Stropahl, Maren; Schellhardt, Sebastian; Debener, Stefan
The concurrent presentation of different auditory and visual syllables may result in the perception of a third syllable, reflecting an illusory fusion of visual and auditory information. This well-known McGurk effect is frequently used for the study of audio-visual integration. Recently, it was shown that the McGurk effect is strongly stimulus-dependent, which complicates comparisons across perceivers and inferences across studies. To overcome this limitation, we developed the freely available Oldenburg audio-visual speech stimuli (OLAVS), consisting of 8 different talkers and 12 different syllable combinations. The quality of the OLAVS set was evaluated with 24 normal-hearing subjects. All 96 stimuli were characterized based on their stimulus disparity, which was obtained from a probabilistic model (cf. Magnotti & Beauchamp, 2015). Moreover, the McGurk effect was studied in eight adult cochlear implant (CI) users. By applying the individual, stimulus-independent parameters of the probabilistic model, the predicted effect of stronger audio-visual integration in CI users could be confirmed, demonstrating the validity of the new stimulus material.
iodide, Rubidium iodide lithium crystals and other comparable crystalline materials , especially materials doped with lithium (Li). A principal object of...ion centers in Kl:Li and RbI:Li, or in comparable crystalline materials ; by growing, coloring, and annealing the K::Li or the RbI:Li crystals in nitrogen-free inert (e.g., argon) atmospheres.
Nero, Mike Jech, Olav Rune Godø, Sunwoong Lee, Purnima Ratilal, and Nicholas Makris, “Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing (OAWRS) of Marine...Srinivasan Jagannathan, Deanelle Symonds, Ioannis Bertsatos, Tianrun Chen, Hector Pena, Ruben Patel, Olav Rune Godø, Redwood W. 6 7 Nero, J
FORUM 39 Peavie, Barrett K . Intelligence Sharing in Bosnia. Fort Leavenworth, KS : U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, School of Advanced...Investigative Service, 2000. Jenssen, Lars Christian and Olav Riste. Intelligence in the Cold War: Organiza- tion, Role, International Cooperation. Oslo
into the concept of the Nordic Balance, coined by Arne Olar Brundtland of the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs. Although Nordic countries...Olav and Tammes, Rolf. The Soviet Naval Threat and Norway. Oslo: National Defence College of Norway, 1986. Skogan, John Kristen and Brundtland , Arne
Myklebust, Jon Olav
This article, by Jon Olav Myklebust from Volda University, Norway, presents analyses of social security dependence among students with special educational needs in Norway who at the start of upper secondary school had various disabilities--of a somatic, psychological and/or social nature. They were all educated in ordinary schools, in special or…
Myklebust, Jon Olav
This article, by Jon Olav Myklebust from Volda University, Norway, presents analyses of social security dependence among students with special educational needs in Norway who at the start of upper secondary school had various disabilities--of a somatic, psychological and/or social nature. They were all educated in ordinary schools, in special or…
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minority Labor government of Odvar Nordli in 1976 to 1981.22 The "Turned-Around" Nordic Balance Arne Olav Brundtland , who coined the phrase "Nordic...equipment, might not be able to deploy to Norway rapidly 2German, 1982a, p. 72; Brundtland , 1981, p. 13. 26Brundtland, 1981, p. 13. 21 enough in a crisis...warned the deputy chair of the ruling Labor party, Gro Harland Brundtland , that if prepositioning were approved, "We would know how to react, how to make
Beltesbrekke, Hanne Saettem; Husa, Mari Bergan; Vik-Mo, Harald
Occluded coronary arteries should be opened urgently in patients who have acute myocardial infarction and ST-elevation in ECG. When transport times are long, thrombolytic treatment is a good alternative to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The purpose of this study was to assess choice of treatment strategy in cases where time after start of symptoms and transport time are decisive for the outcome. A cohort study of 379 patients, who had myocardial infarction and ST-elevation, and were admitted to St. Olav's Hospital, Trondheim, Norway in the period 1.11.2007-31.1.2009. 268 patients (71 %) were treated with PCI, and 111 patients (29 %) with thrombolytic treatment. 173 patients (46 %) were transported by helicopter. The counties in Mid-Norway used markedly different treatment strategies for these patients. Great regional differences were observed in the use of PCI and thrombolytic treatment in Mid-Norway.
Dr. Cameron joined the Arctic Institute of North America in 1956 to participate in IGY-related activities in Antarctica. He served as Chief Glaciologist at Wilkes Station, on the coast of East Antarctica. This was a joint Navy-civilian operation consisting of 17 Navy personnel and 10 scientists. Specifically, his glaciological team consisted of two colleagues with whom he had worked before - Olav Loken in Norway in the summer of 1953, and John Molholm in Greenland in the summer of 1954. This team spent much of its time at a remote station established 80 kilometers (50 miles) inland, where they conducted both meteorological and glaciological studies. One of the glaciological studies entailed digging a 35-meter (approx.115-foot) vertical pit to study snow densification and stratigraphy. The assignment for the Navy Seabees was to first establish a joint US-NZ base at Cape Hallett and then go along the coast of East Antarctica and set up Wilkes Station.
