Jurgaitiene, Dalia; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Sumskas, Linas
The aim was to evaluate the prevalence and trends of drug use among students of vocational schools in Klaipeda city and to establish the relationships between psychosocial factors and drug abuse. Two cross-sectional questionnaire surveys were carried out among first-year students of vocational schools in Klaipeda. Random samples of 912 and 342 students aged 16-19 years (representatives of Western part of Lithuania) were questioned in 2004 and 2006, respectively. Questionnaires were filled out anonymously in the classroom. Questions have covered information on drugs such as marihuana, club drugs, injectable drugs, and other drugs. Logistic regression was used for evaluation of relationship between drug use and different psychosocial and behavioral determinants of drug use. In 2004, 56.0% of male respondents and 42.0% of female respondents have reported any drug use during their life. The analysis of standardized data (by the place of residence) showed an increase in the prevalence of drug use during 2004-2006: up to 65.5% in boys (P<0.05) and up to 44.0% in girls (P>0.05). Percentage of club drug users increased significantly in girls (from 21.5% to 29.8%; P=0.040) and exceeded the level of boys. The average number of drugs of different types used by boys changed slightly from 1.57 to 1.63 (P>0.05), but increased significantly in girls (from 1.49 to 1.88, P<0.001). The use of drugs was related to school location (graduates of Klaipeda schools used drugs more frequently), communication with friends who use drugs, participation in the parties where drugs are used, alcohol use, and smoking. In 2006 survey, more significant relationship between drug use and social and behavioral factors was observed. Several indicators of drug use showed a significant increase in drug abuse among students of vocational schools in Klaipeda during the period of 2004-2006. Multisectorial efforts and integrated preventive measures should be applied for the prevention of epidemics of drug
Barsiene, Janina; Lehtonen, Kari K; Koehler, Angela; Broeg, Katja; Vuorinen, Pekka J; Lang, Thomas; Pempkowiak, Janusz; Syvokiene, Janina; Dedonyte, Veronika; Rybakovas, Aleksandras; Repecka, Rimantas; Vuontisjärvi, Heta; Kopecka, Justyna
During the EU project BEEP a battery of biomarkers was applied in flounder (Platichthys flesus) and the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) collected at three locations off the Lithuanian coast (Baltic Sea) in June and September 2001 and 2002. The elevated biomarker responses in specimens sampled in September 2001 were apparently related to the extensive dredging activities in the Klaipeda port area and subsequent dumping of contaminated sediments. High concentrations of organic pollutants (organochlorines and PBDEs) were also measured in the tissues of both indicator species. In addition, response levels of genotoxicity, cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity as well as concentrations of PAH metabolites in the bile of flounder showed elevations in 2002 after an oil spill in the Būtinge oil terminal in November 2001. In flounder, biomarker measurements 10 months after the spill indicated recovery processes but in mussels a high level of genotoxicity could still be observed 22 months later. The present study illustrates the usefulness of the multi-biomarker approach in the detection of biological effects of pollution in this region of the Baltic Sea.
DeGraff, David R.
Using the Stull Observatory 0.82m telescope, from July 1998 to August 2002 we observed several asteroids to measure their rotation periods. We present lightcurves periods for 314 Rosalia, 1084 Tamarwina, 1758 Naantali, 1845 Helewalda, 2544 Gubarev, 3028 Zhangguoxi, 5215 Tsurui, (20713) 1999 XA32, and (234871) 1991 GT4.
