Science.gov

Sample records for klastere nnts khfti

  1. Structure and electronic properties of GaN tubelike clusters and single-walled GaN nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liren; Zou, Yanbo; Zhu, Hengjiang

    2015-06-01

    Extensive studies of the geometric structures, stabilities and electronic properties of gallium nitride (GaN)n tubelike clusters and single-walled GaN nanotubes (GaNNTs) were carried out using density-functional theory (DFT) calculations. A family of stable tubelike structures with Ga-N alternating arrangement was observed when n≥8 and their structural units (four-membered rings (4MRs) and six-membered rings (6MRs)) obey the general developing formula. The size-dependent properties of the frontier molecular orbital surfaces explain why the long and stable tubelike clusters can be obtained successfully. They also illustrate the reason why GaNNTs can be synthesized experimentally. Our results also reveal that the single-walled GaNNTs, which as semiconductors with a large bandgap, can be prepared by using the proper assembly of tubelike clusters.

  2. Practising evidence-based medicine in an era of high placebo response: number needed to treat reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Roose, Steven P; Rutherford, Bret R; Wall, Melanie M; Thase, Michael E

    2016-05-01

    The number needed to treat (NNT) statistic was developed to facilitate the practice of evidence-based medicine. Placebo was assumed to be therapeutically inert when the NNT was originally conceived, but more recent data for conditions such as major depressive disorder (MDD) suggest that the placebo control condition can have considerable therapeutic effects. Complications arise because the NNT calculated from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) reflects a comparison between medication plus clinical management and placebo plus clinical management, whereas, in the clinical setting, physicians choose between prescribing open medication, observing a patient over time with a supportive approach, and doing nothing. Thus, NNTs derived from clinical trials are not directly relevant to clinical decision-making, because they are based on control conditions that do not exist in standard practice. Additional difficulties may arise when using NNTs to compare alternative treatments for MDD, such as medication and psychotherapy, since these comparisons require the control conditions upon which the respective NNTs are based to be similar.Whereas pill placebo conditions include intensive clinical management and elicit expectations of improvement, attention control conditions for psychotherapy research are less well developed. Often the effects of psychotherapy are gauged against a wait-list control condition, which has substantially fewer therapeutic components than a pill placebo control condition. To improve the clinical utility of NNTs for the treatment of MDD, we advocate effectiveness studies that include treatment conditions resembling actual clinical practice, rather than using placebo-controlled RCTs for this purpose. Until such studies are performed, the effect of bias in comparing NNTs across treatments can be controlled by ensuring that the RCT control conditions upon which the NNTs are based are comparable.

  3. Epoxy monomer adsorption on Group III (B, Al, Ga) nitride nanotubes: vdW-DF studies on mechanical and electronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganji, M. D.; Sharifi, N.; Fereidoon, A.; Ghorbanzadeh Ahangari, M.

    2014-03-01

    The present work investigates the interaction of (6,6) and (10,0) B, Al, and Ga nitride nanotubes (BNNT, AlNNT, and GaNNT) with bisphenol-A epoxy monomers using the first-principles van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) approach with respect to geometrical structures, interaction energies, and electronic properties. Two types of orientations for monomer adsorption are considered: (I) parallel and (II) perpendicular with the tube axis. The interaction energy for epoxy that is adsorbed on the surface of different nanotubes (for both of these states of adsorption) is calculated, and the results indicate that state (II) is more stable than state (I) for nanotube adsorption. Unlike results obtained with BNNTs/(10,0) AlNNT, the results reported herein indicate that (6,6) AlNNTs/GaNNTs can effectively interact with the epoxy monomer, and their interaction properties are dramatically changed upon exposure to these monomers. In addition, density functional calculations are performed within the generalized gradient approximation in the elastic deformation range to obtain the Young's modulus of (6,6) nanotubes and their complexes in their most stable orientation. Our results reveal that the amounts of modulus downfall of complexes are strongly influenced by the interaction between the monomer and the nanotubes. Among the investigated nanotubes, AlNNT and GaNNTs possesses the strongest interaction to the monomer, but the Young's modulus of GaNNT complex is higher than that another one. Thus, we believe that AlNNTs might be a good strategy for improving the mechanical properties of epoxy nanocomposites.

  4. Hormone therapy and radiotherapy for early prostate cancer: A utility-adjusted number needed to treat (NNT) analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jani, Ashesh B.; Kao, Johnny; Heimann, Ruth; Hellman, Samuel . E-mail: s-hellman@uchicago.edu

