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Sample records for klamath river basin

  1. Drought in the Klamath River Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For more than 100 years groups in the western United States have fought over water. During the 1880s, sheep ranchers and cattle ranchers argued over drinking water for their livestock on the high plains. In 1913, the city of Los Angeles began to draw water away from small agricultural communities in the Owen Valley, leaving a dusty dry lake bed. In the late 1950s, construction of the Glen Canyon Dam catalyzed the American environmental movement. Today, farmers are fighting fishermen, environmentalists, and Native American tribes over the water in the Upper Klamath River Basin. A below-average winter snowpack and low rainfall throughout the year have caused an extreme drought in the area along the California/Oregon border. In April 2001 a U.S. District Court stopped water deliveries to farms in the Klamath Irrigation District to preserve adequate water levels in Upper Klamath Lake to protect two endangered species of Mullet fish (called suckers). Water was also reserved for the threatened Coho Salmon which need enough water to swim downstream from their spawning grounds to the ocean. In addition, several Native American tribes have rights to Klamath River water. Further complicating the situation are a handful of wildlife refuges which usually receive enough irrigation wastewater to support upwards of a million migratory birds and 900 Bald Eagles. This year, however, several of the refuges may not have enough water for the birds which begin arriving in early fall. The severity of this year's drought is underscored by the town of Bonanza, Oregon. Famous for its natural springs, and entirely dependent on wells for drinking water, the town's water supply is now contaminated with pesticides, fertilizer, and manure. The water quality is so bad it's not even safe to bathe in, much less drink. The problem stems from a very low water table. The drop in underground water levels is caused directly by the drought, and indirectly from the increased irrigation from underground

  2. Drought in the Klamath River Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For more than 100 years groups in the western United States have fought over water. During the 1880s, sheep ranchers and cattle ranchers argued over drinking water for their livestock on the high plains. In 1913, the city of Los Angeles began to draw water away from small agricultural communities in the Owen Valley, leaving a dusty dry lake bed. In the late 1950s, construction of the Glen Canyon Dam catalyzed the American environmental movement. Today, farmers are fighting fishermen, environmentalists, and Native American tribes over the water in the Upper Klamath River Basin. A below-average winter snowpack and low rainfall throughout the year have caused an extreme drought in the area along the California/Oregon border. In April 2001 a U.S. District Court stopped water deliveries to farms in the Klamath Irrigation District to preserve adequate water levels in Upper Klamath Lake to protect two endangered species of Mullet fish (called suckers). Water was also reserved for the threatened Coho Salmon which need enough water to swim downstream from their spawning grounds to the ocean. In addition, several Native American tribes have rights to Klamath River water. Further complicating the situation are a handful of wildlife refuges which usually receive enough irrigation wastewater to support upwards of a million migratory birds and 900 Bald Eagles. This year, however, several of the refuges may not have enough water for the birds which begin arriving in early fall. The severity of this year's drought is underscored by the town of Bonanza, Oregon. Famous for its natural springs, and entirely dependent on wells for drinking water, the town's water supply is now contaminated with pesticides, fertilizer, and manure. The water quality is so bad it's not even safe to bathe in, much less drink. The problem stems from a very low water table. The drop in underground water levels is caused directly by the drought, and indirectly from the increased irrigation from underground

  3. Sprague River geomorphology studies, Klamath Basin, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, P. F.; O'Connor, J. E.; Lind, P.

    2005-12-01

    The Sprague River drains 4050 square kilometers with a mean annual discharge of 16.3 m3/s before emptying into the Williamson River and then upper Klamath Lake in southcentral Oregon. The alternating wide alluvial segments and narrow canyon reaches of this 135-km-long westward flowing river provide for a variety of valued ecologic conditions and human uses along the river corridor, notably fisheries (including two endangered species of suckers, and formerly salmon), timber harvest, agriculture, and livestock grazing. The complex history of land ownership and landuse, water control and diversion structures, and fishery alterations, provides several targets for attributing historic changes to channel and floodplain conditions. Recently, evolving societal values (as well as much outside money) are inspiring efforts by many entities to 'restore' the Sprague River watershed. In cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Klamath Tribes, and many local landowners, we are launching an analysis of Sprague River channel and floodplain processes. The overall objective is to guide restoration activities by providing sound understanding of local geomorphic processes and conditions. To do this we are identifying key floodplain and channel processes, and investigating how they have been affected by historic floodplain activites and changes to the watershed. This is being accomplished by analysis of historic aerial photographs and maps, stratigraphic analysis of floodplain soils and geologic units, mapping of riparian vegetation conditions and changes, and quantitative analysis of high resolution LiDAR topography acquired for the entire river course in December 2004. Preliminary results indicate (1) much of the coarser (and more erodible) floodplain soils are largely composed of pumice deposited in the basin by the 7700 year BP eruption of Mount Mazama; and (2) the LiDAR digital elevation models provide a ready means of subdividing the river into segments with

  4. Modeling and management of water in the Klamath River Basin: overcoming politics and conflicts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flug, Marshall; Scott, John F.; Abt, Steven R.; Young-Pezeshk, Jayne; Watson, Chester C.

    1998-01-01

    The network flow model MODSIM, which was designed as a water quantity mass balance model for evaluating and selecting water management alternatives, has been applied to the Klamath River basin. A background of conflicting issues in the basin is presented. The complexity of water quantity model development, while satisfying the many stakeholders and involved special interest groups is discussed, as well as the efforts taken to have the technical model accepted and used, and overcome stakeholder criticism, skepticism, and mistrust of the government.

  5. Overview of Hydrologic Issues in the Upper Klamath River Basin, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, D. D.

    2005-12-01

    The geologic setting of the upper Klamath Basin makes it a naturally arid landscape with eutrophic water bodies. Anthropogenic alterations of the land and hydrology over the past 100 years have put large demands on water supplies and further enriched water bodies with nutrients. Major changes to the upper basin include diking and draining lakes and wetlands for agricultural and grazing land, modifying lakes to increase the supply of summer irrigation water, clearing land and harvesting timber, and installing hydropower dams on the mainstem Klamath River that has blocked salmon passage above Iron Gate Dam. These alterations have contributed to diminished populations of endangered shortnose and Lost River suckers in the upper basin and threatened Coho salmon in the lower Klamath River. Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), with an average depth of 2.5 meters and a surface area of 310 square kilometers, is the primary water-supply reservoir for the Bureau of Reclamation's Klamath Project, which services about half (97,000 ha) of the irrigated agriculture in the upper Klamath Basin. The lake is also the primary habitat for the two endangered suckers. Because of the nutrient enrichment of UKL, the development of large summer blooms of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, and the periodic crash of these near monoculture blooms, the magnitude and frequency of large sucker die-offs from hypoxia have increased. The relation between management of the lake and surrounding wetlands and algal ecology is not well understood. It is clear, however, that runoff from drained wetlands upstream and around UKL have enriched the lake water and its bottom sediments with phosphorus for many decades. Internal loading from enriched bottom sediments triples the summer phosphorus concentration in UKL and fuels the problematic algal blooms from June through October. An ongoing pattern of below-average precipitation has increased demands from UKL and generated concern. Two recent Biological Opinions aimed at

  6. Preliminary report on the ground-water resources of the Klamath River basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newcomb, Reuben Clair; Hart, D.H.

    1958-01-01

    The Klamath River basin, including the adjacent Lost River basin, includes about 5,500 square miles of plateaus, mountain-slopes and valley plains in south-central Oregon. The valley plains range in altitude from about 4,100 feet in the south to more than 4,500 feet at the northern end; the mountain and plateau lands rise to an average altitude of 6,000 feet at the drainage divide, some peaks rising above 9,000 feet. The western quarter of the basin is on the eastern slope of the Cascade Range and the remainder consists of plateaus, mountains, and valleys of the basin-and-range type. The rocks of the Klamath River basin range in age from Recent to Mesozoic. At the southwest side of the basin in Oregon, pre-Tertiary metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary rocks, which form extensive areas farther west, are overlain by sedimentary rocks of Eocene age and volcanic rocks of Eocene and Oligocene age. These early Tertiary rocks dip east toward the central part of the Klamath River basin. The complex volcanic rocks of high Cascades include three units: the lowest unit consists of a sequence of basaltic lava flows about 800 feet thick; the medial unit is composed of volcanic-sedimentary and sedimentary rocksthe Yonna formation200 to 2,000 feet thick; the uppermost unit is a sequence of basaltic lava flows commonly about 200 feet thick. These rocks dip east from the Cascade Range and are the main bedrock formations beneath most of the basin. Extensive pumice deposits, which emanated from ancestral Mount Mazama, cover large areas in the northwestern part of the basin. The basin has an overall synclinal structure open to the south at the California boundary where it continues as the Klamath Lake basin in California. The older rocks dip into the basin in monoclinal fashion from the adjoining drainage basins. The rocks are broken along rudely rectangular nets of closely spaced normal faults, the most prominent set of which trends northwest. The network of fault displacements

  7. Water quality modeling in the systems impact assessment model for the Klamath River basin - Keno, Oregon to Seiad Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanna, R. Blair; Campbell, Sharon G.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the water quality model developed for the Klamath River System Impact Assessment Model (SIAM). The Klamath River SIAM is a decision support system developed by the authors and other US Geological Survey (USGS), Midcontinent Ecological Science Center staff to study the effects of basin-wide water management decisions on anadromous fish in the Klamath River. The Army Corps of Engineersa?? HEC5Q water quality modeling software was used to simulate water temperature, dissolved oxygen and conductivity in 100 miles of the Klamath River Basin in Oregon and California. The water quality model simulated three reservoirs and the mainstem Klamath River influenced by the Shasta and Scott River tributaries. Model development, calibration and two validation exercises are described as well as the integration of the water quality model into the SIAM decision support system software. Within SIAM, data are exchanged between the water quantity model (MODSIM), the water quality model (HEC5Q), the salmon population model (SALMOD) and methods for evaluating ecosystem health. The overall predictive ability of the water quality model is described in the context of calibration and validation error statistics. Applications of SIAM and the water quality model are described.

  8. Colonial waterbird predation on Lost River and Shortnose suckers in the Upper Klamath Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, Allen F.; Hewitt, David A.; Payton, Quinn; Cramer, Bradley M.; Collis, Ken; Roby, Daniel D.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated predation on Lost River Suckers Deltistes luxatus and Shortnose Suckers Chasmistes brevirostris by American white pelicans Pelecanus erythrorhynchos and double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus nesting at mixed-species colonies in the Upper Klamath Basin of Oregon and California during 2009–2014. Predation was evaluated by recovering (detecting) PIT tags from tagged fish on bird colonies and calculating minimum predation rates, as the percentage of available suckers consumed, adjusted for PIT tag detection probabilities but not deposition probabilities (i.e., probability an egested tag was deposited on- or off-colony). Results indicate that impacts of avian predation varied by sucker species, age-class (adult, juvenile), bird colony location, and year, demonstrating dynamic predator–prey interactions. Tagged suckers ranging in size from 72 to 730 mm were susceptible to cormorant or pelican predation; all but the largest Lost River Suckers were susceptible to bird predation. Minimum predation rate estimates ranged annually from <0.1% to 4.6% of the available PIT-tagged Lost River Suckers and from <0.1% to 4.2% of the available Shortnose Suckers, and predation rates were consistently higher on suckers in Clear Lake Reservoir, California, than on suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. There was evidence that bird predation on juvenile suckers (species unknown) in Upper Klamath Lake was higher than on adult suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, where minimum predation rates ranged annually from 5.7% to 8.4% of available juveniles. Results suggest that avian predation is a factor limiting the recovery of populations of Lost River and Shortnose suckers, particularly juvenile suckers in Upper Klamath Lake and adult suckers in Clear Lake Reservoir. Additional research is needed to measure predator-specific PIT tag deposition probabilities (which, based on other published studies, could increase predation rates presented herein by a factor of roughly 2

  9. Connecting science to managers in river restoration in the Upper Klamath Basin, Oregon and California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, P. F.

    2009-12-01

    The semi-arid Upper Klamath Basin is a complex landscape of agricultural land, pasture and forests, drained by rivers, lakes, and wetlands. Unique characteristics of the river systems include high natural nutrient loadings, large springs, low gradients, high sinuosity, fine sediment, herbaceous-dominated riparian vegetation, and habitat for salmonid and sucker fish. Following listing of several fish species under the Endangered Species Act in the 1980s to 90s, the Upper Klamath Basin has become a focal point of river management and restoration. Drought conditions in 2001 resulted in a cutoff of irrigation water and a political crisis. The crisis engendered a distrust of scientists by many residents of the basin. Political conflict over allocation of water resources and ecosystem management has continued since 2001. In this environment, multiple groups, including federal and state agencies and NGOs, have developed restoration assessments and agendas, and they have also implemented numerous restoration projects. These restoration guidance documents are typically based on input from local residents and landowners as well as the published scientific literature. The documents from different groups are generally consistent but priorities vary somewhat. Gaps in scientific understanding of the river systems are recognized as a handicap in restoration planning. The science knowledge base has been growing since 2001 but generally lags behind on-the-ground restoration activities. Research can help in addressing two critical questions important in restoration implementation. What restoration strategies are best suited to the processes and dynamics of this system? Are the specific restoration designs being employed effective at meeting restoration goals? In addition to following scientific standards of practice, scientific research needs to be framed with an awareness of how formal and informal knowledge is used in restoration implementation.

  10. Spatial, temporal and host factors structure the Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) population in the Klamath River basin.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Stephen D; Bartholomew, Jerri L

    2010-10-01

    The myxozoan parasite Ceratomyxa shasta is a virulent pathogen of salmonid fish in the Klamath River, Oregon/California, USA. We previously defined four principal genotypes of the parasite (O, I, II, III) based on a trinucleotide repeat (ATC)(0-3) in Internal Transcribed Spacer region 1 sequences. Genotypes occur in sympatry and show marked host preference: I in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) and II in non-native rainbow trout (O. mykiss). In the present study, we sequenced the parasite from river water samples collected in May, June and September at three localities below, above and between the Klamath's five dams. We also sampled adult and juvenile coho salmon (O. kisutch), steelhead trout (O. mykiss, anadromous form) and native redband rainbow trout (O. mykiss, freshwater form) and additional Chinook salmon and non-native rainbow trout. We found that the C. shasta population was highly structured spatially, temporally and with respect to fish host species. Genotype O was present in water throughout the basin but detected almost exclusively in steelhead and native rainbow trout. Genotype I was in water only below the dams and detected only in Chinook salmon. Genotype II was detected in coho salmon below the dams, and in non-native rainbow trout exposed both above and below the dams. The same genotypes were detected in adult and juvenile fish of the same species. These findings have major implications for the design of effective surveillance and control programs for this economically and ecologically important fish parasite. PMID:20601174

  11. Klamath River Basin Hydrologic Conditions Prior to the September 2002 Die-Off of Salmon and Steelhead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lynch, Dennis D.; Risley, John C.

    2003-05-27

    This report characterizes streamflow and water temperature conditions during the period leading up to the die-off and compares them to historical conditions in the Klamath River. This report is not an exploration of the causative mechanism of the die-off; rather, it is intended to provide detailed documentation of these conditions to be used by those examining the cause(s) of the die-off and to provide information that can contribute to decisions about future water management in the Klamath Basin.

  12. Klamath River Basin Hydrologic Conditions Prior to the September 2002 Die-Off of Salmon and Steelhead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lynch, Dennis D.; Risley, John C.

    2003-01-01

    This report characterizes streamflow and water temperature conditions during the period leading up to the die-off and compares them to historical conditions in the Klamath River. This report is not an exploration of the causative mechanism of the die-off; rather, it is intended to provide detailed documentation of these conditions to be used by those examining the cause(s) of the die-off and to provide information that can contribute to decisions about future water management in the Klamath Basin.

  13. Beyond Cross Sections; LiDAR in Support of Sprague River geomorphology Studies, Klamath Basin, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, J. E.; McDowell, P. F.; Lind, P.; Haluska, T.; Jackson, K.

    2007-12-01

    LiDAR terrain data was collected in November 2004 for 750 square kilometers of the Sprague River valley, Oregon, by Watershed Sciences, Inc., under contract with the Klamath Tribes. This coverage, obtained to support multiple ecologic analysis and restoration activities in the Klamath Basin, encompasses about 90 km of valley- bottom corridor for the main Sprague River as well as downstream alluvial sections of principal tributaries, including 15 km of the Sycan River, 15 km of the South Fork Sprague River, and 10 km of the North Fork Sprague River. Acquisition conditions were leaf-off at normal fall low flow. Assessment of the vertical divergence between 967 surveyed points and the laser points gave a RMSE of 0.052 m with a standard deviation of 0.051 m. The resulting bare-earth 1-m grid has been used for geomorphic mapping, paleo- and historical-channel mapping, qualitative and quantitative analysis of floodplain morphology, and assessment of channel incision over various timescales.4 Using the high resolution topography in combination with floodplain stratigraphy, we delineated the late Holocene (post 7.7 ka Mazama eruption) active floodplain. The morphology of this floodplain reveals processes locally important in forming the Sprague and Sycan river floodplains, including avulsion, meander abandonment and filling, lateral bar building, deposition by crevasses, and lateral migration. Mapping present and paleo-channel positions determined from historic photos and maps onto the LiDAR digital terrain model, coupled with augering to determine channel gravel depths, has allowed local assessment of long term channel incision and aggradation over the last several thousand years. Reaches of possible historic incision have also been delineated by comparing floodplain elevation to channel elevation in an essentially continuous manner along the valley corridor. This analysis reveals multiple reaches where the 1940 channel, as depicted on aerial photographs, is apparently

  14. Comparison of historical streamflows to 2013 Streamflows in the Williamson, Sprague, and Wood Rivers, Upper Klamath Lake Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Glen W.; Stonewall, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, the Upper Klamath Lake Basin, Oregon, experienced a dry spring, resulting in an executive order declaring a state of drought emergency in Klamath County. The 2013 drought limited the water supply and led to a near-total cessation of surface-water diversions for irrigation above Upper Klamath Lake once regulation was implemented. These conditions presented a unique opportunity to understand the effects of water right regulation on streamflows. The effects of regulation of diversions were evaluated by comparing measured 2013 streamflow with data from hydrologically similar years. Years with spring streamflow similar to that in 2013 measured at the Sprague River gage at Chiloquin from water years 1973 to 2012 were used to define a Composite Index Year (CIY; with diversions) for comparison to measured 2013 streamflows (no diversions). The best-fit 6 years (1977, 1981, 1990, 1991, 1994, and 2001) were used to determine the CIY. Two streams account for most of the streamflow into Upper Klamath Lake: the Williamson and Wood Rivers. Most streamflow into the lake is from the Williamson River Basin, which includes the Sprague River. Because most of the diversion regulation affecting the streamflow of the Williamson River occurred in the Sprague River Basin, and because of uncertainties about historical flows in a major diversion above the Williamson River gage, streamflow data from the Sprague River were used to estimate the change in streamflow from regulation of diversions for the Williamson River Basin. Changes in streamflow outside of the Sprague River Basin were likely minor relative to total streamflow. The effect of diversion regulation was evaluated using the “Baseflow Method,” which compared 2013 baseflow to baseflow of the CIY. The Baseflow Method reduces the potential effects of summer precipitation events on the calculations. A similar method using streamflow produced similar results, however, despite at least one summer precipitation event. The

  15. Conservation Effects Assessment Project-Wetlands assessment in California's Central Valley and Upper Klamath River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffy, Walter G.; Kahara, Sharon N.; Records, Rosemary M.

    2011-01-01

    Executive Summary-Ecosystem Services Derived from Wetlands Reserve Program Conservation Practices in California's Central Valley and Oregon's Upper Klamath River Basin. The Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) is one of several programs implemented by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Since the WRP's inception in 1990, it has resulted in the restoration of approximately 29,000 hectares in California's Central Valley (CCV) and roughly 12,300 hectares in Oregon's Upper Klamath River Basin (UKRB). Both the CCV and UKRB are agricultural dominated landscapes that have experienced extensive wetland losses and hydrological alteration. Restored habitats in the CCV and UKRB are thought to provide a variety of ecosystem services, but little is known about the actual benefits afforded. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) California Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Unit in collaboration with the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service surveyed 70 WRP sites and 12 National Wildlife Refuge sites in the CCV, and 11 sites in the UKRB to estimate ecosystem services provided. In the CCV, sites were selected along three primary gradients; (1) restoration age, (2) management intensity, and (3) latitude (climate). Sites in the UKRB were assessed along restoration age and management intensity gradients where possible. The management intensity gradient included information about the type and frequency of conservation practices applied at each site, which was then ranked into three categories that differentiated sites primarily along a hydrological gradient. Information collected was used to estimate the following ecosystem services: Soil and vegetation nutrient content, soil loss reduction, floodwater storage as well as avian, amphibian, fish, and pollinator use and habitat availability. Prior to this study, very little was known about WRP habitat morphology in the CCV and UKRB. Therefore in this study, we described these habitats and related them to ecosystem services provided. Our

  16. Reducing streamflow forecast uncertainty: Application and qualitative assessment of the upper klamath river Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hay, L.E.; McCabe, G.J.; Clark, M.P.; Risley, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    The accuracy of streamflow forecasts depends on the uncertainty associated with future weather and the accuracy of the hydrologic model that is used to produce the forecasts. We present a method for streamflow forecasting where hydrologic model parameters are selected based on the climate state. Parameter sets for a hydrologic model are conditioned on an atmospheric pressure index defined using mean November through February (NDJF) 700-hectoPascal geopotential heights over northwestern North America [Pressure Index from Geopotential heights (PIG)]. The hydrologic model is applied in the Sprague River basin (SRB), a snowmelt-dominated basin located in the Upper Klamath basin in Oregon. In the SRB, the majority of streamflow occurs during March through May (MAM). Water years (WYs) 1980-2004 were divided into three groups based on their respective PIG values (high, medium, and low PIG). Low (high) PIG years tend to have higher (lower) than average MAM streamflow. Four parameter sets were calibrated for the SRB, each using a different set of WYs. The initial set used WYs 1995-2004 and the remaining three used WYs defined as high-, medium-, and low-PIG years. Two sets of March, April, and May streamflow volume forecasts were made using Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP). The first set of ESP simulations used the initial parameter set. Because the PIG is defined using NDJF pressure heights, forecasts starting in March can be made using the PIG parameter set that corresponds with the year being forecasted. The second set of ESP simulations used the parameter set associated with the given PIG year. Comparison of the ESP sets indicates that more accuracy and less variability in volume forecasts may be possible when the ESP is conditioned using the PIG. This is especially true during the high-PIG years (low-flow years). ?? 2009 American Water Resources Association.

  17. Estimation of stream temperature in support of fish production modeling under future climates in the Klamath River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.

    2012-01-01

    Stream temperature estimates under future climatic conditions were needed in support of fish production modeling for evaluation of effects of dam removal in the Klamath River Basin. To allow for the persistence of the Klamath River salmon fishery, an upcoming Secretarial Determination in 2012 will review potential changes in water quality and stream temperature to assess alternative scenarios, including dam removal. Daily stream temperature models were developed by using a regression model approach with simulated net solar radiation, vapor density deficit calculated on the basis of air temperature, and mean daily air temperature. Models were calibrated for 6 streams in the Lower, and 18 streams in the Upper, Klamath Basin by using measured stream temperatures for 1999-2008. The standard error of the y-estimate for the estimation of stream temperature for the 24 streams ranged from 0.36 to 1.64°C, with an average error of 1.12°C for all streams. The regression models were then used with projected air temperatures to estimate future stream temperatures for 2010-99. Although the mean change from the baseline historical period of 1950-99 to the projected future period of 2070-99 is only 1.2°C, it ranges from 3.4°C for the Shasta River to no change for Fall Creek and Trout Creek. Variability is also evident in the future with a mean change in temperature for all streams from the baseline period to the projected period of 2070-99 of only 1°C, while the range in stream temperature change is from 0 to 2.1°C. The baseline period, 1950-99, to which the air temperature projections were corrected, established the starting point for the projected changes in air temperature. The average measured daily air temperature for the calibration period 1999-2008, however, was found to be as much as 2.3°C higher than baseline for some rivers, indicating that warming conditions have already occurred in many areas of the Klamath River Basin, and that the stream temperature

  18. Life history diversity in Klamath River steelhead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodge, Brian W.; Wilzbach, Peggy; Duffy, Walter G. G.; Quinones, Rebecca M.; Hobbs, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Oncorhynchus mykiss exhibits a vast array of life histories, which increases its likelihood of persistence by spreading risk of extirpation among different pathways. The Klamath River basin (California–Oregon) provides a particularly interesting backdrop for the study of life history diversity in O. mykiss, in part because the river is slated for a historic and potentially influential dam removal and habitat recolonization project. We used scale and otolith strontium isotope (87Sr/86Sr) analyses to characterize life history diversity in wildO. mykiss from the lower Klamath River basin. We also determined maternal origin (anadromous or nonanadromous) and migratory history (anadromous or nonanadromous) of O. mykiss and compared length and fecundity at age between anadromous (steelhead) and nonanadromous (Rainbow Trout) phenotypes of O. mykiss. We identified a total of 38 life history categories at maturity, which differed in duration of freshwater and ocean rearing, age at maturation, and incidence of repeat spawning. Approximately 10% of adult fish sampled were nonanadromous. Rainbow Trout generally grew faster in freshwater than juvenile steelhead; however, ocean growth afforded adult steelhead greater length and fecundity than adult Rainbow Trout. Although 75% of individuals followed the migratory path of their mother, steelhead produced nonanadromous progeny and Rainbow Trout produced anadromous progeny. Overall, we observed a highly diverse array of life histories among Klamath River O. mykiss. While this diversity should increase population resilience, recent declines in the abundance of Klamath River steelhead suggest that life history diversity alone is not sufficient to stabilize a population. Our finding that steelhead and Rainbow Trout give rise to progeny of the alternate form (1) suggests that dam removal might lead to a facultatively anadromous O. mykiss population in the upper basin and (2) raises the question of whether both forms of

  19. Water-quality data from 2002 to 2003 and analysis of data gaps for development of total maximum daily loads in the Lower Klamath River Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.; Curry, Debra S.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Doyle, Micelis C.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected water-quality data during 2002 and 2003 in the Lower Klamath River Basin, in northern California, to support studies of river conditions as they pertain to the viability of Chinook and Coho salmon and endangered suckers. To address the data needs of the North Coast Regional Water Quality Control Board for the development of Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs), water temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and pH were continuously monitored at sites on the Klamath, Trinity, Shasta, and Lost Rivers. Water-quality samples were collected and analyzed for selected nutrients, organic carbon, chlorophyll-a, pheophytin-a, and trace elements. Sediment oxygen demand was measured on the Shasta River. Results of analysis of the data collected were used to identify locations in the Lower Klamath River Basin and periods of time during 2002 and 2003 when river conditions were more likely to be detrimental to salmonid or sucker health because of occasional high water temperatures, low dissolved oxygen, and conditions that supported abundant populations of algae and aquatic plants. The results were also used to assess gaps in data by furthering the development of the conceptual model of water flow and quality in the Lower Klamath River Basin using available data and the current understanding of processes that affect water quality and by assessing needs for the develoment of mathematical models of the system. The most notable gap in information for the study area is in sufficient knowledge about the occurrence and productivity of algal communities. Other gaps in data include vertical water-quality profiles for the reservoirs in the study area, and in an adequate understanding of the chemical oxygen demands and the sediment oxygen demands in the rivers and of the influence of riparian shading on the rivers. Several mathematical models are discussed in this report for use in characterizing the river systems in the study area; also

  20. A basin-scale approach to estimating stream temperatures of tributaries to the lower Klamath River, California.

    PubMed

    Flint, Lorraine E; Flint, Alan L

    2008-01-01

    Stream temperature is an important component of salmonid habitat and is often above levels suitable for fish survival in the Lower Klamath River in northern California. The objective of this study was to provide boundary conditions for models that are assessing stream temperature on the main stem for the purpose of developing strategies to manage stream conditions using Total Maximum Daily Loads. For model input, hourly stream temperatures for 36 tributaries were estimated for 1 Jan. 2001 through 31 Oct. 2004. A basin-scale approach incorporating spatially distributed energy balance data was used to estimate the stream temperatures with measured air temperature and relative humidity data and simulated solar radiation, including topographic shading and corrections for cloudiness. Regression models were developed on the basis of available stream temperature data to predict temperatures for unmeasured periods of time and for unmeasured streams. The most significant factor in matching measured minimum and maximum stream temperatures was the seasonality of the estimate. Adding minimum and maximum air temperature to the regression model improved the estimate, and air temperature data over the region are available and easily distributed spatially. The addition of simulated solar radiation and vapor saturation deficit to the regression model significantly improved predictions of maximum stream temperature but was not required to predict minimum stream temperature. The average SE in estimated maximum daily stream temperature for the individual basins was 0.9 +/- 0.6 degrees C at the 95% confidence interval.

  1. A basin-scale approach to estimating stream temperatures of tributaries to the lower Klamath River, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, L.E.; Flint, A.L.

    2008-01-01

    Stream temperature is an important component of salmonid habitat and is often above levels suitable for fish survival in the Lower Klamath River in northern California. The objective of this study was to provide boundary conditions for models that are assessing stream temperature on the main stem for the purpose of developing strategies to manage stream conditions using Total Maximum Daily Loads. For model input, hourly stream temperatures for 36 tributaries were estimated for 1 Jan. 2001 through 31 Oct. 2004. A basin-scale approach incorporating spatially distributed energy balance data was used to estimate the stream temperatures with measured air temperature and relative humidity data and simulated solar radiation, including topographic shading and corrections for cloudiness. Regression models were developed on the basis of available stream temperature data to predict temperatures for unmeasured periods of time and for unmeasured streams. The most significant factor in matching measured minimum and maximum stream temperatures was the seasonality of the estimate. Adding minimum and maximum air temperature to the regression model improved the estimate, and air temperature data over the region are available and easily distributed spatially. The addition of simulated solar radiation and vapor saturation deficit to the regression model significantly improved predictions of maximum stream temperature but was not required to predict minimum stream temperature. The average SE in estimated maximum daily stream temperature for the individual basins was 0.9 ?? 0.6??C at the 95% confidence interval. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  2. Thermal regimes, nonnative trout, and their influences on native Bull Trout in the Upper Klamath River Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; Heltzel, Jeannie; Dunham, Jason; Heck, Michael; Banish, Nolan P.

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of fish species may be strongly influenced by a stream’s thermal regime (magnitude, frequency, variation, and timing). For instance, magnitude and frequency provide information about sublethal temperatures, variability in temperature can affect behavioral thermoregulation and bioenergetics, and timing of thermal events may cue life history events, such as spawning and migration. We explored the relationship between thermal regimes and the occurrences of native Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus and nonnative Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Brown Trout Salmo trutta across 87 sites in the upper Klamath River basin, Oregon. Our objectives were to associate descriptors of the thermal regime with trout occurrence, predict the probability of Bull Trout occurrence, and estimate upper thermal tolerances of the trout species. We found that each species was associated with a different suite of thermal regime descriptors. Bull Trout were present at sites that were cooler, had fewer high-temperature events, had less variability, and took longer to warm. Brook Trout were also observed at cooler sites with fewer high-temperature events, but the sites were more variable and Brook Trout occurrence was not associated with a timing descriptor. In contrast, Brown Trout were present at sites that were warmer and reached higher temperatures faster, but they were not associated with frequency or variability descriptors. Among the descriptors considered, magnitude (specifically June degree-days) was the most important in predicting the probability of Bull Trout occurrence, and model predictions were strengthened by including Brook Trout occurrence. Last, all three trout species exhibited contrasting patterns of tolerating longer exposures to lower temperatures. Tolerance limits for Bull Trout were lower than those for Brook Trout and Brown Trout, with contrasts especially evident for thermal maxima. Our results confirm the value of exploring a suite of thermal

  3. Geomorphology and flood-plain vegetation of the Sprague and lower Sycan Rivers, Klamath Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, James E.; McDowell, Patricia F.; Lind, Pollyanna; Rasmussen, Christine G.; Keith, Mackenzie K.

    2015-01-01

    Despite these effects of human disturbances, many of the fundamental physical processes forming the Sprague River fluvial systems over the last several thousand years still function. In particular, flows are unregulated, sediment transport processes are active, and overbank flooding allows for floodplain deposition and erosion. Therefore, restoration of many of the native physical conditions and processes is possible without substantial physical manipulation of current conditions for much of the Sprague River study area. An exception is the South Fork Sprague River, where historical trends are not likely to reverse until it attains a more natural channel and flood-plain geometry and the channel aggrades to the extent that overbank flow becomes common.

  4. Patterns of Larval Sucker Emigration from the Sprague and Lower Williamson Rivers of the Upper Klamath Basin, Oregon, Prior to the Removal of Chiloquin Dam - 2006 Annual Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellsworth, Craig M.; Tyler, Torrey J.; VanderKooi, Scott P.; Markle, Douglas F.

    2009-01-01

    in larval drift at Chiloquin occurred approximately 1.5 to 2.0 hours after sunset. Nightly peak larval drift varied by location; larvae were captured earlier in the evening at sites closer to known spawning locations than sites farther away from these areas. The highest numerical catches of sucker-sized eggs were at Chiloquin indicating that this site is in close proximity to a spawning area. Numerical catches of older, more developed larval and juvenile suckers also were highest at Chiloquin. This may be due to the turbulent nature of this site, which could have swept larger fish into the drift. Proportional catches of older, more developed larval and juvenile suckers were highest at Sycan, Lone Pine, Power Station, and Fremont Bridge. This indicates these sites are located nearer to sucker nursery areas rather than spawning areas. Very few larval LRS were collected at Fremont Bridge at the south end of Upper Klamath Lake. Larval KLS-SNS densities at Fremont Bridge were the third highest of the seven sampling sites. Peak drift of larval KLS-SNS at Fremont Bridge occurred the week after peak drift of larval KLS-SNS at Williamson. Although inter-annual variation continues to appear in the larval drift data, our results continue to show consistent patterns of larval emigration in the drainage basin. In combination with data collected from the spawning movements and destinations of radio-tagged and PIT-tagged adult suckers, this larval drift data will provide a baseline standard by which to determine the effects of dam removal on the spawning distribution of endangered Klamath Basin suckers in the Sprague River.

  5. Ground water in selected areas in the Klamath Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, A.R.; Harris, A.B.

    1973-01-01

    GROUNDWATER FEATURES OF SIX LOWLAND AREAS IN THE KLAMATH BASIN OF OREGON--KLAMATH MARSH AREA, AND SPRAGUE RIVER, SWAN LAKE, YONNA, POE, AND LANGELL VALLEYS--ARE DESCRIBED. RUGGED MOUNTAINS AND RIDGES SURROUND AND SEPARATE THESE LOWLANDS WHERE FLOORS RANGE IN ALTITUDE FROM 4,100 FEET IN POE VALLEY TO 4,600 FEET NORTH OF KLAMATH MARSH. THE SIX AREAS EXTEND OVER A NORTH-SOUTH DISTANCE OF 70 MILES, AN EAST-WEST DISTANCE OF 40 MILES, AND INCLUDE AN AREA OF APPROXIMATELY 600 SQUARE MILES. THE AREA IS SEMIARID AND RECEIVED ABOUT 14 TO 18 INCHES OF PRECIPITATION A YEAR. EXTINCT VOLCANOES AND THEIR EXTRUSIONS CHARACTERIZE THE AREA. MOST WELLS TAP PERMEABLE BASALT OR CINDERY RUBBLE BENEATH THE LACUSTRINE BEDS. THE DEPTHS OF WELLS RANGE FROM LESS THAN 50 TO NEARLY 2,000 FEET--MOST ARE BETWEEN 100 AND 1,000 FEET DEEP. FLOWING WELLS OCCUR IN ALL AREAS EXCEPT SWAN LAKE VALLEY. THE MOST EXTENSIVE AREA OF FLOWING WELLS IS IN THE SPRAGUE RIVER VALLEY, WHERE ABOUT 25 WELLS, SOME FLOWING MORE THAN 2,000 GPM, SUPPLY WATER FOR IRRIGATION. WATER LEVELS IN WELLS FLUCTUATE SEASONALLY FROM 1 TO 4 FEET. GROUNDWATER IN THE BASIN IS OF EXCELLENT QUALITY FOR DRINKING, IRRIGATION, AND MOST INDUSTRIAL USES.

  6. Water-quality modeling of Klamath Straits Drain recirculation, a Klamath River wetland, and 2011 conditions for the Link River to Keno Dam reach of the Klamath River, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Sogutlugil, I. Ertugrul; Deas, Michael L.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2014-01-01

    The upper Klamath River and adjacent Lost River are interconnected basins in south-central Oregon and northern California. Both basins have impaired water quality with Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) in progress or approved. In cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Watercourse Engineering, Inc., have conducted modeling and research to inform management of these basins for multiple purposes, including agriculture, endangered species protection, wildlife refuges, and adjacent and downstream water users. A water-quality and hydrodynamic model (CE-QUAL-W2) of the Link River to Keno Dam reach of the Klamath River for 2006–09 is one of the tools used in this work. The model can simulate stage, flow, water velocity, ice cover, water temperature, specific conductance, suspended sediment, nutrients, organic matter in bed sediment and the water column, three algal groups, three macrophyte groups, dissolved oxygen, and pH. This report documents two model scenarios and a test of the existing model applied to year 2011, which had exceptional water quality. The first scenario examined the water-quality effects of recirculating Klamath Straits Drain flows into the Ady Canal, to conserve water and to decrease flows from the Klamath Straits Drain to the Klamath River. The second scenario explicitly incorporated a 2.73×106 m2 (675 acre) off-channel connected wetland into the CE-QUAL-W2 framework, with the wetland operating from May 1 through October 31. The wetland represented a managed treatment feature to decrease organic matter loads and process nutrients. Finally, the summer of 2011 showed substantially higher dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the Link-Keno reach than in other recent years, so the Link-Keno model (originally developed for 2006–09) was run with 2011 data as a test of model parameters and rates and to develop insights regarding the reasons for the improved water-quality conditions.

  7. Overview of Endangered Suckers in the Klamath Basin: Does it Take One to Know One?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shively, R. S.; Vanderkooi, S.

    2005-12-01

    Severe water quality problems in the Klamath Basin of Oregon and California have led to critical fisheries concerns for the region. In the Upper Klamath Basin, two fish species, the Lost River sucker (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose sucker (Chasmistes brevirostris) were listed as federally endangered in 1988. These species are large, long-lived, lake-dwelling fishes endemic to the Upper Klamath Basin. Declining population trends for both species were noted as early as the mid 1960's, however, the severity of these declines were not evident until the mid 1980's. At the time of listing, population structures were dominated by older individuals with little evidence of recent significant recruitment into adult populations. In the early 1990s there was evidence of recruitment for Lost River suckers. Successive years of large fish kills in Upper Klamath Lake from 1995 to 1997, however, substantially reduced adult populations of both Lost River and shortnose suckers. Additionally, the 1995 and 1996 fish kills appeared to have been selective for larger-sized individuals and would have disproportionately affected females and resulted in an overall lower reproductive potential. Water quality and physical habitat limitations are considered to be the most limiting factors to species recovery. Life history patterns of Lost River and shortnose suckers in Upper Klamath Lake have been severely disrupted by recurrent periods of poor water quality that appear to be the root cause of fish kills and likely negatively influence the production of juvenile suckers. Habitat degradation around Upper Klamath Lake and in its tributaries likely contributes to water quality problems and also limits the physical habitat needed for successful adult sucker spawning as well as larval and juvenile rearing. Ultimately, a better understanding of the factors that influence water quality in Upper Klamath Lake as well as developing a sound strategy for habitat restoration is needed to promote recovery

  8. Ground-Water Hydrology of the Upper Klamath Basin, Oregon and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannett, Marshall W.; Lite, Kenneth E.; La Marche, Jonathan L.; Fisher, Bruce J.; Polette, Danial J.

    2007-01-01

    The upper Klamath Basin spans the California-Oregon border from the flank of the Cascade Range eastward to the Basin and Range Province, and encompasses the Klamath River drainage basin above Iron Gate Dam. Most of the basin is semiarid, but the Cascade Range and uplands in the interior and eastern parts of the basin receive on average more than 30 inches of precipitation per year. The basin has several perennial streams with mean annual discharges of hundreds of cubic feet per second, and the Klamath River at Iron Gate Dam, which represents drainage from the entire upper basin, has a mean annual discharge of about 2,100 cubic feet per second. The basin once contained three large lakes: Upper and Lower Klamath Lakes and Tule Lake, each of which covered areas of 100 to 150 square miles, including extensive marginal wetlands. Lower Klamath Lake and Tule Lake have been mostly drained, and the former lake beds are now cultivated. Upper Klamath Lake remains, and is an important source of irrigation water. Much of the wetland surrounding Upper Klamath Lake has been diked and drained, although efforts are underway to restore large areas. Upper Klamath Lake and the remaining parts of Lower Klamath and Tule Lakes provide important wildlife habitat, and parts of each are included in the Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges Complex. The upper Klamath Basin has a substantial regional ground-water flow system. The late Tertiary to Quaternary volcanic rocks that underlie the region are generally permeable, with transmissivity estimates ranging from 1,000 to 100,000 feet squared per day, and compose a system of variously interconnected aquifers. Interbedded with the volcanic rocks are late Tertiary sedimentary rocks composed primarily of fine-grained lake sediments and basin-filling deposits. These sedimentary deposits have generally low permeability, are not good aquifers, and probably restrict ground-water movement in some areas. The regional ground-water system is underlain

  9. Distribution and abundance of the salmonid parasite Parvicapsula minibicornis (Myxozoa) in the Klamath River basin (Oregon-California, U.S.A.).

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, Jerri L; Atkinson, Stephen D; Hallett, Sascha L; Zielinski, Christopher M; Foott, J Scott

    2007-12-13

    The distribution and abundance of the myxosporean parasite Parvicapsula minibicornis in the Klamath River mirrored that of Ceratomyxa shasta, with which it shares both its vertebrate and invertebrate host. Assay of fish held at sentinel sites and water samples collected from those sites showed that parasite prevalence was highest below Iron Gate dam, which is the barrier to anadromous salmon passage. Above this barrier parasite levels fluctuated, with the parasite detected in the free-flowing river reaches between reservoirs. This was consistent with infection prevalence in the polychaete host, Manayunkia speciosa, which was greater than 1% only in populations tested below Iron Gate dam. Although a low prevalence of infection was detected in juvenile out-migrant fish in the Trinity River, the tributaries tested did not appear to be a significant source of the parasite to the mainstem despite the presence of large numbers of infected adult salmon that migrate and spawn there. Rainbow trout became infected during sentinel exposure, which expands the host range for P. minibicornis and suggests that wild rainbow trout populations are a reservoir for infection, especially above Iron Gate dam. High parasite prevalence in the lower Klamath River is likely a combined effect of high spore input from heavily infected, spawned adult salmon and the proximity to dense populations of polychaetes.

  10. Hydrologic and Water-Quality Conditions During Restoration of the Wood River Wetland, Upper Klamath River Basin, Oregon, 2003-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, Kurt D.; Snyder, Daniel T.; Duff, John H.; Triska, Frank J.; Lee, Karl K.; Avanzino, Ronald J.; Sobieszczyk, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Restoring previously drained wetlands is a strategy currently being used to improve water quality and decrease nutrient loading into Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. In this 2003-05 study, ground- and surface-water quality and hydrologic conditions were characterized in the Wood River Wetland. Nitrogen and phosphorus levels, primarily as dissolved organic nitrogen and ammonium (NH4) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), were high in surface waters. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations also were elevated in surface water, with median concentrations of 44 and 99 milligrams of carbon per liter (mg-C/L) in the North and South Units of the Wood River Wetland, respectively, reaching a maximum of 270 mg-C/L in the South Unit in late autumn. Artesian well water produced NH4 and SRP concentrations of about 6,000 micrograms per liter (ug/L), and concentrations of 36,500 ug-N/L NH4 and 4,110 ug-P/L SRP in one 26-28 ft deep piezometer well. Despite the high ammonium concentrations, the nitrate levels were moderate to low in wetland surface and ground waters. The surface-water concentrations of NH4 and SRP increased in spring and summer, outpacing those for chloride (a conservative tracer), indicative of evapoconcentration. In-situ chamber experiments conducted in June and August 2005 indicated a positive flux of NH4 and SRP from the wetland sediments. Potential sources of NH4 and SRP include diffusion of nutrients from decomposed peat, decomposing aquatic vegetation, or upwelling ground water. In addition to these inputs, evapoconcentration raised surface-water solute concentrations to exceedingly high values by the end of summer. The increase was most pronounced in the South Unit, where specific conductance reached 2,500 uS/cm and median concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus reached 18,000-36,500 ug-N/L and about 18,000-26,000 ug-P/L, respectively. Water-column SRP and total phosphorus levels decreased during autumn and winter following inputs of irrigation

  11. Klamath River Reconstruction: Strategies for Dealing with Uncertainty in Calibration Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhouse, C. A.; Malevich, S. B.; Meko, D. M.; Gangopadhyay, S.

    2013-12-01

    The upper Klamath Basin has been the center of conflict over competing water uses and values in recent years, exacerbated by drought conditions. Currently, water needs for irrigation, fish, and riparian environments are being addressed and plans for sharing limited water resources are being negotiated. In a number of major river basins in the western US, extended records of streamflow from tree rings have been found useful for planning by placing recent droughts in a long term context and characterizing the long-term hydrologic variability over past centuries. The focus of this research is the first reconstruction of the upper Klamath River and its potential use for management. One challenge in the reconstruction of Klamath River streamflow is the availability of high quality streamflow data for reconstruction model calibration. In the Klamath basin, a long history of diversions for irrigation along with complex wetland hydrology has made the accurate estimation of natural flows difficult. A number of sources of hydrology are available, but all show differences in magnitudes of high and low flows. While the uncertainties in the calibration streamflow data can be described and quantified, they cannot be overcome, and thus impart uncertainty to the resulting reconstruction. Thus, it is important to develop analysis strategies that highlight the most certain aspects of the reconstruction. In the case of the Klamath River records, the most robust information concerns the sequences of flow, and duration and frequency of wet and dry intervals. In the reconstruction, which extends from 1493-2010, analyses of frequency and distribution of extreme low flow years, runs of consecutive years of low flows, and the probability of transitions between wet and dry years all document long-term natural hydrologic variability, over which the impacts of climate change will be imposed. While not a perfect record of past flow, the Klamath reconstruction provides information that can be

  12. Water quality and nutrient loading in the Klamath River between Keno, Oregon and Seiad Valley, CA from 1996-1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Sharon G.

    2001-01-01

    Implementing management strategies for reservoir operations to improve water quality and reduce nutrient concentration or loading in the Klamath River study area to benefit anadromous fisheries may be difficult and expensive. However, improving the thermal regime in spring to benefit YOY salmonids may be possible as is short-term relief in late summer for oversummering species. Decreases in nutrient concentration or loading accomplished through best management practices in the water shed may allow general protection of water resources in the Klamath Basin for future needs.

  13. 60. C.J.T., photographer December 23, 1955 KLAMATH RIVER BRIDGE, DEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. C.J.T., photographer December 23, 1955 KLAMATH RIVER BRIDGE, DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION A, HIGHWAY 1. DN-1-A #538, KLAMATH RIVER BR. FROM SO. END, 12/23/55, C.J.T. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  14. Hydrological information products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.; Risley, John C.; Haynes, Jonathan V.

    2012-01-01

    The Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement (KBRA) was developed by a diverse group of stakeholders, Federal and State resource management agencies, Tribal representatives, and interest groups to provide a comprehensive solution to ecological and water-supply issues in the Klamath Basin. The Off-Project Water Program (OPWP), one component of the KBRA, has as one of its purposes to permanently provide an additional 30,000 acre-feet of water per year on an average annual basis to Upper Klamath Lake through "voluntary retirement of water rights or water uses or other means as agreed to by the Klamath Tribes, to improve fisheries habitat and also provide for stability of irrigation water deliveries." The geographic area where the water rights could be retired encompasses approximately 1,900 square miles. The OPWP area is defined as including the Sprague River drainage, the Sycan River drainage downstream of Sycan Marsh, the Wood River drainage, and the Williamson River drainage from Kirk Reef at the southern end of Klamath Marsh downstream to the confluence with the Sprague River. Extensive, broad, flat, poorly drained uplands, valleys, and wetlands characterize much of the study area. Irrigation is almost entirely used for pasture. To assist parties involved with decisionmaking and implementation of the OPWP, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Klamath Tribes and other stakeholders, created five hydrological information products. These products include GIS digital maps and datasets containing spatial information on evapotranspiration, subirrigation indicators, water rights, subbasin streamflow statistics, and return-flow indicators. The evapotranspiration (ET) datasets were created under contract for this study by Evapotranspiration, Plus, LLC, of Twin Falls, Idaho. A high-resolution remote sensing technique known as Mapping Evapotranspiration at High Resolution and Internalized Calibration (METRIC) was used to create estimates of the spatial

  15. Effects of ambient water quality on the endangered Lost River sucker in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, B.A.; Saiki, M.K.

    1999-01-01

    Populations of the Lost River sucker Deltistes luxatus have declined so precipitously in the Upper Klamath Basin of Oregon and California that this fish was recently listed for federal protection as an endangered species. Although Upper Klamath Lake is a major refuge for this species, fish in the lake occasionally experience mass mortalities during summer and early fall. This field study was implemented to determine if fish mortalities resulted from degraded water quality conditions associated with seasonal blooms of phytoplankton, especially Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Our results indicated that fish mortality did not always increase as water temperature, pH, and un-ionized ammonia concentration increased in Upper Klamath Lake. Little or no mortality occurred when these water quality variables attained their maximum values. On the other hand, an inverse relation existed between fish mortality and dissolved oxygen concentration. High mortality (>90%) occurred whenever dissolved oxygen concentrations decreased to 1.05 mg/L, whereas mortality was usually low (< 10%) when dissolved oxygen concentrations equaled or exceeded 1.58 mg/L. Stepwise logistic regression also indicated that the minimum concentration of dissolved oxygen measured was the single most important determinant of fish mortality.

  16. Organochlorine chemical residues in white pelicans and western grebes from the Klamath Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boellstorff, D.E.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Anderson, D.W.; O'Neill, E.J.; Keith, J.O.; Prouty, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Samples were analyzed for 12 organochlorine chemicals. Concentrations of DDT + DDD and dieldrin in American white pelican(Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) eggs collected at the Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges decreased from 1969 to 1981; DDE and polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) residues did not significantly change. Differences between PCB residues in eggs collected from Lower Klamath and Clear Lake colonies in 1969 suggest different migration routes or wintering areas between populations nesting at these two locations. White pelican and western grebe(Aechmophorus occidentalis) PCB/DDE ratios were 0.13 and 1.58, respectively, suggesting different exposure patterns. White pelican eggshell thickness increased between 1969 and 1981, but remained significantly less than pre-1947 values. Western grebe shell thickness was not significantly different from pre-1947 values. Endrin caused some of the pelican mortalities in the Klamath Basin from 1975 to 1981. Pelicans may have acquired endrin in California, but possibly from areas outside of the Klamath Basin.

  17. Patterns of larval sucker emigration from the Sprague and lower Williamson Rivers of the Upper Klamath Basin, Oregon, after the removal of Chiloquin Dam - 2009-10 Annual Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellsworth, Craig M.; Martin, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Data presented in this report is a continuation of a research project that began in 2004. Larval drift parameters measured in 2009 and 2010 were similar to those measured from 2004 to 2008. Most larvae and eggs were collected at the two drift sites downstream of the former Chiloquin Dam (river kilometer 0.7 on the Sprague River and river kilometer 7.4 on the Williamson River). Mean and peak sample densities increased with proximity to Upper Klamath Lake. Peak larval densities continued to be collected between 1 and 3 hours after sunset at Chiloquin, which is the drift site nearest a known spawning area. Catch distribution of larvae and eggs in the lower Sprague and Williamson Rivers suggests that most SNS and LRS spawning continues to occur downstream of the site of the former Chiloquin Dam. The sizes and growth stages indicate that larval emigration from spawning areas resulting from drift occurs within a few days after swim-up. Larval suckers appear to move downstream quickly until they reach suitable rearing habitat.

  18. Obsidian hydration rate for the klamath basin of california and Oregon.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L

    1969-09-26

    A hydration rate for obsidian of 3.5(4) microns squared per 1000 radio-carbon years has been established at the Nightfire Island archeological site in northern California and provides a means to date other prehistoric Klamath Basin sites. The new rate follows the form of the hydration equation formulated by Friedman and helps to refute claims made for other hydration equations.

  19. Waterfowl Migration on Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges 1953-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilmer, David S.; Yee, Julie L.; Mauser, David M.; Hainline, James M.

    2004-01-01

    Waterfowl abundance, species composition, and distribution on Klamath Basin refuges have fluctuated over the decades and have been influenced by events such as productivity on breeding grounds and habitat conditions on wintering grounds that cause shifts in migration patterns. A major c

  20. 75 FR 54647 - Revision of Information Collection; Non-Use Valuation Survey, Klamath Basin; Correction and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... potential removal of four dams on the Klamath River owned by PacifiCorp are being conducted as a result of... Secretary of the Interior is to determine by March 31, 2012, whether the potential removal of these dams... potential benefits of dam removal that may accrue to members of the U.S. public who value such...

  1. 75 FR 52964 - Revision of Information Collection; Non-Use Valuation Survey, Klamath Basin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... hydroelectric dams on the Klamath River by 2020. Dam removal is being considered a viable alternative to... governments) to reach a final agreement that would result in the largest dam removal project in U.S. history... expected to make a final determination regarding dam removal, contingent on results of an economic...

  2. Proceedings of the Klamath Basin Science Conference, Medford, Oregon, February 1-5, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorsteinson, Lyman; VanderKooi, Scott; Duffy, Walter

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the proceedings of the Klamath Basin Science Conference (February 2010). A primary purpose of the meeting was to inform and update Klamath Basin stakeholders about areas of scientific progress and accomplishment during the last 5 years. Secondary conference objectives focused on the identification of outstanding information needs and science priorities as they relate to whole watershed management, restoration ecology, and possible reintroduction of Pacific salmon associated with the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement (KBRA). Information presented in plenary, technical, breakout, and poster sessions has been assembled into chapters that reflect the organization, major themes, and content of the conference. Chapter 1 reviews the major environmental issues and resource management and other stakeholder needs of the basin. Importantly, this assessment of information needs included the possibility of large-scale restoration projects in the future and lessons learned from a case study in South Florida. Other chapters (2-6) summarize information about key components of the Klamath Basin, support conceptual modeling of the aquatic ecosystem (Chapter 7), and synthesize our impressions of the most pressing science priorities for management and restoration. A wealth of information was presented at the conference and this has been captured in chapters addressing environmental setting and human development of the basin, hydrology, watershed processes, fishery resources, and potential effects from climate change. The final chapter (8) culminates in a discussion of many specific research priorities that relate to and bookend the broader management needs and restoration goals identified in Chapter 1. In many instances, the conferees emphasized long-term and process-oriented approaches to watershed science in the basin as planning moves forward.

  3. Dissolved oxygen analysis, TMDL model comparison, and particulate matter shunting—Preliminary results from three model scenarios for the Klamath River upstream of Keno Dam, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Deas, Michael L.; Sogutlugil, I. Ertugrul

    2012-01-01

    improvement from nutrient and organic matter reductions was downstream from point and nonpoint source inflows because time and distance are required for decay to occur and for oxygen demand to be exerted. * After assessing compliance with dissolved oxygen standards at all 102 model segments in the Link River to Keno Dam reach, it was determined that the seven locations used by ODEQ appear to be a representative subset of the reach for dissolved oxygen analysis. * The USGS and TMDL models were qualitatively compared by running both models for the 2006–09 period but preserving the essential characteristics of each, such as organic matter partitioning, bathymetric representation, and parameter rates. The analysis revealed that some constituents were not greatly affected by the differing algorithms, rates, and assumptions in the two models. Conversely, other constituents, especially organic matter, were simulated differently by the two models. Organic matter in this river system is best represented by a mixture of relatively labile particulate material and a substantial concentration of refractory dissolved material. In addition, the use of a first-order sediment oxygen demand, as in the USGS model, helps to capture the seasonal and dynamic effect of settled organic and algal material. * Simulation of shunting (diverting) particulate material away from the intake of four Klamath Project diversion canals, so that the material stayed in the river and out of the Project area, caused higher concentrations of particulate material to occur in the river. In all cases modeled, the increase in in-river particulate material also produced decreased dissolved oxygen concentrations and an increase in the number of days when dissolved oxygen standards were violated. * If particulate material were shunted back into the river at the Klamath Project diversion canals, less organic matter and nutrients would be taken into the Klamath Project area and the Lost River basin, resulting in return

  4. Predicting the thermal effects of dam removal on the Klamath River.

    PubMed

    Bartholow, John M; Campbell, Sharon G; Flug, Marshall

    2004-12-01

    The Klamath River once supported large runs of anadromous salmonids. Water temperature associated with multiple mainstem hydropower facilities might be one of many factors responsible for depressing Klamath salmon stocks. We combined a water quantity model and a water quality model to predict how removing the series of dams below Upper Klamath Lake might affect water temperatures, and ultimately fish survival, in the spawning and rearing portions of the mainstem Klamath. We calibrated the water quantity and quality models and applied them for the hydrometeorological conditions during a 40-year postdam period. Then, we hypothetically removed the dams and their impoundments from the models and reestimated the river's water temperatures. The principal thermal effect of dam and reservoir removal would be to restore the timing (phase) of the river's seasonal thermal signature by shifting it approximately 18 days earlier in the year, resulting in river temperatures that more rapidly track ambient air temperatures. Such a shift would likely cool thermal habitat conditions for adult fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) during upstream migration and benefit mainstem spawning. By contrast, spring and early summer temperatures could be warmer without dams, potentially harming chinook rearing and outmigration in the mainstem. Dam removal might affect the river's thermal regime during certain conditions for over 200 km of the mainstem.

  5. Predicting the thermal effects of dam removal on the Klamath River.

    PubMed

    Bartholow, John M; Campbell, Sharon G; Flug, Marshall

    2004-12-01

    The Klamath River once supported large runs of anadromous salmonids. Water temperature associated with multiple mainstem hydropower facilities might be one of many factors responsible for depressing Klamath salmon stocks. We combined a water quantity model and a water quality model to predict how removing the series of dams below Upper Klamath Lake might affect water temperatures, and ultimately fish survival, in the spawning and rearing portions of the mainstem Klamath. We calibrated the water quantity and quality models and applied them for the hydrometeorological conditions during a 40-year postdam period. Then, we hypothetically removed the dams and their impoundments from the models and reestimated the river's water temperatures. The principal thermal effect of dam and reservoir removal would be to restore the timing (phase) of the river's seasonal thermal signature by shifting it approximately 18 days earlier in the year, resulting in river temperatures that more rapidly track ambient air temperatures. Such a shift would likely cool thermal habitat conditions for adult fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) during upstream migration and benefit mainstem spawning. By contrast, spring and early summer temperatures could be warmer without dams, potentially harming chinook rearing and outmigration in the mainstem. Dam removal might affect the river's thermal regime during certain conditions for over 200 km of the mainstem. PMID:15726283

  6. Hydrological information products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.; Risley, John C.; Haynes, Jonathan V.

    2012-01-01

    The Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement (KBRA) was developed by a diverse group of stakeholders, Federal and State resource management agencies, Tribal representatives, and interest groups to provide a comprehensive solution to ecological and water-supply issues in the Klamath Basin. The Off-Project Water Program (OPWP), one component of the KBRA, has as one of its purposes to permanently provide an additional 30,000 acre-feet of water per year on an average annual basis to Upper Klamath Lake through "voluntary retirement of water rights or water uses or other means as agreed to by the Klamath Tribes, to improve fisheries habitat and also provide for stability of irrigation water deliveries." The geographic area where the water rights could be retired encompasses approximately 1,900 square miles. The OPWP area is defined as including the Sprague River drainage, the Sycan River drainage downstream of Sycan Marsh, the Wood River drainage, and the Williamson River drainage from Kirk Reef at the southern end of Klamath Marsh downstream to the confluence with the Sprague River. Extensive, broad, flat, poorly drained uplands, valleys, and wetlands characterize much of the study area. Irrigation is almost entirely used for pasture. To assist parties involved with decisionmaking and implementation of the OPWP, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Klamath Tribes and other stakeholders, created five hydrological information products. These products include GIS digital maps and datasets containing spatial information on evapotranspiration, subirrigation indicators, water rights, subbasin streamflow statistics, and return-flow indicators. The evapotranspiration (ET) datasets were created under contract for this study by Evapotranspiration, Plus, LLC, of Twin Falls, Idaho. A high-resolution remote sensing technique known as Mapping Evapotranspiration at High Resolution and Internalized Calibration (METRIC) was used to create estimates of the spatial

  7. The effects of habitat restoration on endangered fishes in the Upper Klamath Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderkooi, S.; Burdick, S.; Ellsworth, C.

    2009-12-01

    The Klamath Basin has been prominent in the debate over the use of water in the arid west for nearly a decade. Principle competing demands include threatened and endangered species, agriculture, recreation, and Tribal rights. In an effort to recover two endangered fish species, the Lost River sucker and the shortnose sucker, several large-scale restoration projects have recently been undertaken in the basin. These include restoration of 7000 acres of drained wetlands in the Williamson River Delta in 2007 and 2008 and the removal of Chiloquin Dam on the Sprague River in 2008. The objectives of these projects include increasing amounts of usable aquatic habitats, restoring watershed function, improving water quality, and improving access to and connectivity among habitats. The U.S. Geological Survey is involved in a series of collaborative, interdisciplinary research efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of these restoration projects. Effectiveness is being evaluated by physical, biological and ecological metrics. Our focus is on the biology and ecology of endangered suckers. In the Williamson River Delta, we’re collecting data on the distribution, habitat use, relative abundance, and health and condition of early life-history stages of endangered suckers. Results to date indicate larval as well as age-0 and age-1 juvenile suckers are using newly created habitats in the delta. Preliminary results from comparisons of age-0 suckers captured within and outside of the delta suggest those using the restored habitats are in better condition. In the Sprague River, we’re studying the behavior, run timing, and distribution of adult suckers during spawning migrations as well as the relative abundance, species composition, and timing of emigrating larval suckers. Preliminary results indicate adult suckers migrated into the reach previously impounded by Chiloquin Dam in greater numbers than in the past. While these results indicate a positive response to dam removal

  8. Simulated effects of dam removal on water temperatures along the Klamath River, Oregon and California, using 2010 Biological Opinion flow requirements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risley, John C.; Brewer, Scott J.; Perry, Russell W.

