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Sample records for knee pain randomised

  1. The effect of a manual therapy knee protocol on osteoarthritic knee pain: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Henry; Ward, Graham; Hoskins, Wayne; Hardy, Katie

    2008-12-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is a highly prevalent condition with a significant socioeconomic burden to society. It is known to effect sufferers through pain, loss of function and changes in health related quality of life. Management typically involves pharmacologic and/or exercise based therapy approaches to reduce pain. Previous studies have shown multimodal treatment approaches incorporating manual therapy to be efficacious. The aim of this study is to determine if a manual therapy technique knee protocol can alter the self reported pain experienced by a group of chronic knee osteoarthritis sufferers in a randomised controlled trial. 43 participants with a chronic, non-progressive history of osteoarthritic knee pain, aged between 47 and 70 years were randomly allocated following a screening procedure to an intervention group (n=26; 18 men and 8 women, mean age 56.5 years) or a control group (n=17; 11 men and 6 women, mean age 54.6 years). Participants were matched for present knee pain intensity measured on a visual analogue scale. The intervention consisted of the Macquarie Injury Management Group Knee Protocol whilst the control involved a non-forceful manual contact to the knee followed by interferential therapy set at zero. Participants received three treatments per week for two consecutive weeks with a follow up immediately after the final treatment. Post-treatment Participants completed 11 questions including present knee pain intensity and feedback regarding their response to treatment utilizing a visual analogue scale. Results were analysed using descriptive statistics. Prior to the intervention, there was no significant differences in age or present knee pain intensity. Following treatment, the intervention group reported a significant decrease in the present pain severity (mean 1.9) when compared to the control group (mean 3.1). Response to treatment questions indicated that compared to the control group, the intervention group felt the intervention had helped

  2. The effect of a manual therapy knee protocol on osteoarthritic knee pain: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Henry; Ward, Graham; Hoskins, Wayne; Hardy, Katie

    2008-01-01

    Background Knee osteoarthritis is a highly prevalent condition with a significant socioeconomic burden to society. It is known to effect sufferers through pain, loss of function and changes in health related quality of life. Management typically involves pharmacologic and/or exercise based therapy approaches to reduce pain. Previous studies have shown multimodal treatment approaches incorporating manual therapy to be efficacious. The aim of this study is to determine if a manual therapy technique knee protocol can alter the self reported pain experienced by a group of chronic knee osteoarthritis sufferers in a randomised controlled trial. Methods 43 participants with a chronic, non-progressive history of osteoarthritic knee pain, aged between 47 and 70 years were randomly allocated following a screening procedure to an intervention group (n=26; 18 men and 8 women, mean age 56.5 years) or a control group (n=17; 11 men and 6 women, mean age 54.6 years). Participants were matched for present knee pain intensity measured on a visual analogue scale. The intervention consisted of the Macquarie Injury Management Group Knee Protocol whilst the control involved a non-forceful manual contact to the knee followed by interferential therapy set at zero. Participants received three treatments per week for two consecutive weeks with a follow up immediately after the final treatment. Post-treatment Participants completed 11 questions including present knee pain intensity and feedback regarding their response to treatment utilizing a visual analogue scale. Results were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results Prior to the intervention, there was no significant differences in age or present knee pain intensity. Following treatment, the intervention group reported a significant decrease in the present pain severity (mean 1.9) when compared to the control group (mean 3.1). Response to treatment questions indicated that compared to the control group, the intervention group felt

  3. Internet-mediated physiotherapy and pain coping skills training for people with persistent knee pain (IMPACT - knee pain): a randomised controlled trial protocol.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Fiona; Hinman, Rana S; French, Simon; Rini, Christine; Keefe, Francis; Nelligan, Rachel; Abbott, J Haxby; Bryant, Christina; Staples, Margaret P; Dalwood, Andrew; Bennell, Kim L

    2014-08-13

    Persistent knee pain in people over 50 years of age is often attributable to knee osteoarthritis (OA), a common joint condition that causes physical and psychological dysfunction. Exercise and pain coping skills training (PCST) can help reduce the impact of persistent knee pain, however, access to health professionals who deliver these services can be challenging. With increasing access to the Internet, remotely delivered Internet-based treatment approaches may provide alternatives for healthcare delivery. This pragmatic randomised controlled trial will investigate whether an Internet-delivered intervention that combines PCST and physiotherapist-guided exercise (PCST + Ex) is more effective than online educational material (educational control) in people with persistent knee pain. We will recruit 148 people over 50 years of age with self-reported persistent knee pain consistent with knee OA from the Australian community. Following completion of baseline questionnaires, participants will be randomly allocated to access a 3-month intervention of either (i) online educational material, or (ii) the same online material plus an 8-module (once per week) Internet-based PCST program and seven Internet-delivered physiotherapy sessions with a home exercise programs to be performed 3 times per week. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, 3 months and 9 months with the primary time point at 3 months. Primary outcomes are average knee pain on walking (11-point numeric rating scale) and self-reported physical function (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index subscale). Secondary outcomes include additional measures of knee pain, health-related quality-of-life, perceived global change in symptoms, and potential moderators and mediators of outcomes including self-efficacy for pain management and function, pain coping attempts and pain catastrophising. Other measures of adherence, adverse events, harms, use of health services/co-interventions, and process

  4. Randomised controlled trial of magnetic bracelets for relieving pain in osteoarthritis of the hip and knee

    PubMed Central

    Harlow, Tim; Greaves, Colin; White, Adrian; Brown, Liz; Hart, Anna; Ernst, Edzard

    2004-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness of commercially available magnetic bracelets for pain control in osteoarthritis of the hip and knee. Design Randomised, placebo controlled trial with three parallel groups. Setting Five rural general practices. Participants 194 men and women aged 45-80 years with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. Intervention Wearing a standard strength static bipolar magnetic bracelet, a weak magnetic bracelet, or a non-magnetic (dummy) bracelet for 12 weeks. Main outcome measures Change in the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis lower limb pain scale (WOMAC A) after 12 weeks, with the primary comparison between the standard and dummy groups. Secondary outcomes included changes in WOMAC B and C scales and a visual analogue scale for pain. Results Mean pain scores were reduced more in the standard magnet group than in the dummy group (mean difference 1.3 points, 95% confidence interval 0.05 to 2.55). Self reported blinding status did not affect the results. The scores for secondary outcome measures were consistent with the WOMAC A scores. Conclusion Pain from osteoarthritis of the hip and knee decreases when wearing magnetic bracelets. It is uncertain whether this response is due to specific or non-specific (placebo) effects. PMID:15604181

  5. A randomised trial of a brace for patellofemoral osteoarthritis targeting knee pain and bone marrow lesions.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Michael J; Parkes, Matthew J; Hutchinson, Charles E; Gait, Andrew D; Forsythe, Laura M; Marjanovic, Elizabeth J; Lunt, Mark; Felson, David T

    2015-06-01

    Braces used to treat (PF) osteoarthritis (OA) may reduce contact stress across the PF joint. We hypothesised that in PF OA, braces would decrease knee pain and shrink PF bone marrow lesions (BMLs). Eligible subjects had painful PF OA. Subjects were randomly allocated to brace or no brace for 6 weeks. Knee MRIs were acquired at baseline and 6 weeks. We measured BMLs on post-contrast fat suppressed sagittal and proton density weighted axial images. The primary symptom outcome was change in pain at 6 weeks during a preselected painful activity, and the primary structural outcome was BML volume change in the PF joint. Analyses used multiple linear regression. We randomised 126 subjects aged 40-70 years (mean age 55.5  years; 72 females (57.1%)). Mean nominated visual analogue scale (0-10 cm) pain score at baseline was 6.5 cm. 94 knees (75%) had PF BMLs at baseline. Subjects wore the brace for a mean of 7.4 h/day. 6 subjects withdrew during the trial. After accounting for baseline values, the brace group had lower knee pain than the control group at 6 weeks (difference between groups -1.3 cm, 95% CI -2.0 to -0.7; p<0.001) and reduced PF BML volume (difference -490.6 mm(3), 95% CI -929.5 to -51.7; p=0.03) but not tibiofemoral volume (difference -53.9 mm(3), 95% CI -625.9 to 518.2; p=0.85). A PF brace reduces BML volume in the targeted compartment of the knee, and relieves knee pain. UK. ISRCTN50380458. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. External validity in randomised controlled trials of acupuncture for osteoarthritis knee pain.

    PubMed

    Purepong, Nithima; Jitvimonrat, Anusorn; Sitthipornvorakul, Ekalak; Eksakulkla, Sukanya; Janwantanakul, Prawit

    2012-09-01

    To assess two aspects of the external validity of acupuncture research for osteoarthritis knee pain and determine the common acupoints and treatment parameters used. The external validity of 16 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was investigated using a scale consisting of two aspects: reporting and performance. The reporting aspect included acupuncturist's background, study location, treatment detailed, patient characteristics, positive trial results, adverse effects and between-group statistical differences, whereas treatment appropriateness, appropriate controls and outcomes were classified as the performance aspect. Acupuncture treatment in RCTs was compared with common practice according to the literature sources and survey of acupuncturists working in different parts of Thailand. The levels of external validity for the reporting and performance aspects were in the range of 31.3% to 100%. Statistic values such as mean difference and confidence interval were reported by the minority of trials (43.8%). Patient satisfaction and quality of life were seldom used (31.3%). There were minor differences between research and practice in terms of the points used (25.0%), number of treatment sessions (6.3%) and frequency (12.5%). The most frequently used points were ST34, ST35, ST36, SP6, SP9, SP10, GB34, Xiyan and ah shi points, and the commonly used treatment parameters were 20 minutes, 10-15 sessions and two treatments weekly. Reporting of the external validity of acupuncture RCTs for knee pain was notably inadequate in terms of trial setting, treatment provider and statistical reporting. The majority of studies involved appropriate controls and outcomes and applied acupuncture treatments in line with practice.

  7. Efficacy of acupuncture for chronic knee pain: protocol for a randomised controlled trial using a Zelen design.

    PubMed

    Hinman, Rana S; McCrory, Paul; Pirotta, Marie; Relf, Ian; Crossley, Kay M; Reddy, Prasuna; Forbes, Andrew; Harris, Anthony; Metcalf, Ben R; Kyriakides, Mary; Novy, Kitty; Bennell, Kim L

    2012-09-19

    Chronic knee pain is a common and disabling condition in people over 50 years of age, with knee joint osteoarthritis being a major cause. Acupuncture is a popular form of complementary and alternative medicine for treating pain and dysfunction associated with musculoskeletal conditions. This pragmatic Zelen-design randomised controlled trial is investigating the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of needle and laser acupuncture, administered by medical practitioners, in people with chronic knee pain. Two hundred and eighty two people aged over 50 years with chronic knee pain have been recruited from metropolitan Melbourne and regional Victoria, Australia. Participants originally consented to participate in a longitudinal natural history study but were then covertly randomised into one of four treatment groups. One group continued as originally consented (ie natural history group) and received no acupuncture treatment. The other three were treatment groups: i) laser acupuncture, ii) sham laser or, iii) needle acupuncture. Acupuncture treatments used a combined Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine style, were delivered by general practitioners and comprised 8-12 visits over 12 weeks. Follow-up is currently ongoing. The primary outcomes are pain measured by an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS) and self-reported physical function measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster (WOMAC) Universities Osteoarthritis Index subscale at the completion of treatment at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes include quality of life, global rating of change scores and additional measures of pain (other NRS and WOMAC subscale) and physical function (NRS). Additional parameters include a range of psychosocial measures in order to evaluate potential relationships with acupuncture treatment outcomes. Relative cost-effectiveness will be determined from health service usage and outcome data. Follow-up assessments will also occur at 12 months. The findings from this study will help determine

  8. Efficacy of acupuncture for chronic knee pain: protocol for a randomised controlled trial using a Zelen design

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic knee pain is a common and disabling condition in people over 50 years of age, with knee joint osteoarthritis being a major cause. Acupuncture is a popular form of complementary and alternative medicine for treating pain and dysfunction associated with musculoskeletal conditions. This pragmatic Zelen-design randomised controlled trial is investigating the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of needle and laser acupuncture, administered by medical practitioners, in people with chronic knee pain. Methods/Design Two hundred and eighty two people aged over 50 years with chronic knee pain have been recruited from metropolitan Melbourne and regional Victoria, Australia. Participants originally consented to participate in a longitudinal natural history study but were then covertly randomised into one of four treatment groups. One group continued as originally consented (ie natural history group) and received no acupuncture treatment. The other three were treatment groups: i) laser acupuncture, ii) sham laser or, iii) needle acupuncture. Acupuncture treatments used a combined Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine style, were delivered by general practitioners and comprised 8–12 visits over 12 weeks. Follow-up is currently ongoing. The primary outcomes are pain measured by an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS) and self-reported physical function measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster (WOMAC) Universities Osteoarthritis Index subscale at the completion of treatment at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes include quality of life, global rating of change scores and additional measures of pain (other NRS and WOMAC subscale) and physical function (NRS). Additional parameters include a range of psychosocial measures in order to evaluate potential relationships with acupuncture treatment outcomes. Relative cost-effectiveness will be determined from health service usage and outcome data. Follow-up assessments will also occur at 12 months. Discussion The

  9. Acupuncture for pain and osteoarthritis of the knee: a pilot study for an open parallel-arm randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lansdown, Harriet; Howard, Katie; Brealey, Stephen; MacPherson, Hugh

    2009-10-24

    There is some evidence that acupuncture for pain and osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is more than a placebo, and short term clinical benefits have been observed when acupuncture is compared to usual care. However there is insufficient evidence on whether clinical benefits of acupuncture are sustained over the longer term. In this study our key objectives are to inform the design parameters for a fully powered pragmatic randomised controlled trial. These objectives include establishing potential recruitment rates, appropriate validated outcome measures, attendance levels for acupuncture treatment, loss to follow up and the sample size for a full scale trial. Potential participants aged over 50 with pain and osteoarthritis of the knee were identified from a GP database. Eligible patients were randomised to either 'acupuncture plus usual care' and 'usual care' alone, with allocation appropriately concealed. Acupuncture consisted of up to 10 sessions usually weekly. Outcome measures included Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) index with the sample size for a full scale trial determined from the variance. From the GP database of 15,927 patients, 335 potential trial participants were identified and invited to participate. After screening responses, 78 (23%) were identified as eligible and 30 patients who responded most promptly were randomised to 'acupuncture plus usual care' (15 patients) and 'usual care' alone (15 patients). Attendance for acupuncture appointments was high at 90% of the maximum. Although the trial was not powered to detect significant changes in outcome, the WOMAC pain index showed a statistically significant reduction at 3 months in the acupuncture group compared to usual care. This was not sustained at 12 months. The sample size for a fully powered two-arm trial was estimated to be 350. This pilot study provided the evidence that a fully powered study to explore the longer term impact of acupuncture would be worthwhile, and relevant

  10. Knee pain (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... front of the knee can be due to bursitis, arthritis, or softening of the patella cartilage as ... knee. Overall knee pain can be due to bursitis, arthritis, tears in the ligaments, osteoarthritis of the ...