Braslauskiene, Rasa; Vismantiene, Reda; Thorsteinsson, Gisli
Educators should attempt to create a common and solid strategy in preschool educational institutions in order to sufficiently ensure a safe social environment of children. A research examining health and safety issues in Lithuanian preschools was carried out in Klaipeda. The aim of this paper was to analyse the conditions of safe environment…
Burskyte, Vilma; Belous, Olga; Stasiskiene, Zaneta
In 2003, the Japan International Cooperation Agency carried out a development feasibility study of Klaipeda Seaport (Lithuania). The focus in this study was the evaluation of environmental impacts of the port expansion because it is located in an ecologically sensitive area. While the Japanese researchers focused on the environmental impact analysis, they did not provide unambiguous conclusions. The problems remained unresolved and required further, more detailed consideration and deeper analysis. Environmental sustainability in seaports is an issue of timely importance in many countries given the rapid increase in port-to-port traffic and harbor capacity. This paper explores the situation in Klaipeda Seaport (Lithuania) which is the northernmost ice-free port on the Eastern coast of the Baltic Sea and its challenges in terms of environmental aspects and current pollution situation. This port plays an important role in the economic development of the region and in creating a sustainable society, i.e., a society that continues to develop economically without increasing its impact on our living environment and where the possible reduction of its current impact can be huge due to the fact that the seaport is a place where transport and logistics intersect and constitute large-scale industrial estates. Increasingly, they also turn towards sustainability. Society faces the need for radical change because of increasing technological progress and increasing environmental impact. Environmental and public issues must be addressed by a systemic approach to find harmony among all the subsystems. Therefore, the authors of the article performed an assessment of the deep-water port of Klaipeda sustainable development opportunities tackling the following tasks: (1) Assessing Klaipeda port and the projected deep-water port of the current environment state; (2) Assessing the impact of the water quality of Klaipeda port, depending on the intensity of activity; (3) Assessing the
Anne, Olga; Burskyte, Vilma; Stasiskiene, Zaneta; Balciunas, Arunas
Freight handling in EU ports fell by more than 12 % during the global economic crisis in 2008-2009 after almost a decade of continuous growth. The decrease of freight handling in the Klaipeda seaport, the only port in Lithuania, was 6.7 % and happened due to the dominant outward movement of goods (mainly oil products). The Klaipeda seaport, due to its peculiarity, is the only ice-free port in the northern part of Baltic Sea. The present study explores the environmental impact of Klaipeda seaport activities from 2001 to 2011. Moreover, it compares the environmental effectiveness of environmental protection strategies used in the four biggest companies that, in fact, cover about 88 % of total activities (except general cargo) of the seaport. The first group of targeted companies used an environmental protection strategy to implement an ISO 14001-based environmental management system, and the second group selected to follow environmental management practices without certification. The paper analyses the development of the companies' activities in regard to the change of environmental effectiveness. The paper evaluates the pressure of the economic crisis on the companies' activities and its influence on environmental decisions, with particular interest in the ability of different environmental protection systems to resist and handle the expected performance. The study identified a significant decrease in companies' activities during the crisis period. However, the economic activities and environmental effectiveness demonstrated similar short-term tendencies in regard to the environmental strategy selection but differed in long-term perspective.
Woodard, Jeremy; Huhma, Hannu
The isotope geochemistry of carbonatite from Naantali, southwest Finland as well as lamprophyres from North Savo, eastern Finland and the NW Ladoga region, northwest Russia has been investigated. These Paleoproterozoic dykes represent melting of an enriched mantle source spread over a ~ 96,000 km2 area within the Fennoscandian Shield and intruded during post-collisional extension. The carbonatites have εNd(T) ranging from -0.8 to + 0.4, while lamprophyres have εNd(T) between -0.8 and + 0.3. 87Sr/86Sr ratios from the primary carbonatite samples from Naantali form a tight cluster between 0.70283 and 0.70303. For the lamprophyres, 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.70327-0.70339 from NW Ladoga and 0.70316-0.70327 from North Savo. These characteristics are consistent with derivation from an enriched mantle showing an EMII trend, formed when sediments of mixed Archean and Proterozoic provenance were recycled back into the mantle via subduction during the preceding Svecofennian orogeny. Linear mixing of these subducted sediments and depleted mantle shows that a multistage process of enrichment is required to produce the observed isotope compositions. Batch melting of the subducted sediment first generated hydrous alkaline silicate melt, which crystallised as mica- and amphibole-rich veins in the mantle wedge. Continued melting of the subducted material under higher P-T conditions produced carbonatite melt, which infiltrated preferentially into this vein network. Assuming the silicate melt exerts greater influence on 87Sr/86Sr ratios while the carbonatite more greatly affects 143Nd/144Nd ratios, the model predicts significant regional variation in the silicate metasomatism with more consistent carbonatite metasomatism throughout the Fennoscandian subcontinental lithospheric mantle. The subducted sediments were likely also rich in organic matter, resulting in highly negative δ13C in mantle carbonates. The model predicts a higher content of organic carbon in the sediments in
Quintano, J. F.
