Science.gov

Sample records for klimaat breda een

  1. EEN regulates the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma cells by potentiating IGF-1 secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Er-Wen; Xue, Sheng-Jiang; Li, Xiao-Yan; Xu, Suo-Wen; Cheng, Jian-Ding; Zheng, Jin-Xiang; Shi, He; Lv, Guo-Li; Li, Zhi-Gang; Li, Yue; Liu, Chang-Hui; Chen, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Hong; Li, Jie; Liu, Chao

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • Levels of EEN expression paralleled with the rate of cell proliferation. • EEN was involved in the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. • EEN regulated the activity of IGF-1-Akt/mTOR pathway. • EEN regulated proliferation and survival of MM cells by enhancing IGF-1 secretion. - Abstract: The molecular mechanisms of multiple myeloma are not well defined. EEN is an endocytosis-regulating molecule. Here we report that EEN regulates the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma cells, by regulating IGF-1 secretion. In the present study, we observed that EEN expression paralleled with cell proliferation, EEN accelerated cell proliferation, facilitated cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase by regulating cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) pathway, and delayed cell apoptosis via Bcl2/Bax-mitochondrial pathway. Mechanistically, we found that EEN was indispensable for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) secretion and the activation of protein kinase B-mammalian target of rapamycin (Akt-mTOR) pathway. Exogenous IGF-1 overcame the phenotype of EEN depletion, while IGF-1 neutralization overcame that of EEN over-expression. Collectively, these data suggest that EEN may play a pivotal role in excessive cell proliferation and insufficient cell apoptosis of bone marrow plasma cells in multiple myeloma. Therefore, EEN may represent a potential diagnostic marker or therapeutic target for multiple myeloma.

  2. Adaptive filtering of ECG interference on surface EEnGs based on signal averaging.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Casado, Javier; Martinez-de-Juan, Jose L; Ponce, Jose L

    2006-06-01

    An external electroenterogram (EEnG) is the recording of the small bowel myoelectrical signal using contact electrodes placed on the abdominal surface. It is a weak signal affected by possible movements and by the interferences of respiration and, principally, of the cardiac signal. In this paper an adaptive filtering technique was proposed to identify and subsequently cancel ECG interference on canine surface EEnGs by means of a signal averaging process time-locked with the R-wave. Twelve recording sessions were carried out on six conscious dogs in the fasting state. The adaptive filtering technique used increases the signal-to-interference ratio of the raw surface EEnG from 16.7 +/- 6.5 dB up to 31.9 +/- 4.0 dB. In addition to removing ECG interference, this technique has been proven to respect intestinal SB activity, i.e. the EEnG component associated with bowel contractions, despite the fact that they overlap in the frequency domain. In this way, more robust non-invasive intestinal motility indicators can be obtained with correlation coefficients of 0.68 +/- 0.09 with internal intestinal activity. The method proposed here may also be applied to other biological recordings affected by cardiac interference and could be a very helpful tool for future applications of non-invasive recordings of gastrointestinal signals.

  3. The traditional medicine Spilanthes acmella, and the alkylamides spilanthol and undeca-2E-ene-8,10-diynoic acid isobutylamide, demonstrate in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity.

    PubMed

    Spelman, Kevin; Depoix, Delphine; McCray, Megan; Mouray, Elisabeth; Grellier, Philippe

    2011-07-01

    Spilanthes spp. are used as traditional herbal medicines in Africa and India to treat malaria. Yet, to date, there are no data on the active constituents or the most effective extraction methods for this indication. The isolated alkylamides, spilanthol and undeca-2E-ene-8,10-diynoic acid isobutylamide, found in S. acmella Murr., were shown to have IC₅₀s of 16.5 μg/mL and 41.4 μg/mL on Plasmodium falciparum strain PFB and IC₅₀s of 5.8 μg/mL and 16.3 μg/mL for the chloroquine resistant P. falciparum K1 strain, respectively. Further investigations revealed that at relatively low concentrations, spilanthol and the water extract of S. acmella reduced the parasitemia 59% and 53% in mice infected with P. yoelii yoelii 17XNL at 5 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg, respectively. Unexpectedly, the 95% ethanol extract of S. acmella was less effective (36% reduction in parasitemia) at 50 mg/kg. These results provide the first evidence supporting S. acmella against malaria and demonstrating active constituents in S. acmella against P. falciparum. PMID:22692989

  4. The traditional medicine Spilanthes acmella, and the alkylamides spilanthol and undeca-2E-ene-8,10-diynoic acid isobutylamide, demonstrate in vitro and in vivo anti-malarial activity

    PubMed Central

    Spelman, Kevin; Depoix, Delphine; McCray, Megan; Mouray, Elisabeth; Grellier, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Spilanthes spp. are used as traditional herbal medicines in Africa and India to treat malaria. Yet, to date, there is no data on active constituents or most effective extraction methods for this indication. The isolated alkylamides, spilanthol and undeca-2E-ene-8,10-diynoic acid isobutylamide, found in S. acmella Murr., were shown to have IC50s of 16.5 μg/mL and 41.4 μg/mL on Plasmodium falciparum strain PFB and IC50s of 5.8 μg/mL and 16.3 μg/mL for the chloroquine resistant P. falciparum K1 strain, respectively. Further investigations revealed that at relatively low concentrations, spilanthol and the water extract of S. acmella reduced the parasitemia 59% and 53% in mice infected with P. yoelii yoelii 17XNL at 5 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg, respectively. Unexpectedly, the 95% ethanol extract of S. acmella was less effective (36% reduction in parasitemia) at 50 mg/kg. These results provide the first evidence supporting S. acmella against malaria and demonstrating active constituents in S. acmella against P. falciparum. PMID:22692989

  5. Secondary Education in Africa: Strategies for Renewal. World Bank Presentations at the UNESCO/BREDA-World Bank Regional Workshop on the Renewal of Secondary Education in Africa (Mauritius, Africa, December 2001). Africa Region Human Development Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastri, Lawrence, Ed.

    During the last 3 decades secondary education has become universal in most industrialized countries. Sub-Saharan African countries face special challenges to benefit from this international trend. The gap between these countries and the rest of the world in coverage, quality, and relevance of secondary education is widening. To address these…

  6. Neuropsychiatrie of biologische psychiatrie; een toekomstvisie in historisch perspectief.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, W M; Tuinier, S

    1999-06-01

    Neuropsychiatry or Biological Psychiatry There is an urgent need to reconsider the position of psychiatry within the neurosciences because of the exploding knowledge about the relationship between brain and behaviour and the delay in implementation of new findings due to the separation of neurology and psychiatry. Biological psychiatry and psychopharmacology originate from the discovery by chance of psycho-active compounds in the early fifties and have contributed to the scientification of psychiatry. The impact of biological psychiatry for the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, however, is limited as a result of its biased orientation on neurotransmitters and receptors. The neuropsychiatric paradigm integrates knowledge from several domains, such as functional neuroanatomy, genetics and endocrinology and opens new vistas for the involvement of neuronal circuits in the initiation and maintenance of behavioural disturbances. In addition, novel and more specific treatment modalities may emerge.

  7. Op weg naar een didactiek voor natuurkunde-experimenten op afstand : Ontwerp en evaluatie van een via internet uitvoerbaar experiment voor leerlingen uit het voortgezet onderwijs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbarts, M. B. A.

    2009-02-01

    The subject of this thesis is a developmental study on “remote experimenting” in education. It concerns the development of a remote experiment that enables pre-university students to carry out a physics experiment at a distance via the internet. Remote experiments can offer several (practical) benefits when compared to conventional experiments but the desire to exploit these benefits put special demands on the design of the experiment, since the students might be conducting the experiment without a teacher in the vicinity. As a consequence of these demands it was decided to focus on exploring the possibilities and problems of remote experiments conducted in the absence of a teacher. The research was carried out in two cycles and focused on the development of a remote experiment that could be conducted autonomously by pre-university students to measure the speed of light in several media. This should answer the global question: What should a technically, as well as didactically, well-functioning remote experiment look like? The first cycle had an explorative character. It showed that technically the experiment already functioned quite well. However, many problems were observed concerning the content, and the way the students were tackling it. This led to two categories of recommendations. Concerning the content, the material should aim at making the students more aware of what they are doing and why they are doing it and several content related problems needed to be avoided. The second category of recommendations concerned the format of the material: the design and the working method. Special attention should be paid to designing a clear structure for the website and adding interaction and control, (feedback- and reflection facilities) to activate the students and guide them through the material. In the second research cycle these recommendations were followed by designing the material within the theoretical framework of the problem posing theory. A didactical structure was designed before writing the actual lesson material for the website describing the inter-related conceptual and content-related motivational pathway of the intended teaching-learning process. The lesson material was set up in such a way that the students are repeatedly confronted with a practical problem to solve and they play an active role in developing the method of measurement. Secondly, in an attempt to compensate for the absence of the teacher and support the teaching-learning process some format elements were developed and deployed like an automated question-, and feedback system that supported the students, activated them and gave them insight into their learning process and a ‘Where-am-I’-window that showed their current position within the material. This all had led to a technically as well as didactically well functioning remote experiment in which, at a global level, the line of reasoning was made explicit and recognizable for the students, and ad a local level was build up out of well connected successive activities and required the students to adopt an active attitude.

  8. Synthetisch Denken : Natuurwetenschappers over hun rol in een moderne maatschappij 1900-1940

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baneke, D.

    2008-06-01

    In this study, I address the advent of ‘modernity’ in Dutch culture, especially in the Interwar years, from the perspective of scientists and engineers. They were important actors in many intellectual debates, since science and technology were at the core of the cultural and societal developments of the period. The first chapter of this study describes the cultural context. At the end of the nineteenth century, many characteristics of the ‘modern age’ were increasingly considered as problematic. Scientists, philosophers, writers and artists searched for new intellectual frameworks to befit the modern world. These frameworks were highly varied, ranging from occultism (the ‘petites régions’) to strictly rational philosophical systems. However the differences were gradual rather than fundamental. Science was at the core of the discussions about the problems of modernity. It was blamed for creating many of the problems, but it was also hailed as part of the solution. The problems of modernity were also discussed by contemporary Dutch intellectuals (including scientists) throughout the first half of the twentieth century. The cultural elite of the Netherlands was highly aware of contemporary developments in neighbouring countries. However, the Dutch debate had some specific characteristics. In contrast to the Weimar Republic, culture pessimism was absent in the 1920s. This changed in the 1930s, with the economic and political crisis. The crisis gave the problems of modernity a new urgency. In reaction, the intellectual debate changed from abstract and often utopian to a more concrete level. From the cultural and political debates that started at the turn of the twentieth century, a new kind of public intellectual emerged: the expert intellectual. That is the subject of the last chapter (chapter 8). I elaborate on the tension between social engagement and scientific objectivity that is inherent in the position of intellectuals. This tension was also one of the central issues in the debates about the role of scientists in society. The intervening chapters establish the link between the cultural developments and the rise of this modern intellectual. These six chapters are divided in two sections, each focussing on a different theme in the discussions. The two sections provide two ‘routes’ from the first to the last chapter`. The first section focuses on the universities and vocational colleges. It ends with a case-study on ir. I.P. de Vooys. The second chapter describes the quest for an all-encompassing philosophical ‘synthesis’, with special attention to debates on causality and determinism. The case-study in this section is biologist H.J. Jordan. After the Second World War, many of the ideas from the Interwar period were implemented, as I describe in a short epilogue. Expert-intellectuals played a crucial role in planning the reconstruction.

  9. Quick genome sequencing of “Candidatus Liberibacter” strains by use of Enrichment-Enlargement-Next generation sequencing (EEN)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of “Candidatus Liberibacter” are associated with several important plant diseases such as citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) and potato zebra chip (ZC) disease. Inability to culture and low titers in infected hosts have been major obstacles for research on these bacteria. The use of whole genome seq...

  10. Investigations of the relationship betw een disease and airborne (1→3)-β-D-glucan in buildings

    PubMed Central

    Rylander, Ragnar

    1997-01-01

    Studies on the relationship between symptoms in indoor air and the amount of airborne (1→3)-β-D-glucan were reviewed. Relationships were found for symptoms and objective tests of airways inflammation. The data suggest that (1→3)-β-D-glucan could be a causative agent. PMID:18472858

  11. The Juvenile Justice System. Chapter 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This collection of papers presented at a 1996 conference on children's mental health focuses on the juvenile justice system. Papers have the following titles and authors: (1) "Delinquency and Mental Illness: The Intersection of Problems and Systems" (Carolyn S. Breda); (2) "Assessing the Mental Health of Adolescents in the Mental Health and…

  12. Making Class Size Work in the Middle Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, C. H.; Achilles, C. M.

    2006-01-01

    Most research on the positive effects of class-size reduction (CSR) has occurred in the elementary level (Word, Johnston, Bain, Fulton, Zaharias, Lintz, Achilles, Folger, & Breda, 1990; Molnar, Smith, Zahorik, Palmer, Halbach, & Ehrle, 1999). Is CSR an important variable in improving education in the middle grades? Can small classes be achieved in…

  13. Effects of hydrostatic pressure, agitation and CO2 stress on Phytophthora nicotianae zoospore survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora nicotianae Breda de Haan was used as a model pathogen to investigate the effects of hydrostatic pressure, agitation, and aeration with CO2 or breathable air on the survival of Phytophthora zoospores in water. Injecting CO2 into 2 liters of zoospore-infested water for 5 min at 110.4 ml ...

  14. Directory of Adult Education Centres in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Dakar (Senegal). Regional Office for Education in Africa.

    The Bureau Regional pour L'Education en Afrique (BREDA) survey, published partly in French, assembled data on the activities of adult education institutions in Africa in order to identify and develop future regional documentation centers. This draft copy of the survey is the first step towards improving international collaboration among…

  15. System Design and Wide-field Imaging Aspects of Synthesis Arrays with Phased Array Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bregman, Jacob Dirk

    2012-12-01

    Dit proefschrift betreft het ontwerpen van synthese radiotelescopen, zoals LOFAR. Bekende ontwerpprincipes worden gecombineerd met een visie op technologische mogelijkheden die in de nabije toekomst binnen handbereik komen. De centrale vraag daarbij is hoe wetenschappelijke gebruikers met een gegeven budget een optimaal resultaat kunnen behalen. Systeemontwerp begint met een analyse van de fundamentele beperkingen van groothoek beeldvorming met apertuursynthese en van praktische beperkingen zoals verstoring door de ionosfeer. Deze analyse heeft geleid tot een aantal schaalwetten voor telescoop- en antenne-configuratie en voor de vereiste digitale processing. In een array antenne worden de signalen van een aantal antennes opgeteld tot een versterkt signaal uit een bepaalde richting. Deze array technologie geeft de mogelijkheid een gegeven aantal eenvoudige antennes optimaal te verdelen over een aantal stations. Ons onderzoek heeft laten zien dat de stations een minimum grootte nodig hebben om verstoring door de ionosfeer over het gehele beeldveld te kunnen corrigeren. Te kleine stations kunnen maar in een beperkt deel van hun grote beeldveld voldoende scherpte krijgen. Een te beperkt aantal stations leidt echter tot toename van ruis in het beeld die met extra beeldbewerking deels is te verwijderen. Een belangrijk resultaat van het werk is het ontwerp voor twee nieuwe methoden van beeldvorming waarbij de computer bewerking is teruggebracht tot een theoretisch minimum dat evenredig is met het oppervlak van het totale beeldveld gemeten in resolutie elementen. Voor een voldoend groot aantal stations is een optimale verdeling mogelijk waarmee maximale scherpte en minimale ruis is te realiseren binnen een totaal budget dat niet door de kosten van de benodigde computing faciliteiten wordt gedomineerd.

  16. Different Representations of Physics or Hail Poetry! — Thou heaven-born maid, thou gildest e'en the physics teacher's trade! (stolen from W. S. Gilbert)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Robert

    2006-12-01

    Robert Morse, physics teacher at St. Albans School in Washington, D.C., has taught physics in public and private schools for 37 years. His website on Ben Franklin and Electrostatics was recently reviewed in the June 2006 issue of Natural History Magazine. A previous foray into poetry, "The Pool Table Physics Lab Rap," is one of the pieces on the Physics Pholk Songs CD, part of the Activity-Based Physics project.

  17. Een duik in de Kappa Cygniden zwerm : resultaten van het CAMS-BeNeLux netwerk in de zomer van 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannink, Carl

    2014-12-01

    During July and August 2014, the CAMS_BeNeLux network captured nearly 3 000 meteors simultaneously. 250 of these meteors have radiants more or less near the kappa Cygnid- stream (12 KCG ). CAMS is a project to establish minor meteor showers. From the data a pattern very similar to the conclusions in [2] emerge, i.e. this gives strength to the conclusion that in fact four streams are responsible for activity from this part of the sky in July/August. All these streams could be debris from asteroid 2008 ED69.

  18. Een Serie Experimenten Over Het Uitkijkgedrag van Kleuters (A Series of Experiments of Kindergarten Children Looking Out for Traffic Standing at the Curb).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinje, Marja

    In a series of experiments, kindergarten children were to look out for traffic while standing at a curb and to tell the experimenter when they could cross the street. In trials without oncoming traffic clear differences were found between 4-year-old children and older kindergarten children. The 4-year-olds most often looked in one direction only.…

  19. Energy and wear optimisation of train longitudinal dynamics and of traction and braking systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, R.; Galardi, E.; Meli, E.; Nocciolini, D.; Pugi, L.; Rindi, A.

