Costa-Paz, Matias; Zicaro, Juan Pablo; Yacuzzi, Carlos
Objectives: The purpose of the study was to evaluate a series of patients with osteochondral lesions who underwent a microfractures treatment and autologous collagen-induced chondrogenesis technique (ACIC). Methods: Microfracture treatment and ACIC was performed in eight patients with grade IV cartilage lesion of more than 3 cm2 long. Two patients were discarded due to short follow-up. Four women and two men were evaluated with 50 year-old mean age. The average follow-up was 12.5 months. An associated valgus osteotomy was performed in two patients. Patients were evaluated using the Lysholm score and IKDC. Radiographs were evaluated and a Magnetic Resonance (MRI) was performed in 3 patients. Results: Six patients were evaluated with a 1 B, 2 C and 3 D arthrosis grade according to IKDC classification. Atelocollagen was placed in the medial femoral condyle in four patients (2 associated to tibial valgus osteotomy), in the trochlea in one patient and in both in one patient. Pre and post operative average score IKDC was 38/58 and Lysholm 34/89. One case of postoperative artrofibrosis was registered which was mobilized under anesthesia with satisfactory results. The MRI showed signal with coverage of the chondral defect in more than 70%. There were no cases of infection or reactive synovitis. Conclusion: Atelocollagen combined with microfractures improved the clinical conditions in patients with articular cartilage lesions of the knee. It is necessary more patients and longer follow-up to verify this data.
Konan, S; Haddad, F S
Medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) is associated with successful outcomes in carefully selected patient cohorts. We hypothesised that severity and location of patellofemoral cartilage lesions significantly influences functional outcome after Oxford medial compartmental knee arthroplasty. We reviewed 100 consecutive UKAs at minimum eight-year follow-up (96 to 132). A single surgeon performed all procedures. Patients were selected based on clinical and plain radiographic assessment. All patients had end-stage medial compartment osteoarthritis (OA) with sparing of the lateral compartment and intact anterior cruciate ligaments. None of the patients had end-stage patellofemoral OA, but patients with anterior knee pain or partial thickness chondral loss were not excluded. There were 57 male and 43 female patients. The mean age at surgery was 69 years (41 to 82). At surgery the joint was carefully inspected for patellofemoral chondral loss and this was documented based on severity of cartilage loss (0 to 4 Outerbridge grading) and topographic location (medial, lateral, central, and superior or inferior). Functional scores collected included Oxford Knee Score (OKS), patient satisfaction scale and University College Hospital (UCH) knee score. Intraclass correlation was used to compare chondral damage to outcomes. All patients documented significant improvement in pain and improved functional scores at mid-term follow-up. There were four revisions (mean 2.9 years, 2 to 4; standard deviation (sd) 0.9) in this cohort, three for tibial loosening and one for femoral loosening. There was one infection that was treated with debridement and insert exchange. The mean OKS improved from 23.2 (sd 7.1) to 39.1 (sd 6.9); p < 0.001. The cohort with central and lateral grade 3 patellofemoral OA documented lower mean satisfaction with pain (90, sd 11.8) and function (87.5, sd 10.3) on the patient satisfaction scale. On the UCH scale, patients reported significantly decreased
Freitag, Julien; Barnard, Adele; Rotstein, Andrew
To evaluate the effect of combining photoactivation therapy with platelet-rich plasma injections in the treatment of a traumatic chondral lesion of the knee. A 38-year-old man presented with left-knee pain and swelling following a basketball injury. MRI demonstrated a full-thickness lateral tibial plateau chondral flap with subchondral cyst formation and marrow oedema. The patient underwent a course of photoactivated platelet-rich plasma (PAPRP) injections. Patient outcome measures included the numerical pain rating scale and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index 3.0 (WOMAC). Following treatment, the patient reported improvement in both pain and function as measured by the numerical pain-rating scale and WOMAC. MRI showed resolution of subchondral bone marrow bruising/oedema. No complications were noted. In this case report, PAPRP injections demonstrated improvement in all recorded outcome measures. Recognising the limitations of a single case report, the results highlight the need for more formal controlled trials to determine the potential use of PAPRP in the treatment of chondral lesions.
da Cunha Cavalcanti, Filho Marcantonio Machado; Doca, Daniel; Cohen, Moisés; Ferretti, Mário
The treatment of chondral knee injuries remains a challenge for the orthopedic surgeon, mainly owing to the characteristics of the cartilage tissue, which promote low potential for regeneration. Chondral lesions can be caused by metabolic stimulation, or by genetic, vascular and traumatic events, and are classified according to the size and thickness of the affected cartilage. Clinical diagnosis can be difficult, especially due to insidious symptoms. Additional tests, as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), may be needed. The treatment of these lesions usually starts with non-operative management. Surgery should be reserved for patients with detached chondral fragments, blocked range of motion, or the failure of non-operative treatment. The surgical techniques used for the treatment of partial thickness defects are Debridement and Ablation. These techniques aim to improve symptoms, since they do not restore normal structure and function of the cartilage. For full-thickness defects (osteochondral lesion), available treatments are Abrasion, Drilling, Microfracture, Osteochondral Autologous and Allogeneic Transplantation, and biological techniques such as the use of Autologous Chondrocyte Transplantation, Minced Cartilage and stem cells.
da Cunha Cavalcanti, Filho Marcantonio Machado; Doca, Daniel; Cohen, Moisés; Ferretti, Mário
ABSTRACTS The treatment of chondral knee injuries remains a challenge for the orthopedic surgeon, mainly owing to the characteristics of the cartilage tissue, which promote low potential for regeneration. Chondral lesions can be caused by metabolic stimulation, or by genetic, vascular and traumatic events, and are classified according to the size and thickness of the affected cartilage. Clinical diagnosis can be difficult, especially due to insidious symptoms. Additional tests, as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), may be needed. The treatment of these lesions usually starts with non-operative management. Surgery should be reserved for patients with detached chondral fragments, blocked range of motion, or the failure of non-operative treatment. The surgical techniques used for the treatment of partial thickness defects are Debridement and Ablation. These techniques aim to improve symptoms, since they do not restore normal structure and function of the cartilage. For full-thickness defects (osteochondral lesion), available treatments are Abrasion, Drilling, Microfracture, Osteochondral Autologous and Allogeneic Transplantation, and biological techniques such as the use of Autologous Chondrocyte Transplantation, Minced Cartilage and stem cells. PMID:27027078
Smith, Toby O; Drew, Benjamin T; Toms, Andoni P; Donell, Simon T; Hing, Caroline B
To assess the diagnostic test accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) and computed tomography arthrography (CTA) for the detection of chondral lesions of the patellofemoral and tibiofemoral joints. A review of published and unpublished literature sources was conducted on 22nd September 2011. All studies assessing the diagnostic test accuracy (sensitivity/specificity) of MRI or MRA or CTA for the assessment of adults with chondral (cartilage) lesions of the knee (tibiofemoral/patellofemoral joints) with surgical comparison (arthroscopic or open) as the reference test were included. Data were analysed through meta-analysis. Twenty-seven studies assessing 2,592 knees from 2,509 patients were included. The findings indicated that whilst presenting a high specificity (0.95-0.99), the sensitivity of MRA, MRI and CTA ranged from 0.70 to 0.80. MRA was superior to MRI and CTA for the detection of patellofemoral joint chondral lesions and that higher field-strength MRI scanner and grade four lesions were more accurately detected compared with lower field-strength and grade one lesions. There appeared no substantial difference in diagnostic accuracy between the interpretation from musculoskeletal and general radiologists when undertaking an MRI review of tibiofemoral and patellofemoral chondral lesions. Specialist radiological imaging is specific for cartilage disease in the knee but has poorer sensitivity to determine the therapeutic options in this population. Due to this limitation, there remains little indication to replace the 'gold-standard' arthroscopic investigation with MRI, MRA or CTA for the assessment of adults with chondral lesions of the knee. II.
Rocco, Papalia; Lorenzo, Diaz Balzani; Guglielmo, Torre; Michele, Paciotti; Nicola, Maffulli; Vincenzo, Denaro
Cartilage debridement is one of the recommended procedures for the management of chondral defects. Radiofrequency probes allow to debride the cartilage, but may induce subchondral bone necrosis. Medline, Cochrane and Google Scholar were searched to identify studies on arthroscopic debridement of the articular cartilage of the knee using radiofrequency chondroplasty. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the Coleman methodology score (CMS). Monopolar and bipolar radiofrequency devices provide significantly better clinical outcomes, especially for patients with high-grade chondral lesions, compared with mechanical shaver only. Despite the original concerns regarding subchondral bone necrosis, low complication rates are reported. Heterogeneity in terms of type of device does not allow sound comparison of the published results. There is lack of evidence on the long-term effects of radiofrequency chondroplasty. Study methodology should be improved: the average Coleman methodology score was 56.2 out of 100. More comparative, well-designed and larger cohort trials are needed to ascertain whether radiofrequency chondroplasty offers long-term benefits over other simpler and more economical alternatives. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Vaquero, Javier; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Forriol, Francisco; Martinelli, Nicola; Vethencourt, Ricardo; Denaro, Vincenzo
The purpose of this study was to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) into Spanish and to evaluate the psychometric properties of this version in patients with chondral lesion of the knee, as expressed by its validity, reliability and responsiveness. The translation followed an established forward-backward translation procedure with independent translations and counter-translation, according to the recommendations for the cross-cultural adaptation of HRQL measures. Twenty Spanish-speaking patients who underwent arthroscopic surgery for knee cartilage defects with a microfracture technique were enrolled in the study. Diagnosis was made based on clinical criteria and radiological confirmation through magnetic resonance imaging. Patients showing signs of instability, axial malalignment or generalised knee osteoarthritis were excluded from the study. Cronbach's alpha value for the study of the questionnaire was >0.7 in all the KOOS domains except for Symptoms domain. The test-retest reliability was confirmed with an ICC value greater than 0.8 in all the KOOS domains. A significant agreement between the KOOS domains and the scales of the SF-36 with related content, particularly in the areas of physical function and pain, was observed. Spanish KOOS questionnaire is valid, reliable and responsive for use in Spanish patients with symptomatic chondral lesion of the knee receiving surgical intervention.
Hurst, Jason M; Steadman, J Richard; O'Brien, Luke; Rodkey, William G; Briggs, Karen K
Full-thickness chondral defects in the knee are common, and these articular cartilage lesions may present in various clinical settings and at different ages. Articular cartilage defects that extend full thickness to subchondral bone rarely - by providing a suitable environment for new tissue formation and takes advantage of the body's own healing potential. Proper surgical technique and rehabilitation improve the success rate of the microfracture procedure. The goals are to alleviate the pain and disability that can result from chondral lesions and restore joint conformity, thereby preventing late degenerative changes in the joint.
Adipose derived mesenchymal stem cell therapy in the treatment of isolated knee chondral lesions: design of a randomised controlled pilot study comparing arthroscopic microfracture versus arthroscopic microfracture combined with postoperative mesenchymal stem cell injections
Freitag, Julien; Ford, Jon; Bates, Dan; Boyd, Richard; Hahne, Andrew; Wang, Yuanyuan; Cicuttini, Flavia; Huguenin, Leesa; Norsworthy, Cameron; Shah, Kiran
Introduction The management of intra-articular chondral defects in the knee remains a challenge. Inadequate healing in areas of weight bearing leads to impairment in load transmission and these defects predispose to later development of osteoarthritis. Surgical management of full thickness chondral defects include arthroscopic microfracture and when appropriate autologous chondrocyte implantation. This latter method however is technically challenging, and may not offer significant improvement over microfracture. Preclinical and limited clinical trials have indicated the capacity of mesenchymal stem cells to influence chondral repair. The aim of this paper is to describe the methodology of a pilot randomised controlled trial comparing arthroscopic microfracture alone for isolated knee chondral defects versus arthroscopic microfracture combined with postoperative autologous adipose derived mesenchymal stem cell injections. Methods and analysis A pilot single-centre randomised controlled trial is proposed. 40 participants aged 18–50 years, with isolated femoral condyle chondral defects and awaiting planned arthroscopic microfracture will be randomly allocated to a control group (receiving no additional treatment) or treatment group (receiving postoperative adipose derived mesenchymal stem cell treatment). Primary outcome measures will include MRI assessment of cartilage volume and defects and the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score. Secondary outcomes will include further MRI assessment of bone marrow lesions, bone area and T2 cartilage mapping, a 0–10 Numerical Pain Rating Scale, a Global Impression of Change score and a treatment satisfaction scale. Adverse events and cointerventions will be recorded. Initial outcome follow-up for publication of results will be at 12 months. Further annual follow-up to assess long-term differences between the two group will occur. Ethics and dissemination This trial has received prospective ethics approval through
Cohen, Moises; Amaro, Joicemar Tarouco; Fernandes, Ricardo de Souza Campos; Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Astur, Diego da Costa; Kaleka, Camila Cohen; Skaf, Abdalla
Objective: The primary aim of this study was to assess the clinical and functional evolution of patients with total-thickness symptomatic cartilaginous injury of the patellar joint surface, treated by means of osteochondral autologous transplantation. Methods: This prospective study was conducted from June 2008 to March 2011 and involved 17 patients. The specific questionnaires of Lysholm, Kujala and Fulkerson were completed preoperatively and one year postoperatively in order to assess the affected knee, and SF-36 was used to assess these patients’ general quality of life. The nonparametric paired Wilcoxon test was used for statistical analysis on the pre and postoperative questionnaires. The data were analyzed using the SPSS for Windows software, version 16.0, and a significance level of 5% was used. Results: The Lysholm preoperative and postoperative average scores were 54.59 and 75.76 points (p < 0.05). The Fulkerson pre and postoperative average scores were 52.53 and 78.41 points (p < 0.05). Conclusions: We believe that autologous osteochondral transplantation is a good treatment method for total-thickness symptomatic chondral lesions of the joint surface of the patella. PMID:27042645
Mella, Claudio; Nuñez, Alvaro; Villalón, Ignacio
Introduction: Acetabular cartilage lesions are frequently found during hip arthroscopy. In the hip joint they mostly occur secondary to a mechanical overload resulting from a pre-existing deformity as hip dysplasia or femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Lesions identified during arthroscopy can vary greatly from the earliest stages to the most advanced (full-thickness lesions). These lesions occur in the acetabulum in the early stages of joint damage. Microfractures are indicated in full-thickness chondral defects. Ideally, these lesions must be focal and contained. Methods: The procedure begins debriding all the unstable chondral tissue of the lesion. The edges should have a net cut towards stable and healthy cartilage. It is recommended to make as many perforations as possible using arthroscopic awls. They should be ideally 4 mm deep and must have a vertical orientation to the surface. The suggested distance between perforations is of 3–4 mm. Once the treatment of the chondral lesion with the microfractures is complete, the labrum must be repaired. The repair of the labrum transforms in most of the cases the defect in a contained lesion containing better the clot in the lesion after the microfractures have been performed. It is also important to correct the bone deformity that has caused this lesion, which mostly corresponds to a “cam” deformity. Conclusion: Clinical studies confirm good short- and medium-term results in full-thickness chondral lesions treated with microfractures in the absence of osteoarthritis. However, it is difficult to determine if these results are only due to the microfractures, as this treatment is always complemented with several other factors and surgical procedures, such as labrum repair, correction of underlying bone deformity or change in postoperative activity of operated patients. PMID:28612705
Brophy, Robert H.; Wright, Rick W.; David, Tal S.; McCormack, Robert G.; Sekiya, Jon K.; Svoboda, Steven J.; Huston, Laura J.; Haas, Amanda K.; Steger-May, Karen
Background Knees undergoing revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction typically have more intra-articular injuries than do knees undergoing primary reconstruction. Hypothesis Previous partial meniscectomy (PM) is associated with a higher rate of chondral lesions at revision ACL reconstruction, whereas previous meniscal repair (MR) is not associated with a higher rate of chondral lesions at revision ACL reconstruction, compared with knees undergoing revision ACL with no previous meniscal surgery. Study design Cohort study (Prevalence); Level of evidence, 2. Methods Data from a multicenter cohort was reviewed to determine the history of prior meniscal surgery (PM/MR) and the presence of grade II/III/IV chondral lesions at revision ACL reconstruction. The association between previous meniscal surgery and the incidence of chondral lesions was examined. Patient age was included as a covariate to determine if surgery type contributes predictive information independent of patient age. Results The cohort included 725 ACL revision surgeries. Chondrosis was associated with patient age (P < .0001) and previous meniscal surgery (P < .0001). After adjusting for patient age, knees with previous PM were more likely to have chondrosis than knees with previous MR (P = .003) or no previous meniscal surgery (P < .0001). There was no difference between knees without previous meniscal surgery and knees with previous MR (P = .7). Previous partial meniscectomy was associated with a higher rate of chondrosis in the same compartment compared with knees without previous meniscal surgery (P < .0001) and knees with previous MR (P ≤ .03). Conclusion The status of articular cartilage at the time of revision ACL reconstruction relates to previous meniscal surgery independent of the effect of patient age. Previous partial meniscectomy is associated with a higher incidence of articular cartilage lesions, whereas previous meniscal repair is not. Although this association may
Bisson, Leslie J; Kluczynski, Melissa A; Wind, William M; Fineberg, Marc S; Bernas, Geoffrey A; Rauh, Michael A; Marzo, John M; Zhou, Zehua; Zhao, Jiwei
It is unknown whether unstable chondral lesions observed during arthroscopic partial meniscectomy (APM) require treatment. We examined differences at 1 year with respect to knee pain and other outcomes between patients who had debridement (CL-Deb) and those who had observation (CL-noDeb) of unstable chondral lesions encountered during APM. Patients who were ≥30 years old and undergoing APM were randomized to receive debridement (CL-Deb group; n = 98) or observation (CL-noDeb; n = 92) of unstable Outerbridge grade-II, III, or IV chondral lesions. Outcomes were evaluated preoperatively and at 8 to 12 days, 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year postoperatively. Outcome measures included the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, Short Form-36 (SF-36) health survey, range of motion, quadriceps circumference, and effusion. The primary outcome was the WOMAC pain score at 1 year. T tests were used to examine group differences in outcomes, and the means and standard deviations are reported. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to any of the 1-year outcome scores. Compared with the CL-Deb group, the CL-noDeb group had improvement in the KOOS quality-of-life (p = 0.04) and SF-36 physical functioning scores (p = 0.01) as well as increased quadriceps circumference at 8 to 12 days (p = 0.02); had improvement in the pain score on the WOMAC (p = 0.02) and KOOS (p = 0.04) at 6 weeks; had improvement in SF-36 physical functioning scores at 3 months (p = 0.01); and had increased quadriceps circumference at 6 months (p = 0.02). Outcomes for the CL-Deb and CL-noDeb groups did not differ at 1 year postoperatively. This suggests that there is no benefit to arthroscopic debridement of unstable chondral lesions encountered during APM, and it is recommended that these lesions be left in situ. Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions
Bardos, Tamas; Vancsodi, Jozsef; Farkas, Boglarka; Fazekas, Adam; Nagy, Szilvia Anett; Bogner, Peter; Vermes, Csaba; Than, Peter
Focal cartilage lesions in the knee joint have limited capacity to heal. Current animal experiments show that incisions of the deep zone of a cartilage allograft allow acceptable integration for the graft. We performed this clinical study to determine (1) if the multiply incised cartilage graft is surgically applicable for focal cartilage lesions, (2) whether this allograft has a potential to integrate to the repair site, and (3) if patients show clinical improvement. Seven patients with 8 chondral lesions were enrolled into the study. Symptomatic lesions between 2 and 8 cm(2) were accepted. Additional injuries were allowed but were addressed simultaneously. Grafts were tailored to match and the deep zone of the cartilage was multiply incised to augment the basal integration before securing in place. Rigorous postoperative physiotherapy followed. At 12 and 24 months the patients' satisfaction were measured and serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 6 patients. Following the implantations no adverse reaction occurred. MRI evaluation postoperatively showed the graft in place in 5 out of 6 patients. In 1 patient, MRI suggested partial delamination at 1 year and graft degeneration at 2 years. Short Form-36 health survey and the Lysholm knee score demonstrated a significant improvement in the first year; however, by 2 years there was a noticeable drop in the scores. Conclusions. Multiply incised pure chondral allograft used for cartilage repair appears to be a relatively safe method. Further studies are necessary to assess its potential in cartilage repair before its clinical use.
Vancsodi, Jozsef; Farkas, Boglarka; Fazekas, Adam; Nagy, Szilvia Anett; Bogner, Peter; Vermes, Csaba; Than, Peter
Background Focal cartilage lesions in the knee joint have limited capacity to heal. Current animal experiments show that incisions of the deep zone of a cartilage allograft allow acceptable integration for the graft. Questions/Purposes We performed this clinical study to determine (1) if the multiply incised cartilage graft is surgically applicable for focal cartilage lesions, (2) whether this allograft has a potential to integrate to the repair site, and (3) if patients show clinical improvement. Patients and Methods Seven patients with 8 chondral lesions were enrolled into the study. Symptomatic lesions between 2 and 8 cm2 were accepted. Additional injuries were allowed but were addressed simultaneously. Grafts were tailored to match and the deep zone of the cartilage was multiply incised to augment the basal integration before securing in place. Rigorous postoperative physiotherapy followed. At 12 and 24 months the patients’ satisfaction were measured and serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 6 patients. Results Following the implantations no adverse reaction occurred. MRI evaluation postoperatively showed the graft in place in 5 out of 6 patients. In 1 patient, MRI suggested partial delamination at 1 year and graft degeneration at 2 years. Short Form–36 health survey and the Lysholm knee score demonstrated a significant improvement in the first year; however, by 2 years there was a noticeable drop in the scores. Conclusions. Multiply incised pure chondral allograft used for cartilage repair appears to be a relatively safe method. Further studies are necessary to assess its potential in cartilage repair before its clinical use. PMID:26069710
Flanigan, David C; Harris, Joshua D; Jia, Guang; Choi, Seongjin; Siston, Robert A; Randazzo, John L; Knopp, Michael
The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity and positive predictive value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the identification of full-thickness articular cartilage defects in the porcine knee. Seventy-two full-thickness chondral defects (small or large; circular, oval, or triangular) were created in 12 porcine knees. The authors used 3.0-T MRI with 3-dimensional gradient echo water-selective/fluid (WATSf) sequences acquired in axial, coronal, and sagittal planes. Sensitivity and positive predictive value parameters were calculated for 2 readers. Magnetic resonance imaging was highly sensitive for detection of full-thickness defects in the knee (85%). The highest sensitivity was observed at the medial femoral condyle (93%), while the lowest was observed at the medial patella (71%). The sensitivities for detecting different shapes were unique to each shape, with oval lesions identified with greatest sensitivity (93%). Small lesions (86%) were detected at a similar sensitivity as large lesions (83%). The positive predictive values for accurate true-positive reads were low for all lesion shapes (18%-57%) and moderate for small (69%) and large (59%) sizes, with significant differences observed between the 2 readers. Magnetic resonance imaging has a high sensitivity in the detection of full-thickness articular cartilage defects in the porcine knee. Variability in defect shape and intra-articular location affects MRI sensitivity, while size does not. Magnetic resonance imaging was not effective in describing lesion shape or size. Further, there was subjectivity in reading defect shape and size between 2 radiologists.
de Campos, Gustavo Constantino; Nery, Wilton; Teixeira, Paulo Eduardo Portes; Araujo, Paulo Henrique; Alves, Wilson de Mello
Background: Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a common sports injury and is known to be associated with an increased risk of knee osteoarthritis. Several studies have indicated that the risk of additional injuries to the menisci and articular cartilage increases with delays in the treatment of ACL tears. However, no consensus has been reached regarding the ideal timing for ACL reconstruction in terms of preventing secondary lesions. Purpose: To determine how the time elapsed between an ACL lesion and its reconstruction affects the incidence of meniscal and chondral lesions. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Medical records of 764 patients who underwent primary ACL reconstruction were reviewed. Data from arthroscopic findings that included information about meniscal lesions and full-thickness articular cartilage lesions at the time of surgery were collected. The association between time elapsed between ACL lesion and reconstruction surgery and incidence of articular cartilage and meniscal lesions was analyzed by chi-square or Fisher exact test. The risk of secondary lesion was calculated by odds ratios (ORs) obtained from simple logistic regression analysis. Results: A positive correlation was observed between time after injury and the presence of any articular lesions (P = .003), cartilage lesions (P = .01), and medial meniscus lesions (P < .001). When analyzing the risk of secondary lesion relative to the reference period (<2 months), it was observed that the odds of finding any articular injury at the time of ACL reconstruction increased when the time from ACL injury to surgery was between 12 and 24 months (OR = 2.62) and >24 months (OR = 5.88). Furthermore, the odds of lesions on the medial meniscus increased when the timing between injury and surgery was 6 to 12 months (OR = 2.71) and continued to increase when the timing was 12 to 24 months (OR = 3.78) and >24 months (OR = 9.07). Conclusion: Associated articular lesions
Kayaoğlu, E Esin; Binnet, Mehmet S
The incidence of traumatic chondral and osteochondral fractures and their role in the development of joint degeneration are not fully elucidated. While assessing traumatic knee injuries, one important criterion for the diagnosis of chondral fractures is to remember the possibility of a chondral or osteochondral fracture. Symptoms in osteochondral fractures are more obvious and cause severe pain and difficulty in movement of knee with hemarthrosis. The presence of hemarthrosis facilitates the diagnosis of an osteochondral fracture. Chondral and osteochondral fractures may be associated with other intra-articular pathologies. There are two main mechanisms of these fractures, including a direct effect causing avulsion or impaction and, a more common mechanism, flexion-rotation force to the knee, which is also the mechanism for an acute patellar dislocation. It is known that arthroscopic treatment is the best method for the diagnosis and treatment of chondral and osteochondral fractures. In osteochondral lesions, the aim of treatment is to restore the congruity of articular surfaces. In agreement with literature data, our clinical experience favors internal fixation as the most effective method for the treatment of osteochondral fractures.
Dell'Osso, Giacomo; Ghilardi, Marco; Bottai, Vanna; Bugelli, Giulia; Guido, Giulio; Giannotti, Stefano
The limited regenerative potential of a full thickness defect of the knee joint cartilage has certainly conditioned the development of therapeutic strategies that take into account all the aspects of the healing process. The most common treatments to repair chondral and osteochondral lesions are bone marrow stimulation, osteochondral autograft transplantation, autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis, and autologous chondrocyte implantation. We like to emphasize the difference between a chondral and an osteochondral lesion because the difference is sometimes lost in the literature. In the context of treatment of injuries of the knee joint cartilage, the second-generation autologous chondrocyte transplant is a consolidated surgical method alternative to other techniques. Our experience with the transplantation of chondrocytes has had exceptional clinical results. We report 2 complete cases of a group of 22 in knee and ankle. These 2 cases had histological and instrumental evaluation. We cannot express conclusions, but can only make considerations, stating that, with the clinical functional result being equal, we obtained an excellent macroscopic result in both cases of second look. Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is a multiple surgical procedure with expensive chondrocyte culture, but even with this limitation, we think that it must be the choice in treating chondral lesions, especially in young patients.
Introduction and Objectives: Clinical and functional assessment comparing cases of full-thickness chondral defects (OC) treated with mosaicplasty or mosaicplasty covered with periosteum (mosaicambium). Methods: 20 knees with chondral defect, (10 mosaicplasty/10 mosaicambium) were operated between 1999 and 2005. All patients were clinically assessed preoperatively using the ICRS scale, VAS scale, X-ray and MRI. During 2008, we reviewed patients using the same protocol. For statistical purposes, the patients were divided into two groups, according to the surgical technique. Statistical analysis was performed with EPI2000 program, using chi-squared test and Student's t test, with a significance level of 0.05. Results: Preoperatively, all patients were in group C/D (ICRS scale). In 2008, 18 cases were in groups A and B according to the ICRS scale (12 in A). Between groups, there were no statistical differences. The X-ray study revealed no changes in 55% of cases. Discussion: With no differences, why mosaicambium option? Morbidity on graft donor zones is not negligible. Mosaicambium uses less chondral grafts, reducing the potential for morbidity at graft donor zones. Conclusion: The mosaicambium technique is an excellent alternative for chondral defects greater than 2 cm2. “… articular cartilage defects are a troublesome thing … they don't heal …”. William Hunter (1718-1783). PMID:26998467
Thomas, M; Jordan, M; Hamborg-Petersen, E
Ankle sprains are the most relevant injuries of the lower extremities and can lead to damage to ligaments and osteochondral lesions. Up to 50 % of patients with a sprained ankle later develop a lesion of the cartilage in the ankle joint or an osteochondral lesion of the talus. This can lead to osteoarthritis of the injured ankle joint. Spontaneous healing is possible in all age groups in cases of a bone bruise in the subchondral bone but in isolated chondral injuries is only useful in pediatric patients. In many cases chondral and osteochondral injuries lead to increasing demarcation of the affected area and can result in progressive degeneration of the joint if not recognized in time. There also exist a certain number of osteochondral changes of the articular surface of the talus without any history of relevant trauma, which are collectively grouped under the term osteochondrosis dissecans. Perfusion disorders are discussed as one of many possible causes of these alterations. Nowadays, chondral and osteochondral defects can be treated earlier due to detection using very sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) techniques. The use of conservative treatment only has a chance of healing in pediatric patients. Conservative measures for adults should only be considered as adjuvant treatment to surgery.Based on a comprehensive analysis of the current literature, this article gives an overview and critical analysis of the current concepts for treatment of chondral and osteochondral injuries and lesions of the talus. With arthroscopic therapy curettage and microfracture of talar lesions are the predominant approaches or retrograde drilling of the defect is another option when the chondral coating is retained. Implantation of autologous chondral cells or homologous juvenile cartilage tissue is also possible with arthroscopic techniques. Osteochondral fractures (flake fracture) are usually performed as a mini-open procedure supported by
Lustig, Sébastien; Servien, Elvire; Neyret, Philippe
Objective: Patellofemoral instability is common and affects a predominantly young age group. Chondral injury occurs in up to 95%, and includes osteochondral fractures and loose bodies acutely and secondary degenerative changes in recurrent cases. Biomechanical abnormalities, such as trochlear dysplasia, patella alta, and increased tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance, predispose to both recurrent dislocations and patellofemoral arthrosis. Design: In this article, we review the mechanisms of chondral injury in patellofemoral instability, diagnostic modalities, the distribution of lesions seen in acute and episodic dislocation, and treatments for articular cartilage lesions of the patellofemoral joint. Results: Little specific evidence exists for cartilage treatments in patellofemoral instability. In general, the results of reparative and restorative procedures in the patellofemoral joint are inferior to those observed in other compartments of the knee. Conclusion: Given the increased severity of chondral lesions and progression to osteoarthritis seen with recurrent dislocations, careful consideration should be given to early stabilisation in patients with predisposing factors. PMID:26069693
Pellegrino, Marco; Trinchese, Ermanno; Bisaccia, Michele; Rinonapoli, Giuseppe; Meccariello, Luigi; Falzarano, Gabriele; Medici, Antonio; Piscitelli, Luigi; Ferrara, Pellegrino; Caraffa, Auro
Summary Introduction The aim of our study is to demonstrate the effectiveness of Steadman microfracture technique in the management of high-grade chondral defects at the level of the knee by clinical follow-ups at eleven years. Materials and methods This is a study conducted on fifteen patients suffering from Outerbridge grade III and IV chondral lesions of the knee, who underwent Steadman microfracture surgery between 2003 and 2004. Selective exclusion criteria to prevent that other treatments or comorbidities could invalidate the results were used. Patients were clinically evaluated with Lysholm and IKDC scale scores before surgery and at follow-ups at eleven years. Results There has been an improvement in the Lysholm scores (59.33 ± 18.2 at time zero vs 82.13 ± 14.16 at time t; p value: 0.0342) and in the IKDC scores (45.13 ± 17.07 at time zero vs 68.66 ± 21.47 at time t; p value: 0.04) that appears statistically significant. Discussion Currently microfracture surgery is not indicated in patients with high-grade chondral defects, but at the same time, it is a technique of easy execution, low cost and good results. The clinical improvement observed appears statistically significant, but we have also noticed a slight clinical worsening in two patients, possibly caused by: improper treatment, new trauma, incorrect rehabilitation and age at time of surgery. Conclusions The study has shown significant clinical improvements in patients, despite the fact that indications to the use of microfracture are still very limited and selective. It’s essential to underline the importance of the single patient assessment process, taking into account a variety of aspects including the site, the number and extent of the lesion, the degree of functionality, activity level, age and previous trauma. This shows the importance of a comprehensive assessment of the patient in order to choose the most suitable surgical option, which not necessarily has to strictly adhere to standard
Cirpar, Meriç; Korkusuz, Feza
The population of patients with symptomatic focal or generalized cartilage lesions is growing due to prolongation of life expectancy and to increasing frequency of sports injuries. Cartilage tissue lesions which were defined as untreatable in the past have now become treatable thanks to advances in basic scientific research. With the development of technologies regarding biomaterial, cell and local regulators, and with the introduction of new surgical techniques, it is estimated that, in the near future, clinical applications of cartilage tissue engineering will also receive particular attention in our country. Currently, all alternatives used in the treatment of cartilage lesions have merits and demerits, including arthroscopic debridement and lavage, mesenchymal stem cell stimulation, osteochondral replacement techniques, and autologous chondrocyte transplantation. Preliminary results of experimental cartilage tissue engineering are encouraging for the replacement of disrupted tissue with that having mechanical properties of hyaline cartilage. Clinical applications of cartilage tissue engineering include bioabsorbable scaffolds as extracellular collagen, hyaluronic acid matrices, and genetically engineered bioactive materials.
Zhang, Zhongwen; Zhong, Xin; Ji, Huiru; Tang, Zibin; Bai, Jianpeng; Yao, Minmin; Hou, Jianlei; Zheng, Minghao; Wood, David J; Sun, Jiazhi; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Liu, Aibing
Articular cartilage injury is the most common type of damage seen in clinical orthopedic practice. The matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implant (MACI) was developed to repair articular cartilage with an advance on the autologous chondrocyte implant procedure. This study aimed to evaluate whether MACI is a safe and efficacious cartilage repair treatment for patients with knee cartilage lesions. The primary outcomes were the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) domains and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results, compared between baseline and postoperative months 3, 6, 12, and 24. A total of 15 patients (20 knees), with an average age of 33.9 years, had a mean defect size of 4.01 cm(2). By 6-month follow-up, KOOS results demonstrated significant improvements in symptoms and knee-related quality of life. MRI showed significant improvements in four individual graft scoring parameters at 24 months postoperatively. At 24 months, 90% of MACI grafts had filled completely and 10% had good-to-excellent filling of the chondral defect. Most (95%) of the MACI grafts were isointense and 5% were slightly hyperintense. Histologic evaluation at 15 and 24 months showed predominantly hyaline cartilage in newly generated tissue. There were no postoperative complications in any patients and no adverse events related to the MACI operation. This 2-year study has confirmed that MACI is safe and effective with the advantages of a simple technique and significant clinical improvements. Further functional and mechanistic studies with longer follow-up are needed to validate the efficacy and safety of MACI in patients with articular cartilage injuries.
Figueroa, David; Calvo, Rafael; Espinosa, Maximiliano; Melean, Patricio; Gallegos, Marcela; Conget, Paulette
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution to hyaline cartilage regeneration of the microfracture (MFx) technique plus intraarticular betamethasone (BMS) or platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Design: Full-thickness chondral defects of 3 × 6 mm2 were surgically performed in both femoral condyles of each knee in 13 New Zealand rabbits and then treated with MFx associated with intraarticular BMS or PRP. At 12 weeks postimplantation, the animals were killed and the condyles were characterized macroscopically, molecularly according to collagen type II and I gene expression (quantitative reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction), and histologically (hematoxylin–eosin staining). For the latter, samples were scored using the International Cartilage Repair Society visual histological scale. Data of MFx/BMS-treated and MFx/PRP-treated condyles were compared against untreated, MFx-treated, or normal condyles without lesions. Results: Our macroscopic findings showed that in MFx/BMS-treated and MFx/PRP-treated groups, the defects were filled with an irregular, partially rough tissue similar to the MFx-treated group. No differences in the ratio between collagen type II versus collagen type I expression were observed among groups. Histological changes were observed between MFx/BMS-treated and MFx/PRP-treated groups versus untreated defects mainly in surface regularity and cell distribution. However, International Cartilage Repair Society score analysis did not support statistical differences between MFx/BMS-treated and MFx/PRP-treated groups versus MFx-treated group. Conclusions: These results provide evidence that the use of intraarticular BMS or PRP as coadjuvants to the microfracture technique in the treatment of acute chondral lesions is not associated with a significant improvement of hyaline cartilage regeneration. PMID:26069625
Kusano, Taro; Jakob, Roland P; Gautier, Emanuel; Magnussen, Robert A; Hoogewoud, Henri; Jacobi, Matthias
The purpose of this study is to evaluate clinical and radiological outcomes of patients treated with autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC) for full-thickness chondral and osteochondral defects of the femoral condyles and patella. A retrospective evaluation of clinical and radiographic outcomes of patients treated with AMIC for chondral and osteochondral full-thickness cartilage defects of the knee was performed with a mean follow-up of 28.8 ± 1.5 months (range, 13-51 months). Significant improvements in clinical outcome scores (IKDC, Lysholm, Tegner, and VAS pain score) were noted. The largest improvements were seen in the osteochondral subgroup (mean age 25.9 years), whereas patients treated for chondral defects in the patellofemoral joint and on the femoral condyles improved less. Patients in all groups were generally satisfied with their results. MRI evaluation showed that tissue filling was present but generally not complete or homogenous. AMIC is a safe procedure and leads to clinical improvement of symptomatic full-thickness chondral and osteochondral defects and to regenerative defect filling. The value of AMIC relative to other cartilage repair procedures and to the natural course remains undefined. Case series, Level IV.
Kreuz, P C; Steinwachs, M; Erggelet, C; Krause, S J; Ossendorf, C; Maier, D; Ghanem, N; Uhl, M; Haag, M
Graft hypertrophy is a major complication seen in autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) with a periosteal flap. We present the first magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) classification for periosteal hypertrophy including a grading of clinical symptoms and the surgical consequences. One hundred and two patients with isolated chondral defects underwent an ACI covered with periosteum and were evaluated preoperatively, 6, 18 and 36 months after surgery. Exclusion criteria were meniscal pathologies, axial malpositioning and ligament instabilities. Baseline clinical scores were compared with follow-up data by paired Wilcoxon-tests for the modified Cincinnati knee, the ICRS (International Cartilage Repair Society) and a new MRI score including the parameters defect filling, subchondral edema, effusion, cartilage signal and graft hypertrophy. Hypertrophic changes were graded from 1 (minimal) to 4 (severe). All scores showed significant improvement (P<0.001) over the entire study period. Patients with femoral lesions had significantly better results than patients with patella lesions after 18 and 36 months postoperative (P<0.03). Periosteal hypertrophy occurred in 28% of all patients. Fifty percent of all patella implants developed hypertrophic changes. No patient with grade 1, and all patients with grade 4 hypertrophy had to undergo revision surgery. The Pearson correlation between graft hypertrophy and ICRS score was 0.78 after 6 months, and 0.69 after 36 months (P<0.01). Inclusion of graft hypertrophy in the MRI score improves the correlation to clinical scores from 0.6 to 0.69. Grading graft hypertrophy helps to identify patients needing an early shaving of the graft. Its integration into an MRI score improves correlation with clinical scores. Re-operation depends on the grade of hypertrophy and clinical symptoms.
Schmaranzer, Florian; Klauser, Andrea; Kogler, Michael; Henninger, Benjamin; Forstner, Thomas; Reichkendler, Markus; Schmaranzer, Ehrenfried
To assess diagnostic performance of traction MR arthrography of the hip in detection and grading of chondral and labral lesions with arthroscopic comparison. Seventy-five MR arthrograms obtained ± traction of 73 consecutive patients (mean age, 34.5 years; range, 14-54 years) who underwent arthroscopy were included. Traction technique included weight-adapted traction (15-23 kg), a supporting plate for the contralateral leg, and intra-articular injection of 18-27 ml (local anaesthetic and contrast agent). Patients reported on neuropraxia and on pain. Two blinded readers independently assessed femoroacetabular cartilage and labrum lesions which were correlated with arthroscopy. Interobserver agreement was calculated using κ values. Joint distraction ± traction was evaluated in consensus. No procedure had to be stopped. There were no cases of neuropraxia. Accuracy for detection of labral lesions was 92 %/93 %, 91 %/83 % for acetabular lesions, and 92 %/88 % for femoral cartilage lesions for reader 1/reader 2, respectively. Interobserver agreement was moderate (κ = 0.58) for grading of labrum lesions and substantial (κ = 0.7, κ = 0.68) for grading of acetabular and femoral cartilage lesions. Joint distraction was achieved in 72/75 and 14/75 hips with/without traction, respectively. Traction MR arthrography safely enabled accurate detection and grading of labral and chondral lesions. • The used traction technique was well tolerated by most patients. • The used traction technique almost consistently achieved separation of cartilage layers. • Traction MR arthrography enabled accurate detection of chondral and labral lesions.
Bodelle, Boris; Luboldt, Wolfgang; Wichmann, Julian L; Fischer, Sebastian; Vogl, Thomas J; Beeres, Martin
To determine the value of the 2D multiple-echo data image combination (MEDIC) sequence relative to the short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequence regarding the depiction of chondral lesions in the patellofemoral joint. During a period of 6 month patients with acute pain at the anterior aspect of the knee, joint effusion and suspected chondral lesion defect in the patellofemoral joint underwent MRI including axial MEDIC and STIR imaging. Patients with chondral lesions in the patellofemoral joint on at least one sequence were included. The MEDIC and STIR sequence were quantitatively compared regarding the patella cartilage-to-effusion contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and qualitatively regarding the depiction of chondral lesions independently scored by two radiologists on a 3-point scale (1 = not depicted; 2 = blurred depicted; 3 = clearly depicted) using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney-Test. For the analysis of inter-observer agreement the Cohen's Weighted Kappa test was used. 30 of 58 patients (male: female, 21:9; age: 44 ± 12 yrs) revealed cartilage lesions (fissures, n = 5 including fibrillation; gaps, n = 15; delamination, n = 7; osteoarthritis, n = 3) and were included in this study. The STIR-sequence was significantly (p < 0.001) superior to the MEDIC-sequence regarding both, the patella cartilage-to-effusion CNR (mean CNR: 232 ± 61 vs. 40 ± 16) as well as the depiction of chondral lesion (mean score: 2.83 ± 0.4 vs. 1.75 ± 0.7) with substantial inter-observer agreement in the rating of both sequences (κ = 0.76-0.89). For the depiction of chondral lesions in the patellofemoral joint, the axial STIR-sequence should be chosen in preference to the axial MEDIC-sequence.
Gao, J; Messner, K
At chondral ligament insertions the calcified fibrocartilage interdigitates deeply with the lamellar bone. The shape of this interface is formed under physiological loading conditions. For the purpose of morphological comparison between different ligament entheses in the rabbit knee, the number and frequency of interdigitations and thickness of calcified fibrocartilage were quantitated at the femoral insertion of the medial collateral ligament, both insertions of the cruciate ligaments, and the tibial insertion of the patellar ligament. Among the insertions, the femoral insertion of the medial collateral ligament showed the lowest frequency and depth of interdigitations at the soft tissue-bone interface, but had the thickest zone of calcified fibrocartilage. An inverse relationship was found at the insertion interface of the cruciate and patellar ligaments. The frequency and depth of interdigations at the bone-soft tissue interface at different chondral entheses seem to be related to the mechanical strength of the respective ligament; meanwhile it may be hypothesised that the thickness of the calcified fibrocartilage might be more related to the amount of motion which takes place at an insertion. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8621336
Solheim, Eirik; Krokeide, Arne Magnus; Melteig, Peder; Larsen, Allan; Strand, Torbjørn; Brittberg, Mats
Focal chondral lesions of the knee are commonly occurring. A lot is known about their frequency, size and localisation in arthroscopic series, but less about the symptoms they elicit and little about how the arthroscopic findings and symptoms correlate. The purposes of the present study included to investigate the relationship between articular cartilage lesion factors and patient factors, and to compare the symptoms and function of cartilage lesion patients to those of patients with a deficient ACL. A prospective registration was conducted of preoperative data including Lysholm knee score and perioperative findings in 1,000 consecutive patients undergoing an arthroscopic procedure of the knee-including microfracture of articular cartilage defects and ACL reconstructions. Chondral or osteochondral lesions were found in 57 % of the arthroscopies. The mean Lysholm score in this subgroup was 55. The mean Lysholm score was significantly lower in women (50, SD 19) compared to men (59, SD 18, p < 0.001). Among the chondral lesion factors, only kissing (vs. non-kissing) lesions and multiple (vs. single) lesions influenced symptoms and function to a more than negligible degree. Microfracture in one or two articular cartilage defects was performed in 187 patients. The microfracture group had a significant lower mean Lysholm score (54, SD 18) than a group of patients (N = 71) undergoing ACL reconstruction group (67, SD 17, p < 0.001). The study confirms that articular cartilage lesions are both common and cumbersome. Women seem to have more problems than men, whereas chondral lesion factors-such as localisation and size-seem to influence symptoms and function to a small degree. These aspects should be addressed when designing outcome studies, and should also be of interest to the orthopaedic surgeon-in the day-by-day clinical work. When treating these patients, our prime focus need to be on knee function rather than the cartilage defect as the relationship between the
Cetinkaya, Sarper; Toker, Berkin; Taser, Omer
This report describes the treatment of 2 cases of full-thickness cartilage defect of the femoral head. The authors performed osteochondral autologous transplantation with a different technique that has not been reported to date. One patient was 37 years old, and the other was 42 years old. Both presented with hip pain. In both patients, radiograph and magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a focal chondral defect on the weight-bearing area of the femoral head and acetabular impingement. A retrograde osteochondral autologous transplantation technique combined with hip arthroscopy and arthroscopic impingement treatment was performed. After a 2-month recovery period, the symptoms were resolved. In the first year of follow-up, Harris Hip scores improved significantly (case 1, 56.6 to 87.6; case 2, 58.6 to 90). The technique described yielded good short- and midterm clinical and radiologic outcomes. To the authors' knowledge, this report is the first to describe a retrograde osteochondral transplantation technique performed with hip arthroscopy in the femoral head.
Harris, Joshua D; Hussey, Kristen; Saltzman, Bryan M; McCormick, Frank M; Wilson, Hillary; Abrams, Geoffrey D; Cole, Brian J
Treatment decision making for chondral defects in the knee is multifactorial. Articular cartilage pathology, malalignment, and meniscal deficiency must all be addressed to optimize surgical outcomes. To determine whether significant clinical improvements in validated clinical outcome scores are observed at minimum 2-year follow-up after articular cartilage repair of focal articular cartilage defects of the lateral compartment of the knee with or without concurrent distal femoral osteotomy and lateral meniscus transplant. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Symptomatic adults who underwent surgical treatment (microfracture, autologous chondrocyte implantation [ACI], osteochondral autograft or allograft) of full-thickness lateral compartment chondral defects of the knee with or without a postmeniscectomy compartment or valgus malalignment by a single surgeon with minimum 2-year follow-up were analyzed. Validated patient-reported and surgeon-measured outcomes were collected pre- and postsurgery. Pre- and postoperative outcomes were compared via Student t tests. Thirty-five subjects (mean age, 29.6 ± 10.5 years) were analyzed. Patients had been symptomatic for 2.51 ± 3.52 years prior to surgery and had undergone 2.11 ± 1.18 surgeries prior to study enrollment, with a mean duration of follow-up of 3.65 ± 1.71 years. The mean defect size was 4.42 ± 2.06 cm(2). Surgeries included ACI (n = 18), osteochondral allograft (n = 14), osteochondral autograft (n = 2), and microfracture (n = 1). There were 18 subjects who underwent concomitant surgery (14 lateral meniscus transplant, 3 distal femoral osteotomy, and 1 combined). Statistically significant (P < .05) and clinically meaningful improvements were observed at final follow-up in Lysholm, subjective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDS), Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) subscales, Short Form-12 (SF-12) scores, and patient satisfaction. At follow-up, patients undergoing isolated articular
Diagnosis of lesions of the acetabular labrum, of the labral-chondral transition zone, and of the cartilage in femoroacetabular impingement: Correlation between direct magnetic resonance arthrography and hip arthroscopy.
Crespo Rodríguez, A M; de Lucas Villarrubia, J C; Pastrana Ledesma, M A; Millán Santos, I; Padrón, M
To determine the sensitivity and accuracy of direct MR arthrography in the diagnosis of intra-articular lesions associated with femoroacetabular impingement. We used direct MR arthrography to study 51 patients with femoroacetabular impingement who underwent arthroscopic hip surgery. Surgery demonstrated 37 labral tears, 44 lesions in the labral-chondral transitional zone, and 40 lesions of the articular cartilage. We correlated the findings at preoperative direct MR arthrography with those of hip arthroscopy and calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and validity index for direct MR arthrography. The sensitivity and specificity of MR arthrography were 94.5% and 100%, respectively, for diagnosing labral tears, 100% and 87.5%, respectively, for diagnosing lesions of the labral-chondral transition zone, and 92.5% and 54.5%, respectively, for diagnosing lesions of the articular cartilage. The negative predictive value of MR arthrography for lesions of the labral-chondral transitional zone was 100%. MR arthrography accurately defined extensive lesions of the cartilage and the secondary osseous changes (the main factor in poor prognosis), although its diagnostic performance was not so good in small chondral lesions. In patients with femoroacetabular impingement, direct MR arthrography can adequately detect and characterize lesions of the acetabular labrum and of the labral-chondral transitional zone as well as extensive lesions of the articular cartilage and secondary osseous changes. Copyright © 2013 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Tey, Marc; Mas, Jesús; Pelfort, Xavier; Monllau, Joan Carles
Microfracture, the current standard of care for the treatment of non-degenerative chondral lesions in the hip joint, is limited by the poor quality of the filling fibrocartilaginous tissue. BST-CarGel (Piramal Life Sciences, Laval, Quebec, Canada) is a chitosan-based biopolymer that, when mixed with fresh, autologous whole blood and placed over the previously microfractured area, stabilizes the blood clot and enhances marrow-triggered wound-healing repair processes. BST-CarGel has been previously applied in the knee, with statistically significant greater lesion filling and superior repair tissue quality compared with microfracture treatment alone. In this report we describe the application of BST-CarGel for the arthroscopic treatment of hip chondral lesions. Our preliminary data suggest that our BST-CarGel procedure provides high-quality repair tissue and therefore may be considered a safe, cost-efficient therapeutic choice for the treatment of hip chondral defects. PMID:25973370
de Lima, Luana T. Barros; de Albuquerque Filho, Eolo Santana; Batista, Laecio Leitão; de Moraes, Talita Peixoto; Pereira, Bruno Perez Guedes
The high number of knee imaging exams at radiology clinics, together with the wide variety of knee disorders, calls for expanding the knowledge about the less common lesions seen in routine diagnostic practice. The purpose of this pictorial essay was to illustrate unusual lesions that distend the knee joint, selected by relevance and evaluated with multiple imaging modalities, including X-ray, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as to perform a brief review of the literature. PMID:27818547
Gobbi, Alberto; Scotti, Celeste; Karnatzikos, Georgios; Mudhigere, Abhishek; Castro, Marc; Peretti, Giuseppe M
The aim of this study is to prospectively evaluate the medium-term effectiveness and regenerative capability of autologous adult mesenchymal stem cells, harvested as bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC), along with a hyaluronan-based scaffold (Hyalofast) in the treatment of ICRS grade 4 chondral lesions of the knee joint, in patients older than 45 years. A study group of 20 patients with an age >45 years (mean 50.0 ± 4.1 years) was compared to a control group of 20 patients with an age <45 years (mean 36.6 ± 5.0). Patients were prospectively evaluated for 4 years. All patients were evaluated with MRI, KOOS, IKDC, VAS and Tegner scores preoperatively and at two-year and final follow-up. At final follow-up, all scores significantly improved (P < 0.001) as follows: all KOOS score categories; Tegner 2 (range 0-4) to 6 (range 4-8) and 3 (range 0-6) to 6 (range 3-10); IKDC subjective (39.2 ± 16.5 to 82.2 ± 8.9) and (40.8 ± 13.9 to 79.4 ± 14.6), in the study and control group respectively. In addition, we show that results are affected by lesion size and number but not from concomitant surgical procedures. MRI showed complete filling in 80 % of patients in the study group and 71 % of patients in the control group. Histological analysis conducted in three patients from the study and two patients from the control group revealed good tissue repair with a variable amount of hyaline-like tissue. Treatment of cartilage lesions with BMAC and Hyalofast is a viable and effective option that is mainly affected by lesion size and number and not by age. In particular, it allows to address the >45 years population with functional outcomes that are comparable to younger patients at final follow-up. Prospective cohort study, Level II.
Vasiliadis, Haris S; Wasiak, Jason; Salanti, Georgia
Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) techniques are becoming more popular for the treatment of full thickness cartilage lesions of the knee joint. However, there is no systematic information for the efficacy of the new generation ACI techniques compared to other treatment options. A systematic review of the existing evidence from randomized clinical trials of ACI treatment would contribute to understanding the advantages and limitations of this method and would inform the planning of future studies. Using pre-defined criteria, we searched a number of electronic databases to identify all the existing randomized control trials of any type of ACI treatment. Risk of bias was assessed and an analysis of the reported outcomes was performed. Information on the clinical efficacy and safety of ACI compared to other interventions was collected and presented. Nine trials were identified with 626 patients. Patients ranged from 15 to 52 years, and the size of treated lesions was between 1 and 22 cm(2). ACI was associated with improvement in clinical outcomes compared to baseline. However, the body of evidence did not suggest any superiority of ACI over other treatments. Complication rates were comparable between interventions except from an increased rate of graft hypertrophies after ACI with periosteum. ACI is an effective treatment for full thickness chondral defects of the knee, providing an improvement of clinical outcomes. However, there is insufficient data to say whether ACI is superior to other treatment strategies. More high quality studies and harmonization in the reported outcomes are needed before specific suggestions for practice can be made.
Andrade, Renato; Vasta, Sebastiano; Papalia, Rocco; Pereira, Hélder; Oliveira, J Miguel; Reis, Rui L; Espregueira-Mendes, João
To systematize the available scientific literature on the prevalence of articular cartilage and/or osteochondral lesions in football (soccer) players' knees, and overview the surgical procedures and functional outcomes and return to sports. A comprehensive search using Pubmed, Cochrane Library, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL databases was carried out until September 30, 2015. All English language studies that assessed the outcomes of a surgical technique for the treatment of articular cartilage lesions in football players' knees, with a minimum follow-up of 12 months, were included. The reference list of the most relevant papers was screened. The main outcomes of interest were the clinical, arthroscopy or imaging primary outcomes and the return to sports rate. The methodological and reporting qualities were assessed according to Coleman methodology score. The search provided 485 titles and abstracts. Five studies were eligible for inclusion (mean Coleman score of 37.2 points), comprising a total of 183 football players with a mean age of 25.7 years. A total of 217 articular cartilage and/or osteochondral lesions were reported, where the medial and lateral femoral condyles were the most common sites of lesion. The surgical procedures investigated were mosaicplasty, microfracture, autologous chondrocyte implantation, and chondral debridement. No definitive conclusion could be made in respect to the best current surgical technique for articular cartilage and osteochondral lesions. Microfracture and mosaicplasty can provide a faster return to competition and faster clinical and functional results, whereas autologous chondrocyte implantation and/or matrix-induced autologous chondrocytes implantation procedures can enhance longstanding clinical and functional results. Level IV, systematic review of Level III and IV studies. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Falah, Mazen; Nierenberg, Gabreil; Soudry, Michael; Hayden, Morris
Treatment of articular cartilage lesions in the knee remains a challenge for the practising orthopaedic surgeon. A wide range of options are currently practised, ranging from conservative measures through various types of operations and, recently, use of growth factors and emerging gene therapy techniques. The end result of these methods is usually a fibrous repair tissue (fibrocartilage), which lacks the biomechanical characteristics of hyaline cartilage that are necessary to withstand the compressive forces distributed across the knee. The fibrocartilage generally deteriorates over time, resulting in a return of the original symptoms and occasionally reported progression to osteoarthritis. Our purpose in this study was to review the aetiology, pathogenesis and treatment options for articular cartilage lesions of the knee. At present, autologous cell therapies, growth factor techniques and biomaterials offer more promising avenues of research to find clinical answers. PMID:20162416
Markgraf, E; Clausner, G; Lungershausen, W
The popliteal artery is a "critical" or key-artery, whose sudden occlusion leads to the ischemia-syndrome. The rate of amputation after missing or too late recovery is very high. The real time for the recovery runs to 3-6 hours. The reason for the injury of the vessel is the dorsal luxation of the knee-joint, the fracture of the lower thigh or the fracture of the tibial head with extreme dislocation of the fragments. The management of the diagnosis, the contents and the order of the surgical treatment are reported.
Moyad, Thomas F.
Cartilage injuries are frequently recognized as a source of significant morbidity and pain in patients with previous knee injuries. The majority of patients who undergo routine knee arthroscopy have evidence of a chondral defect. These injuries represent a continuum of pathology from small, asymptomatic lesions to large, disabling defects affecting a major portion of one or more compartments within the knee joint. In comparison to patients with osteoarthritis, individuals with isolated chondral surface damage are often younger, significantly more active, and usually less willing to accept limitations in activities that require higher impact. At the present time, a variety of surgical procedures exist, each with their unique indications. This heterogeneity of treatment options frequently leads to uncertainty regarding which techniques, if any, are most appropriate for patients. The purpose of this review is to describe the workup and discuss the management techniques for cartilage injuries within the adult knee. PMID:26069581
Domos, Peter; Neogi, Devdatta S; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Ahrens, Philip M
The chondral print (CP) sign is a chondral change on the humeral head underneath the long head of the biceps (LHB) tendon. Several suggested causative links have been described, but the pathologic mechanism remains unclear. We designed this prospective cohort association study of 102 consecutive shoulder arthroscopies to investigate proposed associations of CP with LHB, rotator cuff, labral pathology, and other chondral lesions. Data collection was by a specifically designed pro forma, and statistical analysis was performed. We identified 24 patients (23.5%) with the CP sign. Patients were a mean age of 58 years. Shoulders with positive CP sign had associated pathologies: 16 superior labral anteroposterior (SLAP) tears, 4 LHB instabilities, and 11 other LHB lesions. We also recorded other chondral lesions, 10 humeral head and 12 on the glenoid surface. The overall arthroscopic appearance of CP signs could be classified into 3 different types. Statistical analysis revealed that the CP sign is not statistically associated with LHB instability, any other LHB pathologies, rotator cuff tears, or instability. The CP sign was statistically positively associated with SLAP lesions (but only if type 1 were included). There was a weak association of CP sign with age and a positive association of SLAP lesions with other (non-CP) humeral chondral lesions. Our prospective association study cannot determine the cause of the CP sign. It does not seem to be a reliable sign of LHB instability or of other LHB pathology. There is an association with age and degenerative SLAP lesions. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maeda, Manabu; Maeda, Nana; Takaoka, Takanori; Tanaka, Yasuhito
In this series, we aimed to describe the sonographic findings of chondral avulsion fractures that develop concomitant with lateral ankle ligament injury in children. We performed stress sonography during a manual anterior drawer stress procedure of the ankle in 9 skeletally immature patients who had recently had a lateral ankle sprain. Echo videos were obtained through the course of treatment, and all videos were reviewed. We elucidated the common features of chondral avulsion fractures of the lateral ankle ligaments in the children. The features of avulsion fractures on conventional sonography included absence of a fracture with hyperechoic spots (sonographic occult fracture type), cortical discontinuity with hyperechoic spots (cortical disruption fracture type), fracture line in the cortical bone (double-line fracture type), and a step-off deformity of the cortical bone with cartilage (displaced fracture type). In contrast, the features of chondral fractures on stress sonography included abnormal motion of the chondral lesions and mobility/fluidity of hyperechoic spots along the chondral fracture site. The presence of hyperechoic spots around the chondral lesion is an important sonographic sign for diagnosing chondral fractures concomitant with ankle lateral ligament injury. Hence, we believe that stress sonography should be considered for the detection of chondral fractures concomitant with radiographically negative ankle lateral ligament injuries in skeletally immature patients with lateral ankle pain and ankle sprains, if hyperechoic spots are present in the cartilage of the distal fibula. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
Zazgyva, AncuŢa Marilena; Gurzu, Simona; Jung, Ioan; Nagy, Örs; Mühlfay, Gheorghe; Pop, Tudor Sorin
The role of the subchondral bone and the importance of treating both bone and cartilage in cases of chondral and osteochondral lesions of the knee have been highly emphasized. There are no current studies on the experimental use of bioactive glass S53P4 (BonAlive®) as granules in the treatment of osteochondral lesions of the knee. Our preliminary study was designed to establish an experimental model and assesses the effect of glass granules fixed with fibrin compared to fibrin alone as fillers of the osteochondral defects created in the weight-bearing and partial weight-bearing regions of the distal femur in six adult rabbits. We found that the size of the distal femur in adult domestic rabbits allows the creation of 4 mm diameter and 5 mm deep osteochondral defects on both the medial femoral condyle and the trochlea, bilaterally, without significantly affecting the activity level of the animals. Retention of the glass granules in the defects was achieved successfully using a commercially available fibrin sealant. At five weeks post-implantation, we found macroscopic and microscopic differences between the four types of defects. The use of bioactive glass S53P4 for filling condylar osteochondral defects in rabbit femora led to the initiation of an early bone repair process, observed at five weeks after implantation, while the filling of trochlear defects with fibrin glue resulted in the appearance of cartilaginous tissue characteristic of endochondral ossification.
Kon, Elizaveta; Ronga, Mario; Filardo, Giuseppe; Farr, Jack; Madry, Henning; Milano, Giuseppe; Andriolo, Luca; Shabshin, Nogah
Bone marrow lesions (BMLs) around the knee are a common magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) finding. However, despite the growing interest on BMLs in multiple pathological conditions, they remain controversial not only for the still unknown role in the etiopathological processes, but also in terms of clinical impact and treatment. The differential diagnosis includes a wide range of conditions: traumatic contusion and fractures, cyst formation and erosions, hematopoietic and infiltrated marrow, developmental chondroses, disuse and overuse, transient bone marrow oedema syndrome and, lastly, subchondral insufficiency fractures and true osteonecrosis. Regardless the heterogeneous spectrum of these pathologies, a key factor for patient management is the distinction between reversible and irreversible conditions. To this regard, MRI plays a major role, leading to the correct diagnosis based on recognizable typical patterns that have to be considered together with coexistent abnormalities, age, and clinical history. Several treatment options have been proposed, from conservative to surgical approaches. In this manuscript the main lesion patterns and their management have been analysed to provide the most updated evidence for the differential diagnosis and the most effective treatment.
Briggs, Dustin T.; Sadr, Kamran N.; Pulido, Pamela A.
