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  1. Oral Histories in Meteoritics and Planetary Science—XIX: Klaus Keil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, Derek W. G.

    2012-12-01

    Abstract- Klaus Keil (Fig. 1) grew up in Jena and became interested in meteorites as a student of Fritz Heide. His research for his Dr. rer. nat. became known to Hans Suess who--with some difficulty--arranged for him to move to La Jolla, via Mainz, 6 months before the borders of East Germany were closed. In La Jolla, Klaus became familiar with the electron microprobe, which has remained a central tool in his research and, with Kurt Fredriksson, he confirmed the existence of Urey and Craig's chemical H and L chondrite groups, and added a third group, the LL chondrites. Klaus then moved to NASA Ames where he established a microprobe laboratory, published his definitive paper on enstatite chondrites, and led in the development of the Si(Li) detector and the EDS method of analysis. After 5 years at Ames, Klaus became director of the Institute of Meteoritics at the University of New Mexico where he built up one of the leading meteorite research groups while working on a wide variety of projects, including chondrite groups, chondrules, differentiated meteorites, lunar samples, and Hawai'ian basalts. The basalt studies led to a love of Hawai'i and a move to the University of Hawai'i in 1990, where he has continued a wide variety of meteorite projects, notably the role of volcanism on asteroids. Klaus Keil has received honorary doctorates from Friedrich-Schiller University, Jena, and the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque. He was President of the Meteoritical Society in 1969-1970 and was awarded the Leonard Medal in 1988.

    Klaus Keil at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa, 2007.

  2. Klaus - an exceptional winter storm over Northern Iberia and Southern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberato, M. R. L.; Pinto, J. G.; Trigo, I. F.; Trigo, R. M.

    2010-09-01

    The synoptic evolution and impacts of storm Klaus that swept through northern Iberia and southern France on 23-24 January 2009, are assessed. Klaus followed an unusual southern path and was the costliest weather hazard event worldwide during 2009. In particular, it was the most intense and damaging wind storm in the region in a decade, provoked more than 20 casualties and insured losses of several billion Euros. Several long-term records of maximum wind speed gust were broken, including Bordeaux, Narbonne and Perpignan. Storm Klaus first developed close to the Bermudas, traveled fast eastwards and underwent explosive development near the Iberian Peninsula. Its development was supported by an extended and intensified polar jet which stretched down to Western Europe and strong upper-air divergence associated with a second jet streak. Afterwards, it steered southeastwards across Southern France into Northern Italy and the Adriatic. The evolution of "Klaus" is analysed using two standard cyclone detecting and tracking schemes. Results show that both tracks exhibited similar features and positions throughout almost all of their lifecycles, with minor minor discrepancies. These are likely associated to the fields used by each method for storm identification (near surface geopotential height and geostrophic vorticity, respectively) and to different handling of the spatio-temporal evolution of multiple cyclone candidates. In its strengthening phase, "Klaus" presents deepening rates above 37 hPa/24h, a value that after geostrophically adjusted to the reference latitude of 60°N increases to 44 hPa/24h, implying an exceptional event with bomb characteristics. During the maximum intensification phase, the laplacian of surface pressure increased by 1.165hPa/(deglat)2 within 24 hours.

  3. Relations between adolescent ratings of Rothbart's temperament questionnaire and the HEXACO personality inventory.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Ann H; Brook, Christina; Dane, Andrew V; Marini, Zopito A; Volk, Anthony A

    2015-01-01

    Conventionally, individual differences have been assessed using temperament measures for infants and children, and personality measures for adults. We chose to explore both temperament and personality to see whether a convergence exists specifically during adolescence. A sample of 225 adolescents completed Rothbart's Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised (EATQ-R), a 4-factor temperament scale, and the HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised (HEXACO PI-R), a 6-factor personality scale. As hypothesized, we found significant relations between the 2 measures. However, there were some important differences between the 2 measures regarding Honesty-Humility, Openness, and Frustration that highlight the unique contributions of both instruments to understanding and measuring adolescent individual differences. As there is a relatively scant history of measuring temperament or personality in adolescence, it is sometimes difficult for researchers to decide which instrument is most appropriate. The results reported here suggest that either the EATQ-R or the HEXACO PI-R could be appropriate, depending on the specific research questions being asked.

  4. An analysis of the characteristics of extratropical cyclone Klaus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómara, Iñigo; Rodriguez-Puebla, Concepcion; Yague, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    Klaus was a very destructive extratropical cyclone that affected the south-west of Europe from the 23rd to the 25th of January 2009. In particular, it impacted over northern Spain, southern France and Italy where losses totalled billions of Euros and the death toll was 31. The extreme strength of the wind gusts generated by the storm was the main reason for the damage caused. Klaus had the properties of a cyclonic "bomb", and a brief meteorological description of the windstorm will be presented based on surface and upper-air reanalysis data. The analysis procedure has been based on earlier research carried out in this field by J. R. Gyakum (1980), Lance F. Bosart (1984) and J.R. Reed (1986). Klaus was formed under very favourable growing conditions in the North Atlantic ocean: a high atmospheric baroclinicity level due to high temperature and absolute humidity horizontal gradients and strong upper-air winds. In addition, the surface low that started as a stationary front interacted with a mobile upper trough that was located at an altitude of 9000 m near the surface low on the 23rd of January. A strong polar jet stream region above the surface incipient low was also located in the same region of the storm's growth, around 40W-42.5N. After its formation and interaction with the mobile upper-trough, Klaus moved very fast eastwards until it reached land in France on the 24th. We will discuss some social and economic impacts of the storm and the intervention of governments and weather services before, during and after the windstorm. References Gyakum, J. R. and F. Sanders, 1980: Synoptic-Dynamic Climatology of the "bomb". Monthly Weather Review, 108, 1589-1606. Bosart, L. F. and S.C. Lin, 1984: A diagnostic analysis of the Presidents' Day Storm of February 1979. Monthly Weather Review, 112, 2148-2177. Reed, J. R. and M. D. Albright, 1986: A case study of explosive cyclogenesis in the eastern Pacific. Monthly Weather Review, 114, 2297-2319.

  5. Klaus, an exceptional winter storm over Northern Iberia and Southern France - a comparison between storm diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberato, M. L. R.; Pinto, J. G.; Trigo, I. F.; Trigo, R. M.

    2010-05-01

    The synoptic evolution and dynamical characteristics of storm "Klaus" (23 and 24 January 2009) are analysed. "Klaus" was an extratropical cyclone which developed over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean on the 21st January 2009, then moved eastward embedded in the strong westerly flow and experienced a notorious strengthening on the 23rd January. The storm moved into the Bay of Biscay and deepened further before hitting Northern Spain and Southwestern France with gusts of up to 198 km/h. Afterwards, it steered southeastwards across Southern France into Northern Italy and the Adriatic. "Klaus" was the most intense and damaging wind storm in the region in a decade, provoked more than 20 casualties and insured losses of several billion Euros. The evolution of "Klaus" is analysed using two standard cyclone detecting and tracking schemes: a) the vorticity maxima based algorithm originally developed by Murray and Simmonds [1991], adapted for Northern Hemisphere cyclone characteristics [Pinto et al. 2005]; and b) the pressure minima based algorithm first developed for the Mediterranean region [Trigo et al. 1999; 2002] and later extended to a larger Euro-Atlantic region [Trigo 2006]. Additionally, the synoptic and mesoscale features of the storm are analysed. The vorticity based method detects the storm earlier than the pressure minima one. Results show that both tracks exhibited similar features and positions throughout almost all of their lifecycles, with minor discrepancies being probably related to different ways of both methods handling the spatio-temporal evolution of multiple candidates for cyclonic centres. In its strengthening phase, "Klaus" presents deepening rates above 37 hPa/24h, a value that after geostrophically adjusted to the reference latitude of 60°N increases to 44 hPa/24h, implying an exceptional event with bomb characteristics. During maximum intensity change within 24 hours was 1.165hPa/(deglat)2. References: Murray RJ, Simmonds I (1991) Aust

  6. Predicatbility of windstorm Klaus; sensitivity to PV perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbogast, P.; Maynard, K.

    2010-09-01

    It appears that some short-range weather forecast failures may be attributed to initial conditions errors. In some cases it is possible to anticipate the behavior of the model by comparison between observations and model analyses. In the case of extratropical cyclone development one may qualify the representation of the upper-level precursors described in terms of PV in the initial conditions by comparison with either satellite ozone or water-vapor. A step forward has been made in developing a tool based upon manual modifications of dynamical tropopause (i.e. height of 1.5 PV units) and PV inversion. After five years of experimentations it turns out that the forecasters eventually succeed in improving the forecast of some strong cyclone development. However the present approach is subjective per se. To measure the subjectivity of the procedure a set of 15 experiments has been performed provided by 7 different people (senior forecasters and scientists involved in dynamical meteorology) in order to improve an initial state of the global model ARPEGE leading to a poor forecast of the wind storm Klaus (24 January 2009). This experiment reveals that the manually defined corrections present common features but also a large spread.

  7. KLauS: an ASIC for silicon photomultiplier readout and its application in a setup for production testing of scintillating tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggl, K.; Dorn, M.; Hagdorn, R.; Harion, T.; Schultz-Coulon, H. C.; Shen, W.

    2014-02-01

    KLauS is an ASIC produced in the AMS 0.35 μm SiGe process to read out the charge signals from silicon photomultipliers. Developed as an analog front-end for future calorimeters with high granularity as pursued by the AHCAL concept in the CALICE collaboration, the ASIC is designed to measure the charge signal of the sensors in a large dynamic range and with low electronic noise contributions. In order to tune the operation voltage of each sensor individually, an 8-bit DAC to tune the voltage at the input terminal within a range of 2V is implemented. Using an integrated fast comparator with low jitter, the time information can be measured with sub-nanosecond resolution. The low power consumption of the ASIC can be further decreased using power gating techniques. Future versions of KLauS are under development and will incorporate an ADC with a resolution of up to 12-bits and blocks for digital data transmission. The chip is used in a setup for mass testing and characterization of scintillator tiles for the AHCAL test beam program.

  8. John von Neumann and Klaus Fuchs: an Unlikely Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Jeremy

    2010-03-01

    I discuss the origin of the idea of making a fusion (hydrogen) bomb and the physics involved in it, and then turn to the design proposed for one by the unlikely collaborators John von Neumann and Klaus Fuchs in a patent application they filed at Los Alamos in May 1946, which Fuchs passed on to the Russians in March 1948, and which with substantial modifications was tested on the island of Eberiru on the Eniwetok atoll in the South Pacific on May 8, 1951. This test showed that the fusion of deuterium and tritium nuclei could be ignited, but that the ignition would not propagate because the heat produced was rapidly radiated away. Meanwhile, Stanislaw Ulam and C.J. Everett had shown that Edward Teller’s Classical Super could not work, and at the end of December 1950, Ulam had conceived the idea of super compression, using the energy of a fission bomb to compress the fusion fuel to such a high density that it would be opaque to the radiation produced. Once Teller understood this, he invented a greatly improved, new method of compression using radiation, which then became the heart of the Ulam-Teller bomb design, which was tested, also in the South Pacific, on November 1, 1952. The Russians have freely acknowledged that Fuchs gave them the fission bomb, but they have insisted that no one gave them the fusion bomb, which grew out of design involving a fission bomb surrounded by alternating layers of fusion and fission fuels, and which they tested on November 22, 1955. Part of the irony of this story is that neither the American nor the Russian hydrogen-bomb programs made any use of the brilliant design that von Neumann and Fuchs had conceived as early as 1946, which could have changed the entire course of development of both programs.

  9. Explosive cyclogenesis of extra-tropical cyclone Klaus and its effects in Catalonia. A case study of hurricane force gusts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, J.; López, J. A.; Martín, F.; Morales, G.; Pascual, R.

    2009-09-01

    On 23th and 24th of January 2009, the extra-tropical cyclone Klaus crossed the north of Spain and the south of France producing several deaths and generalized damages. The cyclone of Atlantic origin underwent an explosive deepening of more than 1 hPa per hour at the surface level. Catalonia region was affected by gale-force winds and hurricane gusts. The Atlantic depression underwent a process called explosive cyclogenesis (when a surface cyclone deepens at a rate higher than 1 hPa/hr over 24 hours, approximately) in front of the Spanish Atlantic coasts. In this study we focus on its impact in the Catalonia areas where both synoptic and local effects were important. Also we evaluate the performance of the numerical weather prediction model outputs against observed data.

  10. The 2008 Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting: Robert Huber, Chemistry 1988. Interview by Klaus J. Korak.

    PubMed

    Huber, Robert

    2008-11-25

    Robert Huber and his colleagues, Johann Deisenhofer and Hartmut Michel, elucidated the three-dimensional structure of the Rhodopseudomonas viridis photosynthetic reaction center. This membrane protein complex is a basic component of photosynthesis - a process fundamental to life on Earth - and for their work, Huber and his colleagues received the 1988 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Because structural information is central to understanding virtually any biological process, Huber likens their discovery to "switching on the light" for scientists trying to understand photosynthesis. Huber marvels at the growth of structural biology since the time he entered the field, when crystallographers worked with hand-made instruments and primitive computers, and only "a handful" of crystallographers would meet annually in the Bavarian Alps. In the "explosion" of structural biology since his early days of research, Huber looks to the rising generation of scientists to solve the remaining mysteries in the field - such as the mechanisms that underlie protein folding. A strong proponent of science mentorship, Huber delights in meeting young researchers at the annual Nobel Laureate Meetings in Lindau, Germany. He hopes that among these young scientists is an "Einstein of biology" who, he says with a twinkle in his eye, "doesn't know it yet." The interview was conducted by JoVE co-founder Klaus J. Korak at the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting 2008 in Lindau, Germany.

  11. Apollo 12 Mission image - High oblique view of crater Copernicus and Carpathian Mt. range

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-19

    AS12-47-6876 (November 1969) --- An Apollo 12 high-oblique view of the lunar nearside looking northeast toward the crater Copernicus (in center near horizon), as photographed from lunar orbit. The shaded crater in the foreground is Reinhold. Reinhold B is the crater next to Reinhold which as the small crater in the center of it. Also, visible is the keyhole-shaped crater Fauth near the crater Copernicus.

  12. BIG KARL and COSY: Examples for high performance magnet design taught by {open_quotes}Papa Klaus{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtstedt, U.; Hacker, U.; Maier, R.

    1995-02-01

    The past decades have seen a tremendous development in nuclear, middle, and high energy physics. This advance was in a great part promoted by the availability of newer and more powerful instruments. Over time, these instruments grew in size as well as in sophistication and precision. Nearly all these devices had one fundamental thing in common - magnetic fields produced with currents and iron. The precision demanded by the new experiments and machines did bring the magnet technology to new frontiers requiring the utmost in the accuracy of magnetic fields. The complex properties of the iron challenged innumerable physicists inmore » the attempt to force the magnetic fields into the desired shape. Experience and analytical insight were the pillars for coping with those problems and only few mastered the skills and were in addition able to communicate their intricate knowledge. It was a fortuitous situation that the authors got to know Klaus Halbach who belonged to those few and who shared his knowledge contributing thus largely to the successful completion of two large instruments that were built at the Forschungszentrum Juelich, KFA, for nuclear and middle energy physics. In one case the efforts went to the large spectrometer named BIG KARL whose design phase started in the early 70`s. In the second case the work started in the early 80`s with the task to build a high precision 2.5 GeV proton accelerator for cooled stored and extracted beams known as COSY-Juelich.« less

  13. A psychometric evaluation of the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ) in a Swedish sample.

    PubMed

    Nystrom, Beatrice; Bengtsson, Hans

    2017-12-01

    Personality is generally considered to be biologically founded in temperament, and temperamental qualities have proven to be relatively stable across childhood and into adulthood (Caspi, Roberts & Shiner, ). Temperament predicts important developmental outcomes such as academic performance (Muris, ), and social functioning (Eisenberg, Fabes, Guthrie & Reiser, ), and it has also been found to be strongly related to the etiology and maintenance of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology in children (Muris, Meesters & Blijlevens, ; Nigg, ). To allow for the possibility of making early interventions, identification of potential risk factors (such as temperamental dispositions) is of great importance (Rettew & McKee, ). As temperament is multidimensional and has many different manifestations, parents and teachers are valuable sources in providing information about children's temperament (Rothbart & Bates, ; Tackett, Slobodskaya, Mar et al., ), and caregiver questionnaires are frequently used in child personality research. However, such questionnaires are only useful if their reliability and validity have been established. The aim of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ; Simonds, Kieras, Rueda & Rothbart, ), which focuses specifically on the ages between 7 and 11 years. The TMCQ is the least validated of the Rothbart measures, and although reliability data have been presented, together with some validity data, for a computerized self-report version of the questionnaire (Simonds & Rothbart, ), information about the reliability and validity for the caregiver version is scant. In the present paper, we report such data for a Swedish sample. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Moral contracts and the patient-physician relationship.

    PubMed

    Rothbard, D

    1984-01-01

    Rothbart critically examines Robert Veatch's contractual model of the physician patient relationship, which grounds a physician's obligations in a just decision procedure and requires a mutual, full disclosure of personal values and ethical principles. He sees Veatch's model as making unrealistic demands on both parties, and instead proposes a counseling-sanctioning model. In this model, two conceptions of individual autonomy, one creating a right to voluntary and independent decision making and the other addressing the ability to act freely, establish rights and duties for patient and physician. Rothbart argues that this model realistically represents the value-laden dimensions of medicine and mandates reasonable standards of patient care.

  15. Continuity of temperament from infancy to middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Komsi, Niina; Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Heinonen, Kati; Keskivaara, Pertti; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Strandberg, Timo E

    2006-12-01

    Continuity of temperament from 6 months (the IBQ) to 5.5 years (the CBQ) was explored in Finnish children (n=231) within the theoretical framework deviced by Rothbart. Activity level, smiling and laughter, distress to limitations and fear showed significant differential homotypic and heterotypic continuity, while soothability and duration of orienting showed significant differential heterotypic continuity. On the level of latent superconstructs, infant positive and negative affectivity accounted for 4.6, 22.3, and 6.0% of the variance in childhood extraversion, effortful control and negative affectivity, respectively. Infant and childhood temperament clustered into profile types named "resilient", "undercontrolled", and "overcontrolled" mirroring ipsative continuity. These findings give empirical credence to Rothbart's theory by replicating and extending previous findings in significant ways.

  16. The Infant Version of the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB): Measurement Properties and Implications for Concepts of Temperament

    PubMed Central

    Planalp, Elizabeth M.; Van Hulle, Carol; Gagne, Jeffrey R.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2017-01-01

    We describe large-sample research using the Infant Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB; Goldsmith and Rothbart, 1996) in 1,076 infants at 6 and 12 months of age. The Lab-TAB was designed to assess temperament dimensions through a series of episodes that mimic everyday situations. Our goal is to provide guidelines for scoring Lab-TAB episodes to derive temperament composites. We also present a set of analyses examining mean differences and stability of temperament in early infancy, gender differences in infant temperament, as well as a validation of Lab-TAB episodes and composites with parent reported Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ; Rothbart, 1981) scales. In general, laboratory observed temperament was only modestly related to parent reported temperament. However, temperament measures were significantly stable across time and several gender differences that align with previous research emerged. In sum, the Lab-TAB usefully assesses individual differences in infant emotionality. PMID:28596748

  17. Behavioural measures of child's eating temperament and their link with BMI.

    PubMed

    Godefroy, Valérie; Trinchera, Laura; Darcel, Nicolas; Rigal, Natalie

    2017-03-01

    Rothbart's model of temperament, defined as individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation, has a strong heuristic value with applications in a wide variety of children's outcomes. Our objective was to test Rothbart's model applied to children's food behaviours and BMI outcome through behavioural measures. Our hypotheses, according to Rothbart's model, were as follows: (i) self-regulation in eating modulates appetite reactivity; (ii) appetite reactivity increases the risk of excess BMI, whereas self-regulation in eating limits this risk. One hundred and four children aged between 7 and 12 years completed four behavioural tasks to assess scores for two components of appetite reactivity (i.e. appetite arousal and appetite persistence) and two components of self-regulation in eating (i.e. self-regulation in eating without hunger and self-regulation in eating speed). Their heights and weights were measured in order to calculate their BMI-for-age. T-tests and regression analysis were used to verify our hypotheses. None of the scores of self-regulation in eating was directly associated with BMI but we observed a significant impact of self-regulation in eating without hunger on appetite arousal (p-value = 0.04), together with a modest but significant association between appetite persistence and BMI (p-value = 0.02). We can thus conclude that our behavioural measures could be used for the determination of the child's eating temperament. Further studies are needed to investigate how to use these measures to improve the treatment of overweight in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Adolescent emotionality and effortful control: Core latent constructs and links to psychopathology and functioning.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Hannah R; Gulley, Lauren D; Bijttebier, Patricia; Hartman, Catharina A; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Mezulis, Amy; Young, Jami F; Hankin, Benjamin L

    2015-12-01

    Temperament is associated with important outcomes in adolescence, including academic and interpersonal functioning and psychopathology. Rothbart's temperament model is among the most well-studied and supported approaches to adolescent temperament, and contains 3 main components: positive emotionality (PE), negative emotionality (NE), and effortful control (EC). However, the latent factor structure of Rothbart's temperament measure for adolescents, the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire Revised (EATQ-R; Ellis & Rothbart, 2001) has not been definitively established. To address this problem and investigate links between adolescent temperament and functioning, we used confirmatory factor analysis to examine the latent constructs of the EATQ-R in a large combined sample. For EC and NE, bifactor models consisting of a common factor plus specific factors for some subfacets of each component fit best, providing a more nuanced understanding of these temperament dimensions. The nature of the PE construct in the EATQ-R is less clear. Models replicated in a hold-out dataset. The common components of high NE and low EC where broadly associated with increased psychopathology symptoms, and poor interpersonal and school functioning, while specific components of NE were further associated with corresponding specific components of psychopathology. Further questioning the construct validity of PE as measured by the EATQ-R, PE factors did not correlate with construct validity measures in a way consistent with theories of PE. Bringing consistency to the way the EATQ-R is modeled and using purer latent variables has the potential to advance the field in understanding links between dimensions of temperament and important outcomes of adolescent development. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Development of short and very short forms of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Putnam, Samuel P; Rothbart, Mary K

    2006-08-01

    Using data from 468 parents and taking into account internal consistency, breadth of item content, within-scale factor analysis, and patterns of missing data, we developed short (94 items, 15 scales) and very short (36 items, 3 broad scales) forms of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ; Rothbart, Ahadi, & Hershey, 1994; Rothbart, Ahadi, Hershey, & Fisher, 2001), a well-established parent-report measure of temperament for children aged 3 to 8 years. We subsequently evaluated the forms with data from 1,189 participants. In mid/high-income and White samples, the CBQ short and very short forms demonstrated both satisfactory internal consistency and criterion validity, and exhibited longitudinal stability and cross-informant agreement comparable to that of the standard CBQ. Internal consistency was somewhat lower among African American and low-income samples for some scales. Very short form scales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency for all samples, and confirmatory factor analyses indicated marginal fit of the very short form items to a three-factor model.

  20. 78 FR 41362 - Ontonagon Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... will be held at the Kenton Ranger District Office, 4810 E. M28, Kenton, Michigan. Written comments may... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lisa Klaus, RAC Coordinator, USDA, Ottawa National Forest Headquarters, E6248... agenda. Written comments and requests for time for oral comments must be sent to Lisa Klaus, Ottawa...

  1. Guided versus Independent Play: Which Better Sustains Attention among Infants and Toddlers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner-Neblett, Nicole; Holochwost, Steven J.; Gallagher, Kathleen Cranley; Iruka, Iheoma U.; Odom, Samuel L.; Pungello, Elizabeth P.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of sustained attention occurs during infancy and toddlerhood, as neurological maturation allows children to increasingly attend to objects and events in the environment (Ruff & Rothbart, 1996). Play experiences during this period can serve as a context during which children's ability to attend can provide an opportunity for…

  2. Temperament and Self-Soothing Behavior in Children: Object Attachment and Thumbsucking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Elyse Brauch; And Others

    A new measure of temperament, Rothbart's Children's Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ), was used to compare children with attachments to objects and those without such attachments. Comparisons were used to determine whether temperament differences between children with and without a history of object attachment held for children with and without a…

  3. 76 FR 22077 - Gogebic Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... building to view comments. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lisa Klaus, RAC coordinator, USDA, Ottawa National Forest, E6248 U.S. Hwy. 2, Ironwood, MI, (906) 932- 1330, ext. 328; e-mail [email protected] scheduled on the agenda. Written comments and requests for time for oral comments must be sent to Lisa Klaus...

  4. 76 FR 2882 - Ontonagon Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... should be sent to Lisa Klaus, Ottawa National Forest, E6248 U.S. Hwy. 2, Ironwood, MI 49938. Comments may also be sent via e-mail to [email protected] or via facsimile to 906-932-0122. All comments, including..., MI 49938. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lisa Klaus, RAC coordinator, USDA, Ottawa National Forest...

  5. 75 FR 45091 - Ontonagon Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Lisa Klaus, Ottawa National Forest, E6248 U.S. Hwy. 2, Ironwood, MI 49938. Comments may also be sent via e-mail to [email protected] or via facsimile to 906-932-0122. All comments, including names and.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lisa Klaus, RAC coordinator, USDA, Ottawa National Forest, E6248 U.S...

  6. Taking Care of You: Self-Care for Family Caregivers

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the following words modified from the original Serenity Prayer (attributed to American theologian Reinhold Niebuhr): “ God grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change, Courage ...

  7. 20. HISTORIC VIEW OF THE VEREIN FUER RAUMSCHIFFAHRT, 1930. LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. HISTORIC VIEW OF THE VEREIN FUER RAUMSCHIFFAHRT, 1930. LEFT TO RIGHT: RUDOLF NEBEL, FRANZ RITTER, UNKNOWN, KURT HEINISCH, UNKNOWN, HERMANN OBERTH, UNKNOWN, KLAUS RIEDEL, WERNHER VON BRAUN, UNKNOWN, KLAUS RIEDEL HOLDS EARLY VERSION OR MODEL FOR THE MINIMUM ROCKET, 'MIRAK'. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  8. Infant Negative Emotionality and Attachment: Implications for Preschool Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karrass, Jan; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.

    2004-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the extent to which dimensions of infant negative temperament in the first year predicted IQ at age 3, and whether these associations depended on the quality of the infant-mother attachment relationship. In a sample of 63 infant-mother dyads, mothers completed Rothbart's (1981) IBQ when infants were 4 and 12…

  9. Use of Fly Ash in the Mitigation of Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-12

    in Proceedings of teh International Symposium on Advances in Concrete Technology . 1992. 36. Siddique, R. and J. Klaus, Influence of metakaolin on...Fly Ash in Concrete, in Canada Center for Mineral and Energy Technology , Natural Resources Canada, , CANMET , Editor. 1994, MSL 94-45(IR): Ottawa...Proceedings of teh International Symposium on Advances in Concrete Technology . 1992. 36. Siddique, R. and J. Klaus, Influence of metakaolin on the

  10. Citizen in Uniform: Democratic Germany and the Changing Bundeswehr

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-09

    explanation than a definition of the concept.27 4 Maj. Petra McGregor, USAF, provides the following description: “Innere Fuehrung is…understood as a...the great majority of Germans opposed rearmament.” 11 Klaus-Juergen Bremm, Hans-Hubertus Mack, Martin Rink, Entschieden fuer den Frieden: 50 Jahre...Ordnung (Muenchen: R. Oldenbourg, 2007), VII-VIII; Klaus-Juergen Bremm, Hans-Hubertus Mack, Martin Rink, Entschieden fuer den Frieden, 3-4; [German

  11. Mathematical Modelling of Liner Piston Maintenance Activity using Field Data to Minimize Overhauling Time and Human Energy Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkhode, Pramod Namdeorao

    2017-06-01

    Field data based model is proposed to reduce the overhauling time and human energy consumed in liner piston maintenance activity so as to increase the productivity of liner piston maintenance activity. The independent variables affecting the phenomenon such as anthropometric parameters of workers (Eastman Kodak Co. Ltd in Section VIA Appendix-A: Anthropometric Data. Ergonomic Design for People at Work, Van Nostrans Reinhold, New York, 1), workers parameters, specification of liner piston data, specification of tools used in liner piston maintenance activity, specification of solvents, axial clearance of big end bearing and bolt elongation, workstation data (Eastman Kodak Co. Ltd in Work Place Ergonomic Design for People at Work, Van Nostrans Reinhold, New York, 2) and extraneous variables, namely, temperature, humidity at workplace, illumination at workplace and noise at workplace (Eastman Kodak Co. Ltd in Chapter V Environment Ergonomic Design for People at Work, Van Nostrans Reinhold, New York, 3) are taken into account. The model is formulated for dependent variables of liner piston maintenance activity to minimize the overhauling time and human energy consumption so as to improve the productivity of liner piston maintenance activity. The developed model can predict the performance of liner piston maintenance activity which involves man and machine system (Schenck in Theories of Engineering Experimentation, Mc-Graw Hill, New York 4). The model is then optimized by optimization technique and the sensitivity analysis of the model has also been estimated.

  12. On the Origin of Nonmare Materials at the Apollo 12 Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Gillis, J. J.; Korotev, R. L.; Haskin, L. A.

    2000-01-01

    Sources of nonmare material at the Apollo 12 site are investigated using remotely sensed FeO and Th data and measured soil compositions. Copernicus ray ejecta, Reinhold ejecta, and vertical gardening of buried crater ejecta (Lansberg) are evaluated.

  13. STS-42 Payload Specialist Merbold inside KC-135 during zero gravity flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1988-05-24

    S88-37966 (2 Oct 1988) --- European Space Agency payload specialists Ulf Merbold (STS-42, right) and Reinhold Furrer (STS 61-A) get the "feel" of zero-gravity aboard NASA's KC-135 aircraft over the Gulf of Mexico.

  14. 78 FR 73568 - Senior Executive Service-Performance Review Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... Coleman, Chief Financial Officer Joseph Kennedy, Associate Director for Human Resources Solutions Mark Reinhold, Chief Human Capital Officer and Acting Associate Director for Employee Services [FR Doc. 2013... Management: Ann Marie Habershaw, Chief of Staff Angela Bailey, Chief Operating Officer Elizabeth Montoya...

  15. Investigation of Laser-Induced Retinal Damage: Wavelength and Pulsewidth Dependent Mechanisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-30

    Jun, Fos and the AP-1 complex in cell-proliferation and transformation. Biochim Biophys Acta 1991;1072:129-57. 2. Artuc M, Ramshad M, Kappus H. Studies...M, Reinhold C, Kappus H. DNA damage caused by laser light activated hematoporphyrin derivatives in isolated nuclei of human melanoma cells. Arch

  16. Assessing System Architectures: The Canonical Decomposition Fuzzy Comparative Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    me. Thank you to my sisters, Vanessa and Valerie, for their support and for putting up with me while we were growing up. Finally and most...Antenna Handbook Theory, Applications, and Deign. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. 85 Maier, M. W. and E. Rechtin. 2002. The Art of Systems

  17. Structures and Functions of Selective Attention.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-20

    phonological and semantic representations in memory ( LaBerge & Samuels, 1974; Marcel, 1983; Posner, 1978). The advantage of an integrated word, even in...0014-86-0289 and by the McDonnell Center for Higher Brain Function. I am grateful to Drs. Mary K. Rothbart, Steven E. Petersen and Jennifer Sandson...benefit of cost and benefit. Psychology Bulletin, 1984, 96, 29-44. Kosslyn, S.M. (1980) Image and Mind. Harvard Press, Cambridge, MA. LaBerge , D.L

  18. Investigation of Laser-Induced Retinal Damage: Wavelength and Pulsewidth Dependent Mechanisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-31

    transformation. Biochim Biophys Acta 1991; 1072:129-57. 2. Artuc M, Ramshad M, Kappus H. Studies on acute toxic effects to keratinocytes induced by...hematoporphyrin derivatives and laser light Arch Dermatol Res 1989;281:491-4. 3. Artuc M, Ramshad M, Reinhold C, Kappus H. DNA damage caused by laser light

  19. Summiteers--Moving Mountains with Bereaved Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Hans-Georg

    2011-01-01

    Summiteers are people who rush to the top. There is a mountain summit and a metaphorical summit inside us which we can climb. In the area of mountain summits, Reinhold Messner is surely the best known and most successful summiteer. He climbed, among other things, the highest peak on earth without supplemental oxygen. In the language of the country…

  20. Make Learning Stick: Best Practices to Get the Most Out of Leadership Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhold, Diane; Patterson, Tracy; Hegel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In this white paper, Diane Reinhold, Tracy Patterson, and Peter Hegel assert that there is no magic bullet to ensure people apply what they learn. There are, however, steps that can be taken to create leadership programs, experiences, and supports that improve the likelihood that lessons will be learned and applied. Over time, new skills,…

  1. Mark A. Cane Receives 2013 Maurice Ewing Medal: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cane, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    I must first pay tribute to Klaus Wyrtki, a hero of mine who passed away earlier this year. At a time when ideas about El Niño pointed all over the place, he told me that Bjerknes's hypothesis was the way forward. He was right, of course, but Bjerknes stopped short of explaining the oscillatory nature of ENSO, and it took Klaus's tide gauge data to show that ocean dynamics is the answer. His analysis was masterful, but there would have been nothing much to analyze without his incredible effort to deploy those tide gauges in atolls and islands throughout the tropical Pacific. My magnum opus may fairly be described as translating Bjerknes-Wyrtki into a numerical model.

  2. The Development of Mobile Augmented Reality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    working jointly with NRL, performed a domain analysis ( Gabbard et al., 2002) to create a context for usability engineering effort, performed formative...rectangle to provide a background enabled the fastest user performance ( Gabbard et al., 2007). Tracking the user’s head position relative to the real...thank Yohan Baillot, Reinhold Behringer, Blaine Bell, Dennis Brown, Aaron Bryden, Enylton Coelho, Elliot Cooper-Balis, Deborah Hix, Joseph Gabbard

  3. 2015 Military Investigation and Justice Experience Survey (MIJES). Overview Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-16

    FMG) b Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC) a SRA International, Inc., A CSRA Company Defense Manpower Data Center 4800 Mark Center Drive, Suite... Manpower Data Center (DMDC) is indebted to numerous people for their assistance with the 2015 Military Investigation and Justice Experience Survey (2015...Statistical Analysis Macros to calculate the results presented in this report. Ms. Sue Reinhold provided assistance with programming and merging contact

  4. Radar/Sonar and Time Series Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-27

    Davis, William Dunsmuir Fourier and Likelihood Analysis in NMR Spectroscopy .......... David Brillinger and Reinhold Kaiser Resampling Techniques for...Zubelli. 2:30 pm Gunter Meyer The parabolic Fock theory for a convex dielectric Georgia Tech. scatterer Abstract: This talk deals with a high frequency...Lincoln Laboratory, MIT Jun 18 - Jun 29 Gunter Meyer Georgia Institute of Technology Jun 25 - Jun 29 Willard Miller University of Minnesota Ruth Miniowitz

  5. Expedient Emergency Sanitation Measures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    maintaining or restoring adequate sanitation in a widespread emergency. In the event of a major earthquake or nuclear attack, sewage collection and...sanitation in a widespread emergency. In the event of a major earthquake or nuclear attack, sewage collection and treatment systems, electric power and...Handbook of Chlorination, Von Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1972, and Appendix C. 12 chlorine disinfection. The cysts of the protozoa Entamoeba

  6. Multimedia and Audience: Implications for Executive Summaries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-12-01

    by the Institute for Defense Analysis ( Fetterman , 1993:123). As well, organizations such as Federal Express, IBM, and the U.S. Army have studied the...training compression, less delivery variance, better consistency of learning, and greater learning gains ( Fetterman , 1993:128-129). As defined previously... Fetterman , Roger L. and Satish K. Gupta. Mainstream Multimedia: Applying Multimedia in Business. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1993. Grice, Roger A

  7. Applying a Hypoxia-Incorporating TCP Model to Experimental Data on Rat Sarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggieri, Ruggero, E-mail: ruggieri.ruggero@gmail.com; Stavreva, Nadejda; Naccarato, Stefania

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To verify whether a tumor control probability (TCP) model which mechanistically incorporates acute and chronic hypoxia is able to describe animal in vivo dose-response data, exhibiting tumor reoxygenation. Methods and Materials: The investigated TCP model accounts for tumor repopulation, reoxygenation of chronic hypoxia, and fluctuating oxygenation of acute hypoxia. Using the maximum likelihood method, the model is fitted to Fischer-Moulder data on Wag/Rij rats, inoculated with rat rhabdomyosarcoma BA1112, and irradiated in vivo using different fractionation schemes. This data set is chosen because two of the experimental dose-response curves exhibit an inverse dose behavior, which is interpreted as duemore » to reoxygenation. The tested TCP model is complex, and therefore, in vivo cell survival data on the same BA1112 cell line from Reinhold were added to Fischer-Moulder data and fitted simultaneously with a corresponding cell survival function. Results: The obtained fit to the combined Fischer-Moulder-Reinhold data was statistically acceptable. The best-fit values of the model parameters for which information exists were in the range of published values. The cell survival curves of well-oxygenated and hypoxic cells, computed using the best-fit values of the radiosensitivities and the initial number of clonogens, were in good agreement with the corresponding in vitro and in situ experiments of Reinhold. The best-fit values of most of the hypoxia-related parameters were used to recompute the TCP for non-small cell lung cancer patients as a function of the number of fractions, TCP(n). Conclusions: The investigated TCP model adequately describes animal in vivo data exhibiting tumor reoxygenation. The TCP(n) curve computed for non-small cell lung cancer patients with the best-fit values of most of the hypoxia-related parameters confirms previously obtained abrupt reduction in TCP for n < 10, thus warning against the adoption of severely hypofractionated

  8. The Influence of Learning Strategies in the Acquisition, Retention, and Transfer of a Visual Tracking Task

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    Psychology, Psychoanalysis and Neurology X. N. Y.: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1977. Craik , F. I. M., & Lockhart , R. S. Levels of processing : A framework for...Morris, C. D., & Stein, B. S. Some general constraints oil learning and memory research. In F. I. M. Craik & L. S. Cermak (Eds.), Levels of processing ... Craik & Lockhart , 1972; Craik & Tulving, 1975). Although the dependent measures differ, the conclusions drawn remain similar. Strategy usage has a

  9. Radar/Sonar and Time Series Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-08

    Fourier and Likelihood Analysis in NMR Spectroscopy .......... David Brillinger and Reinhold Kaiser Resampling Techniques for Stationary Time-series... Meyer The parabolic Fock theory foi a convex dielectric Georgia Tech. scatterer Abstract. This talk deals with a high frequency as) mptotic m~thod for...Malesky Inst. of Physics, Moscow Jun 11 - Jun 15 Victor P. Maslov MIEIM, USSR May 29 - Jun 15 Robert P. Meyer University of Wisconsin Jun 11 - Jun 15

  10. Shipboard Tests of Halon 1301 Test Gas Simulants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-22

    Halon 1301 Test Gas Simulants," Memo Report, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 1989. 8. Air Products and Chemicals , Inc ., "SF6 , An... Products and Chemicals , Inc ., "Specialty Gas Material Safety Data Sheet, Sulfur Hexafluoride " Air Products and Chemicals, Specialty Gas Department...34 Washington, DC, 1978. 11. N.I. Sax, Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials, Sixth Edition, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, NY, 1984. 12. Air

  11. Coupled Thermo-Mechanical and Photo-Chemical Degradation Mechanisms that determine the Reliability and Operational Lifetimes for CPV Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Dauskardt, Reinhold H.

    This project sought to identify and characterize the coupled intrinsic photo-chemo-mechanical degradation mechanisms that determine the reliability and operational lifetimes for CPV technologies. Over a three year period, we have completed a highly successful program which has developed quantitative metrologies and detailed physics-based degradation models, providing new insight into the fundamental reliability physics necessary for improving materials, creating accelerated testing protocols, and producing more accurate lifetime predictions. The tasks for the program were separated into two focus areas shown in the figure below. Focus Area 1, led by Reinhold Dauskardt and Warren Cai with a primary collaboration with David Millermore » of NREL, studied the degradation mechanisms present in encapsulant materials. Focus Area 2, led by Reinhold Dauskardt and Ryan Brock with a primary collaboration with James Ermer and Peter Hebert of Spectrolab, studied stress development and degradation within internal CPV device interfaces. Each focus area was productive, leading to several publications, including findings on the degradation of silicone encapsulant under terrestrial UV, a model for photodegradation of silicone encapsulant adhesion, quantification and process tuning of antireflective layers on CPV, and discovery of a thermal cycling degradation mechanism present in metal gridline structures.« less

  12. Gender and Psychological Essentialism

    PubMed Central

    Heyman, Gail D.; Giles, Jessica W.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY When individuals reason in an essentialist way about social categories, they assume that group differences reflect inherently different natures (Gelman, 2003; Rothbart & Taylor, 1992). This paper describes the psychological and social implications of essentialist beliefs, and examines the extent to which children exhibit psychological essentialism when reasoning about gender. The authors discuss reasons young children as well as older children show essentialist reasoning in some contexts, but not in others. Finally, the authors suggest directions for future research, and discuss a primary challenge to many working in this field: reduction of rigid gender beliefs. PMID:21528097

  13. Military Applications of Augmented Reality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Perception and Occlusion Representation Among the things our initial domain analysis [ Gabbard et al(2002)] indicated as a potential advantage for AR...Steven Feiner, Blaine Bell, Deborah Hix, Joseph L. Gabbard , Tobias Höllerer, Blair MacIntyre, Enylton Coelho, Ulrich Neumann, Suya You, Reinhold...Annual Meeting, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, pp 48–52 [ Gabbard et al(2002)] Gabbard JL, Swan II JE, Hix D, Lanzagorta M, Livingston MA, Brown D

  14. Physical Property Data Review of Selected Chemical Agents and Related Compounds: Updating Field Manual 3-9 (FM 3-9)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    Ed.; Reinhold Book Corporation: New York, 1968. Daroff, P.M.; Metz, D.; Roberts, A.; Adams, J.A.; Jenkins, W. Oleoresin Capsicum : An Effective Less...Capsaicin, The Pungent Principle of Capsicum . III. J.Am. Chem. Soc. 1923, 45, p 2179. Newman, J.H., Edgewood Arsenal Notebook # NB 9298, p 64 (U...Service: Edgewood Arsenal, MD, 1921, UNCLASSIFIED Report (AD-B955153). Steadman, A. Isolation ofCapsaicin from Capsicum ; EACD 188; U.S. Army Chemical

  15. Image Understanding Architecture Prototype Evaluation and Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    combination of the two. There are examples where a hybrid of these approaches have been used (for example, Cedar [ Gajski 83; 86], NETRA [Sharma 85], and PM4...interconnection network can be found in Cedar [ Gajski 83; Gajski 86], Aquarius [Srini 851, the Las Alamos project [Trujillo 82], and the Burroughs Scientific...Foster 76 1 C. C. Foster, Content Addressable Parallel Processors, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, 1976. [ Gajski 83 ] Daniel Gajski et al

  16. Building and Operating Spacelab: Spacelab Design and Systems Engineering Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Axel; Berge, Klaus; Thirkettle, Alan; Craft, Harry G., Jr.; Benson, Robert

    2000-01-01

    This document is the transcription of the Spacelab Design and Systems Engineering Panel's discussion of the Spacelab program. It includes information on Spacelab's origin and development. The panel includes Klaus Berge, Bob Benson, Allan Thirkettle, and Harry Craft.