    2012-01-01

    Computer model simulations were run to determine the effects of dam removal on water temperatures along the Klamath River, located in south-central Oregon and northern California, using flow requirements defined in the 2010 Biological Opinion of the National Marine Fisheries Service. A one-dimensional, daily averaged water temperature model (River Basin Model-10) developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 10, Seattle, Washington, was used in the analysis. This model had earlier been configured and calibrated for the Klamath River by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of the Interior, Klamath Secretarial Determination to simulate the effects of dam removal on water temperatures for current (2011) and future climate change scenarios. The analysis for this report was performed outside of the scope of the Klamath Secretarial Determination process at the request of the Bureau of Reclamation Technical Services Office, Denver, Colorado.For this analysis, two dam scenarios were simulated: “dams in” and “dams out.” In the “dams in” scenario, existing dams in the Klamath River were kept in place. In the “dams out” scenario, the river was modeled as a natural stream, without the J.C. Boyle, Copco1, Copco2, and Iron Gate Dams, for the entire simulation period. Output from the two dam scenario simulations included daily water temperatures simulated at 29 locations for a 50-year period along the Klamath River between river mile 253 (downstream of Link River Dam) and the Pacific Ocean. Both simulations used identical flow requirements, formulated in the 2010 Biological Opinion, and identical climate conditions based on the period 1961–2009.Simulated water temperatures from January through June at almost all locations between J.C. Boyle Reservoir and the Pacific Ocean were higher for the “dams out” scenario than for the “dams in” scenario. The simulated mean monthly water temperature increase was highest [1.7–2

  9. Application of the Systems Impact Assessment Model (SIAM) to Fishery Resource Issues in the Klamath River, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Sharon G.; Bartholow, John M.; Heasley, John

    2010-01-01

    hydropower production, and inability to re-fill the reservoirs without causing shortages elsewhere in the system. Altering spawning and outmigration timing may be important management objectives for the salmon fishery, but difficult to implement. SIAM predicted benefits that might occur if water temperature was cooler in fall and spring emergence was advanced; however, model simulations were based on purely arbitrary thermal reductions. Spring flow variability did indicate that juvenile fall Chinook rearing habitat was the major biological 'bottleneck' for year class success. Rearing habitat is maximal in a range between 4,500 and 5,500 cfs below Iron Gate Dam. These flow levels are not typically provided by Klamath River system operations, except in very wet years. The incremental spring flow analysis provided insight into when and how long a pulse flow should occur to provide predicted fall Chinook salmon production increases. In general, March 15th - April 30th of any year was the period for pulse flows and 4000 cfs was the target flow release that provided near-optimal juvenile rearing habitat. Again, competition for water resources in the Klamath River Basin may make implementation of pulsed flows difficult.

  10. Geothermal exploration assessment and interpretation, Upper Klamah Lake Area, Klamath Basin, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, M.; Goldstein, N.E.; Wollenberg, H.A.

    1980-09-01

    Data from public and private sources on the Klamath Basin geothermal resource are reviewed, synthesized, and reinterpreted. In this, the second and final phase of the work, geological, remote sensing, geochemical, temperature gradient, gravity, aeromagnetic, and electrical resistivity data sets are examined. These data were derived from surveys concentrated on the east and west shores of Upper Klamath Lake. The geological, remote sensing, and potential field data suggest a few northeast-trending discontinuities, which cross the regional north-westerly strike. The near-surface distribution of warm water appears to be related to the intersections of these lineaments and northwest-trending faults. The groundwater geochemical data are reviewed and the various reservoir temperature estimates compared. Particular attention is given to specific electrical conductivities of waters as an interpretational aid to the subsurface resistivity results. A clear trend emerges in the Klamath Falls/Olene Gap area; hotter waters are associated with higher specific conductivities. In the Nuss Lake/Stukel Mountain area the opposite trend prevails, although the relationship is somewhat equivocal.

  11. River basin administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Management of international rivers and their basins is the focus of the Centre for Comparative Studies on (International) River Basin Administration, recently established at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Water pollution, sludge, and conflicting interests in the use of water in upstream and downstream parts of a river basin will be addressed by studying groundwater and consumption of water in the whole catchment area of a river.Important aspects of river management are administrative and policy aspects. The Centre will focus on policy, law, planning, and organization, including transboundary cooperation, posing standards, integrated environmental planning on regional scale and environmental impact assessments.

  12. Groundwater simulation and management models for the upper Klamath Basin, Oregon and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannett, Marshall W.; Wagner, Brian J.; Lite, Kenneth E.

    2012-01-01

    The upper Klamath Basin encompasses about 8,000 square miles, extending from the Cascade Range east to the Basin and Range geologic province in south-central Oregon and northern California. The geography of the basin is dominated by forested volcanic uplands separated by broad interior basins. Most of the interior basins once held broad shallow lakes and extensive wetlands, but most of these areas have been drained or otherwise modified and are now cultivated. Major parts of the interior basins are managed as wildlife refuges, primarily for migratory waterfowl. The permeable volcanic bedrock of the upper Klamath Basin hosts a substantial regional groundwater system that provides much of the flow to major streams and lakes that, in turn, provide water for wildlife habitat and are the principal source of irrigation water for the basin's agricultural economy. Increased allocation of surface water for endangered species in the past decade has resulted in increased groundwater pumping and growing interest in the use of groundwater for irrigation. The potential effects of increased groundwater pumping on groundwater levels and discharge to springs and streams has caused concern among groundwater users, wildlife and Tribal interests, and State and Federal resource managers. To provide information on the potential impacts of increased groundwater development and to aid in the development of a groundwater management strategy, the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the Oregon Water Resources Department and the Bureau of Reclamation, has developed a groundwater model that can simulate the response of the hydrologic system to these new stresses. The groundwater model was developed using the U.S. Geological Survey MODFLOW finite-difference modeling code and calibrated using inverse methods to transient conditions from 1989 through 2004 with quarterly stress periods. Groundwater recharge and agricultural and municipal pumping are specified for each stress period. All

  13. Application of a computer simulation model to migrating white-fronted geese in the Klamath Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederick, R.B.; Clark, W.R.; Takekawa, J.Y.; McCullough, D.R.; Barrett, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Pacific greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) population has declined precipitously over the past 20 years. Loss of wetland habitat in California wintering areas has had a significant effect on the population, so recovery of the population may depend on innovative management of the few remaining wetlands. A computer simulation model, REFMOD, was applied to greater white-fronted geese in the Klamath Basin, northern California, to investigate the importance of food availability and hunting disturbance to migrating and wintering populations. Time spent flying and feeding was simulated during fall and early winter, and the resulting energy expenditure was compared with energy consumed to calculate an overall energy balance. This energy balance and the ease with which waterfowl acquired needed food affected emigration rate, and thus, the waterfowl population level was directly tied to availability and distribution of food. The model validly described distances moved by geese from their Tule Lake Refuge roosting site (core) to feeding sites within the surrounding Klamath Basin arena, and exhibited a capability to simulate observed time spent feeding. Based on 25 stochastic simulations, greater white-fronted goose population dynamics were validly simulated over the fall and early-winter (P>0.8). When food was removed from the Tule Lake Refuge, simulated geese had to fly farther (P0.05). The elimination did cause an increase in the distance traveled to feed (P0.05) on the distance traveled to feed or on goose numbers. A 10-fold increase in disturbance hastened emigration and reduced population levels (P<0.0001) during the season by about 30%; a 100-fold increase in disturbance reduced population levels (P<0.0001) by 85%. When goose immigration was increased to simulate an average peak population of approximately 500 000 geese, population levels remained high throughout the fall, indicating the Klamath Basin can sustain a population much larger than currently

  14. Invertebrate assemblages in the lower Klamath River, with reference to Manayunkia speciosa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malakauskas, David M.; Wilzbach, Margaret A.

    2012-01-01

    The freshwater polychaete, Manayunkia speciosa Leidy (Canalipalpata Sabellidae), is the intermediate host for two myxozoan pathogens (Ceratomyxa shasta and Parvicapsula minibicornis) that cause substantial mortalities of juvenile salmon in the Pacific Northwest, particularly in the Klamath River below Iron Gate Dam in California. Information on the distribution of M. speciosa in the Klamath River may facilitate targeted control of polychaete populations to disrupt the parasites that affect fish populations. We sampled invertebrate assemblages in the lower Klamath River in the summer and fall of 2005 and 2006 to estimate distribution patterns of M. speciosa and to characterize assemblage structure of invertebrates in reaches where the polychaete was both collected and not collected. The polychaete was most often found in a reach of river extending 100 km downstream from the Shasta River (river km 185-287). The reach in which it was found supported high taxonomic richness of invertebrates and a high abundance of filtering collectors including marine relicts such as sponges, unioinid mussels, and bryozoans. We suggest that the large, stable substrate on which these were found represents primary, optimal habitat for the polychaete, also a marine relict. Reaches above and below the zone where we collected polychaetes showed a general trend of reduced taxonomic richness as distance away from the polychaete zone increased, and also showed differing relative abundances of non-insect taxa and functional feeding groups. Differences in invertebrate assemblages between years were coincident with large differences in water flows. We suggest flows and food resources may play important roles in invertebrate distribution patterns.

  15. Modeling hydrodynamics, water temperature, and water quality in the Klamath River upstream of Keno Dam, Oregon, 2006-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Deas, Michael L.; Asbill, Jessica R.; Wellman, Roy E.; Stewart, Marc A.; Johnston, Matthew W.; Sogutlugil, I. Ertugrul

    2011-01-01

    A hydrodynamic, water temperature, and water-quality model was constructed for a 20-mile reach of the Klamath River downstream of Upper Klamath Lake, from Link River to Keno Dam, for calendar years 2006-09. The two-dimensional, laterally averaged model CE-QUAL-W2 was used to simulate water velocity, ice cover, water temperature, specific conductance, dissolved and suspended solids, dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen, ammonia, nitrate, total phosphorus, orthophosphate, dissolved and particulate organic matter, and three algal groups. The Link-Keno model successfully simulated the most important spatial and temporal patterns in the measured data for this 4-year time period. The model calibration process provided critical insights into water-quality processes and the nature of those inputs and processes that drive water quality in this reach. The model was used not only to reproduce and better understand water-quality conditions that occurred in 2006-09, but also to test several load-reduction scenarios that have implications for future water-resources management in the river basin. The model construction and calibration process provided results concerning water quality and transport in the Link-Keno reach of the Klamath River, ranging from interesting circulation patterns in the Lake Ewauna area to the nature and importance of organic matter and algae. These insights and results include: * Modeled segment-average water velocities ranged from near 0.0 to 3.0 ft/s in 2006 through 2009. Travel time through the model reach was about 4 days at 2,000 ft3/s and 12 days at 700 ft3/s flow. Flow direction was aligned with the upstream-downstream channel axis for most of the Link-Keno reach, except for Lake Ewauna. Wind effects were pronounced at Lake Ewauna during low-flow conditions, often with circulation in the form of a gyre that rotated in a clockwise direction when winds were towards the southeast and in a counterclockwise direction when winds were towards the northwest

  16. Georectification of historical aerial photos to track meander change in Wood River, Klamath County, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, C.; Hughes, M. L.

    2010-12-01

    The Wood River in Oregon’s Upper Klamath Basin is a meandering channel draining the southeastern slopes of Crater Lake National Park. Its valley floor is heavily grazed and highly altered by a series of irrigation channels that have substantially affected the river’s spring-fed flow regime and morphology. Despite efforts to restore the river’s hydrology, very little information is available about the river’s geomorphology. Using high-resolution LIDAR data from 2004 and georectified aerial photos from 1940-2009, we analyzed meander changes along the Wood River in the geomorphic context of its valley floor and meander belt. Aerial photos were scanned to produce digital images with sub-meter pixels, then georectified with a second-order polynomial transformation. Nine or fewer ground-control points were used for each photo to achieve an overall root-mean-square error value of 0.6 - 0.7 m. The scarcity of buildings and changes in the road and fence networks over the study period required the partial use of “natural pattern matching” during photo rectification. Semi-permanent patterns of fan erosion on the upper valley floor and hydrogeomorphic wetland patterns in lower valley provided the primary bases for natural pattern matching, further aided by the use of transparency during photo overlaying. Six prototypes of meander change were identified: extension, compression, translation, rotation, compound heading, and cutoff. Of these types, extension of meanders was the most frequently occurring. However, the effects of extension were counteracted by numerous meander cutoffs, which nominally affected sinuosity, but actually shortened the channel by about 1 km, or about 3%. Cutoffs were most frequent in the upper reaches of the river, where valley slope is higher, the meander belt is wider, and accommodation space was adequate to promote relatively high initial sinuosity. In these reaches, some cutoffs appear to have initiated downstream transfers of bedload

  17. Dispersal of larval suckers at the Williamson River Delta, Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2006-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Tamara M.; Hendrixson, Heather A.; Markle, Douglas F.; Erdman, Charles S.; Burdick, Summer M.; Ellsworth, Craig M.; Buccola, Norman L.

    2012-01-01

    An advection/diffusion modeling approach was used to simulate the transport of larval suckers from spawning areas in the Williamson River, through the newly restored Williamson River Delta, to Upper Klamath Lake. The density simulations spanned the years of phased restoration, from 2006/2007 prior to any levee breaching, to 2008 when the northern part of the delta was reconnected to the lake, and 2009 when levees on both sides of the delta had been breached. Model simulation results from all four years were compared to field data using rank correlation. Spearman ρ correlation coefficients were usually significant and in the range 0.30 to 0.60, providing moderately strong validation of the model. The correlation coefficients varied with fish size class in a way that suggested that the model best described the distribution of smaller fish near the Williamson River channel, and larger fish away from the channel. When Lost River and shortnose/Klamath largescale suckers were simulated independently, the correlation results suggested that the model better described the transport and dispersal of the latter species. The incorporation of night-time-only drift behavior in the Williamson River channel neither improved nor degraded correlations with field data. The model showed that advection by currents is an important factor in larval dispersal.

  18. 76 FR 9046 - Non-Use Valuation Survey, Klamath Basin; Thirty-Day Notice Requesting Additional Public Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... removal of four dams on the Klamath River owned by PacifiCorp are being conducted as a result of the... of the Interior is to determine by March 31, 2012, whether the potential removal of these dams will... benefits of dam removal that may accrue to members of the U.S. public who value such...

  19. An assessment of flow data from Klamath River sites between Link River Dam and Keno Dam, south-central Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risley, John C.; Hess, Glen W.; Fisher, Bruce J.

    2006-01-01

    Records of diversion and return flows for water years 1961?2004 along a reach of the Klamath River between Link River and Keno Dams in south-central Oregon were evaluated to determine the cause of a water-balance inconsistency in the hydrologic data. The data indicated that the reach was losing flow in the 1960s and 1970s and gaining flow in the 1980s and 1990s. The absolute mean annual net water-balance difference in flows between the first and second half of the 44-year period (1961-2004) was approximately 103,000 acre-feet per year (acre-ft/yr). The quality of the diversion and return-flow records used in the water balance was evaluated using U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) criteria for accuracy. With the exception of the USGS Klamath River at Keno record, which was rated as 'good' or 'excellent,' the eight other flow records, all from non-USGS flow-measurement sites, were rated as 'poor' by USGS standards due to insufficient data-collection documentation and a lack of direct discharge measurements to verify the rating curves. The record for the Link River site, the most upstream in the study area, included both river and westside power canal flows. Because of rating curve biases, the river flows might have been overestimated by 25,000 acre-ft/yr on average from water years 1961 to 1982 and underestimated by 7,000 acre-ft/yr on average from water years 1983 to 2004. For water years 1984-2004, westside power canal flows might have been underestimated by 11,000 acre-ft/yr. Some diversion and return flows (for mostly agricultural, industrial, and urban use) along the Klamath River study reach, not measured continuously and not included in the water-balance equation, also were evaluated. However, the sum of these diversion and return flows was insufficient to explain the water-balance inconsistency. The possibility that ground-water levels in lands adjacent to the river rose during water years 1961-2004 and caused an increase in ground-water discharge to the river

  20. Channel Maintenance and Flushing Flows for the Klamath River Below Iron Gate Dam, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmquist-Johnson, Cristopher L.; Milhous, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    The Klamath River is a major river in northern California and southern Oregon. Iron Gate Dam divides the river into the two subunits where there is a significant change in utilization of the river. Downstream of Iron Gate Dam, the river is very important for the propagation of salmon. To address concerns relating to substrate conditions in the mainstem Klamath River below Iron Gate Dam, the Arcata, California, office of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service contracted with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to determine flushing flows required to improve and maintain quality spawning and rearing habitats for salmon, and to reduce the abundance of preferred habitats of the polychaete worm suspected of being the intermediate host for Ceratomyxa shasta, a species of bacteria that infects fish. Historically, the river has had the capacity to move sediment just below Iron Gate Reservoir, but there have been periods when the capacity was very low. The results indicate that if the future is more like the pre-1961 period (low transport capacity) than the more recent period, there will be significant sediment issues in the Klamath River below Iron Gate Dam. It seems that during normal or wet years, winter months, and periods of high flow, sediments are flushed either downstream or deposited on higher surfaces. The recent drought conditions during 2000-2005 probably resulted in extensive fine-grained sedimentation along the river, which in turn may have caused increased establishment of aquatic vegetation and increased concentrations of C. shasta. It appears that releases from Iron Gate Dam as far downstream as Seiad Valley are important in maintaining flow conditions to flush the fines and clean the gravels in the river during summer months, or during drought years. Sediment transport studies indicate that supplemental flows during dry or drought conditions may provide some flushing flows in reaches downstream of the dam. For purposes of flushing fine sediments during drought

  1. Algal Toxins in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon: Linking Water Quality to Juvenile Sucker Health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanderKooi, S.P.; Burdick, S.M.; Echols, K.R.; Ottinger, C.A.; Rosen, B.H.; Wood, T.M.

    2010-01-01

    As the lead science agency for the Department of Interior, the U.S. Geological Survey is actively involved in resource issues in the Klamath River basin. Activities include research projects on endangered Lost River and shortnose suckers, threatened coho salmon, groundwater resources, seasonal runoff forecasting, water quality in Upper Klamath Lake and the Klamath River, nutrient cycling in wetlands, and assessment of land idling programs to reduce water consumption. Many of these studies are collaborations with various partners including Department of Interior agencies, Indian Tribes, and State agencies.

  2. Groundwater simulation and management models for the upper Klamath Basin, Oregon and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannett, Marshall W.; Wagner, Brian J.; Lite, Kenneth E.

    2012-01-01

    The upper Klamath Basin encompasses about 8,000 square miles, extending from the Cascade Range east to the Basin and Range geologic province in south-central Oregon and northern California. The geography of the basin is dominated by forested volcanic uplands separated by broad interior basins. Most of the interior basins once held broad shallow lakes and extensive wetlands, but most of these areas have been drained or otherwise modified and are now cultivated. Major parts of the interior basins are managed as wildlife refuges, primarily for migratory waterfowl. The permeable volcanic bedrock of the upper Klamath Basin hosts a substantial regional groundwater system that provides much of the flow to major streams and lakes that, in turn, provide water for wildlife habitat and are the principal source of irrigation water for the basin's agricultural economy. Increased allocation of surface water for endangered species in the past decade has resulted in increased groundwater pumping and growing interest in the use of groundwater for irrigation. The potential effects of increased groundwater pumping on groundwater levels and discharge to springs and streams has caused concern among groundwater users, wildlife and Tribal interests, and State and Federal resource managers. To provide information on the potential impacts of increased groundwater development and to aid in the development of a groundwater management strategy, the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the Oregon Water Resources Department and the Bureau of Reclamation, has developed a groundwater model that can simulate the response of the hydrologic system to these new stresses. The groundwater model was developed using the U.S. Geological Survey MODFLOW finite-difference modeling code and calibrated using inverse methods to transient conditions from 1989 through 2004 with quarterly stress periods. Groundwater recharge and agricultural and municipal pumping are specified for each stress period. All

  3. River basin management

    SciTech Connect

    Newsome, D.H.; Edwards, A.M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The quality of water is of paramount importance in the management of water resources - including marine waters. A quantitative knowledge of water quality and the factors governing it is required to formulate and implement strategies requiring an inter-disciplinary approach. The overall purpose of this conference was to bring together the latest work on water quality aspects of river basin management. These proceedings are structured on the basis of five themes: problems in international river basins; the contribution of river systems to estuarial and marine pollution; the setting of standards; monitoring; and practical water quality management including use of mathematical models. They are followed by papers from the workshop on advances in the application of mathematical modelling to water quality management, which represent some of the current thinking on the problems and concepts of river basin management.

  4. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for April 7, 2004: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  5. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for June 24, 2006: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-7 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-7 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-7 on April 15, 1999 marks the addition of the latest satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-7 satellite carries the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor. A mechanical failure of the ETM+ Scan Line Corrector (SLC) occurred on May 31, 2003, with the result that all Landsat 7 scenes acquired from July 14, 2003 to present have been collected in 'SLC-off' mode. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  6. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for July 10, 2006: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-7 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-7 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-7 on April 15, 1999 marks the addition of the latest satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-7 satellite carries the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor. A mechanical failure of the ETM+ Scan Line Corrector (SLC) occurred on May 31, 2003, with the result that all Landsat 7 scenes acquired from July 14, 2003 to present have been collected in 'SLC-off' mode. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  7. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for July 11, 2004: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-7 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-7 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-7 on April 15, 1999 marks the addition of the latest satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-7 satellite carries the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor. A mechanical failure of the ETM+ Scan Line Corrector (SLC) occurred on May 31, 2003, with the result that all Landsat 7 scenes acquired from July 14, 2003 to present have been collected in 'SLC-off' mode. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  8. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for April 28, 2006: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-7 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-7 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-7 on April 15, 1999 marks the addition of the latest satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-7 satellite carries the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor. A mechanical failure of the ETM+ Scan Line Corrector (SLC) occurred on May 31, 2003, with the result that all Landsat 7 scenes acquired from July 14, 2003 to present have been collected in 'SLC-off' mode. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  9. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for May 30, 2006: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-7 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-7 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-7 on April 15, 1999 marks the addition of the latest satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-7 satellite carries the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor. A mechanical failure of the ETM+ Scan Line Corrector (SLC) occurred on May 31, 2003, with the result that all Landsat 7 scenes acquired from July 14, 2003 to present have been collected in 'SLC-off' mode. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  10. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for August 4, 2004: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  11. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for August 19, 2006: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  12. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for July 28, 2004: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  13. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for September 27, 2006: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  14. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for July 18, 2006: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  15. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for May 6, 2006: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  16. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for July 9, 2006: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  17. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for November 8, 2004: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  18. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for September 30, 2004: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  19. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for July 12, 2004: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  20. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for October 7, 2004: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  1. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for August 19, 2006: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  2. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for October 29, 2006: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  3. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for August 29, 2004: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  4. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for October 22, 2006: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  5. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for June 23, 2006: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  6. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for July 25, 2006: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  7. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for September 21, 2004: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  8. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for September 20, 2006: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  9. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for October 16, 2004: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  10. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for June 16, 2006: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  11. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for April 30, 2004: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  12. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for May 25, 2004: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  13. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for June 1, 2004: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  14. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for April 29, 2006: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  15. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for June 17, 2004: Path 45 Rows 30 and 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This image is a mosaic of Landsat-5 images of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  16. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for June 26, 2004: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  17. Upper Klamath Basin Landsat Image for July 2, 2006: Path 44 Row 31

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This subset of a Landsat-5 image shows part of the upper Klamath Basin. The original images were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center (EROS). EROS is responsible for archive management and distribution of Landsat data products. The Landsat-5 satellite is part of an ongoing mission to provide quality remote sensing data in support of research and applications activities. The launch of Landsat-5 on March 1, 1984 marks the addition of the fifth satellite to the Landsat series. The Landsat-5 satellite carries the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor. More information on the Landsat program can be found online at http://landsat.usgs.gov/.

  18. A selected bibliography of water-related research in the upper Klamath Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownell, Dorie L.; Rinallo, Mia R.

    1995-01-01

    A bibliography containing 165 selected references was compiled to assist local, State, and Federal agencies that have ongoing water-related research interests in the Upper Klamath Basin. The report has two parts. Part 1 is a list of bibliographic citations alphabetized by author, and Part 2 is a subject index that references bibliographic entries. Categories of the subject index include chemistry, ecology, geology, hydrology, land use, and water management related reports. Maps, reports, proposals, theses, dissertations, and journal articles are referenced. Some of the environmental issues addressed by references in the bibliography are hypereutrophication, nuisance algal blooms, endangered fish species, water allocation questions, wetland and riparian habitat restoration, and pesticide and fertilizer utilization.

  19. Delaware River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, Jeffrey M.

    1999-01-01

    Assessing the quality of water in every location of the Nation would not be practical. Therefore, NAWQA investigations are conducted within 59 selected areas called study units (fig. 1). These study units encompass important river and aquifer systems in the United States and represent the diverse geographic, waterresource, land-use, and water-use characteristics of the Nation. The Delaware River Basin is one of 15 study units in which work began in 1996. Water-quality sampling in the study unit will begin in 1999. This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the NAWQA program, describes the Delaware River Basin study unit, identifies the major water-quality issues in the basin, and documents the plan of study that will be followed during the study-unit investigation.

  20. Potential Factors Affecting Survival Differ by Run-Timing and Location: Linear Mixed-Effects Models of Pacific Salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the Klamath River, California

    PubMed Central

    Quiñones, Rebecca M.; Holyoak, Marcel; Johnson, Michael L.; Moyle, Peter B.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding factors influencing survival of Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) is essential to species conservation, because drivers of mortality can vary over multiple spatial and temporal scales. Although recent studies have evaluated the effects of climate, habitat quality, or resource management (e.g., hatchery operations) on salmonid recruitment and survival, a failure to look at multiple factors simultaneously leaves open questions about the relative importance of different factors. We analyzed the relationship between ten factors and survival (1980–2007) of four populations of salmonids with distinct life histories from two adjacent watersheds (Salmon and Scott rivers) in the Klamath River basin, California. The factors were ocean abundance, ocean harvest, hatchery releases, hatchery returns, Pacific Decadal Oscillation, North Pacific Gyre Oscillation, El Niño Southern Oscillation, snow depth, flow, and watershed disturbance. Permutation tests and linear mixed-effects models tested effects of factors on survival of each taxon. Potential factors affecting survival differed among taxa and between locations. Fall Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha survival trends appeared to be driven partially or entirely by hatchery practices. Trends in three taxa (Salmon River spring Chinook salmon, Scott River fall Chinook salmon; Salmon River summer steelhead trout O. mykiss) were also likely driven by factors subject to climatic forcing (ocean abundance, summer flow). Our findings underscore the importance of multiple factors in simultaneously driving population trends in widespread species such as anadromous salmonids. They also show that the suite of factors may differ among different taxa in the same location as well as among populations of the same taxa in different watersheds. In the Klamath basin, hatchery practices need to be reevaluated to protect wild salmonids. PMID:24866173

  1. Potential factors affecting survival differ by run-timing and location: linear mixed-effects models of Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the Klamath River, California.

    PubMed

    Quiñones, Rebecca M; Holyoak, Marcel; Johnson, Michael L; Moyle, Peter B

    2014-01-01

    Understanding factors influencing survival of Pacific salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) is essential to species conservation, because drivers of mortality can vary over multiple spatial and temporal scales. Although recent studies have evaluated the effects of climate, habitat quality, or resource management (e.g., hatchery operations) on salmonid recruitment and survival, a failure to look at multiple factors simultaneously leaves open questions about the relative importance of different factors. We analyzed the relationship between ten factors and survival (1980-2007) of four populations of salmonids with distinct life histories from two adjacent watersheds (Salmon and Scott rivers) in the Klamath River basin, California. The factors were ocean abundance, ocean harvest, hatchery releases, hatchery returns, Pacific Decadal Oscillation, North Pacific Gyre Oscillation, El Niño Southern Oscillation, snow depth, flow, and watershed disturbance. Permutation tests and linear mixed-effects models tested effects of factors on survival of each taxon. Potential factors affecting survival differed among taxa and between locations. Fall Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha survival trends appeared to be driven partially or entirely by hatchery practices. Trends in three taxa (Salmon River spring Chinook salmon, Scott River fall Chinook salmon; Salmon River summer steelhead trout O. mykiss) were also likely driven by factors subject to climatic forcing (ocean abundance, summer flow). Our findings underscore the importance of multiple factors in simultaneously driving population trends in widespread species such as anadromous salmonids. They also show that the suite of factors may differ among different taxa in the same location as well as among populations of the same taxa in different watersheds. In the Klamath basin, hatchery practices need to be reevaluated to protect wild salmonids. PMID:24866173

  2. Declining ring-necked pheasants in the Klamath Basin, California: II. Survival, productivity, and cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grove, Robert A.; Buhler, D.R.; Henny, Charles J.; Drew, A.D.

    2001-01-01

    Cover condition and its influence on nesting success, survival, and body condition of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) were evaluated at Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge (TLNWR) and Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuge (LKNWR). Inadequate nesting cover was responsible for extremely low nest success early in the nesting season at TLNWR. Later in the season at TLNWR, spring-planted crops provided cover to conceal nesting and renesting hens; however, only 0.07 young were produced (to 1 August) per hen during the study. The extremely low reproductive rates were well below those required to maintain a stable population. At TLNWR, most adult mortality during spring and early summer (before crops provided adequate cover) apparently resulted from predation by golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). This mortality occurred weeks before insecticide applications. Hard winters (cold temperatures and heavy snowfall) periodically reduce the pheasant population in the Klamath Basin and again greatly reduced numbers during the last year of this study. Unfortunately, pheasant populations declined under the conditions found during this study and were unable to recover from the hard winter of 1992 to 1993. Mean body mass and tarsal length of adult hen pheasants at TLNWR, which is intensively farmed, were less than those for hens at LKNWR, which is not intensively farmed. Results of our study suggest that TLNWR hens may have been nutritionally stressed, and that the amount and distribution of vegetative cover needs to be improved at TLNWR. Habitat management of edge cover along agricultural crops should feature perennial grasses and legumes with small tracts of land interspersed throughout the agricultural fields to provide alternative cover for wildlife in general including pheasants.

  3. Klamath River Water Quality Data from Link River Dam to Keno Dam, Oregon, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Deas, Michael L.; Asbill, Jessica; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Butler, Kenna; Vaughn, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This report documents sampling and analytical methods and presents field data from a second year of an ongoing study on the Klamath River from Link River Dam to Keno Dam in south central Oregon; this dataset will form the basis of a hydrodynamic and water quality model. Water quality was sampled weekly at six mainstem and two tributary sites from early April through early November, 2008. Constituents reported herein include field-measured water-column parameters (water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration, specific conductance); total nitrogen and phosphorus; particulate carbon and nitrogen; total iron; filtered orthophosphate, nitrite, nitrite plus nitrate, ammonia, organic carbon, and iron; specific UV absorbance at 254 nanometers; chlorophyll a; phytoplankton and zooplankton enumeration and species identification; and bacterial abundance and morphological subgroups. Sampling program results indicated: *Most nutrient and carbon concentrations were lowest in spring, increased starting in mid-June, remained elevated in the summer, and decreased in fall. Dissolved nitrite plus nitrate had a different seasonal cycle and was below detection or at low concentration in summer. *Although total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations did not show large differences from upstream to downstream, filtered ammonia and orthophosphate concentrations increased in the downstream direction and particulate carbon and particulate nitrogen generally decreased in the downstream direction. *Large bacterial cells made up most of the bacteria biovolume, though cocci were the most numerous bacteria type. Cocci, with diameters of 0.1 to 0.2 micrometers, were smaller than the filter pore sizes used to separate dissolved from particulate matter. *Phytoplankton biovolumes were dominated by diatoms in spring and by the blue-green alga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae after mid-June. Another blue-green, Anabaena flos-aquae, was noted in samples from late May to late June. Phytoplankton

  4. Trinity river basin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulery, Randy L.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Crossfield, Allison S.

    1993-01-01

    In 1991 the Trinity River Basin National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) will include assessments of surface-water and ground-water quality. Initial efforts have focused on identifying water-quality issues in the basin and on the environmental factors underlying those issues. Physical characteristics described include climate, geology, soils, vegetation, physiography, and hydrology. Cultural characteristics discussed include population distribution, land use and land cover, agricultural practices, water use, an reservoir operations. Major water-quality categories are identified and some of the implications of the environmental factors for water quality are presented.

  5. Taunton River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John R.; Willey, Richard E.

    1970-01-01

    This report presents in tabular form selected records of wells, test wells, and borings collected during a study of the basin from 1966 to 1968 in cooperation with the Massachusetts Water Resources Commission, and during earlier studies. This report is released in order to make available to the public and to local, state, and federal agencies basic ground-water information that may aid in planning water-resources development. Basic records contained in this report will complement an interpretative report on the Taunton River basin to be released at a later date.

  6. 8. Historic photo taken during construction of the Lost River ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic photo taken during construction of the Lost River Diversion Dam and House. Labeled as follows, 'View showing walk construction North side. Group in foreground, left to right: - J.M. McLean, I.S. Voorhees, Asst Eng'r, A.B. Clevland, engineer... W.W. Patch, Project Engineer.' Negative # 95. Facing east. - Klamath Basin Project, Lost River Diversion Dam House, Lost River near intersection of State Highway 140 & Hill Road, Klamath Falls, Klamath County, OR

  7. Flightless and post-molt survival and movements of female mallards molting in Klamath Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Mauser, David M.; Yee, Julie L.; Blehert, David S.; Yarris, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    Flightless and post-molt survival and movements were studied during August-May, 2001-2002, 2002- 2003 and 2006-2007 for 181 adult female Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Birds were radiotagged just before or early in their flightless period on four wetlands that differed in size on Klamath Basin (KB) National Wildlife Refuge complex. Flightless survival varied among years but was higher on two larger than two smaller wetlands; 30-day survival ranged from 11% (SE = 6.5%) on a small wetland in 2006 to 93% (SE = 6.5%) on a large wetland in 2001, and averaged 76.8% (SE = 6.1%). Most flightless mortality was from avian botulism (64%) and predation (26%). Of the 81 radiotagged Mallards that did not die in KB, 80% moved to the Central Valley of California (CVCA) before 31 January, 16% wintered in unknown areas, and 4% remained in KB through 31 January. Mallards departed KB 21 August-13 January (average: 11 Nov 2001, 25 Oct 2002, 19 Nov 2006). Post-molt survival during August-March in KB (20.7%, SE = 6.3%) was lower than in CVCA during this (62.9%, SE = 10.1%) and an earlier study. Survival in KB was consistently high only for females that molted in large permanent marshes, and although the impact of poor survival of molting females on Mallard population dynamics is unknown, KB water management plans should be developed that maintain these habitats.

  8. Review of revised Klamath River Total Maximum Daily Load models from Link River Dam to Keno Dam, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rounds, Stewart A.; Sullivan, Annett B.

    2013-01-01

    Flow and water-quality models are being used to support the development of Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) plans for the Klamath River downstream of Upper Klamath Lake (UKL) in south-central Oregon. For riverine reaches, the RMA-2 and RMA-11 models were used, whereas the CE-QUAL-W2 model was used to simulate pooled reaches. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was asked to review the most upstream of these models, from Link River Dam at the outlet of UKL downstream through the first pooled reach of the Klamath River from Lake Ewauna to Keno Dam. Previous versions of these models were reviewed in 2009 by USGS. Since that time, important revisions were made to correct several problems and address other issues. This review documents an assessment of the revised models, with emphasis on the model revisions and any remaining issues. The primary focus of this review is the 19.7-mile Lake Ewauna to Keno Dam reach of the Klamath River that was simulated with the CE-QUAL-W2 model. Water spends far more time in the Lake Ewauna to Keno Dam reach than in the 1-mile Link River reach that connects UKL to the Klamath River, and most of the critical reactions affecting water quality upstream of Keno Dam occur in that pooled reach. This model review includes assessments of years 2000 and 2002 current conditions scenarios, which were used to calibrate the model, as well as a natural conditions scenario that was used as the reference condition for the TMDL and was based on the 2000 flow conditions. The natural conditions scenario included the removal of Keno Dam, restoration of the Keno reef (a shallow spot that was removed when the dam was built), removal of all point-source inputs, and derivation of upstream boundary water-quality inputs from a previously developed UKL TMDL model. This review examined the details of the models, including model algorithms, parameter values, and boundary conditions; the review did not assess the draft Klamath River TMDL or the TMDL allocations

  9. The persistence and characteristics of Chinook salmon migrations to the Upper Klamath River prior to exclusion by dams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, John B; Rondorf, Dennis W.; Tinniswood, William; Leary, Ryan J; Mayer, Tim; Gavette, Charleen; Casal, Lynne A.

    2016-01-01

    In this research article, John Hamilton and his co-authors present extensive new research and information gathered since a 2005 publication on the historical evidence of anadromomous fish distribution in the Upper Klamath River watershed. Using historical accounts from early explorers and ethnographers to early-twentieth-century photographs, newspaper accounts, and government reports, the authors provide a more complete record of past salmon migrations. The updated record “substantiate[s] the historical persistence of salmon, their migration characteristics, and the broad population baseline that will be key to future commercial, recreational, and Tribal fisheries in the Klamath River and beyond.” During a time when salmon restoration plans are being considered in the region, the historical record can serve as guidance to once again establish diverse and thriving populations.

  10. Review of revised Klamath River Total Maximum Daily Load models from Link River Dam to Keno Dam, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rounds, Stewart A.; Sullivan, Annett B.

    2013-01-01

    Flow and water-quality models are being used to support the development of Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) plans for the Klamath River downstream of Upper Klamath Lake (UKL) in south-central Oregon. For riverine reaches, the RMA-2 and RMA-11 models were used, whereas the CE-QUAL-W2 model was used to simulate pooled reaches. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was asked to review the most upstream of these models, from Link River Dam at the outlet of UKL downstream through the first pooled reach of the Klamath River from Lake Ewauna to Keno Dam. Previous versions of these models were reviewed in 2009 by USGS. Since that time, important revisions were made to correct several problems and address other issues. This review documents an assessment of the revised models, with emphasis on the model revisions and any remaining issues. The primary focus of this review is the 19.7-mile Lake Ewauna to Keno Dam reach of the Klamath River that was simulated with the CE-QUAL-W2 model. Water spends far more time in the Lake Ewauna to Keno Dam reach than in the 1-mile Link River reach that connects UKL to the Klamath River, and most of the critical reactions affecting water quality upstream of Keno Dam occur in that pooled reach. This model review includes assessments of years 2000 and 2002 current conditions scenarios, which were used to calibrate the model, as well as a natural conditions scenario that was used as the reference condition for the TMDL and was based on the 2000 flow conditions. The natural conditions scenario included the removal of Keno Dam, restoration of the Keno reef (a shallow spot that was removed when the dam was built), removal of all point-source inputs, and derivation of upstream boundary water-quality inputs from a previously developed UKL TMDL model. This review examined the details of the models, including model algorithms, parameter values, and boundary conditions; the review did not assess the draft Klamath River TMDL or the TMDL allocations

  11. Impact of seasonality and anthropogenic impoundments on dissolved organic matter dynamics in the Klamath River (Oregon/California, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Allison A.; Spencer, Robert G. M.; Deas, Michael L.; Dahlgren, Randy A.

    2016-07-01

    Rivers play a major role in the transport and processing of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Disturbances that impact DOM dynamics, such as river impoundments and flow regulation, have consequences for biogeochemical cycling and aquatic ecosystems. In this study we examined how river impoundments and hydrologic regulation impact DOM quantity and quality by tracking spatial and seasonal patterns of DOM in a large, regulated river (Klamath River, USA). Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations decreased downstream and longitudinal patterns in DOC load varied by season. Export of DOM (as DOC) was largely driven by river flow, while DOM composition was strongly influenced by impoundments. Seasonal algal blooms in upstream lentic reaches provided a steady source of algal DOM that was processed in downstream reaches. DOM at upstream sites had an average spectral slope ratio (SR) > 1, indicating algal-derived material, but decreased downstream to an average SR < 1, more indicative of terrestrial-derived material. The increasingly terrestrial nature of DOM exported from reservoirs likely reflects degraded algal material that becomes increasingly more recalcitrant with distance from upstream source and additional processing. As a result, DOM delivered to free-flowing river reaches below impoundments was less variable in composition. Downstream of impoundments, tributary influences resulted in increasing contributions of terrestrial DOM from the surrounding watershed. Removal of the four lower dams on the Klamath River is scheduled to proceed in the next decade. These results suggest that management should consider the role of impoundments on altering DOM dynamics, particularly in the context of dam removal.

  12. Detailed study of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Klamath Basin, California and Oregon, 1990-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dileanis, P.D.; Schwarzbach, S.E.; Bennett, Jewel

    1996-01-01

    The effect of irrigation drainage on the water quality and wildlife of the Klamath Basin in California and Oregon was evaluated during 1990-92 as part of the National Irrigation Water Quality Program of the U.S. Department of the Interior. The study focused on land serviced by the Bureau of Reclamation Klamath Project, which supplies irrigation water to agricultural land in the Klamath Basin and the Lost River Basin. The Tule Lake and Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuges, managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, are in the study area. These refuges provide critical resting and breeding habitat for waterfowl on the Pacific flyway and are dependent on irrigation drainwater from upstream agriculture for most of their water supply. Water-quality characteristics throughout the study area were typical of highly eutrophic systems during the summer months of 1991 and 1992. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations and pH tended to fluctuate each day in response to diurnal patterns of photosynthesis, and frequently exceeded criteria for protection of aquatic organisms. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were generally at or above threshold levels characteristic of eutrophic lakes and streams. At most sites the bulk of dissolved nitrogen was organically bound. Elevated ammonia concentrations were common in the study area, especially down- stream of drain inputs. High pH of water increased the toxicity of ammonia, and concentrations exceeded criteria at sites upstream and downstream of irrigated land. Concentrations of ammonia in samples from small drains on the Tule Lake refuge leaseland were higher than those measured in the larger, integrating drains at primary monitoring sites. The mean ammonia concentration in leaseland drains [1.21 milligrams per liter (mg/L)] was significantly higher than the mean concentration in canals delivering water to the leaseland fields (0.065 mg/L) and higher than concentrations reported to be lethal to Daphnia magna (median lethal

  13. Demographic analysis of Lost River sucker and shortnose sucker populations in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janney, E.C.; Shively, R.S.; Hayes, B.S.; Barry, P.M.; Perkins, D.

    2008-01-01

    We used 13 years (1995-2007) of capture-mark-recapture data to assess population dynamics of endangered Lost River suckers Deltistes luxatus and shortnose suckers Chasmistes brevirostris in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. The Cormack-Jolly-Seber method was used to estimate survival, and information theoretic modeling was used to assess variation due to time, gender, species, and spawning subpopulations. Length data were used to detect multiple year-class failures and events of high recruitment into adult spawning populations. Average annual survival probability was 0.88 for Lost River suckers and 0.76 for shortnose suckers. Mean life span estimates based on these survival rates indicated that Lost River suckers survived long enough on average to attempt reproduction eight times, whereas shortnose suckers only survived to spawn three to four times. Shortnose sucker survival was not only poor in years of fish kills (1995-1997) but also was low in years without fish kills (i.e., 2002 and 2004). This suggests that high mortality occurs in some years but is not necessarily associated with fish kills. Annual survival probabilities were not only different between the two species but also differed between two spawning subpopulations of Lost River suckers. Length composition data indicated that recruitment into spawning populations only occurred intermittently. Populations of both species transitioned from primarily old individuals with little size diversity and consistently poor recruitment in the late 1980s and early 1990s to mostly small, recruit-sized fish by the late 1990s. A better understanding of the factors influencing adult survival and recruitment into spawning populations is needed. Monitoring these vital parameters will provide a quantitative means to evaluate population status and assess the effectiveness of conservation and recovery efforts.

  14. Eruption-controlled epiclastic sedimentation in a Devonian trench-slope basin: Evidence from sandstone petrofacies, Klamath Mountains, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wallin, E.T.; Trabert, D.W. . Dept. of Geoscience)

    1994-04-01

    The Devonian Gazelle Formation comprises sparsely fossiliferous shale, siltstone, siliceous mudstone, volcaniclastic sandstone, and conglomerate whose cumulative thickness is at least 1.25 km. Two end-member sand compositions combined locally to form a third mixed'' petrofacies. The volcaniclastic petrofacies was derived from an undissected magmatic arc, whereas the chert-mudrock petrofacies reflects derivation from melange of the underlying accretionary prism. The stratigraphically restricted mixed petrofacies is compositionally discrete and records thorough mixing of these two compositional end members. Data from sandstone petrography are consistent with independent geologic evidence indicating that the Gazelle Formation represents the fill of a Devonian trench-slope basin that formed above an east-dipping subduction zone. The authors interpretation of the Balaklala Rhyolite as the source of the volcaniclastic petrofacies requires proximity of the Yreka and Eastern Klamath terranes during the Early Devonian, and indicates that the eastern Klamath province has behaved as a single crustal block (sensu lato) ever since. Field study and petrographic analysis indicate that the delivery of coarse terrigenous detritus to the basin was controlled principally by episodic eruptions of rhyolitic tephra in the arc source and also by one discernible episode of change in relative sea level. This study indicates that caution must be used when invoking changes in relative sea level to explain the stratigraphic distribution of epiclastic turbidites in island-arc settings.

  15. Modeling the Water - Quality Effects of Changes to the Klamath River Upstream of Keno Dam, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Sogutlugil, I. Ertugrul; Rounds, Stewart A.; Deas, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The Link River to Keno Dam (Link-Keno) reach of the Klamath River, Oregon, generally has periods of water-quality impairment during summer, including low dissolved oxygen, elevated concentrations of ammonia and algae, and high pH. Efforts are underway to improve water quality in this reach through a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program and other management and operational actions. To assist in planning, a hydrodynamic and water-quality model was used in this study to provide insight about how various actions could affect water quality in the reach. These model scenarios used a previously developed and calibrated CE-QUAL-W2 model of the Link-Keno reach developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Watercourse Engineering Inc., and the Bureau of Reclamation for calendar years 2006-09 (referred to as the "USGS model" in this report). Another model of the same river reach was previously developed by Tetra Tech, Inc. and the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality for years 2000 and 2002 and was used in the TMDL process; that model is referred to as the "TMDL model" in this report. This report includes scenarios that (1) assess the effect of TMDL allocations on water quality, (2) provide insight on certain aspects of the TMDL model, (3) assess various methods to improve water quality in this reach, and (4) examine possible water-quality effects of a future warmer climate. Results presented in this report for the first 5 scenarios supersede or augment those that were previously published (scenarios 1 and 2 in Sullivan and others [2011], 3 through 5 in Sullivan and others [2012]); those previous results are still valid, but the results for those scenarios in this report are more current.

  16. Assessment of diel chemical and isotopic techniques to investigate biogeochemical cycles in the upper Klamath River, Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poulson, S.R.; Sullivan, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    The upper Klamath River experiences a cyanobacterial algal bloom and poor water quality during the summer. Diel chemical and isotopic techniques have been employed in order to investigate the rates of biogeochemical processes. Four diel measurements of field parameters (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen concentrations, and alkalinity) and stable isotope compositions (dissolved oxygen-??18O and dissolved inorganic carbon-??13C) have been performed between June 2007 and August 2008. Significant diel variations of pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, and DO-??18O were observed, due to varying rates of primary productivity vs. respiration vs. gas exchange with air. Diel cycles are generally similar to those previously observed in river systems, although there are also differences compared to previous studies. In large part, these different diel signatures are the result of the low turbulence of the upper Klamath River. Observed changes in the diel signatures vs. sampling date reflect the evolution of the status of the algal bloom over the course of the summer. Results indicate the potential utility of applying diel chemical and stable isotope techniques to investigate the rates of biogeochemical cycles in slow-moving rivers, lakes, and reservoirs, but also illustrate the increased complexity of stable isotope dynamics in these low-turbulence systems compared to well-mixed aquatic systems. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Seasonal Distribution and Abundance of Larval and Juvenile Lost River and Shortnose Suckers in Hanks Marsh, Upper Klamath National Wildlife Refuge, Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon: 2007 Annual Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Greer O.; Wilkens, Alexander X.; Burdick, Summer M.; VanderKooi, Scott P.

    2009-01-01

    In the summer of 2007, we undertook an assessment of larval and juvenile sucker use of Hanks Marsh in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. This 1,200-acre marsh on the southeastern shoreline of the lake represents part of the last remaining natural emergent wetland habitat in the lake. Because of the suspected importance of this type of habitat to larval and juvenile endangered Lost River and shortnose suckers, it was thought that sucker abundance in the marsh might be comparatively greater than in other non-vegetated areas of the lake. It also was hoped that Hanks Marsh would serve as a reference site for wetland restoration projects occurring in other areas of the lake. Our study had four objectives: to (1) examine seasonal distribution and relative abundance of larval suckers in and adjacent to Hanks Marsh in relation to habitat features such as depth, vegetation, water quality, and relative abundance of non-sucker species; (2) determine the presence or absence and describe the distribution of juvenile suckers [35 to 80 mm standard length (SL)] along the periphery of Hanks Marsh; (3) assess spatial and temporal overlap between larval suckers and their potential predators; and (4) assess suitability of water quality throughout the summer for young-of-the-year suckers. Due to the low number of suckers found in the marsh and our inability to thoroughly sample all marsh habitats due to declining lake levels during the summer, we were unable to completely address these objectives in this pilot study. The results, however, do give some indication of the relative use of Hanks Marsh by sucker and non-sucker species. Through sampling of larval and juvenile suckers in various habitat types within the marsh, we determined that sucker use of Hanks Marsh may be very low in comparison with other areas of the lake. We caught only 42 larval and 19 juvenile suckers during 12 weeks of sampling throughout the marsh. Sucker catches were rare in Hanks Marsh, and were lower than catch rates

  18. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water... on the structure, implementation, and oversight of the Yakima River Basin Water Conservation Program... of the Water Conservation Program, including the applicable water conservation guidelines of...

  19. Macrophyte and pH buffering updates to the Klamath River water-quality model upstream of Keno Dam, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Asbill-Case, Jessica R.; Deas, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    A hydrodynamic, water temperature, and water-quality model of the Link River to Keno Dam reach of the upper Klamath River was updated to account for macrophytes and enhanced pH buffering from dissolved organic matter, ammonia, and orthophosphorus. Macrophytes had been observed in this reach by field personnel, so macrophyte field data were collected in summer and fall (June-October) 2011 to provide a dataset to guide the inclusion of macrophytes in the model. Three types of macrophytes were most common: pondweed (Potamogeton species), coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum), and common waterweed (Elodea canadensis). Pondweed was found throughout the Link River to Keno Dam reach in early summer with densities declining by mid-summer and fall. Coontail and common waterweed were more common in the lower reach near Keno Dam and were at highest density in summer. All species were most dense in shallow water (less than 2 meters deep) near shore. The highest estimated dry weight biomass for any sample during the study was 202 grams per square meter for coontail in August. Guided by field results, three macrophyte groups were incorporated into the CE-QUAL-W2 model for calendar years 2006-09. The CE-QUAL-W2 model code was adjusted to allow the user to initialize macrophyte populations spatially across the model grid. The default CE-QUAL-W2 model includes pH buffering by carbonates, but does not include pH buffering by organic matter, ammonia, or orthophosphorus. These three constituents, especially dissolved organic matter, are present in the upper Klamath River at concentrations that provide substantial pH buffering capacity. In this study, CE-QUAL-W2 was updated to include this enhanced buffering capacity in the simulation of pH. Acid dissociation constants for ammonium and phosphoric acid were taken from the literature. For dissolved organic matter, the number of organic acid groups and each group's acid dissociation constant (Ka) and site density (moles of sites per mole of

  20. The upside-down river: Reservoirs, algal blooms, and tributaries affect temporal and spatial patterns in nitrogen and phosphorus in the Klamath River, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Allison A.; Dahlgren, Randy A.; Deas, Michael L.

    2014-11-01

    The Klamath River, located in Oregon/California of the Northwestern U.S., is highly impounded and also experiences large seasonal algal blooms and impaired water quality. We investigated nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) constituents for one year (2010-2011) across 193 km of the Klamath River at sites above and below reservoirs and major tributaries to determine the influence of these features on longitudinal and temporal trends in concentrations, loads, and N:P ratios. In general, the headwater lake (Upper Klamath Lake) and reservoirs appeared to be the dominant influence on water quality and nutrient dynamics in the upper river, whereas tributaries appeared to exert stronger influence in the lower river. Overall, high nutrients and poor water quality at upstream sites were ameliorated downstream, however the downstream reductions in N were much greater relative to P. Seasonality appeared to play a major role in the overall appearance and magnitude of longitudinal trends. The greatest upstream-downstream differences occurred during periods of time following large algal blooms in the upper portion of the river. Overall, the amount and composition of N appeared to be strongly driven by algal blooms and biogeochemical conditions such as low oxygen, high pH and warm temperatures in the upper portion of the river, whereas P was more strongly driven by seasonal hydrology. The spatiotemporal influence of reservoirs and tributaries on nutrient flux and nutrient ratios may have significant implications for aquatic communities and ecosystem health. Nutrient objectives should be considered when designing restoration, management, and monitoring objectives for projects involving habitat suitability for anadromous fish and potential dam removal.

  1. Demographics and 2008 Run Timing of Adult Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and Shortnose (Chasmistes brevirostris) Suckers in Upper Klamath Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janney, Eric C.; Hayes, Brian S.; Hewitt, David A.; Barry, Patrick M.; Scott, Alta; Koller, Justin; Johnson, Mark; Blackwood, Greta

    2009-01-01

    We used capture-recapture data to assess population dynamics of endangered Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. The Cormack-Jolly-Seber method was used to estimate apparent survival probabilities, and a temporal symmetry model was used to estimate annual seniority probabilities. Information theoretic modeling was used to assess variation in parameter estimates due to time, gender, and species. In addition, length data were used to detect multiple year-class failures and events of high recruitment into adult spawning populations. Survival of adult Lost River and shortnose suckers varied substantially across years. Relatively high annual mortality was observed for the lakeshore-spawning Lost River sucker subpopulation in 2002 and for the river spawning subpopulation in 2001. Shortnose suckers experienced high mortality in 2001 and 2004. This indicates that high mortality events are not only species specific, but also are specific to subpopulations for Lost River suckers. Seniority probability estimates and length composition data indicate that recruitment of new individuals into adult sucker populations has been sparse. The overall fitness of Upper Klamath Lake sucker populations are of concern given the low observed survival in some years and the paucity of recent recruitment. During most years, estimates of survival probabilities were lower than seniority probabilities, indicating net losses in adult sucker population abundances. The evidence for decline was more marked for shortnose suckers than for Lost River suckers. Our data indicated that sucker survival for both species, but especially shortnose suckers, was sometimes low in years without any observed fish kills. This indicates that high mortality can occur over a protracted period, resulting in poor annual survival, but will not necessarily be observed in association with a fish kill. A better understanding of the factors

  2. Central Nebraska river basins Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntzinger, Thomas L.; Ellis, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    The Central Nebraska Basins (NAWQA) study unit includes the Platte River and two major tributaries, the Loup and Elkhorn Rivers. Platte River flows are variable of diversions, but the Loup and Elkhorn Rivers originate in an area of dune sand covered by grassland that generates consistent base flows. Ground water has no regional confining units and the system is a water table aquifer throughout. Macroinvertebrate and fish taxa were related to stream flow. One of the four wetland complexes includes habitat for threatened and endangered bird species. A water quality assessments will be based on the differences in environmental setting in each of four subunits within the study unit.

  3. Generalized regression neural network-based approach for modelling hourly dissolved oxygen concentration in the Upper Klamath River, Oregon, USA.

    PubMed

    Heddam, Salim

    2014-08-01

    In this study, a comparison between generalized regression neural network (GRNN) and multiple linear regression (MLR) models is given on the effectiveness of modelling dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in a river. The two models are developed using hourly experimental data collected from the United States Geological Survey (USGS Station No: 421209121463000 [top]) station at the Klamath River at Railroad Bridge at Lake Ewauna. The input variables used for the two models are water, pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, and sensor depth. The performances of the models are evaluated using root mean square errors (RMSE), the mean absolute error (MAE), Willmott's index of agreement (d), and correlation coefficient (CC) statistics. Of the two approaches employed, the best fit was obtained using the GRNN model with the four input variables used.

  4. Distribution and condition of larval and juvenile Lost River and shortnose suckers in the Williamson River Delta restoration project and Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.; Brown, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    Federally endangered Lost River sucker (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose sucker (Chasmistes brevirostris) were once abundant throughout their range but populations have declined. They were extirpated from several lakes in the 1920s and may no longer reproduce in others. Poor recruitment to the adult spawning populations is one of several reasons cited for the decline and lack of recovery of these species and may be the consequence of high mortality during juvenile life stages. High larval and juvenile sucker mortality may be exacerbated by an insufficient quantity of suitable or high quality rearing habitat. In addition, larval suckers may be swept downstream from suitable rearing areas in Upper Klamath Lake into Keno Reservoir, which is seasonally anoxic. The Nature Conservancy flooded about 3,600 acres (1,456 hectares) to the north of the Williamson River mouth (Tulana Unit) in October 2007 and about 1,400 acres (567 hectares) to the south and east of the Williamson River mouth (Goose Bay Unit) a year later to retain larval suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, create nursery habitat, and improve water quality. The U.S. Geological Survey joined a long-term research and monitoring program in collaboration with The Nature Conservancy, the Bureau of Reclamation, and Oregon State University in 2008 to assess the effects of the Williamson River Delta restoration on the early life-history stages of Lost River and shortnose suckers. The primary objectives of the research were to describe habitat colonization and use by larval and juvenile suckers and non-sucker fishes and to evaluate the effects of the restored habitat on the health and condition of juvenile suckers. This report summarizes data collected in 2009 by the U.S. Geological Survey as a part of this monitoring effort. The Williamson River Delta appeared to provide suitable rearing habitat for endangered larval Lost River and shortnose suckers in 2008 and 2009. Larval suckers captured in this delta typically were

  5. Isotopic characterization of three groundwater recharge sources and inferences for selected aquifers in the upper Klamath Basin of Oregon and California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palmer, P.C.; Gannett, M.W.; Hinkle, S.R.

    2007-01-01

    Stable isotope (??D and ??18O) signatures of three principal groundwater recharge areas in the 21,000-km2 upper Klamath Basin are used to infer recharge sources for aquifers in the interior parts of the basin. Two of the principal recharge areas, the Cascade Range on the western and southern margin of the basin and uplands along the eastern margin, are defined by mean annual precipitation that exceeds approximately 60 cm. A third recharge area coincides with the extensive irrigation canal system in the south central part of the basin. The stable isotope signature for Cascade Range groundwater falls near the global meteoric water line (GMWL). The stable isotope signature for the groundwater of the eastern basin uplands also falls near the GMWL, but is depleted in heavy isotopes relative to the Cascade Range groundwater. The stable isotope signature for water from the irrigation canal system deviates from the GMWL in a manner indicative of fractionation by evaporation. Groundwater provenance was previously unknown for two aquifers of interest: that supplying deep (225-792 m), large-capacity irrigation wells along the Oregon-California border, and that of the geothermal system near Klamath Falls. Groundwater produced by the deep irrigation wells along the Oregon-California border appears to be a mixture of eastern-basin groundwater and water with an evaporative isotopic signature. The component with an evaporative isotopic signature appears in some places to consist of infiltrated irrigation water. Chloride data suggest that much of the component with the evaporative isotopic signature may be coming from an adjacent subbasin. After accounting for the 18O shift common in geothermal waters, isotope data suggest that the geothermal groundwater in the upper Klamath Basin may emanate from the eastern basin uplands. Findings demonstrate that stable isotope and chloride data can illuminate certain details of a regional groundwater flow system in a complex geologic setting

  6. Ecological River Basin Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anthony Wayne

    Addressing the Seventh American Water Resources Conference, Washington, D. C., October, 1971, Anthony Wayne Smith, President, National Parks and Conservation Association, presents an expose on how rivers should be managed by methods which restores and preserve the natural life balances of the localities and regions through which they flow. The…

  7. Statistical analysis of the water-quality monitoring program, Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, and optimization of the program for 2013 and beyond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eldridge, Sara L. Caldwell; Wherry, Susan A.; Wood, Tamara M.

    2014-01-01

    Upper Klamath Lake in south-central Oregon has become increasingly eutrophic over the past century and now experiences seasonal cyanobacteria-dominated and potentially toxic phytoplankton blooms. Growth and decline of these blooms create poor water-quality conditions that can be detrimental to fish, including two resident endangered sucker species. Upper Klamath Lake is the primary water supply to agricultural areas within the upper Klamath Basin. Water from the lake is also used to generate power and to enhance and sustain downstream flows in the Klamath River. Water quality in Upper Klamath Lake has been monitored by the Klamath Tribes since the early 1990s and by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 2002. Management agencies and other stakeholders have determined that a re-evaluation of the goals for water-quality monitoring is warranted to assess whether current data-collection activities will continue to adequately provide data for researchers to address questions of interest and to facilitate future natural resource management decisions. The purpose of this study was to (1) compile an updated list of the goals and objectives for long-term water-quality monitoring in Upper Klamath Lake with input from upper Klamath Basin stakeholders, (2) assess the current water-quality monitoring programs in Upper Klamath Lake to determine whether existing data-collection strategies can fulfill the updated goals and objectives for monitoring, and (3) identify potential modifications to future monitoring plans in accordance with the updated monitoring objectives and improve stakeholder cooperation and data-collection efficiency. Data collected by the Klamath Tribes and the USGS were evaluated to determine whether consistent long-term trends in water-quality variables can be described by the dataset and whether the number and distribution of currently monitored sites captures the full range of environmental conditions and the multi-scale variability of water

  8. Dependence of flow and transport through the Williamson River Delta, Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, on wind, river inflow, and lake elevation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Tamara M.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrodynamic model of Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon, was used to run 384 realizations of a numerical tracer experiment in order to understand the relative effects of wind, lake elevation, and Williamson River inflow on flow and transport (the movement of water and passively transported constituents) through the Williamson River Delta. Significant findings from this study include: * The replacement rate of water increased in Tulana and Goose Bay with increasing lake elevation, Williamson River inflow, and wind speed. * The fraction of Williamson River inflow passing through either side of the Delta increased with lake elevation and Williamson River inflow. * The partial replacement rate of water in Goose Bay with water from the Williamson River increased with wind speed. * The partial replacement rate of water in Tulana with water from the Williamson River decreased with wind speed. * Strong wind forcing at the water surface caused more of the Williamson River inflow to pass through Goose Bay than through Tulana. * Westerly to northwesterly winds result in more of the Williamson River inflow passing through the Goose Bay side of the Delta than through the Tulana side. * Regression models developed from the tracer experiments can be used to quantify the dependencies between transport and the independent variables to obtain rough estimates of useful quantities such as residence time and steady-state solute concentrations.

  9. Temporal and spatial distribution of endangered juvenile Lost River and shortnose suckers in relation to environmental variables in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon: 2009 annual data summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bottcher, Jared L.; Burdick, Summer M.

    2010-01-01

    Lost River sucker (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose sucker (Chasmistes brevirostris) were listed as endangered in 1988 for a variety of reasons including apparent recruitment failure. Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, and its tributaries are considered the most critical remaining habitat for these two species. Age-0 suckers are often abundant in Upper Klamath Lake throughout the summer months, but catches decline dramatically between late August and early September each year. Similar declines of age-1 suckers between spring and late summer also occur annually. These rapid declines in catch rates and a lack of substantial recruitment into adult sucker populations in recent years suggests sucker populations experience high mortality between their first summer and first spawn. Summer age-0 sucker habitat use and distribution have been studied extensively, but many uncertainties remain about age-1 and older juvenile habitat use, distribution, and movement patterns within Upper Klamath Lake. This study was designed to examine seasonal changes in distribution of age-1 suckers in Upper Klamath Lake as they relate to depth and water quality. The results of our third annual spring and summer sampling effort are presented in this report. Catch data collected in 2009 indicate seasonal changes in age-1 and older juvenile sucker habitat use coincident with changes in water quality. Although age-1 sucker catch rates were again concentrated along the western shore in June and early July, as they were in 2007 and 2008, very few age-1 suckers were captured in Eagle Ridge Trench in 2009 - a deepwater area along the western shore extending from Howard Bay to Eagle Ridge Point. Instead, suckers in 2009 were concentrated in the relatively shallow bays along the western shore. Nevertheless, as dissolved-oxygen concentrations decreased in mid-July below sublethal thresholds around the Eagle Ridge Trench, age-1 suckers apparently moved away from the western shore, and subsequently were captured

  10. Distribution and condition of larval and juvenile Lost River and shortnose suckers in the Williamson River Delta restoration project and Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.