  11. Immediate effects of electroacupuncture and manual acupuncture on pain, mobility and muscle strength in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Plaster, Ralph; Vieira, Wellington Bueno; Alencar, Flávia Alves Duarte; Nakano, Eduardo Yoshio; Liebano, Richard Eloin

    2014-06-01

    To compare the immediate effects of electroacupuncture and manual acupuncture on pain, mobility and muscle strength in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Sixty patients with knee osteoarthritis, with a pain intensity of ≥2 on the pain Numerical Rating Scale, were included. The patients were randomised into two groups: manual acupuncture and electroacupuncture. Pain intensity, degree of dysfunction (Timed Up and Go (TUG) test), maximal voluntary isometric contraction and pressure pain threshold were assessed before and after a single session of manual acupuncture or electroacupuncture treatments. Both groups showed a significant reduction in pain intensity (p<0.001) and time to run the TUG test after the acupuncture treatment (p=0.005 for the manual acupuncture group and p=0.002 for the electroacupuncture group). There were no differences between the groups regarding pain intensity (p=0.25), TUG test (p=0.70), maximum voluntary isometric contraction (p=0.43) or pressure pain threshold (p=0.27). This study found no difference between the immediate effects of a single session of manual acupuncture and electroacupuncture on pain, muscle strength and mobility in patients with knee osteoarthritis. RBR-9TCN2X. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Knee pain, knee injury, knee osteoarthritis & work.

    PubMed

    Dulay, Gurdeep S; Cooper, C; Dennison, E M

    2015-06-01

    Symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) can be viewed as the end result of a molecular cascade which ensues after certain triggers occur and ultimately results in irreversible damage to the articular cartilage. The clinical phenotype that knee OA can produce is variable and often difficult to accurately predict. This is further complicated by the often poor relationship between radiographic OA and knee pain. As a consequence, it can be difficult to compare studies that use different definitions of OA. However, the literature suggests that while there are multiple causes of knee OA, two have attracted particular attention over recent years; occupation related knee OA and OA subsequent to previous knee injury. The evidence of a relationship, and the strength of this association, is discussed in this chapter.

  13. A physiotherapist-delivered integrated exercise and pain coping skills training intervention for individuals with knee osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent chronic musculoskeletal condition with no cure. Pain is the primary symptom and results from a complex interaction between structural changes, physical impairments and psychological factors. Much evidence supports the use of strengthening exercises to improve pain and physical function in this patient population. There is also a growing body of research examining the effects of psychologist-delivered pain coping skills training (PCST) particularly in other chronic pain conditions. Though typically provided separately, there are symptom, resource and personnel advantages of exercise and PCST being delivered together by a single healthcare professional. Physiotherapists are a logical choice to be trained to deliver a PCST intervention as they already have expertise in administering exercise for knee OA and are cognisant of the need for a biopsychosocial approach to management. No studies to date have examined the effects of an integrated exercise and PCST program delivered solely by physiotherapists in this population. The primary aim of this multisite randomised controlled trial is to investigate whether an integrated 12-week PCST and exercise treatment program delivered by physiotherapists is more efficacious than either program alone in treating pain and physical function in individuals with knee OA. Methods/design This will be an assessor-blinded, 3-arm randomised controlled trial of a 12-week intervention involving 10 physiotherapy visits together with home practice. Participants with symptomatic and radiographic knee OA will be recruited from the community in two cities in Australia and randomized into one of three groups: exercise alone, PCST alone, or integrated PCST and exercise. Randomisation will be stratified by city (Melbourne or Brisbane) and gender. Primary outcomes are overall average pain in the past week measured by a Visual Analogue Scale and physical function measured by the Western Ontario and Mc

  14. A physiotherapist-delivered integrated exercise and pain coping skills training intervention for individuals with knee osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled trial protocol.

    PubMed

    Bennell, Kim L; Ahamed, Yasmin; Bryant, Christina; Jull, Gwendolen; Hunt, Michael A; Kenardy, Justin; Forbes, Andrew; Harris, Anthony; Nicholas, Michael; Metcalf, Ben; Egerton, Thorlene; Keefe, Francis J

    2012-07-24

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent chronic musculoskeletal condition with no cure. Pain is the primary symptom and results from a complex interaction between structural changes, physical impairments and psychological factors. Much evidence supports the use of strengthening exercises to improve pain and physical function in this patient population. There is also a growing body of research examining the effects of psychologist-delivered pain coping skills training (PCST) particularly in other chronic pain conditions. Though typically provided separately, there are symptom, resource and personnel advantages of exercise and PCST being delivered together by a single healthcare professional. Physiotherapists are a logical choice to be trained to deliver a PCST intervention as they already have expertise in administering exercise for knee OA and are cognisant of the need for a biopsychosocial approach to management. No studies to date have examined the effects of an integrated exercise and PCST program delivered solely by physiotherapists in this population. The primary aim of this multisite randomised controlled trial is to investigate whether an integrated 12-week PCST and exercise treatment program delivered by physiotherapists is more efficacious than either program alone in treating pain and physical function in individuals with knee OA. This will be an assessor-blinded, 3-arm randomised controlled trial of a 12-week intervention involving 10 physiotherapy visits together with home practice. Participants with symptomatic and radiographic knee OA will be recruited from the community in two cities in Australia and randomized into one of three groups: exercise alone, PCST alone, or integrated PCST and exercise. Randomisation will be stratified by city (Melbourne or Brisbane) and gender. Primary outcomes are overall average pain in the past week measured by a Visual Analogue Scale and physical function measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities

  15. Effect of aqua-cycling on pain and physical functioning compared with usual care in patients with knee osteoarthritis: study protocol of a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rewald, Stefanie; Mesters, Ilse; Lenssen, A F; Emans, Pieter J; Wijnen, Wiel; de Bie, Rob A

    2016-02-18

    Over the last decade aquatic exercise has become more and more popular. One of the latest trends is aqua-cycling, where participants sit on a water-resistant stationary bike and, while immersed chest deep in the water, combine continuous cycling with upper body exercises that utilise water resistance. Since stationary cycling and aquatic exercises are frequently recommended to patients with knee osteoarthritis, combining both would seem an obvious step, and an aqua-cycling exercise programme for patients with knee osteoarthritis has indeed been developed. This study protocol gives a detailed description of the exercise programme and the methodology of a study to compare this programme with treatment involving usual care only. The study is a single-blind, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial of Maastricht University Medical Centre+, the Netherlands. knee pain of four to seven on a 10-point pain rating scale; a Kellgren/Lawrence score between one to three; ability to cycle; good mental health; sufficient language skills; indication for physical therapy in conjunction with impairments due to OA. any contra-indication for aquatic exercise; planned total knee replacement; corticosteroid injection <3 months and/or hyaluronic acid injection <6 months; severe joint complaints (other than knee joint); symptomatic and radiological apparent hip OA; inflammatory joint diseases; inability to safely enter and exit the pool; fear of water. Participants will receive two 45-min moderate intense aqua-cycling sessions weekly over a period of 12 weeks in addition to usual care or usual care only. Usual care consists of an individual intervention plan comprising lifestyle recommendations, medication routine and referral to a physical therapist. Participants will be assessed at baseline, and at 12 and 24 weeks after baseline. The primary outcome is self-reported knee pain and physical functioning. Secondary outcomes are lower limb muscle strength, functional capacity, self

  16. Effectiveness of a healthy lifestyle intervention for low back pain and osteoarthritis of the knee: protocol and statistical analysis plan for two randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Kate M.; Williams, Amanda; Wiggers, John; Wolfenden, Luke; Yoong, Serene; Campbell, Elizabeth; Kamper, Steven J.; McAuley, James; Attia, John; Oldmeadow, Chris; Williams, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background These trials are the first randomised controlled trials of telephone-based weight management and healthy lifestyle interventions for low back pain and knee osteoarthritis. This article describes the protocol and statistical analysis plan. Method These trials are parallel randomised controlled trials that investigate and compare the effect of a telephone-based weight management and healthy lifestyle intervention for improving pain intensity in overweight or obese patients with low back pain or knee osteoarthritis. The analysis plan was finalised prior to initiation of analyses. All data collected as part of the trial were reviewed, without stratification by group, and classified by baseline characteristics, process of care and trial outcomes. Trial outcomes were classified as primary and secondary outcomes. Appropriate descriptive statistics and statistical testing of between-group differences, where relevant, have been planned and described. Conclusions A protocol for standard analyses was developed for the results of two randomised controlled trials. This protocol describes the data, and the pre-determined statistical tests of relevant outcome measures. The plan demonstrates transparent and verifiable use of the data collected. This a priori protocol will be followed to ensure rigorous standards of data analysis are strictly adhered to. PMID:27683839

  17. Pain control after primary total knee replacement. A prospective randomised controlled trial of local infiltration versus single shot femoral nerve block.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Anam; Raut, Videsh V; Canty, Stephen J; McLauchlan, George J

    2013-10-01

    We report a prospective blinded randomised trial of local infiltration versus femoral nerve block in patients undergoing primary total knee replacement (TKR), in accordance with the CONSORT statement 2010. Fifty patients in a teaching hospital were consented for the study. The study arms were intraoperative local anaesthesia (150ml 0.2% ropivacaine/1ml 1:1000 adrenaline/30mg ketolorac) and femoral nerve block (30ml 0.2% ropivacaine) with a primary outcome of pain score at 4h post operatively. Secondary outcomes were pain at 2h, pain scores before and after physiotherapy on day one, total opiate administered, time to physiotherapy goals and length of stay. Randomisation was by sealed envelope. The assessor was blinded and the patients partially blinded to the intervention. Ten patients were excluded, eight before randomisation. The trial is complete. Forty patients were analysed for the primary outcome measure. The local infiltration group had significantly lower pain scores at 4h post-operatively; mean [SD] score 2.1 [2.6] versus 6.8 [3.2], p<0.00001 and on post-operative day one prior to physiotherapy; mean score 2.4 [2.3] versus 4.4 [2.3], p<0.05. Total opiate use was also significantly lower in the local infiltration group; mean total 115 [50.3]mg versus 176.5 [103.5]mg, p<0.01. There was no difference in any other outcome. There were no harms as a result of either intervention. Intraoperative local infiltration gives superior pain relief compared to single shot femoral nerve block over the first 24h following primary TKR and minimises post-operative opiate use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A randomised controlled trial of ibuprofen, paracetamol or a combination tablet of ibuprofen/paracetamol in community-derived people with knee pain.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Michael; Hawkey, Chris; Goulder, Michael; Gibb, Iain; Hill, Nicola; Aspley, Sue; Reader, Sandie

    2011-09-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of single versus combination non-prescription oral analgesics in community-derived people aged 40 years and older with chronic knee pain. A randomised, double-blind, four-arm, parallel-group, active controlled trial investigating short-term (day 10) and long-term (week 13) benefits and side-effects of four regimens, each taken three times a day: ibuprofen (400 mg); paracetamol (1000 mg); one fixed-dose combination tablet (ibuprofen 200 mg/paracetamol 500 mg); two fixed-dose combination tablets (ibuprofen 400 mg/paracetamol 1000 mg). There were 892 participants (mean age 60.6, range 40-84 years); 63% had radiographic knee osteoarthritis and 85% fulfilled American College of Rheumatology criteria for osteoarthritis. At day 10, two combination tablets were superior to paracetamol (p<0.01) for pain relief (determined by mean change from baseline in WOMAC pain; n=786). At 13 weeks, significantly more participants taking one or two combination tablets rated their treatment as excellent/good compared with paracetamol (p=0.015, p=0.0002, respectively; n=615). The frequency of adverse events was comparable between groups. However, by 13 weeks, decreases in haemoglobin (≥1 g/dl) were observed in some participants in all groups. Twice as many participants taking two combination tablets had this decrease compared with those on monotherapy (p<0.001; paracetamol, 20.3%; ibuprofen, 19.6%; one or two combination tablets, 24.1%, 38.4%, respectively). Ibuprofen/paracetamol combination analgesia, at non-prescription doses, confers modest short-term benefits for knee pain/osteoarthritis. However, in this population, paracetamol 3 g/day may cause similar degrees of blood loss as ibuprofen 1200 mg/day, and the combination of the two appears to be additive. Study no ISRCTN77199439.

  19. Combined chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine for painful knee osteoarthritis: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority trial versus celecoxib

    PubMed Central

    Hochberg, Marc C; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Monfort, Jordi; Möller, Ingrid; Castillo, Juan Ramón; Arden, Nigel; Berenbaum, Francis; Blanco, Francisco J; Conaghan, Philip G; Doménech, Gema; Henrotin, Yves; Pap, Thomas; Richette, Pascal; Sawitzke, Allen; du Souich, Patrick; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare the efficacy and safety of chondroitin sulfate plus glucosamine hydrochloride (CS+GH) versus celecoxib in patients with knee osteoarthritis and severe pain. Methods Double-blind Multicentre Osteoarthritis interVEntion trial with SYSADOA (MOVES) conducted in France, Germany, Poland and Spain evaluating treatment with CS+GH versus celecoxib in 606 patients with Kellgren and Lawrence grades 2–3 knee osteoarthritis and moderate-to-severe pain (Western Ontario and McMaster osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) score ≥301; 0–500 scale). Patients were randomised to receive 400 mg CS plus 500 mg GH three times a day or 200 mg celecoxib every day for 6 months. The primary outcome was the mean decrease in WOMAC pain from baseline to 6 months. Secondary outcomes included WOMAC function and stiffness, visual analogue scale for pain, presence of joint swelling/effusion, rescue medication consumption, Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials and Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OMERACT-OARSI) criteria and EuroQoL-5D. Results The adjusted mean change (95% CI) in WOMAC pain was −185.7 (−200.3 to −171.1) (50.1% decrease) with CS+GH and −186.8 (−201.7 to −171.9) (50.2% decrease) with celecoxib, meeting the non-inferiority margin of −40: −1.11 (−22.0 to 19.8; p=0.92). All sensitivity analyses were consistent with that result. At 6 months, 79.7% of patients in the combination group and 79.2% in the celecoxib group fulfilled OMERACT-OARSI criteria. Both groups elicited a reduction >50% in the presence of joint swelling; a similar reduction was seen for effusion. No differences were observed for the other secondary outcomes. Adverse events were low and similarly distributed between groups. Conclusions CS+GH has comparable efficacy to celecoxib in reducing pain, stiffness, functional limitation and joint swelling/effusion after 6 months in patients with painful knee osteoarthritis, with a good safety profile. Trial

  20. Efficacy of knee tape in the management of osteoarthritis of the knee: blinded randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hinman, Rana S; Crossley, Kay M; McConnell, Jenny; Bennell, Kim L

    2003-07-19

    To test the hypotheses that therapeutic taping of the knee improves pain and disability in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee and that benefits remain after stopping treatment. Randomised single blind controlled trial with three intervention arms (therapeutic tape, control tape, and no tape) of three weeks' duration and three week follow up. Outcome assessment was performed in a university based laboratory. Taping interventions were applied by eight physiotherapists in metropolitan private practice. 87 patients with symptoms of knee osteoarthritis as defined by the American College of Rheumatology. Primary outcome measure was pain as measured by visual analogue scale and participant perceived rating of change. Secondary measures of pain and disability included the Western Ontario and MacMaster Universities osteoarthritis index, knee pain scale, and the SF-36. The therapeutic tape group reported a greater reduction in pain on all primary outcomes than either of the other two groups. A significant association was evident between intervention and change in pain at three weeks (P=0.000), with 73% (21/29) of the therapeutic tape group reporting improvement compared with 49% (14/29) of the control tape group and 10% (3/29) of the no tape group. Significantly greater improvement in pain and disability was observed on most secondary outcomes in the therapeutic tape group compared with the no tape group. Benefits of therapeutic tape were maintained three weeks after stopping treatment. Therapeutic knee taping is an efficacious treatment for the management of pain and disability in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  1. Anterior knee pain.