Objective: To assess the outcome of osteochondral allograft (OCA) transplantation as the primary treatment for cartilage injury in patients with no previous surgical treatment. Study Design: Case series. Patients were identified in our outcomes database. Patients undergoing primary OCA transplantation with no prior surgical treatment and a minimum of 2 years follow-up were selected. Pain and function were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively. Patient satisfaction was assessed. Reoperations following OCA transplantation were captured. Failure was defined as revision OCA or conversion to arthroplasty. Results: Fifty-five patients (61 knees) were included in the analysis. The study consisted of 30 males and 25 females (mean age = 32.9 years; range = 15.7-67.8 years). The most common diagnoses for the OCA transplantation were osteochondritis dissecans (44.3%) and avascular necrosis (31.1%). Pain and function improved preoperatively to postoperatively on all outcome scales (P < 0.01). The majority of patients (86%) were “extremely satisfied” or “satisfied.” OCA survivorship was 89.5% at 5 years and 74.7% at 10 years. At latest follow-up (mean = 7.6 years; range = 1.9-22.6 years), OCA remained in situ in 50 knees (82%). Eighteen knees (29.5%) had further surgery; 11 OCA failures and 7 other surgical procedure(s). Of the failed knees (mean time to failure = 3.5 years; range = 0.5-13.7 years), 8 were converted to arthroplasty, 2 had OCA revisions, and 1 had a patellectomy. Conclusions: OCA transplantation is an acceptable primary treatment method for some chondral and osteochondral defects of the knee. Failure of previous treatment(s) is not a prerequisite for OCA transplantation. PMID:26425257
Berruto, M; Ferrua, P; Pasqualotto, S; Uboldi, F; Maione, A; Tradati, D; Usellini, E
Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (ACI) has been the first technique in reconstruction of a valid articular surface. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical results of this technique at an average follow up of 162±27months (range 88-208) in a group of patients who underwent ACI. 32 patients were operated between 1997 and 2007 for chondral lesions or osteochondritis dissecans of the knee. Mean size of the defect was 5.48cm(2)±1.53 (range 2-9). Nine patients were treated with I generation technique and 23 with II generation. All patients were evaluated with Subjective IKDC and Tegner Activity Scales for clinical outcomes and with EQ-VAS for a quantitative measure of health after intervention, starting from pre-operative period and at regular follow up (minimum 88 months-maximum 208 months). A significant increment of all scores was noticed comparing preoperative and postoperative results. In particular medium IKDC score increased from 40.3±9.6 in preoperative evaluation to 74.2±11.6 at one year (p<0.00001) and to 83.9±10.4 at 5 years follow up (p<0.001). Mean IKDC values at the last follow-up were 80.3±14.2, showing no statistical differences with those obtained at five-year follow-up. Tegner Activity Scale values increased from 2.8±1.1 preoperatively to 4.1±1.1 (p<0.0001) after one year and to 6±1.1 at five years (p<0.0001). Mean Tegner Activity Scale values decreased to 4.8±1.4 at the last follow-up. EQ-VAS evaluation showed superposable results comparing the 5 years evaluation with the ones at a medium follow up of 162±27months. The most important finding is the reliability at long-term of ACI technique, which in our series gave excellent clinical results. No statistical differences were observed between first- and second-generation. Clinical outcomes were significantly better for defects in the femoral condyles, influenced by age (worse results over 30 years old). ACI represents a valid technique for chondral and osteochondral lesions of the
Farrell, Michael E; Gutierrez, Genaro; Desai, Mehul J
This case presentation demonstrates radiographic evidence of lesions created following cooled radiofrequency (cRF) neurotomy of the knee. A 67-year-old man presented with chronic left knee osteoarthritis, pain, and disability. After a failed trial of conservative treatments, the patient underwent diagnostic genicular nerve blocks and subsequent cRF neurotomy of the left knee. Shortly after cRF, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the left knee was performed. On MRI, lesions created by cRF ablation were identified. The images presented in this case offer a visual explanation for the success of cRF in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. V. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Giri, Saurabh; Singh, Ch Arun Kumar; Datta, Snehasish; Paul, Vinil; Masatvar, Pranav; Hmarj, Christopher L.; Marbaniang, Graham Bell
Background A variety of procedures have been described for treatment of the osteoarthritic knee. Comprehensive Arthroscopic treatment regime has definite role in treating patients with knee Osteoarthritis. Aim To evaluate the role of arthroscopy in functional and subjective outcomes of patient with moderate to severe osteoarthritis of knee. Materials and Methods Between October 2011 to September 2013, 30 patients were treated with an arthroscopic regimen. Patients with primary osteoarthritis who fulfilled clinical and radiographic classification criteria of American College of Rheumatology for osteoarthritis were included. All patients were followed for 18 months. All patients were subjected to comprehensive arthroscopic treatment. Results Overall, mean age was 59 years, with 17 females and 13 males. According to Kellgren Lawrence scale, 17 patients had grade 2 osteoarthritis, 10 had grade 3 osteoarthritis and 3 patients had grade 4. The average preoperative Lysholm score was 38.8. According to Outerbridge grading of chondral surface lesions, 14 patients were in grade-1, 5 in grade-2, 8 in grade-3 and 3 patients were in grade-4. The average 18 months postoperative Lysholm score was 83.3 (range 60- 96). 73.33% patients showed good/ excellent outcome. 80% of patients with chondral and meniscal lesions showed excellent/good outcome. Conclusion This arthroscopic treatment regimen can improve function and activity levels in patients with moderate to severe osteoarthritis. Patients with meniscal and chondral pathology will be benefited more by arthroscopic treatment. PMID:26436009
Cain, E Lyle; Fleisig, Glenn S; Ponce, Brent A; Boohaker, Hikel A; George, Martha P; McGwin, Gerald; Andrews, James R; Lemak, Lawrence J; Clancy, William G; Dugas, Jeffrey R
This article aims to evaluate factors associated with chondral and meniscal lesions in primary and revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions. ACL reconstructions from 2001 to 2008 at a single institution were retrospectively analyzed. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between chondral and meniscal injuries and age, gender, tear chronicity, additional ligamentous injuries, sport type, and participation level. Of the 3,040 ACL reconstructions analyzed, 90.4% were primary reconstructions and 9.6% were revisions. Meniscal injuries were significantly lower in the revision group (44.0 vs. 51.9%; p = 0.01), while chondral injuries were significantly higher in the revision group (39.9 vs. 24.0%; p < 0.0001). Inspection of the small subgroup (n = 85) receiving both primary and revision ACL surgery at our center indicated that meniscal injuries at revision were evenly split between menisci with and without previous repairs, whereas the vast majority of Grade III and IV chondral lesions were new. More patients presented for surgery later in the revision group than in the primary group (56.5 vs. 35.3%; p < 0.0001). Male gender, primary reconstruction, and short interval (less than 2 weeks) between injury and surgery were associated with increased likelihood of meniscus tear. Age (greater than 22 years) and long interval (greater than 6 weeks) between injury to surgery and higher sport activity level were associated with chondral lesions. Revision ACL reconstructions are associated with a higher proportion of chondral lesions and a lower proportion of meniscal tears. Early primary and revision ACL construction is recommended to reduce the probability of chondral lesions. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
COTTINO, UMBERTO; DELEDDA, DAVIDE; ROSSO, FEDERICA; BLONNA, DAVIDE; BONASIA, DAVIDE EDOARDO; ROSSI, ROBERTO
Knee extensor mechanism rupture is a serious complication of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Its prevalence ranges from 1 to 10% and it is commonly observed as a chronic multifactorial pathology with the patellar tendon as the most common site of rupture. Knee extensor mechanism reconstruction can be performed using allogenic or synthetic grafts. In the literature it is still not clear whether one of these techniques is superior to the other and the choice is usually tailored to the patient case by case. Allografts allow better restoration of the anatomical landmarks, whereas the mesh technique is more reproducible and the graft does not elongate over time. Allografts carry an increased risk of infection compared with synthetic reconstructions, while the mesh technique is cheaper and more readily available. In this paper, we review the etiology, diagnosis and treatment of this pathology, drawing on the most recent literature. PMID:27900308
Collins, Jason A; Beutel, Bryan G; Strauss, Eric; Youm, Thomas; Jazrawi, Laith
Bone marrow edema of the knee occurs secondary to a myriad of causes. The hallmark of a bone marrow lesion (BML) is an area of decreased signal intensity on T1 weighted MRI with a corresponding area of increased signal intensity on a T2 weighted MRI. Recently, chronic bone marrow lesions have been correlated with knee pain and progression of osteoarthritis. These lesions have also been associated with other degenerative conditions such as meniscal tears, cartilage deterioration, subchondral cyst formation, mechanical malalignment, and ultimately progression to arthroplasty. Medical treatments, such as prostacyclin and bisphosphonate therapy, have shown promise. Alignment procedures, as well as core decompression and subchondroplasty, have been used as surgical treatments for chronic BMLs.
Lavagnino, Michael; Arnoczky, Steven P.; Dodds, Julie; Elvin, Niell
Background: The impetus for the use of patellar straps in the treatment of patellar tendinopathy has largely been based on empirical evidence and not on any mechanistic rationale. A computational model suggests that patellar tendinopathy may be a result of high localized tendon strains that occur at smaller patella–patellar tendon angles (PPTAs). Hypothesis: Infrapatellar straps will decrease the mean localized computational strain in the area of the patellar tendon commonly involved in jumper’s knee by increasing the PPTA. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Twenty adult males had lateral weightbearing and nonweightbearing radiographs of their knees taken with and without 1 of 2 infrapatellar straps at 60° of knee flexion. Morphologic measurements of PPTA and patellar tendon length with and without the straps were used as input data into a previously described computational model to calculate average and maximum strain at the common location of the jumper’s knee lesion during a simulated jump landing. Results: The infrapatellar bands decreased the predicted localized strain (average and maximum) in the majority of participants by increasing PPTA and/or decreasing patellar tendon length. When both PPTA and patellar tendon length were altered by the straps, there was a strong and significant correlation with the change in predicted average localized strain with both straps. Conclusion: Infrapatellar straps may limit excessive patella tendon strain at the site of the jumper’s knee lesion by increasing PPTA and decreasing patellar tendon length rather than by correcting some inherent anatomic or functional abnormality in the extensor apparatus. Clinical Relevance: The use of infrapatellar straps may help prevent excessive localized tendon strains at the site of the jumper’s knee lesion during a jump landing. PMID:23016021
The clinical evaluation of the knee is a fundamental tool to correctly address diagnosis and treatment, and should never be replaced by the findings retrieved by the imaging studies carried on the patient. Every surgeon has his own series of exams with whom he is more confident and on whom he relies on for diagnosis. Usually, three sets of series are used: one for patello-femoral/extensor mechanism pathologies; one for meniscal and chondral (articular) lesions; and one for instability evaluation. This review analyses the most commonly used tests and signs for knee examination, outlining the correct way to perform the test, the correct interpretation of a positive test and the best management for evaluating an injured knee both in the acute and delayed timing. PMID:22035381
Murray, Iain R; Benke, Michael T; Mandelbaum, Bert R
Articular cartilage defects of the knee are common among athletes where the physical demands of sport result in significant stresses on joints. Chondral defects are associated with pain and functional impairment that limit sporting participation and may progress to joint degeneration and frank arthritis. Management of established chondral lesions aims to allow athletes to return to high-impact sports and can be considered in terms of protection of existing cartilage, chondrofacilitation, and resurfacing. Repaired and regenerated cartilage must closely resemble and function like normal hyaline cartilage, and this ability may be the most significant factor for the return to sport. Based on our experiences and the available literature, we outline how athletes can best protect their cartilage, how physicians can facilitate intrinsic repair of established lesions, and which methods of cartilage restoration or resurfacing should be used in different situations. IV.
Zappia, Marcello; Carfora, Michela; Romano, Alfonso Maria; Reginelli, Alfonso; Brunese, Luca; Rotondo, Antonio; Castagna, Alessandro
The aim of this study is to determine the diagnostic accuracy of sonography in order to identify the chondral print on the humeral head. In total, 44 patients who had already been candidates for arthroscopic surgery were prospectively studied with ultrasound to assess the presence of humeral subchondral erosion at the level of the biceps pulley; no patient had undergone previous surgery or radiographic calcification of rotator cuff tendons. Using arthroscopy as the reference standard the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive, negative predictive and diagnostic accuracy values were calculated. Of the 44 patients, arthroscopy showed the humeral chondral print in 30 patients. Of the 30 arthroscopy proven humeral chondral prints, ultrasound identified 28 subchondral erosions at the same level, with two false negatives. One of the 14 patients without arthroscopic humeral chondral print was positive for subchondral erosion at ultrasound. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive, negative predictive, and diagnostic accuracy values of ultrasound were respectively of 93, 93, 96, 87 and 93%. Ultrasound has a good diagnostic accuracy in identifying the chondral print sign.
Del Pilar Duque Orozco, M; Record, N C; Rogers, K J; Bober, M B; Mackenzie, W G; Atanda, A
Achondroplasia is the most common form of skeletal dysplasia, affecting more than 250 000 individuals worldwide. In these patients, the developing knee undergoes multiple anatomical changes. The purpose of this study was to characterise the intra-articular knee anatomy in children with achondroplasia who underwent knee arthroscopy. Records of achondroplasia patients who underwent knee arthroscopy between 2009 and 2014 were reviewed. Demographic data, operative reports, follow-up notes, MRI and arthroscopy images were reviewed. Bony, cartilaginous and ligamentous changes were noted. The trochlea sulcus angle was measured from intra-operative arthroscopic images. A total of 12 knee arthroscopies in nine patients were performed. The mean age at surgery was 16.9 years (12 to 22). In all patients, the indication for surgery was knee pain and/or mechanical symptoms that were refractory to non-operative treatment. Three anatomical variations involving the distal femur were found in all knees: a deep femoral trochlea; a high A-shaped intercondylar notch; and a vertically oriented anterior cruciate ligament. The average trochlea sulcus angle measured 123°. Pathology included: synovial plica (one knee); chondral lesions (three knees); discoid lateral meniscus (11 knees); and meniscal tears (six knees). All patients were pain-free and returned to normal activity at final follow-up. Children with achondroplasia have characteristic distal femur anatomy noted during knee arthroscopy. These variations should be considered normal during knee arthroscopy in these patients. Arthroscopic findings confirmed previous MRI findings within this specific population with the addition of a deep trochlear groove which was not previously reported.
del Pilar Duque Orozco, M.; Record, N. C.; Rogers, K. J; Bober, M. B.; Mackenzie, W. G.; Atanda, A.
Abstract Purpose Achondroplasia is the most common form of skeletal dysplasia, affecting more than 250 000 individuals worldwide. In these patients, the developing knee undergoes multiple anatomical changes. The purpose of this study was to characterise the intra-articular knee anatomy in children with achondroplasia who underwent knee arthroscopy. Methods Records of achondroplasia patients who underwent knee arthroscopy between 2009 and 2014 were reviewed. Demographic data, operative reports, follow-up notes, MRI and arthroscopy images were reviewed. Bony, cartilaginous and ligamentous changes were noted. The trochlea sulcus angle was measured from intra-operative arthroscopic images. Results A total of 12 knee arthroscopies in nine patients were performed. The mean age at surgery was 16.9 years (12 to 22). In all patients, the indication for surgery was knee pain and/or mechanical symptoms that were refractory to non-operative treatment. Three anatomical variations involving the distal femur were found in all knees: a deep femoral trochlea; a high A-shaped intercondylar notch; and a vertically oriented anterior cruciate ligament. The average trochlea sulcus angle measured 123°. Pathology included: synovial plica (one knee); chondral lesions (three knees); discoid lateral meniscus (11 knees); and meniscal tears (six knees). All patients were pain-free and returned to normal activity at final follow-up. Conclusion Children with achondroplasia have characteristic distal femur anatomy noted during knee arthroscopy. These variations should be considered normal during knee arthroscopy in these patients. Arthroscopic findings confirmed previous MRI findings within this specific population with the addition of a deep trochlear groove which was not previously reported. PMID:28828058
Beaufils, Philippe; Becker, Roland; Kopf, Sebastian; Matthieu, Ollivier; Pujol, Nicolas
Meniscectomy is one of the most popular orthopaedic procedures, but long-term results are not entirely satisfactory and the concept of meniscal preservation has therefore progressed over the years. However, the meniscectomy rate remains too high even though robust scientific publications indicate the value of meniscal repair or non-removal in traumatic tears and non-operative treatment rather than meniscectomy in degenerative meniscal lesions In traumatic tears, the first-line choice is repair or non-removal. Longitudinal vertical tears are a proper indication for repair, especially in the red-white or red-red zones. Success rate is high and cartilage preservation has been proven. Non-removal can be discussed for stable asymptomatic lateral meniscal tears in conjunction with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Extended indications are now recommended for some specific conditions: horizontal cleavage tears in young athletes, hidden posterior capsulo-meniscal tears in ACL injuries, radial tears and root tears. Degenerative meniscal lesions are very common findings which can be considered as an early stage of osteoarthritis in middle-aged patients. Recent randomised studies found that arthroscopic partial meniscectomy (APM) has no superiority over non-operative treatment. Thus, non-operative treatment should be the first-line choice and APM should be considered in case of failure: three months has been accepted as a threshold in the ESSKA Meniscus Consensus Project presented in 2016. Earlier indications may be proposed in cases with considerable mechanical symptoms. The main message remains: save the meniscus! Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160056. Originally published online at www.efortopenreviews.org PMID:28698804
Back, D A; Rauhut, F; Rieger, H
Knee dislocations are rare and often associated with damage to the surrounding structures. We present a case where a soldier sustained a complex knee dislocation during routine training. This trauma was associated with a compartment syndrome, occlusion of the popliteal artery, lesion of the peroneal nerve and multiple lesions of ligaments and tendons of the knee.
Summary Background Acetabular chondral defect are very frequently associated to FAI. Treatment options are still questionable. Methods Between 2008 and 2014, 201 patients over 583 have been arthroscopically treated with the AMIC procedure for grade III and/or IV acetabular chondral lesions. Patients age was between 18 and 50 years; acetabular chondral lesion size was between 2 and 4 cm2; radiological Tönnis degree of osteoarthritis was ≤ 2. Results The mean follow up of the entire group of 201 patients was 5 years (from 8 to 2). Significant improvement, as measured by the mHHS, was observed at 6 months in comparison to preoperative levels (80.3 ± 8.3) (p<0.001). Continuous improvement with respect to each previous evaluation time point was seen, reaching the highest improvement level at the three year follow-up (85.5 ± 7.2). The mean mHHS improvement recorded at the five year follow-up compared with preoperative scores was 39.1 ± 5.9. Conclusions AMIC is a valid procedure to repair medium-sized chondral defects on the acetabular side of the hip found during treatment of FAI and lead to long-term favourable outcomes. Level of evidence IV. PMID:28066742
Figueroa, D; Calvo, R; Villalón, I; Tuca, M J; Vaisman, A; Valdés, M
To identify those clinical characteristic and arthroscopic findings in patients with knee arthrosis that are associated with worsening of the disease and subsequent total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A retrospective, descriptive study was conducted on 78 consecutive patients (88 knees) who underwent knee arthroscopy for arthrosis. The study included 44 women and 34 men, with a mean age of 58.9 years (range: 37-78 years). After a mean follow-up of 50.4 months (range: 12-96 months), those patients who progressed towards TKA were identified. A logistic regression model was applied to recognise the factors associated with deterioration of the arthrosis, with consequent progression towards a TKA. Twenty-four out of the 88 knees progressed towards a TKA (27.3%) within a mean time of 13.5 months after arthroscopy (range: 13-29 months). The clinical characteristics that showed a significant association with poor progression of the arthrosis were: female gender (0.02) and Ahlbäck 2 (P=.04). Arthroscopic finding that proved significant correlation with worsening of the arthrosis towards TKA were: meniscal tears of the posterior horn (P=.02), meniscectomies above 60% (P=.03), and 2nd degree chondral lesions in loading areas of the medial femoral condyle (P=.02). The variables associated with a greater chance of progressing towards a TKA after a knee arthroscopy due to arthrosis in this study were, female gender, grade 2 radiographic arthrosis, posterior horn meniscal lesions, meniscectomies over 60%, and chondral lesions in loading area of the medial femoral condyle. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Ene, Răzvan; Sinescu, Ruxandra Diana; Ene, Patricia; Cîrstoiu, Monica Mihaela; Cîrstoiu, Florin Cătălin
The synovium is an intra-articular mesenchymal tissue and essential for the normal joint function. It is involved in many pathological characteristic processes and sometimes specific for this distinctive tissue. In this study, we refer to synovial proliferative disorders according to the stage of osteoarthritis (OA) disease. Forty-three patients with knee OA were treated in the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Emergency University Hospital of Bucharest, Romania, in the last two years. In all cases, we used at least five criteria for the knee OA: knee pain, knee joint tenderness, no palpable warmth over the knee, stiffness, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels. In all the cases the synovial tissue was selected by the orthopedic surgeon. X-ray examination was taken in every case of the affected joint. Patients who were considered to have early OA underwent arthroscopic synovial biopsy of the symptomatic joint. Synovial tissue samples from patients with late OA were obtained at the time of knee joint arthroplasty. Microscopic examination in early osteoarthritis revealed for more than half of patients with synovial biopsy through arthroscopic technique having synovitis lesions with mononuclear infiltrates, diffuse fibrosis, thickening of the lining layer, macrophages appearance and neoformation vessels also. The synovitis seen in advanced OA knees tends to be diffuse and is not mandatory localized to areas of chondral defects, although an association has been reported between chondral defects and associated synovitis in the knee medial tibio-femoral compartment. The overexpression of mediators of inflammation and the increased mononuclear cell infiltration were seen in early OA, compared with late OA.
Giuliani, Jeffrey R; Pickett, Adam
As our patients become more physically active at all ages, the incidence of injuries to articular cartilage is increasing and is causing patients significant pain and disability at a younger age. The intrinsic healing response of articular cartilage is poor, because of its limited vascular supply and capacity for chondrocyte division. Nonsurgical management for the focal cartilage lesion is successful in the majority of patients. Those patients that fail conservative management may be candidates for a cartilage reparative or reconstructive procedure. The type of treatment available depends on a multitude of lesion-specific and patient-specific variables. First-line therapies for isolated cartilage lesions have demonstrated good clinical results in the correct patient but typically repair cartilage with fibrocartilage, which has inferior stiffness, inferior resilience, and poorer wear characteristics. Advances in cell-based cartilage restoration have provided the surgeon a means to address focal cartilage lesions utilizing mesenchymal stem cells, chondrocytes, and biomimetic scaffolds to restore hyaline cartilage.
Introduction The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of cystic lesions and cyst-like bursitides in subjects with frequent knee pain and to assess their relation to radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) severity; to describe bilaterality and size fluctuation of the lesions over 6 months; and to assess relations between the prevalence of synovium-lined lesions communicating with the joint capsule and severity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detected effusion and synovitis. Methods One hundred and sixty-three subjects (total 319 knees) aged 35 to 65 with chronic, frequent knee pain were included. Imaging with 3 Tesla MRI was performed at baseline and 6-month follow-up with the same protocols as those used in the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Severity of radiographic OA was assessed using the Kellgren-Lawrence grade (0 to 4). Severity of effusion and synovitis was graded 0 to 3 based on the Whole Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score system. The associations of cysts and cyst-like bursitides and severity of radiographic OA, MRI-detected effusion and synovitis were analyzed using logistic regression controlling for clustering by person. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to determine whether there was a significant change in the size of lesions between baseline and follow-up. Results At least one lesion (any type) was present in 222 (70%) knees. The most prevalent lesions were popliteal cysts (40%, 128/319), followed by subgastrocnemius bursitis (15%, 49/319) and proximal tibiofibular joint cysts (8%, 26/319). Bilateral lesions were seen in 49% of the subjects. Only popliteal cysts and subgastrocnemius bursitis showed a significant change in size (P < 0.001). No trend was observed between prevalence of any of the cyst-like lesions analyzed and the increasing radiographic OA severity. Increasing prevalence of subgastrocnemius bursitis was associated with increasing severity of effusion (P = 0.0072) and synovitis (P = 0.0033). Conclusions None of
Pascarella, Antonio; Ciatti, Riccardo; Pascarella, Fabio; Latte, Carmine; Di Salvatore, Mariano Giuseppe; Liguori, Luciano; Iannella, Germano
This study describes a modified AMIC technique consisting of perforations according to Pridie, rather than microfractures, and the covering of the focus of the lesion with a biological collagen patch enriched with bone marrow blood drawn through the knee itself. This technique allows advantages of both the Pridie technique and the in situ proliferation of mesenchymal cells beneath a biological collagen membrane, 'augmented', with bone marrow blood. The collagen membrane forms the roof of a 'biological chamber', and serves to protect and contains the stem cells as they differentiate into chondrocytes, which will form a healthy regenerative cartilage.
Jiao, Qiang; Wei, Lei; Chen, Chongwei; Li, Pengcui; Wang, Xiaohu; Li, Yongping; Guo, Li; Zhang, Congming; Wei, Xiaochun
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between five previously established serum osteoarthritis biomarkers and the severity of cartilage lesions in the knee. Cartilage damage (classified according to the Outerbridge scoring system) and serum concentrations of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), collagen type II C-telopeptide (CTX-II), matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), collagen type III N-propeptide, (PIIINP), and hyaluronic acid (HA) were determined in 79 patients who underwent knee arthroscopy or total knee replacement. HA and COMP concentrations were significantly higher in the Outerbridge score 1 and 2 groups, respectively. These results suggest that serum COMP and HA concentrations can be used to predict early cartilage lesions in the knee.
Shmerling, Alison; Bravman, Jonathan T.
Traumatic swelling/effusion in the knee region is a relatively common presenting complaint among athletes and nonathletes. Due to its broad differential diagnosis, a comprehensive evaluation beginning with history and physical examination are recommended. Knee joint effusion can be differentiated from other types of swelling by careful physical examination. Imaging, including plain radiography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is preferred modality. Aspiration of a local fluctuating mass may help with the diagnosis and management of some of these conditions. We present a case of a 26-year-old gentleman with superomedial Morel-Lavallée lesion (MLL) of the knee with history of a fall during a Frisbee game. His MLL was successfully treated with therapeutic aspiration and compression wrap without further sequelae. MLL is a rare condition consisting of a closed degloving injury caused by pressure and shear stress between the subcutaneous tissue and the superficial fascia or bone. Most commonly, MLL is found over the greater trochanter and sacrum but in rare cases can occur in other regions of the body. In most cases, concurrent severe injury mechanisms and concomitant fractures are present. MLL due to sports injuries are very rare. Therapeutic strategies may vary from compression wraps and aspiration to surgical evacuation. PMID:27493817
Dasar, U; Gursoy, S; Akkaya, M; Algin, O; Isik, C; Bozkurt, M
To compare the microfracture technique with carbon fibre rod implantation for treatment of knee articular cartilage lesions. 10 men and 30 women aged 22 to 56 (mean, 37.4) years underwent microfracture (n=20) or carbon fibre rod implantation (n=20) for International Cartilage Repair Society grade 3 to 4 knee articular cartilage lesions after a mean of 12.2 months of viscosupplementation and physiotherapy. Clinical outcome at 6 and 12 months was assessed using the Tegner-Lysholm score and modified Cincinnati score. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcome at 12 months was assessed by a radiologist. The modified magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) score was evaluated. The 2 groups were comparable in terms of age, body mass index, lesion location, lesion size, duration of symptoms, and coexisting pathology. The microfracture group had a higher preoperative Tegner-Lysholm score (39.4±7.3 vs. 34.4±4.9, p=0.015) and modified Cincinnati score (36.4±7.2 vs. 30.4±4.0, p=0.002) than the carbon fibre rod group. At 12 months, change in both scores was significant within each group (p<0.001) and was higher in the microfracture than carbon fibre rod group (p<0.001). MRI showed minimal regenerative tissue. Lobulation, oedema, and hypertrophy were more commonly found in the regeneration tissue after carbon fibre rod implantation than microfracture. At 12 months, the MOCART score was higher in the microfracture than carbon fibre rod group (59 vs. 47, p<0.001). Microfracture is superior to carbon fibre rod implantation in terms of clinical and radiological outcome.
LLopis, Eva; Padrón, Mario
Anterior knee pain is a common complain in all ages athletes. It may be caused by a large variety of injuries. There is a continuum of diagnoses and most of the disorders are closely related. Repeated minor trauma and overuse play an important role for the development of lesions in Hoffa's pad, extensor mechanism, lateral and medial restrain structures or cartilage surface, however usually an increase or change of activity is referred. Although the direct relation of cartilage lesions, especially chondral, and pain is a subject of debate these lesions may be responsible of early osteoarthrosis and can determine athlete's prognosis. The anatomy and biomechanics of patellofemoral joint is complex and symptoms are often unspecific. Transient patellar dislocation has MR distinct features that provide evidence of prior dislocation and rules our complication. However, anterior knee pain more often is related to overuse and repeated minor trauma. Patella and quadriceps tendon have been also implicated in anterior knee pain, as well as lateral or medial restraint structures and Hoffa's pad. US and MR are excellent tools for the diagnosis of superficial tendons, the advantage of MR is that permits to rule out other sources of intraarticular derangements. Due to the complex anatomy and biomechanic of patellofemoral joint maltracking is not fully understood; plain films and CT allow the study of malalignment, new CT and MR kinematic studies have promising results but further studies are needed. Our purpose here is to describe how imaging techniques can be helpful in precisely defining the origin of the patient's complaint and thus improve understanding and management of these injuries.
Callaghan, Michael J; Parkes, Matthew J; Hutchinson, Charles E; Gait, Andrew D; Forsythe, Laura M; Marjanovic, Elizabeth J; Lunt, Mark; Felson, David T
Braces used to treat (PF) osteoarthritis (OA) may reduce contact stress across the PF joint. We hypothesised that in PF OA, braces would decrease knee pain and shrink PF bone marrow lesions (BMLs). Eligible subjects had painful PF OA. Subjects were randomly allocated to brace or no brace for 6 weeks. Knee MRIs were acquired at baseline and 6 weeks. We measured BMLs on post-contrast fat suppressed sagittal and proton density weighted axial images. The primary symptom outcome was change in pain at 6 weeks during a preselected painful activity, and the primary structural outcome was BML volume change in the PF joint. Analyses used multiple linear regression. We randomised 126 subjects aged 40-70 years (mean age 55.5 years; 72 females (57.1%)). Mean nominated visual analogue scale (0-10 cm) pain score at baseline was 6.5 cm. 94 knees (75%) had PF BMLs at baseline. Subjects wore the brace for a mean of 7.4 h/day. 6 subjects withdrew during the trial. After accounting for baseline values, the brace group had lower knee pain than the control group at 6 weeks (difference between groups -1.3 cm, 95% CI -2.0 to -0.7; p<0.001) and reduced PF BML volume (difference -490.6 mm(3), 95% CI -929.5 to -51.7; p=0.03) but not tibiofemoral volume (difference -53.9 mm(3), 95% CI -625.9 to 518.2; p=0.85). A PF brace reduces BML volume in the targeted compartment of the knee, and relieves knee pain. UK. ISRCTN50380458. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Richter, Dustin L.; Schenck, Robert C.; Wascher, Daniel C.; Treme, Gehron
Context: Isolated chondral and osteochondral defects of the knee are a difficult clinical challenge, particularly in younger patients for whom alternatives such as partial or total knee arthroplasty are rarely advised. Numerous surgical techniques have been developed to address focal cartilage defects. Cartilage treatment strategies are characterized as palliation (eg, chondroplasty and debridement), repair (eg, drilling and microfracture [MF]), or restoration (eg, autologous chondrocyte implantation [ACI], osteochondral autograft [OAT], and osteochondral allograft [OCA]). Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched for treatment articles using the keywords knee, articular cartilage, and osteochondral defect, with a focus on articles published in the past 5 years. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: In general, smaller lesions (<2 cm2) are best treated with MF or OAT. Furthermore, OAT shows trends toward greater longevity and durability as well as improved outcomes in high-demand patients. Intermediate-size lesions (2-4 cm2) have shown fairly equivalent treatment results using either OAT or ACI options. For larger lesions (>4 cm2), ACI or OCA have shown the best results, with OCA being an option for large osteochondritis dissecans lesions and posttraumatic defects. Conclusion: These techniques may improve patient outcomes, though no single technique can reproduce normal hyaline cartilage. PMID:26502188
Li, X; Yu, C; Wu, H; Daniel, K; Hu, D; Xia, L; Pan, C; Xu, A; Hu, J; Wang, L; Peng, W; Li, F
To prospectively compare the accuracy of three-dimensional fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (3D FIESTA) sequences with that of fat-suppressed three-dimensional spoiled gradient-recalled (3D SPGR) in the diagnosis of knee articular cartilage lesions, using arthroscopy as the reference standard. Fifty-eight knees in 54 patients (age range 21-82 years; mean 36 years) were prospectively evaluated by using sagittal 3D FIESTA and sagittal fat-suppressed 3D SPGR sequences. Articular cartilage lesions were graded on MRI and during arthroscopy with a modified Noyes scoring system. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were assessed. Interobserver agreement was determined with kappa statistics. The performance of 3D FIESTA sequences (sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 80, 94, and 92%, respectively, for reader 1 and 76, 94, and 90%, respectively, for reader 2) was similar to that of fat-suppressed 3D SPGR sequences (sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 82, 92, and 90%, respectively, for reader 1 and 82, 90, and 88%, respectively, for reader 2) in the detection of knee articular cartilage lesions. The interobserver agreement varied from fair to good to excellent (kappa values from 0.43-0.83). 3D FIESTA has good diagnostic performance, comparable with fat-suppressed 3D SPGR in evaluating knee cartilage lesions, and it can be incorporated into routine knee MRI protocols due to the short acquisition time.
Christoforou, Dimitrios; Golant, Alexander; Ort, Paul J
Managing skeletal metastatic disease can be a challenging task for the orthopedic surgeon. In patients who have poor survival prognoses or are poor candidates for extensive reconstructive procedures, management with intralesional curettage and stabilization with bone cement with or without internal fixation to prevent development or propagation of a pathologic fracture may be the best option. The use of bone cement is preferable over the use of bone graft, as it allows for immediate postoperative weight bearing on the affected extremity.This article describes a case where the combined use of arthroscopy and a 2-stage cementation technique may allow preservation of the articular surface and optimization of short-term functional outcome after curettage of a periarticular metastatic lesion in a patient with an end-stage malignancy. We used knee arthroscopy to identify any articular penetration or intra-articular loose bodies after curettage and initial cementation of the periarticular lesion of the distal femur. Arthroscopic evaluation was carried out again after the lesion was packed with cement to identify and remove any loose intra-articular debris. The applicability of this technique is broad, and it can be used in any procedure involving cement packing in a periarticular location. Performed with caution, this technique can be a useful adjunct to surgical management of both malignant and locally aggressive benign bone lesions in periarticular locations.
Commeau, Philippe; Barragan, Paul; Roquebert, Pierre O
To assess the safety and efficacy of sirolimus-eluting stents (SESs) in the treatment of severe intermittent claudication and critical limb ischaemia with "below-the-knee" lesions, unsuitable for surgery. Limited published evidence suggests that drug-eluting stents may offer significant improvements in the treatment of infrapopliteal lesions. Thirty consecutive patients with either severe intermittent claudication or critical limb ischemia (CLI), category 3-6 of Rutherford classification, and multivessel disease of infrapopliteal arteries (> or = 2 vessels) were treated with SES. Sixty-two arteries were treated with 106 SES. Mean age was 73.9 years, 77% of patients were male and 36% diabetic. The primary endpoint was clinical improvement and healing of ulcers at short term (1 month) and mid term (7.7 months). The secondary endpoint was primary vessel patency rate (angiographic or duplex assessment). All patients received clopidogrel (75 mg daily) or ticlopidine (150 mg daily) for 2 months or longer. Angiographic and procedural success was achieved in all patients. At 7 months (7.7 +/- 5.8), it was necessary to amputate 1 toe in one patient and 1 mid-foot in another. Limb salvage was obtained in 100% of patients. Other events were: two cardiac deaths unrelated to CLI, one stroke with hemiparesia, one initial reperfusion syndrome, one contralateral CLI, and three recurrent homolateral claudication cases. All surviving patients had a mid-term clinical improvement with 97% of primary patency (56 patent arteries on 58 arteries). Treatment of "below-the-knee" lesions with SES may provide an alternative treatment for patients with CLI. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Seebauer, Christian J.; Bail, Hermann J.; Rump, Jens C. Walter, Thula Teichgraeber, Ulf K. M.
Computer-assisted surgery is currently a novel challenge for surgeons and interventional radiologists. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided procedures are still evolving. In this experimental study, we describe and assess an innovative passive-navigation method for MRI-guided treatment of osteochondritis dissecans of the knee. A navigation principle using a passive-navigation device was evaluated in six cadaveric knee joint specimens for potential applicability in retrograde drilling and bone grafting of osteochondral lesions using MRI guidance. Feasibility and accuracy were evaluated in an open MRI scanner (1.0 T Philips Panorama HFO MRI System). Interactive MRI navigation allowed precise drilling and bone grafting of osteochondral lesions of the knee. All lesions were hit with an accuracy of 1.86 mm in the coronal plane and 1.4 mm the sagittal plane. Targeting of all lesions was possible with a single drilling. MRI allowed excellent assessment of correct positioning of the cancellous bone cylinder during bone grafting. The navigation device and anatomic structures could be clearly identified and distinguished throughout the entire drilling procedure. MRI-assisted navigation method using a passive navigation device is feasible for the treatment of osteochondral lesions of the knee under MRI guidance and allows precise and safe drilling without exposure to ionizing radiation. This method may be a viable alternative to other navigation principles, especially for pediatric and adolescent patients. This MRI-navigated method is also potentially applicable in many other MRI-guided interventions.
Salem, Khaled Hamed
Salmonella osteomyelitis in immunocompetent adults is uncommon. It usually has a diaphyseal location or present as spondylitis. Metaphyseal affection is extremely rare. A 51-year-old male presented with refractory knee pain. Plain X-rays showed a rounded osteolytic lesion in the proximal tibia without marginal sclerosis. A minimal C-reactive protein elevation and a normal leucocytic count were present. Further imaging raised suspicion of malignancy so that a biopsy was done. After fenestering the lesion, 15-ml turbid fluid was evacuated. Microbiological examination showed Salmonella enteritidis. Repeated debridements were done and antibiotic therapy with ciprofloxacin was initiated. The cavity was then filled with synthetic bone graft leading to progressive healing. Although rare, Salmonella bone infection usually lacks the typical periosteal reaction and the laboratory evidence of infection of pyogenic osteomyelitis. It should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of osteolytic neoplastic lesions. Copyright © 2013 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Papalia, R; Zampogna, B; Russo, F; Vasta, S; Tirindelli, M C; Nobile, C; Di Martino, A C; Vadalà, G; Denaro, V
Cartilage lesions are very common causes of chronic knee pain in athletes. Current treatment options consist in conservative strategies, such as viscosupplementation and platelet-rich plasma injections. This randomized controlled trial aims to investigate the effect of intra-articular Hybrid Hyaluronic Acid injections compared to PRP for the treatment of cartilage lesions among athletes at the end of their career. Since March 2015, 48 professional soccer players were randomized into two groups: 24 patients received 3 injections of HHA and 23 patients received 3 intra-articular injections of PRP. All patients achieved a statistically significant clinical improvement from preoperative to postoperative time in both groups. Patients in the HHA group showed a significant superiority compared to PRP group at 3 and 6 months. Intergroup differences decrease gradually until loss of significance at 12 months follow-up. Athletes with chronic degenerative cartilage lesions of the knee responded positively both to HHA and PRP until last follow up.
Bonadio, Marcelo Batista; Giglio, Pedro Nogueira; Helito, Camilo Partezani; Pécora, José Ricardo; Camanho, Gilberto Luis; Demange, Marco Kawamura
To evaluate the use of subchondroplasty in the treatment of bone marrow lesions in an initial series of five cases. The study included patients aged between 40 and 75 years old, with pain in the knee for at least six months, associated with high-signal MRI lesion on T2 sequences, on the tibia or femur. Patients were assessed using the visual analog pain scale and the KOOS score, one week before surgery and one, three, six, 12, and 24 weeks after the procedure. Subchondroplasty was performed with a technique developed for filling the area of the bone marrow lesion with a calcium phosphate bone substitute. The filling was performed on the medial femoral condyle in four patients and medial tibial plateau in one case. The assessment by the KOOS score presented a preoperative average of 38.44 points and 62.7, 58.08, 57.92, 63.34, and 71.26 points with one, three, six, 12, and 24 weeks after surgery, respectively. In the evaluation by the VAS, the average was 7.8 points preoperatively and 2.8, 3, 2.8, 1.8, and 0.6 points over the same periods. All patients were able to ambulate without additional support, on the first day after the procedure. One patient had a minimal graft dislocation to the soft tissue, with local pain, which resolved completely after a week. The subchondroplasty technique provided significant improvements in the parameters of pain and functional capacity in the short-term assessment.
Strauss, Eric J; Fonseca, Lauren E; Shah, Mehul R; Yorum, Thomas
Injuries to the articular cartilage of the knee are common. They alter the normal distribution of weightbearing forces and predispose patients to the development of degenerative joint disease. The management of focal chondral lesions continues to be problematic for the treating orthopaedic surgeon. Although many treatment options are currently available, none fulfill the criteria for an ideal repair solution: a hyaline repair tissue that completely fills the defect and integrates well with the surrounding normal cartilage. Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is a relatively new cell-based treatment method for full-thickness cartilage injuries that in recent years has increased in popularity, with early studies showing promising results. The current article reviews the nature of cartilage lesions in the knee and the treatment modalities utilized in their management, focusing on the role ACI plays in the surgical treatment of these complex injuries.
Matsuda, Dean K; Bharam, Srino; White, Brian J; Matsuda, Nicole A; Safran, Marc
The purpose of this study is to investigate the outcomes from anchor-induced chondral damage of the hip, both with and without frank chondral penetration. A multicenter retrospective case series was performed of patients with chondral deformation or penetration during initial hip arthroscopic surgery. Intra-operative findings, post-surgical clinical courses, hip outcome scores and descriptions of arthroscopic treatment in cases requiring revision surgery and anchor removal are reported. Five patients (three females) of mean age 32 years (range, 16-41 years) had documented anchor-induced chondral damage with mean 3.5 years (range, 1.5-6.0 years) follow-up. The 1 o'clock position (four cases) and anterior and mid-anterior portals (two cases each) were most commonly implicated. Two cases of anchor-induced acetabular chondral deformation without frank penetration had successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, while one case progressed from deformation to chondral penetration with clinical worsening. Of the cases that underwent revision hip arthroscopy, all three had confirmed exposed hard anchors which were removed. Two patients have had clinical improvement and one patient underwent early total hip arthroplasty. Anchor-induced chondral deformation without frank chondral penetration may be treated with close clinical and radiographic monitoring with a low threshold for revision surgery and anchor removal. Chondral penetration should be treated with immediate removal of offending hard anchor implants. Preventative measures include distal-based portals, small diameter and short anchors, removable hard anchors, soft suture-based anchors, curved drill and anchor insertion instrumentation and attention to safe trajectories while visualizing the acetabular articular surface.
Nieminen, Miika T; Nissi, Mikko J; Mattila, Lauri; Kiviranta, Ilkka
Various quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) biomarkers, including but not limited to parametric MRI mapping, semiquantitative evaluation, and morphological assessment, have been successfully applied to assess cartilage repair in both animal and human studies. Through the interaction between interstitial water and constituent macromolecules the compositional and structural properties of cartilage can be evaluated. In this review a comprehensive view of a variety of quantitative techniques, particularly those involving parametric mapping, and their relationship to the properties of cartilage repair is presented. Some techniques, such as T2 relaxation time mapping and delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC), are well established, while the full potential of more recently introduced techniques remain to be demonstrated. A combination of several MRI techniques is necessary for a comprehensive characterization of chondral repair. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Martinelli, Niccolo; Bonifacini, Carlo; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Marinozzi, Andrea; Florio, Pino; Khan, Wasim S; Denaro, Vincenzo
Due to the nature of articular cartilage of being poorly vascularized the capabilities of self repair are limited. Mesenchymal stem cells transplantation is a modern technique which has been developed after the high success rates obtained by microfracturing and drilling techniques which promote the release of growth factors and the infiltration of bone marrow derived cells in the lesion. In order to increase the concentration of bone marrow derived cells appropriate devices, the scaffolds, are necessary. These three dimensional constructs mimic the physiological ambient of chondrogenesis.The race for new scaffold materials, which will show high biocompatibility to prevent inflammatory response, high cellular adhesion properties with three dimensional architecture, high bioactivity to deliver growth factor appropriately and possibly high biodegrability has just begun. New studies will concentrate on the role, on the interaction and on the temporal sequence of growth factors to improve ostheocondral differentiation, but the necessity to increase the number of clinical studies with more patients and longer follow ups seems mandatory. The aim of this review is to update and summarise the evidence-based knowledge of treatment of talus chondral defect with new tissue engineering techniques.
Klennert, Brenden J; Ellis, Benjamin J; Maak, Travis G; Kapron, Ashley L; Weiss, Jeffrey A
There is a mean incidence of osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip in 8% of the overall population. In the presence of focal chondral defects, defined as localized damage to the articular cartilage, there is an increased risk of symptomatic progression toward OA. This relationship between chondral defects and subsequent development of OA has led to substantial efforts to develop effective procedures for surgical cartilage repair. This study examined the effects of chondral defects and labral delamination on cartilage mechanics in the dysplastic hip during the gait cycle using subject-specific finite element analysis. Models were generated from volumetric CT data and analyzed with simulated chondral defects at the chondrolabral junction on the posterior acetabulum during five distinct points in the gait cycle. Focal chondral defects increased maximum shear stress on the osteochondral surface of the acetabular cartilage, when compared to the intact case. This effect was amplified with labral delamination. Additionally, chondral defects increased the first principal Lagrange strain on the articular surface of the acetabular cartilage and labrum. Labral delamination relieved some of this tensile strain. As defect size was increased, contact stress increased in the medial zone of the acetabulum, while it decreased anteriorly. The results suggest that in the presence of chondral defects and labral delamination the cartilage experiences elevated tensile strains and shear and contact stress, which could lead to further damage of the cartilage, and subsequent arthritic progression. The framework presented here will serve as the procedure for future finite element studies on cartilage mechanics in hips with varying disease states with simulated chondral defects and labral tears. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Etcheto, H. Rivarola; Blanchod, C. Collazo; Palanconi, M.; Zordan, J.; Salinas, E. Alvarez; Autorino, C.
Juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the knee is a nosological entity acquired, idiopathic and potentially reversible. Dissects the subchondral bone tissue plane from the underlying bone, making a partial or complete osteochondral detachment, with a loose body. Consensus to treat none surgically poor symptomatic and stable lesions. If the lesion becomes instable or more symptomatic, surgical treatment will be best the option. Recently histological evidence holds is possible find sources of instability in deep layers sub chondral bone, even in patients with ¨stables lesions¨. This condition might be the reason of unfavorable evolution certain cases previously considered as ¨stable or incipient¨, treated with the classic non operative protocols. Objectives: The purpose of the present study consist in present a series of cases of young patients with symptomatic low grade juvenile OCD (grade I-II), treated surgically with subchondral debridement and fixation ¨in situ¨ describing the clinical and imaging findings. Methods: We evaluated 15 cases of symptomatic juvenile OCD of the knee, stables lesion (grade I/ II) according to Di Paola´s classification, who have not responded to conservative therapy for at least 6 months. Results: All patients were treated surgical consecutively with arthroscopically assisted ¨in situ¨ fixation with pins Smart Nail NR, ConMed-Linvatex and for the same group of surgeons. We evaluated the clinical and imagenologic outcomes with MRI for a minimum follow up of six month to one year. No looseness of fastening material or loose bodies in the submitted sample were recorded. The study by MRI imaging techniques using high definition chondral identification evidence allowed the consolidation of the fragment to the 6th month. Conclusion: All patients evolved asymptomatic and returned to the previous activity, with high level of satisfaction.
Rodrigues, Marcelo Bordalo; Camanho, Gilberto Luís
Through the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to characterize soft tissue noninvasively, it has become an excellent method for evaluating cartilage. The development of new and faster methods allowed increased resolution and contrast in evaluating chondral structure, with greater diagnostic accuracy. In addition, physiological techniques for cartilage assessment that can detect early changes before the appearance of cracks and erosion have been developed. In this updating article, the various techniques for chondral assessment using knee MRI will be discussed and demonstrated. PMID:27022562
Farshad-Amacker, Nadja A; Potter, Hollis G
Knee ligament instability may lead to meniscal and chondral damage, resulting in early osteoarthritis. Due to its superior soft tissue contrast and avoidance of harmful ionizing radiation, MRI has become the most important imaging modality for early recognition of structural defects of the knee joint. This review aims to the understanding of MRI appearances of knee ligament structures associated with knee instability, and to review the common patterns of altered knee mechanics that lead to ligament failure. Normal anatomy of the knee ligaments, pathologic conditions, and postsurgical appearances of the anterior cruciate ligament, posterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament, and posterolateral corner are described.
Aratake, Masato; Yoshifumi, Tayama; Takahashi, Akira; Takeuchi, Ryohei; Inoue, Tomio; Saito, Tomoyuki
Positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging has several advantages over conventional scintigraphy, including a high spatial resolution and the ability to quantify disease progression. Recently, (18)F-fluoride PET has been applied to the evaluation of malignant tumors and musculoskeletal disorders. In our current study, spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee (SONK) was visualized using this technique. We determined whether PET images can reveal SONK lesions, whether there were significant differences in the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) among each of the SONK stages, and finally if there was any correlation between the maximum SUVmax value and size of the SONK lesion measured both by radiography and MRI. Fourteen knees from 13 patients diagnosed with SONK were imaged using a PET scanner. In all cases, PET showed an accumulation of 18F-fluoride in the medial condyle. The SUVmax ranged from 8.6 to 23.7 with an average of 15.1 +/- 3.7 and was measured at different disease stages with an average of 12.4 +/- 5.9 in Stage 2 (n = 5), 16.3 +/- 1.4 in Stage 3 (n = 4), and 16.8 +/- 4.3 (n = 5) in Stage 4 lesions. There were no significant differences in these measurements between the SONK stages. However, a significant positive correlation between the SUVmax and lesion size, including the surface area of the lesion (r2 = 0.692, P = 0.0002) and the condyle width ratio (r2 = 0.365, P = 0.022), was found. The approximate volumes of the lesions measured by MRI had an average of 4.8 +/- 3.1 cm3, and also showed a significant correlation with the SUVmax (r2 = 0.853, P < 0.0001). Hence, our present results indicate that a high SUV is indicative of a large SONK lesion.
Filardo, G.; Di Martino, A.; Delcogliano, M.; Marcacci, M.
Objective: Complex fractures of the tibial plateau are difficult to treat and present a high complication rate. The goal of this report is to describe a combined biological and mechanical approach to restore all morphological and functional knee properties. Methods: We treated a 50-year-old woman, who was affected by a posttraumatic osteochondral lesion and depression of the lateral tibial plateau with knee valgus deviation. The mechanical axis was corrected with a lateral tibial plateau elevation osteotomy, the damaged joint surface was replaced by a recently developed biomimetic osteochondral scaffold, and a hinged dynamic external fixator was applied to protect the graft and at the same time to allow postoperative joint mobilization. Results: A marked clinical improvement was documented at 12 months and further improved up to 5 years, with pain-free full range of motion and return to previous activities. The MRI evaluation at 12 and 24 months showed that the implant remained in site with a hyaline-like signal and restoration of the articular surface. Conclusion: This case report describes a combined surgical approach for complex knee lesions that could represent a treatment option to avoid or at least delay posttraumatic osteoarthritis and more invasive procedures. PMID:26069639
Fritz, Jürgen; Janssen, Pia; Gaissmaier, Christoph; Schewe, Bernhard; Weise, Kuno
Full-thickness defects of the articular cartilage in the knee joint have lower regenerative properties than chondral lesions of the ankle. In order to avoid early osteoarthritis, symptomatic articular cartilage defects in younger patients should undergo biological reconstruction as soon as possible. Various surgical procedures are available to biologically resurface the articular joint line. Numerous animal experiments and clinical studies have shown that early biological reconstruction of circumscribed cartilage defects in the knee is superior to conservative or delayed surgical treatment. This superiority refers not only to defect healing but also to the elimination of changes following secondary osteoarthritis. The various surgical procedures can be differentiated by the range of indications and the final outcome. Additional malalignment, meniscus tears and/or ligament instabilities should be treated simultaneously with the cartilage resurfacing. The mid- and long-term results of the various current techniques are promising, but further modifications and improvements are needed.
Hensley, Craig P; Sum, Jonathan
Power lifting places the shoulder complex at risk for injury. Microfracture is a relatively new procedure for chondral defects of the glenohumeral joint and is not well described in the literature. The purpose of this case report is to describe the post-operative rehabilitation used with a power lifter who underwent a microfracture procedure to address glenoid and humeral chondral defects, debridement of type I superior labral anterior-posterior lesion, and a subacromial decompression. The patient was a 46 year-old male who was evaluated nine weeks status-post arthroscopic microfracture procedure for glenoid and humeral chondral defects, debridement of superior labral anterior-posterior (SLAP) lesion, and subacromial decompression. Rehabilitation consisted of postural education, manual therapy, rotator cuff and scapular strengthening, dynamic stabilization, weightbearing exercises, and weight training over nine weeks (24 sessions). Lifting modifications were addressed. Results of the QuickDASH indicate that activities of daily living (ADLs), work, and sports modules all improved significantly, and the patient was able to return to recreational power lifting with limited discomfort or restrictions. A structured post-operative physical therapy treatment program allowed this patient to return to recreational power lifting while restoring independent function for work-related activities and ADLs.
Background: Power lifting places the shoulder complex at risk for injury. Microfracture is a relatively new procedure for chondral defects of the glenohumeral joint and is not well described in the literature. Objectives: The purpose of this case report is to describe the post-operative rehabilitation used with a power lifter who underwent a microfracture procedure to address glenoid and humeral chondral defects, debridement of type I superior labral anterior-posterior lesion, and a subacromial decompression. Case Description: The patient was a 46 year-old male who was evaluated nine weeks status-post arthroscopic microfracture procedure for glenoid and humeral chondral defects, debridement of superior labral anterior-posterior (SLAP) lesion, and subacromial decompression. Rehabilitation consisted of postural education, manual therapy, rotator cuff and scapular strengthening, dynamic stabilization, weightbearing exercises, and weight training over nine weeks (24 sessions). Lifting modifications were addressed. Outcomes: Results of the QuickDASH indicate that activities of daily living (ADLs), work, and sports modules all improved significantly, and the patient was able to return to recreational power lifting with limited discomfort or restrictions. Discussion: A structured post-operative physical therapy treatment program allowed this patient to return to recreational power lifting while restoring independent function for work-related activities and ADLs. PMID:21655454
Gabusi, Elena; Manferdini, Cristina; Paolella, Francesca; Gambari, Laura; Mariani, Erminia
The surgical treatment of knee articular focal lesions may offer heterogeneous clinical results. Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) lesions showed to heal better than degenerative lesions (DL) but the underlying biological reasons are unknown. We evaluated the basal histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of these lesions analyzing a series of osteochondral fragments from young patients with similar age but presenting different etiology. Osteochondral tissue samples were stained with Safranin O and graded using a histological score. Markers of mesenchymal progenitor cells (CD146), osteoclasts (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, TRAP), and vessels (CD34) were evaluated. Histological score showed a higher degeneration of both cartilage and bone compartments in OCD compared to DL fragments. Only CD146-positive cells were found at the same percentage in cartilage compartment of both DL and OCD patients. By contrast, in the bone compartment a significantly higher percentage of CD146, TRAP, and CD34 markers was found in OCD compared to DL patients. These data showed distinct histological characteristics of osteochondral focal lesions located in the same anatomical region but having a different etiology. The higher percentages of these markers in OCD than in DL, mainly associated with a high bone turnover, could help to explain the higher clinical healing potential of OCD patients. PMID:28770227
Witoński, Dariusz; Wągrowska-Danilewicz, Małgorzata; Kęska, Rafał; Raczyńska-Witońska, Grażyna; Stasikowska-Kanicka, Olga
The pathway of pain in the anterior knee pain syndrome remains unclear. It has been hypothesized that some biochemical mediators of inflammation, such as cytokines contribute to the process. The objective of this work was to evaluate the synovial membrane and the infrapatellar fat pad expression of the inflammatory mediators and potentially chondrodestructive cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in the anterior knee pain syndrome, and to determine whether the cytokine expression counterpart with/corresponds to the amount of chondral damage in this syndrome. Ten consecutive patients with the anterior knee pain syndrome (group I) participated in the study. Patients with a history of trauma were excluded from this group. For comparison we used 10 patients with anterior cruciate ligament rupture or meniscal lesion with no history of pain in the anterior compartment (group II). Immunohistochemical techniques using a polyclonal rabbit anti-human antibody to IL-6 and a monoclonal mouse anti-human antibody to TNF-α were employed. The results show a statistically significant higher expression of IL-6 in infrapatellar fat pad (p < 0.05) as well as TNF-α in the infrapatellar fad pad and the synovium (p < 0.03, and p < 0.02, respectively) in group I as compared to control subjects. There is no any difference in the amount of chondral damage present in group I as compared to group II. The results of this study provide the immunohistochemical evidence suggesting that the anterior knee pain syndrome could be characterized by infrapatellar fat pad and synovial inflammation variations without the articular cartilage loss.
Leon, H O; Blanco, C E; Guthrie, T B
We present a simple surgical technique created by the authors to address degenerative chondral lesions of the knee and its application in a limited prospective case series. The technique assumes the concept of beneficial epiphyseal changes caused by disruption of the subchondral bone in improving symptoms, as with drilling, microfracture, periarticular osteotomy, and other invasive procedures. Minimally invasive selective osteotomy (MISO) is an expansion of the arthroscopic treatment of the knee, specifically targeting symptomatic lesions with minimal additional trauma and cost, while avoiding disruption of the articular surface of the subchondral bone. The technique involves a mimimal access approach with selective saw cuts placed with a 1-cm oscillating blade parallel to the joint surface 1 to 1.5 cm deep to identified lesions. The technique does not address malalignment but can address lesions not addressed by classic osteotomies and, as such, may be combined with other corrective alignment procedures as necessary. We present the results of MISO of the knee in a case series of 62 outpatients carried out at the Orthopaedic Division of the Clinical and Surgical Hermanos Ameijeiras Hospital in Havana, Cuba. At 2-year follow-up, there was improvement of symptoms without significant complications.
Jeffery, Dean; Buller, M; Wichuk, Stephanie; McDougall, Dave; Lambert, Robert GW; Maksymowych, Walter P
Objective Bone marrow lesions (BML) are an MRI feature of osteoarthritis (OA) offering a potential target for therapy. We developed the Knee Inflammation MRI Scoring System (KIMRISS) to semiquantitatively score BML with high sensitivity to small changes, and compared feasibility, reliability and responsiveness versus the established MRI Osteoarthritis Knee Score (MOAKS). Methods KIMRISS incorporates a web-based graphic overlay to facilitate detailed regional BML scoring. Observers scored BML by MOAKS and KIMRISS on sagittal fluid-sensitive sequences. Exercise 1 focused on interobserver reliability in Osteoarthritis Initiative observational data, with 4 readers (two experienced/two new to KIMRISS) scoring BML in 80 patients (baseline/1 year). Exercise 2 focused on responsiveness in an open-label trial of adalimumab, with 2 experienced readers scoring BML in 16 patients (baseline/12 weeks). Results Scoring time was similar for KIMRISS and MOAKS. Interobserver reliability of KIMRISS was equivalent to MOAKS for BML status (ICC=0.84 vs 0.79), but consistently better than MOAKS for change in BML: Exercise 1 (ICC 0.82 vs 0.53), Exercise 2 (ICC 0.90 vs 0.32), and in new readers (0.87–0.92 vs 0.32–0.51). KIMRISS BML was more responsive than MOAKS BML: post-treatment BML improvement in Exercise 2 reached statistical significance for KIMRISS (SRM −0.69, p=0.015), but not MOAKS (SRM −0.12, p=0.625). KIMRISS BML also more strongly correlated to WOMAC scores than MOAKS BML (r=0.80 vs 0.58, p<0.05). Conclusions KIMRISS BML scoring was highly feasible, and was more reliable for assessment of change and more responsive to change than MOAKS BML for expert and new readers. PMID:28123780
Figueroa, D; Espinosa, M; Calvo, R; Scheu, M; Valderrama, J J; Gallegos, M; Conget, P
To evaluate the effect of 2 different protocols of intra-articular hyaluronic acid (HA, hylan G-F20) to articular cartilage regeneration in acute full-thickness chondral defects. Full-thickness chondral defects of 3 x 6 mm were performed into the lateral femoral condyles of New Zealand rabbits, treated with a single or three doses of HA. The animals were sacrified at 12 weeks and the regenerated tissue was evaluated by direct observation and histology with the ICRS scale. Macroscopically, in both groups treated with HA the defects were filled with irregular tissue with areas similar to hyaline cartilage and others in which depressed areas with exposed subchondral bone were observed. Histological analysis showed in both groups treated with HA a hyaline-like cartilage compared to control group. However, the score of the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) scale did not show differences between the groups treated with HA. The use of single dose or 3 doses of AH in acute chondral lesions has a limited and similar benefit in articular cartilage regeneration. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Skowronek, Michał; Skowronek, Paweł; Dutka, Łukasz
Introduction Arthroscopy of the knee joint is regarded as the most objective diagnostic method in intra-articular knee joint lesions. Aim The purpose of this study was to assess the objectivity and diagnostic value of orthopaedic examination (OE) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in reference to the arthroscopic result. Material and methods In a group of 113 patients treated by arthroscopic surgery for post-traumatic knee pathology between 2008 and 2010 in our department, accuracy of clinical and MRI findings that preceded surgery were studied retrospectively using a statistical method. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and predictive negative and positive values were the subject of analysis. Results In the presented trial, sensitivity values of the orthopaedic examination for injuries of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), meniscus medialis (MM), meniscus lateralis (ML) and chondral injuries (ChI) were 86%, 65%, 38% and 51%, respectively. Specificity values were 90%, 65%, 100% and 100%, respectively. The MR sensitivity and specificity values were 80%, 88%, 44% and 32%, and 86%, 64%, 93% and 97%, respectively. Conclusions Assessment of intra-articular knee joint lesions is a difficult diagnostic problem. In making a decision about arthroscopy of the knee joint, an appropriate sequence of examinations should be carried out: OE, MRI and arthroscopy. The improvement in the effectiveness of the orthopaedic examination and MRI can limit the too high frequency of diagnostic arthroscopies, which generates the risk of operation treatment and costs. PMID:23255995
Lo, GH; McAlindon, TE; Niu, J; Zhang, Y; Beals, C; Dabrowski, C; Hellio Le Graverand, MP; Hunter, DJ
Objective It is widely believed that there are multiple sources of pain at a tissue level in osteoarthritis (OA). MRIs provide a wealth of anatomic information and may allow identification of specific features associated with pain. We hypothesized that in knees with OA, bone marrow lesions (BMLs), synovitis, and effusion would be associated with weight-bearing and (less so with) non-weight-bearing pain independently. Methods In a cross-sectional study of persons with symptomatic knee OA using univariate and multivariate logistic regressions with maximal BML, effusion, and synovitis defined by Boston Leeds Osteoarthritis Knee Score as predictors, and knee pain using weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing Western Ontario and McMaster University OA Index pain questions as the outcome, we tested the association between MRI findings and knee symptoms Results 160 participants, mean age 61 (±9.9), mean BMI 30.3 (±4.7) and 50% female, stronger associations were seen with weight-bearing compared with non-weight-bearing knee pain with adjusted risk ratios (RRs) of weight-bearing knee pain, for increasing maximal BML scores of 1.0 (referent) (maximal BML = 0), 1.2, 1.9, and 2.0 (p for trend = 0.006). For effusion scores, adjusted ORs of knee pain were 1.0, 1.7, 2.0, and 2.6 (p for trend = 0.0004); and for synovitis scores, adjusted ORs were 1.0, 1.4, 1.5, and 1.9 (p for trend = 0.22). Conclusion Cross-sectionally, maximal BML and effusion scores are independently associated with weight-bearing and less so with non-weight-bearing knee pain, supporting the idea that pain in OA is multifactorial. These MRI features should be considered as possible new treatment targets in knee OA. PMID:19583959
Bosiers, Marc; Lioupis, Christos; Deloose, Koen; Verbist, Jürgen; Peeters, Patrick
We investigated the efficacy of Xpert (Abbott Vascular, Abbott Park, IL) nitinol stents for the treatment of infrapopliteal lesions in patients with Critical Limb Ischemia (CLI). Between May 2005 and November 2007, 94 CLI patients (70 male, mean age 73.5 years) received 134 Xpert stents in 102 limbs. Seventy-nine patients (71.2%) were scored as Rutherford Category 4, 31 patients (27.9%) as Category 5 and 1 patient (0.9%) as Category 6. Primary endpoint of this study was defined as 2-year duplex derived primary patency. Secondary endpoints were 2-year limb salvage rate and the absence of reintervention after the index procedure. Kaplan Meier analysis reported 2-year primary patency and limb salvage rates of 54.4% and 90.8%, respectively. Stratification by lesion location did not reveal any significant differences in 2-year primary patency rates in proximal and distal below the knee lesions. Our results suggest that treatment with nitinol Xpert stents can be considered effective for treating CLI patients, with satisfying patency outcome.