    2005-03-01

    Purpose: To quantify, using the number needed to treat (NNT) methodology, the benefit of short-term ({<=}6 months) hormone therapy adjuvant to radiotherapy in the group of patients with early (clinical stage T1-T2c) prostate cancer. Methods and materials: The absolute biochemical control benefit for the use of hormones adjuvant to radiotherapy in early-stage disease was determined by literature review. A model was developed to estimate the utility-adjusted survival detriment due to the side effects of hormone therapy. The NNTs before and after the incorporation of hormone sequelae were computed; the sign and magnitude of the NNTs were used to gauge the effect of the hormones. Results: The absolute NNT analysis, based on summarizing the results of 8 reports including a total of 3652 patients, demonstrated an advantage to the addition of hormones for the general early-stage prostate cancer population as well as for all prognostic groups. After adjustment for hormone-induced functional loss, the advantage of hormones remained considerable in the high- and intermediate-risk groups, with the utility-adjusted NNT becoming weakened in the low-risk group when the utility compromise from complications of hormones was assumed to be considerable. Conclusions: Short-term hormone therapy seems to be beneficial for selected early-stage prostate cancer patients. The advantage seems to be greatest in the intermediate- and high-risk groups; with current follow-up, the side effects of hormones may outweigh their benefit in certain clinical situations in the favorable group. The present investigation demonstrates the significant role of the NNT technique for oncologic and radiotherapeutic management decisions when treatment complications need to be considered and balanced with the beneficial effects of the treatment.

  5. Ibuprofen with or without an antiemetic for acute migraine headaches in adults

    PubMed Central

    Rabbie, Roy; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background Migraine is a common, disabling condition and a burden for the individual, health services and society. Many sufferers do not seek professional help, relying instead on over-the-counter analgesics. Co-therapy with an antiemetic should help to reduce symptoms commonly associated with migraine headaches. Objectives To determine efficacy and tolerability of ibuprofen, alone or in combination with an antiemetic, compared to placebo and other active interventions in the treatment of acute migraine headaches in adults. Search methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for studies through 22 April 2010. Selection criteria We included randomised, double-blind, placebo- or active-controlled studies using self-administered ibuprofen to treat a migraine headache episode, with at least 10 participants per treatment arm. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Numbers of participants achieving each outcome were used to calculate relative risk and number needed to treat (NNT) or harm (NNH) compared to placebo or other active treatment. Main results Nine studies (4373 participants, 5223 attacks) compared ibuprofen with placebo or other active comparators; none combined ibuprofen with a self-administered antiemetic. All studies treated attacks with single doses of medication. For ibuprofen 400 mg versus placebo, NNTs for 2-hour pain-free (26% versus 12% with placebo), 2-hour headache relief (57% versus 25%) and 24-hour sustained headache relief (45% versus 19%) were 7.2, 3.2 and 4.0, respectively. For ibuprofen 200 mg versus placebo, NNTs for 2-hour pain-free (20% versus 10%) and 2-hour headache relief (52% versus 37%) were 9.7 and 6.3, respectively. The higher dose was significantly better for 2-hour headache relief than the lower dose. Soluble formulations of ibuprofen 400 mg were better than standard tablets for 1-hour, but not 2-hour headache relief

  6. Pharmacotherapy for neuropathic pain in adults: systematic review, meta-analysis and updated NeuPSIG recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Finnerup, Nanna B; Attal, Nadine; Haroutounian, Simon; McNicol, Ewan; Baron, Ralf; Dworkin, Robert H; Gilron, Ian; Haanpaa, Maija; Hansson, Per; Jensen, Troels S; Kamerman, Peter R; Lund, Karen; Moore, Andrew; Raja, Srinivasa N; Rice, Andrew SC; Rowbotham, Michael; Sena, Emily; Siddall, Philip; Smith, Blair H; Wallace, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Neuropathic pain is difficult to treat. New treatments, clinical trials and standards of quality for assessing evidence justify an update of evidence-based recommendations for its pharmacological treatment. Methods The Neuropathic Pain Special Interest Group (NeuPSIG) of the International Association for the Study of Pain conducted a systematic review of randomised double-blind studies of oral and topical pharmacotherapy for neuropathic pain, including unpublished trials (retrieved from clinicaltrials.gov and pharmaceutical websites). Meta-analysis used Numbers Needed to Treat (NNT) for 50 % pain relief as primary measure and assessed publication bias. Recommendations used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE). Findings In total 229 studies were included. Analysis of publication bias suggested a 10% overstatement of treatment effects. Studies published in peer-review journals reported greater effects than online studies (R2=9·3%, p<0·01). Trial outcomes were generally modest even for effective drugs : in particular NNTs were 3·6 (95 % CI 3·0–4·4) for tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), 6·4 (95 % CI 5·2–8·4) for serotonin- noradrenaline reuptake inbibitor (SNRI) antidepressants duloxetine and venlafaxine, 7·7 (95 % CI 6·5–9·4) for pregabalin and 6·3 (95 % CI 5·0–8·3) for gabapentin. NNTs were higher for gabapentin ER/enacarbil and capsaicin high concentration patches, lower for opioids and botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) and undetermined for lidocaine patches. Final quality of evidence was lower for lidocaine patches and BTX-A. Tolerability/safety and values/preferences were high for lidocaine patches and lower for opioids and TCAs. This permitted a strong GRADE recommendation for use and proposal as first line for TCAs, SNRIs, pregabalin, gabapentin and gabapentin ER/enacarbil in neuropathic pain, a weak recommendation for use and proposal as second line for lidocaine patches, capsaicin

