetograms from MDI and Mt. Wilson. Observations derived from the new multichannel system at Mt. Wilson can measure the roll angle directly by comparing MDI proxy images to a Mt. Wilson proxy derived from the MDI data. The 38 roll angle measurements spanning selected time frames covering nearly the entire SOHO mission average -.32 degrees. This suggests that a steady, equator-crossing flow of ~-10 m/s would exist due to the error in MDI coordinates. A Southward, equator-crossing flow has been observed (Giles, et al. 1997) whose magnitude is roughly -7 m/s. Thus some or even all of such a flow may be explainable by the MDI roll angle. Sources of error in the Mt. Wilson determination of the MDI roll angle are discussed and found to be relatively small (~3-4 are minutes) when estimated

  11. Microbial activity and soil organic matter decay in roadside soils polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mykhailova, Larysa; Fischer, Thomas; Iurchenko, Valentina

    2015-04-01

    positively correlated with the carbohydrate fraction and negatively correlated with the aliphatic fraction of the soil C, while carbohydrate-C and alkyl-C increased and decreased with distance from the road, respectively. It is proposed that petroleum hydrocarbons supress soil biological activity at concentrations above 1500 mg kg-1, and that soil organic matter priming primarily affects the carbohydrate fraction of soil organic matter. It can be concluded that the abundance of solid carbohydrates (O-alkyl C) is of paramount importance for the hydrocarbon mineralization under natural conditions, compared to more recalcitrant SOM fractions (mainly aromatic and alkyl C). References Mykhailova, L., Fischer, T., Iurchenko, V. (2013) Distribution and fractional composition of petroleum hydrocarbons in roadside soils. Applied and Environmental Soil Science, vol. 2013, Article ID 938703, 6 pages, DOI 10.1155/2013/938703 Mykhailova, L., Fischer, T., Iurchenko, V. (2014) Deposition of petroleum hydrocarbons with sediment trapped in snow in roadside areas. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management 22(3):237-244, DOI 10.3846/16486897.2014.889698 Nelson P.N. and Baldock J.A. (2005) Estimating the molecular composition of a diverse range of natural organic materials from solid-state 13C NMR and elemental analyses, 2005, Biogeochemistry (2005) 72: 1-34, DOI 10.1007/s10533-004-0076-3 Zyakun, A., Nii-Annang, S., Franke, G., Fischer, T., Buegger, F., Dilly, O. (2011) Microbial Actvity and 13C/12C Ratio as Evidence of N-Hexadecane and N-Hexadecanoic Acid Biodegradation in Agricultural and Forest Soils. Geomicrobiology Journal 28:632-647, DOI 10.1080/01490451.2010.489922

  12. Spectroscopic aperture biases in inside-out evolving early-type galaxies from CALIFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, J. M.; Papaderos, P.; Vílchez, J. M.; Kehrig, C.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Breda, I.; Lehnert, M. D.; Sánchez, S. F.; Ziegler, B.; Dos Reis, S. N.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Galbany, L.; Bomans, D. J.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Walcher, C. J.; García-Benito, R.; Márquez, I.; Del Olmo, A.; Mollá, M.; Marino, R. A.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; González Delgado, R. M.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Califa Collaboration

    2016-02-01

    Integral field spectroscopy (IFS) studies based on CALIFA survey data have recently revealed ongoing low-level star formation (SF) in the periphery of a small fraction (~10%) of local early-type galaxies (ETGs), witnessing a still ongoing inside-out galaxy growth process. A distinctive property of the nebular component in these ETGs, classified i+, is a structure with two radial zones, the inner of which displays LINER emission with a Hα equivalent width EW(Hα) ≃ 1 Å, the outer (3 Å Nii]/Hα vs. [Oiii]/Hβ emission-line (BPT) ratios consists of a monotonic shift upward and to the right precisely along the upper right wing of the "seagull" distribution on the BPT plane, that is, along the pathway connecting composite SF/Hii galaxies with AGN/LINERs. Motivated by these observational insights, we also investigate theoretically observational biases in aperture-limited studies of inside-out growing galaxies as a function of z. To this end, we devise a simple 1D model that involves an outward-propagating exponentially decreasing SF process since z ~ 10 and reproduces the radial extent and two-zone EW

  13. Protein-Assisted Formation of Molybdenum Heterometallic Clusters: Evidence for the Formation of S2MoS2-M-S2MoS2 Clusters with M = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, or Cd within the Orange Protein.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Biplab K; Maia, Luisa B; Pauleta, Sofia R; Moura, Isabel; Moura, José J G