    2012-01-01

    Federally endangered Lost River sucker (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose sucker (Chasmistes brevirostris) were once abundant throughout their range but populations have declined. They were extirpated from several lakes in the 1920s and may no longer reproduce in other lakes. Poor recruitment to the adult spawning populations is one of several reasons cited for the decline and lack of recovery of these species and may be the consequence of high mortality during juvenile life stages. High larval and juvenile sucker mortality may be exacerbated by an insufficient quantity of suitable or high-quality rearing habitat. In addition, larval suckers may be swept downstream from suitable rearing areas in Upper Klamath Lake into Keno Reservoir, where they are assumed lost to Upper Klamath Lake populations. The Nature Conservancy flooded about 3,600 acres (1,456 hectares) to the north of the Williamson River mouth (Tulana) in October 2007, and about 1,400 acres (567 hectares) to the south and east of the Williamson River mouth (Goose Bay Farms) in October 2008, in order to retain larval suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, create nursery habitat, and improve water quality. The U.S. Geological Survey joined a long-term research and monitoring program in collaboration with The Nature Conservancy, the Bureau of Reclamation, and Oregon State University in 2008 to assess the effects of the Williamson River Delta restoration on the early life-history stages of Lost River and shortnose suckers. The primary objectives of the research were to describe habitat colonization and use by larval and juvenile suckers and non-sucker fishes and to evaluate the effects of the restored habitat on the health and condition of juvenile suckers. This report summarizes data collected in 2010 by the U.S. Geological Survey as a part of this monitoring effort and follows two annual reports on data collected in 2008 and 2009. Restoration modifications made to the Williamson River Delta appeared to provide

  11. Evapotranspiration from a bulrush-dominated wetland in the Klamath Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bidlake, W.R.

    2000-01-01

    Growing-season evapotranspiration and surface energy and water balances were investigated for an extensive, bulrush-dominated wetland in the Upper Klamath National Wildlife Refuge of south-central Oregon, a semi-arid region with competing demands for scarce water resources. Turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat were measured by eddy covariance for 1.2 to 1.9 days during each of four site visits during late-May to mid-October 1997. Mean daytime latent heat flux and the Bowen ratio ranged from 148 to 178 W m-2 and from 0.38 to 0.51, respectively, during late May, mid-July, and late August site visits. By mid-October, when the plant canopy had senesced, daytime latent heat flux and the Bowen ratio averaged 46 W m-2 and 2.8, respectively. An hourly Penman-Monteith (PM) model that was fitted to the surface-flux data provided values for the surface resistance to water-vapor diffusion that ranged from 78 s m-1 during late August to 206 s m-1 during mid-October. Similarly, a Priestley-Taylor (PT) model provided values for the PT multiplier (??) that ranged from 0.96 during late August to 0.37 during mid-October. The PM and PT models predicted evapotranspiration totals of 560 and 480 mm, respectively, for May 28 to October 12, 1997.

  12. Klamath River Water Quality and Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler Data from Link River Dam to Keno Dam, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Deas, Michael L.; Asbill, Jessica; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Butler, Kenna; Stewart, Marc A.; Wellman, Roy W.; Vaughn, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, Watercourse Engineering, and the Bureau of Reclamation began a project to construct and calibrate a water quality and hydrodynamic model of the 21-mile reach of the Klamath River from Link River Dam to Keno Dam. To provide a basis for this work, data collection and experimental work were planned for 2007 and 2008. This report documents sampling and analytical methods and presents data from the first year of work. To determine water velocities and discharge, a series of cross-sectional acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements were made on the mainstem and four canals on May 30 and September 19, 2007. Water quality was sampled weekly at five mainstem sites and five tributaries from early April through early November, 2007. Constituents reported here include field parameters (water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration, specific conductance); total nitrogen and phosphorus; particulate carbon and nitrogen; filtered orthophosphate, nitrite, nitrite plus nitrate, ammonia, organic carbon, iron, silica, and alkalinity; specific UV absorbance at 254 nm; phytoplankton and zooplankton enumeration and species identification; and bacterial abundance and morphological subgroups. The ADCP measurements conducted in good weather conditions in May showed that four major canals accounted for most changes in discharge along the mainstem on that day. Direction of velocity at measured locations was fairly homogeneous across the channel, while velocities were generally lowest near the bottom, and highest near surface, ranging from 0.0 to 0.8 ft/s. Measurements in September, made in windy conditions, raised questions about the effect of wind on flow. Most nutrient and carbon concentrations were lowest in spring, increased and remained elevated in summer, and decreased in fall. Dissolved nitrite plus nitrate and nitrite had a different seasonal cycle and were below detection or at low concentration in summer. Many nutrient and

  13. Dissolved oxygen analysis, TMDL model comparison, and particulate matter shunting—Preliminary results from three model scenarios for the Klamath River upstream of Keno Dam, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Deas, Michael L.; Sogutlugil, I. Ertugrul

    2012-01-01

    Efforts are underway to identify actions that would improve water quality in the Link River to Keno Dam reach of the Upper Klamath River in south-central Oregon. To provide further insight into water-quality improvement options, three scenarios were developed, run, and analyzed using previously calibrated CE-QUAL-W2 hydrodynamic and water-quality models. Additional scenarios are under development as part of this ongoing study. Most of these scenarios evaluate changes relative to a "current conditions" model, but in some cases a "natural conditions" model was used that simulated the reach without the effect of point and nonpoint sources and set Upper Klamath Lake at its Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) targets. These scenarios were simulated using a model developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Watercourse Engineering, Inc. for the years 2006–09, referred to here as the "USGS model." Another model of the reach was developed by Tetra Tech, Inc. for years 2000 and 2002 to support the Klamath River TMDL process; that model is referred to here as the "TMDL model." The three scenarios described in this report included (1) an analysis of whether this reach of the Upper Klamath River would be in compliance with dissolved oxygen standards if sources met TMDL allocations, (2) an application of more recent datasets to the TMDL model with comparison to results from the USGS model, and (3) an examination of the effect on dissolved oxygen in the Klamath River if particulate material were stopped from entering Klamath Project diversion canals. Updates and modifications to the USGS model are in progress, so in the future these scenarios will be reanalyzed with the updated model and the interim results presented here will be superseded. Significant findings from this phase of the investigation include: * The TMDL analysis used depth-averaged dissolved oxygen concentrations from model output for comparison with dissolved oxygen standards. The Oregon dissolved oxygen

  14. Volcanic signature of Basin and Range extension on the shrinking Cascade arc, Klamath Falls-Keno area, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priest, George R.; Hladky, Frank R.; Mertzman, Stanley A.; Murray, Robert B.; Wiley, Thomas J.

    2013-08-01

    geologic mapping of the Klamath Falls-Keno area revealed the complex relationship between subduction, crustal extension, and magmatic composition of the southern Oregon Cascade volcanic arc. Volcanism in the study area at ~7-4 Ma consisted of calc-alkaline basaltic andesite and andesite lava flowing over a relatively flat landscape. Local angular unconformities are evidence that Basin and Range extension began at by at least ~4 Ma and continues today with fault blocks tilting at a long-term rate of ~2°/Ma to 3°/Ma. Minimum NW-SE extension is ~1.5 km over ~28 km (~5%). High-alumina olivine tholeiite (HAOT) or low-K, low-Ti transitional high-alumina olivine tholeiite (LKLT) erupted within and adjacent to the back edge of the calc-alkaline arc as the edge receded westward at a rate of ~10 km/Ma at 2.7-0.45 Ma. The volcanic front migrated east much slower than the back arc migrated west: ~0 km/Ma for 6-0.4 Ma calc-alkaline rocks; ~0.7 km/Ma, if ~6 Ma HAOT-LKLT is included; and ~1 km/Ma, if highly differentiated 17-30 Ma volcanic rocks of the early Western Cascades are included. Declining convergence probably decreased asthenospheric corner flow, decreasing width of calc-alkaline and HAOT-LKLT volcanism and the associated heat flow anomaly, the margins of which focused on Basin and Range extension and leakage of HAOT-LKLT magma to the surface. This declining corner flow combined with steepening slab dip shifted the back arc west. Compensation of extension by volcanic intrusion and extrusion allowed growth of imposing range-front fault scarps only behind the trailing edge of the shrinking arc.

  15. Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Endangered Juvenile Lost River and Shortnose Suckers in Relation to Environmental Variables in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon: 2008 Annual Data Summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.; VanderKooi, Scott P.

    2010-01-01

    Lost River sucker (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose sucker (Chasmistes brevirostris) were listed as endangered in 1988 for a variety of reasons including apparent recruitment failure. Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, and its tributaries are considered the most critical remaining habitat for these two species. Age-0 suckers are often abundant in Upper Klamath Lake throughout the summer months, but catches decline dramatically between late August and early September each year and age-1 and older sub-adult suckers are rare. These rapid declines in catch rates and a lack of substantial recruitment into adult sucker populations in recent years suggests sucker populations experience high mortality between their first summer and first spawn. A lack of access to, or abundance of, optimal rearing habitat may exacerbate juvenile sucker mortality or restrict juvenile growth or development. Summer age-0 sucker habitat use and distribution has been studied extensively, but many uncertainties remain about age-1 and older juvenile habitat use, distribution, and movement patterns within Upper Klamath Lake. We designed a study to examine seasonal changes in distribution of age-1 suckers in Upper Klamath Lake as they relate to depth and water quality. In this document, which meets our annual data summary and reporting obligations, we discuss the results of our second annual spring and summer sampling effort. Catch data collected in 2007 and 2008 indicate seasonal changes in age-1 and older juvenile sucker habitat use coincident with changes in water quality, which were previously undocumented. In both years during April and May, age-1 and older juvenile suckers were found in shallow water environments. Then, as water temperatures began to warm throughout Upper Klamath Lake in June, age-1 and older juvenile suckers primarily were captured along the western shore in some of the deepest available environments. Following a dramatic decrease in dissolved oxygen concentrations in Eagle Ridge

  16. Salmonids, stream temperatures, and solar loading--modeling the shade provided to the Klamath River by vegetation and geomorphology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forney, William M.; Soulard, Christopher E.; Chickadel, C. Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is studying approaches to characterize the thermal regulation of water and the dynamics of cold water refugia. High temperatures have physiological impacts on anadromous fish species. Factors affecting the presence, variability, and quality of thermal refugia are known, such as riverine and watershed processes, hyporheic flows, deep pools and bathymetric factors, thermal stratification of reservoirs, and other broader climatic considerations. This research develops a conceptual model and methodological techniques to quantify the change in solar insolation load to the Klamath River caused by riparian and floodplain vegetation, the morphology of the river, and the orientation and topographic characteristics of its watersheds. Using multiple scales of input data from digital elevation models and airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) derivatives, different analysis methods yielded three different model results. These models are correlated with thermal infrared imagery for ground-truth information at the focal confluence with the Scott River. Results from nonparametric correlation tests, geostatistical cross-covariograms, and cross-correlograms indicate that statistical relationships between the insolation models and the thermal infrared imagery exist and are significant. Furthermore, the use of geostatistics provides insights to the spatial structure of the relationships that would not be apparent otherwise. To incorporate a more complete representation of the temperature dynamics in the river system, other variables including the factors mentioned above, and their influence on solar loading, are discussed. With similar datasets, these methods could be applied to any river in the United States—especially those listed as temperature impaired under Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act—or international riverine systems. Considering the importance of thermal refugia for aquatic species, these methods can help investigate opportunities

  17. Declining ring-necked pheasants in the Klamath Basin, California: I. Insecticide exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grove, Robert A.; Buhler, D.R.; Henny, Charles J.; Drew, A.D.

    1998-01-01

    A study of organophosphorus (OP) insecticide exposure was conducted on a declining population of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) associated with agricultural lands at Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge (TLNWR) during the summers of 1990a??92. Findings at TLNWR were compared with a nearby pheasant population at Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuge (LKNWR) not subjected to intensive farming or OP insecticide applications. Direct toxicity of anticholinesterase (antiChE) compounds (in this case methamidophos) killed 2 young pheasants (91 and 92% brain acetylcholinesterase [AChE] inhibition), but no deaths of adult radio-equipped hens were ascribed to direct insecticide intoxication. However, within 20 days postspray of OP insecticides, 68% (28 of 41) of the adult pheasants collected at TLNWR were exposed to antiChE insecticides, and exhibited brain AChE inhibition of 19a??62%, with 15% (6 of 41) showing >55% brain AChE inhibition. The lack of radio-equipped hens dying was unexpected because >50% brain AChE inhibition has been frequently used as a diagnostic tool for evaluating cause of death from antiChE insecticides. No young were radio-equipped, so the extent of the effects of insecticide exposure on the survivorship of young was unknown. It is concluded that insecticide exposure was not the major factor impacting the pheasant population (see Grove et al., in press), although some young were acutely intoxicated. However, the loss of insects killed by insecticide use may have contributed to food shortages of young pheasants, indirectly influencing survival.

  18. Effects of Chiloquin Dam on spawning distribution and larval emigration of Lost River, shortnose, and Klamath largescale suckers in the Williamson and Sprague Rivers, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Barbara A.; Hewitt, David A.; Ellsworth, Craig M.

    2013-01-01

    Chiloquin Dam was constructed in 1914 on the Sprague River near the town of Chiloquin, Oregon. The dam was identified as a barrier that potentially inhibited or prevented the upstream spawning migrations and other movements of endangered Lost River (Deltistes luxatusChasmistes brevirostris) suckers, as well as other fish species. In 2002, the Bureau of Reclamation led a working group that examined several alternatives to improve fish passage at Chiloquin Dam. Ultimately it was decided that dam removal was the best alternative and the dam was removed in the summer of 2008. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a long-term study on the spawning ecology of Lost River, shortnose, and Klamath largescale suckers (Catostomus snyderi) in the Sprague and lower Williamson Rivers from 2004 to 2010. The objective of this study was to evaluate shifts in spawning distribution following the removal of Chiloquin Dam. Radio telemetry was used in conjunction with larval production data and detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponders (PIT tags) to evaluate whether dam removal resulted in increased utilization of spawning habitat farther upstream in the Sprague River. Increased densities of drifting larvae were observed at a site in the lower Williamson River after the dam was removed, but no substantial changes occurred upstream of the former dam site. Adult spawning migrations primarily were influenced by water temperature and did not change with the removal of the dam. Emigration of larvae consistently occurred about 3-4 weeks after adults migrated into a section of river. Detections of PIT-tagged fish showed increases in the numbers of all three suckers that migrated upstream of the dam site following removal, but the increases for Lost River and shortnose suckers were relatively small compared to the total number of fish that made a spawning migration in a given season. Increases for Klamath largescale suckers were more substantial. Post-dam removal monitoring

  19. Distribution and condition of larval and juvenile Lost River and shortnose suckers in the Williamson River Delta restoration project and Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.

    2012-01-01

    Federally endangered Lost River sucker (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose sucker (Chasmistes brevirostris) were once abundant throughout their range but populations have declined. They were extirpated from several lakes in the 1920s and may no longer reproduce in other lakes. Poor recruitment to the adult spawning populations is one of several reasons cited for the decline and lack of recovery of these species and may be the consequence of high mortality during juvenile life stages. High larval and juvenile sucker mortality may be exacerbated by an insufficient quantity of suitable or high-quality rearing habitat. In addition, larval suckers may be swept downstream from suitable rearing areas in Upper Klamath Lake into Keno Reservoir, where they are assumed lost to Upper Klamath Lake populations. The Nature Conservancy flooded about 3,600 acres (1,456 hectares) to the north of the Williamson River mouth (Tulana) in October 2007, and about 1,400 acres (567 hectares) to the south and east of the Williamson River mouth (Goose Bay Farms) in October 2008, in order to retain larval suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, create nursery habitat, and improve water quality. The U.S. Geological Survey joined a long-term research and monitoring program in collaboration with The Nature Conservancy, the Bureau of Reclamation, and Oregon State University in 2008 to assess the effects of the Williamson River Delta restoration on the early life-history stages of Lost River and shortnose suckers. The primary objectives of the research were to describe habitat colonization and use by larval and juvenile suckers and non-sucker fishes and to evaluate the effects of the restored habitat on the health and condition of juvenile suckers. This report summarizes data collected in 2010 by the U.S. Geological Survey as a part of this monitoring effort and follows two annual reports on data collected in 2008 and 2009. Restoration modifications made to the Williamson River Delta appeared to provide

  20. [Health assessment of river ecosystem in Haihe River Basin, China].

    PubMed

    Hao, Li-Xia; Sun, Ran-Hao; Chen, Li-Ding

    2014-10-01

    With the development of economy, the health of river ecosystem is severely threatened because of the increasing effects of human activities on river ecosystem. In this paper, the authors assessed the river ecosystem health in aspects of chemical integrity and biological integrity, using the criterion in water quality, nutrient, and benthic macroinvertebrates of 73 samples in Haihe River Basin. The research showed that the health condition of river ecosystem in Haihe River Basin was bad overall since the health situation of 72. 6% of the samples was "extremely bad". At the same time, the health situation in Haihe River Basin exhibited obvious regional gathering effect. We also found that the river water quality was closely related to human activities, and the eutrophication trend of water body was evident in Haihe River Basin. The biodiversity of the benthic animal was low and lack of clean species in the basin. The indicators such as ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were the key factors that affected the river ecosystem health in Haihe River Basin, so the government should start to curb the deterioration of river ecosystem health by controlling these nutrients indicators. For river ecosystem health assessment, the multi-factors comprehensive evaluation method was superior to single-factor method.

  1. Survival, movement, and health of hatchery-raised juvenile Lost River suckers within a mesocosm in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hereford, Danielle M.; Burdick, Summer M.; Elliott, Diane G.; Dolan-Caret, Amari; Conway, Carla M.; Harris, Alta C.

    2016-01-01

    The recovery of endangered Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) in Upper Klamath Lake is limited by poor juvenile survival and failure to recruit into the adult population. Poor water quality, degradation of rearing habitat, and toxic levels of microcystin are hypothesized to contribute to low juvenile survival. Studies of wild juvenile suckers are limited in that capture rates are low and compromised individuals are rarely captured in passive nets. The goal of this study was to assess the use of a mesocosm for learning about juvenile survival, movement, and health. Hatchery-raised juvenile Lost River suckers were PIT (passive integrated transponder) tagged and monitored by three vertically stratified antennas. Fish locations within the mesocosm were recorded at least every 30 minutes and were assessed in relation to vertically stratified water-quality conditions. Vertical movement patterns were analyzed to identify the timing of mortality for each fish. Most mortality occurred from July 28 to August 16, 2014. Juvenile suckers spent daylight hours near the benthos and moved throughout the entire water column during dark hours. Diel movements were not in response to dissolved-oxygen concentrations, temperature, or pH. Furthermore, low dissolved-oxygen concentrations, high temperatures, high pH, high un-ionized ammonia, or high microcystin levels did not directly cause mortality, although indirect effects may have occurred. However, water-quality conditions known to be lethal to juvenile Lost River suckers did not occur during the study period. Histological assessment revealed severe gill hyperplasia and Ichthyobodo sp. infestations in most moribund fish. For these fish, Ichthyobodo sp. was likely the cause of mortality, although it is unclear if this parasite originated in the rearing facility because fish were not screened for this parasite prior to introduction. This study has demonstrated that we can effectively use a mesocosm equipped with antennas to learn

  2. Survival, movement, and health of hatchery-raised juvenile Lost River suckers within a mesocosm in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hereford, Danielle M.; Burdick, Summer M.; Elliott, Diane G.; Dolan-Caret, Amari; Conway, Carla M.; Harris, Alta C.

    2016-01-28

    The recovery of endangered Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) in Upper Klamath Lake is limited by poor juvenile survival and failure to recruit into the adult population. Poor water quality, degradation of rearing habitat, and toxic levels of microcystin are hypothesized to contribute to low juvenile survival. Studies of wild juvenile suckers are limited in that capture rates are low and compromised individuals are rarely captured in passive nets. The goal of this study was to assess the use of a mesocosm for learning about juvenile survival, movement, and health. Hatchery-raised juvenile Lost River suckers were PIT (passive integrated transponder) tagged and monitored by three vertically stratified antennas. Fish locations within the mesocosm were recorded at least every 30 minutes and were assessed in relation to vertically stratified water-quality conditions. Vertical movement patterns were analyzed to identify the timing of mortality for each fish. Most mortality occurred from July 28 to August 16, 2014. Juvenile suckers spent daylight hours near the benthos and moved throughout the entire water column during dark hours. Diel movements were not in response to dissolved-oxygen concentrations, temperature, or pH. Furthermore, low dissolved-oxygen concentrations, high temperatures, high pH, high un-ionized ammonia, or high microcystin levels did not directly cause mortality, although indirect effects may have occurred. However, water-quality conditions known to be lethal to juvenile Lost River suckers did not occur during the study period. Histological assessment revealed severe gill hyperplasia and Ichthyobodo sp. infestations in most moribund fish. For these fish, Ichthyobodo sp. was likely the cause of mortality, although it is unclear if this parasite originated in the rearing facility because fish were not screened for this parasite prior to introduction. This study has demonstrated that we can effectively use a mesocosm equipped with antennas to learn

  3. Age-0 Lost River sucker and shortnose sucker nearshore habitat use in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon: A patch occupancy approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, S.M.; Hendrixson, H.A.; VanderKooi, S.P.

    2008-01-01

    We examined habitat use by age-0 Lost River suckers Deltistes luxatus and shortnose suckers Chasmistes brevirostris over six substrate classes and in vegetated and nonvegetated areas of Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. We used a patch occupancy approach to model the effect of physical habitat and water quality conditions on habitat use. Our models accounted for potential inconsistencies in detection probability among sites and sampling occasions as a result of differences in fishing gear types and techniques, habitat characteristics, and age-0 fish size and abundance. Detection probability was greatest during mid- to late summer, when water temperatures were highest and age-0 suckers were the largest. The proportion of sites used by age-0 suckers was inversely related to depth (range = 0.4-3.0 m), particularly during late summer. Age-0 suckers were more likely to use habitats containing small substrate (64 mm) and habitats with vegetation than those without vegetation. Relatively narrow ranges in dissolved oxygen, temperature, and pH prevented us from detecting effects of these water quality features on age-0 sucker nearshore habitat use.

  4. How integrated is river basin management?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downs, Peter W.; Gregory, Kenneth J.; Brookes, Andrew

    1991-05-01

    Land and water management is increasingly focused upon the drainage basin. Thirty-six terms recently used for schemes of “integrated basin management” include reference to the subject or area and to the aims of integrated river basin management, often without allusion to the multiobjective nature. Diversity in usage of terms has occurred because of the involvement of different disciplines, of the increasing coherence of the drainage basin approach, and the problems posed in particular parts of the world. The components included in 21 different approaches are analyzed, and, in addition to showing that components related broadly to water supply, river channel, land, and leisure aspects, it is concluded that there are essentially five interrelated facets of integrated basin management that involved water, channel, land, ecology, and human activity. Two aspects not fully included in many previous schemes concern river channel changes and the dynamic integrity of the fluvial system. To clarify the terminology used, it is suggested that the term comprehensive river basin management should be used where a wide range of components is involved, whereas integrated basin management can signify the interactions of components and the dominance of certain components in the particular area. Holistic river basin management is advocated as a term representing an approach that is both fully comprehensive and integrated but also embraces the energetics of the river system and consideration of changes of river channels and of human impacts throughout the river system. The paradigm of working with the river can be extended to one of working with the river in the holistic basin context.

  5. Status and trends of adult Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose (Chasmistes brevirostris) sucker populations in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hewitt, David A.; Janney, Eric C.; Hayes, Brian S.; Harris, Alta C.

    2015-10-02

    Despite relatively high survival in most years, we conclude that both species have experienced substantial decreases in the abundance of spawning adults because losses from mortality have not been balanced by recruitment of new individuals. Although capture-recapture data indicate substantial recruitment of new individuals into the spawning populations for SNS and river spawning LRS in some years, size data do not corroborate these estimates. As a result, the status of the endangered sucker populations in Upper Klamath Lake remains worrisome, especially for shortnose suckers. Our monitoring program provides a robust platform for estimating vital population parameters, evaluating the status of the populations, and assessing the effectiveness of conservation and recovery efforts.

  6. Environmental change in the Mississippi River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Wynn, G.; Hassan, M. A.; Donner, S. D.; Sivapalan, M.

    2010-12-01

    Land use, land cover change and hydrological modification are important factors affecting discharge, sediment yield, nutrient flows and precipitation at small and large scales. This presentation analyses the changes in crop and pasture land as well as dam and reservoir construction from 1900 to the present in the Mississippi River Basin (including six main sub-basins), to assess their influence on sediment and nutrient dynamics in the basin. Total cropland and pastureland from 1900-2007 are characterized at 0.5 degree x 0.5 degree spatial resolution from existing satellite-derived datasets. From 1900s to 2000s, total cropland in the Ohio River Basin and the Tennessee River Basin in the east exhibited a decreasing trend. The other sub-basins and the basin as a whole exhibited an increasing trend. The area under pasture in the Ohio, the Tennessee and the Upper Mississippi river basins decreased; it increased in the other sub-basins. The areas of corn, wheat and soybean, the three dominant crops in the United States, from 1950 to 2000 are characterized at 5’ x 5’ spatial resolution from existing inventory and satellite-data. The fractional coverage of soybean and wheat increased in most sub-basins, whereas the fraction of corn remained constant or decreased in most sub-basins. The distribution of dams and large dams (those with a normal storage capacity of 5000 acre-feet or more) built in each decade was generated from the data published by National Atlas of the United States. The analysis showed that the majority of the dams in Mississippi River Basin were built in 1960s and 1970s, but the majority of the large dams were built before the 1950s. These spatial and temporal changes in land use, land cover and hydrological modifications are linked to sediment, nutrient and environmental change of the basin.

  7. Physical, chemical, and biological data for detailed study of irrigation drainage in the Klamath Basin, California and Oregon, 1990-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCoy, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological data were collected between 1990 and 1992 as part of a detailed study by the U.S. Department of Interior of the effects of irrigation drainage on aquatic resources in the Klamath Basin of California and Oregon. Most of the sites for data collection were in and around the upper and lower sump of Tule Lake, in the Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge, and along major drains in Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuge. The physical and chemical data consist of particle-size determinations and concentrations of carbon, mercury, arsenic, chlorophenoxy acid, and organochlorine, organophosphate, and carbamate pesticides in bottom sediment; and concentrations of organophosphate, carbamate, and pyrethroid pesticides, major and trace inorganic constituents, nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon in water. Continuous dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conduc- tance, and temperature data from selected sites in 1991 and 1992 are presented in graphical form to summarize the diel water-quality conditions. The biological data consists of concentrations of inorganic constituents and organochlorine pesticides in tissue, invertebrate and fish population surveys, fish health surveys, frog call surveys, egg shell thickness of avian eggs, and in situ and static toxicity bioassay data collected in 1991 and 1992 using aquatic bacteria, plants, invertebrates, fish, and bird species as test organisms.

  8. River Basin Standards Interoperability Pilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesquer, Lluís; Masó, Joan; Stasch, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    There is a lot of water information and tools in Europe to be applied in the river basin management but fragmentation and a lack of coordination between countries still exists. The European Commission and the member states have financed several research and innovation projects in support of the Water Framework Directive. Only a few of them are using the recently emerging hydrological standards, such as the OGC WaterML 2.0. WaterInnEU is a Horizon 2020 project focused on creating a marketplace to enhance the exploitation of EU funded ICT models, tools, protocols and policy briefs related to water and to establish suitable conditions for new market opportunities based on these offerings. One of WaterInnEU's main goals is to assess the level of standardization and interoperability of these outcomes as a mechanism to integrate ICT-based tools, incorporate open data platforms and generate a palette of interchangeable components that are able to use the water data emerging from the recently proposed open data sharing processes and data models stimulated by initiatives such as the INSPIRE directive. As part of the standardization and interoperability activities in the project, the authors are designing an experiment (RIBASE, the present work) to demonstrate how current ICT-based tools and water data can work in combination with geospatial web services in the Scheldt river basin. The main structure of this experiment, that is the core of the present work, is composed by the following steps: - Extraction of information from river gauges data in OGC WaterML 2.0 format using SOS services (preferably compliant to the OGC SOS 2.0 Hydrology Profile Best Practice). - Model floods using a WPS 2.0, WaterML 2.0 data and weather forecast models as input. - Evaluation of the applicability of Sensor Notification Services in water emergencies. - Open distribution of the input and output data as OGC web services WaterML, / WCS / WFS and with visualization utilities: WMS. The architecture

  9. Klamath Basin: A Watershed Approach to Support Habitat Restoration, Species Recovery, and Water Resource Planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shipley, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Water allocation among human and natural resource uses in the American West is challenging. Western rivers have been largely managed for hydropower, irrigation, drinking water, and navigation. Today land and water use practices have gained importance, particularly as aging dams are faced with re-licensing requirements and provisions of the Endangered Species and Clean Water Acts. Rising demand for scarce water heightens the need for scientific research to predict consequences of management actions on habitats, human resource use, and fish and wildlife. Climate change, introduction of invasive species, or restoration of fish passage can have large, landscape-scaled consequences - research must expand to encompass the appropriate scale and by applying multiple scientific disciplines to complex ecosystem challenges improve the adaptive management framework for decision-making.

  10. Study on river regulation measures of dried-up rivers of Haihe River basin, China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jing; Li, Shaoming; Qi, Lan

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the ecological environment of plain rivers within Haihe River basin is questionable because of severe water shortages. Most of the rivers dry up regularly and it is therefore necessary to take measures to improve the river ecological environment. Meanwhile, flood control is the principal function for most of the dried-up rivers, so river regulation works for flood control also should be undertaken. In this paper, some measures of river regulation were selected applied to the Haihe River basin, taking these measures not only ensure the river security but also realize its ecological benefit. Examples of the application of selected measures for the representative rivers, Yongding River and Hutuo River, both located within the Haihe River basin, are also assessed. These measures provide practical solutions to ecological and flood control problems of dried-up rivers, are generic in nature, and could therefore be applied to other same type rivers.

  11. Detection probability of an in-stream passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag detection system for juvenile salmonids in the Klamath River, northern California, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Hayes, Brian; Wright, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    A series of in-stream passive integrated transponder (PIT) detection antennas installed across the Klamath River in August 2010 were tested using tagged fish in the summer of 2011. Six pass-by antennas were constructed and anchored to the bottom of the Klamath River at a site between the Shasta and Scott Rivers. Two of the six antennas malfunctioned during the spring of 2011 and two pass-through antennas were installed near the opposite shoreline prior to system testing. The detection probability of the PIT tag detection system was evaluated using yearling coho salmon implanted with a PIT tag and a radio transmitter and then released into the Klamath River slightly downstream of Iron Gate Dam. Cormack-Jolly-Seber capture-recapture methods were used to estimate the detection probability of the PIT tag detection system based on detections of PIT tags there and detections of radio transmitters at radio-telemetry detection systems downstream. One of the 43 PIT- and radio-tagged fish released was detected by the PIT tag detection system and 23 were detected by the radio-telemetry detection systems. The estimated detection probability of the PIT tag detection system was 0.043 (standard error 0.042). Eight PIT-tagged fish from other studies also were detected. Detections at the PIT tag detection system were at the two pass-through antennas and the pass-by antenna adjacent to them. Above average river discharge likely was a factor in the low detection probability of the PIT tag detection system. High discharges dislodged two power cables leaving 12 meters of the river width unsampled for PIT detections and resulted in water depths greater than the read distance of the antennas, which allowed fish to pass over much of the system with little chance of being detected. Improvements in detection probability may be expected under river discharge conditions where water depth over the antennas is within maximum read distance of the antennas. Improvements also may be expected if

  12. Plan Could Protect Klamath Fish and Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Klamath River basin fish and farms in Oregon and California both could be protected, according to a 21 October report by the U.S. National Research Council. The report, by a committee of the Council's Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, calls for protecting three imperiled fish species through the removal of some dams which serve as migration obstacles, habitat improvement, and measures to stem the loss of stream bank vegetation and to lower the summer water temperatures in tributaries. The committee found that maintaining water levels and flows higher than those of recent past years would not likely lead to the recovery of two endangered sucker species and a genetically distinct population of Coho salmon that is threatened.

  13. Tritium hydrology of the Mississippi River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michel, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    In the early 1960s, the US Geological Survey began routinely analysing river water samples for tritium concentrations at locations within the Mississippi River basin. The sites included the main stem of the Mississippi River (at Luling Ferry, Louisiana), and three of its major tributaries, the Ohio River (at Markland Dam, Kentucky), the upper Missouri River (at Nebraska City, Nebraska) and the Arkansas River (near Van Buren, Arkansas). The measurements cover the period during the peak of the bomb-produced tritium transient when tritium concentrations in precipitation rose above natural levels by two to three orders of magnitude. Using measurements of tritium concentrations in precipitation, a tritium input function was established for the river basins above the Ohio River, Missouri River and Arkansas River sampling locations. Owing to the extent of the basin above the Luling Ferry site, no input function was developed for that location. The input functions for the Ohio and Missouri Rivers were then used in a two-component mixing model to estimate residence times of water within these two basins. (The Arkansas River was not modelled because of extremely large yearly variations in flow during the peak of the tritium transient.) The two components used were: (i) recent precipitation (prompt outflow) and (ii) waters derived from the long-term groundwater reservoir of the basin. The tritium concentration of the second component is a function of the atmospheric input and the residence times of the groundwaters within the basin. Using yearly time periods, the parameters of the model were varied until a best fit was obtained between modelled and measured tritium data. The results from the model indicate that about 40% of the flow in the Ohio River was from prompt outflow, as compared with 10% for the Missouri River. Mean residence times of 10 years were calculated for the groundwater component of the Ohio River versus 4 years for the Missouri River. The mass flux of

  14. Metabolic principles of river basin organization.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Caylor, Kelly K; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2011-07-19

    The metabolism of a river basin is defined as the set of processes through which the basin maintains its structure and responds to its environment. Green (or biotic) metabolism is measured via transpiration and blue (or abiotic) metabolism through runoff. A principle of equal metabolic rate per unit area throughout the basin structure is developed and tested in a river basin characterized by large heterogeneities in precipitation, vegetation, soil, and geomorphology. This principle is suggested to have profound implications for the spatial organization of river basin hydrologic dynamics, including the minimization of energy expenditure known to control the scale-invariant characteristics of river networks over several orders of magnitude. Empirically derived, remarkably constant rates of average transpiration per unit area through the basin structure lead to a power law for the probability distribution of transpiration from a randomly chosen subbasin. The average runoff per unit area, evaluated for subbasins of a wide range of topological magnitudes, is also shown to be remarkably constant independently of size. A similar result is found for the rainfall after accounting for canopy interception. Allometric scaling of metabolic rates with size, variously addressed in the biological literature and network theory under the label of Kleiber's law, is similarly derived. The empirical evidence suggests that river basin metabolic activity is linked with the spatial organization that takes place around the drainage network and therefore with the mechanisms responsible for the fractal geometry of the network, suggesting a new coevolutionary framework for biological, geomorphological, and hydrologic dynamics.

  15. Metabolic principles of river basin organization.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Caylor, Kelly K; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2011-07-19

    The metabolism of a river basin is defined as the set of processes through which the basin maintains its structure and responds to its environment. Green (or biotic) metabolism is measured via transpiration and blue (or abiotic) metabolism through runoff. A principle of equal metabolic rate per unit area throughout the basin structure is developed and tested in a river basin characterized by large heterogeneities in precipitation, vegetation, soil, and geomorphology. This principle is suggested to have profound implications for the spatial organization of river basin hydrologic dynamics, including the minimization of energy expenditure known to control the scale-invariant characteristics of river networks over several orders of magnitude. Empirically derived, remarkably constant rates of average transpiration per unit area through the basin structure lead to a power law for the probability distribution of transpiration from a randomly chosen subbasin. The average runoff per unit area, evaluated for subbasins of a wide range of topological magnitudes, is also shown to be remarkably constant independently of size. A similar result is found for the rainfall after accounting for canopy interception. Allometric scaling of metabolic rates with size, variously addressed in the biological literature and network theory under the label of Kleiber's law, is similarly derived. The empirical evidence suggests that river basin metabolic activity is linked with the spatial organization that takes place around the drainage network and therefore with the mechanisms responsible for the fractal geometry of the network, suggesting a new coevolutionary framework for biological, geomorphological, and hydrologic dynamics. PMID:21670259

  16. Hydroclimatic and landscape controls on phosphorus loads to hypereutrophic Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Records, R.; Fassnacht, S. R.; Arabi, M.; Duffy, W. G.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated total phosphorus (P) loading into Upper Klamath Lake, southern Oregon, United States has caused hypereutrophic conditions impacting endangered lake fish species. Increases in P loading have been attributed to land use changes, such as timber harvest and wetland drainage. The contribution of P to Upper Klamath Lake has been estimated from each major tributary, yet little research has explored what land use or other variables have most influence on P loading within the tributaries. In addition, previous work has shown a range of potential hydroclimatic shifts by the 2040s, with potential to alter P loading mechanisms. In this study, we use statistical methods including principle component analysis and multiple linear regression to determine what hydroclimatic and landscape variables best explain flow-weighted P concentration in the Sprague River, one of three main tributaries to Upper Klamath Lake. Identification of key variables affecting P loading has direct implications for management decisions in the Upper Klamath River Basin. Increases in P loading related to sediment loading are due to bank and upslope erosion. The former is more prevalent in areas of historic channel alteration and cattle grazing, while the latter is more dominant in areas of heavy timber harvesting and more precipitation as rain.

  17. Tagging age-1 Lost River and shortnose suckers with passive integrated transponders, Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon–Summary of 2009–11 effort

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.

    2012-01-01

    A passive integrated transponder (PIT) tagging study was initiated in 2009 for age-1 endangered Lost River and shortnose suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, for the purpose of examining causes of mortality, validating estimated age to maturity, and examining movement patterns. This study, which was done opportunistically in 2009 and 2010, received funding in 2011 for a directed tagging effort. Tags were redetected using an existing infrastructure of remote PIT tag readers and tag scanning surveys at American white pelican and double-crested cormorant breeding and loafing areas. Individual fish histories are used to describe the distance, direction, and timing of age-1 sucker movement. Sucker PIT tag detections in the Sprague and Williamson rivers in mid-summer and in autumn indicate age-1 suckers use these tributaries outside of the known spring spawning season. PIT tags detected in bird habitats indicate predation by birds may have been a cause of mortality in 2009. Field conditions prevented scanning bird breeding and loafing areas in Upper Klamath Wildlife National Refuge for tags in 2011, however, limiting our ability to make inferences about bird predation in those years.

  18. Rivers Run Through It: Discovering the Interior Columbia River Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Shelley; Wojtanik, Brenda Lincoln; Rieben, Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    Explores the Columbia River Basin, its ecosystems, and challenges faced by natural resource managers. By studying the basin's complexity, students can learn about common scientific concepts such as the power of water and effects of rain shadows. Students can also explore social-scientific issues such as conflicts between protecting salmon runs and…

  19. Fishes of the White River basin, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crawford, Charles G.; Lydy, Michael J.; Frey, Jeffrey W.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1875, researchers have reported 158 species of fish belonging to 25 families in the White River Basin. Of these species, 6 have not been reported since 1900 and 10 have not been reported since 1943. Since the 1820's, fish communities in the White River Basin have been affected by the alteration of stream habitat, overfishing, the introduction of non-native species, agriculture, and urbanization. Erosion resulting from conversion of forest land to cropland in the 1800's led to siltation of streambeds and resulted in the loss of some silt-sensitive species. In the early 1900's, the water quality of the White River was seriously degraded for 100 miles by untreated sewage from the City of Indianapolis. During the last 25 years, water quality in the basin has improved because of efforts to control water pollution. Fish communities in the basin have responded favorably to the improved water quality.

  20. Paraguay river basin response to seasonal rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krepper, Carlos M.; García, Norberto O.; Jones, Phil D.

    2006-07-01

    The use of river flow as a surrogate to study climatic variability implies the assumption that changes in rainfall are mirrored and likely amplified in streamflow. This is probably not completely true in large basins, particularly those that encompass different climatic regions, like the Paraguay river basin. Not all the signals present in precipitation are reflected in river flow and vice versa. The complex relationship between precipitation and streamflow could filter some signals and introduce new oscillatory modes in the discharge series. In this study the whole basin (1 095 000 km2) was divided into two sub-basins. The upper basin is upstream of the confluence with the River Apa and the lower basin is between the Apa river confluence and the Puerto Bermejo measuring station. The rainfall contribution shows a clear wet season from October to March and a dry season from April to September. A singular spectrum analysis (SSA) shows that there are trends in rainfall contributions over the upper and lower basins. Meanwhile, the lower basin only presents a near-decadal cycle (T 10 years). To determine the flow response to seasonal rainfall contributions, an SSA was applied to seasonal flow discharges at Puerto Bermejo. The seasonal flows, Q(t)O-M and Q(t)A-S, present high significant modes in the low-frequency band, like positive trends. In addition, Q(t)O-M presents a near-decadal mode, but only significant at the 77% level for short window lengths (M ≤ 15 years). Really, the Paraguay river flow is not a good surrogate to study precipitation variation. The low-frequency signals play an important role in the flow behaviour, especially during extreme events from the second half of the last century onwards.

  1. South Fork Holston River basin 1988 biomonitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Saylor, C.F.; Ahlstedt, S.A.

    1990-06-01

    There is concern over the effects of shifts in land use use practices on the aquatic fauna of streams in the South Fork Holston River basin in northwestern North Carolina and southwestern Virginia. Trout reproduction has noticeably declined in the Watauga River subbasin. The Watauga River and Elk River subbasins have been subjected to commercial and resort development. The Middle fork Holston River and the upper South Fork Holston River subbasins have been affected by agricultural and mining activities, respectively (Cox, 1986). To aid reclamation and management of the South Fork Holston basin, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) biologists conducted biomonitoring--including index of biotic integrity and macroinvertebrate sampling--on the Middle Fork Holston, South Fork Holston, Watauga, and Elk Rivers to assess cumulative impairment related to changes in habitat and pollutant loading in these subbasins. Biomonitoring can detect environmental degradation, help document problem areas, and assist in development of strategies for managing water quality. This report discusses the methods and materials and results of the biomonitoring of South Fork Holston River Basin. 13 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Klamath Mountains study unit, 2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, George Luther; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Klamath Mountains (KLAM) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in Del Norte, Humboldt, Shasta, Siskiyou, Tehama, and Trinity Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was designed to provide a spatially unbiased, statistically robust assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer system. The assessment is based on water-quality data and explanatory factors for groundwater samples collected in 2010 by the USGS from 39 sites and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) water-quality database. The primary aquifer system was defined by the depth intervals of the wells listed in the CDPH water-quality database for the KLAM study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. This study included two types of assessments: (1) a status assessment, which characterized the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements, and (2) an understanding assessment, which evaluated the natural and human factors potentially affecting the groundwater quality. The assessments were intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the KLAM study unit, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentrations

  3. Hotspots within the Transboundary Selenga River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimov, Nikolay; Lychagin, Mikhail; Chalov, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    Gathering the efficient information on water pollution of transboundary river systems remains the crucial task in international water management, environmental pollution control and prevention health problems. Countries, located in the low parts of the river basins, depend on the water strategy and water use in the adjacent countries, located upstream. Surface water pollution is considered to be the most serious problem, facing the above-mentioned countries. Large efforts in terms of field measurement campaigns and (numerical) transport modeling are then typically needed for relevant pollution prediction and prevention. Russian rivers take inflow from 8 neighboring countries. Among them there are 2 developing economies - People Republic of China and Mongolia, which are located in water-scarce areas and thus solve their water-related problems through the consumption of international water. Negative change of water runoff and water quality in the foreign part of transboundary river is appeared inside Russian territory with more or less delay. The transboundary river system of Selenga is particularly challenging, being the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. Selenga River contributes about 50 % of the total inflow into Baikal. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the water quality of the river system. Absence of the single monitoring system and predictive tools for pollutants transport in river system requires large efforts in understanding sources of water pollution and implemented data on the relevant numerical systems for the pollution prediction and prevention. Special investigations in the Selenga river basin (Mongolia and Russia) were done to assess hot spots and understand state-of-the art in sediment load, water chemistry and hydrobiology of transboundary systems

  4. Sediment Transport during Drawdown of the Copco 1 Reservoir on the Klamath River under Dam Removal Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Y.; Greimann, B. P.

    2010-12-01

    Four dams, Iron Gate, Copco 1, Copco 2, and J.C. Boyle on the Klamath River in Oregon and California, are under consideration for possible removal. About 10 million cubic meters of deposits are stored within the four reservoirs. A proposed removal alternative consists of two stages. First, Copco 2 dam is removed as it contains negligible deposits. Second, a concurrent drawdown of the remaining three reservoirs (JC Boyle, Copco 1 and Iron Gate) would commence in late fall or early winter in preparation for the removal of the dams. The deposits have a high water content (~80% by volume) and the majority of the sediment particles are fine-grained (silt and clay). When the deposits are released downstream, high suspended sediment concentrations and their associated biological impacts will be the most likely major concern, while concerns for downstream sediment deposition should be minor. Therefore, a reasonable estimate of the amount of suspended sediment released downstream during drawdown is critical in determining the timing and duration of the drawdown, as well as the drawdown rate selection. There is also interest in determining the best strategies for re-vegetating the reservoir area and recovering a functional riparian corridor in the reservoir area. In this study, a two-dimensional (2D) flow and sediment transport model is developed to simulate the drawdown process of a reservoir in preparation for dam removal. The model is based on the depth-averaged St. Venant equations with the non-equilibrium and multi-size sediment transport equations. Both cohesive and non-cohesive sediments are modeled. The amount of sediment removed from the reservoir and released downstream during reservoir drawdown, as well as the reservoir erosion characteristics for re-vegetation planning, may be computed using the model. Specifically, the 2D model is applied to the Copco 1 reservoir in an attempt to understand the drawdown process and to determine sediment transport under various

  5. Effects of Iron Gate Dam discharge and other factors on the survival and migration of juvenile coho salmon in the lower Klamath River, northern California, 2006-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John; Juhnke, Steven; Stutzer, Greg; Wright, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    Current management of the Klamath River includes prescribed minimum discharges intended partly to increase survival of juvenile coho salmon during their seaward migration in the spring. To determine if fish survival was related to river discharge, we estimated apparent survival and migration rates of yearling coho salmon in the Klamath River downstream of Iron Gate Dam. The primary goals were to determine if discharge at Iron Gate Dam affected coho salmon survival and if results from hatchery fish could be used as a surrogate for the limited supply of wild fish. Fish from hatchery and wild origins that had been surgically implanted with radio transmitters were released into the Klamath River slightly downstream of Iron Gate Dam at river kilometer 309. Tagged fish were used to estimate apparent survival between, and passage rates at, a series of detection sites as far downstream as river kilometer 33. Conclusions were based primarily on data from hatchery fish, because wild fish were only available in 2 of the 4 years of study. Based on an information-theoretic approach, apparent survival of hatchery and wild fish was similar, despite differences in passage rates and timing, and was lowest in the 54 kilometer (km) reach between release and the Scott River. Models representing the hypothesis that a short-term tagging- or handling-related mortality occurred following release were moderately supported by data from wild fish and weakly supported by data from hatchery fish. Estimates of apparent survival of hatchery fish through the 276 km study area ranged from 0.412 (standard error [SE] 0.048) to 0.648 (SE 0.070), depending on the year, and represented an average of 0.790 per 100 km traveled. Estimates of apparent survival of wild fish through the study area were 0.645 (SE 0.058) in 2006 and 0.630 (SE 0.059) in 2009 and were nearly identical to the results from hatchery fish released on the same dates. The data and models examined supported positive effects of water

  6. Modified Streamflows 1990 Level of Irrigation : Missouri, Colorado, Peace and Slave River Basin, 1928-1989.

    SciTech Connect

    A.G. Crook Company; United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1993-07-01

    This report presents data for monthly mean streamflows adjusted for storage change, evaporation, and irrigation, for the years 1928-1990, for the Colorado River Basin, the Missouri River Basin, the Peace River Basin, and the Slave River Basin.

  7. Establishing river basin organisations inVietnam: Red River, Dong Nai River and Lower Mekong Delta.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P; Wright, G

    2001-01-01

    River basin management is receiving considerable attention at present. Part of the debate, now occurring worldwide, concerns the nature of the organisations that are required to manage river basins successfully, and whether special-purpose river basin organisations (RBOs) are always necessary and in what circumstance they are likely to (i) add to the management of the water resources and (ii) be successful. The development of river basin management requires a number of important elements to be developed to a point where the river basin can be managed successfully. These include the relevant laws, the public and non-government institutions, the technical capabilities of the people, the understanding and motivation of people, and the technical capacity and systems, including information. A river basin organisation (or RBO) is taken to mean a special-purpose organisation charged with some part of the management of the water resources of a particular river basin. Generally speaking, such organisations are responsible for various functions related to the supply, distribution, protection and allocation of water, and their boundaries follow the watershed of the river in question. However, the same functions can be carried out by various organisations, which are not configured on the geographical boundaries of a river basin. This paper outlines recent work on river basin organisation in Vietnam, and makes some comparisons with the situation in Australia.

  8. RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Caldwell

    1998-04-01

    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies to

  9. Water Quality in the Yukon River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Hooper, Rick; Landa, Ed

    2001-01-01

    The Yukon River Basin, which encompasses 330,000 square miles in northwestern Canada and central Alaska (Fig. 1), is one of the largest and most diverse ecosystems in North America. The Yukon River is also fundamental to the ecosystems of the eastern Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea, providing most of the freshwater runoff, sediments, and dissolved solutes. Despite its remoteness and perceived invulnerability, the Yukon River Basin is changing. For example, records of air temperature during 1961-1990 indicate a warming trend of about 0.75 deg C per decade at latitudes where the Yukon River is located. Increases in temperature will have wide-ranging effects on permafrost distribution, glacial runoff and the movement of carbon and nutrients within and from the basin. In addition, Alaska has many natural resources such as timber, minerals, gas, and oil that may be developed in future years. As a consequence of these changes, several issues of scientific and cultural concern have come to the forefront. At present, water quality data for the Yukon River Basin are very limited. This fact sheet describes a program to provide the data that are needed to address these issues.

  10. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Klamath Mountains study unit, 2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, George Luther; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Klamath Mountains (KLAM) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in Del Norte, Humboldt, Shasta, Siskiyou, Tehama, and Trinity Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was designed to provide a spatially unbiased, statistically robust assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer system. The assessment is based on water-quality data and explanatory factors for groundwater samples collected in 2010 by the USGS from 39 sites and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) water-quality database. The primary aquifer system was defined by the depth intervals of the wells listed in the CDPH water-quality database for the KLAM study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. This study included two types of assessments: (1) a status assessment, which characterized the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements, and (2) an understanding assessment, which evaluated the natural and human factors potentially affecting the groundwater quality. The assessments were intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the KLAM study unit, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentrations

  11. River basins of the United States: the Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1987-01-01

    This leaflet, one of a series on the river basins of the United States, contains information on the Colorado River Basin, including a brief early history, a description of the physical characteristics, and other statistical data. At present, other river basins included in the series are The Columbia, The Delaware, The Hudson, The Potomac, and The Wabash.

  12. 75 FR 66389 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  13. 76 FR 61382 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. ] SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  14. 76 FR 24515 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of... Committee Act, the Bureau of Reclamation announces that the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory...) 524-3826; e-mail at: kjacobson@usbr.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Colorado River Basin...

  15. The "normal" elongation of river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelltort, Sebastien

    2013-04-01

    The spacing between major transverse rivers at the front of Earth's linear mountain belts consistently scales with about half of the mountain half-width [1], despite strong differences in climate and rock uplift rates. Like other empirical measures describing drainage network geometry this result seems to indicate that the form of river basins, among other properties of landscapes, is invariant. Paradoxically, in many current landscape evolution models, the patterns of drainage network organization, as seen for example in drainage density and channel spacing, seem to depend on both climate [2-4] and tectonics [5]. Hovius' observation [1] is one of several unexplained "laws" in geomorphology that still sheds mystery on how water, and rivers in particular, shape the Earth's landscapes. This narrow range of drainage network shapes found in the Earth's orogens is classicaly regarded as an optimal catchment geometry that embodies a "most probable state" in the uplift-erosion system of a linear mountain belt. River basins currently having an aspect away from this geometry are usually considered unstable and expected to re-equilibrate over geological time-scales. Here I show that the Length/Width~2 aspect ratio of drainage basins in linear mountain belts is the natural expectation of sampling a uniform or normal distribution of basin shapes, and bears no information on the geomorphic processes responsible for landscape development. This finding also applies to Hack's [6] law of river basins areas and lengths, a close parent of Hovius' law. [1]Hovius, N. Basin Res. 8, 29-44 (1996) [2]Simpson, G. & Schlunegger, F. J. Geophys. Res. 108, 2300 (2003) [3]Tucker, G. & Bras, R. Water Resour. Res. 34, 2751-2764 (1998) [4]Tucker, G. & Slingerland, R. Water Resour. Res. 33, 2031-2047 (1997) [5]Tucker, G. E. & Whipple, K. X. J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1-1 (2002) [6]Hack, J. US Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 294-B (1957)

  16. Demographics and run timing of adult Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose (Chasmistes brevirostris) suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hewitt, David A.; Janney, Eric C.; Hayes, Brian S.; Harris, Alta C.

    2012-01-01

    Despite relatively high survival in most years, both species have experienced substantial declines in the abundance of spawning fish because losses from mortality have not been balanced by recruitment of new individuals. Although capture-recapture data indicate substantial recruitment of new individuals into the adult spawning populations for SNS and river spawning LRS in some years, size data do not corroborate these estimates. In fact, fork length data indicate that all populations are largely comprised of fish that were present in the late 1990s and early 2000s. As a result, the status of the endangered sucker populations in Upper Klamath Lake remains worrisome, and the situation is most dire for shortnose suckers. Future investigations should explore the connections between sucker recruitment and survival and various environmental factors, such as water quality and disease. Our monitoring program provides a robust platform for estimating vital population parameters, evaluating the status of the populations, and assessing the effectiveness of conservation and recovery efforts.

  17. Central Mississippi River Basin LTAR site overview

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Central Mississippi River Basin (CMRB) member of the Long-Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) network is representative of the southern Corn Belt, where subsoil clay content makes tile drainage challenging and make surface runoff and associated erosion problematic. Substantial research infrastru...

  18. Nutrient levels in the Yazoo River Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loadings to aquatic ecosystems are linked to environmental problems including harmful algal blooms and hypoxia. Presented is an assessment of accessible data on nutrient sources, sinks and inputs to streams within the Yazoo River Basin of northern Mississippi. Ac...

  19. Physical habitat predictors of Manayunkia speciosa distribution in the Klamath River and implications for management of Ceratomyxa shasta, a parasite with a complex life cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, M. S.; Alexander, J. D.; Grant, G. E.; Bartholomew, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Management strategies for parasites with complex life cycles may target not the parasite itself, but one of the alternate hosts. One approach is to decrease habitat for the alternate host, and in river systems flow manipulations may be employed. Two-dimensional hydraulic models can be powerful tools for predicting the relationship between flow alterations and changes in physical habit, however they require a rigorous definition of physical habitat for the organism of interest. We present habitat characterization data for the case of the alternate host of a salmonid parasite and introduce how it will be used in conjunction with a 2-dimensional hydraulic model. Ceratomyxa shasta is a myxozoan parasite of salmonids that requires a freshwater polychaete Manayunkia speciosa to complete its life cycle. Manayunkia speciosa is a small (3mm) benthic filter-feeding worm that attaches itself perpendicularly to substrate through construction of a flexible tube. In the Klamath River, CA/OR, C. shasta causes significant juvenile salmon mortality, imposing social and economic losses on commercial, sport and tribal fisheries. An interest in manipulating habitat for the polychaete host to decrease the abundance of C. shasta has therefore developed. Unfortunately, there are limited data on the habitat requirements of M. speciosa or the influence of streamflow regime and hydraulics on population dynamics and infection prevalence. This work aims to address these data needs by identifying physical habitat variables that influence the distribution of M. speciosa and determining the relationship between those variables, M. speciosa population density, and C. shasta infection prevalence. Biological samples were collected from nine sites representing three river features (runs, pools, and eddies) within the Klamath River during the summer and fall of 2010 and 2011. Environmental data including depth, velocity, and substrate, were collected at each polychaete sampling location. We tested

  20. Hydrological Modelling of Ganga River basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, J.; Gosain, A. K.; Khosa, R.

    2015-12-01

    Application of a hydrological model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to the Ganga basin having a total drainage area of around 1.08 M sq. km extending over Tibet, Nepal, India and Bangladesh has been made. The model is calibrated to determine the spatial deviations in runoff at sub-basin level, and to capture the water balance of the river basin. Manual calibration approach was used for calibrating the SWAT model by following multi-step procedure to get to the realistic present situation as close as possible. Simulations were then further made with and without proposed future projects to obtain various scenarios. The various statistical parameters used for the evaluation of the monthly runoff simulation showed that SWAT performed well in mimicking the monthly stream flow for Ganga River basin. The model under predicted the flows in the non-perennial region during non-monsoon season, due to low rainfall and regulated flows and seepage taking place from the reservoirs. The impacts of the interventions, both existing as well as proposed, on the water balance of the basin were evaluated and quantified. The derived results suggest that there is a substantial reduction in overall water resources availability in the study basin on account of the current level of development and further, future developments, as are being proposed, may require a careful study of their potential impact on currently sanctioned water use. The present study showcases that efficacy of the model for simulating the stream flow is admirable.

  1. Sediment fluxes in transboundary Selenga river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belozerova, Ekaterina

    2013-04-01

    Gathering reliable information on transboundary river systems remains a crucial task for international water management and environmental pollution control. Countries located in the lower parts of the river basins depend on water use and management strategies in adjacent upstream countries. One important issue in this context is sediment transport and associated contaminant fluxes across the state borders. The mass flows of dissolved ions, biogens, heavy metal concentrations, as far as suspended sediment concentration (SSC, mg/l) along upper Selenga river and its tributaries based on the literature review and results of field campaigns 2011-2012 were estimated. Based on the water discharges measurements Q, suspended load WR (t/day) and dissolved loads WL were calculated. In the Selenga basin the minimal WR (1,34-3,74 t/day) were found at small rivers. Maximal sediment loads (WR = 15 000 t/day) were found at the upper Orkhon river during flood event. The downstream point (Mongolia-Russia border) was characterized 2 220 t/day in 2011. Generally the prevalence of the accumulation is found through calculating sediment budget for all rivers (ΔW = WR (downstream) - WR (upstream) < 0). Downstream of Orkhon river (below confluence with Tuul) ΔW = - 1145 t/day. Below Selenga-Orkhon confluence sediment yield reached 2515 t/day, which is corresponded to transboundary sediment flux. Silt sediments (0,001 - 0,05 mm) form the main portion of the transported material. The maximal value of sand flux (302 t/day) was reported for middle stream station of Selenga river (upstream from confluence with Orkhon). The increase of human activities (mining and pastures) increases the portion of clay particles in total sediment load (e.g. at the downstream point of most polluted Orkhon river it reached 207,8 t/day). The existed estimates are compared with distribution of the main matter sources within basin: mining and industry, river-bank erosion and slope wash. The heaviest increase of

  2. Spring and Summer Spatial Distribution of Endangered Juvenile Lost River and Shortnose Suckers in Relation to Environmental Variables in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon: 2007 Annual Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.; VanderKooi, Scott P.; Anderson, Greer O.

    2009-01-01

    Lost River sucker Deltistes luxatus and shortnose sucker Chasmistes brevirostris were listed as endangered in 1988 for a variety of reasons including apparent recruitment failure. Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, and its tributaries are considered the most critical remaining habitat for these two species. Age-0 suckers are often abundant in Upper Klamath Lake throughout the summer months, but catches decline dramatically between late August and early September each year, and age-1 and older subadult suckers are rare. These rapid declines in catch rates and a lack of substantial recruitment into adult sucker populations in recent years suggests sucker populations experience high mortality between their first summer and first spawn. A lack of optimal rearing habitat may exacerbate juvenile sucker mortality or restrict juvenile growth or development. In 2007, we continued research on juvenile sucker habitat use begun by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2001. Age-0 catch rates in 2006 were more than an order of magnitude greater than in previous years, which prompted us to refocus our research from age-0 suckers to age-1 sucker distributions and habitat use. We took a two-phased approach to our research in 2007 that included preliminary spring sampling and intense summer sampling components. Spring sampling was a pilot study designed to gather baseline data on the distribution of age-1 suckers as they emerge from winter in shoreline environments throughout Upper Klamath Lake (Chapter 1). Whereas, summer sampling was designed to quantitatively estimate the influence of environmental variables on age-0 and age-1 sucker distribution throughout Upper Klamath Lake, while accounting for imperfect detection (Chapter 2). In addition to these two components, we began a project to evaluate passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag loss and the effects of PIT tags on mortality of age-1 Lost River suckers (Chapter 3). The spring pilot study built the foundation for future research

  3. Controls on River Longitudinal Profiles: Waipaoa River Basin, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, D. M.; Gomez, B.

    2006-12-01

    In a regional sense, rivers adjust their gradient to discharge and the character of the rock or sediment that forms the channel boundary. Accordingly, as J.T. Hack demonstrated, rivers of the same size flowing across similar substrates tend to have similar profiles. The neighboring 222 km2 Mangatu and 239 km2 Upper Waipaoa catchments in the headwaters of the Waipaoa River basin, New Zealand, offer an ideal setting in which to examine the interaction of these and other variables on river longitudinal profiles. These two catchments are not only under laid by similar lithologies, but also have been subjected to a similar climatic regime and have experienced a similar rate of uplift during the past ~15 kyr. There is also little difference in total-relief, drainage density and the frequency distribution of slope angles between the two catchments, or in the median size of sediment present along the main stream channels. Yet, despite these similarities, the longitudinal profiles of the Mangatu and Upper Waipaoa rivers are quite different, and the upper reaches of the main stream in latter catchment are ~100-m lower than adjacent reaches along the neighboring Mangatu River. We attribute the difference in the longitudinal profiles to the way in which discharge increases in a downstream direction along the two rivers. Simply put, in the Mangatu catchment drainage area increases much more slowly with main stream channel length than it does in the Upper Waipaoa catchment. In the absence of obvious differences in the regional environment, the observed difference between the longitudinal profiles of similar sized rivers in neighboring basins serves to emphasize that the distribution of energy in the stream-channel system is dependent on the structure of the drainage network, and that an orderly empirical relationship between drainage basin area and the length of the main stream channel may not always apply.

  4. Yazoo River Basin (Lower Mississippi River) Hydrologic Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, A.; Davidson, G.; Altinakar, M.; Holt, R.