  17. Black Silicon Germanium (SiGe) for Extended Wavelength Near Infrared Electro-optical Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    samples were dipped in an aqueous solution of iodine (I) and potassium iodide (KI) (25 gm I and 100 gm KI per liter of water [H2O] ) (16). The samples...Satterfield, C. N.; Wentworth, R. L. in Hydrogen Peroxide , Reinhold Publishing, New York, 1955, p. 370. 12 19. Kishioka, K.; Horita, S.; Ohdaria, K...germanium H2O water HBT heterojunction bipolar transistor I iodine IPA isopropal alcohol KI potassium iodide MEE metal enhanced etching

  18. Effects of Strong Local Sporadic E on ELF Propagation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-15

    Huygens diffraction model (e.g., Marcuse , 1972). The model is similar to that used by Crombie. Unlike Crombie’s work however , the Fresnel approximation...40. Marcuse , D., “Light transmission optics ,” Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York , 1972. Papper t , R. A. & Moler , W. F., “A theoretica’ study of...ATTN Donald Dubbert O1 CY ATTN Herbert Rend University of IllinoisDepartment of Electrical Engineering Develco Urbana , IL 61803 530 Logue Avenue O2CY

  19. Aerobic Biodegradation of DI-n-Butylphthalate by Pure and Mixed Bacterial Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-01

    70 days in their studies. Wang and Grady (1995)7 explored the effects of biosorption and dissolution on the biodegradation of DBP. Biosorption ...isotherms for DBP by live and dead bacteria was evaluated by Wang and Grady (1994)4. Biosorption was significant in both live and dead bacteria, however, it...Data on Organic Chemicals. 2nd Ed., Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York. 4. Wang, X. and Grady Jr., C. P. L. (1994) Comparison of Biosorption

  20. Annual Progress Report Fiscal Year 1979 (U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    J. B. Sampson. A new inventory for the assessment of symptom occurrence and severity at high altitude. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 50(9)925:929, 1979...Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 47:280-301, 1976. 3. Caridis, D. T., R. B. Reinhold, P. W. Woodruff and J. Fine. Endotoxemia in man. Lancet. 2:1381-1386...Accidental hypothermia: An experimental study of practical rewarming methods. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 48:625-632, 1977. 4. D’Amato, H. E., S. Kronhein

  1. Analysis of the Effects of Phase Noise and Frequency Offset in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    Data Communication , http://www.iec.org/, last accessed December 2003. 13. Klaus Witrisal, “Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) for...http://ieeexplore.ieee.org, last accessed 26 February 2003. 12. The International Engineering Consortium, Web Forum Tutorials, OFDM for Mobile

  2. Development and Use of Fluorescent Probes for Detection, Enumeration and Identification of Naturally-Occurring Marine Viruses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-31

    Samples were preserved (27) stemmed from a loss in titer that occurred when viruses in 1% glutaraldehyde before application to carbon-coated were added to...counting a minimum of 100 VLPs from 5 random fields at a magnification of 10,000 x. For most applications counting a minimum of 20 fields containing at...biological applications , Vol. 4, Hayat, M.A., editor, Van Nostrom Reinhold, N.Y., 1974, pp 79-104. 15. Proctor, L.M., and Fuhrman, J.A., Viral mortality

  3. Urbanization and Insurgency: The Turkish Case, 1976-1980

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    Political Socialization of West German Terrorism," in Peter Merkl (ed.), Political Violence and Terror, University of California Press, Berkeley...25, 1987. Wasmund, Klaus, "The Political Socialization of West German Terrorism," in Peter Merki (ed.), Political Violence and Terror, University of

  4. From Self-Organized to Extended Criticality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-26

    Texas, Denton, TX, USA 2 Centro EXTREME, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa, Italy 3 Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica-CNR, Pisa, Italy 4 Department of Physics...Netherlands Klaus Linkenkaer-Hansen, Center for Neurogenomics and Cognitive Research, Netherlands *Correspondence: Paolo Allegrini , Istituto di Fisiologia

  5. Revitalising "Bildsamkeit"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saeverot, Herner

    2016-01-01

    In the book "Forgotten Connections. On Culture and Upbringing," originally from 1983, the late German educator Klaus Mollenhauer interprets Johann Friedrich Herbart's educational concept of "Bildsamkeit", i.e., the ability and willingness to be educated. Furthermore, Mollenhauer conceives "Bildsamkeit" as growing out…

  6. Explorations in Regional Variation: A Variational Pragmatic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The present article introduces the Special Issue entitled "A Variational Pragmatic Approach to Regional Variation in Language," a collection of papers which celebrates the work of Klaus P. Schneider (Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Germany) on the occasion of his 60th birthday.

  7. Changelings and Radical Mutant Teens: Boundary Pushing In Adolescent Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Mark

    This paper focuses on the "transforming spirit of adolescence." The six novels (all have young female protagonists) explored in the paper show the natural bewilderment (and delight) that accompanies new powers and abilities. The paper focuses on radical young adult transformations in Annette Curtis Klause's "Blood and…

  8. The Teacher Trainer, A Practical Journal Mainly for Modern Language Teacher Trainers, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Tessa, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The three issues of the journal on second language teacher education include these articles: "Making a Course Your Own: Involving Trainees in the Planning and Evaluation of a Special Group Summer Course Abroad" (Klaus Lutz); "Task Based Learning - Appropriate Methodology?" (Jane Cadorath, Simon Harris); "Building Group…

  9. The Role of International Juridical Process in International Security and Civil-Military Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    judged, although under domestic criminal law provisions, certainly in the light of the Nuremberg principles, e.g. the Eichmann case by the District...Court of Jerusalem in 1961, and the case of Klaus Barbie in France. Until today the application of international rules of war remains generally

  10. Development Communication Report No. 45.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development Communication Report, 1984

    1984-01-01

    A variety of topics related to innovative uses of media in international development are addressed in this newsletter, which includes the following articles: "The Radio Mathematics Project: New Examples of Technology Transfer," by Klaus Galda; "An Overview and Guide: Planning Instructional Radio," by Maurice Imhoof;…

  11. Halbach array motor/generators: A novel generalized electric machine

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, B.T.; Post, R.F.; Dreifuerst, G.R.

    1995-02-01

    For many years Klaus Halbach has been investigating novel designs for permanent magnet arrays, using advanced analytical approaches and employing a keen insight into such systems. One of his motivations for this research was to find more efficient means for the utilization of permanent magnets for use in particle accelerators and in the control of particle beams. As a result of his pioneering work, high power free-electron laser systems, such as the ones built at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, became feasible, and his arrays have been incorporated into other particle-focusing systems of various types. This paper reports another, quite different,more » application of Klaus` work, in the design of high power, high efficiency, electric generators and motors. When tested, these motor/generator systems display some rather remarkable properties. Their success derives from the special properties which these arrays, which the authors choose to call {open_quotes}Halbach arrays,{close_quotes} possess.« less

  12. Calculated and measured fields in superferric wiggler magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, E.B.; Solomon, L.

    1995-02-01

    Although Klaus Halbach is widely known and appreciated as the originator of the computer program POISSON for electromagnetic field calculation, Klaus has always believed that analytical methods can give much more insight into the performance of a magnet than numerical simulation. Analytical approximations readily show how the different aspects of a magnet`s design such as pole dimensions, current, and coil configuration contribute to the performance. These methods yield accuracies of better than 10%. Analytical methods should therefore be used when conceptualizing a magnet design. Computer analysis can then be used for refinement. A simple model is presented for the peakmore » on-axis field of an electro-magnetic wiggler with iron poles and superconducting coils. The model is applied to the radiator section of the superconducting wiggler for the BNL Harmonic Generation Free Electron Laser. The predictions of the model are compared to the measured field and the results from POISSON.« less

  13. Comparative Vocational Education and Training Research in Europe: Balance and Perspectives. Contributions, Recommendations and Follow-Up of the CEDEFOP/DIPF Conference from January 1998 at the Science Centre in Bonn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauterbach, Uwe, Ed.; Sellin, Burkart, Ed.

    This document contains 32 papers from a conference on balance and perspectives in comparative vocational education and training (VET) research in Europe. Selected papers are as follows: "On the Path to Vocational Training Research with a European Dimension" (Oliver Lubke, Klaus Schedler, Alphonse de Vadder); "The Val Duchesse Social…

  14. Early Identification of Skill Needs in Europe. CEDEFOP Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Susanne Liane, Ed.; Schomann, Klaus, Ed.; Tessaring, Manfred, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers: "Early Recognition of Skill Needs in Europe: European Conference, Berlin, 30/31 May 2002" (Susanne Liane Schmidt, Klaus Schomann, Manfred Tessaring); "Welcome and Opening of the European Conference 'Early Recognition of Skill Needs in Europe,' 30 May 2002, Social Sciences Research Center…

  15. Alejo Carpentier: Lo real y lo maravilloso en "El Reino de Este Mundo" (Alejo Carpentier: The Real and the Fantastic in "The Rule of the World")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez Monegal, Emir

    1971-01-01

    Special issue dedicated to studies on contemporary Spanish American literature. Paper read at the symposium on Alejo Carpentier organized by Klaus Muller-Bergh at Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, under the auspices of the Antilles Research Program of the Council for Latin American Studies, on April 17, 1971. (DS)

  16. Lifelong Learning: One Focus, Different Systems. Studien zur Erwachsenenbildung, Band 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, Klaus, Ed.; Heikkinen, Anja, Ed.; Rahn, Sylvia, Ed.; Schemmann, Michael, Ed.

    These 17 articles on different subjects of the broader theme "lifelong learning" represent the latest results of the discussions of the Vocational Education and Culture Research Network. An introduction (Klaus Harney et al.) provides summaries of the contents. The articles are "The Global and International Discourse of Lifelong…

  17. Contributions to Clinical Neuropsychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Arthur L., Ed.

    Seven aspects of neuropsychology are discussed including modern trends in neuropsychology by Klaus Poeck, the behavioral effect s of commissural section by George Ettlinger and Colin B. Blakemore, neuropsychological studies of phantom limbs by Sidney Weinstein, and problems in the anatomical understanding of aphasias by Norman Geschwind. Also…

  18. Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology. Volume 9, Issue 5 (Ver. 2.0)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixit, R. K.

    2010-01-01

    This is a special issue published in version 1.0 of "Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology." Articles in this issue include: (1) [Theta] Scheme (Orthogonal Milstein Scheme), a Better Numerical Approximation for Multi-dimensional SDEs (Klaus Schmitz Abe); (2) Input Data Processing Techniques in Intrusion Detection…

  19. Quantum Effects in Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohseni, Masoud; Omar, Yasser; Engel, Gregory S.; Plenio, Martin B.

    2014-08-01

    List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Quantum biology: introduction Graham R. Fleming and Gregory D. Scholes; 2. Open quantum system approaches to biological systems Alireza Shabani, Masoud Mohseni, Seogjoo Jang, Akihito Ishizaki, Martin Plenio, Patrick Rebentrost, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Jianshu Cao, Seth Lloyd and Robert Silbey; 3. Generalized Förster resonance energy transfer Seogjoo Jang, Hoda Hossein-Nejad and Gregory D. Scholes; 4. Multidimensional electronic spectroscopy Tomáš Mančal; Part II. Quantum Effects in Bacterial Photosynthetic Energy Transfer: 5. Structure, function, and quantum dynamics of pigment protein complexes Ioan Kosztin and Klaus Schulten; 6. Direct observation of quantum coherence Gregory S. Engel; 7. Environment-assisted quantum transport Masoud Mohseni, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Patrick Rebentrost, Alireza Shabani, Seth Lloyd, Susana F. Huelga and Martin B. Plenio; Part III. Quantum Effects in Higher Organisms and Applications: 8. Excitation energy transfer in higher plants Elisabet Romero, Vladimir I. Novoderezhkin and Rienk van Grondelle; 9. Electron transfer in proteins Spiros S. Skourtis; 10. A chemical compass for bird navigation Ilia A. Solov'yov, Thorsten Ritz, Klaus Schulten and Peter J. Hore; 11. Quantum biology of retinal Klaus Schulten and Shigehiko Hayashi; 12. Quantum vibrational effects on sense of smell A. M. Stoneham, L. Turin, J. C. Brookes and A. P. Horsfield; 13. A perspective on possible manifestations of entanglement in biological systems Hans J. Briegel and Sandu Popescu; 14. Design and applications of bio-inspired quantum materials Mohan Sarovar, Dörthe M. Eisele and K. Birgitta Whaley; 15. Coherent excitons in carbon nanotubes Leonas Valkunas and Darius Abramavicius; Glossary; References; Index.

  20. SciTech Connect

    Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Gordon, Mark S.

    “I am indebted to my father for living, but to my teacher for living well" said Alexander the Great, the King of Greek Macedonia, about his teacher, the philosopher Aristotle. This statement echoes the widely held belief of the students, research associates, collaborators and admirers of Klaus Ruedenberg regarding his invaluable contribution towards shaping their scientific lives. This special issue of the Journal of Physical Chemistry presents a tribute to Professor Klaus Ruedenberg, on the occasion of his 90th birthday, for his numerous scientific contributions to the field of quantum chemistry. The many outstanding papers that are part of thismore » issue document his seminal contributions to a broad range of quantum chemistry, including the evaluation of electron repulsion integrals, the free-electron network model for conjugated molecules, the origin of covalent bonding, including the central role of the kinetic energy in the covalent bond, and the intrinsic identification of chemical bonding patterns in molecular systems, orbital localization that has enabled a deep understanding of many chemical phenomena, the multi-configurational self-consistent field method and the concept of the Full Optimized Reaction Space (FORS) to study chemical rearrangements and its application to the study of global potential energy surfaces and conical intersections, the first construction of systematic, eventempered sequences of orbital sets that approach the complete basis set limit, and the novel simultaneous extrapolation of basis set and level of theory to achieve nearly exact molecular energies and vibrational spectra. In addition, as past students and research associates of Klaus Ruedenberg, that is people whose scientific and personal lives have been critically affected by a great teacher, we wish to point out a less well-known aspect of his professional career, that of an educator. Professor Klaus Ruedenberg has a passion for communicating scientific ideas and

  1. Variational Pragmatics and "Responding to Thanks"--Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieswanger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In 2005, Klaus P. Schneider published a fascinating article with the title "'No problem, you're welcome, anytime': Responding to thanks in Ireland, England, and the U.S.A." Adopting the then emerging and now established framework of variational pragmatics, Schneider's pioneering paper presents the results of a study on differences…

  2. Education, Training and Contexts: Studies and Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauglo, Jon

    This volume provides an overview of some of the outstanding features of the work of the Norwegian sociologist and comparative educationist, Jon Lauglo. After an introduction, "'It Ain't Necessarily So!': Theories and Observations in Jon Lauglo's World of Education and Training" (Se-Yung Lim and Klaus Schaack), essays and studies are…

  3. The Petsamo-Kirkenes Operation: Soviet Breakthrough and Pursuit in the Arctic, October 1944 (Leavenworth Papers, Number 17)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    Roschmann , "Small Unit Tactics, Combats in Taiga and Tundra," Foreign Military Studies no. MS P-060m (Historical Division, U.S. Army, Europe, 1952), 148...Brockelmann, Klaus, and Hans Roschmann . "Small Unit Tactics, Combats in Taiga and Tundra." Foreign Military Studies no. MS P-060m. Historical Division

  4. International Conference on Numerical Grid Generation in Computational Fluid Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-30

    Joseph M. Juarez DFVLR SM -TS The Aerospace Corp. Bunsenstr-10 PO Box 92957 M5/559 D-3406 Gottingen Los Angeles CA 90009 F R Germany Klaus A. Hoffmann...Washington, D.C. 20332 Troy, NY 12180 Per Nielsen R. Raghunath Graduate Student Research Fellow Laboratory for Applied Math. Physic NOAA / AOML

  5. Commoditizing Nonhuman Animals and Their Consumers: Industrial Livestock Production, Animal Welfare, and Ecological Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod-Kilmurray, Heather

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing research on the effects of industrial livestock production on the environment and human health, but less on the effects this has on animal welfare and ecological justice. The concept of ecological justice as a tool for achieving sustainability is gaining traction in the legal world. Klaus Bosselman defines ecological justice as…

  6. Political Communication Yearbook 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Keith R., Ed.; And Others

    Focusing on current scholarship in the evolving field of political communication, this publication is organized in three sections. Part 1, "Current Perspectives on the Spiral of Silence," features essays by Charles T. Salmon and F. Gerald Kline, Klaus Merten, Carroll J. Glynn and Jack M. McLeod, and a response by the theory's original…

  7. Work-based training's 'profound effect'.

    PubMed

    Muecher, Klaus

    2016-08-01

    Klaus Muecher, Higher Education Programmes manager at Eastwood Park Training, examines the benefits of work-based learning. He suggests that, in addition to equipping those undertaking such training with valuable new skills and expertise, 'in a world of continuous quality improvement and change management', work-based degree students can also act as 'the subtle drivers of positive change'.

  8. Review of A critique of silviculture: managing for complexity

    Treesearch

    Brian R. Lockhart

    2010-01-01

    Klaus Puettmann, K. David Coates, and Christian Messier have written a timely book. One of a few books specifically about American silviculture outside of the standard textbooks by Daniel et al. (1979), Smith et al. (1997), and Nyland (2002), and going beyond the regional focus of many of the other silviculture books, Critique of Silviculture: Managing for Complexity...

  9. Vibrationally Excited Ions: Quenching Reaction Enhancement, Lifetimes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    affinities in our lad- A,.=Af exp( - AS/IR) = I .IX 10𔄃 cm’ S_ with limits der . Any change it. P.A.(Br), ither due to a change in bet~een 7.Sx l3 9and...8217K P Huber and G Hereberg. C oeto of Drateooc Molecules ( Van "M Tubs’, G JasAay. N D Toeddy. and B. B. Fergusn. Ini J Mass Nostrand-Reinhold. New York...objectives and it seemed possible .aat neut - rals such as N,. Xe and CF, might provide suitable monitor gases for vibra- tionally excited HBr*. For HBr

  10. President of Czech Republic visits ESO's Paranal Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-04-01

    On 6 April 2011, the ESO Paranal Observatory was honoured with a visit from the President of the Czech Republic, Václav Klaus, and his wife Livia Klausová, who also took the opportunity to admire Cerro Armazones, the future site of the planned E-ELT. The distinguished visitor was shown the technical installations at the observatory, and was present when the dome of one of the four 8.2-metre Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope opened for a night's observing at Cerro Paranal, the world's most advanced visible-light observatory. "I'm delighted to welcome President Klaus to the Paranal Observatory and to show him first-hand the world-leading astronomical facility that ESO has designed, has built, and operates for European astronomy," said ESO's Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. President Klaus replied, "I am very impressed by the remarkable technology that ESO has built here in the heart of the desert. Czech astronomers are already making good use of these facilities and we look forward to having Czech industry and its scientific community contribute to the future E-ELT." From the VLT platform, the President had the opportunity to admire Cerro Armazones as well as other spectacular views of Chile's Atacama Desert surrounding Paranal. Adjacent to Cerro Paranal, Armazones has been chosen as the site for the future E-ELT (see eso1018). ESO is seeking approval from its governing bodies by the end of 2011 for the go-ahead for the 1-billion euro E-ELT. Construction is expected to begin in 2012 and the start of operations is planned for early in the next decade. President Klaus was accompanied by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic, Karel Schwarzenberg, the Czech Ambassador in Chile, Zdenek Kubánek, dignitaries of the government, and a Czech industrial delegation. The group was hosted at Paranal by the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw, the ESO Representative in Chile, Massimo Tarenghi, the Director of Operations, Andreas Kaufer, and Jan Palous

  11. Earthworms as Invasive Species in Latin America — the 2nd Latin American Meeting on Oligochaeta (Earthworm) Ecology and Taxonomy

    Treesearch

    Grizelle Gonzalez

    2006-01-01

    This special issue is based on scientific contributions presented at the 2nd Latin American Symposium of Earthworm Ecology and Taxonomy (ELAETAO, for its Spanish acronym) held in San Juan, Puerto Rico November 14-18, 2005. The first of these symposia was organized by George G. Brown and Klaus D. Sautter and held at Londrina, Brazil from December 1-3, 2003.The objective...

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Activity cycles in 3203 Kepler stars (Reinhold+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhold, T.; Cameron, R. H.; Gizon, L.

    2017-05-01

    Rvar time series, sine fit parameters, mean rotation periods, and false alarm probabilities of all 3203 Kepler stars are presented. For simplicity, the KIC number and the fit parameters of a certain star are repeated in each line. The fit function to the Rvar(t) time series equals y_fit=Acyc*sin(2*pi/(Pcyc*365)*(t-t0))+Offset. (2 data files).

  13. Corrosion/Deterioration of Fuel Tank Materials Wetted in Methanolic Electrolytes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-15

    R32 DD FORM 1473, 84 MAR 83 APR edition may be used until exhausted. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE All other editions are obsolete *U.S... aiSA A12A A1AS5!S1tit "IiaA Id~A1131 *AWFl 1t1103114W) No us" C C A C A C C A~tt A A CS Sell lA~~~l, 5158-lti A ICC :1L1 1113iC AlMeAtt2~ TIttrljACn...Corrosion Resistance of Metals and Alloys, Second Edition , Reinhold Publishing Corporation, NY, 1963, p. 217. 4. Uhlig, H. H., Coroion.and Corrosion

  14. Variability of the proton-to-electron mass ratio on cosmological scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, M.; Reimers, D.

    2008-10-01

    The search for a possible variation of fundamental physical constants isnewsworthy more than ever. A multitude of methods were developed. So far theonly seemingly significant indication of a cosmological variation existsfor the proton-to-electron massratio as stated by Reinhold et al. [1]. The measuredindication of variation is based on the combined analysis of H2 absorptionsystems in the spectra of Q0405-443 and Q0347-383 at zabs=2.595 and zabs=3.025, respectively. The high resolution data of the latteris reanalyzed in this work to examine the influence of different fittingprocedures and further potential nonconformities. This analysis cannotreproduce the significance achieved by the previous works.

  15. System Integration and Interface Transition Issues.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-04-01

    OC - 4- u -O m4 U V L.- I~V 0~ C 0 - i CC 0 .iOC30~i .- ~. C > u uU O! ul Wi 0) i~ LUn CL04) z w 0 CL-0r I.- ~ ~~~~ in0 6 - 2-A 0 ~ 4) 0 zEC u~5. 0...Systems Design and Documentation - An Introduction to the HIPO Method, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. (1976). [34] Peter Freeman, "Toward Improved Review of...Software Design," Proc. National Computer Conf. 44, AFIPS Press (1975) pp 329-334. [35] Peter G. Neumann, "Software Development & Proofs of Multi-Level

  16. Dr. von Braun With German Rocket Experimenters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Dr. von Braun was among a famous group of rocket experimenters in Germany in the 1930s. This photograph is believed to be made on the occasion of Herman Oberth's Kegelduese liquid rocket engine being certified as to performance during firing. From left to right are R. Nebel, Dr. Ritter, Mr. Baermueller, Kurt Heinish, Herman Oberth, Klaus Riedel, Wernher von Braun, and an unidentified person.

  17. Monetary Policy Delelgation and Transparency of Policy Targets: A Positive Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    International Outsourcing : Solving ihc Puzzle. February 2009 87 Riindshagcn Bianc.i. Zimmermann. Klaus sv Buchanan-Kooperarion und...through surprise inflation. In a framework with endogenous wage setting by unions. Sorensen (1991) shows that uncertainty of the policy maker’s...of ronsi i vatism in open economies . Hughes Hallett and Weymark (2004, 2005) or Lockwood et al. (1998) apply two-stage models of monetary policy

  18. Environmental Support to Amphibious Craft, Patrol Boats, and Coastal Ships: An Annotated Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-05

    article describes the utility of the system to provide information on water level changes around Tampa Bay during Hurricane Andrew. Such a system could...sufficient observations. 85. Wyatt, Lucy R., Jim J. Green, Klaus-Werner Gurgel, Jose C. Nieto Borge, Konstanze Reichert, Katrin Hessner, Heinz Günther...through the ecosystems, and (5) patterns, frequencies and effects of disturbances such as hurricanes , landuse changes or forest harvesting. 99. Marine

  19. The Relationship of Maternal Age, Quickening, and Physical Symptoms of Pregnancy on the Development of Maternal-Fetal Attachment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    on abused children who had not been with their parents immediately after birth, mourning of parents for dead fetuses, premature infants and their...birth. They (Klaus & Kennel, 1976) also reported that they observed mothers mourning the loss of dead newborns regardless of whether the infant had...Though the authors do not say so, the findings, especially those of the mourning parents, imply that attachment may occur prior to birth. While Bowlby

  20. Calculating Required Substructure Damping to Meet Prescribed System Damping Levels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Rorres, Elementary Linear Algebra . New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2005. 2. Klaus-Jurgen Bathe, Finite Element Procedures. New Jersey: Prentice Hall...will be covered in the explanation of orthogonal complement. The definitions are extracted from the book “ Linear Algebra and its Applications” by...TA = left nullspace of A; dimension m-r Applying the first part of the fundamental theorem of Linear Algebra we can now talk about the orthogonal

  1. Proceedings of Symposium on Energy Engineering in the 21st Century (SEE 2000). Volume Four

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-13

    Significantly Varying Demand of Heat and Power 1347 D. Hein and K. Kwanka T2. Thermodynamic Analysis and Sensitivity Studies on Braysson cycle Using...to Volumes 1-4 T. Cycle Analysis 1346 CHENG CYCLE COGENERATION FOR A SIGNIFICANTLY VARYING DEMAND OF HEAT AND POWER Dietmar Hein, Klaus Kwanka...significantly varying demand of heat and power a Cheng Cycle gas turbine cogeneration plant was installed. By injecting steam, produced by the heat

  2. The Single Kinin Receptor Signals to Separate and Independent Physiological Pathways in Malpighian Tubules of the Yellow Fever Mosquito

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-10

    Felix Tiburcy3, Ronald J. Nachman4, Peter M. Piermarini1 and Klaus W. Beyenbach1 1Department of Biomedical Sciences, VRT 8004, Cornell...Dept. of Biomedical Sciences VRT 8004 Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14853 Voice: (607) 253-3482 FAX: (607) 253-3851 Email: KWB1@CORNELL.EDU...University,Department of Biomedical Sciences, VRT 8004,Ithaca,NY,14853 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND

  3. Mission control activity during STS-61 EVA-2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-12-05

    STS61-S-094 (5 Dec 1993) --- Kyle Herring, second left, illustrates a point during mission commentary for the second Extravehicular Activity (EVA-2) of the STS-61 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission. Astronaut Jerry L. Ross (center), a space walker on two previous NASA shuttle missions, amplified Herring's explanations. At the flight surgeon's console is Dr. Klaus Lohn (third right) of the Institute for Flight Medicine in Koln, Germany.

  4. Microstructural Parameters in 8 MeV Electron-Irradiated BOMBYX MORI Silk Fibers by Wide-ANGLE X-Ray Scattering Studies (waxs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangappa, Asha, S.; Sanjeev, Ganesh; Subramanya, G.; Parameswara, P.; Somashekar, R.

    2010-01-01

    The present work looks into the microstructural modification in electron irradiated Bombyx mori P31 silk fibers. The irradiation process was performed in air at room temperature using 8 MeV electron accelerator at different doses: 0, 25, 50 and 100 kGy. Irradiation of polymer is used to cross-link or degrade the desired component or to fix the polymer morphology. The changes in microstructural parameters in these natural polymer fibers have been computed using wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) data and employing line profile analysis (LPA) using Fourier transform technique of Warren. Exponential, Lognormal and Reinhold functions for the column length distributions have been used for the determination of crystal size, lattice strain and enthalpy parameters.

  5. The first insertion devices at SSRL - some personal recollections

    SciTech Connect

    Winick, H.

    1995-02-01

    The author recounts his experiences with insertion devices at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. His first experiences with wigglers occured at the Cambridge Electron Accelerator, and was carried over to SSRL with the proposal for a six pole electromagnetic wiggler. Most modern undulators, and many wigglers are now designed around permanent magnets, and the origin of this transition at SSRL was rather fortuitous and humorous. It reflects some of the personality characteristics of Klaus Halbach.

  6. A Prognostic Modeling Approach for Predicting Recurring Maintenance for Shipboard Propulsion Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    CIT CDT 1 CIP CDP η γ 1γ T T adb (1) Compressor fouling has also been shown to increase vibration , (Ozgur et al (2000) and Tsalavoutas et al) but... vibration increases and secondly is the poor reliability with which performance degradation severity may be assessed. In lieu of these practical...Industrial Gas Turbines” International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exposition, Belgium, June 1990 4. Kurtz, Rainer, Brun, Klaus, and

  7. The Search for a Cold War Grand Strategy: NSC 68 & 162

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    Robert Dallek, Harry S. Truman (New York: Times Books, 2008); Ernest R. May, American Cold War Strategy (New York: Bedford Books of St. Martin’s Press...Gave the Soviets the Atomic Bomb (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009), 119. 32Robert C. Williams , Klaus Fuchs, Atom Spy (Cambridge, MA: Harvard...possibilities, including preemptive buying.”52 Dr. Ernest O. Lawrence was the final consultant engaged by the State-Defense Policy Review Group. The

  8. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-28

    e-Genius Aircraft Pilot Klaus Ohlmann poses for a photograph during the 2011 Green Flight Challenge, sponsored by Google, held at the Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. on Thursday, Sept. 29, 2011. NASA and the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation are having the challenge with the goal to advance technologies in fuel efficiency and reduced emissions with cleaner renewable fuels and electric aircraft. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Studies in Intelligence. Volume 49, Number 4, 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    solutions required totally new techniques and technology , contractors, and organizations. Using the rapid developments in satellite systems in the 1960s as...both failed came as a postwar shock, especially to those who thought so highly of Klaus Fuchs as a babysitter .17 Conant provides a new look at how...Estimates wrote one of the articles; Max Millikan, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology , who had helped create economic intelli- gence at the CIA

  10. A Correlational and Descriptive Study of Student Writing in Three Aims of Discourse.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    develop a new set of assumptions about invention, about the writer’s 4 M 5 purpose, about the relattonship between writer, subject, and audience . But just...triangle: subject, speaker/writer, and audience . 12 The number of aims can vary, from two (Britton) to six (Jakobson), but for the purposes of this study... Audience Oriented) C Klaus and Lloyd-Jones selected this particular model for its simplicity and usefulness; it was "based on the Pur- pose (goal

  11. Counterproliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    nuclear weapons program in 1941 and renamed the program the Manhattan Project in 1942.6 The mammoth efforts of the Manhattan Project resulted in the...killing or mortally wounding up to 130,000 Japanese.11 While the scientists of the Manhattan Project were awestruck at the first nuclear blast in New...remove great danger for us.”12 Klaus Fuchs and Theodore Hall, two scientists on the Manhattan Project , had been previously recruited to spy for the

  12. Indulging anxiety: human enhancement from a Protestant perspective.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Mark J

    1999-08-01

    At the heart of any ethics of human enhancement must be some normative assumptions about human nature. The purpose of this essay is to draw on themes from a Protestant theological anthropology to provide a basis for understanding and evaluating the tension between maintaining our humanity and enhancing it. Drawing primarily on the work of theologian Reinhold Niebuhr, I interpret enhancement as proceeding from the anxiety that characterizes human experience at the juncture of freedom and finiteness. Religious and moral dimensions of human sinfulness are considered in relation to cultural values that motivate human enhancement generally. I employ these dimensions in a series of benchmarks to suggest a background of theological, anthropological, and moral considerations against which enhancement is not to be condemmed but rather critically evaluated.

  13. Archaeological Excavations at 32BA415, 32BA428, and 32GG5 on Lake Ashtabula Barnes and Griggs Counties, North Dakota,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    present, local surface drainage tends to be poorly developed (Klausing 1968; Scoby , et. al. 1973); this is due in large part to the low permeability of...extremes. During a ten year interval, 1951-1960, re- corded temperatures varied from -38.30 C to 39.40 C ( Scoby , et. al. 1973). Rainfall ranges from...September (Omodt, et. al. 1966). S Heaviest snowfall occurs during December and January with annual totals ranging between 60.7 cm and 72.1 cm ( Scoby , et. al

  14. International Conference on Coordination Chemistry (23rd) Held at Boulder, Colorado on 29 July - 3 August 1984. Abstracts of Paper.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-03

    KlausS Gr er let Krebs MWd Gerald lNe" Anorganlach-Chemlaches Institut der Uivesitat Maopse Corrensstr. 36, D4MO M~nster, Federal Republic of Germany In...chelates previously prepared in theme Laboratories. Also, an intense, low energy band (360 cm-1 ) in the ir spectra of all od the chloro der - ivatives...PLAnIND(II) Luther 9. Erickson, Douglas R. Wright, and Gregory S. Vignoul Grinnell College, GrIonll. lam, USA, 50112 Van der Poel, et &I.* have succeeded

  15. Halbach arrays in precision motion control

    SciTech Connect

    Trumper, D.L.; Williams, M.E.

    1995-02-01

    The Halbach array was developed for use as an optical element in particle accelerators. Following up on a suggestion from Klaus Halbach, the authors have investigated the utility of such arrays as the permanent magnet structure for synchronous machines in cartesian, polar, and cylindrical geometries. Their work has focused on the design of a novel Halbach array linear motor for use in a magnetic suspension stage for photolithography. This paper presents the details of the motor design and its force and power characteristics.

  16. Measurement Invariance and Child Temperament: An Evaluation of Sex and Informant Differences on the Child Behavior Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Clark, D. Angus; Listro, Caitlin J.; Lo, Sharon L.; Durbin, C. Emily; Donnellan, M. Brent; Neppl, Tricia K.

    2016-01-01

    Parent reports of temperament are used to study many important topics in child development, such as whether boys and girls differ in their levels of emotional reactivity and self-regulation. However, questions regarding measurement equivalence in parental reports of temperament are largely unexplored, despite the fact that this issue is critical for drawing the correct conclusions from mean-level comparisons. In the current study, measurement invariance across boys and girls (as targets), and mothers and fathers (as informants), was investigated in the Child Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ; Rothbart et al., 2001) using a sample of children ranging in age from 3 to 7 years (N = 605). Several instances of non-invariance were identified across both girls and boys, and mothers and fathers. An evaluation of effect size indices suggests that the practical impact of this non-invariance ranges from negligible to moderate. All told, this study illustrates the importance of taking a psychometrically informed approach to the use of parent reports of child temperament. PMID:26914022

  17. Evaluating the Link between Self-Esteem and Temperament in Mexican Origin Early Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Robins, Richard W.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Rand D.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between self-esteem and temperament in a sample of 646 Mexican-American early adolescents (mean age=10.4). Self-esteem was assessed using child reports on the Self-Description Questionnaire II—Short (SDQII-S; Marsh et al., 2005) and temperament was assessed using child and mother reports on the revised Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire (Ellis & Rothbart, 2001). Findings show that: (a) early adolescents with high self-esteem show higher levels of Effortful Control but, contrary to findings in adult samples, do not differ from low self-esteem adolescents in Negative Affectivity; (b) low self-esteem is associated with Depression; and (c) low self-esteem is associated with Aggression. These findings replicated for boys and girls, two measures of self-esteem, and child and mother reports of temperament. The present study contributes to an emerging understanding of the link between self-esteem and temperament, and provides much needed data on the nature of self-esteem in ethnic minority populations. PMID:19740537

  18. Higher and Lower Order Factor Analyses of the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Kotelnikova, Yuliya; Olino, Thomas M; Klein, Daniel N; Mackrell, Sarah V M; Hayden, Elizabeth P

    2017-12-01

    The Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ) is a widely used parent-report measure of temperament. However, neither its lower nor higher order structures has been tested via a bottom-up, empirically based approach. We conducted higher and lower order exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) of the TMCQ in a large ( N = 654) sample of 9-year-olds. Item-level EFAs identified 92 items as suitable (i.e., with loadings ≥.40) for constructing lower order factors, only half of which resembled a TMCQ scale posited by the measure's authors. Higher order EFAs of the lower order factors showed that a three-factor structure (Impulsivity/Negative Affectivity, Negative Affectivity, and Openness/Assertiveness) was the only admissible solution. Overall, many TMCQ items did not load well onto a lower order factor. In addition, only three factors, which did not show a clear resemblance to Rothbart's four-factor model of temperament in middle childhood, were needed to account for the higher order structure of the TMCQ.

  19. Parenting style as a mediator between children's negative emotionality and problematic behavior in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Paulussen-Hoogeboom, Marja C; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Hermanns, Jo M A; Peetsma, Thea T D; van den Wittenboer, Godfried L H

    2008-09-01

    Negative emotionality is considered to be the core of the difficult temperament concept (J. E. Bates, 1989; R. L. Shiner, 1998). In this correlational study, the authors examined whether the relations between children's negative emotionality and problematic behavior (internalizing and externalizing) were partially mediated by parenting style (authoritative and authoritarian) in a community sample of 196 3-year-old children and their mothers. The authors assessed maternal perception of child negative emotionality using the Children's Behavior Questionnaire (M. K. Rothbart, S. A. Ahadi, K. L. Hershey, & P. Fisher, 2001) and assessed problematic child behavior by means of maternal report using the Child Behavior Checklist (T. M. Achenbach, 1992). The results showed that the relations between child negative emotionality and internalizing and externalizing behaviors were partially mediated by mothers' authoritative parenting style. Moreover, when the authors used confirmatory factor analysis to decontaminate possible overlap in item content between measures assessing temperament and problematic behavior, the association between negative emotionality and internalizing behavior was fully mediated by authoritative parenting.

  20. Petrographic Analysis of Cores from Plant 42

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    ER D C TR -X X- D R AF T Petrographic Analysis of Cores from Plant 42 E n gi n ee r R es ea rc h a n d D ev el op m en t C en te r...E. Rae Reed-Gore, Kyle Klaus, and Robert D. Moser October 2016 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The U.S. Army...ORIGINATOR. ii Figures and Tables Figures Figure 1. Test location map of AF Plant 42 with core number locations. ............................. 2

  1. New or otherwise interesting lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from Montenegro.

    PubMed

    Bilovitz, Peter O; Knežević, Branka; Stešević, Danijela; Vitikainen, Orvo; Dragićević, Snežana; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2008-12-16

    A list of 256 taxa of lichens (252 species) and 2 species of lichenicolous fungi from Montenegro is presented, including 58 taxa (57 species) new to Montenegro. The list is based on specimens kept in the lichen collections of the herbaria GZU, H, Podgorica, and in the private herbarium of Klaus Kalb, and on recent field work in various parts of the country. The genera Biatoridium, Carbonea, Cercidospora, Heppia, Hyperphyscia, Hypocenomyce, Leprocaulon, Lethariella, Megalospora, Orphniospora, Psorinia and Vahliella are reported from Montenegro for the first time.

  2. Comparison of conventional and novel quadrupole drift tube magnets inspired by Klaus Halbach

    SciTech Connect

    Feinberg, B.

    1995-02-01

    Quadrupole drift tube magnets for a heavy-ion linac provide a demanding application of magnet technology. A comparison is made of three different solutions to the problem of providing an adjustable high-field-strength quadrupole magnet in a small volume. A conventional tape-wound electromagnet quadrupole magnet (conventional) is compared with an adjustable permanent-magnet/iron quadrupole magnet (hybrid) and a laced permanent-magnet/iron/electromagnet (laced). Data is presented from magnets constructed for the SuperHILAC heavy-ion linear accelerator, and conclusions are drawn for various applications.

  3. Ultrafast Photovoltaic Response in Ferroelectric Nanolayers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-19

    Hesse, and M. Alexe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 257601 (2007). [28] P. Emma, R. Akre , J. Arthur, R. Bionta, C. Bostedt, J. Bozek, A . Brachmann, P...David M. Fritz10, Marco Cammarata10, Diling Zhu10, Henrik T. Lemke10,11, Donald A . Walko4, Eric M. Dufresne4, Yuelin Li4, Jörgen Larsson12, David A ...Reis2,9,13, Klaus Sokolowski-Tinten7, Keith A . Nelson6, Andrew M. Rappe5, Paul H. Fuoss3, G. Brian Stephenson3 and Aaron M. Lindenberg2,8.9

  4. New or otherwise interesting lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from Montenegro

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Knežević, Branka; Stešević, Danijela; Vitikainen, Orvo; Dragićević, Snežana; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    A list of 256 taxa of lichens (252 species) and 2 species of lichenicolous fungi from Montenegro is presented, including 58 taxa (57 species) new to Montenegro. The list is based on specimens kept in the lichen collections of the herbaria GZU, H, Podgorica, and in the private herbarium of Klaus Kalb, and on recent field work in various parts of the country. The genera Biatoridium, Carbonea, Cercidospora, Heppia, Hyperphyscia, Hypocenomyce, Leprocaulon, Lethariella, Megalospora, Orphniospora, Psorinia and Vahliella are reported from Montenegro for the first time. PMID:22102779

  5. The layer concept: utilization in determining the pain generators, pathology and how structure determines treatment.

    PubMed

    Draovitch, Peter; Edelstein, Jaime; Kelly, Bryan T

    2012-03-01

    The level of understanding of pain in the non-arthritic hip has made significant strides in the last couple of decades beginning with the discoveries of Reinhold Ganz, MD. However, even with the detection of subtle bony abnormalities, including femoroacetabular impingement, a clinician's ability to differentiate pain generators in the hip has been ambiguous. Deciphering the etiology of the pathology versus the pain generator is essential in prescribing the proper treatment. The Layer Concept developed by Dr. Bryan Kelly, is a systematic means of determining which structures about the hip are the source of the pathology, which are the pain generators and how to then best implement treatment. Four layers will be discussed in this article. Layer I, the osseous layer, Layer II, the inert tissue layer, Layer III, the contractile layer and Layer IV, the neuromechanical layer.

  6. Higher- and Lower-Order Factor Analyses of the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Kotelnikova, Yuliya; Olino, Thomas M.; Klein, Daniel N.; Mackrell, Sarah V.M.; Hayden, Elizabeth P.

    2017-01-01

    The Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ; Simonds & Rothbart, 2004) is a widely used parent-report measure of temperament. However, neither its lower- nor higher-order structures have been tested via a bottom-up, empirically based approach. We conducted higher- and lower-order exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) of the TMCQ in a large (N = 654) sample of 9-year-olds. Item-level EFAs identified 92 items as suitable (i.e., with loadings ≥.40) for constructing lower-order factors, only half of which resembled a TMCQ scale posited by the measure’s authors. Higher-order EFAs of the lower-order factors showed that a three-factor structure (Impulsivity/Negative Affectivity, Negative Affectivity, and Openness/Assertiveness) was the only admissible solution. Overall, many TMCQ items did not load well onto a lower-order factor. In addition, only three factors, which did not show a clear resemblance to Rothbart’s four-factor model of temperament in middle childhood, were needed to account for the higher-order structure of the TMCQ. PMID:27002124

  7. [open quotes]Sonya[close quotes] explains

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, N.