Ip, Stephen; Sayre, Eric C; Guermazi, Ali; Nicolaou, Savvakis; Wong, Hubert; Thorne, Anona; Singer, Joel; Kopec, Jacek A; Esdaile, John M; Cibere, Jolanda
To evaluate the prevalence of bone marrow lesions (BML) and their association with pain severity in a population-based cohort of symptomatic early knee osteoarthritis (OA). Subjects with knee pain (n = 255), age 40-79 years, were evaluated by radiograph and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and classified into OA stages: no OA (NOA), preradiographic OA (PROA), and radiographic OA (ROA). BML were graded 0-3 (none, mild, moderate, severe) in 6 regions and defined as (1) BMLsum = the sum of 6 scores; and (2) BMLmax = the worst score at any region. Pain was assessed by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities OA Index (WOMAC). Linear regression analysis was completed to assess the association of Total WOMAC Pain (primary outcome) versus BMLsum or BMLmax. Secondary outcomes were WOMAC Pain on Walking and WOMAC Pain on Climbing Stairs. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, OA stage, joint effusion, and meniscal damage. BML were present in 11% of NOA, 38% of PROA, and 71% of ROA subjects (p < 0.001). No association was seen for BMLsum or BMLmax versus Total WOMAC Pain or Pain on Walking. However, BMLsum was associated with Pain on Climbing Stairs [regression coefficients (RC) = 0.09, 95% CI 0.00-0.18]. BMLmax was associated with Pain on Climbing Stairs, with the strongest association for severe BML (RC 0.60, 95% CI 0.04-1.17). BML were present in 38% of PROA and 71% of ROA subjects in this symptomatic knee cohort. BML were significantly associated with Pain on Climbing Stairs but not Total WOMAC or Pain on Walking.
Ogura, Takahiro; Bryant, Tim; Minas, Tom
Background: Treating articular cartilage defects and meniscal deficiency is challenging. Although some short- to mid-term follow-up studies report good clinical outcomes after concurrent autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT), longer follow-up is needed. Purpose: To evaluate mid- to long-term outcomes after combined ACI with MAT. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of prospectively gathered data from patients who had undergone ACI with MAT between 1999 and 2013. A single surgeon treated 18 patients for symptomatic full-thickness chondral defects with meniscal deficiency. One patient was lost to follow-up. Thus, 17 patients (18 knees; mean age, 31.7 years) were evaluated over a mean 7.9-year follow-up (range, 2-16 years). A mean 1.8 lesions per knee were treated over a total surface area of 7.6 cm2 (range, 2.3-21 cm2) per knee. Seventeen lateral and 1 medial MATs were performed. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The modified Cincinnati Knee Rating Scale, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, visual analog scale, and Short Form–36 were used to evaluate clinical outcomes. Patients also self-reported knee function and satisfaction. Standard radiographs were scored for Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grade. Results: Both 5- and 10-year survival rates were 75%. Outcomes for 6 knees were considered failures. Of the 6 failures, 4 knees were converted to arthroplasty and the other 2 knees underwent biological revision surgery. Of the 12 successfully operated knees, all clinical measures significantly improved postoperatively. Ten patients representing 11 of the 12 knees rated outcomes for their knees as good or excellent, and 1 rated their outcome as fair. Eight patients representing 9 of the 12 knees were satisfied with the procedure. There was no significant osteoarthritis progression based on K-L grading from preoperatively to a
Widuchowski, Wojciech; Tomaszewski, Wiesław; Widuchowski, Jerzy; Czamara, Andrzej
The last twenty years have been marked by a rapid development of articular cartilage treatment and regeneration techniques. We present current concepts in the treatment of cartilage lesions and injuries, including gene therapy and tissue engineering.
Samaan, Michael A; Facchetti, Luca; Pedoia, Valentina; Tanaka, Matthew S; Link, Thomas M; Souza, Richard B; Ma, C Benjamin; Li, Xiaojuan
In this exploratory study, gait analysis and quantitative MRI (QMRI) were used to assess biomechanical differences in patients that present with cyclops lesions at 12 months after ACL-reconstruction (ACLR). Thirty ACLR patients without and 10 ACLR patients with cyclops lesions underwent 3T MR T1ρ mapping of the reconstructed knee joint prior to ACLR and at 12 months after ACLR, as well as a gait assessment during a fixed walking speed at 12 months after ACLR. Both external sagittal and frontal plane knee joint moments and joint moment impulses were calculated and assessed throughout the stance phase of gait. ACLR patients with cyclops lesions demonstrated a significantly greater (34% larger, p = 0.03) first peak knee flexion moment (KFM) and KFM impulse (42% larger, p = 0.05), compared to those without cyclops lesions, which may suggest an increased load during the loading response phase of gait. There were no differences (p > 0.05) in knee extension or adduction joint moments or moment impulses. ACLR patients with cyclops lesions demonstrated a significantly increased change in T1ρ (ΔT1ρ = 4.7 ms, p = 0.03), over 12 months, within the central medial tibia. The results of the study suggest that ACLR patients with cyclops lesions demonstrate altered sagittal plane loading patterns which may be related to an increased rate of medial tibiofemoral cartilage degeneration at 12 months after ACLR. The first peak external KFM may be an important target for intervention programs in ACLR patients with cyclops lesions in order to possibly slow the onset or progression of medial tibiofemoral cartilage degeneration. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Souza, Richard B.; Feeley, Brian T.; Zarins, Zinta A.; Link, Thomas M.; Li, Xiaojuan; Majumdar, Sharmila
Objective The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the T1ρ relaxation times of articular cartilage surrounding focal defects of the tibiofemoral joint. Materials and Methods Quantitative assessment of cartilage was performed using 3T MRI with T1ρ mapping in 19 healthy individuals and 44 OA patients. Sagittal T2-weighted fast spin echo (FSE) fat-saturated images were acquired for cartilage and meniscal lesion assessment. Western Ontario and McMaster University (WOMAC) scores were obtained to assess clinical symptoms. Differences between quantitative measures were determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results Cartilage lesions were found in 37% of controls, and 93% of OA patients. Meniscal tears were found in 16% of controls and 57% of OA patients. We observed no difference in T1ρ relaxation times when comparing cartilage immediately surrounding a focal defect, and the remaining cartilage within that compartment. The medial femoral condyle (MFC) had the highest incidence of cartilage defects. A high incidence of medial meniscal lesions were observed in subjects without MFC lesions (18/45). MFC and medial meniscus posterior horn T1ρ were higher in subjects having multiple focal lesions (p=0.048, p<0.001 respectively) and extensive full thickness lesions (p=0.009, p<0.001 respectively) compared to subjects with no MFC defects. Significant elevations in T1ρ of the adjacent compartment (medial tibia) and medial meniscus were observed in subjects with MFC lesions. Conclusions Increased relaxation times in the involved compartment as well as the adjacent compartment and associated meniscus underscores the interdependence of the these structures at bearing load. However, no differences in cartilage composition immediately surrounding a defect was noted. Finally, there was a close association between cartilage defects and meniscal damage in advanced disease. PMID:23159719
Schmal, Hagen; Mehlhorn, Alexander T.; Pilz, Ingo H.; Dovi-Akue, David; Kirchhoff, Christina; Südkamp, Norbert P.; Gerlach, Ulrike; Lohrmann, Christian; Niemeyer, Philipp
Introduction. Although it is well known that BMP-2 and BMP-7 play significant roles in cartilage metabolism, data about intra-articular expression and localization of these proteins and their receptors in humans are rare. Methods. Biopsies of synovia and debrided cartilage were taken in patients undergoing autologous chondrocyte implantation. Expression of BMP-2, BMP-7, and their receptors BMPR-1A, BMPR-1B and BMPR-2 were semiquantitatively evaluated by immunohistological staining. Results. BMP-7 was equally highly expressed in all cartilage and synovial biopsies. Increased levels of BMPR-1A, but not of BMPR-1B, and BMPR-2, were found in all synovial and 47% of all cartilage samples (P = 0.002). BMP-2 was positively scored in 47% of all cartilage and 40% of all synovial specimens. Defect size, KOSS, Henderson or Kellgren-Lawrence score did not statistically significant correlate with the expression of the analyzed proteins or Mankin and Pritzker scores. Duration of symptoms and localization of lesions were associated with KOSS (P < 0.02), but there was no influence of these parameters on protein expression. Conclusions. BMP-2, BMP-7, and BMPR-1A were expressed in cartilage and synovia of knees with focal cartilage lesions. Although defect localization and duration of symptoms decisively influence KOSS, there was no associated alteration of protein expression observed. PMID:22272175
Macarini, Luca; Murrone, Mario; Marini, Stefania; Moretti, Biagio; Patella, Vittorio
To assess the magnetic resonance (MR) appearance of knee cartilage chondroplasty procedures and their evolution in order to evaluate the usefulness of the method in monitoring postoperative rehabilitation. Sixty-two patients treated with knee chondroplasty for high-grade cartilage injuries (Noyes' stages II and III) were examined with MR. Forty patients were treated with abrasion chondroplasty, fifteen with osteochondral graft in the injury site and seven with the matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte transplant technique. All patients were operated on by the same orthopaedic team and examined with the same MR protocol. The MR follow-up was performed six months and one year after surgery in the patients treated with abrasion chondroplasty and osteochondral graft, and one week, three months and one year after surgery in the patients treated with cartilage transplant. In the patients treated with abrasion chondroplasty we assessed the fibrocartilage repair and the subchondral bone features, in the patients treated with osteochondral graft we examined the cartilage, the subchondral bone and the graft borders, while in the patients treated with cartilage transplant we evaluated the features and the evolution of the transplant and the subchondral bone. Arthrosynovitis was assessed in all patients. In seven patients a cartilage repair biopsy was performed in arthroscopy. In all the patients MR imaging proved useful in monitoring the chondroplasty. In the patients treated with abrasion chondroplasty the cartilage repair appeared as a hypointense non-homogeneous irregular strip of tissue that replaced the articular surface. The subchondral bone was sclerotic with some geodes. In the later examination the repair was unchanged. In the patients treated with osteochondral graft the articular cartilage was similar to the adjacent hyaline cartilage, although more non-homogeneous. The subchondral bone was sclerotic and in three cases oedematous. In four cases the graft extended
Yüksel, Halil Yalçin; Erkan, Serkan; Uzun, Macit
The purpose of this study was to evaluate arthroscopically the type, localization and prevalence of the meniscal and chondral lesions accompanying complete rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in patients who elected not to restrict their daily activities after the initial trauma. The size of the chondral lesions was also evaluated. Our second aim is to analyze the effects of age, time from injury, and both age and time from injury in the presence or absence of accompanying lesions in these patients. The localization and type of the accompanying lesions of 317 knees with complete rupture of the ACL were recorded by the same observer. We applied therapeutic arthroscopy to all patients after their first visit to our clinic. All of the patients were military personnel and their history revealed that they had elected to not restrict their occupational activities after the first trauma causing ACL insufficiency. We defined the first 6 week period after the initial trauma as the acute, 6 weeks to 12 months as the subchronic and 12 months or longer as the chronic period. The average time from injury to arthroscopy for these patients, who were all male, was 19.4 +/- 20.3 months. Eighty-one percent of the patients had at least one meniscal tear, and 45.1% had at least one chondral lesion. The mean ages at the time of surgery of patient groups with or without medial and lateral menisci lesions were compared, and no statistically significant difference was determined. In the chronic period, the relative risk (RR) values of meniscal tears were 7.75 for medial and 2.40 for lateral. The group consisting of patients with chondral lesions was compared with the group of patients without chondral lesions in terms of their ages and the time from injury to arthroscopy, and the difference was statistically significant. The RR value for patients with co-existence of at least two lesions was 1.761 for more than 30 years of age. The RR values for at least two lesions were 2
Rajani, Amyn M; Kumar, Ritesh; Shyam, Ashok
Introduction: We report an osteoarthritic patient with huge sub-chondral cyst-like lesions in the Anterior part of distal femur. Deep and large bone defects and severe lateral laxity due to Advanced osteoarthritis was successfully treated with semi-constrained type total knee arthroplasty with long stem. Case Report: A 70yrs old Female was admitted in our institution diagnosed with severe bilateral Osteoarthritis. The x-rays showed bone on bone Tricompartment OA Knee with Varus Malalignment. She was posted for Single Stage Bilateral Total Knee Replacement and as planned the Left Knee Was Operated first. After exposure, Proximal Tibial, Distal Femoral Cuts and measurement of extension gaps the synovium from the anterior Femur was removed and sizing was done. The AP cut was then proceeded with. We spotted a small Osteochondral Cyst in the Anterior Femur which was curretted to remove the cystic material, which is when we realised that the cyst was large and communicating with the medulary canal. The remaining Femoral preparations was done keeping in mind the risk of iatrogenic fracture and extension Stem was used in the femur. The defect was then packed cancellous bone graft. Conclusion: If suspected a Preoperative MRI should be done to exclude any sub-chondral cysts osteochondral defects and any surprise during surgery. Usually one should keep extension stems ready for difficult cases. Operating surgeon should know his implants very well, as in many standard implants extension stems can only be used when distal femur cuts are taken accordingly as 5° Valgus. Mini incision should be avoided because it may fail to reveal such surprises and may land into periprosthetic fractures. PMID:27298967
Osbahr, Daryl C; Dines, Joshua S; Breazeale, Nathan M; Deng, Xiang-Hua; Altchek, David W
Previous studies have documented increased posteromedial contact forces with the elbow at lower flexion angles associated with valgus extension overload; however, the authors believe that posteromedial elbow impingement in association with valgus laxity is a complex pathological process that may occur throughout the entire throwing motion in the form of ulnohumeral chondral and ligamentous overload. Valgus laxity with the elbow at 90° of flexion may lead to chondromalacia secondary to a subtle shift in the contact point between the tip of the olecranon and the distal humeral trochlea. Controlled laboratory study. Six fresh human cadaveric elbows were dissected and subjected to a static valgus load. Pressure-sensitive Fuji film measured the contact pressure, contact area, and shift in contact area across the posteromedial elbow before and after sectioning the anterior bundle of the ulnar collateral ligament. The contact pressure between the tip of the olecranon process and the medial crista of the posterior humeral trochlea significantly increased, from an average of 0.27 ± 0.06 kg/cm² to 0.40 ± 0.08 kg/cm². The contact area also significantly decreased, from an average of 30.34 ± 9.17 mm² to 24.59 ± 6.44 mm², and shifted medially on the medial humeral crista, which corresponds to the position of the posteromedial chondral lesions that was observed in throwing athletes in the authors' clinical practice. While simulating the early acceleration phase of the throwing motion with the elbow in 90° of flexion, the results illustrate that abnormal contact may occur as a result of valgus laxity through increased contact pressures across the posteromedial elbow between the medial tip of the olecranon and medial crista of the humeral trochlea. In addition, congruency of the ulnohumeral joint changed, as there was a statistically significant medial shift of the olecranon on the posterior humeral trochlea with the elbow at 90° of flexion after sectioning the anterior
Kosy, Jonathan D; Schranz, Peter J; Toms, Andrew D; Eyres, Keith S; Mandalia, Vipul I
We present a review of the current literature surrounding the use of radiofrequency energy for arthroscopic chondroplasty in the knee. This review article summarizes basic science, clinical efficacy, and recent advances in the understanding of radiofrequency energy use for the treatment of chondral lesions. Laboratory evidence of increased mechanical stability and decreased release of inflammatory mediators associated with the use of radiofrequency energy chondroplasty is described with clinical evidence of decreased pain and increased functional scores when compared with mechanical chondroplasty. We re-examine concerns about the immediate side effects of radiofrequency energy use, including damage to local structures, in light of new potentially contradictory results, as well as the progression of techniques and probe design. However, although reported complications are few, because the quality of clinical evidence about safety and efficacy remains low, we suggest cautious and judicious use of this technology until future research has clearly defined the long-term clinical outcomes and risks.
Suwannaloet, Wanwisa; Laupattarakasem, Wiroon; Sukon, Peerapol; Ong-Chai, Siriwan; Laupattarakasem, Pisamai
The osteochondral healing potential of hyaluronic acid (HA) plus diacerein was evaluated in subchondral-drilling- (SCD-) induced fibrocartilage generation in rabbits. A full-thickness chondral defect was created along the patellar groove of both knees and then SCD was subsequently performed only in the left knee. A week later, the rabbits were allocated into 3 groups to receive weekly intra-articular (IA) injection for 5 weeks with normal saline solution (NSS) (group 1) or with HA (group 2 and group 3). Starting at the first IA injection, rabbits were also gavaged daily for 9 weeks with NSS (group 1 and group 2) or with diacerein (group 3). The animals were then sacrificed for evaluation. The newly formed tissue in SCD lesions showed significantly better histological grading scale and had higher content of type II collagen in HA-treated group compared to NSS control. In addition, adding oral diacerein to HA injection enhanced healing potential of HA. PMID:22666105
Worthen, Jamie; Waterman, Brian R; Davidson, Philip A; Lubowitz, James H
The purpose of this study was to systematically review the limitations and biases inherent to surgical trials on the management of knee chondral defects. A literature search of PubMed/Medline, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was conducted in September 2010 and updated in August 2011 to identify all English-language, Level I evidence, prospective, randomized controlled trials published from 1996 to present. The keyword search included the following: "autologous chondrocyte," "cartilage graft," "cartilage repair," "chondroplasty," "microfracture," "mosaicplasty," and/or "osteochondral." Nonoperative studies, nonhuman studies, ex vivo studies, non-knee studies, and/or studies with follow-up of less than 1 year were excluded. A systematic review was performed on all included studies, and limitations and/or biases were identified and quantitated. Of 15,311 citations, 33 abstracts were reviewed and 11 prospective, randomized controlled trials were included. We identified 9 major limitations (subject age, subject prior surgery, subject duration of symptoms, lesion location, lesion size, lesion number, procedure selection, procedure standardization, and limited histologic analysis) and 7 common biases (selection, performance, transfer, nonresponder, detection, publication, and study design). Level I therapeutic studies investigating the surgical management of human knee cartilage defects have substantial identified biases and limitations. This review has limitations because other classifications of bias or limitation exist. Optimal management of cartilage defects is controversial, and future rigorous research methods could minimize common biases through strict study design and patient selection criteria, larger patient enrollment, more extended follow-up, and standardization of clinical treatment pathways. Level I, systematic review of Level I studies. Copyright © 2012
Gittens, Jamila; Haleem, Amgad M; Grenier, Stephanie; Smyth, Niall A; Hannon, Charles P; Ross, Keir A; Torzilli, Peter A; Kennedy, John G
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of chemical tissue bonding (CTB) on adhesion strength, fluid permeability, and cell viability across a cartilaginous graft-host interface in an in vitro autologous chondral transplant (ACT) model. Chitosan-based cross-linkers; Chitosan-Rose Bengal [Chi-RB (Ch-ABC)], Chitosan-Genipin [Chi-GP (Ch-ABC)], and Chitosan-Rose Bengal-Genipin [Chi-RB-GP (Ch-ABC)] were applied to bovine immature cartilage explants after pre-treatment with surface degrading enzyme, Chondroitinase-ABC (Ch-ABC). Adhesion strength, fluid permeability and cell viability were assessed via mechanical push-out shear testing, fluid transport and live/dead cell staining, respectively. All three chitosan-based cross-linkers significantly increased the adhesion strength at the graft-host interface, however, only a statistically significant decrease in fluid permeability was noted in Chi-GP (Ch-ABC) specimen compared to untreated controls. Cell viability was maintained for 7 days of culture across all three treatment groups. These results show the potential clinical relevance of novel chitosan-based hydrogels in enhancing tissue integration and reducing synovial fluid penetration after ACT procedures in diarthoidal joints such as the knee and ankle. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1139-1146, 2016. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kon, Elizaveta; Delcogliano, M; Filardo, G; Altadonna, G; Marcacci, M
We report on a 46-year-old athletic patient, previously treated with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, with large degenerative chondral lesions of the medial femoral condyle, trochlea and patella, which was successfully treated with a closing-wedge high tibial osteotomy and the implant of a newly developed biomimetic nanostructured osteochondral bioactive scaffold. After 1 year of follow-up the patient was pain-free, had full knee range of motion, and had returned to his pre-operation level of athletic activity. MRI evaluation at 6 months showed that the implant gave a hyaline-like signal as well as a good restoration of the articular surface, with minimal subchondral bone oedema. Subchondral oedema was almost non-visible at 12 months.
Kamei, Naosuke; Ishikawa, Masakazu; Adachi, Nobuo; Ochi, Mitsuo
Abstract We have developed a magnetic system for targeting cells in minimally invasive cell transplantation. Magnetically labeled MSCs (m‐MSCs) with nanoscale iron particles can be guided into the desired region by magnetic force from an extracorporeal device. We reported that magnetic targeting of m‐MSCs enhances cartilage repair in a mini‐pig model. However, the detailed kinetics of these magnetically targeted m‐MSCs remain unknown. For clinical use, this aspect should be clarified from a safety standpoint. We therefore investigated the spatial and temporal distribution of the fluorescently‐labeled m‐MSCs transplanted into the knee joint using in vivo fluorescence combined with three‐dimensional computed tomographic imaging in a rat model. Although the intraarticularly injected m‐MSCs were spread throughout the joint cavity in the absence of magnetic force, the magnetic force caused the injected m‐MSCs to accumulate around the chondral lesion. Further examinations including ex vivo imaging, histological assessments and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that transplanted MSCs were not present in any major organs after intraarticular administration, regardless of magnetic targeting. Our data suggest that m‐MSCs can be accumulated efficiently into a chondral lesion using our magnetic targeting system, while none of the intraarticularly transplanted MSCs migrate to other major organs. PMID:25963065
Ikuta, Yasunari; Kamei, Naosuke; Ishikawa, Masakazu; Adachi, Nobuo; Ochi, Mitsuo
We have developed a magnetic system for targeting cells in minimally invasive cell transplantation. Magnetically labeled MSCs (m-MSCs) with nanoscale iron particles can be guided into the desired region by magnetic force from an extracorporeal device. We reported that magnetic targeting of m-MSCs enhances cartilage repair in a mini-pig model. However, the detailed kinetics of these magnetically targeted m-MSCs remain unknown. For clinical use, this aspect should be clarified from a safety standpoint. We therefore investigated the spatial and temporal distribution of the fluorescently-labeled m-MSCs transplanted into the knee joint using in vivo fluorescence combined with three-dimensional computed tomographic imaging in a rat model. Although the intraarticularly injected m-MSCs were spread throughout the joint cavity in the absence of magnetic force, the magnetic force caused the injected m-MSCs to accumulate around the chondral lesion. Further examinations including ex vivo imaging, histological assessments and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that transplanted MSCs were not present in any major organs after intraarticular administration, regardless of magnetic targeting. Our data suggest that m-MSCs can be accumulated efficiently into a chondral lesion using our magnetic targeting system, while none of the intraarticularly transplanted MSCs migrate to other major organs.
Lu, W; Yang, J; Chen, S; Zhu, Y; Zhu, C
Diagnostic performance of patellar position for patellar cartilage lesions remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the abnormal patella height and its correlation with chondral lesions of the patellofemoral joint in China. A total of 1703 consecutive patients who performed knee joint examination using an extremity-dedicated low-field magnetic resonance imaging were enrolled in this study. Patellar cartilage lesions were diagnosed based on the result of magnetic resonance imaging and clinical data. Patella height was defined as the ratio of patellar tendon length to patellar length according to Insall-Salvati index. Patella alta and infera were defined as tendon length/patellar length >1.2 and <0.8, respectively. The total prevalence of patellar cartilage lesions was 38.0%. The prevalence in females was significantly higher than that in males (46.4% vs 28.8%, p < 0.001). Age notably increased the incidence of patellar cartilage lesions (p < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that tendon length/patellar length ratio was significantly correlated with patellar cartilage lesions (odds ratio = 6.380, p < 0.001). Furthermore, patients with cartilage lesions showed significantly higher rates of patella alta and infera (p < 0.001). In addition, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that abnormal patella height had statistical significance in diagnosing cartilage lesions (p < 0.001). However, the area under the curve (0.596; 95% confidence interval: 0.568-0.624) and sensitivity (47.0%) were relatively low, while the specificity was 72.2%. Patients with patellar cartilage lesions have an increased tendon length/patellar length ratio. The abnormal patella height is significantly correlated with chondral lesions and can be used as a potential diagnostic marker. © The Finnish Surgical Society 2015.
Vahlensieck, M; Schnieber, O
The purpose of this study was to analyze the diagnostic value of a low-field open MR system in the diagnosis of knee lesions and to compare it with that of high-field MR systems. In 139 knees,arthroscopic investigations were used as the gold standard to calculate sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and accuracy of the low-field open MR system. Figures for high field systems were taken from the literature. The values for the open MR system relative to arthroscopy were as follows: sensitivity 66%,specificity 95%,positive predictive value 64%,negative predictive value 92%, and accuracy 82%. The corresponding values taken from 10 relevant publications for highfield systems were: sensitivity 81%, specificity 90%, accuracy 90%. A lower diagnostic performance has to be expected using open low field MR units for knee lesions in comparison to high field units. Sedative drugs can make it possible for claustrophobic patients to be investigated in high-field units. The use of open low-field scanners may still be indicated in very adipose patients who do not fit into closed units.
Kon, Elizaveta; Filardo, Giuseppe; Brittberg, Mats; Busacca, Maurizio; Condello, Vincenzo; Engebretsen, Lars; Marlovits, Stefan; Niemeyer, Philipp; Platzer, Patrik; Posthumus, Michael; Verdonk, Peter; Verdonk, Renè; Victor, Jan; van der Merwe, Willem; Widuchowski, Wojciech; Zorzi, Claudio; Marcacci, Maurilio
The increasing awareness on the role of subchondral bone in the etiopathology of articular surface lesions led to the development of osteochondral scaffolds. While safety and promising results have been suggested, there are no trials proving the real potential of the osteochondral regenerative approach. Aim was to assess the benefit provided by a nanostructured collagen-hydroxyapatite (coll-HA) multilayer scaffold for the treatment of chondral and osteochondral knee lesions. In this multicentre randomized controlled clinical trial, 100 patients affected by symptomatic chondral and osteochondral lesions were treated and evaluated for up to 2 years (51 study group and 49 control group). A biomimetic coll-HA scaffold was studied, and bone marrow stimulation (BMS) was used as reference intervention. Primary efficacy measurement was IKDC subjective score at 2 years. Secondary efficacy measurements were: KOOS, IKDC Knee Examination Form, Tegner and VAS Pain scores evaluated at 6, 12 and 24 months. Tissue regeneration was evaluated with MRI MOCART scoring system at 6, 12 and 24 months. An external independent agency was involved to ensure data correctness and objectiveness. A statistically significant improvement of all clinical scores was obtained from basal evaluation to 2-year follow-up in both groups, although no overall statistically significant differences were detected between the two treatments. Conversely, the subgroup of patients affected by deep osteochondral lesions (i.e. Outerbridge grade IV and OCD) showed a statistically significant better IKDC subjective outcome (+12.4 points, p = 0.036) in the coll-HA group. Statistically significant better results were also found for another challenging group: sport active patients (+16.0, p = 0.027). Severe adverse events related to treatment were documented only in three patients in the coll-HA group and in one in the BMS group. The MOCART score showed no statistical difference between the two groups. This
Filardo, Giuseppe; Kon, Elizaveta; Di Martino, Alessandro; Patella, Silvio; Altadonna, Giulio; Balboni, Federica; Bragonzoni, Laura; Visani, Andrea; Marcacci, Maurilio
Degenerative cartilage lesions present a negative joint environment, which may have a negative effect on the process of cartilage regeneration. The aim of this study is to analyze the clinical outcome obtained with the treatment for isolated degenerative knee cartilage lesions by second-generation arthroscopic autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). Fifty-eight consecutive patients affected by focal degenerative chondral lesions of the femoral condyles and trochlea were treated by second-generation arthroscopic ACI. The mean age at surgery was 34.7 ± 9.1 years and the average defect size was 2.3 ± 0.9 cm(2). The patients were prospectively evaluated with IKDC, EQ-VAS, and Tegner scores preoperatively, at 2 and 6 years. A statistically significant improvement was observed in all scores from the basal evaluation to the final follow-up. The IKDC subjective score improved from 39.3 ± 13.6 to 68.8 ± 22.7 and 68.5 ± 23.9 at the 2- and 6-year follow-ups, respectively, with a significant improvement (P < 0.0005) and stable results over time; the same trend was confirmed by the EQ-VAS and Tegner scores. The worst results were found in patients with a low physical activity level, women, and those having undergone previous surgery, whereas the symptom duration before surgery did not influence the final outcome. The failure rate was 18.5%. Despite a significant improvement, the results were lower with respect to the outcome reported in different study populations, and the number of failures was markedly higher, too. Tissue-engineered cartilage implantation is a promising approach for the treatment of degenerative chondral lesions, but graft properties, besides mechanical and biochemical joint environment, have to be improved. Case series, Level IV.
Wang, Kang; Xu, Jianhua; Cai, Jingyu; Zheng, Shuang; Yang, Xueqing; Ding, Changhai
To investigate cross-sectional associations between serum levels of resistin and interleukin-17 (IL-17) and cartilage defects and bone marrow lesions (BMLs) in patients with knee symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA). One hundred and ninety-four consecutively-selected patients with knee symptomatic OA (mean 55.4 years, range 34-74, 87% females) were included in Anhui Osteoarthritis (AHOA) Study. Knee cartilage defects and BMLs were determined at different sites using T2-weighted fat-suppressed fast spin echo MRI. Serum resistin, IL-17, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were measured using ELISA. In multivariable analyses, serum resistin was positively associated with cartilage defects at lateral femoral, lateral tibial, and medial tibial (all p < 0.05) sites. The significant associations were also present with BMLs at lateral femoral and tibial sites (ORs: 1.13-1.19, both p < 0.05). In patients with the highest quartile of hs-CRP (>2.45 pg/ml), IL-17 was positively and significantly associated with cartilage defect score at nearly all sites (ORs: 1.33-1.44, all p < 0.05), and BMLs at lateral and medial femoral sites (ORs: 1.26-1.51, both p < 0.05). Serum levels of resistin were positively and independently associated with cartilage defects and BMLs in patients with knee OA. Serum IL-17 was significantly associated with cartilage defects and BMLs in patients with an increased inflammatory status. These suggest that metabolic and inflammatory mechanisms may have a role to play in knee OA.
Sansone, Valerio; de Girolamo, Laura; Pascale, Walter; Melato, Marco; Pascale, Valerio
To evaluate the long-term functional results of arthroscopic abrasion arthroplasty for the treatment of full-thickness cartilage lesions of the medial femoral condyle. Between 1990 and 1996, 75 consecutive patients with isolated chondral lesions of the medial femoral condyle were treated with arthroscopic chondral abrasion. A retrospective analysis of the clinical results of this cohort was performed. The patients were evaluated according to the Knee Society Score questionnaire preoperatively, at 10 years postoperatively, and at final long-term follow-up at a mean of 20 years. At final follow-up, they were also assessed according to the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. Patients were divided according to the lesion size and by age, and the Kaplan-Meier survivorship function (with second operation taken as an endpoint) for the various groups was calculated. At a mean of final follow-up of 20 years (range, 16.94 to 23.94 years), a positive functional outcome (Knee Society Score ≥70 points or no reoperation) was recorded in 67.9% of the patients. Twenty-year survivorship in this cohort was 71.4% (95% confidence interval, 0.5690 to 0.8590). The survivorship was 89.5% for patients younger than 50 years and 55.7% for patients aged 50 years or older. The functional results for patients with lesions smaller than 4 cm(2) were significantly better than those for patients with lesions of 4 cm(2) or greater (P = .031). There were no statistical differences between patients with and without associated lesions at the time of surgery. Our hypothesis that there would be survivorship greater than 86% was disproved. However, arthroscopic abrasion arthroplasty can be a valid treatment for medial femoral condylar full-thickness defects of the knee, even in the long-term, particularly for younger patients and those with smaller lesions. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier
Lohan, Anke; Marzahn, Ulrike; El Sayed, Karym; Bock, Christopher; Haisch, Andreas; Kohl, Benjamin; Stoelzel, Katharina; John, Thilo; Ertel, Wolfgang; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula
Implantation of non-articular (heterotopic) chondrocyte-based implants might be an alternative approach to articular cartilage repair. This strategy could be helpful in cases in which there are no or too few articular chondrocytes available. Therefore, this study was undertaken to compare joint cartilage defect healing in the minipig model after implantation of heterotopic auricular and orthotopic articular chondrocytes. Poly-glycolic acid (PGA) associated three-dimensional (3D) constructs were prepared culturing autologous minipig-derived articular and auricular chondrocytes for 7 days in a dynamic culture system. Chondrocyte PGA constructs were implanted into 8mm diameter and ∼1.1mm deep chondral defects within the medial and lateral condyles of the minipig knee joints. Empty defects served as controls for assessment of the intrinsic healing response. Defect healing was monitored 6 months post implantation using a macroscopic and microscopic score system and biomechanical analysis. Neo-cartilage formation could be observed in the PGA constructs seeded with articular and auricular chondrocytes in vivo. The defect healing did not significantly differ at the macroscopic and histological level in response to implantation of either autologous articular or auricular chondrocytes seeded constructs compared with the empty defects. Although the differences were not significant, the auricular chondrocytes-based implants led to a slightly inferior repair quality at the macroscopic level, but a histologically superior healing response when compared with the empty defect group. However, biomechanical analysis revealed a higher stiffness in repair tissues produced by auricular chondrocyte implantation compared with the other groups. Deduced from these results, articular chondrocytes represent the preferable cell source for implantation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Tomasella, G; Turra, S; Olmeda, A; Soliman, A; Brunino, L G
The authors report the results of the study of 48/112 patients who underwent US examination of the knee for gonalgia. Meniscopathy or capsular-ligamentous lesions were clinically suspected. US results were compared with arthroscopic or athrotomic findings; the latter two methods were considered as the reference gold standard. US exhibited 81.2% overall diagnostic accuracy, thus confirming its limitations, more evident than those of arthroscopy and arthrography, CT and MR imaging. Major limitations of US were its failed recognition of meniscal tears smaller than 5-6 mm, and its failed distinction of degenerative meniscopathies from common meniscal fractures (with the exception of 2 cases). Moreover, US did not allow cruciate ligament lesions to be demonstrated; however, in all these cases, US did demonstrate increased capsular thickness (greater than 3 mm at the lower margin of femoral condyle). This indirect sign, together with roudness of parameniscus and capsular-ligamentous limitans (at the hemirhyme), and the direct sign of inhomogeneous hyperechogenicity of the meniscal triangle (normally hypoechoic) contributed to raising overall diagnostic accuracy of US to 89.9%. In the 5 patients with a suspected lesion of the medial collateral ligament examined within 48 hours from trauma, US gave 2 false-positive results in 2 cases where forced abduction test was also positive. Massive edema and swelling of adjacent structures prevented the correct evaluation of ligament limitans. In these 2 cases, a lesion in the anterior cruciate ligament was found at surgery; one of them was associated with a meniscal lesion already diagnosed at US. Both parameniscal and popliteal cysts were correctly diagnosed with US. Due to the well-known limitations of clinics in the diagnosis of knee pain, US could be suggested as the examination of choice to evaluate suspected meniscopathy or ligamentous lesions, thanks to its low cost and short execution time. The use of US could also spare the
Sánchez, Mikel; Sánchez, Pello; Orive, Gorka; Anitua, Eduardo; Padilla, Sabino
In orthopaedic surgery and sports medicine, the knee joint has traditionally been considered the workhorse. The reconstruction of every damaged element in this joint is crucial in achieving the surgeon's goal to restore the knee function and prevent degeneration towards osteoarthritis. In the last fifteen years, the field of regenerative medicine is witnessing a boost of autologous blood-derived platelet rich plasma products (PRPs) application to effectively mimic and accelerate the tissue healing process. The scientific rationale behind PRPs is the delivery of growth factors, cytokines, and adhesive proteins present in platelets and plasma, as well as other biologically active proteins conveyed by the plasma such as fibrinogen, prothrombin, and fibronectin; with this biological engineering approach, new perspectives in knee surgery were opened. This work describes the use of PRP to construct and repair every single anatomical structure involved in knee surgery, detailing the process conducted in ligament, meniscal, and chondral surgery. PMID:25302310
Li, Yukun; Esmail, Ali; Donas, Konstantinos P; Pitoulias, Georgios; Torsello, Giovanni; Bisdas, Theodosios; Michelagnoli, Stefano; Troisi, Nicola
To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of antegrade vs crossover femoral artery access in the endovascular treatment of isolated below-the-knee (BTK) lesions in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). Between January 2014 and December 2015, 224 high-risk patients (mean age 75.8±9.8 years; 151 men) with CLI underwent infragenicular interventions on 292 crural vessels in 3 European vascular centers. All patients had isolated TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) C (n=26) or D (n=198) BTK lesions. Primary endpoints were freedom from access-related complications and technical success comparing the antegrade vs crossover access groups. Balloon angioplasty was the most used treatment modality (169 vessels, 75.4%). The technical success rate was 88.4% in the entire cohort and 88.0% in the antegrade group vs 90.4% in the crossover group (p>0.99). In all patients, the technical success rate was higher for stenotic lesions (100%) vs occlusions (85.5%, p=0.002) and in patients with TASC C BTK lesions (100%) vs TASC D (86.9%, p=0.033). The overall freedom from access-related complications was 97.8%: 99% in the antegrade group and 90.6% in the crossover group (p=0.022). Larger sheath size (5/6-F vs 4-F) was associated with a significantly higher risk for access-related complications (7.1% vs 1.1%, respectively; p=0.047). The present multicenter study showed high technical success and a low incidence of access-related complications in the treatment of isolated BTK lesions using either antegrade or crossover femoral access. The antegrade approach with the use of a 4-F system seems to have a significantly lower rate of access-related complications.
Perera, JR; Gikas, PD; Bentley, G
INTRODUCTION Chondral and osteochondral lesions of the knee are notoriously difficult to treat due to the poor healing capacity of articular cartilage and the hostile environment of moving joints, ultimately causing disabling pain and early osteoarthritis. There are many different reconstructive techniques used currently but few are proven to be of value. However, some have been shown to produce a better repair with hyaline-like cartilage rather than fibrocartilage. METHODS A systematic search of all available online databases including PubMed, MEDLINE® and Embase™ was undertaken using several keywords. All the multiple treatment options and methods available were considered. These were summarised and the evidence for and against them was scrutinised. RESULTS A total of 460 articles were identified after cross-referencing the database searches using the keywords. These revealed that autologous and matrix assisted chondrocyte implantation demonstrated both ‘good to excellent’ histological results and significant improvement in clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Autologous and matrix assisted chondrocyte implantation have been shown to treat symptomatic lesions successfully with significant histological and clinical improvement. There is, however, still a need for further randomised clinical trials, perfecting the type of scaffold and the use of adjuncts such as growth factors. A list of recommendations for treatment and the potential future trends of managing these lesions are given. PMID:22943326
Papalia, R; Diaz Balzani, L; Torre, G; Tirindelli, M C; Nobile, C; Maffulli, N; Denaro, V
Cartilage lesions are the most common cause of chronic knee pain. Micro-fracturing is reliable, effective, easy to perform and inexpensive. We propose a novel approach to cartilage lesions where microfractures are performed contextually to intra-operative or post-operative administration of platelet concentrates. We retrospectively evaluate 48 patients divided in 3 groups. Group 1: 15 patients underwent microfractures and intraoperative administration of PRF (PRF group); group 2: 16 microfractures and postoperative injections of PRP (PRP group); group 3: 17 patients with isolated microfractures (Microfractures group). Clinical scores (IKDC, VAS pain) were administered at 2 and 5 years postoperative and MRI was performed to evaluate the lesions of patients according to the MOCART criteria (2006). Patients treated with platelet concentrates achieved better clinical results compared to patients treated with microfracture only. The PRF group showed better results than the PRP group at 2 years, with loss of significance at 5 years. At MOCART score, PRF group obtained better results earlier than the other two groups.
Bonasia, Davide Edoardo; Martin, James A; Marmotti, Antonio; Kurriger, Gail L; Lehman, Abigail D; Rossi, Roberto; Amendola, Annunziato
The goal of the study was to evaluate the repair of chondral lesions treated with combined autologous adult/allogenic juvenile cartilage fragments, compared with isolated adult and isolated juvenile cartilage fragments. Fifty-eight adult (>16 week old) and five juvenile (<6 week old) New Zealand White female rabbits were used. A large osteochondral defect was created in the center of the femoral trochlea of adult rabbits. The rabbits were divided in four groups: Group 1 = untreated defects (controls); Group 2 = adult cartilage fragments; Group 3 = juvenile cartilage fragments; and Group 4 = adult + juvenile cartilage fragments. Killings were performed at 3 and 6 months. The defects were evaluated with ICRS macroscopic score, modified O'Driscoll score, and Collagen type II immunostaining. At 3 months, Group 4 performed better than Group 1, in terms of modified O'Driscoll score (p = 0.001) and Collagen type II immunostaining (p = 0.015). At 6 months, Group 4 showed higher modified O'Driscoll score (p = 0.003) and Collagen type II immunostaining score (p < 0.001) than Group 1. Histologically, also Group 3 performed better than Group 1 (p = 0.03), and Group 4 performed better than Group 2 (p = 0.004). Mixing adult and juvenile cartilage fragments improved cartilage repair in a rabbit model. In the clinical setting, a new "one-stage" procedure combining the two cartilage sources can be hypothesized, with the advantages of improved chondral repair and large defect coverage, because of the use of an off-the-shelf juvenile allograft. Further studies on larger animals and clinical trials are required to confirm these results.
Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Steinbacher, Gilbert; Álvarez-Díaz, Pedro; Cuscó, Xavier; Seijas, Roberto; Barastegui, David; Navarro, Jordi; Laiz, Patricia; García-Balletbó, Montserrat
Knee cartilage or osteochondral lesions are common and challenging injuries. To date, most symptomatic lesions warrant surgical treatment. We present two cases of patients with knee osteochondral defects treated with a one-step surgical procedure consisting of an autologous-based matrix composed of healthy hyaline cartilage chips, mixed plasma poor-rich in platelets clot, and plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF). Both patients returned to playing soccer at the preinjury activity level and demonstrated excellent defect filling in both magnetic resonance imaging and second-look arthroscopy (in one of them). The use of a clot of autologous plasma poor in platelets with healthy hyaline cartilage chips and intra-articular injection of plasma rich in platelets is an effective, easy, and cheap option to treat knee cartilage injuries in young and athletic patients. PMID:28798878
Cugat, Ramón; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Steinbacher, Gilbert; Álvarez-Díaz, Pedro; Cuscó, Xavier; Seijas, Roberto; Barastegui, David; Navarro, Jordi; Laiz, Patricia; García-Balletbó, Montserrat
Knee cartilage or osteochondral lesions are common and challenging injuries. To date, most symptomatic lesions warrant surgical treatment. We present two cases of patients with knee osteochondral defects treated with a one-step surgical procedure consisting of an autologous-based matrix composed of healthy hyaline cartilage chips, mixed plasma poor-rich in platelets clot, and plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF). Both patients returned to playing soccer at the preinjury activity level and demonstrated excellent defect filling in both magnetic resonance imaging and second-look arthroscopy (in one of them). The use of a clot of autologous plasma poor in platelets with healthy hyaline cartilage chips and intra-articular injection of plasma rich in platelets is an effective, easy, and cheap option to treat knee cartilage injuries in young and athletic patients.
Samim, Mohammad; Smitaman, Edward; Lawrence, David; Moukaddam, Hicham
Anterior knee pain is the most common knee complaint. It may be due to a variety of soft tissue or osseous abnormalities. Knowledge of the radiologic appearance of the abnormalities allows more accurate diagnosis of the cause of the pain including chondral abnormalities, patellar instability and dislocation, femoral trochlear dysplasia, abnormal patellar location, bipartite patella, various tendinopathies, bursal inflammation, traction apophysitis in pediatric and adolescent patients, and miscellaneous diseases including mediopatellar plica syndrome and Hoffa's disease. Radiographs are often obtained to exclude acute osseous abnormalities, such as fractures. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging offers superior soft tissue contrast resolution and allows for more accurate evaluation of the underlying etiology and therefore may improve treatment and possible surgical planning.
Wagemakers, Harry P; Luijsterburg, Pim A; Boks, Simone S; Heintjes, Edith M; Berger, Marjolein Y; Verhaar, Jan A; Koes, Bart W; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M
To assess the diagnostic accuracy of history taking and physical examination for assessing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) lesions in primary care. Cross-sectional diagnostic study. Primary care. Patients (N=134; age, 18-65y) who consulted their general practitioner (GP) within 5 weeks after injury. Not applicable. Index tests were obtained with a questionnaire and physical examination. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used as the reference test. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine associations with ACL lesions. Diagnostic accuracy was determined by calculating sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), predictive values, and likelihood ratio (LR). MRI showed an ACL lesion in 28 of 134 included patients. "Effusion," "popping sensation," "giving way," and "anterior drawer test (ADT)" showed associations with an ACL lesion (P<.05). Popping sensation showed Se, Sp, positive predictive value (PPV), and positive LR (LR(+)) of .63, .73, .39, and 2.3, respectively. Combining determinants from history taking (2 of 3 positive results regarding effusion, popping sensation, and giving way) improved diagnostic accuracy (Se, .71; Sp, .71; PPV, .42; and LR(+), 2.5). The ADT added diagnostic accuracy to these combinations (Se, .63; Sp, .85; PPV, .52; and LR(+), 4.2). ACL lesions are seen frequently. Based on history taking (effusion, popping sensation, and/or giving way) and physical examination (ADT), GPs can screen for ACL lesions in primary care.
Bin Abd Razak, Hamid Rahmatullah; Amit Kanta, Mitra
We report a case of a chondral delamination lesion due to medial parapatellar plica friction syndrome involving the medial femoral condyle. This mimicked a torn medial meniscus in clinical and radiological presentation. Arthroscopy revealed a chondral delamination flap, which was debrided. Diagnosis of chondral lesions in the knee can be challenging. Clinical examination and MRI have good accuracy for diagnosis and should be used in tandem. Early diagnosis and treatment of chondral lesions are important to prevent progression to early osteoarthritis. PMID:28070434
Røtterud, Jan Harald; Sivertsen, Einar A; Forssblad, Magnus; Engebretsen, Lars; Årøen, Asbjørn
The presence of an articular cartilage lesion in anterior cruciate ligament-injured knees is considered a predictor of osteoarthritis. This study was undertaken to evaluate risk factors for full-thickness articular cartilage lesions in anterior cruciate ligament-injured knees, in particular the role of gender and the sport causing the initial injury. Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. Primary unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions prospectively registered in the Swedish and the Norwegian National Knee Ligament Registry during 2005 through 2008 were included (N = 15 783). Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate risk factors for cartilage lesions. A total of 1012 patients (6.4%) had full-thickness cartilage lesions. The median time from injury to surgery was 9 months (range, 0 days-521 months). Male patients had an increased odds of full-thickness cartilage lesions compared with females (odds ratio = 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.42). In males, team handball had an increase in the odds of full-thickness cartilage lesions compared with soccer (odds ratio = 2.36; 95% confidence interval, 1.33-4.19). Among female patients, no sport investigated showed a significant decrease or increase in the odds of full-thickness cartilage lesions. The odds of a full-thickness cartilage lesion increased by 1.006 (95% confidence interval, 1.005-1.008) for each month elapsed from time of injury until anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction when all patients were considered, while time from injury to surgery did not affect the odds significantly in those patients reconstructed within 1 year of injury (odds ratio = 0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.95-1.02). Previous surgery increased the odds of having a full-thickness cartilage lesion (odds ratio = 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.63). One year of increasing patient age also increased the odds (odds ratio = 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.06). Male gender is associated with an
Kon, Elizaveta; Filardo, Giuseppe; Gobbi, Alberto; Berruto, Massimo; Andriolo, Luca; Ferrua, Paolo; Crespiatico, Ilaria; Marcacci, Maurilio
Cartilage lesions of the patellofemoral joint are a challenging condition. Hyaluronan-based matrix-assisted autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT) has been shown to offer a significant improvement in the short term but has a tendency to worsen at midterm follow-up. Patients treated with MACT for lesions of the articular surface of the patellofemoral joint will present further clinical worsening at long-term follow-up. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Thirty-two patients with full-thickness chondral lesions in the patellofemoral joint were treated with hyaluronan-based MACT and were prospectively evaluated preoperatively and at 2-, 5-, and 10-year follow-up. The mean defect size was 4.45 cm(2). There were 20 lesions located on the patella and 8 on the trochlea, and 4 patients had multiple lesions: 3 with patellar and trochlear lesions and 1 with patellar and lateral femoral condyle lesions. Results were evaluated using International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective scores, EuroQol visual analog scale (EQ VAS) scores, and Tegner scores. Surgical and clinical failures were documented. All scores showed a statistically significant improvement at 2-, 5-, and 10-year follow-up with respect to the preoperative level. No worsening was observed at the last follow-up, and results were stable up to 10 years. The improvement in mean (±SD) outcome scores from preoperatively to 2-, 5-, and 10-year follow-up was as follows: IKDC, from 46.0 ± 19.8 to 77.1 ± 17.4, 72.0 ± 20.4, and 78.6 ± 16.4, respectively; Tegner, from 2.5 ± 1.4 to 4.7 ± 1.8, 4.7 ± 1.6, and 4.4 ± 1.5, respectively; and EQ VAS, from 56.9 ± 18.4 to 81.7 ± 13.2, 79.2 ± 17.9, and 78.9 ± 1.7, respectively. Four patients did not achieve significant clinical improvement, and 1 of these patients required further surgical treatment. All failures were female patients with patellar defects, and 3 of them had degenerative lesions and underwent a previous or combined realignment procedure
... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Runner's Knee KidsHealth > For Teens > Runner's Knee A A A ... told he had runner's knee. What Is Runner's Knee? Runner's knee is the term doctors use for ...
Loeuille, Damien; Chary-Valckenaere, Isabelle; Champigneulle, Jacqueline; Rat, Anne-Christine; Toussaint, Frédéric; Pinzano-Watrin, Astrid; Goebel, Jean Christophe; Mainard, Didier; Blum, Alain; Pourel, Jacques; Netter, Patrick; Gillet, Pierre
To determine the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), macroscopic, and microscopic characteristics of synovial membrane inflammation, to study the relationship between disease severity and the degree of synovial inflammation on MRI and on macroscopic and microscopic examination, and to look for colocalization of chondral lesions and synovial inflammation. Thirty-nine patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) were classified into 2 groups according to the severity of cartilage lesions as revealed by chondroscopy. Group 1 (n = 14) had mild cartilage lesion(s) without exposure of subchondral bone. Group 2 (n = 25) had severe cartilage lesion(s) with focal or diffuse exposure of subchondral bone. Synovitis was evaluated on T1-weighted MRI sequences according to the degree of synovial thickening on a 4-point scale (ranging from 0 to 3) in 5 regions of interest. Synovial membrane was macroscopically scored, and biopsies were performed on the 5 preselected sites for histologic scoring. The mean +/- SD synovial thickening score on MRI was 1.55 +/- 0.90, with no significant difference between groups 1 and 2. Intra- and interobserver reproducibility of the total synovial score was excellent, and interobserver reproducibility of the MRI grade was good. Synovitis was diffuse and associated with chondral lesions only in the medial femorotibial compartment (r = 0.49, P = 0.001). The degree of synovial thickening on MRI correlated with qualitative macroscopic analysis (r(s) = 0.58, P < 0.001) and with microscopic features (synovial lining cells [r(s) = 0.23, P < 0.007], surface fibrin deposition [r(s) = 0.12, P < 0.01], fibrosis [r(s) = 0.31, P < 0.006], edema [r(s) = 0.17, P = 0.07], congestion [r(s) = 0.30, P < 0.005], and infiltration [r(s) = 0.46, P < 0.0001]). Fibrin and infiltration parameters were more severe in end-stage disease (P = 0.009 and P = 0.02, respectively). Synovitis may be present from the onset of OA and may be evaluated on MRI. MRI evaluation of synovitis could be
Papalia, Rocco; Torre, Guglielmo; Vasta, Sebastiano; Zampogna, Biagio; Pedersen, Douglas R; Denaro, Vincenzo; Amendola, Annunziato
Bone bruises are frequently associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears as a result of trauma or direct shear stress of the bone. To review the evidence regarding the characteristics of the bone bruise associated with ACL tears, its relevance on clinical outcomes, and its progression over time. In particular, the long-term effects of the bone bruise on the knee osteochondral architecture and joint function were evaluated. Review; level of evidence: 4. An electronic search was performed on PubMed. Combinations of keywords included: "bone bruise AND knee"; "bone bruise AND anterior cruciate ligament"; "bone bruise AND osteo-chondral defects". Any level of evidence studies concerning bone bruises in patients with partial or complete ACL tears were retrieved. A total of 25 studies were included; three of them investigated biomechanical parameters, seven were concerned with clinical outcomes, and 15 were radiological studies. Evaluation of the bone bruise is best performed using a fat-saturated T2-weighted fast spin echo exam or a short tau inversion recovery sequence where fat saturation is challenging. The location of the injury has been demonstrated to be more frequent in the lateral compartment of the joint (lateral femoral condyle and lateral tibial plateau). It is associated with ACL tears in approximately 70% of cases, often with collateral ligament or meniscal tears. Mid- and long-term outcomes demonstrated a complete healing of the marrow lesions at magnetic resonance imaging, but chondral defects detected with T1ρ sequences are still present 1 year after the ACL injury. Functional examination of the knee, through clinical International Knee Documentation Committee scores, did not show any correlation with the bone bruise. Although bone bruise presence yields to higher pain levels, no correlation with functional outcomes was reported. Most studies have a short-term follow-up (<2 years) compared to the length of time it takes to develop post
Usuelli, Federico Giuseppe; de Girolamo, Laura; Grassi, Miriam; D'Ambrosi, Riccardo; Montrasio, Umberto Alfieri; Boga, Michele
Several surgical techniques have been described for the treatment of talar chondral lesions. Among them, microfracture is well established. Autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC), using microfracture and biomaterials, has shown promising results for the treatment of knee osteochondral lesions and has been proposed for the ankle as an open technique. We describe an all-arthroscopic AMIC technique. The benefits of an all-arthroscopic procedure include smaller incisions with less soft-tissue dissection, better visualization of the joint, and a quicker recovery compared with open surgery. The use of matrix to support cartilage regeneration promotes good-quality cartilage tissue with satisfactory long-term outcomes. Our all-arthroscopic AMIC technique uses a type I-type III porcine collagen matrix (Chondro-Gide; Geistlich Pharma, Wolhusen, Switzerland) and is characterized by 2 different arthroscopic surgical phases. First, adequate exposure is achieved through use of a Hintermann spreader (Integra LifeSciences, Plainsboro, NJ) with sufficient joint distraction and wet lesion preparation. The second surgical step is performed dry, involving matrix placement and fixation. The all-arthroscopic AMIC technique for the treatment of osteochondral lesions of the talus allows a very precise reconstruction in the case of cartilage defects and avoids the need for a more invasive operation associated with higher morbidity and a longer surgical time.
Usuelli, Federico Giuseppe; de Girolamo, Laura; Grassi, Miriam; D'Ambrosi, Riccardo; Montrasio, Umberto Alfieri; Boga, Michele
Several surgical techniques have been described for the treatment of talar chondral lesions. Among them, microfracture is well established. Autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC), using microfracture and biomaterials, has shown promising results for the treatment of knee osteochondral lesions and has been proposed for the ankle as an open technique. We describe an all-arthroscopic AMIC technique. The benefits of an all-arthroscopic procedure include smaller incisions with less soft-tissue dissection, better visualization of the joint, and a quicker recovery compared with open surgery. The use of matrix to support cartilage regeneration promotes good-quality cartilage tissue with satisfactory long-term outcomes. Our all-arthroscopic AMIC technique uses a type I–type III porcine collagen matrix (Chondro-Gide; Geistlich Pharma, Wolhusen, Switzerland) and is characterized by 2 different arthroscopic surgical phases. First, adequate exposure is achieved through use of a Hintermann spreader (Integra LifeSciences, Plainsboro, NJ) with sufficient joint distraction and wet lesion preparation. The second surgical step is performed dry, involving matrix placement and fixation. The all-arthroscopic AMIC technique for the treatment of osteochondral lesions of the talus allows a very precise reconstruction in the case of cartilage defects and avoids the need for a more invasive operation associated with higher morbidity and a longer surgical time. PMID:26258040
Özmeriç, Ahmet; Alemdaroğlu, Kadir Bahadır; Aydoğan, Nevres Hürriyet
Treatment of articular cartilage injuries to the knee remains a considerable challenge today. Current procedures succeed in providing relief of symptoms, however damaged articular tissue is not replaced with new tissue of the same biomechanical properties and long-term durability as normal hyaline cartilage. Despite many arthroscopic procedures that often manage to achieve these goals, results are far from perfect and there is no agreement on which of these procedures are appropriate, particularly when full-thickness chondral defects are considered.Therefore, the search for biological solution in long-term functional healing and increasing the quality of wounded cartilage has been continuing. For achieving this goal and apply in wide defects, scaffolds are developed.The rationale of using a scaffold is to create an environment with biodegradable polymers for the in vitro growth of living cells and their subsequent implantation into the lesion area. Previously a few numbers of surgical treatment algorithm was described in reports, however none of them contained one-step or two –steps scaffolds. The ultimate aim of this article was to review various arthroscopic treatment options for different stage lesions and develop a new treatment algorithm which included the scaffolds. PMID:25405097
Schneider, Ulrich; Rackwitz, Lars; Andereya, Stefan; Siebenlist, Sebastian; Fensky, Florian; Reichert, Johannes; Löer, Ingo; Barthel, Thomas; Rudert, Maximilian; Nöth, Ulrich
The Cartilage Regeneration System (CaReS) is a novel matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) technique for the treatment of chondral and osteochondral lesions (Outerbridge grades III and IV). For this technology, no expansion of the chondrocytes in a monolayer culture is needed, and a homogeneous cell distribution within the gel is guaranteed. To report a prospective multicenter study of matrix-associated ACI of the knee using a new type I collagen hydrogel (CaReS). Case series; Level of evidence, 4. From 2003 to 2008, 116 patients (49 women and 67 men; mean age, 32.5 ± 8.9 years) had CaReS implantation of the knee in 9 different centers. On the basis of the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) Cartilage Injury Evaluation Package 2000, the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, pain score (visual analog scale [VAS]), SF-36 score, overall treatment satisfaction and the IKDC functional status were evaluated. Patient follow-up was performed at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery and annually thereafter. Mean follow-up was 30.2 ± 17.4 months (range, 12-60 months). There were 67 defects of the medial condyle, 14 of the lateral, 22 of the patella/trochlea, and 3 of the tibial plateau, and 10 patients had 2 lesions. The mean defect size was 5.4 ± 2.4 cm(2). Thirty percent of the defects were <4 cm(2) and 70% were >4 cm(2). The IKDC score improved significantly from 42.4 ± 13.8 preoperatively to 70.5 ± 18.7 (P < .001) at latest follow-up. Global pain level significantly decreased (P < .001) from 6.7 ± 2.2 preoperatively to 3.2 ± 3.1 at latest follow-up. There also was a significant increase of both components of the SF-36 score. The overall treatment satisfaction was judged as very good or good in 88% by the surgeon and 80% by the patient. The IKDC functional knee status was grade I in 23.4%, II in 56.3%, III in 17.2%, and IV in 3.1% of the patients. Matrix-associated ACI employing the CaReS technology for the treatment
Wei, Xiaochun; Yin, Kun; Li, Pengcui; Wang, Huan; Ding, Juan; Duan, Wangping; Wei, Lei
To determine whether there is a direct correlation between the concentration of type II collagen fragment HELIX-II in synovial fluid and the severity of cartilage damage at the knee joint, 83 patients who had undergone knee arthroscopy or total knee replacement were enrolled in this study (49% women, mean ± SD age 49.5 ± 19). The content of HELIX-II in the synovial fluid samples was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cartilage damage at the knee joint was classified during arthroscopy or direct surgical observation, using the Outerbridge cartilage damage scoring system. The maximum damage score was defined as the highest score among the six areas of the knee joint, and the cumulative score was defined as the sum of the scores of the six areas of the knee joint. The intra-assay and inter-assay variations of the HELIX-II ELISA were lower than 13 and 15%, respectively. The level of HELIX-II in the severely damaged cartilage groups (cumulative scores = 11-24 or maximum score = 2-4) was much higher than in the slightly damaged cartilage groups (cumulative scores = 0-10 or maximum score = 0-1). The level of HELIX-II in cartilage from severely damaged cartilage groups was significantly higher than in the slightly damaged groups, but no significant difference was detected in the level of HELIX-II among the severely damaged cartilage sub-groups. There was a significant correlation between the HELIX-II concentration in the synovial fluid and the cumulative (r = 0.807) and maximum scores (r = 0.794). Thus, elevated HELIX-II level is correlated with early cartilage lesions, but does not have the sensitivity to predict the progression of severity of cartilage damage in the knee joint.
Rao, Allison J.; Erickson, Brandon J.; Cvetanovich, Gregory L.; Yanke, Adam B.; Bach, Bernard R.; Cole, Brian J.