    2017-02-20

    The Orange Protein (ORP) is a small bacterial protein, of unknown function, that harbors a unique molybdenum/copper (Mo/Cu) heterometallic cluster, [S2Mo(VI)S2Cu(I)S2Mo(VI)S2](3-), noncovalently bound. The apo-ORP is able to promote the formation and stabilization of this cluster, using Cu(II)- and Mo(VI)S4(2-) salts as starting metallic reagents, to yield a Mo/Cu-ORP that is virtually identical to the native ORP. In this work, we explored the ORP capability of promoting protein-assisted synthesis to prepare novel protein derivatives harboring molybdenum heterometallic clusters containing iron, cobalt, nickel, or cadmium in place of the "central" copper (Mo/Fe-ORP, Mo/Co-ORP, Mo/Ni-ORP, or Mo/Cd-ORP). For that, the previously described protein-assisted synthesis protocol was extended to other metals and the Mo/M-ORP derivatives (M = Cu, Fe, Co, Ni, or Cd) were spectroscopically (UV-visible and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)) characterized. The Mo/Cu-ORP and Mo/Cd-ORP derivatives are stable under oxic conditions, while the Mo/Fe-ORP, Mo/Co-ORP, and Mo/Ni-ORP derivatives are dioxygen-sensitive and stable only under anoxic conditions. The metal and protein quantification shows the formation of 2Mo:1M:1ORP derivatives, and the visible spectra suggest that the expected {S2MoS2MS2MoS2} complexes are formed. The Mo/Cu-ORP, Mo/Co-ORP, and Mo/Cd-ORP are EPR-silent. The Mo/Fe-ORP derivative shows an EPR S = (3)/2 signal (E/D ≈ 0.27, g ≈ 5.3, 2.5, and 1.7 for the lower M= ±(1)/2 doublet, and g ≈ 5.7 and 1.7 (1.3 predicted) for the upper M = ±(3)/2 doublet), consistent with the presence of either one S = (5)/2 Fe(III) antiferromagnetically coupled to two S = (1)/2 Mo(V) or one S = (3)/2 Fe(I) and two S = 0 Mo(VI) ions, in both cases in a tetrahedral geometry. The Mo/Ni-ORP shows an EPR axial S = (1)/2 signal consistent with either one S = (1)/2 Ni(I) and two S = 0 Mo(VI) or one S = (1)/2 Ni(III) antiferromagnetically coupled to two S = (1)/2 Mo(V) ions, in both

  14. The physical properties of Spitzer/IRS galaxies derived from their UV to 22 μm spectral energy distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vika, Marina; Ciesla, Laure; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Xilouris, Emmanuel M.; Lebouteiller, Vianney

    2017-01-01

    We provide the basic integrated physical properties of all the galaxies contained in the full Cornell Atlas of Spitzer/IRS Sources (CASSIS) with available broad-band photometry from UV to 22 μm. We have collected broad-band photometric measurements in 14 wavelengths from available public surveys in order to study the spectral energy distribution (SED) of each galaxy in CASSIS, thus constructing a final sample of 1146 galaxies in the redshift range 0 < z < 2.5. The SEDs are modelled with the CIGALE code which relies on the energy balance between the absorbed stellar and the dust emission while taking into account the possible contribution due to the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). We split the galaxies in three groups, a low-redshift (z < 0.1), a mid-redshift (0.1 ≤ z < 0.5) and a high-redshift (z ≥ 0.5) sub-sample and find that the vast majority of the Spitzer/IRS galaxies are star-forming and lie on or above the star-forming main sequence of the corresponding redshift. Moreover, the emission of Spitzer/IRS galaxies with z < 0.1 is mostly dominated by star-formation, galaxies in the mid-redshift bin are a mixture of star forming and AGN galaxies, while half of the galaxies with z ≥ 0.5 show moderate or high AGN activity. Additionally, using rest-frame NUV-r colour, Sérsic indices, optical [OIII] and [NII] emission lines we explore the nature of these galaxies by investigating further their structure as well as their star-formation and AGN activity. Using a colour magnitude diagram we confirm that 97% of the galaxies with redshift smaller than 0.5 have experienced a recent star-formation episode. For a sub-sample of galaxies with available structural information and redshift smaller than 0.3 we find that early-type galaxies are placed below the main sequence, while late-type galaxies are found on the main-sequence as expected. Finally, for all the galaxies with redshift smaller than 0.5 and available optical spectral line measurements we

  15. Approximate theoretical model for the five electronic states ( Ω = 5/2, 3/2, 3/2, 1/2, 1/2) arising from the ground 3d 9 configuration in nickel halide molecules and for rotational levels of the two Ω = 1/2 states in that manifold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hougen, Jon T.