  7. Who should be offered HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)?: A secondary analysis of a Phase 3 PrEP efficacy trial in men who have sex with men and transgender women

    PubMed Central

    Buchbinder, Susan P; Glidden, David V.; Liu, Albert Y.; McMahan, Vanessa; Guanira, Juan V.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Goicochea, Pedro; Grant, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been proven to reduce HIV acquisition in men who have sex with men and transgender women (MSM/TGW). For maximal impact, PrEP should be targeted to subpopulations accounting for the largest proportion of infections (population attributable fraction, PAF) and for whom the number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent infection is lowest. Methods The iPrEx study was a randomized controlled efficacy trial of tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate/emtricitabine PrEP in 2499 MSM/TGW on 4 continents. We calculated the association between demographic and risk behavior during screening with subsequent seroconversion among placebo recipients using a Poisson model, and the PAF and NNT for risk behavior subgroups. Findings Of 1248 placebo participants enrolled, 83 became HIV infected in follow-up. Participants reporting non-condom receptive anal intercourse (ncRAI) seroconverted significantly more often than MSM/TGW reporting no condomless anal sex (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 5·11, 95% CI 1·55-16·79). The overall PAF for MSM/TGW reporting ncRAI was 64% (prevalence=60%). Most of this risk came from ncRAI with unknown serostatus partners (PAF 53%, prevalence=54%, AHR 4·76); in contrast, the PAF for ncRAI with an HIV positive partner, an uncommon practice, was only 1% (prevalence 1%, AHR=7·11). The overall NNT per year for the cohort was 62 (95% CI 44-147). NNTs were lower for MSM/TGW self-reporting ncRAI, cocaine use, or a sexually transmitted infection (NNT= 36, 12, and 41 respectively). Having a single partner or non-condom insertive anal sex had the highest NNTs. Interpretation PrEP may be most effective at a population level if targeted toward MSM/TGW reporting ncRAI, even with partners perceived to be HIV negative. Substance use history and testing for STIs may also inform individual decisions to start PrEP. Considering PAF and NNT can aid in discussing the benefits and risks of PrEP with MSM/TGW. Funding Funded by the National

  8. Economic analysis of endovascular drug-eluting treatments for femoropopliteal artery disease in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Katsanos, Konstantinos; Garner, Abigail M; Zayed, Hany; Cleveland, Trevor; Pietzsch, Jan B

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the clinical and economic impact of drug-eluting endovascular treatment strategies for femoropopliteal artery disease compared with current standard of care. Design Systematic literature search to pool target lesion revascularisations (TLR). Model-based per-patient cost impact and quasi-cost-effectiveness projection over 24 months based on pooled TLRs and current reimbursement. Setting The UK's National Health Service (NHS). Participants Patients presenting with symptomatic femoropopliteal disease eligible for endovascular treatment. Interventions Current National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline-recommended treatment with percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty (PTA) and bailout bare metal stenting (BMS) versus primary BMS placement, or drug-coated balloon (DCB), or drug-eluting stent (DES) treatment. Primary and secondary outcome measures 24-month per-patient cost impact to NHS (primary outcome). Secondary outcomes: pooled 24-month TLR rates; numbers needed to treat (NNTs); cost per TLR avoided and estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in £ per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Results N=28 studies were identified, reporting on 5167 femoropopliteal lesions. Over 24 months, DCB, DES and BMS reduced TLRs of de novo lesions from 36.2% to 17.6%, 19.4% and 26.9%, respectively, at an increased cost of £43, £44 and £112. NNTs to avoid 1 TLR in 24 months were 5.4, 6.0 and 10.8, resulting in cost per TLR avoided of £231, £264 and £1204. DCB was estimated to add 0.011 QALYs, DES 0.010 QALYs and BMS 0.005 QALYs, resulting in estimated ICERs of £3983, £4534 and £20 719 per QALY gained. A subset analysis revealed more favourable clinical and economic outcomes for a 3.5 µg/mm2 DCB with urea excipient, compared with the rest of DCBs. A modest reduction of 10% in DCB and DES prices made drug-eluting treatments dominant. Conclusions Widespread adoption of drug-eluting endovascular

  9. Electric field effect on (6,0) zigzag single-walled aluminum nitride nanotube.

    PubMed

    Baei, Mohammad T; Peyghan, Ali Ahmadi; Moghimi, Masoumeh

    2012-09-01

    Structural, electronic, and electrical responses of the H-capped (6,0) zigzag single-walled aluminum nitride nanotube was studied under the parallel and transverse electric fields with strengths 0-140 × 10(-4) a.u. by using density functional calculations. Geometry optimizations were carried out at the B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory using a locally modified version of the GAMESS electronic structure program. The dipole moments, atomic charge variations, and total energy of the (6,0) zigzag AlNNT show increases with increase in the applied external electric field strengths. The length, tip diameters, electronic spatial extent, and molecular volume of the nanotube do not significantly change with increasing electric field strength. The energy gap of the nanotube decreases with increases of the electric field strength and its reactivity is increased. Increase of the ionization potential, electron affinity, chemical potential, electrophilicity, and HOMO and LUMO in the nanotube with increase of the applied parallel electric field strengths shows that the parallel field has a much stronger interaction with the nanotube with respect to the transverse electric field strengths. Analysis of the parameters indicates that the properties of AlNNTs can be controlled by the proper external electric field.