    2004-12-01

    The proposed Yazoo River Basin Hydrologic Observatory consists of the 34,000 square km Yazoo River watershed in northwestern Mississippi and a 320 km segment of the Mississippi River separated from the watershed by a manmade levee. Discharge from the basin flows from the Yazoo River into the Mississippi River north of Vicksburg, MS. Major streams within the basin include the Yazoo, Tallahatchie, Yalobusha, Coldwater, Yocona, and Big Sunflower Rivers. Four large flood control reservoirs (Arkabutla, Enid, Sardis, and Grenada) and two national forests (Delta and Holly Springs) are also located within the basin. The watershed is divided between upland forested hills and intensively cultivated lowlands. The lowland area, locally known as the "Delta", lies on the ancestral floodplain of the Mississippi River. Flooding by the Mississippi River was once a common event, but is now limited by the levee system. Abundant wetlands occupy abandoned stream channels throughout the Delta. The Yazoo River Basin has many unique features that make it an attractive site for an Hydrologic Observatory. Example features and issues of scientific interest include: 1) Extensive system of levees which have altered recharge to the regional aquifer, shifted population centers, and created backwater flooding areas. 2) Abundant wetlands with a century-long history of response to agricultural sediment and chemical fluxes. 3) Erosion of upland streams, and stream sediment loads that are the highest in the nation. 4) Groundwater mining in spite of abundant precipitation due to a regional surface clay layer that limits infiltration. 5) A history of agricultural Best Management Practices enabling evaluation of the effectiveness of such measures. 6) Large scale catfish farming with heavy reliance on groundwater. 7) Near enough to the Gulf coast to be impacted by hurricane events. 8) Already existing network of monitoring stations for stream flow, sediment-load, and weather, including complete coverage

  5. Flood tracking chart, Amite River basin, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Callender, Lawrence; McCallum, Brian E.; Brazelton, Sebastian R.

    1996-01-01

    The Amite River Basin flood tracking chart is designed to assist emergency response officials and the local public in making informed decisions about the safety of life and property during floods along the Amite and Comite Rivers and Bayou Manchac in southeastern Louisiana. This chart is similar in concept to the charts used to track hurricanes; the user can record the latest river stage information at selected gaging stations and the latest flood crest predictions. The latest stage data can be compared to historical flood peaks as well as to the slab or pier elevation of a threatened property. The chart also discusses how to acquire the latest river stage data from the Internet and a recorded voice message.

  6. Flood tracking chart, Amite River Basin, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Callender, Lawrence E.; McCallum, Brian E.; Brazelton, Sebastian R.; Anderson, Mary L.; Ensminger, Paul A.

    1998-01-01

    The Amite River Basin flood tracking chart is designed to assist emergency response officials and the local public in making informed decisions about the safety of life and property during floods along the Amite and Comite Rivers and Bayou Manchac in southeastern Louisiana. This chart is similar in concept to the charts used to track hurricanes; the user can record the latest river stage information at selected gaging stations and the latest flood crest predictions. The latest stage data can be compared to historical flood peaks as well as to the slab or pier elevation of a threatened property. The chart also discusses how to acquire the latest river stage data from the Internet and a recorded voice message.

  7. Mississippi River, Yazoo Basin, Memphis, TN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This section of the lower Mississippi River (34.0N, 90.0W) known as the Yazoo Basin, is characterized by a wide expanse of rich river bottomland with many oxbow lakes, the remains of the many changes in the riverbed over the course of many thousands of years. This soil is very fertile and productive but the region is prone to flooding. In this view, some of the back areas around the Delta National Forest show the effects of heavy spring rains.

  8. Distribution, Health, and Development of Larval and Juvenile Lost River and Shortnose Suckers in the Williamson River Delta Restoration Project and Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon: 2008 Annual Data Summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.; Ottinger, Christopher; Brown, Daniel T.; VanderKooi, Scott P.; Robertson, Laura; Iwanowicz, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Federally endangered Lost River sucker Deltistes luxatus and shortnose sucker Chasmistes brevirostris were once abundant throughout their range but populations have declined; they have been extirpated from several lakes, and may no longer reproduce in others. Poor recruitment into the adult spawning populations is one of several reasons cited for the decline and lack of recovery of these species, and may be the consequence of high mortality during juvenile life stages. High larval and juvenile sucker mortality may be exacerbated by an insufficient quantity of suitable rearing habitat. Within Upper Klamath Lake, a lack of marshes also may allow larval suckers to be swept from suitable rearing areas downstream into the seasonally anoxic waters of the Keno Reservoir. The Nature Conservancy (TNC) flooded about 3,600 acres to the north of the Williamson River mouth (Tulana Unit) in October 2007, and about 1,400 acres to the south and east of the Williamson River mouth (Goose Bay Unit) a year later, to retain larval suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, create nursery habitat for suckers, and improve water quality. In collaboration with TNC, the Bureau of Reclamation, and Oregon State University, we began a long-term collaborative research and monitoring program in 2008 to assess the effects of the Williamson River Delta restoration on the early life-history stages of Lost River and shortnose suckers. Our approach includes two equally important aspects. One component is to describe habitat use and colonization processes by larval and juvenile suckers and non-sucker fish species. The second is to evaluate the effects of the restored habitat on the health and condition of juvenile suckers. This report contains a summary of the first year of data collected as a part of this monitoring effort.

  9. Beryllium isotope geochemistry in tropical river basins

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, E.T.; Edmond, J.M. ); Raisbeck, G.M.; Bourles, D.L.; Yiou, F. ); Measures, C.I. )

    1992-04-01

    The distributions of beryllium-9 and beryllium-10 in rivers within the Orinoco and Amazon basins have been examined to extend the understanding of their geochemical cycles and to develop their use both in geochronometry, and in studying erosional processes. Analyses of {sup 9}Be in dissolved and suspended material from rivers with a wide range of chemical compositions indicate that its geochemistry is primarily controlled by two major factors: (1) its abundance in the rocks of the watershed and (2) the extent of its adsorption onto particle surfaces. The relative importance of these parameters in individual rivers is determined by the extent of interaction with flood-plain sediments and the riverine pH. This understanding of {sup 9}Be geochemistry forms a basis for examination of the geochemical cycling of {sup 10}Be. In rivers which are dominated by interaction with sediments, the riverine concentration of dissolved {sup 10}Be is far lower than that in the incoming rainwater, indicating that a substantial proportion of it is retained within the soils of the basin or is adsorbed onto riverine particles. However, in acidic rivers in which the stable dissolved Be concentration is determined by the Be level in the rocks of the drainage basin, dissolved {sup 10}Be has essentially the same concentration as in precipitation. These observations imply that the soil column in such regions must be saturated with respect to {sup 10}Be, and that the ratio of the inventory to the flux does not represent an age, as may be the case in temperate latitudes, but rather a residence time.

  10. Word Order in Klamath.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundberg, Karen

    The word order in Klamath, a Penutian language of southern Oregon, has been described as almost completely "free". The language is examined in terms of the effect of the relative topicality of arguments on their position preceding or following the verb. The database used for this study consisted of seven Klamath texts from Barker (1963): five…

  11. Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, P. M.; Duffy, C. J.; Dressler, K. A.

    2004-12-01

    In response to the NSF-CUAHSI initiative for a national network of Hydrologic Observatories, we propose to initiate the Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS), as the northeast node. The Susquehanna has a drainage area of 71, 410 km2. From the headwaters near Cooperstown, NY, the river is formed within the glaciated Appalachian Plateau physiographic province, crossing the Valley and Ridge, then the Piedmont, before finishing its' 444 mile journey in the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay. The Susquehanna is the major source of water and nutrients to the Chesapeake. It has a rich history in resource development (logging, mining, coal, agriculture, urban and heavy industry), with an unusual resilience to environmental degradation, which continues today. The shallow Susquehanna is one of the most flood-ravaged rivers in the US with a decadal regularity of major damage from hurricane floods and rain-on-snow events. As a result of this history, it has an enormous infrastructure for climate, surface water and groundwater monitoring already in place, including the nations only regional groundwater monitoring system for drought detection. Thirty-six research institutions have formed the SRBHOS partnership to collaborate on a basin-wide network design for a new scientific observing system. Researchers at the partner universities have conducted major NSF research projects within the basin, setting the stage and showing the need for a new terrestrial hydrologic observing system. The ultimate goal of SRBHOS is to close water, energy and solute budgets from the boundary layer to the water table, extending across plot, hillslope, watershed, and river basin scales. SRBHOS is organized around an existing network of testbeds (legacy watershed sites) run by the partner universities, and research institutions. The design of the observing system, when complete, will address fundamental science questions within major physiographic regions of the basin. A nested

  12. Scaling issues in sustainable river basin management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmerman, Jos; Froebich, Jochen

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable river basin management implies considering the whole river basin when managing the water resources. Management measures target at dividing the water over different uses (nature, agriculture, industry, households) thereby avoiding calamities like having too much, too little or bad quality water. Water management measures are taken at the local level, usually considering the sub-national and sometimes national effects of such measures. A large part of the world's freshwater resources, however, is contained in river basins and groundwater systems that are shared by two or more countries. Sustainable river basin management consequently has to encompass local, regional, national and international scales. This requires coordination over and cooperation between these levels that is currently compressed into the term 'water governance' . Governance takes into account that a large number of stakeholders in different regimes (the principles, rules and procedures that steer management) contribute to policy and management of a resource. Governance includes the increasing importance of basically non-hierarchical modes of governing, where non-state actors (formal organizations like NGOs, private companies, consumer associations, etc.) participate in the formulation and implementation of public policy. Land use determines the run-off generation and use of irrigation water. Land use is increasingly determined by private sector initiatives at local scale. This is a complicating factor in the governance issue, as in comparison to former developments of large scale irrigation systems, planning institutions at state level have then less insight on actual water consumption. The water management regime of a basin consequently has to account for the different scales of water management and within these different scales with both state and non-state actors. The central elements of regimes include the policy setting (the policies and water management strategies), legal setting

  13. Frost risks in the Mantaro river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trasmonte, G.; Chavez, R.; Segura, B.; Rosales, J. L.

    2008-04-01

    As part of the study on the Mantaro river basin's (central Andes of Perú) current vulnerability to climate change, the temporal and spatial characteristics of frosts were analysed. These characteristics included intensity, frequency, duration, frost-free periods, area distribution and historical trends. Maps of frost risk were determined for the entire river basin, by means of mathematical algorithms and GIS (Geographic Information Systems) tools, using minimum temperature - 1960 to 2002 period, geomorphology, slope, land-use, types of soils, vegetation and life zones, emphasizing the rainy season (September to April), when the impacts of frost on agriculture are most severe. We recognized four categories of frost risks: low, moderate, high and critical. The critical risks (with a very high probability of occurrence) were related to high altitudes on the basin (altitudes higher than 3800 m a.s.l.), while the low (or null) probability of occurring risks were found in the lower zones (less than 2500 m a.s.l.). Because of the very intense agricultural activity and the high sensitivity of the main crops (Maize, potato, artichoke) in the Mantaro valley (altitudes between 3100 and 3300 m a.s.l.), moderate to high frost risks can be expected, with a low to moderate probability of occurrence. Another significant result was a positive trend of 8 days per decade in the number of frost days during the rainy season.

  14. Quality of water, Quillayute River basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fretwell, M.O.

    1984-01-01

    Groundwater in Quillayute River basin is generally of the calcium bicarbonate type, although water from some wells is affected by seawater intrusion and is predominantly of the sodium chloride type. The water is generally of excellent quality for most uses. River-water quality was generally excellent, as evaluated against Washington State water-use and water-quality criteria. Fecal coliform concentrations in all major tributaries met State water-quality criteria; water temperatures occasionally exceeded criteria maximum during periods of warm weather and low streamflow. Nutrient concentrations were generally low to very low. The four largest lakes in the basin were temperature-stratified in summer and one had an algal bloom. The Quillayute estuary had salt-wedge mixing characteristics; pollutants entering the salt wedge tended to spread to the toe of the wedge. Upwelling ocean water was the major cause of the low dissolved-oxygen concentrations observed in the estuary; ammonia concentrations in the estuary, however, were increased by the upwelling ocean waters. As in the rivers, total-coliform bacteria concentrations in the estuary were greater than fecal-coliform concentrations, indicating that many of the bacteria were of nonfecal origin and probably originated from soils. (USGS)

  15. Health and condition of endangered juvenile Lost River and shortnose suckers relative to water quality and fish assemblages in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, and Clear Lake Reservoir, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.; Elliott, Diane G.; Ostberg, Carl O.; Conway, Carla M.; Dolan-Caret, Amari; Hoy, Marshal S.; Feltz, Kevin P.; Echols, Kathy R.

    2015-01-01

    Differences in sucker health and condition between lakes were considered the most promising clues to the causes of differential juvenile sucker morality between lakes. A low prevalence of petechial hemorrhaging of the skin (16 percent) and deformed opercula (8 percent) in Upper Klamath Lake suckers may indicate exposure to a toxin other than microcystin. Suckers grew slower in their first year of life, but had similar or greater triglyceride and glycogen levels in Upper Klamath Lake compared to Clear Lake Reservoir. These findings do not suggest a lack of prey quantity but may indicate lower prey quality in Upper Klamath Lake.

  16. Health and condition of endangered juvenile Lost River and shortnose suckers relative to water quality and fish assemblages in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, and Clear Lake Reservoir, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.; Elliott, Diane G.; Ostberg, Carl O.; Conway, Carla M.; Dolan-Caret, Amari; Hoy, Marshal S.; Feltz, Kevin P.; Echols, Kathy R.

    2015-11-25

    Differences in sucker health and condition between lakes were considered the most promising clues to the causes of differential juvenile sucker morality between lakes. A low prevalence of petechial hemorrhaging of the skin (16 percent) and deformed opercula (8 percent) in Upper Klamath Lake suckers may indicate exposure to a toxin other than microcystin. Suckers grew slower in their first year of life, but had similar or greater triglyceride and glycogen levels in Upper Klamath Lake compared to Clear Lake Reservoir. These findings do not suggest a lack of prey quantity but may indicate lower prey quality in Upper Klamath Lake.

  17. Institutional networks and adaptive water governance in the Klamath River Basin, USA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polycentric networks of formal organizations and informal stakeholder groups, as opposed to centralized institutional hierarchies, can be critically important for strengthening the capacity of governance systems to adapt to unexpected social and biophysical change. Adaptive gover...

  18. The Piracicaba River basin: isotope hydrology of a tropical river basin under anthropogenic stress.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Luiz A; Gat, Joel R; de Camargo, Plínio B; Lara, Lucienne L; Ometto, Jean P H B

    2004-03-01

    The stable isotope content of samples of precipitation and of the river water throughout the Piracicaba basin in Brazil was measured over a two-year period. The isotope values of precipitation follow a consistent pattern of relatively depleted values of both deuterium and oxygen 18 during the rainy summers and enriched ones during the dry winters, with all values aligned slightly above the Global Meteoric Water Line. The isotopic composition of the river water throughout the basin shows a remarkable spatial coherence and much smaller scatter of data than those of the precipitation. The isotope composition of river water is close to that of the precipitation in the rainy season, however, with a consistent lower d-excess value by 1/1000-2/1000. This is attributed to evaporative water loss in the basin, in part an expression of the recycling of water due to the anthropogenic activity in the region. The more divergent values are recorded during high-water stages in the rivers. In many cases, the floods during the beginning of the rainy season are characterized by an enrichment of the heavy isotopes and lower d-excess values when compared to the precipitation, with the opposite situation later in the rainy season. This is interpreted as resulting from the watershed/riverflow interaction pattern, and it thus suggests that the isotope composition can monitor the hydrologic situation in the basin and its changes.

  19. Powder River Basin: new energy frontier

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, B.

    1981-02-01

    The Powder River Basin in Wyoming represents a new energy frontier, where traditional ranch styles are giving way to boomtown development around new coal mines. Plans for extensive strip mining, coal trains and pipelines, and synthetic fuels plants will transform a 12,000 square mile area. The environmental and social impacts of trailer villages and the influx of new mores and life styles are already following traditional patterns for newcomers and long-time residents alike. Some local residents, however, are optimistic about the opportunities energy development will have. (DCK)

  20. Simulation and validation of larval sucker dispersal and retention through the restored Williamson River Delta and Upper Klamath Lake system, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Tamara M.; Hendrixson, Heather A.; Markle, Douglas F.; Erdman, Charles S.; Burdick, Summer M.; Ellsworth, Craig M.

    2014-01-01

    A hydrodynamic model with particle tracking was used to create individual-based simulations to describe larval fish dispersal through the restored Williamson River Delta and into Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. The model was verified by converting particle ages to larval lengths and comparing these lengths to lengths of larvae in net catches. Correlations of simulated lengths with field data were moderate and suggested a species-specific difference in model performance. Particle trajectories through the delta were affected by wind speed and direction, lake elevation, and shoreline configuration. Once particles entered the lake, transport was a function of current speed and whether behavior enhanced transport (swimming aligned with currents) or countered transport through greater dispersal (faster random swimming). We tested sensitivity to swim speed (higher speeds led to greater dispersal and more retention), shoreline configuration (restoration increased retention relative to pre-restoration conditions), and lake elevation (retention was maximized at an intermediate elevation). The simulations also highlight additional biological questions, such as the extent to which spatially heterogeneous mortality or fish behavior and environmental cues could interact with wind-driven currents and contribute to patterns of dispersal.

  1. Survival and Migration Behavior of Juvenile Coho Salmon in the Klamath River Relative to Discharge at Iron Gate Dam, Northern California, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Juhnke, Steve; Stutzer, Greg; Hetrick, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    This report describes a study of survival and migration behavior of radio-tagged juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in the Klamath River, northern California, in 2007. This was the third year of a multi-year study with the goal of determining the effects of discharge at Iron Gate Dam (IGD) on survival of juvenile coho salmon downstream. Survival and factors affecting survival were estimated in 2006 and 2007 after work in 2005 showed radio telemetry could be used effectively. The study has included collaborative efforts among U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Karuk and Yurok Tribal Fisheries Departments, and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. The objectives of the study included: (1) estimating the survival of wild and hatchery juvenile coho salmon in the Klamath River downstream of Iron Gate Dam, determining the effects of discharge and other covariates on juvenile coho salmon survival (2) and migration (3), and (4) determining if fish from Iron Gate Hatchery (IGH) could be used as surrogates for the limited source of wild fish. We have been able to meet the first objective by estimating the survivals of hatchery and wild fish (when available) downstream of IGD. We have not yet met the second or third objectives, because we have been unable to separate effects of discharge from other environmental variables as they pertain to the survival or migration of juvenile coho salmon. This was foreseen when the study began, as it was known there would likely be no experimental discharges. A multi-year analysis will be conducted after the data for the third planned year are available. The fourth objective was initiated in 2006, but wild fish were not available in 2007. The next year wild fish may be available is in 2009, based on their 3-year cycle of abundance. River discharges during the 2007 study period (April 10 through July 28, 2007) were below average compared to the period of record beginning in 1962. Average daily

  2. New vitrinite reflectance data for the Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    The Wind River Basin is a large Laramide (Late Cretaceous through Eocene) structural and sedimentary basin that encompasses about 7,400 square miles in central Wyoming. The basin is bounded by the Washakie Range and Owl Creek and southern Bighorn Mountains on the north, the Casper arch on the east and northeast, and the Granite Mountains on the south, and Wind River Range on the west. The purpose of this report is to present new vitrinite reflectance data collected mainly from Cretaceous marine shales in the Wind River Basin to better characterize their thermal maturity and hydrocarbon potential.

  3. Water - Essential Resource of the Southern Flint River Basin, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, Debbie; Norton, Virgil

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Abundant water resources of the Flint River Basin have played a major role in the history and development of southwestern Georgia. The Flint River-along with its tributaries, wetlands, and swamps-and the productive aquifers of the river basin are essential components of the area's diverse ecosystems. These resources also are necessary for sustained agricultural, industrial, and municipal activities. Increasing, and in some cases conflicting, demand for water makes careful monitoring and wise planning and management of southwestern Georgia's water resources critical to the ecological and economic future of the area. This poster presents the major issues associated with increasing competition for water resources in the southern Flint River Basin.

  4. South Platte River Basin - Colorado, Nebraska, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennehy, Keuin F.; Litke, David W.; Tate, Cathy M.; Heiny, Janet S.

    1993-01-01

    The South Platte River Basin was one of 20 study units selected in 1991 for investigation under the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. One of the initial tasks undertaken by the study unit team was to review the environmental setting of the basin and assemble ancillary data on natural and anthropogenic factors in the basin. The physical, chemical, and biological quality of the water in the South Platte River Basin is explicitly tied to its environmental setting. The resulting water quality is the product of the natural conditions and human factors that make up the environmental setting of the basin.

  5. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  6. The water footprint of agricultural products in European river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanham, D.; Bidoglio, G.

    2014-05-01

    This work quantifies the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod, agr) and consumption (WFcons, agr) and the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi, agr) of 365 European river basins for a reference period (REF, 1996-2005) and two diet scenarios (a healthy diet based upon food-based dietary guidelines (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian (VEG) diet). In addition to total (tot) amounts, a differentiation is also made between the green (gn), blue (bl) and grey (gy) components. River basins where the REF WFcons, agr, tot exceeds the WFprod, agr, tot (resulting in positive netVWi, agr, tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. These include the Thames, Scheldt, Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Po basins. River basins where the WFprod, agr, tot exceeds the WFcons, agr, tot are found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. These include the Loire, Ebro and Nemunas basins. Under the HEALTHY diet scenario, the WFcons, agr, tot of most river basins decreases (max -32%), although it was found to increase in some basins in northern and eastern Europe. This results in 22 river basins, including the Danube, shifting from being net VW importers to being net VW exporters. A reduction (max -46%) in WFcons, agr, tot is observed for all but one river basin under the VEG diet scenario. In total, 50 river basins shift from being net VW importers to being net exporters, including the Danube, Seine, Rhone and Elbe basins. Similar observations are made when only the gn + bl and gn components are assessed. When analysing only the bl component, a different river basin pattern is observed.

  7. Lake Murray, Fly and Strickland River Basins, Papua, New Guinea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Lake Murray, a manmade reservoir, lies between the Fly and Strickland River Basins, Papua, New Guinea (7.0S, 141.5E). The region, photographed in sunglint, shows the water level in the reservoir and the full extent of the drainage basins of both river systems as the rivers meander through wide alluvial floodplains. Some forest clearing can be seen in places throughout the region, but most of the area remains in closed canopy forest.

  8. Modelling sediment input in large river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, U.

    2012-04-01

    Erosion and sediment redistribution play a pivotal role in the terrestrial ecosystem as they directly influence soil functions and water quality. In particular surface waters are threatened by emissions of nutrients and contaminants via erosion. The sustainable management of sediments is thus a key challenge in river basin management. Beside the planning and implementation of mitigation measures typically focusing on small and mesoscale catchments, the knowledge of sediment emissions and associated substances in large drainage basins is of utmost importance for water quality protection of large rivers and the seas. The objective of this study was thus to quantify the sediment input into the large drainage basins of Germany (Rhine, Elbe, Odra, Weser, Ems, Danube) as a basis for nutrient and contaminant emissions via erosion. The sediment input was quantified for all watersheds of Germany and added up along the flow paths of the river systems. Due to the large scale, sediment production within the watersheds was estimated based on the USLE for cultivated land and naturally covered areas and on specific erosion rates for mountainous areas without vegetation cover. To quantify the sediment delivery ratio a model approach was developed using data on calculated sediment production rates and long term sediment loads observed at monitoring stations of 13 watersheds located in different landscape regions of Germany. A variety of morphological parameters and catchment properties such as slope, drainage density, share of morphological sinks, hypsometric integral, flow distance between sediment source areas and the next stream as well as soil and land use properties were tested to explain the variation in the sediment delivery ratios for the 13 watersheds. The sediment input into streams is mainly controlled by the location of sediment source areas and the morphology along the flow pathways to surface waters. Thus, this complex interaction of spatially distributed catchment

  9. The agricultural water footprint of EU river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanham, Davy

    2014-05-01

    This work analyses the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod,agr) and consumption (WFcons,agr) as well as the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi,agr) for 365 EU river basins with an area larger than 1000 km2. Apart from total amounts, also a differentiation between the green, blue and grey components is made. River basins where the WFcons,agr,tot exceeds WFprod,agr,tot values substantially (resulting in positive netVWi,agr,tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. River basins where the WFprod,agr,totexceeds WFcons,agr,totare found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. The effect of a healthy (HEALTHY) and vegetarian (VEG) diet on the WFcons,agr is assessed, as well as resulting changes in netVWi,agr. For HEALTHY, the WFcons,agr,tot of most river basins decreases (max 32%), although in the east some basins show an increase. For VEG, in all but one river basins a reduction (max 46%) in WFcons,agr,tot is observed. The effect of diets on the WFcons,agrof a river basin has not been carried out so far. River basins and not administrative borders are the key geographical entity for water management. Such a comprehensive analysis on the river basin scale is the first in its kind. Reduced river basin WFcons,agrcan contribute to sustainable water management both within the EU and outside its borders. They could help to reduce the dependency of EU consumption on domestic and foreign water resources.

  10. Developing a Science-based River Basin Management Plan for the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthe, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The Kharaa River Basin (KRB), which is located north of Mongolia's capital Ulaanbaatar and south of Lake Baikal, was chosen as a model region for the development and implementation of an integrated water resources management consisting of a monitoring concept, technical measures and a capacity development program (Karthe et al. 2012a). The basin of the Kharaa River covers an area of 14534 km² that is partly mountaineous and largely covered by taiga and steppe. At its outlet, the 362 km Kharaa River has a mean long-term annual discharge of 12.1 m³/s (MoMo Consortium 2009). A highly continental climate results in limited water resources, and rising water consumption coupled with the effects of climate and land use change may in the future exacerbate this water scarcity (Malsy et al. 2012; Karthe et al. 2013). Whereas the environment in the upper part of the catchment is in a relatively pristine state, the mid- and downstream sections of the river are characterized by nearby industry, mining activities and intensive agriculture (Menzel et al. 2011), resulting in declining water quality and ultimately a degradation of aquatic ecosystems (Hofmann et al. 2010; Hartwig et al. 2012). Moreover, it is a problem for the supply of major cities like Darkhan which largely rely on alluvial aquifers containing shallow-depth groundwater (Mun et al. 2008). Currently, there are alarming signs of water quality deterioration. With regard to water provision, a major problem is the poor state of distribution infrastructures which were often built in the 1960s and 70s (Scharaw & Westerhoff 2011). Rather little is currently known about the water quality supplied to end users; the latter is even more dubious in the city's informal ger districts (Karthe et al. 2012b). One important goal of the research and development project "Integrated Water Resources Management in Central Asia: Model Region Mongolia" lies in the implementation of a holistic concept for water resources monitoring and

  11. Zinc and Its Isotopes in the Loire River Basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millot, R.; Desaulty, A. M.; Bourrain, X.

    2014-12-01

    The contribution of human activities such as industries, agriculture and domestic inputs, becomes more and more significant in the chemical composition of the dissolved load of rivers. Human factors act as a supplementary key process. Therefore the mass-balance for the budget of catchments and river basins include anthropogenic disturbances. The Loire River in central France is approximately 1010 km long and drains an area of 117,800 km2. In the upper basin, the bedrock is old plutonic rock overlain by much younger volcanic rocks. The intermediate basin includes three major tributaries flowing into the Loire River from the left bank: the Cher, the Indre and the Vienne rivers; the main stream flows westward and its valley stretches toward the Atlantic Ocean. Here, the Loire River drains the sedimentary series of the Paris Basin, mainly carbonate deposits. The lower Loire basin drains pre-Mesozoic basement of the Armorican Massif and its overlying Mesozoic to Cenozoic sedimentary deposits. The Loire River is one of the main European riverine inputs to the Atlantic ocean. Here we are reporting concentration and isotope data for Zn in river waters and suspended sediments from the Loire River Basin. In addition, we also report concentration and isotope data for the different industrial sources within the Loire Basin, as well as data for biota samples such as mussels and oysters from the Bay of Biscay and North Brittany. These organisms are known to be natural accumulators of metal pollutants. Zinc isotopic compositions are rather homogeneous in river waters with δ66Zn values ranging from 0.21 to 0.39‰. This range of variation is very different from anthropogenic signature (industrial and/or agriculture release) that displays δ66Zn values between 0.02 to 0.14‰. This result is in agreement with a geogenic origin and the low Zn concentrations in the Loire River Basin (from 0.8 to 6 µg/L).

  12. Floods in the Skagit River basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, James E.; Bodhaine, George Lawrence

    1961-01-01

    According to Indian tradition, floods of unusually great magnitude harassed the Skagit River basin about 1815 and 1856. The heights of these floods were not recorded at the time; so they are called historical floods. Since the arrival of white men about 1863, a number of large and damaging floods have been witnessed and recorded. Data concerning and verifying the early floods, including those of 1815 and 1856, were collected prior to 1923 by James E. Stewart. He talked with many of the early settlers in the valley who had listened to Indians tell about the terrible floods. Some of these settlers had referenced the maximum stages of floods they had witnessed by cutting notches at or measuring to high-water marks on trees. In order to verify flood stages Stewart spent many weeks finding and levelling to high-water marks such as drift deposits, sand layers in coves, and silt in the bark of certain types of trees. Gaging stations have been in operation at various locations on the Skagit River and its tributaries since 1909, so recorded peak stages are available at certain sites for floods occurring since that date. All peak discharge data available for both historical and recorded floods have been listed in this report. The types of floods as to winter and summer, the duration of peaks, and the effect of reservoirs are discussed. In 1899 Sterling Dam was constructed at the head of Gages Slough near Sedro Woolley. This was the beginning of major diking in the lower reaches of the Skagit River. Maps included in the report show the location of most of the dike failures that have occurred during the last 73 years and the area probably inundated by major floods. The damage resulting from certain floods is briefly discussed. The report is concluded with a brief discussion of the U.S. Geological Survey method of computing flood-frequency curves as applied to the Skagit River basin. The treatment of single-station records and a means of combining these records for expressing

  13. Irrigation water supply for the Yurok Indians, Resighini Rancheria, Klamath, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akers, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    A required 1,100 gallons of water per minute for irrigating agricultural lands used by the Coast Indian Community on the Resighini Rancheria near Klamath, Calif., cannot be developed from wells. However, the required quantity of water might be developed from a trench installed in sand and gravel deposits that are hydraulically connected with the Klamath River. (USGS)

  14. Resistivity sections, upper Arkansas River basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zohdy, Adel A.R.; Hershey, Lloyd A.; Emery, Philip A.; Stanley, William D.

    1971-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation of ground-water resources in the upper Arkansas River basin from Pueblo to Leadville is being made by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southeastern Colorado Water Conservancy District, and the Colorado Division of Water Resources, Colorado State Engineer. As part of the investigation, surface geophysical electrical resistivity surveys were made during the summer and fall of 1970 near Buena Vista and Westcliffe, Colo. (p1.1). The resistivity surveys were made to verify a previous gravity survey and to help locate areas where ground-water supplies might be developed. This report presents the results of the surveys in the form of two resistivity sections.

  15. Upper Colorado River Basin Climate Effects Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, Jayne; Campbell, Donald; Kershner, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    The Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) Climate Effects Network (CEN) is a science team established to provide information to assist land managers in future decision making processes by providing a better understanding of how future climate change, land use, invasive species, altered fire cycles, human systems, and the interactions among these factors will affect ecosystems and the services they provide to human communities. The goals of this group are to (1) identify science needs and provide tools to assist land managers in addressing these needs, (2) provide a Web site where users can access information pertinent to this region, and (3) provide managers technical assistance when needed. Answers to the team's working science questions are intended to address how interactions among climate change, land use, and management practices may affect key aspects of water availability, ecosystem changes, and societal needs within the UCRB.

  16. Paleogeography of Paleocene Wind River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Flemings, P.B.; Jordan, T.E.

    1986-08-01

    The Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the Wind River basin was deposited in response to Laramide deformation between south-verging faults to the north (Owl Creek and Casper thrusts) and south (Wind River and Granite thrusts). Exposures in this asymmetric basin include a lower fluvial member overlain by the Waltman (lacustrine) and time-equivalent Shotgun (fluvial) members in the northeast and a single fluvial unit in the southeast. In the northeast, low sinuosity, ribbon channel sandstones (northwest paleoflow, about 40 m thick) are overlain by sheet-sand deposits interspersed with channel sandstones (southwest paleoflow, about 700 m thick), which are in turn overlain by the Waltman Member. The basal channel sands are wide (about 100 m perpendicular to flow), thick (5 to 10 m), and trough cross-bedded. The sheet-sand deposits consist of upward-fixing cycles 1 to 10 m thick. These facies are interpreted to be the product of longitudinal drainage flowing parallel to the Casper thrust, overlain by fan-delta sediments prograding perpendicular to the thrust. Palynology suggests a nearly complete Paleocene record for this sequence. To the south along the Rattlesnake Hills, trough cross-bedded sheet sandstones and gravel channel deposits (northward, 140 m thick) are overlain by layered mudstones and siltstones (180 m thick). The top of these high-energy braided-stream deposits and overlying low-energy delta-plain sediments are equivalent in age to the Waltman Member. A topographic low paralleled the Casper arch thrust during the earliest Paleocene. Prograding alluvial-fan sedimentation gradually shifted this topographic low away from the Casper thrust. Southern exposures record drainage toward, and ponding in, the topographic low.

  17. Flexural analysis of two broken foreland basins; Late Cenozoic Bermejo basin and Early Cenozoic Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Flemings, P.B.; Jordan, T.E.; Reynolds, S.

    1986-05-01

    Lithospheric flexure that generates basin in a broke foreland setting (e.g., the Laramide foreland of Wyoming) is a three-dimensional system related to shortening along basin-bounding faults. The authors modeled the elastic flexure in three dimensions for two broken foreland basins: the early Cenozoic Green River basin and the analogous late Cenozoic Bermejo basin of Argentina. Each basin is located between a thrust belt and a reverse-fault-bounded basement uplift. Both basins are asymmetric toward the basement uplifts and have a central basement high: the Rock Springs uplift and the Pie de Palo uplift, respectively. The model applies loads generated by crustal thickening to an elastic lithosphere overlying a fluid mantle. Using the loading conditions of the Bermejo basin based on topography, limited drilling, and reflection and earthquake seismology, the model predicts the current Bermejo basin geometry. Similarly, flexure under the loading conditions in the Green River basin, which are constrained by stratigraphy, well logs, and seismic profiling and summed for Late Cretaceous (Lance Formation) through Eocene (Wasatch Formation), successfully models the observed geometry of the pre-Lance surface. Basin depocenters (> 4 km for the Green River basin; > 7 km for the Bermejo basin) and central uplifts are predicted to result from constructive interference of the nonparallel applied loads. Their Bermejo model implies that instantaneous basin geometry is successfully modeled by crustal loading, whereas the Green River basin analysis suggests that basin evolution can be modeled over large time steps (e.g., 20 Ma). This result links instantaneous basin geometry to overall basin evolution and is a first step in predicting stratigraphic development.

  18. Evapotranspiration from Upper Klamath Lake: Reducing Uncertainty in the Water Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stannard, D. I.; Gannett, M. W.; Polette, D.; Cameron, J. M.; Spears, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    The Klamath River basin is a large (~40,600 km2) watershed that straddles the border between southern Oregon and northern California, USA, and drains into the Pacific Ocean. A wide variety of interests has led to intense competition over water allocation in the upper, semi-arid parts of the basin in recent decades. Myriad water impoundments and diversions, wetland drainage, and recent wetland restoration, have complicated the development of resource-management and restoration strategies. An overarching question is how to provide enough water for irrigated agriculture and still preserve adequate stream-flow and wetland habitat for threatened (e.g. coho salmon) and endangered (e.g. Lost River and shortnose suckers) species. In the Upper Klamath Lake region, this hotly debated topic has raised questions about evaporative losses from Upper Klamath Lake, and its wetland marshes. Currently, surface-water outflow from the lake is gauged, but not all of the surface-water inflows are gauged, and net ground-water inflow is estimated. Lake-level management is based on a simplified water budget: NETin - SWout = ΔS, where NETin = SWin + GWnet - ET (called “net inflow”), SWout is measured surface-water outflow, ΔS is measured change in lake storage, SWin is surface-water inflow, GWnet is net ground-water inflow, and ET is evapotranspiration from the lake. Partitioning of NETin is not done routinely, so little is known about magnitudes of the un-gauged inflows, or ET (GWnet is a small term). To help partition NETin into its components, ET has been measured at three locations in Upper Klamath Lake since April, 2008. Two eddy covariance (EC) sites are located in Upper Klamath National Wildlife Refuge, an extensive wetland marsh in the northwest corner of the lake, and one Bowen-ratio energy-balance site is in open water. One EC station is situated in bulrush and the other is in a mixed bulrush, wocus, cattail community. Wetland marsh area is about 1/3 that of open water. The

  19. Demographics and run timing of adult Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and short nose (Chasmistes brevirostris) suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hewitt, David A.; Janney, Eric C.; Hayes, Brian S.; Harris, Alta C.

    2014-01-01

    Data from a long-term capture-recapture program were used to assess the status and dynamics of populations of two long-lived, federally endangered catostomids in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) have been captured and tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags during their spawning migrations in each year since 1995. In addition, beginning in 2005, individuals that had been previously PIT-tagged were re-encountered on remote underwater antennas deployed throughout sucker spawning areas. Captures and remote encounters during spring 2012 were used to describe the spawning migrations in that year and also were incorporated into capture-recapture analyses of population dynamics. Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) open population capture-recapture models were used to estimate annual survival probabilities, and a reverse-time analog of the CJS model was used to estimate recruitment of new individuals into the spawning populations. In addition, data on the size composition of captured fish were examined to provide corroborating evidence of recruitment. Model estimates of survival and recruitment were used to derive estimates of changes in population size over time and to determine the status of the populations in 2011. Separate analyses were conducted for each species and also for each subpopulation of Lost River suckers (LRS). Shortnose suckers (SNS) and one subpopulation of LRS migrate into tributary rivers to spawn, whereas the other LRS subpopulation spawns at groundwater upwelling areas along the eastern shoreline of the lake. In 2012, we captured, tagged, and released 749 LRS at four lakeshore spawning areas and recaptured an additional 969 individuals that had been tagged in previous years. Across all four areas, the remote antennas detected 6,578 individual LRS during the spawning season. Spawning activity peaked in April and most individuals were encountered at Cinder Flats and

  20. Spatial design principles for sustainable hydropower development in river basins

    DOE PAGES

    Jager, Henriëtte I.; Efroymson, Rebecca A.; Opperman, Jeff J.; Kelly, Michael R.

    2015-02-27

    How can dams be arranged within a river basin such that they benefit society? Recent interest in this question has grown in response to the worldwide trend toward developing hydropower as a source of renewable energy in Asia and South America, and the movement toward removing unnecessary dams in the US. Environmental and energy sustainability are important practical concerns, and yet river development has rarely been planned with the goal of providing society with a portfolio of ecosystem services into the future. We organized a review and synthesis of the growing research in sustainable river basin design around four spatialmore » decisions: Is it better to build fewer mainstem dams or more tributary dams? Should dams be clustered or distributed among distant subbasins? Where should dams be placed along a river? At what spatial scale should decisions be made? We came up with the following design principles for increasing ecological sustainability: (i) concentrate dams within a subset of tributary watersheds and avoid downstream mainstems of rivers, (ii) disperse freshwater reserves among the remaining tributary catchments, (iii) ensure that habitat provided between dams will support reproduction and retain offspring, and (iv) formulate spatial decision problems at the scale of large river basins. Based on our review, we discuss trade-offs between hydropower and ecological objectives when planning river basin development. We hope that future testing and refinement of principles extracted from our review will define a path toward sustainable river basin design.« less

  1. Spatial design principles for sustainable hydropower development in river basins

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Henriëtte I.; Efroymson, Rebecca A.; Opperman, Jeff J.; Kelly, Michael R.

    2015-02-27

    How can dams be arranged within a river basin such that they benefit society? Recent interest in this question has grown in response to the worldwide trend toward developing hydropower as a source of renewable energy in Asia and South America, and the movement toward removing unnecessary dams in the US. Environmental and energy sustainability are important practical concerns, and yet river development has rarely been planned with the goal of providing society with a portfolio of ecosystem services into the future. We organized a review and synthesis of the growing research in sustainable river basin design around four spatial decisions: Is it better to build fewer mainstem dams or more tributary dams? Should dams be clustered or distributed among distant subbasins? Where should dams be placed along a river? At what spatial scale should decisions be made? We came up with the following design principles for increasing ecological sustainability: (i) concentrate dams within a subset of tributary watersheds and avoid downstream mainstems of rivers, (ii) disperse freshwater reserves among the remaining tributary catchments, (iii) ensure that habitat provided between dams will support reproduction and retain offspring, and (iv) formulate spatial decision problems at the scale of large river basins. Based on our review, we discuss trade-offs between hydropower and ecological objectives when planning river basin development. We hope that future testing and refinement of principles extracted from our review will define a path toward sustainable river basin design.

  2. LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF THE TENSAS RIVER BASIN, MISSISSIPPI RIVER DELTA REGION, AND GULF OF MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    A group of landscape ecological indicators were applied to biophysical data masked to the Tensas River Basin. The indicators were use to identify and prioritize sources of nutrients in a
    Mississippi River System sub-basin. Remotely sensed data were used for change detection a...

  3. 18. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. CIVIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. CIVIL ENGINEERING AIDE AT CONTROL BOX. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  4. Atmospheric circulation and snowpack in the Gunnison River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, Gregory J.

    1994-01-01

    Winter mean 700-millibar height anomalies over the eastern North Pacific Ocean and the western United States are related to variability in snowpack accumulations measured on or about April 1 in the Gunnison River Basin in Colorado. Higher-than-average snowpack accumulations are associated with negative 700-millibar height anomalies (anomalous cyclonic circulation) over the western United States and over most of the eastern North Pacific Ocean. The anomalous cyclonic circulation enhances the movement of moisture from the eastern North Pacific Ocean into the southwestern United States. Variability in winter mean 700-millibar height anomalies explain over 50 percent of the variability in snowpack accumulations in the Gunnison River Basin. The statistically significant linear relations between 700-millibar height anomalies and snowpack accumulations in the Gunnison River Basin can be used with general-circulation-model simulations of future 700-millibar height anomalies to estimate changes in snowpack accumulations in the Gunnison River Basin for future climatic conditions.

  5. ALTERNATIVE FUTURES FOR THE WILLAMETTE RIVER BASIN, OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alternative futures analysis is an assessment approach designed to inform community decisions regarding land and water use. We conducted an alternative futures analysis in the Willamette River Basin in western Oregon. Based on detailed input from local stakeholders, three alter...

  6. 19. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. ELECTRONICS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. YAZOO BACKWATER PUMPING STATION MODEL, YAZOO RIVER BASIN. ELECTRONICS ENGINEER AT DATA COLLECTION COMPUTER ROOM. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  7. Water resources of Wisconsin, Pecatonica-Sugar River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hindall, S.M.; Skinner, Earl L.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the physical environment, availability, characteristics, distribution, movement, and quailty of water in the Pecatonica-Sugar River basin.  In addition, water use and water problems are summarized to give an understanding of man's management of water within the basin.

  8. A bibliography of Klamath Mountains geology, California and Oregon, listing authors from Aalto to Zucca for the years 1849 to Mid-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, William P.

    2003-01-01

    This bibliography of Klamath Mountains geology was begun, although not in a systematic or comprehensive way, when, in 1953, I was assigned the task of preparing a report on the geology and mineral resources of the drainage basins of the Trinity, Klamath, and Eel Rivers in northwestern California. During the following 40 or more years, I maintained an active interest in the Klamath Mountains region and continued to collect bibliographic references to the various reports and maps of Klamath geology that came to my attention. When I retired in 1989 and became a Geologist Emeritus with the Geological Survey, I had a large amount of bibliographic material in my files. Believing that a comprehensive bibliography of a region is a valuable research tool, I have expended substantial effort to make this bibliography of the Klamath Mountains as complete as is reasonably feasible. My aim was to include all published reports and maps that pertain primarily to the Klamath Mountains, as well as all pertinent doctoral and master's theses. In addition, I included reports in which the Klamath Mountains are of significance but not the primary focus; these latter kinds are mostly reports that correlate the Klamath terranes with those of other provinces, that compare the genesis of Klamath rocks with those elsewhere, or that include the Klamath Mountains in a continental framework. Reports describing the geology of the overlap sequences such as the Great Valley sequence, Hornbrook Formation, and Tertiary sediments and volcanics are included where those rocks lie within the limits of the Klamath Mountains province, but are only selectively included where the overlap sequences are mainly peripheral to the province. The alphabetical part of the bibliography consists of approximately 1700 entries. The list of primary references probably is virtually complete through 1994 and includes some 1995 references. The earliest reference is to James Dwight Dana in 1849. In order to restrict the size

  9. Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H.; Calogero, D.

    1997-10-01

    The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.

  10. Demographics and run timing of adult Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and short nose (Chasmistes brevirostris) suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hewitt, David A.; Janney, Eric C.; Hayes, Brian S.; Harris, Alta C.

    2014-01-01

    Data from a long-term capture-recapture program were used to assess the status and dynamics of populations of two long-lived, federally endangered catostomids in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) have been captured and tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags during their spawning migrations in each year since 1995. In addition, beginning in 2005, individuals that had been previously PIT-tagged were re-encountered on remote underwater antennas deployed throughout sucker spawning areas. Captures and remote encounters during spring 2012 were used to describe the spawning migrations in that year and also were incorporated into capture-recapture analyses of population dynamics. Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) open population capture-recapture models were used to estimate annual survival probabilities, and a reverse-time analog of the CJS model was used to estimate recruitment of new individuals into the spawning populations. In addition, data on the size composition of captured fish were examined to provide corroborating evidence of recruitment. Model estimates of survival and recruitment were used to derive estimates of changes in population size over time and to determine the status of the populations in 2011. Separate analyses were conducted for each species and also for each subpopulation of Lost River suckers (LRS). Shortnose suckers (SNS) and one subpopulation of LRS migrate into tributary rivers to spawn, whereas the other LRS subpopulation spawns at groundwater upwelling areas along the eastern shoreline of the lake. In 2012, we captured, tagged, and released 749 LRS at four lakeshore spawning areas and recaptured an additional 969 individuals that had been tagged in previous years. Across all four areas, the remote antennas detected 6,578 individual LRS during the spawning season. Spawning activity peaked in April and most individuals were encountered at Cinder Flats and

  11. Water loss in the Potomac River basin during droughts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagen, E.R.; Kiang, J.E.; Dillow, J.J.A.; ,

    2004-01-01

    The water loss phenomena in the Washington DC metropoliton area's (WMA) Potomac River water supply basin during droughts was analyzed. Gage errors, permitted withdrawals, evaporation, and transpiration by trees along the river were investigated to account for loss. The Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin (ICPRB) calculated potential gage error and examined permits to determine permitted levels of consumption withdrawals from the Potomac. The result of a single slug test indicated that the soil transmissivity may not be adequate to allow passage of enough water to account for all of the calculated water loss.

  12. Vitrinite Reflectance Data for the Wind River Basin, Central Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Thomas M.; Roberts, Laura N.R.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The Wind River Basin is a large Laramide (Late Cretaceous through Eocene) structural and sedimentary basin that encompasses about 7,400 mi2 in central Wyoming. The basin boundaries are defined by fault-bounded Laramide uplifts that surround it, including the Owl Creek and Bighorn Mountains to the north, Wind River Range to the west, Granite Mountains to the south, and Casper Arch to the east. The purpose of this report is to present new vitrinite reflectance data to be used in support of the U.S Geological Survey assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Wind River Basin. One hundred and nineteen samples were collected from Jurassic through Tertiary rocks, mostly coal-bearing strata, in an effort to better understand and characterize the thermal maturation and burial history of potential source rocks.

  13. Water and Benefit Sharing in Transboundary River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjoon, D.; Tilmant, A.; Herrmann, M.

    2015-12-01

    Growing water scarcity underlies the importance of cooperation for the effective management of river basins, particularly in the context of international rivers in which unidirectional externalities can lead to asymmetric relationships between riparian countries. Studies have shown that significant economic benefits can be expected through basin-wide cooperation, however, the equitable partitioning of these benefits over the basin is less well studied and tends to overlook the importance of stakeholder input in the definition of equitability. In this study, an institutional arrangement to maximize welfare and then share the scarcity cost in a river basin is proposed. A river basin authority plays the role of a bulk water market operator, efficiently allocating bulk water to the users and collecting bulk water charges which are then equitably redistributed among water users. This highly regulated market restrains the behaviour of water users to control externalities and to ensure basin-wide coordination, enhanced efficiency, and the equitable redistribution of the scarcity cost. The institutional arrangement is implemented using the Eastern Nile River basin as a case study. The importance of this arrangement is that it can be adopted for application in negotiations to cooperate in trans-boundary river basins. The benefit sharing solution proposed is more likely to be perceived as equitable because water users help define the sharing rule. As a result, the definition of the sharing rule is not in question, as it would be if existing rules, such as bankruptcy rules or cooperative game theory solutions, are applied, with their inherent definitions of fairness. Results of the case study show that the sharing rule is predictable. Water users can expect to receive between 93.5% and 95% of their uncontested benefits (benefits that they expect to receive if water was not rationed), depending on the hydrologic scenario.

  14. M-Area basin closure, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    McMullin, S.R.; Horvath, J.G.

    1991-12-31

    M-Area, on the Savannah River Site, processes raw materials and manufactures fuel and target rods for reactor use. Effluent from these processes were discharged into the M-Area settling basin and Lost Lake, a natural wetland. The closure of this basin began in 1988 and included the removal and stabilization of basin fluids, excavation of all contaminated soils from affected areas and Lost Lake, and placement of all materials in the bottom of the emptied basin. These materials were covered with a RCRA style cap, employing redundant barriers of kaolin clay and geosynthetic material. Restoration of excavated uplands and wetlands is currently underway.

  15. M-Area basin closure, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    McMullin, S.R.; Horvath, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    M-Area, on the Savannah River Site, processes raw materials and manufactures fuel and target rods for reactor use. Effluent from these processes were discharged into the M-Area settling basin and Lost Lake, a natural wetland. The closure of this basin began in 1988 and included the removal and stabilization of basin fluids, excavation of all contaminated soils from affected areas and Lost Lake, and placement of all materials in the bottom of the emptied basin. These materials were covered with a RCRA style cap, employing redundant barriers of kaolin clay and geosynthetic material. Restoration of excavated uplands and wetlands is currently underway.

  16. Implication of drainage basin parameters of a tropical river basin of South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, K. J.; Sreekumar, S.; Aslam, Arish

    2016-03-01

    Drainage morphometry provides quantitative description of the drainage system which is an important aspect of the characterisation of watersheds. Chalakudi River is one of the important rivers of the South India which has attracted attention of many environmental scientists recently because of the proposed Athirapally Hydel Project across the river. SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission) data were used for preparing DEM (Digital Elevation Model), Aspect Map and Slope Map. Geographical Information System (GIS) was used for the evaluation of linear, areal and relief aspects of morphometric parameters. The study reveals that the terrain exhibits dentritic and trellis pattern of drainage. The Chalakudi River Basin has a total area of 1,448.73 km2 and is designated as seventh-order basin. The drainage density of the basin is estimated as 2.54 and the lower-order streams mostly dominate the basin. The high basin relief indicates high runoff and sediment transport. The elongation ratio of the Chalakudi Basin is estimated as 0.48 and indicates that the shape of the basin is elongated. The development of stream segments in the basin area is more or less effected by rainfall. Relief ratio indicates that the discharge capability of watershed is very high and the groundwater potential is meagre. The low value of drainage density in spite of mountainous relief indicates that the area is covered by dense vegetation and resistant rocks permeated by fractures and joints. These studies are helpful in watershed development planning and wise utilization of natural resources.

  17. Assessment of Anthropogenic Impacts in La Plata River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, N. O.; Venencio, M.

    2006-12-01

    An assessment of the variability of the streamflows in La Plata Basin (LPB), particularly in its major tributaries Paraná and Uruguay, is presented in this work. The La Plata Basin, the fifth largest basin in the world and second only to the Amazon in South America, is 3.6 million km2 and covers portions of 5 countries: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Sub-basins include the Bermejo, Paraná, Paraguay, Pilcomayo, and Uruguay. Major rivers of the basin are the Paraguay, the Uruguay and the Paraná. Streamflows in the LPB have been above normal in the last decades, e.g. the mean flow in the Paraná river during the 1971-1994 period was 34% higher than the mean flow during the 1931-1970 period. A similar analysis carried out on the precipitation records for the La Plata basin showed only a 14% increase during the same periods for the Upper Paraná basin and a 20% increase for the Uruguay basin. In this paper it is postulated that the increase in the streamflows, not explained by precipitation increases, is due to the changes in cultivation patterns in the upper basins of the Paraná and Uruguay. Particularly, the substitution of coffee plantations for annual crops, mainly soybeans, has produced a change in the infiltration patterns that influenced the discharges.

  18. Quantifying the extent of river fragmentation by hydropower dams in the Sarapiqui River Basin, Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Elizabeth P.; Pringle, C.M.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2008-01-01

    1. Costa Rica has recently experienced a rapid proliferation of dams for hydropower on rivers draining its northern Caribbean slope. In the Sarapiqui River Basin, eight hydropower plants were built between 1990 and 1999 and more projects are either under construction or proposed. The majority of these dams are small (< 15 m tall) and operate as water diversion projects. 2. While the potential environmental effects of individual projects are evaluated prior to dam construction, there is a need for consideration of the basin-scale ecological consequences of hydropower development. This study was a first attempt to quantify the extent of river fragmentation by dams in the Sarapiqui River Basin. 3. Using simple spatial analyses, the length of river upstream from dams and the length of de-watered reaches downstream from dams was measured. Results indicated that there are currently 306.8 km of river (9.4% of the network) upstream from eight existing dams in the Sarapiqui River Basin and 30.6 km of rivers (0.9% of the network) with significantly reduced flow downstream from dams. Rivers upstream from dams primarily drain two life zones: Premontane Rain Forest (107.9km) and Lower Montane Rain Forest (168.2km). 4. Simple spatial analyses can be used as a predictive or planning tool for considering the effects of future dams in a basin-scale context. In the Sarapiqui River Basin, we recommend that future dam projects be constructed on already dammed rivers to minimize additional river fragmentation and to protect remaining riverine connectivity.

  19. Floods in the Raccoon River basin, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinitz, Albert J.

    1980-01-01

    Evaluation of flood hazards, and the planning, design, and operation of various facilities on flood plains requires information on floods. This report provides information on flood stages and discharges, flood magnitude and frequency, bench mark data, and flood profiles for the Raccoon River and some of its tributaries. Ir covers the Raccoon River, the North Raccoon River to the northern boundary of Sac County and the lower reaches of the Middle and South Raccoon Rivers.

  20. Feasible optimality of vegetation patterns in river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caylor, K. K.; Scanlon, T. M.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2004-05-01

    We examine the mechanisms leading to the maintenance of organized vegetation patterns within the network structure of a semiarid New Mexico river basin due to the controlling influence of water stress. A recently formulated analytical framework for the water balance at the daily level is used to link the distribution of climate, soils and vegetation within the basin to patterns growing season water stress. We compare the actual patterns of water stress within the basin to the distribution of water stress that results from vegetation patterns distributed according to two algorithms of local optimization. We demonstrate that a model which maintains local optimization within the network flow path exhibits a better agreement with the patterns of actual basin water stress than a model that allows for neutral local interactions that ignore the network structure of the river basin. These results suggest that the pattern of actual vegetation observed within the basin may correspond to a condition of feasible optimality in which large-scale organization is constrained by the stochastic nature of local interactions mediated by the network configuration. The principles of such organization have important consequences regarding the impact of land cover change on hydrological dynamics in river basins, as well as the geomorphological and biogeographical evolution of landscapes under varying climate and disturbance regimes.

  1. Floods in the English River basin, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinitz, A.J.; Riddle, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    Information describing floods is essential for proper planning, design, and operation of bridges and other structures on or over streams and their flood plains. This report provides information on flood stages and discharges, flood magnitude and frequency, bench mark data, and flood profiles for the English River and some of its tributaries. It covers the English River, the North English River to near Guernsey, the south Eaglish River to Barnes City and the lower reaches of the Biddle English and Deep Rivers

  2. Thermal profiles for selected river reaches in the Stillaguamish River basin, Washington, August 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandaszek, Andrew S.

    2011-01-01

    Watershed Sciences, LLC, 2002, Aerial surveys in the Stillaguamish and Skagit River Basins-Thermal infrared and color videography: Corvallis, Oreg., Water Sciences, for Washington Department of Ecology, 28 p.

  3. An integrated multiscale river basin observing system in the Heihe River Basin, northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Liu, S.; Xiao, Q.; Ma, M.; Jin, R.; Che, T.

    2015-12-01

    Using the watershed as the unit to establish an integrated watershed observing system has been an important trend in integrated eco-hydrologic studies in the past ten years. Thus far, a relatively comprehensive watershed observing system has been established in the Heihe River Basin, northwest China. In addition, two comprehensive remote sensing hydrology experiments have been conducted sequentially in the Heihe River Basin, including the Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER) (2007-2010) and the Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER) (2012-2015). Among these two experiments, an important result of WATER has been the generation of some multi-scale, high-quality comprehensive datasets, which have greatly supported the development, improvement and validation of a series of ecological, hydrological and quantitative remote-sensing models. The goal of a breakthrough for solving the "data bottleneck" problem has been achieved. HiWATER was initiated in 2012. This project has established a world-class hydrological and meteorological observation network, a flux measurement matrix and an eco-hydrological wireless sensor network. A set of super high-resolution airborne remote-sensing data has also been obtained. In addition, there has been important progress with regard to the scaling research. Furthermore, the automatic acquisition, transmission, quality control and remote control of the observational data has been realized through the use of wireless sensor network technology. The observation and information systems have been highly integrated, which will provide a solid foundation for establishing a research platform that integrates observation, data management, model simulation, scenario analysis and decision-making support to foster 21st-century watershed science in China.

  4. Water resources inventory of Connecticut Part 1: Quinebaug River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Randall, Allan D.; Thomas, Mendall P.; Thomas, Chester E.; Baker, John A.

    1966-01-01

    The Quinebaug River basin is blessed with a relatively abundant supply of water of generally good quality which is derived from precipitation that has fallen on the basin. Annual precipitation has ranged from about 30 to 67 inches and has averaged about 45 inches over a 44-year period. Approximately 21 inches of water are returned to the atmosphere each year by evaporation and transpiration; the remainder of the annual precipitation either flows overland to streams or percolates downward to the water table and ultimately flows out of the basin in the Quinebaug River. During the autumn and winter months precipitation normally is sufficient to cause a substantial increase in the amount of water stored underground and in surface reservoirs within the basin, whereas in the summer most of the precipitation is lost through evaporation and transpiration, resulting in sharply reduced streamflow and lowered ground-water levels.

  5. Challenges of river basin management: Current status of, and prospects for, the River Danube from a river engineering perspective.

    PubMed

    Habersack, Helmut; Hein, Thomas; Stanica, Adrian; Liska, Igor; Mair, Raimund; Jäger, Elisabeth; Hauer, Christoph; Bradley, Chris

    2016-02-01

    In the Danube River Basin multiple pressures affect the river system as a consequence of river engineering works, altering both the river hydrodynamics and morphodynamics. The main objective of this paper is to identify the effects of hydropower development, flood protection and engineering works for navigation on the Danube and to examine specific impacts of these developments on sediment transport and river morphology. Whereas impoundments are characterised by deposition and an excess of sediment with remobilisation of fine sediments during severe floods, the remaining five free flowing sections of the Danube are experiencing river bed erosion of the order of several centimetres per year. Besides the effect of interruption of the sediment continuum, river bed degradation is caused by an increase in the sediment transport capacity following an increase in slope, a reduction of river bed width due to canalisation, prohibition of bank erosion by riprap or regressive erosion following base level lowering by flood protection measures and sediment dredging. As a consequence, the groundwater table is lowered, side-arms are disconnected, instream structures are lost and habitat quality deteriorates affecting the ecological status of valuable floodplains. The lack of sediments, together with cutting off meanders, leads also to erosion of the bed of main arms in the Danube Delta and coastal erosion. This paper details the causes and effects of river engineering measures and hydromorphological changes for the Danube. It highlights the importance of adopting a basin-wide holistic approach to river management and demonstrates that past management in the basin has been characterised by a lack of integration. To-date insufficient attention has been paid to the wide-ranging impacts of river engineering works throughout the basin: from the basin headwaters to the Danube Delta, on the Black Sea coast. This highlights the importance of new initiatives that seek to advance knowledge

  6. Challenges of river basin management: Current status of, and prospects for, the River Danube from a river engineering perspective.

    PubMed

    Habersack, Helmut; Hein, Thomas; Stanica, Adrian; Liska, Igor; Mair, Raimund; Jäger, Elisabeth; Hauer, Christoph; Bradley, Chris

    2016-02-01

    In the Danube River Basin multiple pressures affect the river system as a consequence of river engineering works, altering both the river hydrodynamics and morphodynamics. The main objective of this paper is to identify the effects of hydropower development, flood protection and engineering works for navigation on the Danube and to examine specific impacts of these developments on sediment transport and river morphology. Whereas impoundments are characterised by deposition and an excess of sediment with remobilisation of fine sediments during severe floods, the remaining five free flowing sections of the Danube are experiencing river bed erosion of the order of several centimetres per year. Besides the effect of interruption of the sediment continuum, river bed degradation is caused by an increase in the sediment transport capacity following an increase in slope, a reduction of river bed width due to canalisation, prohibition of bank erosion by riprap or regressive erosion following base level lowering by flood protection measures and sediment dredging. As a consequence, the groundwater table is lowered, side-arms are disconnected, instream structures are lost and habitat quality deteriorates affecting the ecological status of valuable floodplains. The lack of sediments, together with cutting off meanders, leads also to erosion of the bed of main arms in the Danube Delta and coastal erosion. This paper details the causes and effects of river engineering measures and hydromorphological changes for the Danube. It highlights the importance of adopting a basin-wide holistic approach to river management and demonstrates that past management in the basin has been characterised by a lack of integration. To-date insufficient attention has been paid to the wide-ranging impacts of river engineering works throughout the basin: from the basin headwaters to the Danube Delta, on the Black Sea coast. This highlights the importance of new initiatives that seek to advance knowledge

  7. Backwater effects in the Amazon River basin of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meade, R.H.; Rayol, J.M.; Da Conceicao, S.C.; Natividade, J.R.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Amazon River mainstem of Brazil is so regulated by differences in the timing of tributary inputs and by seasonal storage of water on floodplains that maximum discharges exceed minimum discharges by a factor of only 3. Large tributaries that drain the southern Amazon River basin reach their peak discharges two months earlier than does the mainstem. The resulting backwater in the lowermost 800 km of two large southern tributaries, the Madeira and Puru??s rivers, causes falling river stages to be as much as 2-3 m higher than rising stages at any given discharge. Large tributaries that drain the northernmost Amazon River basin reach their annual minimum discharges three to four months later than does the mainstem. In the lowermost 300-400 km of the Negro River, the largest northern tributary and the fifth largest river in the world, the lowest stages of the year correspond to those of the Amazon River mainstem rather than to those in the upstream reaches of the Negro River. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  8. Dynamic water accounting in heavily committed river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, Amaury; Marques, Guilherme

    2014-05-01

    Many river basins throughout the world are increasingly under pressure as water demands keep rising due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and rising living standards. In the past, the typical answer to meet those demands focused on the supply-side and involved the construction of hydraulic infrastructures to capture more water from surface water bodies and from aquifers. As river basins were being more and more developed, downstream water users and ecosystems have become increasingly dependant on the management actions taken by upstream users. The increased interconnectedness between water users, aquatic ecosystems and the built environment is further compounded by climate change and its impact on the water cycle. Those pressures mean that it has become increasingly important to measure and account for changes in water fluxes and their corresponding economic value as they progress throughout the river system. Such basin water accounting should provide policy makers with important information regarding the relative contribution of each water user, infrastructure and management decision to the overall economic value of the river basin. This paper presents a dynamic water accounting approach whereby the entire river basin is considered as a value chain with multiple services including production and storage. Water users and reservoirs operators are considered as economic agents who can exchange water with their hydraulic neighbors at a price corresponding to the marginal value of water. Effective water accounting is made possible by keeping track of all water fluxes and their corresponding transactions using the results of a hydro-economic model. The proposed approach is illustrated with the Eastern Nile River basin in Africa.