    PubMed

    LLopis, Eva; Padrón, Mario

    2007-04-01

    Anterior knee pain is a common complain in all ages athletes. It may be caused by a large variety of injuries. There is a continuum of diagnoses and most of the disorders are closely related. Repeated minor trauma and overuse play an important role for the development of lesions in Hoffa's pad, extensor mechanism, lateral and medial restrain structures or cartilage surface, however usually an increase or change of activity is referred. Although the direct relation of cartilage lesions, especially chondral, and pain is a subject of debate these lesions may be responsible of early osteoarthrosis and can determine athlete's prognosis. The anatomy and biomechanics of patellofemoral joint is complex and symptoms are often unspecific. Transient patellar dislocation has MR distinct features that provide evidence of prior dislocation and rules our complication. However, anterior knee pain more often is related to overuse and repeated minor trauma. Patella and quadriceps tendon have been also implicated in anterior knee pain, as well as lateral or medial restraint structures and Hoffa's pad. US and MR are excellent tools for the diagnosis of superficial tendons, the advantage of MR is that permits to rule out other sources of intraarticular derangements. Due to the complex anatomy and biomechanic of patellofemoral joint maltracking is not fully understood; plain films and CT allow the study of malalignment, new CT and MR kinematic studies have promising results but further studies are needed. Our purpose here is to describe how imaging techniques can be helpful in precisely defining the origin of the patient's complaint and thus improve understanding and management of these injuries.

  2. Short-term efficacy of physical interventions in osteoarthritic knee pain. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised placebo-controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Bjordal, Jan M; Johnson, Mark I; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo AB; Bogen, Bård; Chow, Roberta; Ljunggren, Anne E

    2007-01-01

    Background Treatment efficacy of physical agents in osteoarthritis of the knee (OAK) pain has been largely unknown, and this systematic review was aimed at assessing their short-term efficacies for pain relief. Methods Systematic review with meta-analysis of efficacy within 1–4 weeks and at follow up at 1–12 weeks after the end of treament. Results 36 randomised placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) were identified with 2434 patients where 1391 patients received active treatment. 33 trials satisfied three or more out of five methodological criteria (Jadad scale). The patient sample had a mean age of 65.1 years and mean baseline pain of 62.9 mm on a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS). Within 4 weeks of the commencement of treatment manual acupuncture, static magnets and ultrasound therapies did not offer statistically significant short-term pain relief over placebo. Pulsed electromagnetic fields offered a small reduction in pain of 6.9 mm [95% CI: 2.2 to 11.6] (n = 487). Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS, including interferential currents), electro-acupuncture (EA) and low level laser therapy (LLLT) offered clinically relevant pain relieving effects of 18.8 mm [95% CI: 9.6 to 28.1] (n = 414), 21.9 mm [95% CI: 17.3 to 26.5] (n = 73) and 17.7 mm [95% CI: 8.1 to 27.3] (n = 343) on VAS respectively versus placebo control. In a subgroup analysis of trials with assumed optimal doses, short-term efficacy increased to 22.2 mm [95% CI: 18.1 to 26.3] for TENS, and 24.2 mm [95% CI: 17.3 to 31.3] for LLLT on VAS. Follow-up data up to 12 weeks were sparse, but positive effects seemed to persist for at least 4 weeks after the course of LLLT, EA and TENS treatment was stopped. Conclusion TENS, EA and LLLT administered with optimal doses in an intensive 2–4 week treatment regimen, seem to offer clinically relevant short-term pain relief for OAK. PMID:17587446

  3. Duloxetine in OsteoArthritis (DOA) study: study protocol of a pragmatic open-label randomised controlled trial assessing the effect of preoperative pain treatment on postoperative outcome after total hip or knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Blikman, T; Rienstra, W; van Raaij, T M; ten Hagen, A J; Dijkstra, B; Zijlstra, W P; Bulstra, S K; van den Akker-Scheek, I; Stevens, M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Residual pain is a major factor in patient dissatisfaction following total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA). The proportion of patients with unfavourable long-term residual pain is high, ranging from 7% to 34%. There are studies indicating that a preoperative degree of central sensitisation (CS) is associated with poorer postoperative outcomes and residual pain. It is thus hypothesised that preoperative treatment of CS could enhance postoperative outcomes. Duloxetine has been shown to be effective for several chronic pain syndromes, including knee osteoarthritis (OA), in which CS is most likely one of the underlying pain mechanisms. This study aims to evaluate the postoperative effects of preoperative screening and targeted duloxetine treatment of CS on residual pain compared with care-as-usual. Methods and analysis This multicentre, pragmatic, prospective, open-label, randomised controlled trial includes patients with idiopathic hip/knee OA who are on a waiting list for primary THA/TKA. Patients at risk for CS will be randomly allocated to the preoperative duloxetine treatment programme group or the care-as-usual control group. The primary end point is the degree of postoperative pain 6 months after THA/TKA. Secondary end points at multiple time points up to 12 months postoperatively are: pain, neuropathic pain-like symptoms, (pain) sensitisation, pain catastrophising, joint-associated problems, physical activity, health-related quality of life, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and perceived improvement. Data will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the local Medical Ethics Committee (METc 2014/087) and will be conducted according to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki (64th, 2013) and the Good Clinical Practice standard (GCP), and in compliance with the Medical Research Involving Human Subjects Act (WMO). Trial registration number 2013-004313-41; Pre

  4. Anterior Knee Pain (Chondromalacia Patellae).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrick, James G.

    1989-01-01

    This article presents a pragmatic approach to the definition, diagnosis, and management of anterior knee pain. Symptoms and treatment are described. Emphasis is on active involvement of the patient in the rehabilitation exercise program. (IAH)

  5. Anterior Knee Pain (Chondromalacia Patellae).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrick, James G.

    1989-01-01

    This article presents a pragmatic approach to the definition, diagnosis, and management of anterior knee pain. Symptoms and treatment are described. Emphasis is on active involvement of the patient in the rehabilitation exercise program. (IAH)

  6. Anterior knee pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... places extra stress on the kneecap (such as running, jumping or twisting, skiing, or playing soccer). You ... noticeable with: Deep knee bends Going down stairs Running downhill Standing up after sitting for awhile

  7. Responsiveness of SF-36 Health Survey and Patient Generated Index in people with chronic knee pain commenced on oral analgesia: analysis of data from a randomised controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Papou, Alex; Hussain, Salma; McWilliams, Daniel; Zhang, Weiya; Doherty, Michael

    2017-03-01

    (1) To assess the responsiveness of the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) and Patient Generated Index (PGI) in people with knee pain who were given oral analgesics; and (2) to perform content analysis of the SF-36 and PGI aiming to identify differences between the instruments and causes of different responsiveness. An observational study nested within a randomised controlled trial comparing oral paracetamol, ibuprofen or a combination of the two in 884 community-derived people with chronic knee pain. Each participant was given the SF-36 and PGI questionnaires to fill out at baseline, day 10, week 7 and week 13 after commencement on analgesia. Responsiveness was measured as a standardised response mean from baseline, and contents of the instruments were analysed. The PGI showed the greater responsiveness to analgesics than the SF-36 throughout the study period. Only the Bodily Pain Score of the SF-36 showed comparable responsiveness to the PGI. The standardised response mean of the PGI at 13 weeks was 0.61 (95% CI 0.51-0.72), and that of the Bodily Pain Score of the SF-36 was 0.49 (95% CI 0.39-0.58). Content analysis of the PGI identified multiple areas which are not represented in the SF-36 which may help explain its performance. Overall the PGI is more responsive than the SF-36 to commonly used oral analgesics taken for knee pain. The PGI is able to elicit areas of individualised health-related quality of life which are not captured by the SF-36.

  8. Duloxetine in OsteoArthritis (DOA) study: study protocol of a pragmatic open-label randomised controlled trial assessing the effect of preoperative pain treatment on postoperative outcome after total hip or knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Blikman, T; Rienstra, W; van Raaij, T M; ten Hagen, A J; Dijkstra, B; Zijlstra, W P; Bulstra, S K; van den Akker-Scheek, I; Stevens, M

    2016-03-01

    Residual pain is a major factor in patient dissatisfaction following total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA). The proportion of patients with unfavourable long-term residual pain is high, ranging from 7% to 34%. There are studies indicating that a preoperative degree of central sensitisation (CS) is associated with poorer postoperative outcomes and residual pain. It is thus hypothesised that preoperative treatment of CS could enhance postoperative outcomes. Duloxetine has been shown to be effective for several chronic pain syndromes, including knee osteoarthritis (OA), in which CS is most likely one of the underlying pain mechanisms. This study aims to evaluate the postoperative effects of preoperative screening and targeted duloxetine treatment of CS on residual pain compared with care-as-usual. This multicentre, pragmatic, prospective, open-label, randomised controlled trial includes patients with idiopathic hip/knee OA who are on a waiting list for primary THA/TKA. Patients at risk for CS will be randomly allocated to the preoperative duloxetine treatment programme group or the care-as-usual control group. The primary end point is the degree of postoperative pain 6 months after THA/TKA. Secondary end points at multiple time points up to 12 months postoperatively are: pain, neuropathic pain-like symptoms, (pain) sensitisation, pain catastrophising, joint-associated problems, physical activity, health-related quality of life, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and perceived improvement. Data will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. The study is approved by the local Medical Ethics Committee (METc 2014/087) and will be conducted according to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki (64th, 2013) and the Good Clinical Practice standard (GCP), and in compliance with the Medical Research Involving Human Subjects Act (WMO). 2013-004313-41; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  9. Painful knee prosthesis: surgical approach

    PubMed Central

    Villano, Marco; Carulli, Christian; Puccini, Serena; Soderi, Stefano; Innocenti, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Summary There are many conditions that may be responsible of a painful knee prosthesis. The possible causes are not always easily diagnosed. Common causes of prosthetic failure, such as aseptic loosening, infection, instability, progressive patellar arthropathy and recurrent synovitis are associated with clearly defined radiographic and/or clinical evidence. Prosthetic infection should always be considered first until any other cause has been demonstrated. In the presence of an infected prosthesis we carry out a two-step revision. Aseptic loosening needs implant revision more often with increasing prosthesis stability. Varus-valgus, anteroposterior, global and patello-femoral instability are failures often due to technical errors; superstabilized or constrained implants are needed depending on the instability entity. In presence of patello-femoral pain it is necessary to evaluate the stability of the patellar component and any alterations in its motion. Patellar progressive arthropathy can often cause late-onset knee pain; in this case patella resurfacing is needed. Altered patellar tracking, may need a lateral release but in some cases is related to misalignment of the components and the revision procedure is mandatory. Nevertheless, the diagnosis and treatment of a painful knee prosthesis can be extremely difficult if there is no clear evidence of any of the most common causes of failure. Referred pain, ligament and tendon dysfunction, cutaneous neuromas, synovitis, a patellar clunk have to be diagnosed and treated. A possible aetiological understimated factor is painful knee prosthesis due to metals sensibilization, in particular to nickel. In this event the quantity of nickel in the revision prosthesis must be minimal. PMID:22461812

  10. MRI of anterior knee pain.

    PubMed

    Samim, Mohammad; Smitaman, Edward; Lawrence, David; Moukaddam, Hicham

    2014-07-01

    Anterior knee pain is the most common knee complaint. It may be due to a variety of soft tissue or osseous abnormalities. Knowledge of the radiologic appearance of the abnormalities allows more accurate diagnosis of the cause of the pain including chondral abnormalities, patellar instability and dislocation, femoral trochlear dysplasia, abnormal patellar location, bipartite patella, various tendinopathies, bursal inflammation, traction apophysitis in pediatric and adolescent patients, and miscellaneous diseases including mediopatellar plica syndrome and Hoffa's disease. Radiographs are often obtained to exclude acute osseous abnormalities, such as fractures. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging offers superior soft tissue contrast resolution and allows for more accurate evaluation of the underlying etiology and therefore may improve treatment and possible surgical planning.

  11. Impact of cane use on pain, function, general health and energy expenditure during gait in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jones, A; Silva, P G; Silva, A C; Colucci, M; Tuffanin, A; Jardim, J R; Natour, J

    2012-02-01

    To assess the impact of daily cane use during gait in relation to pain, function, general health and energy expenditure among patients with knee osteoarthritis. Sixty-four patients were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG) or control group (CG). The EG used a cane every day for 2 months, whereas the CG did not use a cane in this period. The first outcome was pain and the second were function (Lequesne and WOMAC), general health (SF-36) and energy expenditure (gas analysis during the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) with and without a cane). Evaluations were performed at baseline, 30 and 60 days. The groups were homogeneous for all parameters at baseline. Compared with the CG, the EG significantly improved pain (ES 0.18), function - Lequesne (ES 0.13), some domains of SF-36 (role physical, ES 0.07 and bodily pain, ES 0.08) and distance on the 6MWT with the cane (ES 0.16). At the end of the 6MWT with the cane, the EG significantly improved energy expenditure (ES 0.21), carbon dioxide production (ES 0.12) and metabolic equivalents (ES 0.15) compared with the CG. A cane can be used to diminish pain, improve function and some aspects of quality of life in patients with knee osteoarthritis. The prescription of a cane should take into account the substantial increase in energy expenditure in the first month of use, whereas energy expenditure is no longer a factor for concern by the end of the second month due to adaptation to cane use. The trial was registered in clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00698412).

  12. Exploring the effect of space and place on response to exercise therapy for knee and hip pain--a protocol for a double-blind randomised controlled clinical trial: the CONEX trial.