Background Overweight, obesity and associated conditions are major public health concerns in Norway. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the general population in Norway is increasing, but there are limited data on how the situation is in hospitals. This study aimed to find the prevalence of overweight and obesity, and explore the associations of overweight, obesity and its related medical conditions in an adult in-patient sample at specified somatic and psychiatric departments at St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim. Results A total of 497 patients participated. The mean BMI for the total sample at screening was 25.4 kg/m2. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 45.1%. There was a higher association of overweight and obesity among patients aged 40–59 years (OR: 1.7) compared to those being younger. There was no significant difference between the somatic and the psychiatric samples. In the somatic sample overweight and obesity was associated with obesity-related conditions for both genders (OR: 2.0 and 2.1, respectively), when adjusted for age. Conclusion The substantial prevalence of overweight and obese patients may pose a threat to future hospital services. To further address the burden of overweight and obesity in hospitals, we need more knowledge about consequences of length of stay, use of resources and overall cost. PMID:24571809
Robles, Ana I; Olsen, Karina Standahl; Tsui, Dana W T; Georgoulias, Vassilis; Creaney, Jenette; Dobra, Katalin; Vyberg, Mogens; Minato, Nagahiro; Anders, Robert A; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zhou, Jianwei; Sætrom, Pål; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Kirschner, Michaela B; Krokan, Hans E; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki; Tsamardinos, Ioannis; Røe, Oluf D
The goal of biomarker research is to identify clinically valid markers. Despite decades of research there has been disappointingly few molecules or techniques that are in use today. The "1st International NTNU Symposium on Current and Future Clinical Biomarkers of Cancer: Innovation and Implementation", was held June 16th and 17th 2016, at the Knowledge Center of the St. Olavs Hospital in Trondheim, Norway, under the auspices of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the HUNT biobank and research center. The Symposium attracted approximately 100 attendees and invited speakers from 12 countries and 4 continents. In this Symposium original research and overviews on diagnostic, predictive and prognostic cancer biomarkers in serum, plasma, urine, pleural fluid and tumor, circulating tumor cells and bioinformatics as well as how to implement biomarkers in clinical trials were presented. Senior researchers and young investigators presented, reviewed and vividly discussed important new developments in the field of clinical biomarkers of cancer, with the goal of accelerating biomarker research and implementation. The excerpts of this symposium aim to give a cutting-edge overview and insight on some highly important aspects of clinical cancer biomarkers to-date to connect molecular innovation with clinical implementation to eventually improve patient care.
Stene, Lise Eilin; Ormstad, Kari; Schei, Berit
To describe the implementation of medical examination and forensic analysis in the police investigation of sexual assaults, and compare police-reported cases with and without medico-legal examination of the victim. A retrospective study of all police-reported sexual assaults against women in the county of Sør-Trøndelag, Norway, January 1997-June 2003. Information from the police files was merged with information from the only specialized health care system in the region, the Sexual Assault Care Centre (SACC), St. Olav's Hospital, Trondheim. Of the 185 police-reported cases identified, 101 (55%) involved women examined at the SACC. A medical report was requested in 83% of the latter, while forensic analyses of biological samples from the victim's body were performed in a mere 29%. In cases without examination at the SACC, there was more likely assault outside the city, over one week's delay between the assault and police-reporting, over one assault reported, and assault coded as attempted rape, while vaginal penetration was less likely. Adjusting for delay of reporting, geographical closeness to health care remained predictive of medical examination. Only 16% of the cases were prosecuted. The police requested a medical report in most cases where the victim had undergone examination, while a minority of collected biological samples was analyzed. Consequently, a vigilant and thorough documentation of mental state, physical injuries and history of assault should be emphasized. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Backe, Bjørn; Magnussen, Elisabeth Balstad; Johansen, Ole Jakob; Sellaeg, Gerd; Russwurm, Harald
To determine the incidence and prognosis of obstetric brachial plexus injuries and analyze associated risk factors. Analysis of prospectively collected information comprising all births from 1991 to 2000, with complete follow-up of affected children. Setting. St Olav's University Hospital, a tertiary care hospital in the middle part of Norway. Thirty thousand five hundred and seventy-four children; all were examined within 24 hours of birth and 91 were diagnosed with brachial plexus injury. We reviewed the hospital records and analyzed the data submitted from our hospital to the Medical Birth Register of Norway. Risk factors are shoulder dystocia, macrosomy, diabetes, vacuum extraction and forceps delivery. The predictive power of these variables is poor. Almost half of the plexus injuries followed spontaneous vaginal deliveries with second stage of 30 minutes or less. Two newborns were delivered by cesarean section and two were vaginal breech deliveries. In 15 children (0.5/1,000) a permanent plexus injury has been diagnosed. Compared with transient plexus impairment, risk factors for a permanent injury were high maternal body mass index, shoulder dystocia, fractured humerus and fetal asphyxia. Fracture of the clavicle was significantly more frequent when the injury was transient, possibly reflecting a protective effect. The incidence of obstetric brachial plexus injury is 0.3% and the recovery rate is 84%, resulting in 0.5 permanent injuries per 1,000 births. Plexus injury is not well predicted by known risk factors. Other etiological factors should be sought.
Nordseth, Trond; Skogvoll, Eirik; Gisvold, Sven Erik
Anesthesiologists and nurse anaesthesists have important roles in the management of in-hospital medical emergencies, and in trauma management. We investigated the extent of these services provided by the department of anaesthesiology at St. Olav University Hospital in Trondheim in the year 2002. Missions involving emergency medical assistance were identified by a computer search in the department's database. We assessed medical aspects, place, time, and type of intervention. We identified a total of 646 missions, of which 501 occurred in the emergency department and 145 on the general wards. The majority (64%) occurred during on-call hours (4 pm-8 am). We found that as many as 4 to 7 missions occurred on any single day 40 times (i.e. days) during the year; which fits in with a Poisson statistical model. Trauma (50 %) and cardiac arrest (20%) dominated the material. Other medical emergencies included seizures, cerebrovascular events, intoxication, respiratory arrest, cardiac arrhythmias, internal bleeding, pulmonary oedema and loss of consciousness. Airway management was important, as 61 patients received bag-valve-mask ventilation and 164 were intubated and ventilated. Staffing of anaesthesiology departments must take into account the possibility of sudden medical emergencies.