  9. Chemical character of streams in the Delaware River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Peter W.; McCarthy, Leo T.

    1963-01-01

    The water chemistry of streams in the Delaware River basin falls into eight general groups, when mapped according to the prevalent dissolved-solids content and the predominant ions normally found in the water. The approximate regions representing each of these iso-chemical quality groups are shown on the accompanying base map of the drainage basin.

  10. Transport of diazinon in the San Joaquin River Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kratzer, C.R.

    1999-01-01

    Most of the application of the organophosphate insecticide diazinon in the San Joaquin River Basin occurs in winter to control wood-boring insects in dormant almond orchards. A federal-state collaborative study found that diazinon accounted for most of the observed toxicity of San Joaquin River water in February 1993. Previous studies focused mainly on west-side inputs to the San Joaquin River. In this 1994 study, the three major east-side tributaries to the San Joaquin River - the Merced, Tuolumne, and Stanislaus rivers - and a downstream site on the San Joaquin River were sampled throughout the hydrographs of a late January and an early February storm. In both storms, the Tuolumne River had the highest concentrations of diazinon and transported the largest load of the three tributaries. The Stanislaus River was a small source in both storms. On the basis of previous storm sampling and estimated travel times, ephemeral west-side creeks probably were the main diazinon source early in the storms, whereas the Tuolumne and Merced rivers and east-side drainages directly to the San Joaquin River were the main sources later. Although 74 percent of diazinon transport in the San Joaquin River during 1991-1993 occurred in January and February, transport during each of the two 1994 storms was only 0.05 percent of the amount applied during preceding dry periods. Nevertheless, some of the diazinon concentrations in the San Joaquin River during the January storm exceeded 0.35 ??g/L, a concentration shown to be acutely toxic to water fleas. On the basis of this study and previous studies, diazinon concentrations and streamflow are highly variable during January and February storms, and frequent sampling is required to evaluate transport in the San Joaquin River Basin.

  11. Sediment Transport in Streams in the Umpqua River Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Onions, C. A.

    1969-01-01

    This report presents tables of suspended-sediment data collected from 1956 to 1967 at 10 sites in the Umpqua River basin. Computations based on these data indicate that average annual suspended-sediment yields at these sites range from 137 to 822 tons per square mile. Because available data for the Umpqua River basin are generally inadequate for accurate determinations of sediment yield and for the definition of characteristics of fluvial sediments, recommendations are made for the collection and analysis of additional sediment data.

  12. Groundwater quality in the Colorado River basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Four groundwater basins along the Colorado River make up one of the study areas being evaluated. The Colorado River study area is approximately 884 square miles (2,290 square kilometers) and includes the Needles, Palo Verde Mesa, Palo Verde Valley, and Yuma groundwater basins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The Colorado River study area has an arid climate and is part of the Sonoran Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 3 inches (8 centimeters). Land use in the study area is approximately 47 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland), 47% agricultural, and 6% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban area is the city of Blythe (2010 population of 21,000). Groundwater in these basins is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay deposited by the Colorado River or derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in the Colorado River study area are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in the Colorado River basins are completed to depths between 230 and 460 feet (70 to 140 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 130 of 390 feet (39 to 119 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. The main source of recharge to the groundwater systems in the Needles, Palo Verde Mesa, and Palo Verde Valley basins is the Colorado River; in the Yuma basin, the main source of recharge is from

  13. Water quality of streams and springs, Green River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLong, L.L.

    1986-01-01

    Data concerning salinity, phosphorus, and trace elements in streams and springs within the Green River Basin in Wyoming are summarized. Relative contributions of salinity are shown through estimates of annual loads and average concentrations at 11 water quality measurements sites for the 1970-77 water years. A hypothetical diversion of 20 cu ft/sec from the Big Sandy River was found to lower dissolved solids concentration in the Green River at Green River, Wyoming. This effect was greatest during the winter months, lowering dissolved solids concentration as much as 13%. Decrease in dissolved solids concentrations during the remainder of the year was generally less than 2%. Unlike the dilution effect that overland runoff has on perennial streams, runoff in ephemeral and intermittent streams within the basin was found to be enriched by the flushing of salts from normally dry channels and basin surfaces. Relative concentrations of sodium and sulfate in streams within the basin appear to be controlled by solubility. A downstream trend of increasing relative concentrations of sodium, sulfate, or both with increasing dissolved solids concentration was evident in all streams sampled. Estimates of total phosphorus concentration at water quality measurement sites indicate that phosphorus is removed from the Green River water as it passes through Fontenelle and Flaming Gorge Reservoirs. Total phosphorus concentration at some stream sites is directly or inversely related to streamflow, but at most sites a simple relation between concentration and streamflow is not discernable. (USGS)

  14. Regionalization of flood hydrograph parameters in the Kolubara River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobnjak, Aleksandar; Zlatanovic, Nikola; Bozovic, Nikola; Stojkovic, Milan; Orlic Momcilovic, Aleksandra; Jelovac, Milena; Prohaska, Stevan

    2016-04-01

    The Kolubara River basin is located in the western part of Serbia. There are several hydrological and rainfall gauging stations in the basin, while a large part of the basin is ungauged. In recent years in this area floods have been a common occurrence, so it is necessary to improve the system of flood protection. The research that is presented in this study represents a hydrological aspect to strengthening flood protection. This study presents the procedure of regionalization of basic flood hydrograph parameters in the Kolubara river basin. All significant observed flood waves in the basin over the past 50 years were collected, assimilated and analyzed. In this research, the method applied was based on the separation of flood hydrograph parameters, for each hydrological station: time to peak (time from the beginning of the hydrograph to its peak) (Tp), time of recession (time from the peak to the end of the recession limb) (Tr), retention time of rainfall in the catchment (tp) and time of concentration (Tc). Using these parameters and morphological characteristics of the basin, such as catchment area, the distance weighted channel slope, length of the main stream, the distance of the center of basin to the profile of each hydrological stations, regional dependencies were established. Parameters of flood hydrograph were analyzed as dependent variables, while the morphological characteristics of the basin represent independent variables. The final goal of this work is to use the obtained regional dependence for flood hydrograph parameter estimation at ungauged locations, with the end goal of improving flood protection in the Kolubara river basin.

  15. River-aquifer exchanges in the Yakima River basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaccaro, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Five categories of data are analyzed to enhance understanding of river-aquifer exchanges-the processes by which water moves between stream channels and the adjacent groundwater system-in the Yakima River basin. The five datasets include (1) results of chemical analyses of water for tritium (3H, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen) and the ratios of the stable isotopes of hydrogen (2H/1H) and oxygen (18O/16O), (2) series of stream discharge measurements within specified reaches (seepage investigations or 'runs'), (3) vertical hydraulic gradients (between stream stage and hydraulic heads the underlying aquifer) measured using mini-piezometers, (4) groundwater levels and water temperature in shallow wells near stream channels, and (5) thermal profiles (continuous records of water temperature along river reaches). Exchanges are described in terms of streamflow, vertical hydraulic gradients, groundwater temperature and levels, and streamflow temperature, and where appropriate, the exchanges are discussed in terms of their relevance to and influence on salmonid habitat. The isotope data shows that the ultimate source of surface and groundwater is meteoric water derived from atmospheric precipitation. Water from deep wells has a different isotopic composition than either shallow groundwater or surface water, indicating that the deep groundwater system contributes, at most, only a small component of the surface-water discharge. The isotope data confirms that river-aquifer exchanges involve primarily modern streamflow and modern, shallow groundwater. Net exchanges of water for 46 stream sections investigated with seepage runs ranged from nearly zero to 1,071 ft3/s for 28 gaining sections, and -3 to -242 ft3/s for 18 losing sections. The magnitude of the upper 50 percent of the net gains is an order of magnitude larger than those for net losses. The sections have a normalized net exchange (as absolute value) that fully ranged from near 0 to 65.6 (ft3/s)/mi. Gaining

  16. Selected streamflow data for the Delaware River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schopp, Robert D.; Gillespie, Brian D.

    1979-01-01

    Selected streamflow data for the Delaware River basin include runoff-precipitation relationships for 28 selected subbasins for the period 1941-70; low-flow frequency curves for four mainstem Delaware River sites; monthly comparative duration curves and twenty year hydrographs at Montague and Trenton, New Jersey; and flow duration tables based on observed daily streamflow for gaging stations near 21 proposed dam sites. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Floods in the Rock River basin, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinitz, Albert J.

    1973-01-01

    Flood profiles for the Rock River include those for the 1962, 1964, 1965, 1969, and the computed 25- and 50-year floods. On the Little Rock River and Otter Creek, profiles include those for the 1969 flood and the computed 25- and 50-year floods. Low-water profiles are shown for all reaches.

  18. Nitrogen Removal by Streams and Rivers of the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our study, based on chemistry and channel dimensions data collected at 893 randomly-selected stream and river sites in the Mississippi River basin, demonstrated the interaction of stream chemistry, stream size, and NO3-N uptake metrics across a range of stream sizes and across re...

  19. An environmental streamflow assessment for the Santiam River basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risley, John C.; Wallick, J. Rose; Mangano, Joseph F.; Jones, Krista L.

    2012-01-01

    The Santiam River is a tributary of the Willamette River in northwestern Oregon and drains an area of 1,810 square miles. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) operates four dams in the basin, which are used primarily for flood control, hydropower production, recreation, and water-quality improvement. The Detroit and Big Cliff Dams were constructed in 1953 on the North Santiam River. The Green Peter and Foster Dams were completed in 1967 on the South Santiam River. The impacts of the structures have included a decrease in the frequency and magnitude of floods and an increase in low flows. For three North Santiam River reaches, the median of annual 1-day maximum streamflows decreased 42–50 percent because of regulated streamflow conditions. Likewise, for three reaches in the South Santiam River basin, the median of annual 1-day maximum streamflows decreased 39–52 percent because of regulation. In contrast to their effect on high flows, the dams increased low flows. The median of annual 7-day minimum flows in six of the seven study reaches increased under regulated streamflow conditions between 60 and 334 percent. On a seasonal basis, median monthly streamflows decreased from February to May and increased from September to January in all the reaches. However, the magnitude of these impacts usually decreased farther downstream from dams because of cumulative inflow from unregulated tributaries and groundwater entering the North, South, and main-stem Santiam Rivers below the dams. A Wilcox rank-sum test of monthly precipitation data from Salem, Oregon, and Waterloo, Oregon, found no significant difference between the pre-and post-dam periods, which suggests that the construction and operation of the dams since the 1950s and 1960s are a primary cause of alterations to the Santiam River basin streamflow regime. In addition to the streamflow analysis, this report provides a geomorphic characterization of the Santiam River basin and the associated conceptual

  20. 75 FR 64752 - Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... POWER AND CONSERVATION PLANNING COUNCIL Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program AGENCY... Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 4(h) of the Northwest Power Act, the Council has amended its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program to add...

  1. 77 FR 16558 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... Yakima River Basin Water Conservation Program. The basin conservation program is structured to provide... implementation of structural and nonstructural cost-effective water conservation measures in the Yakima River... Bureau of Reclamation Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group Charter Renewal AGENCY: Bureau...

  2. 18 CFR 706.413 - Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen. 706.413 Section 706.413 Conservation of Power and Water... Financial Interests § 706.413 Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen. A statement of employment and financial interest is not required under this part from Chairmen of River Basin...

  3. 18 CFR 706.413 - Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen. 706.413 Section 706.413 Conservation of Power and Water... Financial Interests § 706.413 Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen. A statement of employment and financial interest is not required under this part from Chairmen of River Basin...

  4. Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Onjukka, Sam T.; Harbeck, Jim

    2003-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

  5. Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Onjukka, Sam T.; Harbeck, Jim

    2003-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

  6. Effects of livestock wastes on small illinois streams: Lower Kaskaskia river basin and upper little wabash river basins, summer 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Hite, R.L.; Bickers, C.A.; King, M.M.; Brockamp, D.W.

    1992-07-01

    In early 1991, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) initiated an investigation to evaluate livestock waste runoff in southern Illinois. The primary objectives of this survey were to document stream quality impairments caused by livestock waste runoff, and ultimately, the need for better waste management practices, waste management systems, and funding for such systems. Information provided by Soil Conservation Service (SCS) and IEPA Agricultural staff identified an area in Clinton and Bond Counties in the Kaskaskia River basin and several upper Little Wabash River basin tributaries in Effingham and Cumberland Counties as candidate project areas.

  7. Morphometric Characters of a Himalayan River Basin-Pindari river of Pindari Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, L. K.; Pillai, J.

    2011-12-01

    Himalayan region consist many glaciers and glacier-fed rivers. About 17% of the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) is under permanent cover of Ice and snow and have more than 9000 glaciers and high altitude fresh water lakes. Stream runoff originating from the glaciers has direct implication in geomorphology of the region. Present study is an attempt to find out the stages in the geomorphic development of a higher altitudinal river basin, Pindari river basin. Development of a landscape is equal to the some total of the development of each individual drainage basin of which it is composed. Morphometric parameters of the river basin had been identified viz. linear, areal and relief aspect and examined. Pindari river basin is a 5th order high altitudinal, sub-dendratic, parallel and perennial tributary of Alaknanda River, formed by three main tributaries (Sunderdhunga, Pindari and Kafini). It has the catchment area above 557.63 Km2. This river originates from combined action of rain and snow fall from Pindari glacier which is part of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (a world heritage site). Pindari river basin is located between 1600 m to 6880 m elevation ,and 300 03' 23" -300 19' 04" N Latitude and 790 45' 59" - 80 0 04' 13"E Longitude. Due to microclimatic conditions Pindari river basin generally dry with low annual precipitation. There is heavy rainfall during monsoon season. The approximate variation in the precipitation is from 750 mm to 2000 mm. For estimating the Morphometric parameter SOI toposheet on 1:50000 scale and Landsat data (ETM+) having 15m resolution were georectified in RS and GIS environment. SRTM data was used in analysis of elevation and slope range of the study area. Extensive field study was held on during the year 2010. Morphometric parameters (linear, aerial and relief) of the study area had been estimated. It is observed that Pindari river basin is a sub-dendratic, higher relief, youth, fine texture; elongated basin has peak flow, high discharge, and

  8. Long-term tritium monitoring to study river basin dynamics: case of the Danube River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Pradeep; Araguas, Luis; Groening, Manfred; Newman, Brent; Kurttas, Turker; Papesch, Wolfgang; Rank, Dieter; Suckow, Axel; Vitvar, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    During the last five decades, isotope concentrations (O-18, D, tritium) have been extensively measured in precipitation, surface- and ground-waters to derive information on residence times of water in aquifers and rivers, recharge processes, and groundwater dynamics. The unique properties of the isotopes of the water molecule as tracers are especially useful for understanding the retention of water in river basins, which is a key parameter for assessing water resources availability, addressing quality issues, investigating interconnections between surface- and ground-waters, and for predicting possible hydrological shifts related to human activities and climate change. Detailed information of the spatial and temporal changes of isotope contents in precipitation at a global scale was one of the initial aims of the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP), which has provided a detailed chronicle of tritium and stable isotope contents in precipitation since the 1960s. Accurate information of tritium contents resulting of the thermonuclear atmospheric tests in the 1950s and 1960s is available in GNIP for stations distributed world-wide. Use of this dataset for hydrological dating or as an indicator of recent recharge has been extensive in shallow groundwaters. However, its use has been more limited in surface waters, due to the absence of specific monitoring programmes of tritium and stable isotopes in rivers, lakes and other surface water bodies. The IAEA has recently been compiling new and archival isotope data measured in groundwaters, rivers, lakes and other water bodies as part of its web based Water Isotope System for Data Analysis, Visualization and Electronic Retrieval (WISER). Recent additions to the Global Network of Isotopes in Rivers (GNIR) contained within WISER now make detailed studies in rivers possible. For this study, we are re-examining residence time estimates for the Danube in central Europe. Tritium data are available in GNIR from 15

  9. Demographics and run timing of adult Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose (Chasmistes brevirostris) suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hewitt, David A.; Hayes, Brian S.; Janney, Eric C.; Harris, Alta C.; Koller, Justin P.; Johnson, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Data from a long-term capture-recapture program were used to assess the status and dynamics of populations of two long-lived, federally endangered catostomids in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) have been captured and tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags during their spawning migrations in each year since 1995. In addition, beginning in 2005, individuals that had been previously PIT-tagged were re-encountered on remote underwater antennas deployed throughout the spawning areas. Captures and remote encounters during spring 2009 were used to describe the spawning migrations in that year and also were incorporated into capture-recapture analyses of population dynamics over the last decade. Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) open population capture-recapture models were used to estimate annual survival probabilities, and a reverse-time analog of the CJS model was used to estimate recruitment of new individuals into the spawning populations. In addition, data on the size composition of captured fish was examined for any additional evidence of recruitment. Survival and recruitment estimates were combined to estimate changes in population size over time and to determine the status of the populations through 2007. Separate analyses were conducted for each species and also for each subpopulation of Lost River suckers (LRS). One subpopulation of LRS migrates into tributaries to spawn, similar to shortnose suckers (SNS), whereas the other subpopulation spawns at upwelling areas along the eastern shoreline of the lake. In 2009, we captured and tagged 781 LRS at four shoreline areas and recaptured an additional 638 individuals that had been tagged in previous years. Across all four areas, the remote antennas detected 6,056 individual LRS during the spawning season. Spawning activity peaked in April and most individuals were encountered at Sucker Springs and Cinder Flats. In the Williamson

  10. Floods in the Skunk River basin, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinitz, Albert J.; Wiitala, Sulo Werner

    1978-01-01

    Evaluation of flood hazards, and the planning, design, and operation of various facilities on flood plains require information on floods. This report provides information on flood stages and discharges, flood magnitudes and frequency, and flood profiles for the Skunk River and some of its tributaries. It covers the Skunk -- South Skunk Rivers to Ames, and the lower reaches of tributaries as flows: Squaw Creek, 8.2 miles; Indian Creek, 11.6 miles; North Skunk River, 83.2 miles; Cedar Creek, 55.8 miles; and Big Creek, 21.7 miles.

  11. Work plan for the Sangamon River basin, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamer, J.K.; Mades, Dean M.

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Division of Water Resources of the Illinois Department of Transportation and other State agencies, recognizes the need for basin-type assessments in Illinois. This report describes a plan of study for a water-resource assessment of the Sangamon River basin in central Illinois. The purpose of the study would be to provide information to basin planners and regulators on the quantity, quality, and use of water to guide management decisions regarding basin development. Water quality and quantity problems in the Sangamon River basin are associated primarily with agricultural and urban activities, which have contributed high concentrations of suspended sediment, nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic matter to the streams. The impact has resulted in eutrophic lakes, diminished capacity of lakes to store water, low concentrations of dissolved oxygen, and turbid stream and lake waters. The four elements of the plan of study include: (1) determining suspended sediment and nutrient transport, (2) determining the distribution of selected inorganic and organic residues in streambed sediments, (3) determining the waste-load assimilative capacity of the Sangamon River, and (4) applying a hydraulic model to high streamflows. (USGS)

  12. Digital Atlas of the Upper Washita River Basin, Southwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.; Masoner, Jason R.; Scott, Jonathon C.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous types of environmental data have been collected in the upper Washita River basin in southwestern Oklahoma. However, to date these data have not been compiled into a format that can be comprehensively queried for the purpose of evaluating the effects of various conservation practices implemented to reduce agricultural runoff and erosion in parts of the upper Washita River basin. This U.S. Geological Survey publication, 'Digital atlas of the upper Washita River basin, southwestern Oklahoma' was created to assist with environmental analysis. This atlas contains 30 spatial data sets that can be used in environmental assessment and decision making for the upper Washita River basin. This digital atlas includes U.S. Geological Survey sampling sites and associated water-quality, biological, water-level, and streamflow data collected from 1903 to 2005. The data were retrieved from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System database on September 29, 2005. Data sets are from the Geology, Geography, and Water disciplines of the U.S. Geological Survey and cover parts of Beckham, Caddo, Canadian, Comanche, Custer, Dewey, Grady, Kiowa, and Washita Counties in southwestern Oklahoma. A bibliography of past reports from the U.S. Geological Survey and other State and Federal agencies from 1949 to 2004 is included in the atlas. Additionally, reports by Becker (2001), Martin (2002), Fairchild and others (2004), and Miller and Stanley (2005) are provided in electronic format.

  13. AEROBIC DENITRIFICATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE MOM RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Each year about 1.6 million metric tons of nitrogen, mostly from agriculture, is discharged from the lower Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin into the Gulf of Mexico, and each spring this excess nitrogen fuels the formation of a huge hypoxic zone in the Gulf. In the Mississippi...

  14. Geothermal resources of the Southern Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, H.P.; Buelow, K.L.; Hinckley, B.S.

    1985-06-13

    This report describes the geothermal resources of the Southern Powder River Basin. The report contains a discussion of the hydrology as it relates to the movement of heated water, a description and interpretation of the thermal regime, and four maps: a generalized geological map, a structure contour map, a thermal gradient contour map, and a ground water temperature map. 10 figs. (ACR)

  15. Water Temperature changes in the Mississippi River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we demonstrate the transfer of a physically based semi-Lagrangian water temperature model (RBM) to EPA, its linkage with the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrology model, and its calibration to and demonstration for the Mississippi River Basin (MRB). The r...

  16. 75 FR 38833 - Walker River Basin Acquisition Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... by the recipient to acquire from willing sellers land, water appurtenant to the land, and related interests in the Walker River Basin, Nevada. Acquired water rights would be transferred to provide water for... 156 feet. The decrease has resulted in extremely poor water quality and deteriorated lake ecology....

  17. Summary of Seepage Investigations in the Yakima River Basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magirl, C.S.; Julich, R.J.; Welch, W.B.; Curran, C.R.; Mastin, M.C.; Vaccaro, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Discharge data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, Washington State Department of Ecology, and Yakama Nation for seepage investigations in the Yakima River basin are made available as downloadable Microsoft Excel files. These data were collected for more than a century at various times for several different studies and are now available in one location to facilitate future analysis by interested parties.

  18. Sharing water and benefits in transboundary river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjoon, Diane; Tilmant, Amaury; Herrmann, Markus

    2016-06-01

    The equitable sharing of benefits in transboundary river basins is necessary to solve disputes among riparian countries and to reach a consensus on basin-wide development and management activities. Benefit-sharing arrangements must be collaboratively developed to be perceived not only as efficient, but also as equitable in order to be considered acceptable to all riparian countries. The current literature mainly describes what is meant by the term benefit sharing in the context of transboundary river basins and discusses this from a conceptual point of view, but falls short of providing practical, institutional arrangements that ensure maximum economic welfare as well as collaboratively developed methods for encouraging the equitable sharing of benefits. In this study, we define an institutional arrangement that distributes welfare in a river basin by maximizing the economic benefits of water use and then sharing these benefits in an equitable manner using a method developed through stakeholder involvement. We describe a methodology in which (i) a hydrological model is used to allocate scarce water resources, in an economically efficient manner, to water users in a transboundary basin, (ii) water users are obliged to pay for water, and (iii) the total of these water charges is equitably redistributed as monetary compensation to users in an amount determined through the application of a sharing method developed by stakeholder input, thus based on a stakeholder vision of fairness, using an axiomatic approach. With the proposed benefit-sharing mechanism, the efficiency-equity trade-off still exists, but the extent of the imbalance is reduced because benefits are maximized and redistributed according to a key that has been collectively agreed upon by the participants. The whole system is overseen by a river basin authority. The methodology is applied to the Eastern Nile River basin as a case study. The described technique not only ensures economic efficiency, but may

  19. Impacts of urbanization on river system structure: a case study on Qinhuai River Basin, Yangtze River Delta.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaomin; Xu, Youpeng; Han, Longfei; Yang, Liu

    2014-01-01

    Stream structure is usually dominated by various human activities over a short term. An analysis of variation in stream structure from 1979 to 2009 in the Qinhuai River Basin, China, was performed based on remote sensing images and topographic maps by using ArcGIS. A series of river parameters derived from river geomorphology are listed to describe the status of river structure in the past and present. Results showed that urbanization caused a huge increase in the impervious area. The number of rivers in the study area has decreased and length of rivers has shortened. Over the 30 years, there was a 41.03% decrease in river length. Complexity and stability of streams have also changed and consequently the storage capacities of river channels in intensively urbanized areas are much lower than in moderately urbanized areas, indicating a greater risk of floods. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the urban disturbance to rivers. PMID:25116497

  20. Impacts of urbanization on river system structure: a case study on Qinhuai River Basin, Yangtze River Delta.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaomin; Xu, Youpeng; Han, Longfei; Yang, Liu

    2014-01-01

    Stream structure is usually dominated by various human activities over a short term. An analysis of variation in stream structure from 1979 to 2009 in the Qinhuai River Basin, China, was performed based on remote sensing images and topographic maps by using ArcGIS. A series of river parameters derived from river geomorphology are listed to describe the status of river structure in the past and present. Results showed that urbanization caused a huge increase in the impervious area. The number of rivers in the study area has decreased and length of rivers has shortened. Over the 30 years, there was a 41.03% decrease in river length. Complexity and stability of streams have also changed and consequently the storage capacities of river channels in intensively urbanized areas are much lower than in moderately urbanized areas, indicating a greater risk of floods. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the urban disturbance to rivers.

  1. Hydrogeologic data in the Quinebaug River basin, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Chester E.; Randall, Allan D.; Thomas, Mendall P.

    1966-01-01

    This report presents hydrologic and geologic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during an investigation of water resources in the Quinebaug River basin of Connecticut in cooperation with the Connecticut Water Resources Commission. The Quinebaug River basin occupies about 425 square miles in the northeastern part of the State, including the towns of Brooklyn, Griswold, Killingly, Plainfield, Pomfret, Putnam, Sterling, and Thompson, and parts of Canterbury, Hampton, Lisbon, North Stonington, Preston, Voluntown, and Woodstock. A companion interpretive report evaluating the water resources of the basin will be published as Connecticut Water Resources Bulletin 8. The data on the following pages serve to document and supplement that report, and should be especially useful in planning the development of water resources at specific localities.

  2. Contaminants in suspended sediment from the Fraser River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Sekela, M.; Baldazzi, C.; Moyle, G.; Brewer, R.

    1995-12-31

    The concentrations of trace organic contaminants were measured in suspended sediment samples collected upstream and downstream of six pulp mills located in the Fraser River basin. Sampling occurred at three hydrological periods; fall low flow, winter base flow (under ice) and spring freshet. Suspended sediments were analyzed for dioxins, furans, chlorinated phenolics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Initial results indicate that (i) trace organic contaminants are detectable in suspended sediments collected over 265 river kilometers downstream of the nearest pulp mill; (ii) the 1992 to 1994 levels of 2,3,7,8-TCD-dioxin and 2,3,7,8-TCD-furan in Fraser river suspended sediments are lower than the levels measured in 1990; (iii) there is a measurable increase in trace organic contaminant levels in Fraser River suspended sediments associated with the initial rise in the Fraser River hydrograph at freshet.

  3. Isotopic fingerprint of the middle Olt River basin, Romania.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Raluca; Costinel, Diana; Ionete, Roxana Elena; Axente, Damian

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important tributaries of the Danube River in Romania, the Olt River, was characterized in its middle catchment in terms of the isotopic composition using continuous flow-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS). Throughout a period of 10 months, from November 2010 to August 2011, water samples from the Olt River and its more important tributaries were collected in order to investigate the seasonal and spatial isotope patterns of the basin waters. The results revealed a significant difference between the Olt River and its tributaries, by the fact that the Olt River waters show smaller seasonal variations in the stable isotopic composition and are more depleted in (18)O and (2)H. The waters present an overall enrichment in heavy isotopes during the warm seasons.

  4. Water Balance Change in Xia Ying River Basin, Qinghai Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuo, L.; Zhou, B.; Li, J.

    2010-12-01

    Yellow River, Yangtze River and Lan Cang River are major river systems supporting billions of people in South East Asia and China. Source region of Yellow River, Yangtze River and Lan Cang River (Three Rivers) is located in Qinghai Province, China. Recently, Chinese government started a conservation project in the source region of the Three Rivers called “Convert Agricultural Field to Forest and Grassland”. Xia Ying River Basin is a sub-basin located in the source region of the Three River Basin. The upper Xia Ying River Basin has experienced dramatic land cover change since 2006. Before 2006, upper Xia Ying River Basin hill slope was agricultural field. Coniferous trees and bush vegetation were planted on the slope greater than 70 degree in the upper Xia Ying River Basin in 2006. The objective of the study is to investigate the water balance term change in the Xia Ying River Basin because of the conservation project. This study will use Landsat and MODIS imagery to classify and quantify land cover classes before and after land cover conversion. Water balance terms including runoff and evaportranspiration will be simulated using a land surface model to investigate water balance term change due to land cover change. The study serves as a pilot study for the investigation of hydrological change in the entire source region of the Three River Basin during the past 50 years.

  5. Feasible optimality of vegetation patterns in river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caylor, Kelly K.; Scanlon, Todd M.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2004-07-01

    We examine mechanisms leading to organization of vegetation patterns within the channel network structure of a semi-arid New Mexico river basin under the controlling influence of water stress. We compare the actual pattern of water stress within the basin to patterns resulting from two algorithms of local stress optimization which proceed from an initial fully random vegetation distribution. Here we show that the distribution of vegetation and basin water stress derived from an algorithm that maintains local optimization within the network flow path exhibits considerably better agreement with the actual distribution than one that ignores the network structure of the basin. These results suggest the pattern of actual vegetation observed within the basin corresponds to a condition of feasible optimality in which organization is constrained by the stochastic nature of local interactions mediated by the network configuration. The principles of such organization have important consequences regarding the interaction between land cover change and hydrological dynamics in river basins, as well as the biogeographical evolution of landscapes.

  6. Quantifying the extent of river fragmentation by hydropower dams in the Sarapiquí River Basin, Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Elizabeth P.; Pringle, Catherine M.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2008-01-01

    Simple spatial analyses can be used as a predictive or planning tool for considering the effects of future dams in a basin-scale context. In the Sarapiquí River Basin, we recommend that future dam projects be constructed on already dammed rivers to minimize additional river fragmentation and to protect remaining riverine connectivity.

  7. Selected basin characteristics and water-quality data of the Minnesota River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winterstein, T.A.; Payne, G.A.; Miller, R.A.; Stark, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Selected basin characteristics and water-quality dam for the Minnesota River Basin are presented in this report as 71 maps, 22 graphs, and 8 tables. The data were compiled as part of a four-year study to identify non-point sources of pollution and the effect of this pollution on water quality. The maps were prepared from geographic information system data bases. Federal, State, and local agencies, and colleges and universities collected and assembled these data as part of the Minnesota River Assessment Project.

  8. Nitrogen flux and sources in the Mississippi River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goolsby, D.A.; Battaglin, W.A.; Aulenbach, Brent T.; Hooper, R.P.

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen from the Mississippi River Basin is believed to be at least partly responsible for the large zone of oxygen-depleted water that develops in the Gulf of Mexico each summer. Historical data show that concentrations of nitrate in the Mississippi River and some of its tributaries have increased by factors of 2 to more than 5 since the early 1900s. We have used the historical streamflow and concentration data in regression models to estimate the annual flux of nitrogen (N) to the Gulf of Mexico and to determine where the nitrogen originates within the Mississippi Basin. Results show that for 1980-1996 the mean annual total N flux to the Gulf of Mexico was 1568000 t/year. The flux was approximately 61% nitrate as N, 37% organic N, and 2% ammonium as N. The flux of nitrate to the Gulf has approximately tripled in the last 30 years with most of the increase occurring between 1970 and 1983. The mean annual N flux has changed little since the early 1980s, but large year-to-year variations in N flux occur because of variations in precipitation. During wet years the N flux can increase by 50% or more due to flushing of nitrate that has accumulated in the soils and unsaturated zones in the basin. The principal source areas of N are basins in southern Minnesota, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio that drain agricultural land. Basins in this region yield 800 to more than 3100 kg total N/km2 per year to streams, several times the N yield of basins outside this region. Assuming conservative transport of N in the Mississippi River, streams draining Iowa and Illinois contribute on average approximately 35% of the total N discharged by the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico. In years with high precipitation they can contribute a larger percentage. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  9. Hydrologic reconnaissance of the Noatak River basin, Alaska, 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, Joseph M.; Kernodle, Donald R.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrologic data were collected in 1978 described water resources of the Noatak River basin, Alaska. Streamflow varies seasonally. No flow was observed from the upper part of the basin in late winter (April). In the lower part of the basin springs support perennial flow in the Kugururok River and downstream along the Noatak. The discharge of the Noatak was 150 cubic feet per second in April 1978. During the summer, rainstorms are common, and runoff produces high flow. During August 1978, flow was normal in the basin; unit runoff averaged about 1 cubic foot per second per square mile. The Noatak is a gravel-bed stream of moderate slope. It drops about 1,800 feet in elevation from a point near the head waters to the mouth, a distance of 400 miles. Streambed material in most places is gravel, cobbles, and boulders, maximum riffle depths and pool widths increase in a downstream direction. Stream velocity in August 1978 increased from about 1 foot per second in the upper basin to about 4 feet per second in the lower reaches. High-water marks of the maximum evident flood were found at elevations from bankfull to 5 feet above bankfull. Maximum evident flood unit runoff rates were estimated to be less than 50 cubic feet per second per square mile. Scars produced by ice jams were seldom seen above bankfull. Bank erosion appears to be most active in the lowlands. Water in the Noatak River basin is virtually unaffected by man 's activity. Water quality varies with location, weather, season, and source; the water is normally clear, cool, and hard. During late winter sea water intrudes into the Lower Noatak Canyon. Benthic invertebrate community composition and variability suggest the river 's undiminished natural quality. (USGS)

  10. Hydroclimatic and water quality trends across three Mediterranean river basins.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Stefanie R; Mallucci, Stefano; Diamantini, Elena; Majone, Bruno; Bellin, Alberto; Merz, Ralf

    2016-11-15

    Water resources are under pressure from multiple anthropogenic stressors such as changing climate, agriculture and water abstraction. This holds, in particular, for the Mediterranean region, where substantial changes in climate are expected throughout the 21st century. Nonetheless, little attention has been paid to linkages between long-term trends in climate, streamflow and water quality in Mediterranean river basins. In the present study, we perform a comparative analysis of recent trends in hydroclimatic parameters and nitrate pollution in three climatologically different Mediterranean watersheds (i.e., the Adige, Ebro and Sava River Basins). Mann-Kendall trend analyses of annual mean temperature, precipitation and streamflow (period 1971 to 2010) and monthly nitrate concentrations, mass fluxes and flow-adjusted concentrations (period 1996 to 2012) were performed in these river basins. Temperature is shown to have increased the most in the Ebro followed by the Sava, whereas minor increases are observed in the Adige. Precipitation presents, overall, a negative trend in the Ebro and a positive trend in both the Adige and Sava. These climatic trends thus suggest the highest risk of increasing water scarcity for the Ebro and the lowest risk for the Adige. This is confirmed by trend analyses of streamflow time series, which indicate a severe decline in streamflow for the Ebro and a substantial decline in the Sava, as opposed to the Adige showing no prevailing trend. Concerning surface water quality, nitrate pollution appears to have decreased in all study basins. Overall, these findings emphasize progressive reduction of water resources availability in river basins characterized by continental climate (i.e., Ebro and Sava). This study thus underlines the need for adapted river management in the Mediterranean region, particularly considering strong feedbacks between hydroclimatic trends, freshwater ecosystem services and water resources availability for agriculture

  11. Understanding Socio-Hydrology System in the Kissimmee River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Wang, D.; Tian, F.; Sivapalan, M.

    2014-12-01

    This study is to develop a conceptual socio-hydrology model for the Kissimmee River Basin. The Kissimmee River located in Florida was channelized in mid-20 century for flood protection. However, the environmental issues caused by channelization led Floridians to conduct a restoration project recently, focusing on wetland recovery. As a complex coupled human-water system, Kissimmee River Basin shows the typical socio-hydrology interactions. Hypothetically, the major reason to drive the system from channelization to restoration is that the community sensitivity towards the environment has changed from controlling to restoring. The model developed in this study includes 5 components: water balance, flood risk, wetland area, crop land area, and community sensitivity. Furthermore, urban population and rural population in the basin have different community sensitivities towards the hydrologic system. The urban population, who live further away from the river are more sensitive to wetland restoration; while the rural population, who live closer to the river are more sensitive to flood protection. The power dynamics between the two groups and its impact on management decision making is described in the model. The model is calibrated based on the observed watershed outflow, wetland area and crop land area. The results show that the overall focus of community sensitivity has changed from flood protection to wetland restoration in the past 60 years in Kissimmee River Basin, which confirms the study hypothesis. There are two main reasons for the community sensitivity change. Firstly, people's flood memory is fading because of the effective flood protection, while the continuously shrinking wetland and the decreasing bird and fish population draw more and more attention. Secondly, in the last 60 years, the urban population in Florida drastically increased compared with a much slower increase of rural population. As a result, the community sensitivity of urban population towards

  12. Aquatic risk assessment of priority and other river basin specific pesticides in surface waters of Mediterranean river basins.

    PubMed

    Silva, Emília; Daam, Michiel A; Cerejeira, Maria José

    2015-09-01

    To meet good chemical and ecological status, Member States are required to monitor priority substances and chemicals identified as substances of concern at European Union and local/river-basin/national level, respectively, in surface water bodies, and to report exceedances of the environmental quality standards (EQSs). Therefore, standards have to be set at national level for river basin specific pollutants. Pesticides used in dominant crops of several agricultural areas within the catchment of Mediterranean river basins ('Mondego', 'Sado' and 'Tejo', Portugal) were selected for monitoring, in addition to the pesticides included in priority lists defined in Europe. From the 29 pesticides and metabolites selected for the study, 20 were detected in surface waters of the river basins, seven of which were priority substances: alachlor, atrazine, chlorfenvinphos, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, simazine and terbutryn, all of which exceeded their respective EQS values. QSs for other specific pollutants were calculated using different extrapolation techniques (i.e. deterministic or probabilistic) largely based on the method described in view of the Water Framework Directive. Non-acceptable aquatic risks were revealed for molinate, oxadiazon, pendimethalin, propanil, terbuthylazine, and the metabolite desethylatrazine. Implications of these findings for the classification of the ecological status of surface water bodies in Portugal and at the European level are discussed.

  13. Estimation of environmental flow requirements for the river ecosystem in the Haihe River Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Liu, Jingling; Chen, Qiuying; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The temporal and spatial environmental flow requirements (EFRs) for the river ecosystem of the Haihe River Basin were analyzed based mainly on the eco-functional regionalization of available water resources. The annual EFRs for the river ecosystem of the Haihe River Basin were 47.71 × 10(8) m(3), which accounted for 18% of the average annual flow (263.9 × 10(8) m(3)). The EFRs for river reaches, wetlands, and estuaries were 22.67, 15.32 and 9.72 × 10(8) m(3), respectively. Moreover, the EFRs for the river ecosystem during the wet (June to October), normal (April, May, November), and dry (December to March) periods were 29.99, 9.51 and 8.21 × 10(8) m(3), respectively. Thus, toward a more integrated water resource allocation in the Haihe River Basin, the primary effort should focus on meeting the EFRs for river systems located in protected areas during the dry period.

  14. Geohydrologic summary of the Pearl River basin, Mississippi and Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lang, Joseph W.

    1972-01-01

    Fresh water in abundance is contained in large artesian reservoirs in sand and gravel deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary ages in the Pearl River basin, a watershed of 8,760 square miles. Shallow, water-table reservoirs occur in Quarternary deposits (Pleistocene and Holocene) that blanket most of the uplands in .the southern half of the basin and that are present in smaller upland areas and along streams elsewhere. The shallow reservoirs contribute substantially to dry-weather flow of the Strong River and Bogue Chitto and of Holiday, Lower Little, Silver, and Whitesand Creeks, among others. About 3 billion acre-feet of ground water is in storage in the fresh-water section, which extends from the surface to depths ranging from about sea level in the extreme northern part of the basin to more than 3,000 feet below sea level in the southern part of the basin. Variations in low flow for different parts of the river basin are closely related to geologic terrane and occurrence of ground water. The upland terrace belt that crosses the south-central part of the basin is underlain by permeable sand and gravel deposits and yields more than 0.20 cubic feet per second per square mile of drainage area to streamflow, whereas the northern part of the basin, underlain by clay, marl, and fine to medium sand, yields less than 0.05 cubic feet per second per square mile of drainage area (based on 7-day Q2 minimum flow computed from records). Overall, the potential surface-water supplies are large. Because water is available at shallow depths, most of the deeper aquifers have not been developed anywhere in the basin. At many places in the south, seven or more aquifers could be developed either by tapping one sand in each well or by screening two or more sands in a single well. Well fields each capable, of producing several million gallons of water a day are feasible nearly anywhere in the Pearl River basin. Water in nearly all the aquifers is of good to excellent quality and requires

  15. The Portland Basin: A (big) river runs through it

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evarts, Russell C.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Wells, Ray E.; Madin, Ian P.

    2009-01-01

    Metropolitan Portland, Oregon, USA, lies within a small Neogene to Holocene basin in the forearc of the Cascadia subduction system. Although the basin owes its existence and structural development to its convergent-margin tectonic setting, the stratigraphic architecture of basin-fill deposits chiefly reflects its physiographic position along the lower reaches of the continental-scale Columbia River system. As a result of this globally unique setting, the basin preserves a complex record of aggradation and incision in response to distant as well as local tectonic, volcanic, and climatic events. Voluminous flood basalts, continental and locally derived sediment and volcanic debris, and catastrophic flood deposits all accumulated in an area influenced by contemporaneous tectonic deformation and variations in regional and local base level.

  16. Geologic features of dam sites in the Nehalem, Rogue, and Willamette River basins, Oregon, 1935-37

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piper, A.M.

    1947-01-01

    The present report comprises brief descriptions of geologic features at 19 potential dam sites in the Nehalem, Rogue, and Willamette River basins in western Oregon. The topography of these site and of the corresponding reservoir site was mapped in 1934-36 under an allocation of funds, by the Public Works Administration for river-utilization surveys by the Conservation Branch of the United States Geological Survey. The field program in Oregon has been under the immediate charge of R. O. Helland. The 19 dam sites are distributed as follows: three on the Nehalem River, on the west or Pacific slope of the Oregon Coast range; four on Little Butte Creek and two on Evans Creek, tributaries of the Rogue River in the eastern part of the Klamath Mountains; four on the South and Middle Santiam Rivers, tributaries of the Willamette River from the west slope of the Cascade mountains; and six on tributaries of the Willamette River from the east slope of the Coast Range. Except in the Evans Creek basin, all the rocks in the districts that were studied are of comparatively late geological age. They include volcanic rocks, crystalline rocks of several types, marine and nonmarine sedimentary rocks, and recent stream deposits. The study of geologic features has sought to estimate the bearing power and water-tightness of the rocks at each dam site, also to place rather broad limits on the type of dam for which the respective sites seem best suited. It was not considered necessary to study the corresponding reservoir sites in detail for excessive leakage appears to be unlikely. Except at three of the four site in the Santiam River basin, no test pits have been dug nor exploratory holes drilled, so that geologic features have been interpreted wholly from natural outcrops and from highway and railroad cuts. Because these outcrops and cuts are few, many problems related to the construction and maintenance of dams can not be answered at the this time and all critical features of the sites

  17. Chemical analyses of surface water in Illinois, 1958-74; Volume II, Illinois River basin and Mississippi River tributaries north of Illinois River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, R.W.; Toler, L.G.

    1978-01-01

    Samples of surface water were collected and analyzed by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency and its predecessor, the Stream Pollution Control Bureau of the Illinois Department of Public Health. The results for the period 1958 to 1974 are presented in tabular form and the history of sampling and analytical methods are included for all sites where samples were collected at gaging stations or near enough that reliable discharge estimates could be made. The report is contained in three volumes. This volume (Volume II) includes Illinois River basin and Mississippi River tributaries north of Illinois River basin. (See also W78-10034 and W78-10036) (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Chemical analyses of surface water in Illinois, 1975-77; Volume 2, Illinois River basin and Mississippi River tributaries north of Illinois River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grason, David; Healy, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Samples of surface water were collected and analyzed by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. The results from water years 1975 to 1977 are presented in three volumes. The history of sampling and analytical methods used during that period are summarized. Stream discharge data from records of the U.S. Geological Survey are included for all sites where samples were collected at gaging stations or near enough that reliable discharge estimates could be made. Volume II includes the Illinois River basin and Mississippi River tributaries north of Illinois River basin. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Relation of Volcanism to Crustal Deformation in Klamath Falls, Oregon: Transition from Calc-alkaline Basaltic Andesite to High Alumina Olivine Tholeiite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priest, G. R.; Hladky, F. R.; Murray, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    This paper is based on geologic mapping by Priest et al. (2008) at Klamath Falls, Oregon on the southernmost end of the Klamath Graben. Northeast-southwest extension across this area caused northeast tilting of fault blocks on the east side and southwest tilting of blocks on the west side of the Graben. Dominant strike of these Basin and Range fault blocks is N. 30-40° W. At Klamath Falls the two opposing groups of tilted blocks are separated not by a keystone graben but by a complex of bounding faults striking ~N. 65° W. The bounding faults appear to have components of right-lateral or reverse motion, cut rocks dated at ~4 Ma, and terminate to the northwest against northeast-striking faults at the southern boundary of the Graben. Normal faults within the study area cut basalt dated at 1.8 Ma on the west side of the Graben. Holocene talus is cut on the east side of the Graben immediately north of the study area. The 1993 magnitude 5.9 and 6.0 earthquakes on the west margin of the Klamath Graben are evidence that extensional deformation is continuing there. The youngest proven deformation in the map area south of the Graben boundary is offset Pleistocene alluvial fans at the base of Hogback Mountain. These fans are now preserved as discontinuous hills but once filled the local Altamont basin by up to 150 m higher than its present surface. Much of this sand and gravel has been eroded, possibly coincident with breaching of the basin at ~1 Ma by headward erosion of the Klamath River. Magmatic composition changed as crustal extension in the area progressed and the width of the Cascade volcanic arc decreased. Between ~6 and 4 Ma, calc-alkaline basaltic andesite and andesite from local volcanic centers of the volcanic arc flowed unimpeded across the area, thus the current Basin and Range topography had not developed. Angular unconformities within sequences of volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks dated at 4-2.7 Ma indicate contemporaneous tilting of fault blocks, but much

  20. Transport of diazinon in the San Joaquin River basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kratzer, Charles R.

    1997-01-01

    Most of the application of the organophosphate insecticide diazinon in the San Joaquin River Basin occurs in winter to control wood boring insects in dormant almond orchards. A federal-state collaborative study found that diazinon accounted for most of the observed toxicity of San Joaquin River water to water fleas in February 1993. Previous studies focussed mainly on west-side inputs to the San Joaquin River. In this 1994 study, the three major east-side tributaries to the San Joaquin River, the Merced, Tuolumne, and Stanislaus Rivers, and a downstream site on the San Joaquin River were sampled throughout the hydrographs of a late January and an early February storm. In both storms, the Tuolumne River had the highest concentrations of diazinon and transported the largest load of the three tributaries. The Stanislaus River was a small source in both storms. On the basis of previous storm sampling and estimated traveltimes, ephemeral west-side creeks were probably the main diazinon source early in the storms, while the Tuolumne and Merced Rivers and east-side drainage directly to the San Joaquin River were the main sources later. Although 74 percent of diazinon transport in the San Joaquin River during 199193 occurred in January and February, transport during each of the two 1994 storms was only 0.05 percent of the amount applied during preceeding dry periods. Nevertheless, some of the diazinon concentrations in the San Joaquin River during the January storm exceeded 0.35 micrograms per liter, a concentration shown to be acutely toxic to water fleas. Diazinon concentrations were highly variable during the storms and frequent sampling was required to adequately describe the concentration curves and to estimate loads.

  1. Estimation of the Water Budget for Major Canadian River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Huang, J.; Li, J.; Rivera, A.; Russell, H.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding regional water budgets is essential in water resources management, particularly for irrigation planning, drought, flood and pollution control, drainage system design, and climate modelling. A water budget for a drainage basin is needed to determine the magnitude of the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic disturbances on terrestrial water cycle and to evaluate possible mitigation actions. In this study, the monthly and 30-year (1979-2008) average water budgets were calculated for large Canadian river basins with an area > 90,000 km2. The total area studied takes about 58% of the entire Canadian landmass. The datasets used include two gridded precipitation products based on measurement, the land surface evapotranspiration product derived from the EALCO model, the river discharge measured from hydrometric stations, and the total water (surface water+groundwater) storage anomaly derived from GRACE satellite observations. These datasets are deemed as the best-available long-term national scale datasets that meet the requirement of this study. Our objectives are to characterise the spatial and temporal variations of water budget across the vast Canadian landmass and to answer the questions of (1) how well can we close the water budget at both long-term and monthly time scales for the major Canadian river basins and (2) which component(s) of the water budget (i.e., precipitation, evapotranspiration, river discharge, or total water storage change) and in which season and which region contribute the main error source to the water budget imbalance? We also examined the decadal change in total water storage in the major Canadian river basins and quantified the bias in evapotranspiration estimation by using the widely-accepted surface water budget approach. Our results show that the national scale water budget imbalance is very close to 0 (-0.2 mm year-1) due to the offset of positive and negative imbalances among the studies basins. Basins with positive

  2. Information technology and decision support tools for stakeholder-driven river basin salinity management

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, N.W.T; Cozad, D.B.; Lee, G.

    2010-01-01

    Innovative strategies for effective basin-scale salinity management have been developed in the Hunter River Basin of Australia and more recently in the San Joaquin River Basin of California. In both instances web-based stakeholder information dissemination has been a key to achieving a high level of stakeholder involvement and the formulation of effective decision support salinity management tools. A common element to implementation of salinity management strategies in both river basins has been the concept of river assimilative capacity for controlling export salt loading and the potential for trading of the right to discharge salt load to the river - the Hunter River in Australia and the San Joaquin River in California. Both rivers provide basin drainage and the means of exporting salt to the ocean. The paper compares and contrasts the use of monitoring, modeling and information dissemination in the two basins to achieve environmental compliance and sustain irrigated agriculture in an equitable and socially and politically acceptable manner.

  3. Geothermal resources of the Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Hinckley, B.S.; Heasler, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    The geothermal resources of the Wind River Basin were investigated. Oil-well bottom-hole temperatures, thermal logs of wells, and heat flow data have been interpreted within a framework of geologic and hydrologic constraints. Basic thermal data, which includes the background thermal gradient and the highest recorded temperature and corresponding depth for each basin, is tabulated. Background heat flow in the Wind River Basin is generally insufficient to produce high conductive gradients. Only where hydrologic systems re-distribute heat through mass movement of water will high temperatures occur at shallow depths. Aquifers which may have the confinement and structural characteristics necessary to create such geothermal systems are the Lance/Fort Union, Mesa Verde, Frontier, Muddy, Cloverly, Sundance, Nugget, Park City, Tensleep, Amsden, Madison, Bighorn, and Flathead Formations. Of these the Tensleep Sandstone and Madison Limestone are the most attractive in terms of both productivity and water quality. Most of the identified geothermal anomalies in the Wind River Basin occur along complex structures in the southwest and south. The most attractive geothermal prospects identified are anomalous Areas 2 and 3 north of Lander, Sweetwater Station Springs west of Jeffrey City, and the thermal springs southwest of Dubois. Even in these areas, it is unlikely temperatures in excess of 130 to 150/sup 0/F can be developed. 16 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs. (ACR)

  4. Water resources of the upper Big Wood River basin, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frenzel, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    Mean annual water yields, estimated using a water-budget method, for the upper Big Wood River basin above Glendale Road and for Trail Creek, Warm Springs Creek, and East Fork Big Wood River, Idaho were 410,000, 50,000, 60,000 and 50,000 acre-ft, respectively. Yields also were estimated for 1986 and 1987 water years when data were collected for comparison with long-term average values. During 1986, yields estimated for upper Big Wood River basin, Trail Creek, Warm Springs Creek, and East Fork Big Wood were 580,000, 61,000, 83,000 and 60,000 acre-ft, respectively. During 1987, yields estimated for the respective basins were 230,000, 26,000, 32,000 and 28,000 acre-ft. Availability of surface and groundwater varies seasonally; the greatest quantity is available during spring snowmelt, and the least is available during mid-winter to late winter. Nutrient concentrations in sampled ground and surface water were near or below detection levels throughout the basin, which indicates that water quality has not been impaired by increased development. Fluoride concentrations were elevated in Warm Springs Creek, probably due to inflow of thermal water.

  5. Environmental Setting of the Lower Merced River Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gronberg, Jo Ann M.; Kratzer, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey began to study the effects of natural and anthropogenic influences on the quality of ground water, surface water, biology, and ecology as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. As part of this program, the San Joaquin-Tulare Basins study unit is assessing parts of the lower Merced River Basin, California. This report provides descriptions of natural and anthropogenic features of this basin as background information to assess the influence of these and other factors on water quality. The lower Merced River Basin, which encompasses the Mustang Creek Subbasin, gently slopes from the northeast to the southwest toward the San Joaquin River. The arid to semiarid climate is characterized by hot summers (highs of mid 90 degrees Fahrenheit) and mild winters (lows of mid 30 degrees Fahrenheit). Annual precipitation is highly variable, with long periods of drought and above normal precipitation. Population is estimated at about 39,230 for 2000. The watershed is predominately agricultural on the valley floor. Approximately 2.2 million pounds active ingredient of pesticides and an estimated 17.6 million pounds active ingredient of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer is applied annually to the agricultural land.

  6. Evolving water management institutions in the Red River Basin.

    PubMed

    Hearne, Robert R

    2007-12-01

    Institutions are the rules and norms that guide societal behavior. As societies evolve-with more diverse economies, increased populations and incomes, and more water scarcity-new and more complex water management institutions need to be developed. This evolution of water management institutions may also be observed across different constituencies, with different societal needs, in the same time period. The Red River of the North basin is particularly well suited for research on water management issues. A key feature of water management in the Red River Basin is the presence of three completely different sets of water law. Minnesota's water law is based upon riparian rights. North Dakota's water law is based upon prior appropriation. Manitoba has a system of water allocation that features provincial control. Because the basin is fairly homogeneous in terms of land use and geographic features, its institutional diversity makes this an excellent case study for the analysis of local water institutions. This article reviews the local water management institutions in the Red River Basin and assesses the ongoing institutional evolution of local water management.

  7. Carbon-Water-Energy Relations for Selected River Basins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.

    1998-01-01

    A biophysical process-based model was run using satellite, assimilated and ancillary data for four years (1987-1990) to calculate components of total evaporation (transpiration, interception, soil and snow evaporation), net radiation, absorbed photosynthetically active radiation and net primary productivity over the global land surface. Satellite observations provided fractional vegetation cover, solar and photosynthetically active radiation incident of the surface, surface albedo, fractional cloud cover, air temperature and vapor pressure. The friction velocity and surface air pressure are obtained from a four dimensional data assimilation results, while precipitation is either only surface observations or a blended product of surface and satellite observations. All surface and satellite data are monthly mean values; precipitation has been disaggregated into daily values. All biophysical parameters of the model are prescribed according to published records. From these global land surface calculations results for river basins are derived using digital templates of basin boundaries. Comparisons with field observations (micrometeorologic, catchment water balance, biomass production) and atmospheric water budget analysis for monthly evaporation from six river basins have been done to assess errors in the calculations. Comparisons are also made with previous estimates of zonal variations of evaporation and net primary productivity. Efficiencies of transpiration, total evaporation and radiation use, and evaporative fraction for selected river basins will be presented.

  8. Quality of surface waters in the lower Columbia River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Santos, John F.

    1965-01-01

    This report, made during 1959-60, provides reconnaissance data on the quality of waters in the lower Columbia River basin ; information on present and future water problems in the basin; and data that can be employed both in water-use studies and in planning future industrial, municipal, and agricultural expansion within this area. The lower Columbia River basin consists of approximately 46,000 square miles downstream from the confluence of the Snake and Columbia Rivers The region can be divided into three geographic areas. The first is the heavily forested, sparsely populated mountain regions in which quality of water in general is related to geologic and climatological factors. The second is a semiarid plateau east of the Cascade Mountains; there differences in geology and precipitation, together with more intensive use of available water for irrigation, bring about marked differences in water quality. The third is the Willamette-Puget trough area in which are concentrated most of the industry and population and in which water quality is influenced by sewage and industrial waste disposal. The majority of the streams in the lower Columbia River basin are calcium magnesium bicarbonate waters. In general, the rivers rising in the. Coast Range and on the west slope of the Cascade Range contain less than 100 parts per million of dissolved solids, and hardness of the water is less than 50 parts per million. Headwater reaches of the streams on the east slope of the Cascade Range are similar to those on the west slope; but, downstream, irrigation return flows cause the dissolved-solids content and hardness to increase. Most of the waters, however, remain calcium magnesium bicarbonate in type. The highest observed dissolved-solids concentrations and also some changes in chemical composition occur in the streams draining the more arid parts of the area. In these parts, irrigation is chiefly responsible for increasing the dissolved-solids concentration and altering the

  9. Riparian vegetation assessment of Cauvery River Basin of South India.

    PubMed

    Sunil, C; Somashekar, R K; Nagaraja, B C

    2010-11-01

    The Cauvery river basin of South India has a large phyto-floristic wealth, rightfully enough to constitute a separate phyto-geographic unit. Increase in the anthropogenic pressures within the river basin and surrounding landscapes have persistently stressed the riparian ecosystem structure adversely, besides altering its composition. The objective of this study was to examine the present status of riparian vegetation along the Cauvery river basin, in response to anthropogenic pressures. For vegetation analysis, the riparian forest coming in the middle stretch of Cauvery river was categorized into two zones, viz., forest zone covering ~54 km stretch and agroecosystem zone covering ~80 km stretch. In each zone, tree species were quantified using transects at 8-km interval. Overall tree species accounting for both forest and agroecosystem were recorded and compared. The results indicate that the mean density and basal area of trees per plot were higher in the forest zone than agroecosystem zone. The Shannon-Weiner diversity of forest zone is 4.6, which is higher than agroecosystem. In addition, species composition indicated a relatively low or poor similarity between the two zones. The vegetation density and site disturbance scores for all the study sites reveals that sand mining and grazing areas have exerted negative impact on riparian forest. The results of the present study clearly brought out the need for preparing and implementing site-specific conservation plans for riparian ecosystem.

  10. Integrated Watershed Assessment: The Northern River Basins Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrona, F. J.; Gummer, W. D.

    2001-05-01

    Begun in 1991 and completed in 1996, the Northern River Basins Study (NRBS) was a \\$12 M initiative established by the governments of Canada, Alberta, and the Northwest Territories to assess the cumulative impacts of development, particularly pulp mill related effluent discharges, on the health of the Peace, Athabasca and Slave river basins. The NRBS was launched in response to concerns expressed by northern residents following the 1991 approval of the Alberta Pacific Pulp Mill in Athabasca. Although initiated by governments, the NRBS was set-up to be `arms-length' and was managed by a 25 member Study Board that represented the many interests in the basins, including industry, environmental groups, aboriginal peoples, health, agriculture, education, municipalities, and the federal, territorial and provincial governments. Overseen by an independent Science Advisory Committee, an integrated research program was designed covering eight scientific components: fate and distribution of contaminants, food chain impacts, nutrients, hydrology/hydraulics and sediment transport, uses of the water resources, drinking water quality, traditional knowledge, and synthesis/modeling. Using a 'weight of evidence' approach with a range of ecological and sociological indicators, cumulative impacts from pulp and paper-related discharges and other point and non-point sources of pollution were determined in relation to the health and contaminant levels of aquatic biota, nutrient and dissolved oxygen-related stress, hydrology and climate related changes, and human health and use of the river basins. Based on this assessment and Study Board deliberations, site-specific and basin-wide scientific and management-related recommendations were made to Ministers regarding regulatory and policy changes, basin management and monitoring options, and future research. The Study reinforces the importance of conducting ecosystem-based , interdisciplinary science and the need for public involvement in

  11. Water resources planning for a river basin with recurrent wildfires.

    PubMed

    Santos, R M B; Sanches Fernandes, L F; Pereira, M G; Cortes, R M V; Pacheco, F A L

    2015-09-01

    Situated in the north of Portugal, the Beça River basin is subject to recurrent wildfires, which produce serious consequences on soil erosion and nutrient exports, namely by deteriorating the water quality in the basin. In the present study, the ECO Lab tool embedded in the Mike Hydro Basin software was used for the evaluation of river water quality, in particular the dissolved concentration of phosphorus in the period 1990-2013. The phosphorus concentrations are influenced by the burned area and the river flow discharge, but the hydrologic conditions prevail: in a wet year (2000, 16.3 km(2) of burned area) with an average flow of 16.4 m(3)·s(-1) the maximum phosphorus concentration was as low as 0.02 mg·L(-1), while in a dry year (2005, 24.4 km(2) of burned area) with an average flow of 2 m(3)·s(-1) the maximum concentration was as high as 0.57 mg·L(-1). Phosphorus concentrations in the water bodies exceeded the bounds of good ecological status in 2005 and between 2009 and 2012, water for human consumption in 2009 and water for multiple uses in 2010. The River Covas, a right margin tributary of Beça River, is the most appropriate stream as regards the use of water for human consumption, because it presents the biggest water potential with the best water quality. Since wildfires in the basin result essentially from natural causes and climate change forecasts indicate an increase in their frequency and intensity in the near future, forestry measures are proposed to include as a priority the conversion of stands of maritime pine in mixed stands of conifer and hardwood species.