    PubMed

    Sandal, Louise Fleng; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Ulrich, Roger S; Dieppe, Paul A; Roos, Ewa M

    2015-03-27

    Context effects are described as effects of a given treatment, not directly caused by the treatment itself, but rather caused by the context in which treatment is delivered. Exercise is a recommended core treatment in clinical guidelines for musculoskeletal disorders. Although moderately effective overall, variation is seen in size of response to exercise across randomised controlled trial (RCT) studies. Part of this variation may be related to the fact that exercise interventions are performed in different physical environments, which may affect participants differently. The study aims to investigate the effect of exercising in a contextually enhanced physical environment for 8 weeks in people with knee or hip pain. The study is a double-blind RCT. Eligible participants are 35 years or older with persisting knee and/or hip pain for 3 months. Participants are randomised to one of three groups: (1) exercise in a contextually enhanced environment, (2) exercise in a standard environment and (3) waiting list. The contextually enhanced environment is located in a newly built facility, has large windows providing abundant daylight and overlooks a recreational park. The standard environment is in a basement, has artificial lighting and is marked by years of use; that is, resembling many clinical environments. The primary outcome is the participant's global perceived effect rated on a seven-point Likert scale after 8 weeks exercise. Patient-reported and objective secondary outcomes are included. The Regional Scientific Ethical Committee for Southern Denmark has approved the study. Study findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed publications and presented at national and international conferences. NCT02043613. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Effectiveness of diclofenac versus paracetamol in knee osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled trial in primary care.

    PubMed

    Verkleij, Saskia P J; Luijsterburg, Pim A J; Willemsen, Sten P; Koes, Bart W; Bohnen, Arthur M; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A

    2015-08-01

    The effectiveness of diclofenac versus paracetamol in primary care patients with pain caused by knee osteoarthritis is unclear. To assess the effectiveness of diclofenac compared with paracetamol over a period of 2, 4, and 12 weeks in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Randomised controlled trial in general practice. There were 104 patients included in the study, they were aged ≥45 years consulting their GP with knee pain caused by knee osteoarthritis. Patients were randomly allocated to diclofenac (n = 52) or paracetamol (n = 52) for at least 2 weeks. Primary outcomes were daily knee pain severity, and knee pain and function measured with the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). Over a period of 2- and 4-weeks follow-up, no significant difference in daily knee pain was found between the patient groups: estimated differences of 0.5 (95% CI = -0.2 to 1.3) and -0.2 (95% CI = -1.0 to 0.7), respectively. Over the 12-weeks follow-up, no significant differences were found between both groups for KOOS pain: estimated difference of -2.8 (95% CI = -10.7 to 5.1) and KOOS function of -2.7 (-10.6 to 5.0). Over a period of 2- and 4-weeks follow-up no significant difference in daily measured knee pain severity was found between primary care patients with knee osteoarthritis taking paracetamol or diclofenac. Also, over a period of 12-weeks follow-up no significant differences were found regarding KOOS pain and KOOS function between both groups. Patients more frequently reported minor adverse events after taking diclofenac (64%) than paracetamol (46%). © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  14. The effects of a strength and neuromuscular exercise programme for the lower extremity on knee load, pain and function in obese children and adolescents: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Horsak, Brian; Artner, David; Baca, Arnold; Pobatschnig, Barbara; Greber-Platzer, Susanne; Nehrer, Stefan; Wondrasch, Barbara

    2015-12-23

    Childhood obesity is one of the most critical and accelerating health challenges throughout the world. It is a major risk factor for developing varus/valgus misalignments of the knee joint. The combination of misalignment at the knee and excess body mass may result in increased joint stresses and damage to articular cartilage. A training programme, which aims at developing a more neutral alignment of the trunk and lower limbs during movement tasks may be able to reduce knee loading during locomotion. Despite the large number of guidelines for muscle strength training and neuromuscular exercises that exist, most are not specifically designed to target the obese children and adolescent demographic. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate a training programme which combines strength and neuromuscular exercises specifically designed to the needs and limitations of obese children and adolescents and analyse the effects of the training programme from a biomechanical and clinical point of view. A single assessor-blinded, pre-test and post-test randomised controlled trial, with one control and one intervention group will be conducted with 48 boys and girls aged between 10 and 18 years. Intervention group participants will receive a 12-week neuromuscular and quadriceps/hip strength training programme. Three-dimensional (3D) gait analyses during level walking and stair climbing will be performed at baseline and follow-up sessions. The primary outcome parameters for this study will be the overall peak external frontal knee moment and impulse during walking. Secondary outcomes include the subscales of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), frontal and sagittal kinematics and kinetics for the lower extremities during walking and stair climbing, ratings of change in knee-related well-being, pain and function and adherence to the training programme. In addition, the training programme will be evaulated from a clinical and health status perspective by

  15. Unloading shoes for osteoarthritis of the knee: protocol for the SHARK randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hinman, Rana S; Wrigley, Tim V; Metcalf, Ben R; Hunter, David J; Campbell, Penny; Paterson, Kade; Staples, Margaret P; Bennell, Kim L

    2014-02-21

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a common and disabling condition. Abnormalities in knee loading play an important role in disease pathogenesis, yet there are few non-surgical treatments for knee OA capable of reducing knee load. This two-arm randomised controlled trial is investigating the efficacy of specially-designed unloading shoes for the treatment of symptoms in people with knee OA. 164 people with symptomatic medial tibiofemoral joint OA will be recruited from the community and randomly allocated to receive either unloading shoes or control shoes. Unloading shoes have a specially-designed triple-density midsole where the medial side is softer than normal and the lateral side harder as well as a lateral wedge between the sole and sock-liner. Control shoes are standard athletic shoes and do not contain these features. Participants will be blinded to shoe allocation and will be instructed to wear the shoes as much as possible every day for 6 months, for a minimum of 4 hours per day. The primary outcomes are knee pain (numerical rating scale) and self-reported physical function (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index) measured at baseline and 6 months. Secondary outcomes include additional measures of knee pain, knee stiffness, participant global ratings of change in symptoms, quality-of-life and physical activity. The findings from this study will help determine whether specially-designed unloading shoes are efficacious in the management of knee OA. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry reference: ACTRN12613000851763.

  16. The Knee Pain Map: Reliability of a Method to Identify Knee Pain Location and Pattern

    PubMed Central

    THOMPSON, LAURA R.; BOUDREAU, ROBERT; HANNON, MICHAEL J.; NEWMAN, ANNE B.; CHU, CONSTANCE R.; JANSEN, MARY; NEVITT, MICHAEL C.; KWOH, C. KENT

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe the location and pattern of knee pain in patients with chronic, frequent knee pain using the Knee Pain Map, and to evaluate the inter- and intrarater reliability of the map. Methods A cohort of 799 participants from the University of Pittsburgh Osteoarthritis Initiative Clinical Center who had knee pain in the last 12 months were studied. Trained interviewers assessed and recorded participant-reported knee pain patterns into 8 local areas, 4 regional areas, or as diffuse. Inter- and intrarater reliability were assessed using Fleiss’ kappa. Results Participants most often reported localized (69%) followed by regional (14%) or diffuse (10%) knee pain. In those with localized pain, the most commonly reported locations were the medial (56%) and lateral (43%) joint lines. In those with regional pain, the most commonly reported regions were the patella (44%) and medial region (38%). There was excellent interrater reliability for the identification of localized and regional pain patterns (κ = 0.7–0.9 and 0.7–0.8, respectively). The interrater reliability for specific locations was also excellent (κ = 0.7–1.0) when the number of participants with pain in a location was >4. For regional pain, the kappa for specific regions varied from 0.7–1.0. Conclusion The majority of participants could identify the location of their knee pain, and trained interviewers could reliably record those locations. The variation in locations suggests that there are multiple sources of pain in knee OA. Additional studies are needed to determine whether specific knee pain patterns correlate with discrete pathologic findings on radiographs or magnetic resonance images. PMID:19479703

  17. Evaluation and management of knee pain in young athletes: overuse injuries of the knee.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dilip R; Villalobos, Ana

    2017-07-01

    Recurrent or chronic activity related knee pain is common in young athletes. Numerous intrinsic conditions affecting the knee can cause such pain. In addition, knee pain can be referred pain from low back, hip or pelvic pathology. The most common cause of knee pain in young athletes is patellofemoral pain syndrome, or more appropriately termed idiopathic anterior knee pain. Although, numerous anatomical and biomechanical factors have been postulated to contribute the knee pain in young athletes, the most common underlying reason is overuse injury. In this paper, we have reviewed selected conditions that case knee pain in athletes, including anterior knee pain syndrome, Osgood-Schlatter disease, Sinding-Larsen-Johanssen syndrome, juvenile osteochondritis dissecans (JOCD), bipartite patella, plica syndrome, and tendonitis around the knee.

  18. Perioperative pain management for total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Baratta, Jaime L; Gandhi, Kishor; Viscusi, Eugene R

    2014-01-01

    Pain management following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can be challenging. Inadequate pain management following TKA may inhibit rehabilitation, increase morbidity and mortality, decrease patient satisfaction, and lead to chronic persistent postsurgical pain. Traditionally the mainstay of postoperative pain management was opioids; however, the current recommendations to pain management emphasize a multimodal approach and minimizing opioids whenever possible. With careful planning and a multimodal analgesic approach instituted perioperatively, appropriate pain management following TKA can be achieved. Utilizing an extensive review of the literature, this article discusses the analgesic techniques available for the perioperative management of TKA.

  19. Anterior knee pain after total knee arthroplasty: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Wolf; Rembitzki, Ingo Volker; Brüggemann, Gerd-Peter; Ellermann, Andree; Best, Raymond; Koppenburg, Andreas Gösele-; Liebau, Christian

    2014-02-01

    Anterior knee pain is one of the most common causes of persistent problems after implantation of a total knee replacement. It can occur in patients with or without patellar resurfacing. As a result of the surgical procedure itself many changes can occur which may affect the delicate interplay of the joint partners in the patello-femoral joint. Functional causes of anterior knee pain can be distinguished from mechanical causes. The functional causes concern disorders of inter- and intramuscular coordination, which can be attributed to preoperative osteoarthritis. Research about anterior knee pain has shown that not only the thigh muscles but also the hip and trunk stabilising muscles may be responsible for the development of a dynamic valgus malalignment. Dynamic valgus may be a causative factor for patellar maltracking. The mechanical causes of patello-femoral problems after knee replacement can be distinguished according to whether they increase instability in the joint, increase joint pressure or whether they affect the muscular lever arms. These causes include offset errors, oversizing, rotational errors of femoral or tibial component, instability, maltracking and chondrolysis, patella baja and aseptic loosening. In these cases, reoperation or revision is often necessary.

  20. [Knee joint pain with signs of arthrosis].

    PubMed

    Bender, T T A; Marinova, M; Radbruch, L; Conrad, R; Jobst, D; Mücke, M

    2017-03-14

    Chronic pain in the knee joint is most commonly caused by osteoarthritis, especially in elderly patients but can be due to other causes, such as rheumatoid arthritis. The diagnostics include an exact patient medical history and a clinical examination, which often already provide clear indications of the cause of the knee pain. Subsequently, further diagnostics can then be considered, such as radiological procedures and laboratory diagnostics. The treatment is determined by the cause and the individual patient and aims to reduce pain and to preserve the mobility of the joint. Generally, therapy consists of pain management and physiotherapy as well as alternative therapeutic procedures, mostly in combination. Proximal tibial opening wedge osteotomy can be useful; however, partial or total knee arthroplasty should only be considered when conservative treatment options have been exhausted.

  1. Comparison of neuromuscular and quadriceps strengthening exercise in the treatment of varus malaligned knees with medial knee osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis of the knee involving predominantly the medial tibiofemoral compartment is common in older people, giving rise to pain and loss of function. Many people experience progressive worsening of the disease over time, particularly those with varus malalignment and increased medial knee joint load. Therefore, interventions that can reduce excessive medial knee loading may be beneficial in reducing the risk of structural progression. Traditional quadriceps strengthening can improve pain and function in people with knee osteoarthritis but does not appear to reduce medial knee load. A neuromuscular exercise program, emphasising optimal alignment of the trunk and lower limb joints relative to one another, as well as quality of movement performance, while dynamically and functionally strengthening the lower limb muscles, may be able to reduce medial knee load. Such a program may also be superior to traditional quadriceps strengthening with respect to improved pain and physical function because of the functional and dynamic nature. This randomised controlled trial will investigate the effect of a neuromuscular exercise program on medial knee joint loading, pain and function in individuals with medial knee joint osteoarthritis. We hypothesise that the neuromuscular program will reduce medial knee load as well as pain and functional limitations to a greater extent than a traditional quadriceps strengthening program. Methods/Design 100 people with medial knee pain, radiographic medial compartment osteoarthritis and varus malalignment will be recruited and randomly allocated to one of two 12-week exercise programs: quadriceps strengthening or neuromuscular exercise. Each program will involve 14 supervised exercise sessions with a physiotherapist plus four unsupervised sessions per week at home. The primary outcomes are medial knee load during walking (the peak external knee adduction moment from 3D gait analysis), pain, and self-reported physical function

  2. Anterior knee pain following primary total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Shervin, David; Pratt, Katelyn; Healey, Travis; Nguyen, Samantha; Mihalko, William M; El-Othmani, Mouhanad M; Saleh, Khaled J

    2015-01-01

    Despite improvements in technique and technology for total knee arthroplasty (TKA), anterior knee pain impacts patient outcomes and satisfaction. Addressing the prosthetic and surgical technique related causes of pain after TKA, specifically as it relates to anterior knee pain, can aid surgeons in addressing these issues with their patients. Design features of the femoral and patellar components which have been reported as pain generators include: Improper femoral as well as patellar component sizing or designs that result in patellofemoral stuffing; a shortened trochlear groove distance from the flange to the intercondylar box; and then surgical technique related issues resulting in: Lateral patellar facet syndrome; overstuffed patella/flange combination; asymmetric patellar resurfacing, improper transverse plane component rotation resulting in patellar subluxation/tilt. Any design consideration that allows impingement of extensor mechanism anatomical elements has the possibility of impacting outcome by becoming a pain generator. As the number of TKA procedures continues to increase, it is increasingly critical to develop improved, evidence based prostheses that maximize function and patient satisfaction while minimizing pain and other complications. PMID:26601061

  3. Anterior knee pain after a total knee arthroplasty: What can cause this pain?

    PubMed Central

    Breugem, Stéfanus Jacob Martinus; Haverkamp, Daniël

    2014-01-01

    Total Knee Arthroplasty has been shown to be a successful procedure for treating patients with osteoarthritis, and yet approximately 5%-10% of patients experience residual pain, especially in the anterior part of the knee. Many theories have been proposed to explain the etiology of this anterior knee pain (AKP) but, despite improvements having been made, AKP remains a problem. AKP can be described as retropatellar or peripatellar pain, which limits patients in their everyday lives. Patients suffering from AKP experience difficulty in standing up from a chair, walking up and down stairs and riding a bicycle. The question asked was: “How can a ‘perfectly’ placed total knee arthroplasty (TKA) still be painful: what can cause this pain?”. To prevent AKP after TKA it is important to first identify the different anatomical structures that can cause this pain. Greater attention to and understanding of AKP should lead to significant pain relief and greater overall patient satisfaction after TKA. This article is a review of what pain is, how nerve signalling works and what is thought to cause Anterior Knee Pain after a Total Knee Arthroplasty. PMID:25035818