  10. NMR and NQR study of Si-doped (6,0) zigzag single-walled aluminum nitride nanotube as n or P-semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Baei, Mohammad T; Peyghan, Ali Ahmadi; Tavakoli, Khadijeh; Babaheydari, Ali Kazemi; Moghimi, Masoumeh

    2012-09-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to investigate the electronic structure properties of pristine and Si-doped aluminum nitride nanotubes as n or P-semiconductors at the B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory in order to evaluate the influence of Si-doped in the (6,0) zigzag AlNNTs. We extended the DFT calculation to predict the electronic structure properties of Si-doped aluminum nitride nanotubes, which are very important for production of solid-state devices and other applications. To this aim, pristine and Si-doped AlNNT structures in two models (Si(N) and Si(Al)) were optimized, and then the electronic properties, the isotropic (CS(I)) and anisotropic (CS(A)) chemical shielding parameters for the sites of various (27)Al and (14)N atoms, NQR parameters for the sites of various of (27)Al and (14)N atoms, and quantum molecular descriptors were calculated in the optimized structures. The optimized structures, the electronic properties, NMR and NQR parameters, and quantum molecular descriptors for the Si(N) and Si(Al) models show that the Si(N) model is a more reactive material than the pristine or Si(Al) model.

  11. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) with or without an antiemetic for acute migraine headaches in adults

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background Migraine is a common, disabling condition and a burden for the individual, health services and society. Many sufferers choose not to, or are unable to, seek professional help and rely on over-the-counter analgesics. Co-therapy with an antiemetic should help to reduce nausea and vomiting commonly associated with migraine. Objectives To determine the efficacy and tolerability of paracetamol (acetaminophen), alone or in combination with an antiemetic, compared to placebo and other active interventions in the treatment of acute migraine in adults. Search methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for studies through 4 October 2010. Selection criteria We included randomised, double-blind, placebo- or active-controlled studies using self-administered paracetamol to treat a migraine headache episode, with at least 10 participants per treatment arm. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Numbers of participants achieving each outcome were used to calculate relative risk and numbers needed to treat (NNT) or harm (NNH) compared to placebo or other active treatment. Main results Ten studies (2769 participants, 4062 attacks) compared paracetamol 1000 mg, alone or in combination with an antiemetic, with placebo or other active comparators, mainly sumatriptan 100 mg. For all efficacy outcomes paracetamol was superior to placebo, with NNTs of 12, 5.2 and 5.0 for 2-hour pain-free and 1- and 2-hour headache relief, respectively, when medication was taken for moderate to severe pain. Nausea, photophobia and phonophobia were reduced more with paracetamol than with placebo at 2 hours (NNTs of 7 to 11); more individuals were free of any functional disability at 2 hours with paracetamol (NNT 10); and fewer participants needed rescue medication over 6 hours (NNT 6). Paracetamol 1000 mg plus metoclopramide 10 mg was not significantly different from oral sumatriptan

  12. The effect of carvedilol in patients with impaired left ventricular systolic function following an acute myocardial infarction. How do the treatment effects on total mortality and recurrent myocardial infarction in CAPRICORN compare with previous beta-blocker trials?

    PubMed

    Otterstad, Jan Erik; Ford, Ian

    2002-08-01

    In previous beta-blocker trials, post-myocardial infarction (MI) patients were essentially treated with a beta-blocker or placebo. In the CAPRICORN trial, patients were selected on the basis of a left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) <40% following the index MI and randomised to carvedilol or placebo, in addition to modern secondary prophylaxis with ACE inhibitors, aspirin and statins. In 1959 patients with a mean LVEF of 33%, treatment with carvedilol over a mean follow-up period of 15 months reduced total mortality from 15.3% with placebo to 11.9% with carvedilol [relative risk reduction (RRR) =23%, absolute risk reduction (ARR) =3.4%]. The incidence of recurrent MI was reduced from 5.8 to 2.3% (RRR 41%, ARR 2.3%). The number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one death was 28 for the entire study period and 43 for 1 year of treatment. The results of the CAPRICORN trial are compared with three previous beta-blocker post-MI trials: the Gothenburg metoprolol trial (GMT), the Norwegian timolol trial (NTT) and the beta-blocker heart attack trial (BHAT). The RRRs for total mortality were 36% in the GMT and NTT, and 27% in BHAT. The respective NNTs for total mortality were 32, 18 and 38. NNT for 1 year of treatment was 25 in NTT and 80 in BHAT. The RRR for recurrent MIs were 28% in NTT and 16% in BHAT. The reduction of mortality and recurrent MIs in CAPRICORN is within the range of previous post-MI beta-blocker studies. In post-MI patients with LVEF<40%, add-on treatment with a beta-blocker should be given >48 h after initiation with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and then with a slow dose escalation as applied in CAPRICORN.