Meniscal tears are the most common knee injury, and partial meniscectomies are the most common orthopaedic surgical procedure. The injured meniscus has an impaired ability to distribute load and resist tibial translation. Partial or complete loss of the meniscus promotes early development of chondromalacia and osteoarthritis. The primary goal of treatment for meniscus-deficient knees is to provide symptomatic relief, ideally to delay advanced joint space narrowing, and ultimately, joint replacement. Surgical treatments, including meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT), high tibial osteotomy (HTO), and distal femoral osteotomy (DFO), are options that attempt to decrease the loads on the articular cartilage of the meniscus-deficient compartment by replacing meniscal tissue or altering joint alignment. Clinical and biomechanical studies have reported promising outcomes for MAT, HTO, and DFO in the postmeniscectomized knee. These procedures can be performed alone or in conjunction with ligament reconstruction or chondral procedures (reparative, restorative, or reconstructive) to optimize stability and longevity of the knee. Complications can include fracture, nonunion, patella baja, compartment syndrome, infection, and deep venous thrombosis. MAT, HTO, and DFO are effective options for young patients suffering from pain and functional limitations secondary to meniscal deficiency. PMID:26779547
Papalia, Rocco; Torre, Guglielmo; Vasta, Sebastiano; Zampogna, Biagio; Pedersen, Douglas R; Denaro, Vincenzo; Amendola, Annunziato
Background Bone bruises are frequently associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears as a result of trauma or direct shear stress of the bone. Purpose To review the evidence regarding the characteristics of the bone bruise associated with ACL tears, its relevance on clinical outcomes, and its progression over time. In particular, the long-term effects of the bone bruise on the knee osteochondral architecture and joint function were evaluated. Study design Review; level of evidence: 4. Methods An electronic search was performed on PubMed. Combinations of keywords included: “bone bruise AND knee”; “bone bruise AND anterior cruciate ligament”; “bone bruise AND osteo-chondral defects”. Any level of evidence studies concerning bone bruises in patients with partial or complete ACL tears were retrieved. Results A total of 25 studies were included; three of them investigated biomechanical parameters, seven were concerned with clinical outcomes, and 15 were radiological studies. Evaluation of the bone bruise is best performed using a fat-saturated T2-weighted fast spin echo exam or a short tau inversion recovery sequence where fat saturation is challenging. The location of the injury has been demonstrated to be more frequent in the lateral compartment of the joint (lateral femoral condyle and lateral tibial plateau). It is associated with ACL tears in approximately 70% of cases, often with collateral ligament or meniscal tears. Mid- and long-term outcomes demonstrated a complete healing of the marrow lesions at magnetic resonance imaging, but chondral defects detected with T1ρ sequences are still present 1 year after the ACL injury. Functional examination of the knee, through clinical International Knee Documentation Committee scores, did not show any correlation with the bone bruise. Conclusion Although bone bruise presence yields to higher pain levels, no correlation with functional outcomes was reported. Most studies have a short-term follow-up (<2
Mabrey, Jay D; Gillogly, Scott D; Kasser, James R; Sweeney, Howard J; Zarins, Bertram; Mevis, Howard; Garrett, William E; Poss, Robert; Cannon, W Dilworth
The virtual reality arthroscopic knee simulator (VR-AKS) consists of a computer platform, a video display, and two force-feedback (haptic) interfaces known as "PHANToMs" that also monitor the position of the instruments in the user's hands. The forces that the user would normally apply to the lower limb during arthroscopy are directed through an instrumented surrogate leg. Proprietary software provides the mathematical representation of the physical world and replicates the visual, mechanical, and behavioral aspects of the knee. This includes moderating the haptic interface and simultaneously executing a collision-detection algorithm that prevents the instruments from moving through "solid" surfaces. Modeling software interacts with this algorithm to send the appropriate images to the video display, including knee pathology such as meniscal tears and chondral defects as well as normal anatomy. Task-oriented programs monitor specific performance such as executing a proper examination of the knee or shaving a torn meniscus.
Goodrich, Laurie R.; Chen, Albert C.; Werpy, Natasha M.; Williams, Ashley A.; Kisiday, John D.; Su, Alvin W.; Cory, Esther; Morley, Paul S.; McIlwraith, C. Wayne; Sah, Robert L.; Chu, Constance R.
Background: The chondrogenic potential of culture-expanded bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMDMSCs) is well described. Numerous studies have also shown enhanced repair when BMDMSCs, scaffolds, and growth factors are placed into chondral defects. Platelets provide a rich milieu of growth factors and, along with fibrin, are readily available for clinical use. The objective of this study was to determine if the addition of BMDMSCs to an autologous platelet-enriched fibrin (APEF) scaffold enhances chondral repair compared with APEF alone. Methods: A 15-mm-diameter full-thickness chondral defect was created on the lateral trochlear ridge of both stifle joints of twelve adult horses. In each animal, one defect was randomly assigned to receive APEF+BMDMSCs and the contralateral defect received APEF alone. Repair tissues were evaluated one year later with arthroscopy, histological examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and biomechanical testing. Results: The arthroscopic findings, MRI T2 map, histological scores, structural stiffness, and material stiffness were similar (p > 0.05) between the APEF and APEF+BMDMSC-treated repairs at one year. Ectopic bone was observed within the repair tissue in four of twelve APEF+BMDMSC-treated defects. Defects repaired with APEF alone had less trabecular bone edema (as seen on MRI) compared with defects repaired with APEF+BMDMSCs. Micro-CT analysis showed thinner repair tissue in defects repaired with APEF+BMDMSCs than in those treated with APEF alone (p < 0.05). Conclusions: APEF alone resulted in thicker repair tissue than was seen with APEF+BMDMSCs. The addition of BMDMSCs to APEF did not enhance cartilage repair and stimulated bone formation in some cartilage defects. Clinical Relevance: APEF supported repair of critical-size full-thickness chondral defects in horses, which was not improved by the addition of BMDMSCs. This work supports further investigation to determine
Hall, Michael P; Hergan, David M; Sherman, Orrin H
Graft fixation in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is commonly performed with bioabsorbable devices. This article presents a case of a broken bioabsorbable tibial interference screw (Gentle Threads; Biomet, Warsaw, Indiana) that presented as an intra-articular loose body 4 months after ACL reconstruction with posterior tibialis tendon allograft. A 19-year-old man presented with symptoms of pain and catching for 1 week but reported no history of trauma. The broken screw tip was identified on magnetic resonance imaging examination, and the remaining screw appeared to be overinserted into the tibia. During arthroscopic removal, a 10-mm screw tip was found in the lateral gutter. The ACL graft was found to be well fixed, but small areas of chondral damage were found in the patellofemoral and medial compartment. The patient's symptoms resolved postoperatively. To our knowledge, this is the earliest report of a broken bioabsorbable interference screw and only the second report of subsequent chondral injury due to intra-articular migration. Although rare, late breakage and intra-articular migration of bioabsorbable interference screws should be considered during the postoperative evaluation of any patient with pain or mechanical symptoms, regardless of trauma. This case also supports the importance of both measurement of tibial tunnel length and inspection of the intercondylar notch following interference screw insertion. Orthopedic surgeons performing ACL reconstruction must be aware of this possible complication and its potential for devastating chondral injury.
Haywood, Brett; Pearson, Richard G.; Scammell, Brigitte E.
We present our case report using a novel metal artefact reduction magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence to observe resolution of subchondral bone marrow lesions (BMLs), which are strongly associated with pain, in a patient after total knee replacement surgery. Large BMLs were seen preoperatively on the 3-Tesla MRI scans in a patient with severe end stage OA awaiting total knee replacement surgery. Twelve months after surgery, using a novel metal artefact reduction MRI sequence, we were able to visualize the bone-prosthesis interface and found complete resection and resolution of these BMLs. This is the first reported study in the UK to use this metal artefact reduction MRI sequence at 3-Tesla showing that resection and resolution of BMLs in this patient were associated with an improvement of pain and function after total knee replacement surgery. In this case it was associated with a clinically significant improvement of pain and function after surgery. Failure to eradicate these lesions may be a cause of persistent postoperative pain that is seen in up to 20% of patients following TKR surgery. PMID:27648327
Magnetic resonance imaging lesions are more severe and cartilage T2 relaxation time measurements are higher in isolated lateral compartment radiographic knee osteoarthritis than in isolated medial compartment disease - data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.
Wise, B L; Niu, J; Guermazi, A; Liu, F; Heilmeier, U; Ku, E; Lynch, J A; Zhang, Y; Felson, D T; Kwoh, C K; Lane, N E
Isolated lateral compartment tibiofemoral radiographic osteoarthritis (IL-ROA) is an understudied form of knee osteoarthritis (OA). The objective of the present study was to characterize Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) abnormalities and MR-T2 relaxation time measurements associated with IL-ROA and with isolated medial compartment ROA (IM-ROA) compared with knees without OA. 200 case subjects with IL-ROA (Kellgren/Lawrence (K/L) grade≥2 and joint space narrowing (JSN) > 0 in the lateral compartment but JSN = 0 in the medial compartment) were randomly selected from the Osteoarthritis Initiative baseline visit. 200 cases with IM-ROA and 200 controls were frequency matched to the IL-ROA cases. Cases and controls were analyzed for odds of having a subregion with >10% cartilage area affected, with ≥25% bone marrow lesions (BML), with meniscal tear or maceration, and for association with cartilage T2 values. IL-ROA was more strongly associated with ipsilateral MRI knee pathologies than IM-ROA (IL-ROA: OR = 135.2 for size of cartilage lesion, 95% CI 42.7-427.4; OR = 145.4 for large size BML, 95% CI 41.5-509.5; OR = 176 for meniscal tears, 95% CI 59.8-517.7; IM-ROA: OR = 28.4 for size of cartilage lesion, 95% CI 14.7-54.7; OR = 38.1 for size of BML, 95% CI 12.7-114; OR = 37.0 for meniscal tears, 95% CI 12-113.6). Cartilage T2 values were higher in both tibial and medial femoral compartments in IL-ROA, but in IM-ROA were only significantly different from controls in the medial femur. IL-ROA knees show a greater prevalence and severity of MRI lesions and higher cartilage T2 values than IM-ROA knees compared with controls. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Prevalence of MRI-detected mediopatellar plica in subjects with knee pain and the association with MRI-detected patellofemoral cartilage damage and bone marrow lesions: data from the Joints On Glucosamine study.
Hayashi, Daichi; Xu, Li; Guermazi, Ali; Kwoh, C Kent; Hannon, Michael J; Jarraya, Mohamed; Green, Stephanie M; Jakicic, John M; Moore, Carolyn E; Roemer, Frank W
The mediopatellar plica is a synovial fold representing an embryonic remnant from the developmental process of the synovial cavity formation in the knee. We aimed to examine the frequency of MRI-detected mediopatellar plica and its cross-sectional association with MRI-detected cartilage damage and bone marrow lesions (BMLs) in the patellofemoral joint (PFJ) in a cohort of subjects with knee pain. 342 knees with chronic frequent knee pain were evaluated for MRI-detected mediopatellar plica (type A, B or C according to the modified Sakakibara classification). Cartilage damage (scored 0 to 6) and BMLs (scored 0 to 3) were semiquantitatively assessed in four subregions of the PFJ on MRI. Hoffa-synovitis and effusion-synovitis were graded 0 to 3. Patellar length ratio (PLR), lateral patellar tilt angle (LPTA), bisect offset (BO), and sulcus angle (SA) were measured on MRI. The presence of mediopatellar plica and its association with cartilage damage and BMLs in the PFJ was assessed using logistic regression after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, PLR, LPTA, BO, SA, and Hoffa- and effusion-synovitis. 163 (47.7%) knees exhibited mediopatellar plica (76 (22.2%) type A, 69 (20.2%) type B, and 18 (5.3%) type C) on MRI. Significant cross-sectional associations of MRI-detected mediopatellar plica and cartilage damage were observed for the medial patella (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.12, 95% CI 1.23-3.64 for all types combined, and aOR 4.20, 95% CI 1.92-9.19 for type B lesion), but not for the anterior medial femur or the lateral PFJ. No associations were found between the presence of MRI-detected mediopatellar plica and BMLs in any patellofemoral subregion. On MRI, types A and B mediopatellar plicae were commonly observed in this cohort of subjects with knee pain. MRI-detected mediopatellar plica was cross-sectionally associated with higher likelihood of the presence of MRI-detected medial patellar cartilage damage after adjustment for confounders.
Gong, Jingshan; Pedoia, Valentina; Facchetti, Luca; Link, Thomas M.; Ma, C. Benjamin
Background To evaluate the longitudinal changes of bone marrow edema-like lesions (BMELs) in patients after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and to investigate the effect of BMELs on cartilage matrix composition changes measured using MR T1ρ and T2 mapping. Methods Patients with acute ACL tear were enrolled in a prospective study. MR imaging was performed at baseline (before surgeries) and at 6-month, 1-year and 2-year after ACL reconstruction. MR imaging included sagittal high-resolution, 3D fast spin-echo (CUBE) sequences for BMEL evaluation, and 3D T1ρ mapping and T2 mapping for cartilage assessment. BMELs were assessed using whole-organ magnetic resonance imaging score (WORMS), and the volume of BMELs was measured by a semi-automatic method. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) was used to explore association between BMELs at baseline and cartilage changes during follow-up. Results Fifty four patients were included in the present study and 39 patients had completed 2-year follow-up. BMELs were noted in 42 injured knees (77.8%) with 105 lesions and in 7 contralateral knees (13.0%) with 9 lesions (χ2=45.763, P<0.001) at the baseline. The WORMS and volume of BMELs of the injured knees were 2.36±0.65 and 386.98±382.54 mm3 (r=0.681, P<0.001), respectively. 87 BMELs were found at baseline in 34 patients (87.2%) of the 39 patients who had completed 2 years follow-up. During the follow-up, 18 (20.7%), 12 (13.8%), and 5 (5.7%) baseline lesions were still seen at 6-month, 1-year and 2-year, respectively. The changes of BMELs prevalence regarding bone compartments over time points were statistically significant (χ2=163.660, P<0.001). Except T2 value at 6 months, T1ρ and T2 values of cartilage overlying baseline BMELs in the injured knees were higher than that of anatomically matched cartilage in the contralateral knees at baseline and each follow-up time-point. In the injured knees, GEE analysis showed that baseline BMELs were significantly
Holton, James; Imam, Mohamed; Ward, Jonathan; Snow, Martyn
There has been great interest in bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) as a cost effective method in delivering mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to aid in the repair and regeneration of cartilage defects. Alongside MSCs, BMAC contains a range of growth factors and cytokines to support cell growth following injury. However, there is paucity of information relating to the basic science underlying BMAC and its exact biological role in supporting the growth and regeneration of chondrocytes. The focus of this review is the basic science underlying BMAC in relation to chondral damage and regeneration.
... make a diagnosis of knee bursitis during a physical exam. Your doctor will inspect your knee by: Comparing the condition of both knees, particularly if only one is painful Gently pressing on different areas of your knee to detect warmth, swelling and the source of pain Carefully moving ...
Fernandes, Tiago Lazzaretti; Ribeiro, Douglas Badillo; da Rocha, Diogo Cristo; Albuquerque, Cyro; Pereira, César Augusto Martins; Pedrinelli, André; Hernandez, Arnaldo José
Objective To describe and demonstrate the viability of a method for evaluating knee kinematics, by means of a continuous passive motion (CPM) machine, before and after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Methods This study was conducted on a knee from a cadaver, in a mechanical pivot-shift simulator, with evaluations using optical tracking, and also using computed tomography. Results This study demonstrated the viability of a protocol for measuring the rotation and translation of the knee, using reproducible and objective tools (error < 0.2 mm). The mechanized provocation system of the pivot-shift test was independent of the examiner and always allowed the same angular velocity and traction of 20 N throughout the movement. Conclusion The clinical relevance of this method lies in making inferences about the in vivo behavior of a knee with an ACL injury and providing greater methodological quality in future studies for measuring surgical techniques with grafts in relatively close positions. PMID:26229854
Gerwien, Philip; Helmert, Benjamin; Schattenberg, Torsten; Weckbach, Sabine; Kaszkin-Bettag, Marietta; Lehmann, Lars
Background: The 3-dimensional autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT3D) comprises isolation of chondrocytes from cartilage biopsies, cultivation to spheroids, and transplantation into the cartilage defect. Objectives: To evaluate the patients’ general health and functionality and to assess the defect repair after ACT3D with spheroids by MRI and MOCART scoring. Methods: Thirty-seven patients with isolated chondral lesions of the knee underwent ACT3D with spheroids through medial arthrotomy. Patient-administered scores were assessed at baseline (day before transplantation), at 6 weeks, and at 3, 6, and 12 months. MRI and MOCART scoring were performed at 3 and 12 months after ACT3D. Results: Patients were diagnosed with full-thickness patellofemoral (n = 16), femoral condylar (n = 18), or both defect types (n = 3), International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) grade 3 or 4, with defect sizes between 1.0 and 12.0 cm2. On average, 59.5 spheroids/cm2 in defect size were transplanted. An overall statistically significant improvement from baseline to 12 months was observed for all assessment scores (Lysholm, International Knee Documentation Committee [IKDC], SF-36, Tegner) combined with a significant reduction in the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and an advanced defect filling. Subgroup analyses revealed a positive clinical outcome independent on defect size, defect locations, spheroid dosage, age, duration of symptoms, and severity of complaints at baseline. Seven patients experienced in total 8 adverse events, of which knee joint effusion and blocking were assessed as possibly or probably related to ACT3D. Conclusions: The patient-administered assessment scores along with the fast defect filling with ACT3D using spheroids demonstrated an increase in activity level and quality of life after a 1-year follow-up. PMID:26069617
Dulay, Gurdeep S; Cooper, C; Dennison, E M
Symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) can be viewed as the end result of a molecular cascade which ensues after certain triggers occur and ultimately results in irreversible damage to the articular cartilage. The clinical phenotype that knee OA can produce is variable and often difficult to accurately predict. This is further complicated by the often poor relationship between radiographic OA and knee pain. As a consequence, it can be difficult to compare studies that use different definitions of OA. However, the literature suggests that while there are multiple causes of knee OA, two have attracted particular attention over recent years; occupation related knee OA and OA subsequent to previous knee injury. The evidence of a relationship, and the strength of this association, is discussed in this chapter.
Brenner, Jillian M; Ventura, Nicole M; Tse, M Yat; Winterborn, Andrew; Bardana, Davide D; Pang, Stephen C; Hurtig, Mark B; Waldman, Stephen D
Joint resurfacing techniques offer an attractive treatment for damaged or diseased cartilage, as this tissue characteristically displays a limited capacity for self-repair. While tissue-engineered cartilage constructs have shown efficacy in repairing focal cartilage defects in animal models, a substantial number of cells are required to generate sufficient quantities of tissue for the repair of larger defects. In a previous study, we developed a novel approach to generate large, scaffold-free cartilaginous constructs from a small number of donor cells (20 000 cells to generate a 3-cm(2) tissue construct). As comparable thicknesses to native cartilage could be achieved, the purpose of the present study was to assess the ability of these constructs to survive implantation as well as their potential for the repair of critical-sized chondral defects in a rabbit model. Evaluated up to 6 months post-implantation, allogenic constructs survived weight bearing without a loss of implant fixation. Implanted constructs appeared to integrate near-seamlessly with the surrounding native cartilage and also to extensively remodel with increasing time in vivo. By 6 months post-implantation, constructs appeared to adopt both a stratified (zonal) appearance and a biochemical composition similar to native articular cartilage. In addition, constructs that expressed superficial zone markers displayed higher histological scores, suggesting that transcriptional prescreening of constructs prior to implantation may serve as an approach to achieve superior and/or more consistent reparative outcomes. As the results of this initial animal study were encouraging, future studies will be directed toward the repair of chondral defects in more mechanically demanding anatomical locations.
Detection of Traumatic Bone Marrow Lesions after Knee Trauma: Comparison of ADC Maps Derived from Diffusion-weighted Imaging with Standard Fat-saturated Proton Density-weighted Turbo Spin-Echo Sequences.
Klengel, Alexis; Stumpp, Patrick; Klengel, Steffen; Böttger, Ina; Rönisch, Nadja; Kahn, Thomas
Purpose To compare single-shot echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging-derived apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps with fat-saturated (FS) proton density (PD)-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) imaging in the detection of bone marrow lesions (BMLs) after knee trauma. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained from Leipzig University. Written informed consent was waived. Three radiologists retrospectively re-examined 97 consecutive patients with reported knee trauma who underwent 1.5-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging within 90 days of knee trauma. The following sequences were used: (a) sagittal T1-weighted TSE and FS PD-weighted TSE and (b) sagittal T1-weighted TSE and single-shot echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging-derived ADC mapping. BMLs on the lateral and medial femoral condyle, lateral and medial aspect of the tibial plateau, and patella were documented. Volumetry was performed on BMLs with a thickness of at least 15 mm (major BMLs). ADC values were measured in intact bone marrow and major BMLs. A McNemar test and t tests were used as appropriate to test for significant differences between BML number and volume at an α level of .05. Results Significantly more patients showed at least one BML on ADC maps (98%, 95 of 97 patients) than on FS PD-weighted TSE images (86%, 84 of 97 patients) (P < .001). Of the affected regions detected on FS PD-weighted TSE images, 97% (170 of 175 regions) were identified consistently on ADC maps. Only 58% of the affected regions detected on ADC maps (170 of 293 regions) were identified on FS PD-weighted TSE images (P < .001). Median volume of concordant major BML was approximately two times larger on ADC maps (81 cm(3)) than on FS PD-weighted TSE images (39 cm(3)) (P < .001). The ADC values of intact bone marrow and BMLs did not overlap. Conclusion ADC maps are more sensitive than corresponding FS PD-weighted TSE images for detection of BML after knee trauma and allow detection of significantly more
McAdams, Timothy R; Deimel, Jay F; Ferguson, Jeff; Beamer, Brandon S; Beaulieu, Christopher F
Although a recognized and discussed injury, chondral rib fractures in professional American football have not been previously reported in the literature. There currently exists no consensus on how to identify and treat these injuries or the expected return to play for the athlete. To present 2 cases of chondral rib injuries in the National Football League (NFL) and discuss the current practice patterns for management of these injuries among the NFL team physicians. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Two cases of NFL players with chondral rib injuries are presented. A survey regarding work-up and treatment of these injuries was completed by team physicians at the 2014 NFL Combine. Our experience in identifying and treating these injuries is presented in conjunction with a survey of NFL team physicians' experiences. Two cases of rib chondral injuries were diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) and treated with rest and protective splinting. Return to play was 2 to 4 weeks. NFL Combine survey results show that NFL team physicians see a mean of 4 costal cartilage injuries per 5-year period, or approximately 1 case per year per team. Seventy percent of team physicians use CT scanning and 43% use magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of these injuries. An anesthetic block is used acutely in 57% and only electively in subsequent games by 39%. A high index of suspicion is necessary to diagnose chondral rib injuries in American football. CT scan is most commonly used to confirm diagnosis. Return to play can take up to 2 to 4 weeks with a protective device, although anesthetic blocks can be used to potentially expedite return. Chondral rib injuries are common among NFL football players, while there is no literature to support proper diagnosis and treatment of these injuries or expected duration of recovery. These injuries are likely common in other contact sports and levels of competition as well. Our series combined with NFL team physician survey results can aid team
Karim, Ammar R.; Cherian, Jeffrey J.; Jauregui, Julio J.; Pierce, Todd
Osteonecrosis is a devastating disease that can lead to end-stage arthritis of various joint including the knee. There are three categories of osteonecrosis that affect the knee: spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee (SONK), secondary, and post-arthroscopic. Regardless of osteonecrosis categories, the treatment of this disease aims to halt further progression or delay the onset of end-stage arthritis of the knee. However, once substantial joint surface collapse has occurred or there are sign of degenerative arthritis, joint arthroplasty is the most appropriate treatment option. Currently, the non-operative treatment options consist of observation, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), protected weight bearing, and analgesia as needed. Operative interventions include joint preserving surgery, unilateral knee arthroplasty (UKA), or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) depending on the extent and type of disease. Joint preserving procedures (i.e., arthroscopy, core decompression, osteochondral autograft, and bone grafting) are usually attempted in pre-collapse and some post-collapse lesions, when the articular cartilage is generally intact with only the underlying subchondral bone being affected. Conversely, after severe subchondral collapse has occurred, procedures that attempt to salvage the joint are rarely successful and joint arthroplasty are necessary to relieve pain. The purpose of this article is to highlight the recent evidence concerning the treatment options across the spectrum of management of osteonecrosis of the knee including lesion observation, medications, joint preserving techniques, and total joint arthroplasties. PMID:25705638
Goodrich, Laurie R; Chen, Albert C; Werpy, Natasha M; Williams, Ashley A; Kisiday, John D; Su, Alvin W; Cory, Esther; Morley, Paul S; McIlwraith, C Wayne; Sah, Robert L; Chu, Constance R
The chondrogenic potential of culture-expanded bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMDMSCs) is well described. Numerous studies have also shown enhanced repair when BMDMSCs, scaffolds, and growth factors are placed into chondral defects. Platelets provide a rich milieu of growth factors and, along with fibrin, are readily available for clinical use. The objective of this study was to determine if the addition of BMDMSCs to an autologous platelet-enriched fibrin (APEF) scaffold enhances chondral repair compared with APEF alone. A 15-mm-diameter full-thickness chondral defect was created on the lateral trochlear ridge of both stifle joints of twelve adult horses. In each animal, one defect was randomly assigned to receive APEF+BMDMSCs and the contralateral defect received APEF alone. Repair tissues were evaluated one year later with arthroscopy, histological examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and biomechanical testing. The arthroscopic findings, MRI T2 map, histological scores, structural stiffness, and material stiffness were similar (p > 0.05) between the APEF and APEF+BMDMSC-treated repairs at one year. Ectopic bone was observed within the repair tissue in four of twelve APEF+BMDMSC-treated defects. Defects repaired with APEF alone had less trabecular bone edema (as seen on MRI) compared with defects repaired with APEF+BMDMSCs. Micro-CT analysis showed thinner repair tissue in defects repaired with APEF+BMDMSCs than in those treated with APEF alone (p < 0.05). APEF alone resulted in thicker repair tissue than was seen with APEF+BMDMSCs. The addition of BMDMSCs to APEF did not enhance cartilage repair and stimulated bone formation in some cartilage defects. APEF supported repair of critical-size full-thickness chondral defects in horses, which was not improved by the addition of BMDMSCs. This work supports further investigation to determine whether APEF enhances cartilage repair in humans. Copyright © 2016
Wei, Feng; Haut, Roger C
A recent study by our laboratory showed that 14 days of low intensity, intermittent cyclic preloading of chondral explants elevated the concentration of proteoglycans (PGs) to cause a mechanical stiffening of the explants prior to an acute overload and limit the extent of tissue damage. Longer term loading to 21 days resulted in tissue degradation prior to the acute traumatic event and excessive damage from an acute overload. Previous studies by others showed that bathing chondral explants in a supplement of glucosamine-chondroitin sulfate (glcN-CS) upregulated the synthesis of tissue PGs, particularly in stressed tissue, and the supplement served as an anti-inflammatory agent. Our current hypothesis was that the supplementation of culture media with a high concentration of glcN-CS would upregulate the production of tissue PG and limit or mitigate long-term degradation of chondral explants under cyclic preloading and limit tissue damage in an acute overload. We showed that, in the presence of supplement, cyclic preloading significantly increased tissue PG content and matrix modulus by about 65 and 300%, respectively, at 21 days, resulting in a reduction of matrix damage and cell death following an acute overload. These data show a biological action of high concentrations of this supplement and its effect on the mechanical properties in this in vitro model.
... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Jumper's Knee KidsHealth > For Teens > Jumper's Knee A A A ... continued damage to the knee. How Does the Knee Work? To understand how jumper's knee happens, it ...
Culvenor, Adam G; Patterson, Brooke E; Guermazi, Ali; Morris, Hayden G; Whitehead, Timothy S; Crossley, Kay M
A timely return to competitive sport is a primary goal of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). It is not known if an accelerated return-to-sport increases the risk of early-onset knee osteoarthritis (KOA). To determine whether an accelerated return-to-sport post-ACLR (i.e., <10 months) is associated with increased odds of early KOA features on MRI 1-year post-surgery, and to evaluate the relationship between an accelerated return-to-sport and early KOA features stratified by type of ACL injury (isolated or concurrent chondral/meniscal injury) and lower-limb function (good or poor). Cross-sectional study SETTING: Private radiology clinic and university laboratory PARTICIPANTS: 111 participants (71 males; mean age 30±8 years) 1-year post-ACLR METHODS: Participants completed a self-report questionnaire regarding postoperative return-to-sport data (specific sport, postoperative month first returned), and isotropic 3T MRI scans were obtained. Early KOA features (bone marrow, cartilage and meniscal lesions, and osteophytes) assessed using the MRI OA Knee Score. Logistic regression analyses evaluated the odds of early KOA features with an accelerated return-to-sport (<10-months post-ACLR vs. ≥10-months or no return-to-sport) in the total cohort, and stratified by type of ACL injury and lower-limb function. Forty-six (41%) participants returned to competitive sport <10-months post-ACLR. An early return-to-sport was associated with significantly increased odds of bone marrow lesions (BMLs) (odds ratio [OR] 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3, 6.0) but not cartilage (OR 1.2, 95%CI 0.5, 2.6) or meniscal lesions (OR 0.8, 95%CI 0.4, 1.8), or osteophytes (OR 0.6, 95%CI 0.3, 1.4). In those with poor lower-limb function, early return-to-sport exacerbated the odds of BMLs (OR 4.6, 95%CI 1.6, 13.5), whereas stratified analyses for type of ACL injury did not reach statistical significance. An accelerated return-to-sport, particularly in the presence of poor lower
Richmond, John C
Although total knee replacement is an excellent treatment of end-stage osteoarthritis of the knee in the older (>65 years) population, many patients with less severe disease are significantly impacted by their symptoms and have failed to respond to less invasive treatment alternatives. For this group, there are several less invasive surgical alternatives, including arthroscopic meniscectomy, grafting of symptomatic areas of bone marrow lesions, unloading osteotomy, and unicompartmental knee replacement. Current total knee arthroplasty designs can be expected to survive 20 years or more in the older, less active population. New materials may extend that survivorship.
... your knee, like keeping it from bending outward. anterior cruciate ligament (ACL): The ACL connects your femur to your ... Injuries Sports and Exercise Safety Osgood-Schlatter Disease Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries Bones, Muscles, and Joints Meniscus Tears ...
... of the knee uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of ... scans, MRI does not utilize ionizing radiation. Instead, radio waves redirect alignment of hydrogen atoms that naturally exist ...
... Runners can develop pain and inflammation in the pes anserine bursa, situated on the inner side of your knee below the joint. Obesity and osteoarthritis. Pes anserine bursitis, affecting the inner side of your ...
... keeping it from bending outward. anterior cruciate ligament (ACL): The ACL connects your femur to your tibia at the ... Common knee sprains usually involve damage to the ACL and/or MCL. The most serious sprains involve ...
Schenck, Robert C.; Richter, Dustin L.; Wascher, Daniel C.
Background: Traumatic knee dislocation is becoming more prevalent because of improved recognition and increased exposure to high-energy trauma, but long-term results are lacking. Purpose: To present 2 cases with minimum 20-year follow-up and a review of the literature to illustrate some of the fundamental principles in the management of the dislocated knee. Study Design: Review and case reports. Methods: Two patients with knee dislocations who underwent multiligamentous knee reconstruction were reviewed, with a minimum 20-year follow-up. These patients were brought back for a clinical evaluation using both subjective and objective measures. Subjective measures include the following scales: Lysholm, Tegner activity, visual analog scale (VAS), Short Form–36 (SF-36), International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), and a psychosocial questionnaire. Objective measures included ligamentous examination, radiographic evaluation (including Telos stress radiographs), and physical therapy assessment of function and stability. Results: The mean follow-up was 22 years. One patient had a vascular injury requiring repair prior to ligament reconstruction. The average assessment scores were as follows: SF-36 physical health, 52; SF-36 mental health, 59; Lysholm, 92; IKDC, 86.5; VAS involved, 10.5 mm; and VAS uninvolved, 2.5 mm. Both patients had excellent stability and were functioning at high levels of activity for their age (eg, hiking, skydiving). Both patients had radiographic signs of arthritis, which lowered 1 subject’s IKDC score to “C.” Conclusion: Knee dislocations have rare long-term excellent results, and most intermediate-term studies show fair to good functional results. By following fundamental principles in the management of a dislocated knee, patients can be given the opportunity to function at high levels. Hopefully, continued advances in the evaluation and treatment of knee dislocations will improve the long-term outcomes for these patients in the
Your knee joint is made up of bone, cartilage, ligaments and fluid. Muscles and tendons help the knee joint move. When any of these structures is hurt or diseased, you have knee problems. Knee problems can cause pain and difficulty ...
... minor deformity in the knee. You have good range of motion in your knee. The ligaments in your knee ... You will also need physical therapy to improve range of motion and strengthen the muscles around the knee.
Bokhari, Syed Zahid Hussain
The conventional concept of osteoarthritis is that it occurs as an aging and degenerative process resulting in reduction of the surface cartilage, narrowing of the joint space and reduction of the synovial fluid. The objective of this study was to introduce the new technique of unmasking and treating the underlying problem confirming lesions outside the knee joint being the cause of pain in osteoarthritic knee joint. Clinical work making the base of this paper was carried out at Pain and Plegia Centre, Dabgari Gardens Peshawar from 2005 to 2012. Patients reporting with knee pain were palpated deep around the knee joint and major tender spots identified upon Adductor tubercle on medial aspect and Gastrocnemius (lateral head) on lateral aspect proximal to the knee. These lesions were injected each with 20 mg of Triamcinolone Acetonide diluted in 2 ml of Xylocaine 2%. The lesions responded favourably to the simple treatment and patients of pain knee joint of various durations were completely pain free. The optimum healing time of the lesions was 10 days. Osteoarthritic changes inside the knee joint may not be the cause of painful knee, rather it can be a referred pain. Two lesions, Adductor tubercle on medical side and lateral head of Gastrocnemius on the lateral side proximal to the knee joint are identified to attribute to this pain.
Shih, H N; Hsu, K Y; Tan, C F; Hsueh, S; Hsu, R W
Geodes (subchondral cysts) are a well-known manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis. Solitary cysts or cysts larger than 2 cm are not generally found in the knee joint of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We report a case of RA involving both knees with a giant geode over the right proximal tibia. Surgical treatment was performed including synovectomy, cyst enucleation and packing of autogenous bone chips followed by primary total knee arthroplasty. The postsurgical result was excellent with the knee restored to good function and complete healing of the cystic lesion.
Quick, Tom J; Gibbons, Paul; Smith, Nick
Elbow injuries in children are very common and radiographs are often difficult to interpret because of the radiolucency of the cartilaginous anlage and the progressive appearance of multiple secondary ossification centres. Elbow dislocations are rare injuries in children. Coronoid fractures can occur during dislocation or relocation of the elbow and can be the only hallmark of a severe injury. The understanding of the mechanics of these injuries has undergone considerable evolution over the past decade. Intra-articular chondral flap fractures are a traumatic elevation of the hyaline cartilage from the subchondral bone. They are also rare injuries in children but should be included in the differential when examining an injured joint. The infrequency of these injuries provides little opportunity to become accustomed to the radiographic signs. We present a case report of a 4-year-old boy with both an olecranon chondral flap and coronoid cartilaginous fracture after a joint dislocation. We present his plain radiography and MRI with illustrated photographic records of the operative findings. This injury has been little described in the literature and never with such imaging to aid understanding of both the pathology and the injury mechanism.
Avrunin, A S; Doktorov, A A
The aim of this work was to analyze the literature data and the results of authors' own research, to answer the question--if the osteocytes of bone tissues resulting from membranous and chondral ossification, belong to one or to different cell lines. The differences between the cells of osteocyte lines derived from bones resulting from membranous and chondral ossification were established in: 1) the magnitude of the mechanical signal, initiating the development of the process of mechanotransduction; 2) the nature of the relationship between the magnitude of the mechanical signal that initiates the reorganization of the architecture of bone structures and the resource of their strength; in membranous bones significantly lower mechanical signal caused a substantially greater increment of bone strength resource; 3) the biological activity of bone structures, bone fragments formed from membranous tissue were more optimal for transplantation; 4) the characteristics of expression of functional markers of bone cells at different stages of their differentiation; 5) the nature of the reaction of bone cells to mechanical stress; 6) the sensitivity of bone cells to one of the factors controlling the process of mechanotransduction (PGI2); 7) the functioning of osteocytes during lactation. These differences reflect the functional requirements to the bones of the skeleton--the supporting function in the bones of the limbs and the shaping and protection in the bones of the cranial vault. These data suggest that the results of research conducted on the bones of the skull, should not be transferred to the entire skeleton as a whole.
Brittberg, Mats; Gomoll, Andreas H; Canseco, José A; Far, Jack; Lind, Martin; Hui, James
Background and purpose Cartilage damage can develop due to trauma, resulting in focal chondral or osteochondral defects, or as more diffuse loss of cartilage in a generalized organ disease such as osteoarthritis. A loss of cartilage function and quality is also seen with increasing age. There is a spectrum of diseases ranging from focal cartilage defects with healthy surrounding cartilage to focal lesions in degenerative cartilage, to multiple and diffuse lesions in osteoarthritic cartilage. At the recent Aarhus Regenerative Orthopaedics Symposium (AROS) 2015, regenerative challenges in an ageing population were discussed by clinicians and basic scientists. A group of clinicians was given the task of discussing the role of tissue engineering in the treatment of degenerative cartilage lesions in ageing patients. We present the outcomes of our discussions on current treatment options for such lesions, with particular emphasis on different biological repair techniques and their supporting level of evidence. Results and interpretation Based on the studies on treatment of degenerative lesions and early OA, there is low-level evidence to suggest that cartilage repair is a possible treatment for such lesions, but there are conflicting results regarding the effect of advanced age on the outcome. We concluded that further improvements are needed for direct repair of focal, purely traumatic defects before we can routinely use such repair techniques for the more challenging degenerative lesions. Furthermore, we need to identify trigger mechanisms that start generalized loss of cartilage matrix, and induce subchondral bone changes and concomitant synovial pathology, to maximize our treatment methods for biological repair in degenerative ageing joints. PMID:27910738
Madry, Henning; Kon, Elizaveta; Condello, Vincenzo; Peretti, Giuseppe M; Steinwachs, Matthias; Seil, Romain; Berruto, Massimo; Engebretsen, Lars; Filardo, Giuseppe; Angele, Peter
There is an increasing awareness on the importance in identifying early phases of the degenerative processes in knee osteoarthritis (OA), the crucial period of the disease when there might still be the possibility to initiate treatments preventing its progression. Early OA may show a diffuse and ill-defined involvement, but also originate in the cartilage surrounding a focal lesion, thus necessitating a separate assessment of these two entities. Early OA can be considered to include a maximal involvement of 50 % of the cartilage thickness based on the macroscopic ICRS classification, reflecting an OARSI grade 4. The purpose of this paper was to provide an updated review of the current status of the diagnosis and definition of early knee OA, including the clinical, radiographical, histological, MRI, and arthroscopic definitions and biomarkers. Based on current evidence, practical classification criteria are presented. As new insights and technologies become available, they will further evolve to better define and treat early knee OA.
Lee, Yee Han Dave; Suzer, Ferzan; Thermann, Hajo
Autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC) is a 1-step cartilage restoration technique that combines microfracture with the use of an exogenous scaffold. This matrix covers and mechanically stabilizes the clot. There have been an increasing number of studies performed related to the AMIC technique and an update of its use and results is warranted. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was performed using the terms "AMIC" or "Autologous Matrix Induced Chondrogenesis." A total of 19 basic science and clinical articles were identified. Ten studies that were published on the use of AMIC for knee chondral defects were identified and the results of 219 patients were analyzed. The improvements in Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective, Lysholm and Tegner scores at 2 years were comparable to the published results from autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and matrix ACI techniques for cartilage repair. Our systematic review of the current state of the AMIC technique suggests that it is a promising 1-stage cartilage repair technique. The short-term clinical outcomes and magnetic resonance imaging results are comparable to other cell-based methods. Further studies with AMIC in randomized studies versus other repair techniques such as ACI are needed in the future.
... an EKG (electrocardiogram). Surgery Arthroscopic picture of torn anterior cruciate ligament [yellow star]. Almost all arthroscopic knee surgery is ... of torn meniscal cartilage • Reconstruction of a torn anterior cruciate ligament • Trimming of torn pieces of articular cartilage • Removal ...
Bryceland, James Kevin; Powell, Andrew John; Nunn, Thomas
The menisci of the knees are semicircular fibrocartilaginous structures consisting of a hydrophilic extracellular matrix containing a network of collagen fibers, glycoproteins, and proteoglycans maintained by a cellular component. The menisci are responsible for more than 50% of load transmission across the knee and increase joint congruity thereby also aiding in fluid film lubrication of the joint. In the United Kingdom, meniscal tears are the most common form of intra-articular knee injury and one of the commonest indications for orthopedic intervention. The management of these injuries is dependent on the location within the meniscus (relative to peripheral blood supply) and the pattern of tear. Removal of meniscus is known to place the knee at increased risk of osteoarthritis; therefore repair of meniscal tears is preferable. However, a significant proportion of tears are irreparable and can only be treated by partial or even complete meniscectomy. More recent studies have shown encouraging results with meniscal replacement in this situation, though further work is required in this area.
Krueger, J A; Thisse, P; Ewers, B J; Dvoracek-Driksna, D; Orth, M W; Haut, R C
Excessive mechanical loading can lead to matrix damage and chondrocyte death in articular cartilage. Previous studies on chondral and osteochondral explants have not clearly distinguished to what extent the degree and the distribution of cell death are dependent on the presence of an underlying layer of bone. The current study hypothesized that the presence of underlying bone would decrease the amount of matrix damage and cell death. Chondral and osteochondral explants were loaded to 30 MPa at a high rate of loading (approximately 600 MPa/s) or at a low rate of loading (30 MPa/s). After 24 hours in culture, matrix damage was assessed by the total length and average depth of surface fissures. The explants were also sectioned and stained for cell viability in the various layers of the cartilage. More matrix damage was documented in chondral than osteochondral explants for each rate of loading experiment. The total amount of cell death was also less in osteochondral explants than chondral explants. The presence of underlying bone significantly reduced the extent of cell death in all zones in low rate of loading tests. The percentage of cell death was also reduced in the intermediate zone and deep zones of the explant by the presence of the underlying bone for a high rate of loading. This study indicated that the presence of underlying bone significantly limited the degree of matrix damage and cell death, and also affected the distribution of dead cells through the explant thickness. These data may have relevance to the applicability of experimental data from chondral explants to the in situ condition.
Abdalla, Rene Jorge; Cohen, Moisés; Nóbrega, Jezimar; Forgas, Andrea
Synovial giant cell tumor is a benign neoplasm, rarely reported in the form of malignant metastasis. Synovial giant cell tumor most frequently occurs on the hand, and, most uncommon, on the ankle and knee. In the present study, the authors describe a rare case of synovial giant cell tumor on the knee as well as the treatment approach. Arthroscopy has been shown, in this case, to be the optimal method for treating this kind of lesion, once it allowed a less aggressive approach, while providing good visualization of all compartments of knee joint and full tumor resection.
Abdalla, Rene Jorge; Cohen, Moisés; Nóbrega, Jezimar; Forgas, Andrea
Synovial giant cell tumor is a benign neoplasm, rarely reported in the form of malignant metastasis. Synovial giant cell tumor most frequently occurs on the hand, and, most uncommon, on the ankle and knee. In the present study, the authors describe a rare case of synovial giant cell tumor on the knee as well as the treatment approach. Arthroscopy has been shown, in this case, to be the optimal method for treating this kind of lesion, once it allowed a less aggressive approach, while providing good visualization of all compartments of knee joint and full tumor resection. PMID:27004193
Razek, A.A.K.A.; Fouda, N.S.; Elmetwaley, N.; Elbogdady, E.
The aim of this article is to review the sonographic appearances of common disorders involving the knee joint. Ultrasound is a sensitive method for diagnosis of tendon injuries. Injured ligaments appear swollen with mixed echogenicity. Meniscal injuries and muscle tears can be easily diagnosed. Ultrasound shows synovial thickening and effusion in inflammatory arthropathy and erosions of the articular surface in degenerative arthritis. It can be used effectively in the detection of rheumatoid arthritic activity and for grading degenerative arthritis lesions. Cystic lesions, as well as benign and malignant soft-tissue masses, are clearly delineated. Ultrasound is a safe noninvasive imaging modality that can be used for diagnosis of different disorders involving the knee joint. PMID:23397073
Chatra, Priyank S
A bursa is a fluid-filled structure that is present between the skin and tendon or tendon and bone. The main function of a bursa is to reduce friction between adjacent moving structures. Bursae around the knee can be classified as those around the patella and those that occur elsewhere. In this pictorial essay we describe the most commonly encountered lesions and their MRI appearance. PMID:22623812
Henderson, Ian J P; La Valette, David P
Between October 2000 and December 2003, 252 autologous chondrocyte implants were performed in 183 patients. Eighty lesions showed overgrowth of the subchondral bone plate under the chondral lesion, this was termed a "bone boss." Thirty-seven were on the medial femoral condyle (MFC), 18 on the lateral femoral condyle (LFC), 21 in the trochlea and 4 on the patella. There was a statistically significant association between the LFC and "bone boss." The lesions showing this finding were of a larger area (3.4 cm2 and 2.8 cm2 respectively, p=0.006), and had more diffuse chondral changes than lesions without. The patients with a "bone boss" had a tendency to longer duration of symptoms (85.3 months and 64.3 months respectively, p=0.089). The "bone bosses" were resected back to the level of the surrounding subchondral bone prior to implantation. Radiological and clinical follow-up showed no statistical difference between the two groups. A discussion of the possible aetiology of the "bone boss" is made.
... front of the knee can be due to bursitis, arthritis, or softening of the patella cartilage as ... knee. Overall knee pain can be due to bursitis, arthritis, tears in the ligaments, osteoarthritis of the ...
... your knee joint. Some people call this condition "water on the knee." A swollen knee may be ... Choose low-impact exercise. Certain activities, such as water aerobics and swimming, don't place continuous weight- ...
Bert, Jack M.; Waddell, David D.
Viscosupplementation (VIS) is one of several treatment modalities for osteoarthritis of the knee. It is useful in the treatment of osteoarthritis when other methods of conservative care have failed and it may be a safer method of treatment than oral chemical therapy which can have significant side effects with even short-term usage. The biochemical effects of hyaluronic acid are incompletely understood, however there are several accepted modes of action which result in a positive clinical effect on the function of the knee joint. There is some evidence that hyaluronic acid preparations with a higher molecular weight may be more beneficial to the patient. It is commonly used after arthroscopic meniscectomy and or debridement of the knee in a patient with chondral disease. The clinical effects have been well documented in multiple studies in patients with mild to moderate osteoarthritis in study groups before or after arthroscopic surgery of the knee. Adverse events do occur and are easily treated with only rare case reports of systemic effects. Furthermore, there is some evidence that VIS can prolong the need for total knee arthroplasty in the older patient as well. PMID:22870442
Bert, Jack M; Waddell, David D
Viscosupplementation (VIS) is one of several treatment modalities for osteoarthritis of the knee. It is useful in the treatment of osteoarthritis when other methods of conservative care have failed and it may be a safer method of treatment than oral chemical therapy which can have significant side effects with even short-term usage. The biochemical effects of hyaluronic acid are incompletely understood, however there are several accepted modes of action which result in a positive clinical effect on the function of the knee joint. There is some evidence that hyaluronic acid preparations with a higher molecular weight may be more beneficial to the patient. It is commonly used after arthroscopic meniscectomy and or debridement of the knee in a patient with chondral disease. The clinical effects have been well documented in multiple studies in patients with mild to moderate osteoarthritis in study groups before or after arthroscopic surgery of the knee. Adverse events do occur and are easily treated with only rare case reports of systemic effects. Furthermore, there is some evidence that VIS can prolong the need for total knee arthroplasty in the older patient as well.
Kok, Hong Kuan; Donnellan, John; Ryan, Davinia; Torreggiani, William C
Chondromalacia patellae is a common cause of anterior knee pain in young patients and can be detected noninvasively with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The purpose of our study was to evaluate the correlation between subcutaneous fat thickness around the knee joint on axial MRIs as a surrogate marker of obesity, with the presence or absence of chondromalacia patellae. A retrospective review was conducted of knee MRIs in 170 patients who satisfied the inclusion criteria. Imaging was performed over a 12-month period on a 1.5T MRI system with a dedicated extremity coil. Two radiologists experienced in musculoskeletal imaging assessed each examination in consensus for the presence or absence of chondromalacia patellae and graded positive studies from 0 (absent) to 3 (full cartilage thickness defect). Measurement of subcutaneous knee fat thickness was obtained on the medial aspect of the knee. MRI findings of chondromalacia patellae were present in 33 patients (19.4%), of which, there were 11 grade 1 lesions (33.3%), 9 grade 2 lesions (27.3%), and 13 grade 3 lesions (39.4%). The mean subcutaneous knee fat thickness was significantly higher in the chondromalacia patellae group for all grades compared with the normal group (P < .001), and there was a significant correlation between subcutaneous knee fat thickness and grades of chondromalacia patellae (R = 0.48 [95% confidence interval, 0.38-0.68]; P < .001). Female patients had thicker subcutaneous knee fat and more severe grades of chondromalacia patellae. Subcutaneous knee fat thickness as a surrogate marker of obesity was positively associated with the presence and severity of chondromalacia patellae on MRI. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
VAN DEN Berg, Jos C
The endovascular treatment of atherosclerotic disease of the infra-inguinal arteries has changed significantly since the introduction of drug-eluting balloon technology. The role of angioplasty using drug-eluting balloons for lesions of the superficial femoral and popliteal artery is now well established. The positive results of the use of drug-eluting balloons in the above knee segment could not be achieved in the below-the-knee segment. This paper will give an overview of the current status of drug-eluting balloon angioplasty for below-the-knee lesions, and will present a review of 2 single center registry, 5 randomized trials and a meta-analysis.
Andrade Neto, Francisco; Teixeira, Manuel Joaquim Diógenes; Araújo, Leonardo Heráclio do Carmo; Ponte, Carlos Eduardo Barbosa
The knee is a common site for bone tumors, whether clinically painful or not. Conventional radiology has been established as the first line of investigation in patients with knee pain and can reveal lesions that often generate questions not only for the generalist physician but also for the radiologist or general orthopedist. History, image examination, and histopathological analysis compose the essential tripod of the diagnosis of bone tumors, and conventional radiology is an essential diagnostic tool in patients with knee pain. This pictorial essay proposes to depict the main conventional radiography findings of the most common bone tumors around the knee, including benign and malignant tumors, as well as pseudo-tumors. PMID:27403019
Hofmann, A A; Wyatt, R W; Bourne, M H; Daniels, A U
The ability of six commercially available orthotic knee braces to stabilize ligamentous injuries of the knee was evaluated using fresh cadaver specimens. Anterior, valgus, and rotational forces were applied to the intact knee, after the anterior cruciate and medial collateral ligaments were cut, and after application of the knee braces. Bony displacement was measured using half pins and an external fixator applied to the tibia and femur. There was a significant difference in brace performance, most likely due to differences in brace design. Of the six braces tested, the 3D 3-Way Brace provided the greatest knee stability.
Chronic pain in the knee joint is frequently a sign of arthrosis in adults. This must be clearly differentiated from other knee problems. Patellofemoral stress syndrome (occurs mostly in young people) and arthritis with effusion in the knee joint after long and mostly unusual stress also allow only a reduced function of the knee joint. However, even when the knee joint is still fully functional, chronic problems could already exist: For example, for joggers, iliotibial band friction syndrome (runner's knee) or after high unphysiological stress, patellar tendinopathy (jumper's knee). These must be differentiated from pes anserinus syndrome and a plica mediopatellaris.
Patel, D V; Breazeale, N M; Behr, C T; Warren, R F; Wickiewicz, T L; O'Brien, S J
Osteonecrosis of the knee should be differentiated into two main categories: (1) primary, spontaneous, or idiopathic osteonecrosis and (2) secondary osteonecrosis (e.g., secondary to factors such as steroid therapy, systemic lupus erythematosus, alcoholism, Caisson decompression sickness, Gaucher's disease, hemoglobinopathies, etc.). Spontaneous or primary osteonecrosis of the knee presents with an acute knee pain in elderly patients. It is three times more common in women than in men. Traumatic and vascular theories have been proposed as a causative factor of osteonecrosis of the knee, but the precise etiology still remains speculative. High index of clinical awareness and a good history and physical examination are essential to make an early, accurate diagnosis. Plain radiographs are often normal during the early course of the disease and, in such instances, radioisotope bone scan and magnetic resonance imaging may be helpful. In the early stage of the disease, nonoperative treatment is indicated and many patients, if diagnosed early, have a benign course with a satisfactory pain relief and a good knee function. In patients with advanced stage of the disease, treatment options include arthroscopic debridement, curettage or drilling of the lesion, bone grafting, high tibial osteotomy, use of osteochondral allograft, and unicompartmental or total knee arthroplasty. The choice of treatment should be based on factors such as age of the patient, severity of symptoms, activity level and functional demands on the knee, site and stage of the lesion, and extent of deformity and secondary osteoarthritis. The clinical features and treatment of steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the knee are briefly discussed. In recent years, "postmeniscectomy" osteonecrosis has been reported, but at present its prevalence and pathophysiology remain unknown. It is possible that this may be a preexisting condition that was not recognized at the time of initial consultation or osteonecrosis may
Simon, David; Mascarenhas, Randy; Saltzman, Bryan M; Rollins, Meaghan; Bach, Bernard R; MacDonald, Peter
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are a common injury, particularly in the athletic and youth populations. The known association between ACL injury and subsequent osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee merits a more in-depth understanding of the relationship between the ACL-injured knee and osteoarthritis. ACL injury, especially with concomitant meniscal or other ligamentous pathology, predisposes the knee to an increased risk of osteoarthritis. ACL insufficiency results in deterioration of the normal physiologic knee bending culminating in increased anterior tibial translation and increased internal tibial rotation. This leads to increased mean contact stresses in the posterior medial and lateral compartments under anterior and rotational loading. However, surgical reconstruction of the ACL has not been shown to reduce the risk of future OA development back to baseline and has variability based on operative factors of graft choice, timing of surgery, presence of meniscal and chondral abnormalities, and surgical technique. Known strategies to prevent OA development are applicable to patients with ACL deficiency or after ACL reconstruction and include weight management, avoidance of excessive musculoskeletal loading, and strength training. Reconstruction of the ACL does not necessarily prevent osteoarthritis in many of these patients and may depend on several external variables.
Simon, David; Saltzman, Bryan M.; Rollins, Meaghan; Bach, Bernard R.; MacDonald, Peter
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are a common injury, particularly in the athletic and youth populations. The known association between ACL injury and subsequent osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee merits a more in-depth understanding of the relationship between the ACL-injured knee and osteoarthritis. ACL injury, especially with concomitant meniscal or other ligamentous pathology, predisposes the knee to an increased risk of osteoarthritis. ACL insufficiency results in deterioration of the normal physiologic knee bending culminating in increased anterior tibial translation and increased internal tibial rotation. This leads to increased mean contact stresses in the posterior medial and lateral compartments under anterior and rotational loading. However, surgical reconstruction of the ACL has not been shown to reduce the risk of future OA development back to baseline and has variability based on operative factors of graft choice, timing of surgery, presence of meniscal and chondral abnormalities, and surgical technique. Known strategies to prevent OA development are applicable to patients with ACL deficiency or after ACL reconstruction and include weight management, avoidance of excessive musculoskeletal loading, and strength training. Reconstruction of the ACL does not necessarily prevent osteoarthritis in many of these patients and may depend on several external variables. PMID:25954533
Maffulli, N; Regine, R; Carrillo, F; Minelli, S; Beaconsfield, T
Fifty-two knees were examined using real-time high-definition ultrasonography with a 7.5 MHz probe. The extra-articular structures were easily visualized and diagnosis of patellar tendon lesions and Baker's cysts formulated. While the meniscal cartilages were shown as a homogeneous triangular structure between the femoral condyle and the tibial plateau, no lesions were detected. Deeper intra-articular structures, such as the cruciate ligaments, were not shown by the scan, thus their evaluation was not possible. Given its low cost, wide availability, non-invasiveness and patients' acceptability of the technique, ultrasonography may play an important role in the diagnosis of soft tissue lesions in and around the knee joint. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:1623366
Lim, Jason B T; Tan, Andrew H C
The spectrum of pathoanatomic lesions encountered in anterior shoulder dislocation is broad. There could be a presence of loose bodies, chondral and osteochondral, in the shoulder joint and also concomitant rotator cuff partial tears resulting from acute and chronic shoulder instability. We present one case report of a 46-year-old male Chinese with an uncommon case of Bankart lesion, with a full thickness chondral defect over the superior glenoid articular surface manifesting as a large intra-articular loose cartilaginous body. The patient presented with persistent shoulder pain with signs of shoulder instability. He underwent arthroscopic repair of his Bankart lesion with the removal of intra-articular loose body. We aim to discuss the diagnosis, radiological imaging, as well as, arthroscopic treatment of loose body in the glenohumeral joint due to anterior shoulder dislocation in our report. In our case report, we highlight the importance to identify other associated injuries from the history and examination after an episode of traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation. Arthroscopic treatment is a useful minimally invasive option to remove the large fragment of intra-articular loose body and also repair the Bankart lesion in the same setting. Both of these lesions must be treated as they are crucial for pain relief, as well as stabilizing the shoulder, to prevent further episodes of dislocation.
Rousseau, Marthe; Delattre, Olivier; Gillet, Pierre; Lopez, Evelyne
The present study was designed to analyze the intra-articular behaviour of nacre, when implanted in the subchondral bone area in the sheep knee. We implanted nacre blocks in sheep's trochlea by replacing the half of the femoral trochlea (nacre group). For comparison we used complete cartilage resection (resection group) down to the subchondral bone. In the "nacre group", implants were well tolerated without any synovial inflammation. In addition, we observed centripetal regrowth of new cartilage after 3 months. In the "resection group", no chondral regrowth was observed, but, in contrast, a thin layer of fibrous tissue was formed. After 6 months, a new tissue covered the nacre implant formed by an osteochondral regrowth. Nacre, as a subchondral implant, exerts benefic potential for osteochondral repair.
Schub, David L; Frisch, Nicholas C; Bachmann, Keith R; Winalski, Carl; Saluan, Paul M
Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the elbow is a problematic condition that affects a fair number of young athletes. One treatment option is the use of osteochondral autografts, which are commonly taken from donor sites on the less weightbearing surfaces of the knee. To use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess the cartilage depths of sites in the knee and elbow that are commonly used as donor and recipient sites to optimize depth matching for osteochondral autograft procedures. Descriptive laboratory study. All knee and elbow MRI scans acquired from 3-T machines in patients aged 16 to 25 years within a single hospital system were reviewed. Studies were excluded if there had been previous surgery on the joint or if there were significant chondral defects in the areas to be measured. All cartilage depth measurements were independently performed by 3 different physicians to the nearest 0.01 mm. At the elbow, 6 locations on the capitellum and 2 on the trochlea were chosen. At the knee, 4 locations along the anterior-lateral femoral condyle, 5 surrounding the intercondylar notch, and 1 on both the medial- and lateral-posterior femoral condyles were chosen. There were 111 knee MRI (74 male, 37 female) and 94 elbow MRI (85 male, 9 female) scans that met all inclusion criteria. The average cartilage depths from each investigator were then averaged to provide an overall mean depth at each location. All average cartilage depths within the knee were thicker than those in the elbow, where the averaged mean thickness of all the 8 measured sites was 1.27 mm (range, 0.78-1.63 mm). Within the knee, the thinnest areas of cartilage, and therefore closest matches, were discovered at the posterior pole of the medial femoral condyle (mean ± SD, 1.95 ± 0.46 mm) and at the distal-most anterior-lateral femoral condyle (1.85 ± 0.46 mm). The average variance between the mean cartilage depths measured by each investigator for each location was 0.12 mm in the elbow and 0.22 mm in
... and the tibia in the knee joint. The anterior cruciate ligament, the posterior cruciate ligament, and the meniscal ligaments ... help view the inside of the knee while ligaments or tendons are repaired from the outside.
... remove it. Torn or damaged anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) or posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) Inflamed or damaged ... surgery Knee pain Meniscal allograft transplantation Patient Instructions ACL reconstruction - discharge Getting your home ready - knee or ...
... as a result of a twisting or pivoting motion. This injury may cause susceptibility to repeat injuries and knee instability, and therefore often requires surgery. Occasionally, a twisting or hyperextension force to the knee may result in a tibial ...
This article traces the development of microprocessor prosthetic knees from early research in the 1970s to the present. Read about how microprocessor knees work, functional options, patient selection, and the future of this prosthetic.
Chang, Alison H.; Moisio, Kirsten C.; Chmiel, Joan S.; Eckstein, Felix; Guermazi, Ali; Prasad, Pottumarthi V.; Zhang, Yunhui; Almagor, Orit; Belisle, Laura; Hayes, Karen; Sharma, Leena
Objective Test the hypothesis that greater baseline peak external knee adduction moment (KAM), KAM impulse, and peak external knee flexion moment (KFM) during the stance phase of gait are associated with baseline-to-2-year medial tibiofemoral cartilage damage and bone marrow lesion progression, and cartilage thickness loss. Methods Participants all had knee OA in at least one knee. Baseline peak KAM, KAM impulse, and peak KFM (normalized to body weight and height) were captured and computed using a motion analysis system and 6 force plates. Participants underwent MRI of both knees at baseline and two years later. To assess the association between baseline moments and baseline-to-2-year semiquantitative cartilage damage and bone marrow lesion progression and quantitative cartilage thickness loss, we used logistic regression with generalized estimating equations (GEE), adjusting for gait speed, age, gender, disease severity, knee pain severity, and medication use. Results The sample consisted of 391 knees (204 persons): mean age 64.2 years (SD 10.0); BMI 28.4 kg/m2 (5.7); 156 (76.5%) women. Greater baseline peak KAM and KAM impulse were each associated with worsening of medial bone marrow lesions, but not cartilage damage. Higher baseline KAM impulse was associated with 2-year medial cartilage thickness loss assessed both as % loss and as a threshold of loss, whereas peak KAM was related only to % loss. There was no relationship between baseline peak KFM and any medial disease progression outcome measures. Conclusion Findings support targeting KAM parameters in an effort to delay medial OA disease progression. PMID:25677110
Bacenková, D; Rosocha, J; Svihla, R; Vasko, G; Bodnár, J
In the study we used in vitro cultivated autologous chondrocytes in combination with osteochondral allografts for the treatment of local defects of articular cartilage on the animal model (rabbit). Chondrocytes for in vitro cultivation were harvested by biopsy of articular cartilage of rabbit. For the monolayer cultivation we used Nutrient mix F 12 (Gibco BRL) with addition of Lascorbic acid (50 micrograms/ml, Sigma) and insulin-trasferin-selenium (A 6.26 micrograms/ml, Gibco BRL), 20% of fectal serum (Gibco BRL) and antibiotic antimycotic solution (Gibco BRL). Cultivation of chondrocytes took place at 37 degrees in the atmosphere of 5% CO2. Multiplied chondrocytes re-suspended in fibrin glue in combination with two osteochondral allografts were used for the reparation of artificial defect of the rabbit cartilage. For the analysis of collagen type II in the cultivation medium we used the principle of salting out by 30% ammonium sulphate and subsequent pepsinization in an acid environment with a repeated salting out by means of 2M of NaCl. Precipitates were dissolved in 5.0 M of acetic acid and used for SDS PAGE and immunoblotting. As a detection system we used ECL (Amersham/Pharmacia Biotech). The final average number of chondrocytes multiplied by monolayer cultivation was 1.10(5). The presence of collagen of type II has proved the preservation of the original phenotype of chondrocytes during cultivation. Bioengineering use of cell and tissue cultivation provides new options of the treatment of defect of connective tissue. Transplantation of autologous chondrocytes in combination with osteochondral allografts is on the basis of our results obtained so far a promising therapy. The aim of our work was an ex vivo expansion of autologous chondrocytes for the purpose of cell transplantation.
Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Vangsness, Carleton Thomas; Tibone, James Eugene; Martinez, Juan Carlos; Rodger, Damien; Chou, Tzu-Chieh; Tai, Yu-Chong; Brant, Rodrigo; Wu, Ling; Abdalla, Rene Jorge; Han, Bo; Evseenko, Denis; Humayun, Mark
Evaluate parylene scaffold feasibility in cartilage lesion treatment, introducing a novel paradigm combining a reparative and superficial reconstructive procedure. Fifteen rabbits were used. All animals had both knees operated and the same osteochondral lesion model was created bilaterally. The parylene scaffold was implanted in the right knee, and the left knee of the same animal was used as control. The animals were euthanized at different time points after surgery: four animals at three weeks, three animals at six weeks, four animals at nine weeks, and four animals at 12 weeks. Specimens were analyzed by International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) macroscopic evaluation, modified Pineda histologic evaluation of cartilage repair, and collagen II immunostaining. Parylene knees were compared to its matched contra-lateral control knees of the same animal using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank. ICRS mean ± SD values for parylene versus control, three, six, nine and twelve weeks, respectively: 7.83 ± 1.85 versus 4.42 ± 1.08, p = 0.0005; 10.17 ± 1.17 versus 6.83 ± 1.17, p = 0.03; 10.89 ± 0.60 versus 7.33 ± 2.18, p = 0.007; 10.67 ± 0.78 versus 7.83 ± 3.40, p = 0.03. Modified Pineda mean ± SD values for parylene versus control, six, nine and twelve weeks, respectively: 3.37 ± 0.87 versus 6.94 ± 1.7, p < 0.0001; 5.73 ± 2.05 versus 6.41 ± 1.7, p = 0.007; 3.06 ± 1.61 versus 6.52 ± 1.51, p < 0.0001. No inflammation was seen. Parylene implanted knees demonstrated higher collagen II expression via immunostaining in comparison to the control knees. Parylene scaffolds are a feasible option for cartilage lesion treatment and the combination of a reparative to a superficial reconstructive procedure using parylene scaffolds led to better results than the reparative procedure alone.
Theodoropoulos, John S; Dwyer, Tim; Wolin, Preston M
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting elbow articular cartilage injuries through comparison of preoperative MRI and magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) with arthroscopic findings. Retrospective case analysis. Tertiary care orthopedic private practice. Consecutive series of 31 patients presenting with elbow pain and diagnosed at arthroscopy with articular cartilage defects of the elbow. All patients had a preoperative MRI or MRA using a 1.5 T magnet. Each patient had a systematic elbow arthroscopy, with careful inspection and recording of chondral injuries in 4 anatomical regions: capitellum, radius, trochlea, and ulna. Each MRI/MRA was then independently reviewed by 2 radiologists blinded to the arthroscopic findings. The sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, and accuracy were calculated for MRI and MRI compared with arthroscopy as the gold standard, for each of the anatomical regions. The accuracy of MRI was 45% for chondral injuries of the radius, 65% for the capitellum, 20% for the ulna, and 30% for the trochlea. The accuracy of MRA was 45% for chondral injuries of the radius, 64% for the capitellum, 18% for the ulna, and 27% for the trochlea. We conclude that the ability of MRI and MRA using a 1.5 T magnet to detect articular cartilage lesions is limited. Neither MRI nor MRA demonstrates the intraarticular surface as accurately as direct visualization with the arthroscopy. This may be improved with the use of 3 T MRI. This study demonstrates that MRI and MRA with a 1.5 T magnet, as used in community practice, have limited ability to detect cartilage lesions of the elbow.
Appropriate history taking and examination can ensure accurate diagnosis of common knee problems, and rapid and effective interventions or referral to orthopaedic specialists. This article describes the anatomy of the knee joint and discusses relevant history taking, the examination process, special tests and radiology, as well as common knee injuries and their management.
Lambregts, S A M; Hitters, W M G C
An 89-year-old woman who had a total-knee replacement in the past, underwent a knee disarticulation of the same leg because of an ischaemic foot. Eight (8) months postoperatively the stump is fully weight-bearing and the patient is able to walk safely, using a prosthesis and a walking frame.
Pérez-de la Fuente, T.; Sandoval, E.; Alonso-Burgos, A.; García-Pardo, L.; Cárcamo, C.; Caballero, O.
Lower limb lymphorrhea secondary to a surgical procedure is a rare but difficult-to-solve complication. In lower limb, this entity is frequently associated with vascular procedures around the inguinal area. We report on a case of a knee lymphocutaneous fistula secondary to a knee revision arthroplasty. To our knowledge, no previous reports regarding this complication have been published. PMID:25580333
Wang, Xia; Jin, Xingzhong; Han, Weiyu; Cao, Yuelong; Halliday, Andrew; Blizzard, Leigh; Pan, Faming; Antony, Benny; Cicuttini, Flavia; Jones, Graeme; Ding, Changhai
To describe the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between knee regional effusion synovitis and knee pain in older adults. Data from a population-based random sample (n = 880, mean age 62 yrs, 50% women) were used. Baseline knee joint effusion synovitis was graded (0-3) using T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the suprapatellar pouch, central portion, posterior femoral recess, and subpopliteal recess. Effusion synovitis of the whole joint was defined as a score of ≥ 2 in any subregion. Other knee structural (including cartilage, bone marrow, and menisci) lesions were assessed by MRI at baseline. Knee pain was assessed by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index questionnaire at baseline and 2.6 years later. Multivariable analyses were performed after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, and other structural lesions. The prevalence of effusion synovitis was 67%. Suprapatellar pouch effusion synovitis was significantly and independently associated with increased total and nonweight-bearing knee pain in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses (for an increase in total knee pain of ≥ 5, RR 1.26 per grade, 95% CI 1.04-1.52), and increased weight-bearing knee pain in longitudinal analysis only. Effusion synovitis in posterior femoral recess and central portion were independently associated with increases in nonweight-bearing pain (RR 1.63 per grade, 95% CI 1.32-2.01 and RR 1.29 per grade, 95% CI 1.01-1.65, respectively) in longitudinal analyses only. Knee joint effusion synovitis has independent associations with knee pain in older adults. Suprapatellar pouch effusion synovitis is associated with nonweight-bearing and weight-bearing knee pain, while posterior femoral recess and central portion effusion synovitis are only associated with nonweight-bearing pain.
Bosiers, M; Deloose, K; Verbist, J; Peeters, P
The application of percutaneous techniques for the treatment of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) has gained widespread interest over the last decade. Together with the development of new endovascular tools and with an increasing operator experience, the minimal invasive percutaneous therapy became first line therapy at many institutions. Patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) due to infrapopliteal lesions are often no good candidates infra-geniculate bypass surgery (IBS), as they often present with prohibitive comorbidities, inadequate conduit, and lack of suitable distal targets for revascularization. Therefore, CLI patients due to blockage of below-the-knee (BTK) arteries are in benefit of the endovascular approach: it offers the advantages of local anesthesia, potentially reduced costs (even anticipating the need for reintervention in many patients), shorter hospital stays The current article provides an overview of the diagnosis and endovascular treatment strategies for infrapopliteal lesions in patients with CLI and gives recommendations for future infrapopliteal device technology advancements.
Matassi, Fabrizio; Paoli, Tommaso; Civinini, Roberto; Carulli, Christian; Innocenti, Massimo
Oxidized zirconium (OxZr) has demonstrated excellent mechanical properties in vitro when used against articular cartilage; less coefficient of friction and less chondral damage have been found when compared with cobalt-chromium (CoCr) implants. However, controversy exists as to whether implants with a zirconium femoral component articulate safely with a native patella in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). To answer this question, the clinical and radiographic results were analysed from a group of patients who underwent a TKA with patella retention; the OxZr versus CoCr femoral components were compared. The present study prospectively evaluated 83 knees of 74 patients from 2009 to 2010. Each patient was evaluated clinically (visual analogue scale, Knee Society score, patellar score) and radiographically (long leg standing radiograph, anterior-posterior and latero-lateral projections, axial view of the patella) pre-operatively and postoperatively with a mean follow-up of 4.47years. The patellar tilt and shift, and progression of patellofemoral osteoarthritis were calculated with the axial view. There were no patient reported adverse reactions and none of the evaluated prostheses failed. Both the clinical and radiographic evaluations showed no statistically significant between-group differences. No adverse events were observed clinically or radiologically. These results justify pursuing the use of oxidized zirconium as an alternative bearing surface for a femoral component associated with patellar retention in TKA. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Madry, Henning; Ochi, Mitsuo; Cucchiarini, Magali; Pape, Dietrich; Seil, Romain
Large animal models play a crucial role in sports surgery of the knee, as they are critical for the exploration of new experimental strategies and the clinical translation of novel techniques. The purpose of this contribution is to provide critical aspects of relevant animal models in this field, with a focus on paediatric anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, high tibial osteotomy, and articular cartilage repair. Although there is no single large animal model strictly replicating the human knee joint, the sheep stifle joint shares strong similarities. Studies in large animal models of paediatric ACL reconstruction identified specific risk factors associated with the different surgical techniques. The sheep model of high tibial osteotomy is a powerful new tool to advance the understanding of the effect of axial alignment on the lower extremity on specific issues of the knee joint. Large animal models of both focal chondral and osteochondral defects and of osteoarthritis have brought new findings about the mechanisms of cartilage repair and treatment options. The clinical application of a magnetic device for targeted cell delivery serves as a suitable example of how data from such animal models are directly translated into in clinical cartilage repair. As novel insights from studies in these translational models will advance the basic science, close cooperation in this important field of clinical translation will improve current reconstructive surgical options and open novel avenues for regenerative therapies of musculoskeletal disorders.
Pihl, Kenneth; Englund, Martin; Lohmander, L Stefan; Jørgensen, Uffe; Nissen, Nis; Schjerning, Jeppe; Thorlund, Jonas B
Background and purpose - Recent evidence has questioned the effect of arthroscopic knee surgery for middle-aged and older patients with degenerative meniscal tears with or without concomitant radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA). We investigated the prevalence of early or more established knee OA and patients' characteristics in a cohort of patients undergoing arthroscopic surgery for a meniscal tear. Patients and methods - 641 patients assigned for arthroscopy on suspicion of meniscus tear were consecutively recruited from February 2013 through January 2015. Of these, 620 patients (mean age 49 (18-77) years, 57% men) with full datasets available were included in the present study. Prior to surgery, patients completed questionnaires regarding onset of symptoms, duration of symptoms, and mechanical symptoms along with the knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS). At arthroscopy, the operating surgeon recorded information about meniscal pathology and cartilage damage. Early or more established knee OA was defined as the combination of self-reported frequent knee pain, cartilage damage, and the presence of degenerative meniscal tissue. Results - 43% of patients (269 of 620) had early or more established knee OA. Of these, a large proportion had severe cartilage lesions with almost half having a severe cartilage lesion in at least 1 knee compartment. Interpretation - Based on a definition including frequent knee pain, cartilage damage, and degenerative meniscal tissue, early or more established knee OA was present in 43% of patients undergoing knee arthroscopy for meniscal tear.
Pihl, Kenneth; Englund, Martin; Lohmander, L Stefan; Jørgensen, Uffe; Nissen, Nis; Schjerning, Jeppe; Thorlund, Jonas B
Background and purpose — Recent evidence has questioned the effect of arthroscopic knee surgery for middle-aged and older patients with degenerative meniscal tears with or without concomitant radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA). We investigated the prevalence of early or more established knee OA and patients’ characteristics in a cohort of patients undergoing arthroscopic surgery for a meniscal tear. Patients and methods — 641 patients assigned for arthroscopy on suspicion of meniscus tear were consecutively recruited from February 2013 through January 2015. Of these, 620 patients (mean age 49 (18–77) years, 57% men) with full datasets available were included in the present study. Prior to surgery, patients completed questionnaires regarding onset of symptoms, duration of symptoms, and mechanical symptoms along with the knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS). At arthroscopy, the operating surgeon recorded information about meniscal pathology and cartilage damage. Early or more established knee OA was defined as the combination of self-reported frequent knee pain, cartilage damage, and the presence of degenerative meniscal tissue. Results — 43% of patients (269 of 620) had early or more established knee OA. Of these, a large proportion had severe cartilage lesions with almost half having a severe cartilage lesion in at least 1 knee compartment. Interpretation — Based on a definition including frequent knee pain, cartilage damage, and degenerative meniscal tissue, early or more established knee OA was present in 43% of patients undergoing knee arthroscopy for meniscal tear. PMID:27798972
Increased odds of patient-reported success at 2 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in patients without cartilage lesions: a cohort study from the Swedish National Knee Ligament Register.
Hamrin Senorski, Eric; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Musahl, Volker; Fu, Freddie; Krupic, Ferid; Desai, Neel; Westin, Olof; Samuelsson, Kristian
To investigate whether the surgical technique of single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, the visualization of anatomic surgical factors and the presence or absence of concomitant injuries at primary ACL reconstruction are able to predict patient-reported success and failure. The hypothesis of this study was that anatomic single-bundle surgical procedures would be predictive of patient-reported success. This cohort study was based on data from the Swedish National Knee Ligament Register during the period of 1 January 2005 through 31 December 2014. Patients who underwent primary single-bundle ACL reconstruction with hamstring tendons were included. Details on surgical technique were collected using an online questionnaire comprising essential anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction scoring checklist items, defined as the utilization of accessory medial portal drilling, anatomic tunnel placement, the visualization of insertion sites and pertinent landmarks. A univariate logistic regression model adjusted for age and gender was used to determine predictors of patient-reported success and failure, i.e. 20th and 80th percentile, respectively, in the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), 2 years after ACL reconstruction. In the 6889 included patients, the surgical technique used for single-bundle ACL reconstruction did not predict the predefined patient-reported success or patient-reported failure in the KOOS4. Patient-reported success was predicted by the absence of concomitant injury to the meniscus (OR = 0.81 [95% CI, 0.72-0.92], p = 0.001) and articular cartilage (OR = 0.70 [95% CI, 0.61-0.81], p < 0.001). Patient-reported failure was predicted by the presence of a concomitant injury to the articular cartilage (OR = 1.27 [95% CI, 1.11-1.44], p < 0.001). Surgical techniques used in primary single-bundle ACL reconstruction did not predict the KOOS 2 years after the reconstruction. However, the absence of
Stagnaro, Joaquin; Yacuzzi, Carlos; Barla, Jorge; Zicaro, Juan Pablo; Costa-Paz, Matias
Objectives: Knee ligament injuries related to lower limb fractures are common and frequently unnoticed. Management of acute polytrauma is usually focused in the bone lesion and a complete physical examination might be really difficult. The purpose of this study was to analyze a series of patients who suffered multiligament knee injuries associated to a lower limb fracture. Hypothesis: The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during the initial management can lead to an early diagnosis of ligament injuries. Methods: A retrospective search was conducted from our hospital´s electronic database. We evaluated the initial diagnosis and acute surgical treatment, and management and functional outcomes after the ligament lesion was diagnosed. Results: Seven patients who presented a knee multiligament injury associated with a lower limb fracture were evaluated. The average age was 29 years. Primary diagnoses were: four tibial plateau fractures; one open fracture-dislocation of the knee; one open leg fracture and ipsilateral hip dislocation; and one bifocal femur fracture. Only three patients had an MRI during the initial management of trauma. Six out of seven patients had to be operated on for the multiligament knee injury. The period between the resolution of the fracture and the ligamentous repair was from 3 to 24 months. Conclusion: Poor functional outcomes are reported in patients with multiligament knee injuries associated with high-energy lower limb fractures. We consider an MRI during the initial management can lead to better outcomes. A trauma surgeon working alongside an arthroscopic surgeon might optimize the results for these lesions.
Ma, Tong; Tu, Yihui; Xue, Huaming; Wen, Tao; Mei, Jiong
Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) is an effective treatment option for medial compartment osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Whether spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee (SPONK) can be successfully treated with UKA remains controversial. This study evaluated the clinical and radiological results of patients with SPONK who were treated by UKA using Oxford phase III prostheses. We compared a prospective series of 23 UKA cases operated for SPONK with 235 UKA cases operated for OA. All patients underwent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to confirm the diagnosis and exclude any major lesion in the lateral compartment. The stage, condylar ratio, and volume of the necrotic lesion were evaluated. The pre and postoperative Oxford knee scores (OKSs) were compared. The mean follow-up was 60 months. No statistical differences in complication rates between the groups were found. The mean OKS improved from 39.48 ± 5.69 to 18.83 ± 3.82 ( p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the pre and postoperative OKS between the different groups. SPONK can be successfully treated with UKA, with a favorable short- to mid-term follow-up.
Chahla, Jorge; Moatshe, Gilbert; Dean, Chase S.; LaPrade, Robert F.
Injuries to the posterolateral corner (PLC) comprise a significant portion of knee ligament injuries. A high index of suspicion is necessary when evaluating the injured knee to detect these sometimes occult injuries. Moreover, a thorough physical examination and a comprehensive review of radiographic studies are necessary to identify these injuries. In this sense, stress radiographs can help to objectively determine the extent of these lesions. Non-operative and operative treatment options have been reported depending on the extent of the injury. Complete PLC lesions rarely heal with non-operative treatment, and are therefore most often treated surgically. The purpose of this article was to review the anatomy and clinically relevant biomechanics, diagnosis algorithms, treatment and rehabilitation protocols for PLC injuries. PMID:27200384
Salon, A; Rémi, J; Brunelle, F; Drapé, J L; Glorion, Ch
We treated an eleven year-old boy for an aneurysmal bone cyst of the middle phalanx of the long finger. Diagnosis was established after total curettage. The tumor involved the whole phalanx and grew steadily after two attempts at sclerotherapy (with absolute alcohol and Ethibloc). After two years, en-bloc resection had to be performed, and raised the problem of reconstructing a complete finger phalanx with its proximal and distal epiphyses. A free cartilaginous graft from the non-ossified iliac crest was shaped to the exact dimensions of the phalanx and set in its place, with minimal damage to the surrounding tissues during dissection and fixation. By six months an almost normal range of motion was achieved in the PIP (10 to 90 degrees ) and DIP (5 to 30 degrees) joints and radiographs showed complete metaplasia of the chondral graft into an ossified phalanx at 20 months follow-up. The joint spaces also remodelled, and this was confirmed with MRI scanning. Reports on partial replacement of diaphysis or epiphyses in the digits are discussed, but the only valid comparison of total phalanx replacement is free toe phalanx grafting. We did not choose this solution in a normal hand because of the length discrepancy between finger and toe phalanges. This case shows that, in this particular paediatric situation, the free non-vascularised transfer of a chondral graft restored excellent function, with remodelling of the phalanx and joint spaces of the finger.
Wang, Vincent M.; Karas, Vasili; Lee, Andrew S.; Yin, Ziying; Van Thiel, Geoffrey S.; Hussey, Kristen; Sumner, D. Rick; Chubinskaya, Susan; Magin, Richard L.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Romeo, Anthony A.; Cole, Brian J.
Background Management of glenohumeral arthrosis in young patients is a considerable challenge, with a growing need for non-arthroplasty alternatives. The objectives of this study were to develop an animal model to study glenoid cartilage repair and to compare surgical repair strategies to promote glenoid chondral healing. Methods Forty-five rabbits underwent unilateral removal of the entire glenoid articular surface and were divided into 3 groups—duntreated defect (UD), microfracture (MFx), and MFx plus type I/III collagen scaffold (autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis [AMIC])—for the evaluation of healing at 8 weeks (12 rabbits) and 32 weeks (33 rabbits) after injury. Contralateral shoulders served as unoperated controls. Tissue assessments included 11.7-T magnetic resonance imaging (long-term healing group only), Equilibrium Partitioning of an Ionic Contrast agent via microcomputed tomography (EPIC-μCT), and histologic investigation (grades on International Cartilage Repair Society II scoring system). Results At 8 weeks, x-ray attenuation, thickness, and volume did not differ by treatment group. At 32 weeks, the T2 index (ratio of T2 values of healing to intact glenoids) was significantly lower for the MFx group relative to the AMIC group (P = .01) whereas the T1ρ index was significantly lower for AMIC relative to MFx (P = .01). The micro–computed tomography–derived repair tissue volume was significantly higher for MFx than for UD. Histologic investigation generally suggested inferior healing in the AMIC and UD groups relative to the MFx group, which exhibited improvements in both integration of repair tissue with subchondral bone and tidemark formation over time. Discussion Improvements conferred by AMIC were limited to magnetic resonance imaging outcomes, whereas MFx appeared to promote increased fibrous tissue deposition via micro–computed tomography and more hyaline-like repair histologically. The findings from this novel model suggest that
Tahara, Masamichi; Katsumi, Akira; Akazawa, Tsutomu; Otsuka, Yoshinori; Kitahara, Sota
Chylous joint effusion is a rare condition in which synovial fluids containing large amounts of lipids take on a milky appearance as a result. We report on a 19-year-old male patient with posttraumatic chylous knee effusion. Several days after striking his knee against the ground because of a traffic accident, his left knee showed obvious swelling. Aspiration of his knee was performed, yielding 70ml of purulent-appearing fluid. To distinguish this condition from purulent or tuberculosis arthritis, arthroscopic biopsy and debridement were performed. Arthroscopic examination visualized distinctive yellow-white soft lesions covering much of the joint capsule, resembling a cobweb. Tissue cultures for bacteria were negative. Pathologically, we identified clusters of xanthoma cells with fibrin exudation due to disruption of the synovium and intra-articular fat pad necrosis. Centrifuging the aspiration fluid yielded a thick creamy lipid layer as the supernatant. A fresh drop preparation showed that the specimen contained innumerable fat globules, which stained red with oil red O stain. The patient was able to walk without difficulty or further swelling of his knee at the end of the second postoperative week. Posttraumatic chylous effusion is self-limited. Purulent arthritis or tuberculosis arthritis, however, should still be the presumptive diagnosis in such cases. Arthroscopic irrigation and debridement should be considered for these traumatic cases to confirm diagnosis and to speed up recovery.
Murtha, Andrew S; Johnson, Anthony E; Buckwalter, Joseph A; Rivera, Jessica C
United States military personnel frequently suffer knee injuries. The resulting progressive post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) causes significant disability in these young high-demand patients for which total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is the only effective treatment of their pain and impairment. Yet the use of this option for treatment of PTOA has not been studied. This retrospective review identified 74 knees in 64 U.S. military personnel who underwent TKA at ≤ 50 years-of-age during an eight year period at a tertiary-care, academic, military medical center. Fifty-five knees (74.3%) experienced one or more prior ligamentous, meniscal, or chondral injuries prior to arthroplasty. Only one subject had a history of osteochondral intra-articular fracture. The average at injury was 29.2 years (95% CI of ± 2.50) with an average age at arthroplasty of 44.3 years (± 1.11). The most common injury was anterior cruciate ligament rupture (n = 19) with a mean time to TKA of 23.1 years (± 10.54) and 18.8 years (± 7.01) when concomitant meniscal pathology was noted. Nineteen patients were noted to have radiographic and symptomatic end-stage osteoarthritis without a specified etiology at 41.4 years (± 1.47) and underwent subsequent TKA. This is the first study to evaluate treatment of end-stage PT OA in young people treated with TKA, finding that the incidence of PTOA as an indication for arthroplasty is significantly higher than among civilians. In this otherwise healthy, high-demand patient population, the rate of OA progression following knee injury is accelerated and the long term implications can be career and life-altering. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Knutzen, K M; Bates, B T; Schot, P; Hamill, J
The influence of knee bracing was evaluated during the activity of running by examining ground reaction forces and knee joint movement parameters assessed electrogoniometrically. Twenty-one subjects were assigned to 1 of 3 groups based on medical records provided by a physician: normal or non-injury group; anterior cruciate ligament lesion/laxity group; and anterior cruciate ligament repair group. Four test conditions were investigated: healthy or control limb; injured or experimental limb; Generation II knee brace; and Marquette Knee Stabilizer knee brace. Ten running trials were performed for each condition at a photoelectrically controlled running pace (3.33 +/- 0.11 m X s-1). There were no significant differences as a result of group membership for both electrogoniometer and force platform analyses (P less than 0.05). There was a significant difference across the four test conditions. Both knee brace applications were shown to significantly reduce knee flexion during swing and support, total rotation, and total varus/valgus movement parameters of the experimental knee joint. Both brace applications were also shown to alter the experimental limb by increasing the relative time to the achievement of the initial collision force, creating a greater collision force and thereby creating larger impulses in both the vertical and foreaft directions during the initial contact phase.
Gebhardt, M C; Ready, J E; Mankin, H J
Tumors are rare causes of knee symptoms in children but must be considered in the differential diagnosis of pediatric knee pain in order to avoid errors in treatment that could result in loss of limb or even life. Experience with 199 bone and soft-tissue tumors about the knee in children are reviewed. The majority of lesions were benign bone tumors (n = 101), with osteocartilaginous exostoses, nonossifying fibromas, and chondroblastomas predominating. Malignant bone tumors (n = 59) were less frequent, and osteosarcoma (n = 48) was by far the most common sarcoma. Soft-tissue lesions (n = 31) were much less frequent and included rhabdomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, fibrosarcoma, and desmoid tumors. A careful history, physical examination, and review of roentgenograms are essential to avoid errors in diagnosis. Malignant tumors require roentgenograms and laboratory studies in sequence to stage the patient. A properly performed biopsy established the diagnosis in most instances. Popliteal cysts, stress fractures, infection, myositis ossificans, histiocytosis, and other lesions can mimic tumors and delay correct diagnosis.
Lumbar vertebral growth is governed by "chondral growth force response curve" rather than "Hueter-Volkmann law": a clinico-biomechanical study of growth modulation changes in childhood spinal tuberculosis.
Rajasekaran, S; Natarajan, Raghu N; Babu, J Naresh; Kanna, P Rishi Mugesh; Shetty, Ajoy Prasad; Andersson, Gunnar B J
Vertebral defects were created in a validated 3D finite element model (FEM) to simulate destructive tubercular lesions of increasing severity. Forces in various parts of the spine were then calculated and correlated to deformity progression and growth modulation (GM) changes. To understand the biomechanical basis of GM, which governs spinal growth and the progression of kyphosis in posttubercular kyphotic (PTK) deformities. Hueter-Volkmann Law (HVL), chondral growth force response curve (CGFRC), and regional growth acceleratory phenomenon have all been proposed to explain the modulation of growth in limbs but have not been tested in vertebral end plates (VEP). We have previously documented various GM changes in posttubercular kyphotic. By simulating the kyphotic collapse in a validated FEM, the mechanical basis of GM can be established. Sixty-three children with tuberculosis treated conservatively formed the clinical material. The progress of deformity and GM changes in the fusion mass and the kyphotic curve was documented. Defects simulating lesions of four levels of severity (types A, B, C, and D) were created in a validated 3D FEM and subjected to load till restabilization occurred. The stresses at the end plates, discs, facet joints, and the points of contact were calculated. Regional growth acceleratory phenomenon and favorable growth changes were found in type A collapse where the facets were intact. With increasing destruction, the forces in the facet capsules increased beyond 30 MPa predicting facet dislocations in types B, C, and D collapse. As the contact stress on the VEP increased to 16.6 MPa (type B) and 40 MPa (type C), this was associated with growth suppression. Type D collapse involved facet dislocation at multiple levels leading to "buckling collapse". Acceleratory growth was found both in tension and compression phases proving that VEP growth followed principles of CGFRC rather than HVL. This is the first study in the current literature to
Hallam, P; Ashwood, N; Cobb, J; Fazal, A; Heatley, W
Although it has been reported, malignant transformation of synovial chondromatosis is rare. We report a case of malignant transformation of synovial chondromatosis in a knee to a low-grade chondrosarcoma, which was treated with synovial excision and total knee replacement. We also present a literature review of the subject. The case illustrates that malignant transformation should be suspected in chronic cases with a sudden exacerbation of symptoms and that interpretation of histology in cartilage lesions is difficult. It also demonstrates that even when guided biopsy techniques are used, the sampling error of a needle biopsy in any large lesion is unavoidable.
Versier, G; Dubrana, F
Treatment of knee cartilage defect, a true challenge, should not only reconstruct hyaline cartilage on a long-term basis, but also be able to prevent osteoarthritis. Osteochondral knee lesions occur in either traumatic lesions or in osteochondritis dissecans (OCD). These lesions can involve all the articular surfaces of the knee in its three compartments. In principle, this review article covers symptomatic ICRS grade C or D lesions, depth III and IV, excluding management of superficial lesions, asymptomatic lesions that are often discovered unexpectedly, and kissing lesions, which arise prior to or during osteoarthritis. For clarity sake, the international classifications used are reviewed, for both functional assessment (ICRS and functional IKDC for osteochondral fractures, Hughston for osteochondritis) and morphological lesion evaluations (the ICRS macroscopic evaluation for fractures, the Bedouelle or SOFCOT for osteochondritis, and MOCART for MRI). The therapeutic armamentarium to treat these lesions is vast, but accessibility varies greatly depending on the country and the legislation in effect. Many comparative studies have been conducted, but they are rarely of high scientific quality; the center effect is nearly constant because patients are often referred to certain centers for an expert opinion. The indications defined herein use algorithms that take into account the size of the cartilage defect and the patient's functional needs for cases of fracture and the vitality, stability, and size of the fragment for cases of osteochondritis dissecans. Fractures measuring less than 2 cm(2) are treated with either microfracturing or mosaic osteochondral grafting, between 2 and 4 cm(2) with microfractures covered with a membrane or a culture of second- or third-generation chondrocytes, and beyond this size, giant lesions are subject to an exceptional allografting procedure, harvesting from the posterior condyle, or chondrocyte culture on a 3D matrix to restore
Juréus, Jan; Lindstrand, Anders; Geijer, Mats; Robertsson, Otto; Tägil, Magnus
Background and purpose Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee (SPONK) is a painful lesion in the elderly, frequently leading to osteoarthritis and subsequent knee surgery. We evaluated the natural course and long-term consequences of SPONK in terms of need for major knee surgery. Methods Between 1982 and 1988, 40 consecutive patients were diagnosed with SPONK. The short-term outcome has been reported previously (1991). After 1–7 years, 10 patients had a good radiographic outcome and 30 were considered failures, developing osteoarthritis. In 2012, all 40 of the patients were matched with the Swedish Knee Arthroplasty Register (SKAR) and their medical records were reviewed to evaluate the long-term need for major knee surgery. Results At the 2012 review, 33 of the 40 patients had died. The mean follow-up time from diagnosis to surgery, death, or end of study was 9 (1–27) years. 17 of 40 patients had had major knee surgery with either arthroplasty (15) or osteotomy (2). All operated patients but 1 were in the radiographic failure group and had developed osteoarthritis in the study from 1991. 6 of 7 patients with large lesions (> 40% of the AP radiographic view of the condyle) at the time of the diagnosis were operated. None of the 10 patients with a lesion of less than 20% were ever operated. Interpretation It appears that the size of the osteonecrotic lesion can be used to predict the outcome. Patients showing early signs of osteoarthritis or with a large osteonecrosis have a high risk of later major knee surgery. PMID:23799344
Samaan, Michael A.; Teng, Hsiang-Ling; Kumar, Deepak; Lee, Sonia; Link, Thomas; Majumdar, Sharmila; Souza, Richard B.
Background Patients with acetabular cartilage defects reported increased pain and disability compared to those without acetabular cartilage defects. The specific effects of acetabular cartilage defects on lower extremity coordination patterns are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine hip and knee joint coordination variability during gait in those with and without acetabular cartilage defects. Methods A combined approach, consisting of a semi-quantitative MRI-based quantification method and vector coding, was used to assess hip and knee joint coordination variability during gait in those with and without acetabular cartilage lesions. Findings The coordination variability of the hip flexion-extension/knee rotation, hip abduction-adduction/knee rotation and hip rotation/knee rotation joint couplings were reduced in the acetabular lesion group compared to the control group during loading response of the gait cycle. The lesion group demonstrated increased variability in the hip flexion-extension/knee rotation and hip abduction-adduction/knee rotation joint couplings, compared to the control group, during the terminal stance/pre-swing phase of gait. Interpretation Reduced variability during loading response in the lesion group may suggest reduced movement strategies and a possible compensation mechanism for lower extremity instability during this phase of the gait cycle. During terminal stance/pre-swing, a larger variability in the lesion group may suggest increased movement strategies and represent a compensation or pain avoidance mechanism caused by the load applied to the hip joint. PMID:26298706
Samaan, Michael A; Teng, Hsiang-Ling; Kumar, Deepak; Lee, Sonia; Link, Thomas M; Majumdar, Sharmila; Souza, Richard B
Patients with acetabular cartilage defects reported increased pain and disability compared to those without acetabular cartilage defects. The specific effects of acetabular cartilage defects on lower extremity coordination patterns are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine hip and knee joint coordination variability during gait in those with and without acetabular cartilage defects. A combined approach, consisting of a semi-quantitative MRI-based quantification method and vector coding, was used to assess hip and knee joint coordination variability during gait in those with and without acetabular cartilage lesions. The coordination variability of the hip flexion-extension/knee rotation, hip abduction-adduction/knee rotation, and hip rotation/knee rotation joint couplings were reduced in the acetabular lesion group compared to the control group during loading response of the gait cycle. The lesion group demonstrated increased variability in the hip flexion-extension/knee rotation and hip abduction-adduction/knee rotation joint couplings, compared to the control group, during the terminal stance/pre-swing phase of gait. Reduced variability during loading response in the lesion group may suggest reduced movement strategies and a possible compensation mechanism for lower extremity instability during this phase of the gait cycle. During terminal stance/pre-swing, a larger variability in the lesion group may suggest increased movement strategies and represent a compensation or pain avoidance mechanism caused by the load applied to the hip joint. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hodge, W Andrew; Harman, Melinda K; Banks, Scott A
This study illustrates differences in the cartilage degeneration in osteoarthritic knees in patients with more frequent hyperflexion activities of daily living compared with Western patients. Proximal tibial articular cartilage wear and cruciate ligament condition were assessed in Saudi Arabian and North American patients with varus osteoarthritis undergoing total knee arthroplasty. In anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) intact knees, there were significant differences in wear location, with a clearly more anterior pattern in Saudi Arabian knees. Complete ACL deficiency occurred in 25% of North American knees but only 14% of Saudi Arabian knees. These ACL-deficient knees showed the most severe cartilage wear in both groups and posterior medial wear patterns. Biomechanical descriptions of knee flexion and axial rotation during kneeling or squatting are consistent with the more pronounced anteromedial and posterolateral cartilage wear patterns observed on the Saudi Arabian knees. These observations provide insight into altered knee mechanics in 2 culturally different populations with different demands on knee flexion.
Gracitelli, Guilherme C; Moraes, Vinícius Y; Franciozi, Carlos Es; Luzo, Marcus V; Belloti, João Carlos
mosaicplasty. All three trials reported activity scores but due to clear statistical and clinical heterogeneity, we did not pool the long term Tegner score results. There was very low quality evidence from one study (57 participants) of higher Tegner scores - indicating greater activity - at intermediate-term and long-term follow-up in the mosaicplasty group; however, the between-group difference may not be clinically important. The other two trials provided very low quality evidence of no significant difference between the two groups in activity scores. We found no evidence from randomised controlled trials on allograft transplantation or drilling. The very low quality evidence from RCTs comparing mosaicplasty with microfracture is insufficient to draw conclusions on the relative effects of these two interventions for treating isolated cartilage defects of the knee in adults. Of note is that treatment failure, with recurrence of symptoms, occurred with both procedures. Further research is needed to define the best surgical option for treating isolated cartilage defects. We suggest the greatest need is for multi-centre RCTs comparing reconstructive procedures (mosaicplasty versus allograft transplantation) for large osteochondral lesions and reparative procedures (microfracture versus drilling) for small chondral lesions.
Ishida, Tomoya; Yamanaka, Masanori; Takeda, Naoki; Aoki, Yoshimitsu
Dynamic knee valgus contributes to injuries of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). However, it is unclear how the knee rotates during dynamic knee valgus. Knee rotation significantly affects ACL strain. To understand knee rotation during dynamic knee valgus should help the clinician evaluate dynamic alignment. The purpose of this study was to determine how the knee rotates during dynamic knee valgus and whether the knee rotation is affected by toe direction (foot rotation). Sixteen females performed dynamic knee valgus in three toe directions (neutral, toe-out, and toe-in) while maintaining the knee flexion angle at 30°. The knee rotation angle was evaluated using a 7-camera motion analysis system. Knee rotation was compared between the start position and the dynamic knee valgus position, as well as among the three toe directions, using repeated measures ANOVA models. The knee significantly rotated externally in the dynamic knee valgus position compared with the start position in two toe directions (neutral and toe-out). A similar tendency was observed with the toe-in condition. Toe direction significantly affected the knee rotation angle. For toe-out and toe-in conditions, external and internal shifts of knee rotation compared with neutral were observed. The knee rotates externally during dynamic knee valgus, and the knee rotation is affected by toe direction. Because of knee abduction and external rotation, the ACL may impinge on the femoral condyle in the case of dynamic valgus, especially in the toe-out position. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
An Update on Methods for Revascularization and Expansion of the TASC Lesion Classification to Include Below-the-Knee Arteries: A Supplement to the Inter-Society Consensus for the Management of Peripheral Arterial Disease (TASC II).
Jaff, Michael R; White, Christopher J; Hiatt, William R; Fowkes, Gerry R; Dormandy, John; Razavi, Mahmood; Reekers, Jim; Norgren, Lars
The Inter-Society Consensus for the Management of Peripheral Arterial Disease (TASC) guidelines were last updated in 2007 (TASC II) and represented the collaboration of international vascular specialties involved in the management of patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Since the publication of TASC II, there have been innovations in endovascular revascularization strategies for patients with PAD. The intent of this publication is to provide a complete anatomic lower limb TASC lesion classification, including the infrapopliteal segment, and an updated literature review of new endovascular techniques and practice patterns employed by vascular specialists today. © The Author(s) 2015.
An Update on Methods for Revascularization and Expansion of the TASC Lesion Classification to Include Below-the-Knee Arteries: A Supplement to the Inter-Society Consensus for the Management of Peripheral Arterial Disease (TASC II)
Jaff, *Michael R.; White, Christopher J.; Hiatt, William R.; Fowkes, Gerry R.; Dormandy, John; Razavi, Mahmood; Reekers, Jim
The Inter-Society Consensus for the Management of Peripheral Arterial Disease (TASC) guidelines were last updated in 2007 (TASC II) and represented the collaboration of international vascular specialties involved in the management of patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Since the publication of TASC II, there have been innovations in endovascular revascularization strategies for patients with PAD. The intent of this publication is to provide a complete anatomic lower limb TASC lesion classification, including the infrapopliteal segment, and an updated literature review of new endovascular techniques and practice patterns employed by vascular specialists today. PMID:26730266
Dhanda, Sunita; Sanghvi, Darshana; Pardiwala, Dinshaw
Localized anterior arthrofibrosis (cyclops lesion) is the second most common cause of extension loss after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. We present and discuss two patients with prior ACL reconstructions, who presented with pain and loss of extension following surgery. MRI and arthroscopy of the knee revealed typical features of a cyclops lesion. The patients showed significant symptomatic improvement following arthroscopic resection of these lesions. PMID:21042447
Lidder, Surjit; Lang, Kathryn; Haroon, Mallick; Shahidi, Mitra; El-Guindi, Magdi
Extrapulmonary manifestations of tuberculosis are reported in less than one in five cases with the knee affected in 8% after the spine and hip. We report a case of isolated highly erosive tuberculosis of the knee presenting in a previously fit Vietnamese woman. The difficulties of diagnosis, modalities of chemotherapeutic management, and surgical treatment are discussed. PMID:21808686
... regularly play sports that involve a lot of repetitive jumping — like track and field (particularly high-jumping), basketball, volleyball, gymnastics, running, and soccer — can put a lot of strain on their knees. Jumper's knee can seem like a minor injury that isn't really that serious. Because of ...
Lalam, Radhesh K; Winn, Naomi
The knee is a common area of the body to undergo interventional procedures. This article discusses image-guided interventional issues specific to the knee area. The soft tissues in and around the knee are frequently affected by sport-related injuries and often need image-guided intervention. This article details the specific technical issues related to intervention in these soft tissues, including the iliotibial tract, fat pads, patellar tendon and other tendons, bursae and the meniscus. Most often, simple procedures such as injection and aspiration are performed without image guidance. Rarely image-guided diagnostic arthrography and therapeutic joint injections are necessary. The technique, indications and diagnostic considerations for arthrography are discussed in this article. Primary bone and soft-tissue tumours may involve the knee and adjacent soft tissues. Image-guided biopsies are frequently necessary for these lesions; this article details the technical issues related to image-guided biopsy around the knee. A number of newer ablation treatments are now available, including cryoablation, high-frequency ultrasound and microwave ablation. Radiofrequency ablation, however, still remains the most commonly employed ablation technique. The indications, technical and therapeutic considerations related to the application of this technique around the knee are discussed here. Finally, we briefly discuss some newer, but as of yet, unproven image-guided interventions for osteochondral lesions and Brodie's abscess. PMID:26682669
Lalam, Radhesh K; Winn, Naomi; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor N
The knee is a common area of the body to undergo interventional procedures. This article discusses image-guided interventional issues specific to the knee area. The soft tissues in and around the knee are frequently affected by sport-related injuries and often need image-guided intervention. This article details the specific technical issues related to intervention in these soft tissues, including the iliotibial tract, fat pads, patellar tendon and other tendons, bursae and the meniscus. Most often, simple procedures such as injection and aspiration are performed without image guidance. Rarely image-guided diagnostic arthrography and therapeutic joint injections are necessary. The technique, indications and diagnostic considerations for arthrography are discussed in this article. Primary bone and soft-tissue tumours may involve the knee and adjacent soft tissues. Image-guided biopsies are frequently necessary for these lesions; this article details the technical issues related to image-guided biopsy around the knee. A number of newer ablation treatments are now available, including cryoablation, high-frequency ultrasound and microwave ablation. Radiofrequency ablation, however, still remains the most commonly employed ablation technique. The indications, technical and therapeutic considerations related to the application of this technique around the knee are discussed here. Finally, we briefly discuss some newer, but as of yet, unproven image-guided interventions for osteochondral lesions and Brodie's abscess.
Stamenović, Dimitrije; Kojić, Milos; Stojanović, Boban; Hunter, David
Knee osteoarthritis is a chronic disease that necessitates long term therapeutic intervention. Biomechanical studies have demonstrated an improvement in the external adduction moment with application of a valgus knee brace. Despite being both efficacious and safe, due to their rigid frame and bulkiness, current designs of knee braces create discomfort and difficulties to patients during prolonged periods of application. Here we propose a novel design of a light osteoarthritis knee brace, which is made of soft conforming materials. Our design relies on a pneumatic leverage system, which, when pressurized, reduces the excessive loads predominantly affecting the medial compartment of the knee and eventually reverses the malalignment. Using a finite-element analysis, we show that with a moderate level of applied pressure, this pneumatic brace can, in theory, counterbalance a greater fraction of external adduction moment than the currently existing braces.
Metsna, Vahur; Vorobjov, Sigrid; Lepik, Katrin; Märtson, Aare
Attempts to relate patellar cartilage involvement to anterior knee pain (AKP) have yielded conflicting results. We determined whether the condition of the cartilage of the patella at the time of knee replacement, as assessed by the OARSI score, correlates with postsurgical AKP. We prospectively studied 100 patients undergoing knee arthroplasty. At surgery, we photographed and biopsied the articular surface of the patella, leaving the patella unresurfaced. Following determination of the microscopic grade of the patellar cartilage lesion and the stage by analyzing the intraoperative photographs, we calculated the OARSI score. We interviewed the patients 1 year after knee arthroplasty using the HSS patella score for diagnosis of AKP. 57 of 95 patients examined had AKP. The average OARSI score of painless patients was 13 (6-20) and that of patients with AKP was 15 (6-20) (p = 0.04). Patients with OARSI scores of 13-24 had 50% higher risk of AKP (prevalence ratio = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0-2.3) than patients with OARSI scores of 0-12. The depth and extent of the cartilage lesion of the knee-cap should be considered when deciding between the various options for treatment of the patella during knee replacement.
Tonni, Gabriele; Palmisano, Marcella; Ventura, Alessandro; Grisolia, Gianpaolo; Baffico, Ave Maria; Pattacini, Pierpaolo; Bonasoni, Maria Paola; De Felice, Claudio
The Majewski syndrome or short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS) type II is a lethal skeletal dysplasia characterized by severe IUGR (intrauterine growth restriction) and dysmorphic face, polydactyly, relatively proportionate head size at birth with later progression to microcephaly. A case of second trimester ultrasound diagnosis of SRPS type II is reported with review of the medical record of previous observed cases. Postmortem examination and radiogram confirmed the clinical diagnosis. Histological examination of the femoral epypheseal chondral plate showed an expanded and irregular hypertrophic zone. Moreover, characteristic cortico-medullary cysts of both kidneys and portal fibrosis were also demonstrated; findings consistent with the broad phenotypic spectrum of this rare skeletal disease. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.
Walczak, Brian E; McCulloch, Patrick C; Kang, Richard W; Zelazny, Anthony; Tedeschi, Fred; Cole, Brian J
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knees of asymptomatic National Basketball Association (NBA) players via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and confirm or dispute findings reported in the previous literature. It is thought that a variety of significant abnormalities affecting the knee exist in asymptomatic patients and that these findings can be accurately identified on MRI. Two months prior to the 2005 season, bilateral knee MRI examinations of 14 asymptomatic NBA players (28 knees) were evaluated for abnormalities of the articular cartilage, menisci, and patellar and quadriceps tendons. The presence of joint effusion, subchondral edema, and cystic lesions and the integrity of the collateral and cruciate ligaments were also assessed.
Choy, Won-Sik; Lee, Sang Ki; Yang, Dae Suk; Kim, Choon Myeon; Park, Ju Sang
Background We analyzed the clinical and radiologic results of patients with spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee treated by minimally invasive medial unicompartmental arthroplasty using Oxford Uni. Methods We reviewed 22 knees in 21 patients which were treated for spontaneous osteonecrosis between 2002 and 2006. Patients included one male and 20 females. The mean age was 70.8 years (range, 53 to 82 years). The mean follow-up period was 70.3 months (range, 48 to 93 months). The clinical results were evaluated using the Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) knee score and the range of motion of the knee preoperatively and at the final follow-up. Preoperative plain radiographs and magnetic resonance images were analyzed to determine the size and stage of osteonecrotic lesions. Results The mean HSS knee score was 64.3 (range, 54 to 75) preoperatively and 92.0 (range, 71 to 100) at the final follow-up. The mean preoperative flexion contracture was 8.9° (range, 0 to 15°) and 0.2° (range, 0 to 5°) at the final follow-up. The mean further flexion increased from 138.6° (range, 100 to 145°) preoperatively to 145.6° (range, 140 to 150°) at the final follow-up. Active full flexion was possible within 2 months of the operation. The squatting position was possible in 16 patients (84.2%) out of 19, except one case of bronchiectasis and one case of spine fracture. The cross-leg posture was possible in 19 patients (90.5%) out of 21. The mean tibiofemoral angle was improved from varus 0.98° to valgus 3.22°. Meniscal bearing dislocation occurred in 2 cases and femoral component loosening occurred in 1 case. Conclusions Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty using Oxford Uni could be an alternative treatment option in spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee. PMID:22162790
Giacomel, Jason; Zalaudek, Iris
Dermoscopy (dermatoscopy or surface microscopy) is an ancillary dermatologic tool that in experienced hands can improve the accuracy of diagnosis of a variety of benign and malignant pigmented skin tumors. The early and more accurate diagnosis of nonpigmented, or pink, tumors can also be assisted by dermoscopy. This review focuses on the dermoscopic diagnosis of pink lesions, with emphasis on blood vessel morphology and pattern. A 3-step algorithm is presented, which facilitates the timely and more accurate diagnosis of pink tumors and subsequently guides the management for such lesions.
Grubor, Predrag; Asotic, Amina; Grubor, Milan; Asotic, Mithat
Introduction: Knee injuries are common in athletes, recreationists, and other people in their everyday activities. Objective: The study is aimed at establishing the validity of clinical findings, MRI and diagnostic arthroscopy of the knee in ACL, PCL, medial or lateral ligament lesions. Methods: The prospective research involved 63 inpatients at the Traumatology Clinic in Banja Luka- Niš between 1 January 2011 and 1 June 2012. Results: When clinically examining the ACL and based on the calculated post-test probability amounting to (LR+) = 0.8017, we conclude that there is a considerable probability (80.17%) that a patient with an arthroscopically diagnosed ACL lesion will have the same lesion diagnosed by MRI. The post-test probability following the clinical examination of the medial meniscus and amounting to (LR+) = 0.6943 suggests that there is a considerable probability (69.43%) that an arthroscopically diagnosed lesion of the medial meniscus will also be diagnosed by MRI. On the basis of the clinical examination of the lateral meniscus in the examined sample and calculated post-test probability amounting to (LR+) = 0.6346, we conclude that there is a considerable difference (63.46%) between the diagnostic arthroscopy and MRI of lateral meniscus lesions. Conclusion: Arthroscopic examination of the knee is a more valuable method than diagnosis by MRI and clinical examination for detecting lesions of the ACL, PCL, medial and lateral meniscus. PMID:24167392
Cashman, Glenn; Attariwala, Raj
To increase clinicians' awareness of the differences in image resolution and potential diagnostic accuracy between small and large-field MR Scanners. To present an example of a clinical decision making challenge in how to proceed when knee MRI and clinical findings don't agree. A 38 year old female mountain biker presented with knee pain and clinical features strongly suggestive of a torn meniscus or loose bodies. An initial MRI using a small field strength (0.18T) scanner was reported as normal. Her clinical presentation was suspicious enough that a repeat MRI on a high-field (1.5T) scanner was ordered. The second MRI included high resolution 3D volumetric imaging which revealed cartilage damage and loose bodies. The patient was treated with arthroscopic surgery which confirmed the presence of meniscal and chondral injury and resulted in notable improvement in the patient's symptoms. Clinicians should consider scanner quality and diagnostic accuracy before discounting strongly suggestive clinical history and examination findings when MRIs are reported as normal.
David, Lee A.; Briggs, Tim W. R.
This prospective six-year longitudinal study reviews the clinical outcome of patients undergoing autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and a porcine type I/III collagen membrane cover for deep chondral defects of the knee. We present 57 patients (31 male, 26 female) with a mean age of 31.6 years (range 15–51 years) that have undergone ACI since July 1998. The mean size of the defect was 3.14 cm2 (range 1.0–7.0 cm2). All patients were assessed annually using seven independent validated clinical rating scores with the data analysed using ANOVA. ACI using a porcine type I/III collagen membrane cover produced statistically significant improvements (p < 0.001), maintained for up to six years, in knee symptoms compared to pre-operative levels. This study provides evidence of the medium-term benefit achieved by transplanting autologous chondrocytes to osteochondral defects. PMID:19669763
Wood, Jennifer H; Conway, Janet D
The aim is to describe advanced strategies that can be used to diagnose and treat complications after knee arthrodesis and to describe temporary knee arthrodesis to treat infected knee arthroplasty. Potential difficult complications include nonunited knee arthrodesis, limb length discrepancy after knee arthrodesis, and united but infected knee arthrodesis. If a nonunited knee arthrodesis shows evidence of implant loosening or failure, then bone grafting the nonunion site as well as exchange intramedullary nailing and/or supplemental plate fixation are recommended. If symptomatic limb length discrepancy cannot be satisfactorily treated with a shoe lift, then the patient should undergo tibial lengthening over nail with a monolateral fixator or exchange nailing with a femoral internal lengthening device. If a united knee arthrodesis is infected, the nail must be removed. Then the surgeon has the option of replacing it with a long, antibiotic cement-coated nail. The authors also describe temporary knee arthrodesis for infected knee arthroplasty in patients who have the potential to undergo insertion of a new implant. The procedure has two goals: eradication of infection and stabilization of the knee. A temporary knee fusion can be accomplished by inserting both an antibiotic cement-coated knee fusion nail and a static antibiotic cement-coated spacer. These advanced techniques can be helpful when treating difficult complications after knee arthrodesis and treating cases of infected knee arthroplasty. PMID:25793160
van de Bunt, Fabian; Emanuel, Kaj S; Wijffels, Thomas; Kooren, Peter N; Kingma, Idsart; Smit, Theodoor H
To properly study knee kinetics, kinematics and the effects of injury and surgical treatment in vitro, the knee should be constrained as little as possible, while imposing physiological loads. A novel dynamic biomechanical knee system (BKS) is presented here. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility and reproducibility of the system and demonstrate its features with an Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) lesion model. Six goat knees were used in the current study. Flexion and extension simulating gait was imposed by a servo-motor, while normal joint load was applied by two artificial muscles. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were assessed for inter-test measures, while paired t-tests were performed for comparison between intact knees and knees with ACL-lesion. The ICC's for inter-test measures based on all six goat knees were excellent: varus/valgus: ICC=0.93; rotation: ICC=0.94 (all p<0.01), and translation in frontal (x)-, side (y)- and upward (z)-direction (ICC=0.90, 0.88 & 0.94) (all p<0.01). A significant increase in joint center movement was found in knees after creating an ACL-lesion (p=0.018): translation increased more than two-fold in frontal (p=0.016), side (p=0.004) and upward (p=0.018) direction. Five degrees of motion were reproducibly assessed in the intact joint, suggesting that the goat knee may find its natural pathway when loaded in the BKS. The novel five-degrees-of-freedom knee system allows a detailed study of the effect of a diversity of defects and surgical treatments on knee biomechanics under physiological loading conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Javaid, M. K.; Lynch, J. A.; Tolstykh, I.; Guermazi, A.; Roemer, F.; Aliabadi, P.; McCulloch, C.; Curtis, J.; Felson, D.; Lane, N. E.; Torner, J.; Nevitt, M.
Summary Objective Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has greater sensitivity to detect osteoarthritis (OA) damage than radiographs but it is uncertain which MRI findings in early OA are clinically important. We examined MRI abnormalities detected in knees without radiographic OA and their association with incident knee symptoms. Method Participants from the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST) without frequent knee symptoms (FKS) at baseline were eligible if they also lacked radiographic features of OA at baseline. At 15 months, knees that developed FKS were defined as cases while control knees were drawn from those that remained without FKS. Baseline MRIs were scored at each subregion for cartilage lesions (CARTs); osteophytes (OST); bone marrow lesions (BML) and cysts. We compared cases and controls using marginal logistic regression models, adjusting for age, gender, race, body mass index (BMI), previous injury and clinic site. Results 36 case knees and 128 control knees were analyzed. MRI damage was common in both cases and controls. The presence of a severe CART (P = 0.03), BML (P = 0.02) or OST (P = 0.02) in the whole knee joint was more common in cases while subchondral cysts did not differ significantly between cases and controls (P > 0.1). Case status at 15 months was predicted by baseline damage at only two locations; a BML in the lateral patella (P = 0.047) and at the tibial subspinous subregions (P = 0.01). Conclusion In knees without significant symptoms or radiographic features of OA, MRI lesions of OA in only a few specific locations preceded onset of clinical symptoms and suggest that changes in bone play a role in the early development of knee pain. Confirmation of these findings in other prospective studies of knee OA is warranted. PMID:19919856
Alice, Bonnefoy-Mazure; Stéphane, Armand; Yoshisama, Sagawa Junior; Pierre, Hoffmeyer; Domizio, Suvà; Hermes, Miozzari; Katia, Turcot
In patients with debilitating knee osteoarthritis, total knee replacement is the most common surgical procedure. Numerous studies have demonstrated that knee kinematics one year after total knee replacement are still altered compared to the healthy joint. However, little is known regarding impairments and functional limitations of patients several months after total knee replacement. The aim of this study was to describe the evolution of the knee gait kinematic in patients with knee osteoarthritis before and three months after a total knee replacement. Ninety patients who were to undergo total knee replacement were included in this study. Twenty-three subjects were recruited as the control group. Three-dimensional gait analysis was performed before and three months after surgery. The spatio-temporal parameters and three-dimensional knee kinematics for the operated limb were evaluated during a comfortable gait and compared between groups (the before and after surgery groups and the control group). Three months after surgery, patients always walk with a slower gait velocity and lower knee flexion-extension movements compared to the control group. However, a degree of progress was observed in term of the stride and step length, gait velocity and knee alignment in the coronal plane. Our results suggest that the disability is still significant for most patients three months after total knee replacement. A better understand of the impairments and functional limitations following surgery would help clinicians design rehabilitation programs. Moreover, patients should be informed that rehabilitation after total knee replacement is a long process.
Pires e Albuquerque, Rodrigo; Prado, Juliano; Hara, Rafael; Ferreira, Evaldo; Schiavo, Leonardo; Giordano, Vincenzo; Amaral, Ney Pecegueiro do; Barretto, João Mauricio
Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to review the epidemiological aspects of tendon ruptures of the knee extensor apparatus at a level 1 hospital. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 76 lesions of the knee extensor apparatus that were treated surgically at the Miguel Couto Municipal Hospital between March 2004 and March 2011. We took into consideration age, sex, trauma mechanism, anatomical classification of the lesion, affected side, comorbidities and associated lesions. Results: Among the patients studied, 68 were male and the mean age was 36 years. Regarding the trauma mechanism, 62 lesions occurred due to direct trauma; the right side was affected in 21 cases; eight presented comorbidities and four presented associated lesions. Conclusion: The majority of the patients were male, at an economically active age (young people), and were victims of direct trauma. Ruptures of the patellar ligament were the most frequent lesions. Associated lesions were rare and comorbidities were infrequent in our sample. PMID:27047890
Shah, Samir H.; Porrino, Jack A.; Green, John R.; Chew, Felix S.
Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a disorder resulting in a villous, nodular, or villonodular proliferation of the synovium, with pigmentation related to the presence of hemosiderin. These lesions are almost exclusively benign with rare reports of malignancy. Pigmented villonodular synovitis can occur in a variety of joints and at any age but most often occurs within the knee in the young adult. Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a rare disease entity, and bilateral synchronous or metachronous involvement of a joint is even more uncommon, with few reports previously described in the literature. We present a case of pigmented villonodular synovitis involving both the right and left knee in the same patient, with radiographic imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, photograph and video intraoperative imaging, and pathologic correlation. PMID:26649121
... be because the inside of the knee often bears more of a person's weight than the outside ... fewer symptoms when they use them. Some medical studies have tested these braces. But this research has ...
... muscles help your knee joint absorb shock. Flexibility: Stretching the muscles that you strengthen is important for restoring range of motion and preventing injury. Gently stretching after strengthening exercises can help reduce muscle soreness ...
... Hydraulic control. These systems: use liquid (usually silicone oil) to respond to a wide range of walking speeds provide nearly normal knee function are heavier, need more maintenance, and cost more than pneumatic systems are often used by ...
... WM, Griesser MJ, Parker RD. Patellofemoral pain. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 105. Miller RH, Azar FM. Knee injuries. In: Canale ST, ...
... forces on the knee, such as a misaligned patella. Chondromalacia is treated with rest or immobilization and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pain. Physical therapy, especially ... alignment of the patella that cannot be corrected with therapy.
... presentations/100088.htm Knee joint replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...
... places extra stress on the kneecap (such as running, jumping or twisting, skiing, or playing soccer). You ... noticeable with: Deep knee bends Going down stairs Running downhill Standing up after sitting for awhile
... now use different materials, including metal on metal, ceramic on ceramic, or ceramic on plastic. Why the Procedure is Performed The ... people DO NOT need help walking after they fully recover. Most artificial knee joints last 10 to ...
Junge, Tina; Larsen, Lisbeth Runge; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Wedderkopp, Niels
Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH) is suggested as an aetiological factor for knee injuries in adolescents and adults. It is presumed that GJH causes decreased joint stability, thereby increasing the risk of knee injuries during challenging situations like jumping and landing. The aim was to study the extent and risk of knee injuries in children with GJH and knee hypermobility. In total, 999 children (9-14 years) were tested twice during spring 2012 and 2013 with Beighton's Tests (BT) for hypermobility, a 0-9 scoring system. GJH was classified with cut-point ≥5/9 on both test rounds. On basis of weekly cell phone surveys of knee pain, children requiring clinical examination were seen. Traumatic and overuse knee injuries were registered by WHO ICD-10 diagnoses. Logistic regression and Poisson regression models with robust standard errors were used to examine the association between GJH and knee injuries, taking into account clustering on school class levels. Totally, 36 children were classified GJH on both test rounds. Overuse knee injuries were the most frequent injury type (86 %), mainly apophysitis for both groups (61 %), other than patella-femoral pain syndrome for the control group (13 %). For traumatic knee injuries, distortions and contusions were most frequent in both groups (51 % resp. 36 %), besides traumatic lesions of knee tendons and muscles for the control group (5 %). No significant association was found between overuse knee injuries and GJH with/without knee hypermobility (OR 0.69, p = 0.407 resp. OR 0.75, p = 0.576) or traumatic knee injuries and GJH with/without knee hypermobility (OR 1.56, p = 0.495 resp. OR 2.22, p = 0.231). Apophysitis, distortions and contusions were the most frequent knee injuries. Despite the relatively large study, the number of children with GJH and knee injuries was low, with no significant increased risk for knee injuries for this group. This questions whether GJH is a clinically relevant risk factor for knee
Qureshi, AA; Green, TP
We present the case of a 19-year-old individual presenting to an orthopaedic outpatient clinic several months following a dashboard knee injury during a road traffic accident with intermittent mechanical symptoms. Despite unremarkable examination findings and normal magnetic resonance imaging, the patient was identified subsequently as having an intra-articular plastic foreign body consistent with a piece of dashboard on arthroscopic knee assessment, the retrieval of which resulted in a complete resolution of symptoms. PMID:25723676
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the gold standard in noninvasive investigation of knee pain. It has a very high negative predictive value and may assist in avoiding unnecessary knee arthroscopy; its accuracy in the diagnosis of meniscal and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears is greater than 89%; it has a greater than 90% sensitivity for the detection of medial meniscal tears; and it is probably better at assessing the posterior horn than arthroscopy.