  4. Unloading shoes for osteoarthritis of the knee: protocol for the SHARK randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a common and disabling condition. Abnormalities in knee loading play an important role in disease pathogenesis, yet there are few non-surgical treatments for knee OA capable of reducing knee load. This two-arm randomised controlled trial is investigating the efficacy of specially-designed unloading shoes for the treatment of symptoms in people with knee OA. Methods/Design 164 people with symptomatic medial tibiofemoral joint OA will be recruited from the community and randomly allocated to receive either unloading shoes or control shoes. Unloading shoes have a specially-designed triple-density midsole where the medial side is softer than normal and the lateral side harder as well as a lateral wedge between the sole and sock-liner. Control shoes are standard athletic shoes and do not contain these features. Participants will be blinded to shoe allocation and will be instructed to wear the shoes as much as possible every day for 6 months, for a minimum of 4 hours per day. The primary outcomes are knee pain (numerical rating scale) and self-reported physical function (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index) measured at baseline and 6 months. Secondary outcomes include additional measures of knee pain, knee stiffness, participant global ratings of change in symptoms, quality-of-life and physical activity. Conclusions The findings from this study will help determine whether specially-designed unloading shoes are efficacious in the management of knee OA. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry reference: ACTRN12613000851763. PMID:24555418

  5. The effectiveness of hyaluronic acid intra-articular injections in managing osteoarthritic knee pain

    PubMed Central

    Anand, A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a common and progressive joint disease. Treatment options for knee OA vary from simple analgesia in mild cases to knee replacement for advanced disease. Knee pain due to moderate OA can be targeted with intra-articular injections. Steroid injections have been used widely in managing acute flare-ups of the disease. In recent years, viscosupplementation has been used as a therapeutic modality for the management of knee OA. The principle of viscosupplementation is based on the physiological properties of the hyaluronic acid (HA) in the synovial joint. Despite a sound principle and promising in vitro studies, clinical studies have been less conclusive on the effectiveness of HA in managing osteoarthritic knee pain. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of HA intra-articular injections in the management of osteoarthritic knee pain. Methods A systematic review of the literature was performed using MEDLINE®, Embase™ and CINAHL® (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature). The databases were searched for randomised controlled trials available on the effectiveness of HA intra-articular injections in managing osteoarthritic knee pain. Results The search yielded 188 studies. Of these, 14 met the eligibility criteria and were reviewed in chronological order. Conclusions HA intra-articular injections have a modest effect on early to moderate knee OA. The effect peaks at around 6–8 weeks following administration, with a doubtful effect at 6 months. PMID:24165334

  6. The effectiveness of hyaluronic acid intra-articular injections in managing osteoarthritic knee pain.

    PubMed

    Trigkilidas, D; Anand, A

    2013-11-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a common and progressive joint disease. Treatment options for knee OA vary from simple analgesia in mild cases to knee replacement for advanced disease. Knee pain due to moderate OA can be targeted with intra-articular injections. Steroid injections have been used widely in managing acute flare-ups of the disease. In recent years, viscosupplementation has been used as a therapeutic modality for the management of knee OA. The principle of viscosupplementation is based on the physiological properties of the hyaluronic acid (HA) in the synovial joint. Despite a sound principle and promising in vitro studies, clinical studies have been less conclusive on the effectiveness of HA in managing osteoarthritic knee pain. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of HA intra-articular injections in the management of osteoarthritic knee pain. A systematic review of the literature was performed using MEDLINE®, Embase™ and CINAHL® (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature). The databases were searched for randomised controlled trials available on the effectiveness of HA intra-articular injections in managing osteoarthritic knee pain. The search yielded 188 studies. Of these, 14 met the eligibility criteria and were reviewed in chronological order. HA intra-articular injections have a modest effect on early to moderate knee OA. The effect peaks at around 6-8 weeks following administration, with a doubtful effect at 6 months.

  7. The effect of acupuncture on the symptoms of knee osteoarthritis--an open randomised controlled study.

    PubMed

    Tukmachi, Emad; Jubb, Ronald; Dempsey, Emma; Jones, Peter

    2004-03-01

    Using an open randomised controlled study, we examined the effectiveness of manual and electroacupuncture on symptom relief for patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee were randomised to one of three treatment groups. Group A had acupuncture alone, group B had acupuncture but continued on their symptomatic medication, and group C used their symptomatic medication for the first five weeks and then had a course of acupuncture added. Patients receiving acupuncture were treated twice weekly over five weeks. Needles were inserted (with manual and electrical stimulation) in acupuncture points for pain and stiffness, selected according to traditional acupuncture theory for treating Bi syndrome. Patients were assessed by a blinded observer before treatment, after five weeks' treatment and at one month follow up, using a visual analogue pain scale (VAS) and the Western Ontario McMaster (WOMAC) questionnaire for osteoarthritis of the knee. The 30 patients in our study were well matched for age, body mass index, disease duration, baseline VAS pain score and baseline WOMAC scores. Repeated measure analyses gave a highly significant improvement in pain (VAS) after the courses of acupuncture in groups A (P = 0.012) and B (P=0.001); there was no change in group C until after the course of acupuncture, when the improvement was significant (P = 0.001). Similarly significant changes were seen with the WOMAC pain and stiffness scores. These benefits were maintained during the one month after the course of acupuncture. Patients' rating of global assessment was higher than that of the acupuncturist. We conclude that manual and electroacupuncture causes a significant improvement in the symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee, either on its own or as an adjunct therapy, with no loss of benefit after one month.

  8. A randomised controlled trial of tidal irrigation vs corticosteroid injection in knee osteoarthritis: the KIVIS Study.

    PubMed

    Arden, N K; Reading, I C; Jordan, K M; Thomas, L; Platten, H; Hassan, A; Ledingham, J

    2008-06-01

    Patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) often suffer pain that is not fully controlled by analgesics and often require intra-articular therapies. The aim of this study was to compare the benefits of intra-articular corticosteroid injections (CSIs) and tidal irrigation (TI) in patients with OA of the knee. We performed a dual-centre, single blind, randomised, parallel group trial comparing TI and CSI. Patients with knee OA were randomised to either irrigation using a 3.2mm arthroscope under local anaesthesia or an intra-articular injection of 40 mg triamcinolone acetonide and 1% lidocaine. Patients were followed for 6 months. The primary outcome measure was the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities OA Index total pain score (visual analogue scale, VAS). One hundred and fifty patients were recruited of whom 71 received TI and 79 CSI. In both treatment groups, over 80% of patients reported improvement at 2 and 4 weeks. After this time, the benefit of CSI decreased whereas that of TI was maintained: at 26 weeks the pain relief afforded by TI was significantly greater than that of CSI. At 26 weeks 29% of the CSI group reported improvement vs 64% of the TI group (P<0.001). Patients with a knee effusion responded better to both treatments, however, this was most apparent for CSI. Patients with less severe radiographic OA also obtained the greatest improvement from both treatments. Both procedures lead to significant short-term pain relief of at least 4 weeks, however, TI displayed a significantly greater duration of benefit. Patients with effusions and milder radiographic change obtained the best response to treatment.

  9. Fish oil in knee osteoarthritis: a randomised clinical trial of low dose versus high dose.

    PubMed

    Hill, Catherine L; March, Lynette M; Aitken, Dawn; Lester, Susan E; Battersby, Ruth; Hynes, Kristen; Fedorova, Tanya; Proudman, Susanna M; James, Michael; Cleland, Leslie G; Jones, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether high-dose fish oil is superior to low-dose supplementation for symptomatic and structural outcomes in knee osteoarthritis (OA). A randomised, double-blind, multicentre trial enrolled 202 patients with knee OA and regular knee pain. They were randomised 1:1 to high-dose fish oil (4.5 g omega-3 fatty acids) 15 mL/day or (2) low-dose fish oil (blend of fish oil and sunola oil; ratio of 1:9, 0.45 g omega-3 fatty acids) 15 mL/day. The primary endpoints were Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) pain score at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months, and change in cartilage volume at 24 months. Secondary outcomes included WOMAC function, quality of life, analgesic and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and bone marrow lesion score. Although there was improvement in both groups, the low-dose fish oil group had greater improvement in WOMAC pain and function scores at 2 years compared with the high-dose group, whereas between-group differences at 1 year did not reach statistical significance. There was no difference between the two groups in cartilage volume loss at 2 years. For other secondary endpoints, there was no difference between the two groups at 2 years. In people with symptomatic knee OA, there was no additional benefit of a high-dose fish oil compared with low-dose fish oil. The combination comparator oil appeared to have better efficacy in reducing pain at 2 years, suggesting that this requires further investigation. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN 12607000415404). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Moxibustion for treating knee osteoarthritis: study protocol of a multicentre randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The treatment of knee osteoarthritis, which is a major cause of disability among the elderly, is typically selected from multidisciplinary options, including complementary and alternative medicine. Moxibustion has been used in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis in Korea to reduce pain and improve physical activity. However, there is no sufficient evidence of its effectiveness, and it cannot therefore be widely recommended for treating knee osteoarthritis. We designed a randomised controlled clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness, safety, cost-effectiveness, and qualitative characteristics of moxibustion treatment of knee osteoarthritis compared to usual care. Methods/designs This is a protocol for a multicentre, pragmatic, randomised, assessor-blinded, controlled, parallel-group study. A total of 212 participants will be assigned to the moxibustion group (n = 106) and the usual care group (n = 106) at 4 clinical research centres. The participants assigned to the moxibustion group will receive moxibustion treatment of the affected knee(s) at 6 standard acupuncture points (ST36, ST35, ST34, SP9, Ex-LE04, and SP10) 3 times per week for 4 weeks (a total of 12 sessions). Participants in the usual care group will not receive moxibustion treatment during the study period. Follow-up will be performed on the 5th and 13th weeks after random allocation. Both groups will be allowed to use any type of treatment, including surgery, conventional medication, physical treatment, acupuncture, herbal medicine, over-the-counter drugs, and other active treatments. Educational material that explains knee osteoarthritis, the current management options, and self-exercise will be provided to each group. The global scale of the Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (K-WOMAC) will be the primary outcome measurement used in this study. Other subscales (pain, stiffness, and function) of the K-WOMAC, the Short-Form 36v2 Health Survey, the Beck

  11. Moxibustion for treating knee osteoarthritis: study protocol of a multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghoon; Kim, Kun Hyung; Kim, Tae-Hun; Kim, Jung-Eun; Kim, Joo-Hee; Kang, Jung Won; Kang, Kyung-Won; Jung, So-Young; Kim, Ae-Ran; Park, Hyo-Ju; Shin, Mi-Suk; Hong, Kwon-Eui; Song, Ho-Sueb; Choi, Jin-Bong; Kim, Hyung-Jun; Choi, Sun-Mi

    2013-03-13

    The treatment of knee osteoarthritis, which is a major cause of disability among the elderly, is typically selected from multidisciplinary options, including complementary and alternative medicine. Moxibustion has been used in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis in Korea to reduce pain and improve physical activity. However, there is no sufficient evidence of its effectiveness, and it cannot therefore be widely recommended for treating knee osteoarthritis. We designed a randomised controlled clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness, safety, cost-effectiveness, and qualitative characteristics of moxibustion treatment of knee osteoarthritis compared to usual care. This is a protocol for a multicentre, pragmatic, randomised, assessor-blinded, controlled, parallel-group study. A total of 212 participants will be assigned to the moxibustion group (n = 106) and the usual care group (n = 106) at 4 clinical research centres. The participants assigned to the moxibustion group will receive moxibustion treatment of the affected knee(s) at 6 standard acupuncture points (ST36, ST35, ST34, SP9, Ex-LE04, and SP10) 3 times per week for 4 weeks (a total of 12 sessions). Participants in the usual care group will not receive moxibustion treatment during the study period. Follow-up will be performed on the 5th and 13th weeks after random allocation. Both groups will be allowed to use any type of treatment, including surgery, conventional medication, physical treatment, acupuncture, herbal medicine, over-the-counter drugs, and other active treatments. Educational material that explains knee osteoarthritis, the current management options, and self-exercise will be provided to each group. The global scale of the Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (K-WOMAC) will be the primary outcome measurement used in this study. Other subscales (pain, stiffness, and function) of the K-WOMAC, the Short-Form 36v2 Health Survey, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Physical

  12. Techniques for assessing knee joint pain in arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Neugebauer, Volker; Han, Jeong S; Adwanikar, Hita; Fu, Yu; Ji, Guangchen

    2007-01-01

    The assessment of pain is of critical importance for mechanistic studies as well as for the validation of drug targets. This review will focus on knee joint pain associated with arthritis. Different animal models have been developed for the study of knee joint arthritis. Behavioral tests in animal models of knee joint arthritis typically measure knee joint pain rather indirectly. In recent years, however, progress has been made in the development of tests that actually evaluate the sensitivity of the knee joint in arthritis models. They include measurements of the knee extension angle struggle threshold, hind limb withdrawal reflex threshold of knee compression force, and vocalizations in response to stimulation of the knee. A discussion of pain assessment in humans with arthritis pain conditions concludes this review. PMID:17391515

  13. Taking Opioids Before Knee Surgery Could Raise Pain Later

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165871.html Taking Opioids Before Knee Surgery Could Raise Pain Later People ... research found that when people had taken powerful opioid painkillers before knee replacement surgery, they had greater ...

  14. Editorial Commentary: Knee Hyaluronic Acid Viscosupplementation Reduces Osteoarthritis Pain.

    PubMed

    Lubowitz, James H

    2015-10-01

    In contrast to the AAOS knee osteoarthritis guidelines, systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses shows that viscosupplementation with intra-articular hyaluronic acid injection reduces knee osteoarthritis pain and improves function according to the highest level of evidence.

  15. A randomised controlled trial comparing skin closure in total knee arthroplasty in the same knee: nylon sutures versus skin staples

    PubMed Central

    Iamthanaporn, K.; Hongnaparak, T.; Tangtrakulwanich, B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Nylon sutures and skin staples are used commonly in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgical wound closure. However, there is no study that compares the wound healing efficacy and patient satisfaction scores of both techniques in the same knee. Methods We randomised 70 patients who underwent primary TKA into two groups. In one group of 34 patients, the skin at the upper half of the wound was closed with skin staples and the lower half of the wound was closed with simple interrupted nylon sutures. In the other group of 36 patients, the skin at the upper half of the wound was closed with nylon stitches and the lower half of the wound was closed with skin staples. We recorded the wound closure time, pain score at the time of stitch removal, wound complication rate, patient satisfaction score, and the Hollander wound evaluation score at the post-operative periods of five days, 14 days, six weeks, three months, and six months. Each half wound was analysed separately. Results The mean patient body mass index was 26.8 kg/m2 (standard deviation 6.3). A total of 70 nylon stitched wounds and 70 skin stapled wounds were analysed. There were no significant differences in wound complication rates, patient satisfaction score, and the Hollander wound evaluation score between both types of wounds (p > 0.05). The wound closure time for skin stapled wounds was significantly lower than the nylon stitched wounds (p < 0.001). However, the skin stapled wounds had a significantly higher pain score at the time of stitch removal (p < 0.001). Conclusion Skin staples and nylon stitches had comparable results with respect to wound healing and patient satisfaction in TKA wound closure in non-obese patients. The benefit of skin staples over nylon stitches was a decrease in operative time, but was more painful upon removal. Cite this article: V. Yuenyongviwat. A randomised controlled trial comparing skin closure in total knee arthroplasty in the same knee: nylon sutures versus skin

  16. Review for the generalist: evaluation of anterior knee pain

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, Kristin M

    2007-01-01

    Anterior knee pain is common in children and adolescents. Evaluation and management is challenging and requires a thorough history and physical exam, and understanding of the pediatric skeleton. This article will review common causes of chronic anterior knee pain in the pediatric population with a focus on patellofemoral pain. PMID:17550634

  17. Diagnostic approach to a persistent anterior knee pain.

    PubMed

    Basteri, Vittoria; Lupi, Alessandro; Rignanese, Libera; Cinotti, Antonietta Marzia; Campioni, Paolo; Mannella, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    The case of a 67-year-old female patient with persistent pain in the right anterior knee appeared after she had an accidental fall, is discussed. Laboratory tests and imaging were negative. Persistent pain required MRI. Based on MRI findings the diagnosis of patellar fracture responsible for knee pain could be established.