    This article describes observations of Ruth Werner from when she was an agent of the Soviet espionage service (code name [open quotes]Sonya[close quotes]) as related in her interview with the author. The main topics covered in the interview include her opinion and relationship with Klaus Fuchs, the German-born British physicist who passed the secrets of the first atomic bomb to the Russians, and her views on German reunification. Ruth focuses her discussion on her dedication to making the world a better place and the disillusionment she has felt as she reminisces about her past.

  8. Reviving Forgotten Connections in North American Teacher Education: Klaus Mollenhauer and the Pedagogical Relation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Norm; Saevi, Tone

    2010-01-01

    Despite the dominance of instrumental, psychological approaches to educational theory and practice in North America, a different understanding of the value and dynamics of education is often articulated informally in cultural representations (e.g. fiction and feature films) and in personal recollections. This alternative understanding is one in…

  9. A mathematical analysis of dressed photon in ground state of generalized quantum Rabi model using pair theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirokawa, Masao; Møller, Jacob S.; Sasaki, Itaru

    2017-05-01

    We consider the generalized quantum Rabi model with the so-called A 2-term in the light of the Hepp-Lieb-Preparata quantum phase transition. We investigate the dressed photon in its ground state when the atom-light coupling strength is in the deep-strong coupling regime. This regime is introduced by Casanova et al (2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 263603) as the coupling regime exceeding the ultra-strong one. We show how the dressed photon appears in the ground state. We dedicate this paper to Pavel Exner and Herbert Spohn on the occasion of their 70th birthdays, and Klaus Hepp on the occasion of his 80th birthday.

  10. Resources for Childbirth Educators and Expectant Parents

    PubMed Central

    Shilling, Teri

    2006-01-01

    In this column, reviewers offer perspectives and comments on Hit the Ground Crawling: The Essential Guide for New Fathers, a book by Greg Bishop; The Simple Guide to Having a Baby, a book by Janet Whalley, Penny Simkin, and Ann Keppler; Preparing for Multiples—The Family Way, a book by Cindy Carter, with Jeanne Green and Debby Amis; Hospital to Home: A Security Blanket for New Parents, a DVD released by Injoy Videos; When Survivors Give Birth: Understanding and Healing the Effects of Early Sexual Abuse on Childbearing Women, a book by Penny Simkin and Phyllis Klaus; and My Pregnancy Journal, a publication by Mindy Mays.

  11. [Temperament and affective disorders--historical basis of current discussion].

    PubMed

    Ehrt, U; Brieger, P; Marneros, A

    2003-06-01

    The history of the temperament concept begins in ancient Greece. The humoral theory remained influential over the centuries. At the beginning of the 20 th century, both Wilhelm Wundt and his pupil Emil Kraepelin formulated new aspects. Wundt described two dimensions: "speed of variability of emotions" and "intensity of emotions". Kraepelin observed four fundamental states (depressive, manic, irritable and cyclothymic), which he linked to manic-depressive illness. Since then different lines of temperament research have evolved: (1) psychiatric-psychopathological theories (e. g. Ewald, Kretschmer and Sheldon), which tend to see temperament as a dilution of full-blown affective disorders; (2) neurobiological theories (e. g. Pavlov, Eysenck and Gray), which understand temperament as determined by underlying neurobiological processes - especially levels of arousal; and (3) developmental theories (e. g. Chess & Thomas, Rothbart and Kagan), which derived their temperament concept from early childhood observations. Recent theories (e. g. those of Cloninger or Akiskal) combine different aspects. After reviewing the historical temperament concepts we present underlying factors which are linked to affective disorders (such as emotional reactivity, cyclicity or trait affectivity). Finally, we illustrate the importance of temperament concepts for research in affective disorders.

  12. A Cross-Cultural Analysis of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire Very Short Form: An Item Response Theory Analysis of Infant Temperament in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Elizabeth R; Mohal, Jatender; Waldie, Karen E; Reese, Elaine; Atatoa Carr, Polly E; Grant, Cameron C; Morton, Susan M B

    2017-01-01

    The Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised Very Short Form (IBQ-R VSF; Putnam, Helbig, Gartstein, Rothbart, & Leerkes, 2014 ) is a newly published measure of infant temperament with a 3-factor structure. Recently Peterson et al. ( 2017 ) suggested that a 5-factor structure (Positive Affectivity/Surgency, Negative Emotionality, Orienting Capacity, Affiliation/Regulation, and Fear) was more parsimonious and showed promising reliability and predictive validity in a large, diverse sample. However, little is known about the 5-factor model's precision across the temperament dimensions range and whether it discriminates equally well across ethnicities. A total of 5,567 mothers responded to the IBQ-R VSF in relation to their infants (N = 5,639) between 23 and 52 weeks old. Using item response theory, we conducted a series of 2 parameter logistic item response models and found that 5 IBQ-R VSF temperament dimensions showed a good distribution of estimates across each latent trait range and these estimates centered close to the population mean. The IBQ-R VSF was also similarly precise across 4 ethnic groups (European, Māori, Pacific peoples, and Asians), suggesting that it can be used as comparable measure for infant temperament in a diversity of ethnic groups.

  13. Measurement of Critical Adsorption of Nitrogen near Its Liquid-vapor Critical Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Moses

    2003-01-01

    The density profile of a critical fluid near a solid surface is expected to show an universal shape. This is known as critical adsorption. The measurement of this effect, especially close to the critical point, is often obscured by gravity. We were able to separate the gravitational effect from critical adsorption by using two capacitors, one with a large gap and one with a small gap of approximately 2 m. Within the uncertainty in the measurement, our data, which ranges between 10(exp -3) to 2 x 10(exp -6) in reduced temperatures, is consistent with the predicted power law dependence. This work is carried out in collaboration with Rafael Garcia, Sarah Scheidemantel and Klaus Knorr. It is funded by NASA's office of Biological and Physical Researchunder.

  14. Castianeira furva sp. nov. (Araneae, Corinnidae, Castianeirinae), a new polymorphic ground sac spider from the southern Western Ghats of India.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, Pradeep M; Malamel, Jobi J; Joseph, Mathew M; Sebastian, Pothalil A

    2015-06-05

    The ground-dwelling, ant-mimicking corinnid spider genus Castianeira, with Castianeira rubicunda as type species, was erected by Keyserling (1879). Members of the genus are closely related to the Afrotropical genus Cambalida Simon, 1910 (Haddad 2012a) and are distributed mainly in tropical and temperate regions of the world except for Australia and nearby islands (World Spider Catalog 2015). The genus was revised from the Nearctic Region and south-east Asia (Reiskind 1969 and Deeleman-Reinhold 2001, respectively) and currently includes 126 described species, making it as the largest genus within the family Corinnidae (World Spider Catalog 2015). Even though the genus is rich in species, the validity and placement of majority of the species are still doubtful and questionable. For example, according to Haddad (2012b), many of the Afrotropical species, as well as majority of the species described from India (Haddad, pers. comm.) are misplaced or synonyms of previously described ones (e.g. Haddad 2012a, 2013a). The genus thus will remain as a trash-can until all the species described so far can be revised.

  15. Waste-handling practices at red meat abattoirs in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Hester; de Jager, Linda; Blight, Geoffrey

    2009-02-01

    Abattoir waste disposal must be carefully managed because the wastes can be a source of food-borne diseases (Nemerow & Dasgupta Industrial and Hazardous Waste Treatment, p. 284, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1991; Bradshaw et al. The Treatment and Handling of Wastes, p. 183, The Royal Society, Chapman & Hall, London, 1992). Disposal of food that has been condemned because it is known to be diseased is of particular concern, and this paper looks at current disposal methods for such waste in the light of new scientific developments and waste-management strategies. Questionnaires were presented to management and workers at low- and high-throughput red meat abattoirs in the Free State Province, South Africa to determine current waste-handling procedures for condemned products. The waste-handling practices, almost without exception, did not fully comply with the requirements of the South African Red Meat Regulations of 2004, framed under the Meat Safety Act (Act 40 of 2000). The survey highlighted the need to improve current waste-handling strategies to prevent condemned products from re-entering the food chain and contributing to environmental pollution.

  16. The Contribution of Adolescent Effortful Control to Early Adult Educational Attainment

    PubMed Central

    Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Racer, Kristina Hiatt; Fosco, Gregory M.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Effortful control has been proposed as a set of neurocognitive competencies that is relevant to self-regulation and educational attainment (Posner & Rothbart, 2007). This study tested the hypothesis that a multiagent report of adolescents’ effortful control (age 17) would be predictive of academic persistence and educational attainment (age 23–25), after controlling for other established predictors (family factors, problem behavior, grade point average, and substance use). Participants were 997 students recruited in 6th grade from 3 urban public middle schools (53% males; 42.4% European American; 29.2% African American). Consistent with the hypothesis, the unique association of effortful control with future educational attainment was comparable in strength to that of parental education and students’ past grade point average, suggesting that effortful control contributes to this outcome above and beyond well-established predictors. Path coefficients were equivalent across gender and ethnicity (European Americans and African Americans). Effortful control appears to be a core feature of the self-regulatory competencies associated with achievement of educational success in early adulthood. These findings suggest that the promotion of self-regulation in general and effortful control in particular may be an important focus not only for resilience to stress and avoidance of problem behavior, but also for growth in academic competence. PMID:25308996

  17. Temperamental precursors of infant attachment with mothers and fathers☆

    PubMed Central

    Planalp, Elizabeth M.; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.

    2013-01-01

    The degree to which parent sensitivity and infant temperament distinguish attachment classification was examined. Multilevel modeling was used to assess the effect of parent sensitivity and infant temperament on infant–mother and infant–father attachment. Data were collected from mothers, fathers, and their infants (N = 135) when the infant was 3-, 5-, 7-, 12-, and 14-months old. Temperament was measured using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (Gartstein & Rothbart, 2003); parent sensitivity was coded during the Still Face Paradigm (Tronick, Als, Adamson, Wise, & Brazelton, 1978); attachment was coded using the Strange Situation (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978). Results indicate that mothers and fathers were less sensitive with insecure-avoidant infants. Whereas only one difference was found for infant–mother attachment groups and temperament, five significant differences emerged for infant–father attachment groups, with the majority involving insecure-ambivalent attachment. Infants classified as ambivalent with fathers were higher in perceptual sensitivity and cuddliness and these infants also showed a greater increase in low-intensity pleasure over time compared with other infants. Results indicate the importance of both parent sensitivity and infant temperament, though operating in somewhat different ways, in the development of the infant–mother and infant–father attachment relationship. PMID:24103401

  18. Sustained attention in infancy as a longitudinal predictor of self-regulatory functions.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Maria; Marciszko, Carin; Gredebäck, Gustaf; Nyström, Pär; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2015-11-01

    Previous literature suggests that attention processes such as sustained attention would constitute a developmental foundation for the self-regulatory functions executive functioning and effortful control (e.g., Garon, Bryson, & Smith, 2008; Rothbart, Derryberry, & Posner, 1994). Our main aim was to test this hypothesis by studying whether sustained attention at age 1 year can predict individual differences in self-regulatory functions at age 2 years. Longitudinal data from 66 infants and their parents were included in the study. Sustained attention was assessed during free play at age 1 year; executive functioning, measured using an eye-tracking version of the A-not-B task, and effortful control, measured using parental ratings, were assessed at both age 1 and age 2 years. The results did support a longitudinal prediction of individual differences in 2-year-olds' self-regulatory functions as a function of sustained attention at age 1 year. We also found significant improvement in both executive functioning and effortful control over time, and the two self-regulatory constructs were related in toddlerhood but not in infancy. The study helps increase our understanding of the early development of self-regulatory functions necessary for identifying developmental risks and, in the future, for developing new interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Temperamental precursors of infant attachment with mothers and fathers.

    PubMed

    Planalp, Elizabeth M; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M

    2013-12-01

    The degree to which parent sensitivity and infant temperament distinguish attachment classification was examined. Multilevel modeling was used to assess the effect of parent sensitivity and infant temperament on infant-mother and infant-father attachment. Data were collected from mothers, fathers, and their infants (N = 135) when the infant was 3-, 5-, 7-, 12-, and 14-months old. Temperament was measured using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (Gartstein & Rothbart, 2003); parent sensitivity was coded during the Still Face Paradigm (Tronick, Als, Adamson, Wise, & Brazelton, 1978); attachment was coded using the Strange Situation (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978). Results indicate that mothers and fathers were less sensitive with insecure-avoidant infants. Whereas only one difference was found for infant-mother attachment groups and temperament, five significant differences emerged for infant-father attachment groups, with the majority involving insecure-ambivalent attachment. Infants classified as ambivalent with fathers were higher in perceptual sensitivity and cuddliness and these infants also showed a greater increase in low-intensity pleasure over time compared with other infants. Results indicate the importance of both parent sensitivity and infant temperament, though operating in somewhat different ways, in the development of the infant-mother and infant-father attachment relationship. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. HOAPS precipitation validation with ship-borne rain and snow measurements over the Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumke, Karl; Schröder, Marc; Fennig, Karsten

    2013-04-01

    Measuring precipitation over the oceans is still a challenging task. The main reason for a lack of such data can be attributed to the difficulty of measuring precipitation on moving platforms under high wind speeds. The progress in satellite technology has provided the possibility to retrieve global data sets from space, including precipitation. Levizzani et al. (2007) showed that precipitation over the oceans can be derived with sufficient accuracy from passive microwave radiometry. On the other hand, Andersson et al. (2011) pointed out that even state-of-the-art satellite retrievals and reanalysis data sets still disagree on global precipitation with respect to amounts, patterns, variability and temporal behaviour. This creates the need for ship-based precipitation validation data using instruments capable of accurately measuring rain rates even under high wind speed conditions. In the present study we use ship rain gauges (Hasse et al., 1998) and optical disdrometers (Großklaus et al., 1998), the latter is also capable to measure snow (Lempio et al., 2007). Measurements are point-to-area collocated against Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and fluxes from Satellite (HOAPS) data (Andersson et al., 2011). The used HOAPS-S data subset contains all retrieved physical parameters at the native SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) pixel-level resolution of approximately 50 km for each individual satellite. The algorithm does not discriminate between rain and snowfall. The satellite data is compared to the in situ measurement by the nearest neighbour approach. Therefore, it must be ensured that both observations are related to each other, which can be determined by the decorrelation length. At least a number of 660 precipitation events are at our disposal including 127 snow events. The statistical analysis follows the recommendations given by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for dichotomous or binary forecasts (WWRP/WGNE: http

  1. [Assessment of temperament with the Infant Behavior Questionnaire Revised (IBQ-R) - the psychometric properties of a German version].

    PubMed

    Vonderlin, Eva; Ropeter, Anna; Pauen, Sabina

    2012-09-01

    The Infant Behavior Questionnaire Revised (IBQ-R; Gartstein & Rothbart, 2003) is one of the most common parent-report instruments for assessing infant temperament. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of a German version. We studied item characteristics, internal consistency, and descriptive statistics for all 14 scales in a sample of 7- to 9-month-old infants and their mothers (N = 119). Factor analysis was conducted to identify higher-order relationships between the scales. Item analysis showed mixed corrected item-total correlations. Internal consistencies were all moderate to high. Results of the factor analysis confirmed the two dimensions of Surgency/Extraversion and Negative Affectivity, whereas the dimension Orienting/Regulation was not replicated. In contrast to the American sample, activity level in the German sample loaded on the factor Negative Affectivity. The scales low intensity pleasure and soothability, which loaded on factor Orienting/Regulation in the original version, showed substantial loadings on both dimensions Surgency/Extraversion and Negative Affectivity (inverted), whereas the scale duration of orienting was located on the factor Surgency/Extraversion. The German version of the IBQ-R provides a satisfying instrument for investigating infant temperament. However, further work is needed to improve the methodological quality of the questionnaire. Further research should especially focus on the factor structure of infant temperament. We suggest developing a shorter version and testing it with a larger and more diverse sample.

  2. Pathways from Maternal Effortful Control to Child Self-Regulation: The Role of Maternal Emotional Support

    PubMed Central

    Zeytinoglu, Selin; Calkins, Susan D.; Swingler, Margaret M.; Leerkes, Esther M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the direct and indirect pathways from maternal effortful control to two aspects of children’s self-regulation – executive functioning and behavioral regulation – via maternal emotional support. Two hundred and seventy eight children and their primary caregivers (96% mothers) participated in laboratory visits when children were 4 and 5 years, and teachers reported on children’s behavior at kindergarten. At the 4-year assessment, maternal effortful control was measured using the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (ATQ; Evans & Rothbart, 2007) and maternal emotional support was observed during a semi-structured mother-child problem-solving task. At the 5-year assessment, children’s executive functioning was measured using laboratory tasks designed to assess updating/working memory, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility, whereas behavioral regulation was assessed via teacher-report questionnaires on children’s attention control, discipline and persistence, and work habits. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that, after controlling for child gender and minority status, and maternal education, maternal effortful control was indirectly associated with both child executive functioning and behavioral regulation through maternal emotional support. Maternal effortful control had a direct association with children’s teacher-reported behavioral regulation but not observed executive functioning. These findings suggest that maternal effortful control may be a key contributing factor to the development of children’s self-regulatory competencies through its impact on maternal emotional support. PMID:27929315

  3. Effects of prenatal substance exposure on infant temperament vary by context.

    PubMed

    Locke, Robin L; Lagasse, Linda L; Seifer, Ronald; Lester, Barry M; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S; Bauer, Charles R

    2016-05-01

    This was a prospective longitudinal multisite study of the effects of prenatal cocaine and/or opiate exposure on temperament in 4-month-olds of the Maternal Lifestyle Study (N = 958: 366 cocaine exposed, 37 opiate exposed, 33 exposed to both drugs, 522 matched comparison). The study evaluated positivity and negativity during The Behavior Assessment of Infant Temperament (Garcia Coll et al., 1988). Parents rated temperament (Infant Behavior Questionnaire; Rothbart, 1981). Cocaine-exposed infants showed less positivity overall, mainly during activity and threshold items, more negativity during sociability items, and less negativity during irritability and threshold items. Latent profile analysis indicated individual temperament patterns were best described by three groups: low/moderate overall reactivity, high social negative reactivity, and high nonsocial negative reactivity. Infants with heavy cocaine exposure were more likely in high social negative reactivity profile, were less negative during threshold items, and required longer soothing intervention. Cocaine- and opiate-exposed infants scored lower on Infant Behavior Questionnaire smiling and laughter and duration of orienting scales. Opiate-exposed infants were rated as less respondent to soothing. By including a multitask measure of temperament we were able to show context-specific behavioral dysregulation in prenatally cocaine-exposed infants. The findings indicate flatter temperament may be specific to nonsocial contexts, whereas social interactions may be more distressing for cocaine-exposed infants.

  4. Pathways from maternal effortful control to child self-regulation: The role of maternal emotional support.

    PubMed

    Zeytinoglu, Selin; Calkins, Susan D; Swingler, Margaret M; Leerkes, Esther M

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the direct and indirect pathways from maternal effortful control to 2 aspects of children's self-regulation-executive functioning and behavioral regulation-via maternal emotional support. Two hundred seventy-eight children and their primary caregivers (96% mothers) participated in laboratory visits when children were 4 and 5 years, and teachers reported on children's behavior at kindergarten. At the 4-year assessment, maternal effortful control was measured using the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (Evans & Rothbart, 2007) and maternal emotional support was observed during a semistructured mother-child problem-solving task. At the 5-year assessment, children's executive functioning was measured using laboratory tasks designed to assess updating/working memory, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility, whereas behavioral regulation was assessed via teacher-report questionnaires on children's attention control, discipline and persistence, and work habits. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that, after controlling for child gender and minority status, and maternal education, maternal effortful control was indirectly associated with both child executive functioning and behavioral regulation through maternal emotional support. Maternal effortful control had a direct association with children's teacher-reported behavioral regulation but not observed executive functioning. These findings suggest that maternal effortful control may be a key contributing factor to the development of children's self-regulatory competencies through its impact on maternal emotional support. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Dropout in looking time studies: The role of infants' temperament and cognitive developmental status.

    PubMed

    Klein-Radukic, Sarah; Zmyj, Norbert

    2015-11-01

    Dropout of infants in looking time studies sometimes occurs at high rates, raising concerns that the representativeness of the final sample might be reduced in comparison to the originally obtained sample. The current study investigated which infant characteristics play a role in dropout. Infants were presented with a preferential looking task at 6 and 9 months of age. At 9 months of age, an additional habituation task and a subsequent novelty preference task were conducted. In addition, temperament was assessed via the Infant Behavior Questionnaire - Revised (IBQ-R, Gartstein & Rothbart, 2003), and cognitive developmental status was assessed via the Cognitive Scale of the Bayley Scale of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID-III, Bayley, 2006). Dropout was positively related to the IBQ-R temperament scales Distress to Limitations and Approach, and negatively related to the scales Falling Reactivity and Cuddliness. The representativeness of the final sample regarding situation-specific temperament dimensions is affected by dropout. Dropout was not related to cognitive developmental status as measured via the BSID-III, habituation speed and novelty preference. Dropout at 6 months of age was associated with dropout at 9 months of age. We concluded that in looking time studies, the representativeness of the final sample regarding performance-relevant temperament dimensions or cognitive developmental status is not affected by dropout. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of carotenoids in first positive phototropism of etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Orbovic, V.; Poff, K.L.

    1991-05-01

    A mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, chosen for is pale cotyledon phenotype in dark grown material, has been obtained from Klaus Apel (ETH-Zentrum, Zurich, Switzerland). Fluence response curves for this putative carotenoidless mutant and its wild-type parent have been measured. The shape of the fluence response curve for the pale mutant is similar to that of its wild-type parent. However, the amplitude of curvature by the mutant is considerably lower than curvature of the wild-type. If the amplitude of the curvature is enhanced with a red light pre-irradiation, peaks of the two photoreceptor pigments, P{sub I} and P{sub II} can bemore » seen in both the pale mutant and its wild-type parent. Based on these data, the authors conclude that neither photoreceptor pigment is altered in the pale mutant.« less

  7. Microstructures in naturally deformed Upper Rotliegend salt rocks from Northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneberg, Mareike; Hammer, Jörg; Mertineit, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Permian and Meso-/Cenozoic salt formations are represented in wide parts of the German geologic underground (Reinhold & Hammer 2016). They are of interest for cavern storage of oil and gas as well as of renewable energies (in form of compressed air or hydrogen). For industrial exploration purposes, more detailed data about the composition, barrier properties, as well as the genesis and deformation of the rocks is needed. In central Northern Germany, salt rocks from the Upper Rotliegend are implemented in diapir structures together with salt formations from the Zechstein. Rotliegend salt rocks are characterized by halite that contains patches of detrital material which account for 5 to 60 vol.% of the rock. They show a characteristic red to purple color. Drill cores containing Rotliegend halite rocks from different locations were investigated in this study by using petrographical and microstructural methods. The halite shows different fabric types: (i) euhedral to hypidiomorphic grains with grain sizes up to several millimeters, (ii) polygonal grains with smaller grain sizes between 0.1 and 3 mm, and (iii) fibrous halite. Halite grain boundaries are decorated with fluid inclusions, especially around the contact to detrital material. Subgrains in halite are abundant in all investigated samples and show average sizes between 140 µm and 217 µm. These correspond to average differential stresses of 1 MPa to 1.45 MPa (Carter et al. 1993, Schléder & Urai 2005). The detrital material consists of clasts of quartz, feldspar, mica, carbonates and metal oxides with grain sizes of clay to silt fraction. In some samples, the detrital components show internal deformation by folding and fracturing. Depending on the location, different quantities of authigenic evaporite minerals, like carbonate and anhydrite, formed. Fractures are filled with halite, anhydrite and celestine. The different types of halite fabric are an indication of locally different deformational behavior of the

  8. Diagnosis and Modeling of the Explosive Development of Winter Storms: Sensitivity to PBL Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Pradhan, Prabodha K.

    2014-05-01

    The correct representation of extreme windstorms in regional models is of great importance for impact studies of climate change. The Iberian Peninsula has recently witnessed major damage from winter extratropical intense cyclones like Klaus (January 2009), Xynthia (February 2010) and Gong (January 2013) which formed over the mid-Atlantic, experienced explosive intensification while travelling eastwards at lower latitudes than usual [Liberato et al. 2011; 2013]. In this paper the explosive development of these storms is simulated by the advanced mesoscale Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF v 3.4.1), initialized with NCEP Final Analysis (FNL) data as initial and lateral boundary conditions (boundary conditions updated in every 3 hours intervals). The simulation experiments are conducted with two domains, a coarser (25km) and nested (8.333km), covering the entire North Atlantic and Iberian Peninsula region. The characteristics of these storms (e.g. wind speed, precipitation) are studied from WRF model and compared with multiple observations. In this context simulations with different Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) schemes are performed. This approach aims at understanding which mechanisms favor the explosive intensification of these storms at a lower than usual latitudes, thus improving the knowledge of atmospheric dynamics (including small-scale processes) on controlling the life cycle of midlatitude extreme storms and contributing to the improvement in predictability and in our ability to forecast storms' impacts over Iberian Peninsula. Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade) and by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER- 019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010). References: Liberato M.L.R., J.G. Pinto, I.F. Trigo, R.M. Trigo (2011) Klaus - an

  9. Chilean Adaptation and Validation of the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised Version

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Marianela; Pérez, J. Carola; García, Catalina; Rojas, Graciela; Martínez, Vania

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an adapted version of the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised (EATQ-R) that would be valid and reliable for assessing temperament and its components in Chileans between 12 and 18 years of age. Originally, Ellis and Rothbart (2001) developed this questionnaire (EATQ-R) to be used in North American adolescents. For the study in Chile, a translation protocol was developed, to maintain the original instrument's cultural and linguistic equivalence in the adapted version. Psychometric properties of the EATQ-R, such as factor structure, internal consistency, and convergent validity, were also assessed. The adaption and validation was carried out in two stages, with two different studies. The first study, which included 612 adolescent students from educational establishments in the cities of Santiago and Concepcion, Chile, developed the Chilean version of the 83-item EATQ-R, which has 13 dimensions, belonging to 4 theoretical factors with adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.79–0.82). The second study assessed the questionnaire's convergent validity, through its application to 973 adolescent students in Santiago. Results show that the effortful control subscale was significantly inversely related to indicators of adolescent maladjustment, such as substance abuse and behavioral problems. In addition, it was directly associated with indicators of self-concept, including self-esteem and self-efficacy. The opposite pattern was observed when considering negative affect. These findings coincide with current knowledge on the relationship between temperament and adjustment in adolescents. PMID:29326616

  10. Temperament Factor Structure in Fragile X Syndrome: The Children's Behavior Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Jane E.; Tonnsen, Bridgette L.; Robinson, Marissa; McQuillin, Samuel D.; Hatton, Deborah D.

    2014-01-01

    Early patterns of temperament lay the foundation for a variety of developmental constructs such as self-regulation, psychopathology, and resilience. Children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) display unique patterns of temperament compared to age-matched clinical and non-clinical samples, and early patterns of temperament have been associated with later anxiety in this population. Despite these unique patterns in FXS and recent reports of atypical factor structure of temperament questionnaires in Williams Syndrome (Leyfer, John, Woodruff-Borden, & Mervis, 2012), no studies have examined the latent factor structure of temperament scales in FXS to ensure measurement validity in this sample. The present study used confirmatory factor analysis to examine the factor structure of a well-validated parent-reported temperament questionnaire, the Children's Behavior Questionnaire (Rothbart, Ahadi, Hershey, & Fisher, 2001), in a sample of 90 males with FXS ages 3-9 years. Our data produced a similar, but not identical, three-factor model that retained the original CBQ factors of negative affectivity, effortful control, and extraversion/surgency. In particular, our FXS sample demonstrated stronger factor loadings for fear and shyness than previously reported loadings in non-clinical samples, consistent with reports of poor social approach and elevated anxiety in this population. Although the original factor structure of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire is largely retained in children with FXS, differences in factor loading magnitudes may reflect phenotypic characteristics of the syndrome. These findings may inform future developmental and translational research efforts. PMID:24380785

  11. Latent profile and cluster analysis of infant temperament: Comparisons across person-centered approaches.

    PubMed

    Gartstein, Maria A; Prokasky, Amanda; Bell, Martha Ann; Calkins, Susan; Bridgett, David J; Braungart-Rieker, Julia; Leerkes, Esther; Cheatham, Carol L; Eiden, Rina D; Mize, Krystal D; Jones, Nancy Aaron; Mireault, Gina; Seamon, Erich

    2017-10-01

    There is renewed interest in person-centered approaches to understanding the structure of temperament. However, questions concerning temperament types are not frequently framed in a developmental context, especially during infancy. In addition, the most common person-centered techniques, cluster analysis (CA) and latent profile analysis (LPA), have not been compared with respect to derived temperament types. To address these gaps, we set out to identify temperament types for younger and older infants, comparing LPA and CA techniques. Multiple data sets (N = 1,356; 672 girls, 677 boys) with maternal ratings of infant temperament obtained using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (Gartstein & Rothbart, 2003) were combined. All infants were between 3 and 12 months of age (M = 7.85; SD = 3.00). Due to rapid development in the first year of life, LPA and CA were performed separately for younger (n = 731; 3 to 8 months of age) and older (n = 625; 9 to 12 months of age) infants. Results supported 3-profile/cluster solutions as optimal for younger infants, and 5-profile/cluster solutions for the older subsample, indicating considerable differences between early/mid and late infancy. LPA and CA solutions produced relatively comparable types for younger and older infants. Results are discussed in the context of developmental changes unique to the end of the first year of life, which likely account for the present findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Adaptation of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised for use in Ethiopia: Expanding cross-cultural investigation of temperament development.

    PubMed

    Gartstein, Maria A; Bogale, Wolayte; Meehan, Courtney L

    2016-11-01

    Cross-cultural differences in temperament were evaluated for Ethiopian (N=109) and U.S. (N=109) samples of infants. We anticipated that the Sidama version of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (IBQ-R; Gartstein & Rothbart, 2003) developed for use in Ethiopia would demonstrate satisfactory psychometric properties, and hypothesized significant cross-cultural differences in levels of fine-grained temperament characteristics. Interactions between culture, infant age, and sex were also considered. Internal consistency was satisfactory for 13 of the 14 IBQ-R scales (with a somewhat low estimate observed for Duration of Orienting), and an examination of the structure indicated patterns similar to those observed in the US, and elsewhere. Differences between Ethiopia and the US were noted for Activity Level, Distress to Limitations, Fear, Smiling/Laughter, Falling Reactivity, Cuddliness/Affiliation, Sadness, Approach, and Vocal Reactivity. Parents of infants in the US reported higher levels of attributes associated with Surgency/Positive Affectivity (Activity, Smiling/Laughter, Approach Vocal Reactivity), whereas Ethiopian infants' scores were higher for Distress to Limitations and Fear, linked with the over-arching temperament factor of Negative Emotionality; however, US infants received higher ratings on Sadness, also associated with this factor. Higher Falling Reactivity, a regulation-related attribute, was reported for Ethiopian infants, with US babies receiving higher Cuddliness/Affiliation scores. Significant culture*age interactions were observed for Activity and Fear, along with a significant culture*age*sex interaction for Distress to Limitations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Health care and ICT, partnership is a must.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Albert R

    2002-11-20

    This article comments on the article 'Health Care in the Information Society; A Prognosis for the Year 2013' by Reinhold Haux et al. It is emphasised that besides the driving forces as identified in that article, the changes in the composition of the population will lead to a structural shortage of health professionals. So, despite the willingness of both individual patients and the society as a whole to pay more for health care no significant change will occur in the percentage of the gross domestic product spent on health care. By consequence we can not meet the challenges health care is facing by 'more of the same'. New forms of health care delivery have to be invented and implemented that lead to higher efficiency. The question is discussed whether health care is lagging behind other sectors of society in the application of ICT, the answer to that question is negative. It is explained why the percentage of the budget spent on ICT is no valuable yardstick. Comments are made to the quantitative expectations of Haux et al. Finally it is recommended that IMIA takes the initiative to organise in co-operation with international associations of health professionals a multidisciplinary working conference on the future role of ICT in health care.

  14. Protoplanetary Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apai, D.´niel; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2014-02-01

    Preface; 1. Planet formation and protoplanetary dust Daniel Apai and Dante Lauretta; 2. The origins of protoplanetary dust and the formation of accretion disks Hans-Peter Gail and Peter Hope; 3. Evolution of protoplanetary disk structures Fred Ciesla and Cornelius P. Dullemond; 4. Chemical and isotopic evolution of the solar nebula and protoplanetary disks Dmitry Semenov, Subrata Chakraborty and Mark Thiemens; 5. Laboratory studies of simple dust analogs in astrophysical environments John R. Brucato and Joseph A. Nuth III; 6. Dust composition in protoplanetaty dust Michiel Min and George Flynn; 7. Dust particle size evolution Klaus M. Pontoppidan and Adrian J. Brearly; 8. Thermal processing in protoplanetary nebulae Daniel Apai, Harold C. Connolly Jr. and Dante S. Lauretta; 9. The clearing of protoplanetary disks and of the protosolar nebula Ilaira Pascucci and Shogo Tachibana; 10. Accretion of planetesimals and the formation of rocky planets John E. Chambers, David O'Brien and Andrew M. Davis; Appendixes; Glossary; Index.

  15. Problem posing vs problem solving.

    PubMed

    Happs, S J

    1991-04-01

    This paper addresses the notion of adult education and places it within the context of the literature on adult development. Emphasis is placed on the work of Klaus Riegel (1973) who suggested a different interpretation of adult development. Dialectic operations is perceived to be the final stage of cognitive development, as opposed to formal operational thought, the traditional interpretation. Dialectic operations is a way of thinking which seeks to discover a whole new series of questions to be asked, rather than in finding 'once and for all' answers. The concepts put forward by Riegel are used as the foundation for a different interpretation of andragogy, based on the work of the Nottingham Andragogy Group (1983). The educational approach suggested to a large extent is diametrically opposed to the much criticised 'traditional' training of nurses. The view is expressed that although this is a different approach it is nonetheless worthwhile and should be embraced, particularly when nurse education is undergoing such major change.

  16. Merging with the path not taken: Wilhelm Wundt's work as a precursor to the embedded-processes approach to memory, attention, and consciousness.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Nelson; Rachev, Nikolay R

    2018-06-04

    Early research on memory was dominated by two researchers forging different paths: Hermann Ebbinghaus, interested in principles of learning and recall, and Wilhelm Wundt, founder of the first formal laboratory of experimental psychology, who was interested in empirical evidence to interpret conscious experience. Whereas the work of Ebbinghaus is a much-heralded precursor of modern research on long-term memory, the work of Wundt appears to be a mostly-forgotten precursor to research on working memory. We show how his scientific perspective is germane to more recent investigations, with emphasis on the embedded-processes approaches of Nelson Cowan and Klaus Oberauer, and how it is in contrast with most other recent theoretical approaches. This investigation is important because the embedded-process theorists, apparently like most modern researchers, have recognized few of Wundt's specific contributions. We explore commonalities between the approaches and suggest that an appreciation of these commonalities might enrich the field going forward. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Observational evidence for cloud cover enhancement over western European forests

    PubMed Central

    Teuling, Adriaan J.; Taylor, Christopher M.; Meirink, Jan Fokke; Melsen, Lieke A.; Miralles, Diego G.; van Heerwaarden, Chiel C.; Vautard, Robert; Stegehuis, Annemiek I.; Nabuurs, Gert-Jan; de Arellano, Jordi Vilà-Guerau

    2017-01-01

    Forests impact regional hydrology and climate directly by regulating water and heat fluxes. Indirect effects through cloud formation and precipitation can be important in facilitating continental-scale moisture recycling but are poorly understood at regional scales. In particular, the impact of temperate forest on clouds is largely unknown. Here we provide observational evidence for a strong increase in cloud cover over large forest regions in western Europe based on analysis of 10 years of 15 min resolution data from geostationary satellites. In addition, we show that widespread windthrow by cyclone Klaus in the Landes forest led to a significant decrease in local cloud cover in subsequent years. Strong cloud development along the downwind edges of larger forest areas are consistent with a forest-breeze mesoscale circulation. Our results highlight the need to include impacts on cloud formation when evaluating the water and climate services of temperate forests, in particular around densely populated areas. PMID:28074840

  18. Observational evidence for cloud cover enhancement over western European forests.

    PubMed

    Teuling, Adriaan J; Taylor, Christopher M; Meirink, Jan Fokke; Melsen, Lieke A; Miralles, Diego G; van Heerwaarden, Chiel C; Vautard, Robert; Stegehuis, Annemiek I; Nabuurs, Gert-Jan; de Arellano, Jordi Vilà-Guerau

    2017-01-11

    Forests impact regional hydrology and climate directly by regulating water and heat fluxes. Indirect effects through cloud formation and precipitation can be important in facilitating continental-scale moisture recycling but are poorly understood at regional scales. In particular, the impact of temperate forest on clouds is largely unknown. Here we provide observational evidence for a strong increase in cloud cover over large forest regions in western Europe based on analysis of 10 years of 15 min resolution data from geostationary satellites. In addition, we show that widespread windthrow by cyclone Klaus in the Landes forest led to a significant decrease in local cloud cover in subsequent years. Strong cloud development along the downwind edges of larger forest areas are consistent with a forest-breeze mesoscale circulation. Our results highlight the need to include impacts on cloud formation when evaluating the water and climate services of temperate forests, in particular around densely populated areas.

  19. Does Experience of Failure Decrease Executive, Regulatory Abilities and Increase Aggression?

    PubMed Central

    Pahlavan, Farzaneh; Mouchiroud, Christophe; Nemlaghi-Manis, Emna

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in the study of affective-cognitive regulation of aggressive behavior suggest positive correlations between poor executive capacities (ECF) and dispositional negative reactivity (Posner & Rothbart, 2000). If the global assumption is correct what are the likely implications of predicted relation? The central issue in present research was to verify this assumption and examine how situational characteristics could alter executive performance in persons with Dysexecutive Syndrome (DES, Baddeley, 1998) and healthy adults (students, health workers) to explore some of the consequences of those modifications for aggressive tendencies. Precisely, we expected the positive correlations between poor executive performances and high aggressive tendencies at dispositional as well situational levels, except for health workers, given their professional duties. In order to assess cognitive capacities and dispositional as well as situational aggressive tendencies, during two studies (First study: N=60 students; Second study: N= 60 students, N= 24 patient with Dysexecutive Syndrome, N= 45 health care workers) right-handed French-speakers participants completed twice, during an initial phase of the study and one week after, a series of standard executive functions neuropsychological tests and aggression questionnaires. During second phase, participants executed a task introducing the experimental feedbacks (success, neutral, failure) before completion of neuropsychological tests and questionnaires. The results provided evidence of a dispositional relationship between poor executive functioning and aggressive tendencies, and extended it to situational level. For all participants, it showed that increases in impulsiveness (negative emotionality and aggressive choices) due to a negative feedback were concomitant with an inability to focus individuals’ attention on ongoing tasks. PMID:23121744

  20. Articulation rate and its relationship to disfluency type, duration, and temperament in preschool children who stutter.

    PubMed

    Tumanova, Victoria; Zebrowski, Patricia M; Throneburg, Rebecca N; Kulak Kayikci, Mavis E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between articulation rate, frequency and duration of disfluencies of different types, and temperament in preschool children who stutter (CWS). In spontaneous speech samples from 19 CWS (mean age=3:9; years:months), we measured articulation rate, the frequency and duration of (a) sound prolongations; (b) sound-syllable repetitions; (c) single syllable whole word repetitions; and (d) clusters. Temperament was assessed with the Children's Behavior Questionnaire (Rothbart et al., 2001). There was a significant negative correlation between articulation rate and average duration of sound prolongations (p<0.01), and between articulation rate and frequency of stuttering-like disfluencies (SLDs) (p<0.05). No other relationships proved statistically significant. Results do not support models of stuttering development that implicate particular characteristics of temperament as proximal contributors to stuttering; however, this is likely due to the fact that current methods, including the ones used in the present study, do not allow for the identification of a functional relationship between temperament and speech production. Findings do indicate that for some CWS, relatively longer sound prolongations co-occur with relatively slower speech rate, which suggests that sound prolongations, across a range of durations, may represent a distinct type of SLD, not just in their obvious perceptual characteristics, but in their potential influence on overall speech production at multiple levels. Readers will be able to describe the relationship between stuttering-like disfluencies, articulation rate and temperament in children who stutter, and discuss different measurements of articulation rate. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Adolescent emotionality and effortful control: Core latent constructs and links to psychopathology and functioning

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Hannah R.; Gulley, Lauren D.; Bijttebier, Patricia; Hartman, Catharina A.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Mezulis, Amy; Young, Jami F.; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2015-01-01

    Temperament is associated with important outcomes in adolescence, including academic and interpersonal functioning and psychopathology. Rothbart’s temperament model is among the most well-studied and supported approaches to adolescent temperament, and contains three main components: positive emotionality (PE), negative emotionality (NE), and effortful control (EC). However, the latent factor structure of Rothbart’s temperament measure for adolescents, the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire Revised (EATQ-R, Ellis & Rothbart, 2001) has not been definitively established. To address this problem and investigate links between adolescent temperament and functioning, we used confirmatory factor analysis to examine the latent constructs of the EATQ-R in a large combined sample. For EC and NE, bifactor models consisting of a common factor plus specific factors for some sub-facets of each component fit best, providing a more nuanced understanding of these temperament dimensions. The nature of the PE construct in the EATQ-R is less clear. Models replicated in a hold-out dataset. The common components of high NE and low EC where broadly associated with increased psychopathology symptoms, and poor interpersonal and school functioning, while specific components of NE were further associated with corresponding specific components of psychopathology. Further questioning the construct validity of PE as measured by the EATQ-R, PE factors did not correlate with construct validity measures in a way consistent with theories of PE. Bringing consistency to the way the EATQ-R is modeled and using purer latent variables has the potential to advance the field in understanding links between dimensions of temperament and important outcomes of adolescent development. PMID:26011660

  2. Wet calcining of trona (sodium sesquicarbonate) and bicarbonate in a mixed solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gärtner, R. S.; Witkamp, G. J.

    2002-04-01

    Trona ore is used in large amounts for the production of soda ash. A key step in this process is the conversion of trona (sodium sesquicarbonate: Na 2CO 3·NaHCO 3·2H 2O) into soda (sodium carbonate anhydrate: Na 2CO 3). Currently, this conversion is done industrially by calcining of the raw ore in rotary calciners at ca. 120°C or higher (Natural Soda Ash—Occurrences, Processing, and Use, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1991, p. 267). Trona can however be converted at lower temperatures by using a "wet calcining" technique. In this technique, trona is contacted with an organic or mixed organic-aqueous solvent at a conversion temperature that depends on the water activity of the used solvent. In pure ethylene glycol this temperature can be as low as 55°C. The conversion by "wet calcining" occurs very similar to that in the regular dry calcining process via a solid phase conversion. The anhydrate crystals form directly from the solid trona. This produces pseudomorphs (J. Chem. Eng. Data 8(3) (1963) 301), i.e. agglomerates of fine anhydrate crystals (1-10 μm). At high temperatures, dense, finely pored agglomerates are formed, while the outer shape of the agglomerate retains the prism shape of the trona crystal. At low conversion temperatures, loosely packed or even unstable agglomerates are found.