Arzi, B; DuRaine, G D; Lee, C A; Huey, D J; Borjesson, D L; Murphy, B G; Hu, J C Y; Baumgarth, N; Athanasiou, K A
The ability to repair damaged cartilage is a major goal of musculoskeletal tissue engineering. Allogeneic (same species, different individual) or xenogeneic (different species) sources can provide an attractive source of chondrocytes for cartilage tissue engineering, since autologous (same individual) cells are scarce. Immune rejection of non-autologous hyaline articular cartilage has seldom been considered due to the popular notion of "cartilage immunoprivilege". The objective of this study was to determine the suitability of allogeneic and xenogeneic engineered neocartilage tissue for cartilage repair. To address this, scaffold-free tissue engineered articular cartilage of syngeneic (same genetic background), allogeneic, and xenogeneic origin were implanted into two different locations of the rabbit knee (n=3 per group/location). Xenogeneic engineered cartilage and control xenogeneic chondral explants provoked profound innate inflammatory and adaptive cellular responses, regardless of transplant location. Cytological quantification of immune cells showed that, while allogeneic neocartilage elicited an immune response in the patella, negligible responses were observed when implanted into the trochlea; instead the responses were comparable to microfracture-treated empty defect controls. Allogeneic neocartilage survived within the trochlea implant site and demonstrated graft integration into the underlying bone. In conclusion, the knee joint cartilage does not represent an immune privileged site, strongly rejecting xenogeneic but not allogeneic chondrocytes in a location-dependent fashion. This difference in location-dependent survival of allogeneic tissue may be associated with proximity to the synovium. Through a series of in vivo studies this research demonstrates that articular cartilage is not fully immunoprivileged. In addition, we now show that anatomical location of the defect, even within the same joint compartment, strongly influences the degree of the
Chai, Ho Lam; Lui, Tun Hing
Introduction: The posterior portion of the knee joint, which includes the tibial attachment of the posterior cruciate ligament and the posterior horn of the menisci, has been called a “blind spot” because it is difficult to observe this area under arthroscopy through standard anterior portals. Posteromedial, posterolateral, and posterior transseptal portals have been developed for visualization and instrumentation of the posteromedial and posterolateral compartments of the knee joint. Case Report: A 57-year-old man presented of persistent left posterior knee pain for 1 year. Radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging showed posterior knee encapsulated loose bodies. The symptoms did not respond to physiotherapy and analgesics. The loose bodies were removed via posterior knee arthroscopy. The symptoms subsided afterward. Conclusion: Lateral portal of the knee allows establishment of the posterolateral portal under endoscopic visualization, and the loose bodies of the posterior compartment of the knee can be effectively removed via the posterior knee arthroscopy. PMID:28819604
Lopez-Oliva, Clarissa Linda Liboro; Wang, Edward H M; Cañal, Johanna Patricia A
Synovial haemangioma is a rare type of tumour for which only around 200 cases have been reported worldwide. It usually occurs in the female population during the second decade of life and most commonly affects the knee joint. Patients can complain of pain, recurrent knee swelling and limitation of motion. Since these lesions are uncommon and radilogical findings are nonspecific, physician awareness is low and diagnosis is often delayed, leading in turn to treatment delays and irreversible complications of the affected joint. We report four cases of synovial haemangioma of the knee seen over a period of 20 years (1993-2013). Age at presentation ranged from six to 43 years (mean of 22.7 years) with an equal male-to-female ratio. Average duration of symptoms prior to treatment was three years--patients were often misdiagnosed and appropriate treatment was subsequently delayed. Radiographs showed moderate to severe degenerative changes. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed poorly defined intra-articular contrast-enhancing lesions, all of which were of the localised type. Three patients underwent open synovectomy and en bloc excision of the lesion; the fourth deferred surgery but continues to be monitored. Follow-up ranged from one to 11 years; all four patients are doing well, with no signs of symptom recurrence or progression. Synovial haemangioma is a rare but treatable condition. It should remain a differential for any patient with recurrent knee-joint symptoms.
Ishikawa, Masakazu; Adachi, Nobuo; Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Nakamae, Atsuo; Nakasa, Tomoyuki; Ikuta, Yasunari; Hayashi, Seiju; Deie, Masataka; Ochi, Mitsuo
Background: Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the knee is a disorder in juveniles and young adults; however, its etiology still remains unclear. For OCD at the medial femoral condyle (MFC), it is sometimes observed that the lesion has a connection with fibers of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). Although this could be important information related to the etiology of MFC OCD, there is no report examining an association between the MFC OCD and the PCL anatomy. Purpose: To investigate the anatomic features of knees associated with MFC OCD, focusing especially on the femoral attachment of the PCL, and to compare them with knees associated with lateral femoral condyle (LFC) OCD and non-OCD lesions. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 39 patients (46 knees) with OCD lesions who had undergone surgical treatment. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, the PCL attachment at the lateral wall of the MFC was measured on the coronal sections, and the knee flexion angle was also measured on the sagittal sections. As with non-OCD knees, we reviewed and analyzed 25 knees with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries and 16 knees with meniscal injuries. Results: MRIs revealed that the femoral PCL footprint was located in a significantly more distal position in the patients with MFC OCD compared with patients with LFC OCD and ACL and meniscal injuries. There was no significant difference in knee flexion angle among the 4 groups. Conclusion: The PCL in patients with MFC OCD attached more distally at the lateral aspect of the MFC compared with knees with LFC OCD and ACL and meniscal injuries. PMID:27294170
Eckenrode, Brian J
Loss of knee range of motion (ROM) has been reported as the most common complication following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Arthrofibrosis of the knee, or specifically Cyclops syndrome, has been described as the formation of a scar tissue nodule adjacent to the tibial tunnel of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft. This lesion often results in loss of knee extension ROM, pain, and impaired function. Three consecutive patients were referred to physical therapy following arthroscopic knee surgery for lysis of adhesions of a Cyclops lesion from a previous ACLR. Arthroscopic debridement was performed between 3 and 12 months post ACLR. An algorithmic progression of extension ROM was the initial focus of physical therapy, which then advanced to strengthening, neuromuscular reeducation, and sport specific training. Following knee surgery for debridement of the Cyclops lesion, mean knee joint ROM at the initial physical therapy evaluation was 7.0° ± 8.6° to 118.3° ± 7.6° that progressed to -1.0° ± 1.7° to 127° ± 2.6° at discharge. Mean numeric pain rating improved from 3.0 ± 1.0 at the evaluation to 0.7 ± 1.1 at discharge. Mean Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) improved from 56.3 ± 13.6 to 77.0 ± 4.3 at discharge. Arthroscopic debridement of knee joint arthrofibrosis after ACLR in conjunction with a postoperative physical therapy algorithmic approach to maximizing knee joint extension ROM can be beneficial in gaining symmetrical knee extension range of motion and improved function. Further studies may help to understand the optimal mode, frequency, and duration of stretching to achieve full symmetrical knee extension in this population.
Thein, Rafael; Haviv, Barak; Kidron, Amos; Bronak, Shlomo
The short-term recovery period post-arthroscopic meniscectomy is characterized by pain and impaired function most likely related to the irrigation of synovial fluid from the knee intraoperatively. Consequently, along with removal of harmful debris, the irrigation fluid dilutes the hyaluronic acid layer covering the joint tissues. Hyaluronic acid contributes to the homeostasis of the joint environment and is an important component of synovial fluid and cartilage matrix. Hence, the instillation of hyaluronic acid after the procedure may relieve symptoms. This prospective, single-blind, randomized, controlled study evaluated clinical outcome after hyaluronic acid injection to patients who underwent arthroscopic meniscectomy of the knee. Patients with ligamentous injuries or severe chondral damage were excluded. Fifty-six patients with a mean age of 34 years (range, 17-44 years) were injected with Viscoseal (TRB Chemedica International S.A., Geneva, Switzerland) or normal saline immediately post-arthroscopy and divided into the Viscoseal group or control group, respectively. Patients were evaluated for pain, swelling, and function at 1, 4, and 12 weeks postoperatively. Patients in the control group reported more pain at week 1, with a mean visual analog score (VAS) of 43, than did patients in the Viscoseal group, with a mean VAS of 28 (P=.006). At 4 weeks postoperatively, none of the Viscoseal patients had consumed analgesics, where 9 (of 28) in the control group reported acetaminophen intake (P=.039). No significant difference in knee function was found between groups. Intra-articular injection of Viscoseal after arthroscopic meniscectomy reduced pain in the short-term recovery period. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.
Black, Carissa; Liu, Derek; Petrash, Henry; Warga, Greg
Although the effects of a stroke vary, survivors often have limited use of one side of their body. Stroke survivors may wear an ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) to prevent their weak foot from dragging and hindering ambulation. Because of the added bulk of an AFO, donning a shoe becomes difficult. The design team, composed of freshman engineering students in the Engineering Design and Communication course at Northwestern University, interviewed stroke survivors to understand the problem and then constructed several prototypes as possible solutions. After stroke survivors tested and critiqued each prototype, the Knee Nook emerged as the most promising. Stroke survivors often place their weak foot on top of their strong knee, similar to the position of crossing one's legs, to allow them to easily reach their foot. Keeping the weak leg in place on the strong thigh while donning the AFO is often difficult. The Knee Nook is a hands-free device that holds the user's leg in this position. The device is placed on top of the user's strong knee and employs a neoprene pad to easily hold the weak leg over the strong knee. This design allows stroke survivors to independently don an AFO and shoe.
Haugen, Ida K.; Niu, Jingbo; Aliabadi, Piran; Felson, David T.; Englund, Martin
Objective To investigate the associations between index-to-ring finger ratio (2D:4D) and radiographic knee/hand osteoarthritis (OA), previous knee injury, and meniscal lesions in the general population. Methods We measured the length of the right 2nd and 4th phalangeal and metacarpal bones on hand radiographs from 1020 subjects (aged 51–92 years) who were randomly recruited from Framingham, Massachusetts. Subjects also had knee radiographs and knee MRI. We divided women and men into tertiles according to their phalangeal and metacarpal 2D:4D. We assessed the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for radiographic knee OA, severe symptomatic knee OA, radiographic hand OA, previous knee injury, and MRI-defined meniscal lesion using logistic regression adjusted for age and body mass index. Because hand OA may affect the phalangeal 2D:4D, we performed sensitivity analyses in subjects without joint space narrowing in the 2nd and 4th interphalangeal joints. Results We found no significant associations between 2D:4D and radiographic knee OA, severe symptomatic knee OA, or meniscal lesions. Low phalangeal 2D:4D was associated with hand OA in women (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.11–2.93), but in the sensitivity analysis the association was attenuated (OR 1.35, 95% CI 0.79–2.32). Low phalangeal 2D:4D was associated with knee injury in men (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.02–3.10). We found no significant associations for metacarpal 2D:4D. Conclusion Low phalangeal 2D:4D in men is associated with knee injury, but we did not find any significant association with knee OA. Low 2D:4D may be the consequence rather than the cause of hand OA in women. PMID:21506096
Moulder, Elizabeth; Marsh, Clayton
Melorheostosis is a rare condition which can cause soft tissue joint contractures. We present a case of melorheostosis causing disabling knee joint contracture, treated successfully by total knee arthroplasty.
Lutter, L D
In our series of running injuries 40% of all injuries have been related to the knee area. Over 20 million people in the United States run on a regular basis. Figures from large running sources show that 60% to 70% of individuals running regularly are injured severely enough to temporarily stop running. The figures are significant, not in the seriousness of the knee injury, but in the fact that seeking treatment for their knee problems. Orthopaedic surgeons, because of their ability to evaluate the entire lower extremity, become the central component for treatment of this large group of injured runners. As has been noted, the underlying biomechanical abnormality must be sought and dealt with or the symptoms return. By identification of the injured structure(s) integrated with biomechanical understanding, treatment can be developed on a rational basis, dealing with acute problems and prevention of future ones.
Computer-aided systems have been developed recently to improve the precision of implantation of unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR) or total knee replacement. Minimal invasive techniques have been developed to decrease the surgical trauma related to the prosthesis implantation. However, there might be a concern about the potential of minimal invasive techniques for a loss of accuracy. Navigation systems might address this issue. We are currently using routinely a nonimage-based navigation for total knee replacement. We developed a modified system for UKR, suitable for either a conventional or a mini-invasive approach. Navigated implantation of a UKR allowed improving the accuracy of the radiologic implantation. Mini-invasive implantation was effective, but the accuracy may not reach that of the conventional navigated technique and should be still improved. Minimal invasive techniques have to be validated because a loss of accuracy will negatively influence long-term outcomes.
Gustafson, Jonathan A; Gorman, Shannon; Fitzgerald, G Kelley; Farrokhi, Shawn
Increased walking knee joint stiffness has been reported in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) as a compensatory strategy to improve knee joint stability. However, presence of episodic self-reported knee instability in a large subgroup of patients with knee OA may be a sign of inadequate walking knee joint stiffness. The objective of this work was to evaluate the differences in walking knee joint stiffness in patients with knee OA with and without self-reported instability and examine the relationship between walking knee joint stiffness with quadriceps strength, knee joint laxity, and varus knee malalignment. Overground biomechanical data at a self-selected gait velocity was collected for 35 individuals with knee OA without self-reported instability (stable group) and 17 individuals with knee OA and episodic self-reported instability (unstable group). Knee joint stiffness was calculated during the weight-acceptance phase of gait as the change in the external knee joint moment divided by the change in the knee flexion angle. The unstable group walked with lower knee joint stiffness (p=0.01), mainly due to smaller heel-contact knee flexion angles (p<0.01) and greater knee flexion excursions (p<0.01) compared to their knee stable counterparts. No significant relationships were observed between walking knee joint stiffness and quadriceps strength, knee joint laxity or varus knee malalignment. Reduced walking knee joint stiffness appears to be associated with episodic knee instability and independent of quadriceps muscle weakness, knee joint laxity or varus malalignment. Further investigations of the temporal relationship between self-reported knee joint instability and walking knee joint stiffness are warranted.
Gustafson, Jonathan A.; Gorman, Shannon; Fitzgerald, G. Kelley; Farrokhi, Shawn
Increased walking knee joint stiffness has been reported in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) as a compensatory strategy to improve knee joint stability. However, presence of episodic self-reported knee instability in a large subgroup of patients with knee OA may be a sign of inadequate walking knee joint stiffness. The objective of this work was to evaluate the differences in walking knee joint stiffness in patients with knee OA with and without self-reported instability and examine the relationship between walking knee joint stiffness with quadriceps strength, knee joint laxity, and varus knee malalignment. Overground biomechanical data at a self-selected gait velocity was collected for 35 individuals with knee OA without self-reported instability (stable group) and 17 individuals with knee OA and episodic self-reported instability (unstable group). Knee joint stiffness was calculated during the weight-acceptance phase of gait as the change in the external knee joint moment divided by the change in the knee flexion angle. The unstable group walked with lower knee joint stiffness (p=0.01), mainly due to smaller heel-contact knee flexion angles (p<0.01) and greater knee flexion excursions (p<0.01) compared to their knee stable counterparts. No significant relationships were observed between walking knee joint stiffness and quadriceps strength, knee joint laxity or varus knee malalignment. Reduced walking knee joint stiffness appears to be associated with episodic knee instability and independent of quadriceps muscle weakness, knee joint laxity or varus malalignment. Further investigations of the temporal relationship between self-reported knee joint instability and walking knee joint stiffness are warranted. PMID:26481256
Bosiers, M; Deloose, K; Callaert, J; Keirse, K; Verbist, J; Peeters, P
The fear that early thrombosis and late luminal loss due to intimal hyperplasia formation potentially leads to insufficient long-term patency rates can explain the reluctance on implanting stents in small diameter below-the-knee (BTK) arteries. Drug-eluting stent (DES) technology was developed to prevent early thrombosis and late luminal loss to potentially improve long-term patency rates. Currently, the first level 1 evidence from prospective, randomized, controlled DESTINY and ACHILLES studies indicate that the implantation of DES in short lesion lenghts in the infrapopliteal vasculature leads to favorable outcomes with high primary patency rates. This makes that primary DES placement can be recommended as treatment strategy in short BTK-lesions.
Wu, J; Wang, K; Xu, J; Ruan, G; Zhu, Q; Cai, J; Ren, J; Zheng, S; Zhu, Z; Otahal, P; Ding, C
The roles of ghrelin in knee osteoarthritis (OA) are unclear. This study aimed to examine cross-sectional associations of ghrelin with knee symptoms, joint structures and cartilage or bone biomarkers in patients with knee OA. This study included 146 patients with symptomatic knee OA. Serum levels of ghrelin and cartilage or bone biomarkers including cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), cross linked C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTXI), cross linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTXI), N-terminal procollagen III propeptide (PIIINP), and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, 10, 13 were measured using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Knee symptoms were assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC). Infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP) volume, IPFP signal intensity alternation, cartilage defects, bone marrow lesions (BMLs) and effusion-synovitis were assessed using the (MRI). Osteophytes and joint space narrowing (JSN) were assessed using the Osteoarthritis Research Society International atlas. After adjustment for potential confounders, ghrelin quartiles were positively associated with knee symptoms including pain, stiffness, dysfunction and total score (quartile 4 vs 1: β 24.19, 95% CI 8.13-40.25). Ghrelin quartiles were also significantly associated with increased IPFP signal intensity alteration (quartile 4 vs 1: OR 3.57, 95% CI 1.55-8.25) and NTXI, PIIINP, MMP3 and MMP13. Ghrelin was not significantly associated with other joint structures and biomarkers. Serum levels of ghrelin were significantly associated with increased knee symptoms, IPFP signal intensity alteration and serum levels of MMP3, MMP13, NTXI and PIIINP, suggesting that ghrelin may have a role to play in knee OA. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Risitano, Salvatore; Sabatini, Luigi; Giachino, Matteo; Agati, Gabriele; Massè, Alessandro
Interest for uncemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has greatly increased in recent years. This technique, less used than cemented knee replacement in the last decades, sees a revival thanks an advance in prosthetic design, instrumentation and operative technique. The related literature in some cases shows conflicting data on survival and on the revision’s rate, but in most cases a success rate comparable to cemented TKA is reported. The optimal fixation in TKA is a subject of debate with the majority of surgeons favouring cemented fixation. PMID:27162779
Spring, Alexander; Kofman, Jonathan; Lemaire, Edward
Individuals with quadriceps muscle weakness often have difficulty generating the knee-extension moments required for common mobility tasks. A new device that provides a knee-extension moment was designed to help individuals perform sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit. The knee-extension-assist (KEA) was designed as a modular component to be incorporated into existing knee-ankle-foot-orthoses (KAFO). The KEA loads a set of springs as the knee flexes under bodyweight and returns the stored energy as an extension moment during knee extension. The springs can be locked in place at the end of flexion to prevent unwanted knee extension while seated. When the affected leg is unloaded, the device disengages, allowing free joint motion. A prototype KEA underwent mechanical testing and biomechanical evaluation on an able-bodied individual during sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit.
Khan, Hussain Ijaz; Aitken, Dawn; Blizzard, Leigh; Ding, Changhai; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Pelletier, Johanne Martel; Cicuttini, Flavia; Jones, Graeme
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe the associations between history of knee injury and knee structure using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study included two population-based samples: the Tasmanian Older Adult Cohort (TASOAC) study (n = 430; mean age, 63.0 years; range, 51-79 years; 51 % female) and the Offspring study (n = 372; mean age, 45.0 years; range, 26-61 years; 57.5 % female). In both studies, 1.5 T MRI scans of the right knee were performed to measure bone marrow lesions (BMLs), cartilage volume, tibial bone area, cartilage defects and meniscal pathology. History of knee injury was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. The association between knee injury and knee structure was determined using multiple linear and log binomial regression models. Nineteen percent of the middle-aged and 12 % of the older adults reported a history of knee injury. In middle-aged adults, BML presence (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.6 (95 % CI, 1.2; 2.1)), tibial bone area (difference of means (DM) = +86 (+23, +149)) and meniscal extrusion presence (PR = 2.7 (1.1, 6.8)) were significantly higher in those with knee injury. In older adults, cartilage defect presence (PR = 1.3 (1.0, 1.7)), lateral (DM = -265 (-439, -92)) and total tibial (DM = -325 (-600, -51)) cartilage volume, BML presence (PR = 1.4 (1.0, 1.9)) and tibial bone area (DM = +140 (+19, +260)) were significantly associated with knee injury. Meniscal tears showed no significant associations in either cohorts. The association between knee injury and MRI-assessed structural pathology in the knee joint is moderate and appears to be stronger in older adults compared to middle-aged adults.
Jazrawi, Laith M; Rosen, Jeff
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and meniscal injuries are common in both athletes and the general population. Such injuries may lead to early-onset post-traumatic osteoarthritis (OA) in 50% to 60% of patients, regardless of whether patients had reconstruction performed. In younger patients, intra-articular (IA) injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) may be useful for improving short-term outcomes and possibly slowing or arresting the progression of OA. Hyaluronic acid has anti-inflammatory, anabolic, and chondroprotective effects, which have been demonstrated in in vitro and animal models of meniscal and ACL injury. Results from several clinical trials and patient series have demonstrated the benefit of IA HA injection in younger patients with acute knee damage, including symptomatic meniscal tears and isolated ACL injury with chondral injury, although evidence for this is less extensive than the large database supporting the use of IA HA injection in older patients with knee OA. Administration of HA has been shown to improve outcomes in patients undergoing knee arthroscopy, and IA HA also has direct antinociceptive effects that may contribute to its benefit in patients with patellofemoral pain. However, the use of IA HA in patients with ACL injury or early OA has been evaluated in only a few studies. Thus, there is a need for larger-scale randomized controlled trials with longer durations of follow-up to provide more definitive evaluation of the efficacy and safety of IA HA in these patients. Such studies provide an opportunity to further elucidate the benefits of IA HA in younger patients with knee damage and may result in appropriate expansion of use in this large population, which has a substantial need for new treatment alternatives.
Dervin, Geoffrey F.; Stiell, Ian G.; Wells, George A.; Rody, Kelly; Grabowski, Jenny
Objective To determine clinicians’ accuracy and reliability for the clinical diagnosis of unstable meniscus tears in patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting A single tertiary care centre. Patients One hundred and fifty-two patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee refractory to conservative medical treatment were selected for prospective evaluation of arthroscopic débridement. Intervention Arthroscopic débridement of the knee, including meniscal tear and chondral flap resection, without abrasion arthroplasty. Outcome measures A standardized assessment protocol was administered to each patient by 2 independent observers. Arthroscopic determination of unstable meniscal tears was recorded by 1 observer who reviewed a video recording and was blinded to preoperative data. Those variables that had the highest interobserver agreement and the strongest association with meniscal tear by univariate methods were entered into logistic regression to model the best prediction of resectable tears. Results There were 92 meniscal tears (77 medial, 15 lateral). Interobserver agreement between clinical fellows and treating surgeons was poor to fair (κ < 0.4) for all clinical variables except radiographic measures, which were good. Fellows and surgeons predicted unstable meniscal tear preoperatively with equivalent accuracy of 60%. Logistic regression modelling revealed that a history of swelling and a ballottable effusion were negative predictors. A positive McMurray test was the only positive predictor of unstable meniscal tear. “Mechanical” symptoms were not reliable predictors in this prospective study. The model was 69% accurate for all patients and 76% for those with advanced medial compartment osteoarthritis defined by a joint space height of 2 mm or less. Conclusions This study underscored the difficulty in using clinical variables to predict unstable medial meniscal tears in patients with pre
Bruce, Warwick; Lee, Tack Shin; Sundarajan, Vijaya; Walker, Peter; Magnussen, John; Van der Wall, Hans
Ultrasound of the musculoskeletal system is an attractive imaging modality due to the lack of ionising radiation, cost and ease of availability. A role has been established in the shoulder and pediatric hip but not in the knee. Ultrasound studies of the knee performed at six general radiological practices without established musculoskeletal expertise were compared with clinical examination in 56 patients. Final diagnoses were established by arthroscopy and/or MRI. The sensitivity and specificity for detection of superficial lesions in the knee were 88 and 41% for clinical examination and 32 and 59% for ultrasound. For deep lesions sensitivity and specificity were 61 and 64% for clinical examination and 13 and 100% for ultrasound. Ultrasound studies of the knee in a general radiological practice do not offer significant information above clinical examination.
Mistry, Hema; Connock, Martin; Pink, Joshua; Shyangdan, Deepson; Clar, Christine; Royle, Pamela; Court, Rachel; Biant, Leela C; Metcalfe, Andrew; Waugh, Norman
BACKGROUND The surfaces of the bones in the knee are covered with articular cartilage, a rubber-like substance that is very smooth, allowing frictionless movement in the joint and acting as a shock absorber. The cells that form the cartilage are called chondrocytes. Natural cartilage is called hyaline cartilage. Articular cartilage has very little capacity for self-repair, so damage may be permanent. Various methods have been used to try to repair cartilage. Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) involves laboratory culture of cartilage-producing cells from the knee and then implanting them into the chondral defect. OBJECTIVE To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ACI in chondral defects in the knee, compared with microfracture (MF). DATA SOURCES A broad search was done in MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, NHS Economic Evaluation Database and Web of Science, for studies published since the last Health Technology Assessment review. REVIEW METHODS Systematic review of recent reviews, trials, long-term observational studies and economic evaluations of the use of ACI and MF for repairing symptomatic articular cartilage defects of the knee. A new economic model was constructed. Submissions from two manufacturers and the ACTIVE (Autologous Chondrocyte Transplantation/Implantation Versus Existing Treatment) trial group were reviewed. Survival analysis was based on long-term observational studies. RESULTS Four randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published since the last appraisal provided evidence on the efficacy of ACI. The SUMMIT (Superiority of Matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implant versus Microfracture for Treatment of symptomatic articular cartilage defects) trial compared matrix-applied chondrocyte implantation (MACI(®)) against MF. The TIG/ACT/01/2000 (TIG/ACT) trial compared ACI with characterised chondrocytes against MF. The ACTIVE trial compared several forms of ACI against standard treatments, mainly MF. In the SUMMIT
Kulthanan, T; Noiklang, P
A total of 266 patients with injuries to the knee sustained during sports activities were managed by arthroscopy and/or arthrotomy. All of them received systemic examination and a standard battery of knee stability tests. Fifty-three were examined by arthrography and all underwent arthrotomy for surgical correction of the lesion diagnosed by both clinical examination and arthrography. Our study showed that clinical examination could give an accurate clinical diagnosis in 88.35% of cases and arthrography in 76.89%. No complication from arthrography was found. Injury occurred most commonly between 21 and 30 years of age and was more common to the right knee than the left. The sport in which most injuries occurred was football. PMID:8358590
Cashman, Glenn; Attariwala, Raj
Objective: To increase clinicians’ awareness of the differences in image resolution and potential diagnostic accuracy between small and large-field MR Scanners. To present an example of a clinical decision making challenge in how to proceed when knee MRI and clinical findings don’t agree. Clinical Features: A 38 year old female mountain biker presented with knee pain and clinical features strongly suggestive of a torn meniscus or loose bodies. An initial MRI using a small field strength (0.18T) scanner was reported as normal. Her clinical presentation was suspicious enough that a repeat MRI on a high-field (1.5T) scanner was ordered. The second MRI included high resolution 3D volumetric imaging which revealed cartilage damage and loose bodies. Intervention and Outcome: The patient was treated with arthroscopic surgery which confirmed the presence of meniscal and chondral injury and resulted in notable improvement in the patient’s symptoms. Conclusion: Clinicians should consider scanner quality and diagnostic accuracy before discounting strongly suggestive clinical history and examination findings when MRIs are reported as normal. PMID:25550664
Brill, Richard; Wohlgemuth, Walther A; Hempfling, Harald; Bohndorf, Klaus; Becker, Ursula; Welsch, Ulrich; Kamp, Alexander; Roemer, Frank W
No systematic, histologically confirmed data are available concerning the association between magnitude of direct dynamic impact caused by vertical impact trauma and the resulting injury to cartilage and subchondral bone. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dynamic impact and the resulting patterns of osteochondral injury in an ex-vivo model. A mechanical apparatus was employed to perform ex-vivo controlled dynamic vertical impact experiments in 110 pig knees with the femur positioned in a holding fixture. A falling body with a thrust plate and photo sensor was applied. The direct impact to the trochlear articular surface was registered and the resulting osteochondral injuries macroscopically and histologically correlated and categorized. The relationship between magnitude of direct impact and injury severity could be classified as stage I injuries (impact <7.3MPa): elastic deformation, no histological injury; stage II injuries (impact 7.3-9.6MPa): viscoelastic imprint of the cartilaginous surface, subchondral microfractures; stage III injuries (impact 9.6-12.7MPa): disrupted cartilage surface, chondral fissures and subchondral microfractures; stage IV injuries (impact >12.7MPa): osteochondral impression, histologically imprint and osteochondral macrofractures. The impact ranges and histologic injury stages determined from this vertical dynamic impact experiment allowed for a biomechanical classification of direct, acute osteochondral injury. In contrast to static load commonly applied in ex-vivo experiments, dynamic impact more realistically represents actual trauma to the knee joint.
Calmbach, Walter L; Hutchens, Mark
Knee pain is a common presenting complaint with many possible causes. An awareness of certain patterns can help the family physician identify the underlying cause more efficiently. Teenage girls and young women are more likely to have patellar tracking problems such as patellar subluxation and patellofemoral pain syndrome, whereas teenage boys and young men are more likely to have knee extensor mechanism problems such as tibial apophysitis (Osgood-Schlatter lesion) and patellar tendonitis. Referred pain resulting from hip joint pathology, such as slipped capital femoral epiphysis, also may cause knee pain. Active patients are more likely to have acute ligamentous sprains and overuse injuries such as pes anserine bursitis and medial plica syndrome. Trauma may result in acute ligamentous rupture or fracture, leading to acute knee joint swelling and hemarthrosis. Septic arthritis may develop in patients of any age, but crystal-induced inflammatory arthropathy is more likely in adults. Osteoarthritis of the knee joint is common in older adults.
Chan, Warwick; Chase, Helen Emily; Cahir, John G; Walton, Neil Patrick
A 37-year-old man presented to the acute knee and sports medicine clinic with atraumatic lateral knee pain. He had point tenderness over the lateral aspect of his knee which had not settled with anti-inflammatory medications. Imaging revealed a large opaque lesion lateral to the knee and although there was no clear mechanism, injury to the posterolateral corner was considered. An MRI subsequently revealed a rare case of calcific tendinitis to the biceps femoris tendon insertion. This condition was self-limiting and did not require interventions such as steroid injections. This is the first reported case of calcific tendinitis of biceps femoris as a cause of acute knee pain. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Boyd, Jennifer L; Zavatsky, Amy B; Gill, Harinderjit S
This study investigated whether increased loading (representing obesity) in the extended knee and flexed knee led to increased stresses in areas of typical medial and lateral osteoarthritis cartilage lesions, respectively. We created two paired sets of subject-specific finite element models; both sets included models of extended knees and of flexed knees. The first set represented normal loading; the second set represented increased loading. All other variables were held constant. The von Mises stresses and contact areas calculated on the tibial cartilage surfaces of the paired models were then compared. In the extended knee models, applying a larger load led to increased stress in the anterior and central regions of the medial tibial cartilage. These are the typical locations of medial osteoarthritis cartilage lesions. Therefore, the results support that increased loading in the extended knee may result in medial osteoarthritis. In the flexed knee models, applying a larger load increased stress in the anterior and central regions of the lateral tibial cartilage. Lateral osteoarthritis cartilage lesions typically occur centrally and posteriorly. Therefore, these results do not support our hypothesis. Shear stress was increased in areas of typical lateral lesions, however, and should be investigated in future studies.
Freire told his audience at a seminar at the University of Massachusetts, "You need to read knee-deep in texts, for deeper than surface meanings, and you need to know the words to be able to do it" (quoted in Cleary, 2003). In a children's literature class, fifteen teachers and I traveled along a path that moved us toward reading…
Freire told his audience at a seminar at the University of Massachusetts, "You need to read knee-deep in texts, for deeper than surface meanings, and you need to know the words to be able to do it" (quoted in Cleary, 2003). In a children's literature class, fifteen teachers and I traveled along a path that moved us toward reading…
Steiner, Mark E.
A review of research on the effect of hypermobility on knee injury indicates that greater than normal joint flexibility may be necessary for some athletic endeavors and that it may be possible to change one's underlying flexibility through training. However, for most athletes, inherited flexibility probably plays only a small role, if any, in…
Steiner, Mark E.
A review of research on the effect of hypermobility on knee injury indicates that greater than normal joint flexibility may be necessary for some athletic endeavors and that it may be possible to change one's underlying flexibility through training. However, for most athletes, inherited flexibility probably plays only a small role, if any, in…
Bhave, Anil; Shabtai, Lior; Ong, Peck-Hoon; Standard, Shawn C; Paley, Dror; Herzenberg, John E
The development of knee flexion contractures is among the most common problems and complications associated with lengthening the femur with an internal device or external fixator. Conservative treatment strategies include physical therapy, serial casting, and low-load prolonged stretching with commercially available splinting systems. The authors developed an individually molded, low-cost custom knee device with polyester synthetic conformable casting material to treat knee flexion contractures. The goal of this study was to evaluate the results of treatment with a custom knee device and specialized physical therapy in patients who had knee flexion contracture during femoral lengthening with an intramedullary lengthening femoral nail. This retrospective study included 23 patients (27 limbs) who underwent femoral lengthening with an internal device for the treatment of limb length discrepancy. All patients had a knee flexion contracture raging from 10° to 90° during the lengthening process and were treated with a custom knee device and specialized physical therapy. The average flexion contracture before treatment was 36°. The mean amount of lengthening was 5.4 cm. After an average of 3.8 weeks of use of the custom knee device, only 2 of 27 limbs (7.5%) had not achieved complete resolution of the flexion contracture. The average final extension was 1.4°. Only 7 of 27 limbs (26%) required additional soft tissue release. The custom knee device is an inexpensive and effective method for treating knee flexion contracture after lengthening with an internal device.
Hong, Cheung Man; Hing, Lui Tun
Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a proliferative condition of the synovium, which is composed of nodules and/or villi and has an abundant number of hemosiderin-laden macrophages. A 10-year-old boy presented with an acute irritable knee. Emergency arthroscopy showed a nodular PVNS in the intercondylar notch. The symptoms resolved after resection of the lesion. PVNS of the knee in children is a rare entity. It can be one of the causes of acute irritable knee. Complete resection of the nodular PVNS can cure the disease.
Gupta, Souradip; Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Dhiman, Pratibha; Gupta, Sandipan
Angioleiomyomas are benign tumors originating in the vascular smooth muscle. The tumor typically presents as painful, solitary, small (<2 cm), slow growing, subcutaneous nodule. Angioleiomyoma of the knee is rare, and only few cases have been reported so far. We have described herein a giant angioleiomyoma of the knee presenting as a painless ulcer in a 22-year-old man. There was no intra-articular extension of the tumor, and total excision was curative. This is the first case report of giant angioleiomyoma of the knee as well as the first case report of angioleiomyoma presenting as a painless ulcerative lesion.
Lu, M; Han, W; Wang, K; Zhu, Z; Antony, B; Cicuttini, F; Yin, Z; Jones, G; Ding, C
To describe the cross-sectional associations between proximal tibiofibular joint (PTFJ) type configurations and knee joint structural abnormalities in older adults. A total of 967 community-based participants were studied. T1-weighted fat-suppressed magnetic resonance image (MRI) with spoiled gradient recalled echo sequence was utilized to assess the PTFJ type configurations. Knee cartilage volume, cartilage defects, bone marrow lesions and osteophytes were measured. Linear regression and binary logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between PTFJ type configurations and knee joint cartilage volume as well as knee structural abnormalities, respectively, after adjustment for potential confounders. Seven PTFJ types including plane (49.4%), trochoid (31.9%), double trochoid (4.3%), saddle (5.4%), condylar (5.3%), trochlear (3.5%) and ball & socket (0.2%) were observed. Plane type was used as the comparator. In multivariable analyses, irregular joint types (comprising the five uncommon joint types) were associated negatively with cartilage volume, and positively with knee cartilage defects, bone marrow lesions and osteophytes in the lateral (but not medial) compartments. In contrast, trochoid type was only associated with reduced femoral cartilage volume, but not with knee cartilage defects, bone marrow lesions and osteophytes. Irregular PTFJ joint shapes are associated with osteoarthritic changes in the lateral, but not medial, tibiofemoral compartment in older adults. The causal relationship needs to be examined in future longitudinal studies. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Martens, M A; Mulier, J C
A new clinical test is presented for the diagnosis of anterolateral knee instability. The advantages of the test are obviation of apprehension- and muscle spasm avoiding false negative results and also the recognition by the patient of his sensation of "collapsing at the knee". This allows for differentiation between "giving away" due to a torn meniscus alone and concomitant anterolateral knee instability. It implies important consequences for prognosis and treatment of the knee problem of the athlete. Underlying pathology consists of a torn anterior cruciate ligament and primary or secondary stretching of the soft tissues at the lateral and posterolateral capsule. These lesions and a positive test for anterolateral knee instability does not inevitably result in a disability for sports activity. The dynamic muscular control protects the knee in many instances from collapsing at cross over cutting.
Yotsumoto, Tadahiko; Iwasa, Jyunji; Uchio, Yuji
Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) occurs in the knee more frequently than other joints. Most cases involve diffuse PVNS while the localized type is relatively rare. This report describes a patient who had PVNS and a lateral meniscus injury which induced locking symptoms in the knee. A closed reduction of the meniscus tear was performed under local anesthesia. However, complete extension of the knee was not achieved and the locking symptoms persisted. MRI examination showed a neoplastic lesion measuring approximately 2 x 2 cm in the intercondylar space together with a lateral meniscus tear. The lesion was resected using arthroscopy. Histology of the resected lesion demonstrated localized PVNS. There has not been any recurrence of locking symptoms or PVNS two years after surgery. The findings in this case suggest that localized PVNS may contribute to locking symptoms in a patient with meniscal pathology.
Calder, Kristina M; Acker, Stacey M; Arora, Neha; Beattie, Karen A; Callaghan, Jack P; Adachi, Jonathan D; Maly, Monica R
Objective To determine the extent to which knee extensor strength and power explain variance in knee adduction moment (KAM) peak and impulse in clinical knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Fifty-three adults (mean ± SD age 61.6 ± 6.3 years, 11 men) with clinical knee OA participated. The KAM waveform was calculated from motion and force data and ensemble averaged from 5 walking trials. The KAM peak was normalized to body mass (Nm/kg). The mean KAM impulse reflected the mean total medial knee load during stride (Nm × seconds). For strength, the maximum knee extensor moment attained from maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) was normalized to body mass (Nm/kg). For power, the maximum knee extensor power during isotonic contractions, with the resistance set at 25% of MVIC, was normalized to body mass (W/kg). Covariates included age, sex, knee pain on the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, gait speed, and body mass index (BMI). Relationships of the KAM peak and impulse with strength and power were examined using sequential stepwise forward linear regressions. Results Covariates did not explain variance in the KAM peak. While extensor strength did not, peak knee extensor power explained 8% of the variance in the KAM peak (P = 0.02). Sex and BMI explained 24% of the variance in the KAM impulse (P < 0.05). Sex, BMI, and knee extensor power explained 31% of the variance in the KAM impulse (P = 0.02), with power contributing 7% (P < 0.05). Conclusion Knee extensor power was more important than isometric knee strength in understanding medial knee loads during gait. PMID:24920175
Kraenzlin, Marius E; Graf, Christian; Meier, Christian; Kraenzlin, Claude; Friedrich, Niklaus F
Osteonecrosis (ON) in the knee occurs as a localized inflammatory disease in relation to spontaneous or non-traumatic ON. Conservative treatment possibilities are limited, and prognosis appears to be poor; in most cases, ON results in knee arthroplasty. Bisphosphonates are suggested to prevent bone resorption and collapse of necrotic bone. In this observational, prospective study we investigated the effect of bisphosphonate treatment in patients with spontaneous or arthroscopy-induced ON of the knee. Twenty-eight patients with osteonecrotic lesions and bone marrow oedema in the knee were included. In 22 patients (80%), ON was identified after arthroscopic surgery of the knee; six patients were diagnosed with spontaneous ON. Patients were initially given pamidronate 120 mg i.v. divided in 3-4 perfusions over 2 weeks, followed by oral bisphosphonate treatment with alendronate 70 mg weekly for 4-6 months. Bisphosphonate treatment resulted in a rapid pain relief, VAS decreasing from 8.2 ± 1.2 at baseline to 5.02 ± 0.6 after 4-6 weeks (p < 0.001). After 6 months, the VAS decreased by 80% (p < 0.001). At the 6-month follow-up, symptoms had resolved completely in 15 patients out of 28; in 6 patients, minimal symptoms (VAS 1-2) remained. In two patients, treatment effect was unsatisfactory, and surgical intervention was needed (arthroplasty). Bone marrow oedema on MRI resolved completely in 18 patients out of 28 with substantial reduction in the remaining. Furthermore, osteonecrotic area resolved completely or demarcation with sclerotic changes of the necrotic area could be observed. Bisphosphonate treatment in patients with osteonecrosis of the knee was associated with a rapid improvement in pain score and radiological consolidation of the area of osteonecrosis. Further randomized, controlled trials are warranted to confirm the potential beneficial role of bisphosphonates in the treatment of osteonecrosis of the knee. observational study, level IV.
Díaz-Martín, A A; Guerrero-Moyano, N; Salinas-Sánchez, P; Guerado-Parra, E
We present the case of a patient who sustained a gunshot wound; the projectile was located in the knee and was arthroscopically removed. A 31 year-old patient sustained a gunshot wound in the right thigh, right hand and left knee. X-rays revealed the presence of a projectile in the knee, thigh and hand. The projectile was arthroscopically removed. Traumas causing articular wounds of the knee are infrequent. Excluding the most frequent causes of articular wounds, a small percentage of them are due to gunshot wounds. There is consensus around arthroscopy as a technique useful to remove articular foreign bodies; it has advantages over open surgery. This procedure minimizes surgical morbidity, reduces the risk of septic arthritis, synovitis, arthropathy or systemic lead toxicity, and it also hastens the patient's functional recovery. Knee arthroscopy allows physicians to provide a definitive treatment of these injuries, explore the joint, diagnose associated injuries and perform debridement and articular lavage. Arthroscopy is an effective tool for the extraction of articular projectiles; it also allows diagnosing and treating associated lesions.
Dexheimer, Verena; Gabler, Jessica; Bomans, Katharina; Sims, Tanja; Omlor, Georg; Richter, Wiltrud
Proteins of the transforming-growth-factor-β (TGF-β)-superfamily have a remarkable ability to induce cartilage and bone and the crosstalk of TGF-β - and BMP-signalling pathways appears crucial during chondrocyte development. Aim was to assess the regulation of TGF-β-superfamily members and of Smad2/3- and Smad1/5/9-signalling during endochondral in vitro chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) relative to chondral redifferentiation of articular chondrocytes (AC) to adjust chondrocyte development of MSC towards a less hypertrophic phenotype. While MSC increased BMP4 and BMP7 and reduced TGFBR2 and TGFBR3-expression during chondrogenesis, an opposite regulation was observed during AC-redifferentiation. Antagonists CHRD and CHL2 rose significantly only in AC-cultures. AC showed higher initial BMP4, pSmad1/5/9 and SOX9 protein levels, a faster (re-)differentiation but a similar decline of pSmad2/3- and pSmad1/5/9-signalling versus MSC-cultures. BMP-4/7-stimulation of MSC-pellets enhanced SOX9 and accelerated ALP-induction but did not shift differentiation towards osteogenesis. Inhibition of BMP-signalling by dorsomorphin significantly reduced SOX9, raised RUNX2, maintained collagen-type-II and collagen-type-X lower and kept ALP-activity at levels reached at initiation of treatment. Conclusively, ALK1,2,3,6-signalling was essential for MSC-chondrogenesis and its prochondrogenic rather than prohypertrophic role may explain why inhibition of canonical BMP-signalling could not uncouple cartilage matrix production from hypertrophy as this was achieved with pulsed PTHrP-application. PMID:27848974
Stanish, William D.; Rice, William; Ratson, Gary; Loebenberg, Mark; Langley, Linda
The primary-care physician plays a critical role in the diagnosis, initial treatment, and subsequent rehabilitation of many orthopedic conditions. The knee is the most frequently injured joint in sport medicine. The family physician must therefore be familiar with the etiology, cause, and natural history of problems related to the knee joint. The swollen knee is one of the most common ailments the family physician is asked to assess in his or her busy day-to-day practice of medicine. He or she must therefore remain abreast of the dynamic field of diagnostic procedures, treatments, and rehabilitative measures relating to many knee injuries. This paper deals with the more common causes of the acutely swollen knee, paying particular attention to the infected knee and the acute hemarthrosis. It should provide answers to most questions about diagnosis, initial treatment, and subsequent management of this problem. PMID:21264033
Martinez, R; Figueroa, D; Calvo, R; Conget, P; Gallegos, M; Figueroa, F; Ahumada, X
To report a reproducible and inexpensive model of critical osteochondral lesion (LOC) in adult mice for experimental studies An experimental study was conducted on 20 BKS mice of 15 weeks old, in which a LOC of 0.5mm in diameter was made in the trochlear groove. Ten animals were sacrificed at day 7, and the other 10 animals at day 14 of follow up. To assess the ability of the animal to repair/regenerate, a histological analysis was performed using hematoxylin-eosin and safranin-O stains, and the results were evaluated by the ICRS scale using areas of healthy cartilage from the same joint as control. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for the statistical analyses of scores (averages). Significant differences were found in days 7 and 14 between the LOC area and control areas, but no differences were found between the day 7 and day 14. This model of LOC in the trochlear groove of adult mice is highly reproducible, and could be used in further studies to obtain better treatments for chondral pathologies. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
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Sheehan, Scott E; Khurana, Bharti; Gaviola, Glenn; Davis, Kirkland W
This article discusses common injury mechanisms and the subsequent constellation of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings in the knee following trauma in the context of instability, as distinguished by the degree of knee flexion and tibial rotation at the time of initial injury, in addition to the direction and magnitude of the responsible force vectors. Using 3-dimensional imaging, common injury mechanisms are illustrated and correlated with MR imaging findings of the resulting osteochondral, ligamentous, meniscal, and musculotendinous lesions. The most common classification and grading systems for these individual lesions and their subsequent treatment implications are discussed.
Javaid, M K; Kiran, A; Guermazi, A; Kwoh, C K; Zaim, S; Carbone, L; Harris, T; McCulloch, C E; Arden, N K; Lane, N E; Felson, D; Nevitt, M
Strong associations between radiographic features of knee osteoarthritis (OA) and pain have been demonstrated in persons with unilateral knee symptoms. This study was undertaken to compare radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of knee OA and assess their ability to discriminate between painful and nonpainful knees in persons with unilateral symptoms. The study population included 283 individuals ages 70-79 years with unilateral knee pain who were enrolled in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study, a study of weight-related diseases and mobility. Radiographs of both knees were read for Kellgren/Lawrence (K/L) grade and individual radiographic features, and 1.5T MRIs were assessed using the Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score. The association between structural features and pain was assessed using a within-person case-control design and conditional logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was then used to test the discriminatory performance of structural features. In conditional logistic analyses, knee pain was significantly associated with both radiographic features (any joint space narrowing grade ≥ 1) (odds ratio 3.20 [95% confidence interval 1.79-5.71]) and MRI features (any cartilage defect scored ≥ 2) (odds ratio 3.67 [95% confidence interval 1.49-9.04]). However, in most subjects, MRI revealed osteophytes and cartilage and bone marrow lesions in both knees, and using ROC analysis, no individual structural feature discriminated well between painful and nonpainful knees. The best-performing MRI feature (synovitis/effusion) was not significantly more informative than K/L grade ≥ 2 (P = 0.42). In persons with unilateral knee pain, MRI and radiographic features were associated with knee pain, confirming that structural abnormalities in the knee have an important role in the etiology of pain. However, no single MRI or radiographic finding performed well in discriminating between painful and
Ringdahl, Erika; Pandit, Sandesh
Knee osteoarthritis is a common disabling condition that affects more than one-third of persons older than 65 years. Exercise, weight loss, physical therapy, intra-articular corticosteroid injections, and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and braces or heel wedges decrease pain and improve function. Acetaminophen, glucosamine, ginger, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM-e), capsaicin cream, topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acupuncture, and tai chi may offer some benefit. Tramadol has a poor trade-off between risks and benefits and is not routinely recommended. Opioids are being used more often in patients with moderate to severe pain or diminished quality of life, but patients receiving these drugs must be carefully selected and monitored because of the inherent adverse effects. Intra-articular corticosteroid injections are effective, but evidence for injection of hyaluronic acid is mixed. Arthroscopic surgery has been shown to have no benefit in knee osteoarthritis. Total joint arthroplasty of the knee should be considered when conservative symptomatic management is ineffective.
Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Shadoan, Michael D. (Inventor); Forbes, John C. (Inventor); Baker, Kevin J. (Inventor); Rice, Darron C. (Inventor)
A knee brace for aiding in rehabilitation of damaged leg muscles includes upper and lower housings normally pivotable one relative to the other about the knee joint axis of a patient. The upper housing is attachable to the thigh of the patient above the knee joint while the lower housing is secured to a stirrup which extends downwardly along the patient's leg and is attached to the patient's shoe. An actuation rod is carried within the lower housing and is coupled to a cable. The upper and lower housings carry cooperative clutch/brake elements which normally are disengaged to permit relative movement between the upper and lower housings. When the cable is extended the clutch/brake elements engage and lock the housings together. A heel strike mechanism fastened to the stirrup and the heel of the shoe is connected to the cable to selectively extend the cable and lock the brace in substantially any position when the patient places weight on the heel.
Myers, Neill (Inventor); Shadoan, Mike (Inventor); Forbes, John (Inventor); Baker, Kevin (Inventor)
A knee brace for aiding in rehabilitation of damaged leg muscles includes upper and lower housings, normally pivotable, one relative to the other about the knee joint axis of a patient. The upper housing is attachable to the thigh of the patient above the knee joint, while the lower housing is secured to a stirrup which extends downwardly along the patient's leg and is attached to the patient's shoe. An actuation rod is carried within the lower housing and is coupled to a cable. The upper and lower housings carry cooperative clutch/brake elements which normally are disengaged to permit relative movement between the upper and lower housings. When the cable is extended, the clutch/brake elements engage and lock the housings together. A heel strike mechanism fastened to the stirrup and the heel of the shoe is connected to the cable to selectively extend the cable and lock the brace in substantially any position when the patient places weight on the heel.
Nagao, Masashi; Ishijima, Muneaki; Kaneko, Haruka; Takazawa, Yuji; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Kazuo
Elder populations have been increasing in Japan and estimated 24 million people have knee osteoarthritis(OA). Recently, people have diverse sociological background and demand for participating sports has been growing. People may participate sports to prevent some diseases such as locomotive syndrome. According to the recent studies, excessive high impact sports increase the risk of OA, while daily life exercise decrease the risk. Epidemiological approach demonstrated that reduced knee extension muscle strength increases the risk of OA. We reviewed and discussed the recent topics including efficacy of physical therapy for knee OA and how much sports activities could be beneficial after knee surgery.
Lewek, Michael D.; Ramsey, Dan K.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Rudolph, Katherine S.
OBJECTIVE Individuals with medial knee osteoarthritis (MKOA) experience knee laxity and instability. Muscle stabilization strategies may influence the long term integrity of the joint. In this study we determined how individuals with medial knee OA respond to a rapid valgus knee movement to investigate the relationship between muscle stabilization strategies and knee instability. METHODS Twenty one subjects with MKOA and genu varum, and 19 control subjects were tested. Subjects stood with the test limb on a moveable platform that translated laterally to rapidly stress the knee’s medial periarticular structures and create a potentially destabilizing feeling at the knee joint. Knee motion and muscle responses were recorded. Subjects rated their knee instability with a self-report questionnaire about knee instability during daily activities. RESULTS Prior to plate movement the OA subjects demonstrated more medial muscle co-contraction (p=0.014). Following plate movement the OA subjects shifted less weight off the test limb (p = 0.013) and had more medial co-contraction (p=0.037). Those without instability had higher VMMH co-contraction than those who reported more instability (p=0.038). Knee stability correlated positively with VMMH co-contraction prior to plate movement (r = 0.459; p = 0.042). CONCLUSION This study demonstrates that individuals with MKOA attempt to stabilize the knee with greater medial muscle co-contraction in response to laxity that appears on only the medial side of the joint. This strategy presumably contributes to higher joint compression and could exacerbate joint destruction and needs to be altered to slow or stop the progression of the OA disease process. PMID:16142714
Takano, Y; Ueno, M; Kiguchi, K; Ito, J; Mawatari, M; Hotokebuchi, T
A purpose of this study is to examine the effect that quadriceps femoris force gives to rotation angle and joint reaction force of total knee prosthesis during deep knee flexion such as a unique sitting style called 'seiza' in Japanese. For the evaluation, we developed the knee motion simulator which could bend to 180 degrees continually simulating the passive flexion performed by clinicians. A total knee prosthesis, which is a specially-devised posterior stabilized type and capable of flexion up to 180 degrees, was inserted into bone model. And this prosthesis pulled by three kinds of quadriceps femoris forces to perform parameter study. The results obtained in this study were showed the same tendency with those in the past cadaveric experiment. It is suggested that the rotation angle and joint reaction force of total knee prosthesis are affected by shape of prosthesis, a vector of quadriceps femoris force, and bony aliments during deep knee flexion.
Atzori, Francesco; Salama, Wael; Sabatini, Luigi; Mousa, Shazly; Khalefa, Abdelrahman
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with a medial pivot design was developed in order to mimic normal knee kinematics; the highly congruent medial compartment implant should improve clinical results and decrease contact stresses. Clinical and radiographic mid-term outcomes are satisfactory, but we need other studies to evaluate long-term results and indications for unusual cases.
Sohn, C; Casser, H R; Swobodnik, W
The tear in the meniscus interrupts the outline at which the sound-wave energy is reflected. This means that the sonogram shows an echo-rich, light reflection pattern. Degeneration also shows up as an echo-rich area, reflecting greater density of the tissue in the meniscus. This has been confirmed by experimental examination of knees of corpses, and also by clinical experience based on more than 2000 sonograms of the meniscus. A quota of more than 90% correct diagnoses can be obtained if the proper criteria are observed in case of a lesion of the meniscus, and if the technical equipment is adequate and the examiner has acquired sufficient skill.
Yang, Bin; Tan, Hongbo; Yang, Lui; Dai, Gang; Guo, Botao
Cartilage lesion of the patellofemoral joint is a common and challenging disease of the knee and an important cause of anterior knee pain. There are many naturally occurring variations in the anatomy and congruence of the patella and femoral trochlea. The purpose of this study was to identify the variations in patellofemoral anatomy and congruency that predispose to cartilage lesions. Among patients who underwent knee arthroscopy in our center from January 2005 to December 2006, 111 patients with chronic patellofemoral cartilage lesions and anterior knee pain were selected as the lesion group, while 124 patients with isolated meniscus rupture without anterior knee pain were selected as the control group. Twenty-one parameters measured on magnetic resonance images were used to assess the patellofemoral anatomy and congruence. A binary logistic regression model was used to look for possible associations between each of these parameters and the occurrence of patellofemoral cartilage lesions. The Bonferroni correction with a type I error rate of 0.0024 (0.05/21) was adopted to indicate statistical significance. Based on examination of the patellofemoral anatomy, 4 parameters were significantly associated with patellofemoral cartilage lesions. These were the patella lateral facet width, patella lateral facet ratio, sulcus depth and sulcus relative depth (P for linear trend <.0024). For patellofemoral congruence, 3 parameters were significantly associated with patellofemoral cartilage lesions. These were the lateral patella displacement, patella epicondylar axis angle and congruence angle (P for linear trend <.0024). Among the many kinds of patellofemoral variations, several were found to correlate with the development of patellofemoral cartilage lesions. These problems could be important risk factors for patellofemoral cartilage lesions.
Kim, Jinsu; Cho, Hunki; Young, Kiwon; Park, Jaehyun; Lee, Junkeun; Suh, Dongsam
Collagen acts as a scaffold for healing damaged cartilage. This study evaluated the results of an in vivo animal study and provides short-term clinical results on a mixture of atelocollagen and fibrin glue-enhanced microfracture techniques in patients with osteochondral lesions (OCL) of the talus. This paper contains animal in vivo data and clinical outcomes on the effectiveness of atelocollagen. An in vivo animal study was conducted with full-thickness cartilage defects created in the femoral condyle of 12 rabbits equally divided into 4 groups evaluated at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Four chondral lesions were created according to one procedure on each rabbit with each lesion treated as follows: (1) microfracture, (2) microfracture and the lesion covered with atelocollagen, (3) microfracture and the lesion covered with mixture of atelocollagen and fibrin glue, and (4) microfracture and the lesion covered with fibrin glue. In the clinical evaluation, 17 patients were treated with a combination of microfracture and atelocollagen injection for symptomatic full-thickness OCL of the talus. They were evaluated by the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot Score (AOFAS), Hannover Ankle Score System (HSS), visual analog scale (VAS), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline and at 12-months follow-up. Magnetic Resonance Observation of Cartilage Repair Tissue (MOCART) score of the post-op status was compared with the MOCART score and a modified Anderson's score of the pre-op status. In the animal study, subchondral bone and cartilage were generated completely in groups 2 and 3 microscopically. Hyaline-like cartilage was found in the repair tissue. In the clinical evaluation, mean AOFAS improved from 62 to 88, mean HSS improved from 62 to 87, and mean VAS score improved from 64 to 18, respectively (p <0.001). Fifteen patients (89%) reported good or excellent satisfaction. We defined the improvement of most of the subchondral bone edema and bone cyst
Seil, R; Hoffmann, A; Scheffler, S; Theisen, D; Mouton, C; Pape, D
There is an increasing biomechanical and anatomical understanding of the different types of meniscal lesions. Lesions of the posterior part of the medial meniscus in the meniscosynovial area have recently received increased attention. They generally occur in association with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. They are often missed ("hidden lesions") due to the fact that they cannot be seen by routine anterior arthroscopic inspection. Furthermore, meniscosynovial lesions play a role in anteroposterior knee laxity and, as such, they may be a cause of failure of ACL reconstruction or of postoperative persistent laxity. Little information is available regarding their cause with respect to injury mechanism, natural history, biomechanical implications, healing potential and treatment options. This article presents an overview of the currently available knowledge of these ramp lesions, their possible pathomechanism, classification, biomechanical relevance as well as repair techniques.
Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.
This report by the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports examines the effects of various forms of physical exercise on the knee joint which, because of its vulnerability, is especially subject to injury. Discussion centers around the physical characteristics of the joint, commonly used measurements for determining knee stability,…
A knee brace that uses Space Shuttle propulsion technology has moved a step closer to being available to help knee injury and stroke patients and may possibly benefit patients with birth defects, spinal cord injuries, and post-polio conditions. After years of hard work, inventors at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, have turned over the final design and prototype to industry partners at Horton's Orthotic Lab in Little Rock, Arkansas for further clinical testing. The device, called the Selectively Lockable Knee Brace, may mean faster, less painful rehabilitation for patients by allowing the knee to move when weight is not on the heel. Devices currently on the market lock the knee in a rigid, straight-leg position, or allow continuous free motion. Pictured here is a knee brace prototype being tested and fitted at Horton's Orthotic Lab. The knee brace is just one example of how space technology is being used to improve the lives of people on Earth. NASA's MSFC inventors Michael Shadoan and Neill Myers are space propulsion engineers who use the same mechanisms and materials to build systems for rockets that they used to design and develop the knee brace.
Weddendorf, Bruce C. (Inventor)
An articulated tang in clevis joint for incorporation in newly manufactured conventional strap-on orthotic knee devices or for replacing such joints in conventional strap-on orthotic knee devices is discussed. The instant tang in clevis joint allows the user the freedom to extend and bend the knee normally when no load (weight) is applied to the knee and to automatically lock the knee when the user transfers weight to the knee, thus preventing a damaged knee from bending uncontrollably when weight is applied to the knee. The tang in clevis joint of the present invention includes first and second clevis plates, a tang assembly and a spacer plate secured between the clevis plates. Each clevis plate includes a bevelled serrated upper section. A bevelled shoe is secured to the tank in close proximity to the bevelled serrated upper section of the clevis plates. A coiled spring mounted within an oblong bore of the tang normally urges the shoes secured to the tang out of engagement with the serrated upper section of each clevic plate to allow rotation of the tang relative to the clevis plate. When weight is applied to the joint, the load compresses the coiled spring, the serrations on each clevis plate dig into the bevelled shoes secured to the tang to prevent relative movement between the tang and clevis plates. A shoulder is provided on the tang and the spacer plate to prevent overextension of the joint.
A knee brace that uses Space Shuttle propulsion technology has moved a step closer to being available to help knee injury and stroke patients and may possibly benefit patients with birth defects, spinal cord injuries, and post-polio conditions. After years of hard work, inventors at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, have turned over the final design and prototype to industry partners at Horton's Orthotic Lab in Little Rock, Arkansas for further clinical testing. The device, called the Selectively Lockable Knee Brace, may mean faster, less painful rehabilitation for patients by allowing the knee to move when weight is not on the heel. Devices currently on the market lock the knee in a rigid, straight-leg position, or allow continuous free motion. Pictured here is a knee brace prototype being tested and fitted at Horton's Orthotic Lab. The knee brace is just one example of how space technology is being used to improve the lives of people on Earth. NASA's MSFC inventors Michael Shadoan and Neill Myers are space propulsion engineers who use the same mechanisms and materials to build systems for rockets that they used to design and develop the knee brace.
Marcoval, Joaquim; Mañá, Juan
In recent years we have observed with increasing frequency granulomatous papular lesions involving the knees, for which we proposed the term papular sarcoidosis of knees. To evaluate the clinicopathological features of papular sarcoidosis of the knees. Patients with papular lesions of the knees and histopathologically sarcoid granulomas were included in the study. Systemic sarcoidosis was investigated in all cases. Clinical charts were retrospectively retrieved. Biopsy specimens were evaluated under polarized light to detect foreign bodies. Fifty-three patients fulfilled inclusion criteria. In 36 cases systemic sarcoidosis was diagnosed and these cases were considered as papular sarcoidosis of the knees. Foreign particles were observed in 21 of these 36 patients. In only 9/36 patients did the activity of systemic disease persist over two years. In 17 cases sarcoidosis could not be demonstrated during follow-up. Papular sarcoidosis of the knees can be considered a relatively frequent form of cutaneous sarcoidosis usually present at the beginning of the disease that can be useful for the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. It is mainly observed in acute forms of sarcoidosis and can be considered a sign of good prognosis.
Kirschke, Jan S.; Braun, Sepp; Baum, Thomas; Holwein, Christian; Schaeffeler, Christoph; Imhoff, Andreas B.; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Woertler, Klaus
Background. To retrospectively determine the diagnostic value of computed tomography arthrography (CTA) of the ankle in the evaluation of (osteo)chondral lesions in comparison to conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and intraoperative findings. Methods. A total of N = 79 patients had CTAs and MRI of the ankle; in 17/79 cases surgical reports with statements on cartilage integrity were available. Cartilage lesions and bony defects at talus and tibia were scored according to defect depth and size by two radiologists. Statistical analysis included sensitivity analyses and Cohen's kappa calculations. Results. On CTA, 41/79 and 31/79 patients had full thickness cartilage defects at the talus and at the tibia, respectively. MRI was able to detect 54% of these defects. For the detection of full thickness cartilage lesions, interobserver agreement was substantial (0.72 ± 0.05) for CTA and moderate (0.55 ± 0.07) for MRI. In surgical reports, 88–92% and 46–62% of full thickness defects detected by CTA and MRI were described. CTA findings changed the further clinical management in 15.4% of cases. Conclusions. As compared to conventional MRI, CTA improves detection and visualization of cartilage defects at the ankle and is a relevant tool for treatment decisions in unclear cases. PMID:27891511
Bloom, Shlomo; Lebel, David; Cohen, Eugen; Atar, Dan; Rath, Ehud
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the leading cause of knee morbidity. Age and overweight are the main risk factors for development of knee OA. The majority of patients respond to conservative treatment. For those who don't, surgical treatment is the only alternative. Arthroscopic surgery for the osteoarthritic knee is a well known procedure. Recently, numerous publications addressed the advantages of arthroscopic treatment for this indication. Some of the publications concluded that arthroscopic treatment for knee OA equals placebo. Others found temporary relief of symptoms. Among special subgroup of patients, in which acute pain exacerbation, mechanical block or early OA, utilizing arthroscopic techniques revealed satisfactory results. In this review, we discuss the indications and contraindications for arthroscopic treatment of the osteoarthritic knee according to the latest literature.