  13. The Number Needed to Treat: 25 Years of Trials and Tribulations in Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Suissa, Samy

    2015-01-01

    The number needed to treat (NNT) is a simple measure of a treatment’s impact, increasingly reported in randomized trials and observational studies, but often incorrectly calculated in studies involving varying follow-up times. We discuss the NNT in these contexts and illustrate the concept using several published studies. While the computation of the NNT is founded on the cumulative incidence of the outcome, several published studies use simple proportions that do not account for varying follow-up times, or use incidence rates per person-time. We show how these approaches can lead to erroneous values of the NNT and misleading interpretations. For example, a trial of 3,845 very elderly hypertensives randomized to a diuretic or placebo reported a NNT of 94 treated for 2 years to prevent one stroke, though the correct approach results in a NNT of 63. Also, meta-analyses involving trials of differing lengths often report a single NNT, such as the meta-analysis of 22 trials of the anticholinergic tiotropium in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that reported a NNT of 16 patients “over one year,” even if the trials varied in duration from 3 to 48 months, with the actual NNTs varying widely from 15 to 250. Finally, we describe the value of the NNT in assessing benefit–risk, such as low-dose aspirin use in secondary prevention of mortality assessed against the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. As the “number needed to treat” becomes increasingly used in the comparative effectiveness and safety of therapies, its accurate estimation and interpretation become crucial to avoid distorting clinical, economic, and public health decisions. PMID:26241223

  14. Evaluating the efficacy of vilazodone in achieving remission in patients with major depressive disorder: post-hoc analyses of a phase IV trial.

    PubMed

    Citrome, Leslie; Gommoll, Carl P; Tang, Xiongwen; Nunez, Rene; Mathews, Maju

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of vilazodone using different definitions of remission. Post-hoc analyses were carried out using data from an 8-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vilazodone 40 mg/day in adults with major depressive disorder (NCT01473394). The primary efficacy endpoint was a mean change in the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score; additional measures included the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) and Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAMA) scores. In addition to treatment response (MADRS≥50% improvement), post-hoc analyses were carried out for remission of depressive symptoms [MADRS score≤10; MADRS≤5 (complete remission)], anxiety symptoms (HAMA≤7), and combined depression and anxiety symptoms (MADRS/HAMA≤10/≤7), as well as for overall symptom severity (CGI-S=1). Odds ratios (ORs) and numbers needed to treat (NNTs) were also calculated. Significant outcomes were obtained with vilazodone versus placebo for MADRS response (50.6 vs. 33.3%, OR=2.04, P<0.001, NNT=6), remission (34.0 vs. 21.8%, OR=1.82, P=0.003, NNT=9), and complete remission (18.2 vs. 8.3%, OR=2.42, P=0.002, NNT=11). More patients receiving vilazodone rather than placebo also met remission criteria for HAMA (48.8 vs. 35.2%, OR=1.82, P=0.002, NNT=8), MADRS/HAMA (32.1 vs. 20.4%, OR=1.83, P=0.004, NNT=9), and CGI-S (24.1 vs. 11.5%, OR=2.41, P<0.001, NNT=8). Treatment with vilazodone 40 mg/day may help adult patients with major depressive disorder achieve remission of depression and/or anxiety symptoms.

  15. Ketoanalogue-Supplemented Vegetarian Very Low-Protein Diet and CKD Progression.

    PubMed

    Garneata, Liliana; Stancu, Alexandra; Dragomir, Diana; Stefan, Gabriel; Mircescu, Gabriel

    2016-07-01

    Dietary protein restriction may improve determinants of CKD progression. However, the extent of improvement and effect of ketoanalogue supplementation are unclear. We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled trial of safety and efficacy of ketoanalogue-supplemented vegetarian very low-protein diet (KD) compared with conventional low-protein diet (LPD). Primary end point was RRT initiation or >50% reduction in initial eGFR. Nondiabetic adults with stable eGFR<30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), proteinuria <1 g/g urinary creatinine, good nutritional status, and good diet compliance entered a run-in phase on LPD. After 3 months, compliant patients were randomized to KD (0.3 g/kg vegetable proteins and 1 cps/5 kg ketoanalogues per day) or continue LPD (0.6 g/kg per day) for 15 months. Only 14% of screened patients patients were randomized, with no differences between groups. Adjusted numbers needed to treat (NNTs; 95% confidence interval) to avoid composite primary end point in intention to treat and per-protocol analyses in one patient were 4.4 (4.2 to 5.1) and 4.0 (3.9 to 4.4), respectively, for patients with eGFR<30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) Adjusted NNT (95% confidence interval) to avoid dialysis was 22.4 (21.5 to 25.1) for patients with eGFR<30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) but decreased to 2.7 (2.6 to 3.1) for patients with eGFR<20 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) in intention to treat analysis. Correction of metabolic abnormalities occurred only with KD. Compliance to diet was good, with no changes in nutritional parameters and no adverse reactions. Thus, this KD seems nutritionally safe and could defer dialysis initiation in some patients with CKD.