  3. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-12-01

    Twenty-three AGU members are among the newly elected fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, announced on 25 November 2013. They are Lance F. Bosart, University at Albany, State University of New York; William Henry Brune III, Pennsylvania State University; Robert H. Byrne, University of South Florida; Walter K. Dodds, Kansas State University; Sherilyn Claire Fritz, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Kevin P. Furlong, Pennsylvania State University; Arnold L. Gordon, Columbia University; Thomas A. Herring, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Malcolm Hughes, University of Arizona; Thomas C. Johnson, University of Minnesota Duluth; Jack A. Kaye, NASA; Samuel P. Kounaves, Tufts University; Klaus S. Lackner, Columbia University; Yiqi Luo, University of Oklahoma; Jean-Bernard Minster, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego (UCSD); Kenneth H. Nealson, University of Southern California; Walter Clarkson Pitman III, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory; James E. Quick, Southern Methodist University; Ross J. Salawitch, University of Maryland, College Park; Didier Sornette, ETH Zürich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology); Michael Stein, University of Chicago; Bradley M. Tebo, Oregon Health and Science University; and Mark H. Thiemens, UCSD.

  4. The social life of bonding theory.

    PubMed

    Crouch, M; Manderson, L

    1995-09-01

    'Bonding' as a crucial factor of the early post-partum entered obstetric and paediatric practice after the publication of Maternal and Infant Bonding in 1976 by Klaus and Kennell. The concept has held its place since, as witnessed by medical textbook accounts of it, and the perception of 'instantaneous bonding' as a vital component of the ideal birth experience has dominated media representations of childbirth and, until very recently, feminist writing. Only during the last few years has this literature taken into account research findings concerning the guilt and anxiety experienced by women whose expectations regarding 'bonding' are not realised. While it is now generally acknowledged that maternal attachment develops over an extended period of time, 'bonding' as used extensively in both popular and scientific literature conflates a wide range of meanings and blurs the boundaries between process and outcome. This facilitates the entry of ideological elements into a field which is, by its very nature, deeply significant for human experience. We therefore argue for a continuing critical appraisal of the role of 'bonding' in both general and scientific research.

  5. Structure and Dynamics of the Quiet Solar Chromosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalkofen, Wolfgang; Wagner, William (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    For the meeting of the AAS/SPD in Albuquerque, NM, I organized a Topical Session of the AAS on Structure and Dynamics of Chromospheres. The grant support was used to bring to the US two of the speakers from abroad. I had invited them for presentations at the Session: Dr. Klaus Wilhelm, the former PI of the SUMER instrument on SOHO, from the Max-Planck Institut in Lindau, Germany, and Dr. Sirajul Hasan, from the Indian Institute of Astrophysics in Bangalore, India. Both speakers preceded their trip to the AAS meeting with a stay at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, where they interacted with members of the Solar and Stellar Physics division. The highlights of the visits were the talks at the AAS/SPD meeting, in which six invited speakers told the audience of astronomers about current problems in solar physics and their relation to stellar problems. An important result of the visits is a paper by Dr. Wilhelm and me on 'Observations of the upper solar chromosphere with SUMER on SOHO', which has been submitted to Astronomy and Astrophysics for publication.

  6. Infant joint attention, neural networks and social cognition.

    PubMed

    Mundy, Peter; Jarrold, William

    2010-01-01

    Neural network models of attention can provide a unifying approach to the study of human cognitive and emotional development (Posner & Rothbart, 2007). In this paper we argue that a neural network approach to the infant development of joint attention can inform our understanding of the nature of human social learning, symbolic thought process and social cognition. At its most basic, joint attention involves the capacity to coordinate one's own visual attention with that of another person. We propose that joint attention development involves increments in the capacity to engage in simultaneous or parallel processing of information about one's own attention and the attention of other people. Infant practice with joint attention is both a consequence and an organizer of the development of a distributed and integrated brain network involving frontal and parietal cortical systems. This executive distributed network first serves to regulate the capacity of infants to respond to and direct the overt behavior of other people in order to share experience with others through the social coordination of visual attention. In this paper we describe this parallel and distributed neural network model of joint attention development and discuss two hypotheses that stem from this model. One is that activation of this distributed network during coordinated attention enhances the depth of information processing and encoding beginning in the first year of life. We also propose that with development, joint attention becomes internalized as the capacity to socially coordinate mental attention to internal representations. As this occurs the executive joint attention network makes vital contributions to the development of human symbolic thinking and social cognition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Infant Joint Attention, Neural Networks and Social Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Mundy, Peter; Jarrold, William

    2010-01-01

    Neural network models of attention can provide a unifying approach to the study of human cognitive and emotional development (Posner & Rothbart, 2007). This paper we argue that a neural networks approach to the infant development of joint attention can inform our understanding of the nature of human social learning, symbolic thought process and social cognition. At its most basic, joint attention involves the capacity to coordinate one’s own visual attention with that of another person. We propose that joint attention development involves increments in the capacity to engage in simultaneous or parallel processing of information about one’s own attention and the attention of other people. Infant practice with joint attention is both a consequence and organizer of the development of a distributed and integrated brain network involving frontal and parietal cortical systems. This executive distributed network first serves to regulate the capacity of infants to respond to and direct the overt behavior of other people in order to share experience with others through the social coordination of visual attention. In this paper we describe this parallel and distributed neural network model of joint attention development and discuss two hypotheses that stem from this model. One is that activation of this distributed network during coordinated attention enhances to depth of information processing and encoding beginning in the first year of life. We also propose that with development joint attention becomes internalized as the capacity to socially coordinate mental attention to internal representations. As this occurs the executive joint attention network makes vital contributions to the development of human symbolic thinking and social cognition. PMID:20884172

  8. Perceptual Sensitivity and Response to Strong Stimuli Are Related

    PubMed Central

    Bolders, Anna C.; Tops, Mattie; Band, Guido P. H.; Stallen, Pieter Jan M.

    2017-01-01

    To shed new light on the long-standing debate about the (in)dependence of sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity to strong stimuli, we examined the relation between these tendencies within the neurobehavioral framework of the Predictive and Reactive Control Systems (PARCS) theory (Tops et al., 2010, 2014). Whereas previous studies only considered overreactivity in terms of the individual tendency to experience unpleasant affect (punishment reactivity) resulting from strong sensory stimulation, we also took the individual tendency to experience pleasant affect (reward reactivity) resulting from strong sensory stimulation into account. According to PARCS theory, these temperamental tendencies overlap in terms of high reactivity toward stimulation, but oppose each other in terms of the response orientation (approach or avoid). PARCS theory predicts that both types of reactivity to strong stimuli relate to sensitivity to weak stimuli, but that these relationships are suppressed due to the opposing relationship between reward and punishment reactivity. We measured punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli and sensitivity to weak stimuli using scales from the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (Evans and Rothbart, 2007). Sensitivity was also measured more objectively using the masked auditory threshold. We found that sensitivity to weak stimuli (both self-reported and objectively assessed) was positively associated with self-reported punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli, but only when these reactivity measures were controlled for each other, implicating a mutual suppression effect. These results are in line with PARCS theory and suggest that sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity are dependent, but this dependency is likely to be obscured if punishment and reward reactivity are not both taken into account. PMID:29018377

  9. Geological controls on isotopic signatures of streamflow: results from a nested catchment experiment in Luxembourg (Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfister, Laurent; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Hissler, Christophe; Martinez-Carreras, Nuria; Gourdol, Laurent; Klaus, Julian; François Iffly, Jean; Barnich, François; Stewart, Mike K.

    2014-05-01

    Controls of geology and topography on hydrological metrics, like summer low flow (Grant and Tague, 2004) or dynamic storage (Sayama et al., 2011), have been identified in nested catchment experiments. However, most tracer-based studies on streamflow generation have been carried out in small (10 km2) homogenous catchments (Klaus and McDonnell, 2013). The controlling effects of catchment physiography on how catchments store and release water, and how this eventually controls stream isotope behaviour over a large range of scale are poorly understood. Here, we present results from a nested catchment analysis in the Alzette River basin (Luxembourg, Europe). Our hydro-climatological network consists of 16 recording streamgauges and 21 pluviographs. Catchment areas range from 0.47 to 285 km2, with clean and mixed combinations of distinct geologies ranging from schists to marls, sandstone, dolomite and limestone. Our objective was to identify geological controls on (i) winter runoff ratios, (ii) maximum storage and (iii) isotopic signatures in streamflow. For each catchment we determined average runoff ratios from winter season precipitation-discharge double-mass curves. Maximum catchment storage was based on the dynamic storage change approach of Sayama et al. (2011). Changes in isotopic signatures of streamflow were documented along individual catchment flow duration curves. We found strong correlations between average winter runoff ratios, maximum storage and the prevailing geological settings. Catchments with impermeable bedrock (e.g. marls or schists) were characterised by small storage potential and high average filling ratios. As a consequence, these catchments also exhibited the highest average runoff ratios. In catchments underlain by permeable bedrock (e.g. sandstone), storage potential was significantly higher and runoff ratios were considerably smaller. The isotopic signatures of streamflow showed large differences between catchments. In catchments dominated by

  10. Waardenburg syndrome type 3 (Klein-Waardenburg syndrome) segregating with a heterozygous deletion in the paired box domain of PAX3: a simple variant or a true syndrome?

    PubMed

    Tekin, M; Bodurtha, J N; Nance, W E; Pandya, A

    2001-10-01

    Klein-Waardenburg syndrome or Waardenburg syndrome type 3 (WS-III; MIM 148820) is characterized by the presence of musculoskeletal abnormalities in association with clinical features of Waardenburg syndrome type 1 (WS-I). Since the description of the first patient in 1947 (D. Klein, Arch Klaus Stift Vererb Forsch 1947: 22: 336-342), a few cases have been reported. Only occasional families have demonstrated autosomal-dominant inheritance of WS-III. In a previous report, a missense mutation in the paired domain of the PAX3 gene has been described in a family with dominant segregation of WS-III. In this report, we present a second family (mother and son) with typical clinical findings of WS-III segregating with a heterozygous 13-bp deletion in the paired domain of the PAX3 gene. Although homozygosity or compound heterozygosity has also been documented in patients with severe limb involvement, a consistent genotype-phenotype correlation for limb abnormalities associated with heterozygous PAX3 mutations has not previously been apparent. Heterozygous mutations could either reflect a unique dominant-negative effect or possibly the contribution of other unlinked genetic modifiers in determining the phenotype.

  11. On the relationship between atmospheric water vapour transport and extra-tropical cyclones development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Juan A.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Ramos, Alexandre M.

    2016-08-01

    In this study we seek to investigate the role of atmospheric water vapour on the intensification of extra-tropical cyclones over the North Atlantic Ocean and more specifically to investigate the linkage between atmospheric rivers' conditions leading to the explosive development of extra-tropical cyclones. Several WRF-ARW simulations for three recent extra-tropical storms that had major negative socio-economic impacts in the Iberian Peninsula and south-western Europe (Klaus, 2009; Gong, 2013 and Stephanie, 2014) are performed in which the water vapour content of the initial and boundary conditions are tuned. Analyses of the vertically integrated vapour transport show the dependence of the storms' development on atmospheric water vapour. In addition, results also show changes in the shape of the jet stream resulting in a reduction of the upper wind divergence, which in turn affects the intensification of the extra-tropical cyclones studied. This study suggests that atmospheric rivers tend to favour the conditions for explosive extra-tropical storms' development in the three case studies, as simulations performed without the existence of atmospheric rivers produce shallow mid-latitude cyclones, that is, cyclones that are not so intense as those on the reference simulations.

  12. Cold Atmospheric Plasma for Medicine: State of Research and Clinical Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Woedtke, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Basic research in plasma medicine has made excellent progress and resulted in the fundamental insights that biological effects of cold atmospheric plasmas (CAP) are significantly caused by changes of the liquid environment of cells, and are dominated by redox-active species. First CAP sources are CE-certified as medical devices. Main focus of plasma application is on wound healing and treatment of infective skin diseases. Clinical applications in this field confirm the supportive effect of cold plasma treatment in acceleration of healing of chronic wounds above all in cases where conventional treatment fails. Cancer treatment is another actual and emerging field of CAP application. The ability of CAP to kill cancer cells by induction of apoptosis has been proved in vitro. First clinical applications of CAP in palliative care of cancer are realized. In collaboration with Hans-Robert Metelmann, University Medicine Greifswald; Helmut Uhlemann, Klinikum Altenburger Land GmbH Altenburg; Anke Schmidt and Kai Masur, Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (INP Greifswald); Renate Schönebeck, Neoplas Tools GmbH Greifswald; and Klaus-Dieter Weltmann, Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (INP Greifswald).

  13. Perceptual Anomalies in Schizophrenia: Integrating Phenomenology and Cognitive Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Uhlhaas, Peter J.; Mishara, Aaron L.

    2007-01-01

    From phenomenological and experimental perspectives, research in schizophrenia has emphasized deficits in “higher” cognitive functions, including attention, executive function, as well as memory. In contrast, general consensus has viewed dysfunctions in basic perceptual processes to be relatively unimportant in the explanation of more complex aspects of the disorder, including changes in self-experience and the development of symptoms such as delusions. We present evidence from phenomenology and cognitive neuroscience that changes in the perceptual field in schizophrenia may represent a core impairment. After introducing the phenomenological approach to perception (Husserl, the Gestalt School), we discuss the views of Paul Matussek, Klaus Conrad, Ludwig Binswanger, and Wolfgang Blankenburg on perception in schizophrenia. These 4 psychiatrists describe changes in perception and automatic processes that are related to the altered experience of self. The altered self-experience, in turn, may be responsible for the emergence of delusions. The phenomenological data are compatible with current research that conceptualizes dysfunctions in perceptual processing as a deficit in the ability to combine stimulus elements into coherent object representations. Relationships of deficits in perceptual organization to cognitive and social dysfunction as well as the possible neurobiological mechanisms are discussed. PMID:17118973

  14. Shotgun protein sequencing: assembly of peptide tandem mass spectra from mixtures of modified proteins.

    PubMed

    Bandeira, Nuno; Clauser, Karl R; Pevzner, Pavel A

    2007-07-01

    Despite significant advances in the identification of known proteins, the analysis of unknown proteins by MS/MS still remains a challenging open problem. Although Klaus Biemann recognized the potential of MS/MS for sequencing of unknown proteins in the 1980s, low throughput Edman degradation followed by cloning still remains the main method to sequence unknown proteins. The automated interpretation of MS/MS spectra has been limited by a focus on individual spectra and has not capitalized on the information contained in spectra of overlapping peptides. Indeed the powerful shotgun DNA sequencing strategies have not been extended to automated protein sequencing. We demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of automated shotgun protein sequencing of protein mixtures by utilizing MS/MS spectra of overlapping and possibly modified peptides generated via multiple proteases of different specificities. We validate this approach by generating highly accurate de novo reconstructions of multiple regions of various proteins in western diamondback rattlesnake venom. We further argue that shotgun protein sequencing has the potential to overcome the limitations of current protein sequencing approaches and thus catalyze the otherwise impractical applications of proteomics methodologies in studies of unknown proteins.

  15. Modelling the effect of temperament on BMI through appetite reactivity and self-regulation in eating: a Structural Equation Modelling approach in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Godefroy, V; Trinchera, L; Romo, L; Rigal, N

    2016-04-01

    Appetitive traits and general temperament traits have both been correlated with adiposity and obesity in children. However, very few studies have tested structural models to identify the links between temperament, appetitive traits and adiposity in children. A validated structural model would help suggesting mechanisms to explain the impact of temperament on body mass index (BMI). In this study, we used Rothbart's heuristic definition of temperament as a starting point to define four appetitive traits, including two appetite reactivity dimensions (Appetite Arousal and Appetite Persistence) and two dimensions of self-regulation in eating (Self-regulation In Eating Without Hunger and Self-regulation in Eating Speed). We conducted a cross-sectional study in young adolescents to validate a structural model including these four appetitive traits, Effortful Control (a general temperament trait) and adiposity. A questionnaire assessing the four appetitive trait dimensions and Effortful Control was completed by adolescents from 10 to 14 years old (n=475), and their BMI-for-age was calculated (n=441). In total, 74% of the study participants were normal weight, 26% were overweight and 8% were obese. We then used structural equation modelling to test the structural model. We identified a well-fitting structural model (Comparative Fit Index=0.91; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation=0.04) that supports the hypothesis that Effortful Control impacts both dimensions of self-regulation in eating, which in turn are linked with both appetite reactivity dimensions. Moreover, Appetite Persistence is the only appetitive trait that was significantly related to adiposity (B=0.12; P<0.05). Our model shows that Effortful Control is related to adiposity through the mediation of an individual's 'eating temperament' (appetite reactivity and self-regulation in eating). Results suggest that young adolescents who exhibit high appetite reactivity but a low level of self-regulation in eating

  16. Infrared therapy for chronic low back pain: A randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Gale, George D; Rothbart, Peter J; Li, Ye

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of the present study was to assess the degree of pain relief obtained by applying infrared (IR) energy to the low back in patients with chronic, intractable low back pain. METHODS Forty patients with chronic low back pain of over six years’ duration were recruited from patients attending the Rothbart Pain Management Clinic, North York, Ontario. They came from the patient lists of three physicians at the clinic, and were randomly assigned to IR therapy or placebo treatment. One patient dropped out of the placebo group; as a result, 21 patients received IR therapy and 18 recieved placebo therapy. The IR therapy was provided by two small, portable units in a sturdy waistband powered by small, rechargeable batteries made by MSCT Infrared Wraps Inc (Canada). These units met safety standards for Food and Drug Administration portability, and are registered with the Food and Drug Administration as a therapeutic device. The unit converted electricity to IR energy at 800 nm to 1200 nm wavelength. The treated group received IR therapy. The placebo group had identical units, but the power was not connected to the circuit-board within the IR pad. Patients attended seven weekly sessions. One baseline and six weekly sets of values were recorded. The principle measure of outcome was pain rated on the numerical rating scale (NRS). The pain was assessed overall, then rotating and bending in different directions. RESULTS The mean NRS scores in the treatment group fell from 6.9 of 10 to 3 of 10 at the end of the study. The mean NRS in the placebo group fell from 7.4 of 10 to 6 of 10. CONCLUSION The IR therapy unit used was demonstrated to be effective in reducing chronic low back pain, and no adverse effects were observed. PMID:16960636

  17. North Atlantic explosive cyclones and large scale atmospheric variability modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberato, Margarida L. R.

    2015-04-01

    Extreme windstorms are one of the major natural catastrophes in the extratropics, one of the most costly natural hazards in Europe and are responsible for substantial economic damages and even fatalities. During the last decades Europe witnessed major damage from winter storms such as Lothar (December 1999), Kyrill (January 2007), Klaus (January 2009), Xynthia (February 2010), Gong (January 2013) and Stephanie (February 2014) which exhibited uncommon characteristics. In fact, most of these storms crossed the Atlantic in direction of Europe experiencing an explosive development at unusual lower latitudes along the edge of the dominant North Atlantic storm track and reaching Iberia with an uncommon intensity (Liberato et al., 2011; 2013; Liberato 2014). Results show that the explosive cyclogenesis process of most of these storms at such low latitudes is driven by: (i) the southerly displacement of a very strong polar jet stream; and (ii) the presence of an atmospheric river (AR), that is, by a (sub)tropical moisture export over the western and central (sub)tropical Atlantic which converges into the cyclogenesis region and then moves along with the storm towards Iberia. Previous studies have pointed to a link between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and intense European windstorms. On the other hand, the NAO exerts a decisive control on the average latitudinal location of the jet stream over the North Atlantic basin (Woollings et al. 2010). In this work the link between North Atlantic explosive cyclogenesis, atmospheric rivers and large scale atmospheric variability modes is reviewed and discussed. Liberato MLR (2014) The 19 January 2013 windstorm over the north Atlantic: Large-scale dynamics and impacts on Iberia. Weather and Climate Extremes, 5-6, 16-28. doi: 10.1016/j.wace.2014.06.002 Liberato MRL, Pinto JG, Trigo IF, Trigo RM. (2011) Klaus - an exceptional winter storm over Northern Iberia and Southern France. Weather 66:330-334. doi:10.1002/wea.755 Liberato

  18. The determination of residence times in a pilot plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, F. Pablo; Cortés, M. Eugenia

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that residence time distributions (RTD) are very important in many chemical processes such as separation, reforming, hydrocracking, fluid catalytic cracking, hydrodesulfuration, hydrogenation among others [3 Procédés de transformation, Editions Technip, Institute Francais du Petrole, Paris, France, 1998]. In addition, tracers can be used to measure the velocity, distribution and residence time of any stream through any part of an industrial [Guidebook on Radioisotope Tracers in Industry, IAEA, Vienna, 1990] or experimental system. Perhaps the best quality of radiotracers is that they do not interfere with normal unit operations or production scheduling. In this paper are presented the RTDs obtained in a pilot plant for a hydrogenation process [IMP, Technical Report, Determinación del tiempo de residencia promedio en el reactor de la planta piloto de hidroagotamiento de crudo, 2002]. The RTDs show a random phenomenon, which is not typical of this type of chemical processes. Several RTDs were determined in order to confirm this random behavior. The data were obtained using as a tracer a radioactive form of sodium iodide containing iodine-131 [The Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 10th Ed., Van Nostrand Reinhold, USA, 1981]. The process works with two phases in a countercurrent flow, inside a packed column. The liquid phase goes down by gravity. The gas phase goes up due to pressure difference [3 Procédés de transformation, Editions Technip, Institute Francais du Petrole, Paris, France, 1998]. The tracer was selected such that it would follow the liquid phase.

  19. Numerical Evaluation of Storm Surge Indices for Public Advisory Purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, B.; Bedient, P. B.; Dawson, C.; Proft, J.

    2016-12-01

    After the devastating hurricane season of 2005, shortcomings with the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale's (SSHS) ability to characterize a tropical cyclones potential to generate storm surge became widely apparent. As a result, several alternative surge indices were proposed to replace the SSHS, including Powell and Reinhold's Integrated Kinetic Energy (IKE) factor, Kantha's Hurricane Surge Index (HSI), and Irish and Resio's Surge Scale (SS). Of the previous, the IKE factor is the only surge index to-date that truly captures a tropical cyclones integrated intensity, size, and wind field distribution. However, since the IKE factor was proposed in 2007, an accurate assessment of this surge index has not been performed. This study provides the first quantitative evaluation of the IKEs ability to serve as a predictor of a tropical cyclones potential surge impacts as compared to other alternative surge indices. Using the tightly coupled ADvanced CIRCulation and Simulating WAves Nearshore models, the surge and wave responses of Hurricane Ike (2008) and 78 synthetic tropical cyclones were evaluated against the SSHS, IKE, HSI and SS. Results along the upper TX coast of the Gulf of Mexico demonstrate that the HSI performs best in capturing the peak surge response of a tropical cyclone, while the IKE accounting for winds greater than tropical storm intensity (IKETS) provides the most accurate estimate of a tropical cyclones regional surge impacts. These results demonstrate that the appropriate selection of a surge index ultimately depends on what information is of interest to be conveyed to the public and/or scientific community.

  20. Quantifying the Extremity of Windstorms for Regions Featuring Infrequent Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walz, M. A.; Leckebusch, G. C.; Kruschke, T.; Rust, H.; Ulbrich, U.

    2017-12-01

    This paper introduces the Distribution-Independent Storm Severity Index (DI-SSI). The DI-SSI represents an approach to quantify the severity of exceptional surface wind speeds of large scale windstorms that is complementary to the Storm Severity Index (SSI) introduced by Leckebusch et al. (2008). While the SSI approaches the extremeness of a storm from a meteorological and potential loss (impact) perspective, the DI-SSI defines the severity in a more climatological perspective. The idea is to assign equal index values to wind speeds of the same singularity (e.g. the 99th percentile) under consideration of the shape of the tail of the local wind speed climatology. Especially in regions at the edge of the classical storm track the DI-SSI shows more equitable severity estimates, e.g. for the extra-tropical cyclone Klaus. Here were compare the integral severity indices for several prominent windstorm in the European domain and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the respective index. In order to compare the indices, their relation with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is studied, which is one of the main large scale drivers for the intensity of European windstorms. Additionally we can identify a significant relationship between the frequency and intensity of windstorms for large parts of the European domain.

  1. The Joint Society of Nephrology in Germany, Switzerland and Austria - Five Decades of Successful Activities.

    PubMed

    Heidland, August; Ritz, Eberhard; Lang, Florian

    2016-02-01

    The joint Society of Nephrology in Germany, Switzerland and Austria was founded on April 10th, 1961 in Wiesbaden. Board members were Hans Sarre, Kurt Kramer, Klaus Rother, Francois Reubi, Bruno Watschinger, Wolfgang Dutz, Ernst Wollheim and Karl Ullrich. The mission of the society was an intensive interaction between basic science of the kidney (anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology, biochemistry and molecular biology) and clinical research in nephrology and hypertension. Every year scientific symposia took place in different venues in one of the three countries, except in the years between 1963-1987, when the congresses of the International Society of Nephrology took place. Practical issues of clinical nephrology, in particular renal replacement therapy (dialysis and transplantation), were covered since 1971 by a specific Working Group. In 1994 the Advisory Board (Kuratorium) of the Society of Nephrology was founded as a result of an initiative of Peter Weidmann (Bern). Its main goals were Update Seminars in Nephrology and Hypertensionin Eastern Europe, in part together with the Joint Action of Nephrology and an Eastern European ScholarshipProgram. Despite the prosperous work of this European society within nearly five decades in Germany a national society was founded as well, which combined all activities of nephrology in one organization. The German Society of Nephrology was founded in 2009.

  2. Neural network classifications and correlation analysis of EEG and MEG activity accompanying spontaneous reversals of the Necker cube.

    PubMed

    Gaetz, M; Weinberg, H; Rzempoluck, E; Jantzen, K J

    1998-04-01

    It has recently been suggested that reentrant connections are essential in systems that process complex information [A. Damasio, H. Damasio, Cortical systems for the retrieval of concrete knowledge: the convergence zone framework, in: C. Koch, J.L. Davis (Eds.), Large Scale Neuronal Theories of the Brain, The MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995, pp. 61-74; G. Edelman, The Remembered Present, Basic Books, New York, 1989; M.I. Posner, M. Rothbart, Constructing neuronal theories of mind, in: C. Koch, J.L. Davis (Eds.), Large Scale Neuronal Theories of the Brain, The MIT Press, Cambridge, 1995, pp. 183-199; C. von der Malsburg, W. Schneider, A neuronal cocktail party processor, Biol. Cybem., 54 (1986) 29-40]. Reentry is not feedback, but parallel signalling in the time domain between spatially distributed maps, similar to a process of correlation between distributed systems. Accordingly, it was expected that during spontaneous reversals of the Necker cube, complex patterns of correlations between distributed systems would be present in the cortex. The present study included EEG (n=4) and MEG recordings (n=5). Two experimental questions were posed: (1) Can distributed cortical patterns present during perceptual reversals be classified differently using a generalised regression neural network (GRNN) compared to processing of a two-dimensional figure? (2) Does correlated cortical activity increase significantly during perception of a Necker cube reversal? One-second duration single trials of EEG and MEG data were analysed using the GRNN. Electrode/sensor pairings based on cortico-cortical connections were selected to assess correlated activity in each condition. The GRNN significantly classified single trials recorded during Necker cube reversals as different from single trials recorded during perception of a two-dimensional figure for both EEG and MEG. In addition, correlated cortical activity increased significantly in the Necker cube reversal condition for EEG and MEG compared

  3. SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, E.; Young, I.

    The plastics recycling debate quite literally took center stage at the K '92 international plastics fair. Leading figures of the European plastic industry, including Jacques Puechal, chairman of Elf Atochem and president of the European Chemical Industry Council (Brussels), and Klaus Toepfer and Segolene Royal, the environment ministers of Germany and France, respectively, took part in a forum discussion in front of an audience of 600-plus. Exhibitors of K '92 managed to maintain an air of optimism at the show in spite of gloomy market conditions. A couple of firms admitted business in plastics was [open quotes]catastrophic[close quotes] and [openmore » quotes]a nightmare.[close quotes] At the forum the Association of Plastics Manufacturers in Europe (APME; Brussels), represented by its president, Dieter Cron, promoted the cascade concept to answer the plastics waste problem. This includes incineration with energy recovery in cases in which recycling is senseless economically and environmentally. Toepfer stated his wish for the period between use and final incineration to be extended through more recycling. Royal suggested that France and Germany set up a joint research program looking at the environmental impact of waste-to-energy technologies. Industry representatives, including Puechal, note the importance of developing a pan-European legal framework for recycling, because the business is international.« less

  4. Discharge processes and an electrical model of atmospheric pressure plasma jets in argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Zhi; Shao, Tao; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an atmospheric pressure plasma discharge in argon was generated using a needle-to-ring electrode configuration driven by a sinusoidal excitation voltage. The electric discharge processes and discharge characteristics were investigated by inspecting the voltage-current waveforms, Lissajous curves and lighting emission images. The change in discharge mode with applied voltage amplitude was studied and characterised, and three modes of corona discharge, dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) and jet discharge were identified, which appeared in turn with increasing applied voltage and can be distinguished clearly from the measured voltage-current waveforms, light-emission images and the changing gradient of discharge power with applied voltage. Based on the experimental results and discharge mechanism analysis, an equivalent electrical model and the corresponding equivalent circuit for characterising the whole discharge processes accurately was proposed, and the three discharge stages were characterised separately. A voltage-controlled current source (VCCS) associated with a resistance and a capacitance were used to represent the DBD stage, and the plasma plume and corona discharge were modelled by a variable capacitor in series with a variable resistor. Other factors that can influence the discharge, such as lead and stray capacitance values of the circuit, were also considered in the proposed model. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Recent Breakthroughs in Microplasma Science and Technology", edited by Kurt Becker, Jose Lopez, David Staack, Klaus-Dieter Weltmann and Wei Dong Zhu.

  5. Effect of source of funding on weight loss up to 3 years after gastric banding.

    PubMed

    Afoke, Jonathan; Agrawal, Sanjay; Edmond, Janet; Mahon, David; Welbourn, Richard

    2013-04-01

    Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is a popular choice for patients seeking weight loss surgery. Since behavioural change appears to play a role in weight loss outcomes we postulated that publicly funded patients might not do as well as self-payers. This series examines the effect of public funding versus self-pay on patients undergoing LAGB over 1, 2 and 3 years. Consecutive non-randomised cohort series of patient undergoing LAGB over 5 years (September 2003 to December 2008) in a single unit. Age, sex, funding route, body mass index (BMI) and complications were recorded. Per cent excess weight loss (EWL) and the Reinhold criterion for success (proportion achieving 50 % EWL) were assessed. Ninety-nine patients were publicly funded, and 250 patients were self-payers. Initial BMI was significantly higher in publicly funded patients (46.6 vs. 42.3 kg/m(2), p < 0.001) with a higher proportion of males (22.2 vs. 6.0 %, p < 0.001). Mean % EWL was significantly less for publicly funded patients at 1 year (38.1 vs. 53.5 %, p < 0.001) and 2 years (49.6 vs. 64.1 %, p < 0.001), but not at 3 years (59.7 vs. 61.8 %, p = 0.784). Fewer publicly funded patients achieved 50 % EWL at 1 year (24.5 vs. 50.2 %, p < 0.001), but with no significant difference at 2 years (54.8 vs. 67.0 %, p = 0.140) or 3 years (55.2 vs. 66.0 %, p = 0.349). Self-pay patients initially achieved more % EWL and greater success in reaching 50 % EWL after LAGB, but this difference was not maintained. The results suggest that patient motivation, using self-pay as a surrogate marker, may affect early results, but the operation itself is the main determinant of weight loss at 3 years.

  6. Integrative taxonomy of Leptonetela spiders (Araneae, Leptonetidae), with descriptions of 46 new species

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chun-Xia; Xu, Xin; Li, Shu-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Extreme environments, such as subterranean habitats, are suspected to be responsible for morphologically inseparable cryptic or sibling species and can bias biodiversity assessment. A DNA barcode is a short, standardized DNA sequence used for taxonomic purposes and has the potential to lessen the challenges presented by a biotic inventory. Here, we investigate the diversity of the genus Leptonetela Kratochvíl, 1978 that is endemic to karst systems in Eurasia using DNA barcoding. We analyzed 624 specimens using one mitochondrial gene fragment (COI). The results show that DNA barcoding is an efficient and rapid species identification method in this genus. DNA barcoding gap and automatic barcode gap discovery (ABGD) analyses indicated the existence of 90 species, a result consistent with previous taxonomic hypotheses, and supported the existence of extreme male pedipalpal tibial spine and median apophysis polymorphism in Leptonetela species, with direct implications for the taxonomy of the group and its diversity. Based on the molecular and morphological evidence, we delimit and diagnose 90 Leptonetela species, including the type species Leptonetela kanellisi(Deeleman-Reinhold, 1971). Forty-six of them are previously undescribed. The female of Leptonetela zhai Wang & Li, 2011 is reported for the first time. Leptonetela tianxinensis (Tong & Li, 2008) comb. nov. is transferred from the genus Leptoneta Simon, 1872;the genus Guineta Lin & Li, 2010 syn. nov. is a junior synonym of Leptonetela; Leptonetela gigachela(Lin & Li, 2010) comb. nov. is transferred from Guineta. The genus Sinoneta Lin & Li, 2010 syn. nov. is a junior synonym of Leptonetela; Leptonetela notabilis(Lin & Li, 2010) comb. nov. and Leptonetela sexdigiti(Lin & Li, 2010) comb. nov. are transferred from Sinoneta; Leptonetela sanchahe Wang & Li nom. nov. is proposed as a replacement name for Sinoneta palmata(Chen et al, 2010) because Leptonetela palmata is preoccupied. PMID:29280363

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Partition functions for molecules and atoms (Barklem+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barklem, P. S.; Collet, R.

    2016-02-01

    The results and input data are presented in the following files. Table 1 contains dissociation energies from the literature, and final adopted values, for 291 molecules. The literature values are from the compilations of Huber & Herzberg (1979, Constants of Diatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand Reinhold), Luo (2007, Comprehensive Handbook of Chemical Bond Energies (CRC Press)) and G2 theory calculations of Curtiss et al. (1991, J. Chem. Phys., 94, 7221). Table 2 contains the input data for the molecular calculations including adopted dissociation energy, nuclear spins, molecular spectroscopic constants and their sources. There are 291 files, one for each molecule, labelled by the molecule name. The various molecular spectroscopic constants are as defined in the paper. Table 4 contains the first, second and third ionisation energies for all chemical elements from H to U. The data comes from the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (Haynes, W.M. 2010, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 91st edn. (CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group)). Table 5a contains a list of keys to bibliographic references for the atomic energy level data that was extracted from NIST Atomic Spectra Database and used in the present work to compute atomic partition functions. The citation keys are abbreviations of the full bibliographic references which are made available in Table 5b in BibTeX format. Table 5b contains the full bibliographic references for the atomic energy level data that was extracted from the NIST Atomic Spectra Database. Table 6 contains tabulated partition function data as a function of temperature for 291 molecules. Table 7 contains tabulated equilibrium constant data as a function of temperature for 291 molecules. Table 8 contains tabulated partition function data as a function of temperature for 284 atoms and ions. The paper should be consulted for further details. (10 data files).

  8. A multi-method approach toward de novo glycan characterization: a Man-5 case study.

    PubMed

    Prien, Justin M; Prater, Bradley D; Cockrill, Steven L

    2010-05-01

    Regulatory agencies' expectations for biotherapeutic approval are becoming more stringent with regard to product characterization, where minor species as low as 0.1% of a given profile are typically identified. The mission of this manuscript is to demonstrate a multi-method approach toward de novo glycan characterization and quantitation, including minor species at or approaching the 0.1% benchmark. Recently, unexpected isomers of the Man(5)GlcNAc(2) (M(5)) were reported (Prien JM, Ashline DJ, Lapadula AJ, Zhang H, Reinhold VN. 2009. The high mannose glycans from bovine ribonuclease B isomer characterization by ion trap mass spectrometry (MS). J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 20:539-556). In the current study, quantitative analysis of these isomers found in commercial M(5) standard demonstrated that they are in low abundance (<1% of the total) and therefore an exemplary "litmus test" for minor species characterization. A simple workflow devised around three core well-established analytical procedures: (1) fluorescence derivatization; (2) online rapid resolution reversed-phase separation coupled with negative-mode sequential mass spectrometry (RRRP-(-)-MS(n)); and (3) permethylation derivatization with nanospray sequential mass spectrometry (NSI-MS(n)) provides comprehensive glycan structural determination. All methods have limitations; however, a multi-method workflow is an at-line stopgap/solution which mitigates each method's individual shortcoming(s) providing greater opportunity for more comprehensive characterization. This manuscript is the first to demonstrate quantitative chromatographic separation of the M(5) isomers and the use of a commercially available stable isotope variant of 2-aminobenzoic acid to detect and chromatographically resolve multiple M(5) isomers in bovine ribonuclease B. With this multi-method approach, we have the capabilities to comprehensively characterize a biotherapeutic's glycan array in a de novo manner, including structural isomers at >/=0

  9. Integrative taxonomy of Leptonetela spiders (Araneae, Leptonetidae), with descriptions of 46 new species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Xia; Xu, Xin; Li, Shu-Qiang

    2017-11-18

    Extreme environments, such as subterranean habitats, are suspected to be responsible for morphologically inseparable cryptic or sibling species and can bias biodiversity assessment. A DNA barcode is a short, standardized DNA sequence used for taxonomic purposes and has the potential to lessen the challenges presented by a biotic inventory. Here, we investigate the diversity of the genus Leptonetela Kratochvíl, 1978 that is endemic to karst systems in Eurasia using DNA barcoding. We analyzed 624 specimens using one mitochondrial gene fragment ( COI ). The results show that DNA barcoding is an efficient and rapid species identification method in this genus. DNA barcoding gap and automatic barcode gap discovery (ABGD) analyses indicated the existence of 90 species, a result consistent with previous taxonomic hypotheses, and supported the existence of extreme male pedipalpal tibial spine and median apophysis polymorphism in Leptonetela species, with direct implications for the taxonomy of the group and its diversity. Based on the molecular and morphological evidence, we delimit and diagnose 90 Leptonetela species, including the type species Leptonetela kanellisi (Deeleman-Reinhold, 1971). Forty-six of them are previously undescribed. The female of Leptonetela zhai Wang & Li, 2011 is reported for the first time. Leptonetela tianxinensis (Tong & Li, 2008) comb. nov. is transferred from the genus Leptoneta Simon, 1872; the genus Guineta Lin & Li, 2010 syn. nov. is a junior synonym of Leptonetela; Leptonetela gigachela (Lin & Li, 2010) comb. nov. is transferred from Guineta . The genus Sinoneta Lin & Li, 2010 syn. nov. is a junior synonym of Leptonetela ; Leptonetela notabilis (Lin & Li, 2010) comb. nov. and Leptonetela sexdigiti (Lin & Li, 2010) comb. nov. are transferred from Sinoneta ; Leptonetela sanchahe Wang & Li nom. nov. is proposed as a replacement name for Sinoneta palmata (Chen et al., 2010) because Leptonetela palmata is preoccupied.

  10. Analysis of diffusion in curved surfaces and its application to tubular membranes.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Colin James Stockdale; Raghunathan, Krishnan; DiBenedetto, Emmanuele; Kenworthy, Anne K

    2016-12-01

    Diffusion of particles in curved surfaces is inherently complex compared with diffusion in a flat membrane, owing to the nonplanarity of the surface. The consequence of such nonplanar geometry on diffusion is poorly understood but is highly relevant in the case of cell membranes, which often adopt complex geometries. To address this question, we developed a new finite element approach to model diffusion on curved membrane surfaces based on solutions to Fick's law of diffusion and used this to study the effects of geometry on the entry of surface-bound particles into tubules by diffusion. We show that variations in tubule radius and length can distinctly alter diffusion gradients in tubules over biologically relevant timescales. In addition, we show that tubular structures tend to retain concentration gradients for a longer time compared with a comparable flat surface. These findings indicate that sorting of particles along the surfaces of tubules can arise simply as a geometric consequence of the curvature without any specific contribution from the membrane environment. Our studies provide a framework for modeling diffusion in curved surfaces and suggest that biological regulation can emerge purely from membrane geometry. © 2016 Klaus, Raghunathan, et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  11. [Pharmacologists in the camps in the Third Reich--part second].

    PubMed

    Labuzek, Krzysztof; Prusek, Katarzyna; Gonciarz, Maciej; Okopień, Boguslaw

    2013-10-01

    SS Hygiene Institute provided adequate funding for research on the treatment of mycobacterial infections, and two scientists who became famous in the subject were Dr. Waldemar Hoven (KL Buchenwald) and Dr. Kurt Heissmeyer (KL Neuengamme). They conducted researches not only on adult prisoners, but also on the Jewish children. Studies of tuberculosis were also conducted under the auspices of the German Medical Association by Dr. Rudolf Brachtel. In turn, Dr. Klaus Schilling dealt with the treatment and immunoprophylaxis of malaria. He tested such substances, as pyramidon, aspirin, quinine and atebrin on more than 1200 prisoners. These sulfonamide-derived drugs, were also studied by prof. Karl Gebhardt and Dr. Fritz Fischer. They assessed the efficacy of these drugs in the treatment of "dirty" wounds incurred by German soldiers. Dr. Heinrich Schutz, Karl Babor and Waldemar Wolter they were enthusiasts in so-called biochemical therapy, based on the use of substances of natural origin, such as salt. After termination of War, during the Nuremberg Trials, many of them evaded responsibility, they were running medical practices, some were publishing. However, despite those facts, trials of Nazi war criminals were not result less, they opened world's eyes for the necessity of clarifying rudiments of human subject research, they gave foundations to define records like The Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Dignity of the Human Being with regard to the Application of Biology and Medicine or Good Clinical Practice.

  12. The 2008 Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting: Robert Huber, Chemistry 1988

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Robert Huber and his colleagues, Johann Deisenhofer and Hartmut Michel, elucidated the three-dimensional structure of the Rhodopseudomonas viridis photosynthetic reaction center. This membrane protein complex is a basic component of photosynthesis – a process fundamental to life on Earth – and for their work, Huber and his colleagues received the 1988 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Because structural information is central to understanding virtually any biological process, Huber likens their discovery to “switching on the light” for scientists trying to understand photosynthesis. Huber marvels at the growth of structural biology since the time he entered the field, when crystallographers worked with hand-made instruments and primitive computers, and only “a handful” of crystallographers would meet annually in the Bavarian Alps. In the “explosion” of structural biology since his early days of research, Huber looks to the rising generation of scientists to solve the remaining mysteries in the field – such as the mechanisms that underlie protein folding. A strong proponent of science mentorship, Huber delights in meeting young researchers at the annual Nobel Laureate Meetings in Lindau, Germany. He hopes that among these young scientists is an “Einstein of biology” who, he says with a twinkle in his eye, “doesn’t know it yet.” The interview was conducted by JoVE co-founder Klaus J. Korak at the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting 2008 in Lindau, Germany. PMID:19066525

  13. Integrated dynamic landscape analysis and modeling system (IDLAMS) : installation manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.; Majerus, K. A.; Sundell, R. C.