    2015-05-01

    Traction and braking systems deeply affect longitudinal train dynamics, especially when an extensive blending phase among different pneumatic, electric and magnetic devices is required. The energy and wear optimisation of longitudinal vehicle dynamics has a crucial economic impact and involves several engineering problems such as wear of braking friction components, energy efficiency, thermal load on components, level of safety under degraded or adhesion conditions (often constrained by the current regulation in force on signalling or other safety-related subsystem). In fact, the application of energy storage systems can lead to an efficiency improvement of at least 10% while, as regards the wear reduction, the improvement due to distributed traction systems and to optimised traction devices can be quantified in about 50%. In this work, an innovative integrated procedure is proposed by the authors to optimise longitudinal train dynamics and traction and braking manoeuvres in terms of both energy and wear. The new approach has been applied to existing test cases and validated with experimental data provided by Breda and, for some components and their homologation process, the results of experimental activities derive from cooperation performed with relevant industrial partners such as Trenitalia and Italcertifer. In particular, simulation results are referred to the simulation tests performed on a high-speed train (Ansaldo Breda Emu V250) and on a tram (Ansaldo Breda Sirio Tram). The proposed approach is based on a modular simulation platform in which the sub-models corresponding to different subsystems can be easily customised, depending on the considered application, on the availability of technical data and on the homologation process of different components.

  20. Phytophthora x pelgrandis, a new natural hybrid pathogenic to Pelargonium grandiflorum hort.

    PubMed

    Nirenberg, Helgard I; Gerlach, Wolfram F; Gräfenhan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    A new Phytophthora hybrid of Ph. cactorum (Leb. & Cohn) Schroet. and Ph. nicotianaevan Breda de Haan pathogenic to cultivars of Pelargonium grandiflorum hort. is described as Phytophthora X pelgrandis and its morphological features are documented. Morphological, physiological (e.g., temperature requirements) and molecular data (DNA sequencing, random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR) are presented for isolates of the Phytophthora hybrid. Pathogenicity was tested on cultivars of P. grandiflorum and Nicotiana tabacum. For comparison cultures of the parental species and additional Phytophthora taxa also were examined.

  1. A walk through the different spectral states of low-mass X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiemstra, Beike

    2012-02-01

    Lage-massa röntgendubbelstersystemen zijn systemen waarin een compact object, een neutronenster of een zwart gat, materie accreteert van een gewone ster die slechts een massa heeft kleiner dan of vergelijkbaar met die van onze zon. De materie-overdracht vindt plaats via een zogeheten accretieschijf waarin het materiaal naar het compacte object spiraliseert, en soms tot slechts een paar kilometer het compacte object nadert. Door interne wrijving wordt de accretieschijf zo heet dat het voornamelijk röntgenstraling uitzendt. Rondom de accretieschijf en het compacte object bevindt zich een heet plasma, de zogenoemde corona, dat röntgen- en gammastraling uitzendt. De geometrie en oorsprong van de corona zijn niet volledig bekend, maar waarnemingen en theoriën bevestigen de aanwezigheid ervan. Gebruik makend van röntgensatellieten bestuderen we de straling afkomstig van deze accretieschijf en corona welk bijdraagt aan het onderzoek aan compacte objecten en hun nabije omgeving. In dit proefschrift bestudeer ik specifieke eigenschappen van de accretieprocessen in röntgendubbelstersystemen. Deze processen manifesteren zich op verschillende manieren en zijn veranderlijk met tijd, leidend tot de verschillende zogeheten spectrale fases. De geometrie en de temperatuur van de accretieschijf en corona zijn karakteristiek in elk van deze fases. Dit proefschrift loopt door de verschillende spectrale fases heen waarbij vanuit een observationeel standpunt verscheidene bijzonderheden van elk van deze fases worden uitgelicht. Dit levert een belangrijke bijdrage aan de algemene kennis op het gebied van accretieprocessen in lage-massa röntgendubbelstersystemen.

  2. Europea Symposium. Education for Older Adults: A Mirror to Society = Europes Symposium. Educatie en Ouderen: Een Spiegelbeeld voor de Samenleving (Berg en Dal, The Netherlands, November 14-16, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klercq, Jumbo, Ed.; Damen, Ulrich, Ed.

    The following papers and workshop presentations are included in these proceedings: "Grandparents and Grandchild" (Goezinne-Zijlmans, Hirsch); "Call for an Open Discussion among the Professional Educators" (Klercq); "Energetic But Marginal--Paradox and Promise" (ter Steege); "Integration of Older People within the System of Adult Education" (de…

  3. Energy efficient treatment of A-stage effluent: pilot-scale experiences with shortcut nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Seuntjens, D; Bundervoet, B L M; Mollen, H; De Mulder, C; Wypkema, E; Verliefde, A; Nopens, I; Colsen, J G M; Vlaeminck, S E

    2016-01-01

    Energy autarky of sewage treatment plants, while reaching chemical oxygen demand (COD) and N discharge limits, can be achieved by means of shortcut N-removal. This study presents the results of a shortcut N-removal pilot, located at the biological two-'stage (high/low rate) wastewater treatment plant of Breda, The Netherlands. The pilot treated real effluent of a high-rate activated sludge (COD/N = 3), fed in a continuous mode at realistic loading rates (90-100 g N/(m(3)·d)). The operational strategy, which included increased stress on the sludge settling velocity, showed development of a semi-granular sludge, with average particle size of 280 μm (ø(4,3)), resulting in increased suppression of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. The process was able to remove part of the nitrogen (51 ± 23%) over nitrite, with COD/N removal ratios of 3.2 ± 0.9. The latter are lower than the current operation of the full-scale B-stage in Breda (6.8-9.4), showing promising results for carbon-efficient N-removal, while producing a well settling sludge (SVI(30) < 100 mL/g). PMID:27148716

  4. Therapeutic Efficacy of Oral Enteral Nutrition in Pediatric Crohn's Disease: A Single Center Non-Comparative Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Young; Cho, Jin Min; Oh, Seak Hee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) therapy effectively induces clinical remission in Crohn's disease (CD). It remains unclear, however, whether partial enteral nutrition (PEN) can maintain remission. This study was performed to determine the abilities of oral EEN and oral PEN to induce and maintain clinical remission in pediatric patients with CD, respectively. Materials and Methods Pediatric patients with CD who received oral EEN at a single center in 2000–2014 were identified retrospectively. Remission rates of the EEN and PEN during the 2 years study period were determined. Risk factors for EEN and PEN failure were identified. Results Of the 66 patients who started EEN, 61 (92%) completed the course. Clinical remission was achieved in 88% (58/66) of the patients. All 58 patients with remission continued with PEN: 43 (74%) were treatment adherent. The cumulative remission rates at 1 and 2 years were 67% and 52%, respectively. Differing from EEN, limited therapeutic efficacy of PEN was shown in severe CD patients. Female gender associated significantly with non-adherence. Conclusion Oral EEN and PEN effectively induced and maintained remission in a pediatric population. Non-adherence was a limiting factor in the success of therapy. PMID:27401650

  5. EENdb: a database and knowledge base of ZFNs and TALENs for endonuclease engineering.

    PubMed

    Xiao, An; Wu, Yingdan; Yang, Zhipeng; Hu, Yingying; Wang, Weiye; Zhang, Yutian; Kong, Lei; Gao, Ge; Zhu, Zuoyan; Lin, Shuo; Zhang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    We report here the construction of engineered endonuclease database (EENdb) (http://eendb.zfgenetics.org/), a searchable database and knowledge base for customizable engineered endonucleases (EENs), including zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). EENs are artificial nucleases designed to target and cleave specific DNA sequences. EENs have been shown to be a very useful genetic tool for targeted genome modification and have shown great potentials in the applications in basic research, clinical therapies and agricultural utilities, and they are specifically essential for reverse genetics research in species where no other gene targeting techniques are available. EENdb contains over 700 records of all the reported ZFNs and TALENs and related information, such as their target sequences, the peptide components [zinc finger protein-/transcription activator-like effector (TALE)-binding domains, FokI variants and linker peptide/framework], the efficiency and specificity of their activities. The database also lists EEN engineering tools and resources as well as information about forms and types of EENs, EEN screening and construction methods, detection methods for targeting efficiency and many other utilities. The aim of EENdb is to represent a central hub for EEN information and an integrated solution for EEN engineering. These studies may help to extract in-depth properties and common rules regarding ZFN or TALEN efficiency through comparison of the known ZFNs or TALENs.

  6. Extensive Modulation of the Fecal Metagenome in Children With Crohn's Disease During Exclusive Enteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Quince, Christopher; Ijaz, Umer Zeeshan; Loman, Nick; Eren, A Murat; Saulnier, Delphine; Russell, Julie; Haig, Sarah J; Calus, Szymon T; Quick, Joshua; Barclay, Andrew; Bertz, Martin; Blaut, Michael; Hansen, Richard; McGrogan, Paraic; Russell, Richard K; Edwards, Christine A; Gerasimidis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Exploring associations between the gut microbiota and colonic inflammation and assessing sequential changes during exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) may offer clues into the microbial origins of Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: Fecal samples (n=117) were collected from 23 CD and 21 healthy children. From CD children fecal samples were collected before, during EEN, and when patients returned to their habitual diets. Microbiota composition and functional capacity were characterized using sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomics. RESULTS: Microbial diversity was lower in CD than controls before EEN (P=0.006); differences were observed in 36 genera, 141 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), and 44 oligotypes. During EEN, the microbial diversity of CD children further decreased, and the community structure became even more dissimilar than that of controls. Every 10 days on EEN, 0.6 genus diversity equivalents were lost; 34 genera decreased and one increased during EEN. Fecal calprotectin correlated with 35 OTUs, 14 of which accounted for 78% of its variation. OTUs that correlated positively or negatively with calprotectin decreased during EEN. The microbiota of CD patients had a broader functional capacity than healthy controls, but diversity decreased with EEN. Genes involved in membrane transport, sulfur reduction, and nutrient biosynthesis differed between patients and controls. The abundance of genes involved in biotin (P=0.005) and thiamine biosynthesis decreased (P=0.017), whereas those involved in spermidine/putrescine biosynthesis (P=0.031), or the shikimate pathway (P=0.058), increased during EEN. CONCLUSIONS: Disease improvement following treatment with EEN is associated with extensive modulation of the gut microbiome. PMID:26526081

  7. Infrared emission features: probing the interstellar PAH population and circumstellar environment of Herbig Ae/Be stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boersma, Christiaan

    2009-12-01

    AKs zijn alom vertegenwoordigd en bieden een uitstekend middel om de veelheid aan objecten verspreid over het heelal te bestuderen. Met name in gebieden waar zich sterren en planeten vormen, helpen ze bij het ontwarren van de grootschalige structuur. PAKs staat voor polycyclische aromatische koolwaterstoffen en ze vormen een familie van grote kippengaasvormige moleculen opgebouwd uit koolstof en waterstof. Op aarde worden ze onderander aangetroffen in de verbrandingsproducten van fossiele brandstoffen. PAKs vormen het overgangsgebied van stofdeeltjes ter grote van een micron naar moleculair "gas". PAKs zijn uniek op twee manieren. Allereerst, PAKs fluoresceren na de absorptie van een enkel ultraviolet foton, waardoor ze te zien zijn in zeer koude gebieden, ver weg van de aanstralende bron. In de tweede plaats, gegeven de complexiteit van deze moleculen, kunnen ze een belangrijke rol hebben gespeeld in het ontstaan van leven. Met behulp van topklasse ruimte- en grond gestationeerde observatoria, zoals bijvoorbeeld Spitzer en de 10-meter klasse telescopen in Chili, is de PAK-emissie afkomstig van middelzware, zich vormende, sterren onderzocht. Door gebruik van zowel beeldvorming als spectroscopie, zijn morfologische en evolutionaire aspecten van de PAK-emissie vastgesteld. De NASA Ames PAK IR Spectroscopische Database is een verzameling van meer dan 600 berekend en ongeveer 200 experimenteel bepaalde spectra. Deze unieke database gaat eind 2009 publiek. Gebruikmakend van deze database is een systematische zoektocht gedaan naar kandidaten die verantwoordelijk kunnen worden gehouden voor de emissie in twee, tot op heden, niet goed bestudeerde regio's van het PAKs-spectra.

  8. Postoperative Nutritional Effects of Early Enteral Feeding Compared with Total Parental Nutrition in Pancreaticoduodectomy Patients: A Prosepective, Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joon Seong; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Hwang, Ho Kyoung; Kim, Jae Keun

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of early enteral feeding (EEN) have been demonstrated in gastrointestinal surgery. But, the impact of EEN has not been elucidated yet. We assessed the postoperative nutritional status of patients who had undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) according to the postoperative nutritional method and compared the clinical outcomes of two methods. A prospective randomized trial was undertaken following PD. Patients were randomly divided into two groups; the EEN group received the postoperative enteral feed and the control group received the postoperative total parenteral nutrition (TPN) management. Thirty-eight patients were included in our analyses. The first day of bowel movement and time to take a normal soft diet was significantly shorter in EEN group than in TPN group. Prealbumin and transferrin were significantly reduced on post-operative day (POD) 7 and were slowly recovered until POD 90 in the TPN group than in the EEN group. EEN group rapidly recovered weight after POD 21 whereas it was gradually decreased in TPN group until POD 90. EEN after PD is associated with preservation of weight compared with TPN and impact on recovery of digestive function after PD. PMID:22379336

  9. Postoperative nutritional effects of early enteral feeding compared with total parental nutrition in pancreaticoduodectomy patients: a prosepective, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Park, Joon Seong; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Hwang, Ho Kyoung; Kim, Jae Keun; Yoon, Dong Sup

    2012-03-01

    The benefits of early enteral feeding (EEN) have been demonstrated in gastrointestinal surgery. But, the impact of EEN has not been elucidated yet. We assessed the postoperative nutritional status of patients who had undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) according to the postoperative nutritional method and compared the clinical outcomes of two methods. A prospective randomized trial was undertaken following PD. Patients were randomly divided into two groups; the EEN group received the postoperative enteral feed and the control group received the postoperative total parenteral nutrition (TPN) management. Thirty-eight patients were included in our analyses. The first day of bowel movement and time to take a normal soft diet was significantly shorter in EEN group than in TPN group. Prealbumin and transferrin were significantly reduced on post-operative day (POD) 7 and were slowly recovered until POD 90 in the TPN group than in the EEN group. EEN group rapidly recovered weight after POD 21 whereas it was gradually decreased in TPN group until POD 90. EEN after PD is associated with preservation of weight compared with TPN and impact on recovery of digestive function after PD.

  10. Fast-track surgery and exclusive enteral nutrition applied to a rat model of heterotopic intestinal transplantation

    PubMed Central

    XU, XINGWEI; FENG, TAO; GAO, XIN; ZHAO, XIN; LIAO, YANNIAN; JI, WU

    2016-01-01

    The present study applied fast-track surgery (FTS) concepts and exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) to a rat model of heterotopic intestinal transplantation (HIT). A total of 96 pairs of Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into three groups, as follows: i) The conventional group (group 1); ii) the FTS group (group 2); and iii) the FTS with EEN group (EEN group). FTS alterations to the HIT protocol were as follows: i) The use of sevoflurane as an anesthetic; ii) alterations to the order of the procedure and iii) a modified suturing technique. In addition, the EEN group rats underwent an early EEN gavage. The operation time, success rate, recovery state and morphological characteristics of the grafts were compared among the groups. The average operative time was significantly decreased in the group 2 and EEN group rats (137.44±16.03 and 139.67±15.25 min, respectively), as compared with the group 1 rats (169.36±13.72 min; P<0.05). In addition, the percentage of rats surviving >14 days was significantly increased in the group 2 (87.5%) and EEN group (90.6%) rats, as compared with the group 1 rats (68.7%; P<0.05). Furthermore, the villi of graft in EEN group appeared longer, and exhibited narrower interspaces. The ischemia-reperfusion injury and mononuclear cell infiltration were attenuated at postoperative day 7. The results of the present study suggested that the application of FTS concepts and EEN gavage to HIT may accelerate recovery and ameliorate graft damage following surgery. PMID:26998015

  11. Types of Eczema (Dermatitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... DE. Pramoxine (pra mox’ een): A cream or lotion containing this can relieve itch and pain. Moisturizer ... that is thin and runny as are many lotions. Lotions contain a lot of water, which can ...

  12. Identification of the slow wave of bowel myoelectrical surface recording by empirical mode decomposition.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yiyao; Garcia-Casado, J; Martinez-de-Juan, J L; Guardiola, J L; Ponce, J L

    2006-01-01

    Surface electroenterogram (EEnG) is a non-invasive method to study bowel myoelectrical activity. Nevertheless, surface recorded EEnG is contaminated by respiratory, motion artifacts, and other interferences. The goal of this paper is to remove the respiration artifact and ultra-low frequency components from surface EEnG by means of empirical mode decomposition (EMD). Seven recording sessions on abdominal surface of three Beagle dogs were conducted. Power percentages of interferences and of fundamental slow wave were calculated before and after the application of the method. The results show that the interference power is significantly reduced (23 +/- 16% vs. 5 +/- 4%), and fundamental slow wave power is significantly increased (59 +/- 17% vs. 76 +/- 13%). Therefore, the EMD method can be helpful to remove respiration and ultra-low frequency components from the external EEnG recordings.