  18. Knee kinetic pattern during gait and anterior knee pain before and after rehabilitation in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Claudon, B; Poussel, M; Billon-Grumillier, C; Beyaert, C; Paysant, J

    2012-05-01

    Patellofemoral pain is likely due to compressive force acting on the patella related in turn to knee extension moment. The latter variable was assumed to be (i) reduced during short-distance free walking in case of patellofemoral pain syndrome and (ii) increased after therapeutic pain reduction. Peak knee extension moment at beginning of stance phase was recorded by three-dimensional gait analysis in 22 controls and in 23 patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome before and after rehabilitation of knee extensors and flexors to reduce the pain. Pain would occur mainly in stressful activities such as stair negotiation or squatting and was quantified by the anterior knee pain scale. Peak knee extension moment was significantly reduced in all the patients before treatment (n=23) compared to controls, although no one had pain during free walking. In the 17 patients who experienced significant post-rehabilitation pain reduction in their stressful activities, the peak knee extension moment was significantly reduced before treatment compared to controls and significantly increased after treatment, reaching values similar to control values. The peak knee extension moment during free walking appears to be a good kinetic variable related to a compensatory mechanism limiting or avoiding anterior knee pain and may be of interest in assessing knee dynamics alteration in patients with PFPS.

  19. [SECOT consensus on painful knee replacement].

    PubMed

    Vaquero, J; Macule, F; Bello, S; Chana, F; Forriol, F

    2013-01-01

    The opinions of 21 experts in knee surgery were evaluated in this study, using a DELPHI questionnaire method in two successive rounds, on 64 controversial scenarios that covered both the diagnosis and possible treatment of painful knee replacements. The level of consensus was significantly unanimous in 42 items and of the design in 5, with no agreement in 17 of the questions presented. light of the published scientific evidence, the surgeons who took part showed to have a notable level of information on the most effective diagnostic tests, although, it should be pointed out that there was a lack of confidence in the possibility of ruling out an infection when the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and the C-reactive protein were within normal values, which have been demonstrated in the literature to have a high negative predictive value As regards the treatments to employ in the different situations, the responses of the expert panel were mainly in agreement with the data in the literature. The conclusions of this consensus may help other surgeons when they are faced with a painful knee prosthesis. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Short-stretch inelastic compression bandage in knee swelling following total knee arthroplasty study (STICKS): study protocol for a randomised controlled feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Brock, Timothy M; Sprowson, Andrew P; Muller, Scott; Reed, Mike R

    2015-03-11

    Enhanced recovery programmes in total knee arthroplasty are well established. Post-operative knee swelling is common and impairs early post-operative function. The use of a short-stretch, inelastic compression bandage is hypothesised to reduce knee swelling and improve pain and early function. A study was designed to test feasibility with a view to informing a larger, future trial and to provide preliminary data. This is a randomised controlled feasibility study. Fifty consecutive patients selected for primary total knee arthroplasty will be enrolled in the trial. Patients with a BMI >35, latex allergy or neurological or peripheral vascular disease are excluded. Patients are randomised by distance randomisation to receive a compression bandage for 24 hours after surgery or a standard wool and crepe bandage. The bandages are applied by one of two consultant surgeons who have had training with their application. Knee swelling, range of motion and pain scores will be compared pre-operatively and at day 1, day 2 and at 6 weeks between groups. The Oxford knee score and EQ-5D health status will be compared pre-operatively and at 6 months between groups. Recruitment rates, retention rates, resource allocation, completeness of data collection, and tolerance and complications with the compression bandage are recorded. Descriptive statistics are used to calculate a standard deviation for post-operative knee swelling in the groups and to perform a power calculation incorporating anticipated patient retention rates to inform a future trial. Preliminary data will be analysed using the independent samples t-test for equal distributions and the Mann-Whitney U for unequal distributions with the significance denoted at P <0.05. Enhanced recovery programmes have revolutionized the management of total knee arthroplasty. There is a paucity of clinical data regarding the efficacy of compression bandages. Large, randomised controlled trials are uncommon in orthopaedic surgery. The

  1. [Anterior knee pain in knee arthroplasty with or without a patellar component].

    PubMed

    Montero-Quijano, M; Ceja-Barriga, A; Núñez-Robles, J; Barrios-Benítez, U; Núñez-Barragán, J L; Antonio-Romero, E

    2016-01-01

    The appearance of patellofemoral pain after a knee arthroplasty, particularly in rheumatic diseases, resulted in the incorporation of the substitution of the patellar component in all designs. The replacement of the patella became a standard part of knee arthroplasty, but the controversy over whether to restore it or not continues among orthopedists that perform knee arthroplasties. To analyze the incidence of anterior knee pain in patients who underwent primary knee arthroplasty with or without replacement of the patellar component. Observational, retrospective, descriptive and transversal study from January 2011 to December 2013. A total of 54 patients were included, 12 men (with an average age of 63 years) and 42 women (with an average age of 71 years), totaling 64 knees that were surgically intervened. This study found no significant difference in anterior knee pain and in the function of the patellofemoral joint and the knee in the groups of patients who were tested with the different scales.

  2. The role of knee joint moments and knee impairments on self-reported knee pain during gait in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Megan; Farrokhi, Shawn; Fitzgerald, G Kelley

    2016-01-01

    The association between high mechanical knee joint loading during gait with onset and progression of knee osteoarthritis has been extensively studied. However, less attention has been given to risk factors related to increased pain during gait. The purpose of this study was to evaluate knee joint moments and clinical characteristics that may be associated with gait-related knee pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Sixty-seven participants with knee osteoarthritis were stratified into three groups of no pain (n=18), mild pain (n=27), or moderate/severe pain (n=22) based on their self-reported symptoms during gait. All participants underwent three-dimensional gait analysis. Quadriceps strength, knee extension range of motion, radiographic knee alignment and self-reported measures of global pain and function were also quantified. The moderate/severe pain group demonstrated worse global pain (P<0.01) and physical function scores (P<0.01) compared to the no pain and the mild pain groups. The moderate/severe pain group also walked with greater knee flexion moments during the midstance phase of gait compared to the no pain group (P=0.02). Additionally, the moderate/severe pain group demonstrated greater varus knee malalignment (P=0.009), which was associated with higher weight acceptance peak knee adduction moments (P=0.003) and worse global pain (P=0.003) and physical function scores (P=0.006). Greater knee flexion moment is present during the midstance phase of gait in patients with knee osteoarthritis and moderate/severe pain during gait. Additionally, greater varus malalignment may be a sign of increased global knee joint dysfunction that can influence many activities of daily living beyond gait. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Supervised exercise plus acupuncture for moderate to severe knee osteoarthritis: a small randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Soni, Anushka; Joshi, Abhay; Mudge, Nicola; Wyatt, Matthew; Williamson, Lyn

    2012-09-01

    Although total knee replacement (TKR) is cost effective and successful in most cases, patient-reported outcome measures demonstrate 20% of people remain unsatisfied at 1 year after a technically successful procedure. Our group has previously shown that patients with severe knee osteoarthritis (OA) awaiting surgery can achieve a short-term reduction in symptom severity when treated with acupuncture, and that a trend towards improved walking distance, as a measure of function, is achieved with preoperative supervised exercise. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combined acupuncture and physiotherapy on preoperative and postoperative pain and function. A total of 56 patients awaiting TKR surgery were randomised to receive either combined physiotherapy and acupuncture or a standardised exercise and advice leaflet. Pain and function were measured primarily using the Oxford Knee Score (OKS), with assessments at baseline prior to intervention, 6 and 12 weeks after intervention and at 3 months postoperatively. Due to the introduction of the 18-week waiting times target during this study, the required sample size was not achieved. There were no significant differences demonstrated between the control and treatment groups for OKS. Seven patients withdrew from surgery because of symptomatic improvement in their knees: six from the treatment group and one from the control group (OR 7.64, 95% CI 0.86 to 68.20). This study demonstrated that the use of combined acupuncture and physiotherapy in the treatment of patients with moderate to severe knee OA preoperatively did not improve patient outcome postoperatively. As the study was underpowered, a larger trial is required to examine this result further.

  4. Efficacy of physiotherapy management of knee joint osteoarthritis: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bennell, K L; Hinman, R S; Metcalf, B R; Buchbinder, R; McConnell, J; McColl, G; Green, S; Crossley, K M

    2005-06-01

    To determine whether a multimodal physiotherapy programme including taping, exercises, and massage is effective for knee osteoarthritis, and if benefits can be maintained with self management. Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial; 140 community volunteers with knee osteoarthritis participated and 119 completed the trial. Physiotherapy and placebo interventions were applied by 10 physiotherapists in private practices for 12 weeks. Physiotherapy included exercise, massage, taping, and mobilisation, followed by 12 weeks of self management. Placebo was sham ultrasound and light application of a non-therapeutic gel, followed by no treatment. Primary outcomes were pain measured by visual analogue scale and patient global change. Secondary measures included WOMAC, knee pain scale, SF-36, assessment of quality of life index, quadriceps strength, and balance test. Using an intention to treat analysis, physiotherapy and placebo groups showed similar pain reductions at 12 weeks: -2.2 cm (95% CI, -2.6 to -1.7) and -2.0 cm (-2.5 to -1.5), respectively. At 24 weeks, pain remained reduced from baseline in both groups: -2.1 (-2.6 to -1.6) and -1.6 (-2.2 to -1.0), respectively. Global improvement was reported by 70% of physiotherapy participants (51/73) at 12 weeks and by 59% (43/73) at 24 weeks. Similarly, global improvement was reported by 72% of placebo participants (48/67) at 12 weeks and by 49% (33/67) at 24 weeks (all p>0.05). The physiotherapy programme tested in this trial was no more effective than regular contact with a therapist at reducing pain and disability.

  5. Efficacy of physiotherapy management of knee joint osteoarthritis: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Bennell, K; Hinman, R; Metcalf, B; Buchbinder, R; McConnell, J; McColl, G; Green, S; Crossley, K

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether a multimodal physiotherapy programme including taping, exercises, and massage is effective for knee osteoarthritis, and if benefits can be maintained with self management. Methods: Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial; 140 community volunteers with knee osteoarthritis participated and 119 completed the trial. Physiotherapy and placebo interventions were applied by 10 physiotherapists in private practices for 12 weeks. Physiotherapy included exercise, massage, taping, and mobilisation, followed by 12 weeks of self management. Placebo was sham ultrasound and light application of a non-therapeutic gel, followed by no treatment. Primary outcomes were pain measured by visual analogue scale and patient global change. Secondary measures included WOMAC, knee pain scale, SF-36, assessment of quality of life index, quadriceps strength, and balance test. Results: Using an intention to treat analysis, physiotherapy and placebo groups showed similar pain reductions at 12 weeks: –2.2 cm (95% CI, –2.6 to –1.7) and –2.0 cm (–2.5 to –1.5), respectively. At 24 weeks, pain remained reduced from baseline in both groups: –2.1 (–2.6 to –1.6) and –1.6 (–2.2 to –1.0), respectively. Global improvement was reported by 70% of physiotherapy participants (51/73) at 12 weeks and by 59% (43/73) at 24 weeks. Similarly, global improvement was reported by 72% of placebo participants (48/67) at 12 weeks and by 49% (33/67) at 24 weeks (all p>0.05). Conclusions: The physiotherapy programme tested in this trial was no more effective than regular contact with a therapist at reducing pain and disability. PMID:15897310

  6. Tendonitis: the major cause of pain in osteoarthritis knee joint.

    PubMed

    Bokhari, Syed Zahid Hussain

    2012-01-01

    The conventional concept of osteoarthritis is that it occurs as an aging and degenerative process resulting in reduction of the surface cartilage, narrowing of the joint space and reduction of the synovial fluid. The objective of this study was to introduce the new technique of unmasking and treating the underlying problem confirming lesions outside the knee joint being the cause of pain in osteoarthritic knee joint. Clinical work making the base of this paper was carried out at Pain and Plegia Centre, Dabgari Gardens Peshawar from 2005 to 2012. Patients reporting with knee pain were palpated deep around the knee joint and major tender spots identified upon Adductor tubercle on medial aspect and Gastrocnemius (lateral head) on lateral aspect proximal to the knee. These lesions were injected each with 20 mg of Triamcinolone Acetonide diluted in 2 ml of Xylocaine 2%. The lesions responded favourably to the simple treatment and patients of pain knee joint of various durations were completely pain free. The optimum healing time of the lesions was 10 days. Osteoarthritic changes inside the knee joint may not be the cause of painful knee, rather it can be a referred pain. Two lesions, Adductor tubercle on medical side and lateral head of Gastrocnemius on the lateral side proximal to the knee joint are identified to attribute to this pain.