    The Integrated Dynamic Landscape Analysis and Modeling System (IDLAMS) is a prototype, integrated land management technology developed through a joint effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the US Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL). Dr. Ronald C. Sundell, Ms. Pamela J. Sydelko, and Ms. Kimberly A. Majerus were the principal investigators (PIs) for this project. Dr. Zhian Li was the primary software developer. Dr. Jeffrey M. Keisler, Mr. Christopher M. Klaus, and Mr. Michael C. Vogt developed the decision analysis component of this project. It was developed with funding support from the Strategic Environmental Research andmore » Development Program (SERDP), a land/environmental stewardship research program with participation from the US Department of Defense (DoD), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). IDLAMS predicts land conditions (e.g., vegetation, wildlife habitats, and erosion status) by simulating changes in military land ecosystems for given training intensities and land management practices. It can be used by military land managers to help predict the future ecological condition for a given land use based on land management scenarios of various levels of training intensity. It also can be used as a tool to help land managers compare different land management practices and further determine a set of land management activities and prescriptions that best suit the needs of a specific military installation.« less

  14. Breast cancer: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Collyar, D E

    2001-09-15

    The 2001 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) International Symposium, Breast Cancer: A Global Perspective, was conducted by members of the ASCO International Committee and additional speakers from around the world. An interactive format was chosen to: (1) learn how patterns of incidence, epidemiology, and causal biology relate to breast cancer around the world; (2) discuss the challenges in screening, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer, as well as its socioeconomic impact in various regions; (3) describe international differences in approach to and management of advanced breast cancer; and (4) discuss treatment in terms of hormone response, clinical research, and drug metabolism. After a brief introduction, each speaker gave an overview of breast cancer challenges and issues in their country, and discussed how the following case might be diagnosed and treated: A 44-year-old mother who presents with a finding of a painless breast lump and no prior history of breast masses, trauma, or surgery. Comments from a patient perspective were then presented, followed by a panel discussion and closing remarks. Co-chairs of this Symposium included Deborah Collyar (President, PAIR-Patient Advocates in Research) and Elizabeth Eisenhauer, MD (Director, Investigational New Drug Program, National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Speakers included Gilberto Schwartsmann, MD (South America), Monica Morrow, MD (North America), Daniel Vorobiof, MD (South Africa), Rakesh Chopra, MD (India), Klaus Hoeffken, MD (Eastern Europe), Russell Basser, MD (Australia), Susan Matsuko Shinigawa (patient perspective), and Larry Norton, MD (closing remarks).

  15. Environmental impacts on the hydrology of ephemeral streams and alluvial aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuells, C.; Marx, V.; Bittner, A.; Ellmies, R.; Seely, M.

    2009-04-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions alluvial groundwater resources of ephemeral streams are highly important for water supplies and ecosystems. Recent projects have studied processes of indirect recharge in situ and in detail (Dahan et al., 2008; Klaus et al., 2008). Still, little is known about the vulnerability of these aquifers to environmental impacts like surface dam constructions, land-use changes and climatic conditions as well as the time and type of response to such external impacts. With a catchment size of about 30.000 km² the Swakop River in Namibia is the largest of the country's twelve major ephemeral streams draining westwards into the Atlantic Ocean. The alluvial groundwater resources have been affected by the construction of two major surface water dams in the upper catchment as well as by abstractions for rural water supply, farming and mining downstream of the constructed dams (referred to as lower catchment). The determination of environmental impacts in the Swakop River catchment is difficult due to scarce hydrometric and water quality data. In order to obtain a better understanding of the hydrological system under changing environmental conditions a spatially distributed environmental tracer approach was applied. A longitudinal profile of groundwater samples was taken within a field study along the alluvial aquifer of the Swakop River. The samples were analysed for stable isotopes (18O, 2H), major ions and trace elements as well as for the residence time indicators CFC and SF6. The combined application of groundwater residence time analysis, stable isotope measurements and hydrochemical characterisation was used in order to associate a time scale with groundwater quality data. This method provides dated information on recharge and water quality before and after dam construction and can be used to detect environmental impacts on the hydrological system. CFC-12 analysis resulted in recharge years ranging from 1950 (0.01 pmol/l) to 1992 (1.4 pmol

  16. Rain drop size densities over land and over sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumke, Karl

    2010-05-01

    A detailed knowledge of rain drop size densities is an essential presumption with respect to remote sensing of precipitation. Since maritime and continental aerosol is significantly different yielding to differences in cloud drop size densities, maritime and continental rain drop size densities may be different, too. In fact only a little is known about differences in rain drop size densities between land and sea due to a lack of suitable data over the sea. To fill in this gap measurements were performed during the recent 10 years at different locations in Germany and on board of research vessels over the Baltic Sea, the North Sea, Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Ocean. Measurements were done by using an optical disdrometer (ODM 470, Großklaus et al., 1998), which is designed especially to perform precipitation measurements on moving ships and under high wind speeds. Temporal resolution of measurements is generally 1 minute, total number of time series is about 220000. To investigate differences in drop size densities over land and over sea measurements have been divided into four classes on the basis of prevailing continental or maritime influence: land measurements, coastal measurements, measurements in areas of semi-enclosed seas, and open sea measurements. In general differences in drop size densities are small between different areas. A Kolmogoroff Smirnoff test does not give any significant difference between drop size densities over land, coastal areas, semi-enclosed, and open seas at an error rate of 5%. Thus, it can be concluded that there are no systematic differences between maritime and continental drop size densities. The best fit of drop size densities is an exponential decay curve, N(D ) = 6510m -3mm -1mm0.14h- 0.14×R-0.14×exp(- 4.4mm0.25h-0.25×R- 0.25×D mm -1), it is estimated by using the method of least squares. N(D) is the drop size density normalized by the resolution of the optical disdrometer, D the diameter of rain drops in mm, and R the

  17. Operation Everest II and the 1978 Habeler/Messner ascent of Everest without bottled O2: what might they have in common?

    PubMed

    Wagner, Peter D

    2017-12-01

    In 1978, Peter Habeler and Reinhold Messner climbed Everest without supplemental O 2 . Subsequently, Oelz et al. (Oelz O, Howald H, Di Prampero PE, Hoppeler H, Claassen H, Jenni R, Bühlmann A, Ferretti G, Brückner JC, Veicsteinas A, Gussoni M, Cerretelli P. J Appl Physiol (1985) 60: 1734-1742, 1986) assessed their cardiopulmonary function, finding no advantageous physiological attributes to explain their success, and leading West (West JB. High Life: A History of High-Altitude Physiology and Medicine. New York: Oxford University, 1998) to suggest that grit and determination were more important. In 1985, Charlie Houston, John Sutton, and Al Cymerman hosted a scientific project assessing a simulated ascent of Everest (OE II) at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Included were measurements of O 2 transport. In particular, mixed venous Po 2 was measured at/near maximal exercise, for calculating pulmonary O 2 -diffusing capacity. A serendipitous observation was made: while both V̇o 2max and mixed venous Po 2 fell with altitude (as expected), it was how they fell-in direct proportion-that was remarkable. It later became clear that this reflected diffusion limitation of O 2 transport from muscle microvessels to the mitochondria, and that this last step in O 2 transport plays a major role in limiting V̇o 2max . Thus, how Habeler and Messner made it up Everest without bottled O 2 and no special cardiopulmonary attributes might be explained if their muscle O 2 -diffusing capacity, which depends largely on muscle capillarity, was unusually high. Oelz et al. mention that muscle capillary density was substantially-40%-above normal, but did not suggest that this accounted for the climbers' success. Therefore, high muscle capillarity, enhancing diffusive unloading of O 2 , may have been a major enabling physiological attribute for Habeler and Messner and that OE II, by chance, played a key role in bringing this to light.

  18. Impact Craters: Size-Dependent Degration Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, S.; Mahanti, P.; Meyer, H. M.; Robinson, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    From superposition relations, Shoemaker and Hackman (1) devised the lunar geologic timescale with Copernican and Eratosthenian as the most recent periods. Classifying craters into the two periods is key to understanding impactor flux and regolith maturation rates over the last 3 Ga. Both Copernican and Eratosthenian craters exhibit crisp morphologies (sharp rims, steep slopes), however, only the former exhibit high reflectance rays and ejecta (1). Based on the Optical Maturity Parameter (OMAT; 2), Grier et al. (3) classified 50 fresh craters (D >20 km) into 3 categories - young (OMAT >0.22), intermediate, and old (OMAT <0.16). In our previous work, Copernican craters (D > 10) were identified (4) from a catalogue of 11,875 craters (5). In this work; we compare two size ranges (D: 5 km - 10 km and 10 km to 15 km) of 177 Copernican craters based on the average OMAT, measured near the crater rim (3). OMAT is measured at the crater rim (as opposed to further away from the crater) to minimize the influence of spatial variation of OMAT (6) in our investigation. We found that OMAT values are typically lower for smaller craters (5km < D < 10km) in comparison to larger craters (10km < D < 15km). However, when compared against morphological freshness (as determined by d/D for simpler craters), the smaller craters were fresher (higher d/D value). Since the OMAT value decreases with age, craters with higher d/D value (morphologically fresher) should have higher OMAT, but this is not the case. We propose that quicker loss of OMAT (over time) for smaller craters compared to decrease in d/D with crater ageing, is responsible for the observed decreased OMAT for smaller craters. (1) Shoemaker and Hackman, 1962 (2) Lucey et al., 2000 (3) Grier et al., 2001 (4) Ravi et al., 2016 (5) Reinhold et al., 2015 (6) Mahanti et al., 2016

  19. In Memoriam; Recent Ph.D.s; Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James Bush died this year, at age 83. He had been an AGU member (Ocean Sciences) since 1950. Faure Hugues died this year. He had been an AGU member (Hydrology) since 1986. Murphy Manson died this year. He became an AGU member (Planetology) in 2002. Edgar O. McCutchen died this year, at age 78. He had been an AGU member (Ocean Sciences) since 1966. Willard James Pierson, Jr. died on 7 June 2003, at age 81. He was an AGU Fellow (Ocean Sciences) who joined in 1948.Atmospheric Sciences:Evaluation of land surface models using ground-based point-scale measurements, Lifeng Luo, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, Alan Robock, May 2003.Hydrology: Studies of solute transport through fractured till in Iowa, Martin F. Helmke, Iowa State University, Ames, William W. Simpkins and Robert Horton, May 2003.; Controls on the persistence of water within perched basins of the Peace-Athabasca Delta, northern Canada, Daniel Lee Peters, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada, Terry D. Prowse and James M. Buttle, January 2003.Ocean Sciences: Oceanographic conditions around the Galapagos Archipelago and their influence on cetacean community structure, Daniel M. Palacios, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Bruce R. Mate, April 2003.Klaus Keil has received the Honorary Degree of Doctor of Science (DSc) from the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, in recognition of his contributions to the understanding of the mineralogy and petrology of meteorites and the early history of the solar system.Richard (Rick) Sibson has been elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London, U.K.

  20. Extreme Windstorms and Related Impacts on Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Ordóñez, Paulina; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Karremann, Melanie K.; Trigo, Isabel F.

    2014-05-01

    Extreme windstorms are one of the major natural catastrophes in the mid latitudes, one of the most costly natural hazards in Europe and are responsible for substantial economic damages and even fatalities. During the recent winters, the Iberian Peninsula was hit by severe (wind) storms such as Klaus (January 2009), Xynthia (February 2010) and Gong (January 2013) which exhibited uncommon characteristics. They were all explosive extratropical cyclones formed over the mid-Atlantic, travelling then eastwards at lower latitudes than usual along the edge of the dominant North Atlantic storm track. In this work we present a windstorm catalogue for the Iberian Peninsula, where the characteristics of the potentially more destructive windstorms for the 1979-2012 period are identified. For this purpose, the potential impact of high winds over the Iberian Peninsula is assessed by using a daily damage index based on maximum wind speeds that exceeds the local 98th percentile threshold. Then, the characteristics of extratropical cyclones associated with these events are analyzed. Results indicate that these are fast moving, intense cyclones, typically located near the northwestern tip of the Iberian Peninsula. This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade) and by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER- 019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010). A. M. Ramos was also supported by a FCT postdoctoral Grant (FCT/DFRH/SFRH/BPD/84328/2012).

  1. A novel explicit approach to model bromide and pesticide transport in soils containing macropores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, J.; Zehe, E.

    2011-01-01

    The present study tests whether an explicit treatment of worm burrows is feasible for simulating water flow, bromide and pesticide transport in structured heterogeneous soils. The essence is to represent worm burrows as morphologically connected paths of low flow resistance in the spatially highly resolved model domain. A recent Monte Carlo study (Klaus and Zehe, 2010) revealed that this approach allowed successful reproduction of tile drain event discharge recorded during an irrigation experiment at a tile drained field site. However, several "hillslope architectures" that were all consistent with the available extensive data base allowed a good reproduction of tile drain flow response. Our second objective was thus to find out whether this "equifinality" in spatial model setups may be reduced when including bromide tracer data in the model falsification process. We thus simulated transport of bromide and Isoproturon (IPU) for the 13 spatial model setups, which performed best with respect to reproduce tile drain event discharge, without any further calibration. All model setups allowed a very good prediction of the temporal dynamics of cumulated bromide leaching into the tile drain, while only four of them matched the accumulated water balance and accumulated bromide loss into the tile drain. The number of behavioural model architectures could thus be reduced to four. One of those setups was used for simulating transport of IPU, using different parameter combinations to characterise adsorption according to the Footprint data base. Simulations could, however, only reproduce the observed leaching behaviour, when we allowed for retardation coefficients that were very close to one.

  2. Stereological and Morphometric Analysis of MRI Chiari Malformation Type-1

    PubMed Central

    Alkoç, Ozan Alper; Songur, Ahmet; Eser, Olcay; Toktas, Muhsin; Esi, Ertap; Haktanir, Alpay

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this study, we aimed to investigate the underlying ethiological factors in chiari malformation (CM) type-I (CMI) via performing volumetric and morphometric length-angle measurements. Methods A total of 66 individuals [33 patients (20-65 years) with CMI and 33 control subjects] were included in this study. In sagittal MR images, tonsillar herniation length and concurrent anomalies were evaluated. Supratentorial, infratentorial, and total intracranial volumes were measured using Cavalieri method. Various cranial distances and angles were used to evaluate the platybasia and posterior cranial fossa (PCF) development. Results Tonsillar herniation length was measured 9.09±3.39 mm below foramen magnum in CM group. Tonsillar herniation/concurrent syringomyelia, concavity/defect of clivus, herniation of bulbus and fourth ventricle, basilar invagination and craniovertebral junction abnormality rates were 30.3, 27, 18, 2, 3, and 3 percent, respectively. Absence of cisterna magna was encountered in 87.9% of the patients. Total, IT and ST volumes and distance between Chamberlain line and tip of dens axis, Klaus index, clivus length, distance between internal occipital protuberance and opisthion were significantly decreased in patient group. Also in patient group, it was found that Welcher basal angle/Boogard angle increased and tentorial slope angle decreased. Conclusion Mean cranial volume and length-angle measurement values significantly decreased and there was a congenital abnormality association in nearly 81.5 percent of the CM cases. As a result, it was concluded that CM ethiology can be attributed to multifactorial causes. Moreover, congenital defects can also give rise to this condition. PMID:26713146

  3. Comment on “Modeling of opposition effects with ensembles of clusters: Interplay of various scattering mechanisms” by Elena V. Petrova, Victor P. Tishkovets, Klaus Jockers, 2007 [Icarus 188, 233 245

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkuratov, Yuriy G.; Zubko, Evgenij S.

    2008-04-01

    We show that the mechanism called "near-field effect" [e.g., Petrova, E.V., Tishkovets, V.P., Jockers, K., 2007. Icarus 188, 233-245], which is used to explain wide-phase-angle negative polarization branch observed for planetary regoliths and cometary comas, is not realistic as it contradicts laboratory experiments and results of modeling with discrete dipole approximation calculations.

  4. Influences of oxygen content on characteristics of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge in argon/oxygen mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Zhi; Shao, Tao; Wang, Ruixue; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    The dielectric barrier discharge generated in argon/oxygen mixtures at atmospheric pressure is investigated, and the effect of oxygen content on discharge characteristics at applied voltage of 4.5 kV is studied by means of electrical measurements and optical diagnostics. The results show that the filaments in the discharge regime become more densely packed with the increasing in the oxygen content, and the distribution of the filaments is more uniform in the gap. An increase in the oxygen content results in a decrease in the average power consumed and transported charges, while there exists an optimal value of oxygen content for the production of oxygen radicals. The maximal yield of oxygen radicals is obtained in mixtures of argon with 0.3% oxygen addition, and the oxygen radicals then decrease with the further increase in the oxygen content. The oxygen/argon plasma is employed to modify surface hydrophilicity of the PET films to estimate the influence of oxygen content on the surface treatment, and the static contact angles before and after the treatments are measured. The lowest contact angle is obtained at a 0.3% addition of oxygen to argon, which is in accordance with the optimum oxygen content for oxygen radicals generation. The electron density and electron temperature are estimated from the measured current and optical emission spectroscopy, respectively. The electron density is found to reduce significantly at a higher oxygen content due to the increased electron attachment, while the estimated electron temperature do not change apparently with the oxygen content. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Recent Breakthroughs in Microplasma Science and Technology", edited by Kurt Becker, Jose Lopez, David Staack, Klaus-Dieter Weltmann and Wei Dong Zhu.

  5. Competitive pricing within pharmaceutical classes: evidence on "follow-on" drugs in Germany 1993-2008.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Michael T; Frenzel, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Competition from "follow-on" drugs has been a highly controversial issue. Manufacturers launching new molecules in existing drug classes have often been criticized for inflating health systems' expenses, but it has been argued that such drugs increase therapeutic options. Economic theory suggests that follow-on drugs induce price competition. We contribute to this discussion by addressing the topic of pricing at market entry and price development in the German market. We measure determinants of price strategies of follow-on drugs using regression analyses, considering all new molecules launched in the German market from 1993 to 2008. Prices of products are standardized on defined daily dosages controlling for sales volumes based on data from the IMS Health DPM database and for the therapeutic quality of a new product using ratings by Fricke/Klaus as a proxy for innovation. We identify prices correlating with therapeutic value at market entry. While the first two molecules engage in quality competition, price discounts below the market price can be observed from the third entrant on. Price discounts are even more distinct in development races with several drugs entering the market within 2 years and in classes with a low degree of therapeutic differentiation. Prices remain relatively constant over time. This study contributes to assessments of competition in pharmaceutical markets focusing on price strategies of new market entrants. After an initial phase of market building, further follow-on products induce price competition. Largely unchanged prices after 4 years may be interpreted as quality competition and can be attributed to prices in Germany being anchor points for international price referencing.

  6. A novel explicit approach to model bromide and pesticide transport in connected soil structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, J.; Zehe, E.

    2011-07-01

    The present study tests whether an explicit treatment of worm burrows and tile drains as connected structures is feasible for simulating water flow, bromide and pesticide transport in structured heterogeneous soils at hillslope scale. The essence is to represent worm burrows as morphologically connected paths of low flow resistance in a hillslope model. A recent Monte Carlo study (Klaus and Zehe, 2010, Hydrological Processes, 24, p. 1595-1609) revealed that this approach allowed successful reproduction of tile drain event discharge recorded during an irrigation experiment at a tile drained field site. However, several "hillslope architectures" that were all consistent with the available extensive data base allowed a good reproduction of tile drain flow response. Our second objective was thus to find out whether this "equifinality" in spatial model setups may be reduced when including bromide tracer data in the model falsification process. We thus simulated transport of bromide for the 13 spatial model setups that performed best with respect to reproduce tile drain event discharge, without any further calibration. All model setups allowed a very good prediction of the temporal dynamics of cumulated bromide leaching into the tile drain, while only four of them matched the accumulated water balance and accumulated bromide loss into the tile drain. The number of behavioural model architectures could thus be reduced to four. One of those setups was used for simulating transport of Isoproturon, using different parameter combinations to characterise adsorption according to the Footprint data base. Simulations could, however, only reproduce the observed leaching behaviour, when we allowed for retardation coefficients that were very close to one.

  7. Violence and weapon-related trauma at Puruchuco-Huaquerones, Peru.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Melissa S; Gaither, Catherine; Goycochea, Elena; Verano, John W; Cock, Guillermo

    2010-08-01

    Conquest of indigenous peoples in North America is understood primarily through ethnohistorical documents, archaeological evidence, and osteological analyses. However, in the Central Andes, the colonial enterprise and its effects are understood only from postcontact historical and ethnohistorical sources. Few archaeological and bioarchaeological studies have investigated Spanish Conquest and colonialism in the Andean region [for exceptions see Klaus and Tam: Am J Phys Anthropol 138 (2009) 356-368; Wernke, in press; and Quilter, in press]. Here we describe bioarchaeological evidence of violence from the cemeteries of Huaquerones and 57AS03 within the archaeological zone of Puruchuco-Huaquerones, Peru (circa A.D. 1470-1540). A total of 258 individuals greater than 15 years of age were analyzed for evidence of traumatic injuries. Individuals were examined macroscopically and evidence of traumatic injuries was analyzed according to the skeletal element involved, the location of the injury on the skeletal element, and any additional complications of the injury. This study examines and compares the evidence of perimortem injuries on skeletonized individuals from the two cemeteries and focuses specifically on the interpretation of weapon-related perimortem injuries. Evidence of perimortem trauma is present in both cemeteries (18.6%, 48/258); however, the frequency of injuries in 57AS03 is greater than that in Huaquerones (25.0% vs. 13.0%). Several injuries from 57AS03 are consistent with documented cases of injuries from firearms and 16th Century European weapons. We believe that the nature and high frequency of perimortem trauma at 57AS03 provide evidence of the violence that occurred with Spanish Conquest of the Inca Empire. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Homeopathy: meta-analyses of pooled clinical data.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    In the first decade of the evidence-based era, which began in the mid-1990s, meta-analyses were used to scrutinize homeopathy for evidence of beneficial effects in medical conditions. In this review, meta-analyses including pooled data from placebo-controlled clinical trials of homeopathy and the aftermath in the form of debate articles were analyzed. In 1997 Klaus Linde and co-workers identified 89 clinical trials that showed an overall odds ratio of 2.45 in favor of homeopathy over placebo. There was a trend toward smaller benefit from studies of the highest quality, but the 10 trials with the highest Jadad score still showed homeopathy had a statistically significant effect. These results challenged academics to perform alternative analyses that, to demonstrate the lack of effect, relied on extensive exclusion of studies, often to the degree that conclusions were based on only 5-10% of the material, or on virtual data. The ultimate argument against homeopathy is the 'funnel plot' published by Aijing Shang's research group in 2005. However, the funnel plot is flawed when applied to a mixture of diseases, because studies with expected strong treatments effects are, for ethical reasons, powered lower than studies with expected weak or unclear treatment effects. To conclude that homeopathy lacks clinical effect, more than 90% of the available clinical trials had to be disregarded. Alternatively, flawed statistical methods had to be applied. Future meta-analyses should focus on the use of homeopathy in specific diseases or groups of diseases instead of pooling data from all clinical trials. © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  9. Report on the 5‘th scientific meeting of the “Verein zur Förderung des Wissenschaftlichen Nachwuchses in der Neurologie” (NEUROWIND e.V.) held in Motzen, Germany, Oct. 25th – Oct. 27th, 2013

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    From october 25th - 27th 2013, the 5th NEUROWIND e.V. meeting was held in Motzen, Brandenburg, Germany. This year more than 60 doctoral students and postdocs from over 25 different groups working in German university hospitals or research institutes attended the meeting to discuss their latest findings in the fields of neuroimmunology, neurodegeneration and neurovascular research. All participants appreciated the stimulating environment in Motzen, Brandenburg, and people took the opportunity for scientific exchange, discussion about ongoing projects and already started further collaborations. Like in the previous years, the symposium was regarded as a very well organized platform to support research of young investigators in Germany. According to the major aim of NEUROWIND e.V. to support younger researchers in Germany the 3rd NEUROWIND YOUNG SCIENTIST AWARD for experimental neurology was awarded to Ruth Stassart working in the group of Klaus Armin Nave and Wolfgang Brück (MPI Göttingen and Department of Neuropathology, Göttingen Germany). The successful work was published in Nature Neuroscience entitled “A role for Swann cell-derived neuregulin-1 in remyelination”. This outstanding paper deals with the function of Schwann cell neuregulin as an endogenous factor for myelin repair. The award is endowed with 20.000 Euro sponsored by Merck Serono GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany (unrestricted educational grant). This year’s keynote lecture was given by Albert Ludolph, Head of the Department of Neurology at the University Clinic of Ulm. Dr. Ludolph highlighted the particular role of individual scientists for the development of research concepts in Alzheimer´s disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). PMID:24330587

  10. Effects of redox conditions on the adsorption of dissolved organic matter to soil minerals and differently aged paddy soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauerwein, Meike; Hanke, Alexander; Kaiser, Klaus; Kalbitz, Karsten

    2010-05-01

    Effects of redox conditions on the adsorption of dissolved organic matter to soil minerals and differently aged paddy soils Meike Sauerwein1, Alexander Hanke2, Klaus Kaiser3, Karsten Kalbitz2 1) Dept. of Soil Ecology, Bayreuth Centre of Ecology and Environmental Research (BayCEER), University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth, Germany, meike.sauerwein@gmail.com 2) Institute of ecosystem dynamics and biodiversity, University of Amsterdam, 1018 WV, Netherlands, a.hanke@uva.nl, k.kalbitz@uva.nl 3) Soil Sciences, Martin Luther University Halle, 06099 Halle, Germany, klaus.kaiser@landw.uni-halle.de Current knowledge on dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soils is based mainly on observations and experiments in aerobic environments. Adsorption to soil minerals is an important mechanism of DOM retention and stabilization against microbial decay under oxic conditions. Under anoxic conditions where hydrous iron oxides, the potential main adsorbents of DOM, possibly dissolve, the importance of adsorption seems questionable. Therefore, we studied the adsorption of DOM to selected soil minerals and to mineral soils under oxic and anoxic conditions. In detail, we tested the following hypotheses: 1. Minerals and soils adsorb less DOM under anoxic conditions than under oxic ones. 2. The reduced adsorption under anoxic conditions is result of the smaller adsorption to hydrous Fe oxides whereas adsorption to clay minerals and Al hydroxides is not sensitive to changes in redox conditions 3. DOM adsorption will increase with the number of redox cycles, thus time of soil formation, due to increasing contents of poorly crystalline Fe oxides. This will, however, cause a stronger sensitivity to redox changes as poor crystalline Fe oxides are more reactive. 4. Aromatic compounds, being preferentially adsorbed under oxic conditions, will be less strongly adsorbed under anoxic conditions. We chose paddy soils as models because their periodically and regular exposure to changing redox cycles, with

  11. [Consequences of short term fluctuations of the environmental temperatures in calves--Part 2: Effects on the health status of animals within three weeks after exposure].

    PubMed

    Reinhold, P; Elmer, S

    2002-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine consequences of sudden changes in ambient temperature over a 4-hour period (see part 1 [ELMER & REINHOLD, 2002]) on respiratory health in clinically healthy calves. Therefore, the relationship between short-term changes in ambient temperature and the occurrence of clinical respiratory disease was checked over a period of 3 weeks after exposure in 10 calves exposed to 5 degrees C, in 9 calves exposed to 35 degrees C and in 8 control calves (kept at 18-20 degrees C). Within the period beginning 3 days before exposure and lasting until up to 21 days after exposure, each calf was examined clinically. Rectal temperature and respiratory rate were measured daily. All calves were euthanised on day 21 after exposure. Macroscopically visible pneumonic lesions were evaluated using a semiquantitative system. Tissue samples from tonsils, bronchi, trachea, lung and mediastinal lymph nodes were examined bacteriologically. In contrast to non-exposed control calves, severe respiratory illness was observed in individual calves of both exposed groups (5 degrees C, 35 degrees C). Significant increases in body temperature, respiratory rate and animal losses (2 calves died in the group exposed to 5 degrees C, one calf died in the group exposed to 35 degrees C) were the main clinical findings. At necropsy (3 weeks after exposure), no pneumonic lesions were observed in control calves--despite the fact that this group had the highest microbiological colonisation rates in tonsils and in large airways, i.e. trachea and bronchi, within all groups. However, variable pneumonic lung lesions were seen in remaining calves exposed to cold or warm air (5 degrees C, 35 degrees C). The microbiological examination confirmed that mainly Mycoplasma spp. were identified in the lung tissue of calves exposed to 5 degrees C while Pasteurella multocida and/or Mannheimia haemolytica were the only germs found in the lung tissue of calves exposed to 35 degrees C. The

  12. A critical review of the German Paleolithic hominin record.

    PubMed

    Street, Martin; Terberger, Thomas; Orschiedt, Jörg

    2006-12-01

    We review the hominin fossil record from western Central Europe in light of the recent major revisions of the geochronological context. The mandible from Mauer (Homo heidelbergensis), dated to circa 500,000 years ago, continues to represent the earliest German hominin and may coincide with the occupation of Europe north of the high alpine mountain chains. Only limited new evidence is available for the Middle Pleistocene, mostly in the form of skull fragments, a pattern that may relate to taphonomic processes. These finds and their ages suggest the gradual evolution of a suite of Neandertal features during this period. Despite new finds of classic Neandertals, there is no clear proof for Neandertal burial from Germany. Alternatively, cut marks on a skull fragment from the Neandertal type site suggest special treatment of that individual. New Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates of previous finds leave little reliably dated evidence for anatomically modern humans (AMH) in Europe before 30,000 BP; the remains from Hahnöfersand, Binshof-Speyer, Paderborn-Sande, and Vogelherd are now of Holocene age. Thus, a correlation of AMH with the Aurignacian remains to be proven, and the general idea of a long coexistence of Neandertals and AMH in Europe may be questioned. In western Central Europe, evidence of Gravettian human fossils is also very limited, although a new double grave from lower Austria may be relevant. The only dated burial from the German Upper Paleolithic (from Mittlere Klause) falls into a time period (circa 18,600 BP) represented by only a few occupation sites in western Central Europe. A number of human remains at Magdalenian sites appear to result from variable (secondary) burial practices. In contrast, the Final Paleolithic (circa 12,000-9600 cal. BC) yields an increase of hominin finds, including multiple burials (Bonn-Oberkassel, Neuwied-Irlich), similar to the situation in western and southern Europe.

  13. Optical Sensors for Use in Propulsion Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritsch, Klaus

    1997-01-01

    This final technical report describes the results of a cooperative effort which was originally established between John Carroll University and the Instrumentation and Control Technology Division at NASA Lewis Research Center on November, 1982, and then continued with the Engine Sensor Technology Branch at NASA Lewis until March, 1995. All work at John Carroll University was directed by the principal investigator of this grant, Klaus Fritsch, Ph.D. For the first two years of this grant this effort was supervised at NASA by Mr. Robert J. Baumbick and for the remainder of the grant by Dr. Glenn M. Beheim. All research was carried out in close cooperation with Dr. Beheim. Electrically passive optical sensors for measurands such as pressure, temperature, position, and rotational speed are required for aircraft engine control in fly-by-light digital aircraft control systems. Fiberoptic data links and optical multiplexing techniques should be used for combining and processing the outputs from several sensors, sharing as many optical end electronic parts as possible. The overall objective of this grant was to explore techniques for designing and constructing such electrically passive optical sensors for measuring physical parameters in jet aircraft engines and for use in aircraft control systems. We have concentrated our efforts on pressure, temperature, and position sensors employing techniques which are relatively immune to transmissivity variations of the fiber links and to variations in intensity of the light source. Infrared light-emitting diodes are employed because of their longevity and immunity to vibration. We have also studied a number of multiplexing techniques. On the following pages I will give thumbnail sketches of the projects carried out under this grant and provide references to publications and John Carroll M.S. theses which resulted directly from this work and which describe these projects in greater detail.

  14. (Pre-) calibration of a Reduced Complexity Model of the Antarctic Contribution to Sea-level Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruckert, K. L.; Guan, Y.; Shaffer, G.; Forest, C. E.; Keller, K.

    2015-12-01

    (Pre-) calibration of a Reduced Complexity Model of the Antarctic Contribution to Sea-level ChangesKelsey L. Ruckert1*, Yawen Guan2, Chris E. Forest1,3,7, Gary Shaffer 4,5,6, and Klaus Keller1,7,81 Department of Geosciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA 2 Department of Statistics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA 3 Department of Meteorology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA 4 GAIA_Antarctica, University of Magallanes, Punta Arenas, Chile 5 Center for Advanced Studies in Arid Zones, La Serena, Chile 6 Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark 7 Earth and Environmental Systems Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA 8 Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA * Corresponding author. E-mail klr324@psu.eduUnderstanding and projecting future sea-level changes poses nontrivial challenges. Sea-level changes are driven primarily by changes in the density of seawater as well as changes in the size of glaciers and ice sheets. Previous studies have demonstrated that a key source of uncertainties surrounding sea-level projections is the response of the Antarctic ice sheet to warming temperatures. Here we calibrate a previously published and relatively simple model of the Antarctic ice sheet over a hindcast period from the last interglacial period to the present. We apply and compare a range of (pre-) calibration methods, including a Bayesian approach that accounts for heteroskedasticity. We compare the model hindcasts and projections for different levels of model complexity and calibration methods. We compare the projections with the upper bounds from previous studies and find our projections have a narrower range in 2100. Furthermore we discuss the implications for the design of climate risk management strategies.

  15. "Effects of networking on career success: A longitudinal study": Correction to Wolff and Moser (2009).

    PubMed

    2017-02-01

    Reports an error in "Effects of networking on career success: A longitudinal study" by Hans-Georg Wolff and Klaus Moser ( Journal of Applied Psychology , 2009[Jan], Vol 94[1], 196-206). In the article, results from a confirmatory factor analysis on subjective career success in the Measures section contained an error in the reported Chi-square (i.e., χ² (5, N = 257) = 9.17). This error does not alter any conclusions or substantive statements in the original article. The correct fit indices are " χ²(5, N = 257) 9.67, p = .08, RMSEA = 0.059, CFI = 1.00." (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2009-00697-007.) Previous research has reported effects of networking, defined as building, maintaining, and using relationships, on career success. However, empirical studies have relied exclusively on concurrent or retrospective designs that rest upon strong assumptions about the causal direction of this relation and depict a static snapshot of the relation at a given point in time. This study provides a dynamic perspective on the effects of networking on career success and reports results of a longitudinal study. Networking was assessed with 6 subscales that resulted from combining measures of the facets of (a) internal versus external networking and (b) building versus maintaining versus using contacts. Objective (salary) and subjective (career satisfaction) measures of career success were obtained for 3 consecutive years. Multilevel analyses showed that networking is related to concurrent salary and that it is related to the growth rate of salary over time. Networking is also related to concurrent career satisfaction. As satisfaction remained stable over time, no effects of networking on the growth of career satisfaction were found. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. German Emergency Care in Neurosurgery and Military Neurology during World War II, 1939-1945.

    PubMed

    Stahnisch, Frank W

    2016-01-01

    A critical analysis of the historical involvement of neurology and neurosurgery in military emergency care services enables us to better contextualize and appreciate the development of modern neurology at large. Wartime neurosurgery and civil brain science during the German Nazi period tightly coalesced in examining the specific injury types, which military neurosurgeons such as Wilhelm Toennis, Klaus Joachim Zuelch, and Georg Merrem encountered and treated based on their neurophysiological understanding gained from earlier peacetime research. Collaborative associations with Dr. Toennis in particular proved to be highly beneficial to other military neurologists and neurosurgeons during World War II and beyond. This article also discusses the prewar developments and considers the fate of German neurosurgeons and military neurologists after the war. The envisaged dynamic concepts of fast action, reaction, and recycling, which contemporary physicians had intensively studied in the preceding scientific experiments in their neurophysiological laboratories, had already been introduced into neurological surgery during the interwar period. In retrospect, World War II emergency rescue units greatly strengthened military operations through an active process of 'recycling' indispensable army personnel. Neurosurgical emergency chains thereby introduced another decisive step in the modernization of warfare, in that they increased the momentum of military mobility in the field. Notwithstanding the violence of warfare and the often inhumane ways in which such knowledge in the field of emergency neurology was gained, the protagonists among the group of experts in military neurology and neurosurgery strongly contributed to the postwar clinical neuroscience community in Germany. In differing political pretexts, this became visible in both East Germany and West Germany after the war, while the specific military and political conditions under which this knowledge of emergency medicine

  17. Rebuttal to comment on “Modeling of opposition effects with ensembles of clusters: Interplay of various scattering mechanisms” by Elena V. Petrova, Victor P. Tishkovets, Klaus Jockers, 2007 [Icarus 188, 233 245

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Elena V.; Tishkovets, Victor P.; Jockers, Klaus

    2008-04-01

    Shkuratov and Zubko [Shkuratov, Yu.G., Zubko, E., 2008. Icarus 194, 850-852] criticize our paper [Petrova, E.V., Tishkovets, V.P., Jockers, K., 2007. Icarus 188, 233-245]. With this comment we reply to this criticism. We show that the experimental data and the modeling calculations presented by these authors cannot disprove the near-field effect as an important contributor to the scattering mechanisms considered in our paper.

  18. Volubility as a Mediator in the Associations between Conversational Language Measures and Child Temperament

    PubMed Central

    DeThorne, Laura Segebart; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Mahurin-Smith, Jamie; Coletto, Mary-Kelsey; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite support for the use of conversational language measures, concerns remain regarding the extent to which they may be confounded with aspects of child temperament, extraversion in particular. Aims This study of 161 twins from the Western Reserve Reading Project (WRRP) examined the associations between children’s conversational language use and three key aspects of child temperament: Surgency (i.e., introversion/extraversion), Effortful Control (i.e., attention and task persistence), and Negative Affectivity (e.g., fear, anger, sadness). Child biological sex was considered as a possible moderating factor. Methods & Procedures Correlational analyses were conducted between aspects of temperament during early school-age years (i.e., 7 to 8 yrs), as measured by the Children’s Behavior Questionnaire-Short Form (CBQ; Putnam & Rothbart, 2006), and six different measures of children’s conversational language use: total number of complete and intelligible utterances (TCICU), number of total words (NTW), mean length of utterance (MLU), total number of conjunctions (TNC), number of different words (NDW), and measure D (i.e., a measure of lexical diversity). Values for NTW, TNC, and NDW were derived both on the entire sample and on the first 100 C-units. Correlations between language and temperament were compared between girls and boys using the Fisher r-to-z transformation to examine the significance of potential moderating effects. Outcomes & Results Children’s reported variability in Effortful Control did not correlate significantly with any of the child language measures. In contrast, children’s Negative Affectivity and Surgency tended to demonstrate positive, albeit modest, correlations with those conversational language measures that were derived from the sample as a whole, rather than from a standardized number of utterances. MLU, as well as measures of NDW and NTW derived from standardized sample lengths of 100 C-units, did not correlate with

  19. FOREWORD International Conference on Defects in Insulating Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valerio, Mário Ernesto Giroldo; Jackson, R. A.

    2010-11-01

    M Suszynska, Poland I Tale, Latvia M E G Valerio, Brasil R T Williams, USA Programme Committee Robert A Jackson (Chair), University of Keele, UK R M Montereali, ENEA C.R. Frascati, Rome, Italy M Moreno, University of Cantabria, Spain Ch Pedrini, University Lyon, France Klaus W H Krambrock, UFMG, MG, Brasil Volkmar Dierolf, Lehigh University, USA Laszlo Kovács, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary M E G Valerio, UFS, SE, Brasil Local Organizing Committee M E G Valerio, UFS, SE, Brasil Sonia L Baldochi, IPEN, SP, Brasil Klaus W H Krambrock, UFMG, MG, Brasil Livio Amaral, UFRGS, RS, Brasil Ana R Blak, USP, SP, Brasil Marco Cremona, PUC-RJ, RJ, Brasil Anderson S L Gomes, UFPE, PE, Brasil Spero Penha Morato, LaserTools, SP, Brasil Alejandro Ayala, UFC, CE, Brasil ICDIM2008 Sponsors: Sponsors

  20. High Spectral Resolution Lidar: System Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivek Vivekanandan, J.; Morley, Bruce; Spuler, Scott; Eloranta, Edwin

    2015-04-01

    One of the unique features of the high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) is simultaneous measurements of backscatter and extinction of atmosphere. It separates molecular scattering from aerosol and cloud particle backscatter based on their Doppler spectrum width. Scattering from aerosol and cloud particle are referred as Mie scattering. Molecular or Rayleigh scattering is used as a reference for estimating aerosol extinction and backscatter cross-section. Absolute accuracy of the backscattered signals and their separation into Rayleigh and Mie scattering depends on spectral purity of the transmitted signals, accurate measurement of transmit power, and precise performance of filters. Internal calibration is used to characterize optical subsystems Descriptions of high spectral resolution lidar system and its measurement technique can be found in Eloronta (2005) and Hair et al.(2001). Four photon counting detectors are used to measure the backscatter from the combined Rayleigh and molecular scattering (high and low gain), molecular scattering and cross-polarized signal. All of the detectors are sensitive to crosstalk or leakage through the optical filters used to separate the received signals and special data files are used to remove these effects as much as possible. Received signals are normalized with respect to the combined channel response to Mie and Rayleigh scattering. The laser transmit frequency is continually monitored and tuned to the 1109 Iodine absorption line. Aerosol backscatter cross-section is measured by referencing the aerosol return signal to the molecular return signal. Extinction measurements are calculated based on the differences between the expected (theoretical) and actual change in the molecular return. In this paper an overview of calibration of the HSRL is presented. References: Eloranta, E. W., High Spectral Resolution Lidar in Lidar: Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Klaus Weitkamp editor, Springer Series in Optical

  1. On astronomical drawing [1846

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, Charles Piazzi

    Reprinted from the Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society 15, 1846, pp. 71-82. With annotations and illustrations added by Klaus Hentschel. The activities of the Astronomer Royal for Scotland, Charles Piazzi Smyth (1819-1900), include the triangulation of South African districts, landscape painting, day-to-day or tourist sketching, the engraving and lithographing of prominent architectural sites, the documentary photography of the Egyptian pyramids or the Tenerife Dragon tree, and `instant photographs' of the clouds above his retirement home in Clova, Ripon. His colorful records of the aurora polaris, and solar and terrestrial spectra all profited from his trained eye and his subtle mastery of the pen and the brush. As his paper on astronomical drawing, which we chose to reproduce in this volume, amply demonstrates, he was conversant in most of the print technology repertoire that the 19th century had to offer, and carefully selected the one most appropriate to each sujet. For instance, he chose mezzotint for the plates illustrating Maclear's observations of Halley's comet in 1835/36, so as to achieve a ``rich profundity of shadows, the deep obscurity of which is admirably adapted to reproduce those fine effects of chiaroscuro frequently found in works where the quantity of dark greatly predominates.'' The same expertise with which he tried to emulate Rembrandt's chiaroscuro effects he applied to assessing William and John Herschel's illustrations of nebulae, which appeared in print between 1811 and 1834. William Herschel's positive engraving, made partly by stippling and partly by a coarse mezzotint, receives sharp admonishment because of the visible ruled crossed lines in the background and the fact that ``the objects, which are also generally too light, [have] a much better definition than they really possess.'' On the other hand, John Herschel's illustration of nebulae and star clusters, given in negative, ``in which the lights are the darkest part of the

  2. Preface: phys. stat. sol. (c) 1/8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Markus C.

    2004-07-01

    comments and the editorial staff of physica status solidi (c) for their extremely helpful support. The funding by the German Research Foundation over the full project time and the continued monitoring and advice by its representatives Dr. Klaus Wehrberger and Dr. Peter Heil are gratefully acknowledged by all previous members and co-workers of this Collaborative Research Centre.