  12. Development of river flood model in lower reach of urbanized river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Kouhei; Tajima, Yoshimitsu; Sanuki, Hiroshi; Shibuo, Yoshihiro; Sato, Shinji; Lee, SungAe; Furumai, Hiroaki; Koike, Toshio

    2014-05-01

    Japan, with its natural mountainous landscape, has demographic feature that population is concentrated in lower reach of elevation close to the coast, and therefore flood damage with large socio-economic value tends to occur in low-lying region. Modeling of river flood in such low-lying urbanized river basin is complex due to the following reasons. In upstream it has been experienced urbanization, which changed land covers from natural forest or agricultural fields to residential or industrial area. Hence rate of infiltration and runoff are quite different from natural hydrological settings. In downstream, paved covers and construct of sewerage system in urbanized areas affect direct discharges and it enhances higher and faster flood peak arrival. Also tidal effect from river mouth strongly affects water levels in rivers, which must be taken into account. We develop an integrated river flood model in lower reach of urbanized areas to be able to address above described complex feature, by integrating model components: LSM coupled distributed hydrological model that models anthropogenic influence on river discharges to downstream; urban hydrological model that simulates run off response in urbanized areas; Saint Venant's equation approximated river model that integrates upstream and urban hydrological models with considering tidal effect from downstream. These features are integrated in a common modeling framework so that model interaction can be directly performed. The model is applied to the Tsurumi river basin, urbanized low-lying river basin in Yokohama and model results show that it can simulate water levels in rivers with acceptable model errors. Furthermore the model is able to install miscellaneous water planning constructs, such as runoff reduction pond in urbanized area, flood control field along the river channel, levee, etc. This can be a useful tool to investigate cost performance of hypothetical water management plan against impact of climate change in

  13. Groundwater quality in the Mohawk River Basin, New York, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.; Scott, Tia-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 21 production and domestic wells in the Mohawk River Basin in New York in July 2011 to characterize groundwater quality in the basin. The samples were collected and processed using standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 148 physiochemical properties and constituents, including dissolved gases, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), radionuclides, and indicator bacteria. The Mohawk River Basin covers 3,500 square miles in New York and is underlain by shale, sandstone, carbonate, and crystalline bedrock. The bedrock is overlain by till in much of the basin, but surficial deposits of saturated sand and gravel are present in some areas. Nine of the wells sampled in the Mohawk River Basin are completed in sand and gravel deposits, and 12 are completed in bedrock. Groundwater in the Mohawk River Basin was typically neutral or slightly basic; the water typically was very hard. Bicarbonate, chloride, calcium, and sodium were the major ions with the greatest median concentrations; the dominant nutrient was nitrate. Methane was detected in 15 samples. Strontium, iron, barium, boron, and manganese were the trace elements with the highest median concentrations. Four pesticides, all herbicides or their degradates, were detected in four samples at trace levels; three VOCs, including chloroform and two solvents, were detected in four samples. The greatest radon-222 activity, 2,300 picocuries per liter, was measured in a sample from a bedrock well, but the median radon activity was higher in samples from sand and gravel wells than in samples from bedrock wells. Coliform bacteria were detected in five samples with a maximum of 92 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters. Water quality in the Mohawk River Basin is generally good, but concentrations of some constituents equaled or exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards. The standards

  14. Anastomosed river deposits, sedimentation rates, basin subsidence and locations in proximal molasse basins

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.G.

    1984-07-01

    Recent research on large sized modern anastomosing river systems (upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada, and Magdalena River, Colombia, South America) has recognized six depositional environments: channel, levee, crevasse-splay, lacustrine, marsh, and peat bog or swamp. Average sedimentation rates in both river systems are 5 mm/yr and 3.8 mm/yr, respectively. Such rapid sedimentation rates (vertical accretion) are keeping pace with equivalent rates of basin subsidence. High rates of sedimentation and basin subsidence are most likely to be found at proximal locations in molasse basins during major orogenic pulses. Such conditions were present during the Columbian and Laramide orogenies during the early Cretaceous and Tertiary in the foreland adjacent to the Rocky Mountain system. Thus, channel and crevasse-splay shale-encased sandstone reservoirs and coal, common in anastomosed fluvial rock sequences in proximal molasse settings, should be encountered in parts of the Western Interior sedimentary basin. Such deposits probably have been interpreted as deltaic or alluvial plain and should be reexamined to better predict sandstone trends for hydrocarbon exploration.

  15. Role of river bank erosion in sediment budgets of catchments within the Loire river basin (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, Aurore; Cerdan, Olivier; Poisvert, Cecile; Landemaine, Valentin

    2014-05-01

    Quantifying volumes of sediments produced on hillslopes or in channels and transported or stored within river systems is necessary to establish sediment budgets. If research efforts on hillslope erosion processes have led to a relatively good understanding and quantification of local sources, in-channel processes remain poorly understood and quasi inexistent in global budgets. However, profound landuse changes and agricultural practices have altered river functioning, caused river bank instability and stream incision. During the past decades in France, river channelization has been perfomed extensively to allow for new agricultural practices to take place. Starting from a recent study on the quantification of sediment fluxes for catchments within the Loire river basin (Gay et al. 2013), our aim is to complete sediment budgets by taking into account various sources and sinks both on hillslope and within channel. The emphasis of this study is on river bank erosion and how bank erosion contributes to global budgets. A model of bank retreat is developed for the entire Loire river basin. In general, our results show that bank retreat is on average quite low with approximately 1 cm.yr-1. However, a strong variability exists within the study area with channels displaying values of bank retreat up to ~10 cm.yr-1. Our results corroborate those found by Landemaine et al. in 2013 on a small agricultural catchment. From this first step, quantification of volumes of sediment eroded from banks and available for transport should be calculated and integrated in sediment budgets to allow for a better understanding of basin functioning. Gay A., Cerdan O., Delmas M., Desmet M., Variability of sediment yields in the Loire river basin (France): the role of small scale catchments (under review). Landemaine V., Gay A., Cerdan O., Salvador-Blanes S., Rodriguez S. Recent morphological evolution of a headwater stream in agricultural context after channelization in the Ligoire river (France

  16. Channeling in Paleocene coals, northern Powder River basin, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, W.B.

    1983-08-01

    Interpretation of 1,200 geophysical logs in the northern Powder River basin, Montana, reveals the paleodrainages influencing coal deposition during the deposition of the Tongue River member (Paleocene, Fort Union Formation). Four channels with associated crevasse splay deposits are recognized: (1) an east-west rosebud drainage near Colstrip, (2) a north-south wall channel near Birney, (3) a north-south Dietz drainage near Tongue River Reservoir, and (4) a north-south Anderson channel in the vicinity of Moorhead. These channels support the concept of a major northeast-flowing drainage system during deposition of the Tongue River Member. Identification of these channels serves as a guide to future coal exploration.

  17. Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.

    SciTech Connect

    Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro

    2004-10-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe has a desire and a goal to reintroduce and restore coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin at levels of abundance and productivity sufficient to support sustainable runs and annual harvest. Consistent with the Clearwater Subbasin Plan (EcoVista 2003), the Nez Perce Tribe envisions developing an annual escapement of 14,000 coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began coho reintroduction by securing eggs through U.S. v. Oregon; by 1998 this agreement provided an annual transfer of 550,000 coho salmon smolts from lower Columbia River hatchery facilities for release in the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1998, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council authorized the Bonneville Power Administration to fund the development of a Master Plan to guide this reintroduction effort. This Master Plan describes the results of experimental releases of coho salmon in the Clearwater River Subbasin, which have been ongoing since 1995. These data are combined with results of recent coho reintroduction efforts by the Yakama Nation, general coho life history information, and historical information regarding the distribution and life history of Snake River coho salmon. This information is used to assess a number of alternative strategies aimed at restoring coho salmon to historical habitats in the Clearwater River subbasin. These data suggest that there is a high probability that coho salmon can be restored to the Clearwater River subbasin. In addition, the data also suggest that the re-establishment of coho salmon could be substantially aided by: (1) the construction of low-tech acclimation facilities; (2) the establishment of a 'localized' stock of coho salmon; and (3) the construction of hatchery facilities to provide a source of juvenile coho salmon for future supplementation activities. The Nez Perce Tribe recognizes that there are factors which may limit the success of coho reintroduction. As a result of these

  18. Drought Analysis for River Basins, Using the Hydrological Model SIMGRO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querner, E.; van Lanen, H.; Rhebergen, W.

    2009-05-01

    Drought is a recurring and worldwide phenomenon, with spatial and temporal characteristics that vary significantly from one region to another. Drought has major impacts on society and affects among others the environment and the economy. Impacts are likely to increase with time as societies demands higher services for water and the environment. This will even be more pronounced in the coming decades with the projected climate change, i.e. droughts are becoming more severe in large parts of the world. The prediction of droughts is an essential part of impact assessment for current and future conditions, as part of integrated land and water management. An important question is how changes in meteorological drought will propagate into hydrological droughts in terms of changes in the groundwater system or in the river flow. The objective of our study is to develop and test tools that quantify the space-time development of droughts in a river basin. The spatial aspect of a hydrological drought (spatially-distributed recharge and groundwater heads), in a river basin brings different challenges with respect to describing the characteristics of a drought, such as: onset, duration, severity and extend. We used the regional hydrological model SIMGRO as a basis to generate the necessary data for the drought analysis. SIMGRO is a distributed physically-based model that simulates regional transient saturated groundwater flow, unsaturated flow, actual evapotranspiration, sprinkler irrigation, stream flow, groundwater and surface water levels as a response to rainfall, reference evapotranspiration, and groundwater abstraction. The model is used within the GIS environment Arc-View, which enables the use of digital data, such as soil map, land use, watercourses, as input data for the model. It is also a tool for analysis, because interactively data and results can be presented, as will be shown. Droughts in different hydrological variables (recharge, groundwater heads, river flow

  19. Water balance of the Drini i Bardh River Basin, Kosova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdullahi, Sabri; Fejza, Isalm

    2010-05-01

    Republic of Kosova lines on the highlands (500-600 m above sea level) surrounded by the mountains reaching the altitude of more than 2000m. Lower mountains divide the highland plain into four watershed areas, from where waters flow to there different seas, namely to the Adriatic Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea. In the present day world, the problems of too much, too little or too polluted water are increasing at a rapid rate. These problems have become particularly severe for the developing countries, adversely affecting their agriculture, drinking water supply and sanitation. Water recourse management is no more just a challenger it is a declared crises. Water resources in Kosova are relatively small, total amount of water in our country is small around 1600 m3/inhabitant /year Drini i Bardhë river basin is in the western part of Kosova, it is the biggest river basin with surface of 4.289 km2. Drini i Bardhë discharges its water to Albania and finally to the Adriatic Sea. The area consist of several small stream from the mountains, water flows into tributaries and Drini i Bardhë River. In this river basin are based 12 hydrometric stations, 27 manual and 5 automatic rainfall measurements Drini i Bardhe River main basin contain a big number of sub basins from which the most important are: Lumëbardhi i Pejës (503.5km2), Lumëbardhi i Deçanit (278.3km2), Erenikut (515.5km2), Burimi (446.7km2), Klinës (439.0km2), Mirushes (334.5km2), Toplluges (498.2km2), Bistrica e Prizrenit (266.0 km2) and Plava (309 km2) fig 2. For evapotranspiration measurement we have applied four methods: the method of BLANEY - CRIDDLE, radiation, SCHENDELE and Turk. Protecting from pollution is a very important issue having in consideration that this river discharges its water and outside the territory. Hydrometeorology Institute of Kosova is in charge for monitoring of water quality. Key works: rainfall, flow, evaporation, river, evaporation coefficient (Ke) and feeding coefficient

  20. Incentive compatibility and conflict resolution in international river basins: A case study of the Nile Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xun; Whittington, Dale

    2006-02-01

    Nation-states rarely go to war over water, but it is equally rare that water conflicts in an international river basin are resolved through cooperation among the riparian countries that use the shared resources. Gains from cooperation will mean little to individual riparians unless the required cooperative behaviors are incentive compatible. Cooperative game theory offers useful insights for assessing cooperative solutions for water conflicts in international river basins. Applying cooperative game theory concepts such as core, nucleolus, and Shapley value to Nile water conflicts, we examine the incentive structure of both cooperative and noncooperative strategies for different riparian countries and establish some baseline conditions for incentive-compatible cooperation in the Nile basin.

  1. River enhancement in the Upper Mississippi River basin: Approaches based on river uses, alterations, and management agencies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Donnell, T. K.; Galat, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    The Upper Mississippi River is characterized by a series of locks and dams, shallow impoundments, and thousands of river channelization structures that facilitate commercial navigation between Minneapolis, Minnesota, and Cairo, Illinois. Agriculture and urban development over the past 200 years have degraded water quality and increased the rate of sediment and nutrient delivery to surface waters. River enhancement has become an important management tool employed to address causes and effects of surface water degradation and river modification in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. We report information on individual river enhancement projects and contrast project densities, goals, activities, monitoring, and cost between commercially non-navigated and navigated rivers (Non-navigated and Navigated Rivers, respectively). The total number of river enhancement projects collected during this effort was 62,108. Cost of all projects reporting spending between 1972 and 2006 was about US$1.6 billion. Water quality management was the most cited project goal within the basin. Other important goals in Navigated Rivers included in-stream habitat improvement and flow modification. Most projects collected for Non-navigated Rivers and their watersheds originated from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the USDA were important sources for projects in Navigated Rivers. Collaborative efforts between agencies that implement projects in Non-navigated and Navigated Rivers may be needed to more effectively address river impairment. However, the current state of data sources tracking river enhancement projects deters efficient and broad-scale integration. ?? Journal compilation ?? 2007 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  2. Occurrence and sources of perfluoroalkyl acids in Italian river basins.

    PubMed

    Valsecchi, Sara; Rusconi, Marianna; Mazzoni, Michela; Viviano, Gaetano; Pagnotta, Romano; Zaghi, Carlo; Serrini, Giuliana; Polesello, Stefano

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a survey on the occurrence and sources of 11 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) in the main river basins in Italy, covering about 40% of the Italian surface area and 45% of the Italian population. Total concentrations of PFAA ranged fromrivers impacted by industrial discharges. Among the rivers directly flowing into the sea, Brenta, Po and Arno present significant concentrations, while concentrations in Tevere and Adige, which are not impacted by relevant industrial activities, are almost all below the detection limits. The total estimated PFAA load of the five rivers was 7.5ty(-1) with the following percentage distribution: 39% PFBS, 32% PFOA, 22% short chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCA), 6% PFOS and 1% long chain PFCA. PFOA and PFOS loads, evaluated in the present work, represent 10% and 2% of the estimated European loads, respectively. In Italy the most important sources of PFAA are two chemical plants which produce fluorinated polymers and intermediates, sited in the basin of rivers Po and Brenta, respectively, whose overall emission represents 57% of the total estimated PFAA load. Both rivers flow into the Adriatic Sea, raising concern for the marine ecosystem also because a significant PFOS load (0.3ty(-1)) is still present. Among the remaining activities, tanneries and textile industries are relevant sources of respectively PFBS and PFOA, together with short chain PFCA. As an example, the total PFAA load (0.12ty(-1)) from the textile district of Prato is equivalent to the estimated domestic emission of the whole population in all the studied basins. PMID:25108894

  3. Assessing Vulnerability under Uncertainty in the Colorado River Basin: The Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerla, C.; Adams, P.; Butler, A.; Nowak, K.; Prairie, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Spanning parts of the seven states, of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming, the Colorado River is one of the most critical sources of water in the western United States. Colorado River allocations exceed the long-term supply and since the 1950s, there have been a number of years when the annual water use in the Colorado River Basin exceeded the yield. The Basin is entering its second decade of drought conditions which brings challenges that will only be compounded if projections of climate change are realized. It was against this backdrop that the Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study was conducted. The Study's objectives are to define current and future imbalances in the Basin over the next 50 years and to develop and analyze adaptation and mitigation strategies to resolve those imbalances. Long-term planning in the Basin involves the integration of uncertainty with respect to a changing climate and other uncertainties such as future demand and how policies may be modified to adapt to changing reliability. The Study adopted a scenario planning approach to address this uncertainty in which thousands of scenarios were developed to encompass a wide range of plausible future water supply and demand conditions. Using Reclamation's long-term planning model, the Colorado River Simulation System, the reliability of the system to meet Basin resource needs under these future conditions was projected both with and without additional future adaptation strategies in place. System reliability metrics were developed in order to define system vulnerabilities, the conditions that lead to those vulnerabilities, and sign posts to indicate if the system is approaching a vulnerable state. Options and strategies that reduce these vulnerabilities and improve system reliability were explored through the development of portfolios. Four portfolios, each with different management strategies, were analyzed to assess their effectiveness at

  4. Modelling hourly dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) using dynamic evolving neural-fuzzy inference system (DENFIS)-based approach: case study of Klamath River at Miller Island Boat Ramp, OR, USA.

    PubMed

    Heddam, Salim

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we present application of an artificial intelligence (AI) technique model called dynamic evolving neural-fuzzy inference system (DENFIS) based on an evolving clustering method (ECM), for modelling dissolved oxygen concentration in a river. To demonstrate the forecasting capability of DENFIS, a one year period from 1 January 2009 to 30 December 2009, of hourly experimental water quality data collected by the United States Geological Survey (USGS Station No: 420853121505500) station at Klamath River at Miller Island Boat Ramp, OR, USA, were used for model development. Two DENFIS-based models are presented and compared. The two DENFIS systems are: (1) offline-based system named DENFIS-OF, and (2) online-based system, named DENFIS-ON. The input variables used for the two models are water pH, temperature, specific conductance, and sensor depth. The performances of the models are evaluated using root mean square errors (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), Willmott index of agreement (d) and correlation coefficient (CC) statistics. The lowest root mean square error and highest correlation coefficient values were obtained with the DENFIS-ON method. The results obtained with DENFIS models are compared with linear (multiple linear regression, MLR) and nonlinear (multi-layer perceptron neural networks, MLPNN) methods. This study demonstrates that DENFIS-ON investigated herein outperforms all the proposed techniques for DO modelling. PMID:24705953

  5. River and Reservoir Operations Model, Truckee River basin, California and Nevada, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berris, Steven N.; Hess, Glen W.; Bohman, Larry R.

    2001-01-01

    The demand for all uses of water in the Truckee River Basin, California and Nevada, commonly is greater than can be supplied. Storage reservoirs in the system have a maximum effective total capacity equivalent to less than two years of average river flows, so longer-term droughts can result in substantial water-supply shortages for irrigation and municipal users and may stress fish and wildlife ecosystems. Title II of Public Law (P.L.) 101-618, the Truckee?Carson?Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act of 1990, provides a foundation for negotiating and developing operating criteria, known as the Truckee River Operating Agreement (TROA), to balance interstate and interbasin allocation of water rights among the many interests competing for water from the Truckee River. In addition to TROA, the Truckee River Water Quality Settlement Agreement (WQSA), signed in 1996, provides for acquisition of water rights to resolve water-quality problems during low flows along the Truckee River in Nevada. Efficient execution of many of the planning, management, or environmental assessment requirements of TROA and WQSA will require detailed water-resources data coupled with sound analytical tools. Analytical modeling tools constructed and evaluated with such data could help assess effects of alternative operational scenarios related to reservoir and river operations, water-rights transfers, and changes in irrigation practices. The Truckee?Carson Program of the U.S. Geological Survey, to support U.S. Department of the Interior implementation of P.L. 101-618, is developing a modeling system to support efficient water-resources planning, management, and allocation. The daily operations model documented herein is a part of the modeling system that includes a database management program, a graphical user interface program, and a program with modules that simulate river/reservoir operations and a variety of hydrologic processes. The operations module is capable of simulating lake

  6. Integrated water resources management in the Ruhr River Basin, Germany.

    PubMed

    Bode, H; Evers, P; Albrecht, D R

    2003-01-01

    The Ruhr, with an average flow of 80.5 m3/s at its mouth, is a comparatively small tributary to the Rhine River that has to perform an important task: to secure the water supply of more than 5 million people and of the industry in the densely populated region north of the river. The complex water management system and network applied by the Ruhrverband in the natural Ruhr River Basin has been developed step by step, over decades since 1913. And from the beginning, its major goal has been to achieve optimal conditions for the people living in the region. For this purpose, a functional water supply and wastewater disposal infrastructure has been built up. The development of these structures required and still requires multi-dimensional planning and performance. Since the river serves as receiving water and at the same time as a source of drinking water, the above-standard efforts of Ruhrverband for cleaner water also help to conserve nature and wildlife. Ruhrverband has summed up its environmental awareness in the slogan: "For the people and for the environment". This basic water philosophy, successfully applied to the Ruhr for more than 80 years, will be continued in accordance with the new European Water Framework Directive, enacted in 2000, which demands integrated water resources management in natural river basins, by including the good ecological status of surface waterbodies as an additional goal.

  7. Red River play, Gulf Canada deal boost Williston basin

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-20

    High levels of activity in the Williston basin are assured this year with an expanding horizontal drilling play for oil in Ordovician Red River. The Red River play, like the Mississippian Lodgepole mound play, is centered in North Dakota. But the Red River play is much larger, extending into eastern Montana and northwestern South Dakota. More than 500 Red River B wells have been staked. One of the most recent companies to position itself in both plays is Gulf Canada Resources Ltd. The company forged an agreement with the Assiniboine and Sioux Indian tribes. The agreement initially provides Gulf access to about 800,000 acres on the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, mostly in Roosevelt County, Mont., on the western slope of the Williston basin. Under an option, Gulf`s access could later expand to cover the reservation`s remaining 1.3 million acres. The paper discusses the extent of the Red River play, and Gulf Canada`s role in its development.

  8. Morphometric analysis of the Marmara Sea river basins, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbaşı, Emre; Ozdemir, Hasan

    2014-05-01

    The drainage basin, the fundamental unit of the fluvial landscape, has been focus of research aimed at understanding the geometric characteristics of the master channel and its tributary network. This geometry is referred to as the basin morphometry and is nicely reviewed by Abrahams (1984). A great amount of research has focused on geometric characteristic of drainage basins, including the topology of the stream networks, and quantitative description of drainage texture, pattern, shape, and relief characteristics. Evaluation of morphometric parameters necessitates the analysis of various drainage parameters such as ordering of the various streams, measurement of basin area and perimeter, length of drainage channels, drainage density (Dd), stream frequency (Fs), bifurcation ratio (Rb), texture ratio (T), basin relief (Bh), Ruggedness number (Rn), time of concentration (Tc), hypsometric curve and integral (Hc and Hi) (Horton, 1932, Schumn, 1956, Strahler, 1957; Verstappen 1983; Keller and Pinter, 2002; Ozdemir and Bird, 2009). These morphometric parameters have generally been used to predict flood peaks, to assess sediment yield, and to estimate erosion rates in the basins. River basins of the Marmara Sea, has an area of approximately 40,000 sqkm, are the most important basins in Turkey based on their dense populations, industry and transportation systems. The primary aim of this study is to determine and analyse of morphometric characteristics of the Marmara Sea river basins using 10 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and to evaluate of the results. For these purposes, digital 10 m contour maps scaled 1:25000 and geological maps scaled 1:100000 were used as the main data sources in the study. 10 m resolution DEM data were created using the contour maps and then drainage networks and their watersheds were extracted using D8 pour point model. Finally, linear, areal and relief morphometries were applied to the river basins using Geographic Information Systems

  9. Seepage Investigation for Selected River Reaches in the Chehalis River Basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, D. Matthew; Frasl, Kenneth E.; Marshall, Cameron A.; Reed, Fred

    2008-01-01

    A study was completed in September 2007 in the Chehalis River basin to determine gain or loss of streamflow by measuring discharge at selected intervals within various reaches along the Chehalis River and its tributaries. Discharge was measured at 68 new and existing streamflow sites, where gains and losses were determined for 36 stream reaches. Streamflow gains were measured for 22 reaches and losses were measured for 13 reaches. No gain or loss was measured at the Chehalis River between the Newaukum and Skookumchuck Rivers. The Chehalis River exhibited a pattern of alternating gains and losses as it entered the area of wide, gentle relief known as the Grand Mound Prairie. The general pattern of tributary ground- and surface-water interaction was discharge to streams (gaining reaches) in the upper reaches and discharge to the ground-water system (losing reaches) as the tributaries entered the broad, flat Chehalis River valley.

  10. DOM in recharge waters of the Santa Ana River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Aiken, G.R.; Woodside, G.; O'Connor-Patel, K.

    2007-01-01

    The urban Santa Ana River in California is the primary source of recharge water for Orange County's groundwater basin, which provides water to more than two million residents. This study was undertaken to determine the unidentified portion of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in various natural surface and reclaimed waters of the Santa Ana River Basin and to assess the potential health risk of this material. The most abundant organic contaminants were anionic detergent degradation products (constituting about 12% of the DOM), which have no known adverse health effects. In addition, high percentages of dissolved colloids from bacterial cell walls were found during storm flows; these colloids foul membranes used in water treatment. Although no significant health risks were ascribed to the newly characterized DOM, the authors note that even the small amounts of humic substances deposited during storm flow periods were responsible for significant increases in disinfection by_product formation potential in these waters.

  11. Sediment yields of streams in the Umpqua River Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtiss, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    This report summarizes sediment data collected at 11 sites in the Umpqua River basin from 1956 to 1973 and updates a report by C. A. Onions (1969) of estimated sediment yields in the basin from 1956-67.  Onions' report points out that the suspended-sediment data, collected during the 1956-67 period, were insufficient to compute reliable sediment yields.  Therefore, the U.S, Geological Survey, in cooperation with Douglas County, collected additional data from 1969 to 1973 to improve the water discharge-sediment discharge relationships at these sites.  These data are published in "Water resources data for Oregon, Part 2, Water quality records," 1970 through 1973 water years.  In addition to the 10 original sites, data were collected during this period from the Umpqua River near Elkton station, and a summary of the data for that station is included in table 1.

  12. Mass-movement deposits in the lacustrine Eocene Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, western Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2015-01-01

    The Eocene Green River Formation was deposited in two large Eocene saline lakes, Lake Uinta in the Uinta and Piceance Basins and Lake Gosiute in the Greater Green River Basin. Here we will discuss mass-movement deposits in just the Piceance Basin part of Lake Uinta.

  13. Characterization of Stream Morphology and Sediment Yield for the Big Black and Tombigbee River Basins, Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three segments within the Big Black River Basin, and nine within the Tombigbee River Basin are on the Mississippi 303d list of water bodies as having impaired conditions for aquatic life due to sediment. An additional 56 reaches of channel are listed for biologic impairment between the two basins. ...

  14. The Pennsylvanian and Permian Oquirrh-Wood River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Geslin, J.K. . Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Strata of the Middle Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian Oquirrh-Wood River Basin (OWRB) lie unconformably above the Antler orogenic belt and flysch trough/starved basin in NW Utah, NE Nevada, and SC Idaho. Strata of the basin, now separated geographically by the Neogene Snake River Plain, show similar subsidence histories, identical mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentary fill, and identical chert pebble conglomerate beds supplied by one or more DesMoinesian uplifts containing Lower Paleozoic strata. This conglomerate, of the lower Sun Valley Group, Snaky Canyon Formation, and parts of the Oquirrh Formation, was reworked progressively southward, to at least the Idaho-Utah border. It is present in strata as young as Virgilian. Virgilian to Leonardian rocks are ubiquitously fine-grained mixed carbonate-siliciclastic turbidites. These rocks contain cratonal, well-sorbed subarkosic and quartzose sand and silt in part derived from the Canadian Shield. This siliciclastic fraction is intimately mixed with arenaceous micritized skeletal material and peloids derived from an eastern carbonate platform represented by the Snaky Canyon Formation in east-central Idaho, an eastern facies of the Eagle Creek Member, Wood River Formation in the Boulder Mountains, and the Oquirrh Formation in the Deep Creek Mountains. Subsidence of the OWRB may have been caused by two phases (DesMoinesian and Wolfcampian to Leonardian) of crustal loading by continental margin tectonism to the west. An elevated rim separated the OWRB from coeval volcanogenic basins to the west. Earlier, Antler-age structures may have been reactivated. A new pulse of tectonism occurred in Leonardian to Guadalupian time as in most places carbonatic and phosphatic strata of the Leonardian to Guadalupian Park City and Phosphoria Formation overlie OWRB strata, with different geographic arrangement of basinal, slope, and shelf depocenters.

  15. Hydrogeologic data for the lower Connecticut River basin, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bingham, J.W.; Paine, F.D.; Weiss, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    This report contains geologic, ground-water, and miscellaneous data on the quality of surface water collected for a water-resources inventory of the lower Connecticut River basin, Connecticut. The study was made by the U.S. Geological Survey in fiscal cooperation with the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection. A companion report (Connecticut Water Resources Bulletin No. 31, in preparation) interprets the factual information presented here or otherwise collected for the study.

  16. Hydrogeologic data for the lower Connecticut River basin, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bingham, J.W.; Paine, F.D.; Weiss, L.A.

    1975-01-01

    This report contains geologic, ground-water, and miscellaneous data on the quality of surface water collected for a water-resources inventory of the lower Connecticut River basin, Connecticut. The study was made by the U.S. Geological Survey in fiscal cooperation with the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection. A companion report (Connecticut Water Resources Bulletin No. 31, in preparation) interprets the factual information presented here or otherwise collected for the study.

  17. Carbon stocks in the Alaska Yukon River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wylie, B. K.; Pastick, N.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Zhu, Z.; Ji, L.; Rigge, M. B.; Johnson, K. D.

    2012-12-01

    Boreal forest systems in Alaska maybe vulnerable to long-term ecological changes related to climate change and shifting fire regimes. Future projections of boreal forest carbon stocks are improved with more accurate quantification of current baseline soil carbon stocks. Above ground biomass (R2 = 0.66) and soil organic layer thickness (R2 = 0.67, p < 0.01) were quantified using field plots parameters estimated with regression tree techniques using 30 m resolution Landsat and ancillary data as inputs within the Yukon Flats ecoregion of Alaska. Soil organic layer thickness was converted to soil carbon stocks with a regression (R2 = 0.80, p < 0.01). We extended these Landsat-based regression tree mapping techniques with Fish and Wildlife and Natural Resources Conservation Service collaborators and additional collected field observations, airborne electromagnetic surveys, Landsat Web-enabled Landsat Data (WELD), and ancillary data to map carbon stocks at a 30 m spatial resolution for the Alaskan portion of the Yukon River basin. The carbon stocks in non-disturbed and previously burned fire scar areas within the boreal forests of this region were then assessed. Future boreal forest above ground biomass for boreal forests through the entire Yukon River basin was mapped for 2070 using the ecosystem performance modeling approach. Undisturbed boreal forest biomass was expected to increase in the south central areas of the Yukon River basin and decline in portions of the eastern extents. Current to 2070 precent difference in biomass for boreal forest in the Yukon River Basin.

  18. Water resources: the prerequisite for ecological restoration of rivers in the Hai River Basin, northern China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenzhong; Mao, Zhanpo; Zhang, Hong; Shan, Baoqing; Zhao, Yu; Ding, Yuekui

    2015-01-01

    The competition for water resources between humans and river ecosystems is becoming ever more intense worldwide, especially in developing countries. In China, with rapid socioeconomic development, water resources to maintain river ecosystems are progressively decreasing, especially in the Hai River Basin (HRB), which has attracted much attention from the Chinese government. In the past 56 years, water resources have continuously decreased in the basin, such that there is 54.2 % less surface water now compared with then. Water shortages, mainly due to local anthropogenic activities, have emerged as the main limiting factor to river ecological restoration in the HRB. However, the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, the largest such project in the world, presents a good opportunity for ecological restoration of rivers in this basin. Water diverted from the Danjiangkou Reservoir will restore surface water resources in the HRB to levels of 30 years ago and will amount to more than 20 billion m(3). Our findings highlight the fact that water resources are crucial for river ecological restoration.

  19. Floodplain Organic Carbon Storage in the Central Yukon River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lininger, K.; Wohl, E.

    2014-12-01

    Floodplain storage of organic carbon is an important aspect of the global carbon cycle that is not well understood or quantified. Although it is understood that rivers transport organic carbon to the ocean, little is known about the quantity of stored carbon in boreal floodplains and the influence of fluvial processes on this storage. We present results on total organic carbon (TOC) content within the floodplains of two rivers, the Dall River and Preacher Creek, in the central Yukon River Basin in the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge of Alaska. The results indicate that organic carbon storage is influenced by fluvial disturbance and grain size. The Dall River, which contains a large amount of floodplain carbon, is meandering and incised, with well-developed floodplain soils, a greater percentage of relatively old floodplain surfaces and a slower floodplain turnover time, and finer grain sizes. Preacher Creek stores less TOC, transports coarser grain sizes, and has higher rates of avulsion and floodplain turnover time. Within the floodplain of a particular river, large spatial heterogeneity in TOC content also exists as a function of depositional environment and age and vegetation community of the site. In addition, saturated regions of the floodplains, such as abandoned channels and oxbow lakes, contain more TOC compared to drier floodplain environments. Frozen alluvial soils likely contain carbon that could be released into the environment with melting permafrost, and thus quantifying the organic carbon content in the active layer of floodplain soils could provide insight into the characteristics of the permafrost beneath. The hydrology in these regions is changing due to permafrost melt, and floodplain areas usually saturated could be dried out, causing breakdown and outgassing of carbon stored in previously saturated soils. Ongoing work will result in a first-order estimate of active-layer floodplain carbon storage for the central Yukon River Basin.

  20. Can the Gila River reduce risk in the Colorado River Basin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, L. C.; Rajagopalan, B.; Lukas, J.; Kanzer, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Colorado River is the most important source of water in the southwest United States and Northern Mexico, providing water to approximately 35 million people and 4-5 million acres of irrigated lands. To manage the water resources of the basin, estimated to be about 17 million acre-feet (MAF) of undepleted supplies per year, managers use reservoir facilities that can store more than 60 MAF. As the demands on the water resources of the basin approach or exceed the average annual supply, and with average flow projected to decrease due to climate change, smart water management is vital for its sustainability. To quantify the future risk of depleting reservoir storage, Rajagopalan et al. (2009) developed a water-balance model and ran it under scenarios based on historical, paleo-reconstructed and future projections of flows, and different management alternatives. That study did not consider the impact of the Gila River, which enters the Colorado River below all major reservoirs and U.S. diversions. Due to intensive use in Central Arizona, the Gila only has significant inflows to the Colorado in wet years. However, these irregular inflows could beneficially influence system reliability in the US by helping to meet a portion of the 1.5 MAF delivery obligations to Mexico. To help quantify the potential system reliability benefit of the Gila River, we modify the Rajagopalan et al (2009) model to incorporate simulated Gila River inflows. These new data inputs to the water balance model are based on historical flows and tree-ring reconstructions of flow in the Upper Colorado River Basin (at Lee's Ferry), the Lower Colorado River Basin (tributary inflows), and the intermittent flows from the Gila River which are generated using extreme value analysis methods. Incorporating Gila River inflows, although they are highly variable and intermittent, reduces the modeled cumulative risk of reservoir depletion by 4 to 11% by 2057, depending on the demand schedule, reservoir operation

  1. Trends in Surface Water Quality for Korean River basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, H.; Boeder, M.

    2006-05-01

    Water quality is an ongoing problem in many Korean river basins. Maintaining good water quality is essential for the sustainability of the country. While point source pollution has declined with stringent regulation and management (e.g., wastewater discharge permit and the installation of wastewater treatment facilities in major municipalities), nonpoint source pollution is a persistent problem in major metropolitan areas. We used the nonparametric seasonal Kendall's test to determine trends in surface water quality for the period between 1993 and 2002. For temperature, trends were detected only a small number of stations. pH increased significantly in more than half of the stations. Dissolved oxygen showed two opposite trends: upward trends at stations in the main stem river and the upper basin and downward trends at tributary stations. Suspended solids declined in major tributaries, but increased in tributaries adjacent to new suburban development areas. Total phosphorus and total nitrogen showed upward trends except for tributary stations in forested areas, suggesting the ineffectiveness of wastewater treatment facilities in removing these nutrients and confirming the importance of nonpoint source pollution. While urban land cover is positively associated with nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, there are strong regional and local variations in water quality. The relationship between trends and land use change at the local scale did not reveal strong evidence of possible causation. This study demonstrates the complexity of identifying the causal mechanisms of water quality change in highly heterogeneous river basins.

  2. Flood tracking chart for the Illinois River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Avery, Charles F.; Holmes, Jr., Robert R.; Sharpe, Jennifer B.

    1998-01-01

    This Flood Tracking Chart for the Illinois River Basin in Illinois can be used to record and compare the predicted or current flood-crest stage to past flood-crest information. This information can then be used by residents and emergency-response personnel to make informed decisions concerning the threat of flooding to life and property. The chart shows a map of the Illinois River Basin (see below), the location of real-time streamflow-gaging stations in the basin, graphs of selected historical recorded flood-crest stages at each of the stations, and sea-level conversion (SLC) factors that allow conversion of the current or predicted flood-crest stage to elevation above sea level. Each graph represents a streamflow-gaging station and has a space to record the most current river stage reported for that station by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The National Weather Service (NWS) predicts flood crests for many of the stations shown on this chart.

  3. Red Cedar River Basin, Wisconsin; low-flow characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gebert, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    Low-flow characteristics in the Red Cedar River basin, Wis., where surplus water may be diverted, and methods to determine low-flow characteristics at additional sites are presented. The low-flow characteristics were determined by various methods at 71 sites. For the three gaging stations in the basin, frequency analysis was used to determine the low-flow characteristics. At 17 partial-record sites correlation analyses were used to estimate the low-flow characteristics. Where only a single base-flow measurement was available (41 sites), equations were developed to estimate low-flow characteristics. The relationships were determined from multiple-regression analyses that related low-flow characteristics at gaging stations, low-flow partial-record stations, and sewage-treatment-plant sites to the drainage area and base-flow index values. The standard errors of estimate were determined to be 25 percent for the Q7,2 equation and 34 percent for the Q7,10 equation. For the main stem of the Red Cedar River where only one discharge measurement was available the low-flow characteristics were determined from a drainage area-discharge relationship. Low-flow characteristics were determined at an additional 30 sites in the Red Cedar River basin by various methods. The method used for these sites depended upon the type and amount of data available at each site. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. Quality of ground water in the Payette River basin, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parliman, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    As part of a study to obtain groundwater quality data in areas of Idaho were land- and water-resource development is expected to increase, water quality, geologic, and hydrologic data were collected for 74 wells in the Payette River basin, west-central Idaho, from July to October 1982. Historical (pre-1982) data from 13 wells were compiled with more recent (1982) data to define, on a reconnaissance level, water quality conditions in major aquifers and to identify factors that may have affected groundwater quality. Water from the major aquifers generally contains predominantly calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate plus carbonate ions. Sodium and bicarbonate or sulfate are the predominant ions in groundwater from 25% of the 1982 samples. Areally, groundwater from the upper Payette River basin has proportionately lower ion concentrations than water from the lower Payette River basin. Water samples from wells < 100 ft deep generally have lower ion concentrations than samples from wells > 100 ft deep. Variations in groundwater quality probably are most affected by differences in aquifer composition and proximity to source(s) of recharge. Groundwater in the study area is generally suitable for most uses. In localized areas, pH and concentrations of hardness, alkalinity, dissolved solids, or dissolved nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, sulfate, fluoride, iron, or manganese exceed Federal drinking water limits and may restrict some uses of the water.

  5. Hydrogeologic reconnaissance of the San Miguel River basin, southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, D.J.; Rush, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    The San Miguel River Basin encompasses 4,130 square kilometers of which about two-thirds is in the southeastern part of the Paradox Basin. The Paradox Basin is a part of the Colorado Plateaus that is underlain by a thick sequence of evaporite beds of Pennsylvanian age. The rock units that underlie the area have been grouped into hydrogeologic units based on their water-transmitting ability. Evaporite beds of mostly salt are both overlain and underlain by confining beds. Aquifers are present above and below the confining-bed sequence. The principal element of ground-water outflow from the upper aquifer is flow to the San Miguel River and its tributaries; this averages about 90 million cubic meters per year. A water budget for the lower aquifer has only two equal, unestimated elements, subsurface outflow and recharge from precipitation. The aquifers are generally isolated from the evaporite beds by the bounding confining beds; as a result, most ground water has little if any contact with the evaporites. No brines have been sampled and no brine discharges have been identified in the basin. Salt water has been reported for petroleum-exploration wells, but no active salt solution has been identified. (USGS)

  6. Streamflow Simulations for Major River Basins in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, F.; Xie, Z.; Liang, X.

    2002-12-01

    In this study, the land surface scheme (LSS) of VIC (Variable Infiltration Capacity) model is used to simulate streamflows of major river basins in China where the new surface runoff parameterization of VIC that represents both Horton and Dunne runoff generation mechanisms with the framework of considering subgrid spatial scale soil heterogeneity is applied. The entire area of China is represented by 2604 cells with a resolution of 60km­A60km for each cell. The VIC model is applied to each grid cell over each basin. A routing scheme is run offline which takes daily VIC surface and subsurface runoff as input to obtain model simulated streamflows at the outlets of study basins. Preparation of the forcing data, and soil and vegetation parameters needed by the VIC model for the entire area of China will be described, and some of the data issues will be addressed and discussed. The VIC streamflow simulations over a few river basins will be presented and compared with the observations.

  7. Environmental Impact of Eu Policies On Acheloos River Basin, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoulikidis, N.; Nikolaidis, N. P.; Oikonomopoulou, A.; Batzias, F.

    The environmental impact of EU policies aiming at protecting surface and ground wa- ters are being assessed in the Acheloos River Basin, Greece as part of a Joint Research Centre (JRC) / DG Environment (DG Env) funded project. The basin offers the possi- bility of studying the impact of EU policies on a multitude of aquatic ecosystems: four artificial and four natural lakes and a large estuary with important hydrotops (lagoons, coastal salt lacustrine and freshwater marshes, etc.) that belong to the NATURA 2000 sites or are protected by the RAMSAR Convention. A database has been developed that includes all available information on sources, fluxes, and concentration levels of nutrients and selected heavy metals from prior and current research programs at the Acheloos River Basin and coastal environment. This information has been used to identify the environmental pressures and develop nutrient budgets for each sub-basin of the watershed to assess the relative contributions of nutrients from various land uses. The mathematical model HSPF is being used to model the hydrology and nitro- gen fate and transport in the watershed. Management scenarios will be developed and modelling exercises will be carried out to assess the impacts of the scenarios. Eco- nomic analysis of the nutrient management scenarios will be conducted to evaluate the costs associated with management practices for reaching acceptable water quality status.

  8. Integrated Basin Scale Hydropower and Environmental Opportunity Assessment in the Deschutes River Basin, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voisin, N.; Geerlofs, S. H.; Vail, L. W.; Ham, K. D.; Tagestad, J. D.; Hanrahan, T. P.; Seiple, T. E.; Coleman, A. M.; Stewart, K.

    2012-04-01

    The Deschutes River Basin in Oregon, USA, is home to a number of diverse groups of stakeholders that rely upon the complex snowmelt and groundwater-dominated river system to support their needs, livelihoods, and interests. Basin system operations that vary across various temporal and spatial scales often must balance an array of competing demands including maintaining adequate municipal water supply, recreation, hydropower generation, regulations related to environmental flows, mitigation programs for salmon returns, and in-stream and storage rights for irrigation water supplied by surface water diversions and groundwater pumping. The U.S. Department of Energy's Integrated Basin-scale Opportunity Assessment initiative is taking a system-wide approach to identifying opportunities and actions to increase hydropower and enhance environmental conditions while sustaining reliable supply for other uses. Opportunity scenarios are analyzed in collaboration with stakeholders, through nested integrated modeling and visualization software to assess tradeoffs and system-scale effects. Opportunity assessments are not intended to produce decisional documents or substitute for basin planning processes; assessments are instead intended to provide tools, information, and a forum for catalyzing conversation about scenarios where both environmental and hydropower gains can be realized within a given basin. We present the results of the nested integrated modeling approach and the modeling scenarios in order to identify and explore opportunities for the system.

  9. Basin-wide architecture of sandstone reservoirs in the Fort Union Formation, Wind River basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, R.M.; Keighin, C.W.; Keefer, W.R. )

    1991-06-01

    Architecture of hydrocarbon-bearing sandstone reservoirs of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the Wind River basin, Wyoming, was studied using lithofacies, grain size, bounding surfaces, sedimentary structures, internal organization, and geometry. Two principal groups of reservoirs, both erosionally based and fining upward, consist of either conglomeratic sandstone or sandstone lithofacies. Two types of architecture were recognized in conglomeratic sandstone reservoirs: (1) heterogeneous, multistacked, lenticular and (2) homogeneous, multiscoured, wedge-sheet bodies. Three types of architecture were recognized in sandstone reservoirs: (3) heterogeneous, multistacked, elongate; (4) homogeneous, multilateral, lenticular; and (5) homogeneous, ribbon-lensoid bodies. Conglomeratic sandstone reservoirs in the southern and southwestern parts of the basin suggest deposition in gravel-bedload fluvial systems influenced by provenance uplift of the Granite and southern Wind River mountains. Type 2 reservoirs represent deposits of eastward-flowing braided streams aggrading an alluvial valley in response to base level rise. Thus, to determine basin-wide architecture of reservoirs requires understanding the interplay between base level conditions, basin subsidence, and provenance uplift. These interrelated factors, in turn, control differences in hierarchies of fluvial systems throughout the basin.

  10. Climate Oscillations and the Hydroclimatology of the Fraser River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dery, S. J.; Hernández-Henríquez, M.; Owens, P. N.; Parkes, M.; Petticrew, E. L.

    2011-12-01

    The Fraser River is by volume the largest Canadian waterway flowing to the Pacific Ocean and remains largely unaffected by flow regulation. The Fraser River Basin (FRB) spans across 234,000 square kilometers or one quarter of British Columbia, Canada and bears a magnificent amount of natural and human heritage and the cultural and linguistic diversity of this region encompasses various First Nations peoples who use the Fraser River and its tributaries as waterways and for sustenance. This presentation will focus on the role of climate oscillations on the 1910-2009 variability and trends in annual streamflow at 141 sites across the FRB of British Columbia (BC), Canada. Our analyses reveal high runoff rates and low interannual variability in alpine and coastal rivers and low runoff rates and high interannual variability in streams on BC's interior plateau. Large-scale climate teleconnections such as El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), in conjunction with retreating glaciers, may be contributing to the greater range in annual streamflow fluctuations across the basin. This poses significant challenges for water resource managers and also has implications on ecological processes such as migrating salmon that are especially important to First Nations communities. As the climate continues to warm, greater variability in annual streamflow, and hence in hydrological extremes, may arise across the FRB in the 21st century.

  11. Hydrological Cycle in the Heihe River Basin and Its Implication for Water Resource Management in Inland River Basins (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Cheng, G.; Tian, W.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, J.; Pan, X.; Ge, Y.; Hu, X.

    2013-12-01

    Inland river basins take about 11.4% of the land area of the world and most of them are distributed over arid regions. Understanding the hydrological cycle of inland river basin is important for water resource management in water scarcity regions. This paper illustrated hydrological cycle of a typical inland river basin in China, the Heihe River Basin (HRB). First, water balance in upper, middle and lower reaches of the HRB was conceptualized by analyzing dominant hydrological processes in different parts of the river basin. Then, we used a modeling approach to study the water cycle in the HRB. In the upper reaches, we used the GBHM-SHAW, a distributed hydrological model with a new frozen soil parameterization. In the middle and lower reaches, we used the GWSiB, a three-dimensionally coupled land surface-groundwater model. Modeling results were compared with water balance observations in different landscapes and cross-validated with other results to ensure the reliability. The results show that the hydrological cycle in HRB has some distinctive characteristics. Mountainous area generates almost all of the runoff for the whole river basin. High-elevation zones have much larger runoff/precipitation ratio. Cryospheric hydrology plays an important role. Although snow melting and glacier runoff take less than 25% of total runoff, these processes regulate inter-annual variation of runoff and thus provide stable water resource for oases downstream. Forest area contributes almost no runoff but it smoothes runoff and reduces floods by storing water in soil and releasing it out slowly. In the middle reaches, artificial hydrological cycle is much more dominated than natural one. River water and groundwater, recharged by runoff from mountainous area, is the water resource to support the agriculture and nurture the riparian ecosystem. Precipitation, approximately 150 mm in average, is only a supplement to agriculture use but sufficient to sustain desert vegetation. Water

  12. Rivers at Risk: An Activity Based Study Guide for the Colorado River Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samples, Bob, Ed.

    This activity guide is intended to increase student awareness and understanding about the Colorado River Basin. Each activity includes objectives, procedures, materials list, related activities, questions for students, and related information. The activities are varied to appeal to a wide range of learning styles and modalities and are…

  13. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE R REACTOR DISASSEMBLY BASIN IN SITU DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.; Serrato, M.

    2009-12-03

    The US DOE concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate in tact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose of, i.e., generating (reactor facilities), processing(isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The 105-R Disassembly Basin is the first SRS reactor facility to undergo the in-situ decommissioning (ISD) process. This ISD process complies with the105-R Disassembly Basin project strategy as outlined in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Grouting of the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site and includes: (1) Managing residual water by solidification in-place or evaporation at another facility; (2) Filling the below grade portion of the basin with cementitious materials to physically stabilize the basin and prevent collapse of the final cap - Sludge and debris in the bottom few feet of the basin will be encapsulated between the basin floor and overlying fill material to isolate if from the environment; (3) Demolishing the above grade portion of the structure and relocating the resulting debris to another location or disposing of the debris in-place; and (4) Capping the basin area with a concrete slab which is part of an engineered cap to prevent inadvertent intrusion. The estimated total grout volume to fill the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is 24,424 cubic meters or 31,945 cubic yards. Portland cement-based structural fill materials were design and tested for the reactor ISD project and a placement strategy for stabilizing the basin was developed. Based on structural engineering analyses and work flow considerations, the recommended maximum lift height is 5 feet with 24 hours between lifts. Pertinent data and information related to the SRS 105-R-Reactor Disassembly Basin in-situ decommissioning include: regulatory documentation, residual water management, area preparation activities, technology needs, fill material designs

  14. Framework for Assessing Water Resource Sustainability in River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borden, J.; Goodwin, P.; Swanson, D.

    2013-12-01

    As the anthropogenic footprint increases on Earth, the wise use, maintenance, and protection of freshwater resources will be a key element in the sustainability of development. Borne from efforts to promote sustainable development of water resources is Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM), which promotes efficiency of water resources, equity in water allocation across different social and economic groups, and environmental sustainability. Methodologies supporting IWRM implementation have largely focused on the overall process, but have had limited attention on the evaluation methods for ecologic, economic, and social conditions (the sustainability criterion). Thus, assessment frameworks are needed to support the analysis of water resources and evaluation of sustainable solutions in the IWRM process. To address this need, the River Basin Analysis Framework (RBAF) provides a structure for understanding water related issues and testing the sustainability of proposed solutions in river basins. The RBAF merges three approaches: the UN GEO 4 DPSIR approach, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment approach, and the principles of sustainable development. Merging these approaches enables users to understand the spatiotemporal interactions between the hydrologic and ecologic systems, evaluate the impacts of disturbances (drivers, pressures) on the ecosystem goods and services (EGS) and constituents of human well-being (HWB), and identify and employ analytical methods and indicators in the assessments. The RBAF is comprised of a conceptual component (RBAF-C) and an analytical component (RBAF-A). For each disturbance type, the RBAF-C shows the potential directional change in the hydrologic cycle (peak flows, seasonality, etc.), EGS (drinking water supply, water purification, recreational opportunities, etc.), and HWB (safety, health, access to a basic materials), thus allowing users insight into potential impacts as well as providing technical guidance on the methods and

  15. [Comprehensive assessment on environmental quality in vulnerable ecotone of Tarim River Basin].

    PubMed

    Wang, R; Song, Y; Fan, Z; You, X

    2001-03-01

    Tarim River Basin (TRB) is one of ecological environment vulnerable areas. Due to the matching of material and energy existed in some problems, the different fragility characteristics occurred obviously. According to related principles of ecological environment quality assessment, combined with ecological environment situation of Tarim River Basin, 20 indexes were selected, and the indicator system for synthetically ecological environment assessment was built. Moreover, ecological fragility index was set up, which can be used to indicate the degree of ecological environment quality in Tarim River Basin. The results were as follows: Aksu River Basin belongs to improved area. Yerkart River Basin and the upper reaches of TRB belongs to balance areas and Hetian River Basin and the middle reaches of TRB belongs to maladjustment areas. The lower reaches of TRB belongs to severe damage area. The assessment results are consonant with actual situation, which play an important function in ecological environment construction.

  16. Drainage areas in the Vermillion River basin in eastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, Rick D.; Freese, M.D.; Amundson, Frank D.

    1988-01-01

    Above-normal precipitation in the northern portion of the Vermillion River basin from 1982 through 1987 caused substantial rises in lake levels in the Lake Thompson chain of lakes, resulting in discharge from Lake Thompson to the East Fork Vermillion River. Prior to 1986, the Lake Thompson chain of lakes was thought to be a noncontributing portion of the Vermillion River basin. To better understand surface drainage, the map delineates all named stream basins, and all unnamed basins larger than approximately 10 sq mi within the Vermillion River basin in South Dakota and lists by stream name the area of each basin. Stream drainage basins were delineated by visual interpretation of contour information of U.S. Geological Survey 7 1/2 minute topographic maps. Two tables list areas of drainage basins and reaches, as well as drainage areas above gaging stations. (USGS)

  17. Surface waters of Illinois River basin in Arkansas and Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laine, L.L.

    1959-01-01

    The estimated runoff from the Illinois River basin of 1,660 square miles has averaged 1,160,000 acre-feet per year during the water years 1938-56, equivalent to an average annual runoff depth of 13.1 inches. About 47 percent of the streamflow is contributed from drainage in Arkansas, where an average of 550,000 acre-ft per year runs off from 755 square miles, 45.5 percent of the total drainage area. The streamflow is highly variable. Twenty-two years of record for Illinois River near Tahlequah, Okla., shows a variation in runoff for the water year 1945 in comparison with 1954 in a ratio of almost 10 to 1. Runoff in 1927 may have exceeded that of 1945, according to records for White River at Beaver, Ark., the drainage basin just east of the Illinois River basin. Variation in daily discharge is suggested by a frequency analysis of low flows at the gaging station near Tahlequah, Okla. The mean flow at that site is 901 cfs (cubic feet per second), the median daily flow is 350 cfs, and the lowest 30-day mean flow in a year probably will be less than 130 cfs half of the time and less than 20 cfs every 10 years on the average. The higher runoff tends to occur in the spring months, March to May, a 3-month period that, on the average, accounts for almost half of the annual flow. High runoff may occur during any month in the year, but in general, the streamflow is the lowest in the summer. The mean monthly flow of Illinois River near Tahlequah, Okla., for September is about 11 percent of that for May. Records show that there is flow throughout the year in Illinois River and its principal tributaries Osage Creek, Flint Creek and Barren Fork. The high variability in streamflow in this region requires the development of storage by impoundment if maximum utilization of the available water supplies is to be attained. For example, a 120-day average low flow of 22 cfs occurred in 1954 at Illinois River near Tahlequah, Okla. To have maintained the flow at 350 cfs, the median daily

  18. Soil erosion in river basins of Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogichaishvili, G. P.

    2016-06-01

    The area of cultivated lands in western and eastern Georgia comprises 28-40 and 29-33% of the total catchment areas, respectively. Eroded arable soils in Georgia occupy 205700 ha, i.e. 30.5% of the total plowland area, including 110500 ha (16.4%) of slightly eroded soils, 74400 ha (11%) of moderately eroded soils, and 20800 ha (3.1%) of strongly eroded soils. The maximum denudation rate in catchments of western Georgia reaches 1.0 mm/yr. The minimum denudation (0.01 mm/yr.) is typical of river catchments in southern Georgia. The mean annual soil loss from plowed fields in western Georgia reaches 17.4 t/ha and exceeds the soil loss tolerance by nearly four times. In eastern Georgia, it is equal to 10.46 t/ha and exceeds the soil loss tolerance by 2.5 times. In southern Georgia, the mean annual soil loss from plowed fields is as low as 3.08 t per ha, i.e., much lower than the soil loss tolerance.

  19. Occurrence and distribution of hexabromocyclododecane in sediments from seven major river drainage basins in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Honghua; Shang, Hongtao; Wang, Pu; Wang, Yawei; Zhang, Haidong; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations and geographical distribution of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were investigated in 37 composite surface sediments from seven major river drainage basins in China, including Yangtze River, Yellow River, Pearl River, Liaohe River, Haihe River, Tarim River and Ertix River. The detection frequency of HBCD was 54%, with the concentrations ranged from below limit of detection (LOD) to 206 ng/g dry weight. In general, the geographical distribution showed increasing trends from the upper reaches to the lower reaches of the rivers and from North China to Southeast China. Compared to other regions in the world, the average concentration of HBCD in sediments from Yangtze River drainage basin was at relatively high level, whereas those from other six river drainage basins were at lower or similar level. The highest HBCD concentration in sediment from Yangtze River Delta and the highest detection frequency of HBCD in Pearl River drainage basins suggested that the industrial and urban activities could evidently affect the HBCD distribution. HBCD diastereoisomer profiles showed that gamma-HBCD dominated in most of the sediment samples, followed by alpha- and beta-HBCD, which was consistent with those in the commercial HBCD mixtures. Further risk assessment reflected that the average inventories of HBCD were 18.3, 5.87, 3.92, 2.50, 1.77 ng/cm2 in sediments from Pearl River, Haihe River, Tarim River, Yellow River and Yangtze River, respectively. PMID:23586301

  20. Occurrence and distribution of hexabromocyclododecane in sediments from seven major river drainage basins in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Honghua; Shang, Hongtao; Wang, Pu; Wang, Yawei; Zhang, Haidong; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations and geographical distribution of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were investigated in 37 composite surface sediments from seven major river drainage basins in China, including Yangtze River, Yellow River, Pearl River, Liaohe River, Haihe River, Tarim River and Ertix River. The detection frequency of HBCD was 54%, with the concentrations ranged from below limit of detection (LOD) to 206 ng/g dry weight. In general, the geographical distribution showed increasing trends from the upper reaches to the lower reaches of the rivers and from North China to Southeast China. Compared to other regions in the world, the average concentration of HBCD in sediments from Yangtze River drainage basin was at relatively high level, whereas those from other six river drainage basins were at lower or similar level. The highest HBCD concentration in sediment from Yangtze River Delta and the highest detection frequency of HBCD in Pearl River drainage basins suggested that the industrial and urban activities could evidently affect the HBCD distribution. HBCD diastereoisomer profiles showed that gamma-HBCD dominated in most of the sediment samples, followed by alpha- and beta-HBCD, which was consistent with those in the commercial HBCD mixtures. Further risk assessment reflected that the average inventories of HBCD were 18.3, 5.87, 3.92, 2.50, 1.77 ng/cm2 in sediments from Pearl River, Haihe River, Tarim River, Yellow River and Yangtze River, respectively.

  1. Energy development and water options in the Yellowstone River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, R.; MacIntyre, D.D.; Torpy, M.F.

    1980-08-01

    Using a mixed-integer programming model, the impacts of institutional constraints on the marginal capacity for energy development in the Yellowstone River Basin and consequent hydrologic changes were examined. Under average annual flow conditions, energy outputs in the Yellowstone Basin can increase roughly nine times by 1985 and 12 to 18 times by 2000. In contrast, water availability is limiting energy development in the Tongue and Powder River Basins in Wyoming. Variability in hydrologic regime causes model solutions to change drastically. If flows decrease to 80 and 60% of average annual levels, the energy production is decreased by 17 and 95%, respectively. If development strategies in the basin are followed on the basis of 80% average annual flows, the Buffalo Bill enlargement (271,300 acre-ft), Tongue River Modification (58,000 acre-ft), and the two reservoirs at Sweetgrass Creek (each 27,000 acre-ft) will be necessary, in addition to several small storage facilities, to best meet the instream flow needs in Montana and to deliver the waters apportioned by compact between Wyoming and Montana. Furthermore, the results indicate that relaxing the instream flow requirements from recommended levels by 10% could increase regional energy output by 19% in 1985 and 35% in 2000. This model illustrates that modifications in institutional restrictions to achieve greater water mobility between users in a given state, as well as flexible practices for transferring water between states, can assist economic growth. Thus, the probability for restricted energy development at this juncture appears to be affected to a greater degree by institutional constraints than by water availability constraints.

  2. Long Term Discharge Estimation for Ogoué River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyler, F.; Linguet, L.; Calmant, S.

    2014-12-01

    Ogoué river basin is one the last preserved tropical rain forest basin in the world. The river basin covers about 75% of Gabon. Results of a study conducted on wall-to wall forest cover map using Landsat images (Fichet et al., 2014) gave a net forest loss of 0,38% from 1990 and 2000 and sensibly the same loss rate between 2000 and 2010. However, the country launched recently an ambitious development plan, with communication infrastructure, agriculture and forestry as well as mining projects. Hydrological cycle response to changes may be expected, in both quantitative and qualitative aspects. Unfortunately monitoring gauging stations have stopped functioning in the seventies, and Gabon will then be unable to evaluate, mitigate and adapt adequately to these environmental challenges. Historical data were registered during 42 years at Lambaréné (from 1929 to 1974) and during 10 to 20 years at 17 other ground stations. The quantile function approach (Tourian et al., 2013) has been tested to estimate discharge from J2 and ERS/Envisat/AltiKa virtual stations. This is an opportunity to assess long term discharge patterns in order to monitor land use change effects and eventual disturbance in runoff. Figure 1: Ogoué River basin: J2 (red) and ERS/ENVISAT/ALTIKa (purple) virtual stations Fichet, L. V., Sannier, C., Massard Makaga, E. K., Seyler, F. (2013) Assessing the accuracy of forest cover map for 1990, 2000 and 2010 at national scale in Gabon. In press IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote SensingTourian, M. J., Sneeuw, N., & Bárdossy, A. (2013). A quantile function approach to discharge estimation from satellite altimetry (ENVISAT). Water Resources Research, 49(7), 4174-4186. doi:10.1002/wrcr.20348

  3. Episodic Emplacement of Sediment + Carbon within Large Tropical River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalto, R.; Aufdenkampe, A.

    2012-04-01

    Application of advanced methods for imaging (sub-bottom sonar and ERGI), dating (high resolution 210-Pb and 14-C from deep cores), and biogeochemical analysis have facilitated the characterization and inter-comparison of floodplain sedimentation rates, styles, and carbon loading across disparate large river basins. Two examples explored here are the near-pristine 72,000 km2 Beni River basin in northern Bolivia and the similarly natural 36,000 km2 Strickland River basin in Papua New Guinea - that are located on either side of the Equatorial Pacific warm pool that drives the ENSO phenomenon. Our published research suggests that large, rapid-rise, cold-phase ENSO floods account for the preponderance of sediment accumulation within these two tropical systems. New results to be presented at EGU further clarify the extent of modern deposits (~100 yrs) within both systems and add a deeper perspective into how these extensive floodplains developed over the Holocene, both in response to external forcing (climate and base level) and internal system morphodynamics. The vast scale of these temporally discrete deposits (typically 100s of millions of tonnes over relatively short time periods) involved equate to high burial rates, which in turn support the high carbon loadings sequestered within the resulting sedimentary deposits. We have identified the principal source of this carbon and sedimentary material to be extensive landslides throughout the high-relief headwaters - failures that deliver huge charges of pulverized rock and soil directly into canyons (in both the Bolivian Andes and the PNG Highlands), where raging floodwaters provide efficient transport to lowland depocentres. We present recent results from our research in these basins, providing insight into the details of such enormous mass budgets that result in a signicant carbon sink within the floodplains. Processes, timing, and rates are compared between the two systems, providing insight into the nature of

  4. Groundwater quality in the Chemung River, Eastern Lake Ontario, and Lower Hudson River Basins, New York, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Tia-Marie; Nystrom, Elizabeth A.; Reddy, James E.

    2015-11-10

    The Lower Hudson River Basin study area covers 5,607 square miles and encompasses the part of the Lower Hudson River Basin that lies within New York plus the parts of the Housatonic, Hackensack, Bronx, and Saugatuck River Basins that are in New York. Twelve of the wells sampled in the Lower Hudson River Basin are completed in sand-and-gravel deposits, and 13 are completed in bedrock. Groundwater in the Lower Hudson River Basin was generally of good quality, although properties and concentrations of some constituents—pH, sodium, chloride, dissolved solids, arsenic, aluminum, iron, manganese, radon-222, total coliform bacteria, fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli bacteria, and heterotrophic plate count—equaled or exceeded primary, secondary, or proposed drinking-water standards. The constituent most frequently detected in concentrations exceeding drinking-water standards (20 of 25 samples) was radon-222.