  13. Quantification of combined method for interferences reduction in multichannel surface electroenterogram.

    PubMed

    Ye, Y; Garcia-Casado, J; Martinez-de-Juan, J L; Alvarez, D; Prats-Boluda, G

    2008-01-01

    Surface electroenterogram (EEnG) is a non-invasive method for monitoring the intestinal motility. However, surface EEnG signals are contaminated by strong physiological interferences. The main interferences which affect high-frequency components of surface EEnG are cardiac activity and movement artifacts. The aim of this work is to quantify the effectiveness of a combined method based on empirical mode decomposition and independent component analysis to remove these interferences from multichannel surface EEnG. In order to do so, several parameters were calculated from five recording sessions: Signal-to-ECG interference ratio (S/I) and variation of energy over 2 Hz (EF2). The results show that the S/I of processed signals was significantly higher than that of original signals, moreover the improvement of the S/I ratio is due to the attenuation of energy associated to interference. The proposed method also allows cancelling movement artifacts from surface EEnG, reducing considerably the non-physiological variation of EF2. Furthermore after the application of the combined method, correlation coefficient between EF2 of internal recording with EF2 of surface recording is greatly higher. Therefore, the proposed method could be helpful to reduce high-frequency interferences in EEnG recording and to provide more robust non-invasive intestinal motility indicators.

  14. Carbonate microfacies analysis of penecontemporaneous dolomites of the Carnian Travenanzes Formation (Southern Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niebergall, Simon Michael; Breda, Anna; Preto, Nereo; Habler, Gerlinde; Peckmann, Jörn; Meister, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Abundant dolomite (MgCa(CO3)2) occurs in the Middle and Late Triassic carbonate record of the Tethys realm. Whereas dolomite formation is largely related to late diagenesis and/or hydrothermal activity, Preto et al. (2015) suggested a primary origin of dolomite beds and nodules intercalated in clay rich deposits of the Carnian Travenanzes Formation (Fm.; Dolomites, Venetian Alps) based on a transmission electron microscopy study. Thus, dolomites of the Travenanzes Fm. are supposed to have formed during or soon after deposition and its petrographic features may still be indicative of the geochemical conditions prevalent in the depositional setting. The Travenanzes Fm. records both carbonate and siliciclastic input, reflecting a transitional continental to shallow marine environment (Breda and Preto, 2011) with alternations of alluvial plains, sabkhas and/or ephemeral lakes. The goal of this study is to determine the microfacies of the dolomites of the Travenanzes Fm. and to discuss possible depositional environments and scenarios of penecontemporaneous dolomite formation. The samples were taken from the Dibona section described by Breda and Preto (2011). Optical microscopy documented three different types of dolomite: (1) Microcrystalline nodular dolomite shows abundant clay interlayers and fenestral pores filled with coelestine and barite. The homogenous microcrystalline dolomite was further investigated by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) mapping, revealing an anhedral to subhedral microstructure of grains ranging from 2 to 10 micrometers in diameter. Some dolomite grew as spherules within the clay matrix. (2) Dolomite pebbles show semi-rounded edges in a dolosparitic matrix. (3) Dolomite with mm- to cm-scale lamination shows regularly spaced undulation with the cuspate side directed upwards. The laminae are also commonly affected by brittle or plastic deformation. Based on the petrographic observations, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) While the

  15. Tomography of Galaxy Clusters through Low-frequency Radio Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzo, Roberto Francesco

    2010-02-01

    De mens heeft altijd willen weten wat zijn oorsprong is en hoe deze is gerelateerd aan het heelal. Hij heeft dit op verschillende manieren geprobeerd: is er een religieuze achtergrond of een wetenschappelijke? Vaak heeft de mens zijn vragen en antwoorden in de literatuur en beeldende kunst uitgedrukt door middel van gedichten en verhalen, het maken van tekeningen, schilderijen en sculpturen van geweldige omvang en schoonheid. De wetenschappelijke aanpak is natuurlijk een van de beste benaderingen om goede en directe antwoorden te vinden. Dit is de reden waarom ik ongeveer negen jaar geleden de wetenschap ben gaan bestuderen met als resultaat de onderwerpen die in dit proefschrift beschreven zijn. Deze samenvatting heeft als doel in het kort de resultaten weer te geven van mijn werk van de afgelopen vier jaar, waarbij ik de onderwerpen van dit proefschrift in een voor iedereen begrijpelijk en makkelijk leesbaar geheel probeer samen te vatten. Om de details van mijn werk te begrijpen, is het zeer nuttig eerst een globaal idee te geven van hoe het universum waarin we leven is georganiseerd. ... Zie: Samenvatting

  16. Toward enteral nutrition for the treatment of pediatric Crohn disease in Canada: a workshop to identify barriers and enablers.

    PubMed

    Van Limbergen, Johan; Haskett, Jennifer; Griffiths, Anne M; Critch, Jeff; Huynh, Hien; Ahmed, Najma; deBruyn, Jennifer C; Issenman, Robert; El-Matary, Wael; Walters, Thomas D; Kluthe, Cheryl; Roy, Marie-Eve; Sheppard, Elizabeth; Crandall, Wallace V; Cohen, Stan; Ruemmele, Frank M; Levine, Arie; Otley, Anthony R

    2015-10-01

    The treatment armamentarium in pediatric Crohn disease (CD) is very similar to adult-onset CD with the notable exception of the use of exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN [the administration of a liquid formula diet while excluding normal diet]), which is used more frequently by pediatric gastroenterologists to induce remission. In pediatric CD, EEN is now recommended by the pediatric committee of the European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation and the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition as a first-choice agent to induce remission, with remission rates in pediatric studies consistently >75%. To chart and address enablers and barriers of use of EEN in Canada, a workshop was held in September 2014 in Toronto (Ontario), inviting pediatric gastroenterologists, nurses and dietitians from most Canadian pediatric IBD centres as well as international faculty from the United States and Europe with particular research and clinical expertise in the dietary management of pediatric CD. Workshop participants ranked the exclusivity of enteral nutrition; the health care resources; and cost implications as the top three barriers to its use. Conversely, key enablers mentioned included: standardization and sharing of protocols for use of enteral nutrition; ensuring sufficient dietetic resources; and reducing the cost of EEN to the family (including advocacy for reimbursement by provincial ministries of health and private insurance companies). Herein, the authors report on the discussions during this workshop and list strategies to enhance the use of EEN as a treatment option in the treatment of pediatric CD in Canada. PMID:26076398

  17. Active concentric ring electrode for non-invasive detection of intestinal myoelectric signals.

    PubMed

    Prats-Boluda, Gema; Garcia-Casado, Javier; Martinez-de-Juan, Jose L; Ye-Lin, Yiyao

    2011-05-01

    Although the surface electroenterogram (EEnG) is a weak signal contaminated by strong physiological interference, such as ECG and respiration, abdominal surface recordings of the EEnG could provide a non-invasive method of studying intestinal activity. The goal of this work was to develop a modular, active, low-cost and easy-to-use sensor to obtain a direct estimation of the Laplacian of the EEnG on the abdominal surface in order to enhance the quality of bipolar surface monitoring of intestinal activity. The sensor is made up of a set of 3 concentric dry Ag/AgCl ring electrodes and a battery-powered signal-conditioning circuit. Each section is etched on a different printed circuit board (PCB) and the sections are joined to each other by surface mount technology connectors. This means the sensing electrodes can be treated independently for purposes of maintenance and replacement and the signal conditioning circuit can be re-used. A total of ten recording sessions were carried out on humans. The results show that the surface recordings of the EEnG obtained by the active sensor present significantly less ECG and respiration interference than those obtained by bipolar recordings. In addition, bioelectrical sources whose frequency fitted with the slow wave component of the EEnG (SW) were identified by parametric spectral analysis in the surface signals picked up by the active sensors.

  18. Toward enteral nutrition for the treatment of pediatric Crohn disease in Canada: a workshop to identify barriers and enablers.

    PubMed

    Van Limbergen, Johan; Haskett, Jennifer; Griffiths, Anne M; Critch, Jeff; Huynh, Hien; Ahmed, Najma; deBruyn, Jennifer C; Issenman, Robert; El-Matary, Wael; Walters, Thomas D; Kluthe, Cheryl; Roy, Marie-Eve; Sheppard, Elizabeth; Crandall, Wallace V; Cohen, Stan; Ruemmele, Frank M; Levine, Arie; Otley, Anthony R

    2015-10-01

    The treatment armamentarium in pediatric Crohn disease (CD) is very similar to adult-onset CD with the notable exception of the use of exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN [the administration of a liquid formula diet while excluding normal diet]), which is used more frequently by pediatric gastroenterologists to induce remission. In pediatric CD, EEN is now recommended by the pediatric committee of the European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation and the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition as a first-choice agent to induce remission, with remission rates in pediatric studies consistently >75%. To chart and address enablers and barriers of use of EEN in Canada, a workshop was held in September 2014 in Toronto (Ontario), inviting pediatric gastroenterologists, nurses and dietitians from most Canadian pediatric IBD centres as well as international faculty from the United States and Europe with particular research and clinical expertise in the dietary management of pediatric CD. Workshop participants ranked the exclusivity of enteral nutrition; the health care resources; and cost implications as the top three barriers to its use. Conversely, key enablers mentioned included: standardization and sharing of protocols for use of enteral nutrition; ensuring sufficient dietetic resources; and reducing the cost of EEN to the family (including advocacy for reimbursement by provincial ministries of health and private insurance companies). Herein, the authors report on the discussions during this workshop and list strategies to enhance the use of EEN as a treatment option in the treatment of pediatric CD in Canada.

  19. Effects of lacidipine on peak oxygen consumption, neurohormones and invasive haemodynamics in patients with mild to moderate chronic heart failure.

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, R. J.; Dunselman, P. H.; Chin Kon Sung, U. G.; van Veldhuisen, D. J.; Corbeij, H. M.; van Gilst, W. H.; Lie, K. I.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the second generation dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker lacidipine in patients with heart failure. DESIGN: Placebo controlled, parallel group, double blind study over 8 weeks. SETTING: General community hospital in Breda, The Netherlands. PATIENTS: A random sample was studied of 25 outpatients with symptoms of mild to moderate heart failure, despite treatment with diuretics, digoxin, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Their mean age was 65 years, with mean left ventricular ejection fraction of 0.24 and a peak oxygen consumption of 14.4 ml/min/kg. Two patients dropped out on lacidipine, one patient on placebo. INTERVENTION: Treatment with lacidipine 4 mg once daily or placebo for eight weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing, invasive haemodynamics, and plasma neurohormones. RESULTS: Treatment with lacidipine 4 mg once daily, as compared to placebo treatment, significantly improved peak oxygen consumption (P < 0.02), cardiac index (P < 0.01), and stroke volume (P < 0.03) paralleled by a decrease in systemic vascular resistance (P < 0.03) and arteriovenous oxygen content difference (P < 0.01). Plasma noradrenaline, plasma renin activity, and aldosterone values did not differ between lacidipine and placebo. CONCLUSIONS: This second generation dihydropyridine may be of value as an adjunct to standard treatment in congestive heart failure patients. PMID:8673754

  20. sup 13 NMR spectroscopy of. alpha. ,. omega. -diphenylpolyenyl anions. Confirmation of charge localization in soliton model compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, L.M.; Ogle, M.E. )

    1989-07-19

    The notion that delocalization in ostensibly infinite polyacetylene chains treated with {pi}-donors or acceptors only extends over a limited domain has been one of the more controversial aspects of the soliton theory. According to this theory, electrical conductivity in such systems is due to the presence of mobile charged defects (solitons) which are described in terms appropriate for a resonance-delocalized carbanion with a conjugation length of approximately 31 CH units or, more precisely, a full width at half height of 15 CH units. Phenyl-terminated anions were chosen for their stability and ease of preparation as well as for their utility for estimating delocalization; that is, at what point does negative charge cease to delocalize into the aromatic rings The Dewar nonbonded molecular orbital (NBMO) formalism predicts, at the Hueckel level, even distribution of negative charge at the odd-numbered carbon atoms and zero charge (nodes) at the even carbons. In contrast, the SSH theory, a modified Hueckel treatment reminiscent of the {omega} bond-order approach, predicts accumulation of charge at the central carbon atoms, again with nodes at even carbons. Less intuitively, the Boudreaux, Chance, Bredas, Silbey (BCBS) modification of the soliton theory, based upon an MNDO method, predicts charge alteration, with even atoms possessing positive charge as a result of charge polarization by the negatively charged odd centers. They have been able to resolve this issue by an appeal to the Spiesecke-Schneider correlation of charge density with {sup 13}C chemical shift.

  1. The new Andean jumping spider genus Urupuyu and its placement within a revised classification of the Amycoida (Araneae: Salticidae).

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Gustavo R S; Maddison, Wayne P

    2015-01-01

    Urupuyu gen. nov. is described for three new species of small black jumping spiders from the cloud forests of Ecuador: Urupuyu antisana sp. nov. (type species), U. edwardsi sp. nov., and U. occidentale sp. nov. Phylogenetic analyses with DNA sequences (28S, actin 5C, wingless, 16SND1 and CO1) indicate Urupuyu is closely related to the huriine amycoids Hurius and Scoturius, a placement also supported by morphological traits. Our phylogenetic analysis serves to clarify the relationships within the Amycoida in general, leading to our proposing a revised classification for the group, with subfamilies Gophoinae, Sitticinae, Bredinae subfam. nov., Scopocirinae, Thiodininae, Sarindinae, Huriinae, Simonellinae, and Amycinae. We confirm the marpissine-like Breda belongs within the Amycoida. The phylogeny implies that ant mimicry has evolved at least twice (simonellines and sarindines) and probably a third time (Atomosphyrus in the thiodinines) within the Amycoida. The following new synonymies are proposed for suprageneric names: Hyetusseae Simon, 1903 and Arachnomureae Mello-Leitão, 1917 = Thiodininae Simon, 1901; Zunigeae Simon, 1901 = Sarindinae Simon, 1901; Synemosynae Banks, 1892 = Simonellinae Peckham, Peckham & Wheeler, 1888; Magoninae Petrunkevitch, 1928 = Amycinae F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1900. PMID:26624665

  2. The new Andean jumping spider genus Urupuyu and its placement within a revised classification of the Amycoida (Araneae: Salticidae).

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Gustavo R S; Maddison, Wayne P

    2015-11-11

    Urupuyu gen. nov. is described for three new species of small black jumping spiders from the cloud forests of Ecuador: Urupuyu antisana sp. nov. (type species), U. edwardsi sp. nov., and U. occidentale sp. nov. Phylogenetic analyses with DNA sequences (28S, actin 5C, wingless, 16SND1 and CO1) indicate Urupuyu is closely related to the huriine amycoids Hurius and Scoturius, a placement also supported by morphological traits. Our phylogenetic analysis serves to clarify the relationships within the Amycoida in general, leading to our proposing a revised classification for the group, with subfamilies Gophoinae, Sitticinae, Bredinae subfam. nov., Scopocirinae, Thiodininae, Sarindinae, Huriinae, Simonellinae, and Amycinae. We confirm the marpissine-like Breda belongs within the Amycoida. The phylogeny implies that ant mimicry has evolved at least twice (simonellines and sarindines) and probably a third time (Atomosphyrus in the thiodinines) within the Amycoida. The following new synonymies are proposed for suprageneric names: Hyetusseae Simon, 1903 and Arachnomureae Mello-Leitão, 1917 = Thiodininae Simon, 1901; Zunigeae Simon, 1901 = Sarindinae Simon, 1901; Synemosynae Banks, 1892 = Simonellinae Peckham, Peckham & Wheeler, 1888; Magoninae Petrunkevitch, 1928 = Amycinae F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1900.

  3. Comparative pathology of infection by novel diarrhoea viruses.

    PubMed

    Hall, G A

    1987-01-01

    Examination of diarrhoeic faeces in the electron microscope often reveals viruses that are presumed to be enteropathogenic. Lesions caused by novel rotaviruses were similar to those of group A rotaviruses, but enterocyte syncytia were seen which are probably pathognomonic for novel rotaviruses. In adenovirus infection in piglets, mature enterocytes were infected and destroyed; intranuclear inclusion bodies were seen in infected enterocytes. Calici-like viruses infected mature enterocytes in calves and the lesions were similar to those described in humans infected with calici-like viruses; in both host species it was impossible to demonstrate virus particles in enterocytes examined in the electron microscope. The Breda virus infected villi and crypts in the lower small intestine and the surface and crypts in the large intestine; it was the only enteropathogenic virus to show this distribution of infection and lesions. Astrovirus infection in lambs was comparable to a mild rotavirus infection, but in calves the epithelium of the dome villi of Peyer's patches was infected. Parvovirus in cats and dogs infected and destroyed small intestinal crypt cells, causing dilated crypts and stunted villi; intranuclear inclusion bodies were prominent. PMID:3036441

  4. Early enteral nutrition vs parenteral nutrition following pancreaticoduodenectomy: Experience from a single center

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jian-Wen; Liu, Chang; Du, Zhao-Qing; Liu, Xue-Min; Lv, Yi; Zhang, Xu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze and compare postoperative morbidity between patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and early enteral nutrition supplemented with parenteral nutrition (EEN + PN). METHODS: Three hundred and forty patients receiving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) from 2009 to 2013 at our center were enrolled retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups depending on postoperative nutrition support scheme: an EEN + PN group (n = 87) and a TPN group (n = 253). Demographic characteristics, comorbidities, preoperative biochemical parameters, pathological diagnosis, intraoperative information, and postoperative complications of the two groups were analyzed. RESULTS: The two groups did not differ in demographic characteristics, preoperative comorbidities, preoperative biochemical parameters or pathological findings (P > 0.05 for all). However, patients with EEN + PN following PD had a higher incidence of delayed gastric emptying (16.1% vs 6.7%, P = 0.016), pulmonary infection (10.3% vs 3.6%, P = 0.024), and probably intraperitoneal infection (18.4% vs 10.3%, P = 0.059), which might account for their longer nasogastric tube retention time (9 d vs 5 d, P = 0.006), postoperative hospital stay (25 d vs 20 d, P = 0.055) and higher hospitalization expenses (USD10397 vs USD8663.9, P = 0.008), compared to those with TPN. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that TPN might be safe and sufficient for patient recovery after PD. Postoperative EEN should only be performed scrupulously and selectively. PMID:27076767

  5. Electronic Engineering Notebook: A software environment for research execution, documentation and dissemination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moerder, Dan

    1994-01-01

    The electronic engineering notebook (EEN) consists of a free form research notebook, implemented in a commercial package for distributed hypermedia, which includes utilities for graphics capture, formatting and display of LaTex constructs, and interfaces to the host operating system. The latter capability consists of an information computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tool and a means to associate executable scripts with source objects. The EEN runs on Sun and HP workstations. The EEN, in day-to-day use can be used in much the same manner as the sort of research notes most researchers keep during development of projects. Graphics can be pasted in, equations can be entered via LaTex, etc. In addition, the fact that the EEN is hypermedia permits easy management of 'context', e.g., derivations and data can contain easily formed links to other supporting derivations and data. The CASE tool also permits development and maintenance of source code directly in the notebook, with access to its derivations and data.