  3. Laboratory modeling of air-sea interaction under severe wind conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Vasiliy, Kazakov; Nicolay, Bogatov; Olga, Ermakova; Mikhail, Salin; Daniil, Sergeev; Maxim, Vdovin

    2010-05-01

    Wind-wave interaction at extreme wind speed is of special interest now in connection with the problem of explanation of the sea surface drag saturation at the wind speed exceeding 30 m/s. The idea on saturation (and even reduction) of the coefficient of aerodynamic resistance of the sea surface at hurricane wind speed was first suggested by Emanuel (1995) on the basis of theoretical analysis of sensitivity of maximum wind speed in a hurricane to the ratio of the enthalpy and momentum exchange coefficients. Both field (Powell, Vickery, Reinhold, 2003, French et al, 2007, Black, et al, 2007) and laboratory (Donelan et al, 2004) experiments confirmed that at hurricane wind speed the sea surface drag coefficient is significantly reduced in comparison with the parameterization obtained at moderate to strong wind conditions. Two groups of possible theoretical mechanisms for explanation of the effect of the sea surface drag reduction can be specified. In the first group of models developed by Kudryavtsev & Makin (2007) and Kukulka,Hara Belcher (2007), the sea surface drag reduction is explained by peculiarities of the air flow over breaking waves. Another approach more appropriate for the conditions of developed sea exploits the effect of sea drops and sprays on the wind-wave momentum exchange (Andreas, 2004; Makin, 2005; Kudryavtsev, 2006). The main objective of this work is investigation of factors determining momentum exchange under high wind speeds basing on the laboratory experiment in a well controlled environment. The experiments were carried out in the Thermo-Stratified WInd-WAve Tank (TSWIWAT) of the Institute of Applied Physics. The parameters of the facility are as follows: airflow 0 - 25 m/s (equivalent 10-m neutral wind speed U10 up to 60 m/s), dimensions 10m x 0.4m x 0.7 m, temperature stratification of the water layer. Simultaneous measurements of the airflow velocity profiles and wind waves were carried out in the wide range of wind velocities. Airflow

  4. Highlights of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hucht, Karel

    2008-02-01

    Preface Karel A. van der Hucht; Part I. Invited Discourses: Part II. Joint Discussions: 1. Particle acceleration - from Solar System to AGN Marian Karlicky and John C. Brown; 2. Pulsar emission and related phenomena Werner Becker, Janusz A. Gil and Bronislaw Rudak; 3. Solar activity regions and magnetic structure Debi Prasad Choudhary and Michal Sobotka; 4. The ultraviolet universe: Stars from birth to death Ana I. Gomez de Castro and Martin A. Barstow; 5. Calibrating the top of the stellar M-L relationship Claus Leitherer, Anthony F. J. Moat and Joachim Puls; 6. Neutron stars and black holes in star clusters Frederic A. Rasio; 7. The Universe at z > 6 Daniel Schaerer and Andrea Ferrara; 8. Solar and stellar activity cycles Klaus G. Strassmeier and Alexander Kosovichev; 9. Supernovae: One millennium after SN 1006 P. Frank Winkler, Wolfgang Hillebrandt and Brian P. Schmidt; 10. Progress in planetary exploration missions Guy J. Consolmagno; 11. Pre-solar grains as astrophysical tools Anja C. Andersen and John C. Lattanzio; 12. Long wavelength astrophysics T. Joseph W. Lazio and Namir E. Kassim; 13. Exploiting large surveys for galactic astronomy Christopher J. Corbally, Coryn A. L. Bailer-Jones, Sunetra Giridhar and Thomas H. Lloyd Evans; 14. Modeling dense stellar systems Alison I. Sills, Ladislav Subr and Simon F. Portegies Zwart; 15. New cosmology results from the Spitzer Space Telescope George Helou and David T. Frayer; 16. Nomenclature, precession and new models in fundamental astronomy Nicole Capitaine, Jan Vondrak & James L. Hilton; 17. Highlights of recent progress in seismology of the Sun and Sun-like stars John W. Leibacher and Michael J. Thompson; Part III. Special Sessions: SpS 1. Large astronomical facilities of the next decade Gerard F. Gilmore and Richard T. Schilizzi; SpS 2. Innovation in teaching and learning astronomy methods Rosa M. Ros and Jay M. Pasachoff; SpS 3. The Virtual Observatory in action: New science, new technology and next

  5. Highlights of Astronomy, Volume 14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hucht, Karel

    2007-08-01

    Preface Karel A. van der Hucht; Part I. Invited Discourses: Part II. Joint Discussions: 1. Particle acceleration - from Solar System to AGN Marian Karlicky and John C. Brown; 2. Pulsar emission and related phenomena Werner Becker, Janusz A. Gil and Bronislaw Rudak; 3. Solar activity regions and magnetic structure Debi Prasad Choudhary and Michal Sobotka; 4. The ultraviolet universe: Stars from birth to death Ana I. Gomez de Castro and Martin A. Barstow; 5. Calibrating the top of the stellar M-L relationship Claus Leitherer, Anthony F. J. Moat and Joachim Puls; 6. Neutron stars and black holes in star clusters Frederic A. Rasio; 7. The Universe at z > 6 Daniel Schaerer and Andrea Ferrara; 8. Solar and stellar activity cycles Klaus G. Strassmeier and Alexander Kosovichev; 9. Supernovae: One millennium after SN 1006 P. Frank Winkler, Wolfgang Hillebrandt and Brian P. Schmidt; 10. Progress in planetary exploration missions Guy J. Consolmagno; 11. Pre-solar grains as astrophysical tools Anja C. Andersen and John C. Lattanzio; 12. Long wavelength astrophysics T. Joseph W. Lazio and Namir E. Kassim; 13. Exploiting large surveys for galactic astronomy Christopher J. Corbally, Coryn A. L. Bailer-Jones, Sunetra Giridhar and Thomas H. Lloyd Evans; 14. Modeling dense stellar systems Alison I. Sills, Ladislav Subr and Simon F. Portegies Zwart; 15. New cosmology results from the Spitzer Space Telescope George Helou and David T. Frayer; 16. Nomenclature, precession and new models in fundamental astronomy Nicole Capitaine, Jan Vondrak & James L. Hilton; 17. Highlights of recent progress in seismology of the Sun and Sun-like stars John W. Leibacher and Michael J. Thompson; Part III. Special Sessions: SpS 1. Large astronomical facilities of the next decade Gerard F. Gilmore and Richard T. Schilizzi; SpS 2. Innovation in teaching and learning astronomy methods Rosa M. Ros and Jay M. Pasachoff; SpS 3. The Virtual Observatory in action: New science, new technology and next

  6. PREFACE: 13th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques and Applications (SLOPOS13)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    These proceedings originate from the 13th International Workshop on Slow Positron Beam Techniques and Applications SLOPOS13 which was held at the campus of the Technische Universität München in Garching between 15th-20th September, 2013. This event is part of a series of triennial SLOPOS conferences. In total 123 delegates from 21 countries participated in the SLOPOS13. The excellent scientific program comprised 50 talks and 58 posters presented during two poster sessions. It was very impressive to learn about novel technical developments on positron beam facilities and the wide range of their applications all over the world. The workshop reflected the large variety of positron beam experiments covering fundamental studies, e.g., for efficient production of anti-hydrogen as well as applied research on defects in bulk materials, thin films, surfaces, and interfaces. The topics comprised: . Positron transport and beam technology . Pulsed beams and positron traps . Defect profiling in bulk and layered structures . Nanostructures, porous materials, thin films . Surfaces and interfaces . Positronium formation and emission . Positron interactions with atoms and molecules . Many positrons and anti-hydrogen . Novel experimental techniques The international advisory committee of SLOPOS awarded student prizes for the best presented scientific contributions to a team of students from Finland, France, and the NEPOMUC team at TUM. The conference was overshadowed by the sudden death of Professor Klaus Schreckenbach immediately before the workshop. In commemoration of him as a spiritus rectus of the neutron induced positron source a minutes' silence was hold. We are most grateful for the hard work of the Local Organising Committee, the help of the International Advisory Committee, and all the students for their friendly and efficient support during the meeting. The workshop could not have occurred without the generous support of the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), Deutsche

  7. Ca Isotope Geochemistry in Marine Deep Sea Sediments of the Eastern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittke, A.; Gussone, N. C.; Derigs, D.; Schälling, M.; Teichert, B. M.

    2017-12-01

    Ca isotope ratio analysis (δ44/40Ca) is a powerful tool to investigate diagenetic reactions in marine sedimentary porewater systems, as it is sensitive to processes such as carbonate dissolution, precipitation, recrystallization, ion exchange and deep fluid sources, due to the isotopic difference between dissolved Ca and solid carbonate minerals (e.g. [1];[2]). We analyzed eight sediment cores of the (paleo-) Pacific equatorial age transect. Two sediment cores show decreasing Ca isotope profiles starting at the sediment/water interface with seawater-like values down to sediment-like values due to recrystallization and an increasing in the bottom part again to seawater-like values. The other studied cores show different degrees of flattening of this middle bulge. We interpret this pattern either as an effect of sediment composition and thickness, decreasing recrystallization rates and/or fluid flux or a combination of all of these factors at the respective sampling sites. Element concentration profiles and Sr-isotope variations on some of these sediment cores show a similar behavior, supporting our findings ([3]; [4]). Seawater influx at (inactive) seamounts is supposed to cause seawater-like values at the bottom of the sediment cores by fluids migrating through the oceanic basement (e.g. [5]). While [6] hypothesizes that two seamounts or bathymetric pits are connected, with a recharge and a discharge site [7] say that uptaken fluids could be released through the surrounding seafloor as well due to diffusive exchange with the underlying oceanic crust. Our Ca isotope results combined with a transport reaction model approach support the latter hypothesis. References: [1] Teichert B. M., Gussone N. and Torres M. E. (2009) [2] Ockert C., Gussone N., Kaufhold S. and Teichert B. (2013) [3] Pälike H., Lyle M., Nishi H., Raffi I., Gamage K. and Klaus A. (eds.) (2010) [4] Voigt J., Hathorne E. C., Frank M., Vollstaedt H. and Eisenhauer A. (2015) [5] Villinger H. W

  8. Simulating damage for wind storms in the land surface model ORCHIDEE-CAN (revision 4262)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Ying; Gardiner, Barry; Pasztor, Ferenc; Blennow, Kristina; Ryder, James; Valade, Aude; Naudts, Kim; Otto, Juliane; McGrath, Matthew J.; Planque, Carole; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan

    2018-03-01

    Earth system models (ESMs) are currently the most advanced tools with which to study the interactions among humans, ecosystem productivity, and the climate. The inclusion of storm damage in ESMs has long been hampered by their big-leaf approach, which ignores the canopy structure information that is required for process-based wind-throw modelling. Recently the big-leaf assumptions in the large-scale land surface model ORCHIDEE-CAN were replaced by a three-dimensional description of the canopy structure. This opened the way to the integration of the processes from the small-scale wind damage risk model ForestGALES into ORCHIDEE-CAN. The integration of ForestGALES into ORCHIDEE-CAN required, however, developing numerically efficient solutions to deal with (1) landscape heterogeneity, i.e. account for newly established forest edges for the parameterization of gusts; (2) downscaling spatially and temporally aggregated wind fields to obtain more realistic wind speeds that would represents gusts; and (3) downscaling storm damage within the 2500 km2 pixels of ORCHIDEE-CAN. This new version of ORCHIDEE-CAN was parameterized over Sweden. Subsequently, the performance of the model was tested against data for historical storms in southern Sweden between 1951 and 2010 and south-western France in 2009. In years without big storms, here defined as a storm damaging less than 15 × 106 m3 of wood in Sweden, the model error is 1.62 × 106 m3, which is about 100 % of the observed damage. For years with big storms, such as Gudrun in 2005, the model error increased to 5.05 × 106 m3, which is between 10 and 50 % of the observed damage. When the same model parameters were used over France, the model reproduced a decrease in leaf area index and an increase in albedo, in accordance with SPOT-VGT and MODIS records following the passing of Cyclone Klaus in 2009. The current version of ORCHIDEE-CAN (revision 4262) is therefore expected to have the capability to capture the dynamics of

  9. Global Tropical Moisture Exports and their Influence on Extratropical Cyclone Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knippertz, P.; Wernli, H.; Gläser, G.

    2012-04-01

    . The interannual variability in several regions is significantly modulated by El Niño. A detailed analysis of TME encounters along individual extratropical cyclone tracks reveals several extraordinary cyclone-deepening events associated with TME trajectories (e.g. storm "Klaus" in January 2009). A statistical analysis quantifies the fraction of explosively deepening cyclones that occur with and without a TME influence.

  10. PREFACE: Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geber, Thomas; Oshima, Chuhei

    2012-08-01

    Kusunoki Mechanical exfoliation of epitaxial graphene on Ir(111) enabled by Br2 intercalationCharlotte Herbig, Markus Kaiser, Nedjma Bendiab, Stefan Schumacher, Daniel F Förster, Johann Coraux, Klaus Meerholz, Thomas Michely and Carsten Busse Low energy electron microscopy and photoemission electron microscopy investigation of grapheneK L Man and M S Altman Periodic overlayers and moiré patterns: theoretical studies of geometric propertiesKlaus Hermann Silicene structures on silver surfacesHanna Enriquez, Sébastien Vizzini, Abdelkader Kara, Boubekeur Lalmi and Hamid Oughaddou Contrast inversion of the h-BN nanomesh investigated by nc-AFM and Kelvin probe force microscopyS Koch, M Langer, S Kawai, E Meyer and Th Glatzel Probing the electronic structure and optical response of a graphene quantum disk supported on monolayer grapheneWu Zhou, Stephen J Pennycook and Juan-Carlos Idrobo Multi-oriented moiré superstructures of graphene on Ir(111): experimental observations and theoretical modelsLei Meng, Rongting Wu, Lizhi Zhang, Linfei Li, Shixuan Du, Yeliang Wang and H-J Gao The physics of epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001)H Kageshima, H Hibino and S Tanabe

  11. Map of the Rinconada and Reliz Fault Zones, Salinas River Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, Lewis I.; Clark, Joseph C.

    2009-01-01

    The Rinconada Fault and its related faults constitute a major structural element of the Salinas River valley, which is known regionally, and referred to herein, as the 'Salinas Valley'. The Rinconada Fault extends 230 km from King City in the north to the Big Pine Fault in the south. At the south end of the map area near Santa Margarita, the Rinconada Fault separates granitic and metamorphic crystalline rocks of the Salinian Block to the northeast from the subduction-zone assemblage of the Franciscan Complex to the southwest. Northwestward, the Rinconada Fault lies entirely within the Salinian Block and generally divides this region into two physiographically and structurally distinct areas, the Santa Lucia Range to the west and the Salinas Valley to the east. The Reliz Fault, which continues as a right stepover from the Rinconada Fault, trends northwestward along the northeastern base of the Sierra de Salinas of the Santa Lucia Range and beyond for 60 km to the vicinity of Spreckels, where it is largely concealed. Aeromagnetic data suggest that the Reliz Fault continues northwestward another 25 km into Monterey Bay, where it aligns with a high-definition magnetic boundary. Geomorphic evidence of late Quaternary movement along the Rinconada and Reliz Fault Zones has been documented by Tinsley (1975), Dibblee (1976, 1979), Hart (1976, 1985), and Klaus (1999). Although definitive geologic evidence of Holocene surface rupture has not been found on these faults, they were regarded as an earthquake source for the California Geological Survey [formerly, California Division of Mines and Geology]/U.S. Geological Survey (CGS/USGS) Probabilistic Seismic Hazards Assessment because of their postulated slip rate of 1+-1 mm/yr and their calculated maximum magnitude of 7.3. Except for published reports by Durham (1965, 1974), Dibblee (1976), and Hart (1976), most information on these faults is unpublished or is contained in theses, field trip guides, and other types of reports

  12. PREFACE: Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Masahiko; Ueda, Kiyoshi

    2011-03-01

    the conference. Finally, the chairs would like to express their thanks to all the participants for contributing to lively and fruitful discussions throughout the conference. Masahiko Takahashi and Kiyoshi Ueda International Advisory Board Lorenzo Avaldi (Italy)Klaus Bartschat (USA) Azzedine Lahmam-Bennani (France)Jamal Berakdar (Germany) Nora Berrah (USA)Igor Bray (Australia) XiangJun Chen (China)Claude Dal Cappello (France) Reinhard Dörner (Germany)Alexander Dorn (Germany) Danielle Dowek (France)Alexey Grum-Grzhimailo (Russia) Noriyuki Kouchi (Japan)Birgit Lohmann (Australia) Don Madison (USA)Fernando Martin (Spain) Andrew Murray (England)Bernard Piraux (Belgium) Roberto Rivarola (Argentina)Emma Sokell (Ireland) Giovanni Stefani (Italy) Conference photograph

  13. Resistance of spacecraft isolates to outer space for planetary protection purposes -first results of the experiment PROTECT of the EXPOSE-E mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, Gerda; Moeller, Ralf

    proteomic characterizations using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS). First viability studies gave the following survival rates: 20 -30 References: Horneck,G., D.M. Klaus, R.L. Mancinelli (2010) Space microbiology, Microb. Mol. Biol. Rev. (in press) La Duc MT, Dekas A, Osman S, Moissl C, Newcombe D, Venkateswaran K. (2007) Isolation and character-ization of bacteria capable of tolerating the extreme conditions of clean room environments. Appl Environ Microbiol. 73, 2600-11. Nicholson WL, Munakata N, Horneck G, Melosh HJ, and Setlow P (2000) Resistance of Bacillus endospores to extreme terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments, Microb. Mol. Biol. Rev. 64, 548-572.

  14. Assimilation of high resolution satellite imagery into the 3D-CMCC forest ecosystem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natali, S.; Collalti, A.; Candini, A.; Della Vecchia, A.; Valentini, R.

    2012-04-01

    The use of satellite observations for the accurate monitoring of the terrestrial biosphere has been carried out since the very early stage of remote sensing applications. The possibility to observe the ground surface with different wavelengths and different observation modes (namely active and passive observations) has given to the scientific community an invaluable tool for the observation of wide areas with a resolution down to the single tree. On the other hand, the continuous development of forest ecosystem models has permitted to perform simulations of complex ("natural") forest scenarios to evaluate forest status, forest growth and future dynamics. Both remote sensing and modelling forest assessment methods have advantages and disadvantages that could be overcome by the adoption of an integrated approach. In the framework of the European Space Agency Project KLAUS, high resolution optical satellite data has been integrated /assimilated into a forest ecosystem model (named 3D-CMCC) specifically developed for multi-specie, multi-age forests. 3D-CMCC permits to simulate forest areas with different forest layers, with different trees at different age on the same point. Moreover, the model permits to simulate management activities on the forest, thus evaluating the carbon stock evolution following a specific management scheme. The model has been modified including satellite data at 10m resolution, permitting the use of directly measured information, adding to the model the real phenological cycle of each simulated point. Satellite images have been collected by the JAXA ALOS-AVNIR-2 sensor. The integration schema has permitted to identify a spatial domain in which each pixel is characterised by a forest structure (species, ages, soil parameters), meteo-climatological parameters and estimated Leaf Area Index from satellite. The resulting software package (3D-CMCC-SAT) is built around 3D-CMCC: 2D / 3D input datasets are processed iterating on each point of the

  15. PREFACE: International Conference on Many Particle Spectroscopy of Atoms, Molecules, Clusters and Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowek, Danielle; Bennani, Azzedine; Lablanquie, Pascal; Maquet, Alfred

    2008-12-01

    The 2008 edition of the International Conference on Many Particle Spectroscopy of Atoms, Molecules, Clusters and Surfaces was held in Paris from 30 June to 2 July 2008. This biennial conference alternates with the International Symposium on (e,2e), Double Photoionization and Related Topics which is a satellite of the International Conference on Photonic, Electronic and Atomic Collisions (ICPEAC) conference. Over 110 participants from 20 countries gathered to examine the latest developments in the field of radiation interactions with matter. These include electron-electron correlation effects in excitation and in single and multiple ionization of atoms, molecules, clusters and surfaces with various projectiles: electrons, photons and ions. The present proceedings gathers the contributions of invited speakers and is intended to provide a detailed state-of-the-art account of the various facets of the field. Special thanks are due to Université Paris Sud XI, CNRS, and the laboratories LCAM, LIXAM and LCPMR which provided financial support for the organization of the conference. We are also grateful to the contribution of the companies Varian and RoentDek Handels GmbH. Guest Editors: Danielle Dowek and Azzedine Bennani LCAM, Université Paris Sud XI, France Pascal Lablanquie and Alfred Maquet LCPMR, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE Lorenzo Avaldi, (Italy) Alexei Grum Grzhimailo, (Russia) Klaus Bartschat, (USA) Nikolai Kabachnik, (Russia) Jamal Berakdar, (Germany) Birgit Lohmann, (Australia) Nora Berrah, (USA) Don H Madison, (USA) Michael Brunger, (Australia) Francis Penent, (France) Albert Crowe, (UK) Bernard Piraux, (Belgium) Claude Dal Cappello, (France) Roberto Rivarola, (Argentina) JingKang Deng, (China) Emma Sokkel, (Ireland) Alexander Dorn, (Germany) Giovanni Stefani, (Italy) Reinhardt Dorner, (Germany) Noboru Watanabe, (Japan) François Frémont, (France) LOCAL ORGANIZING COMMITTEE Azzedine BENNANI (Chair

  16. Preliminary Studies of Interacting Binaries From NURO Observations : V963 Cygni and GSC 1419 0091

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samec, R. G.; Jones, S. M.; Scott, T.; Branning, J.; Miller, J.; Faulkner, D. R.; Hawkins, N. C.

    2005-12-01

    We present preliminary analyses of V963 and V965 Cygni based on observations taken at the National Undergraduate Research Observatory (NURO). Our CCD observations were taken 07-12 March 2005 and 19-25 July 2004 by DRF,RGS, and NCH with the Lowell Observatory 31-inch reflector. Standard UBVRI filters were used. Preliminary light curve analyses and updated periodicity studies are presented for these variables. V963 Cyg (GSC 2656 1995,α (2000) = 19h 44m 04.92s, δ (2000) = +31 41 50.17) is a detached binary discovered by Wachmann (Ast Abh Ham St VI, #1, 1961). The eclipse depths are nearly equal, 0.78 and 0.67 magnitudes in in V in the primary and secondary eclipses, respectively, causing observers to MISTAKINGLY classify it as an Algol-type system. Thus the two stars are similar in temperature and the period has to be DOUBLED. The curves appear fairlysymmetrical with a depressed section following the primary eclipse in R and I about 0.2 phase units wide. In BVRI, 100 to 130 observations were taken along with 75 in U. We determined three new times of minimum light, two secondary eclipses, HJD Min II = 2453207.76857±0.00029d and 2453211.9540±0.0032d, and one primary eclipse HJD Min I = 2453209.86073±0.00095d. A corrected period and an improved ephemeris was computed using available times of minimum light: HJD Min I = 2453209.8616(±0.0011)d + 1.39466792(±0.00000019)*E. GSC 1419 0091 (Brh V132) [α (2000) = 10h 11m 59.152s,δ (2000) = +16 52 30.28] is an overcontact binary discovered by Klaus Bernhard (BAV, http://www.var-mo.de/star/brh_v132.htm). We took approximately 60-65 observations in each of B,V,R, and I. We determined four new times of minimum light: HJD Min I = 2453437.8293(±0.0003) and 2453441.8291(±0.0019), and HJD Min II = 2453437.6973(±0.0012) and 2453442.76317(±0.0005). We computed an improved ephemeris from all available times of minimum and low light: HJD Min I = 2452754.4733(±0.0030)d + 0.2667251*E(±0.0000011). The light curves show shallow

  17. A Hungry Quasar Caught in the Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    gravitational field of the galaxies. The astronomers believe that the two tidal tails result from a dramatic interaction between the quasar host galaxy and one or more of the close companion galaxies. The longer, southern tail extends over more than 150,000 light years, one-and-a-half times the diameter of the Milky Way. In many respects this distant interaction resembles the well known Antenna Galaxies (see the Hubble image ), where two nearby galaxies distort each other in a gravitational dance. Galaxy mergers in the young Universe In the case of HE 1013-2136 , a number of knots can be seen along both tidal tails. In particular, the object just below the quasar image, most easily seen in the sharpened image ( PR Photo 20b/01 ), lies at a projected distance of only 20,000 light years. This is about two-thirds of the distance from the Earth to the center of the Milky Way galaxy. This object is most likely a companion that is interacting with the quasar host. Recent observations of nearby quasars have revealed that they mostly reside in elliptical galaxies . Numerical simulations suggest that such galaxies can be formed by successive mergers of spiral galaxies. Klaus Jäger and his colleagues point out that " with the VLT observations of HE 1013-2136 , we may be directly witnessing such a dramatic merger of galaxies. The special significance of this observation is the great distance and hence the comparably early time at which this happens, when the Universe was about one third as old as it is now ". He adds: " This particular galaxy will most probably evolve into the same type of elliptical quasar host galaxy that we observe much nearer to us, that is, at much later times ". Notes [1] The team is composed of Klaus Jäger , Klaus J. Fricke (both Universitäts-Sternwarte Göttingen, Germany), Jochen Heidt and Immo Appenzeller (both Landessternwarte Heidelberg, Germany). [2] 1 billion = 1,000 million Technical information about the photos PR Photo 20a/01 is based on an image that

  18. A review on regional convection permitting climate modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Lipzig, Nicole; Prein, Andreas; Brisson, Erwan; Van Weverberg, Kwinten; Demuzere, Matthias; Saeed, Sajjad; Stengel, Martin

    2016-04-01

    of using CPMs to study climate change it is necessary that these deficiencies are addressed in future research. Coordinated modeling programs are crucially needed to advance parameterizations of unresolved physics and to assess the full potential of CPMs. Brisson, E., K. Van Weverberg, M. Demuzere, A. Devis, S. Saeed, M. Stengel, N.P.M. van Lipzig, 2016. How well can a convection-permitting climate model reproduce 1 decadal statistics of precipitation, temperature and cloud characteristics? Clim. Dyn. (minor revisions). Prein, Andreas F., Wolfgang Langhans, Giorgia Fosser, Andrew Ferrone, Nikolina Ban, Klaus Goergen, Michael Keller, Merja Tölle, Oliver Gutjahr, Frauke Feser, Erwan Brisson, Stefan Kollet, Juerg Schmidli, Nicole P. M. van Lipzig, Ruby Leung. (2015) A review on regional convection-permitting climate modeling: Demonstrations, prospects, and challenges. Reviews of Geophysics 53:10.1002/rog.v53.2, 323-361

  19. Variable radius cartography - History and perspectives of a new discipline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalera, Giancarlo

    2014-05-01

    The map that Toscanelli sent to Columbus was an unconscious application of cartography at a smaller radius than the real. The first really conscious attempts to represent the geography of Earth on globes of radius less than the current one occurred after the formulation of the concept of expanding Earth through geological time. The American chemist and geologist Richard Owen (1810-1890) in his book Key to the geology of the globe (1857) described the principles of what he himself called Anatomical Geology, with the Earth growing as a biological organism. The book contained a global paleogeographic map of the Earth that would have had a radius of about 4000 kilometers. In 1928 J.A.H. Kerkhoff (under the pseudonym Aero-dilettant) published a series of paleogeographic globes on which the modern oceans disappeared. With the same artisan methods of transfer continental outlines from a sphere to a smaller one, in 1933 O.C. Hilgenberg represented three different geological epochs, and, later, for the first time mapped paleopoles with their site-pole segments of meridian. Even today the traditional method of Hilgenberg is followed by senior researchers (Klaus Vogel, 2003) and younger geologists (James Maxlow). In England Hugh Owen applied the methods of traditional cartography to the variable radius one. His Atlas of Continental Displacement was in the 70s and 80s, for this discipline, a real milestone. While in the field of constant radius paleogeography the adherents to plate tectonics created many computer codes of automatic mapping (Bullard et al., 1965; Smith & Hallam, 1970; Scotese et al., 1979; and many others), in the variable radius field few tried to reach the same task. In 1972 in United States a first very simple attempt (but was not further developed) came from a private, R.B. Perry, followed by the still not-computerized Atlas of Owen, and both them constituted inspiration for the construction of a FORTRAN variable radius mapping code at INGV, with which it

  20. Transmission in Optically Transparent Core Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilper, Dan; Jensen, Rich; Petermann, Klaus; Karasek, Miroslav

    2007-03-01

    Call for Papers: Transmission in Optically Transparent Core Networks

    Guest Feature Editors

    Dan Kilper and Rich Jensen, Coordinating Associate Editors Klaus Petermann and Miroslav Karasek, Guest Feature Editors

    Submission deadline: 15 June 2007
    Optically transparent networks in which optical transport signals are routed uninterrupted through multiple nodes have long been viewed as an important evolutionary step in fiber optic communications. More than a decade of research and development on transparent network technologies together with the requisite traffic growth has culminated in the recent deployment of commercial optically transparent systems. Although many of the traditional research goals of optical transmission remain important, optical transparency introduces new challenges. Greater emphasis is placed on system efficiency and control. The goal of minimizing signal terminations, which has been pursued through increasing reach and channel capacity, also can be realized through wavelength routing techniques. Rather than bounding system operation by rigid engineering rules, the physical layer is controlled and managed by automation tools. Many static signal impairments become dynamic due to network reconfiguration and transient fault events. Recently new directions in transmission research have emerged to address transparent networking problems. This special issue of the Journal of Optical Networking will examine the technologies and theory underpinning transmission in optically transparent core networks, including both metropolitan and long haul systems.

    Scope of Submission

    The special issue editors are soliciting high-quality original research papers related to transmission in optically transparent core networks. Although this does not include edge networks such as access or enterprise networks, core networks that have access capabilities will be considered in scope as will topics

  1. Securing the Continuity of Medical Competence in Times of Demographic Change: A Proposal.

    PubMed

    Hasebrook, Joachim Paul; Hinkelmann, Jürgen; Volkert, Thomas; Rodde, Sibyll; Hahnenkamp, Klaus

    2016-12-21

    consensus about the implementation of relevant factors in order to improve employee retention. We expect these consensus groups to develop and introduce measures for more structured training procedures, individual and team incentives, organizational guidelines for better recruiting and retention in hospitals, models of flexible and attractive working conditions including shift work and vacation planning, and use of new learning tools (eg, tablet PCs and mobile phones). All measures are implemented in the Department of Anaesthesiology, Intensive Care, Emergency Care and Pain Medicine at the University Hospital Muenster (UKM) with approximately 150 physicians and in the further 44 departments of the UKM and 22 teaching hospitals, which all together employ more than 5000 physicians. The measures will also be implemented at the university hospitals in Aachen, Rostock, and Greifswald. All decisions and measures will be discussed with representatives from hospital management and professional associations. Results will be presented at conferences and published in journals. ©Joachim Paul Hasebrook, Jürgen Hinkelmann, Thomas Volkert, Sibyll Rodde, Klaus Hahnenkamp. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 21.12.2016.

  2. Radial Halbach Magnetic Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.

    2009-01-01

    minimizing it on the opposite side. The advantage of this configuration is that it makes it possible to approach the theoretical maximum force per unit area that could be exerted by a given amount of permanent-magnet material. The configuration is named after physicist Klaus Halbach, who conceived it for use in particle accelerators. Halbach arrays have also been studied for use in magnetic-levitation ("maglev") railroad trains. In a radial Halbach magnetic bearing, the basic Halbach arrangement is modified into a symmetrical arrangement of sector-shaped permanent magnets mounted on the outer cylindrical surface of a drum rotor (see Figure 2). The magnets are oriented to concentrate the magnetic field on their radially outermost surface. The stator coils are mounted in a stator shell surrounding the rotor.

  3. Raman Spectroscopy: an essential tool for future IODP expeditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andò, Sergio; Garzanti, Eduardo; Kulhanek, Denise K.

    2016-04-01

    , P., Garzanti, E., 2011. Raman counting: a new method to determine provenance of silt. Rend. Fis. Acc. Lincei, 22: 327-347. Andò, S., Garzanti, E., 2014. Raman spectroscopy in heavy-mineral studies. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 386 (1), 395-412. Blatt, H., (1985). Provenance studies and mudrocks. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 55 (1), 69-75. Borromeo, L., Zimmermann, U., Andò, S., Coletti, G., Bersani, D., Basso, D., Gentile, P., Garzanti, E., 2015. Raman Spectroscopy as a tool for magnesium estimation in Mg-calcite. Periodico di Mineralogia , ECMS, 35-36. France-Lanord, C., Spiess, V., Klaus, A., and the Expedition 354 Scientists, 2015. IODP, Exp. 354, Preliminary Report: Bengal Fan, Neogene and late Paleogene record of Himalayan orogeny and climate: a transect across the Middle Bengal Fan. Pandey, D.K., Clift, P.D., Kulhanek, D.K. and the Expedition 355 Scientists, 2015. IODP, Exp. 355, Preliminary Report: Arabian Sea Monsoon, Deep sea drilling in the Arabian Sea: constraining tectonic-monsoon interactions in South Asia.

  4. Dynamical Mechanisms and Variability of Dry and Wet Spells in Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Montero, Irene; Gouveia, Célia

    2014-05-01

    Ecology and Management, 294: 62-75, doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2012.08.032 Gouveia, C., , R. M. Trigo, , C. C. DaCamara (2009) Drought and Vegetation Stress Monitoring in Portugal using Satellite Data, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 9: 185-195 doi:10.5194/nhess-9-185-2009 Liberato M. L. R., J. G. Pinto, I. F. Trigo, R. M. Trigo (2011) Klaus - an exceptional winter storm over Northern Iberia and Southern France. Weather 66: 330-334 doi:10.1002/wea.755 Liberato, M. L. R., A. M. Ramos, R. M. Trigo, I. F. Trigo, A. M. Durán-Quesada, R. Nieto, L. Gimeno (2013) Moisture Sources and Large-Scale Dynamics Associated With a Flash Flood Event, in Lagrangian Modeling of the Atmosphere (eds J. Lin, D. Brunner, C. Gerbig, A. Stohl, A. Luhar and P. Webley), Geophys. Monogr. Ser., 200: 111-126, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D. C. doi: 10.1029/2012GM001244

  5. EDITORIAL: Focus on Advances in Surface and Interface Science 2008 FOCUS ON ADVANCES IN SURFACE AND INTERFACE SCIENCE 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffler, Matthias; Schneider, Wolf-Dieter

    2008-12-01

    Basic research in surface and interface science is highly interdisciplinary, covering the fields of physics, chemistry, biophysics, geo-, atmospheric and environmental sciences, material science, chemical engineering, and more. The various phenomena are interesting by themselves, and they are most important in nearly all modern technologies, as for example electronic, magnetic, and optical devices, sensors, catalysts, lubricants, hard and thermal-barrier coatings, protection against corrosion and crack formation under harsh environments. In fact, detailed understanding of the elementary processes at surfaces is necessary to support and to advance the high technology that very much founds the prosperity and lifestyle of our society. Current state-of-the-art experimental studies of elementary processes at surfaces, of surface properties and functions employ a variety of sophisticated tools. Some are capable of revealing the location and motion of individual atoms. Others measure excitations (electronic, magnetic and vibronic), employing, for example, special light sources such as synchrotrons, high magnetic fields, or free electron lasers. The surprising variety of intriguing physical phenomena at surfaces, interfaces, and nanostructures also pose a persistent challenge for the development of theoretical descriptions, methods, and even basic physical concepts. This second focus issue on the topic of 'Advances in Surface and Interface Science' in New Journal of Physics, following on from last year's successful collection, provides an exciting synoptic view on the latest pertinent developments in the field. Focus on Advances in Surface and Interface Science 2008 Contents Organic layers at metal/electrolyte interfaces: molecular structure and reactivity of viologen monolayers Stephan Breuer, Duc T Pham, Sascha Huemann, Knud Gentz, Caroline Zoerlein, Ralf Hunger, Klaus Wandelt and Peter Broekmann Spin polarized d surface resonance state of fcc Co/Cu(001) K Miyamoto, K

  6. The Epital Care Model: A New Person-Centered Model of Technology-Enabled Integrated Care for People With Long Term Conditions.

    PubMed

    Phanareth, Klaus; Vingtoft, Søren; Christensen, Anders Skovbo; Nielsen, Jakob Sylvest; Svenstrup, Jørgen; Berntsen, Gro Karine Rosvold; Newman, Stanton Peter; Kayser, Lars

    2017-01-16

    and offered two additional services: an outgoing acute medical team and a local subacute bed function. Based on the findings from the iterative process, and evolving technology and workflow solutions, we propose a robust and feasible model that can provide a framework for developing solutions to support an active life with one or more LTCs. The resulting Epital Care Model (ECM) consists of six stages, and serves as a template for how a digitally-enhanced health service can be provided based on patients' medical needs. The model is designed to be a proactive, preventive, and monitoring health care system that involves individuals in the management of their own health conditions. The ECM is in accordance with WHO's framework for integrated people-centered health services, and may serve as a framework for the development of new technologies and provide a template for future reorganization. ©Klaus Phanareth, Søren Vingtoft, Anders Skovbo Christensen, Jakob Sylvest Nielsen, Jørgen Svenstrup, Gro Karine Rosvold Berntsen, Stanton Peter Newman, Lars Kayser. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 16.01.2017.

  7. BOOK REVIEW: Development of Solar Research - Entwicklung der Sonnenforschung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.; Wittmann, A. D.; Wolfschmidt, G.; Duerbeck, H. W.

    2006-12-01

    This publication contains the Proceedings of a Colloquium on the development of solar research, supplemented with a number of papers which were written especially for this book. The volume contains 14 papers dealing with archeo-astronomy related to the Sun, solar cults, and (mainly) solar research. Ten papers are written in English, the remaining four are in German, but all papers have a quite extensive Abstract in both languages. The volume closes with a comprehensive Name Index. I found this book most pleasant to read with many useful illustrations (more than 120 photographs and reproductions of which about 100 cover truly historic material, quite often from authors' private archives). The first three papers (by A. Haenel, W. Schlosser and R. Hansen) deal with very ancient information: megalithic tombs as solar observatories, the Nebra sky-disk (showing Sun, Moon, Pleiades and other stars), and solar cults. These papers (adding up to about 90 pages) are not only descriptive, but also contain an analysis based on quantitative facts. One paper deals with letters exchanged by astronomers serving as data sources for the counting of sunspots during the Maunder minimum. More specifically, several hundreds of letters by Gottfried Kirch (1639-1710) are being edited and analysed by Klaus-Dieter Herbst. Medieval solar-eclipse maps with totality paths are reproduced in an interesting paper by Robert van Gent, who presents eclipse cartography of as early as 1699 - at least 15 years prior to the generally accepted first such map by Edmond Halley. R. Schielicke's paper on the 1851 Koenigsberg daguerrotype photograph of the solar corona gives interesting details on the history of daguerrotype photography, and has a number of very useful basic references, including OCR-based transcripts of a 1851-dated document describing an early corona daguerrotype (in German). Three consecutive papers (one by H.W. Duerbeck, followed by papers by G. Wolfschmidt and M.P. Seiler) not only reveal

  8. Medicine Goes Female: Protocol for Improving Career Options of Females and Working Conditions for Researching Physicians in Clinical Medical Research by Organizational Transformation and Participatory Design.

    PubMed

    Hasebrook, Joachim; Hahnenkamp, Klaus; Buhre, Wolfgang F F A; de Korte-de Boer, Dianne; Hamaekers, Ankie E W; Metelmann, Bibiana; Metelmann, Camila; Bortul, Marina; Palmisano, Silvia; Mellin-Olsen, Jannicke; Macas, Andrius; Andres, Janusz; Prokop-Dorner, Anna; Vymazal, Tomáš; Hinkelmann, Juergen; Rodde, Sibyll; Pfleiderer, Bettina

    2017-08-02

    -research platform. Project results will be published in peer-reviewed journals with high-impact factors. In addition, workshops on gender dimension in research using the principles of Gendered Innovation will be held. Support and consulting services for hospitals will be introduced in order to develop a European consulting service. The main impact of the project will be the implementation of innovative GEP tailored to the needs of university hospitals, which will lead to measurable institutional change in gender equality. This will impact the research at university hospitals in general, and will improve career prospects of female researchers in particular. Simultaneously, the gender dimension in medical research as an innovation factor and mandatory topic will be strengthened and integrated in each individual university hospital research activity. Research funding organizations can use the built knowledge to include mandatory topics for funding applications to enforce the use and implementation of GEP in university hospitals. ©Joachim Hasebrook, Klaus Hahnenkamp, Wolfgang F.F.A. Buhre, Dianne de Korte-de Boer, Ankie E.W. Hamaekers, Bibiana Metelmann, Camila Metelmann, Marina Bortul, Silvia Palmisano, Jannicke Mellin-Olsen, Andrius Macas, Janusz Andres, Anna Prokop-Dorner, Tomáš Vymazal, Juergen Hinkelmann, Sibyll Rodde, Bettina Pfleiderer. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 02.08.2017.

  9. Material instabilities and their role for the initiation of boudinage and folding structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veveakis, Manolis; Peters, Max; Poulet, Thomas; Karrech, Ali; Herwegh, Marco; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    , 1975). The eigenmodes appear as sinusoidal vibrations with geometry- and material parameter-specific natural modal frequencies and shapes. In a next step, the eigenmodes are perturbed and superposed to the initial conditions. We observe that this pattern of perturbations guides the ultimate material bifurcation. Boudinage and folding can therefore be seen as either a pure geometric problem or a fundamental material bifurcation, which evolves out of homogeneous state. The latter class offers the great possibility to extract fundamental material parameters out of localized structures directly from field observations. REFERENCES Herwegh, M., Poulet, T., Karrech, A. and Regenauer-Lieb, K. (2014). From transient to steady state deformation and grain size: A thermodynamic approach using elasto-visco-plastic numerical modeling. Journal of Geophysical Research, 119. Montési, L.G.J. and Zuber, M.T. (2002). A unified description of localization for application to large-scale tectonics. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107. Peters, M., Veveakis, M., Poulet, T., Karrech, A., Herwegh, M. and Regenauer-Lieb Klaus (in review). Boudinage as a material instability of elasto-visco-plastic rocks. Submitted to Journal of Structural Geology. Rudnicki, J. W., Rice, J. R. (1975). Conditions for the localization of deformation in pressure-sensitive dilatant materials. Journal of Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 23.

  10. PREFACE: 16th International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics (CALOR 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotny, Rainer W.