Tørhaug, T; Brurok, B; Hoff, J; Helgerud, J; Leivseth, G
To assess the effect from maximal bench press strength training (MST) on wheelchair propulsion work economy (WE). Pretest-posttest case-control group design. St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim, Norway. Seventeen male individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) paraplegia were allocated to either MST bench press (n=11) or the control group (CG) (n=7). The MST group trained bench press three times per week, for 6 weeks, starting at 85-95% of their pretest bench press one-repetition maximum (1RM). For calculation of WE during wheelchair propulsion, oxygen uptake (VO2) measurements were collected during wheelchair ergometry (WCE) at submaximal workload of 50 W. Similarly, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and peak power output (W) were measured during WCE. Individuals in the MST regimen significantly improved WE compared with the CG by 17.3 % (mean between-group differences: 95% confidence interval) of 2.63 ml kg(-1) min(-1): (-4.34, -0.91) (P=0.007). Between pretest and posttest, the increase in bench press 1RM was by 17% higher in the MST group compared with the CG. At peak testing, the MST group generated significantly higher peak power compared with the CG. All other physiological variables were comparable within and between groups. A 6-week MST bench press regimen significantly improved WE during wheelchair propulsion at 50 W workload. These preliminary data support a possible beneficial role for MST to reduce the energy cost of wheelchair propulsion for SCI individuals.
Gjerløw, Ellen; Bjørgaas, Marit R; Nielsen, Erik W; Olsen, Sandra E; Asvold, Bjørn O
Severe hypoglycemia is a serious complication of type1 diabetes feared by many who have the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate specific fears related to hypoglycemia in adults with type 1 diabetes and to investigate how aspects of fear of hypoglycemia may differ between genders. A cross-sectional study with questionnaires sent to 636 patients with type 1 diabetes, aged 18-75 years, who attended the outpatient clinic at St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim, Norway. Fears related to hypoglycemia were assessed using the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey II Worry subscale (HFS-II-Worry). The response rate was 70% (N = 445, 216 women and 229 men). The mean HFS-II-Worry score was higher in women than in men (2.46 [SD = 0.80] vs. 2.22 [SD = 0.74], respectively; p < .001). Women scored higher than men in all items in the HFS-II-Worry, and women's average scores were statistically significantly higher in 5 of the 18 items after correction for multiple comparisons. The largest gender differences in mean scores occurred in the items "low blood glucose interfering with important things," "becoming upset and difficult," "difficulty thinking clearly," and "feeling lightheaded or dizzy." In both women and men, the highest mean scores appeared in the worry items "become hypoglycemic while sleeping" and "not having food available." In this sample of Norwegian adults with type 1 diabetes, women expressed more concerns about hypoglycemia than men. The highest HFS-II-Worry scores occurred in the same items in women and men, but the largest gender differences in mean scores appeared across a variety of other items, some of which were related to social esteem.
Skogvoll, Eirik; Nordseth, Trond
Objectives In the early minutes of cardiac arrest, timing of defibrillation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation during the basic life support phase (BLS CPR) is debated. Aims of this study were to provide in-hospital incidence and outcome data, and to investigate the relation between outcome and time from collapse to defibrillation, time to BLS CPR, and CPR quality. Methods Resuscitation attempts during a 3-year period at St. Olav's University Hospital (960 beds) were prospectively registered. The times between collapse and initiation of BLS CPR, and defibrillation were determined. CPR quality was assessed by the resuscitation team. The relation between these variables and outcome (short term survival and discharge) was explored using non-parametric correlation and logistic regression. Results CPR was started in a total of 223 arrests, an incidence of 77 episodes per 1000 beds per year. Return of spontaneous circulation occurred in 40%, and 29 patients (13%) survived to discharge. Median time from collapse to BLS CPR was 1 minute; CPR was judged to be of good quality in half of the episodes. CPR during the first 3 minutes in ventricular fibrillation (VF/VT) was negatively associated with survival, but later proved beneficial. For patients with non-shockable rhythms, we found no association between outcome and time to BLS or CPR quality. Conclusion Our findings indicate that defibrillation should have priority during the first 3 minutes of VF/VT. Later, patients benefit from CPR in conjunction with defibrillation. Patients presenting with non-shockable rhythms have a grave prognosis, and the outcome was not associated with time to BLS or CPR quality. PMID:18957063
Larsen, Pia Bükmann; Storjord, Elin; Bakke, Åsne; Bukve, Tone; Christensen, Mikael; Eikeland, Joakim; Haugen, Vegar Engeland; Husby, Kristin; McGrail, Rie; Mikaelsen, Solveig Meier; Monsen, Grete; Møller, Mette Fogh; Nybo, Jan; Revsholm, Jesper; Risøy, Aslaug Johanne; Skålsvik, Unni Marie; Strand, Heidi; Teruel, Reyes Serrano; Theodorsson, Elvar
Regular measurement of prothrombin time as an international normalized ratio PT (INR) is mandatory for optimal and safe use of warfarin. Scandinavian evaluation of laboratory equipment for primary health care (SKUP) evaluated the microINR portable coagulometer (microINR(®)) (iLine Microsystems S.L., Spain) for measurement of PT (INR). Analytical quality and user-friendliness were evaluated under optimal conditions at an accredited hospital laboratory and at two primary health care centres (PHCCs). Patients were recruited at the outpatient clinic of the Laboratory of Medical Biochemistry, St Olav's University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway (n = 98) and from two PHCCs (n = 88). Venous blood samples were analyzed under optimal conditions on the STA-R(®)Evolution with STA-SPA + reagent (Stago, France) (Owren method), and the results were compared to capillary measurements on the microINR(®). The imprecision of the microINR(®) was 6% (90% CI: 5.3-7.0%) and 6.3% (90% CI: 5.1-8.3) in the outpatient clinic and PHCC2, respectively for INR ≥2.5. The microINR(®) did not meet the SKUP quality requirement for imprecision ≤5.0%. For INR <2.5 at PHCC2 and at both levels in PHCC1, CV% was ≤5.0. The accuracy fulfilled the SKUP quality goal in both outpatient clinic and PHCCs. User-friendliness of the operation manual was rated as intermediate, defined by SKUP as neutral ratings assessed as neither good nor bad. Operation facilities was rated unsatisfactory, and time factors satisfactory. In conclusion, quality requirements for imprecision were not met. The SKUP criteria for accuracy was fulfilled both at the hospital and at the PHCCs. The user-friendliness was rated intermediate.