  16. Ketoanalogue-Supplemented Vegetarian Very Low-Protein Diet and CKD Progression.

    PubMed

    Garneata, Liliana; Stancu, Alexandra; Dragomir, Diana; Stefan, Gabriel; Mircescu, Gabriel

    2016-07-01

    Dietary protein restriction may improve determinants of CKD progression. However, the extent of improvement and effect of ketoanalogue supplementation are unclear. We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled trial of safety and efficacy of ketoanalogue-supplemented vegetarian very low-protein diet (KD) compared with conventional low-protein diet (LPD). Primary end point was RRT initiation or >50% reduction in initial eGFR. Nondiabetic adults with stable eGFR<30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), proteinuria <1 g/g urinary creatinine, good nutritional status, and good diet compliance entered a run-in phase on LPD. After 3 months, compliant patients were randomized to KD (0.3 g/kg vegetable proteins and 1 cps/5 kg ketoanalogues per day) or continue LPD (0.6 g/kg per day) for 15 months. Only 14% of screened patients patients were randomized, with no differences between groups. Adjusted numbers needed to treat (NNTs; 95% confidence interval) to avoid composite primary end point in intention to treat and per-protocol analyses in one patient were 4.4 (4.2 to 5.1) and 4.0 (3.9 to 4.4), respectively, for patients with eGFR<30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) Adjusted NNT (95% confidence interval) to avoid dialysis was 22.4 (21.5 to 25.1) for patients with eGFR<30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) but decreased to 2.7 (2.6 to 3.1) for patients with eGFR<20 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) in intention to treat analysis. Correction of metabolic abnormalities occurred only with KD. Compliance to diet was good, with no changes in nutritional parameters and no adverse reactions. Thus, this KD seems nutritionally safe and could defer dialysis initiation in some patients with CKD. PMID:26823552

  17. Ecological momentary assessment versus standard assessment instruments for measuring mindfulness, depressed mood, and anxiety among older adults.

    PubMed

    Moore, Raeanne C; Depp, Colin A; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Lenze, Eric J

    2016-04-01

    As mobile data capture tools for patient-reported outcomes proliferate in clinical research, a key dimension of measure performance is sensitivity to change. This study compared performance of patient-reported measures of mindfulness, depression, and anxiety symptoms using traditional paper-and-pencil forms versus real-time, ambulatory measurement of symptoms via ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Sixty-seven emotionally distressed older adults completed paper-and-pencil measures of mindfulness, depression, and anxiety along with two weeks of identical items reported during ambulatory monitoring via EMA before and after participation in a randomized trial of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) or a health education intervention. We calculated effect sizes for these measures across both measurement approaches and estimated the Number-Needed-to-Treat (NNT) in both measurement conditions. Study outcomes greatly differed depending on which measurement method was used. When EMA was used to measure clinical symptoms, older adults who participated in the MBSR intervention had significantly higher mindfulness and significantly lower depression and anxiety than participants in the health education intervention at post-treatment. However, these significant changes in symptoms were not found when outcomes were measured with paper-and-pencil measures. The NNT for mindfulness and depression measures administered through EMA were approximately 25-50% lower than NNTs derived from paper-and-pencil administration. Sensitivity to change in anxiety was similar across administration modes. In conclusion, EMA measures of depression and mindfulness substantially outperformed paper-and-pencil measures with the same items. The additional resources associated with EMA in clinical trials would seem to be offset by its greater sensitivity to detect change in key outcome variables. PMID:26851494

  18. Sumatriptan (subcutaneous route of administration) for acute migraine attacks in adults

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Christopher J; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Migraine is a highly disabling condition for the individual and also has wide-reaching implications for society, healthcare services, and the economy. Sumatriptan is an abortive medication for migraine attacks, belonging to the triptan family. Subcutaneous administration may be preferable to oral for individuals experiencing nausea and/or vomiting Objectives To determine the efficacy and tolerability of subcutaneous sumatriptan compared to placebo and other active interventions in the treatment of acute migraine attacks in adults. Search methods We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, online databases, and reference lists for studies through 13 October 2011. Selection criteria We included randomised, double-blind, placebo- and/or active-controlled studies using subcutaneous sumatriptan to treat a migraine headache episode, with at least 10 participants per treatment arm. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We used numbers of participants achieving each outcome to calculate relative risk (or ‘risk ratio’) and numbers needed to treat to benefit (NNT) or harm (NNH) compared to placebo or a different active treatment. Main results Thirty-five studies (9365 participants) compared subcutaneous sumatriptan with placebo or an active comparator. Most of the data were for the 6 mg dose. Sumatriptan surpassed placebo for all efficacy outcomes. For sumatriptan 6 mg versus placebo the NNTs were 2.9, 2.3, 2.2, and 2.1 for pain-free at one and two hours, and headache relief at one and two hours, respectively, and 6.1 for sustained pain-free at 24 hours. Results for the 4 mg and 8 mg doses were similar to the 6 mg dose, with 6 mg significantly better than 4 mg only for pain-free at one hour, and 8 mg significantly better than 6 mg only for headache relief at one hour. There was no evidence of increased migraine relief if a second dose of sumatriptan 6