This paper is a continuation of the research into the astronomical reasons behind prehistoric rock and mobiliary art in the Iberian Peninsula, the first part of which was presented in the previous SEAC Congress celebrated in 2007 in Klaipeda (Lithuania). It proposes that all heavenly objects painted as rock art and on ceramic pieces be given the name of astraliformes [=solar and stellar paintings]. The six astraliformes from the two shelters visited, and the ceramic pieces on which astraliformes appear in the Prehistoric Museum of Granada are presented. Astraliformes appear in schematic art in a sudden manner and on a large scale, and are included in the panel because of their function as a means of regulating and promoting the agrarian cycle.
Kasprzyk, Idalia; Rodinkova, Victoria; Šaulienė, Ingrida; Ritenberga, Olga; Grinn-Gofron, Agnieszka; Nowak, Malgorzata; Sulborska, Aneta; Kaczmarek, Joanna; Weryszko-Chmielewska, Elzbieta; Bilous, Elena; Jedryczka, Malgorzata
Spores of the genus Alternaria belong to one of the most prevailing constituents of the air in all regions of the world. They form infectious inoculum of numerous plant species as well as severe inhaled allergies. The aim of this study was to compare the biological pollution with Alternaria spores of the air of 12 cities located in central and eastern Europe. The experiment was done in 2010 and it covered the territory of Latvia (LV), Lithuania (LT), Poland (PL) and Ukraine (UA). The spores were counted using an identical method and standard equipment (7-day Lanzoni volumetric sampler) followed by extensive statistical calculations. The timing of the day of maximum concentration changed mainly along the N-S direction and had a positive correlation with latitude. The most important factor determining the increase in Alternaria spore concentration was the temperature, whereas other weather parameters were not related or of low significance. Regardless of geographical location, the first phase of the season (0-0.9 % of Alternaria spores in the air) was the longest (up to 60 days) and the last (97.5 to 99 %) was the shortest (22 days or less). The means of daily concentrations of Alternaria spores ranged from 11 spores m(-3) in Klaipeda (LT, Baltic Sea coast) to 187 in Poznan (west PL, agricultural plain). The threshold value of 80 spores m(-3) that triggers the first allergy symptoms was exceeded in 8 to 86 days (Vinnitsa, UA, temperate continental, forest-steppes region). There were considerable differences between the highest number of spores per cubic metre of air, varying from 139 in the north (Klaipeda, LT) to 2,295 in central west (Poznan, PL). The biological pollution by Alternaria spores in several places of central and eastern Europe was high; the number of days exceeding the threshold value of 300 spores m(-3) connected with serious health problems of atopic people ranged from 0 to 1 on the north (LV, LT) to 29 in central west (Poznan, PL).
Paulauskienė, Tatjana; Jucikė, Indrė
One of the most popular transportation methods of crude oil is water transport, leading to potential spills of these pollutants in the seas and oceans and water areas of ports, during their extraction, transportation, transhipment and use. The growth of the Lithuanian economy and the expansion of competitiveness were hardly imagined without the development of the Klaipeda seaport. However, the intensity of shipping and the increase in cargo loading volumes at specialised terminals are associated with a higher risk of environmental pollution. To achieve a sustainable development of the seaport, it is necessary not only to ensure the prevention of potential water pollution but also, if necessary, to use environmentally friendly technology for pollution management. The work analyses the possibilities related to the collection of oil products from the water surface using natural sorbents (peat, wool, moss and straw) and their composites.The research of absorbed amount of crude oil and diesel fuel spilled on the water surface, while using sorbents and their composites, determined that sorbents' composite straw-peat (composition percentage of straw-peat 25-75 %) absorbs the major amount of both crude oil (60 % of the spilled volume) and diesel fuel (69 % of the spilled volume) comparing to single sorbents and sorbents' composite straw-peat (composition percentage of straw-peat 50-50 %).
Lujanienė, G; Remeikaitė-Nikienė, N; Garnaga, G; Jokšas, K; Šilobritienė, B; Stankevičius, A; Šemčuk, S; Kulakauskaitė, I
Activities of (137)Cs, (241)Am and (239,240)Pu were analyzed with special emphasis on better understanding of radionuclide transport from land via the Neman River estuaries to the Baltic Sea and behavior in the marine environment. Although activity concentrations of (137)Cs in water samples collected the Baltic Sea were almost 100 times higher as compared to the Curonian Lagoon, its activities in the bottom sediments were found to be comparable. Activity (238)Pu/(239,240)Pu and atom (240)Pu/(239)Pu ratios indicated a different contribution of the Chernobyl-originated Pu to the suspended particulate matter (SPM) and bottom sediments. The largest amount of the Chernobyl-derived Pu was found in the smallest suspended matter particles of 0.2-1 μm in size collected in the Klaipeda Strait in 2011-2012. The decrease of characteristic activity (238)Pu/(239,240)Pu and atom (240)Pu/(239)Pu ratios towards the global fallout ones in surface soil and the corresponding increase of plutonium (Pu) ratios in the suspended particulate matter and bottom sediments have indicated that the Chernobyl-derived Pu, primarily deposited on the soil surface, was washed out and transported to the Baltic Sea. Behavior of (241)Am was found to be similar to that of Pu isotopes.