Hagemann, Cecilie T; Helland, Arne; Spigset, Olav; Espnes, Ketil A; Ormstad, Kari; Schei, Berit
The purpose of the study was to describe toxicological findings among women seeking health care after sexual assault, and to assess the relationship with so-called proactive DFSA (drug facilitated sexual assault). We also explored associations between ethanol in blood/urine and background data, assault characteristics, and clinical findings. We conducted a retrospective, descriptive study of female patients ≥ 12 years of age consulting the Sexual Assault Center at St. Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway. They were examined between July 1, 2003 and December 31, 2010, and urine and/or blood were analyzed for ethanol and selected medicinal/recreational drugs. Among the 264 patients included, ethanol and/or drugs were detected in 155 (59%). Of the 50 patients (19%) testing positive for drugs other than ethanol, benzodiazepines/benzodiazepine-like drugs were found in 31, central stimulants in 14, cannabinoids in 13 and opioids in nine. None tested positive for gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). In total, 57 patients (22%) suspected proactive DFSA, but only five had findings of sedative drugs that were not accounted for by self-reported voluntary intake. No cases could unequivocally be attributed to proactive DFSA. Among the 120 patients tested for ethanol within 12 h after the assault, 102 were positive. The median estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at the time of assault was 1.87 g/L. Patients testing positive for ethanol more often reported a public place of assault and a stranger assailant. Higher estimated BAC at the time of assault was associated with higher frequency of suspecting proactive DFSA. Ethanol was the most prevalent toxicological finding in urine/blood from victims of sexual assault, and high ethanol concentrations were often detected. Among the patients suspecting proactive DFSA, very few had sedative drug findings not explained by voluntary intake. It seems like opportunistic DFSA, rather than proactive DFSA dominate among the sexually
Hagemann, Cecilie T; Stene, Lise E; Myhre, Arne K; Ormstad, Kari; Schei, Berit
To assess the impact of the medical documentation and biological trace evidence in rape cases on the legal process. Retrospective descriptive study. Police-reported cases of rape of women ≥16 years old in the Norwegian county of Sør-Trøndelag from January 1997 to June 2003. Police data were merged with data from the Sexual Assault Center at St Olav's Hospital. Charged and non-charged cases were compared. Medico-legal findings and legal outcome. A total of 185 police-reported cases were identified. Of the 101 cases examined at Sexual Assault Center, charges were filed in 18 cases. Extragenital injuries were documented in 49 women; five were life threatening. Anogenital injuries were documented in 14 women; eight had multiple anogenital injuries. Documentation of injuries was not associated with charge filing. In only 33% of the cases were swabs collected from women's genitals used as trace evidence by the police. When used, this increased the likelihood for charge filing. A DNA profile matching the suspect was identified in four of the 18 charged cases and in only one among the 54 non-charged cases. Half of the women had one or more documented injury. Only one-third of the trace evidence kits collected from the women's anogenital area were analyzed. The analysis of swabs was associated with charge filing, regardless of test results. Increased use of such medical evidence, especially in cases of stranger rape, may ensure women's rights and increase available information to the legal system. © 2011 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2011 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Van Nieuwenhuyze, Wim; Roberts, Stephen J.; Hodgson, Dominic A.; Verleyen, Elie; Sterken, Mieke; Sabbe, Koen; Vyverman, Wim
South Georgia's position within the Polar Frontal Zone, the core belt of the Southern Hemisphere Westerly Winds, and between Antarctica and the mid-latitudes makes it a key location for studying the main drivers of past and present-day climate variability. We undertook multi-proxy analyses, including fossil diatom, pigment and μ-XRF analysis, of lake and peat cores from two sites: Annenkov Island, on the southern side of South Georgia, and Prince Olav Harbour on the northern coast of South Georgia to determine: 1) which proxies were most suitable for reconstructing Holocene palaeoclimatic change; 2) whether the climate change signals from these proxies were related to natural lake development, local catchment processes such as changes in ice extent, or regional-global scale climatic change. Deglaciation at both sites was completed by c. 7800 cal. yr. B.P. Low nutrient/low productivity environments, which persisted within lakes at both locations until c. 3500 cal. yr. B.P., are indicative of the relatively slow development of lake ecosystems following deglaciation, and suggest high altitude glaciers or persistent ice-cover remained in both catchments well into the mid Holocene. In contrast, the late Holocene (c. 3500 yr to present) was characterized by initially higher, and then highly variable within-lake biological productivity. On Annenkov Island, the late Holocene diatom composition in Fan Lake was dominated by a single species (Cyclotella stelligera), and we have identified four major phases of increased catchment disturbance (represented by Fragilaria capucina peaks in diatom data), some of which coincide with more numerous meltwater input events (identified from Ti and Sr peaks in μ-XRF data). In this poster we examine the links between these meltwater events, results from other proxies, and changes in the climate of the sub-Antarctic region.