  7. Painful knee arthroplasty: definition and overview

    PubMed Central

    Carulli, Christian; Villano, Marco; Bucciarelli, Giovanni; Martini, Caterina; Innocenti, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Summary Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) is one of the most successful procedures in Orthopaedic Surgery, with good clinical results and high survival rate in more than 90% of the cases at long-term follow-up. Since the increase of population’s mean age, worsening of articular degenerative alterations, and articular sequelae related to previous fractures, there is a persistent growing of the number of knee arthroplasties in every country each year, with expected increase of complications rates. Painful TKA is considered an unusual complication, but several reports focus on this challenging clinical issue. Common causes of painful TKA may be divided as early or late, and in referred, periarticular or intra-articular. Among the early, we recall implant instability (related to surgical and technical mistakes) and problems of extensor mechanism (patella not resurfaced, malalignment of femoral, tibial, or patellar component, tendons failure or degeneration). Late causes of painful TKA are almost related to aseptic loosening and infection, but also, even if unusual, reflex sympathetic dystrophy, synovitis, and hypersensitivity to metal implants are represented. Hypersensitivity to metal is a clinical issue with significative increase, but to date without a specific characterization. The Authors report about incidence, clinical features, and diagnostic pathways of hypersensitivity to metal implants, focusing on the prevention of this challenging problem. PMID:22461811

  8. Spa therapy in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a large randomised multicentre trial

    PubMed Central

    Forestier, R; Desfour, H; Tessier, J-M; Françon, A; Foote, A M; Genty, C; Rolland, C; Roques, C-F; Bosson, J-L

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether spa therapy, plus home exercises and usual medical treatment provides any benefit over exercises and usual treatment, in the management of knee osteoarthritis. Methods Large multicentre randomised prospective clinical trial of patients with knee osteoarthritis according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria, attending French spa resorts as outpatients between June 2006 and April 2007. Zelen randomisation was used so patients were ignorant of the other group and spa personnel were not told which patients were participating. The main endpoint criteria were patient self-assessed. All patients continued usual treatments and performed daily standardised home exercises. The spa therapy group also received 18 days of spa therapy (massages, showers, mud and pool sessions). Main Endpoint The number of patients achieving minimal clinically important improvement (MCII) at 6 months, defined as ≥19.9 mm on the visual analogue pain scale and/or ≥9.1 points in a normalised Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index function score and no knee surgery. Results The intention to treat analysis included 187 controls and 195 spa therapy patients. At 6 months, 99/195 (50.8%) spa group patients had MCII and 68/187 (36.4%) controls (χ2=8.05; df=1; p=0.005). However, no improvement in quality of life (Short Form 36) or patient acceptable symptom state was observed at 6 months. Conclusion For patients with knee osteoarthritis a 3-week course of spa therapy together with home exercises and usual pharmacological treatments offers benefit after 6 months compared with exercises and usual treatment alone, and is well tolerated. Trial registration number NCT00348777. PMID:19734131

  9. Knee joint distraction compared with total knee arthroplasty: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    van der Woude, J A D; Wiegant, K; van Heerwaarden, R J; Spruijt, S; Emans, P J; Mastbergen, S C; Lafeber, F P J G

    2017-01-01

    Knee joint distraction (KJD) is a relatively new, knee-joint preserving procedure with the goal of delaying total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in young and middle-aged patients. We present a randomised controlled trial comparing the two. The 60 patients ≤ 65 years with end-stage knee osteoarthritis were randomised to either KJD (n = 20) or TKA (n = 40). Outcomes were assessed at baseline, three, six, nine, and 12 months. In the KJD group, the joint space width (JSW) was radiologically assessed, representing a surrogate marker of cartilage thickness. In total 56 patients completed their allocated treatment (TKA = 36, KJD = 20). All patient reported outcome measures improved significantly over one year (p < 0.02) in both groups. At one year, the TKA group showed a greater improvement in only one of the 16 patient-related outcome measures assessed (p = 0.034). Outcome Measures in Rheumatology-Osteoarthritis Research Society International clinical response was 83% after TKA and 80% after KJD. A total of 12 patients (60%) in the KJD group sustained pin track infections. In the KJD group both mean minimum (0.9 mm, standard deviation (sd) 1.1) and mean JSW (1.2 mm, sd 1.1) increased significantly (p = 0.004 and p = 0.0003). In relatively young patients with end-stage knee osteoarthritis, KJD did not demonstrate inferiority of outcomes at one year when compared with TKA. However, there is a high incidence of pin track infection associated with KJD. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:51-8. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  10. Objectifying Specific and Nonspecific Effects of Acupuncture: A Double-Blinded Randomised Trial in Osteoarthritis of the Knee

    PubMed Central

    Karner, Max; Brazkiewicz, Frank; Remppis, Andrew; Fischer, Joachim; Gerlach, Oliver; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Subramanian, Shanmuga Velayutham; Greten, Henry Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Acupuncture was recently shown to be effective in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. However, controversy persists whether the observed effects are specific to acupuncture or merely nonspecific consequences of needling. Therefore, the objective of this study is to determine the efficacy of different acupuncture treatment modalities. Materials and Methods. We compared between three different forms of acupuncture in a prospective randomised trial with a novel double-blinded study design. One-hundred and sixteen patients aged from 35 to 82 with osteoarthritis of the knee were enrolled in three study centres. Interventions were individualised classical/ modern semistandardised acupuncture and non-specific needling. Blinded outcome assessment comprised knee flexibility and changes in pain according to the WOMAC score. Results and Discussion. Improvement in knee flexibility was significantly higher after classical Chinese acupuncture (10.3 degrees; 95% CI 8.9 to 11.7) as compared to modern acupuncture (4.7 degrees; 3.6 to 5.8). All methods achieved pain relief, with a patient response rate of 48 percent for non-specific needling, 64 percent for modern acupuncture, and 73 percent for classical acupuncture. Conclusion. This trial establishes a novel study design enabling double blinding in acupuncture studies. The data suggest a specific effect of acupuncture in knee mobility and both non-specific and specific effects of needling in pain relief. PMID:23365608

  11. Acupuncture as an adjunct to exercise based physiotherapy for osteoarthritis of the knee: randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Foster, Nadine E; Thomas, Elaine; Barlas, Panos; Hill, Jonathan C; Young, Julie; Mason, Elizabeth; Hay, Elaine M

    2007-09-01

    To investigate the benefit of adding acupuncture to a course of advice and exercise delivered by physiotherapists for pain reduction in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Multicentre, randomised controlled trial. 37 physiotherapy centres accepting primary care patients referred from general practitioners in the Midlands, United Kingdom. 352 adults aged 50 or more with a clinical diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis. Advice and exercise (n=116), advice and exercise plus true acupuncture (n=117), and advice and exercise plus non-penetrating acupuncture (n=119). The primary outcome was change in scores on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index pain subscale at six months. Secondary outcomes included function, pain intensity, and unpleasantness of pain at two weeks, six weeks, six months, and 12 months. Follow-up rate at six months was 94%. The mean (SD) baseline pain score was 9.2 (3.8). At six months mean reductions in pain were 2.28 (3.8) for advice and exercise, 2.32 (3.6) for advice and exercise plus true acupuncture, and 2.53 (4.2) for advice and exercise plus non-penetrating acupuncture. Mean differences in change scores between advice and exercise alone and each acupuncture group were 0.08 (95% confidence interval -1.0 to 0.9) for advice and exercise plus true acupuncture and 0.25 (-0.8 to 1.3) for advice and exercise plus non-penetrating acupuncture. Similar non-significant differences were seen at other follow-up points. Compared with advice and exercise alone there were small, statistically significant improvements in pain intensity and unpleasantness at two and six weeks for true acupuncture and at all follow-up points for non-penetrating acupuncture. The addition of acupuncture to a course of advice and exercise for osteoarthritis of the knee delivered by physiotherapists provided no additional improvement in pain scores. Small benefits in pain intensity and unpleasantness were observed in both acupuncture groups, making it

  12. Acupuncture as an adjunct to exercise based physiotherapy for osteoarthritis of the knee: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Elaine; Barlas, Panos; Hill, Jonathan C; Young, Julie; Mason, Elizabeth; Hay, Elaine M

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the benefit of adding acupuncture to a course of advice and exercise delivered by physiotherapists for pain reduction in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Design Multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Setting 37 physiotherapy centres accepting primary care patients referred from general practitioners in the Midlands, United Kingdom. Participants 352 adults aged 50 or more with a clinical diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis. Interventions Advice and exercise (n=116), advice and exercise plus true acupuncture (n=117), and advice and exercise plus non-penetrating acupuncture (n=119). Main outcome measures The primary outcome was change in scores on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index pain subscale at six months. Secondary outcomes included function, pain intensity, and unpleasantness of pain at two weeks, six weeks, six months, and 12 months. Results Follow-up rate at six months was 94%. The mean (SD) baseline pain score was 9.2 (3.8). At six months mean reductions in pain were 2.28 (3.8) for advice and exercise, 2.32 (3.6) for advice and exercise plus true acupuncture, and 2.53 (4.2) for advice and exercise plus non-penetrating acupuncture. Mean differences in change scores between advice and exercise alone and each acupuncture group were 0.08 (95% confidence interval −1.0 to 0.9) for advice and exercise plus true acupuncture and 0.25 (−0.8 to 1.3) for advice and exercise plus non-penetrating acupuncture. Similar non-significant differences were seen at other follow-up points. Compared with advice and exercise alone there were small, statistically significant improvements in pain intensity and unpleasantness at two and six weeks for true acupuncture and at all follow-up points for non-penetrating acupuncture. Conclusion The addition of acupuncture to a course of advice and exercise for osteoarthritis of the knee delivered by physiotherapists provided no additional improvement in pain scores. Small

  13. Spinal cord stimulation for the treatment of chronic knee pain following total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Angus M; Simopoulos, Thomas T

    2010-01-01

    Chronic pain after total knee replacement is common but remains poorly understood. Management options for patients with this condition are traditionally limited to pharmacological approaches. This article presents a case of using spinal cord stimulation in the management of chronic knee pain following total knee replacement. Case report. Pain management clinic A 68-year old patient presented with a 3-year history of persistent knee pain following total knee replacement. After failing to respond to medications and nerve blocks, a trial of spinal cord stimulation and subsequent permanent implantation of a spinal cord stimulator (SCS) were performed. The Oxford knee score (OKS) was used to assess her pain and functionality before and after SCS implantation. The patient reported improvement in her pain and function. Her baseline OKS was 39 and fell to 26 one year post implantation of an SCS representing a reduction of pain and disability from severe to moderate. A case report. Spinal cord stimulation might be an option in the management of refractory knee pain following total knee replacement.

  14. Biceps tendinitis as a cause of acute painful knee after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Pandher, Dilbans Singh; Boparai, Randhir Singh; Kapila, Rajesh

    2009-12-01

    The case report highlights an unusual case of posterolateral knee pain after total knee arthroplasty. Tendinitis of the patellar tendon or pes anserinus is a common complication after total knee arthroplasty; however, there is no report in the literature regarding the biceps femoris tendinitis causing acute pain in the early postoperative period. In this case, the biceps tendinitis was diagnosed and treated by ultrasound-guided injection into the tendon sheath.

  15. Evaluation of Knee Pain in Athletes: A Radiologist's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Salati, Umer; Doody, Orla; Munk, Peter L; Torreggiani, William

    2017-02-01

    Lower limb injuries account for most of all injuries suffered by athletes and the knee joint accounts for over half of these. The etiology of knee pain is multifactorial; a good history focusing on the mechanism of injury and the chronicity of pain is extremely useful in correlating with radiologic findings and establishing a clinically meaningful diagnosis. This review article will discuss several important and common causes of acute and chronic knee pain in athletes, focusing on their mechanism of injury and site of pain as well as their salient imaging findings.

  16. The effect of vitamin D supplementation on knee osteoarthritis, the VIDEO study: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Arden, Nigel K; Cro, Suzie; Sheard, Sally; Doré, Caroline J; Bara, Anna; Tebbs, Susan A; Hunter, David J; James, Samuel; Cooper, Cyrus; O’Neill, Terence W; Macgregor, Alexander; Birrell, Fraser; Keen, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objective Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a common problem with increasing prevalence in an ageing population. There are no licensed treatments to modify disease progression. Epidemiological data suggest that low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH-D3) levels are associated with radiological progression of knee OA. This study aimed to assess whether vitamin D supplementation can prevent the radiological progression of knee OA. Design A 3 year, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial 474 patients aged over 50 with knee OA comparing 800 IU cholecalciferol daily with placebo. The primary outcome was rate of joint space narrowing (JSN) in the medial compartment over three years. Secondary outcomes included WOMAC pain, function and stiffness. Results Vitamin D supplementation increased 25-OH-D3 from an average of 20·7 (8·9) μg/L to 30·4 (7·7) μg/L, compared to 20·7 (8·1) μg/L and 20·3 (8·1) μg/L in the placebo group. A non-significant decrease of 0.08 mm/year (95% CI -0·14 to 0·29, p=0.49) in the rate of JSN was observed in the treatment group relative to the control. No significant interactions were found between baseline vitamin D levels and treatment effects. There were no significant differences in any of the secondary outcome measures. Conclusions Vitamin D supplementation at a dose sufficient to elevate serum vitamin D3 levels by almost 10 μg/L in one year, when compared with placebo, does not slow the rate of JSN or lead to reduced pain, stiffness or functional loss over a three year period. PMID:27264058

  17. Efficacy of multimodal, systematic non-surgical treatment of knee osteoarthritis for patients not eligible for a total knee replacement: a study protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Skou, Soren Thorgaard; Roos, Ewa M; Laursen, Mogens Berg; Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Simonsen, Ole; Rasmussen, Sten

    2012-01-01

    Introduction It is recommended that non-operative treatment of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) should be individually tailored and include multiple treatment modalities. Despite these recommendations, no one has yet investigated the efficacy of combining several non-surgical treatment modalities in a randomised controlled study. The purpose of this randomised controlled study is to examine if an optimised, combined non-surgical treatment programme results in greater improvements in pain, function and quality of life in comparison with usual care in patients with KOA who are not eligible for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods and analysis This study will include 100 consecutive patients from the North Denmark Region not eligible for TKA with radiographic KOA (K-L grade ≥1) and mean pain during the previous week of ≤60 mm (0–100). The participants will be randomised to receive either a 12-week non-surgical treatment programme consisting of patient education, exercise, diet, insoles, paracetamol and/or NSAIDs or usual care (two information leaflets containing information on KOA and advice regarding the above non-surgical treatment). The primary outcome will be the change from baseline to 12 months on the self-report questionnaire Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)4 defined as the average score for the subscale scores for pain, symptoms, activities of daily living and quality of life. Secondary outcomes include the five individual KOOS subscale scores, pain on a 100 mm Visual Analogue Scale, EQ-5D, self-efficacy, pain pressure thresholds, postural control and isometric knee flexion and knee extension strength. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by the local Ethics Committee of The North Denmark Region (N-20110085) and the protocol conforms to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. Data collection will be completed by April 2014. Publications will be ready for submission in the summer of 2014. Trial registration number

  18. Lateral wedge insoles for medial knee osteoarthritis: 12 month randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Kelly-Ann; Payne, Craig; Cicuttini, Flavia; Williamson, Elizabeth; Forbes, Andrew; Hanna, Fahad; Davies-Tuck, Miranda; Harris, Anthony; Hinman, Rana S

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of lateral wedge insoles compared with flat control insoles on improving symptoms and slowing structural disease progression in medial knee osteoarthritis. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Community in Melbourne, Australia. Participants 200 people aged 50 or more with clinical and radiographic diagnosis of mild to moderately severe medial knee osteoarthritis. Interventions Full length 5 degree lateral wedged insoles or flat control insoles worn inside the shoes daily for 12 months. Main outcome measures Primary symptomatic outcome was change in overall knee pain (past week) measured on an 11 point numerical rating scale. Primary structural outcome was change in volume of medial tibial cartilage from magnetic resonance imaging scans. Secondary clinical outcomes included changes in measures of pain, function, stiffness, and health related quality of life. Secondary structural outcomes included progression of medial cartilage defects and bone marrow lesions. Results Between group differences did not differ significantly for the primary outcomes of change in overall pain (−0.3 points, 95% confidence intervals −1.0 to 0.3) and change in medial tibial cartilage volume (−0.4 mm3, 95% confidence interval −15.4 to 14.6), and confidence intervals did not include minimal clinically important differences. None of the changes in secondary outcomes showed differences between groups. Conclusion Lateral wedge insoles worn for 12 months provided no symptomatic or structural benefits compared with flat control insoles. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTR12605000503628 and ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00415259. PMID:21593096

  19. Immediate effects of acupuncture and cryotherapy on quadriceps motoneuron pool excitability: randomised trial using anterior knee infusion model.