GIBSON, NADIA; GUERMAZI, ALI; CLANCY, MARGARET; NIU, JINGBO; GRAYSON, PETER; ALIABADI, PIRAN; ROEMER, FRANK; FELSON, DAVID T.
Objective Enthesopathy has been reported as a feature of osteoarthritis (OA) in the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints. We previously reported that central bone marrow lesions (BML) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans are associated with OA. In this study, we evaluated whether hand and knee enthesopathy were related. Methods We studied knee and hand radiographs of subjects from the Framingham Osteoarthritis Study. Subjects seen in 2002–2005 had bilateral posteroanterior hand radiographs, weight-bearing knee radiographs, and knee MRI scans. Hand radiographs were read for enthesophytes at the juxtaarticular non-synovial areas of metacarpophalangeal (MCP), proximal interphalangeal (PIP), and DIP joints, and midshafts of the phalanges. We selected 100 cases of knees with central BML and 100 matched controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess associations. Results Subjects with enthesophytes of at least 1 score ≥ 2 at DIP, PIP, and/or MCP were not more likely to have central knee BML (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.17–1.40) than those without enthesophytes. Similarly, having at least 1 score ≥ 2 on the shafts was not significantly associated with having a central knee BML (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.23–1.51). Adjustment for the presence of diabetes mellitus did not affect these results, but there was an increased prevalence of diabetes in those with hand enthesophytes (OR 3.09, 95% 1.29–7.40, enthesophyte score ≥ 2). Conclusion We found no increase in the prevalence of hand enthesophytes among persons with central knee BML on their knee MRI scans. This provides evidence against a systemic enthesopathic disorder in association with knee OA. PMID:22174209
Bennemann, M; Hönle, W; Simank, H G; Schuh, A
More than 20% of the population of over 60-year olds suffers from degenerative joint diseases of the lower extremities. The cause of primary osteoarthritis of the knee is still unknown. A multifactorial genesis is presumed that includes genetic, nutritional, hormonal and age-related factors. On the other hand, secondary osteoarthritis is a sequela of predisposing factors. The most frequent are axial deformities, pre-existing conditions or injuries. Pre-osteoarthritis appears as dysplasias and dystopias (abnormal presentation) of the patella and axial misalignments, incongruities and joint damage after fractures. The result is the mechanical destruction of the cartilage that, in turn, initiates a vicious circle of further cartilage loss.
Pickhard, A; Reiter, R
Benign vocal fold lesions are grouped in lesions arising from the epithelium like papillomas, lesions affecting the Reinke's space (nodules, polyps, cysts, Reinkes's edema as a form of chronic laryngitis) and lesions affecting the arytenoid (granulomas). A multifactorial genesis is assumed. Main symptoms are dysphonia and hyperfunctional vocal behavior that might also be a cause of these lesions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker; Alkjær, Tine; Koblauch, Henrik; Simonsen, Erik Bruun; Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Thygesen, Lau Caspar
Meniscal lesions are common and may contribute to the development of knee arthrosis. A few case-control and cross-sectional studies have identified knee-straining work as risk factors for meniscal lesions, but exposure-response relations and the role of specific exposures are uncertain, and previous results may be sensitive to reporting and selection bias. We examined the relation between meniscal lesions and cumulative exposure to heavy lifting in a prospective register-based study with complete follow-up and independent information on exposure and outcome. We established a cohort of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort). The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar socioeconomic background and less knee-straining work. Baggage handlers lifted suitcases with an average weight of approximately 15 kg, in total approximately five tonnes during a 9-hour workday. The cohort was followed in the National Patient Register and Civil Registration System. The outcome was a first time hospital diagnosis or surgery of a meniscal lesion. Baggage handlers had a higher incidence of meniscal lesions than the referents. Within baggage handlers spline regression showed that the incidence rate ratio was 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.29-2.84) after five years as a baggage handler and then decreased slowly to reach unity after approximately 30 years, adjusted for effects of potential confounders. This relation between baggage handling and meniscal lesions was present for work on the apron which involves lifting in a kneeling or squatting position, but not in the baggage hall, which only involves lifting in standing positions. The results support that long-term heavy lifting in a kneeling or squatting position is a risk factor for the development of symptomatic
Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker; Alkjær, Tine; Koblauch, Henrik; Simonsen, Erik Bruun; Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Thygesen, Lau Caspar
Meniscal lesions are common and may contribute to the development of knee arthrosis. A few case-control and cross-sectional studies have identified knee-straining work as risk factors for meniscal lesions, but exposure-response relations and the role of specific exposures are uncertain, and previous results may be sensitive to reporting and selection bias. We examined the relation between meniscal lesions and cumulative exposure to heavy lifting in a prospective register-based study with complete follow-up and independent information on exposure and outcome. We established a cohort of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort). The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar socioeconomic background and less knee-straining work. Baggage handlers lifted suitcases with an average weight of approximately 15 kg, in total approximately five tonnes during a 9-hour workday. The cohort was followed in the National Patient Register and Civil Registration System. The outcome was a first time hospital diagnosis or surgery of a meniscal lesion. Baggage handlers had a higher incidence of meniscal lesions than the referents. Within baggage handlers spline regression showed that the incidence rate ratio was 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.29–2.84) after five years as a baggage handler and then decreased slowly to reach unity after approximately 30 years, adjusted for effects of potential confounders. This relation between baggage handling and meniscal lesions was present for work on the apron which involves lifting in a kneeling or squatting position, but not in the baggage hall, which only involves lifting in standing positions. The results support that long-term heavy lifting in a kneeling or squatting position is a risk factor for the development of symptomatic
Hollerbach, K; Hollister, A
Although 150,000 total knee replacement surgeries are performed annually in North America, current designs of knee prostheses have mechanical problems that include a limited range of motion, abnormal gait patterns, patellofemoral joint dysfunction, implant loosening or subsidence, and excessive wear. These problems fall into three categories: failure to reproduce normal joint kinematics, which results in altered limb function; bone-implant interface failure; and material failure. Modern computer technology can be used to design, prototype, and test new total knee implants. The design team uses the full range of CAD-CAM to design and produce implant prototypes for mechanical and clinical testing. Closer approximation of natural knee kinematics and kinetics is essential for improved patient function and diminished implant loads. Current knee replacement designs are based on 19th Century theories that the knee moves about a variable axis of rotation. Recent research has shown, however, that knee motion occurs about two fixed, offset axes of rotation. These aces are not perpendicular to the long axes of the bones or to each other, and the axes do not intersect. Bearing surfaces of mechanisms that move about axes of rotation are surfaces of revolution of those axes which advanced CAD technology can produce. Solids with surfaces of revolution for the two axes of rotation for the knee have been made using an HP9000 workstation and Structural Ideas Master Series CAD software at ArthroMotion. The implant's CAD model should closely replicate movements of the normal knee. The knee model will have a range of flexion-extension (FE) from -5 to 120 degrees. Movements include varus, valgus, internal and external rotation, as well as flexion and extension. The patellofemoral joint is aligned perpendicular to the FE axis and replicates the natural joint more closely than those of existing prostheses. The bearing surfaces will be more congruent than current designs and should
... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Knees and knee impact test procedure. 572.166... Hybrid III Six-Year-Old Weighted Child Test Dummy § 572.166 Knees and knee impact test procedure. The knee assembly is assembled and tested as specified in 49 CFR 572.126 (Subpart N). ...
... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Knees and knee impact test procedure. 572.166... Hybrid III Six-Year-Old Weighted Child Test Dummy § 572.166 Knees and knee impact test procedure. The knee assembly is assembled and tested as specified in 49 CFR 572.126 (Subpart N). ...
... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Knees and knee impact test procedure. 572.166... Hybrid III Six-Year-Old Weighted Child Test Dummy § 572.166 Knees and knee impact test procedure. The knee assembly is assembled and tested as specified in 49 CFR 572.126 (Subpart N). ...
... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Knees and knee impact test procedure. 572.166... Hybrid III Six-Year-Old Weighted Child Test Dummy § 572.166 Knees and knee impact test procedure. The knee assembly is assembled and tested as specified in 49 CFR 572.126 (Subpart N). ...
... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Knees and knee impact test procedure. 572.166... Hybrid III Six-Year-Old Weighted Child Test Dummy § 572.166 Knees and knee impact test procedure. The knee assembly is assembled and tested as specified in 49 CFR 572.126 (Subpart N). ...
Claramunt, Raúl Torres; López, Xavier Pelfort; Palou, Enric Cáceres; García, Joan C Monllau; Verdie, Lluís Puig
Melorheostosis is a rare non-hereditary bone disease characterized by a radiographic pattern of flowing hyperostosis along the cortex with sclerotomal distribution. We report a case of a patient with severe knee contracture and a restricted range of motion caused by intraarticular bone fragment and hyperostotic bone lesions secondary to melorheostosis. An arthroscopically assisted approach was used successfully in order to remove free bone fragments and to release the hyperostotic lesions in the bone cortex of the distal femur.
Chissell, H. R.; Allum, R. L.; Keightley, A.
In the first year of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning of the knee in the East Berkshire Health District, 175 patients were scanned and 79 of these subsequently had an arthroscopy performed. We found that MRI accurately demonstrated the pathology present in the knee, particularly for meniscal lesions, although it was less accurate for anterior cruciate and cartilage lesions. The relative costs of MRI scanning, arthroscopy and conservative treatment are compared. On the basis of this analysis we have worked out a protocol for the cost-effective use of MRI in imaging the knee. This protocol has reduced the number of arthroscopies performed, allowing us to expend resources on patients who would definitely benefit from arthroscopic surgery. PMID:8117014
Baker, K; McAlindon, T
Adverse outcomes in knee osteoarthritis include pain, loss of function, and disability. These outcomes can have devastating effects on the quality of life of those suffering from the disease. Treatments have generally targeted pain, assuming that disability would improve as a direct result of improvements in pain. However, there is evidence to suggest that determinants of pain and disability differ. In general, treatments have been more successful at decreasing pain rather than disability. Many of the factors that lead to disability can be improved with exercise. Exercise, both aerobic and strength training, have been examined as treatments for knee osteoarthritis, with considerable variability in the results. The variability between studies may be due to differences in study design, exercise protocols, and participants in the studies. Although there is variability among studies, it is notable that a majority of the studies had a positive effect on pain and or disability. The mechanism of exercise remains unclear and merits future studies to better define a concise, clear exercise protocol that may have the potential for a public health intervention.
Franceschi, Francesco; Barnaba, Simona Angela; Rojas, Mario; Gualdi, Giancarlo; Rizzello, Giacomo; Papalia, Rocco; Denaro, Vincenzo
Knee injuries in young athletes include not only the typical adult bone injuries, ligament and cartilage, but also the growth plate lesions. Osteochondroses are idiopathic, self-limited disturbance of enchondral ossification in which a rapid growth spurt is present. The patella could be affected by two different kinds of osteochondroses: Kohler syndrome and Sinding-Larsen-Johansson. Here we are reporting the first case of simultaneous location of osteochondroses of the two ossification centers of both patella. A 9-year-old boy, competitive skater, presented a history of anterior knee pain involving both knees. Standard X-rays, axial patellar view, MRI and arthro-MR were performed. In order to follow the natural history of the pathology and the evolution of the healing, examinations at 2 years were repeated. We proposed the young skater a medical and a physiotherapeutic treatment based on unloading, isometric exercises, NSAID. As the symptoms improve a gradual return to competitive sports activity was allowed. The case mentioned above can be considered an atypical case because the patient suffered for a bilateral knee osteochondroses, involving simultaneously the primary ossification centre (Kohler syndrome) and the secondary ossification centre (Larsen syndrome) of the patella.
Valles-Figueroa, J F J; Ambrosio-Salgado, J; Suárez-Ahedo, C E; Rueda-Villarón, O
For the past two decades arthroscopic surgery has revolutionized the treatment of acute traumatic knee injuries with patients returning sooner to activities of daily living. However, there are factors that delay this goal, such as postoperative intraarticular bleeding, and the swelling and pain that restrain immediate articular mobility. This paper analyzes such factors and their pathophysiologic processes. This led us to formulating a preparation for intraarticular use called RV023. The report of an original, prospective, longitudinal trial is presented herein, assessing the functional results of preparation RV023 in a 60-patient sample selected based on the following inclusion criteria: knee pain lasting 2 years and unresponsive to NSAID treatment, an MRI showing an Outerbridge grade I chondral injury without evidence of ligament or meniscal injury or fracture, and having undergone arthroscopic knee surgery. A significant difference was found in the articular function of subjects treated with the preparation as compared with those in whom it was not used. The articular function recovery curves of individuals treated with the preparation were virtually symmetrical to the curves for healthy controls. On the other hand, no allergic reactions, unwanted or side effects were reported. We therefore conclude that the safety and the benefits seen with preparation RV023 in experimental models are enough to support its use in humans.
Chivers, Michael D.; Howitt, Scott D.
Objective: The objective of this study was to review the physical examination tests available to a practitioner in order to arrive at a clinical diagnosis or suspicion of a meniscal lesion. Background: The menisci transmit weight bearing forces and increase stability of the knee. The menisci also facilitate nutrition, provide lubrication and shock absorption for the articular cartilage and promote knee proprioception. The combinations of torsional and axial loading appear to be the cause of most meniscal injuries. Diagnosis of acute knee injuries has long been a topic for discussion throughout the orthopedic literature. Many clinical tests and diagnostic studies have been developed to increase the clinician’s ability to accurately diagnose these types of disorders of the knee. Conclusion: The accuracy of all diagnostic tests is thought to be dependant upon the skill of the examiner, and the severity and location of the injury. The multitude of tests described to assess meniscal lesions suggests that none are consistently reliable. However, recent research has focused on a composite score to accurately predict meniscus lesions. The combination of a comprehensive history, multiple physical tests and diagnostic imaging for confirmation is typical for a clinical meniscal lesion diagnosis while the gold standard remains the arthroscopic procedure itself. PMID:20037697
Page, Carolyn J; Hinman, Rana S; Bennell, Kim L
Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent chronic joint disease causing pain and disability. Physiotherapy, which encompasses a number of modalities, is a non-invasive treatment option in the management of OA. This review summarizes the evidence for commonly used physiotherapy interventions. There is strong evidence to show short-term beneficial effects of exercise on pain and function, although the type of exercise does not seem to influence treatment outcome. Delivery modes, including individual, group or home exercise are all effective, although therapist contact may improve benefits. Attention to improving adherence to exercise is needed to maximize outcomes in the longer-term. Knee taping applied with the aim of realigning the patella and unloading soft tissues can reduce pain. There is also evidence to support the use of knee braces in people with knee OA. Biomechanical studies show that lateral wedge shoe insoles reduce knee load but clinical trials do not support symptomatic benefits. Recent studies suggest individual shoe characteristics also affect knee load and there is current interest in the effect of modified shoe designs. Manual therapy, while not to be used as a stand-alone treatment, may be beneficial. In summary, although the research is not equivocal, there is sufficient evidence to indicate that physiotherapy interventions can reduce pain and improve function in those with knee OA. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases © 2011 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
A knee brace that uses Space Shuttle propulsion technology has moved a step closer to being available to help knee injury and stroke patients and may possibly benefit patients with birth defects, spinal cord injuries, and post-polio conditions. After years of hard work, inventors at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, have turned over the final design and prototype to industry partners at Horton's Orthotic Lab in Little Rock, Arkansas for further clinical testing. The device, called the Selectively Lockable Knee Brace, may mean faster, less painful rehabilitation for patients by allowing the knee to move when weight is not on the heel. Devices currently on the market lock the knee in a rigid, straight-leg position, or allow continuous free motion. The knee brace is just one example of how space technology is being used to improve the lives of people on Earth. NASA's MSFC inventors Michael Shadoan and Neill Myers are space propulsion engineers who use the same mechanisms and materials to build systems for rockets that they used to design and develop the knee brace.
A knee brace that uses Space Shuttle propulsion technology has moved a step closer to being available to help knee injury and stroke patients and may possibly benefit patients with birth defects, spinal cord injuries, and post-polio conditions. After years of hard work, inventors at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, have turned over the final design and prototype to industry partners at Horton's Orthotic Lab in Little Rock, Arkansas for further clinical testing. The device, called the Selectively Lockable Knee Brace, may mean faster, less painful rehabilitation for patients by allowing the knee to move when weight is not on the heel. Devices currently on the market lock the knee in a rigid, straight-leg position, or allow continuous free motion. The knee brace is just one example of how space technology is being used to improve the lives of people on Earth. NASA's MSFC inventors Michael Shadoan and Neill Myers are space propulsion engineers who use the same mechanisms and materials to build systems for rockets that they used to design and develop the knee brace.
Lohse, Anne; Carbillet, Jean-Pierre; Onimus, Michel; Stevenel, Françoise; Toussirot, Eric; Wendling, Daniel
The term "intraosseous synovial cyst" is used to designate both the epiphyseal cyst-like lesions seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and mucoid cysts, which occur in a different setting. We report the case of a patient in whom a 4-cm cyst-like lesion developed in the left tibia 18 years after onset of RA and 6 years after osmic acid synovectomy of the left knee. Positive contrast arthrography and magnetic resonance imaging visualized a communication between the lesion and the joint space. Preexisting bone and joint lesions and increased intraarticular pressure play a major role in the genesis of cyst-like lesions in RA. In our patient, the osmic acid synovectomy may have contributed to the development of the lesion. "Synovial cyst" is a misnomer for these giant lesions, which are geodes rather than cysts. Despite their low incidence, these lesions deserve attention because they raise diagnostic and therapeutic problems.
Astore, Ignacio; Agotegaray, Juan Ignacio; Comba, Ignacio; Bisiach, Luciana
Introduction: Juvenile osteochondritis dissecans is a pathology that affects the superficial articular cartilage and subchondral bone in patients with open physes. Treatment of this disease is based on patient’s age and the stage of the disease. Methods: 16-year-old patient, athlete, with a history of knee pain on the right side of acute onset, without traumatic history. A physical examination shows pain in the external compartment of the knee. MRI shows a stable lesion that involves the external femoral condyle, over a posterior area of 16 mm by 20mm. Crutches are indicate for walking without body burden. Symptoms continue for six months and there are no changes in MRI. It is decided to do a stabilization with a Herbert type screw. After the surgery, pain persists and in x-ray controls, osteointegration is not observed. Osteosynthesis material is extracted and mosaicplasty is performed. We used Guhl’s intraoperative classification. Results: In this case, for a young patient with Guhl’s lesion type III, the reduction with a Herbert type screw was indicated, as the lesion was stable, of a significant size and congruent. Lesion progressed to type IV in 6 months. Thus, mosaicplasty was performed, obtaining a good functional result according to the physical exam, with a complete range of flexion and extension. A second-look arthroscopic assessment was carried out 2 months after surgery, showing osteointegration and stability of the allogenic graft. Conclusion: The variable of stability of the fragment is very important when determining the treatment. Most of the stable lesions can be successfully treated with a conservative treatment. Also, it has been demonstrated that young patients have a higher rate of healing. Instead, unstable lesions require surgical treatment.
Heidari, Behzad; Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah; Babaei, Mansour
Background: Several factors are associated with the development or exacerbation of pain in knee osteoarthritis (KOA). In this study, we reviewed this context based on relevant studies. Methods: Recent published studies which have addressed the relationship between pain and KOA were summarized. Results: Correlates of the clinical, demographic features, laboratory tests and abnormalities on radiographic as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the knee pain have been discussed. The results indicated that many factors such as synovitis, synovial effusion, obesity, as well as structural lesions determined by MRI or radiographic examination, serum cytokines, inflammatory markers are determinants of pain in KOA. Conclusion: This context requires further investigations for identification of additional factors which initiate pain in asymptomatic KOA PMID:27757198
Rytter, Søren; Jensen, Lilli Kirkeskov; Bonde, Jens Peter
Background The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of self-reported and clinical knee morbidity among floor layers compared to a group of graphic designers, with special attention to meniscal status. Methods We obtained information about knee complaints by questionnaire and conducted a bilateral clinical and radiographic knee examination in 134 male floor layers and 120 male graphic designers. After the exclusion of subjects with reports of earlier knee injuries the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of knee complaints and clinical findings were computed among floor layers compared to graphic designers, using logistic regression. Estimates were adjusted for effects of body mass index, age and knee straining sports. Using radiographic evaluations, we conducted side-specific sensitivity analyses regarding clinical signs of meniscal lesions after the exclusion of participants with tibiofemoral (TF) osteoarthritis (OA). Results Reports of knee pain (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.5–4.6), pain during stair walking (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.3–3.9) and symptoms of catching of the knee joint (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.4–5.7) were more prevalent among floor layers compared to graphic designers. Additionally, significant more floor layers than graphic designers had clinical signs suggesting possible meniscal lesions: a positive McMurray test (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.1–5.0) and TF joint line tenderness (OR = 5.4, 95% CI = 2.4–12.0). Excluding floor layers (n = 22) and graphic designers (n = 15) with radiographic TF OA did not alter this trend between the two study groups: a positive McMurray test (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.0–4.9), TF joint line tenderness (OR = 5.0, 95% CI = 2.0–12.5). Conclusion Results indicate that floor layers have a high prevalence of both self-reported and clinical knee morbidity. Clinical knee findings suggesting possible meniscal lesions were significant more prevalent among floor layers compared to a group of low-level exposed graphic
Rytter, Søren; Jensen, Lilli Kirkeskov; Bonde, Jens Peter
The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of self-reported and clinical knee morbidity among floor layers compared to a group of graphic designers, with special attention to meniscal status. We obtained information about knee complaints by questionnaire and conducted a bilateral clinical and radiographic knee examination in 134 male floor layers and 120 male graphic designers. After the exclusion of subjects with reports of earlier knee injuries the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of knee complaints and clinical findings were computed among floor layers compared to graphic designers, using logistic regression. Estimates were adjusted for effects of body mass index, age and knee straining sports. Using radiographic evaluations, we conducted side-specific sensitivity analyses regarding clinical signs of meniscal lesions after the exclusion of participants with tibiofemoral (TF) osteoarthritis (OA). Reports of knee pain (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.5-4.6), pain during stair walking (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.3-3.9) and symptoms of catching of the knee joint (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.4-5.7) were more prevalent among floor layers compared to graphic designers. Additionally, significant more floor layers than graphic designers had clinical signs suggesting possible meniscal lesions: a positive McMurray test (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.1-5.0) and TF joint line tenderness (OR = 5.4, 95% CI = 2.4-12.0). Excluding floor layers (n = 22) and graphic designers (n = 15) with radiographic TF OA did not alter this trend between the two study groups: a positive McMurray test (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.0-4.9), TF joint line tenderness (OR = 5.0, 95% CI = 2.0-12.5). Results indicate that floor layers have a high prevalence of both self-reported and clinical knee morbidity. Clinical knee findings suggesting possible meniscal lesions were significant more prevalent among floor layers compared to a group of low-level exposed graphic designers and an association with occupational
Papalia, Rocco; Zampogna, Biagio; Franceschi, Francesco; Torre, Guglielmo; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo
The tourniquet is a surgical device composed of a round pneumatic cuff in which air at high pressure can be inflated with an automatic programmable pump to avoid bleeding and technical impediment. Comprehensive searches of Medline, Cochrane and Google Scholar databases were performed for studies regarding tourniquet application in arthroscopic and open surgery of the knee. The methodological quality of each study was evaluated using the Coleman methodology score (CMS). The use of a tourniquet does not lead to significant increase in the risk of major complications, and there is no difference in clinical outcome in the medium term. The inflated cuff does prevent intraoperative blood loss, but hidden blood loss is not avoided completely. There is a statistically significantly higher occurrence of deep vein thrombosis in patients who undergo surgery with tourniquet, but the clinical relevance of this finding is uncertain. The heterogeneity in terms of inflating pressure and duration of application of tourniquet in the single studies makes it very difficult to compare the outcomes of different investigations to draw definitive conclusions. Standardization of pressure and application time of the cuff could allow a comparison of the data reported by the trials. Better study methodology should be also implemented since the mean CMS considering all the reviewed articles was 57.6 of 100. More and better designed studies are needed to produce clear guidelines to standardize the use of tourniquet in knee procedures. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Jerosch, Joerg; Aldawoudy, Akram M
The purpose of this study was to document the effect of arthroscopic management in patients with knee stiffness after total knee replacement. We present a case series study, in which 32 patients have been treated for moderate arthrofibrosis of the knee after total knee replacement, with the same regimen. We have excluded all cases of stiffness, because of infection, mechanical mal-alignment, loosening of the implants and other obvious reasons of stiffness of the knee, rather than pure arthrofibrosis. All patients first underwent a trial of conservative treatment before going for arthroscopic management. A pain catheter for femoral nerve block was inserted just before anesthesia for post-operative pain management. Arthroscopic arthrolysis of the intra-articular pathology was performed in a standardized technique with release of all fibrous bands in the suprapatellar pouch, reestablishing the medial and lateral gutter, release of the patella, resection of the remaining meniscal tissue or an anterior cyclops, if needed. Intensive physiotherapy and continuous passive motion were to start immediately post-operatively. All the patients were available for the follow up and they were evaluated using the knee society rating system. A total of 25 of the 32 procedures resulted in an improvement of the patients knee score. All the knees operated upon had intra-articular fibrous bands, hypertrophic synovitis and peri-patellar adhesions. A total of eight patients suffered from an anterior cyclops lesion and six patients showed pseudomenicus. In 19 cases a medial and lateral relapse of the patella was performed; only 5 patients got an isolated lateral release. The mean knee flexion was 119 degrees (100-130) at the end of arthroscopy and was 97 degrees (75-115) at the last follow up. The eight patients with extension lags decreased from 27 degrees (10 degrees-35 degrees) pre-operatively to 4 degrees (0-10) at time of follow up. The average knee society ratings increased from 70
Hutchinson, M R; Ireland, M L
Female athletes are at increased risk for certain sports-related injuries, particularly those involving the knee. Factors that contribute to this increased risk are the differences in sports undertaken and in gender anatomy and structure. Gender differences include baseline level of conditioning, lower extremity alignment, physiological laxity, pelvis width, tibial rotation and foot alignment. Sports like gymnastics and cheerleading create a noncontact environment, but can result in significant knee injuries. In quick stopping and cutting sports, females have an increased incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury by noncontact mechanisms. Patellofemoral (PF) disorders are also very common in female athletes. Awareness of these facts helps the sports medicine professional make an accurate diagnosis and institute earlier treatment-focused rehabilitation with or without surgery. Further prospective and retrospective research is needed in areas of epidemiology, mechanisms, severity and types of knee injuries. The goal is to lessen the severity of certain knee injuries and to prevent others.
Garrick, James G.
This article presents a pragmatic approach to the definition, diagnosis, and management of anterior knee pain. Symptoms and treatment are described. Emphasis is on active involvement of the patient in the rehabilitation exercise program. (IAH)
Lueders, Daniel R; Smith, Jay; Sellon, Jacob L
Most knee structures can be accurately targeted using ultrasound guidance. These structures are usually superficial, and the overlying soft tissues are mobile and compressible, facilitating excellent visualization with a high-frequency linear array transducer. The circumferential accessibility to the knee affords flexibility and often multiple procedural approach options. In most cases, an in-plane approach is easily achieved. Studies of ultrasonography-guided knee procedures have consistently shown high accuracy, and its use is particularly beneficial for obese patients, diagnostic injection specificity, safety, and precise targeting of pathology. More studies are needed to assess the clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of ultrasonography-guided knee procedures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Babazadeh, Sina; Stoney, James D.; Lim, Keith; Choong, Peter F.M.
The Charcot knee - or neuropathic arthropathy - presents a considerable challenge to the orthopaedic surgeon. Caused by a combination of sensory, motor and autonomic neuropathy, it was originally described as an arthritic sequelae of neurosyphilis. In today's western orthopaedics it is more often caused by diabetes. A Charcot knee is often symptomatically painful and unstable. Traditional management has usually been conservative or arthrodesis, with limited success. Arthroplasty of a Charcot joint has commonly been avoided at all costs. However, in the right patient, using the right technique, arthroplasty can significantly improve the symptoms of a Charcot joint. This article explores the evidence surrounding the role of arthroplasty in the management of a Charcot knee. Arthroplasty is compared to other forms of treatment and specific patient demographics and surgical techniques are explored in an attempt to define the role of arthroplasty in the management of a Charcot knee. PMID:21808708
Garrick, James G.
This article presents a pragmatic approach to the definition, diagnosis, and management of anterior knee pain. Symptoms and treatment are described. Emphasis is on active involvement of the patient in the rehabilitation exercise program. (IAH)
... are rarely helpful, and may hinder a child’s physical development and cause unnecessary emotional stress. Rarely, bowlegs or knock-knees are the result of a disease. Arthritis, injury to the growth ...
Roy, Snehashis; He, Qing; Carass, Aaron; Jog, Amod; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L.; Reich, Daniel S.; Prince, Jerry; Pham, Dzung
Automatic and accurate detection of white matter lesions is a significant step toward understanding the progression of many diseases, like Alzheimer's disease or multiple sclerosis. Multi-modal MR images are often used to segment T2 white matter lesions that can represent regions of demyelination or ischemia. Some automated lesion segmentation methods describe the lesion intensities using generative models, and then classify the lesions with some combination of heuristics and cost minimization. In contrast, we propose a patch-based method, in which lesions are found using examples from an atlas containing multi-modal MR images and corresponding manual delineations of lesions. Patches from subject MR images are matched to patches from the atlas and lesion memberships are found based on patch similarity weights. We experiment on 43 subjects with MS, whose scans show various levels of lesion-load. We demonstrate significant improvement in Dice coefficient and total lesion volume compared to a state of the art model-based lesion segmentation method, indicating more accurate delineation of lesions.
Spahn, Gunter; Fritz, Jürgen; Albrecht, Dirk; Hofmann, Gunther O; Niemeyer, Philipp
Knee cartilage lesions are very frequent in arthroscopic surgery. This multi-center-study was aimed to evaluate the distribution and possible associated factors of these pathologies in more than 1000 patients. The German cartilage registry (KnorpelRegister DGOU) started in 2013. In this paper, we present the baseline-data (distribution of knee cartilage lesions and the demographic data) of more than 1000 cases since the registries' start-up. A total number of 47 centers were involved into this multicenter study. A total of 1071 patients primary were registered. Degenerative knees 629 times (61.8 %) and injured knees 302 times (29.6 %) were involved. In the remaining 89 knees (8.7 %) the genesis of cartilage lesions was unclear. Single defects were observed in 792 cases (77.6 %). Most frequently the medial femoral condyle or the patella was affected. In 78 knees (7.6 %) the main-defect was associated with a defect of the corresponding joint surface. In the remaining cases complex cartilage damages were found. Our results are in confirmation with other multicenter studies. But these former studies did not differentiate into traumatic and degenerative lesions. Furthermore no characteristics were given regarding to single, kissing or complex lesions. Thus this database will be a sufficient instrument for the investigation of the "natural course" of cartilage lesions, but above all about the effectiveness of different treatment options.
Bartz, Reed L; Laudicina, Lawrence
Recent advances in the knowledge of tissue homeostasis, including the tissue homeostasis theory and the envelope of function theory as proposed by Dye, have greatly increased our knowledge of the pathophysiology of osteoarthrosis after sports knee injuries. The development of these two theories has not only advanced our understanding of the treatment and prevention of osteoarthrosis after acute injuries to the knee, but has also given us guidance as to directions for future research.
Arvinius, C; Luque, R; Díaz-Ceacero, C; Marco, F
Congenital knee dislocation is an infrequent condition with unknown etiology. In some cases it occurs as an isolated condition, while in others it coexists with associated conditions or syndromes. The treatment of congenital knee dislocation is driven by the severity and flexibility of the deformity. The literature includes from serial casting or the Pavlik harness to quadriceps tendon plasty or femoral osteotomies. We report herein the case of a congenital dislocation treated with serial casting with a good outcome.
Nelson, K A
This article has profiled the use of knee braces as an augmentation to the overall rehabilitation program following knee injury. It has also outlined other aspects of rehabilitation, the use of continuous passive motion devices, and other forms of exercises and training that, together with bracing, may enhance patient recovery. Continuous passive motion devices have been used for many different orthopedic problems with good success. Understanding the mechanics of how these devices move the knee and the forces that can be applied to the knee is helpful in deciding on their use after ligamentous reconstructions. Rehabilitation of the knee following surgery requires a good understanding of the effects that each exercise has on the knee and the reconstruction. Gradual progression of exercises to the knee following knee ligament reconstruction will not overstress healing tissues. Many different types of knee braces exist, and careful evaluation of them may enhance patient recovery.
Myers, Neill; Forbes, John; Shadoan, Mike; Baker, Kevin
Proposed knee brace designed to aid rehabilitation of person who suffered some muscle damage in leg. Not limited to locking in straight-leg position and, instead, locks at any bend angle. Does not prevent knee from bearing weight. Instead, knee brace allows knee to bear weight and locks only when foot and lower leg bear weight. Thus, brace prevents flexion that wearer desired to prevent but could not prevent because of weakened muscles. Knee bends freely to exercise knee-related muscles. Knee brace strapped at upper end to leg above knee, and anchored at lower end by stirrup under foot. Joint mechanism (identical mechanisms used in left and right assemblies) allows knee joint to flex freely except when weight applied to heel.
Myers, Neill; Forbes, John; Shadoan, Mike; Baker, Kevin
Proposed knee brace designed to aid rehabilitation of person who suffered some muscle damage in leg. Not limited to locking in straight-leg position and, instead, locks at any bend angle. Does not prevent knee from bearing weight. Instead, knee brace allows knee to bear weight and locks only when foot and lower leg bear weight. Thus, brace prevents flexion that wearer desired to prevent but could not prevent because of weakened muscles. Knee bends freely to exercise knee-related muscles. Knee brace strapped at upper end to leg above knee, and anchored at lower end by stirrup under foot. Joint mechanism (identical mechanisms used in left and right assemblies) allows knee joint to flex freely except when weight applied to heel.
Ventura, Alberto; Legnani, Claudio; Terzaghi, Clara; Iori, Stefano; Borgo, Enrico
The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate the outcomes of patients who underwent combined medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The hypothesis was that this procedure would lead to a high success rate in patients affected by isolated medial unicompartmental osteoarthritis and concomitant ACL deficiency. Fourteen patients with primary ACL lesion and concomitant medial compartment symptomatic osteoarthritis treated from 2006 to 2010 were followed up for an average time of 26.7 months (SD 4.2). Assessment included KOOS score, Oxford Knee score, American Knee Society scores, WOMAC index of osteoarthritis, Tegner activity level and objective examination including instrumented laxity test with KT-1000 arthrometer. Radiological assessment was done with standard simple radiographs in order to get information about any presence of loosening of the components. KOOS score, OKS, WOMAC index and the AKSS improved significantly after surgery (p < 0.001). Regarding AKSS, improvement was noted both in the objective score and in the functional one (p < 0.001). There was no clinical evidence of instability in any of the knees as evaluated with clinical laxity testing. No pathologic radiolucent lines were observed around the components. In one patient signs of osteoarthritis in the lateral compartment were observed 28 months after surgery. UKA combined with ACL reconstruction is a valid therapeutic option for the treatment of combined medial unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis and ACL deficiency in young and active patients and confirms subjective and objective clinical improvement 2 years after surgery. The use of a fixed-bearing prosthesis represents a reliable feature as it allows to overcome problems of improper ligament tensioning during the implantation of the components. IV.
Alghamdi, Ahmed; Rahmé, Michel; Lavigne, Martin; Massé, Vincent; Vendittoli, Pascal-André
Osteoarthritis of the knee is associated with deformities of the lower limb. Tibia valga is a contributing factor to lower limb alignment in valgus knees. We evaluated 97 valgus knees and 100 varus knees. Long-leg films were taken in weight bearing with both knees in full extension. For valgus knees, 52 knees (53%) had a tibia valga deformity. Average tibia valgus deformation was 5.0°. For varus knees, there was only 1 case of tibia valga (1%), with a deformation of 2.5°. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of primary tibia valga in valgus and varus knees and understand how it affects our approach to total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We recommend having full-leg length films when planning for TKA in valgus knees.
Akbari Shandiz, Mohsen; Boulos, Paul; Saevarsson, Stefan Karl; Yoo, Sam; Miller, Stephen; Anglin, Carolyn
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) changes the knee joint in both intentional and unintentional, known and unknown, ways. Patellofemoral and tibiofemoral kinematics play an important role in postoperative pain, function, satisfaction and revision, yet are largely unknown. Preoperative kinematics, postoperative kinematics or changes in kinematics may help identify causes of poor clinical outcome. Patellofemoral kinematics are challenging to record since the patella is obscured by the metal femoral component in X-ray and moves under the skin. The purpose of this study was to determine the kinematic degrees of freedom having significant changes and to evaluate the variability in individual changes to allow future study of patients with poor clinical outcomes. We prospectively studied the 6 degrees of freedom patellofemoral and tibiofemoral weightbearing kinematics, tibiofemoral contact points and helical axes of rotation of nine subjects before and at least 1 year after total knee arthroplasty using clinically available computed tomography and radiographic imaging systems. Normal kinematics for healthy individuals were identified from the literature. Significant differences existed between pre-TKA and post-TKA kinematics, with the post-TKA kinematics being closer to normal. While on average the pre-total knee arthroplasty knees in this group displayed no pivoting (only translation), individually only five knees displayed this behaviour (of these, two showed lateral pivoting, one showed medial pivoting and one showed central pivoting). There was considerable variability postoperatively as well (five central, two lateral and two medial pivoting). Both preop and postop, flexion behaviour was more hinge-like medially and more rolling laterally. Helical axes were more consistent postop for this group. An inclusive understanding of the pre-TKA and post-TKA kinematics and changes in kinematics due to total knee arthroplasty could improve implant design, patient diagnosis and
de Rezende, Márcia Uchôa; Hernandez, Arnaldo José; Camanho, Gilberto Luis
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the anteroposterior displacement of the knee by means of stress radiography in individuals with unilateral anterior knee instability and relate to time of instability. METHODS: Sixty individuals with intact knees (control group) and 125 patients with unilateral anterior instability (AI group) agreed to participate in the study. Gender, age, weight, height, age at injury, time between injury and testing, and surgical findings are studied. Both groups are submitted to anterior and posterior stress radiographies of both knees. Anterior (ADD) and posterior displacement difference (PDD) were calculated between sides. RESULTS: In the control group ADD and PDD are in average, zero, whereas in the AI group ADD averaged 9.8mm and PDD, 1.92mm. Gender, age, weight, height, age at trauma and presence of menisci's lesions do not intervene in the values of ADD and PDD. Meniscal injuries increase with time. ADD and PDD do not relate with the presence or absence of associated menisci's lesions. The ADD and the PDD are related to each other and increase with time. CONCLUSION: There is a permanent anterior subluxation of the injured knee that is related to the amount of anterior displacement that increases with time. Level of Evidence III, Study Types Case-control study. PMID:25246846
Unicondylar knee arthroplasty implantation is extremely demanding as the prosthesis needs to be integrated in the natural anatomy of the knee. It ensures the integrity of the natural knee kinematic. Some studies and registries data have shown lower success rate in comparison with total knee arthroplasty, and patient-related factors may have an impact on outcome. While, better results have been published by high volume centres. The indications for surgery should be reconsidered critically, even if medial osteoarthritis of the knee remains the most common. This article sets out the diagnostic, and surgical steps in order to fine tuning the unicompartmental replacement of the knee. PMID:26605256
Looze, Christopher A.; Capo, Jason; Ryan, Michael K.; Begly, John P.; Chapman, Cary; Swanson, David; Singh, Brian C.; Strauss, Eric J.
Osteochondral lesions of the talus are common injuries that affect a wide variety of active patients. The majority of these lesions are associated with ankle sprains and fractures though several nontraumatic etiologies have also been recognized. Patients normally present with a history of prior ankle injury and/or instability. In addition to standard ankle radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography are used to characterize the extent of the lesion and involvement of the subchondral bone. Symptomatic nondisplaced lesions can often be treated conservatively within the pediatric population though this treatment is less successful in adults. Bone marrow stimulation techniques such as microfracture have yielded favorable results for the treatment of small (<15 mm) lesions. Osteochondral autograft can be harvested most commonly from the ipsilateral knee and carries the benefit of repairing defects with native hyaline cartilage. Osteochondral allograft transplant is reserved for large cystic lesions that lack subchondral bone integrity. Cell-based repair techniques such as autologous chondrocyte implantation and matrix-associated chondrocyte implantation have been increasingly used in an attempt to repair the lesion with hyaline cartilage though these techniques require adequate subchondral bone. Biological agents such as platelet-rich plasma and bone marrow aspirate have been more recently studied as an adjunct to operative treatment but their use remains theoretical. The present article reviews the current concepts in the evaluation and management of osteochondral lesions of the talus, with a focus on the available surgical treatment options. PMID:27994717
Tatari, Hasan; Dervişbey, Mahmut; Muratli, Kivanç; Ergör, Alp
The goal of this study is to report our experience with the use of suction drainage for various arthroscopic knee procedures. One hundred and ninety patients who underwent arthroscopic knee procedures participated in the study, and were divided into two groups (Group 1: Suction drainage, Group 2: No suction drainage). For every patient, the following parameters were recorded: age, gender, operative time, tourniquet or pump use, the amount of fluid collected in the hemovac drain, presence of meniscal tear, type of the operative procedure, date of the operation, and presence of effusion at the follow-up. Statistical analysis was performed to detect any significant statistical difference between the amount of fluid collected in the hemovac drain and the other mentioned parameters in Group 1; and these patients were divided into four subgroups to facilitate the statistical evaluation between the procedures and the amount of fluid collected in the hemovac drain. The partial meniscectomy subgroup had significantly lower amounts of collected fluid when compared to the subtotal meniscectomy subgroup. Drilling of the osteochondral faces led to significantly higher amounts of fluid when compared to non-drilling cases. Use of an infusion pump during surgery and shorter operation time led to lower amounts of fluid to be collected. No case in either main group suffered from effusion at the follow-up. Our investigation demonstrated that in different arthroscopic interventions, variable amounts of fluid can be collected in the hemovac drains. Subtotal meniscal resection, drilling of the osteochondral faces and longer duration of the operation increase the amount of fluid. In cases of partial meniscal resection and/or chondral debridement, limited synovial and plica resection, suction drainage is unnecessary.
Pereira, Duarte; Severo, Milton; Santos, Rui A; Barros, Henrique; Branco, Jaime; Lucas, Raquel; Costa, Lúcia; Ramos, Elisabete
The association between radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) and symptoms is inconsistent and variable according to each joint. The purpose of this study is to understand the relation between radiographic OA features, pain, function and quality of life, in knee and hip joints. A cross-sectional study was performed using information from EPIPorto cohort. Data was obtained by interview using a structured questionnaire on social, demographic, behavioural and clinical data. Pain was assessed using a pain frequency score (regarding ever having knee pain, pain in the last year, in the last 6 months and in the last month). Quality of life was evaluated with Short Form 36 (SF-36) and function disability with the Lequesne knee and hip indexes. Radiographic knees and hips were classified using the Kellgren-Lawrence score (KL 0-4). Linear regression and proportional odds ratios estimated the association between radiographic features, pain, function and quality of life. In our study, symptomatic OA (KL ≥ 2 plus joint pain) was 26.0 % in knee and 7.0 % hip joints. In knee, the increase on radiographic score increased the odds to have a higher pain frequency score [1.58 (95 % CI = 1.27, 1.97)] and was associated [adjusted β (95 % CI)] with worst general health [-3.05 (-5.00, -1.09)], physical function [-4.92 (-7.03, -2.80)], role-physical [-4.10 (-8.08, -0.11)], bodily pain [-2.96 (-5.45, -0.48)] and limitations in activities of daily living [0.48 (0.08, 0.89)]. Regarding hip, no significant associations were found between the severity of radiographic lesions and these measures. Radiographic lesions in knee were associated with higher complaints, as far as pain and functional limitations are concerned, compared with hip.
Young, Kathryn L; Dunbar, Michael J; Richardson, Glen; Astephen Wilson, Janie L
Surgical navigation systems for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgery are capable of capturing passive three-dimensional (3D) angular joint movement patterns intraoperatively. Improved understanding of patient-specific knee kinematic changes between pre and post-implant states and their relationship with post-operative function may be important in optimizing TKA outcomes. However, a comprehensive characterization of the variability among patients has yet to be investigated. The objective of this study was to characterize the variability within frontal plane joint movement patterns intraoperatively during a passive knee flexion exercise. Three hundred and forty patients with severe knee osteoarthritis (OA) received a primary TKA using a navigation system. Passive kinematics were captured prior to (pre-implant), and after prosthesis insertion (post-implant). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to capture characteristic patterns of knee angle kinematics among patients, to identify potential patient subgroups based on these patterns, and to examine the subgroup-specific changes in these patterns between pre- and post-implant states. The first four extracted patterns explained 99.9% of the diversity within the frontal plane angle patterns among the patients. Post-implant, the magnitude of the frontal plane angle shifted toward a neutral mechanical axis in all phenotypes, yet subtle pattern (shape of curvature) features of the pre-implant state persisted.
Petersen, Wolf; Rembitzki, Ingo Volker; Brüggemann, Gerd-Peter; Ellermann, Andree; Best, Raymond; Koppenburg, Andreas Gösele-; Liebau, Christian
Anterior knee pain is one of the most common causes of persistent problems after implantation of a total knee replacement. It can occur in patients with or without patellar resurfacing. As a result of the surgical procedure itself many changes can occur which may affect the delicate interplay of the joint partners in the patello-femoral joint. Functional causes of anterior knee pain can be distinguished from mechanical causes. The functional causes concern disorders of inter- and intramuscular coordination, which can be attributed to preoperative osteoarthritis. Research about anterior knee pain has shown that not only the thigh muscles but also the hip and trunk stabilising muscles may be responsible for the development of a dynamic valgus malalignment. Dynamic valgus may be a causative factor for patellar maltracking. The mechanical causes of patello-femoral problems after knee replacement can be distinguished according to whether they increase instability in the joint, increase joint pressure or whether they affect the muscular lever arms. These causes include offset errors, oversizing, rotational errors of femoral or tibial component, instability, maltracking and chondrolysis, patella baja and aseptic loosening. In these cases, reoperation or revision is often necessary.
Guaydier-Souquieres, C.; Beguin, J.; Ollivier, D.; Loyau, G.
This study presents the macroscopic and histologic results of 35 knee arthroscopies performed on patients with rheumatoid arthritis, some months after an yttrium or osmic acid intraarticular injection. The procedure was most often performed after a failure of the injection or a relapse of synovitis. Arthroscopy provides an understanding of the cause of synoviorthesis failure--insufficient action of the product on the synovitis or its poor diffusion, fibri-nonecrotic deposits, or cartilaginous lesions--and may be used both diagnostically and therapeutically.
Malghem, J; Maldague, B; Lecouvet, F; Koutaïssoff, S; Vande Berg, B
Lateral knee radiographs allow recognition of both medial and lateral femoral and tibial surfaces, groove and anterior borders of the trochlea and lateral facet and ridge of the patella. Analysis of these lines allows detection of focal contour abnormalities, femoral trochlear dysplasia and patellar tilt. Qualitative radiological analysis of the osseous surfaces detects the particular aspect of abraded subchondral bone ("drawn with chalk"), preventing the trap of false joint spaces on non weight-bearing views. Occasionally, very subtle bone abnormalities can be recognized in cases of cartilaginous, subchondral or even meniscal lesions. However, these focal abnormalities are not constant, and their visualization is somewhat anecdotal.
[Purpose] The purpose of this case report is to describe for the first time, the use of serial casting in the management of knee joint flexion contracture for a young child with spina bifida. [Case Description] The child was 6 years old, and had L3–L4 spina bifida level lesion with quadriceps muscle strength grade 3 +. The child had previously received weekly physiotherapy including stretching for knee flexion contracture on both lower limbs, but without improvement. [Results] The knee flexion contracture, which was not corrected with passive stretching, improved with casting from −40° knee extension to −5° knee extension as measured by a standard goniometer over a period of 4 weeks. Careful measures were taken to ensure skin integrity. At follow up after one-year, the child could ambulate independently with the help of walking aids. [Conclusion] The outcome indicates that using serial casting and follow-up with the use of bracing may be useful for enhancing the walking ability of a young child with spina bifida with knee flexion contractures. Further investigations of serial casting as well as investigation of serial casting with other interventions are warranted. PMID:24926155
Paquette, Max R; Zhang, Songning; Milner, Clare E; Klipple, Gary
Research shows that one of the first complaints from knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients is difficulty in stair ambulation due to knee pain. Increased step width (SW) has been shown to reduce first and second peak internal knee abduction moments, a surrogate variable for medial compartment knee joint loading, during stair descent in healthy older adults. This study investigates the effects of increased step width (SW) on knee biomechanics and knee pain in medial compartment knee OA patients during stair descent. Thirteen medial compartment knee OA patients were recruited for the study. A motion analysis system was used to obtain three-dimensional joint kinematics. An instrumented staircase was used to collect ground reaction forces (GRF). Participants performed stair descent trials at their self-selected speed using preferred, wide, and wider SW. Participants rated their knee pain levels after each SW condition. Increased SW had no effect on peak knee abduction moments and knee pain. Patients reported low levels of knee pain during all stair descent trials. The 2nd peak knee adduction angle and frontal plane GRF at time of 2nd peak abduction moment were reduced with increasing SW. The findings suggest that increases in SW may not influence knee loads in medial compartment knee OA patients afflicted with low levels of knee pain during stair descent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. 888.3580 Section 888.3580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... § 888.3580 Knee joint patellar (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint patellar (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis is a device made of...
... resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. 888.3580 Section 888.3580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... § 888.3580 Knee joint patellar (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint patellar (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis is a device made of...
... uncemented prosthesis. 888.3590 Section 888.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted...
... resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. 888.3580 Section 888.3580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... § 888.3580 Knee joint patellar (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint patellar (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis is a device made of...
... uncemented prosthesis. 888.3590 Section 888.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted...
... uncemented prosthesis. 888.3590 Section 888.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint tibial (hemi-knee) metallic resurfacing uncemented prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted...
Gardiner, Bruce S; Woodhouse, Francis G; Besier, Thor F; Grodzinsky, Alan J; Lloyd, David G; Zhang, Lihai; Smith, David W
Treatment options for osteoarthritis (OA) beyond pain relief or total knee replacement are very limited. Because of this, attention has shifted to identifying which factors increase the risk of OA in vulnerable populations in order to be able to give recommendations to delay disease onset or to slow disease progression. The gold standard is then to use principles of risk management, first to provide subject-specific estimates of risk and then to find ways of reducing that risk. Population studies of OA risk based on statistical associations do not provide such individually tailored information. Here we argue that mechanistic models of cartilage tissue maintenance and damage coupled to statistical models incorporating model uncertainty, united within the framework of structural reliability analysis, provide an avenue for bridging the disciplines of epidemiology, cell biology, genetics and biomechanics. Such models promise subject-specific OA risk assessment and personalized strategies for mitigating or even avoiding OA. We illustrate the proposed approach with a simple model of cartilage extracellular matrix synthesis and loss regulated by daily physical activity.
Tamvakopoulos, George S; Toms, Andoni P; Glasgow, Malcolm
The use of a pneumatic tourniquet in total knee arthroplasty has been linked to complications caused by local tissue hypoxia. Fat necrosis is a rare condition that presents as an ill-defined subcutaneous lesion. The clinical features resemble that of a lipoma but histological appearance is characteristic. Ultrasound imaging is helpful in establishing the diagnosis both by sonographic appearance as well as in directing a biopsy if necessary. We present a case of encapsulated fat necrosis caused by the use of a pneumatic tourniquet during total knee arthroplasty.
Bonasia, D E; Bruzzone, M; Dettoni, F; Marmotti, A; Blonna, D; Castoldi, F; Gasparetto, F; D'Elicio, D; Collo, G; Rossi, R
Injuries of the posteromedial corner of the knee are relatively common. These can be isolated or combined with other ligament lesions. In some cases the treatment of postero-medial corner injuries is controversial. After a brief description of the anatomy and biomechanics of the medial side of the knee, this paper reviews the indications for isolated and multiligamentous medial/posteromedial corner injuries both in the acute and in the chronic setting. In addition, the most common surgical techniques for repair and reconstruction are described in addition to outcomes based upon a review of the literature.
Gaudreault, Nathaly; Hagemeister, Nicola; Poitras, Stéphane; de Guise, Jacques A
Workers exposed to knee straining postures, such as kneeling and squatting, may present modifications in knee gait kinematics that can make them vulnerable to osteoarthritis. In this study, knee kinematics of workers exposed to occupational knee straining postures (KS workers) were compared to those of non-knee straining (non-KS) workers. Eighteen KS workers and 20 non-KS workers participated in the study. Three-dimensional gait kinematic data were recorded at the knee using an electromagnetic motion tracking system. The following parameters were extracted from flexion/extension, adduction/abduction and internal/external rotation angle data and used for group comparisons: knee angle at initial foot contact, peak angles, minimal angles and angle range during the entire gait cycle. Group comparisons were performed with Student t-tests. In the sagittal plane, KS workers had a greater knee flexion angle at initial foot contact, a lower peak knee flexion angle during the swing phase and a lower angle range than non-KS workers (p<0.05). In the frontal plane, all parameters indicated that KS workers had their knees more adducted than non-KS workers. External/internal rotation range was greater for KS workers. This study provides new knowledge on work related to KS postures and knee kinematics. The results support the concept that KS workers might exhibit knee kinematics that are different from those of non-KS workers.
... Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases) Also in Spanish Knee Replacement (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and ... American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - PDF Also in Spanish Total Knee Replacement (Arthroplasty) (Beyond the Basics) (UpToDate) ...
Reeves, Neil D; Bowling, Frank L
Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent forms of this disease, with the medial compartment most commonly affected. The direction of external forces and limb orientation during walking results in an adduction moment that acts around the knee, and this parameter is regarded as a surrogate measure of medial knee compression. The knee adduction moment is intimately linked with the development and progression of knee OA and is, therefore, a target for conservative biomechanical intervention strategies, which are the focus of this Review. We examine the evidence for walking barefoot and the use of lateral wedge insoles and thin-soled, flexible shoes to reduce the knee adduction moment in patients with OA. We review strategies that directly affect the gait, such as walking with the foot externally rotated ('toe-out gait'), using a cane, lateral trunk sway and gait retraining. Valgus knee braces and muscle strengthening are also discussed for their effect upon reducing the knee adduction moment.
D’Lima, Darryl D.; Fregly, Benjamin J.; Patil, Shantanu; Steklov, Nikolai; Colwell, Clifford W.
Knee forces are highly significant in osteoarthritis and in the survival and function of knee arthroplasty. A large number of studies have attempted to estimate forces around the knee during various activities. Several approaches have been used to relate knee kinematics and external forces to internal joint contact forces, the most popular being inverse dynamics, forward dynamics, and static body analyses. Knee forces have also been measured in vivo after knee arthroplasty, which serves as valuable validation of computational predictions. This review summarizes the results of published studies that measured knee forces for various activities. The efficacy of various methods to alter knee force distribution, such as gait modification, orthotics, walking aids, and custom treadmills are analyzed. Current gaps in our knowledge are identified and directions for future research in this area are outlined. PMID:22468461
Dao Trong, Mai Lang; Helmy, Näder
Osteoarthritis of the knee is one of the most common problems in the orthopedic practice and its surgical technique is still challenging. This Mini-Review presents patient specific cutting blocks for the implantation of a total knee arthroplasty.
The aetiology of abfraction lesions is complex. Most evidence indicates that physical loading forces are a major contributing factor, although they are unlikely to be entirely responsible. Intraoral chemical influences and toothbrush abrasion, combined with the dynamics of inter-occlusal activity such as chewing, swallowing, and parafunction, lead to stress corrosion and may contribute to abfraction lesions. The multifactorial aetiology that operates in the initiation and progression of these lesions has made investigation difficult. Various theories have been proposed and numerous surveys and studies conducted, but the primary causal factor has yet to be definitively determined. This review concludes that occlusal loading is the initiating factor in the development of abfraction lesions.
Proposed orthotic knee joint locks and unlocks automatically, at any position within range of bend angles, without manual intervention by wearer. Includes tang and clevis, locks whenever wearer transfers weight to knee and unlocks when weight removed. Locking occurs at any angle between 45 degrees knee bend and full extension.
... Knee Replacement (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) Total Knee Replacement Potpuna zamjena koljena - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Total Knee Replacement 全膝关节置换 - 简体中文 ( ...
Vauhnik, Renata; Morrissey, Matthew C; Rutherford, Olga M; Turk, Zmago; Pilih, Iztok A; Perme, Maja Pohar
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether any of the following factors are related to knee anterior laxity in healthy sportswomen: anthropometric characteristics, lower limb alignment characteristics, hormone-related factors and sport history. Six hundred and sixteen sportswomen were tested in the pre-season. The data have been analysed using linear regression for possible association of knee anterior laxity with other variables. Univariate linear regression indicated a positive association of knee anterior laxity with knee extension and navicular drop and a negative association with body height. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed statistically significant associations between knee anterior laxity and the combination of passive knee extension and the chosen sport (R(2)=0.089; p<0.05). The combination of passive knee extension and sport type was found to be related to the amount of knee anterior laxity, although the association was weak with this combination of factors able to explain only about 9% of the variability in laxity. Knowing which factors influence the amount of knee anterior laxity will help us to better interpret the results of knee anterior laxity testing and help us to understand the possible role of knee anterior laxity as a risk factor for knee injury.
Kröger, Liisa; Piippo-Savolainen, Eija; Tyrväinen, Erja; Penttilä, Pekko; Kröger, Heikki
Joint pain and swelling are typical symptoms in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and these are often related to inflammation of the joint. Juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (JOCD), that is separation of a bone-cartilage segment from the articular surface, can manifest with similar symptoms. We studied thirteen cases of osteochondritis dissecans lesions (OCD) in children with JIA. There were nine girls and four boys with a mean age of 6.5 (2-12) years at the time of diagnosis of JIA. Mean time between diagnosis of JIA and manifestation of OCD was 5.5 (1-11) years. Indications for MRI were the presence of pain or discomfort in the joint, despite otherwise effective treatment, with no evidence from ultrasound examination of any obvious signs of active inflammation. The most common location of osteochondral lesion was the knee, although the ankle joint was affected in one case. Five patients had lesions in both knees. Operative treatment was needed in eight cases (joints). Pain, and minor dysfunction of the joint are common complaints of children suffering from JIA. Earlier research has discounted the possibility of children who were not athletes presenting with this condition. However, this study demonstrates that these lesions also seem to be relatively common in patients with JIA. When there is no sign of inflammation, the possibility of OCD must therefore be considered in these children.
Singh, Naresh Kumar; Singh, Gaj Raj; Jeong, Dong Kee; Lee, Sung Jin
Healing of articular cartilage has remained in question with the use of conventional treatment modalities such as subchondral drilling and microfracture. As demonstrated in the past, adult stem cells retain promising clonogenicity. Therefore, we conducted this study to elucidate the effects of cultured autologous chondrogenic satellite cells (CACSCs) compared with subchondral drilling (SCD) for the repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects. We examined CACSCs isolated from the knee of rabbits using flow cytometry for the expression of stemness and chondrocyte-specific factors. Subsequently, we created a full-thickness cartilage defect model with a diameter of 3 mm and depth of 2 mm on the articular surface of trochlear grooves in the left knee of 24 New Zealand white rabbits. Then we drilled subchondrally through the defect in all animals and stuffed the defects with 10-μg/cm(2) collagen scaffolds. In the treatment group, we instilled CACSCs at 5 × 10(6) cells/mL in the collagen scaffold and collected samples on days 15, 30, and 45. The CACSCs revealed significant expression of CD106, CD44, collagen type 2, and aggrecan. In conjunction with SCD, CACSCs improved healing of the articular cartilage defect, as evidenced by the formation of hyaline-like tissue grossly and histologically. The healed tissue also revealed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the expression of collagen type 2 and aggrecan (by real-time polymerase chain reaction) during the experiment. In conjunction with SCD, CACSCs may be considered to improve articular cartilage damage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Crawford, Dennis C; Heveran, Chelsea M; Cannon, W Dilworth; Foo, Li Foong; Potter, Hollis G
The healing potential of damaged articular cartilage is limited. The NeoCart is a tissue-engineered collagen matrix seeded with autogenous chondrocytes designed for the repair of hyaline articular cartilage. The NeoCart implant is well tolerated in the human knee. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Eight patients (treatment group) with full-thickness cartilage injury were treated with the NeoCart and evaluated prospectively. Autogenous chondrocytes provided by arthroscopic biopsy were seeded into a 3-dimensional type I collagen scaffold. The seeded scaffold was subjected to a tissue-engineering protocol including treatment with a bioreactor. Implantation of the prepared cartilage tissue patch was performed via miniarthrotomy and secured with a collagen bioadhesive. Evaluations through 24 months postoperatively included the subjective International Knee Documentation Committee questionnaire, visual analog scale, range of motion, and cartilage-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including quantitative T2 mapping. Pain scores after NeoCart implantation were significantly lower than baseline at 12 and 24 months after the procedure (P < .05). Improved function and motion were also noted at 24 months. Six patients had 67% to 100% defect fill at 24 months with MRI evaluation. One patient had moderate (33%-66%) defect fill, and another patient had poor (less than 33%) defect fill. Partial stratification of T2 values was observed for 2 patients at 12 months and 4 patients at 24 months. No patients experienced arthrofibrosis or implant hypertrophy. Pain was significantly reduced 12 and 24 months after NeoCart treatment. Trends toward improved function and motion were observed 24 months after implantation. The MRI indicated implant stability and peripheral integration, defect fill without overgrowth, progressive maturation, and more organized cartilage formation.
Siston, Robert A; Giori, Nicholas J; Goodman, Stuart B; Delp, Scott L
Total knee arthroplasty is a successful procedure to treat pain and functional disability due to osteoarthritis. However, precisely how a total knee arthroplasty changes the kinematics of an osteoarthritic knee is unknown. We used a surgical navigation system to measure normal passive kinematics from 7 embalmed cadaver lower extremities and in vivo intraoperative passive kinematics on 17 patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty to address two questions: How do the kinematics of knees with advanced osteoarthritis differ from normal knees?; and, Does posterior substituting total knee arthroplasty restore kinematics towards normal? Osteoarthritic knees displayed a decreased screw-home motion and abnormal varus/valgus rotations between 10 degrees and 90 degrees of knee flexion when compared to normal knees. The anterior-posterior motion of the femur in osteoarthritic knees was not different than in normal knees. Following total knee arthroplasty, we found abnormal varus/valgus rotations in early flexion, a reduced screw-home motion when compared to the osteoarthritic knees, and an abnormal anterior translation of the femur during the first 60 degrees of flexion. Posterior substituting total knee arthroplasty does not appear to restore normal passive varus/valgus rotations or the screw motion and introduces an abnormal anterior translation of the femur during intraoperative evaluation.