Vik, Bjarte Frode; Nöttestad, Jim Aage; Schei, Berit; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Hagemann, Cecilie Therese
In this study, the objective was to assess the occurrence of specific vulnerability factors among adult and adolescent females attending a Norwegian sexual assault center (SAC). We also explored assault characteristics and investigated whether these characteristics differed between the group of patients with vulnerability factors compared with the group without such factors. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of 573 women ≥ 12 years of age attending the SAC at St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim, Norway, between July 1, 2003 and December 31, 2010. A patient was considered vulnerable if at least one of the following features was present: intellectual or physical disability; history of present/former mental health problems; history of present/former alcohol/substance abuse; or former sexual assault. At least one vulnerability factor was present in 59% of the cases. More than one vulnerability factor was present in 29%. Reporting at least one vulnerability factor was associated with a higher patient age, unemployment, a higher frequency of reported light/moderate physical violence, and the documentation of minor body injury. In contrast, those without vulnerability more often were students assaulted during night time, by a casual or stranger assailant and reporting a higher intake of alcohol prior to the assault. There are obvious patterns of differences in the nature of sexual assaults reported among victims with specific vulnerability factors compared with victims without these factors. Future research should address these differences and possible solutions for better protection of especially vulnerable individuals against sexual offenses, such as those with mental health and substance abuse difficulties. © The Author(s) 2016.
Enger, T B; Pleym, H; Stenseth, R; Wahba, A; Videm, V
Post-operative fluid overload following cardiac surgery is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We hypothesised that genetic variations and pre-operative clinical factors predispose some patients to post-operative fluid overload. Perioperative variables were collected prospectively for 1026 consecutive adults undergoing open-heart surgery at St. Olavs University Hospital, Norway from 2008-2010. Post-operative fluid overload was defined as a post-operative fluid balance/kg ≥ the 90th percentile of the study population. Genotyping was performed for 31 single-nucleotide polymorphisms related to inflammatory/vascular responses or previously associated with complications following open-heart surgery. Data were analysed using logistic regression modelling, and the findings were internally validated by bootstrapping (n = 100). Homozygous carriers of the common G allele of rs12917707 in the UMOD gene had a 2.2 times greater risk of post-operative fluid overload (P = 0.005) after adjustment for significant clinical variables (age, duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, and intraoperative red cell transfusion). A genetic risk score including 14 single-nucleotide polymorphisms was independently associated with post-operative fluid overload (P = 0.001). The number of risk alleles was linearly associated with the frequency of fluid overload (odds ratio per risk allele 1.153, 95 % confidence interval 1.056-1.258). Nagelkerke's R(2) increased with 7.5% to a total of 25% for the combined clinical and genetic model. Hemofiltration did not reduce the risk. A common variation in the UMOD gene previously shown to be related to renal function was associated with increased risk of post-operative fluid overload following cardiac surgery. Our findings support a genetic susceptibility to disturbed fluid handling following cardiac surgery. © 2014 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lund, Jo-Å; Kaasa, Stein; Wibe, Arne; Widmark, Anders; Fransson, Per
The Late Effects Normal Tissue/Subjective Objective Management Analytic (LENT/SOMA) system for grading of side effects after radiotherapy was proposed several years ago. Only a few studies have previously been performed on the validity of the LENT/SOMA. The aim of the present study was to validate the LENT/SOMA scoring system for recto-anal side effects after treatment for prostate cancer in a randomized trial. A total of 875 patients with locally advanced prostate cancer were randomized to either hormonal treatment alone or hormonal treatment plus radiotherapy in the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group 7 (SPCG-7) study. At least three years after treatment was started, the 178 patients that were randomized at St. Olavs Hospital were approached. One hundred and three patients of these accepted inclusion. The side effects according to LENT/SOMA were graded by oncologist and nurse. In addition, side effects were graded according to the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (EORTC/RTOG) toxicity scale and patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL) questionnaires. Content/face validity, sensitivity and inter-rater reliability of the LENT/SOMA tables for rectum were analyzed. Content/face analysis of LENT/SOMA revealed serious problems. Significant correlations (Spearman's rho > 0.4) were found between three of 15 LENT/SOMA items and similar HRQOL items. LENT/SOMA score made it possible to detect significant differences between the two groups of patients (p < 0.001), EORTC/RTOG toxicity score did not (p = 0.138). Inter-rater reliability was acceptable. LENT/SOMA scoring system for recto-anal side effects after radiotherapy for prostate cancer displays serious difficulties in the present study. Replacement of LENT/SOMA tables for rectum by a combination of patient-reported HRQOL questionnaires, clinical examination and objective physiological measurements might be called for.