  5. Perfluoroalkyl substances in the Ebro and Guadalquivir river basins (Spain).

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, María; Campo, Julián; Farré, Marinella; Pérez, Francisca; Picó, Yolanda; Barceló, Damià

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean rivers are characteristically irregular with changes in flow and located in high population density areas. This affects the concentration of pollutants in the aquatic environments. In this study, the occurrence and sources of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were determined in water, sediment and biota of the Ebro and Guadalquivir river basins (Spain). In water samples, of 21 analytes screened, 11 were found in Ebro and 9 in Guadalquivir. In both basins, the most frequents were PFBA, PFPeA and PFOA. Maximum concentration was detected for PFBA, up to 251.3 ng L(-1) in Ebro and 742.9 ng L(-1) in Guadalquivir. Regarding the sediments, 8 PFASs were detected in the samples from Ebro and 9 in those from Guadalquivir. The PFASs most frequently detected were PFBA, PFPeA, PFOA and PFOS. Maximum concentration in Ebro samples was, in dry weight, for PFOA (32.3 ng g(-1)) and in Guadalquivir samples for PFBA (63.8 ng g(-1)). For biota, 12 PFASs were detected in fish from the Ebro River and only one (PFOS) in that from Guadalquivir. In the Ebro basin, the most frequents were PFBA, PFHxA, PFOA, PFBS, PFOS and PFOSA. Maximum concentration in Ebro samples was, in wet weight, for PFHxA with 1280.2 ng g(-1), and in Guadalquivir samples for PFOS with 79.8 ng g(-1). These compounds were detected in the whole course of the rivers including the upper parts. In some points contamination was due to point sources mostly related to human activities (e.g. ski resorts, military camps, urban areas.). However, there are also some areas clearly affected by diffuse sources as atmospheric deposition. PMID:26250865

  6. Estimating flows in ungauged river basins in northern Mozambique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minihane, M.

    2011-12-01

    In many regions across the globe, there are limited streamflow observations and therefore limited knowledge of availability of surface water resources. In many cases, these rivers lie in countries that would benefit from economic development and improved access to water and sanitation services, both of which are linked to water resources. Additional information about streamflow in these watersheds is critical to water resources planning and economic development strategies. In southeastern Africa, the remote Rovuma River lies on the border between Mozambique and Tanzania. There are limited historic measurements in the main tributary and no recent observations. Improved knowledge of the water resource availability and inter-annual variability of the Rovuma River will enhance transboundary river basin management discussions for this river basin. While major rivers farther south in the country are more closely monitored, those in the north have gauging stations with only scattered observations and have not been active since the early 1980's. Reliable estimates of historic conditions are fundamental to water resources planning. This work aims to provide estimates in these rivers and to quantify uncertainty and bounds on those estimates. A combination of methods is used to estimate historic flows: simple index gauge methods such as the drainage area ratio method and mean flow ratio method, a statistical regression method, a combination of an index gauge method and global gridded runoff data, and a hydrological model. These results are compared to in-situ streamflow estimates based on stage measurements and rating curves for the basins and time frames for which data is available. The evaluation of the methods is based on an efficiency ratio, bias, and representation of seasonality and inter-annual variability. Use of gridded global datasets, either with the mean flow ratio method or a hydrological model, appears to provide improved estimates over use of local observations

  7. Summary of the river-quality assessment of the upper Chattahoochee River basin, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cherry, R.N.; Faye, R.E.; Stamer, J.K.; Kleckner, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    The river-quality assessment of the Upper Chattahoochee River Basin included studies of (1) the impact of heat loads on river quality, (2) sediment transport and deposition, (3) magnitude and nature of point and nonpoint discharges, and (4) phytoplankton growth in the river and reservoirs. The combined thermal effects of flow regulation and powerplants effluents resulted in mean daily river temperature downstream of the powerplants about equal to or less than computed natural temperatures. The average annual river temperature in 1976 was 14.0 ? Celsius just upstream of the Atkinson-McDonough thermoelectric powerplants and 16.0 ? Celsius just downstream from the powerplants. During a low-flow period in June 1977 the heat load from the two powerplants caused an increase in river temperatures of about 7 ? Celsius and a subsequent decrease in the dissolved-oxygen concentration of about 0.2 milligrams per liter. During the June low-flow period, point sources contributed 63 percent of the ultimate biochemical oxygen demand and 97 percent of ammonium as nitrogen at the Franklin station. Oxidation of ultimate biochemical demand and ammonium caused dissolved-oxygen concentrations to decrease from about 8.0 milligrams per liter at river mile 299 to about 4.5 milligrams per liter at river mile 271. Dissolved orthophosphate is the nutrient presently limiting phytoplankton growth in the West Point Lake when water temperatures are greater than about 26 ? Celsius.

  8. Floods of April 1952 in the Missouri River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, J.V.B.

    1955-01-01

    The floods of April 1952 in the Milk River basin, along the Missouri River from the mouth of the Little Missouri River to the mouth of the Kansas River, and for scattered tributaries of the Missouri River in North and South Dakota were the greatest ever observed. The damage amounted to an estimated $179 million. The outstanding featur6 of the floods was the extraordinary peak discharge generated in the Missouri River at and downstream from Bismarck, N. Dak., on April 6 when a large ice jam upstream from the city was suddenly released. Inflow from flooding tributaries maintained the peak discharge at approximately the same magnitude in the transit of the flood across South Dakota; downstream from Yankton, S. Dak., attenuation of the peak discharge was continuous because of natural storage in the wide flood plains. The outstanding characteristic of floods in the Milk River basin was their duration--the flood crested at Havre, Mont., on April 3 and at Nashua, Mont.. on April 18. The floods were caused by an abnormally heavy accumulation of snow that was converted into runoff in a few days of very warm weather at the end of March. The heaviest water content of the snow pack at breakup was in a narrow arc extending through Aberdeen, S. Dak., Pierre, S. Dak.. and northwestward toward the southwest corner of North Dakota. The water content in part of this concentrated cover exceeded 6 inches. The winter of 1951-52, which followed a wet cold fall that made the ground impervious, was one of the most severe ever experienced in South Dakota and northern Montana. Depths of snow and low temperatures combined to produce, at the end of March, one of the heaviest snow covers in the history of the Great Plains. The Missouri River ice was intact upstream from Chamberlain, S. Dak., at the end of March, and the breakup of the ice with inflow of local runoff was one of the spectacular features of the flood. Runoff from the Yellowstone River combining with the flood pouring from the

  9. Assessing water deprivation at the sub-river basin scale in LCA integrating downstream cascade effects.

    PubMed

    Loubet, Philippe; Roux, Philippe; Núñez, Montserrat; Belaud, Gilles; Bellon-Maurel, Véronique

    2013-12-17

    Physical water deprivation at the midpoint level is assessed in water-related LCIA methods using water scarcity indicators (e.g., withdrawal-to-availability and consumption-to-availability) at the river basin scale. Although these indicators represent a great step forward in the assessment of water-use-related impacts in LCA, significant challenges still remain in improving their accuracy and relevance. This paper presents a methodology that can be used to derive midpoint characterization factors for water deprivation taking into account downstream cascade effects within a single river basin. This effect is considered at a finer scale because a river basin must be split into different subunits. The proposed framework is based on a two-step approach. First, water scarcity is defined at the sub-river basin scale with the consumption-to-availability (CTA) ratio, and second, characterization factors for water deprivation (CFWD) are calculated, integrating the effects on downstream sub-river basins. The sub-river basin CTA and CFWD were computed based on runoff data, water consumption data and a water balance for two different river basins. The results show significant differences between the CFWD in a given river basin, depending on the upstream or downstream position. Finally, an illustrative example is presented, in which different land planning scenarios, taking into account additional water consumption in a city, are assessed. Our work demonstrates how crucial it is to localize the withdrawal and release positions within a river basin.

  10. Human impacts on river ice regime in the Carpathian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takács, Katalin; Nagy, Balázs; Kern, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    examples from the Carpathian Basin represent some of the most common human impacts (engineering regulation, hydropower usage, water pollution), disturbing natural river ice regimes of mid-latitude rivers with densely populated or dynamically growing urban areas along their courses. In addition simple tests are also introduced to detect not only the climatic, but also the effect of anthropogenic impacts on river ice regime. As a result of river regulation on River Danube at Budapest a vanishing trend in river ice phenomena could be detected in the Danube records. The average ice-affected season shortened from 40 to 27 days, the average ice-covered season reduced greatly, from 27 to 7 days. In historical times the ice jams on the River Danube caused many times ice floods. The relative frequency of the break-up jam also decreased; moreover no ice flood occurred over the past 50 years. The changes due to hydropower usage are different upstream and downstream to the damming along the river. On Raba River upstream of the Nick dam at Ragyogóhíd, the ice-affected and ice-covered seasons were lengthened by 4 and 9 days, in contrast, downstream of the dam, the length of the ice-covered season was shortened by 7 days, and the number of ice-affected days decreased by 8 days at Árpás. During the observation period at Budapest on Danube River, the temperature requirements for river ice phenomena occurrence changed. Nowadays, much lower temperatures are needed to create the same ice phenomena compared to the start of the observations. For ice appearance, the mean winter air temperature requirements decreased from +2.39 °C to +1.71 °C. This investigation focused on anthropogenic effects on river ice regime, eliminating the impact of climatic conditions. Different forms of anthropogenic effects cause in most cases, a shorter length of ice-affected seasons and decreasing frequency of ice phenomena occurrence. Rising winter temperatures result the same changes in river ice regime

  11. Near real time water resources data for river basin management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Twenty Data Collection Platforms (DCP) are being field installed on USGS water resources stations in the Delaware River Basin. DCP's have been successfully installed and are operating well on five stream gaging stations, three observation wells, and one water quality monitor in the basin. DCP's have been installed at nine additional water quality monitors, and work is progressing on interfacing the platforms to the monitors. ERTS-related water resources data from the platforms are being provided in near real time, by the Goddard Space Flight Center to the Pennsylvania district, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey. On a daily basis, the data are computer processed by the Survey and provided to the Delaware River Basin Commission. Each daily summary contains data that were relayed during 4 or 5 of the 15 orbits made by ERTS-1 during the previous day. Water resources parameters relays by the platforms include dissolved oxygen concentrations, temperature, pH, specific conductance, well level, and stream gage height, which is used to compute stream flow for the daily summary.

  12. Pesticide transport in the San Joaquin River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dubrovsky, N.M.; Kratzer, C.R.; Panshin, S.Y.; Gronberg, J.A.M.; Kuivila, K.M.

    2000-01-01

    Pesticide occurrence and concentrations were evaluated in the San Joaquin River Basin to determine potential sources and mode of transport. Land use in the basin is mainly agricultural. Spatial variations in pesticide occurrence were evaluated in relation to pesticide application and cropping patterns in three contrasting subbasins and at the mouth of the basin. Temporal variability in pesticide occurrence was evaluated by fixed interval sampling and by sampling across the Hydrograph during winter storms. Four herbicides (simazine, metolachlor, dacthal, and EPTC) and two insecticides (diazinon and chlorpyrifos) were detected in more than 50 percent of the samples. Temporal, and to a lesser extent spatial, variation in pesticide occurrence is usually consistent with pesticide application and cropping patterns. Diazinon concentrations changed rapidly during winter storms, and both eastern and western tributaries contributed diazinon to the San Joaquin River at concentrations toxic to the water flea Ceriodaphnia dubia at different times during the hydrograph. During these storms, toxic concentrations resulted from the transport of only a very small portion of the applied diazinon.

  13. Greater Green River basin well-site selection

    SciTech Connect

    Frohne, K.H.; Boswell, R.

    1993-12-31

    Recent estimates of the natural gas resources of Cretaceous low-permeability reservoirs of the Greater Green River basin indicate that as much as 5000 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of gas may be in place (Law and others 1989). Of this total, Law and others (1989) attributed approximately 80 percent to the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group and Lewis Shale. Unfortunately, present economic conditions render the drilling of many vertical wells unprofitable. Consequently, a three-well demonstration program, jointly sponsored by the US DOE/METC and the Gas Research Institute, was designed to test the profitability of this resource using state-of-the-art directional drilling and completion techniques. DOE/METC studied the geologic and engineering characteristics of ``tight`` gas reservoirs in the eastern portion of the Greater Green River basin in order to identify specific locations that displayed the greatest potential for a successful field demonstration. This area encompasses the Rocks Springs Uplift, Wamsutter Arch, and the Washakie and Red Desert (or Great Divide) basins of southwestern Wyoming. The work was divided into three phases. Phase 1 consisted of a regional geologic reconnaissance of 14 gas-producing areas encompassing 98 separate gas fields. In Phase 2, the top four areas were analyzed in greater detail, and the area containing the most favorable conditions was selected for the identification of specific test sites. In Phase 3, target horizons were selected for each project area, and specific placement locations were selected and prioritized.

  14. Nutrient mobility within river basins: a European perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Colin; Heathwaite, A. L.

    2005-03-01

    The research presented in this special issue of the Journal of Hydrology is brought together with associated information of relevance to the thematic area in this concluding paper. Some of the important gaps in our current knowledge are outlined with a view to identifying future research needs for the development of an integrated analysis of nutrients in river basins and their management. Identification of these needs is important if we are to meet the defined set of catchment management objectives specified under the EU Water Framework Directive that must be delivered against a specified timetable. The Directive raises wider concerns such as how to define 'good ecological status' and pertinent to this special issue: what role nutrients have in framing this definition. In this paper, the importance of nutrient pressures on receiving waters is evaluated in the context of the key scientific uncertainties and options for characterising the biological, physico-chemical and hydro-morphological parameters necessary to meet the science needs of the Directive. An assessment of the significance of nutrient mobility within river basins for current understanding of freshwater systems functioning on a catchment and basin scale is made together with an evaluation of where research on nutrient pressures should be focussed in order underpin effective management.

  15. Detecting Recent Atmospheric River Induced Flood Events over the Russian River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehran, A.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Ralph, F. M.; Lavers, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Almost all major flood events in the coastal Western U.S. occur as a result of multi-day extreme precipitation during the winter and late fall, and most such events are now known to be Atmospheric Rivers (ARs). AR events are defined as having integrated water vapor (IWV) exceeding 2 cm in an area at least 2000 km long and no more than 1000 km wide. The dominant moisture source in many AR events, including those associated with most floods in the Russian River basin in Northern California, is the tropics. We report on a hydrological analysis of selected floods in the Russian River basin using the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM), forced alternately by gridded station data, NWS WSR-88D radar data, and output from a regional atmospheric model. We also report results of river state forecasts using a river hydrodynamics model to reconstruct flood inundation from selected AR events. We diagnose errors in both the hydrological and river stage predictions, and discuss alternatives for future error reduction.

  16. Scenarios of long-term river runoff changes within Russian large river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiadi, A. G.; Koronkevich, N. I.; Milyukova, I. P.; Kislov, A. V.; Barabanova, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    The approach for long-term scenario projection of river runoff changes for Russian large river basins in XXI century includes method for scenario estimations for range of probable climatic changes, based on generalization of results of the calculations executed on ensemble of global climatic models and physical-statistical downscaling of their results are developed for mountain regions; hydrological model; method of alternative scenario estimations for water management complex transformation and GIS technologies. The suggested methodology allows to develop long-term scenario projection for: (1) changes of river runoff in large river basins as a result of climate changes and (2) transformations of the water management complex caused by social-economic changes, occurring in the country and their influence on river runoff. As one of the bases of methodology is used model of monthly water balance of RAS Institute of Geography (Georgiadi, Milyukova, 2000, 2002, 2006, 2009). As the climatic scenario the range of probable climatic changes which is estimated by results of calculations for deviations of climatic elements from their recent values which have been carried out on ensemble of global climatic models based on the two most contrasting scenario globally averaged air temperature changes is used. As ensemble of climatic scenarios results of the calculations executed on 10 global climatic models, included in the program of last experiment 20C3M-20th Century Climate in Coupled Models (Meehl et al., 2007), is used. The method for long-term scenario projection for transformation of water management complex characteristics and water consumption was developed. The method includes several blocks (Koronkevich, 1990, Koronkevich et al., 2009): growth of the population and development of an economy; different ways of use and protection of waters, in view of different technologies of prevention and decreasing of pollution of water resources. Development of scenarios assumes pre

  17. Greater Platte River Basins - Science to Sustain Ecosystems and Communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thormodsgard, June M.

    2009-01-01

    The Greater Platte River Basins (GPRB), located in the heartland of the United States, provides a collaborative opportunity for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners to understand the sustainability of natural and managed ecosystems under changing climate and resource requirements.The Greater Platte River Basins, an area of about 140,000 square miles, sustains thousands of acres of lakes and wetlands, which provide a staging and resting area for the North American Central Flyway. Part of the GPRB is within the U.S. Corn Belt, one of the most productive agricultural ecosystems on Earth. Changes in water and land use, changing patterns of snowmelt in the Rocky Mountains, drought, and increasing demands for irrigation have reduced flows in the Platte River. These changes raise questions about the sustainability of the region for both wildlife and agriculture.The USGS and partners are developing a science strategy that will help natural-resource managers address and balance the needs of this region.

  18. Water quality and streamflow characteristics, Raritan River Basin, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Peter W.; Faust, Samuel Denton

    1974-01-01

    The findings of a problem-oriented river-system investigation of the stream-quality and streamflow characteristics of the Raritan River basin (1,105 square miles or 2,862 square kilometers drainage area) are described. The investigation covers mainly the period 1955-72. Precipitation in the basin is classified as ample and averages 47 inches or 120 centimeters per year (3-5 inches or 8-12 centimeters per month). During the study period four general precipitation trends were noted: less than normalin 1955-61 and 1966-70; extreme drought in 1962-66; and above normal in 1971-72. Analyses of streamflow measurements at eight gaging stations indicate a general trend toward lower flows during the study period, which is attributed to generally lower than normal precipitation. Highest flows were observed in 1958, concurrent with maximum annual precipitation; whereas lowest flows were observed in 1965 during extreme drought conditions. Non-tidal streams in the basin are grouped into three general regions of similar chemical quality based upon predominant constituents and dissolved-solids concentration during low-flow conditions. The predominant cations in solution in all regions are calcium and magnesium (usually exceeding 60 percent of total cation content). In headwater streams of the North and South Branch Raritan Rivers, bicarbonate is the predominant anion; a combination of sulfate, chloride, and nitrate are the predominant anions in the other two regions. The dissolved-solids concentration of streams in areas little influenced by man's activities generally range from 40 to 200 mg/L. Those in areas influenced by man often range much higher sometimes exceeding 800 mg/L. Suspended-sediment yields in the basin range from 25 to 500 tons per square mile annually. The water quality of the Raritan River and most tributaries above Manville (784 square miles of 2,030 square kilometers drainage area) generally is good for most industrial, domestic, and recreational uses, although

  19. Collaboration in River Basin Management: The Great Rivers Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowther, S.; Vridhachalam, M.; Tomala-Reyes, A.; Guerra, A.; Chu, H.; Eckman, B.

    2008-12-01

    The health of the world's freshwater ecosystems is fundamental to the health of people, plants and animals around the world. The sustainable use of the world's freshwater resources is recognized as one of the most urgent challenges facing society today. An estimated 1.3 billion people currently lack access to safe drinking water, an issue the United Nations specifically includes in its recently published Millennium Development Goals. IBM is collaborating with The Nature Conservancy and the Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment (SAGE) at the University of Wisconsin, Madison to build a Modeling Collaboration Framework and Decision Support System (DSS) designed to help policy makers and a variety of stakeholders (farmers, fish and wildlife managers, hydropower operators, et al.) to assess, come to consensus, and act on land use decisions representing effective compromises between human use and ecosystem preservation/restoration efforts. Initially focused on Brazil's Paraguay-Parana, China's Yangtze, and the Mississippi Basin in the US, the DSS integrates data and models from a wide variety of environmental sectors, including water balance, water quality, carbon balance, crop production, hydropower, and biodiversity. In this presentation we focus on the collaboration aspects of the DSS. The DSS is an open environment tool that allows scientists, policy makers, politicians, land owners, and anyone who desires to take ownership of their actions in support of the environment to work together to that end. The DSS supports a range of features that empower such a community to collaboratively work together. Supported collaboration mediums include peer reviews, live chat, static comments, and Web 2.0 functionality such as tagging. In addition, we are building a 3-D virtual world component which will allow users to experience and share system results, first-hand. Models and simulation results may be annotated with free-text comments and tags, whether unique or

  20. Hydrocarbon Source Rocks in the Deep River and Dan River Triassic Basins, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Jeffrey C.; Milici, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents an interpretation of the hydrocarbon source rock potential of the Triassic sedimentary rocks of the Deep River and Dan River basins, North Carolina, based on previously unpublished organic geochemistry data. The organic geochemical data, 87 samples from 28 drill holes, are from the Sanford sub-basin (Cumnock Formation) of the Deep River basin, and from the Dan River basin (Cow Branch Formation). The available organic geochemical data are biased, however, because many of the samples collected for analyses by industry were from drill holes that contained intrusive diabase dikes, sills, and sheets of early Mesozoic age. These intrusive rocks heated and metamorphosed the surrounding sediments and organic matter in the black shale and coal bed source rocks and, thus, masked the source rock potential that they would have had in an unaltered state. In places, heat from the intrusives generated over-mature vitrinite reflectance (%Ro) profiles and metamorphosed the coals to semi-anthracite, anthracite, and coke. The maximum burial depth of these coal beds is unknown, and depth of burial may also have contributed to elevated thermal maturation profiles. The organic geochemistry data show that potential source rocks exist in the Sanford sub-basin and Dan River basin and that the sediments are gas prone rather than oil prone, although both types of hydrocarbons were generated. Total organic carbon (TOC) data for 56 of the samples are greater than the conservative 1.4% TOC threshold necessary for hydrocarbon expulsion. Both the Cow Branch Formation (Dan River basin) and the Cumnock Formation (Deep River basin, Sanford sub-basin) contain potential source rocks for oil, but they are more likely to have yielded natural gas. The organic material in these formations was derived primarily from terrestrial Type III woody (coaly) material and secondarily from lacustrine Type I (algal) material. Both the thermal alteration index (TAI) and vitrinite reflectance data

  1. Hydroclimatological Aspects of the Extreme 2011 Assiniboine River Basin Flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimelow, J.; Szeto, K.; Bonsal, B. R.; Hanesiak, J.; Kochtubajda, B.; Stewart, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    In the spring and early summer of 2011, the Assiniboine River Basin in Canada experienced an extreme flood that was unprecedented in terms of duration and volume of water. The flood had significant socioeconomic impacts and caused over one billion dollars in damage. Contrary to what one might expect for such an extreme flood, individual precipitation events before and during the 2011 flood were not extreme; instead, it was the cumulative impact and timing of precipitation events going back to the summer of 2010 that played a key role in the 2011 flood. The summer and fall of 2010 were exceptionally wet, resulting in soil moisture levels being much above normal at the time of freeze up. This was followed by above-average precipitation during the winter of 2010-2011, and record-breaking basin-averaged snow-water equivalent values in March and April 2011. Abnormally cold temperatures in March delayed the spring melt by about two weeks, with the result that the above-average seasonal melt freshet occurred close to the onset of abnormally heavy rains in May and June. The large-scale atmospheric flow during May and June 2011 favoured increased cyclone activity over the central and northern U.S., which produced an anomalously large number of heavy rainfall events over the basin. All of these factors combined to generate extreme surface runoff and flooding. We used JRA-55 reanalysis data to quantify the relative importance of snowmelt, soil moisture and spring precipitation in contributing to the unprecedented flood and to demonstrate how the 2011 flood was unique compared to previous floods in the basin. Data and research from this study can be used to validate and improve flood forecasting techniques over this important basin; our findings also raise important questions regarding the impact of climate change on basins that experience pluvial and nival flooding.

  2. [Runoff process in forested basin of Hun River-Taizi River, Northeast China: a simulation study].

    PubMed

    Cai, Yan-Cong; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wang, An-Zhi; Guan, De-Xini; Wu, Jia-Bing; Yuan, Feng-Hui

    2013-10-01

    Based on the hydrological data from the Beikouqian and Nandianyu stations in the upstream of Hun River and Taizi River as well as the meteorological data from the Qingyuan, Xinbin, and Benxi County stations, Northeast China in 1998-2007, a distributed hydrological model (DHS-VM) was applied to simulate the hydrological process in Hun-Tai basin. The scientific applicability of the model was validated, and the reference values of the most sensitive model parameters were provided. The simulated monthly runoff Nash-Suttclife coefficient (E value) for the source region of Hun River in calibration period (1998-2002) and validation period (2003-2007) was 0.9675 and 0. 8957, respectively, which could better reappear the monthly runoff process in this source region. The simulated monthly and annual runoff E values for the upstream of Taizi River were greater than 0.6, indicating that this model had good applicability in Hun-Tai basin, and the calibrated parameter scheme had a good reliability. This paper established a solid framework for the hydrological study over ungauged basin, and constructed a reasonable parameter scheme.

  3. Basin-wide distribution of land use and human population: stream order modeling and river basin classification in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Tsubasa; Michioku, Kohji

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model developed using Horton-Strahler's stream order to describe basin-wide distributions of human activities, i.e., land use and human population, across several river basins with different geomorphologic features. We assume that for successive stream orders, the mean area of each land use type-paddy field, forest, city, village, etc.-and the human population form a geometric sequence, which is the same mathematical relationship as stated in Horton's laws of river geomorphology. This geometric sequence modeling implies fractal nature of human activity distributions within a river basin. GIS datasets for the land use and human population in 109 large river basins in Japan were used to verify the model. Herein, we examine the relationships between the Horton ratios and the common ratios obtained from the model to explore links between basin geomorphology and human activities. Furthermore, we quantitatively compare the human activity distributions across the 109 river basins on the basis of results obtained from the model with descriptive statistics. Further, we attempt to classify the river basins into several categories through multivariate statistical analysis.

  4. Basin-wide distribution of land use and human population: stream order modeling and river basin classification in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Tsubasa; Michioku, Kohji

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model developed using Horton-Strahler's stream order to describe basin-wide distributions of human activities, i.e., land use and human population, across several river basins with different geomorphologic features. We assume that for successive stream orders, the mean area of each land use type-paddy field, forest, city, village, etc.-and the human population form a geometric sequence, which is the same mathematical relationship as stated in Horton's laws of river geomorphology. This geometric sequence modeling implies fractal nature of human activity distributions within a river basin. GIS datasets for the land use and human population in 109 large river basins in Japan were used to verify the model. Herein, we examine the relationships between the Horton ratios and the common ratios obtained from the model to explore links between basin geomorphology and human activities. Furthermore, we quantitatively compare the human activity distributions across the 109 river basins on the basis of results obtained from the model with descriptive statistics. Further, we attempt to classify the river basins into several categories through multivariate statistical analysis. PMID:21416375

  5. On the occurrence of Anaecypris hispanica, an extremely endangered Iberian endemism, in the Guadalquivir River basin.

    PubMed

    De Miguel, R; Pino, E; Ramiro, A; Aranda, F; Peña, J P; Doadrio, I; Fernández-Delgado, C

    2010-04-01

    The jarabugo Anaecypris hispanica, considered endemic to the Guadiana River basin, has been found in the Guadalquivir River. First genetic data showed a high degree of similarity to those of the Guadiana River populations. The genetic study recovered five different groups of haplotypes, the Guadalquivir River specimens belong to the largest and most widely extended group.

  6. Erosion in the juniata river drainage basin, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sevon, W.D.

    1989-01-01

    Previously calculated erosion rates througouth the Appalachians range from 1.2 to 203 m Myr-1. Calculation of erosion rates has been accomplished by: (1) evaluation of riverine solute and sediment load in either large or small drainage basins; (2) estimation from the volume of derived sediments; and (3) methods involving either 10Be or fission-track dating. Values of specific conductance and suspended sediment collected at the Juniata River gauging station at Newport, Pennsylvania are used, with corrections, along with a bedload estimate to determine the total amount eroded from the 8687 km2 drainage basin during the water years 1965-1986. The amount eroded is used to calculate a present erosion rate of 27 m Myr-1. ?? 1989.

  7. Analysis of the Tanana River Basin using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrissey, L. A.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Carson-Henry, C.

    1981-01-01

    Digital image classification techniques were used to classify land cover/resource information in the Tanana River Basin of Alaska. Portions of four scenes of LANDSAT digital data were analyzed using computer systems at Ames Research Center in an unsupervised approach to derive cluster statistics. The spectral classes were identified using the IDIMS display and color infrared photography. Classification errors were corrected using stratification procedures. The classification scheme resulted in the following eleven categories; sedimented/shallow water, clear/deep water, coniferous forest, mixed forest, deciduous forest, shrub and grass, bog, alpine tundra, barrens, snow and ice, and cultural features. Color coded maps and acreage summaries of the major land cover categories were generated for selected USGS quadrangles (1:250,000) which lie within the drainage basin. The project was completed within six months.

  8. Selenium in Reservoir Sediment from the Republican River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, Kyle E.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    1998-01-01

    Reservoir sediment quality is an important environmental concern because sediment may act as both a sink and a source of water-quality constituents to the overlying water column and biota. Once in the food chain, sediment-derived constituents may pose an even greater concern due to bioaccumulation. An analysis of reservoir bottom sediment can provide historical information on sediment deposition as well as magnitudes and trends in constituents that may be related to changes in human activity in the basin. The assessment described in this fact sheet was initiated in 1997 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation (BOR), U.S. Department of the Interior, to determine if irrigation activities have affected selenium concentrations in reservoir sediment of the Republican River Basin of Colorado, Kansas, and Nebraska.

  9. Nutrient sources within the Upper Mississippi River Basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 1991-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kroening, Sharon E.

    1998-01-01

    Fertilizer and livestock manure were potentially large sources of nitrogen and phosphorus in each of the four drainage basins. However, nitrogen in legume residues was a more important source in the Upper Mississippi, St. Croix, and Lower Mississippi River Basins because hay comprised a larger part of the total acreage of crops grown in these basins. Atmospheric deposition comprised a larger percentage of the nitrogen sources in the St. Croix River Basin compared to the other three drainage basins probably because amounts of the other sources are relatively low. Nitrogen and phosphorus yields in streams were greatest in the Lower Mississippi River Basin and the Minnesota River Basin, where amounts of nonpoint sources of these constituents also were the greatest per square mile.

  10. Evaluating the potential for watershed restoration to reduce nutrient loading to Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, Paul V.; Campbell, Sharon G.

    2007-01-01

    A literature review of best management practices to reduce nutrient loading was performed to provide information for resource managers in the Klamath Basin, Oregon. Although BMPs have already been implemented in the watershed, some sense of their effectiveness in reducing phosphorus loading and their cost for installation and maintenance is still lacking. This report discusses both causes of nutrient loading and a wide-variety of BMPs used to treat or reduce causal factors. We specifically focused on cattle grazing as the principal land-use and causal factor for nutrient loading in the Klamath Basin above Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Several BMP types, including stream corridor fencing, riparian buffer strips and constructed wetlands, seem to have potential for reducing phosphorus loading that may result from cattle grazing. However, no single BMP is likely to be the most effective in all locations or situations.

  11. Simulation of natural flows in major river basins in Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Alexandria M.; García, Ana María

    2014-01-01

    The Office of Water Resources (OWR) in the Alabama Department of Economic and Community Affairs (ADECA) is charged with the assessment of the State’s water resources. This study developed a watershed model for the major river basins that are within Alabama or that cross Alabama’s borders, which serves as a planning tool for water-resource decisionmakers. The watershed model chosen to assess the natural amount of available water was the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS). Models were configured and calibrated for the following four river basins: Mobile, Gulf of Mexico, Middle Tennessee, and Chattahoochee. These models required calibrating unregulated U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow gaging stations to estimate natural flows, with emphases on low-flow calibration. The target calibration criteria required the errors be within the range of: (1) ±10 percent for total-streamflow volume, (2) ±10 percent for low-flow volume, (3) ±15 percent for high-flow volume, (4) ±30 percent for summer volume, and (5) above 0.5 for the correlation coefficient (R2). Seventy-one of the 90 calibration stations in the watershed models for the four major river basins within Alabama met the target calibration criteria. Variability in the model performance can be attributed to limitations in correctly representing certain hydrologic conditions that are characterized by some of the ecoregions in Alabama. Ecoregions consisting of predominantly clayey soils and (or) low topographic relief yield less successful calibration results, whereas ecoregions consisting of loamy and sandy soils and (or) high topographic relief yield more successful calibration results. Results indicate that the model does well in hilly regions with sandy soils because of rapid surface runoff and more direct interaction with subsurface flow.

  12. Denitrification in cypress swamp within the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Lindau, C W; Delaune, R D; Scaroni, A E; Nyman, J A

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen has been implicated as a major cause of hypoxia in shallow water along the Louisiana/Texas, USA coasts. Excess nitrogen (mainly nitrate) from Mississippi and Atchafalaya River drainage basins may drive the onset and duration of hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Restoring and enhancing denitrification have been proposed to reduce and control coastal hypoxia and improve water quality in the Mississippi River Basin. Sediments were collected from six baldcypress restoration sites within the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana, USA. The acetylene blockage technique was used to measure background and potential sediment denitrification rates. Denitrification fluxes were measured before nitrate addition (background rates) and after nitrate addition of 100mgNl(-1) (potential denitrification) at three seasonal temperatures. Background denitrification was low across all cypress swamp sites ranging from 0.9 to 8.8, 0.6 to 28.5 and 8.8 to 47.5g N evolved ha(-1)d(-1) at water/sediment column temperatures of 8, 22 and 30 degrees C, respectively. After nitrate addition, temperature had a significant effect on sediment denitrification potential. Maximum rates measured at 8, 22 and 30 degrees C were approximately 250-260, 550 and 970gNha(-1)d(-1), respectively. Most of the added nitrate in water columns, incubated at 8 degrees C, was removed after 65d compared to 32d and 17d at 22 and 30 degrees C, respectively. These results indicate cypress swamps have the potential to assimilate and process elevated levels of floodwater nitrate with denitrification being a major removal mechanism.

  13. The cost of noncooperation in international river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, A.; Kinzelbach, W.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there has been a renewed interest for water supply enhancement strategies in order to deal with the exploding demand for water in some regions, particularly in Asia and Africa. Within such strategies, reservoirs, especially multipurpose ones, are expected to play a key role in enhancing water security. This renewed impetus for the traditional supply-side approach to water management may indeed contribute to socioeconomic development and poverty reduction if the planning process considers the lessons learned from the past, which led to the recommendations by the World Commission on Dams and other relevant policy initiatives. More specifically, the issues dealing with benefit sharing within an efficient and equitable utilization of water resources are key elements toward the successful development of those river basins. Hence, there is a need for improved coordination and cooperation among water users, sectors, and riparian countries. However, few studies have explicitly tried to quantify, in monetary terms, the economic costs of noncooperation, which we believe to be important information for water managers and policy makers, especially at a time when major developments are planned. In this paper we propose a methodology to assess the economic costs of noncooperation when managing large-scale water resources systems involving multiple reservoirs, and where the dominant uses are hydropower generation and irrigated agriculture. An analysis of the Zambezi River basin, one of the largest river basins in Africa that is likely to see major developments in the coming decades, is carried out. This valuation exercise reveals that the yearly average cost of noncooperation would reach 350 million US$/a, which is 10% of the annual benefits derived from the system.

  14. Geoenvironmental Investigations of the Humboldt River Basin, Northern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stillings, Lisa L.

    2003-01-01

    Northern Nevada is one of the world's foremost regions of gold production. The Humboldt River Basin (HRB) covers 43,500 km2 in northern Nevada (Crompton, 1995), and it is home to approximately 18 active gold and silver mines (Driesner and Coyner, 2001) among at least 55 significant metallic mineral deposits (Long and others, 1998). Many of the gold mines are along the Carlin trend in the east-central portion of the HRB, and together they have produced 50 million ounces of gold from 1962 (when the Carlin mine first opened) through April 2002 (Nevada Mining Association, 2002). Mining is not new to the region, however. Beginning in 1849, mining has taken place in numerous districts that cover 39 percent of the land area in the HRB (Tingley, 1998). In addition to gold and silver, As, Ba, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Pb, S, Sb, V, W, Zn, and industrial commodities such as barite, limestone, fluorite, sand and gravel, gypsum, gemstones, pumice, zeolites, and building stone, have been extracted from the HRB (McFaul and others, 2000). All papers within this series of investigations can be found as lettered chapters of USGS Bulletin 2210, Geoenvironmental Investigations of the Humboldt River Basin, Northern Nevada. Each chapter is available separately online. The data and software utilized in this product (Chapter F) permit the user to view and analyze the geographic relationships among chemistry of stream sediments and surface waters, geology, and various cartographic base information such as but not limited to cities, county boundaries, and land ownership. Data for this product were compiled and or produced as part of a mineral and environmental assessment of the Humboldt River basin conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey between 1995 - 2000.

  15. Water resources of the Myakka River basin area, southwest Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joyner, Boyd F.; Sutcliffe, Horace

    1976-01-01

    Ground water in the Myakka River basin area of southwest Floria is obtained from a water-table aquifer and from five zones in an artesian aquifer. Wells in the water-table aquifer yield generally less than 50 gpm and dissolved solids concentration is less than 500 mg/liter except in coastal areas and the peninsula southwest of the Myakka River estuary. Wells in the Venice area that tap zone 1 usually yield less than 30 gmp. The quality of water is good except in the peninsula area. Zone 2 is the most highly developed aquifer in the heavily populated coastal areas. Wells yield as much as 200 gpm. In most areas, water is of acceptable quality. Wells that tap zone 3 yield as much as 500 gmp. Fluoride concentration ranges from 1 to 3.5 mg/liter. Zone 4 yields as much as 1,500 gpm to large diameter wells. Except in the extreme northeastern part of the area water from zone 4 usually contains high concentrations of fluoride and sulfate. Zone 5 is the most productive aquifer in the area, but dissolved solids concentrations usually are too high for public supply except in the extreme northeast. Surface water derived from natural drainage is of good quality except for occasional high color in summer. Most of the streams in the Myakka River basin area have small drainage basins, are of short channel length, and do not yield high volumes of flow. During the dry season, streamflow is maintained by groundwater discharge, and, as a result, chloride, sulfate, and dissolved solids concentrations and the hardness of the water are above drinking water standards for some streams. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Assessment of River Habitat Quality in the Hai River Basin, Northern China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuekui; Shan, Baoqing; Zhao, Yu

    2015-09-17

    We applied a river habitat quality (RHQ) assessment method to the Hai River Basin (HRB); an important economic centre in China; to obtain baseline information for water quality improvement; river rehabilitation; and watershed management. The results of the assessment showed that the river habitat in the HRB is seriously degraded. Specifically; 42.41% of the sites; accounting for a river length of 3.31 × 10⁴ km; were designated poor and bad. Habitat in the plain areas is seriously deteriorated; and nearly 50% of the sites; accounting for a river length of 1.65 × 10⁴ km; had either poor or bad habitats. River habitat degradation was attributable to the limited width of the riparian zone (≤5 m); lower coverage of riparian vegetation (≤40%); artificial land use patterns (public and industrial land); frequent occurrence of farming on the river banks and high volumes of solid waste (nearly 10 m³); single flow channels; and rare aquatic plants (≤1 category). At the regional scale; intensive artificial land use types caused by urbanization had a significant impact on the RHQ in the HRB. RHQ was significantly and negatively correlated with farmland (r = 1.000; p < 0.01) and urban land (r = 0.998; p < 0.05); and was significantly and positively correlated with grassland and woodland (r = 1.000; p < 0.01). Intensive artificial land use; created through urbanization processes; has led to a loss of the riparian zone and its native vegetation; and has disrupted the lateral connectivity of the rivers. The degradation of the already essentially black rivers is exacerbated by poor longitudinal connectivity (index of connectivity is 2.08-16.56); caused by reservoirs and sluices. For river habitat rehabilitation to be successful; land use patterns need to be changed and reservoirs and sluices will have to be regulated.

  17. Assessment of River Habitat Quality in the Hai River Basin, Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yuekui; Shan, Baoqing; Zhao, Yu

    2015-01-01

    We applied a river habitat quality (RHQ) assessment method to the Hai River Basin (HRB); an important economic centre in China; to obtain baseline information for water quality improvement; river rehabilitation; and watershed management. The results of the assessment showed that the river habitat in the HRB is seriously degraded. Specifically; 42.41% of the sites; accounting for a river length of 3.31 × 104 km; were designated poor and bad. Habitat in the plain areas is seriously deteriorated; and nearly 50% of the sites; accounting for a river length of 1.65 × 104 km; had either poor or bad habitats. River habitat degradation was attributable to the limited width of the riparian zone (≤5 m); lower coverage of riparian vegetation (≤40%); artificial land use patterns (public and industrial land); frequent occurrence of farming on the river banks and high volumes of solid waste (nearly 10 m3); single flow channels; and rare aquatic plants (≤1 category). At the regional scale; intensive artificial land use types caused by urbanization had a significant impact on the RHQ in the HRB. RHQ was significantly and negatively correlated with farmland (r = 1.000; p < 0.01) and urban land (r = 0.998; p < 0.05); and was significantly and positively correlated with grassland and woodland (r = 1.000; p < 0.01). Intensive artificial land use; created through urbanization processes; has led to a loss of the riparian zone and its native vegetation; and has disrupted the lateral connectivity of the rivers. The degradation of the already essentially black rivers is exacerbated by poor longitudinal connectivity (index of connectivity is 2.08–16.56); caused by reservoirs and sluices. For river habitat rehabilitation to be successful; land use patterns need to be changed and reservoirs and sluices will have to be regulated. PMID:26393628

  18. Assessment of River Habitat Quality in the Hai River Basin, Northern China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuekui; Shan, Baoqing; Zhao, Yu

    2015-09-01

    We applied a river habitat quality (RHQ) assessment method to the Hai River Basin (HRB); an important economic centre in China; to obtain baseline information for water quality improvement; river rehabilitation; and watershed management. The results of the assessment showed that the river habitat in the HRB is seriously degraded. Specifically; 42.41% of the sites; accounting for a river length of 3.31 × 10⁴ km; were designated poor and bad. Habitat in the plain areas is seriously deteriorated; and nearly 50% of the sites; accounting for a river length of 1.65 × 10⁴ km; had either poor or bad habitats. River habitat degradation was attributable to the limited width of the riparian zone (≤5 m); lower coverage of riparian vegetation (≤40%); artificial land use patterns (public and industrial land); frequent occurrence of farming on the river banks and high volumes of solid waste (nearly 10 m³); single flow channels; and rare aquatic plants (≤1 category). At the regional scale; intensive artificial land use types caused by urbanization had a significant impact on the RHQ in the HRB. RHQ was significantly and negatively correlated with farmland (r = 1.000; p < 0.01) and urban land (r = 0.998; p < 0.05); and was significantly and positively correlated with grassland and woodland (r = 1.000; p < 0.01). Intensive artificial land use; created through urbanization processes; has led to a loss of the riparian zone and its native vegetation; and has disrupted the lateral connectivity of the rivers. The degradation of the already essentially black rivers is exacerbated by poor longitudinal connectivity (index of connectivity is 2.08-16.56); caused by reservoirs and sluices. For river habitat rehabilitation to be successful; land use patterns need to be changed and reservoirs and sluices will have to be regulated. PMID:26393628

  19. Overcoming anti-hydro policies in the Ohio River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Kissel, P.C.; Robbins, A.I. )

    1991-02-01

    This article focuses on the need to develop a national energy policy, with hydroelectric power playing a greater role. As an example of the consequences of a lack of a cohesive policy, the authors use the regulatory battles taking place over the development of hydroelectric power in the Ohio River Basin. Sixteen potential plants could provide 1,560 gigawatts of power and have been granted licenses, but the Department of the Interior appealed the license authorization. A slew of demands by other regulatory agencies are also hampering development.

  20. A History of Flooding in the Red River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryberg, Karen R.; Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Banse, Tara A.; Wiche, Gregg J.; Martin, Cathy R.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), one of the principal Federal agencies responsible for the collection and interpretation of water-resources data, works with other Federal, State, local, tribal, and academic entities to ensure that accurate and timely data are available for making decisions regarding public welfare and property during natural disasters and to increase public awareness of the hazards that occur with such disasters. The Red River of the North Basin has a history of flooding and this poster is designed to increase public awareness of that history and of the factors that contribute to flooding.

  1. The 2010 flood in the Sele river basin (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biafore, M.; Cristiano, L.; Gentile, S.; Gentilella, M.; Giannattasio, M.; Napoli, F.

    2012-04-01

    On the 7th of November 2010, a deep Atlantic trough across the North-African Coast triggered an intense flux of hot-humid and unstable currents toward Italy. On the 8th of November, this trough extended over the Italian Peninsula, enhancing wind currents from south-west in the lower atmospheric layers in the west-facing regions. This structure has been almost stable within the following three days, from the 8th to the 10th of November. The southern currents, filled of humidity gained during their passage over the Tyrrhenian Sea, have generated diffuse rainstorms. Raingauges located along the Apennine range of the Campania Region have measured rainfall depths with estimated return period up to 90 years within time intervals of 48 hours, particularly across the Sele River basin (5.000 km2). At catchment scale, the overall rainfall event appeared as an unusual succession of three important sub-events, with a temporal scale of ten hours each. These sub-events generated three successive floods, with increasing peak values, within Sele sub-catchments (spatial extents of 1000-2000 km2) characterised by response times of the order of 10 hours. The overall event generated a major flood within the Sele River basin, with relevant damages to urban infrastructures, network utilities, agricultural and industrial settlements. The measured water level within Sele cross-section at Albanella (10 km uplsope the sea outlet) was the highest level ever measured since the gauge station has been established in 1933. A time series of spatial average rainfall depth from 1933 to 2010 have been reconstructed from historical daily raingauge data, in order to assess the return period of the spatial average rainfall depth across the entire Sele River basin. The probabilistic distribution of the catchment average annual maximum rain depth in two days is efficiently modelled by Gumbel law and the estimated return period of the two-days rain depth in 8-9 November 2010 is 130 years. Campania Region

  2. Flooding in the Mississippi River Basin in Minnesota, spring 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitton, Gregory B.

    2001-01-01

    During spring 2001 there was much flooding in the Mississippi River Basin in Minnesota. Greater than normal precipitation starting with late fall rains in 2000, greater than normal snowfalls, a delayed snowmelt, and record rains in April, all contributed to the flooding. Parts of the southern one-half of Minnesota had streamflows of magnitudes not seen in more than 30 years. Approximately 50 counties were declared disaster areas with greater than 34 million dollars in total reported flood damage (S. Neudahl, Department of Public Safety, Division of Emergency Management, oral commun. July 9, 2001).

  3. Environmental state of aquatic systems in the Selenga River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinkareva, Galina; Lychagin, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    The transboundary river system of Selenga is the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal (about 50 % of the total inflow) which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the environmental state of the river aquatic system. The main source of industrial waste in the Republic of Buryatia (Russia) is mining and in Mongolia it is mainly gold mining. Our study aimed to determine the present pollutant levels and main features of their spatial distribution in water, suspended matter, bottom sediments and water plants in the Selenga basin. The results are based on materials of the 2011 (July-August) field campaign carried out both in Russian and Mongolian part of the basin. The study revealed rather high levels of dissolved Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo in the Selenga River water which often are higher than maximum permissible concentrations for water fishery in Russia. In Russian part of the basin most contrast distribution is found for W and Mo, which is caused by mineral deposits in this area. The study showed that Mo and Zn migrate mainly in dissolved form, since more than 70% of Fe, Al, and Mn are bound to the suspended solids. Suspended sediments in general are enriched by As, Cd and Pb in relation to the lithosphere averages. Compared to the background values rather high contents of Mo, Cd, and Mn were found in suspended matter of Selenga lower Ulan-Ude town. Transboundary transport of heavy metals from Mongolia is going both in dissolved and suspended forms. From Mongolia in diluted form Selenga brings a significant amount of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Mo. Suspended solids are slightly enriched with Pb, Cu, and Mn, in higher concentration - Mo. The study of the Selenga River delta allowed determining biogeochemical specialization of the region: aquatic plants accumulate Mn, Fe, Cu, Cd, and to

  4. Research on environmental flow in Huai River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. C.; Shui, Y.; Li, L. H.; Cao, N.; Yu, G. Y.; Liu, J.

    2016-08-01

    The estimation methods for environmental flow were discussed in this paper. Based on the comparative analysis of calculation methods of environmental flow, a "Huaihe Method" was proposed, which consists of the hydrological estimation of the minimum environmental flow with validation by the requirment space for fish. The minimum environmental flows of the important control sections in main stream and tributaries in the Huai River basin are estimated. The recommened minimum environmental flow has been adopted in the water resources planning, which provided reference for rational allocation of environmental flow, water resources usage, and sustainable development for the local society.

  5. Residence times in river basins as determined by analysis of long-term tritium records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michel, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The US Geological Survey has maintained a network of stations to collect samples for the measurement of tritium concentrations in precipitation and streamflow since the early 1960s. Tritium data from outflow waters of river basins draining 4500-75000 km2 are used to determine average residence times of water within the basins. The basins studied are the Colorado River above Cisco, Utah; the Kissimmee River above Lake Okeechobee, Florida; the Mississippi River above Anoka, Minnesota; the Neuse River above Streets Ferry Bridge near Vanceboro, North Carolina; the Potomac River above Point of Rocks, Maryland; the Sacramento River above Sacramento, California; the Susquehanna River above Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The basins are modeled with the assumption that the outflow in the river comes from two sources-prompt (within-year) runoff from precipitation, and flow from the long-term reservoirs of the basin. Tritium concentration in the outflow water of the basin is dependent on three factors: (1) tritium concentration in runoff from the long-term reservoir, which depends on the residence time for the reservoir and historical tritium concentrations in precipitation; (2) tritium concentrations in precipitation (the within-year runoff component); (3) relative contributions of flow from the long-term and within-year components. Predicted tritium concentrations for the outflow water in the river basins were calculated for different residence times and for different relative contributions from the two reservoirs. A box model was used to calculate tritium concentrations in the long-term reservoir. Calculated values of outflow tritium concentrations for the basin were regressed against the measured data to obtain a slope as close as possible to 1. These regressions assumed an intercept of zero and were carried out for different values of residence time and reservoir contribution to maximize the fit of modeled versus actual data for all the above rivers. The final slopes of the

  6. Heating facilities: Klamath Lutheran Church, Klamath Falls, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The Klamath Lutheran Church is a masonry structure with cathedral ceiling containing approximately 5800 sq ft of floor area. This building is currently heated by two duct furnaces and a unit heater all of which are gas fired. An Educational Wing of approximately 6300 sq ft was added in 1958. This building, containing 2 assembly rooms and a number of classrooms is of uninsulated frame construction, with extensive glass area. A gas-fired boiler supplying finned tube radiators currently heats this wing. Four specific options for displacing all or part of the heating duty with geothermal were examined. These options are: case 1 - drilling a production and injection well on the property and using the resultant hot water (180/sup 0/F) to heat the entire facility; case 3 - using effluent from the Klamath Union High School to heat the entire facility; no well drilling required; case 2 - using effluent from the Klamath Union High School to heat only the church building; the present gas boiler would heat the Educational Wing; and case 4 - drilling a production and injection well on the property and using the resulting water (70/sup 0/F) to supply a water-to-water heat pump. Of the four cases examined, case 3 (heating of both the church building and educational wing with effluent from the Klamath Union High School) seems to offer the greatest potential and earliest simple payback period. (MHR)

  7. Stream habitat and water-quality information for sites in the Buffalo River Basin and nearby basins of Arkansas, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James C.

    2004-01-01

    The Buffalo River lies in north-central Arkansas and is a tributary of the White River. Stream-habitat and water-quality information are presented for 52 sites in the Buffalo River Basin and adjacent areas of the White River Basin. The information was collected during the summers of 2001 and 2002 to supplement fish community sampling during the same time period.

  8. Environmental information document: Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, B.F.; Looney, B.B.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1987-03-01

    This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy`s proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (CFR, 1986). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations.

  9. Precipitation and river water chemistry of the Piracicaba River basin, southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Williams, M R; Filoso, S; Martinelli, L A; Lara, L B; Camargo, P B

    2001-01-01

    Annual precipitation and river water volumes and chemistry were measured from 1995 to 1998 in a mesoscale agricultural area of southeast Brazil. Precipitation was mildly acidic and solute concentrations were higher in the west than in the east of the basin. Combustion products from biomass burning, automobile exhaust, and industry typically accumulate in the atmosphere from March until October and are responsible for seasonal differences observed in precipitation chemistry. In river waters, the volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentrations of major solutes at 10 sites across the basin were generally lower at upriver than at downriver sampling sites for most solutes. Mass balances for major solutes indicate that, as a regional entity, the Piracicaba River basin was a net sink of H+, PO4(3-), and NH4+, and a net source of other solutes. The main stem of the Piracicaba River had a general increase in solute concentrations from upriver to downriver sampling sites. In contrast, NO3- and NH4+ concentrations increased in the mid-reach sampling sites and decreased due to immobilization or utilization in the mid-reach reservoir, and there was denitrification immediately downriver of this reservoir. Compared with tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay estuary, the Piracicaba River is affected more by point-source inputs of raw sewage and industrial wastes than nonpoint agricultural runoff high in N and P. Inputs of N and C are responsible for a degradation of water quality at downriver sampling sites of the Piracicaba River drainage, and water quality could be considerably improved by augmenting sewage treatment.

  10. Drivers on carbon dioxide emissions from the Scheldt river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gypens, Nathalie; Passy, Paul; Garnier, Josette; Billen, Gilles; Silvestre, Marie; Borges, Alberto V.

    2014-05-01

    Inland waters are a key component of the global carbon (C) cycle that transport organic and inorganic C from the terrestrial biosphere to the coastal ocean and emit CO2 to the atmosphere at a significant rate for global CO2 budgets. Yet, mechanisms underlying this CO2 emission to the atmosphere remain poorly understood and seldom modelled mechanistically. For this application a module describing the carbonate system and CO2 air-water exchange was added to the biogeochemical Seneque/Riverstrahler model describing transformation of C, N, P, Si occurring within hydrological networks. The model was applied to the human impacted Scheldt basin and the evolution of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and air-water CO2 flux was simulated for the year 1997 when data of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA) and pCO2 are available for model validation. The model reproduces reasonably well the seasonal and spatial variations of the DIC, TA and pCO2 within the 5 main rivers of the Scheldt basin where data are available. At the annual level, the studied rivers act as major sources of CO2 to the atmosphere. Results show that the longitudinal variations of pCO2 are mainly controlled by the importance of air-water CO2 exchange. However, the choice of the parameterization of the gas transfer coefficient does not appear critical for this particular system. Biological activity also locally modulates the longitudinal variations of pCO2, while diffuse inputs from the watershed determine the initial conditions in the river without significantly altering the patterns observed from the upstream to the downstream. Both diffuse and punctual sources of C and TA are important drivers of the CO2 exchange in the river. In particular, model application evidences the sensitivity of the simulated CO2 fluxes to the description of human activities on the watershed.

  11. Correlation of the Klamath Mountains and Sierra Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, William P.

    2003-01-01

    along the suture zone beneath the overriding accreted terranes. Examples of this in the Klamath Mountains are the Devonian Salmon and Abrams Schists of the Central Metamorphic terrane, the Triassic(?) schist of the Fort Jones terrane , and the Early Cretaceous South Fork Mountain Schist that structurally underlies Klamath Mountains terranes along much of the western edge of the province. The Fort Jones terrane and South Fork Mountains Schist were metamorphosed under blueschist-facies conditions. In the Sierra Nevada, schist that is correlative with the Central Metamorphic terrane is present in patches along the Feather River terrane (see Hacker and Peacock, 1990); the Triassic(?) Red Ant Schist is correlative with the Fort Jones terrane; but a correlative of the South Fork Mountain Schist is not present. In addition to the similarities in the sequences of accretion, plutonism, volcanism, and metamorphism, strong ties between the two provinces are also provided by paleontologic data. The Permian McCloud fusulinid fauna of the Redding subterrane also is present in the Northern Sierra terrane. Rare Tethyan fusulinids are found in Permian limestone of the Eastern Hayfork terrane of the Klamath Mountains and also in limestone blocks in the Central Belt of the Sierra Nevada. Ichthyosaur fossils have been collected from the Triassic of both the Redding subterrane and Northern Sierra terrane. Jurassic ammonites and the pelecypod Buchia concentrica occur in both the Galice Formation of the western Klamath Mountains and the Mariposa Formation of the western Sierra Nevada. Events that preceded the Central Metamorphic episode prior to Silurian-Devonian time are not clearly understood and are not shown in the succession of diagrams on Sheet 2. The oldest rocks of the Klamath Mountains are Neoproterozic and they predate the Central Metamorphic episode by possibly a hundred million years or more. They include ophiolitic rocks of the Trinity subterrane and the Antelope Mountain

  12. An approach for assessing cumulative effects in a model river, the Athabasca River basin.

    PubMed

    Squires, Allison J; Westbrook, Cherie J; Dubé, Monique G

    2010-01-01

    Novel approaches addressing aquatic cumulative effects over broad temporal and spatial scales are required to track changes and assist with sustainable watershed management. Cumulative effects assessment (CEA) requires the assessment of changes due to multiple stressors both spatially and temporally. The province of Alberta, Canada, is currently experiencing significant economic growth as well as increasing awareness of water dependencies. There has been an increasing level of industrial, urban, and other land-use related development (pulp and paper mills, oil sands developments, agriculture, and urban development) within the Athabasca River basin. Much of the historical water quantity and quality data for this basin have not been integrated or analyzed from headwaters to mouth, which affects development of a holistic, watershed-scale CEA. The main objectives of this study were 1) to quantify spatial and temporal changes in water quantity and quality over the entire Athabasca River mainstem across historical (1966–1976) and current day (1996–2006) time periods and 2) to evaluate the significance of any changes relative to existing benchmarks (e.g., water quality guidelines). Data were collected from several federal, provincial, and nongovernment sources. A 14% to 30% decrease in discharge was observed during the low flow period in the second time period in the lower 3 river reaches with the greatest decrease occurring at the mouth of the river. Dissolved Na, sulfate, chloride, and total P concentrations in the second time period were greater than, and in some cases double, the 90th percentiles calculated from the first time period in the lower part of the river. Our results show that significant changes have occurred in both water quantity and quality between the historical and current day Athabasca River basin. It is known that, in addition to climatic changes, rivers which undergo increased agricultural, urban, and industrial development can experience

  13. Updated streamflow reconstructions for the Upper Colorado River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodhouse, C.A.; Gray, S.T.; Meko, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Updated proxy reconstructions of water year (October-September) streamflow for four key gauges in the Upper Colorado River Basin were generated using an expanded tree ring network and longer calibration records than in previous efforts. Reconstructed gauges include the Green River at Green River, Utah; Colorado near Cisco, Utah; San Juan near Bluff, Utah; and Colorado at Lees Ferry, Arizona. The reconstructions explain 72-81% of the variance in the gauge records, and results are robust across several reconstruction approaches. Time series plots as well as results of cross-spectral analysis indicate strong spatial coherence in runoff variations across the subbasins. The Lees Ferry reconstruction suggests a higher long-term mean than previous reconstructions but strongly supports earlier findings that Colorado River allocations were based on one of the wettest periods in the past 5 centuries and that droughts more severe than any 20th to 21st century event occurred in the past. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Artisanal fisheries of the Xingu River basin in Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Isaac, V J; Almeida, M C; Cruz, R E A; Nunes, L G

    2015-08-01

    The present study characterises the commercial fisheries of the basin of the Xingu River, a major tributary of the Amazon River, between the towns of Gurupá (at the mouth of the Amazon) and São Félix do Xingu. Between April, 2012, and March, 2014, a total of 23,939 fishing trips were recorded, yielding a total production of 1,484 tons of fish, harvested by almost three thousand fishers. The analysis of the catches emphasizes the small-scale and artisanal nature of the region's fisheries, with emphasis on the contribution of the motorised canoes powered by "long-tail" outboard motors. Larger motorboats operate only at the mouth of the Xingu and on the Amazon. Peacock bass (Cichla spp.), croakers (Plagioscion spp.), pacu (a group containing numerous serrasalmid species), aracu (various anostomids), and curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans) together contributed more than 60% of the total catch. Mean catch per unit effort was 18 kg/fisher-1.day-1, which varied among fishing methods (type of vessel and fishing equipment used), river sections, and time of the year. In most cases, yields varied little between years (2012 and 2013). The technical database provided by this study constitutes an important resource for the regulation of the region's fisheries, as well as for the evaluation of future changes resulting from the construction of the Belo Monte dam on the Xingu River.