  19. Aspirin with or without an antiemetic for acute migraine headaches in adults

    PubMed Central

    Kirthi, Varo; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background Migraine is a common, disabling condition and a burden for the individual, health services and society. Many sufferers choose not to, or are unable to, seek professional help and rely on over-the-counter analgesics. Co-therapy with an antiemetic should help to reduce nausea and vomiting commonly associated with migraine headaches. Objectives To determine the efficacy and tolerability of aspirin, alone or in combination with an antiemetic, compared to placebo and other active interventions in the treatment of acute migraine headaches in adults. Search methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for studies through 10 March 2010. Selection criteria We included randomised, double-blind, placebo- or active-controlled studies using aspirin to treat a discrete migraine headache episode, with at least 10 participants per treatment arm. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Numbers of participants achieving each outcome were used to calculate relative risk and numbers needed to treat (NNT) or harm (NNH) compared to placebo or other active treatment. Main results Thirteen studies (4222 participants) compared aspirin 900 mg or 1000 mg, alone or in combination with metoclopramide 10 mg, with placebo or other active comparators, mainly sumatriptan 50 mg or 100 mg. For all efficacy outcomes, all active treatments were superior to placebo, with NNTs of 8.1, 4.9 and 6.6 for 2-hour pain-free, 2-hour headache relief, and 24-hour headache relief with aspirin alone versus placebo, and 8.8, 3.3 and 6.2 with aspirin plus metoclopramide versus placebo. Sumatriptan 50 mg did not differ from aspirin alone for 2-hour pain-free and headache relief, while sumatriptan 100 mg was better than the combination of aspirin plus metoclopramide for 2-hour pain-free, but not headache relief; there were no data for 24-hour headache relief. Associated symptoms of nausea, vomiting

  20. Systematic review of dexketoprofen in acute and chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Moore, R Andrew; Barden, Jodie

    2008-01-01

    Background Dexketoprofen, an NSAID used in the management of acute and chronic pains, is licensed in several countries but has not previously been the subjected of a systematic review. We used published and unpublished information from randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of dexketoprofen in painful conditions to assess evidence on efficacy and harm. Methods PubMed and Cochrane Central were searched for RCTs of dexketoprofen for pain of any aetiology. Reference lists of retrieved articles and reviews were also searched. Menarini Group produced copies of published and unpublished studies (clinical trial reports). Data were abstracted into a standard form. For studies reporting results of single dose administration, the number of patients with at least 50% pain relief was derived and used to calculate the relative benefit (RB) and number-needed-to-treat (NNT) for one patient to achieve at least 50% pain relief compared with placebo. Results Thirty-five trials were found in acute pain and chronic pain; 6,380 patients were included, 3,381 receiving dexketoprofen. Information from 16 trials (almost half the total patients) was obtained from clinical trial reports from previously unpublished trials or abstracts. Almost all of the trials were of short duration in acute conditions or recent onset pain. All 12 randomised trials that compared dexketoprofen (any dose) with placebo found dexketoprofen to be statistically superior. Five trials in postoperative pain yielded NNTs for 12.5 mg dexketoprofen of 3.5 (2.7 to 4.9), 25 mg dexketoprofen of 3.0 (2.4 to 3.9), and 50 mg dexketoprofen of 2.1 (1.5 to 3.5). In 29/30 active comparator trials, dexketoprofen at the dose used was at least equivalent in efficacy to comparator drugs. Adverse event withdrawal rates were low in postoperative pain and somewhat higher in trials of longer duration; no serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion Dexketoprofen was at least as effective as other NSAIDs and paracetamol/opioid combinations

  1. Single dose oral paracetamol (acetaminophen) with codeine for postoperative pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Toms, Laurence; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    relief over four-to-six hours, with NNTs of 2.2 (95% CI 1.8 to 2.9) for 800 to 1000 mg paracetamol plus 60 mg codeine, 3.9 (2.9 to 4.5) for 600 to 650 mg paracetamol plus 60 mg codeine, and 6.9 (4.8 to 12) for 300 mg paracetamol plus 30 mg codeine. Time to use of rescue medication was over four hours with paracetamol plus codeine and two hours with placebo. The NNT to prevent remedication was 5.6 (4.0 to 9.0) for 600 mg paracetamol plus 60 mg codeine over four to six hours. Adverse events increased of mainly mild to moderate severity with paracetamol plus codeine than placebo. Fourteen studies, with 926 participants, were included in the comparison of paracetamol plus codeine with the same dose of paracetamol alone. Addition of codeine increased proportion of participants achieving at least 50% pain relief over four-to-six hours by 10 to 15%, increased time to use of rescue medication by about one hour, and reduced proportion of participants needing rescue medication by about 15% (NNT to prevent remedication 6.9 (4.2 to 19). Adverse events were mainly mild to moderate in severity and incidence did not differ between groups. Authors’ conclusions This update confirms previous findings that combining paracetamol with codeine provided clinically useful levels of pain relief in about 50% of patients with moderate to severe postoperative pain, compared with under 20% with placebo. New information for remedication shows that the combination extended the duration of analgesia by about one hour compared to treatment with the same dose of paracetamol alone. At higher doses, more participants experienced adequate pain relief, but the amount of information available for the 1000 mg paracetamol plus 60 mg codeine dose was small, and based on limited information. PMID:19160199