Background Hip fractures in older people are associated with high morbidity, mortality, disability and reduction in quality of life. Traditionally people with hip fracture are cared for in orthopaedic departments without additional geriatric assessment. However, studies of postoperative rehabilitation indicate improved efficiency of multidisciplinary geriatric rehabilitation as compared to traditional care. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) aims to investigate whether an additional comprehensive geriatric assessment of hip fracture patients in a special orthogeriatric unit during the acute in-hospital phase may improve outcomes as compared to treatment as usual in an orthopaedic unit. Methods/design The intervention of interest, a comprehensive geriatric assessment is compared with traditional care in an orthopaedic ward. The study includes 401 home-dwelling older persons >70 years of age, previously able to walk 10 meters and now treated for hip fracture at St. Olav Hospital, Trondheim, Norway. The participants are enrolled and randomised during the stay in the Emergency Department. Primary outcome measure is mobility measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) at 4 months after surgery. Secondary outcomes measured at 1, 4 and 12 months postoperatively are place of residence, activities of daily living, balance and gait, falls and fear of falling, quality of life and depressive symptoms, as well as use of health care resources and survival. Discussion We believe that the design of the study, the randomisation procedure and outcome measurements will be of sufficient strength and quality to evaluate the impact of comprehensive geriatric assessment on mobility and other relevant outcomes in hip fracture patients. Trials registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00667914 PMID:21510886
Struksnaes, C; Blaas, H-G K; Eik-Nes, S H; Vogt, C
A prenatal ultrasound examination and a postmortem examination provide the basis for correct diagnosis in fetuses terminated due to congenital anomalies. The aim of this study was to correlate fetal anomalies detected by ultrasound examination with those identified at autopsy following termination of pregnancy (TOP) over a 30-year period, and to evaluate the correlation between findings at different gestational ages and assess these trends over time. The study group consisted of 1029 TOPs performed over a 30-year period, from 1985 to 2014. The gestational age ranged between 11 and 33 weeks. Prenatal ultrasound examinations were performed at the National Center for Fetal Medicine, St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim, Norway. Autopsies were performed at the Department of Pathology and Medical Genetics at the same hospital or a collaborating hospital. There was full agreement between ultrasound and autopsy findings in 88.1% (907/1029) of TOPs, and the main diagnosis was correct in 97.9% (1007/1029). When comparing the 15-year period of 2000-2014 with that of 1985-1999, the difference in the rates of full agreement and agreement in the main diagnosis was statistically significant. In 1.3% (13/1029) of cases, ultrasound findings were not confirmed at autopsy. There were no false-positive diagnoses leading to TOP. Throughout the 30-year period, there was an increase in early TOPs, whereas late TOPs declined. Our study demonstrates that there is a clear correlation between ultrasound and autopsy findings, which is continuously improving. Despite this high correlation, there is reason to continue the practice of validation to ensure the safety of the diagnostic process leading to TOP. The trend towards an earlier termination emphasizes the necessity of such a practice. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Betten, Jan; Roness, Aleksander Kirkerud; Endreseth, Birger Henning; Trønnes, Håkon; Tyvold, Stig Sverre; Klepstad, Pål; Nordseth, Trond
Admittance to a high dependency unit (HDU) is expensive. Patients who receive surgical treatment with 'low anterior resection of the rectum' (LAR) or 'abdominoperineal resection of the rectum' (APR) at our hospital are routinely treated in an HDU the first 16-24 h of the postoperative (PO) period. The aim of this study was to describe the extent of HDU-specific interventions given. We included patients treated with LAR or APR at the St. Olav University Hospital (Trondheim, Norway) over a 1-year period. Physiologic data and HDU-interventions recorded during the PO-period were obtained from the anesthesia information management system (AIMS). HDU-specific interventions were defined as the need for respiratory support, fluid replacement therapy >500 ml/h, vasoactive medications, or a need for high dose opioids (morphine >7.5 mg/h i.v.). Sixty-two patients were included. Most patients needed HDU-specific interventions during the first 6 h of the PO period. After this, one-third of the patients needed one or more of the HDU-specific interventions for shorter periods of time. Another one-third of the patients had a need for HDU-specific therapies for more than ten consecutive hours, primarily an infusion of nor-epinephrine. Most patients treated with LAR or APR was in need of an HDU-specific intervention during the first 6 h of the PO-period, with a marked decline after this time period. The applied methodology, using an AIMS, demonstrates that there is great variability in individual patients' postoperative needs after major surgery, and that these needs are dynamic in their nature.
Tjønna, Arnt E; Stølen, Tomas O; Bye, Anja; Volden, Marte; Slørdahl, Stig A; Odegård, Rønnaug; Skogvoll, Eirik; Wisløff, Ulrik
The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of a multidisciplinary approach (MTG) and aerobic interval training (AIT) on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight adolescents. A total of 62 overweight and obese adolescents from Trøndelag County in Norway, referred to medical treatment at St Olav's Hospital, Trondheim, Norway, were invited to participate. Of these, 54 adolescents (age, 14.0 +/- 0.3 years) were randomized to either AIT (4 x 4 min intervals at 90% of maximal heart rate, each interval separated by 3 min at 70%, twice a week for 3 months) or to MTG (exercise, dietary and psychological advice, twice a month for 12 months). Follow-up testing occurred at 3 and 12 months. VO(2max) (maximal oxygen uptake) increased more after AIT compared with MTG, both at 3 months (11 compared with 0%; P<0.01) and 12 months (12 compared with -1%; P<0.01). AIT enhanced endothelial function compared with MTG at both 3 months (absolute change, 5.1 compared with 3.9%; P<0.01) and 12 months (absolute change, 6.3 compared with 1.0%; P<0.01). AIT was favourable compared with MTG in reducing BMI (body mass index), percentage of fat, MAP (mean arterial blood pressure) and increasing peak oxygen pulse. In addition, AIT induced a more favourable regulation of blood glucose and insulin compared with MTG. In conclusion, the novel findings of the present proof-of-concept study was that 3 months of twice weekly high-intensity exercise sessions reduced several known cardiovascular risk factors in obese adolescents more than that observed after a multitreatment strategy, which was initiated as hospital treatment. Follow-up at 12 months confirmed that AIT improved or maintained these risk factors to a better degree than MTG.
Salvesen, Eirik S.; Holen, Ketil J.