  6. Speaking Rate from Proximal and Distal Contexts Is Used during Word Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinisch, Eva; Jesse, Alexandra; McQueen, James M.

    2011-01-01

    A series of eye-tracking and categorization experiments investigated the use of speaking-rate information in the segmentation of Dutch ambiguous-word sequences. Juncture phonemes with ambiguous durations (e.g., [s] in "eens (s)peer," "once (s)pear," [t] in "nooit (t)rap," "never staircase/quick") were perceived as longer and hence more often as…

  7. Stationarity study of the myoelectrical signal recorded from small bowel.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Casado, J; Martinez-de-Juan, J L; Meseguer, M; Ponce, J L

    2004-01-01

    Electroenterogram (EEnG) is the myoelectrical signal recorded from small intestine. Due to the relationship between mechanical activity and myoelectrical activity of the intestinal smooth muscle, EEnG could be a solution for quantifying intestinal motility. Motility indexes are traditionally calculated from 1-minute window analysis. However, no prior works have analyzed whether signal properties remain constant or not within this time interval. The aim of present paper is to study time evolution of changes in EEnG spectrum in order to determine if traditional analysis and window length is satisfactory from the signal dynamics point of view. Mechanical and electrical activities are recorded simultaneously in bowel rings (at duodenum, angle of Treitz and jejunum) of three Beagle dogs. Thirteen recording sessions were carried out. A stationary index (SI) based on statistical analysis of time evolution of spectral parameters is defined and calculated over EEnG recording sessions. Results show that myoelectrical signal from bowel muscle is stationary during quiescence periods and maximum contractions periods. However, during irregular contractile activity (i.e. transitions from no-activity to maximum activity, or in fed state) electroenterogram is a non-stationary signal if 1-minute length is chosen for its analysis. Therefore, traditional intestinal motility indexes must be redefined using non-stationary techniques.

  8. Empirical mode decomposition: a method to reduce low frequency interferences from surface electroenterogram.

    PubMed

    Ye, Y; Garcia-Casado, J; Martinez-de-Juan, J L; Ponce, J L

    2007-06-01

    The surface electroenterogram (EEnG) is a non-invasive method of studying myoelectrical bowel activity. However, surface EEnG recordings are contaminated by cardiac activity, respiratory and motion artifacts, and other sources of interference. The aim of this work is to remove the respiration artifact and the very low frequency components from surface EEnG by means of empirical mode decomposition (EMD). Eleven recording sessions were carried out on canine model. Several parameters were calculated before and after the application of the method: signal-to-interference ratio (S/I ratio) and the attenuation level of the signal and of interference. The results show that the S/I ratio was significantly higher after the application of the method (3.68+/-5.54 dB vs. 10.45+/-3.65 dB), the attenuation level of signal and of interference is -0.49+/-0.80 dB versus -7.26+/-5.42 dB, respectively. Therefore, EMD could be a useful aid in identifying the intestinal slow wave and in removing interferences from EEnG recordings.

  9. Combined method for artifact reduction in surface electroenterogram.

    PubMed

    Ye, Y; Garcia-Casado, J; Martinez-de-Juan, J L; Alvarez, D; Prats-Boluda, G; Ponce, J L

    2007-01-01

    Surface electroenterogram (EEnG) is a non-invasive method for monitoring the intestinal motility. However, surface EEnG recordings are contaminated by movement artifact, cardiac activity, respiratory artifact and other interferences. The aim of this work is to remove movement artifacts by means of a combined method of empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and independent component analysis (ICA). Four recording sessions were conducted on canine model. Surface signals from 4 different channels are decomposed using EMD. Resulting intrinsic mode functions are the inputs of ICA analysis which permits to separate and identify the activities of different origin. Signal components associated to movement artifacts are removed and the original signals are reconstructed by means of an inverse procedure. The results show that the proposed method allows extracting and cancelling movement artifacts from surface EEnG, avoiding the presence of irregular peaks in external intestinal motility indexes. Therefore, the proposed method could be useful to reduce artifacts in EEnG recording and to provide more robust non-invasive intestinal motility indicators.

  10. Signal noise ratio of small intestine myoelectrical signal recorded from external surface.

    PubMed

    Martinez-de-Juan, Jose L; Garcia-Casado, Javier; Ye, Yiyao; Guardiola, Jose L; Ponce, Jose L

    2006-01-01

    Electroenterogram (EEnG), which is the myoelectrical activity of the small bowel, can be non-invasively recorded from abdominal external surface. However, this bioelectrical signal is weak and noisy compared to internal recording from bowel serous layers, because of bioelectric transmission through abdominal layers. Furthermore, it is contaminated with several interferences from other biological activities as cardiac muscle (ECG), skeletal muscles (EMG), or respiration movements. The goal of present work is to study abdominal recording of EEnG and its signal-to-noise ratio by means of the coherence estimation technique. External and internal recordings were obtained simultaneously in 12 sessions, which went on more than two hours in six beagle dogs. Coherence function, based on periodograms, is estimated in periods of 15 minutes. Thus, SNR is calculated from coherence estimation for each recording session. Results show that SNR reaches a maximum value of 8.8 dB for 0.31 Hz, which corresponds to fundamental frequency of the EEnG slow wave. However, SNR is weak at frequencies upper 2 Hz, which corresponds to rapid action potentials (spike bursts) of the EEnG. In conclusion, slow wave can be clearly identified in abdominal recording; however spike bursts are contaminated by noise, attenuation and biological interferences.

  11. The Koshak section: Evidence for element fractionation and an oxidation event at the K/T boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazarov, M. A.; Badjukov, D. D.; Barsukova, L. D.; Kolesov, G. M.; Naidin, D. P.

    1993-01-01

    The Koshak site is a new K/T section located about 125 km EEN of the Fort Shevchenko city, Mangyshlak, Kazakhstan. In this paper, we report results of geochemical and mineralogical studies of this section which indicate a deep element fractionation and an oxidation event at the K/T boundary.

  12. Accretion flow properties in low-mass X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    Accretieschijf dubbelstersystemen onderzocht In zijn proefschrift onderzoekt Andrea Sanna de eigenschappen van de accretiestroom in lage-massa röntgendubbelstersystemen (LMXBs, low-mass X-ray binaries). Dat zijn systemen waarin een neutronenster of een stellair zwart gat zich via een zogenoemde accretieschijf voedt met materie afkomstig van een lage massa begeleidende ster. Röntgendubbelstersystemen vormen een uniek laboratorium voor onderzoek van de fysica in een sterk zwaartekrachtsveld en in zeer dichte materie; extreme condities die niet na te bootsen zijn op de Aarde. Effecten rond deze compacte objecten, die voorspeld worden in de algemene relativiteitstheorie, zijn vele ordes van grootte sterker dan die waarin de algemene relativiteitstheorie succesvol is getest (het zwakke veld domein). De precieze aard en de collectieve eigenschappen van de elementaire deeltjes waaruit de neutronenster is opgebouwd, zijn nog steeds niet goed genoeg begrepen om de toestandsvergelijkingen (die de toestand van de materie in de neutronenster beschrijven) te voorspellen. Door de baanbeweging rond een neutronenster te onderzoeken, kunnen zowel de massa als de straal van het object bepaald worden. Dat kan weer gebruikt worden om de toestandsvergelijking en vervolgens de fundamentele eigenschappen van het materiaal in de neutronenster vast te stellen. Om röntgendubbelstersystemen te begrijpen, bestudeerde Sanna fotonen die worden uitgezonden door deze systemen. Hij richt zich op röntgenemissie die zijn oorsprong vindt in de nabije omgeving van het compacte object. ‘Momenteel zijn we nog niet in staat om via directe beeldvormende technieken de LMXBs ruimtelijk op te lossen in het röntgengebied,’ zegt hij. ‘Daarom zijn spectrale- en tijdsanalyses van röntgenfotonen de voornaamste methodes die gebruikt worden om de spectrale evolutie van de röntgenbron te begrijpen en om de intrinsieke parameters van het compacte object te onthullen. In dit proefschrift richt ik me in

  13. Epigenetic dysregulation of leukaemic HOX code in MLL-rearranged leukaemia mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ng, Ray Kit; Kong, Cheuk Ting; So, Chi Chiu; Lui, Wing Chi; Chan, Yuen Fan; Leung, Ka Chun; So, Kam Chung; Tsang, Ho Man; Chan, Li Chong; Sham, Mai Har

    2014-01-01

    HOX genes are frequently dysregulated in human leukaemia with the gene rearrangement between mixed lineage leukaemia (MLL) and partner genes. The resultant MLL fusion proteins are known to mediate leukaemia through disruption of the normal epigenetic regulation at the target gene loci. To elucidate the pathogenic role of MLL fusion proteins in HOX dysregulation in leukaemia, we generated a novel haematopoietic lineage-specific Mll-Een knock-in mouse model using a Cre-mediated inversion strategy. The Mll(Een) (/+) invertor mice developed acute myeloid leukaemia, with organomegaly of the spleen, liver and mesenteric lymph nodes caused by infiltration of blast cells. Using Mll-Een-expressing leukaemic cell lines derived from bone marrow of Mll(Een) (/+) mutant mice, we showed that induction of Hox genes in leukaemic cells was associated with hypomethylated promoter regions and an aberrant active chromatin state at the Hox loci. Knock-down of Prmt1 was insufficient to reverse the active chromatin status and the hypomethylated Hox loci, suggesting that Prmt1-mediated histone arginine methylation was only partially involved in the maintenance of Hox expression in leukaemic cells. Furthermore, in vivo analysis of bone marrow cells of Mll(Een) (/+) mice revealed a Hox expression profile similar to that of wild-type haematopoietic stem cells. The leukaemic Hox profile was highly correlated with aberrant hypomethylation of Hox promoters in the mutant mice, which highlights the importance of DNA methylation in leukaemogenic mechanisms induced by MLL fusion proteins. Our results point to the involvement of dynamic epigenetic regulations in the maintenance of the stem cell-like HOX code that initiates leukaemic stem cells in MLL-rearranged leukaemia. This provides insights for the development of alternative strategies for leukaemia treatment.

  14. Effect of early enteral nutrition on patients with digestive tract surgery: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Xiao-Liang; Kang, Kai; Gu, Li-Juan; Zhang, Yong-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative early enteral nutrition (EEN) is useful for the effective recovery of patients that have undergone surgery. However, the feasibility and efficacy of EEN in patients with digestive tract surgery remain inconclusive. In the present meta-analysis, the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and VIP databases were searched to identify controlled trials of patients with and without EEN following digestive tract surgery between October, 1966 and December, 2014. Methodological quality assessment was carried out for each of the included studies. For estimation of the analysis indexes, relative risk (RR) was used as the effect size of the the categorical variable, while the weighted mean difference (MD) was used as the effect size of the continuous variable. The meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.2 software. Eleven randomized controlled trials involving 1,095 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The results revealed that, EEN in patients with digestive tract surgery was more effective in decreasing the incidence of infectious [RR=0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38, 0.67; P<0.01] and non-infectious complications (RR=0.72, 95% CI: 0.43, 1.22; P<0.05) and shortening the length of first bowel action (MD=−4.10, 95% CI: −5.38, −2.82; P<0.05). It also had a significant influence on increasing the serum albumin (MD=2.87, 95% CI: 1.03, 4.71; P<0.05) and serum prealbumin (MD=0.04, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.05; P<0.05) levels. In conclusion, the results of the study have shown that EEN in patients with digestive tract surgery improved the nutritional status, reduced the risk of postoperative complications, shortened the length of hospital stay and promoted the functional recovery of the digestive system. PMID:27698702

  15. Mucosal MicroRNAs Expression Profiles before and after Exclusive Enteral Nutrition Therapy in Adult Patients with Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhen; Gong, Jianfeng; Li, Yi; Gu, Lili; Cao, Lei; Wang, Zhiming; Zhu, Weiming; Li, Jieshou

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be important for the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is an effective therapy for inducing remission in CD. We aimed to investigate the alteration of miRNAs expression profile in the terminal ileal mucosa of CD patients before and after EEN. Twenty-five patients and ten healthy individuals were included. MiRNAs expression profile was firstly assessed using microarray technology and then validation was performed by qRT-PCR. The correlations between miRNAs and CD activity index (CDAI) score and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level were also evaluated. Microarray analysis showed that mucosal miRNAs expression profile after EEN therapy was significantly changed compared with inflamed mucosa before treatment, and was most similar to the healthy one among all CD groups. Altered expressions of hsa-miR-192-5p, hsa-miR-423-3p, hsa-miR-99a-5p, hsa-miR-124-3p, hsa-miR-301a-5p, hsa-miR-495-5p, and hsa-let-7b-5p were confirmed by qRT-PCR. hsa-let-7b-5p was significantly correlated with serum CRP levels before and after EEN treatment (r = -0.518, p = 0.008, and r = -0.569, p = 0.003). Our study showed EEN induction therapy was associated with a trend for normalizing of the mucosal miRNAs expression profile, and expression of mucosal hsa-let-7b-5p was correlated with serum CRP level in patients with CD. PMID:27556489

  16. Effect of early enteral nutrition on patients with digestive tract surgery: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Xiao-Liang; Kang, Kai; Gu, Li-Juan; Zhang, Yong-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative early enteral nutrition (EEN) is useful for the effective recovery of patients that have undergone surgery. However, the feasibility and efficacy of EEN in patients with digestive tract surgery remain inconclusive. In the present meta-analysis, the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and VIP databases were searched to identify controlled trials of patients with and without EEN following digestive tract surgery between October, 1966 and December, 2014. Methodological quality assessment was carried out for each of the included studies. For estimation of the analysis indexes, relative risk (RR) was used as the effect size of the the categorical variable, while the weighted mean difference (MD) was used as the effect size of the continuous variable. The meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.2 software. Eleven randomized controlled trials involving 1,095 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The results revealed that, EEN in patients with digestive tract surgery was more effective in decreasing the incidence of infectious [RR=0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38, 0.67; P<0.01] and non-infectious complications (RR=0.72, 95% CI: 0.43, 1.22; P<0.05) and shortening the length of first bowel action (MD=−4.10, 95% CI: −5.38, −2.82; P<0.05). It also had a significant influence on increasing the serum albumin (MD=2.87, 95% CI: 1.03, 4.71; P<0.05) and serum prealbumin (MD=0.04, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.05; P<0.05) levels. In conclusion, the results of the study have shown that EEN in patients with digestive tract surgery improved the nutritional status, reduced the risk of postoperative complications, shortened the length of hospital stay and promoted the functional recovery of the digestive system.

  17. Mucosal MicroRNAs Expression Profiles before and after Exclusive Enteral Nutrition Therapy in Adult Patients with Crohn’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhen; Gong, Jianfeng; Li, Yi; Gu, Lili; Cao, Lei; Wang, Zhiming; Zhu, Weiming; Li, Jieshou

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be important for the pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease (CD). Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is an effective therapy for inducing remission in CD. We aimed to investigate the alteration of miRNAs expression profile in the terminal ileal mucosa of CD patients before and after EEN. Twenty-five patients and ten healthy individuals were included. MiRNAs expression profile was firstly assessed using microarray technology and then validation was performed by qRT-PCR. The correlations between miRNAs and CD activity index (CDAI) score and serum C–reactive protein (CRP) level were also evaluated. Microarray analysis showed that mucosal miRNAs expression profile after EEN therapy was significantly changed compared with inflamed mucosa before treatment, and was most similar to the healthy one among all CD groups. Altered expressions of hsa-miR-192-5p, hsa-miR-423-3p, hsa-miR-99a-5p, hsa-miR-124-3p, hsa-miR-301a-5p, hsa-miR-495-5p, and hsa-let-7b-5p were confirmed by qRT-PCR. hsa-let-7b-5p was significantly correlated with serum CRP levels before and after EEN treatment (r = −0.518, p = 0.008, and r = −0.569, p = 0.003). Our study showed EEN induction therapy was associated with a trend for normalizing of the mucosal miRNAs expression profile, and expression of mucosal hsa-let-7b-5p was correlated with serum CRP level in patients with CD. PMID:27556489

  18. QTLs for straw quality characteristics identified in recombinant inbred lines of a Hordeum vulgare x H. spontaneum cross in a Mediterranean environment.