  2. Single dose oral paracetamol (acetaminophen) for postoperative pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Toms, Laurence; McQuay, Henry J; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 1, 2004 - this original review had been split from a previous title on ‘Single dose paracetamol (acetaminophen) with and without codeine for postoperative pain’. The last version of this review concluded that paracetamol is an effective analgesic for postoperative pain, but additional trials have since been published. This review sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of paracetamol using current data, and to compare the findings with other analgesics evaluated in the same way. Objectives To assess the efficacy of single dose oral paracetamol for the treatment of acute postoperative pain. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Oxford Pain Relief Database and reference lists of articles to update an existing version of the review in July 2008. Selection criteria Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of paracetamol for acute postoperative pain in adults. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Area under the “pain relief versus time” curve was used to derive the proportion of participants with paracetamol or placebo experiencing at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours, using validated equations. Number-needed-to-treat-to-benefit (NNT) was calculated, with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The proportion of participants using rescue analgesia over a specified time period, and time to use, were sought as measures of duration of analgesia. Information on adverse events and withdrawals was also collected. Main results Fifty-one studies, with 5762 participants, were included: 3277 participants were treated with a single oral dose of paracetamol and 2425 with placebo. About half of participants treated with paracetamol at standard doses achieved at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours, compared with about 20% treated with placebo. NNTs for at

  3. Topical NSAIDs for chronic musculoskeletal pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; Rabbie, Roy

    2014-01-01

    compared a topical NSAID with placebo. Topical NSAIDs were significantly more effective than placebo for reducing pain due to chronic musculoskeletal conditions. The best data were for topical diclofenac in osteoarthritis, where the NNT for at least 50% pain relief over 8 to 12 weeks compared with placebo was 6.4 for the solution, and 11 for the gel formulation. There were too few data of good quality to calculate NNTs for other individual topical NSAIDs compared with placebo. Direct comparison of topical NSAID with an oral NSAID did not show any difference in efficacy. There was an increase in local adverse events (mostly mild skin reactions) with topical NSAIDs compared with placebo or oral NSAIDs, but no increase in serious adverse events. Gastrointestinal adverse events with topical NSAID did not differ from placebo, but were less frequent than with oral NSAIDs. A substantial amount of data from unpublished studies was unavailable. Much of this probably relates to formulations that have never been marketed. Authors’ conclusions Topical NSAIDs can provide good levels of pain relief; topical diclofenac solution is equivalent to that of oral NSAIDs in knee and hand osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence for other chronic painful conditions. Formulation can influence efficacy. The incidence of local adverse events is increased with topical NSAIDs, but gastrointestinal adverse events are reduced compared with oral NSAIDs. PMID:22972108

  4. Medical treatment of vertebral osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Lippuner, K

    2003-10-01

    to conclude about efficacy (calcium, clodronate, etidronate, hormone replacement therapy, pamidronate, strontium, tiludronate, vitamin D). The low NNTs for the leading substances (ranges: 15-64 for alendronate, 8-26 for risedronate, 23 for calcitonin and 28-31 for raloxifene) confirm that effective and efficient drug interventions for treatment and prevention of osteoporotic vertebral fractures are available. Bisphosphonates have demonstrated similar efficacy in treatment and prevention of steroid-induced and male osteoporosis as in postmenopausal osteoporosis. The selection of the appropriate drug for treatment of vertebral osteoporosis from among a bisphosphonate (alendronate or risedronate), PTH, calcitonin or raloxifene will mainly depend on the efficacy, tolerability and safety profile, together with the patient's willingness to comply with a long-term treatment. Although reduction of vertebral fracture risk is an important criterion for decision making, drugs with proven additional fracture risk reduction at all clinically relevant sites (especially at the hip) should be the preferred options. PMID:13680313

  5. Diclofenac with or without an antiemetic for acute migraine headaches in adults

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Sheena; Rabbie, Roy; Moore, R Andrew

    2014-01-01

    potassium 50 mg versus placebo (two studies), the NNTs were 6.2, 8.9, and 9.5 for pain-free at two hours, headache relief at two hours, and pain-free responses at 24 hours, respectively. Associated symptoms of nausea, photophobia and phonophobia, and functional disability were reduced within two hours, and similar numbers of participants experienced adverse events, which were mostly mild and transient. There were insufficient data to evaluate other doses of oral diclofenac, or to compare different formulations or different dosing regimens; only one study compared oral diclofenac with an active comparator (oral sumatriptan 100 mg). Authors’ conclusions Oral diclofenac potassium 50 mg is an effective treatment for acute migraine, providing relief from pain and associated symptoms, although only a minority of patients experience pain-free responses. Adverse events are mostly mild and transient and occur at the same rate as with placebo. PMID:22336852