The objective of this study was to assess if the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment (VISA) questionnaire was suitable in the evaluation of patients from a mixed population with normal levels of sports activity, and if neovascularization of the patellar tendon demonstrated by color flow imaging (CFI) was more frequent in patients with lasting symptoms after surgical treatment for jumpers knee (JK). This study was conducted at St. Olavs Hospital, University Hospital of Trondheim, Norway, and included 21 men and 18 women who were operated for JK. Symptoms were assessed using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and VISA questionnaires. Clinical and ultrasonographic examinations of the knees, including CFI, were done at a mean follow-up duration of 82 (range, 16–136) months after surgery. Patients with positive CFI also had significantly lower KOOS scores, whereas the total VISA-P (Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment - Patella) score showed no association. Patients with a positive clinical examination had significantly more frequent positive CFI findings than did patients with negative examinations. The operated patellar tendon was significantly thicker and had more frequent hypoechoic signal in the proximal part than the contralateral unoperated tendon. The post-operative VISA-P score seems less valuable in the evaluation of patients from a mixed population with normal levels of sports activity. CFI may be a valuable diagnostic tool in the evaluation of patients operated for JK. Key points Overall, 66% of the participating patients with jumpers knee (JK) were satisfied with the post-surgical results. The VISA-P score seems less valuable in the evaluation of patients with JK with normal levels of sports activity. CFI may be a valuable tool in the evaluation of patients operated for JK. PMID:27928209
Powell, C. McA.; Roots, S. R.; Veevers, J. J.
Extension of continental crust by up to 360 km on a north-northeast azimuth in the Great Australian Bight occurred prior to the Middle Cretaceous (96 Ma) onset of seafloor spreading between Australia and Antarctica. This large amount of continental extension is constrained to the Late Jurassic (≈ 160 Ma)-Middle Cretaceous interval, about a pole estimated to lie about 40° southeastward of southeastern Australia. Using bathymetric data combined with seismic and magnetic determinations of the continent-ocean boundaries off Australia, India and Antarctica, we determine a revised fit of East Gondwanaland prior to continental extension, and at various stages thereafter. In the first stage from 160 to 132.5 Ma (≈ M11), India-Australia rotated from Antarctica with continental crustal extension between Australia and Antarctica and largely transform motion between the Coromandel Coast margin of India and the Kron Prins Olav Kyst margin of Antarctica. In the second stage, from 132.5 to 96 Ma, India rotated northwestward away from Australia-Antarctica, producing M10 and younger magnetic anomalies along the western margin of Australia. Continental extension was greatest between Australia and Antarctica during this stage. The newly determined 132.5-96 Ma rotation between India and Australia provides an improved fit between the orientation of observed M10-M0 magnetic anomalies and the southward decrease in spreading rate off the western Australian margin. Together with bathymetry, the new rotation parameters lead to identification of the abandoned 96 Ma spreading ridge along the Lost Dutchmen and Dirck Hartog ridges. The Naturaliste Fracture Zone is found to lie nearly parallel to the Early Cretaceous transform direction between India and Antarctica suggesting that slow seafloor spreading, required between Australia and Antarctica to accommodate the continental extension further east, occurred between Naturaliste Fracture Zone and the M4-M0 anomalies adjacent to the
Moore, Emilee; Evnitskaya, Natalia; Ramos-de Robles, S. Lizette
In this paper we reflect on the article, Science education in a bilingual class: problematising a translational practice, by Zeynep Ünsal, Britt Jakobson, Bengt-Olav Molander and Per-Olaf Wickman (Cult Stud Sci Educ, 10.1007/s11422-016-9747-3). In their article, the authors present the results of a classroom research project by responding to one main question: How is continuity between everyday language and the language of science construed in a bilingual science classroom where the teacher and the students do not speak the same minority language? Specifically, Ünsal et al. examine how bilingual students construe relations between everyday language and the language of science in a class taught in Swedish, in which all students also spoke Turkish, whereas the teacher also spoke Bosnian, both being minority languages in the context of Swedish schools. In this forum, we briefly discuss why close attention to bilingual dynamics emerging in classrooms such as those highlighted by Ünsal et al. matters for science education. We continue by discussing changing ontologies in relation to linguistic diversity and education more generally. Recent research in bilingual immersion classroom settings in so-called "content" subjects such as Content and Language Integrated Learning, is then introduced, as we believe this research offers some significant insights in terms of how bilingualism contributes to knowledge building in subjects such as science. Finally, we offer some reflections in relation to the classroom interactional competence needed by teachers in linguistically diverse classrooms. In this way, we aim to further the discussion initiated by Ünsal et al. and to offer possible frameworks for future research on bilingualism in science education. In their article, Ünsal et al. conclude the analysis of the classroom data by arguing in favor of a translanguaging pedagogy, an approach to teaching and learning in which students' whole language repertoires are used as
Hegstad, Solfrid; Helland, Arne; Hagemann, Cecilie; Spigset, Olav
A method including semi-automated extraction of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) from serum followed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS-MS) has been developed and validated. Sample preparation prior to UHPLC-MS-MS analysis consisted of protein precipitation and filtration through a phospholipid removal plate. Chromatography was achieved using an HSS T3 column and gradient elution with formic acid in water in combination with methanol. The mass spectrometer was monitored in the negative mode with multiple reaction monitoring. Two transitions were monitored for the analytes and one for the deuterated internal standards (ISs). The limits of quantification were 0.025 mg/L for EtG and 0.009 mg/L for EtS. The between-assay relative standard deviations were in the range of 3.8-9.1%, the recovery was 66-102% and matrix effects ranged from 88 to 97% (corrected with IS). Compared to previously published studies, the method presented is semi-automated, uses a simple method for phospholipid removal and has short run times and low limit of quantifications. We analyzed serum samples from 49 female patients presenting to the Sexual Assault Centre at St. Olav University Hospital in Trondheim, Norway, for ethanol, EtG and EtS. EtG and EtS were detected longer than ethanol itself after intake of ethanol, with estimated maximum detection times of >24 h. The ethanol, EtG and EtS concentrations were highly correlated (P < 0.001), but with large inter-individual variations. This study suggests that analysis of EtG and EtS in serum or blood may complement ethanol analysis and shed light on the patient's recent ethanol intake after ethanol itself is no longer detectable. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Aslaksen Aasly, Kari; Meyer, Gurli Birgitte; Kløve Keiding, Jakob; Langås, Rune; Lund, Vegard
The Nidaros Cathedral situated in Trondheim, Norway is a restored cathedral resting on the remnants of an original medieval church sanctified St Olav. The cathedral became one of the most important sanctuary for pilgrimage during the Middle Ages and still is today. In a European context the cathedral, along with a certain group of other churches and monasteries in Norway, is unique by being build from soapstone (steatite). This talc and chlorite dominated metamorphic rock is relatively soft, heat resistant and dense making the material ideal for cooking pots, stoves and all kinds of utensils. Soapstone has therefore been appreciated, used and quarried since the Stone Age in Norway. At the onset of Christianity the choice of soapstone from harder rock types was not difficult for the building owners combining the vision of stone churches in Norway with the skills of wood carving traditions of local handicraftsmen. The best example is the Nidaros Cathedral built in the 11th to 14th century. In 1869, the Nidaros Cathedral Restoration Workshop (NDR) was founded with the purpose of restoring the cathedral using original craftsman's techniques and authentic materials. The restoration was originally completed in 1969, but is still ongoing due to weathering of certain used soapstone types. A major challenge remains to find soapstone resources of the right quality. Core issues relate to avoid rocks with cracks and cleavage, a demand for homogeneity, maintaining esthetic authenticity, resistance to weathering (disintegration) and last but not least the ultimatum of workability. Thus locating new soapstone resources depends strongly on geological understanding, quarry experience and stone carver's knowledge. The present work is based on close cooperation between stone carvers and geologists in a common goal of uniting knowledge and experience in defining qualities of soapstone for various purposes of restoration. Cooperate observations of geology and carving properties in the
Løvhøiden, G.; Thorsteinsen, T. F.; Vaagen, J. S.