    PubMed

    Grando, S; Baum, M; Ceccarelli, S; Goodchild, A; El-Haramein, F Jaby; Jahoor, A; Backes, G

    2005-02-01

    Barley straw is commonly used as animal feed in many developing countries. Even a small increase in its nutritive value can have a large impact on animal production, and hence, on rural livelihood and human nutrition. Straw quality is strongly affected by environmental factors and is, therefore, difficult to improve with empirical breeding. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers to facilitate the improvement of straw quality in barley. For this purpose, we have used the genetic linkage map that was already developed for recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the cross between a Hordeum vulgare cultivar ('Arta') and a H. spontaneum line (H. spontaneum 41-1), covering a total of 890 cM. Straw parameters from RILs grown at Tel Hadya and Breda (ICARDA's research stations) in 2 years (1996/1997 and 1997/1998) were analyzed by NIRS for predicted nutritional characteristics including neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, lignin, digestible organic matter in dry matter, voluntary intake, crude protein, and straw morphology (the percentage of blades, sheaths, and stems). Localization of QTLs was performed using Windows QTL Cartographer, version 2.0. Seventy-three QTLs were identified, the majority of which (17) in the driest of the four environments. Only six QTLs were identified in two environments; in five cases, one of the two was the wettest environment. This is discussed in relation to the possibility of improving straw quality in favorable environments where yields are higher, rather than in dry environments where straw quality is already relatively good. PMID:15678328

  19. Identification of the slow wave component of the electroenterogram from Laplacian abdominal surface recordings in humans.

    PubMed

    Prats-Boluda, Gema; Garcia-Casado, Javier; Martinez-de-Juan, Jose L; Ponce, Jose L

    2007-09-01

    The electroenterogram (EEnG) is a surface recording of the myoelectrical activity of the smooth muscle layer of the small intestine. It is made up of two signals: a low-frequency component, known as the slow wave (SW), and high-frequency signals, known as spike bursts (SB). Most methods of studying bowel motility are invasive due to the difficult anatomic access of the intestinal tract. Abdominal surface EEnG recordings could be a noninvasive solution for monitoring human intestinal motility. However, surface EEnG recordings in humans present certain problems, such as the low amplitude of the signals and the influence of physiological interference such as the electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration. In this study, a discrete estimation of the abdominal surface Laplacian potential was obtained using Hjorth's method. The objective was to analyze the enhancement given by Laplacian EEnG estimation compared to bipolar recordings. Eight recording sessions were carried out on eight healthy human volunteers in a state of fasting. First, the ECG interference content present in the bipolar signals and in the Laplacian estimation were quantified and compared. Secondly, to identify the SW component of the EEnG, respiration interference was removed by using an adaptive filter, and spectral estimation techniques were applied. The following parameters were obtained: the dominant frequency (DF) of the signals, stability of the rhythm (RS) of the DF detected and the percentage of DFs within the typical frequency range for the SW (TFSW). Results show the better ability of the Laplacian estimation to attenuate ECG interference, as compared to bipolar recordings. As regards the identification of the SW component of the EEnG, after removing respiration interference, the mean value of the DF in all abdominal surface recording channels and in their Laplacian estimation ranged from 0.12 to 0.14 Hz (7.3 to 8.4 cycles min(-1) (cpm)). Furthermore in 80% of the cases, the detected DFs were

  20. A comparison of signal detection between an echolocating dolphin and an optimal receiver.

    PubMed

    Au, W W; Pawloski, D A

    1989-01-01

    An electronic simulated target apparatus was used in a two-experiment study to compare the target detection performance of an echolocating bottlenose dolphin with an optimal receiver. Random Gaussian noise with a relatively flat spectrum from 20 to 160 kHz was used as a masking source. Experiment I was conducted to establish a technique for estimating the echo energy-to-noise ratio, Ee/N, at the dolphin's threshold of detection. Dolphins typically vary the amplitude of their emitted signal over a large range making it difficult to estimate Ee/N. In the first part of experiment I, the simulated echo was a double click, the pulses separated by 200 microseconds, with each pulse being a replica of the dolphin's transmitted signal. A staircase psychophysical procedure was used to obtain the detection threshold, and the echo energy-to-noise ratio based on the highest amplitude click emitted per trial, (Ee/N)max, was determined at each reversal point. The second echo type consisted of one of the animal's echolocation clicks, previously measured, digitized and stored in an erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM). The electronic target simulator was modified so that every time the dolphin emitted an echolocation signal, the EPROM was triggered to produce two pulses separated by 200 microseconds. On any trial, the EPROM signal was played back at a fixed amplitude, regardless of the amplitude of the dolphin's emitted signal. The Ee/N obtained with the EPROM signal at threshold was found to be 2.9 dB lower than (Ee/N)max obtained with the normal phantom target. Therefore an estimate of Ee/N can be obtained by subtracting 2.9 dB from (Ee/N)max.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Acta informatica medica is indexed in pubmed and archived in pubmed central.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2013-03-01

    Acta Informatica Medica journal has been accepted for archiving in PubMed Central from 2011 onward. The journal started in 1993 as the official journal of the Society for Medical Informatics of Bosnia and Herzegovina. During the last 3 years, Acta Informatica Medica has een included in almost all prestigious online databases, including PubMed, Scopus and EMBASE. The 20th volume of the journal is fully international, with papers from 18 countries.

  2. Bioactive N-isobutylamides from the flower buds of Spilanthes acmella.

    PubMed

    Ramsewak, R S; Erickson, A J; Nair, M G

    1999-07-01

    The hexane extract of dried flower buds of Spilanthes acmella afforded three N-isobutyl amides: spilanthol, undeca-2E,7Z,9E-trienoic acid isobutylamide and undeca-2E-en-8,10-diynoic acid isobutylamide. Their structures were determined by 1H and 13C NMR, MS and GC-MS spectroscopic methods. All were active against Aedes aegyptii larvae and Helicoverpa zea neonates at 12.5 and 250 micrograms/mL concentrations, respectively. PMID:10389272

  3. Ir A.H. de Voogt: life and career of a radio pioneer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strom, R. G.

    2007-06-01

    There are probably few radio astronomers who would be able to recall A.H. de Voogt, which is unfortunate, but at the same time unsurprising: for he published no original astronomical research, never carried out pioneering observations, nor is his name linked to either theoretical or instrumental breakthroughs. Yet he was described by the man who first observed the 21 cm hydrogen line from the Netherlands as a radio astronomy pioneer, at the very birth of the Dutch effort. He was, moreover, a trail blazer at the cutting edge of radio, not once but twice in his career. Without him it is unlikely that the 21 cm line would have been observed in the Netherlands in 1951, and arguably the H I mapping of the Milky Way under Jan Oort's leadership would have taken place much later, if at all. Radio astronomy observing itself might well have been compromised by interference had it not been for De Voogt's foresight. \\ Anthonet Hugo de Voogt (1892-1969) built, while still a teenager, one of the very first amateur radio stations (call letters VO: *** -/- - -) in Holland, earned the radio-telegrapher's diploma during his student days, and was intimately involved in the foundation of the Dutch Society for Radio-Telegraphy in 1916. Until the 1920s, he was very active in amateur radio and astronomy circles. Trained in electrical engineering at Delft, he joined the PTT (Post Office) as a telegraph engineer in 1919, worked his way through the ranks to become head of the telephone district of Breda in 1939, and was promoted to head the PTT Radio Service just days after the end of the war. As his department was responsible for overseas radio communication, he initiated a research effort to study radio propagation in the ionosphere and the effects of solar activity. To this end, he rescued a number of Würzburg-Riese 7.5-m radar antennas abandoned at the end of the war, made one available for Jan Oort's H I work, and launched a series of radio astronomical initiatives. His group also

  4. Polarimetry in the Outskirts of NGC 6611

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsatti, Ana M.; Vega, E. Irene; Marraco, Hugo G.

    2006-11-01

    We present new polarimetric UBVRI observations of 25 stars in the direction of the halo of NGC 6611, the rich stellar open cluster embedded in an ionized hydrogen complex (M16). Our plan is to characterize the interstellar material (ISM) associated with halo stars in order to make a comparison with the ISM dusty core characteristics that resulted from a previous investigation by the same authors. Of the halo stars, 47% (8 out of 17) show indications of intrinsic polarization in their light, similar to what was found for core stars (50%). We have identified the presence of nearby dust clouds located on the Local arm that produce a mean polarization of about 1%; a value λmax=0.61+/-0.07 μm, which is slightly larger than that of the average ISM; and a mean direction of the polarization vectors of θV=81.9d+/-1.8d. The ISM associated with the halo region has λmax similar to the general interstellar medium (0.55+/-0.07 μm). The observed polarizations show a gradual increase from halo (Pmax=1.93%+/-0.3%) to core (Pmax=3.19%+/-0.63%). Position angles of the e-vector for both groups are generally similar, but there exists a slight difference in mean direction between them that is within the errors. We have also found that the halo stars are possibly represented by Whittet & van Breda's relationship, while in the cluster's core the dust does not fulfill the above-mentioned relationship. As a conclusion, we cannot find any clear difference between core and halo dust characteristics, with the exception of λmax, which may suggest a change in dust size. Based on observations obtained at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.

  5. Role of exclusive enteral nutrition in the preoperative optimization of patients with Crohn's disease following immunosuppressive therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Zuo, Lugen; Zhu, Weiming; Gong, Jianfeng; Zhang, Wei; Gu, Lili; Guo, Zhen; Cao, Lei; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2015-02-01

    We conducted a study to evaluate the impact of the exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) on perioperative outcome in Crohn's disease (CD) patients following immunosuppressive therapy. Patients with CD followed at a referral center between January 2001 and March 2014 who underwent abdominal surgery were identified. Patients were divided into 4 groups: patients not exposed to immunosuppressive agents in the previous 8 weeks before surgery (group 1); patients received immunosuppressive medications without preoperative drug-free interval (group 2); patients had preoperative immunosuppressants-free interval (group 3); patients treated with adding EEN to preoperative immunosuppressants-free interval regimen (group 4). Urgent operation requirement, stoma creation, postoperative complications, readmission, and reoperation were compared in patients among groups. Overall, 708 abdominal surgeries performed in 498 CD patients were identified. Three hundred seventy-six (53.11%) surgeries performed in those receiving preoperative immunosuppressive medications. Compared with other groups, group 2 had increased postoperative complications, more frequent urgent operation, and higher rate of stoma creation. Patients in group 4 were found to have better outcome including lower rate of stoma creation (P < 0.05), and decreased incidence of postoperative complications (P < 0.05) compared with group 2 and group 3. Additionally, decreased urgent operation requirement (P < 0.05) and extended preoperative drug-free interval (P < 0.001) were observed in the group 4 than those in the group 3. Preoperative optimization of CD following immunosuppressive therapy by EEN prolongs the immunosuppressants-free interval, reduces the risk of urgent surgery and reoperation, and most importantly, decreases complications after abdominal surgery.

  6. Diterpenoid derivatives of Kenyan Croton sylvaticus.

    PubMed

    Ndunda, Beth; Langat, Moses K; Midiwo, Jacob O; Omosa, Leonidah K

    2015-04-01

    Kenyan Croton sylvaticus Hochst. ex Krauss gave four clerodane diterpenoids, the new ent-3,13E-clerodadiene-15-formate (1), the known 15-acetoxy-ent-3,13E-clerodadiene (2), ent-3,13E-clerodadien-15-ol (3) and hardwickiic acid (4), two known halimane diterpenoids, penduliflaworosin (5) and crotohalimaneic acid (6) and one labdane diterpenoid, labda-13E-ene-8a,15-diol (7). The compounds, when tested for their anti-microbial activities against Bacillus subtilis, Xanthomonas campestris and Candida albicans, were found to be inactive.

  7. Nutrition in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease: From Etiology to Treatment. A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Penagini, Francesca; Dilillo, Dario; Borsani, Barbara; Cococcioni, Lucia; Galli, Erica; Bedogni, Giorgio; Zuin, Giovanna; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition is involved in several aspects of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), ranging from disease etiology to induction and maintenance of disease. With regards to etiology, there are pediatric data, mainly from case-control studies, which suggest that some dietary habits (for example consumption of animal protein, fatty foods, high sugar intake) may predispose patients to IBD onset. As for disease treatment, exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is an extensively studied, well established, and valid approach to the remission of pediatric Crohn’s disease (CD). Apart from EEN, several new nutritional approaches are emerging and have proved to be successful (specific carbohydrate diet and CD exclusion diet) but the available evidence is not strong enough to recommend this kind of intervention in clinical practice and new large experimental controlled studies are needed, especially in the pediatric population. Moreover, efforts are being made to identify foods with anti-inflammatory properties such as curcumin and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3, which can possibly be effective in maintenance of disease. The present systematic review aims at reviewing the scientific literature on all aspects of nutrition in pediatric IBD, including the most recent advances on nutritional therapy. PMID:27258308

  8. A survey of current practice patterns in prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism (VTE) and gastrointestinal (GI) ulceration among Canadian burn centers.

    PubMed

    Abedi, Nasim; Papp, Anthony

    2011-11-01

    Prospective data on efficacy of routine thromboprophylaxis in burn population remains limited. We believe that this uncertainty has lead to diverse management practices across Canada. Similarly, despite data supporting effectiveness of early enteral nutrition (EEN) for gastrointestinal (GI) ulcer prophylaxis, we hypothesize that many burn centers continue to use additional medical prophylaxis. A questionnaire was sent to 16 Canadian burn units regarding their practices of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and GI ulcer prophylaxis. We had 50% response rate. Fifty percent of respondents reported routine use of VTE prophylaxis in all their burn patients regardless of risk factors, 75% of these were among the largest burn centers in Canada. Only 1 center reported use of low molecular weight heparin, Enoxaparin, as their only mode of prophylaxis. With regards to GI ulcer prophylaxis, 62.5% of respondents indicated limiting use of ulcer prophylactic medications to ICU patients. Three (37.5%) centers reported practicing EEN for prophylaxis, 1 of which administered it as the sole modality. 7 of 8 centers used additional pharmacologic prophylaxis, most commonly an H2-blocker, ranitidine. There remains lack of consensus among Canadian burn centers in areas of VTE and GI ulcer prophylaxis, reflecting the limited prospective data in these fields. PMID:21767915

  9. Sterol patterns of cultured zooxanthellae isolated from marine invertebrates: Synthesis of gorgosterol and 23-desmethylgorgosterol by aposymbiotic algae.

    PubMed

    Withers, N W; Kokke, W C; Fenical, W; Djerassi, C

    1982-06-01

    QUANTITATIVE STEROL COMPOSITIONS OF CULTURED ZOOXANTHELLAE ISOLATED FROM VARIOUS PACIFIC AND ATLANTIC INVERTEBRATE HOSTS: Zoanthus sociatus (a zoanthid), Oculina diffusa (a scleractian coral), Tridacna gigas (a giant clam), Melibe pilosa (a nudibranch), and Aiptasia pulchella (a sea anemone) are reported. The results clearly demonstrate large differences in sterol patterns of zooxanthellae and that there is no obvious relationship between the taxonomic affiliation of the host and the sterol pattern of its isolated symbiont. The sterols of the zooxanthellae of O. diffusa (Cnidaria) and T. gigas (Mollusca) are qualitatively equivalent. Based on the structures of the two major free sterols synthesized by each alga, the zooxanthellae from different hosts were separated into three distinct groups. It was also found that an aposymbiotic alga can synthesize the unique marine sterols gorgosterol and 23-desmethylgorgosterol. Most of the sterols were identified by using mass spectroscopy and 360-MHz proton magnetic resonance. Spectroscopic data are reported for four novel sterols-(23,24R)-dimethyl-5alpha-cholest-(22E)-en-3beta-o l, 23-methyl-5alpha-cholest-22E-en-3beta-ol, cholesta-5,14-dien-3beta-ol, and 4alpha-methyl-5alpha-cholesta-8(14)-24-dien-3beta-ol.

  10. Cycloartane Triterpenoids from Euphorbia Macrostegia with their Cytotoxicity against MDA-MB48 and MCF-7 Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Baniadam, Somayeh; Rahiminejad, Mohammad Reza; Ghannadian, Mustafa; Saeidi, Hojjatollah; Ayatollahi, Abdul Majid; Aghaei, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    The dried plant was extracted with dichloromethane and after defatting with hexane, transferred repeatedly on silica columns using dichloromethane-hexane and ethyl acetate-hexane as mobile phases. Finally the fractions were purified by high performance liquid chromatography using a Pack-Sil column and hexane: Ethyl acetate as mobile phase. The structures of the isolated compounds included: cycloart-25-ene-3β, 24-diol (1), cycloart-23(Z)-ene-3β, 25-diol (2), cycloart-23(E)-ene-3β, 25-diol (3), and 24-methylene-cycloart-3β-ol (4) were elucidated by 13C- and 1H-NMR as well as IR and by the aid of mass fragmentation pattern and comparing with the literature. The biological effects of the compounds were done by the MTT assay on two different cancer cell lines including MDA-MB48 and MCF-7. Among these compounds, cycloart-23(E)-ene-3β,25-diol (3) was the most active compound on MDA-MB468 cell line (LD50 = 2.05 μgmL− 1 ) and cycloart-23(Z)-ene-3β, 25-diol (2) was the most active compound on MCF-7 cell line (LD50 = 5.4 μgmL− 1). PMID:24734064

  11. Compatibility study and adaption of stone repair mortars for the Lede stone (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Kock, T.; Vandevoorde, D.; Boone, M. A.; Dewanckele, J.; De Boever, W.; Lanzón, M.; De Schutter, G.; Van Hoorebeke, L.; Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V.