    2011-05-01

    their difference can vary between -10 B and +10 B. These theoretical results are in good agreement with the two observed p values for both NiF and NiCl. The present formalism should in principle be applicable to NiBr and NiI, and to the halides of palladium, since Pd + has a well isolated 4d 9 electronic ground configuration. Extension to metal halides having d n configurations with n < 9, or to platinum halides may present difficulties, since manifolds from the d n and d n-1s configurations may be heavily mixed, thus requiring "too many" parameters in the electronic part of the problem. Application to linear triatomic molecules may also present problems because of the large number of vibronic perturbations made possible by their four vibrational degrees of freedom.

  16. The environment of nature reserves under anthropogenic load: air transport of pollution to the North of European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradova, A. A.; Ivanova, Yu. A.; Veremeychik, A. O.

    2012-04-01

    Nature reserves are created to keep in their original states natural environment, flora and fauna of various ecological systems, territories, climatic zones, etc. Now natural objects everywhere exist under anthropogenic loading from man-made activities. It is impossible to avoid atmospheric or river transport of pollution to the environment of reserved territories. The main idea of the work is to analyze atmospheric transport of anthropogenic metals (Ni, Cu, Pb, Fe, Al), as well as of soot (black carbon - BC) from Russian large industrial areas (source-regions) to the territories of nature reserves at the North of European Russia - the Kostomukshsky reserve (KR) in Karelia (64.57°N, 30.67°E) and the Nenetzky reserve (NR) at the Pechora River mouth (68,5°N, 53,5°E). The basic data for these 2 points were back trajectories of air mass transport calculated for every day of January, April, July, and October during 10 years from 2001 to 2010. We used NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Data Files with HYSPLIT 4 model and two approaches for analyzing the trajectories. The main source-regions were chosen for each reserve. The annual source emissions for the last decade are generalized from the data published by Roshydromet of Russia (http://www.nii-atmosphere.ru/files/PUBL/Eg_2008.doc). The deposition velocity was a sum of dry and wet components. The equal values of deposition velocities onto the surface were assumed for all impurities because they are mainly on submicron aerosol particles under atmospheric transport for a long distance. The seasonal and spatial variations of averaged deposition velocity were accounted in accordance with surface properties and precipitation regimes. As a result, the maximal air concentrations of aerosol pollutants are observed in cold seasons, whereas the maximal fluxes onto the surface occur in warm period. Thus, it's possible that the cleanest air does not indicate the same surface. Fe and Al are the crust (dust or soil) elements. Thus, their main

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Multi-resolution images of M33 (Boquien+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boquien, M.; Calzetti, D.; Aalto, S.; Boselli, A.; Braine, J.; Buat, V.; Combes, F.; Israel, F.; Kramer, C.; Lord, S.; Relano, M.; Rosolowsky, E.; Stacey, G.; Tabatabaei, F.; van der Tak, F.; van der Werf, P.; Verley, S.; Xilouris, M.

    2015-02-01

    The FITS file contains maps of the flux in star formation tracing bands, maps of the SFR, maps of the attenuation in star formation tracing bands, and a map of the stellar mass of M33, each from a resolution of 8"/pixel to 512"/pixel. The FUV GALEX data from NGS were obtained directly from the GALEX website through GALEXVIEW. The observation was carried out on 25 November 2003 for a total exposure time of 3334s. Hα+[NII] observations were carried out in November 1995 on the Burrel Schmidt telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. The observations and the data processing are analysed in detail in Hoopes & Walterbos (2000ApJ...541..597H). The Spitzer IRAC 8um image sensitive to the emission of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and the MIPS 24um image sensitive to the emission of Very Small Grains (VSG) were obtained from the NASA Extragalactic Database and have been analysed by Hinz et al. (2004ApJS..154..259H) and Verley et al. (2007A&A...476.1161V, Cat. J/A+A/476/1161). The PACS data at 70um and 100um, which are sensitive to the warm dust heated by massive stars, come from two different programmes. The 100um image was obtained in the context of the Herschel HerM33es open time key project (Kramer et al., 2010A&A...518L..67K, observation ID 1342189079 and 1342189080). The observation was carried out in parallel mode on 7 January 2010 for a duration of 6.3h. It consisted in 2 orthogonal scans at a speed of 20"/s, with a leg length of 7'. The 70um image was obtained as a follow-up open time cycle 2 programme (OT2mboquien4, observation ID 1342247408 and 1342247409). M33 was scanned on 25 June 2012 at a speed of 20"/s in 2 orthogonal directions over 50' with 5 repetitions of this scheme in order to match the depth of the 100um image. The total duration of the observation was 9.9h. The cube, cube.fits files, contains 16 extensions: * FUV * HALPHA * 8 * 24 * 70 * 100 * SFR_FUV * SFR_HALPHA * SFR_24 * SFR_70 * SFR_100 * SFRFUV24 * SFRHALPHA24 * A_FUV * A

  18. Metal Cyanide Ions Mx(CN)y]+,- in the gas phase: M = Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Cd, Hg, Fe + Ag, Co + Ag.