Humanities (NAVF), The Norwegian Physical Society, The Community of Karmøy, Hydro Aluminium Karmøy, Statoil, Laborel, Aanderaa Instruments and also by other local firms and institutions. The financial as well as practical support from all of these sources is gratefully acknowledged. We will in particular express our appreciation for the indispensable help from cand. real. Konrad Bardsen and his colleagues at the gymnasium where the daily scientific activity, and also major parts of the social program, took place. The meeting could not have been organized nor carried through without the professional help from Karen-Margrete Hovland, backed by her sister Alice and a team of hard-working graduate students from Bergen: Erling Andersen, Håvard Helstrup, Torbjørn Rogde and Espen Staubo. We thank all of our speakers for a smooth cooperation. * The logo of the meeting, Seidmennene på Skrattaskjaer (Old Norse: seidmann = "shaman", skrattasker = wizard or troll skerry) has resulted in colorful interpretations and comments. The organizing committee noticed, with satisfaction, that the logo had been correctly identified in one of the contributions. The still curious reader may read about this thousand year old historic event in the sagas of the NORSE KINGS by Snorri Sturluson, in the saga of Olav Trygvason.
Böhme, Martina; Hermanns, Reginald L.; Tukkensæter, Áse; Derron, Marc-Henri; Eiken, Trond; Carrea, Dario; Jaboyedoff, Michel
points with movement rates below 5 mm per year are situated further away from this cliff edge and in the southern part of the unstable area. Limiting structures in this part are even less developed. However, ground depressions indicate blocks with volumes of up to 80 Mio m³. References: Domaas, U., Rosenvold, B. S., Blikra, L. H., Johansen, H., Grimstad, E., Sørlie, J. E., Gunleiksrud, O., Engen, A. & Lægreid, Olav 2002. Studie av fjellskred og dalsidestabilitet i fyllittområder (Study of rockslides and valley-side-stability in phyllite regions). NFR report 20001132-2
Ajdari, Armand; Stone, Howard A.
, simulation and theory, in this rapidly developing field. Focus on Micro- and Nanofluidics Contents The anti-lotus leaf effect in nanohydrodynamic bump arrays Keith Morton, Ophelia K C Tsui, Chih-Kuan Tung, James C Sturm, Stephen Y Chou and Robert Austin Transport in nanofluidic systems: a review of theory and applications W Sparreboom, A van den Berg and J C T Eijkel The effects of polymer molecular weight on filament thinning and drop breakup in microchannels P E Arratia, L-A Cramer, J P Gollub and D J Durian Mass transfer and interfacial properties in two-phase microchannel flows Jeffrey D Martin and Steven D Hudson Temporal response of an initially deflected PDMS channel Priyadarshi Panda, Kai P Yuet, Dhananjay Dendukuri, T Alan Hatton and Patrick S Doyle Gas-liquid two-phase flow patterns in rectangular polymeric microchannels: effect of surface wetting properties D Huh, C-H Kuo, J B Grotberg and S Takayama Mixing via thermocapillary generation of flow patterns inside a microfluidic drop María Luisa Cordero, Hans Olav Rolfsnes, Daniel R Burnham, Paul A Campbell, David McGloin and Charles N Baroud Pressure-driven DNA transport across an artificial nanotopography J T Del Bonis-O'Donnell, W Reisner and D Stein Eulerian indicators for predicting and optimizing mixing quality Rob Sturman and Stephen Wiggins Asymmetric flows over symmetric surfaces: capacitive coupling in induced-charge electro-osmosis T S Mansuripur, A J Pascall and T M Squires High-viscosity fluid threads in weakly diffusive microfluidic systems T Cubaud and T G Mason Interfacial mass transport in steady three-dimensional flows in microchannels Joseph D Kirtland, Corey R Siegel and Abraham D Stroock Active connectors for microfluidic drops on demand Jean-Christophe Galas, Denis Bartolo and Vincent Studer Electrokinetic control of sample splitting at a channel bifurcation using isotachophoresis Alexandre Persat and Juan G Santiago Differential inertial focusing of particles in curved low