    2015-02-01

    The XVIth International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics - CALOR 2014 - was held in Giessen, Germany from 6-11 April 2014 at the Science Campus of the University. It was hosted by the Justus-Liebig-University and the HIC for FAIR Helmholtz International Center. The series of conferences on calorimetry were started in 1990 at Fermilab and are focusing primarily on operating and future calorimeter systems within the Hadron and High-Energy Physics community without neglecting the impact on other fields such as Astrophysics or Medical Imaging. Confirmed by the impressive list of over 70 oral presentations, 5 posters and over 100 attendees, the field of calorimetry appears alive and attractive. The present volume contains the written contributions of almost all presentations which can be found at http://calor2014.de. Time slots of 15 or 30 minutes including discussion were allocated. The conference was accompanied by a small exhibition of several industrial companies related to the field. The day before the opening of the scientific program, Richard Wigmans gave an excellent and vivid tutorial on basic aspects on calorimetry meant as an introduction for students and conference attendees new in the field. The opening ceremony was used to give an impression of the present and future status and the scientific program of the new FAIR facility nearby at Darmstadt presented by Klaus Peters from GSI. The conference program of the first day was dedicated to the performance and required future upgrade of the LHC experiments, dominated by ATLAS, CMS and LHCb. The program of the next day contained specific aspects on electronics and readout as well as calorimetry in outer space. Several contributions discussed in detail new concepts for hadron calorimeters within the CALICE collaboration completed by a session on sampling calorimeters. The next sections were dedicated to operating and future calorimeters at various laboratories and covering a wide range of

  11. Circinaria gyrosa, a new astrobiological model system for studying the effects of heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, María Luisa; Moeller, Ralf; De la Torre Noetzel, Rosa; Raguse, M. Marina

    provide further evidence that lichens are suitable organisms to experimentally verify the potential of lichens in a Lithopanspermia scenario, as indicated by Horneck et al. (2008) [4] References [1] L. R. Dartnell. Ionizing radiation and life Astrobiology 11(6): 551-582 (2011) [2] R. de la Torre, L. G. Sancho, G. Horneck, A. de los Rios, J. Wierzchos, K. Olsson-Francis, C. S. Cockell, P. Rettberg, T. Berger, J. P. de Vera, S. Ott, J. Martinez Frias. P. González Melendi, M. M. Lucas, M. Reina, A. Pintado and R. Demets. Survival of lichens and bacteria exposed to outer space conditions. Results of the Lithopanspermia experiments. Icarus 208: 735-748 (2010) [3] F. J. Sánchez, E. Mateo-Martí, J. Raggio, J. Meeßen, J. Martínez-Frías, L. G .Sancho, S. Ott and R. de la Torre. The resistance of the lichen Circinaria gyrosa (nom. provis.) towards simulated Mars conditions - a model test for the survival capacity of an eukaryotic extremophile. Planetary and Space Science. 72 (1): 102-110 (2012) [4] Horneck, G., Klaus, D.M., and R. L. Mancinelli. Space microbiology. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: 74(1):121-156 (2010)

  12. From telepathology to virtual pathology institution: the new world of digital pathology.

    PubMed

    Kayser, K; Kayser, G; Radziszowski, D; Oehmann, A

    Telepathology has left its childhood. Its technical development is mature, and its use for primary (frozen section) and secondary (expert consultation) diagnosis has been expanded to a great amount. This is in contrast to a virtual pathology laboratory, which is still under technical constraints. Similar to telepathology, which can also be used for e-learning and e-training in pathology, as exemplarily is demonstrated on Digital Lung Pathology (Klaus.Kayser@charite.de) at least two kinds of virtual pathology laboratories will be implemented in the near future: a) those with distributed pathologists and distributed (> or = 1) laboratories associated to individual biopsy stations/surgical theatres, and b) distributed pathologists (usually situated in one institution) and a centralized laboratory, which digitizes complete histological slides. Both scenarios are under intensive technical investigations. The features of virtual pathology comprise a virtual pathology institution (mode a) that accepts a complete case with the patient's history, clinical findings, and (pre-selected) images for first diagnosis. The diagnostic responsibility is that of a conventional institution. The Internet serves as platform for information transfer, and an open server such as the iPATH (http://telepath.patho.unibas.ch) for coordination and performance of the diagnostic procedure. The size and number of transferred images have to be limited, and usual different magnifications have to be used. The sender needs to possess experiences in image sampling techniques, which present with the most significant information. A group of pathologists is "on duty", or selects one member for a predefined duty period. The diagnostic statement of the pathologist(s) on duty is retransmitted to the sender with full responsibility. The first experiences of a virtual pathology institution group working with the iPATH server working with a small hospital of the Salomon islands are promising. A centralized

  13. The Deep Carbon Cycle and CO2 Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipovitch, N. B.; Mao, W. L.; Chou, I.; Mu, K.

    2009-12-01

    Increased understanding of the Earth’s carbon cycle may provide insight for future carbon storage. Long term geologic sequestration of CO2 occurs in the earth via exothermic reactions between CO2 and silicate minerals to form carbonate minerals. It has been shown that while there is a large enough supply of ultra mafic igneous rock to sequester the CO2 [1], the kinetics of this natural process are too slow to effectively manage our CO2 output. Most studies have focused on studying reaction kinetics at relatively low temperatures and pressures [2,3], and have found that the reaction kinetics are either too slow or (in the case of serpentine) necessitate an uneconomical heat pretreatment [3,4]. Our experiments expand the pressures and temperatures (up to 500 bars and exceeding 200 °C) at which the CO2 + silicate reaction is studied using fused silica capillary cells and Raman and XRD analysis. By increasing our understanding of the kinetics of this process and providing a valuable input for reactive flow and transport models, these results may guide approaches for practical CO2 sequestration in carbonate minerals as a way to manage atmospheric CO2 levels. High pressure and temperature results on carbonates have implications for understanding the deep carbon cycle. Most of the previous high pressure studies on carbonates have concentrated on magnesite (MgCO3), calcite (CaCO3), or dolomite ((Ca,Mg)CO3) [5,6]. While the Mg and Ca carbonates are the most abundant, iron-rich siderite (FeCO3) may be a significant player at greater depths within the earth. We performed XRD and Raman spectroscopy experiments on siderite to lower mantle pressures (up to 40 GPa) and observed a possible phase change around 13 GPa. References 1. Lackner, Klaus S., Wendt, Christopher H., Butt, Darryl P., Joyce, Edward L., Sharp, David H., 1995, Carbon dioxide disposal in carbonate minerals, Energy, Vol.20, No. 11, pp. 1153-1170 2. Bearat, Hamdallah, McKelvy, Michael J., Chizmeshya, Andrew V

  14. Applicability of a Web-Based, Individualized Exercise Intervention in Patients With Liver Disease, Cystic Fibrosis, Esophageal Cancer, and Psychiatric Disorders: Process Evaluation of 4 Ongoing Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Pfirrmann, Daniel; Haller, Nils; Huber, Yvonne; Jung, Patrick; Lieb, Klaus; Gockel, Ines; Poplawska, Krystyna; Schattenberg, Jörn Markus; Simon, Perikles

    2018-05-22

    (P<.001) over time. A detailed view of the different studies shows a significant decrease in log-in rates and log-in durations in the HELP study (P=.004; P=.002) and iPEP study (P=.02; P=.001), whereas the EXDEP study (P=.58; P=.38) and COMMED study (P=.87; P=.56) showed no significant change over the 8-week intervention period. There was no significant change in physical activity within all studies (P=.31). Only in the HELP study, the physical activity level increased steadily over the period analyzed (P=.045). Overall, 17 participants (85%, 17/20) felt secure and were not scared of injury, with no major differences in the subtrials. The universal use of the Web-based intervention appears to be applicable across the heterogonous collectives of our study patients with regard to age and disease. Although the development of physical activity shows only moderate improvements, flexible communication and tailored support could be easily integrated into patients' daily routine. iPEP study: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02478996; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02478996 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6zL1UmHaW); HELP study: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02526732; http://www.webcitation.org/6zJjX7d6K (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6Nch4ldcL); EXDEP study: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02874833; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02874833 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6zJjj7FuA). ©Daniel Pfirrmann, Nils Haller, Yvonne Huber, Patrick Jung, Klaus Lieb, Ines Gockel, Krystyna Poplawska, Jörn Markus Schattenberg, Perikles Simon. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 22.05.2018.

  15. PREFACE: International Symposium on (e,2e), Double Photoionization and Related Topics & 15th International Symposium on Polarization and Correlation in Electronic and Atomic Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Nicholas L. S.; deHarak, Bruno A.

    2010-01-01

    44 submitted posters covered recent advances in these topics. These proceedings present papers on 35 of the invited talks. The Local Organizers gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the University of Kentucky College of Arts and Sciences, and the University of Kentucky Department of Physics and Astronomy. We also thank Carol Cotrill, Eva Ellis, Diane Yates, Sarah Crowe, and John Nichols, of the Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky for their invaluable assistance in the smooth running of the conferences; Oleksandr Korneta for taking the group photograph; and Emily Martin for helping accompanying persons. Nicholas L S Martin University of Kentucky Bruno A deHarak Illinois Wesleyan University International Scientific Organizing Committee Co-Chairs Don Madison (USA)Klaus Bartschat (USA) Members Lorenzo Avaldi (Italy)Nils Andersen (Denmark) Jamal Berakdar (Germany)Uwe Becker (Germany) Michael Brunger (Australia)Igor Bray (Australia) Greg Childers (USA)Nikolay Cherepkov (Russia) JingKang Deng (China)Albert Crowe (UK) Alexander Dorn (Germany)Danielle Dowek (France) Jim Feagin (USA)Oscar Fojon (Argentina) Nikolay Kabachnik (Russia)Tim Gay (USA) Anatoli Kheifets (Australia)Alexei Grum-Grzhimailo (Russia) George King (UK)Friedrich Hanne (Germany) Tom Kirchner (Germany)Alan Huetz (France) Azzedine Lahmam-Bennani (France)Morty Khakoo (USA) Julian Lower (Australia)Birgit Lohmann (Australia) William McCurdy (USA)Bill McConkey (Canada) Andrew Murray (UK)Rajesh Srivastava (India) Bernard Piraux (Belgium)Al Stauffer (Canada) Tim Reddish (Canada)Jim Williams (Australia) Roberto Rivarola (Argentina)Akira Yagishita (Japan) Michael Schulz (USA)Peter Zetner (Canada) Anthony Starace (USA)Joachim Ullrich (Germany) Giovanni Stefani (Italy)Erich Weigold (Australia) Masahiko Takahashi (Japan) Conference photograph

  16. Visions of Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiao, Raymond Y.; Cohen, Marvin L.; Leggett, Anthony J.; Phillips, William D.; Harper, Charles L., Jr.

    2010-10-01

    physics? Steven Chu; 20. Quantum information J. Ignacio Cirac; 21. Emergence in condensed matter physics Marvin L. Cohen; 22. Achieving the highest spectral resolution over the widest spectral bandwidth: precision measurement meets ultrafast science Jun Ye; 23. Wireless non-radiative energy transfer Marin Soljačić; Part V. Consciousness and Free Will: 24. The big picture: exploring questions on the boundaries of science - consciousness and free will George F. R. Ellis; 25. Quantum entanglement: from fundamental questions to quantum communication and quantum computation and back Anton Zeilinger; 26. Consciousness, body, and brain: the matter of the mind Gerald M. Edelman; 27. The relation between quantum mechanics and higher brain functions: lessons from quantum computation and neurobiology Christof Koch and Klaus Hepp; 28. Free will and the causal closure of physics Robert C. Bishop; 29. Natural laws and the closure of physics Nancy L. Cartwright; 30. Anti-Cartesianism and downward causation: reshaping the free-will debate Nancey Murphy; 31. Can we understand free will? Charles H. Townes; Part VI. Reflections on the Big Questions: Mind, Matter. Mathematics, and Ultimate Reality: 32. The big picture: exploring questions on the boundaries of science - mind, matter, mathematics George F. R. Ellis; 33. The mathematical universe Max Tegmark; 34. Where do the laws of physics come from? Paul C. W. Davies; 35. Science, energy, ethics, and civilization Vaclav Smil; 36. Life of science, life of faith William T. Newsome; 37. The science of light and the light of science: an appreciative theological reflection on the life and work of Charles Hard Townes Robert J. Russell; 38. Two quibbles about 'ultimate' Gerald Gabrielse; Index.

  17. PREFACE: Joint European Magnetic Symposia - JEMS 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spałek, Jozef

    2011-07-01

    łekChairman of JEMS 2010 Symposia 1. Plenary, Semi-plenary, Tutorials 2. Magnetization Processes Spin Excitations and Ultrafast DynamicsCoordinator: Andrzej Maziewski (Bialystok) 3. Hard Magnetic Materials and MagnetocaloricsCoordinator: Henryk Figiel (Kraków) 4. Magnetic HydridesCoordinators: Ladislav Havela (Praha), Zbigniew Tarnawski (Kraków) 5. Interface of Magnetic Thin FilmsCoordinators: Jürgen Fassbender (Dresden), N-T H Kim-Ngan (Kraków) 6. Magnonic CrystalsCoordinators: Bahram Djafari-Rouhani (Lille), Henryk Puszkarski (Poznan) 7. Magnetism of Metals, Alloys, and IntermetallicsCoordinator: Andrzej Szytula (Kraków) 8. Molecular MagnetismCoordinators: Stephen Blundell (Oxford), Maria Balanda (Kraków) 9. Magnetooptics of NanomagnetsCoordinators: Kamil Postava (Ostrava), Marek Kisielewski (Bialystok) 10. NanomagnetismCoordinators: Marek Przybylski (Halle), Jürgen Kirschner (Halle) 11. Other topics - Biomagnetism, Domain Walls, InstrumentationCoordinator: Henryk Figiel (Kraków) 12. Magnetic Perovskites and MultiferroicsCoordinator: Henryk Szymczak (Warszawa) 13. Magnetic Semiconductors and InsulatorsCoordinators: Klaus Baerner (Göttingen), Tadeusz Gron (Katowice) 14. Magnetic Shape Memory Effects and Related PhenomenaCoordinators: Oliver Gutfleisch (Dresden), Sebastian Fähler (Dresden) 15. Soft Magnetic MaterialsCoordinators: Julian González (San Sebastian), Krzysztof Kulakowski (Kraków) 16. SpintronicsCoordinator: Maciej Sawicki (Warszawa) 17. Strongly Correlated Electron Systems, Magnetism and SuperconductivityCoordinator: Andrzej Slebarski (Katowice) The next Joint European Magnetic Symposia, JEMS 2012, will be held in Parma, Italy, 9-14 September 2012.www.jems2012.itCo-Chairs:Franca Albertini, Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism (IMEM), CNR, ParmaRoberto De Renzi, Department of Physics, University of Parma

  18. [Man and his fellow-creatures under ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Teutsch, Gotthard M

    2005-01-01

    's excessive meat consumption as a "cruel necessity". Klaus Peter Joern also enters into Schweitzer's fundamental argumentation in his "A good bye to the disparagement of our fellow creatures". Quotation: "It just cannot go on that Christianity lets the validity of the commandment of love end at the behaviour towards humans, simply because that is the tradition. We rather have to, in this instance, deny the authority of the Bible it's due respect, as this has deemed Schweitzer already inevitable." The killing of animals, irrespective of the motives, remains a critical issue in the understanding (or the lack thereof) with regard to the dignity of all creation. Manuela Linnemann, Charles Patterson, Evelyn Ofensberger and the German Veterinary Association for the Protection of Animals have dealt with this issue extensively. As always, more space is taken up by publications dealing with legal questions and developments. In particular, the conference report of the Protestant Academy at Bad Boll should be mentioned "Animal protection on good constitution". Contributions to this report, edited by the academy, include Hans Georg Kluge's "The governmental aim 'animal protection' and it's implementation in jurisdiction" and Johannes Caspar's "effects of the governmental goal 'animal protection' in the protected area of unconditional fundamental rights". Regarding animal experiments, the last two position papers commissioned by the Foundation for animal-free research (FFVFF), dealing with perspectives of 3R research, have been published within the period of time covered by this report. Alternatives in basic research (with once again rising numbers of experimental animals) and in biomedical education are the themes dealt with by Franz P. Gruber and his co-authors Thomas Hartung and David Dewhurst.

  19. PREFACE: Nano- and microfluidics Nano- and microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Karin

    2011-05-01

    compressible fluids Kerstin Falk and Klaus Mecke Wetting, roughness and flow boundary conditions Olga I Vinogradova and Aleksey V Belyaev Molecular transport and flow past hard and soft surfaces: computer simulation of model systems F Léonforte, J Servantie, C Pastorino, and M Müller Simulations of slip flow on nanobubble-laden surfaces J Hyväluoma, C Kunert and J Harting Electrophoretic transport of biomolecules across liquid-liquid interfaces Thomas Hahn, Götz Münchow and Steffen Hardt Wetting morphologies and their transitions in grooved substrates Ralf Seemann, Martin Brinkmann, Stephan Herminghaus, Krishnacharya Khare, Bruce M Law, Sean McBride, Konstantina Kostourou, Evgeny Gurevich, Stefan Bommer, Carsten Herrmann and Dominik Michler Imbibition in mesoporous silica: rheological concepts and experiments on water and a liquid crystal Simon Gruener, and Patrick Huber Theory and simulations of water flow through carbon nanotubes: prospects and pitfalls Douwe Jan Bonthuis, Klaus F Rinne, Kerstin Falk, C Nadir Kaplan, Dominik Horinek, A Nihat Berker, Lydéric Bocquet, and Roland R Netz Structure and flow of droplets on solid surfaces P Müller-Buschbaum, D Magerl, R Hengstler, J-F Moulin, V Körstgens, A Diethert, J Perlich, S V Roth, M Burghammer, C Riekel, M Gross, F Varnik, P Uhlmann, M Stamm, J M Feldkamp and C G Schroer Stability and dynamics of droplets on patterned substrates: insights from experiments and lattice Boltzmann simulations F Varnik, M Gross, N Moradi, G Zikos, P Uhlmann, P Müller-Buschbaum, D Magerl, D Raabe, I Steinbach and M Stamm Micro-capsules in shear flow R Finken, S Kessler and U Seifert Micro-rheology on (polymer-grafted) colloids using optical tweezers C Gutsche, M M Elmahdy, K Kegler, I Semenov, T Stangner, O Otto, O Ueberschär, U F Keyser, M Krueger, M Rauscher, R Weeber, J Harting, Y W Kim, V Lobaskin, R R Netz, and F Kremer Dynamics of colloids in confined geometries L Almenar and M Rauscher Dynamics of red blood cells and vesicles in

  20. A Vanishing Star Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    VLT Observations of an Unusual Stellar System Reinhold Häfner of the Munich University Observatory (Germany) is a happy astronomer. In 1988, when he was working at a telescope at the ESO La Silla observatory, he came across a strange star that suddenly vanished off the computer screen. He had to wait for more than a decade to get the full explanation of this unusual event. On June 10-11, 1999, he observed the same star with the first VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescope (ANTU) and the FORS1 astronomical instrument at Paranal [1]. With the vast power of this new research facility, he was now able to determine the physical properties of a very strange stellar system in which two planet-size stars orbit each other. One is an exceedingly hot white dwarf star , weighing half as much as the Sun, but only twice as big as the Earth. The other is a much cooler and less massive red dwarf star , one-and-a-half times the size of planet Jupiter. Once every three hours, the hot star disappears behind the other, as seen from the Earth. For a few minutes, the brightness of the system drops by a factor of more than 250 and it "vanishes" from view in telescopes smaller than the VLT. A variable star named NN Serpentis ESO PR Photo 30a/99 ESO PR Photo 30a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 468 pix - 152k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 936 pix - 576k] [High-Res - JPEG: 2304 x 2695 pix - 4.4M] Caption to ESO PR Photo 30a/99 : The sky field around the 17-mag variable stellar system NN Serpentis , as seen in a 5 sec exposure through a V(isual) filter with VLT ANTU and FORS1. It was obtained just before the observation of an eclipse of this unsual object and served to centre the telescope on the corresponding sky position. The field shown here measures 4.5 x 4.5 armin 2 (1365 x 1365 pix 2 ; 0.20 arcsec/pix). The field is somewhat larger than that shown in Photo 30b/99 and has the same orientation to allow comparison: North is about 20° anticlockwise from the top and East is 90° clockwise from that direction. The

  1. PREFACE: International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems 2014 (SCES2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-03-01

    accommodation, the balance between senior and junior physicists was excellent. The weather also collaborated in a sense that the conference week was cooler than usually in July, although participants without umbrellas were often seen crossing the campus at speed! The two SCES prizes sponsored by the Philosophical Magazine to bright young physicists were respectively awarded to Max A. Metlitski (Santa Barbara) for the Mott Prize, and David Leboeuf (Grenoble) for the Coles Prize. The Coqblin Prize for developing SCES physics in emerging countries was given to Andre Strydom (Johannesburg). Of course we would like to thank all the members of the organizing committee of SCES managed by Klaus Hasselbach. During the SCES Conference two of us (JF and GL) remembered that 27 years ago, the late Jean Rossat-Mignod organized the conference ICAREA (1987) before the start of the SCES series. His enthusiasm is still with us. Topics presented at SCES2014 covered the wide area of strong correlations in Condensed Matter Physics. This proceedings volume contains papers reported at the conference, which are structured in 10 sections: S01 Heavy fermions S02 Mott insulators, correlated metals and intermetallics S03 Unconventional superconductors S04 Quantum criticality S05 Exotic ordering S06 Frustrated and quantum magnets S07 Multiferroics S08 Topological aspects S09 Low-dimensional systems and heterostructures S10 Instrumentation and methods The Proceedings of SCES2014 were edited by Mike Zhitomirsky and Pierre Dalmas de Réotier with the assistance of Dai Aoki, Kamran Behnia, Sébastien Burdin, William Knafo, Georg Knebel, Marie-Aude Méasson, Vladimir Mineev, Alexandre Pourret, Virginie Simonet, and Pierre Toulemonde. We are grateful for financial support from CEA, ESRF, ILL, Grenoble Université, and from the city council of Grenoble and the Rhône-Alpes region. Jacques Flouquet and Gerry Lander (Chairmen) Georg Knebel (General Secretary), Daniel Braithwaite (Treasurer)

  2. PREFACE: Hot Quarks 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antinori, Federico; Bass, Steffen A.; Bellwied, Rene; Ullrich, Thomas; Velkovska, Julia; Wiedemann, Urs

    2005-04-01

    his research and we spent an entire week talking physics and having fun from breakfast in the morning until late at night. A symbolic award was instituted for the best presentation at the workshop, dedicated to the memory of Klaus Kinder-Geiger, a sharp and brilliant young theorist who perished in the crash of Swissair Flight 111 on 2 September 1998 off the coast of Nova Scotia. It went to Denesh Molnar from Ohio State University for his outstanding talk on parton coalescence. The organizers wish to extend their gratitude to all participants for the high quality presentations making Hot Quarks 2004 a notable event. We are also very grateful for the superb hospitality of the staff of the Snakedance Inn, in particular Mitch Daniels who worked sheer miracles. Given the success of the first Hot Quarks workshop we decided to organize a second one, possibly even turning Hot Quarks into a series. The next meeting will be held in the late spring of 2006, probably in Italy. We hope it will be as memorable as the first one! Last but not least, we wish to thank all the generous sponsors of the conference: Brookhaven National Laboratory, European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Gesellschaft fA~ 1/4 r Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Institute of Physics Publishing, Los Alamos National Laboratory, National Science Foundation, and Vanderbilt University. We are grateful for their support and are particularly happy that this support came from institutions both in the US and in Europe and from all the main experimental facilities that pursue a prominent heavy-ion program. Their support was essential for the success of a workshop targeting young scientists.

  3. PREFACE: XV International Conference on Electrical Bio-Impedance (ICEBI) & XIV Conference on Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pliquett, Uwe

    2013-04-01

    . Structures down to sub-micrometer range and complex impedance measurements tools integrated at single chips are now affordable. Moreover, the introduction of alternative signals and data processing algorithms focuses on very fast and parallel electrical characterization which in turn pushes this technique to new applications and markets. Electrical impedance tomography today yields pictures in real time with a resolution that was impossible 10 years ago. The XVth International Conference on Electrical Bio-Impedance in conjunction with the XIVth Electrical Impedance Tomography ICEBI/EIT 2013 organized by the Institute for Bioprocessing and Analytical Measurement Techniques, Heilbad Heiligenstadt, Germany, together with the EIT-group at the University of Göttingen, Germany, brings world leading scientists in these fields together. It is a platform to present the latest developments in instrumentation and signal processing but also points to new applications, especially in the field of biosensors and non-linear phenomena. Two Keynote lectures will extend the view of the participants above the mainstream of bio-impedance measurement. Friederich Kremer (University of Leipzig) delivers the plenary lecture on broad bandwidth dielectric spectroscopy. New achievements in the research of ligand gated ionic channels will be presented by Klaus Benndorf (University of Jena). Leading scientists in the field of bio-impedance measurement, such as, Sverre Grimnes, Orjan Martinsen, Andrea Robitzki, Richard Bayford, Jan Gimsa and Mart Min will give lectures for students but also more experienced scientists in a pre-conference tutorial which is a good opportunity to learn or refresh the basics. List of committees Conference Chair Dr Uwe Pliquett Professor Dieter Beckmann Institut für Bioprozess- und Analysenmesstechnik eV, Rosenhof, Heilbad Heiligenstadt, Germany Technical Program Chair Maik Hiller Conventus Congressmanagement & Marketing GmbH, Carl-Pulfrich-Str. 1 - 07745 Jena Pre

  4. PREFACE: Fundamental Constants in Physics and Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, Volkmar; Kramer, Bernhard

    1986-01-01

    /or a physical unit have their origin in the shortcomings of our understanding of the underlying physics rather than being due to the technical problems in the experiment. In this context, it is worth mentioning that the quantum Hall effect, the discovery of which by Klaus von Klitzing was rewarded only recently by the Nobel Prize for physics, still needs further attention. We are able to reproduce experimentally resistances with an extremely high precision using this effect. Nevertheless, we have severe difficulties in our present physical understanding of the mechanism which provides the plateaux in the Hall resistance. Lectures on "Quantum Non-Demolition" and "Determination of the Boltzmann Constant" have been included in order to show routes to "new frontiers" in metrology. Even the "conventional" metrological concepts, when combined with modern technology, can provide surprises: Although the Josephson effect is known since 1962, it was only recently that a quantized voltage in the 1-volt range could be experimentally realized. The experiment was performed by making use of modern thin-film technology. In addition to providing a simple and precise voltage standard in a practically important regime it also sets a new frontier in precision electrical metrology by demonstrating that, ultimately, the reproducibility of the unit of voltage is limited by that of the unit of time. We are indebted to a number of people who helped to organize the Seminar as well as to prepare this volume. Especially, we would like to mention Mrs Inge Bode. Without her continuous work the 70th PTB Seminar would not have been possible in the way we all have experienced it. We appreciate also the help of R P Hudson and H Lotsch in achieving a fast publication of this volume. Financial support from the Helmholtz-Fond is gratefully acknowledged.

  5. Astronomers Reveal Extinct Extra-Terrestrial Fusion Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-06-01

    An international team of astronomers, studying the left-over remnants of stars like our own Sun, have found a remarkable object where the nuclear reactor that once powered it has only just shut down. This star, the hottest known white dwarf, H1504+65, seems to have been stripped of its entire outer regions during its death throes leaving behind the core that formed its power plant. Scientists from the United Kingdom, Germany and the USA focused two of NASA's space telescopes, the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), onto H1504+65 to probe its composition and measure its temperature. The data revealed that the stellar surface is extremely hot, 200,000 degrees, and is virtually free of hydrogen and helium, something never before observed in any star. Instead, the surface is composed mainly of carbon and oxygen, the 'ashes' of the fusion of helium in a nuclear reactor. An important question we must answer is why has this unique star lost the hydrogen and helium, which usually hide the stellar interior from our view? Professor Martin Barstow (University of Leicester) said. 'Studying the nature of the ashes of dead stars give us important clues as to how stars like the Sun live their lives and eventually die. The nuclear waste of carbon and oxygen produced in the process are essential elements for life and are eventually recycled into interstellar space to form new stars, planets and, possibly, living beings.' Professor Klaus Werner (University of Tübingen) said. 'We realized that this star has, on astronomical time scales, only very recently shut down nuclear fusion (about a hundred years ago). We clearly see the bare, now extinct reactor that once powered a bright giant star.' Dr Jeffrey Kruk (Johns Hopkins University) said: 'Astronomers have long predicted that many stars would have carbon-oxygen cores near the end of their lives, but I never expected we would actually be able to see one. This is a wonderful opportunity to

  6. BOOK REVIEW: Astronomie von Olbers bis Schwarzschild. Nationale Entwicklungen und internationale Beziehungen im 19. Jahrhundert (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 16)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2002-12-01

    The 14th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is the Proceedings of a Colloquium International Relationships in Astronomy (in German) organised by the History of Astronomy Section of the Astronomische Gesellschaft held on September 18 in Lilienthal, Germany. The book contains 13 articles on astronomical topics covering the 19th and 20th centuries. The first paper is by Guenther Oestmann and deals with contemporary assessments of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter's (1745-1816) astronomical works and with later judgements of the scientific importance and significance of his observations as seen by astronomers and historians. This report is complemented by a second article on Schroeter's 25-ft reflector in Lilienthal near Bremen. To this end, author Felix Luehning has constructed a scale model of the telescope, and shows how the building of a model brings a deeper understanding of function and handling of this instrument. This brings us to a third paper on telescope building in Lilienthal: Hans-Joachim Leue describes the cooperation of Johann Hieronymus Schroeter and Johann Gottlieb Schrader in developing a white reflecting metal alloy for use as telescope mirror. The fourth article, by Klaus Schillinger, describes on the basis of archival documents the aquisition history of the Herschel telescopes, including telescope quality check, repair and building. Memorial sites referring to Wilhelm Olbers, Johann Hieronymus Schroeter, Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel and Carl Friedrich Gauss are described by Arno Langkavel in two walks outlined in the very last paper of this book. Peter Brosche, in the fifth paper, discusses the rediscovery of Ceres in December1801, a discovery that was the result of the combined efforts of a theoretician (Gauss) and an observer (Zach). Juergen Hamel's paper is based on previously unused archival sources and discusses the outstanding role played by H. C. Schumacher (1780-1850, editor of the Astronomische Nachrichten) in the communication between

  7. PREFACE: IUPAP C20 Conference on Computational Physics (CCP 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troparevsky, Claudia; Stocks, George Malcolm

    2012-12-01

    . We are grateful to the committees that helped put the conference together, especially the local organizing committee. Particular thanks are also due to a number of ORNL staff who spent long hours with the administrative details. We are pleased to express our thanks to the conference administrator Ann Strange (ORNL/CDP) for her responsive and efficient day-to-day handling of this event, Sherry Samples, Assistant Conference Administrator (ORNL), Angie Beach and the ORNL Conference Office, and Shirley Shugart (ORNL) and Fern Stooksbury (ORNL) who created and maintained the conference website. Editors: G Malcolm Stocks (ORNL) and M Claudia Troparevsky (UT) http://ccp2011.ornl.gov Chair: Dr Malcolm Stocks (ORNL) Vice Chairs: Adriana Moreo (ORNL/UT) James Guberrnatis (LANL) Local Program Committee: Don Batchelor (ORNL) Jack Dongarra (UTK/ORNL) James Hack (ORNL) Robert Harrison (ORNL) Paul Kent (ORNL) Anthony Mezzacappa (ORNL) Adriana Moreo (ORNL) Witold Nazarewicz (UT) Loukas Petridis (ORNL) David Schultz (ORNL) Bill Shelton (ORNL) Claudia Troparevsky (ORNL) Mina Yoon (ORNL) International Advisory Board Members: Joan Adler (Israel Institute of Technology, Israel) Constantia Alexandrou (University of Cyprus, Cyprus) Claudia Ambrosch-Draxl (University of Leoben, Austria) Amanda Barnard (CSIRO, Australia) Peter Borcherds (University of Birmingham, UK) Klaus Cappelle (UFABC, Brazil) Giovanni Ciccotti (Università degli Studi di Roma 'La Sapienza', Italy) Nithaya Chetty (University of Pretoria, South Africa) Charlotte Froese-Fischer (NIST, US) Giulia A. Galli (University of California, Davis, US) Gillian Gehring (University of Sheffield, UK) Guang-Yu Guo (National Taiwan University, Taiwan) Sharon Hammes-Schiffer (Penn State, US) Alex Hansen (Norweigan UST) Duane D. Johnson (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, US) David Landau (University of Georgia, US) Joaquin Marro (University of Granada, Spain) Richard Martin (UIUC, US) Todd Martinez (Stanford University, US) Bill

  8. Mind the Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-09-01

    Astronomers have been able to study planet-forming discs around young Sun-like stars in unsurpassed detail, clearly revealing the motion and distribution of the gas in the inner parts of the disc. This result, which possibly implies the presence of giant planets, was made possible by the combination of a very clever method enabled by ESO's Very Large Telescope. Uncovering the disc ESO PR Photo 27a/08 Planet-forming Disc Planets could be home to other forms of life, so the study of exoplanets ranks very high in contemporary astronomy. More than 300 planets are already known to orbit stars other than the Sun, and these new worlds show an amazing diversity in their characteristics. But astronomers don't just look at systems where planets have already formed - they can also get great insights by studying the discs around young stars where planets may currently be forming. "This is like going 4.6 billion years back in time to watch how the planets of our own Solar System formed," says Klaus Pontoppidan from Caltech, who led the research. Pontoppidan and colleagues have analysed three young analogues of our Sun that are each surrounded by a disc of gas and dust from which planets could form. These three discs are just a few million years old and were known to have gaps or holes in them, indicating regions where the dust has been cleared and the possible presence of young planets. The new results not only confirm that gas is present in the gaps in the dust, but also enable astronomers to measure how the gas is distributed in the disc and how the disc is oriented. In regions where the dust appears to have been cleared out, molecular gas is still highly abundant. This can either mean that the dust has clumped together to form planetary embryos, or that a planet has already formed and is in the process of clearing the gas in the disc. For one of the stars, SR 21, a likely explanation is the presence of a massive giant planet orbiting at less than 3.5 times the distance

  9. PREFACE: 16th Nordic Semiconductor Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pétur Gíslason, Hafliði; Guðmundsson, Viðar

    1994-01-01

    including both basic and applied physics was also organized. Most of the oral sessions included an invited lecture. The invited speakers were all of high international class, five of them working in the Nordic countries, Sami Franssila, Finland, Jostein Grepstad, Norway, Jam Hvam, Denmark, Erik Janzén and Lars Samuelson, Sweden. The other five represented a wider geographical spread, Klaus von Klitzing and Detlef Heitmann, Germany, Gordon Davies, United Kingdom, Markus Büttiker and Chris Palmstrøm, U.S.A. Attendees from China, Japan, Switzerland, the Netherlands and Lithuania also participated in the conference. In addition to the invited lectures some 100 oral papers and 25 posters were contributed. Another novelty of the conference is the fact that the proceedings of the conference are being published in a refereed journal. These proceedings contain all the invited and contributed papers the authors of which complied with the deadline of submission of the manuscripts. The editors paid special attention to prompt publication of the proceedings in order to promote the actuality of the results presented at the conference. Therefore, the deadline was strict, all of the papers were refereed during the conference. Changes suggested by the referees were either made at Laugarvatn or within three weeks from the conference. We are grateful to the international crowd of session chairmen who assumed the task of refereeing the papers, either themselves or with the help of colleagues. Without their impressive qualifications this procedure would not have been as reliable as the quality of the papers deserved. We also want to thank the editorial staff of Physica Scripta for their help and cooperation. It is our hope that the 16th Nordic Semiconductor Meeting succeeded in keeping the tradition of a popular conference series at the same time as mowing slightly the emphasis which may strengthen future meetings. Time will tell. In the meantime, we thank all the participants for their

  10. Huygens space probe ready to leave Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-03-01

    the Earth, before settling down to prolonged observations of Saturn and its rings and moons. European and American scientists are partners in all the experiments, both in the Orbiter and in the Huygens Probe. Farthest out for Europe Huygens will travel to a greater distance from the Sun than any previous ESA mission, out to the orbit of Saturn at 1400 million kilometres, or nearly ten times the Sun Earth distance. For comparison, the farthest ranging mission at present is Ulysses, orbiting over the poles of the Sun and out to the orbit of Jupiter, 800 million kilometres from the Sun. As no other mission planned or contemplated by ESA at present will go as far as Saturn, Huygens is likely to hold the European record for many years. HUYGENS READY TO LEAVE EUROPE PRESS BRIEFING Wednesday 26 March, 10:00 hrs. Location : Daimler-Benz Aerospace/ Dornier Satellitensysteme Gate 2, Building 5.1 Ludwig-B>lkow-Allee Ottobrunn (Munich) Programme: 10h00 Registration of press 10h15 Huygens video introduction 10h20 Welcoming addresses: Klaus Ensslin, President, Dornier Satellitensysteme Roger Bonnet, Director of Science, ESA Michel Delaye, President, Aerospatiale Espace & Defense 10h30 NASA News and Cassini status Wesly T. Huntress, Associate Administrator of Space Science, NASA Richard Spehalski, Head of Cassini Project, NASA/JPL 10h40 The Huygens Project: Hamid Hassan, Head of the Huygens Project, ESA/ESTEC Hans-Joachim Hoffman, Head of the Huygens Project, Dornier Satellitensysteme Gerard Huttin, Head of the Huygens Project, Aerospatiale 11h00 The Huygens Scientific Programme: Jean-Pierre Lebreton, Huygens Project Scientist, ESA supported by European and American scientists. 11h15 The ESA Science programme, current and future missions Roger Bonnet, Director of Science, ESA 11h25 Question and Answer session 11h55 Visit to the Huygens spacecraft (access inside the clean room limited to photographers and TV teams only). 12h45 Buffet lunch 14h00 End of activties HUYGENS READY TO

  11. Towards Automation in Landcover Mapping from LiDAR Data in Alpine Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorninger, Peter; Briese, Christian; Nothegger, Clemens; Klauser, Armin

    2010-05-01

    . Dorninger: "3D Filtering of High-Resolution Terrestrial Laser Scanner Point Clouds for Cultural Heritage Documentation"; Photogrammetrie, Fernerkundung, Geoinformation, 1 (2009), 53 - 63. M. Doneus, C. Briese: "Digital Terrain Modelling For Archaeological Interpretation Within Forested Areas Using Full-Waveform Laserscanning", The 7Th International Symposium on Virtual Reality, Archaeology and Cultural Heritage Vast (2006) L. Zebedin, A. Klaus, B. Gruber-Geymayer, K. Karner: "Towards 3D map generation from digital aerial images", ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing, Vol. 60, 413-427 (2006).

  12. Astronomers Win Protection for Key Part of Radio Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-06-01

    Astronomers using the millimeter-wave region of the radio spectrum have won crucial protection for their science. Dedicated allocations for radio astronomy have been given final approval by the 2,500 delegates to the World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-00), which recently concluded a month of deliberations in Istanbul, Turkey. Radio services can transmit in these parts of the spectrum as long as they don't hinder astronomers' attempts to catch faint signals from the cosmos. The new allocations represent the culmination of more than three years of cooperative planning by radio astronomers in many countries. Millimeter waves -- high-frequency radio waves -- have come of age as an astronomical tool in the last ten years. They are one of the last technological frontiers for astronomers. WRC-00 has protected for science all the frequencies between 71 and 275 Gigahertz (GHz) that radio astronomers currently use, adding more than 90 GHz of spectrum to the 44 GHz already set aside in this frequency range. As a result, radio astronomy is now allocated most of the frequencies between 71 and 275 GHz that can get through the Earth's atmosphere. "We have formal access to all three atmospheric 'windows', apart from their very edges," said Dr. Tom Gergely of the National Science Foundation, one of the U.S. delegates to WRC-00. The WRC also changed most of the frequencies allocated to satellite downlinks within the 71-275 GHz range to frequencies not used for science. Since no satellites yet operate at these high frequencies, no equipment needs to be altered. "Commercial technologies are just starting to develop above 50 GHz," said Dr. Klaus Ruf, Chairman of the Inter-Union Commission for the Allocation of Frequencies. "The WRC's actions mean that, when they are, radio astronomers should be able to share this part of the spectrum with most terrestrial services." The World Radiocommunication Conference is held every two or three years. Here member countries of the

  13. GEC Plasma Data Exchange Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitchford, L. C.

    2013-08-01

    collections of transport and rate coefficient data, and comparisons of calculated and measured data can also be made online through the LXCat site. A large body of data for ion scattering and transport is available on the sister site, ICECat [3], which is now being merged into a new and improved LXCat platform [4] under development. The GEC hosted workshops on the PDEP in 2011 and 2012, with the third in the series being planned for October 2013. The purpose of these workshops has been to report progress towards the evaluation of data available on LXCat or elsewhere. The focus of the 2011 workshop was electron scattering and transport in noble gases, and the articles in this cluster issue were originally reported at that occasion. The 2012 workshop focused on electron transport in simple molecular gases, and plans are to publish documentation and evaluations of datasets for H2, N2 and O2, as reported at the 2012 GEC. The focus topic for the 2013 workshop is electron scattering in H2O and other complex molecules. The first three papers (paper I on Ar, by Pitchford et al [5], paper II on He and Ne, by Alves et al [6], and paper III on Kr and Xe, by Bordage et al [7]) in this cluster issue aim to provide documentation of the datasets available on LXCat for noble gases. Paper IV by Klaus Bartschat [8] gives an overview of theoretical methods for calculations of electron-atom scattering cross sections. This is important because, in some cases, theory has now advanced to the point of being able to provide complete sets of electron scattering cross-sections in noble gases to the accuracy required for use in plasma modelling. The discussion provided in the four papers in this cluster issue is intended to help users decide which datasets best fit their needs. We urge the users of these data to include complete and proper references in all publications. Open-access data should not become anonymous data! Finally, it is with sadness that we acknowledge the passing of our colleague Art

  14. The 2009 Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting: Martin Chalfie, Chemistry 2008

    PubMed Central

    Chalfie, Martin

    2010-01-01

    American Biologist Martin Chalfie shared the 2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Roger Tsien and Osamu Shimomura for their discovery and development of the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). Martin Chalfie was born in Chicago in 1947 and grew up in Skokie Illinois. Although he had an interest in science from a young age-- learning the names of the planets and reading books about dinosaurs-- his journey to a career in biological science was circuitous. In high school, Chalfie enjoyed his AP Chemistry course, but his other science courses did not make much of an impression on him, and he began his undergraduate studies at Harvard uncertain of what he wanted to study. Eventually he did choose to major in Biochemistry, and during the summer between his sophomore and junior years, he joined Klaus Weber's lab and began his first real research project, studying the active site of the enzyme aspartate transcarbamylase. Unfortunately, none of the experiments he performed in Weber's lab worked, and Chalfie came to the conclusion that research was not for him. Following graduation in 1969, he was hired as a teacher Hamden Hall Country Day School in Connecticut where he taught high school chemistry, algebra, and social sciences for 2 years. After his first year of teaching, he decided to give research another try. He took a summer job in Jose Zadunaisky's lab at Yale, studying chloride transport in the frog retina. Chalfie enjoyed this experience a great deal, and having gained confidence in his own scientific abilities, he applied to graduate school at Harvard, where he joined the Physiology department in 1972 and studied norepinephrine synthesis and secretion under Bob Pearlman. His interest in working on C. elegans led him to post doc with Sydney Brenner, at the Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, England. In 1982 he was offered position at Columbia University. When Chalfie first heard about GFP at a research seminar given by Paul Brehm in

  15. The 2009 Lindau Nobel Laureate meeting: Martin Chalfie, Chemistry 2008.

    PubMed

    Chalfie, Martin

    2010-02-10

    American Biologist Martin Chalfie shared the 2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Roger Tsien and Osamu Shimomura for their discovery and development of the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). Martin Chalfie was born in Chicago in 1947 and grew up in Skokie Illinois. Although he had an interest in science from a young age--learning the names of the planets and reading books about dinosaurs--his journey to a career in biological science was circuitous. In high school, Chalfie enjoyed his AP Chemistry course, but his other science courses did not make much of an impression on him, and he began his undergraduate studies at Harvard uncertain of what he wanted to study. Eventually he did choose to major in Biochemistry, and during the summer between his sophomore and junior years, he joined Klaus Weber's lab and began his first real research project, studying the active site of the enzyme aspartate transcarbamylase. Unfortunately, none of the experiments he performed in Weber's lab worked, and Chalfie came to the conclusion that research was not for him. Following graduation in 1969, he was hired as a teacher Hamden Hall Country Day School in Connecticut where he taught high school chemistry, algebra, and social sciences for 2 years. After his first year of teaching, he decided to give research another try. He took a summer job in Jose Zadunaisky's lab at Yale, studying chloride transport in the frog retina. Chalfie enjoyed this experience a great deal, and having gained confidence in his own scientific abilities, he applied to graduate school at Harvard, where he joined the Physiology department in 1972 and studied norepinephrine synthesis and secretion under Bob Pearlman. His interest in working on C. elegans led him to post doc with Sydney Brenner, at the Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, England. In 1982 he was offered position at Columbia University. When Chalfie first heard about GFP at a research seminar given by Paul Brehm in 1989

  16. EDITORIAL: Humidity sensors Humidity sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regtien, Paul P. L.

    2012-01-01

    , since it uses the accurately known relation between temperature and saturation vapour pressure in air. When an object exposed to humid air is cooled down below the dew-point water vapour condenses as drops on its cold surface. The temperature can be kept exactly at the dew point by controlling the amount of dew (equilibrium between evaporation and condensation). In most dew-point hygrometers dew is detected with optical or capacitive means. In the former the dew drops on a reflective surface (chilled mirror) scatter incident light, and the capacitive method uses the change in capacitance due to the large dielectric constant of liquid water (80) compared to air (1). Kunze et al, in the fourth paper of this special feature, use another property of water to detect dew: the relatively high value of the thermal capacitance of liquid water. In traditional technology this method would not be sensitive enough, but with MEMS technology a sufficient detectivity of dew can be achieved, which is demonstrated in this paper. A control system keeps the temperature of the substrate just at the dew-point temperature, the latter being measured by an on-chip diode. The accuracy achieved is comparable with traditional dew-point hygrometers. These four papers in this issue are nice examples of research leading to significant advances in hygrometry. References [1] Wexler A (ed) 1965 Humidity and Moisture. Vol. I: Principles and Methods of Measuring Humidity in Gases; Vol. II: Applications; Vol. III: Fundamentals and Standards; Vol. IV: Principles and Methods of Measuring Moisture in Liquids and Solids (New York: Reinhold) [2] Sonntag D 1966-1968 Hygrometrie (Berlin: Akademie Verlag)

  17. Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5 (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 18)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2003-01-01

    33 footnotes). The 3-page paper on Grienberger is followed by a 50-page paper on Kordenbusch. Hans Gaab presents a thoroughly researched biography of the Nuremberg astronomer Georg Friedrich Kordenbusch (1731-1802). Educated as a doctor of medicine, he nevertheless became teacher of mathematics and physics at the Egidien gymnasium, attempted to revitalize the Nuremberg Observatory, and issued a second edition of Johann Leonard Rost's Astronomisches Handbuch (1718), the first compendium of astronomy written in German. He also edited and translated some French works (star maps, a description of globes, and an elementary book on cosmography). Dietmar Fürst (Berlin), who has already published in this series three articles on the foundation of Königsberg Observatory, now presents the first part of the history of the Königsberg heliometer, an instrument which is famous since it was used by Bessel to determine the trigonometric parallax of 61 Cygni. Fürst informs us about the purchase and the putting in operation of the instrument, which was endangered by Fraunhofer's death and delayed by (unavoidably counterproductive?) administrative activities. Reinhold Haefner, astronomer at Munich Observatory, and Rolf Riekher, optician in Berlin, have joined forces to present some pioneers of stellar spectroscopy in "the astro-spectroscopic researches by Fraunhofer and Lamont". It is well known that Fraunhofer observed the solar spectrum with high enough resolution to detect the Fraunhofer lines, but it is less known that he also observed bright planets and fixed stars at the Munich Observatiory, with the assistance of its director Soldner. A publication of 1823 gives only a short summary of this stellar work, and Fraunhofer's early death, three years later, was possibly the cause that no detailed article ever appeared. Interestingly, the second director of the observatory, Johann von Lamont, used the new large refractor (aperture: 28 cm, focal length about 5 m) to observe stellar

  18. Thorium Enrichment within the Procellarum KREEP Terrane: The Record in Surface Deposits and Significance for Thermal Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Gillis, J. J.; Haskin, L. A.