Khalaj, Nafiseh; Abu Osman, Noor A; Mokhtar, Abdul H; Mehdikhani, Mahboobeh; Wan Abas, Wan A B
The knee adduction moment represents the medial knee joint load, and greater value is associated with higher load. In people with knee osteoarthritis, it is important to apply proper treatment with the least side effects to reduce knee adduction moment and, consequently, reduce medial knee joint load. This reduction may slow the progression of knee osteoarthritis. The research team performed a literature search of electronic databases. The search keywords were as follows: knee osteoarthritis, knee adduction moment, exercise program, exercise therapy, gait retraining, gait modification and knee joint loading. In total, 12 studies were selected, according to the selection criteria. Findings from previous studies illustrated that exercise and gait retraining programs could alter knee adduction moment in people with knee osteoarthritis. These treatments are noninvasive and nonpharmacological which so far have no or few side effects, as well as being low cost. The results of this review revealed that gait retraining programs were helpful in reducing the knee adduction moment. In contrast, not all the exercise programs were beneficial in reducing knee adduction moment. Future studies are needed to indicate best clinical exercise and gait retraining programs, which are most effective in reducing knee adduction moment in people with knee osteoarthritis.
Moura, Diogo; Fonseca, Fernando
This was a retrospective case-control study on total ruptures of the extensor apparatus of the knee, aimed to compare patella fractures with tendinous ruptures. The sample included 190 patients and 198 total ruptures of the knee extensor apparatus. All patients were evaluated by the same examiner after a minimum one-year follow-up. Tendinous ruptures occurred most frequently in men, in younger patients, and had better clinical and functional outcomes when compared with patella fractures; however, the former presented higher levels of thigh atrophy. Patella fractures occurred most frequently in women and in older patients and caused most frequently caused residual pain, muscle weakness, and limitations in daily activities. Comminuted fractures were related to high-energy trauma, lower clinical and functional outcomes, and higher levels of residual pain and osteosynthesis failure. Early removal of osteosynthesis material was related to better outcomes. Regarding the tendinous ruptures, over half of the patients presented risk conditions for tendinous degeneration; a longer delay until surgery was related to lower Kujala scores. The surgical repair of bilateral ruptures of the knee extensor apparatus resulted in satisfactory clinical and functional outcomes, which were better for tendinous ruptures when compared with patella fractures. However, these lesions are associated with non-negligible levels of residual pain, muscle weakness, atrophy, and other complications.
Jang, Min Soo; Park, Jong Bin; Yang, Myeong Hyeon; Jang, Ji Yun; Kim, Joon Hee; Lee, Kang Hoon; Kim, Geun Tae; Hwangbo, Hyun
Degos disease, also referred to as malignant atrophic papulosis, was first described in 1941 by Köhlmeier and was independently described by Degos in 1942. Degos disease is characterized by diffuse, papular skin eruptions with porcelain-white centers and slightly raised erythematous telangiectatic rims associated with bowel infarction. Although the etiology of Degos disease is unknown, autoimmune diseases, coagulation disorders, and vasculitis have all been considered as underlying pathogenic mechanisms. Approximately 15% of Degos disease have a benign course limited to the skin and no history of gastrointestinal or central nervous system (CNS) involvement. A 29-year-old female with history of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) presented with a 2-year history of asymptomatic lesions on the dorsum of all fingers and both knees. The patient had only skin lesions and no gastrointestinal or CNS vasculitis symptoms. Her skin lesions were umbilicated, atrophic porcelain-white lesions with a rim of erythema. On the basis of clinical, histologic, and laboratory findings, a diagnosis of Degos-like lesions associated with SLE was made. The patient had been treated for SLE for 7 years. Her treatment regimen was maintained over a 2 month follow-up period, and the skin lesions improved slightly with no development of new lesions. PMID:28392651
Chang, Gregory; Diamond, Matthew; Nevsky, Gregory; Regatte, Ravinder R.; Weiss, David S.
Introduction We aimed to determine whether a unique, ultra high-field 7 Tesla (T) MRI scanner could detect occult cartilage and meniscal injuries in asymptomatic female dancers. Materials and Methods This study had institutional review board approval. We recruited eight pre-professional female dancers and nine non-athletic, female controls. We scanned the dominant knee on a 7T MRI scanner using a 3D-FLASH sequence and a proton density, fast spin-echo sequence to evaluate cartilage and menisci, respectively. Two radiologists scored cartilage (International Cartilage Repair Society classification) and meniscal (Stoller classification) lesions. We applied two-tailed z- and t-tests to determine statistical significance. Results There were no cartilage lesions in dancers or controls. For the medial meniscus, the dancers compared to controls demonstrated higher mean MRI score (2.38±0.61 vs. 1.0±0.97, p<0.0001) and higher frequency of mean grade 2 lesions (88% vs. 11%, p<0.01). For the lateral meniscus, there was no difference in score (0.5±0.81 vs. 0.5±0.78, p=0.78) in dancers compared to controls. Discussion Asymptomatic dancers demonstrate occult medial meniscal lesions. Because this has been described in early osteoarthritis, close surveillance of dancers’ knee symptoms and function with appropriate activity modification may help maintain their long-term knee health. PMID:23346987
Crema, M D; Guermazi, A; Sayre, E C; Roemer, F W; Wong, H; Thorne, A; Singer, J; Esdaile, J M; Marra, M D; Kopec, J A; Nicolaou, S; Cibere, J
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common arthropathy of the knee joint(1). Symptoms reported by patients and signs noted during physical examination guide clinicians in identifying subjects with knee OA(2-4). Pain is one of the most important symptoms reported by subjects with knee OA(2,3). Although very common, pain is a non-specific symptom, related to pathology in several structures within the knee joint, and includes synovitis(5), subchondral bone marrow lesions(6), and joint effusion(7). Further, pain is a subjective symptom that cannot be directly measured or assessed during physical examination. Crepitus or crepitation in association with arthritis is defined as a crackling or grinding sound on joint movement with a sensation in the joint. Crepitus may occur with or without pain and is a common finding during physical examination in subjects with knee OA(2-4,8,9). It is not known whether crepitus is related to pathology in various structures within the knee. The aim of our study was to determine the cross-sectional associations of structural pathologies within the knee with crepitus in a population-based cohort with knee pain, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Subjects with knee pain were recruited as a random population sample, with crepitus assessed in each compartment of the knee using a validated and standardized approach during physical examination(10). MRI of the knee was performed to assess cartilage morphology, meniscal morphology, osteophytes, cruciate ligaments, and collateral ligaments. For both compartment-specific and whole-knee analyses, a multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the associations of MRI-detected structural pathology with crepitus, adjusting for potential confounders. Variables were selected by backwards elimination within each compartment and in the overall knee models, and only statistically significant variables remained in the "selected" models; remaining variables in these models are adjusted for
Gonzalez-Herranz, P; Rodriguez, M L; de la Fuente, C
Femoral osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) is a disorder of unknown aetiology and variable prognosis that causes knee pain. In this paper, the authors study the impact of lower limb malalignment on the development and prognosis of OCD. After anteroposterior (AP) and lateral radiograph and MRI of the knee, 53 cases of OCD were diagnosed. All patients were studied by standing full-length AP radiograph of the lower extremities in order to analyse the relationship between the femorotibial and mechanical axis and the location and stability of the osteochondritis. The OCD lesion was located in the medial condyle (zone 2) in 75.5% of cases (40 cases). The lateral condyle was affected in 24.5% of cases (zone 4 in nine cases and zone 5 in four cases). The femorotibial angle (anatomical axis) was normally aligned in 68% of cases. A valgus deformity was observed in 9.5% of cases and a varus deformity in 22.5%. The mechanical axis of the limb appeared normal in only 32% of cases, with medial deviation in 53%, and lateral deviation in 15% of cases. When the OCD lesion was located in the medial condyle (40 cases), the mechanical axis also crossed the knee through the medial zone in 28 cases. When the OCD lesion was located in the lateral condyle (13 cases), the mechanical axis crossed the knee through zones 1 or 2 in four cases. In stable OCD, the mechanical axis and location of the lesion coincided in 19 of 36 cases (52%), compared with 16 of 17 cases (94%) in unstable OCD. There is a high correlation between OCD location and lower limb mechanical axis deviation. The convergence of the mechanical axis with the location of the OCD lesion may be considered an associated factor in fragment instability. This convergence is more common in unstable OCD.
Staerke, Christian; Brettschneider, Olaf; Gröbel, Karl-Heinz; Becker, Roland
Tensile strength is the most often reported parameter in biomechanical investigations of meniscal repair techniques. However, the magnitude of the tensile forces that actually occur on repaired lesions is not clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate if tensile forces occur on repaired lateral meniscal lesions, which could exceed the failure strength of common repair techniques. In human knees (n = 6), vertical-longitudinal lesions 25 mm in length were created in the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus at a distance of 3 mm from the meniscosynovial junction and the popliteal hiatus. A braided steel wire, resembling a vertical suture, was inserted into the meniscal tissue and fitted with a force transducer. The knees were mounted in an apparatus, which simulated weight bearing and non-weight bearing conditions. Repeated measurements were conducted with both internal and external rotation at flexion angles of 0 degrees , 30 degrees , 60 degrees , 90 degrees and 120 degrees . Weight loading alone caused no tension on the suture. Combined flexion and rotation generated mean forces between 0.5 and 4.1 N. No significant effect of the flexion angle or direction of rotation was found. If a minimum strength of 10 N was assumed for the common meniscal repair techniques, the tensile forces were well below this limit under all circumstances (P < 0.001). These data indicate that, within the range of motion investigated, no significant tensile forces occur on longitudinal lateral lesions. Forces other than tension and biological factors are of greater importance for the healing. Therefore, the assessment of repair techniques should not be based on alone the ability to resist high distraction forces.
This definition is for allocation of lesions with preinvasive/borderline properties. It is currently aimed at newly identified neoplasms, which may be similar to those described in humans. In mouse pathology, many adenomas may be preinvasive/borderline lesions. However, their inclusion in the preinvasive category can be justified only upon development of better diagnostic criteria.
Jansen, E; Brienza, S; Gierasimowicz-Fontana, A; Matos, C; Reynders-Frederix-Dobre, C; HateM, S M
Numbers of total hip and knee arthroplasties are increasing on a regular basis. Clinical pathways tend to shorten the duration of hospitalization in acute care after surgery. Therefore, the preoperative preparation of the patient and his abilities for postoperative rehabilitation should be carefully addressed. Before the surgical intervention, it is recommended that the patient receives an educational program and a physical preparation. After the surgical intervention, the patient can benefit from a home-based rehabilitation program supervised by a physiotherapist, if there were no preoperative reasons for prolonging the hospital stay and if the surgery took place without complications. Some patients may benefit from postsurgical rehabilitation in a specialized locomotor rehabilitation long-stay care unit. The indications for inpatient multidisciplinary rehabilitation are : two simultaneous arthroplasties, revision of a previous hip or knee arthroplasty, postsurgical complications, advanced age, comorbidities influencing the rehabilitation process, social difficulties, necessity for adaptation of the environment, insufficient or unadapted out-patient (para)medical care. The goals of the rehabilitation treatment depend on the patient's characteristics and environment, on the properties of the prosthesis and on the postsurgical complications. The functional prognosis of a total joint arthroplasty of the knee or hip is excellent, provided that there are no post-surgical complications and that the patient benefits from adequate rehabilitation therapy. The present paper describes the different phases of rehabilitation treatment and the general and specific complications of total hip and knee arthroplasties that may influence the rehabilitation outcome.
Ulstein, Svend; Bredland, Karin; Årøen, Asbjørn; Engebretsen, Lars; Røtterud, Jan Harald
To compare patient-reported outcome 5-9 years after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in patients with and without a concomitant full-thickness [International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) grade 3-4] cartilage lesion. This is a prospective follow-up of a cohort of 89 patients that were identified in the Norwegian National Knee Ligament Registry and included in the current study in 2007, consisting of 30 primary ACL-reconstructed patients with a concomitant, isolated full-thickness cartilage lesion (ICRS grade 3 and 4) and 59 matched controls without cartilage lesions (ICRS grade 1-4). At a median follow-up of 6.3 years (range 4.9-9.1) after ACL reconstruction, 74 (84 %) patients completed the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), which was used as the main outcome measure. Secondary outcomes included radiographic evaluation according to the Kellgren-Lawrence criteria of knee osteoarthritis (OA). At follow-up, 5-9 years after ACL reconstruction, no statistically significant differences in KOOS were detected between patients with a concomitant full-thickness cartilage lesion and patients without concomitant cartilage lesions. Radiographic knee OA of the affected knee, defined as Kellgren and Lawrence ≥2, was significantly more frequent in subjects without a concomitant cartilage lesion (p = 0.016). ACL reconstruction performed in patients with an isolated concomitant full-thickness cartilage lesion restored patient-reported knee function to the same level as ACL reconstruction performed in patients without concomitant cartilage lesions, 5-9 years after surgery. This should be considered in the preoperative information given to patients with such combined injuries, in terms of the expected outcome after ACL reconstruction and in the counselling and decision-making on the subject of surgical treatment of the concomitant cartilage lesion. Prognostic; prospective cohort study, Level I.
Logerstedt, David; Arundale, Amelia; Lynch, Andrew; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn
Injuries to the knee, including intra-articular fractures, ligamentous ruptures, and meniscal and articular cartilage lesions, are commonplace within sports. Despite advancements in surgical techniques and enhanced rehabilitation, athletes returning to cutting, pivoting, and jumping sports after a knee injury are at greater risk of sustaining a second injury. The clinical utility of objective criteria presents a decision-making challenge to ensure athletes are fully rehabilitated and safe to return to sport. A system centered on specific indicators that can be used to develop a comprehensive profile to monitor rehabilitation progression and to establish return to activity criteria is recommended to clear athletes to begin a progressive and systematic approach to activities and sports. Integration of a sports knee injury performance profile with return to activity criteria can guide clinicians in facilitating an athlete's safe return to sport, prevention of subsequent injury, and life-long knee joint health. PMID:26537805
Ward, Benjamin D; Lubowitz, James H
Knee arthroscopy is an important diagnostic and therapeutic tool in the management of disorders of the knee. In a series of 4 articles, the basics of knee arthroscopy are reviewed. In this article (part 3), step-by-step diagnostic arthroscopy is reviewed. Diagnostic arthroscopy is a crucial skill for diagnosing intra-articular disorders of the knee including meniscal, synovial, ligamentous, and articular cartilage pathology. Mastery of the basic diagnostic arthroscopy is a critical tool for orthopaedic surgeons treating disorders of the knee.
Ward, Benjamin D.; Lubowitz, James H.
Knee arthroscopy is an important diagnostic and therapeutic tool in the management of disorders of the knee. In a series of 4 articles, the basics of knee arthroscopy are reviewed. In this article (part 1), patient positioning, tourniquet placement, and draping are reviewed. Meticulous attention to these details allows surgical access to the compartments of the knee. A circumferential leg holder or a lateral post allows the application of varus and valgus forces to open the medial and lateral compartments of the knee. PMID:24892015
Skou, Søren T; Wrigley, Tim V; Metcalf, Ben R; Hinman, Rana S; Bennell, Kim L
To investigate associations between self-reported knee confidence and pain, self-reported knee instability, muscle strength, and dynamic varus-valgus joint motion during walking. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 100 participants with symptomatic and radiographic medial tibiofemoral compartment osteoarthritis (OA) and varus malalignment recruited for a randomized controlled trial. The extent of knee confidence, assessed using a 5-point Likert scale item from the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, was set as the dependent variable in univariable and multivariable ordinal regression, with pain during walking, self-reported knee instability, quadriceps strength, and dynamic varus-valgus joint motion during walking as independent variables. One percent of the participants were not troubled with lack of knee confidence, 17% were mildly troubled, 50% were moderately troubled, 26% were severely troubled, and 6% were extremely troubled. Significant associations were found between worse knee confidence and higher pain intensity, worse self-reported knee instability, lower quadriceps strength, and greater dynamic varus-valgus joint motion. The multivariable model consisting of the same variables significantly accounted for 24% of the variance in knee confidence (P < 0.001). Worse knee confidence is associated with higher pain, worse self-reported knee instability, lower quadriceps muscle strength, and greater dynamic varus-valgus joint motion during walking. Since previous research has shown that worse knee confidence is predictive of functional decline in knee OA, addressing lack of knee confidence by treating these modifiable impairments could represent a new therapeutic target. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.
Nguyen, Tuyet A.; Krakowski, Andrew C.; Naheedy, John H.; Kruk, Peter G.
Vascular anomalies are commonly encountered in pediatric and dermatology practices. Most of these lesions are benign and easy to diagnose based on history and clinical exam alone. However, in some cases the diagnosis may not be clear. This may be of particular concern given that vascular anomalies may occasionally be associated with an underlying syndrome, congenital disease, or serious, life-threatening condition. Defining the type of vascular lesion early and correctly is particularly important to determine the optimal approach to management and treatment of each patient. The care of pediatric patients often requires collaboration from a multitude of specialties including pediatrics, dermatology, plastic surgery, radiology, ophthalmology, and neurology. Although early characterization of vascular lesions is important, consensus guidelines regarding the evaluation and imaging of vascular anomalies does not exist to date. Here, the authors provide an overview of pediatric vascular lesions, current classification systems for characterizing these lesions, the various imaging modalities available, and recommendations for appropriate imaging evaluation. PMID:26705446
Stroh, D Alex; Johnson, Aaron J; Mont, Michael A
Focal lesions of the articular cartilage of the knee can be managed with a variety of products and technologies in an attempt to restore function to the afflicted joint and forestall the need for possible total knee arthroplasty. Among these approaches are non-implant-based procedures (arthroscopic chondroplasty and microfracture), grafting procedures (autografts/mosaicplasty and allografts), cell-based procedures (autologous chondrocyte implantation) and nonbiologic implants (metallic plugs and cell-free polymers). For each clinically established procedure there are also a number of investigational variations that aim to improve the in vivo quality of the regenerated/restored cartilage surface. This article analyzes existing and developing non-implant- and graft-based technologies for the repair or restoration of the articular cartilage of the knee based on a review of the published literature.
Virtual representations of the knee joint can provide clinicians, scientists, and engineers the tools to explore mechanical functions of the knee and its tissue structures in health and disease. Modeling and simulation approaches such as finite element analysis also provide the possibility to understand the influence of surgical procedures and implants on joint stresses and tissue deformations. A large number of knee joint models are described in the biomechanics literature. However, freely accessible, customizable, and easy-to-use models are scarce. Availability of such models can accelerate clinical translation of simulations, where labor-intensive reproduction of model development steps can be avoided. Interested parties can immediately utilize readily available models for scientific discovery and clinical care. Motivated by this gap, this study aims to describe an open source and freely available finite element representation of the tibiofemoral joint, namely Open Knee, which includes the detailed anatomical representation of the joint's major tissue structures and their nonlinear mechanical properties and interactions. Three use cases illustrate customization potential of the model, its predictive capacity, and its scientific and clinical utility: prediction of joint movements during passive flexion, examining the role of meniscectomy on contact mechanics and joint movements, and understanding anterior cruciate ligament mechanics. A summary of scientific and clinically directed studies conducted by other investigators are also provided. The utilization of this open source model by groups other than its developers emphasizes the premise of model sharing as an accelerator of simulation-based medicine. Finally, the imminent need to develop next-generation knee models is noted. These are anticipated to incorporate individualized anatomy and tissue properties supported by specimen-specific joint mechanics data for evaluation, all acquired in vitro from varying age
Goetschius, John; Kuenze, Christopher M; Hart, Joseph M
The purpose of this study was to compare knee extension torque variability in patients with ACL reconstructed knees before and after exercise. Thirty two patients with an ACL reconstructed knee (ACL-R group) and 32 healthy controls (control group) completed measures of maximal isometric knee extension torque (90° flexion) at baseline and following a 30-min exercise protocol (post-exercise). Exercise included 30-min of repeated cycles of inclined treadmill walking and hopping tasks. Dependent variables were the coefficient of variation (CV) and raw-change in CV (ΔCV): CV = (torque standard deviation/torque mean x 100), ΔCV = (post-exercise - baseline). There was a group-by-time interaction (p = 0.03) on CV. The ACL-R group demonstrated greater CV than the control group at baseline (ACL-R = 1.07 ± 0.55, control = 0.79 ± 0.42, p = 0.03) and post-exercise (ACL-R = 1.60 ± 0.91, control = 0.94 ± 0.41, p = 0.001). ΔCV was greater (p = 0.03) in the ACL-R group (0.52 ± 0.82) than control group (0.15 ± 0.46). CV significantly increased from baseline to post-exercise (p = 0.001) in the ACL-R group, while the control group did not (p = 0.06). The ACL-R group demonstrated greater knee extension torque variability than the control group. Exercise increased torque variability more in the ACL-R group than control group.
Gao, Mingxuan; Li, Hong; Liang, Xiaoyan; Fu, Xiaoyan; Li, Xusheng
Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is an uncommon entity of proliferative lesion of the synovium, presenting with different clinical signs and symptoms. PVNS rarely forms an osteolytic lesion in a bone. Here we report a unique case of PVNS with a nodular lesion in the left patella. A 37-year-old female was referred to our hospital with complaints of ongoing left knee pain and a painful and palpable mass in her left popliteal fossa. MRI demonstrated a nodular lesion in the left patella, diffuse affected synovial tissue in the left knee and an extra-articular mass in the left popliteal fossa. After a primary diagnosis of PVNS had been established, combined arthroscopic synovectomy and open resection were performed. The postoperative pathological diagnoses of the resected mass from the popliteal fossa, the affected synovial tissue and the lesion in the patella were consistent with PVNS. At 1-year follow-up, no evidence of recurrence was noted. Based on brief literature review of PNVS, we presented a very rare case of PVNS with a nodular lesion in the left patella, diffuse affected synovial tissue in the left knee and an extra-articular mass in the left popliteal fossa.
Huétink, Kasper; Stoel, Berend C; Watt, Iain; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Bloem, Johan L; Malm, Steve H; Van't Klooster, Ronald; Nelissen, Rob G H H
The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for knee osteoarthritis (OA) development in a young to middle-aged population with sub-acute knee complaints. This, in order to define high risk patients who may benefit from early preventive or future disease modifying therapies. Knee OA development visible on radiographs and MR in 319 patients (mean age 41.5 years) 10 years after sub-acute knee complaints and subjective knee function (KOOS score) was studied. Associations between OA development and age, gender, activity level, BMI, meniscal or anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) lesions, OA in first-degree relatives and radiographic hand OA were determined using multivariable logistic regression analysis. OA on radiographs and MR in the TFC is associated with increased age (OR: 1.10, 95 % 1.04-1.16 and OR: 1.07, 95 % 1.02-1.13). TFC OA on radiographs only is associated with ACL and/or meniscal lesions (OR: 5.01, 95 % 2.14-11.73), presence of hand OA (OR: 4.69, 95 % 1.35-16.32) and higher Tegner activity scores at baseline before the complaints (OR: 1.20, 95 % 1.01-1.43). The presence of OA in the TFC diagnosed only on MRI is associated with a family history of OA (OR: 2.44, 95 % 1.18-5.06) and a higher BMI (OR: 1.13, 95 % 1.04-1.23). OA in the PFC diagnosed on both radiographs and MR is associated with an increased age (OR: 1.06, 95 % 1.02-1.12 and OR: 1.05, 95 % 1.00-1.09). PFC OA diagnosed on radiographs only is associated with a higher BMI (OR: 1.12, 95 % 1.02-1.22). The presence of OA in the PFC diagnosed on MR only is associated with the presence of hand OA (OR: 3.39, 95 % 1.10-10.50). Compared to normal reference values, the study population had significantly lower KOOS scores in the different subscales. These results show that knee OA development in young to middle aged patients with a history of sub-acute knee complaints is associated with the presence of known risk factors for knee OA. OA is already visible on radiographs and MRI after 10
Ferraresi, R; Centola, M; Biondi-Zoccai, G
The management of critical limb ischemia due to below-the-knee disease remains challenging due to the frequent patient comorbidities, diffuse vascular involvement, and high rates of restenosis and disease progression. The BASIL study has established the substantial equivalence between bypass surgery and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in this setting, at least at mid-term follow-up, but percutaneous techniques and devices have seen major developments since the publication of this pivotal trial in 2005. A major breakthrough has indeed been the introduction of drug-eluting balloons, which have several theoretical advantages in comparison to standard balloons and metallic stents for infra-popliteal lesions. Two clinical trials have already been reported with favorable results for the In.Pact Amphirion paclitaxel-eluting balloon, when employed for below-the-knee lesions. We hereby discuss the rationale for the use of drug-eluting balloons in this complex setting and the main findings of the study by Schmidt et al. and the DEBATE-BTK trial.
Varshney, Manish Kumar; Jain, Manjula; Sud, Alok; Agarwal, Savita; Nain, Manupriya
To report unusual occurrence of angiomyolipoma at intraarticular location with another lesion in the same side foot. A 12-year-old girl was referred to us after initial inconclusive work-up done elsewhere for swelling of left knee joint. There was a 15 × 12 cm swelling in the knee joint partially encasing patella while also a similar hourglass shaped swelling measuring 9 × 4 cm was noted in the same side foot. After clinical and radiological evaluation an excision biopsy was planned for both sites. The specimen sent for histopathological evaluation revealed angiomyolipoma with identical characteristics in the two locations and was HMB45 immunostain negative. Patient was evaluated for possibility of tuberous sclerosis but there was no contributory evidence. Angiomyolipoma is typically a solitary renal tumor with rare occurrence at musculoskeletal sites. Multicentric variety is still infrequent. Intraarticular occurrence of angiomyolipoma presents a diagnostic challenge not only in terms of unfamiliarity but also unusual presentation with absence of characteristic immunostaining and multicentricity requiring careful exclusion of other lesions that may require a more radical approach for treatment. Copyright Â© 2010 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Lapègue, F; Sans, N; Brun, C; Bakouche, S; Brucher, N; Cambon, Z; Chiavassa, H; Larbi, A; Faruch, M
Fat is not just used by the body as bulk tissue. In addition to its role in storing energy and regulating hormone action, fat is used in some parts of the body for its mechanical properties. The anatomy of anterior knee fat is more complex than it appears at first sight and is capable of withstanding considerable compressive and shear stress. Specific lesions occur when such mechanical stress exceeds the physiological limits and are yet little known. Superficial fat can be the site of either acute injury by closed degloving called the Morel-Lavallée lesion or chronic injury, when subject to repeat excessive shear forces, due to more complex and less well-defined disruptions that result in pseudo-bursitis. There are three main anterior, intracapsular and extrasynovial fat pads in the knee joint, which are the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) or Hoffa's fat pad, the quadriceps fat pad and the prefemoral fat pad. The IFP plays an important role as a mechanical shock absorber and guides the patella tendon and even the patella itself during flexion-extension movements. In response to repeated excessive stress, an inflammatory reaction and swelling of the IFP is first observed, followed by a fibrotic reaction with metaplastic transformation into fibrous, cartilaginous or bone tissue. More rarely, the two other deep fat pads (quadriceps and prefemoral) can, if subject to repeated stress, undergo similar restructuring inflammatory reactions with metaplasia resulting in tissue hardening, anterior pain and partial loss of function.
Clément, Julien; Dumas, Raphaël; Hagemeister, Nicola; de Guise, Jaques A
Knee joint kinematics derived from multi-body optimisation (MBO) still requires evaluation. The objective of this study was to corroborate model-derived kinematics of osteoarthritic knees obtained using four generic knee joint models used in musculoskeletal modelling - spherical, hinge, degree-of-freedom coupling curves and parallel mechanism - against reference knee kinematics measured by stereo-radiography. Root mean square errors ranged from 0.7° to 23.4° for knee rotations and from 0.6 to 9.0 mm for knee displacements. Model-derived knee kinematics computed from generic knee joint models was inaccurate. Future developments and experiments should improve the reliability of osteoarthritic knee models in MBO and musculoskeletal modelling.
Hirschmann, Michael T; Müller, Werner
Since the early years of orthopaedics, it is a well-known fact that anatomy follows function. During the evolution of mankind, the knee has been optimally adapted to the forces and loads acting at and through the knee joint. However, anatomy of the knee joint is variable and the only constant is its complex function. In contrast to the time of open surgery, nowadays the majority of reconstructive knee surgery is done arthroscopically. Keyhole surgery is less invasive, but on the backside, the knee surgeon lacks daily visualisation of the complex open anatomy. As open anatomical knowledge is less present in our daily practice, it is even more important to highlight this complex anatomy and function of the knee. It is the purpose of this review to perform a systematic review of knee anatomy, highlight the complex function of the knee joint and present an overview about recent and current knowledge about knee function. Level of evidence Systematic review, Level IV.
Schroer, William C; Diesfeld, Paul J; Reedy, Mary E; LeMarr, Angela
This study reviewed 747 consecutive posterior stabilized total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to explain the increased incidence of patella clunk syndrome that occurred when the surgeon switched from a medial parapatellar arthrotomy to a mini-subvastus (MIS) TKA technique. The incidence of patella clunk syndrome increased with increased postoperative knee flexion. Six weeks after surgery, knees that developed patella clunk had a mean flexion of 124 degrees vs 117 degrees for knees that did not develop this syndrome (P = .016). As the MIS approach resulted in increased knee flexion, this approach was indirectly associated with the increased incidence of patella clunk. Knee flexion at 6 weeks postoperatively was 117 degrees for the MIS knees vs 108 degrees for traditional medial parapatellar arthrotomy knees (P < .001). The effect of increased knee flexion achieved with the MIS approach, which resulted in an increase in patella clunk, was mitigated by using a new posterior stabilized femoral component designed to minimize soft tissue entrapment.
Patel, Dilip R; Villalobos, Ana
Recurrent or chronic activity related knee pain is common in young athletes. Numerous intrinsic conditions affecting the knee can cause such pain. In addition, knee pain can be referred pain from low back, hip or pelvic pathology. The most common cause of knee pain in young athletes is patellofemoral pain syndrome, or more appropriately termed idiopathic anterior knee pain. Although, numerous anatomical and biomechanical factors have been postulated to contribute the knee pain in young athletes, the most common underlying reason is overuse injury. In this paper, we have reviewed selected conditions that case knee pain in athletes, including anterior knee pain syndrome, Osgood-Schlatter disease, Sinding-Larsen-Johanssen syndrome, juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (JOCD), bipartite patella, plica syndrome, and tendonitis around the knee.
Madeti, Bhaskar Kumar; Chalamalasetti, Srinivasa Rao; Bolla Pragada, S. K. Sundara siva rao
The present paper is to know how the work is carried out in the field of biomechanics of knee. Various model formulations are discussed and further classified into mathematical model, two-dimensional model and three-dimensional model. Knee geometry is a crucial part of human body movement, in which how various views of knee is shown in different planes and how the forces act on tibia and femur are studied. It leads to know the forces acting on the knee joint. Experimental studies of knee geometry and forces acting on knee shown by various researchers have been discussed, and comparisons of results are made. In addition, static and dynamic analysis of knee has been also discussed respectively to some extent.
Tateuchi, Hiroshige; Taniguchi, Masashi; Takagi, Yui; Goto, Yusuke; Otsuka, Naoki; Koyama, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Masashi; Ichihashi, Noriaki
Footwear modification can beneficially alter knee loading in patients with knee osteoarthritis. This study evaluated the effect of Masai Barefoot Technology shoes on reductions in external knee moments in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Three-dimensional motion analysis was used to examine the effect of Masai Barefoot Technology versus control shoes on the knee adduction and flexion moments in 17 women (mean age, 63.6 years) with radiographically confirmed knee osteoarthritis. The lateral and anterior trunk lean values, knee flexion and adduction angles, and ground reaction force were also evaluated. The influence of the original walking pattern on the changes in knee moments with Masai Barefoot Technology shoes was evaluated. The knee flexion moment in early stance was significantly reduced while walking with the Masai Barefoot Technology shoes (0.25±0.14Nm/kgm) as compared with walking with control shoes (0.30±0.19 Nm/kgm); whereas the knee adduction moment showed no changes. Masai Barefoot Technology shoes did not increase compensatory lateral and anterior trunk lean. The degree of knee flexion moment in the original walking pattern with control shoes was correlated directly with its reduction when wearing Masai Barefoot Technology shoes by multiple linear regression analysis (adjusted R2=0.44, P<0.01). Masai Barefoot Technology shoes reduced the knee flexion moment during walking without increasing the compensatory trunk lean and may therefore reduce external knee loading in women with knee osteoarthritis.
Ramalho, Antônio Roberto Oliveira; Nunes, Marcella Nara; Adad, Sheila Jorge; Leitão, Sebastião Almeida; Micheletti, Adilha Misson Rua
Lesions of the adipose tissue are the most common type of soft-tissue lesion among adults. We describe the case of a 33-year-old female patient with a soft-tissue lesion in her left knee that was diagnosed as a hemosiderotic fibrohistiocytic lipomatous lesion. This type of lesion, which was described for the first time in 2000, preferentially affects the ankle region of middle-aged women with a history of previous local trauma. Lesion recurrence is common, caused by incomplete resection, although there have not yet been any reports of metastases. After a review of the literature, we describe the clinical, radiological, morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics, along with their main differential diagnoses.
Sadigursky, David; Nogueira E Ferreira, Luisa; Moreno de Oliveira Corrêa, Liz
Phaeohyphomycosis is caused by cutaneous fungi and rarely affects large joints. This is a case report on phaeohyphomycosis in the left knee of an elderly individual without immunosuppression. It was accompanied by pain and swelling the anterior knee. The case was first suspected to be suprapatellar bursitis, and was treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, without remission of symptoms. Surgical treatment was performed, with resection of the suprapatellar bursa and anterior region of the quadriceps tendon. The material was sent for anatomopathological examination and culturing. The pathological examination showed phaeohyphomycosis. The treatment instituted consisted of itraconazole, 200 mg/day for six weeks, and complete remission of symptoms was achieved. The physical examination remained normal after one year of follow-up. This is the first published case of phaeohyphomycosis infection in the suprapatellar region of the knee. Although almost all the cases reported have been associated with immunosuppressed patients, this was an exception. It is important to suspect phaeohyphomycosis in cases of knee infection, in the area of the suprapatellar bursa, when the symptoms do not resolve after clinical treatment.
Nuzzo, R M; Jolly, J; Langrana, N A
Knee motion of four healthy teenagers was unilaterally impaired by means of cast braces. Computerized analysis from video recording of walking was used to study the compensatory effects and to compare them with six patients. Restricted knee flexion caused little change in stance-phase knee motion on the restricted side. The unimpaired knee displayed exaggerated stance phase flexion and phase shifts, which in turn produced pelvic vaulting. The forces on the braces were high. Impairments to extension produced bilateral crouch without loss of flexion extension patterns within the limits of the impairment. Fatigue was more prominent than with blocks to flexion. Circumduction was found to be overrated as a compensation for stiff-leggedness. Lateral shift to the well side, combined with freezing of the well-side stance adduction, was a frequently used effective clearance mechanism. Phasic changes in motion of many body parts may combine to produce low-level pelvic displacement, especially when clinical weakness is present. Shortened stride length is the most sensitive indicator of this phenomenon. Graphs of individual joint motion do not easily convey the important phasic relationships that are fundamental to that motion and to the interpretation of its effects. Stick figures were better for analysis of this aspect of motion analysis, even though they are more subjective.
O'Connell, Megan; Farrokhi, Shawn; Fitzgerald, G Kelley
The association between high mechanical knee joint loading during gait with onset and progression of knee osteoarthritis has been extensively studied. However, less attention has been given to risk factors related to increased pain during gait. The purpose of this study was to evaluate knee joint moments and clinical characteristics that may be associated with gait-related knee pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Sixty-seven participants with knee osteoarthritis were stratified into three groups of no pain (n=18), mild pain (n=27), or moderate/severe pain (n=22) based on their self-reported symptoms during gait. All participants underwent three-dimensional gait analysis. Quadriceps strength, knee extension range of motion, radiographic knee alignment and self-reported measures of global pain and function were also quantified. The moderate/severe pain group demonstrated worse global pain (P<0.01) and physical function scores (P<0.01) compared to the no pain and the mild pain groups. The moderate/severe pain group also walked with greater knee flexion moments during the midstance phase of gait compared to the no pain group (P=0.02). Additionally, the moderate/severe pain group demonstrated greater varus knee malalignment (P=0.009), which was associated with higher weight acceptance peak knee adduction moments (P=0.003) and worse global pain (P=0.003) and physical function scores (P=0.006). Greater knee flexion moment is present during the midstance phase of gait in patients with knee osteoarthritis and moderate/severe pain during gait. Additionally, greater varus malalignment may be a sign of increased global knee joint dysfunction that can influence many activities of daily living beyond gait. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Finger, Eric; Willis, F Buck
Total Knee Arthroplasty operations are increasing in frequency, and knee flexion contracture is a common pathology, both pre-existing and post-operative. A 61-year-old male presented with knee flexion contracture following a total knee arthroplasty. Physical therapy alone did not fully reduce the contracture and dynamic splinting was then prescribed for daily low-load, prolonged-duration stretch. After 28 physical therapy sessions, the active range of motion improved from -20 degrees to -12 degrees (stiff knee still lacking full extension), and after eight additional weeks with nightly wear of dynamic splint, the patient regained full knee extension, (active extension improved from -12 degrees to 0 degrees ).
Onodera, Tomohiro; Majima, Tokifumi; Nishiike, Osamu; Kasahara, Yasuhiko; Takahashi, Daisuke
The aim of this study was to clarify the risk of knee flexion contracture associated with a posterior femoral condylar offset after total knee replacement (TKR). Radiographs from 100 healthy Japanese volunteers were included in the study. We evaluated femoral component posterior offset in various implants and compared them with the normal Japanese knee. Posterior offset of the femoral condyle is up to a maximum of 4.7 times greater than that of the healthy Japanese knee in all knee implants. Excess posterior offset of the femoral condyle in TKR prostheses may cause knee joint flexion contracture due to the relative shortening of the posterior soft tissue.
Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil
ABSTRACT Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934
Levin, Laura E; Lauren, Christine T
Multifocal vascular lesions are important to recognize and appropriately diagnose. Generally first noticed on the skin, multifocal vascular lesions may have systemic involvement. Distinguishing among the different types of multifocal vascular lesions is often based on clinical features; however, radiological imaging and/or biopsy are frequently needed to identify distinct features and guide treatment. Knowledge of the systemic associations that can occur with different vascular anomalies may reduce life-threatening complications, such as coagulopathy, bleeding, cardiac compromise, and neurologic sequelae. This review provides a synopsis of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, presentation, workup, and treatment of several well-recognized multifocal vascular tumors and malformations.
Coumans, Jean-Valery C E; Walcott, Brian P
Incidental vertebral lesions on imaging of the spine are commonly encountered in clinical practice. Contributing factors include the aging population, the increasing prevalence of back pain, and increased usage of MR imaging. Additionally, refinements in CT and MR imaging have increased the number of demonstrable lesions. The management of incidental findings varies among practitioners and commonly depends more on practice style than on data or guidelines. In this article we review incidental findings within the vertebral column and review management of these lesions, based on available Class III data.
Markhardt, B Keegan; Chang, Eric Y
Discussion of articular cartilage disease detection by MRI usually focuses on the presence of bright signal on T2-weighted sequences, such as in Grade 1 chondromalacia and cartilage fissures containing fluid. Less emphasis has been placed on how cartilage disease may be manifested by dark signal on T2-weighted sequences. The appearance of the recently described "cartilage black line sign" of the femoral trochlea highlights these lesions and further raises the question of their etiology. We illustrate various hypointense signal lesions that are not restricted to the femoral trochlea of the knee joint and discuss the possible etiologies for these lesions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stanley, Sharon S; Molmenti, Ernesto P; Siskind, Eric; Kasabian, Armen K; Huang, Su-I D
The Morel-Lavallee lesion is a closed, internal degloving injury that results when a strong, shearing force is applied parallel to the plane of injury, as is common in vehicular trauma. It is an underdiagnosed entity that is often missed during the initial trauma workup as symptoms can be subtle. There are few reports of lesions occurring below the knee. Most cases affect the proximal thigh and trochanter, as these tend to be dependent areas in high velocity trauma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first literature report of bilateral lower extremity Morel-Lavallee lesions.
Zicaro, Juan Pablo; Romoli, Agustin Molina; Revah, Mariano Agustin; Dere, Juan Jose; Yacuzzi, Carlos; Costa-Paz, Matias
Objectives: There are several surgical options described for osteochondral defects of the knee depending on the size, location and condition of subchondral bone. The main indication for a mosaicplasty procedure is a less than 4 cm2 femoral condyle lesion. The purpose of this study was to analyze a series of patients treated with mosaicplasty with average eight years of follow-up. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated sixty-two patients with osteochondral defects of the knee who underwent a mosaicplasty between 2001 and 2014 with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Patients were evaluated using the Lysholm score, International Knee Documentation Committee Score (IKDC) and Kellgren-Lawrence radiographic scale. Results: The mean Lysholm score was 80.1 and IKDC was 66.7. Forty-two patients had isolated mosaicplasty and 20 patients presented an associated surgical procedure (osteotomy, ACL reconstruction, meniscectomy). There were no significant differences between the Lysholm and IKDC scores in these two groups. Conclusion: We consider that mosaicplasty is a satisfactory procedure with good functional results in patients with focal articular cartilage lesions of the knee.
Nakagawa, Yasuaki; Matsusue, Yoshitaka; Suzuki, Takashi; Kuroki, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takashi
Autogenous osteochondral grafts have become popular recently for use in small, isolated, contained articular cartilage defects. We treated a 35-year-old man who had cartilage defects, which were the same shape and probably the result of overuse, in the patellar grooves of both knee joints. The left side was 30 x 25 mm, and the right side was 17 x 17 mm in his right patellar groove, and 15 x 7 mm in his right medial femoral condyle. Therefore, we performed multiple osteochondral grafting of the bilateral lesions. Thirty-two months after his right knee operation (37 months after his left one), he had no pain or symptoms in his left knee and occasional mild pain and catching in his right knee. At second-look arthroscopy, the joint surface of the articular cartilage in the bilateral patellar groove was almost completely smooth. However, the whole of the weight-bearing area around the grafted plugs in the medial femoral condyle showed cartilage degeneration. Approximately 3 years after implantation of osteochondral grafts into similarly shaped cartilage lesions in the bilateral patellar grooves, the operative results were good. However, careful follow up is needed.
Green, Daniel W.; Arbucci, John; Silberman, Jason; Luderowski, Eva; Uppstrom, Tyler J.; Nguyen, Joseph; Tuca, Maria
Objectives: Describe the clinical characteristics, image findings, and outcomes of patients with juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (JOCD) of the knee. To our knowledge, this is the largest single-surgeon cohort of JOCD patients. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of knee JOCD patients assessed by a single pediatric orthopaedic surgeon at a tertiary care center between 2005-2015. All diagnoses were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients with patellar dislocations or osteochondral fractures were excluded. Demographic data, sports played, comorbidities, surgical procedures, and clinical data were extracted from charts. Images were analyzed to identify the location and size of lesions. Chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests were used to compare discrete variables, and Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests to compare continuous variables between groups. P-values of <0.05 were considered significant. Results: Sample consisted of 180 patients (207 knees), 124 boys and 56 girls. Average age at diagnosis was 12.8 years (7.5-17.5). Majority were active in sports (80.8%), primary soccer (36.7%) and basketball (29.4%). JOCD was present bilaterally in 27 patients (15%), 14 knees had bifocal OCD (6.8%), and only 1 patient had bifocal lesions in both knees. Most common location was medial femoral condyle (56.3%) followed by lateral femoral condyle (23.1%), trochlea (11.4%), patella (9%), and tibia (0.5%). In the sagittal view, most common location was the middle third of the condyles (48.7%). Surgery was performed in 72 knees (34.8%), with an average age at surgery of 14.1 years (9.3-18.1). Bilateral JOCD was present in 13 surgical patients (18.8%), but only 3 patients had bilateral surgery. Two operative patients had bifocal JOCD (2.7%) and surgery on both lesions. Location distribution did not differ between surgical and non-surgical lesions. The average normalized area of non-surgical JOCD lesions was 6.8 (0.1-18), whereas surgical lesions averaged a
Chahla, Jorge; LaPrade, Robert F; Mardones, Rodrigo; Huard, Johnny; Philippon, Marc J; Nho, Shane; Mei-Dan, Omer; Pascual-Garrido, Cecilia
Treatment of hip cartilage disease is challenging, and there is no clear algorithm to address this entity. Biomarkers are arising as promising diagnostic tools because they could play a role in the early assessment of the prearthritic joint and as a prognostic factor before and after treatment. The potential effect of biomarkers may be used to categorize individuals at risk of evolving to severe osteoarthritis, to develop new measures for clinical progression of the disease, and to develop new treatment options for the prevention of osteoarthritis progression. A trend toward a less invasive biological treatment will usher in a new treatment era. With the growth of surgical skills in hip arthroscopy, cartilage restoration techniques are evolving in a fast and exponential manner. Biological and surgical treatments have been proposed to treat these pathologies. Biological treatments include platelet-rich plasma, stem cells or bone marrow aspirate concentration, hyaluronic acid, losartan, and fish oil. Surgical treatments include microfracture alone or augmented, direct repair, autologous chondrocyte implantation, matrix-induced chondrocyte implantation, autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis, mosaicplasty, osteochondral allograft transplantation, and stem cells implanted in matrix (stem cells in membranes/expanded stem cells). This article reviews new evidence available on treatment options for chondral lesions and early osteoarthritis of the hip. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):e715-e723.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Fey, Nicholas P; Neptune, Richard R
Unilateral below-knee amputees often develop comorbidities that include knee joint disorders (e.g., intact leg knee osteoarthritis), with the mechanisms leading to these comorbidities being poorly understood. Mechanical knee loading of non-amputees has been associated with joint disorders and shown to be influenced by walking speed. However, the relationships between amputee knee loading and speed have not been identified. This study examined three-dimensional mechanical knee loading of amputees across a wide range of steady-state walking speeds. Fourteen amputees and 10 non-amputee control subjects were analyzed at four overground walking speeds. At each speed, intersegmental joint moment and force impulses (i.e., time-integrals over the stance phase) were compared between the control, intact and residual knees using repeated-measures ANOVAs. There were no differences in joint force impulses between the intact and control knees. The intact knee abduction moment impulse was lower than the non-amputees at 0.6 and 0.9 m/s. The intact knee flexion moment impulses at 0.6, 1.2 and 1.5m/s and knee external rotation moment impulses at all speeds were greater than the residual knee. The residual knee extension moment and posterior force impulses were insensitive to speed increases, while these quantities increased in intact and control knees. These results suggest the intact knees of asymptomatic and relatively new amputees are not overloaded during walking compared to non-amputees. Increased knee loads may develop in response to prolonged prosthesis usage or joint disorder onset. Further study is needed to determine if the identified bilateral loading asymmetries across speeds lead to diminished knee joint health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash
Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management. PMID:24340126
Okumura, Yuta; Takai, Yoshiko; Yasuda, Shunsuke; Terasaki, Hiroko
ABSTRACT A 65-year-old man was referred to our hospital for the treatment of a lesion on the medial lacrimal canthus of both eyes. He had a history of perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, i.e., pANCA-positive interstitial pneumonia. Orbital magnetic resonance imaging excluded space occupying lesions, and laboratory testing excluded thyroid-related diseases. The masses were excised, and histopathological examinations showed sebaceous gland hyperplasia and inflammatory changes around the gland. In addition, the specimen from the left eye showed a retention cyst possibly caused by an infection. It was also possible that the use of steroid was involved in the development of the lesions. A relationship between the ANCA and the lesions was not completely eliminated. PMID:28303065
... the talus. During this period of immobilization, nonweightbearing range-of-motion exercises may be recommended. Oral medications. Nonsteroidal anti- ... in reducing the pain and inflammation. Physical therapy. Range-of-motion and strengthening exercises are beneficial once the lesion ...
Jung, Myung-Chul; Chung, Jun Young; Son, Kwang-Hyun; Wang, Hui; Hwang, Jaejin; Kim, Jay Joong; Kim, Joon Ho; Min, Byoung-Hyun
The purpose of this study was to compare knee kinematics during stair walking in patients with simultaneous total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and unicompartmental knee arthroplasties (UKA). It was hypothesized that UKA would reproduce more normalized knee kinematics than TKA during stair ascent and descent. Six patients who received UKA in one knee and TKA in the other knee were included in the study. For this study, a four-step staircase was assembled with two force platforms being positioned at the centre of the second and third steps. Each patient was attached with 16 reflective markers at both lower extremities and was asked to perform five roundtrip trials of stair climbing. Kinematic parameters including stance duration, knee angle, vertical ground reaction force (GRF), joint reaction force, and moments were obtained and analysed using a10-camera motion system (VICON, Oxford, UK). Nonparametric Friedman test was used to compare the results between two arthroplasty methods and between stair ascent and descent. Compared to TKA, UKA knees exhibited significantly greater degree of rotation in transverse planes (5.0 degrees during ascent and 6.0 degrees during descent on average), but showed no difference in terms of the other parameters. When comparing the results during stair ascent with descent, overall greater knee angle, vertical GRF, joint reaction force, and moment were observed during stair descent. Both UKA and TKA knees have shown overall similar knee kinematics, though UKA knee may allow greater degree of rotation freedom, which resembles normal knee kinematics during stair walking.
Jureus, Jan; Lindstrand, Anders; Geijer, Mats; Roberts, David; Tägil, Magnus
Primary spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee is a painful lesion in the elderly without any known cause. The onset of pain is usually acute. The prognosis is poor with high frequency of osteoarthritis, joint surface collapse, and subsequent knee surgery. In the present study, we determined whether bisphosphonates can prevent the joint surface collapse by delaying the post-necrotic remodeling. Between 2006 and 2009, 17 consecutive patients (mean age 68 years) with clinical and radiographic signs of knee osteonecrosis were identified and given alendronate, 70 mg perorally, once a week for a minimum of 6 months. The patients were followed clinically, radiographically, and by MRI. 10 of the 17 patients did not develop osteoarthritis (group A), 4 patients developed mild osteoarthritis but no knee joint surface collapse (group B), and 3 patients had a joint surface collapse (group C). 2 of the 3 patients in group C-as compared to none in the other groups-stopped medication prematurely, due to side effects. Compared to a previous, untreated series of osteonecrosis patients at our hospital, the clinical results in the present series appeared better. 59% of the patients had a complete radiographic recovery, as compared to 25% in the original study. 12% were failures regarding need to undergo surgery when bisphosphonates were given, as compared to 32% in the previous untreated series. An anticatabolic drug delaying the remodeling might be an effective treatment in osteonecrosis of the knee but further (preferably randomized) studies are necessary.
Neuhaus, K W; Ellwood, R; Lussi, A; Pitts, N B
Lesion detection aids ideally aim at increasing the sensitivity of visual caries detection without trading off too much in terms of specificity. The use of a dental probe (explorer), bitewing radiography and fibre-optic transillumination (FOTI) have long been recommended for this purpose. Today, probing of suspected lesions in the sense of checking the 'stickiness' is regarded as obsolete, since it achieves no gain of sensitivity and might cause irreversible tooth damage. Bitewing radiography helps to detect lesions that are otherwise hidden from visual examination, and it should therefore be applied to a new patient. The diagnostic performance of radiography at approximal and occlusal sites is different, as this relates to the 3-dimensional anatomy of the tooth at these sites. However, treatment decisions have to take more into account than just lesion extension. Bitewing radiography provides additional information for the decision-making process that mainly relies on the visual and clinical findings. FOTI is a quick and inexpensive method which can enhance visual examination of all tooth surfaces. Both radiography and FOTI can improve the sensitivity of caries detection, but require sufficient training and experience to interpret information correctly. Radiography also carries the burden of the risks and legislation associated with using ionizing radiation in a health setting and should be repeated at intervals guided by the individual patient's caries risk. Lesion detection aids can assist in the longitudinal monitoring of the behaviour of initial lesions. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel
Hennig, Alex C; Incavo, Stephen J; Beynnon, Bruce D; Abate, Joseph A; Urse, John S; Kelly, Stephen
Twenty opening wedge tibial osteotomies were performed using the Osteotrac plate, which consists of a two-piece plate with a one-way ratcheting mechanism with two degrees of freedom. A variety of concomitant procedures were performed including osteochondral transfer, tibial tubercle medialization, and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The change in tibiofemoral alignment in the coronal plane and the shift in lower extremity mechanical axis were determined. The average lateral shift in the lower extremity mechanical axis was 24% of the tibial plateau width. The average change in the mechanical tibiofemoral angle was 7 degrees of valgus. Union rate at the osteotomy site was 95%. No deep infections, clinical deep venous thrombosis, or device failures occurred. The Osteotrac plate provides safe and effective fixation and intraoperative adjustability to achieve and maintain a lateral shift of the lower extremity mechanical axis and valgus correction of the tibiofemoral alignment in patients with varus knees undergoing proximal tibial opening wedge osteotomy and associated meniscal and chondral procedures.
Walker, J. A.; Ewald, T. J.; Lewallen, E.; Van Wijnen, A.; Hanssen, A. D.; Morrey, B. F.; Morrey, M. E.; Abdel, M. P.
Objectives Sustained intra-articular delivery of pharmacological agents is an attractive modality but requires use of a safe carrier that would not induce cartilage damage or fibrosis. Collagen scaffolds are widely available and could be used intra-articularly, but no investigation has looked at the safety of collagen scaffolds within synovial joints. The aim of this study was to determine the safety of collagen scaffold implantation in a validated in vivo animal model of knee arthrofibrosis. Materials and Methods A total of 96 rabbits were randomly and equally assigned to four different groups: arthrotomy alone; arthrotomy and collagen scaffold placement; contracture surgery; and contracture surgery and collagen scaffold placement. Animals were killed in equal numbers at 72 hours, two weeks, eight weeks, and 24 weeks. Joint contracture was measured, and cartilage and synovial samples underwent histological analysis. Results Animals that underwent arthrotomy had equivalent joint contractures regardless of scaffold implantation (-13.9° versus -10.9°, equivalence limit 15°). Animals that underwent surgery to induce contracture did not demonstrate equivalent joint contractures with (41.8°) or without (53.9°) collagen scaffold implantation. Chondral damage occurred in similar rates with (11 of 48) and without (nine of 48) scaffold implantation. No significant difference in synovitis was noted between groups. Absorption of the collagen scaffold occurred within eight weeks in all animals Conclusion Our data suggest that intra-articular implantation of a collagen sponge does not induce synovitis or cartilage damage. Implantation in a native joint does not seem to induce contracture. Implantation of the collagen sponge in a rabbit knee model of contracture may decrease the severity of the contracture. Cite this article: J. A. Walker, T. J. Ewald, E. Lewallen, A. Van Wijnen, A. D. Hanssen, B. F. Morrey, M. E. Morrey, M. P. Abdel, J. Sanchez-Sotelo. Intra
Albuquerque, Rodrigo Pires; Giordano, Vincenzo; Albuquerque, Maria Isabel Pires; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Pires; do Amaral, Ney Pecegueiro; Barretto, João Maurício
Unilateral tearing of a patellar tendon and a contralateral sleeve fracture in a pre-adolescent are rare lesions. We report a case in which a pre-adolescent sustained a fall while jumping during a soccer match. No predisposing risk factors were identified. The injuries were treated with surgical repairs and transosseous suturing. The aim of this study was to present a case of spontaneous concurrent tearing of the extensor mechanism of the knee in a pre-adolescent. PMID:27047882
Ko, Jih-Yang; Sun, Yi-Chih; Li, Wen-Chin; Wang, Feng-Sheng
Articular cartilage integrity loss is a prominently deleterious feature of osteoarthritis (OA). The mechanistic underlying the development of OA warrants characterization. Heat shock proteins (HSPs), members of the chaperone family, reportedly orchestrate tissue homeostasis and remodeling in response to detrimental stress. This study was undertaken to characterize the biological role of HSP60 in the pathogenesis of OA knee. Articular specimens from OA knee patients displayed severe articular damage histopathology concomitant with low HSP60 concentrations in cartilage and synovial fluid compared to non-OA patients. In vitro, a gain of HSP60 signaling counteracted the IL-1β-mediated suppression of mitochondrial biogenesis, chondrogenic transcription factor SOX9, and cartilage matrix expression of human chondrocytes cultures. Transgenic mice that overexpressed human HSP60 (TgHSP60) had higher chondrocyte proliferation and thicker articular cartilage than wild-type mice. In collagenase-induced OA knees, analyses of CatWalk, 2-deoxyglucose-probed fluorescence imaging, and μCT revealed that affected knees of TgHSP60 mice showed minor footprint irregularity, joint inflammation, and osteophyte formation. HSP60 overexpression also alleviated the histopathology of cartilage damage, synovial hypervascularization, and macrophage infiltration within joint lesions. Intra-articular administration of exogenous HSP60 ameliorated the pathogenesis of cartilage deterioration, synovitis, and osteophyte accumulation, thereby improving gait profiles of the collagenase-injured knees. HSP60 signaling maintains SOX9 levels by attenuating SOX9 hyper-ubiquitination of affected joints. Taken together, HSP60 deficiency in articular compartments was relevant to OA knee incidence. Sustained HSP60 signaling is favorable to mitigate the progression of OA. This study highlights the joint-anabolic actions of HSP60 and provides perspective on its therapeutic potential for OA. HSP60 deficiency is
Słupik, Anna; Kowalski, Marcin; Białoszewski, Dariusz
The study aimed to assess the impact of joint degeneration due to advanced gonarthrosis and the effect of arthroplasty on proprioception and sensorimotor system performance of the knee. The arthroplasty group comprised 62 persons, aged 68.8 years on average, who underwent knee replacement due to gonarthrosis. The control group consisted of 74 healthy persons, with an average age of 67.5 years. The participants performed a test of Joint Position Sense (JPS) at 45° flexion and a Sensorimotor Control Test (SCT) designed by the authors to evaluate sensorimotor system performance (on a scale of 0-5). The arthroplasty group was assessed three times: before the knee replacement surgery, and then at 8 and 100 days after the surgery. The control group was assessed once. The control group scored a mean of 4.9 in the SCT test and 3.9° in the JPS test. The mean scores upon consecutive measurements in the arthroplasty group were 3.1, 2.9 and 4.5 for the SCT test and 10.5°, 9.5° and 3.9° (compared to 8.1° for the healthy limb) for the JPS test. 1. Considerable proprioceptive and sensorimotor system performance deficits, as recorded in the arthroplasty group, may contribute to faster progression of degenerative disease and increase the risk of a fall. 2. The Sensorimotor Control Test designed by the authors seems to represent an objective and comprehensive method for assessing the sensorimotor system performance of the knee in gonarthrosis patients. 3. The Sensorimotor Control Test provides a qualitative assessment and may be employed in the clinical therapeutic setting.
Shervin, David; Pratt, Katelyn; Healey, Travis; Nguyen, Samantha; Mihalko, William M; El-Othmani, Mouhanad M; Saleh, Khaled J
Despite improvements in technique and technology for total knee arthroplasty (TKA), anterior knee pain impacts patient outcomes and satisfaction. Addressing the prosthetic and surgical technique related causes of pain after TKA, specifically as it relates to anterior knee pain, can aid surgeons in addressing these issues with their patients. Design features of the femoral and patellar components which have been reported as pain generators include: Improper femoral as well as patellar component sizing or designs that result in patellofemoral stuffing; a shortened trochlear groove distance from the flange to the intercondylar box; and then surgical technique related issues resulting in: Lateral patellar facet syndrome; overstuffed patella/flange combination; asymmetric patellar resurfacing, improper transverse plane component rotation resulting in patellar subluxation/tilt. Any design consideration that allows impingement of extensor mechanism anatomical elements has the possibility of impacting outcome by becoming a pain generator. As the number of TKA procedures continues to increase, it is increasingly critical to develop improved, evidence based prostheses that maximize function and patient satisfaction while minimizing pain and other complications. PMID:26601061
Montero-Quijano, M; Ceja-Barriga, A; Núñez-Robles, J; Barrios-Benítez, U; Núñez-Barragán, J L; Antonio-Romero, E
The appearance of patellofemoral pain after a knee arthroplasty, particularly in rheumatic diseases, resulted in the incorporation of the substitution of the patellar component in all designs. The replacement of the patella became a standard part of knee arthroplasty, but the controversy over whether to restore it or not continues among orthopedists that perform knee arthroplasties. To analyze the incidence of anterior knee pain in patients who underwent primary knee arthroplasty with or without replacement of the patellar component. Observational, retrospective, descriptive and transversal study from January 2011 to December 2013. A total of 54 patients were included, 12 men (with an average age of 63 years) and 42 women (with an average age of 71 years), totaling 64 knees that were surgically intervened. This study found no significant difference in anterior knee pain and in the function of the patellofemoral joint and the knee in the groups of patients who were tested with the different scales.
Khoo, L P; Goh, J C; Chow, S L
This paper presents an approach for the establishment of a parametric model of knee joint prosthesis. Four different sizes of a commercial prosthesis are used as an example in the study. A reverse engineering technique was employed to reconstruct the prosthesis on CATIA, a CAD (computer aided design) system. Parametric models were established as a result of the analysis. Using the parametric model established and the knee data obtained from a clinical study on 21 pairs of cadaveric Asian knees, the development of a prototype prosthesis that suits a patient with a very small knee joint is presented. However, it was found that modification to certain parameters may be inevitable due to the uniqueness of the Asian knee. An avenue for rapid modelling and eventually economical production of a customized knee joint prosthesis for patients is proposed and discussed.
Maley, W. E.
Metal knee hinge with an adjustable sleeve worn on the outside of a leg cast facilitates movement of the knee joint. This helps eliminate stiffness of the knee and eliminates bulkiness and adjustment difficulty.
Transitory improvement of articular cartilage characteristics after implantation of polylactide:polyglycolic acid (PLGA) scaffolds seeded with autologous mesenchymal stromal cells in a sheep model of critical-sized chondral defect.
Caminal, M; Moll, X; Codina, D; Rabanal, R M; Morist, A; Barrachina, J; Garcia, F; Pla, A; Vives, J
Clinical translation of emerging technologies aiming at cartilage resurfacing is hindered by neither the appropriate scaffold design nor the optimal cell source having been defined. Here, critical-sized, chondral-only focal defects were created in sheep and treated with clinical-grade, co-polymeric poly-lactide:polyglycolic acid scaffolds either alone or seeded with 3.3 × 10(6) ± 0.4 × 10(6) autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells and studied over 12 month follow-up. An untreated group was included for comparison. Second-look arthroscopy performed at 4 months post-treatment evidenced the generation of neocartilage of better quality in those defects treated with cells. However, macroscopic scores in the cell-treated group declined significantly from 7.5 ± 2.3 at 4 months to 3.1 ± 2.6 (p = 0.0098) at 12 months post-treatment, whereas the other two experimental groups remained unaltered during 4-12 month post-treatment. The effectiveness of the cell-based approach proposed in this study is thus restricted to between months 1 and 4 post-treatment.
Flandry, Fred; Hommel, Gabriel
Functionally, the knee comprises 2 articulations-the patellofemoral and tibiofemoral. Stability of the joint is governed by a combination of static ligaments, dynamic muscular forces, meniscocapsular aponeurosis, bony topography, and joint load. The surgeon is ill equipped to undertake surgical treatment of a dislocated knee without a sound footing in the anatomic complexities of this joint. We review the normal anatomy of the knee, emphasizing connective tissue structures and common injury patterns.
Long, Michael J; Papi, Enrica; Duffell, Lynsey D; McGregor, Alison H
Individuals who suffered a lower limb injury have an increased risk of developing knee osteoarthritis. Early diagnosis of osteoarthritis and the ability to track its progression is challenging. This study aimed to explore links between self-reported knee osteoarthritis outcome scores and biomechanical gait parameters, whether self-reported outcome scores could predict gait abnormalities characteristic of knee osteoarthritis in injured populations and, whether scores and biomechanical outcomes were related to osteoarthritis severity via Spearman's correlation coefficient. A cross-sectional study was conducted with asymptomatic participants, participants with lower-limb injury and those with medial knee