    PubMed

    Dance, Ian G; Dean, Philip A W; Fisher, Keith J; Harris, Hugh H

    2002-07-01

    The generation of metal cyanide ions in the gas phase by laser ablation of M(CN)(2) (M = Co, Ni, Zn, Cd, Hg), Fe(III)[Fe(III)(CN)(6)] x xH(2)O, Ag(3)[M(CN)(6)] (M = Fe, Co), and Ag(2)[Fe(CN)(5)(NO)] has been investigated using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Irradiation of Zn(CN)(2) and Cd(CN)(2) produced extensive series of anions, [Zn(n)(CN)(2n+1)](-) (1 < or = n < or = 27) and [Cd(n)(CN)(2n+1)](-) (n = 1, 2, 8-27, and possibly 29, 30). Cations Hg(CN)(+) and [Hg(2)(CN)(x)](+) (x = 1-3), and anions [Hg(CN)(x)](-) (x = 2, 3), are produced from Hg(CN)(2). Irradiation of Fe(III)[Fe(III)(CN)(6)] x xH(2)O gives the anions [Fe(CN)(2)](-), [Fe(CN)(3)](-), [Fe(2)(CN)(3)](-), [Fe(2)(CN)(4)](-), and [Fe(2)(CN)(5)](-). When Ag(3)[Fe(CN)(6)] is ablated, [AgFe(CN)(4)](-) and [Ag(2)Fe(CN)(5)](-) are observed together with homoleptic anions of Fe and Ag. The additional heterometallic complexes [AgFe(2)(CN)(6)](-), [AgFe(3)(CN)(8)](-), [Ag(2)Fe(2)(CN)(7)](-), and [Ag(3)Fe(CN)(6)](-) are observed on ablation of Ag(2)[Fe(CN)(5)(NO)]. Homoleptic anions [Co(n)(CN)(n+1)](-) (n = 1-3), [Co(n)(CN)(n+2)](-) (n = 1-3), [Co(2)(CN)(4)](-), and [Co(3)(CN)(5)](-) are formed when anhydrous Co(CN)(2) is the target. Ablation of Ag(3)[Co(CN)(6)] yields cations [Ag(n)(CN)(n-1)](+) (n = 1-4) and [Ag(n)Co(CN)(n)](+) (n = 1, 2) and anions [Ag(n)(CN)(n+1)](-) (n = 1-3), [Co(n)(CN)(n-1)](-) (n = 1, 2), [Ag(n)Co(CN)(n+2)](-) (n = 1, 2), and [Ag(n)Co(CN)(n+3)](-) (n = 0-2). The Ni(I) species [Ni(n)(CN)(n-1)](+) (n = 1-4) and [Ni(n)(CN)(n+1)](-) (n = 1-3) are produced when anhydrous Ni(CN)(2) is irradiated. In all cases, CN(-) and polyatomic carbon nitride ions C(x)N(y)(-) are formed concurrently. On the basis of density functional calculations, probable structures are proposed for most of the newly observed species. General structural features are low coordination numbers, regular trigonal coordination stereochemistry for d(10) metals but distorted trigonal stereochemistry

  19. National Security Science and Technology Initiative: Air Cargo Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, Philip R; White, Tim; Cespedes, Ernesto; Bowerman, Biays; Bush, John

    2010-11-01

    The non-intrusive inspection (NII) of consolidated air cargo carried on commercial passenger aircraft continues to be a technically challenging, high-priority requirement of the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T), the Transportation Security Agency and the Federal Aviation Administration. The goal of deploying a screening system that can reliably and cost-effectively detect explosive threats in consolidated cargo without adversely affecting the flow of commerce will require significant technical advances that will take years to develop. To address this critical National Security need, the Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle), under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with four of its associated US Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, Idaho, and Brookhaven), conducted a research and development initiative focused on identifying, evaluating, and integrating technologies for screening consolidated air cargo for the presence of explosive threats. Battelle invested $8.5M of internal research and development funds during fiscal years 2007 through 2009. The primary results of this effort are described in this document and can be summarized as follows: (1) Completed a gap analysis that identified threat signatures and observables, candidate technologies for detection, their current state of development, and provided recommendations for improvements to meet air cargo screening requirements. (2) Defined a Commodity/Threat/Detection matrix that focuses modeling and experimental efforts, identifies technology gaps and game-changing opportunities, and provides a means of summarizing current and emerging capabilities. (3) Defined key properties (e.g., elemental composition, average density, effective atomic weight) for basic commodity and explosive benchmarks, developed virtual models of the physical distributions (pallets) of three commodity types and three explosive