    2012-04-01

    One of the main historic building materials in northern Belgium is the Lede stone. This arenaceous limestone from Lutetian age was excavated in the region of Ghent and Brussels and was transported northwards by main rivers such as the Scheldt and Zenne. Thanks to this natural transport route, the stone in also found in many cities which lie abroad the excavation area, such as Antwerp (Belgium) and various cities in the Netherlands (Breda, Zierikzee, …). Due to its dominant occurrence in our cultural heritage, it is frequently subjected to restoration and renovation works. Depending on the degree of decay, most frequent stone operations are cleaning, healing with mortar or replacing it by (often exotic) fresh blocks. Originally, this limestone has a greenish-gray colour, but when being exposed to atmospheric conditions it acquires a yellowish to rusty coloured patina. The origin of the latter is most likely the oxidation of glauconite minerals which are present in a few percent in the stone. In addition, the stone often demonstrates black crust formation due to sulphation. Cleaning of the stone often results in an excess removal of this black gypsum crusts and patina, thus exposing deeper parts of the stone which appear more greenish-gray again. When the stone is subsequently healed by adding repair mortar to damaged parts, the question rises which mortar colour is more appropriate. The choice of repair mortar is greatly depending on commercial aspects. When handling entire facades on monuments, a mineral mortar based on ZnCl is most often applied in Belgium. The big advantage of this mortar is its fast curing. Three colour types have been developed for the Lede stone in specific. However, the hardness of this mortar is sometimes in conflict with reversibility. For the handling of individual sculptures some conservators choose for the application of (hydraulic) lime mortars. The advantage of using such mortars is their high compatibility and reversibility. The

  12. Separation of chemical constituents from three plant medicines by counter-current chromatography using a three-phase solvent system at a novel ratio.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoyi; Chao, Zhimao; Wang, Chun; Yu, Li

    2015-03-01

    A solvent system of n-hexane, methyl acetate, acetonitrile, and water at a novel volume ratio of 4:3:4:4 forms three layers, i.e. upper phase (UP), middle phase (MP), and lower phase (LP), with a volume ratio of 1:1.20:1.42 at room temperature (25°C). All three two-phases from this three-phase solvent system were successfully used to separate some chemical constituents from three plant medicines with counter-current chromatography (CCC). Eight coumarins (B1-B8) were obtained from petroleum ether extract of fresh roots of Angelica dahurica (Baizhi) with a stationary phase of UP and a mobile phase of LP. Six diarylheptanoids (L1-L6) were obtained from petroleum ether extract of dried rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum (Liangjiang) with a stationary phase of UP and a mobile phase of MP. Three chemical constituents (Z1-Z3) were obtained from ethyl acetate extract of fresh rhizomes of Anemarrhena asphodeloides (Zhimu) with a stationary phase of MP and a mobile phase of LP. Preparative HPLC was used for further purification if necessary. Seventeen chemical constituents were identified as oxypeucedanin hydrate (B1), byakangelicin (B2), byakangelicol (B3), bergapten (B4), oxypeucedanin (B5), imperatorin (B6), phellopterin (B7), isoimperatorin (B8), 5-hydroxy-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-3-heptanone (L1), 7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-4E-en-3-heptanone (L2), 5-hydroxy-1,7-diphenyl-3-heptanone (L3), 1,7-diphenyl-4E-en-3-heptanone (L4), 5-hydroxy-1,7-diphenyl-4E,6E-dien-3-heptanone (L5), isomers of 1,7-diphenyl-3,5-heptandione and 5-hydroxy-1,7-diphenyl-4E-en-3-heptanone (L6), mangiferin (Z1), timosaponin A-III (Z2), and 2,6,4'-trihydroxy-4-methoxy-benzophenone (Z3) by means of MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR studies. Five compounds of B3, L3, L5, L6, and Z3 were isolated by CCC for the first time.

  13. STS-112 crew arrives at KSC's SLF for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-112 Mission Specialist Fyodor Yurchikhin, who is with the Russian Space Agency, shows his happiness at returning to KSC to prepare for launch. He will be making his first Shuttle flight. STS-112, aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis, is the 15th assembly mission to the International Space Station. Atlantis will be carrying the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, the first starboard truss segment, to be attached to the central truss segment, S0, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future spacewalking astronauts. The 11-day mission includes three spacewalks. Launch is scheduled for Oct. 2 betw een 2 and 6 p.m.

  14. Functional, biochemical and morphological alterations in the intestines of rats with an experimental blind-loop syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bloch, R; Menge, H; Lorenz-Meyer, H; Stöckert, H G; Riecken, E O

    1975-11-26

    In rat self-filling blind loops and in the contiguous regions of the intestinal tract, considerable functional impairment, accompanied by pronounced morphological transformations of the mucosa, has been observed. The histological alterations consist of mucosal hypertrophy and a reduction in the villus height: crypt length ratio, which is indicative of a hyper-regenerative change. Various enzyme activities of the epithelial cells are reduced and the absorption otinal juices is greatly altered in favour of the free acids. Two mec,anisms have 0een dicids, or meta0olites from bacterial degradation, on the absorptive epithelium; 2. Reduced cellular maturity in response to the effect of bile acids and/or bacteria on the lifespan of the cells.

  15. Asymmetries in electron-induced breakup of polarized {sup 3}He

    SciTech Connect

    Sirca, Simon

    2011-10-01

    The Jefferson Lab Experiment E05-102 "Measurement of A{sub x}' and A{sub z}' asymmetries in the quasi-elastic {sup 3}He(e,e'd) reaction" was performed in Hall A in 2009. The main physics motivation of the experiment was to investigate the effects of small components of the {sup 3}He ground-state wave-function by a simultaneous measurement of double-polarization asymmetries in quasi-elastic kinematics for three exclusive channels, (e,e'd), (e,e'p), and (e,e'n), at almost identical momentum transfers, as well as for (e,e'). This experiment will help map the spin structure of the {sup 3}He nucleus onto the picture of the "free" polarized neutron. As such, it is of great relevance to the polarized-neutron programs at Jefferson Lab and beyond.

  16. Chemical constituents of Cichorium intybus and their inhibitory effects against urease and alpha-chymotrypsin enzymes.

    PubMed

    Saied, Sumayya; Shah, Shazia; Ali, Zulfiqar; Khan, Ajmal; Marasini, Bishnu P; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal

    2011-08-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of Cichorium intybus L. resulted in the isolation and identification of two new natural metabolites, 2,6-di[but-3(E)-en-2-onyl]naphthalene (1), and 3,3',4,4'-tetrahydroxychalcone (2), along with nine known compounds. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic techniques including 1D and 2D NMR. The known compounds were identified as scopoletin (3), 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (4), 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid (5), 4,4'-dihydroxychalcone (6), 6,7-dihydroxycoumarine (7), 1-triacontanol (8), lupeol (9), beta-sitosterol (10), and beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (11). Compounds 4-6 and 8 are reported for the first time from C. intybus. Compounds 2 and 3 showed weak inhibitory activities against urease and alpha-chymotrypsin enzymes, respectively.

  17. The growth and reproduction performance of TALEN-mediated β-lactoglobulin-knockout bucks.

    PubMed

    Ge, Hengtao; Cui, Chenchen; Liu, Jun; Luo, Yan; Quan, Fusheng; Jin, Yaping; Zhang, Yong

    2016-10-01

    With the technological development of several engineered endonucleases (EENs), such as zinc-finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and CRISPR/Cas9, gene targeting by homologous recombination has been efficiently improved to generate site-specifically genetically modified livestock. However, few studies have been done to investigate the health and fertility of these animals. The purpose of the present study is to investigate if gene targeting events and a recloning procedure would affect the production traits of EEN-mediated gene targeted bucks. TALEN-mediated β-lactoglobulin (BLG) gene mono-allelic knockout (BLG (+/-)) goats and bi-allelic knockout (BLG (-/-)) buck produced by using sequential gene targeting combined with recloning in fibroblasts from BLG (+/-) buck were used to evaluate their health and fertility. Birth weight and postnatal growth of BLG (+/-) bucks were similar to the wild-type goats. None of the parameters for both fresh and frozen-thawed semen quality were significantly different in BLG (+/-) or BLG (-/-) bucks compared to their corresponding comparators. In vitro fertilization (IVF) test revealed that the proportion of IVF oocytes developing to the blastocyst stage was identical among BLG (+/-), BLG (-/-) and wild-type bucks. Conception rates of artificial insemination were respectively 42.3, 38.0 and 42.6 % for frozen-thawed semen from the BLG (+/-), BLG (-/-) and wild-type bucks. In addition, germline transmission of the targeted BLG modification was in accordance with Mendelian rules. These results demonstrated that the analyzed growth and reproductive traits were not impacted by targeting BLG gene and recloning, implicating the potential for dairy goat breeding of BLG (+/-) and BLG (-/-) bucks.

  18. The growth and reproduction performance of TALEN-mediated β-lactoglobulin-knockout bucks.

    PubMed

    Ge, Hengtao; Cui, Chenchen; Liu, Jun; Luo, Yan; Quan, Fusheng; Jin, Yaping; Zhang, Yong

    2016-10-01

    With the technological development of several engineered endonucleases (EENs), such as zinc-finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and CRISPR/Cas9, gene targeting by homologous recombination has been efficiently improved to generate site-specifically genetically modified livestock. However, few studies have been done to investigate the health and fertility of these animals. The purpose of the present study is to investigate if gene targeting events and a recloning procedure would affect the production traits of EEN-mediated gene targeted bucks. TALEN-mediated β-lactoglobulin (BLG) gene mono-allelic knockout (BLG (+/-)) goats and bi-allelic knockout (BLG (-/-)) buck produced by using sequential gene targeting combined with recloning in fibroblasts from BLG (+/-) buck were used to evaluate their health and fertility. Birth weight and postnatal growth of BLG (+/-) bucks were similar to the wild-type goats. None of the parameters for both fresh and frozen-thawed semen quality were significantly different in BLG (+/-) or BLG (-/-) bucks compared to their corresponding comparators. In vitro fertilization (IVF) test revealed that the proportion of IVF oocytes developing to the blastocyst stage was identical among BLG (+/-), BLG (-/-) and wild-type bucks. Conception rates of artificial insemination were respectively 42.3, 38.0 and 42.6 % for frozen-thawed semen from the BLG (+/-), BLG (-/-) and wild-type bucks. In addition, germline transmission of the targeted BLG modification was in accordance with Mendelian rules. These results demonstrated that the analyzed growth and reproductive traits were not impacted by targeting BLG gene and recloning, implicating the potential for dairy goat breeding of BLG (+/-) and BLG (-/-) bucks. PMID:27272006

  19. Hydrogen isotopes in dinosterol from the Chesapeake Bay estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachs, Julian P.; Schwab, Valérie F.

    2011-01-01

    The hydrogen isotope ratio of the dinoflagellate sterol dinosterol (4α,23,24-trimethyl-5α-cholest-22E-en-3β-ol) was measured in suspended particles and surface sediments from the Chesapeake Bay estuary in order to evaluate the influence of salinity on hydrogen isotope fractionation. D/ H fractionation was found to decrease by 0.99 ± 0.23‰ per unit increase in salinity over the salinity range 10-29 PSU, a similar decrease to that observed in a variety of lipids from hypersaline ponds on Christmas Island (Kiribati). We hypothesize that the hydrogen isotopic response to salinity may result from diminished exchange of water between algal cells and their environment, lower growth rates and/or increased production of osmolytes at high salinities. Regardless of the mechanism, the consistent sign and magnitude of dinosterol δD response to changing salinity should permit qualitative to semi-quantitative reconstructions of past salinities from sedimentary dinosterol δD values.

  20. [Preoperative outpatient evaluation of young adults by anesthesiologist: anamnesis and physical examination are satisfactory--short questionnaire of Dutch Public Health Council is not].

    PubMed

    van Klei, W A; Moons, K G; Rutten, C L; Knape, J T; Grobbee, D E

    2000-07-15

    The report of the Netherlands Health Council 'Preoperatief onderzoek; een herijking van uitgangspunten' recommends that the health status of patients aged 16-39 years can be investigated preoperatively by the anaesthesiologist using a short questionnaire (6 questions). However, it is not clear whether such an abbreviated preoperative investigation will be informative enough for a safe and balanced anaesthesiologic management. An overview of relevant literature on the subject of preoperative investigation indicates that the preoperative physical status of patients as reflected by the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification is a predictor of perioperative complications. Patients can be classified accordingly on the basis of an extended history and physical examination only: any routine additional investigation, such as ECG, chest X-ray or laboratory investigations, seem superfluous. Only blood group, rhesus factor and the presence of irregular antibodies may need to be determined if indicated by the kind of surgery. Currently, however, there is not sufficient evidence to demonstrate that the short questionnaire of the Netherlands Health Council is informative enough.

  1. 20 Years of Improvements to GEOSAT Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillibridge, J.; Smith, W. H. F.; Sandwell, D.; Scharroo, R.; Lemoine, F.; Zelensky, N.

    2006-07-01

    The U.S. N avy GEO SAT mission provided the first long-term altimetr ic record for studies of ocean circu lation , mar ine grav ity /bathymetry and continen tal ice. The Geodetic Mission (G M) data were declassified by the Navy in 1995 and released by NOAA togeth er with the Ex act Rep eat Mission data in the 1997 JG M-3 Geophysical Data Records (GDRs). We have now comp leted a major upgrade of the G M data by reprocessing the origin al Sensor D ata Records (SDRs) and Wav eform Data Records (WD Rs) . Th is has allowed us to retrack all the over-ocean waveforms from the G M to improve measuremen ts of sea surface heigh t and its slope and th ereby produce better models of marin e gravity and bathymetry . A unique two-pass retracking algorithm is used to r educe th e noise in along-track sea surface slope, and to reduce th e correlation in errors betw een r ange and SWH from th e waveform f itting. The precise orbit deter min ation uses the full set of 45 Doppler TRAN ET tracking stations and is b ased on a GRA CE grav ity model. W ith improved corrections and retracking mar ine gr avity and bathymetry reso lution ar e improved, while the new pr ecise orbits y ield better estimates of sea lev el r ise from th e GEOSA T time period.

  2. Th and U fuel photofission study by NTD for AD-MSR subcritical assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajo-Bohus, Laszlo; Greaves, Eduardo D.; Davila, Jesus; Barros, Haydn; Pino, Felix; Barrera, Maria T.; Farina, Fulvio

    2015-07-01

    During the last decade a considerable effort has been devoted for developing energy generating systems based on advanced nuclear technology within the design concepts of GEN-IV. Thorium base fuel systems such as accelerator driven nuclear reactors are one of the often mentioned attractive and affordable options. Several radiotherapy linear accelerators are on the market and due to their reliability, they could be employed as drivers for subcritical liquid fuel assemblies. Bremsstrahlung photons with energies above 5.5MeV, induce (γ,n) and (e,e'n) reactions in the W-target. Resulting gamma radiation and photo or fission neutrons may be absorbed in target materials such as thorium and uranium isotopes to induce sustained fission or nuclear transmutation in waste radioactive materials. Relevant photo driven and photo-fission reaction cross sections are important for actinides 232Th, 238U and 237Np in the radiotherapy machines energy range of 10-20 MV. In this study we employ passive nuclear track detectors (NTD) to determine fission rates and neutron production rates with the aim to establish the feasibility for gamma and photo-neutron driven subcritical assemblies. To cope with these objectives a 20 MV radiotherapy machine has been employed with a mixed fuel target. Results will support further development for a subcritical assembly employing a thorium containing liquid fuel. It is expected that acquired technological knowledge will contribute to the Venezuelan nuclear energy program.