  15. Artisanal fisheries of the Xingu River basin in Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Isaac, V J; Almeida, M C; Cruz, R E A; Nunes, L G

    2015-08-01

    The present study characterises the commercial fisheries of the basin of the Xingu River, a major tributary of the Amazon River, between the towns of Gurupá (at the mouth of the Amazon) and São Félix do Xingu. Between April, 2012, and March, 2014, a total of 23,939 fishing trips were recorded, yielding a total production of 1,484 tons of fish, harvested by almost three thousand fishers. The analysis of the catches emphasizes the small-scale and artisanal nature of the region's fisheries, with emphasis on the contribution of the motorised canoes powered by "long-tail" outboard motors. Larger motorboats operate only at the mouth of the Xingu and on the Amazon. Peacock bass (Cichla spp.), croakers (Plagioscion spp.), pacu (a group containing numerous serrasalmid species), aracu (various anostomids), and curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans) together contributed more than 60% of the total catch. Mean catch per unit effort was 18 kg/fisher-1.day-1, which varied among fishing methods (type of vessel and fishing equipment used), river sections, and time of the year. In most cases, yields varied little between years (2012 and 2013). The technical database provided by this study constitutes an important resource for the regulation of the region's fisheries, as well as for the evaluation of future changes resulting from the construction of the Belo Monte dam on the Xingu River. PMID:26691085

  16. ANOMALOUSLY PRESSURED GAS DISTRIBUTION IN THE WIND RIVER BASIN, WYOMING

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Ronald C. Surdam

    2003-03-31

    Anomalously pressured gas (APG) assets, typically called ''basin-center'' gas accumulations, represent either an underdeveloped or undeveloped energy resource in the Rocky Mountain Laramide Basins (RMLB). Historically, the exploitation of these gas resources has proven to be very difficult and costly. In this topical report, an improved exploration strategy is outlined in conjunction with a more detailed description of new diagnostic techniques that more efficiently detect anomalously pressured, gas-charged domains. The ability to delineate gas-charged domains occurring below a regional velocity inversion surface allows operators to significantly reduce risk in the search for APG resources. The Wind River Basin was chosen for this demonstration because of the convergence of public data availability (i.e., thousands of mud logs and DSTs and 2400 mi of 2-D seismic lines); the evolution of new diagnostic techniques; a 175 digital sonic log suite; a regional stratigraphic framework; and corporate interest. In the exploration scheme discussed in this topical report, the basinwide gas distribution is determined in the following steps: (1) A detailed velocity model is established from sonic logs, 2-D seismic lines, and, if available, 3-D seismic data. In constructing the seismic interval velocity field, automatic picking technology using continuous, statistically-derived interval velocity selection, as well as conventional graphical interactive methodologies are utilized. (2) Next, the ideal regional velocity/depth function is removed from the observed sonic or seismic velocity/depth profile. The constructed ideal regional velocity/depth function is the velocity/depth trend resulting from the progressive burial of a rock/fluid system of constant rock/fluid composition, with all other factors remaining constant. (3) The removal of the ideal regional velocity/depth function isolates the anomalously slow velocities and allows the evaluation of (a) the regional velocity

  17. Preliminary assessment of channel stability and bed-material transport in the Rogue River basin, southwestern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Krista L.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Wallick, J. Rose

    2012-01-01

    and coarse texture of bars indicate that these reaches are likely supply-limited, meaning that the river's transport capacity exceeds the supply of bed material. In contrast, the Lobster Creek and Tidal Reaches and perhaps portions of the Merlin Reach receive bed-material inputs that more closely balance or even exceed the river's transport capacity. * The lowermost reaches on the Illinois and Applegate Rivers are fully alluvial segments that are likely transport limited, meaning sediment supply likely exceeds the river's transport capacity. However, the steeper Upper Applegate River Reach is likely supply-limited as indicated by the sparse number and area of bars mapped in this reach and the intermittent bedrock outcrops in the channel. The sediment loads derived from these large tributaries draining the Klamath Mountains are probably important contributions to the overall transport of bed material in the Rogue River basin. * Compared to the slightly smaller Umpqua River basin (drainage area 12,103 km2) to the north, the Rogue River (13,390 km2) likely transports more bed material. Although this conclusion of greater bed-material transport in the Rogue River is tentative in the absence of either actual transport measurements or transport capacity calculations, empirical evidence, including the much greater area and frequency of bars along most of the Rogue River as well as the much shorter tidal reach on the Rogue River (6.7 km) compared to the Umpqua River (40 km) supports this inference. * More detailed investigations of bed-material transport rates and channel morphology would support assessments of channel condition, longitudinal trends in particle size, the relation between sediment supply and transport capacity, and the potential causes of bar area loss (such as vegetation establishment and potential changes in peak flow patterns). The reaches most practical for such assessments and relevant to several management and ecological issues are (1) the lower Rogue

  18. Mercury in the Carson and Truckee River basins of Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Denburgh, A.S.

    1973-01-01

    Upstream from major pre-1900 ore milling in the Carson and Truckee River basins, "background" concentrations of total mercury in the upper 1 to 3 inches of sand- to clay-sized stream-bottom sediment are less than 0.1 ug/g (microgram per gram). Downstream, measured concentrations were as much as 200 times the background level. Greatest concentrations were encountered in the Carson River basin within and immediately upstream from Lahontan Reservoir. Data from for the Carson River near Fort Churchill suggest that most of the mercury in the sampled bottom sediment may be present as mercuric sulfide or as a component of one of more non-methyl organic compounds or complexes, rather than existing in the metallic state. Regardless of state, this reservoir of mercury is of concern because of its possible availability to the aquatic food chain and, ultimately, to man. Among 48 samples of surface water from 29 sites in the two basins, the maximum measured total-mercury concentration was 6.3 ug/1 (micrograms per liter), for a sample from the Carson River near Fort Churchill. Except downstream from Lahontan Reservoir, most other measured values were less than 1 ug/1. (The U.S> Environmental Protection Agency interim limit for drinking water is 5 ug/1.) The total-mercury content of stream water is related to the mercury content of bottom sediments and the rate of streamflow, because the latter affects the suspended-sediment transporting capability of the stream,. Near Fort Churchill, total-mercury concentrations that might be expected at streamflows greater than those of 1971-72 are: as much as 10-15 ug/1 or more at 2,000 cfs (cubic feet per second), and as much as 10-20 ug/1 or more at 3,000 cfs. Elsewhere, expectable concentrations are much less because the bottom sediment contains much less mercury. The mercury contents of water samples from 36 wells in the Carson and Truckee basins were all less than 1 ug/1, indicating that mercury is not a problem in ground water, even

  19. Historical trends and extremes in boreal Alaska river basins

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Katrina E.; Cannon, Alex J.; Hinzman, Larry

    2015-05-12

    Climate change will shift the frequency, intensity, duration and persistence of extreme hydroclimate events and have particularly disastrous consequences in vulnerable systems such as the warm permafrost-dominated Interior region of boreal Alaska. This work focuses on recent research results from nonparametric trends and nonstationary generalized extreme value (GEV) analyses at eight Interior Alaskan river basins for the past 50/60 years (1954/64–2013). Trends analysis of maximum and minimum streamflow indicates a strong (>+50%) and statistically significant increase in 11-day flow events during the late fall/winter and during the snowmelt period (late April/mid-May), followed by a significant decrease in the 11-day flow events during the post-snowmelt period (late May and into the summer). The April–May–June seasonal trends show significant decreases in maximum streamflow for snowmelt dominated systems (<–50%) and glacially influenced basins (–24% to –33%). Annual maximum streamflow trends indicate that most systems are experiencing declines, while minimum flow trends are largely increasing. Nonstationary GEV analysis identifies time-dependent changes in the distribution of spring extremes for snowmelt dominated and glacially dominated systems. Temperature in spring influences the glacial and high elevation snowmelt systems and winter precipitation drives changes in the snowmelt dominated basins. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation was associated with changes occurring in snowmelt dominated systems, and the Arctic Oscillation was linked to one lake dominated basin, with half of the basins exhibiting no change in response to climate variability. The paper indicates that broad scale studies examining trend and direction of change should employ multiple methods across various scales and consider regime dependent shifts to identify and understand changes in extreme streamflow within boreal forested watersheds of Alaska.

  20. Historical trends and extremes in boreal Alaska river basins

    DOE PAGES

    Bennett, Katrina E.; Cannon, Alex J.; Hinzman, Larry

    2015-05-12

    Climate change will shift the frequency, intensity, duration and persistence of extreme hydroclimate events and have particularly disastrous consequences in vulnerable systems such as the warm permafrost-dominated Interior region of boreal Alaska. This work focuses on recent research results from nonparametric trends and nonstationary generalized extreme value (GEV) analyses at eight Interior Alaskan river basins for the past 50/60 years (1954/64–2013). Trends analysis of maximum and minimum streamflow indicates a strong (>+50%) and statistically significant increase in 11-day flow events during the late fall/winter and during the snowmelt period (late April/mid-May), followed by a significant decrease in the 11-day flowmore » events during the post-snowmelt period (late May and into the summer). The April–May–June seasonal trends show significant decreases in maximum streamflow for snowmelt dominated systems (<–50%) and glacially influenced basins (–24% to –33%). Annual maximum streamflow trends indicate that most systems are experiencing declines, while minimum flow trends are largely increasing. Nonstationary GEV analysis identifies time-dependent changes in the distribution of spring extremes for snowmelt dominated and glacially dominated systems. Temperature in spring influences the glacial and high elevation snowmelt systems and winter precipitation drives changes in the snowmelt dominated basins. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation was associated with changes occurring in snowmelt dominated systems, and the Arctic Oscillation was linked to one lake dominated basin, with half of the basins exhibiting no change in response to climate variability. The paper indicates that broad scale studies examining trend and direction of change should employ multiple methods across various scales and consider regime dependent shifts to identify and understand changes in extreme streamflow within boreal forested watersheds of Alaska.« less

  1. Potamodromous migrations in the Magdalena River basin: bimodal reproductive patterns in neotropical rivers.

    PubMed

    López-Casas, S; Jiménez-Segura, L F; Agostinho, A A; Pérez, C M

    2016-07-01

    Magdalena River basin potamodromous fishes have two annual reproductive seasons: the subienda in the first half of the year and the mitaca in the second. Both upstream migrations are c. 30-45 days long; after that, with the onset of the rainy season, fishes spawn and remain in the river (resident individuals) or start a downstream movement (the bajanza) to return to the Magdalena floodplain lakes (nursery, shelter and feeding grounds). Due to their particular gonad development the bocachico Prochilodus magdalenae and probably the comelón Leporinus muyscorum are physiologically able to undertake two annual basin migrations. In the presence of dams or hydropower structures, fishes are able to find alternative migration routes. Some species should be re-classified in their migratory behaviour.

  2. [Ecological function evaluation and related management strategies of river ecosystem in Taizi River basin, North China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Yuan; Ma, Shu-Qin; Meng, Wei

    2013-10-01

    By the method of index evaluation at reach scale, this paper evaluated the ecological functions of aquatic biodiversity maintenance, habitat maintenance, water quality sustainment, and hydrological support of the river system in Taizi River basin of North China. The dominant ecological functions and the total ecological function were determined after sorting and summing. All the reaches in the basin were divided into four hierarchies of ecological functions. Overall, the total ecological function showed a spatially degrading trend from the mountainous region to the plain. Based on the evaluation results of the total function and dominant functions, six ecosystem management strategies were proposed. For the reaches with the functions of aquatic biodiversity- and habitat maintenance, the primary ecological management strategies included ecological conservation, ecological maintenance, and ecological restoration; for the reaches with the functions of water quality sustainment and hydrological support, the primary strategies of ecological management included limited development, development optimization, and exploitation.

  3. Potamodromous migrations in the Magdalena River basin: bimodal reproductive patterns in neotropical rivers.

    PubMed

    López-Casas, S; Jiménez-Segura, L F; Agostinho, A A; Pérez, C M

    2016-07-01

    Magdalena River basin potamodromous fishes have two annual reproductive seasons: the subienda in the first half of the year and the mitaca in the second. Both upstream migrations are c. 30-45 days long; after that, with the onset of the rainy season, fishes spawn and remain in the river (resident individuals) or start a downstream movement (the bajanza) to return to the Magdalena floodplain lakes (nursery, shelter and feeding grounds). Due to their particular gonad development the bocachico Prochilodus magdalenae and probably the comelón Leporinus muyscorum are physiologically able to undertake two annual basin migrations. In the presence of dams or hydropower structures, fishes are able to find alternative migration routes. Some species should be re-classified in their migratory behaviour. PMID:27073186

  4. The Pine-Popple River basin--Hydrology of a wild river area, northeastern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oakes, Edward L.; Field, Stephen J.; Seeger, Lawrence P.

    1973-01-01

    The Pine and Popple Rivers, virtually unaltered by man, flow through a semiprimitive area of forests, lakes, and glacial hills. White-water streams, natural lakes, fish and animal life, and abundant vegetation contribute to the unique recreational and aesthetic characteristics of the area. Resource planning or development should recognize the interrelationships within the hydrologic system and the possible effects of water and land-use changes upon the wild nature of the area. The basin covers about 563 square miles in northeastern Wisconsin. Swamps and wetlands cover nearly 110 square miles, and the 70 lakes cover about 11 square miles. The undulating topography is formed by glacial deposits overlying an irregular, resistant surface of bedrock. An annual average of 30 inches of precipitation, highest from late spring to early autumn, falls on the basin. Of this amount, evapotranspiration, highest in mid summer and late summer, averages 19 inches; the remaining 11 inches is runoff, which is highest in spring and early summer. Ground water from the glacial drift is the source of water for the minor withdrawal use in the basin. Ground-water movement is to streams and lakes and regionally follows the slope of topography and the bedrock surface, which is generally west to east. Ground water is of good quality, although locally high in iron. The major uses of water are for recreation and power generation. Domestic use is slight. No water is withdrawn from lakes or streams, and no sewage or industrial wastes are added to lakes or streams. Most of the flow of the Pine River is used for power generation. The main stems of the Pine and Popple Rivers contain 114 canoeable miles, of which 95 percent is without such major obstructions as falls or large rapids. In general streams support cold-water fish, and lakes support warm-water fish. Trout is the principal stream and game fish in the basin. The basin has no significant water problems. Future development between the Pine

  5. Iron cycling in the Amazon River Basin: the isotopic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poitrasson, Franck; Vieira, Lucieth; Mulholland, Daniel; Seyler, Patrick; Sondag, Francis; Allard, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    With the global climate change and increasing anthropic pressure on nature, it is important to find new indicators of the response of complex systems like the Amazon River Basin. In particular, new tracers like iron isotopes may tell us much on processes such as the chemical exchanges between rivers, soils and the biosphere. Pioneering studies revealed that for some river waters, large δ57Fe fractionations are observed between the suspended and dissolved load (Bergquist and Boyle, 2006), and isotopic variations were also recognized on the suspended matter along the hydrological cycle (Ingri et al., 2006). On land, soil studies from various locations have shown that δ57Fe signatures depend mostly on the weathering regime (Fantle and DePaolo, 2004; Emmanuel et al., 2005; Wiederhold et al., 2007; Poitrasson et al., 2008). It thus seems that Fe isotopes could become an interesting new tracer of the exchanges between soils, rivers and the biosphere. We therefore conducted Fe isotope surveys through multidisciplinary field missions on rivers from the Amazon Basin. It was confirmed that acidic, organic-rich black waters show strong Fe isotope fractionation between particulate and dissolved loads. Furthermore, this isotopic fractionation varies along the hydrological cycle, like previously uncovered in boreal waters suspended matter. In contrast, unfiltered waters show very little variation with time. It was also found that Fe isotopes remain a conservative tracer even in the case of massive iron loss during the mixing of chemically contrasted waters such as the Negro and Solimões tributaries of the Amazon River. Given that >95% of the Fe from the Amazon River is carried as detrital materials, our results lead to the conclusion that the Fe isotope signature delivered to the Atlantic Ocean is undistinguishable from the continental crust value, in contrast to previous inferences. The results indicate that Fe isotopes in rivers represent a promising indicator of the

  6. Hack's relation and optimal channel networks: The elongation of river basins as a consequence of energy minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ijjasz-Vasquez, Ede J.; Bras, Rafael L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    1993-08-01

    As pointed by Hack (1957), river basins tend to become longer and narrower as their size increases. This work shows that this property may be partially regarded as the consequence of competition and minimization of energy expenditure in river basins.

  7. Two distinct phylogenetic clades of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus overlap within the Columbia River basin.

    PubMed

    Garver, Kyle A; Troyer, Ryan M; Kurath, Gael

    2003-08-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), an aquatic rhabdovirus, causes a highly lethal disease of salmonid fish in North America. To evaluate the genetic diversity of IHNV from throughout the Columbia River basin, excluding the Hagerman Valley, Idaho, the sequences of a 303 nt region of the glycoprotein gene (mid-G) of 120 virus isolates were determined. Sequence comparisons revealed 30 different sequence types, with a maximum nucleotide diversity of 7.3% (22 mismatches) and an intrapopulational nucleotide diversity of 0.018. This indicates that the genetic diversity of IHNV within the Columbia River basin is 3-fold higher than in Alaska, but 2-fold lower than in the Hagerman Valley, Idaho. Phylogenetic analyses separated the Columbia River basin IHNV isolates into 2 major clades, designated U and M. The 2 clades geographically overlapped within the lower Columbia River basin and in the lower Snake River and tributaries, while the upper Columbia River basin had only U clade and the upper Snake River basin had only M clade virus types. These results suggest that there are co-circulating lineages of IHNV present within specific areas of the Columbia River basin. The epidemiological significance of these findings provided insight into viral traffic patterns exhibited by IHNV in the Columbia River basin, with specific relevance to how the Columbia River basin IHNV types were related to those in the Hagerman Valley. These analyses indicate that there have likely been 2 historical events in which Hagerman Valley IHNV types were introduced and became established in the lower Columbia River basin. However, the data also clearly indicates that the Hagerman Valley is not a continuous source of waterborne virus infecting salmonid stocks downstream.

  8. Two distinct phylogenetic clades of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus overlap within the Columbia River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garver, K.A.; Troyer, R.M.; Kurath, G.

    2003-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), an aquatic rhabdovirus, causes a highly lethal disease of salmonid fish in North America. To evaluate the genetic diversity of IHNV from throughout the Columbia River basin, excluding the Hagerman Valley, Idaho, the sequences of a 303 nt region of the glycoprotein gene (mid-G) of 120 virus isolates were determined. Sequence comparisons revealed 30 different sequence types, with a maximum nucleotide diversity of 7.3% (22 mismatches) and an intrapopulational nucleotide diversity of 0.018. This indicates that the genetic diversity of IHNV within the Columbia River basin is 3-fold higher than in Alaska, but 2-fold lower than in the Hagerman Valley, Idaho. Phylogenetic analyses separated the Columbia River basin IHNV isolates into 2 major clades, designated U and M. The 2 clades geographically overlapped within the lower Columbia River basin and in the lower Snake River and tributaries, while the upper Columbia River basin had only U clade and the upper Snake River basin had only M clade virus types. These results suggest that there are co-circulating lineages of IHNV present within specific areas of the Columbia River basin. The epidemiological significance of these findings provided insight into viral traffic patterns exhibited by IHNV in the Columbia River basin, with specific relevance to how the Columbia River basin IHNV types were related to those in the Hagerman Valley. These analyses indicate that there have likely been 2 historical events in which Hagerman Valley IHNV types were introduced and became established in the lower Columbia River basin. However, the data also clearly indicates that the Hagerman Valley is not a continuous source of waterborne virus infecting salmonid stocks downstream.

  9. Basin analysis studies of lower Paleozoic rocks, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Macke, D.L.

    1988-07-01

    The lower Paleozoic (Cambrian through Mississippian) sedimentary rocks of the Powder River basin represent nearly half of Phanerozoic time, yet they remain virtually unexplored in the subsurface. Rocks of the same age in the Big Horn and Williston basins and in the Central Montana trough have produced much oil and gas, as have the overlying Pennsylvanian strata of the Powder River basin. A synthesis of published stratigraphic information, together with a regional analysis of sedimentary sequences, has been undertaken to evaluate the economic potential of the lower Paleozoic formations. The lack of an economic impetus to study these rocks has hampered the development of precise depositional models for these sequences. Furthermore, the depths of prospective beds, as well as long-standing misconceptions about the regional stratigraphy, have also served to restrain exploration. Stratigraphic studies have documented a succession of marine transgressions and regressions on the flanks of a highland in southeastern Wyoming. The highland persisted as a subdued geographic feature through most of early Paleozoic time, until it rose at the end of the Mississippian. Erosion during the Late Silurian and Devonian removed much of the depositional record in the area, but onlap can be demonstrated with relative certainty for Ordovician and Mississippian rocks. The repetition of sedimentologic features indicates persistent geologic controls in the region and suggests that these paleoenvironments might provide good targets for exploration.

  10. Beyond water, beyond boundaries: spaces of water management in the Krishna river basin, South India.

    PubMed

    Venot, Jean-Philippe; Bharati, Luna; Giordano, Mark; Molle, François

    2011-01-01

    As demand and competition for water resources increase, the river basin has become the primary unit for water management and planning. While appealing in principle, practical implementation of river basin management and allocation has often been problematic. This paper examines the case of the Krishna basin in South India. It highlights that conflicts over basin water are embedded in a broad reality of planning and development where multiple scales of decisionmaking and non-water issues are at play. While this defines the river basin as a disputed "space of dependence", the river basin has yet to acquire a social reality. It is not yet a "space of engagement" in and for which multiple actors take actions. This explains the endurance of an interstate dispute over the sharing of the Krishna waters and sets limits to what can be achieved through further basin water allocation and adjudication mechanisms – tribunals – that are too narrowly defined. There is a need to extend the domain of negotiation from that of a single river basin to multiple scales and to non-water sectors. Institutional arrangements for basin management need to internalise the political spaces of the Indian polity: the states and the panchayats. This re-scaling process is more likely to shape the river basin as a space of engagement in which partial agreements can be iteratively renegotiated, and constitute a promising alternative to the current interstate stalemate.

  11. Water resources of the Waccasassa River Basin and adjacent areas, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, G.F.; Snell, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    This map report was prepared in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District which, with the Waccasassa River Basin Board, had jurisdiction over waters within the Waccasassa River basin, the coastal areas adjacent to the basin, and other adjacent areas outside the basin. New water management district boundaries, effective January 1977, place most of the Waccasassa River basin in the Suwannee River Water Management District. The purpose of the report is to provide water information for consideration in land-use and water development which is accelerating, especially in the northeastern part of the study area. It is based largely on existing data in the relatively undeveloped area. Of the total area included in the topographic drainage basin for the Waccasassa River about 72 percent is in Levy County, 18 percent in Alachua County, 9 percent in Gilchrist County, and 1 percent in Marion County. The elongated north-south drainage basin is approximately 50 mi in length, averages 13 mi in width, and lies between the Suwannee River, the St. Johns River, and the Withlacoochee River basins. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. A comparison of integrated river basin management strategies: A global perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chunhong; Wang, Pei; Zhang, Guanghong

    In order to achieve the integrated river basin management in the arid and rapid developing region, the Heihe River Basin (HRB) in Northwestern China, one of critical river basins were selected as a representative example, while the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) in Australia and the Colorado River Basin (CRB) in the USA were selected for comparative analysis in this paper. Firstly, the comparable characters and hydrological contexts of these three watersheds were introduced in this paper. Then, based on comparative studies on the river basin challenges in terms of the drought, intensive irrigation, and rapid industrialization, the hydrological background of the MDB, the CRB and the HRB was presented. Subsequently, the river management strategies were compared in three aspects: water allocation, water organizations, and water act and scientific projects. Finally, we proposed recommendations for integrated river basin management for the HRB: (1) Water allocation strategies should be based on laws and markets on the whole basin; (2) Public participation should be stressed by the channels between governance organizations and local communities; (3) Scientific research should be integrated into river management to understand the interactions between the human and nature.

  13. 75 FR 11554 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group Charter Renewal; Notice of Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Washington on the structure and implementation of the Yakima River Basin Water Conservation Program. In... identification and implementation of structural and nonstructural cost-effective water conservation measures in... Bureau of Reclamation Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group Charter Renewal; Notice of...

  14. Power-law tail probabilities of drainage areas in river basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veitzer, S.A.; Troutman, B.M.; Gupta, V.K.

    2003-01-01

    The significance of power-law tail probabilities of drainage areas in river basins was discussed. The convergence to a power law was not observed for all underlying distributions, but for a large class of statistical distributions with specific limiting properties. The article also discussed about the scaling properties of topologic and geometric network properties in river basins.

  15. FUTURE WATER ALLOCATION AND IN-STREAM VALUES IN THE WILLAMETTE RIVER BASIN: A BASIN-WIDE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our research investigated the impact on surface water resources of three different scenarios for the future development of the Willamette River Basin in Oregon (USA). Water rights in the basin, and in the western United States in general, are based on a system of law that binds ...

  16. Water resources inventory of Connecticut Part 9: Farmington River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handman, Elinor H.; Haeni, F. Peter; Thomas, Mendall P.

    1986-01-01

    The Farmington River basin covers 435 square miles in north-central Connecticut upstream from Tariffville and downstream of the Massachusetts state line. Most water in the basin is derived from precipitation, which averages 48 inches (366 billion gallons) per year. An additional 67 billion gallons of water per year enters the basin from Massachusetts in the West Branch of the Farmington River, Hubbard River, Valley Brook and some smaller streams. Of the total 433 billion gallons, 174 billion gallons returns to the atmosphere through evaporation and transpiration. 239 billion gallons flows out of the study area in the Farmington River at Tariffville, and 20 billion gallons is diverted for Hartford water supply. Variations in streamflow at 23 continuous-record gaging stations are summarized in standardized graphs and tables that can be used to estimate streamflow characteristics at other sites. For example, mean flow and low-flow characteristics such as the 7-day annual minimum flow for 2-year and 10-year recurrence intervals, have been determined for many partial-record stations from the data for the 23 continuous-record stations. Of the 31 principal lakes, ponds, and reservoirs in the basin, eight have usable storage capacities of more than 1 billion gallons. Two of the largest, Colebrook River Lake and Barkhamsted Reservoir, have more than 30 billion gallons usable storage. Floods have occurred in the area in every month of the year. The greatest known flood on the Farmington River was in August 1955, which had a peak flow of 140,000 cubic feet per second at Collinsville. Since then, three major floodcontrol reservoirs have been constructed to reduce the hazards of high streamflow. The major aquifers underlying the basin are composed of unconsolidated materials (stratified drift and till) and bedrock (sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic). Stratified drift overlies till and bedrock in valleys and lowlands; it averages about 90 feet in thickness, and is capable of

  17. Landslide inventory for the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sobieszczyk, Steven

    2010-01-01

    This geodatabase is an inventory of existing landslides in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon (2009). Each landslide feature shown has been classified according to a number of specific characteristics identified at the time recorded in the GIS database. The classification scheme was developed by the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (Burns and Madin, 2009). Several significant landslide characteristics recorded in the database are portrayed with symbology on this map. The specific characteristics shown for each landslide are the activity of landsliding, landslide features, deep or shallow failure, type of landslide movement, and confidence of landslide interpretation. These landslide characteristics are determined primarily on the basis of geomorphic features, or landforms, observed for each landslide. This work was completed as part of the Master's thesis "Turbidity Monitoring and LiDAR Imagery Indicate Landslides are Primary Source of Suspended-Sediment Load in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon, Winter 2009-2010" by Steven Sobieszczyk, Portland State University and U.S. Geological Survey. Data layers in this geodatabase include: landslide deposit boundaries (Deposits); field-verfied location imagery (Photos); head scarp or scarp flanks (Scarp_Flanks); and secondary scarp features (Scarps).The geodatabase template was developed by the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (Burns and Madin, 2009).

  18. Water-quality investigation, Upper Santa Clara River Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowers, James C.; Irwin, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Water-quality data are summarized for the upper Santa Clara River basin, California from studies beginning August 1974 through June 1976 and during past monitoring programs. Data were collected for nitrogen, phosphorus, total organic carbon, trace elements, detergents, and pesticide compounds. Because of the limited number of samples, the data are only an estimate of conditions that existed in the basin. Sampling was designed so that samples from each site would represent seasonal variations in discharge. Most constituents were fairly low in concentration near the headwaters at Ravenna and higher below the urban and agricultural area near Saugus. Mean specific conductance in the river ranged from 745 micromhos per centimeter at 25 deg C below the headwaters near Lang to 2,640 micromhos at the Los Angeles-Ventura County line. Results also indicate that discharge was not the single factor controlling the concentration variance for most constituents. Regression analyses indicated a high correlation between specific conductance and most major inorganic chemical constituents, and between specific conductance and discharge. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Ground water in the Verdigris River basin, Kansas and Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fader, Stuart Wesley; Morton, Robert B.

    1975-01-01

    Ground water in the Verdigris River basin occurs in consolidated rocks and unconsolidated deposits ranging in age from Mississippian to Quaternary. Water for municipal, industrial, and irrigation supplies generally can be obtained in limited quantities from the alluvial deposits in the stream valleys. Except for water in the alluvial deposits in the stream valleys and in the outcrop areas of the bedrock aquifers, the groundwater is generally of poor chemical quality. Owing to the generally poor chemical quality of water and low yields to wells, an increase in the use of ground water from the consolidated rocks is improbable. The unconsolidated rocks in the Verdigris River basin receive about 166,000 acre-feet of recharge annually, and about 1 million acre-fee of water is in temporary storage in the deposits. In 1968 about 4,200 acre-feet of ground was withdrawn for all uses. About 800 acre-feet of ground and 5,000 acre-feet of surface water were pumped for irrigation of 5,300 acres of cropland. The total annual withdrawal of ground water for irrigation may be 2,000 acre-feet by the year 2000.

  20. National Water-Quality Assessment program: The Trinity River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Land, Larry F.

    1991-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began to implement a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The long-term goals of the NAWQA program are to describe the status and trends in the quality of a large, representative part of the Nation's surface- and ground-water resources and to provide a sound, scientific understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting the quality of these resources. In meeting these goals, the program will produce a wealth of water-quality information that will be useful to policy makers and managers at the national, State, and local levels. A major design feature of the NAWQA program will enable water-quality information at different areal scales to be integrated. A major component of the program is study-unit investigations, which comprise the principal building blocks of the program on which national-level assessment activities will be based. The 60 study-unit investigations that make up the program are hydrologic systems that include parts of most major river basins and aquifer systems. These study units cover areas of 1,200 to more than 65,000 square miles and incorporate about 60 to 70 percent of the Nation's water use and population served by public water supply. In 1991, the Trinity River basin study was among the first 20 NAWQA study units selected for study under the full-scale implementation plan.

  1. National Water-Quality Assessment Program: The Sacramento River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Brown, Larry R.

    1994-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began to implement a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The long-term goals of the NAWQA program are to describe the status of and trends in the quality of a large, representative part of the Nation's surface- and ground-water resources and to identify the major natural and human factors that affect the quality of those resources. In addressing these goals, the program will provide a wealth of water- quality information that will be useful to policy makers and managers at the national, State, and local levels. A major asset of the NAWQA program is that it will allow for the integration of water-quality information collected at several scales. A major component of the program is the study-unit investigation-the foundation of national- level assessment. The 60 study units of the NAWQA program are hydrologic systems that include parts of most major river basins and aquifer systems of the conterminous United States. These study units cover areas of 1,000 to more than 60,000 square miles and represent 60 to 70 percent of the Nation's water use and population served by public water supplies. Investigations of the first 20 study units began in 1991. In 1994, the Sacramento River Basin was among the second set of 20 NAWQA study units selected for investigation.

  2. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and ECBM in the Powder River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colmenares, L. B.; Zoback, M. D.

    2003-12-01

    Coal seams are both a source of coal bed methane (CBM) and a potential carbon dioxide sink. For sub-bituminous coals like those in the Powder River Basin (PRB), the CO2/CH4 adsorption ratio is approximately 10:1, which indicates the significant potential for sequestering carbon dioxide. In addition, injected carbon dioxide would also enhance the production of methane from the coal seam because of its higher adsorption capacity. This means that the injection of carbon dioxide in coal beds may have the dual benefit of sequestering carbon dioxide and enhancing CBM production. Moreover, if carbon dioxide injection efficiently displaces the adsorbed methane, it may reduce the amount of water produced from CBM wells as part of the depressurization process. Our work in the Powder River Basin indicates that drilling and completion operations result in hydraulic fracturing of the coal and possibly the adjacent strata. This would result in both excess CBM water production and inefficient depressurization of coals. We have been able to collect water-enhancement tests data in coals to obtain the magnitude of the least principal stress in the coal seam. The preliminary data we have analyzed indicates that the hydrofracs are horizontal in some areas because the least principal stress corresponds to the overburden. It is interesting to speculate that one could use horizontal hydrofracs near the bottom of the coal seam for carbon dioxide injection and a horizontal hydrofrac near the upper part of the coal seam for methane production.

  3. Quantifying Changes in Accessible Water in the Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castle, S.; Thomas, B.; Reager, J. T.; Swenson, S. C.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Colorado River Basin (CRB) in the western United States is heavily managed yet remains one of the most over-allocated rivers in the world providing water across seven US states and Mexico. Future water management strategies in the CRB have employed land surface models to forecast discharges; such approaches have focused on discharge estimates to meet allocation requirements yet ignore groundwater abstractions to meet water demands. In this analysis, we illustrate the impact of changes in accessible water, which we define as the conjunctive use of both surface water reservoir storage and groundwater storage, using remote sensing observations to explore sustainable water management strategies in the CRB. We employ high resolution Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite data to detect changes in reservoir storage in the two largest reservoirs within the CRB, Lakes Mead and Powell, and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) terrestrial water storage anomalies to isolate changes in basin-wide groundwater storage in the Upper and Lower CRB from October 2003 to December 2012. Our approach quantifies reservoir and groundwater storage within the CRB using remote sensing to provide new information to water managers to sustainably and conjunctively manage accessible water.

  4. Remote Sensing of Water Quality in the Niger River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, C.; Palacios, S. L.; Milesi, C.; Schmidt, C.; Baney, O. N.; Mitchell, Å. R.; Kislik, E.; Palmer-Moloney, L. J.

    2015-12-01

    An overarching goal of the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (NGA) Anticipatory Analytics- -GEOnarrative program is to establish water linkages with energy, food, and climate and to understand how these linkages relate to national security and stability. Recognizing that geopolitical stability is tied to human health, agricultural productivity, and natural ecosystems' vitality, NGA partnered with NASA Ames Research Center to use satellite remote sensing to assess water quality in West Africa, specifically the Niger River Basin. Researchers from NASA Ames used MODIS and Landsat imagery to apply two water quality indices-- the Floating Algal Index (FAI) and the Turbidity Index (TI)--to large rivers, lakes and reservoirs within the Niger Basin. These indices were selected to evaluate which observations were most suitable for monitoring water quality in a region where coincident in situ measurements are not available. In addition, the FAI and TI indices were derived using data from the Hyperspectral Imagery for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) sensor for Lake Erie in the United States to determine how increased spectral resolution and in-situ measurements would improve the ability to measure the spatio-temporal variations in water quality. Results included the comparison of outputs from sensors with different spectral and spatial resolution characteristics for water quality monitoring. Approaches, such as the GEOnarrative, that incorporate water quality will enable analysts and decision-makers to recognize the current and potentially future impacts of changing water quality on regional security and stability.

  5. Spatial and temporal variations of river nitrogen exports from major basins in China.

    PubMed

    Ti, Chaopu; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2013-09-01

    Provincial-level data for population, livestock, land use, economic growth, development of sewage systems, and wastewater treatment rates were used to construct a river nitrogen (N) export model in this paper. Despite uncertainties, our results indicated that river N export to coastal waters increased from 531 to 1,244 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the Changjiang River basin, 107 to 223 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the Huanghe River basin, and 412 to 1,219 kg N km(-2) year(-1) in the Zhujiang River basin from 1980 to 2010 as a result of rapid population and economic growth. Significant temporal changes in water N sources showed that as the percentage of runoff from croplands increased, contributions of natural system runoff and rural human and livestock excreta decreased in the three basins from 1980 to 2010. Moreover, the nonpoint source N decreased from 72 to 58 % in the Changjiang River basin, 80 to 67 % in the Huanghe River basin, and 69 to 51 % in the Zhujiang River basin, while the contributions of point sources increased greatly during the same period. Estimated results indicated that the N concentrations in the Changjiang, Huanghe, and Zhujiang rivers during 1980-2004 were higher than those in the St. Lawrence River in Canada and lower than those in the Thames, Donau, Rhine, Seine, and Han rivers during the same period. River N export will reduce by 58, 54, and 57 % for the Changjiang River, Huanghe River, and Zhujiang River in the control scenario in 2050 compared with the basic scenario.

  6. Estimation of nutrient contributions from the ocean across a river basin using stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, K.; Maruya, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Komata, M.; Komai, K.; Kuwae, T.

    2015-11-01

    Total nitrogen (TN), which consists of total particulate nitrogen (TPN) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), is transported with not only in river channels but also across the entire river basin, including via ground water and migratory animals. In general, TPN export from an entire river basin to the ocean is larger than TDN in a mountainous region. Since marine derived nutrients (MDN) are hypothesized to be mainly transported as suspended matters from the ground surface, it is necessary to investigate the contribution of MDN to the forest floor (soils) in order to quantify the true role of MDN at the river ecosystem scale. This study investigated TN export from an entire river basin, and also we estimated the contribution of pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) to total oceanic nitrogen input across a river basin. The maximum potential contribution of TN entering the river basin by salmon was found to be 23.8 % relative to the total amount of TN exported from the river basin. The contribution of particulate nitrogen based on suspended sediment from the ocean to the river basin soils was 22.9 % with SD of 3.6 % by using stable isotope analysis (SIA) of nitrogen (δ15N).

  7. Modelling hydrological responses of Nerbioi River Basin to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendizabal, Maddalen; Moncho, Roberto; Chust, Guillem; Torp, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Future climate change will affect aquatic systems on various pathways. Regarding the hydrological cycle, which is a very important pathway, changes in hydrometeorological variables (air temperature, precipitation, evapotranspiration) in first order impact discharges. The fourth report assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicates there is evidence that the recent warming of the climate system would result in more frequent extreme precipitation events, increased winter flood likelihoods, increased and widespread melting of snow and ice, longer and more widespread droughts, and rising sea level. Available research and climate model outputs indicate a range of hydrological impacts with likely to very likely probabilities (67 to 99%). For example, it is likely that up to 20% of the world population will live in areas where river flood potential could increase by the 2080s. In Spain, within the Atlantic basin, the hydrological variability will increase in the future due to the intensification of the positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. This might cause flood frequency decreases, but its magnitude does not decrease. The generation of flood, its duration and magnitude are closely linked to changes in winter precipitation. The climatic conditions and relief of the Iberian Peninsula favour the generation of floods. In Spain, floods had historically strong socio-economic impacts, with more than 1525 victims in the past five decades. This upward trend of hydrological variability is expected to remain in the coming decades (medium uncertainty) when the intensification of the positive phase of the NAO index (MMA, 2006) is considered. In order to adapt or minimize climate change impacts in water resources, it is necessary to use climate projections as well as hydrological modelling tools. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate and assess the hydrological response to climate changes in flow conditions in Nerbioi river

  8. Large rivers in sedimentary basins: Morphology and form observed from satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissmann, G. S.; Hartley, A. J.; Scuderi, L. A.; Nichols, G. J.; Davidson, S. K.

    2010-12-01

    Preservation of the deposits of big rivers, like any other river, can only occur where the river crosses an area of net aggradation in a sedimentary basin. Many of the world’s big rivers are systems that transfer sediment load from erosional realms to the sea, depositing fluvial successions only where there is accommodation on the coastal plain. However, many of the big rivers (e.g., Parana, Paraguay, Brahmaputra, Ganges, Indus, and Yukon Rivers) also cross continental sedimentary basins (e.g., sedimentary basins with minimal marine influence that lie inside continents) on their way to the oceans. We use satellite imagery to observe the large-scale morphology of big rivers in these continental sedimentary basins. As with other rivers, big rivers lose confinement of their valleys and form distributive fluvial systems (DFS) as they enter the continental sedimentary basins. Commonly, channel size decreases down-DFS, either through infiltration, bifurcation, or evaporation. Several active and/or old channels radiate outward from a DFS apex, and where the river is incised into its DFS, several paleochannel deposits are visible radiating outward from the DFS apex. Between and adjacent to channels, a significant amount of fine-grained sediment is deposited across the DFS surface, leaving high potential for preservation of floodplain deposits, even on large river DFS dominated by braided river systems. Commonly, the big rivers become the axial river in the sedimentary basin, continuing along strike of the basin. In this position, the river becomes confined between opposing DFS or between transverse DFS and the basin edge. In several examples, the river morphology changes upon reaching the sedimentary basin and across the DFS and this morphology may change once again at the toe of the DFS where the river takes the axial position in the basin. For example, the Brahamaputra River upstream from the sedimentary basin is a relatively narrow, single thread channel that is

  9. Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Chamness, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    In the summer and fall of 2001 the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. Data were collected to determine if velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met current National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage and whether bypass outfall conditions allowed fish to safely return to the river. Based on our studies in 2001, we concluded that: in general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set forth by the NMFS; most facilities efficiently protected juvenile fish from entrainment, impingement, or migration delay; automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were well greased and operative; and removal of sediment build-up and accumulated leafy and woody debris are areas that continue to improve. Continued periodic screen evaluations will increase the effectiveness of screen operation and maintenance practices by confirming the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of screen operating procedures at individual sites. Where procedures are being followed and problems still occur, evaluation results can be used to suggest means to better protect fish at screening facilities. There has been a progressive improvement in the maintenance and effectiveness of fish screen facilities in the Yakima River Basin during the last several years, in part, as a result of regular screen evaluations and the rapid feedback of information necessary to improve operations and design of these important fish protection devices. Continued periodic screen evaluations will increase the effectiveness of screen operation and maintenance practices by confirming the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of screen operating procedures at individual sites. Where procedures are being

  10. Anthropogenic impacts on hydrology of Karkheh River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf, B.; Aghakouchak, A.; Alizadeh, A.; Mousavi Baygi, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Karkheh River Basin (KRB) in southwest Iran is a key region for agriculture and energy production. KRB has high human-induced water demand and suffers from low water productivity. The future of the KRB and its growth clearly relies on sustainable water resources and hence, requires a holistic, basin-wide management and monitoring of natural resources (water, soil, vegetation, livestock, etc.). The KRB has dry regions in which water scarcity is a major challenge. In this study, we investigate changes in the hydrology of the basin during the past three decades including human-induced alterations of the system. We evaluate climatic variability, agricultural water use, land cover change and agriculture production. In this reaserch, we have developed a simple indicator for quantifying human influence on the hydrologic cycle. The results show that KRB's hydrology is significantly dominated by human activities. The anthropogenic water demand has increased substantially caused by growth in agriculture industry. In fact, the main reason for water scarcity in the region appears to be due to the increased anthropogenic water demand resulting from substantial socio-economic growth in the past three decades. Our results show that continued growth in the region is not sustainable without considering major changes in water use efficiency, land cover management and water productivity.

  11. Thermal springs in the Salmon River basin, central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, H.W.; Lewis, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The Salmon River basin drains approximately 13,000 square miles in central Idaho underlain by the Idaho batholith. Geologic units in the basin include igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks and granitic rocks predominate. Water from thermal springs ranges in temperature from 20.5 degrees to 94.0 degrees Celsius. The waters are slightly alkaline and are generally a sodium carbonate or bicarbonate type. Dissolved-solids concentrations are variable and range from 103 to 839 milligrams per liter. Estimated reservoir temperatures determined from the silicic acid-corrected silica, sodium-potassium-calcium, and sulfate-water isotope geothermometers range from 30 degrees to 184 degrees Celsius. Tritium concentrations in sampled thermal waters are near zero and indicate the waters are at least 100 years old and may be considerably older. Stable-isotope data indicate it is unlikely that a single area of recharge or a single hot-water reservoir supplies all hot springs in the basin. Thermal springs discharged at least 15,800 acre-feet of water in 1980. Associated convective heat flux is 27 million calories per second. (USGS)

  12. Thermal springs in the Salmon River basin, central Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Young, H.W.; Lewis, R.E.

    1982-02-01

    The Salmon River basin within the study area occupies an area of approximately 13,000 square miles in central Idaho. Geologic units in the basin are igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks; however, granitic rocks of the Idaho batholith are predominant. Water from thermal springs ranges in temperature from 20.5/sup 0/ to 94.0/sup 0/ Celsius. The waters are slightly alkaline and are generally a sodium carbonate or bicarbonate type. Dissolved-solids concentrations are variable and range from 103 to 839 milligrams per liter. Estimated reservoir temperatures determined from the silicic acid-corrected silica, sodium-potassium-calcium, and sulfate-water isotope geothermometers range from 30/sup 0/ to 184/sup 0/ Celsius. Tritium concentrations in sampled thermal waters are near zero and indicate the waters are at least 100 years old. Stable-isotope data indicate it is unlikely that a single hot-water reservoir supplies hot springs in the basin. Thermal springs discharged at least 15,800 acre-feet of water in 1980. Associated convective heat flux is 2.7 x 10/sup 7/ calories per second.

  13. A Yukon River Basin Landsat Mosaic for Assessing Environmental Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, M. A.; Dwyer, J. L.; Granneman, B.

    2009-12-01

    Landsat data from the Global Land Survey (GLS) dataset for year 2000 was mosaicked to form a Yukon River Basin image map that is referenced to a geodetic base. It was produced from 66 Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images collected from 1999-2002. Two products were created: (1) a geographically referenced database containing all seven of the spectral bands for the individual scenes and (2) a 3-band (shortwave infrared, near-infrared, and green - 7,4,2) radiometrically normalized shaded relief image map using the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset and Canadian Digital Elevation Data from Natural Resources Canada. The science data product will facilitate studies to map the extent of snow, ice and surface water at a basin-wide scale. Focused studies on snow/ice transitions for selected glaciers will be conducted in order to establish accumulation ratios for use in future monitoring. The mosaic also shows the complex patterns of wildfires in the interior forests and the diversity of ecosystems throughout the basin. The shaded relief product image mosaic is a reference map for reconnaissance studies as well as a geographic framework within which to spatially integrate project-wide data and information.

  14. Operational Hydrologic Forecasts in the Columbia River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, K. Y.; Curry, J. A.; Webster, P. J.; Toma, V. E.; Jelinek, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Columbia River Basin (CRB) covers an area of ~670,000 km2 and stretches across parts of seven U.S. states and one Canadian province. The basin is subject to a variable climate, and moisture stored in snowpack during the winter is typically released in spring and early summer. These releases contribute to rapid increases in flow. A number of impoundments have been constructed on the Columbia River main stem and its tributaries for the purposes of flood control, navigation, irrigation, recreation, and hydropower. Storage reservoirs allow water managers to adjust natural flow patterns to benefit water and energy demands. In the past decade, the complexity of water resource management issues in the basin has amplified the importance of streamflow forecasting. Medium-range (1-10 day) numerical weather forecasts of precipitation and temperature can be used to drive hydrological models. In this work, probabilistic meteorological variables from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) are used to force the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. Soil textures were obtained from FAO data; vegetation types / land cover information from UMD land cover data; stream networks from USGS HYDRO1k; and elevations from CGIAR version 4 SRTM data. The surface energy balance in 0.25° (~25 km) cells is closed through an iterative process operating at a 6 hour timestep. Output fluxes from a number of cells in the basin are combined through one-dimensional flow routing predicated on assumptions of linearity and time invariance. These combinations lead to daily mean streamflow estimates at key locations throughout the basin. This framework is suitable for ingesting daily numerical weather prediction data, and was calibrated using USGS mean daily streamflow data at the Dalles Dam (TDA). Operational streamflow forecasts in the CRB have been active since October 2012. These are 'naturalized' or unregulated forecasts. In 2013, increases of ~2600 m3/s (~48% of

  15. Groundwater quality in the Genesee River Basin, New York, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Water samples collected from eight production wells and eight private residential wells in the Genesee River Basin from September through December 2010 were analyzed to characterize the groundwater quality in the basin. Eight of the wells were completed in sand and gravel aquifers, and eight were finished in bedrock aquifers. Three of the 16 wells were sampled in the first Genesee River Basin study during 2005-2006. Water samples from the 2010 study were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents that included major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and indicator bacteria. Results of the water-quality analyses are presented in tabular form for individual wells, and summary statistics for specific constituents are presented by aquifer type. The results are compared with Federal and New York State drinking-water standards, which typically are identical. The results indicate that groundwater generally is of acceptable quality, although concentrations of the following constituents exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards at each of the 16 wells sampled: color (one sample), sodium (three samples), sulfate (three samples), total dissolved solids (four samples), aluminum (one sample), arsenic (two samples), copper (one sample), iron (nine samples), manganese (eight samples), radon-222 (nine samples), and total coliform bacteria (six samples). Existing drinking-water standards for pH, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, nitrite, antimony, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, thallium, zinc, gross alpha radioactivity, uranium, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, and heterotrophic bacteria were not exceeded in any of the samples collected. None of the pesticides and VOCs analyzed exceeded existing drinking-water standards.

  16. Selected data for stream subbasins in the Watonwan River basin, south-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenz, D.L.; Payne, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents selected data that describe the characteristics of stream basins upstream from selected points on streams in the Watonwan River basin. The points on the streams include outlets of subbasins of about five square miles, sewage treatment plant outlets, and U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in the basin.

  17. Selected data for stream subbasins in the Le Sueur River basin, south-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenz, D.L.; Payne, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents selected data that describe the characteristics of stream basins upstream from selected points on streams in the Le Sueur River basin. The points on the streams include outlets of subbasins of about five square miles, sewage treatment plant outlets, and U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in the basin.

  18. A spatial analysis of phosphorus in the Mississippi river basin.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Linda M; David, Mark B; Drinkwater, Laurie E

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) in rivers in the Mississippi River basin (MRB) contributes to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico and impairs local water quality. We analyzed the spatial pattern of P in the MRB to determine the counties with the greatest January to June P riverine yields and the most critical factors related to this P loss. Using a database of P inputs and landscape characteristics from 1997 through 2006 for each county in the MRB, we created regression models relating riverine total P (TP), dissolved reactive P (DRP), and particulate P (PP) yields for watersheds within the MRB to these factors. Riverine yields of P were estimated from the average concentration of each form of P during January to June for the 10-yr period, multiplied by the average daily flow, and then summed for the 6-mo period. The fraction of land planted in crops, human consumption of P, and precipitation were found to best predict TP yields with a spatial error regression model ( = 0.48, = 101). Dissolved reactive P yields were predicted by fertilizer P inputs, human consumption of P, and precipitation in a multiple regression model ( = 0.42, = 73), whereas PP yields were explained by crop fraction, human consumption of P, and soil bulk density in a spatial error regression model ( = 0.49, = 61). Overall, the Upper Midwest's Cornbelt region and lower Mississippi basin had the counties with the greatest P yields. These results help to point out specific areas where agricultural conservation practices that reduce losses to streams and rivers and point source P removal might limit the intensity or spatial occurrence of Gulf of Mexico hypoxia and improve local water quality. PMID:21546679

  19. Hydrology of the Upper Malad River basin, southeastern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pluhowski, Edward J.

    1970-01-01

    The report area comprises 485 square miles in the Basin and Range physiographic province. It includes most of eastern' Oneida County and parts of Franklin, Bannock, and Power Counties of southeastern Idaho. Relief is about 5,000 feet; the floor of the Malad Valley is at an average altitude of about 4,400 feet. Agriculture is, by far, ,the principal economic .activity. In 1960 the population of the upper Malad River basin was about 3,600, of which about 60 percent resided in Malad City, the county seat of Oneida County. The climate is semiarid throughout the Malad Valley and its principal tributary valleys; ,above 6,500 feet the climate is subhumid. Annual precipitation ranges from about 13 inches in the lower Malad Valley to more than 30 inches on the highest peaks of the Bannock and Malad ranges. Owing to ,the normally clear atmospheric conditions, large daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations are common. Topography, distance from the Pacific Ocean, .and the general atmospheric circulation are the principal factors governing the climate of the Malad River basin. The westerlies transport moisture from the P.acific Ocean toward southeastern Idaho. The north-south tren4ing mountains flanking the basin are oriented orthogonally to the moisture flux so that they are very effective in removing precipitable water from the air. A minimum uplift of 6,000 feet is required to transport moisture from the Pacific source region; accordingly, most air masses are desiccated long before they reach the Malad basin. Heaviest precipitation is generally associated with steep pressure gradients in the midtroposphere that are so oriented as to cause a deep landward penetration of moisture from the Pacific Ocean. Annual water yields in the project area range from about 0.8 inch in the, lower Malad Valley to more than 19 inches on the high peaks north and east of Malad City. The mean annual water yield for the entire basin is 4 inches, or about 115,000 acre-feet. Evaporation is

  20. Beyond Lees Ferry: Assessing the Long-term Hydrologic Variability of the Lower Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, L. C.; Rajagopalan, B.; Lukas, J. J.; Kanzer, D.

    2011-12-01

    The future reliability of Colorado River Basin water supplies depends on natural hydrologic variability, climate change impacts and other human factors. Natural variability is the dominant component at annual to decadal time scales and thus, capturing and understanding the full range of such variability is critical to assessing risks to near- and mid-term water supplies. Paleohydrologic reconstructions of annual flow using tree rings provide much longer (400+ years) records of annual flow than do historical gage records, and thus a more complete representation of potential flow sequences. While the long-term natural variability of the Upper Colorado River Basin has been well-captured by high-quality multi-century reconstructions of the annual flow of the Colorado River at Lees Ferry, AZ, there has been no equivalent effort for the whole of the Lower Colorado River Basin, including the Gila River. The contribution of the Lower Basin to overall basin flows is estimated to be 15% on average, but this percentage varies significantly from year to year, potentially impacting water supply risk and management for the entire basin. We present preliminary results from an ongoing effort to assess the hydroclimatic variability of the Lower Basin and to develop reconstructions of annual streamflows for the Gila River and Lower Colorado River near Yuma, AZ, commensurate with the existing Lees Ferry reconstructions. We model the flow of the Gila at the confluence with the Colorado River using Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) and a generalized linear model (GLM) using Lower Basin tributaries, including the upper Gila River and its tributaries (e.g., Salt, Tonto, and Verde Rivers). We also present preliminary reconstructions of Lower Basin streamflows from tree-ring data using different modeling approaches, including GLM and non-parametric k-nearest-neighbor (KNN). These reconstructions of the Lower Basin flows should facilitate more robust estimation of water supply risk to

  1. Geologic control of rivers in the perimeter of Somes River Drainage Basin, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perşoiu, I.; Rǎdoane, N.; Rusu, S.

    2012-04-01

    The present study highlights the role of geology (structure and neotectonics) on channel typology in the median and inferior parts of Someş River Drainage Basin (15.470 kmp, 124mc/s), NV Romania, based on channel morphology back in 1860 AD, channel planform dynamics between 1860 and 1977, and geological maps of the area. The geological heterogeneity of the area is responsible for abrupt alternation of different channel types, resulting in a mixture of alluvial and mixed sinuous - meandering - sinuous anabranched - meandering anabranched reaches. Additionally, along some tributaries with reduced flow discharges, lakes are reported behind natural dams imposed by resistant rocks occurred in the river's bed. This behavior is complicated by general slopes of graded profiles, superimposed on local structural and tectonic controls, which enforce the rivers to function on different energy levels. Based on channel typology and planform dynamic prior to large scale hydrotechnical intervention, river position in the floodplain perimeter, the type of rivers (main rivers vs. tributaries with less discharge), a general model of channel adjustment to lithology and neotectonic movements in the NV part of Romania is proposed.

  2. Drainage basin security of hazardous chemical fluxe in the Yodo River basin.

    PubMed

    Matsui, S

    2004-01-01

    The Yodo River basin consists of three major tributary basins (and other small river basins) namely Uji, Katsura and Kizu, which overlap respectively Shiga, Kvoto and Nara prefectures' administrative areas. Lake Biwa, the largest lake in Japan, drains water through the Uji river. The water quality of the lake, in terms of BOD, continuously improved over the last decade. However, the quality in terms of COD did not show any improvement in spite of a large amount of infrastructure finance being introduced. Eutrophication of the lake still continues, showing no improvement in the nitrogen concentration level. Non-point as well as point source control is not strong enough. There is a gap between BOD and COD evaluations of the lake water quality. Hazardous chemical fluxes are estimated based upon PRTR reports of Japan (2001). PCBs are still discharged into the lake, although the report of Shiga Prefecture showed zero discharge. Dace fish monitoring clearly showed that PCB contamination of the fish had not changed since the 1980s in spite of a ban on use and production of PCBs in the 1970s. There is still leakage of PCBs into the lake. The major exposure of dioxins to Japanese is fish rather than meat and eggs. The risk of water contamination must take into consideration not only drinking water safety but also ecological magnification of food chains in water. The ecological health aspect of hazardous chemicals is also important, such as organotins with imposex of sea snails. Finally, public participation in hazardous chemical management is very important using the method of risk communication based upon the annual report of PRTR in Japan. PMID:15195438

  3. Fluvial sediment in the little Arkansas River basin, Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albert, C.D.; Stramel, G.J.

    1966-01-01

    Characteristics and transport of sediment in the Little Arkansas River basin in south-central Kansas were studied to determine if the water from the river could be used as a supplemental source for municipal supply or would provide adequate recharge to aquifers that are sources of municipal and agricultural water supplies. During periods when overland 1low contributed a significant amount to streamflow, the suspended sediment in the Little Arkansas River at Valley Center averaged about 85 percent of clay, about 13 percent of silt, and about 2 percent of sand. The average annual suspended-sediment discharge for the water years 1958, 1959, 1960, and 1961 was about 306,000 tons, and about 80 percent of the load was transported during 133 days of the 1,461-day period. The average daily water discharge of 352 cubic feet per second for the period 1958-61 was more than the long-term (i}9-year) average of 245 cfs; therefore, the average annual sediment load for 1958-61 was probably greater than the average annual load for the same long-term period. Studies of seepage in a part of the channel of Kisiwa Creek indicated that an upstream gravel-pit operation yielded clays which, when deposited in the channel, reduced seepage. A change in plant operation and subsequent runoff that removed the deposited clays restored natural seepage conditions. Experiments by the Wichita Water Department showed that artificial recharge probably cannot be accomplished by using raw turbid water that is injected into wells or by using pits. Recharge by raw turbid water on large permeable areas or by seepage canals may be feasible. Studies of chemical quality of surface water at several sites in the Little Arkansas River basin indicate that Turkey. Creek is a major contributor of chloride and other dissolved solids to the Little Arkansas River and that the dissolved-solids content is probably highest during low-flow periods when suspended-sediment concentration is low. Data collected by the Wichita

  4. Trends in suspended-sediment loads and concentrations in the Mississippi River Basin, 1950–2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heimann, David C.; Sprague, Lori A.; Blevins, Dale W.

    2011-01-01

    Trends in loads and concentrations of suspended sediment and suspended sand generally were downward for stations within the Mississippi River Basin during the 60-, 34-, and 12-year periods analyzed. Sediment transport in the lower Mississippi River has historically been, and continues to be, most closely correlative to sediment contributions from the Missouri River, which generally carried the largest annual suspended-sediment load of the major Mississippi River subbasins. The closure of Fort Randall Dam in the upper Missouri River in 1952 was the single largest event in the recorded historical decline of suspended-sediment loads in the Mississippi River Basin. Impoundments on tributaries and sediment reductions as a result of implementation of agricultural conservation practices throughout the basin likely account for much of the remaining Mississippi River sediment transport decline. Scour of the main-stem channel downstream from the upper Missouri River impoundments is likely the largest source of suspended sand in the lower Missouri River. The Ohio River was second to the Missouri River in terms of sediment contributions, followed by the upper Mississippi and Arkansas Rivers. Declines in sediment loads and concentrations continued through the most recent analysis period (1998–2009) at available Mississippi River Basin stations. Analyses of flow-adjusted concentrations of suspended sediment indicate the recent downward temporal changes generally can be explained by corresponding decreases in streamflows.

  5. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids discharged from the Yodo River Basin, Japan.

    PubMed

    Niisoe, Tamon; Senevirathna, S T M L D; Harada, Kouji H; Fujii, Yukiko; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Yan, Junxia; Zhao, Can; Oshima, Masayo; Koizumi, Akio

    2015-11-01

    We investigated perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with 7-14 carbon atoms (C7-C14) in the Yodo River system in 2013. C7-C11 were detected at most sampling sites. The range and median of total PFCAs (ΣPFCAs) concentrations were 1.0-89.7 and 11.2 ng L(-1), respectively. The dominant component was C8 (average for all samples=53.3±8.8%), followed by C7 (19.2±6.7%) and C9 (17.6±7.1%). The levels of C8 were confirmed to decrease greatly over the last 10 years. We assessed the fluxes in C7-C11 discharged from the basin based on the concentrations in river water and river flow rate. The flux of discharged ΣPFCAs was 237.0 g d(-1) at the most downriver point of the assessment areas. Considering the variability in flow rate due to precipitation, the annual ΣPFCAs flux was estimated to be 86.5-173.4 kg y(-1). Identification and quantification of PFCAs sources is difficult because the strength of the sources changes with time, and available information is quite limited. Further monitoring and investigation are necessary to understand sources of PFCAs, as well as their potential for human exposure.

  6. Umatilla River Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement : FY 1990 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Northrop, Michael

    1990-01-01

    During the summer of 1990, construction continued on the Bonneville Power Administration funded anadromous fish habitat enhancement project in the Umatilla River sub-basin, Umatilla County, State of Oregon. Work started on 5/1/90 and ended 10/30/90. A total of five large log weirs, eight large rock weirs, 17 associated weir structures, 19 small to medium rock deflectors, four bank and island reinforcements, three rock flow controls, 19 woody debris placements, and 85 individual boulders were constructed in the South Fork of the Umatilla River. In addition, one large rock weir was constructed at the confluence of the North and South Forks of the Umatilla River, and repair work was completed on 33 structures in Thomas Creek. Also, 300 cubic yards of rock and some logs and woody material were moved on site for use in 1991. Preconstruction activity consisted of moving approximately 1,500 cubic yards of large boulders, and dive log truck loads of woody material to the construction site. Project monitoring consisted of sediment sampling above and below the project area and, mapping and photographing and structures. 7 figs.

  7. Anastomosing river deposits, sedimentation rates and basin subsidence, Magdalena River, northwestern Colombia, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Derald G.

    1986-02-01

    Situated in a tectonically active foreland basin, the Magdalena River consists of vertically accreting, levee-confined channels and adjacent extensive wetlands, which are interpreted as an anastomosing river sedimentary system. Equivalent rates of basin filling and subsidence average 3.8 mm yr -1 based on 18 14C dates from five bore holes drilled to depths of 55 m and sediment transport budgets from 35 years of measurement. Located in a savanna-tropical climate, anastomosing river deposits of the Magdalena are remarkably similar to the anastomosing deposits of the upper Columbia River in a temperate-cold climate in western Canada, suggesting that climate is not a controlling factor of anastomosis. The geometry of anastomosing channel-fills in the Magdalena consists of stratigraphically non-uniform, low sinuous, narrow stringers of sand up to 30 m thick by 600 m wide, a width-depth ratio of 20. Thin (1-2 m) off-channel crevasse-splay sand sheets extend laterally up to 10 km distance. When buried, both sand deposits become encased by lacustrine or marsh mud to form stratigraphic traps. While there are few modern anastomosing river systems as compared to braiding and meandering, there may be a disproportionately large number of ancient anastomosed fluvial rock sequences due to the rapid rate of vertical accretion. Such a different depositional style and geometry of sand bodies have considerable significance in the interpretation of some ancient fluvial rock sequences because it provides an alternative to the meandered and braided-river deposition models.

  8. Development and validation of a quantitative PCR to detect Parvicapsula minibicornis and comparison to histologically ranked infection of juvenile Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), from the Klamath River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    True, K.; Purcell, M.K.; Foott, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Parvicapsula minibicornis is a myxosporean parasite that is associated with disease in Pacific salmon during their freshwater life history phase. This study reports the development of a quantitative (real-time) polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) to detect P. minibicornis DNA. The QPCR assay targets the 18S ribosomal subunit gene. A plasmid DNA control was developed to calibrate cycle threshold (CT) score to plasmid molecular equivalent (PME) units, a measure of gene copy number. Assay validation revealed that the QPCR was sensitive and able to detect 50 ag of plasmid DNA, which was equivalent to 12.5 PME. The QPCR assay could detect single P. minibicornis actinospores well above assay sensitivity, indicating a single spore contains at least 100 times the 18S DNA copies required for detection. The QPCR assay was repeatable and highly specific; no detectable amplification was observed using DNA from related myxozoan parasites. The method was validated using kidney tissues from 218 juvenile Chinook salmon sampled during the emigration period of March to July 2005 from the Klamath River. The QPCR assay was compared with histological examination. The QPCR assay detected P. minibicornis infection in 88.1% of the fish sampled, while histological examination detected infection in 71.1% of the fish sampled. Good concordance was found between the methods as 80% of the samples were in agreement. The majority of the disconcordant fish were positive by QPCR, with low levels of P. minibicornis DNA, but negative by histology. The majority of the fish rated histologically as having subclinical or clinical infections had high QPCR levels. The results of this study demonstrate that QPCR is a sensitive quantitative tool for evaluating P. minibicornis infection in fish health monitoring studies. ?? 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Chloride control and monitoring program in the Wichita River Basin, Texas, 1996-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haynie, M.M.; Burke, G.F.; Baldys, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    Water resources of the Wichita River Basin in north-central Texas are vital to the water users in Wichita Falls, Tex., and surrounding areas. The Wichita River Basin includes three major forks of the Wichita River upstream from Lake Kemp, approximately 50 miles southwest of Wichita Falls, Tex. The main stem of the Wichita River is formed by the confluence of the North Wichita River and Middle Fork Wichita River upstream from Truscott Brine Lake. The confluence of the South Wichita River with the Wichita River is northwest of Seymour, Tex. (fig. 1). Waters from the Wichita River Basin, which is part of the Red River Basin, are characterized by high concentrations of chloride and other salinity-related constituents from salt springs and seeps (hereinafter salt springs) in the upper reaches of the basin. These salt springs have their origins in the Permian Period when the Texas Panhandle and western Oklahoma areas were covered by a broad shallow sea. Over geologic time, evaporation of the shallow seas resulted in the formation of salt deposits, which today are part of the geologic formations underlying the area. Groundwater in these formations is characterized by high chloride concentrations from these salt deposits, and some of this groundwater is discharged by the salt springs into the Wichita River.