    1999-01-01

    intermediate-sized craters that penetrated volcanic flows and excavated Th-rich, submare material, such as Aristarchus, Aristillus, and Kepler. Other spots, however, correspond to surficial formations that constitute mainly rough topography associated with Imbrium ejecta or circum-Imbrium ring mountains and do not necessarily imply the presence of exposed KREEP basalts. The Fra Mauro Formation south of Copernicus toward the Apollo 14 site and regions of the Alpes Formation southwest of Copernicus in the vicinity of Reinhold lie within the most prominent hotspot; here them concentration is consistent with that found in the Apollo 14 soils (about 12-13 ppm) when the proportions of Fra Mauro Formation and mare basalt are considered. The area between Copernicus and Kepler and northwest of Copernicus in terra extending to the Carpathians is similarly enriched in Th. The Apennines from Eratosthenes toward the Apollo 15 site contain elevated Th concentrations, as does the northwestern quadrant of circum-Imbrium terra, especially between (but not including) La Condamine and Plato, and in the region northwest of the Jura mountains extending southward past Mairan to the Gruithuisen-Domes region. Within the main topographic rim of Imbrium, the Apennine Bench formation south of Archimedes appears to have relatively elevated Th concentration. Comparing the map of Th distribution to a digital-elevation map derived from Clementine altimetry, it appears that most of the areas richest in Th occur where the surface is elevated relative to the majority of PKT volcanic plains. Not all rough topography within the PKT has such elevated Th, however. Based on an analysis of the 5 deg. data, and using the calibration of, the mean Th concentrations for mainly volcanic-resurfaced terrain and rugged terrain are similar (about 5.5 ppm). This occurs in part because craters that penetrated mare basalt excavated Th-rich material. Even so, there appear to be extensive areas of volcanic resurfacing that have

  19. Orbiting observatory SOHO finds source of high-speed "wind" blowing from the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-02-01

    ranging from 30,000 km/h at the surface to over 3 million km/h, the solar wind "grows" much faster than grass". "Looking at the spot where the solar wind actually appears is extremely important", says co-author Dr. Philippe Lemaire of the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale in Orsay, France. The Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) spectrometer on SOHO detected the solar wind by observing the ultraviolet spectrum over a large area of the solar north polar region. The SUMER instrument was built under the leadership of Dr. Klaus Wilhelm at the Max-Planck-Institut für Aeronomie in Lindau, Germany, with key contributions from the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale in Orsay, France, the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, and the University of California at Berkeley, with financial support from German, French, US and Swiss national agencies. "Identification of the detailed structure of the source region of the fast solar wind is an important step in solving the solar wind acceleration problem. We can now focus our attention on the plasma conditions and the dynamic processes seen in the corners of the magnetic field structures", says Dr. Wilhelm, also co-author of the Science paper. A spectrum results from the separation of light into its component colours, which correspond to different wavelengths. Blue light has a shorter wavelength and is more energetic than red. A spectrum is similar to what is seen when a prism separates white light into a rainbow of distinct colours. By analysing light this way, astronomers learn a great deal about the object emitting the light, such as its temperature, chemical composition, and motion. The ultraviolet light observed by SUMER is actually invisible to the human eye and cannot penetrate the Earth's atmosphere. The hot gas in the solar wind source region emits light at certain ultraviolet wavelengths. When the hot gas flows towards Earth, as it does in the solar wind, the wavelengths of the

  20. Controllable Quantum States Mesoscopic Superconductivity and Spintronics (MS+S2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayanagi, Hideaki; Nitta, Junsaku; Nakano, Hayato

    2008-10-01

    distance on the magnetization configuration of submicron-sized ferromagnetic rings / Tetsuya Miyawaki. A wide GaAs/GaAlAs quantum well simultaneously containing two dimensional electrons and holes / Ane Jensen. Simulation of the photon-spin quantum state transfer process / Yoshiaki Rikitake. Magnetotransport in two-dimensional electron gases on cylindrical surface / Friedland Klaus-Juergen. Full counting statistics for a single-electron transistor at intermediate conductance / Yasuhiro Utsumi. Creation of spin-polarized current using quantum point contacts and its detection / Mikio Eto. Density dependent electron effective mass in a back-gated quantum well / S. Nomura. The supersymmetric sigma formula and metal-insulator transition in diluted magnetic semiconductors / I. Kanazawa. Spin-photovoltaic effect in quantum wires / A. Fedorov -- Quantum interference. Nonequilibrium transport in Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with electron-phonon interaction / Akiko Ueda. Fano resonance and its breakdown in AB ring embedded with a molecule / Shigeo Fujimoto, Yuhei Natsume. Quantum resonance above a barrier in the presence of dissipation / Kohkichi Konno. Ensemble averaging in metallic quantum networks / F. Mallet -- Coherence and order in exotic materials. Progress towards an electronic array on liquid helium / David Rees. Measuring noise and cross correlations at high frequencies in nanophysics / T. Martin. Single wall carbon nanotube weak links / K. Grove-Rasmussen. Optical preparation of nuclear spins coupled to a localized electron spin / Guido Burkard. Topological effects in charge density wave dynamics / Toru Matsuura. Studies on nanoscale charge-density-wave systems: fabrication technique and transport phenomena / Katsuhiko Inagaki. Anisotropic behavior of hysteresis induced by the in-plane field in the v = 2/3 quantum Hall state / Kazuki Iwata. Phase diagram of the v = 2 bilayer quantum Hall state / Akira Fukuda -- Trapped ions (special talk). Quantum computation with trapped

  1. EDITORIAL: Charge transport in non-metallic solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngs, Ian J.; Almond, Darryl P.

    2009-03-01

    Workers engaged in a wide range of investigations of charge transport in non-metallic solids came together at a meeting of the Institute of Physics Dielectric Group, held in London on 2 April 2008. Topics included both ionic and electronic conduction, investigations of the fundamental mechanisms of charge transport, percolation, modelling the conduction process in both natural and man-made composite electrical and electromagnetic materials, the design and development of solids with specified conduction properties and the ac characteristics of non-metallic solids. In the first session, the long-standing problem of the anomalous power law increase in ac conductivity with frequency was addressed by a set of four presentations. Jeppe Dyre, an invited speaker from Roskilde University, Denmark, introduced the problem and stressed the universality of the frequency dependence observed in the ac conductivities of disordered non-metallic materials. He showed that it could be obtained from a simple random barrier model, independent of the barrier distribution. Darryl Almond, University of Bath, showed that the electrical responses of large networks of randomly positioned resistors and capacitors, simulating the microstructures of disordered two-phase (conductor insulator) materials, exhibit the same frequency dependence. He demonstrated their robustness to component value and distribution and suggested that it was an emergent property of these networks and of two-phase materials. Klaus Funke, an invited speaker from the University of Munster, Germany, presented a detailed model of ion motion in disordered ionic materials. He stressed the need to account for the concerted many-particle processes that occur whilst ions hop from site to site in response to an applied electric field. The conductivity spectra obtained from this work reproduce the same frequency dispersion and have the additional feature of conductivity saturation at high frequencies. Tony West, University of

  2. PREFACE: XIII International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics (CALOR 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livan, Michele

    2009-07-01

    The XIII International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics was held in Pavia, Italy, 26-30 May 2008, picking up the baton from the 2006 Conference in Chicago. The Conference took place in the unique environment of the Theresian Room of the University Library. The attendees were surrounded by over 40 000 books of general interest and culture, and had the opportunity to see precious volumes written by such people as Galileo, Volta and Faraday. The Workshop brought together more than 120 participants, including senior scientists as well as young physicists, confirming the central and ever-growing role of calorimeters in modern particle physics. The development of these detectors, as stressed by Professor Klaus Pretzl in his lectio magistralis, has made it possible to explore new frontiers in physics, and the present scenario is no exception to this rule. With the LHC experiments almost completely installed and ready to take data, the Conference was an ideal chance to review the status of the different projects, whose development has been followed and discussed throughout the entire Calor series, and to show that they are capable of meeting the design specifications. Other highlights were the performance and physics results of calorimeters installed in currently operating experiments. In the session on astrophysics and neutrinos, the contributions confirmed the key role of calorimeters in this sector and demonstrated their growing application even beyond the field of accelerator physics. Considerable time was devoted to the state-of-the-art techniques in the design and operation of the detectors, while the session on simulation addressed the importance of a thorough understanding of the shower development to meet the demanding requirements of present experiments. Finally, on the R&D side, the particle flow and dual read-out concepts confronted the challenges issued by the next generation of experiments. This complex material was reviewed in 83

  3. Evidence for Ultra-Energetic Particles in Jet from Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-06-01

    shoot out from the black hole at close to the speed of light and then release their energy as radiation as far out as they are seen, the particles have to be accelerated locally, where they produce their emission. Both teams also used data from the third of NASA's Great Observatories, the Hubble Space Telescope, and the radio telescopes of the Very Large Array (VLA). The three space telescopes and the VLA "see" emission of different wavelengths from celestial objects, and the combined data was essential to reveal the new comprehensive perspective on the jets. "The new observations show that the flow structure of this jet is more complicated than had been assumed previously," Jester explains. "That the present evidence favors the synchrotron model deepens the mystery of how jets produce the ultra-energetic particles that radiate at X-ray wavelengths." "Our results call for a radical rethink of the physics of relativistic jets that black holes drive," said Uchiyama. "But, we now have a crucial new clue to solving one of the major mysteries in high-energy astrophysics." Other authors on the papers include Jeffrey Van Duyne and Paolo Coppi at Yale; C.C. Cheung at Stanford University; Rita Sambruna at NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD; Tadayuki Takahashi at ISAS/JAXA, Japan; Laura Maraschi and Fabrizio Tavecchio at the Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Milan; Dan Harris from the SAO; Herman Marshall at MIT; and Klaus Meisenheimer at Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg. Grant and contract funding from NASA supported the research. Additional images and background material are available at: http://www.astro.soton.ac.uk/~jester/3C273.html and http://www.astro.isas.jaxa.jp/~uchiyama/Site2/Spitzer_3C273.html

  4. PREFACE: Complex dynamics of fluids in disordered and crowded environments Complex dynamics of fluids in disordered and crowded environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coslovich, Daniele; Kahl, Gerhard; Krakoviack, Vincent

    2011-06-01

    T Fischer and R L C Vink Lennard-Jones binary mixture in disordered matrices: exploring the mode coupling scenario at increasing confinement P Gallo and M Rovere Static and dynamic contributions to anomalous chain dynamics in polymer blends Marco Bernabei, Angel J Moreno and J Colmenero Anomalous transport of a tracer on percolating clusters Markus Spanner, Felix Höfling, Gerd E Schröder-Turk, Klaus Mecke and Thomas Franosch Long-wavelength anomalies in the asymptotic behavior of mode-coupling theory S K Schnyder, F Höfling, T Franosch and Th Voigtmann Dynamic arrest of colloids in porous environments: disentangling crowding and confinement Jan Kurzidim, Daniele Coslovich and Gerhard Kahl Slow dynamics, dynamic heterogeneities, and fragility of supercooled liquids confined in random media Kang Kim, Kunimasa Miyazaki and Shinji Saito

  5. EDITORIAL: Focus on Molecular Electronics FOCUS ON MOLECULAR ELECTRONICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheer, Elke; Reineker, Peter

    2008-06-01

    : American Scientific Publishers) [7] Petty M C 2007 Molecular Electronics, (Weinheim: Wiley-VCH) [8] 2006 Molecular Wires and Nanoscale Conductors Faraday Discuss. 131 1-420 Focus on Molecular Electronics Contents Model of mixed Frenkel and charge-transfer excitons in donor-acceptor molecular crystals: investigation of vibronic spectra I J Lalov, C Warns and P Reineker Suppressing the current through molecular wires: comparison of two mechanisms GuangQi Li, Michael Schreiber and Ulrich Kleinekathöfer Charge-memory effect in a polaron model: equation-of-motion method for Green functions Pino D'Amico, Dmitry A Ryndyk, Gianaurelio Cuniberti and Klaus Richter Determination of transport levels of organic semiconductors by UPS and IPS S Krause, M B Casu, A Schöll and E Umbach Electrical characterization of alkane monolayers using micro-transfer printing: tunneling and molecular transport C Kreuter, S Bächle, E Scheer and A Erbe Correlated charge transfer along molecular chains L Mühlbacher and J Ankerhold Non-equilibrium Green's functions in density functional tight binding: method and applications A Pecchia, G Penazzi, L Salvucci and A Di Carlo Asymmetric Coulomb blockade and Kondo temperature of single-molecule transistors Florian Elste and Felix von Oppen Electron-phonon scattering in molecular electronics: from inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy to heating effects Alessio Gagliardi, Giuseppe Romano, Alessandro Pecchia, Aldo Di Carlo, Thomas Frauenheim and Thomas A Niehaus Interlinking Au nanoparticles in 2D arrays via conjugated dithiolated molecules Jianhui Liao, Markus A Mangold, Sergio Grunder, Marcel Mayor, Christian Schönenberger and Michel Calame Conductance values of alkanedithiol molecular junctions M Teresa González, Jan Brunner, Roman Huber, Songmei Wu, Christian Schönenberger and Michel Calame Particularities of surface plasmon-exciton strong coupling with large Rabi splitting C Symonds, C Bonnand, J C Plenet, A Bréhier, R Parashkov, J S Lauret, E

  6. PREFACE: Stimuli Stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queisser, Hans J.

    2011-01-01

    . In 1968, we all assembled in Moscow for the International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors; what a unique opportunity to meet so many Russian colleagues, including this intellectual elite from the most remarkable Joffe Institute, with Zhores Alferov a major player. In 1970, I became a founding director of the Max-Planck-Institute for Solid State Research at Stuttgart, in the Southwest of Germany. There I eventually succeeded—against massive opposition—to establish a group for MBE, which became truly successful under the very capable leadership of Klaus Ploog [17], to whom was bestowed a prize of the Seibold-Foundation for Japan-Germany Science Cooperation. Klaus von Klitzing's group in our Max-Planck-Institute in Stuttgart relies on MBE to the present day for research on the quantum Hall effect [18]. Equally, my former doctoral student Horst Stormer had to utilize excellent MBE for his Nobel-Prize winning research on the fractional quantum Hall effect [18]. We fondly remember one congenial dinner party at our Stuttgart house, with Zhores Alferov and Helmut Lotsch as our valued guests; it must have been in the mid-seventies. My wife Inge had prepared a dessert in the shape of the title page of the Springer journal Applied Physics, with chocolate and orange cream. Herr Lotsch had won Alferov to become part of our board of editors, a most valuable connection to the excellence of Soviet semiconductor research! Many Japanese colleagues, especially from industrial electronics labs came to learn the tricks of MBE from us in Stuttgart; the German electronics industry, however, was reluctant and remained completely disinterested—but the French equipment maker RIBER was our staunch ally, and this company grew with the international acceptance of MBE for small, high-frequency devices. One diligent young visitor at my Stuttgart laboratories, Ozamu Kumagai from the SONY Corporation, did especially well. Back at home, he most cleverly devised novel technologies

  7. FOREWORD: Tackling inverse problems in a Banach space environment: from theory to applications Tackling inverse problems in a Banach space environment: from theory to applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Thomas; Hofmann, Bernd; Kaltenbacher, Barbara

    2012-10-01

    of concrete instances with special properties. The aim of this special section is to provide a forum for highly topical ongoing work in the area of regularization in Banach spaces, its numerics and its applications. Indeed, we have been lucky enough to obtain a number of excellent papers both from colleagues who have previously been contributing to this topic and from researchers entering the field due to its relevance in practical inverse problems. We would like to thank all contributers for enabling us to present a high quality collection of papers on topics ranging from various aspects of regularization via efficient numerical solution to applications in PDE models. We give a brief overview of the contributions included in this issue (here ordered alphabetically by first author). In their paper, Iterative regularization with general penalty term—theory and application to L1 and TV regularization, Radu Bot and Torsten Hein provide an extension of the Landweber iteration for linear operator equations in Banach space to general operators in place of the inverse duality mapping, which corresponds to the use of general regularization functionals in variational regularization. The L∞ topology in data space corresponds to the frequently occuring situation of uniformly distributed data noise. A numerically efficient solution of the resulting Tikhonov regularization problem via a Moreau-Yosida appriximation and a semismooth Newton method, along with a δ-free regularization parameter choice rule, is the topic of the paper L∞ fitting for inverse problems with uniform noise by Christian Clason. Extension of convergence rates results from classical source conditions to their generalization via variational inequalities with a priori and a posteriori stopping rules is the main contribution of the paper Regularization of linear ill-posed problems by the augmented Lagrangian method and variational inequalities by Klaus Frick and Markus Grasmair, again in the context of some

  8. Book Review: Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5 (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2002-12-01

    Bohemian (Jesuit) provinces, mainly in Vienna and Neisse (the present Nysa in Silesia, Poland), but no traces of further astronomical activity have survived, if they ever existed. The fourth article, by Hans Gaab, is a very thoroughly researched biography of Johann Philipp von Wurzelbau (1651-1725), an merchant turned astronomer from Nuremberg. Wurzelbau started his activities at Christoph Eimmart's (the director of the painters' academy in Nuremberg) private observatory, and his first published work deals with observations of the great comet of 1680. Furthermore, he observed solar eclipses, Mercury transits, and determined the geographical latitude of Nuremberg. The article also contains a detailed description of Wurzelbau's observatory and its instruments. The fifth paper, by Klaus-Dieter Herbst, deals with Gottfried Kirch's idea of founding an astronomical society - being a vehicle to publishing astronomical observations. Kirch (1639-1710) was a well-known astronomer and calendar manufacturer. Around 1700, Kirch was appointed first astronomer at the Brandenburg society of sciences, and director of the observatory that was to be established with the new Berlin Academy. Herbst shows that Kirch's religious attitude that converged on pietism was a driving force to establish a scientific society. However, the final failure of such a project is due to the emergence of the scientific journal Acta Eruditorum, issued since 1682 in Leipzig, which could serve as an outlet for the publication of astronomical data by Kirch and others, thus fulfilling an essential task of the projected academy. Kirch's occupation with the composition of calendars, which took most of his time, was another reason. The following three shorter articles deal with 19th century astronomy. Peter Brosche describes an early visual photometer employed by Johann Gottfried Koehler (1745-1801) in Dresden, Alberto Meschiari edits and comments letters by Franz Xaver von Zach (1754-1832) to the physicist Gerbi in

  9. Observing a Burst with Sunglasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    factor by which the lines in the spectrum of an object are shifted towards longer wavelengths. Since the redshift of a cosmological object increases with distance, the observed redshift of a remote galaxy also provides an estimate of its distance. [2]: Members of the team include Jochen Greiner, Arne Rau (Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Germany), Sylvio Klose, Bringfried Stecklum (Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Germany), Klaus Reinsch (Universitätssternwarte Göttingen, Germany), Hans Martin Schmid (Institut für Astronomie Zürich, Switzerland ), Re'em Sari (California Institute of Technology, USA), Dieter H. Hartmann (Clemson University, USA), Chryssa Kouveliotou (NSSTC, Huntsville, Alabama, USA), Eliana Palazzi (Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, Bologna, Italy), Christian Straubmeier (Physikalisches Institut Köln, Germany), Sergej Zharikov, Gaghik Tovmassian (Instituto de Astronomia Ensenada, Mexico), Otto Bärnbantner, Christop Ries (Wendelstein-Observatorium München, Germany), Emmanuel Jehin, Andreas Kaufer (European Southern Observatory, Chile), Arne Henden (USNO Flagstaff, USA), Anlaug A. Kaas (NOT, La Palma, Spain), Tommy Grav (University of Oslo, N), Jens Hjorth, Holger Pedersen (Astronomical Observatory Copenhagen, Denmark), Ralph A.M.J. Wijers (Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, Amsterdam, The Netherlands), Hye-Sook Park (Lawrence Livermore Nat. Laboratory, USA), Grant Williams (MMT Observatory, Tucson, USA), Olaf Reimer (Theoretische Weltraum- und Astrophysik Universität Bochum, Germany) [3]: When electrons - which are electrically charged - move through a magnetic field, they spiral around an axis defined by the local magnetic field. Electrons of high energy spiral very rapidly, at speeds near the speed of light. Under such conditions, the electrons emit highly polarised electromagnetic radiation. The intensity of this radiation is related to the strength of the magnetic field and the number and energy

  10. EDITORIAL: Student undergraduate laboratory and project work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, Dieter

    2007-05-01

    During the last decade 'labwork' courses at university level have changed significantly. The beginning of this development was indicated and partly initiated by the EU-project 'Labwork in Science Education' funded by the European Community (1999-2001). The present special issue of the European Journal of Physics focuses on a multitude of different aspects of this process. The aim of this publication is to improve the exchange of experience and to promote this important trend. In physics research labs a silent revolution has taken place. Today the personal computer is omnipresent. It controls the experiment via stepping motors, piezo-microdrives etc, it monitors all parameters and collects the experimental data with the help of smart sensors. In particular, computer-based modern scanning and imaging techniques open the possibility of creating really new types of experiments. The computer allows data storage and processing on the one hand and simulation and modelling on the other. These processes occur in parallel or may even be interwoven. The web plays an important role in modern science for inquiry, communication, cooperation and publication. Traditional labwork courses do not prepare students for the many resulting demands. Therefore it is necessary to redefine the learning targets and to reconsider the learning methods. Two contributions show exemplarily how modern experimental devices could find their way into students' labs. In the article 'Infrared thermal imaging as a tool in university physics education' by Klaus-Peter Möllmann and Michael Vollmer we can see that infrared thermal imaging is a valuable tool in physics education at university level. It can help to visualize and thereby enhance understanding of physical phenomena of mechanics, thermal physics, electromagnetism, optics and radiation physics. The contribution 'Using Peltier cells to study solid-liquid-vapor transitions and supercooling' by Giacomo Torzo, Isabella Soletta and Mario Branca proves

  11. EDITORIAL: Celebrating one year of Environmental Research Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2008-03-01

    Latitude Climate and Environmental Change Wind Energy Task #2: Take advantage of opportunities for special focus issues in ERL by proposing topics. Year two will see a number of new issues and challenges. A topic that ERL covers in detail is the science, technology, policy, economic, and social dimensions of the development of the next climate protocol, the evolution of the 'Bali Roadmap' into the 'Copenhagen Protocol' to replace the Kyoto Protocol. In this regard, the rapid publication and global open access of ERL affords a unique means for innovation and dialog. Access in developing nations, who must be included far more equitably and meaningfully in this new climate round, is something that ERL can and will provide (Cockerill and Knols 2008). Task #3: Facilitate an empowering and truly global dialog on development and climate that makes poorer communities full partners, not subjects, of the drive for global sustainability. Finally, a paper in volume 2, issue 2 of ERL marked a sad but telling occasion. A fascinating study, 'The regrets of procrastination in climate policy', by Klaus Keller, Alexander Robinson, David Bradford and Michael Oppenheimer used a coupled economic and climate model to evaluate the costs (regrets) of inaction on climate change (Keller et al 2007). The model they developed provides a running tally of the mounting costs, and risks, associated with continued greenhouse gas emissions. Tragically, David Bradford was killed at age 66 in a fire in 2005, and this paper, which the other authors dedicated to David, is one of his final publications. David was one of my mentors and colleagues at Princeton University where we worked together in the Science, Technology and Environmental Policy Program—a haven for scientists within the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. Ironically, this paper, and the events of 2007 came together in what I hope will be a lesson for those involved in energy and climate analysis and policy. David

  12. Southern Fireworks above ESO Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-05-01

    ://www.astro.ku.dk/~jens/grb990510/ at the Copenhagen University Observatory. Complete, regularly updated lightcurves with all published measurements, also from other observatories, may be found at another webpage in Milan at http://www.merate.mi.astro.it/~gabriele/990510/ . This may happen if the explosion emits radiation in a beam which is pointed towards the Earth. Such beams are predicted by some models for the production of gamma-ray bursts. They are also favoured by many astronomers, because they can overcome the fundamental problem that gamma-ray bursts simply produce too much energy. If the energy is not emitted equally in all directions ("isotropically"), but rather in a preferred one along a beam, less energy is needed to produce the observed phenomenon. Such a break has been observed before, but this time it occurred at a very favourable moment, when the source was still relatively bright so that high-quality spectroscopic and multi-colour information could be obtained with the ESO telescopes. Together, these observations may provide an answer to the question whether beams exist in gamma-ray bursts and thus further help us to understand the as yet unknown cause of these mysterious explosions. Latest News ESO PR Photo 22g/99 ESO PR Photo 22g/99 [Normal - JPEG: 453 x 585 pix - 304k] Caption to PR Photo 22g/99 : V(isual) image of the sky field around GRB 990510 (here denoted "OT"), as obtained with the VLT ANTU telescope and FORS1 on May 18 UT during a 20 min exposure in 0.9 arcsec seeing conditions. The reproduction is in false colours to better show differences in intensity. North is up and east is left. Further photometric and spectroscopic observations with the ESO VLT, performed by Klaus Beuermann, Frederic Hessman and Klaus Reinsch of the Göttingen group of the FORS instrument team (Germany), have revealed the character of some of the objects that are seen close to the image of the afterglow of GRB 990510 (also referred to as the "Optical Transient" - OT). Two objects to the North

  13. PREFACE: XVth International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics (CALOR2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akchurin, Nural

    2012-12-01

    Livan, Pavia Univ. & INFN Pasquale Lubrano, INFN Perugia Steve Magill, ANL Amelia Maio, LIPP Lisbon Horst Oberlack, MPI Munich Adam Para, FNAL Klaus Pretzl, Univ. of Bern Yifang Wang, IHEP Beijing Richard Wigmans, TTU Ren-Yuan Zhu, Caltech Local Organizing Committee: Nural Akchurin, TTU Debra Boyce, TTU (Secretary) Xiadong Jiang, LANL Jon Kapustinsky, LANL Sung-Won Lee, TTU Sally Seidel, UNM Igor Volobouev, TTU Session Conveners: LHC I-III: David Barney (CERN) Ana Henriques (CERN) Sally Seidel (UNM) Calorimetry Techniques I-II: Francesca Tedaldi (ETH-Zurich) Tao Hu (IHEP-Beijing) Calorimetry Techniques III-IV: Craig Woody (BNL) Tohru Takeshita (Shinshu) Astrophysics and Neutrinos: Don Groom (LBNL) Steve Magill (ANL) Operating Calorimeters: Jordan Damgov (TTU) Gabriella Gaudio (INFN-Pavia) Frank Chlebana (FNAL) Algorithms and Simulations: Artur Apresyan (Caltech) Igor Volobouev (TTU) Front-end and Trigger: Chris Tully (Princeton) Kejun Zhu (IHEP-Beijing) Future Calorimetry: Michele Livan (Pavia Univ.) Frank Simon (MPI) Vishnu Zutshi (NICADD) List of Participants: ABOUZEID, Hass University of Toronto AKCHURIN, Nural Texas Tech University ANDEEN, Timothy Columbia University ANDERSON, Jake Fermilab APRESYAN, Artur California Institute of Technology AUFFRAY, Etiennette CERN BARILLARI, Teresa Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Physik BARNEY, David CERN BESSON, Dave University of Kansas BOYCE, Debra Texas Tech University BRUEL, Philippe LLR, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3 BUCHANAN, Norm Colorado State University CARLOGANU, Cristina LPC Clermont Ferrand / IN2P3 / CNRS CHEFDEVILLE, Maximilien CNRS/IN2P3/LAPP CHLEBANA, Frank Fermilab CLARK, Jonathan Texas Tech University CONDE MUINO, Patricia LIP-Lisboa COWDEN, Christopher Texas Tech University DA SILVA, Cesar Luiz Los Alamos National Lab DAMGOV, Jordan Texas Tech University DAVYGORA, Yuriy University of Heidelberg DEMERS, Sarah Yale University EIGEN, Gerald University of Bergen EUSEBI, Ricardo Texas A&M University FERRI, Federico CEA

  14. Shoemaker-Levy 9/JUPITER Collision Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    Information Service (Tel.: +4989-32006276; Fax: +4989-3202362), to obtain a personal invitation. ESO is preparing special arrangements for the Chilean media; they will soon be announced directly to the involved. PHOTO CAPTION ESO PR PHOTO 10/94-1: PORTRAIT OF A DOOMED COMET These two photos from the ESO La Silla observatory show the individual nuclei of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, now headed for collision with Jupiter on 16 - 22 July 1994. The wide-field photo (below, left) was obtained by Klaus Jockers and Galina Chernova (Max-Planck-Institute fur Aeronomie, Katlenburg, Lindau, Germany) on May 1, 1994. For this 5 min exposure in red light they used a CCD camera at the MPIfAe/Hoher List focal reducer at the ESO 1-metre telescope. The entire nuclear train (the "string of pearls") is very well seen, together with the sunlight-reflecting dust from the nuclei, all on one side. On this date, the comet was 654 million km from the Earth and the angular extension of the train was about 5.3 arcmin, corresponding to a projected length of just over 1 million km. A 15 min CCD image was obtained for astrometric purposes on May 11, 1994, by Jean-Francois Claeskens at the Danish 1.5 m telescope at La Silla; it is here reproduced in close-up to show well the individual nuclei, in particular the fainter ones. The bright object to the upper right is a 10th mag star. Note that the stars in the field are somewhat trailed, since the telescope was set to follow the motion of the comet. The first nucleus to hit Jupiter will be "A", here seen 42 mm from the left edge and 33 mm below the upper edge of the large picture. The last is "W", 43 mm above the lower edge and 9 mm from the right edge. The comet was 657 million km from the Earth and the train was somewhat longer, 5.8 arcmin, i.e. the projected length was now 1.1 million km. Technical information: Wide-Field: pixel size 1.5 arcsec; scale on photo: 5.1 arcsec/mm; field size: 12.2 x 6.6 arcmin; 5 min exposure; gunn-r filtre. Close-Up: pixel size 0

  15. The big comet crash of 1994. Intensive observational campaign at ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-01-01

    . Together they will be carried upwards in the plume, described above. This may provide a rare opportunity, not only to register the submillimetre emissions from those molecules which are already known to be present in the comet and on Jupiter, but also to detect new and unknown molecules otherwise not accessible for direct observations, either from the interior of the cometary nuclei or from deep down in Jupiter's enormous atmosphere. Infrared observations will play a very important role during the ESO campaign. A new ESO-developed instrument, TIMMI (Thermal Infrared Multi-Mode Instrument) will be mounted at the ESO 3.6 m telescope and will provide detailed infrared images of the impact areas when they become visible at the limb. Two teams will be active here; one is led by Timothy A. Livengood from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (U.S.A.) and includes several ESO staff astronomers. Thanks to the excellent imaging capabilities of TIMMI in the far-infrared spectral region, this group will be able to look far down into the atmosphere and to measure minute temperature variations. This should make it possible to register the effects of the shockwaves that arise when the cometary energy is deposited in the atmosphere. The second group at the 3.6 m telescope, led by Benoit Mosser from Institut d'Astrophysique, Paris, will be looking for short- and long-term oscillations of the entire planet during the days and nights following the impacts. It is agreed that such observations will not be easy, but they offer the best hope we presently have of learning about the internal structure of Jupiter. It may be deduced from the observed frequencies and modes of oscillation. A particularly interesting problem is whether Jupiter really possesses a core of metallic hydrogen, as postulated by some scientists. Infrared images will also be made by Klaus Jockers from the Max-Planck-Institut fur Aeronomie with the ESO infrared IRAC camera at the MPI/ESO 2.2 m telescope. Since they will be obtained

  16. NARRATIVE: A short history of my life in science A short history of my life in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manson, Joseph R.

    2010-08-01

    bicycle rides taken with these colleagues and many others through the streets of Göttingen and the surrounding countryside of Niedersachsen. The long series of visits to Göttingen were interrupted by three summers beginning in 1988 at the Institut für Grenzflachenforschung and Vakuumphysik at the Forschungszentrum Jülich in Germany working with George Comsa and his group. I had met Comsa in the late 1970s at a scientific meeting in France and we had continued our scientific correspondence ever since, which eventually led to the invitation to visit his lab for an extended stay. Among the very large range of surface-related experiments being carried out in the Comsa group were machines, operated by Bene Poelsema and Rudolf David and the then graduate students Klaus Kern and Peter Zeppenfeld, devoted to He atom scattering from metal and adsorbate-covered surfaces. Once again, it was a great privilege to carry out scientific research in such a stimulating environment. In 1998, with a three-month summer visit, I began a collaboration with Professor Karl-Heinz Rieder at the Institut für Experimentalphysik of the Freie Universität Berlin in Germany. Rieder was a pioneer in the field of surface scattering experiments using helium and other rare gas atomic beams as projectiles and after he moved to the Freie Universität from the IBM Zürich laboratories he continued this work as well as becoming a world leader in the field of single molecule manipulation on surfaces using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). This collaboration resulted in visits to Berlin every summer through 2006 during which we collaborated on several projects involving both atom-surface scattering and STM. The work during this period included interesting collaborative work with many members of the Rieder group including Ludwig Bartels, Daniel Farías, Gerhard Meyer and Saw Hla. It was a great experience to be able to pursue science in such favorable surroundings, and to have, in addition, all the

  17. Foreword: Sir John Pendry FRS Sir John Pendry FRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inglesfield, John; Echenique, Pedro

    2008-07-01

    long-standing collaborator Klaus Heinz, illustrate the power of LEED in determining surface structure. And everywhere in the surface science literature you will see the Pendry R-factor quoted, as a measure of the accuracy of the structure determination. The contribution which theory and computation can make to the interpretation of electron spectroscopies has been an underlying theme in John's work over many years, and as in the case of LEED he has developed the computer programs to make the interpretation possible. After finishing his PhD in 1969, and during the period of a research fellowship at Downing College, Cambridge, John spent the year 1972-3 at Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey; it was there that he started collaborating with Patrick Lee on the interpretation of extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) [8], oscillations seen above the absorption edge when x-rays excite core electrons of atoms in a molecular or solid state environment. This was the first quantitative theory of the effect, and led to the use of EXAFS in determining atomic structure in systems, such as glasses, where x-ray diffraction is less useful. Since then, EXAFS and its derivative techniques such as NEXAFS (which explores the structure immediately above the absorption edge, particularly sensitive to chemical bonding), and SEXAFS (EXAFS at surfaces) have become standard techniques in the armoury of structure determination methods at every synchrotron radiation laboratory. And it was to the Daresbury Laboratory in Cheshire, with its synchrotron radiation facility, that John moved in 1975, from Cambridge, as Head of the Theory Group. This was an inspired appointment on the part of the then Science and Engineering Research Council, as it led to unrivalled theoretical support for the electron spectroscopists using the SRS facility. For John it was a move back to the North of England, the area from which he came and where he had been to school. In Daresbury he published his

  18. Thermoelectric Devices: Solid-State Refrigerators and Electrical Generators in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winder, Edmund J.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Lisensky, George C.

    1996-10-01

    familiar resistive heating that we see in space heaters, hair dryers, and light bulbs. Note that in these cases some of the energy is also given off as light. Until now, the only charge carriers considered have been electrons. In semiconductors, however, there is also the possibility that positively charged "holes" will be important in conduction (2). Holes are simply vacant electron states in the valence band of a semiconductor; they have the same magnitude of charge as an electron, but they are positive instead of negative. Semiconductors in which holes are the majority carrier are termed p-type. The Seebeck effect for p-type semiconductors will cause holes to move from a hot region to a cold region, like electrons. But because they are positively charged, the potential created will be opposite to that created by electrons. The Peltier effect may be thought of as the opposite of the Seebeck effect. Figure 5a shows an n-type semiconductor (one in which conduction band electrons are the predominant charge carriers, "majority carriers") connected to a voltage source by metallic conductors. Figure 5. Illustration of the Peltier effect for a semiconductor between two pieces of metal. (a) n-Type semiconductor. Electrons flow from right to left in the semiconductor, carrying heat from the right to the left side of the semiconductor, opposite to the electic current direction; Pi is negative. (b) p-Type semiconductor. Holes flow from left to right in the semiconductor , carrying heat from the left to the right side of the semiconductor, in the same direction as the electric current; Pi is positive. EC, EV, and EF refer to the energies of the conduction band edge, the valence band edge, and the Fermi energy (or electrochemical potential), respectively. Figure adapted from Hannay, N. B. Semiconductors; Reinhold: New York, 1959; p 41. An electric current flows through the semiconductor from left to right (electrons flow from right to left). For the electrons to enter the

  19. SINFONI Opens with Upbeat Chords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    , Silvio Rossi, Riccardo Schmutzer, Armin Silber, Stefan Ströbele (SINFONI System Engineer), Thomas Szeifert, Sebastien Tordo, Leander Mehrgan, Joerg Stegmeier, Reinhold Dorn (European Southern Observatory). Contacts Frank Eisenhauer Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE) Garching, Germany Phone: +49-89-30000-3563 Email: eisenhau@mpe.mpg.de Paul van der Werf Leiden Observatory Leiden, The Netherlands Phone: +31-71-5275883 Email: pvdwerf@strw.leidenuniv.nl Henri Bonnet European Southern Observatory (ESO) Email: hbonnet@eso.org Reinhard Genzel Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE) Garching, Germany Phone: +49-89-30000-3280 Email: Norbert Hubin European Southern Observatory (ESO) Email: nhubin@eso.org Appendix A: Integral Field Spectroscopy as a Powerful Discovery Tool ESO PR Photo 24i/04 ESO PR Photo 24i/04 How Integral Field Spectroscopy Works [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 425 pix - 127k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 850 pix - 366k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 24i/04 shows the principle of Integrated Field Spectroscopy (IFS). The detailed explanation is found in the text. How does SINFONI work? What is Integral Field Spectroscopy (IFS)? The idea of IFS is to obtain a spectrum of each defined spatial element ("spaxel") in the field-of-view. Several techniques to do this are available - in SINFONI, the slicer principle is applied. This involves (PR Photo 24i/04) that * the two-dimensional field-of-view is cut into slices, the so-called slitlets (short slits in contrast to normal long-slit spectroscopy), * the slitlets are then arranged next to each other to form a pseudo-long-slit, * a grating is used to disperse the light, and * the photons are detected with a Near-InfraRed detector. Following data reduction, the set of generated spectra can be re-arranged in the computer to form a 3-dimensional "data cube" of two spatial, and one wavelength dimension. Thus the term "3D-Spectroscopy" is sometimes used for IFS. Appendix B: Linus' orbital motion around