  3. Women and men in science: creating equal opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slomp, Caroline P.

    2016-04-01

    In the Netherlands, 17% of professors are women This is one of the lowest percentages for countries in the EU, placing the Netherlands at position 24 in a total of 27. The percentage of women professors is gradually increasing, but at the current growth rate, a gender balance cannot be expected to be reached before 2055 (LNVH, 2015). This underrepresentation of women in leadership positions is all the more surprising given the nearly equal numbers of male and female students at universities already since the end of the 1980s (CBS, 2010). In my presentation, I will give a personal perspective on the barriers that women face when pursuing a career in science and the types of bias encountered, with specific attention to the role of cultural stereotypes and how these impact the day-to-day life of women in science and contribute to the loss of very talented researchers. I will also discuss strategies that can be developed to work around such issues and the need for further changes in research funding schemes. Finally, I urge both men and women to always speak up when they observe gender bias, for example when women are being overlooked as plenary speakers at conferences, for awards and fellowships, as project or discussion partners and leaders, for positions and for promotion. References: LNVH (Dutch Network of Women Professors), 2015, Monitor Vrouwelijke Hoogleraren. http://www.lnvh.nl CBS (Statistics Netherlands), 2010. Terugblkken. Een eeuw in statistieken. http://www.cbs.nl

  4. Isolation, synthesis and biological evaluation of phenylpropanoids from the rhizomes of Alpania galanga.

    PubMed

    Chourasiya, Sumit S; Sreedhar, Eppakayala; Babu, K Suresh; Shankaraiah, Nagula; Nayak, V Lakshma; Ramakrishna, S; Sravani, S; Basaveswara Rao, M V

    2013-12-01

    Bioactivity guided investigation of the DCM: MeOH (1:1) extract from the rhizomes of Alpinia galanga led to the isolation of phenylpropanoids (1-9) and their structures were established by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR a nd LC-MS/MS. Th ese compounds have b een evaluated for their in vitro anticanceractivity against the human cancer cell lines A549 (lung cancer), Colo-205 (colon cancer), A431 (skin cancer), NCI H460 (lung cancer), PC-3 (prostate cancer), and HT-29 (colon cancer). Compounds 4 and 9 showed potent anticancer activity (ranging from 1.3-19.7 microg/mL) against all the tested cancer cell lines. In addition, an asymmetric synthesis of acetoxychavicol acetate (1) and trans-p-coumaryl alcohol (4) has been accomplished in six steps starting from readily available p-hydroxybenzaldehyde for the first time. Grignard reaction and Sharpless kinetic resolution reactions were utilized as the key steps to install the basic core. PMID:24555288

  5. Enhanced Archaerhodopsin Fluorescent Protein Voltage Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yiyang; Li, Jin Zhong; Schnitzer, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    A longstanding goal in neuroscience has been to develop techniques for imaging the voltage dynamics of genetically defined subsets of neurons. Optical sensors of transmembrane voltage would enhance studies of neural activity in contexts ranging from individual neurons cultured in vitro to neuronal populations in awake-behaving animals. Recent progress has identified Archaerhodopsin (Arch) based sensors as a promising, genetically encoded class of fluorescent voltage indicators that can report single action potentials. Wild-type Arch exhibits sub-millisecond fluorescence responses to trans-membrane voltage, but its light-activated proton pump also responds to the imaging illumination. An Arch mutant (Arch-D95N) exhibits no photocurrent, but has a slower, ~40 ms response to voltage transients. Here we present Arch-derived voltage sensors with trafficking signals that enhance their localization to the neural membrane. We also describe Arch mutant sensors (Arch-EEN and -EEQ) that exhibit faster kinetics and greater fluorescence dynamic range than Arch-D95N, and no photocurrent at the illumination intensities normally used for imaging. We benchmarked these voltage sensors regarding their spike detection fidelity by using a signal detection theoretic framework that takes into account the experimentally measured photon shot noise and optical waveforms for single action potentials. This analysis revealed that by combining the sequence mutations and enhanced trafficking sequences, the new sensors improved the fidelity of spike detection by nearly three-fold in comparison to Arch-D95N. PMID:23840563

  6. A New Alkamide with an Endoperoxide Structure from Acmella ciliata (Asteraceae) and Its in Vitro Antiplasmodial Activity.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Narjara; Saar, Julia; Santos, Alan Diego C; Barison, Andersson; Sandjo, Louis P; Kaiser, Marcel; Schmidt, Thomas J; Biavatti, Maique W

    2016-01-01

    From the aerial parts of Acmella ciliata (H.B.K.) Cassini (basionym Spilanthes ciliata Kunth; Asteraceae), three alkamides were isolated and identified by mass- and NMR spectroscopic methods as (2E,6E,8E)-N-isobutyl-2,6,8-decatrienamide (spilanthol, (1)), N-(2-phenethyl)-2E-en-6,8-nonadiynamide (2) and (2E,7Z)-6,9-endoperoxy-N-isobutyl-2,7-decadienamide (3). While 1 and 2 are known alkamides, compound 3 has not been described until now. It was found that the unusual cyclic peroxide 3 exists as a racemate of both enantiomers of each alkamide; the 6,9-cis- as well as the 6,9-trans-configured diastereomers, the former represents the major, the latter the minor constituent of the mixture. In vitro tests for activity against the human pathogenic parasites Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Plasmodium falciparum revealed that 1 and 3 possess activity against the NF54 strain of the latter (IC50 values of 4.5 and 5.1 µM, respectively) while 2 was almost inactive. Compound 3 was also tested against multiresistant P. falciparum K1 and was found to be even more active against this parasite strain (IC50 = 2.1 µM) with considerable selectivity (IC50 against L6 rat skeletal myoblasts = 168 µM). PMID:27294907

  7. Charge of a quasiparticle in a superconductor

    PubMed Central

    Ronen, Yuval; Cohen, Yonatan; Kang, Jung-Hyun; Haim, Arbel; Rieder, Maria-Theresa; Heiblum, Moty; Mahalu, Diana; Shtrikman, Hadas

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear charge transport in superconductor–insulator–superconductor (SIS) Josephson junctions has a unique signature in the shuttled charge quantum between the two superconductors. In the zero-bias limit Cooper pairs, each with twice the electron charge, carry the Josephson current. An applied bias VSD leads to multiple Andreev reflections (MAR), which in the limit of weak tunneling probability should lead to integer multiples of the electron charge ne traversing the junction, with n integer larger than 2Δ/eVSD and Δ the superconducting order parameter. Exceptionally, just above the gap eVSD ≥ 2Δ, with Andreev reflections suppressed, one would expect the current to be carried by partitioned quasiparticles, each with energy-dependent charge, being a superposition of an electron and a hole. Using shot-noise measurements in an SIS junction induced in an InAs nanowire (with noise proportional to the partitioned charge), we first observed quantization of the partitioned charge q = e*/e=n, with n = 1–4, thus reaffirming the validity of our charge interpretation. Concentrating next on the bias region eVSD∼2Δ, we found a reproducible and clear dip in the extracted charge to q ∼0.6, which, after excluding other possibilities, we attribute to the partitioned quasiparticle charge. Such dip is supported by numerical simulations of our SIS structure. PMID:26831071

  8. Furanosesquiterpenoids of Commiphora myrrha.

    PubMed

    Zhu, N; Kikuzaki, H; Sheng, S; Sang, S; Rafi, M M; Wang, M; Nakatani, N; DiPaola, R S; Rosen, R T; Ho, C T

    2001-11-01

    An investigation on the gum exudates of Commiphora myrrha has led to the isolation of six sesquiterpenoids. On the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation, they were determined as two new furanosesquiterpenoids, rel-1S,2S-epoxy-4R-furanogermacr-10(15)-en-6-one (1) and rel-2R-methyl-5S-acetoxy-4R-furanogermacr-1(10)Z-en-6-one (2), and four known furanosesquiterpenoids, rel-3R-methoxy-4S-furanogermacra-1E,10(15)-dien-6-one (3), rel-2R-methoxy-4R-furanogermacr-1(10)E-en-6-one (4), furanogermacra-1(10)Z,4Z-dien-6-one, and curzerenone [6,7-dihydro-5beta-isopropenyl-3,6beta-dimethyl-6-vinylbenzofuran-4(5H)-one]. This is the first report of the relative stereochemistry for the known compounds 3 and 4. Compound 1 exhibited weak cytotoxic activity against a MCF-7 breast tumor cell line in a clonogenic assay, while the other five compounds were inactive in this assay.

  9. Cembrane-type diterpenoids from the Chinese liverworts Chandonanthus hirtellus and C. birmensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui-Juan; Lin, Zhao-Min; Kang, Ya-Qi; Guo, Yan-Xia; Lv, Xin; Zhou, Jin-Chuan; Wang, Song; Lou, Hong-Xiang

    2014-02-28

    Six new cembrane-type diterpenoids (1-6) were isolated from two species of Chandonanthus: Chandonanones A, B, and D-F (1, 2, and 4-6) were isolated from C. hirtellus, and chandonanones B, C, E, and F (2, 3, 5, and 6) from C. birmensis. Five known diterpenoids, (8E)-4α-acetoxy-12α,13α-epoxycembra-1(15),8-diene (7), isochandonanthone (8), chandonanthone (9), anadensin (10), and 2,10,14-triacetoxy-7,8,18,19-diepoxydolabell-3(E)-ene (11), were also obtained. The structures of the new metabolites were established by analyses of their spectroscopic data (1D NMR, 2D NMR, HRESIMS, and IR). The absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 2 were unequivocally confirmed using single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis with Cu Kα radiation. Cytotoxicity tests of the isolated diterpenoids against seven cancer cell lines (DU145, PC3, A549, PC12, NCI-H292, NCI-H1299, and A172) revealed that some of the diterpenoids had weak activity.

  10. The Local Group in LCDM - Shapes and masses of dark halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera-Ciro, Carlos Andrés

    2013-01-01

    In dit proefschrift bestuderen we de eigenschappen van donkere materie halo's in het LCDM paradigma. Het eerste deel richt zich op de vorm van de massadistributie van dergelijke objecten. We hebben gevonden dat de vorm van ge"isoleerde Melkweg-achtige donkere materie halo's significant afwijkt van bolsymmetrie. De lokale omgeving heeft invloed op de halo's en deze worden daarbij sterk be"invloed door de manier waarop massa aangroeit. We hebben ook de structuur en de baanstructuur van de satellieten van dergelijke halo's in detail onderzocht. In het algemeen zijn deze objecten sferischer dan de halo's zelf. Ze vertonen ook duidelijke afdrukken van getijdenwerking in zowel hun geometrische vorm als in de baanstructuur. Daarna gebruiken we het aantal massieve objecten rond de Melkweg om limieten te zetten op de totale massa van de donkere materie halo van de Melkweg. De eigenschappen van de massaverdeling van de Melkweg worden verder onderzocht in het laatste hoofdstuk. Daar maken we gebruik van de Sagittarius sterstroom om de vorm van de galactische potentiaal beter te bepalen. We komen met een nieuw model dat rekening houdt met de galactische schijf en de invloed van satellietstelsels en die bovendien consistent is met het LCDM paradigma.

  11. Support for EU fundraising in the field of Environment & Energy - BayFOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammerl, Thomas; Baumann, Cornelia; Reiter, Andrea; Blume, Andreas; Just, Jana; Franke, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Contract negotiations with the European Commission e) Project implementation (Project management, dissemination, Science-Policy-Interface) BayFOR staff has profound R&D background, as well as knowledge and experience in disseminating project outcomes, in particular with regard to the adaptation of results to the needs of relevant target groups like science, industry/SMEs, policy makers and the public. Furthermore, BayFOR can draw on distinct experience in the management of European research projects (e.g. CLIMB, Largecells, AlpBC, GeoMol, WE-EEN, WINALP). As a partner in the network for SMEs "Enterprise Europe Network" (EEN), BayFOR offers advice and support on topics such as funding, research programs, public procurement, market penetration and the promotion of innovation at European level. Beyond, BayFOR will make use of its regional networks to promote uptake and exploitation of project results. BayFOR is also commissioned by Bavaria's State Ministry of Science, Research and the Arts to look after the Bavarian University Funding Programme for the Initiation of International Projects (BayIntAn). Our efforts are aimed at initiating or strengthening transnational collaborative research involving Bavarian universities and universities of applied sciences.

  12. Present and Future Automotive Composite Materials Research Efforts at DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, C.D.

    1999-07-03

    Automobiles of the future will be forced to travel fi.uther on a tank of fuel while discharging lower levels of pollutants. Currently, the United States uses in excess of 16.4 million barrels of petroleum per day. Sixty-six percent of that petroleum is used in the transportation of people and goods. Automobiles currently account for just under two-thirds of the nation's gasoline consumptio~ and about one-third of the total United States energy usage. [1] By improving transportation related fiel efficiency, the United States can lessen the impact that emissions have on our environment and provide a cleaner environment for fiture generations. In 1992, The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Transportation Materials completed a comprehensive program plan entitled, The Lightweight MateriaIs (LWko Multi-Year Program Plan, for the development of technologies aimed at reducing vehicle mass [2]. This plan was followed in 1997 by the more comprehensive Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies research and development plan titled, Energy Eficient Vehicles for a Cleaner Environment [3] which outlines the department's plans for developing more efficient vehicles during the next ~een years. Both plans identi~ potential applications, technology needs, and R&D priorities. The goal of the Lightweight Materials Program is to develop materials and primary processing methods for the fabrication of lighter weight components which can be incorporated into automotive systems. These technologies are intended to reduce vehicle weight, increase fuel efficiency and decrease emissions. The Lightweight Materials program is jointly managed by the Department of Energy(DOE) and the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP). Composite materiak program work is coordinated by cooperative research efforts between the DOE and the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC).

  13. A Combined Use of Decomposition and Texture for Terrain Classification of Fully Polarimetric SAR Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionova, N. V.

    2007-03-01

    This p aper presents two-stag e unsupervised terrain classification of fully polarimetr ic SA R data using Freeman and Durden decomposition based on three simp le scattering mechanisms: surface, volume and double bounce (first step), and textur al features (uncorrelated uniformity , contr ast, inv erse mo men t and entropy) obtained from grey lev el co-occurrence matr ices (GLCM) (second step). Textural f eatures ar e defined in moving w indow 5x5 pixels w ith N=32 (N - number of grey lev els) . This algorith m preserves th e purity of domin ant polarimetric scattering properties and defines textural features in each scatter ing category. It is shown better object discrimin ation after app lying textur e w ith in fix ed scattering category. Speckle r eduction is one of th e main mo ments in imag e interpr etation improvement because of its great influen ce on textur e. Results from unfiltered and Lee filtered polar imetr ic SAR imag es show that the v alues of contrast and en tropy decr ease and th e values of uniformity and inverse moment increase with speckle reduction, that's tru e for all polarizations (HH, VV, HV). Th e d iscr imination b etw een objects increases after speckle f ilter ing. Polar ization influen ce on textur e features is def ined by calculating th e features in SAR images w ith HH , VV and HV polarizations before and after speck le filter ing, and then creating RG B images. It is shown mor e polarization inf luence on textur e features (uniformity , inverse mo ment and entropy) before filtering and less influen ce - after speck le f iltering. I t's not true for contrast wher e polar ization influen ce is not ch anged practically w ith filtering. SIR-C/X-SA R SLC L-band imag es of Moscow r egion are used for illustr ation.

  14. Thermal and epithermal neutron fluence rate gradient measurements by PADC detectors in LINAC radiotherapy treatments-field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera, M. T.; Barros, H.; Pino, F.; Dávila, J.; Sajo-Bohus, L.

    2015-07-01

    LINAC VARIAN 2100 is where energetic electrons produce Bremsstrahlung radiation, with energies above the nucleon binding energy (E≈5.5MeV). This radiation induce (γ,n) and (e,e'n) reactions mainly in the natural tungsten target material (its total photoneutron cross section is about 4000 mb in a energy range from 9-17 MeV). These reactions may occur also in other components of the system (e.g. multi leaf collimator). During radiation treatment the human body may receive an additional dose inside and outside the treated volume produced by the mentioned nuclear reactions. We measured the neutron density at the treatment table using nuclear track detectors (PADC-NTD). These covered by a boron-converter are employed, including a cadmium filter, to determine the ratio between two groups of neutron energy, i.e. thermal and epithermal. The PADC-NTD detectors were exposed to the radiation field at the iso-center during regular operation of the accelerator. Neutron are determined indirectly by the converting reaction 10B(n,α)7Li the emerging charged particle leave their kinetic energy in the PADC forming a latent nuclear track, enlarged by chemical etching (6N, NaOH, 70°C). Track density provides information on the neutron density through calibration coefficient (˜1.6 104 neutrons /track) obtained by a californium source. We report the estimation of the thermal and epithermal neutron field and its gradient for photoneutrons produced in radiotherapy treatments with 18 MV linear accelerators. It was obsered that photoneutron production have higher rate at the iso-center.

  15. Isomerization of delta 1-piperideine-2-carboxylate to delta 2-piperideine-2-carboxylate on complexation with flavoprotein D-amino acid oxidase.

    PubMed

    Nishina, Y; Sato, K; Shiga, K

    1991-05-01

    The 1,646 cm-1 band in a resonance Raman spectrum obtained with excitation in the charge-transfer band of the complex of oxidized D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) with the oxidation product of D-lysine catalyzed by DAO shifted to 1,617 cm-1 upon 2-13C substitution of lysine. Thus, the band is assigned to a C(2) = C(3) stretching mode of the enamine, delta 2-piperideine-2-carboxylate (En). In the enzyme-free solution, the product is preferentially in the cyclic imine form, delta 1-piperideine-2-carboxylate (Im). Thus, DAO has a higher affinity for the enamine form than for the imine form. The pH effects on the affinity of DAO for the product and on the molar absorption coefficient at 630 nm in the charge-transfer band, suggest that the enzyme-bound product is En in the neutral form at the N atom. As the value of observed rate constant between DAO and the product was constant at high product concentrations, the binding mechanism can be explained as follows; E + Im in equilibrium with EIm in equilibrium with EEN: rapid bimolecular and slow unimolecular processes. The isomerization of the imine form to the enamine form proceeds in the slow process. The low affinity of Im for DAO may be due to a steric repulsion of the hydrogen atoms of Im at C(3) in the active site. The hydrogen atoms of a substrate D-amino acid at C(3), which correspond to the C(3) hydrogens of Im, may act repulsively in the active site and the repulsive energy may induce strain or distortion of the substrate and the enzyme, accelerating the catalytic reaction.