Lang, Thomas; Wosniok, Werner; Barsiene, Janina; Broeg, Katja; Kopecka, Justyna; Parkkonen, Jari
Results are presented of a study on liver histopathology in Baltic flounder (Platichthys flesus) carried out in 2001 and 2002 in four coastal sampling areas of the Baltic Sea: Kvädöfjärden (Swedish east coast, reference area), Klaipeda-Butinge (Lithuanian coast), Gulf of Gdansk (Polish coast), and Wismar Bay (German coast) within the framework of the EU-funded BEEP project. Liver lesions were diagnosed and categorised using standardised methodologies and, for a spatial and temporal assessment of the prevalence and types of lesions detected, a scoring system was applied, involving the calculation of mean histopathology lesion scores. 83.0% of the 436 female flounder examined (size range: 20-43 cm total length, age range: 2-8 years) were affected by liver lesions, out of which 74.3% were assigned to the category of non-specific, 3.4% to the category of early toxicopathic non-neoplastic, 4.6% to the category of pre-neoplastic and 0.7% to the category of neoplastic lesions. Mean lesions scores were highest in the areas at the Lithuanian and Swedish coast and there is indication of an impact of the age structure of the flounder populations studied, the sampling season as well as of contaminant effects.
Narbutaitė, Julija; Virtanen, Jorma I; Vehkalahti, Miira M
The aim of the present study was to analyze caries experience in relation to the occurrence of fluorosis in 12 year olds in a natural fluoride area. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 12-year-old lifetime residents (n = 301) of Klaipeda, Lithuania, where the natural fluoride content is 1.7-2.2 ppm F. Data collection included a clinical dental examination and an inquiry about toothbrushing habits. Dental caries was diagnosed according to the World Health Organization criteria and described in terms of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT)/decayed, missing and filled surfaces (DMFS) indices and decayed, filled surfaces (DFS) on selected proximal surfaces. Dental fluorosis was diagnosed according to the Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TF) index and categorized as none (TF = 0), mild (TF = 1-2), moderate (TF = 3-7), or severe (TF = 8-9). The χ(2)-, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney tests, Pearson's correlation, and linear regression served for statistical analyses. A total of 34% of the 12 year olds studied had no signs of fluorosis, while the rest had mild (42%) or moderate (24%) fluorosis. Caries experience was negatively related to the presence of fluorosis. When present (TF > 0), the mean DMFT was 1.8 (standard deviation [SD]: 1.7) versus 2.6 (SD: 2.3) in the absence of fluorosis (TF = 0, P = 0.008). The corresponding mean DMFS values were 2.6 (SD: 3.1) versus 3.8 (SD: 4.3, P = 0.014). The presence of fluorosis associates with lesser caries experience in 12-year-old lifetime residents of an area with moderately-elevated natural fluoride. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Jurgaitiene, Dalia; Targamadze, Vilija
Some supporters of liberal drug politics in the whole world and in Lithuania try to suggest that usage of marihuana and other cannabis products is harmless and marihuana can even be used for medical purposes. They state that usage of cannabis products does not lead to usage of stronger drugs and so on. Other authors state that regular marihuana use always leads to trying stronger drugs and development of drug addiction. The aim of this study is to examine connection between regular marihuana use and other drugs, to find factors that motivate marihuana users to try other drugs, and to name differences of attitude towards drugs and drug addiction between regular and irregular marihuana users. The research was conducted in six vocational schools of Klaipeda; 912 freshman students (mean age 17.5 years) were surveyed. During the survey, anonymous questionnaires were administered, and data were processed using SPSS program package. During the study, it was established that 15.6% of vocational schools' males and 4.9% of females smoked marihuana often or more often (more than 20 times). Those students are regular marihuana users, and they already may need medical or psychological help. Behavior and attitude of regular marihuana towards drugs users, which can be named as tolerance towards all drug usage ideology, statistically significantly differed from ideology of irregular marihuana users. The following percentage of regular marihuana users have also tried other illegal drugs: 58.6% have tried psychostimulants in the form of pills or powder (amphetamine, ecstasy, LSD, and others), 20.0% have tried intravenous drugs, 19.2%--various other drugs, and 42.4%--alcohol with pills.