  20. The Influence Of Environment On The Star Formation Properties Of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Del Pino, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    star formation properties and nuclear activity in galaxies in a multi-cluster system at z 0.165. We employ Tuneable Filter observations to map the Halpha and N[II] emission lines. We show the feasibility and advantages of using these type of observations to map emission lines in a large number of objects at a single redshift, and developed a procedure for the reduction and analysis of the data. We find a large number of optical AGN that were not previously detected as X-ray point sources. The probability that a galaxy hosts an AGN is not found to correlate with environment. From the analysis of the integrated star formation properties of the galaxies in the multi-cluster system we observe a significant number of galaxies with suppressed star formation with respect to the field. Although stellar mass is the main driver of the suppression of star formation, once its effect is removed, we find that galaxies in the core regions have reduced specific star formation rates (SSFRs) with respect to the infall regions. Moreover, the environment influences galaxies differently depending on their stellar mass. Galaxies with low masses experience a change in morphology (from irregulars and spirals to early-types) and colour (blue to red) as they fall into regions of higher density. However, many massive spiral galaxies retain their disk morphologies and the visibility of their spiral arms all the way to the core regions. Before becoming passive, these galaxies experience a phase exhibiting red colours and relatively high SSFRs. A significant fraction of the spiral galaxies with relatively high masses go through this phase, which could represent the transition towards becoming S0s. We finish by presenting some interesting results on the spatial distribution of the emission-line regions in the cluster galaxies. We develop a method to create emission-line images, which successfully preserves the flux within the emission lines. Our analysis on the concentrations and sizes of the star

  1. New Galactic Planetary Nebulae and the role of Central Star Binarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miszalski, B.

    2009-09-01

    LIS includes the distribution of neutral clumps of dust and H2 during the CE phase into the orbital plane that are then photo-ionised by winds during the PN phase. If the binary scenario holds then Nitrogen abundances for PNe with LIS would be rendered meaningless since the [NII] emission observed is not a result of enriched stellar material, but rather reflects shocked emission generated with models that assume standard abundances.

  2. UVES Analyses the Universe: A First Portfolio of Most Promising Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-04-01

    , Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Y, Ba, La, Ce, Nd and Eu. While earlier photometric studies indicated a metallicity much lower than the solar one, the present spectral analysis found that the overall metallicity of the stars is only two times less than solar. The abundance pattern is essentially solar (no alpha elements or oxygen enhancement), with the noticeable exception of the very heaviest species (Ba to Eu) which are enhanced by a factor that is similar to what is observed in the Magellanic Clouds. This implies that this dwarf galaxy has experienced a higher level of chemical reprocessing on a longer timescale than was previously assumed . The new finding is a clear demonstration of the crucial importance of high-quality spectra for this type of investigation. Future systematic observations with UVES will certainly shed new light on the evolution of these systems. An extensive discussion of these results is given in the paper by Piercarlo Bonifacio , Paolo Molaro , Paolo DiMarcantonio and Paolo Santin (Trieste Astronomical Observatory, Italy), and Vanessa Hill and Luca Pasquini (ESO Garching), submitted to the European research journal Astronomy & Astrophysics . E. Hunting Black Holes in the Nuclei of Galaxies ESO PR Photo 09e/00 ESO PR Photo 09e/00 [Preview - JPEG: 276 x 400 pix - 144k] [Normal - JPEG: 476 x 800 pix - 384k] Caption : ESO PR Photo 09e/00 shows the velocity pattern of the gas in the inner region of the spiral galaxy NGC 7782, as visualized by the [NII] emission line (rest wavelength 658.3 nm). The north and south sides of the galaxy correspond to the left and right of the spectrum. At the distance of this galaxy, 1 arcsec = 1,182 light-years. The original UVES spectrum was exposed during 30 min, with an average seeing of 0.7 arcsec. The full wavelength range is 476 - 684 nm in the red arm of the instrument. The spectrum pixel size is 0.027 Å x 0.18 arcsec (1.2 km/sec x 215 light-years). It is believed that super-massive black