  16. Probing the darkness : the link between baryons and dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velliscig, Marco

    2015-11-01

    De meeste materie in ons Universum is donker. Deze donkere materie vormt de bouwsteen van de grootschalige, kosmische structuren, waarin sterrenstelsels leven. Door zijn botsingloze natuur is donkere materie namelijk beter in staat structuren te vormen dan normale ("baryonische") materie. Deze structuren bestaan uit vlakken, filamenten en knopen, die samen ook wel het kosmisch web worden genoemd. Sterrenstelsels bewonen de centra van grotere "halo's" van donkere materie. Deze halo's zijn zelf niet zichtbaar en het licht uitgezonden door sterrenstelsels kan ons alleen iets vertellen over het binnendeel van deze halo's. In dit proefschrift trachten we meer over halo's te weten te komen. Hiertoe maken we gebruik van kosmologische, hydrodynamische simulaties, waarin we niet alleen de donkere maar ook de zichtbare materie meenemen, alsmede alle processen die gedacht worden belangrijk te zijn voor de vorming en groei van sterrenstelsels. Dergelijke simulaties bieden ons de mogelijkheid om het verband tussen zichtbare en donkere materie te verkennen, aangezien beide componenten tegelijk en zelfconsistent worden gesimuleerd. In waarnemingen kan dit verband onderzocht worden door gebruik te maken van zwaartekrachtlenzen. De werking van dergelijke lenzen is gebaseerd op de afbuiging van fotonen (lichtdeeltjes) wanneer deze door een zwaartekrachtspotentiaal reizen. Zodoende ondervindt licht dat van ver in het heelal naar ons toe reist, onderweg verschillende kleine afbuigingen. Als gevolg hiervan zien wij het beeld van de bron als verplaatst, vergroot en verstoord. Het zwaartekrachtlenseffect kan gebruikt worden om verschillende eigenschappen van (materie in) het Universum te meten, waaronder de totale massa en het massaprofiel van halo's, de vormen van halo's, de efficientie van de vorming van sterrenstelsels en uiteindelijk ook de fundamentele kosmologische parameters van ons Universum. Door gebruik te maken van kosmologische, hydrodynamische simulaties kunnen we ook

  17. Consensus guidelines of ECCO/ESPGHAN on the medical management of pediatric Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Ruemmele, F M; Veres, G; Kolho, K L; Griffiths, A; Levine, A; Escher, J C; Amil Dias, J; Barabino, A; Braegger, C P; Bronsky, J; Buderus, S; Martín-de-Carpi, J; De Ridder, L; Fagerberg, U L; Hugot, J P; Kierkus, J; Kolacek, S; Koletzko, S; Lionetti, P; Miele, E; Navas López, V M; Paerregaard, A; Russell, R K; Serban, D E; Shaoul, R; Van Rheenen, P; Veereman, G; Weiss, B; Wilson, D; Dignass, A; Eliakim, A; Winter, H; Turner, D

    2014-10-01

    Children and adolescents with Crohn's disease (CD) present often with a more complicated disease course compared to adult patients. In addition, the potential impact of CD on growth, pubertal and emotional development of patients underlines the need for a specific management strategy of pediatric-onset CD. To develop the first evidenced based and consensus driven guidelines for pediatric-onset CD an expert panel of 33 IBD specialists was formed after an open call within the European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation and the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterolog, Hepatology and Nutrition. The aim was to base on a thorough review of existing evidence a state of the art guidance on the medical treatment and long term management of children and adolescents with CD, with individualized treatment algorithms based on a benefit-risk analysis according to different clinical scenarios. In children and adolescents who did not have finished their growth, exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is the induction therapy of first choice due to its excellent safety profile, preferable over corticosteroids, which are equipotential to induce remission. The majority of patients with pediatric-onset CD require immunomodulator based maintenance therapy. The experts discuss several factors potentially predictive for poor disease outcome (such as severe perianal fistulizing disease, severe stricturing/penetrating disease, severe growth retardation, panenteric disease, persistent severe disease despite adequate induction therapy), which may incite to an anti-TNF-based top down approach. These guidelines are intended to give practical (whenever possible evidence-based) answers to (pediatric) gastroenterologists who take care of children and adolescents with CD; they are not meant to be a rule or legal standard, since many different clinical scenario exist requiring treatment strategies not covered by or different from these guidelines.

  18. Radio Sounding Techniques for the Galilean Icy Moons and their Jovian Magnetospheric Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James L.; Markus, Thursten; Fung, Shing F.; Benson, Robert F.; Reinich, Bodo W.; Song, Paul; Gogineni, S. Prasad; Cooper, John F.; Taylor, William W. L.; Garcia, Leonard

    2004-01-01

    Radio sounding of the Earth's topside ionosphere and magnetosphere is a proven technique from geospace missions such as the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) and the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE). Application of this technique to Jupiter's icy moons and the surrounding Jovian magnetosphere will provide unique remote sensing observations of the plasma and magnetic field environments and the subsurface conductivities, of Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. Spatial structures of ionospheric plasma above the surfaces of the moons vary in response to magnetic-field perturbations from (1) magnetospheric plasma flows, (2) ionospheric currents from ionization of sputtered surface material, and (3) induced electric currents in salty subsurface oceans and from the plasma flows and ionospheric currents themselves. Radio sounding from 3 kHz to 10 MHz can provide the global electron densities necessary for the extraction of the oceanic current signals and supplements in-situ plasma and magnetic field measurements. While radio sounding requires high transmitter power for subsurface sounding, little power is needed to probe the electron density and magnetic field intensity near the spacecraft. For subsurface sounding, reflections occur at changes in the dielectric index, e.g., at the interfaces between two different phases of water or between water and soil. Variations in sub-surface conductivity of the icy moons can be investigated by radio sounding in the frequency range from 10 MHz to 50 MHz, allowing the determination of the presence of density and solid-liquid phase boundaries associated with oceans and related structures in overlying ice crusts. The detection of subsurface oceans underneath the icy crusts of the Jovian moons is one of the primary objectives of the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission. Preliminary modeling results show that return signals are clearly distinguishable be&een an ice crust with a thickness of

  19. Emulation of an ensemble Kalman filter algorithm on a flood wave propagation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthélémy, S.; Ricci, S.; Pannekoucke, O.; Thual, O.; Malaterre, P. O.

    2013-06-01

    parametrized variance and correlation length scale with a diffusion operator makes it possible to model the converged background error covariance matrix from the EnKF without actually integrating the EnKF algorithm. This method was finally applied to a case with two different observation point with different error statistics. It was shown that the results of this emulated EnKF (EEnKF) in terms of background error variance, correlation length scale and analyzed water level is close to those of the EnKF but with a significantly reduced computational cost.

  20. Examining the role of information exchange in residential aged care work practices-a survey of residential aged care facilities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The provision of residential aged care is underpinned by information, and is reliant upon systems that adequately capture and effectively utilise and communicate this information. The aim of this study was to explicate and quantify the volume and method by which information is collected, exchanged within facilities and with external providers, and retrieved from facility information systems and hospitals. Methods A survey of staff (n = 119), including managers, health informatics officers (HIOs), quality improvement staff, registered nurses (RNs), enrolled nurses (ENs)/endorsed enrolled nurses (EENs) and assistants in nursing (AINs) was carried out in four residential aged care facilities in New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. Sites varied in size and displayed a range of information technology (IT) capabilities. The survey investigated how and by whom information is collected, retrieved and exchanged, and the frequency and amount of time devoted to these tasks. Descriptive analysis was performed using SPSS, and open responses to questions were coded into key themes. Results Staff completed a median of six forms each, taking a median of 30 min per shift. 68.8% of staff reported transferring information from paper to a computer system, which took a median of 30 min per shift. Handover and face-to-face communication was the most frequently used form of information exchange within facilities. There was a large amount of faxing and telephone communication between facility staff and General Practitioners and community pharmacists, with staff reporting sending a median of 2 faxes to pharmacy and 1.5 faxes to General Practitioners, and initiating 2 telephone calls to pharmacies and 1.5 calls to General Practitioners per shift. Only 38.5% of respondents reported that they always had information available at the point-of-care and only 35.4% of respondents reported that they always had access to hospital stay information of residents after hospital

  1. Hartley and Itokawa: small comet and asteroid with similar morphologies and structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2011-10-01

    " Orbits ma ke s tructures " [1-3]. This three-word sentence means that as all cosmic bodies moves in non-circular keplerian orbits they all are subjected to an action of inertia -gravity warping waves. These waves arise in bodies as a result of periodically changing accelerations causing inertia-gravity forces. These forces are absorbed by bodies masses and make them to warp. This warping is smoothed by gravity making globular shapes of the larger bodies. But smaller bodies with rather weak gravity keep their warped shapes. The wave nature warping happens in four interfering direct ions (ortho - and diagonal) and in various wavelengths. The fundamental wave 1 long 2π R makes ubiquitous tectonic dichotomy: an oppos ition of the uplifted segment-hemisphere and the subsided one. For small bodies a result of this is in their convexo-concave shape [3] (Fig. 1-7). The uplifted bulging segment expands and is breaking by cracks, faults, rifts. The opposed subsided concave segment contracts. As a result in the middle of an oblong body is formed a narrow thoroughly squeezed and degassed portion - a neck or waist (wringed out wet linen). Subsequently here at a weakened place could happen a break - formation of binaries, polycomponental bodies, satellites. Figures 1 to 4 show development stages of small bodies leading to a full separation of two parts. Traces of warping waves of four directions are often seen on surfaces of many celestial bodies as cross -cutting lineations. A recent example of the small core of the Hartley 2 comet (2 km long) is very impressive. At received points of view are clearly seen at least three ortho- and diagonal lineations often marked by small outgassing craters (Fig. 1). Crossing lineations produce square forms (craters ) earlier s een on the Eros ' s urface. Wave comp res s ion lineations make the Hart ley 2 t o appear as a wafer ca ke. A " wa is t" (neck) is formed as a res ult of nearing a concave depression, from one side, and deep cracks

  2. Structure and deformation history of the northern range of Trinidad and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algar, S. T.; Pindell, J. L.

    1993-08-01

    Conflicting models have been proposed for both the evolution of northern South America and the neotectonics of the south Caribbean plate boundary zone. The Trinidadian portion of the margin is particularly controversial, but surprisingly it has been little studied. We present a structural analysis of Trinidad's Northern Range, pertinent updates of the island's stratigraphy and sedimentology, and new zircon fission track age determinations, and use them to constrain Trinidad's geologic history, and to better understand the controlling tectonic processes. In our interpretation Trinidad's three E-ENE striking ranges, which are separated by late Neogene-Recent depocenters, expose (1) the Northern Range Group, generally greenschist-metamorphosed Upper Jurassic to Cretaceous north facing continental slope sediments of the Northern Range, deposited on the northern South American passive margin 200-400 km to the WNW, and (2) the Trinidad Group, Cretaceous-Paleogene shelf slope sediments of the central and southern Trinidad deposited less than 100 km WNW of their present location. A small allochthon composing the Sans Souci Group Cretaceous tholeiitic volcaniclastic, basaltic, and gabbroic rocks (Sans Souci Formation) and sediments (Toco Formation) now in the northeastern Northern Range, has been transported hundreds of kilometers from the west with the Caribbean Plate. Despite earlier references to Cretaceous orogenesis, all deformation in Trinidad is of Cenozoic age. The first deformation in the Northern Range (D1) formed north vergent nappes and induced greenschist metamorphism, probably in the Late Eocene or Oligocene. The nappes developed either by the underthrusting of the Proto-Caribbean crust beneath South America due to convergence between North and South America, or as gravity slides caused by oversteepening induced by this convergence and/or the passage of the Caribbean Plate's peripheral bulge and arrival of its foredeep. Northern Range D2 deformation is south

  3. Accessibility and selective stabilization of the principal spin states of iron by pyridyl versus phenolic ketimines: modulation of the 6A1 ↔ 2T2 ground-state transformation of the [FeN4O2]+ chromophore.

    PubMed

    Shongwe, Musa S; Al-Zaabi, Usama A; Al-Mjeni, Faizah; Eribal, Carla S; Sinn, Ekkehard; Al-Omari, Imaddin A; Hamdeh, Hussein H; Matoga, Dariusz; Adams, Harry; Morris, Michael J; Rheingold, Arnold L; Bill, Eckhard; Sellmyer, David J

    2012-08-01

    Several potentially tridentate pyridyl and phenolic Schiff bases (apRen and HhapRen, respectively) were derived from the condensation reactions of 2-acetylpyridine (ap) and 2'-hydroxyacetophenone (Hhap), respectively, with N-R-ethylenediamine (RNHCH(2)CH(2)NH(2), Ren; R = H, Me or Et) and complexed in situ with iron(II) or iron(III), as dictated by the nature of the ligand donor set, to generate the six-coordinate iron compounds [Fe(II)(apRen)(2)]X(2) (R = H, Me; X(-) = ClO(4)(-), BPh(4)(-), PF(6)(-)) and [Fe(III)(hapRen)(2)]X (R = Me, Et; X(-) = ClO(4)(-), BPh(4)(-)). Single-crystal X-ray analyses of [Fe(II)(apRen)(2)](ClO(4))(2) (R = H, Me) revealed a pseudo-octahedral geometry about the ferrous ion with the Fe(II)-N bond distances (1.896-2.041 Å) pointing to the (1)A(1) (d(π)(6)) ground state; the existence of this spin state was corroborated by magnetic susceptibility measurements and Mössbauer spectroscopy. In contrast, the X-ray structure of the phenolate complex [Fe(III)(hapMen)(2)]ClO(4), determined at 100 K, demonstrated stabilization of the ferric state; the compression of the coordinate bonds at the metal center is in accord with the (2)T(2) (d(π)(5)) ground state. Magnetic susceptibility measurements along with EPR and Mössbauer spectroscopic techniques have shown that the iron(III) complexes are spin-crossover (SCO) materials. The spin transition within the [Fe(III)N(4)O(2)](+) chromophore was modulated with alkyl substituents to afford two-step and one-step (6)A(1) ↔ (2)T(2) transformations in [Fe(III)(hapMen)(2)]ClO(4) and [Fe(III)(hapEen)(2)]ClO(4), respectively. Previously, none of the X-salRen- and X-sal(2)trien-based ferric spin-crossover compounds exhibited a stepwise transition. The optical spectra of the LS iron(II) and SCO iron(III) complexes display intense d(π) → p(π)* and p(π) → d(π) CT visible absorptions, respectively, which account for the spectacular color differences. All the complexes are redox-active; as expected, the

  4. PRESENT; PREScription of Enteral Nutrition in pediaTric Crohn's disease in Spain.

    PubMed

    Navas-López, Victor Manuel; Martín-de-Carpi, Javier; Segarra, Oscar; García-Burriel, José Ignacio; Díaz-Martín, Juan José; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Medina, Enrique; Juste, Mercedes

    2014-03-01

    : La frecuencia de empleo de la NEE en pacientes con EC es similar a la de otros cuestionarios europeos. Se precisan herramientas y recursos que faciliten la aceptación por parte del paciente y de su familia así como disponer de más tiempo a dedicar para instaurar esta modalidad terapéutica. Dada la disparidad de criterios para la indicación de la EEN, sería útil disponer de guías de práctica clínica ampliamente aceptadas o protocolos que facilitan la decisión de utilizarla.

  5. Experiences on Altimeter Calibration at Ibiza Island and Cape of Begur (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Benjamin, J. J.; Martinez Harcia, M.; Ortiz Castello, M. A.; Talaya, J.; Baron, A.; Rodriguez Velasco, G.; Martín Davila, J.; Garate, J.; Bonnefond, P.; Garcia, C.

    2006-07-01

    Three preliminary camp aigns for TOPEX /POSEIDON (T/P) wer e made in March 1999 and July 2000 and for JASON-1 in August 2002, in the NW Mediterran ean Sea at th e Begur Cape area. Dir ect abso lute altimeter calibration , and mapping of the sea surface, w ere made in these camp aigns from dir ect overflights using GPS buoys with a toroidal design performed at the I CC based in the orig inal design of the Univ ersity of Colorado at Boulder and a estimation of the TOPEX A lt- B bias w as made. A Spanish JASON-1 geoid gradien t campaign with Fench support has been made in June 2003 at the Ibiza island in the NW Mediterr anean Sea. Th e main objectiv e has b een to map w ith a new d esign ed, builded and calibrated GPS catamar an, the lo cal geoid gradien t in three ar eas around Ibiza island under the ascending (187) and descending (248) Jason-1ground tracks. The catamaran equ ipped with two GPS antennas to perform continuous sea lev el measur ements was towed by the Patro l Dev a from th e Span ish N avy. Five GPS reference stations were dep loyed on Ibiza island: one in Portinatx, two in San Anton io and two in Ibiza. The marin e geo id has been used to relate the coastal tide gauge data from Ibiza and San An tonio h arbours to off- shore altimetric data. In th e framework of the campaign, the levelling of the Ibiza and San Anton io tide gauges to the r espective GPS mark ers w as p erformed. We present synth esis of the resu lts obtained from Topex/Poseidon and th e first r esults on Jason-1 altimeter calibration using the direct measurements from GPS buoys and the derived marin e geoid. Th e Ibiza results agree relativ ely w ell with resu lts ob tained at Corsica, Harvest and Bass Strait calibration permanen t sites. Moreov er, the geod etic activities (e.g., GPS, levelling) has p ermitted to build a very accurate (few mm) local n etwork link ed to th e European one, w ith a reference frame compatible with th e satellite altimetry missions (ITRF2000). The GPS

  6. Contribution of terrigenous rocks of South Belgian coal deposits in geological storage of CO2 : the sandstones case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, N.; Baele, J.-M.

    2009-04-01

    potential similar to that of storage in rock porosity. Finally, for reservoir safety purpose, a preliminary assessment of the mineral trapping potential shows that the whole sequestrated CO2 (within the porosity and by adsorption) could react with CO2-sensitive minerals such as chlorites and feldspars in the long term. References : Baele J.M., Raucq V. , De Weireld G., Legrain H., Billemont P., Tshibangu K. & Dupuis C. (2007) - Geological Storage of CO2 : New Concepts from Storage Capacity Evaluation in Belgian Westphalian Rocks - EGU Meeting, Vienna 2007. Bertier P., Swennen R., Laenen B., Lagrou D. & Dreesen R (2006) - Experimental identification of CO2-water-rock interactions caused by sequestration of CO2 in Westphalian and Buntsandstein sandstones of the Campine Basin (NE-Belgium) - Journal of Geochemical Exploration 89 (2006) : 10-14. Van Tongeren P., Laenen B. & Dreesen R. (2000) - Het koolbedmethaanpotentieel in Vlaanderen en de mogelijkheden tot geologische opslag van CO2 in relatie tot de winning van deze gasreserves: een pré-haalbaarheidsstudie t.b.v. de Administratie Natuurlijke Rijkdommen en Energie. VITO report 2000/ETE/R/028, 100 pp.