Zukauskaite, Audrone; Jakubauskaite, Viktorija; Belous, Olga; Ambrazaitiene, Dalia; Stasiskiene, Zaneta
Oil products continue to be used as a principal source of energy. Wide-scale production, transport, global use and disposal of petroleum have made them major contaminants in prevalence and quantity in the environment. In accidental spills, actions are taken to remove or remediate or recover the contaminants immediately, especially if they occur in environmentally sensitive areas, for example, in coastal zones. Traditional methods to cope with oil spills are confined to physical containment. Biological methods can have an advantage over the physical-chemical treatment regimes in removing spills in situ as they offer biodegradation of oil fractions by the micro-organisms. Recently, biological methods have been known to play a significant role in bioremediation of oil-polluted coastal areas. Such systems are likely to be of significance in the effective management of sensitive coastal ecosystems chronically subjected to oil spillage. For this reason the aim of this paper is to present an impact of Mn, Cu, Co and Mo quantities on oil biodegradation effectiveness in coastal soil and to determine the relationship between metal concentrations and degradation of two oil products (black oil and diesel fuel). Soil was collected in the Baltic Sea coastal zone oil products degradation area (Klaipeda, Lithuania). The experiment consisted of two parts: study on the influence of micro-elements on the oil product biodegradation process; and analysis of the influence of metal concentration on the number of HDMs. The analysis performed and results obtained address the following areas: impact of metal on a population of hydrocarbon degrading micro-organisms, impact of metals on residual concentrations of oil products, influence of metals on the growth of micro-organisms, inter-relation of metal concentrations with degradation rates. Statistical analysis was made using ;Statgraphics plus' software. The influence of metals on the growth of micro-organisms, the biodegradation process
Vimantaite, Renata; Seskevicius, Arvydas
The burnout syndrome may be defined as a complex phenomenon which is characterized by three components: emotional burnout (physical and psychical exhaustion, incapability to carry on requirements), depersonalization (cynical attitude towards performed work, duties, cold or negative reaction to the patients), and lowered efficiency (reflected by the sense of incompetence, the lack of efficiency and achievements). This process is progressing slowly for a long time and is characterized individually by various psychical and physical symptoms of different intensity. The aim of this study was to examine the manifestation of burnout syndrome and to estimate the influence of the syndrome on the behavior and practice of the nurses in cardiac surgery units of Lithuania (to evaluate physiological and psychological symptoms of the burnout). The study was performed using a questionnaire. A total of 180 questionnaires completed by nurses in Lithuanian cardiac surgical centers (Vilnius, Kaunas, and Klaipeda) were analyzed. The study revealed that 72.8% of nurses had an excess of workload (exceeding full-time job). Most of the respondents (84.4%) pointed out the emotional stress, unevaluated work and underpayment. Three-fourths of the nurses (75%) indicated that they felt physical fatigue after their work. More than half of nurses (67.2%) felt general fatigue, 63.3% reported the leg pains after the work, and 32.2% feel splitting headaches. Psychological fatigue was stressed by 86.1% of specialists. The main causes of psychological stress are as follows: the communication with the doctors in 57% of the cases, communication with the patient's relatives in 52% of cases, communication with the nursing administration in 49% of cases, and communication with the patients in 40% of cases. The majority of the nurses working in the centers of cardiac surgery experience physical and psychological fatigue, emotional stress. All this determinates the dissatisfaction in the work, conflicts
Sliaupa, Saulius; Sliaupiene, Rasa
2 km in west Lithuania. The prospective area of the Lower Devonian geothermal aquifer covers much smaller part (810 km2) of Lithuania due to shallower depths ( 1 km). Temperatures are in the range of 35-50oC in the prospective area. It is characterised by very high reservoir properties (average porosity 26%, permeability is 2-4 D). The extracted heat potential of well doublet is in the range of 4-9 MWt. Klaipeda geothermal power station exploits 38degC hot water of this reservoir.