    PubMed

    Park, Jihong; Ty Hopkins, J

    2012-09-01

    The authors asked the following research questions: will an anterior knee infusion model induce constant pain? will perceived pain alter motoneuron pool (MNP) excitability? and will treatments alter perceived pain and/or MNP excitability? Thirty-six neurologically healthy volunteers participated in this randomised controlled laboratory study. To induce anterior knee pain (AKP), 5% hypertonic saline (0.12 ml/min with a total volume of 8.5 ml over 70 min) was injected into the infrapatellar fat pad of the dominant leg. One of four 30-min treatments was randomly assigned to each subject after pain was induced (acupuncture, cryotherapy, sham cryotherapy and no treatment). Five acupuncture needles (SP9, SP10, ST36, GB34 and an ah shi point) were inserted to a depth of 1 cm. Vastus medialis (VM) maximum Hoffmann reflexes normalised by maximum motor response were recorded from each subject at baseline, 20 min post-injection, 50 min post-injection and 70 min post-injection. To record pain perception, a visual analogue scale was used every 5 min after injection. An anterior knee infusion pain model increased perceived pain (p<0.0001). No change was found in VM MNP excitability among the four treatments (p<0.19) or at any of the time intervals (p<0.52). Cryotherapy reduced perceived pain compared with acupuncture (p=0.0003) and sham treatment (p=0.0002). A pain model may be used in other neurophysiological intervention studies related to AKP. AKP alone may not directly alter quadriceps activation. None of the treatments altered VM MNP excitability. Cryotherapy reduced pain while a single session of acupuncture and sham treatments did not.

  20. Association of knee confidence with pain, knee instability, muscle strength, and dynamic varus-valgus joint motion in knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Skou, Søren T; Wrigley, Tim V; Metcalf, Ben R; Hinman, Rana S; Bennell, Kim L

    2014-05-01

    To investigate associations between self-reported knee confidence and pain, self-reported knee instability, muscle strength, and dynamic varus-valgus joint motion during walking. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 100 participants with symptomatic and radiographic medial tibiofemoral compartment osteoarthritis (OA) and varus malalignment recruited for a randomized controlled trial. The extent of knee confidence, assessed using a 5-point Likert scale item from the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, was set as the dependent variable in univariable and multivariable ordinal regression, with pain during walking, self-reported knee instability, quadriceps strength, and dynamic varus-valgus joint motion during walking as independent variables. One percent of the participants were not troubled with lack of knee confidence, 17% were mildly troubled, 50% were moderately troubled, 26% were severely troubled, and 6% were extremely troubled. Significant associations were found between worse knee confidence and higher pain intensity, worse self-reported knee instability, lower quadriceps strength, and greater dynamic varus-valgus joint motion. The multivariable model consisting of the same variables significantly accounted for 24% of the variance in knee confidence (P < 0.001). Worse knee confidence is associated with higher pain, worse self-reported knee instability, lower quadriceps muscle strength, and greater dynamic varus-valgus joint motion during walking. Since previous research has shown that worse knee confidence is predictive of functional decline in knee OA, addressing lack of knee confidence by treating these modifiable impairments could represent a new therapeutic target. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  1. Anterior Knee Pain in Patients with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young; Lee, Sang Hyeong; Chung, Chin Youb; Park, Moon Seok; Lee, Kyoung Min; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Won, Sung Hun; Lee, In Hyeok; Choi, In Ho; Cho, Tae-Joon; Yoo, Won Joon

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for anterior knee pain in patients with cerebral palsy. Methods This prospective study investigated the risk factors for anterior knee pain in 127 ambulatory patients with spastic cerebral palsy in terms of walking pain, resting pain, and provocative pain. Demographic data analysis and physical examination for measuring the knee flexion contracture and unilateral and bilateral popliteal angles were performed. Patellar height was measured on radiographs, and patella alta was identified. The risk factors for anterior knee pain were analyzed using multivariate analysis with a generalized estimating equation. Results Seventy-seven patients were found to have patella alta based on the radiographic measurements (60.6%). Overall, sixteen patients (12.6%) had either unilateral or bilateral anterior knee pain. Of these, 6 patients showed a visual analogue scale (VAS) ≤ 3, 9 patients showed 3 < VAS ≤ 7, and one patient showed a VAS > 7. Age was found to be a significant risk factor for walking pain and resting pain with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.08 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.14) and 1.09 (95% CI, 1.03 to 1.15), respectively. In the multivariate analysis, knee flexion contracture was a significant protective factor with an OR of 0.92 (95% CI, 0.85 to 0.98). Conclusions Approximately 12.6% of ambulatory patients with spastic cerebral palsy were found to have anterior knee pain in our hospital-based cohort study. Age was found to be a significant risk factor for anterior knee pain while walking and resting. PMID:25436067

  2. Six degree-of-freedom knee joint kinematics in obese individuals with knee pain during gait.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-Sheng; Tsai, Tsung-Yuan; Felson, David T; Li, Guoan; Lewis, Cara L

    2017-01-01

    Knee joint pain is a common symptom in obese individuals and walking is often prescribed as part of management programs. Past studies in obese individuals have focused on standing alignment and kinematics in the sagittal and coronal planes. Investigation of 6 degree-of-freedom (6DOF) knee joint kinematics during standing and gait is important to thoroughly understand knee function in obese individuals with knee pain. This study aimed to investigate the 6DOF knee joint kinematics in standing and during gait in obese patients using a validated fluoroscopic imaging system. Ten individuals with obesity and knee pain were recruited. While standing, the knee was in 7.4±6.3°of hyperextension, 2.8±3.3° of abduction and 5.6±7.3° of external rotation. The femoral center was located 0.7±3.1mm anterior and 5.1±1.5mm medial to the tibial center. During treadmill gait, the sagittal plane motion, i.e., flexion/extension and anterior-posterior translation, showed a clear pattern. Specifically, obese individuals with knee pain maintained the knee in more flexion and more anterior tibial translation during most of the stance phase of the gait cycle and had a reduced total range of knee flexion when compared to a healthy non-obese group. In conclusion, obese individuals with knee pain used hyperextension knee posture while standing, but maintained the knee in more flexion during gait with reduced overall range of motion in the 6DOF analysis.

  3. Six degree-of-freedom knee joint kinematics in obese individuals with knee pain during gait

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing-Sheng; Tsai, Tsung-Yuan; Felson, David T.; Li, Guoan; Lewis, Cara L.

    2017-01-01

    Knee joint pain is a common symptom in obese individuals and walking is often prescribed as part of management programs. Past studies in obese individuals have focused on standing alignment and kinematics in the sagittal and coronal planes. Investigation of 6 degree-of-freedom (6DOF) knee joint kinematics during standing and gait is important to thoroughly understand knee function in obese individuals with knee pain. This study aimed to investigate the 6DOF knee joint kinematics in standing and during gait in obese patients using a validated fluoroscopic imaging system. Ten individuals with obesity and knee pain were recruited. While standing, the knee was in 7.4±6.3°of hyperextension, 2.8±3.3° of abduction and 5.6±7.3° of external rotation. The femoral center was located 0.7±3.1mm anterior and 5.1±1.5mm medial to the tibial center. During treadmill gait, the sagittal plane motion, i.e., flexion/extension and anterior-posterior translation, showed a clear pattern. Specifically, obese individuals with knee pain maintained the knee in more flexion and more anterior tibial translation during most of the stance phase of the gait cycle and had a reduced total range of knee flexion when compared to a healthy non-obese group. In conclusion, obese individuals with knee pain used hyperextension knee posture while standing, but maintained the knee in more flexion during gait with reduced overall range of motion in the 6DOF analysis. PMID:28339477

  4. Dietary Fiber Intake in Relation to Knee Pain Trajectory.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhaoli; Lu, Na; Niu, Jingbo; Felson, David T; Zhang, Yuqing

    2017-09-01

    Dietary fiber may reduce knee pain, in part by lowering body weight and reducing inflammation. In this study, we assessed whether fiber intake was associated with patterns of knee pain development. In a prospective, multicenter cohort of 4,796 men and women ages 45-79 years with or at risk of knee osteoarthritis, participants underwent annual followups for 8 years. Dietary fiber intake was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index pain trajectories, which were assessed for associations with dietary fiber intake using polytomous regression models. Of the eligible participants (4,470 persons and 8,940 knees, mean ± SD age 61.3 ± 9.1 years, 58% women), 4.9% underwent knee replacement and were censored at the time of surgery. Four distinct knee pain patterns were identified: no pain (34.5%), mild pain (38.1%), moderate pain (21.2%), and severe pain (6.2%). Dietary total fiber was inversely related to membership in the moderate or severe pain groups (P ≤ 0.006 for trend for both). Subjects in the highest versus those in the lowest quartile of total fiber intake had a lower risk of belonging to the moderate pain pattern group (odds ratio [OR] 0.76 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.61-0.93]) and severe pain pattern group (OR 0.56 [95% CI 0.41-0.78]). Similar results were found with grain fiber and these 2 pain pattern groups. Our findings suggest that a high intake of dietary total or grain fiber, particularly the recommended daily fiber average intake of 25 gm per day, is associated with a lower risk of developing moderate or severe knee pain over time. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  5. The effect of orthotic devices on knee adduction moment, pain and function in medial compartment knee osteoarthritis: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Baghaei Roodsari, Roshanak; Esteki, Ali; Aminian, Gholamreza; Ebrahimi, Ismaeil; Mousavi, Mohammad Ebramim; Majdoleslami, Basir; Bahramian, Fatemeh

    2016-03-15

    Background Knee braces and foot orthoses are commonly used to improve knee adduction moment, pain and function in subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, no literature review has been performed to compare the effects of foot orthoses and knee braces in this group of patients. Purpose The aim of this review was to evaluate the effects of foot orthoses and knee braces on knee adduction moment, pain and function in individuals with knee OA. Study design Literature review. Method The search strategy was based on the Population Intervention Comparison Outcome method. A search was performed in PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar and ISI web of knowledge databases using the PRISMA method and based on selected keywords. Thirty-one related articles were selected for final evaluation. Results The results of the analysis of these studies demonstrated that orthotic devices reduce knee adduction moment and also improve pain and function in individuals with knee OA. Conclusion Foot orthoses may be more effective in improving pain and function in subjects with knee OA. Both knee braces and foot orthoses reduce the knee adduction moment in knee OA and consequently patients typically do not need to use knee braces for a long period of time. Also, foot orthoses and knee braces may be more effective for medial compartment knee OA patients due to the fact that this treatment helps improve pain and function. Implications for Rehabilitation Knee braces and foot orthoses are commonly used for improving knee adduction moment, pain and function in subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Orthotic devices can reduce knee adduction moment, pain and improve function in knee OA. The combined use of a knee braces and foot orthoses can provide more improvement in knee adduction moment, reduced pain and increased function.

  6. Examining the feasibility of radiofrequency treatment for chronic knee pain after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Protzman, Nicole M; Gyi, Jennifer; Malhotra, Amit D; Kooch, Jason E

    2014-04-01

    Recently, investigators began using radiofrequency to manage knee osteoarthritis pain in patients at high risk who cannot undergo surgical intervention. To our knowledge, no study has investigated the use of radiofrequency ablation of the genicular nerves to alleviate chronic knee pain after total knee replacement. A single case is presented here in which genicular nerve ablation successfully improved pain and restored function. We believe that these preliminary results could be used in the development of future prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials that focus on the use of radiofrequency ablation to treat persistent knee pain after total knee replacement. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Graduated compression stockings to treat acute leg pain associated with proximal DVT. A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kahn, S R; Shapiro, S; Ducruet, T; Wells, P S; Rodger, M A; Kovacs, M J; Anderson, D; Tagalakis, V; Morrison, D R; Solymoss, S; Miron, M-J; Yeo, E; Smith, R; Schulman, S; Kassis, J; Kearon, C; Chagnon, I; Wong, T; Demers, C; Hanmiah, R; Kaatz, S; Selby, R; Rathbun, S; Desmarais, S; Opatrny, L; Ortel, T L; Galanaud, J-P; Ginsberg, J S

    2014-12-01

    Acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT) causes leg pain. Elastic compression stockings (ECS) have potential to relieve DVT-related leg pain by diminishing the diameter of distended veins and increasing venous blood flow. It was our objective to determine whether ECS reduce leg pain in patients with acute DVT. We performed a secondary analysis of the SOX Trial, a multicentre randomised placebo controlled trial of active ECS versus placebo ECS to prevent the post-thrombotic syndrome.The study was performed in 24 hospital centres in Canada and the U.S. and included 803 patients with a first episode of acute proximal DVT. Patients were randomised to receive active ECS (knee length, 30-40 mm Hg graduated pressure) or placebo ECS (manufactured to look identical to active ECS, but lacking therapeutic compression). Study outcome was leg pain severity assessed on an 11-point numerical pain rating scale (0, no pain; 10, worst possible pain) at baseline, 14, 30 and 60 days after randomisation. Mean age was 55 years and 60% were male. In active ECS patients (n=409), mean (SD) pain severity at baseline and at 60 days were 5.18 (3.29) and 1.39 (2.19), respectively, and in placebo ECS patients (n=394) were 5.38 (3.29) and 1.13 (1.86), respectively. There were no significant differences in pain scores between groups at any assessment point, and no evidence for subgroup interaction by age, sex or anatomical extent of DVT. Results were similar in an analysis restricted to patients who reported wearing stockings every day. In conclusion, ECS do not reduce leg pain in patients with acute proximal DVT.

  8. Can an intervention on clinical inertia have an impact on the perception of pain, functionality and quality of life in patients with hip and/or knee osteoarthritis? Results from a cluster randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Tejedor Varillas, Alejandro; León Vázquez, Fernando; Lora Pablos, David; Pérez Martín, Alvaro; Vargas Negrín, Francisco; Gómez de la Cámara, Agustín

    2012-02-01

    Evaluate whether an intervention applied to general practitioners to prevent clinical inertia had an impact on pain, functionality, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with hip and/or knee osteoarthritis. This was a cluster-based, multicentre, prospective, randomized, parallel-group study. Clusters of physicians working were assigned to one of two study groups. Physicians in Group 1 received a training session while those in Group 2 did not. Primary Care Health centers representative of the entire Spanish territory. 329 general practitioners of primary healthcare centre. The intervention consists of a motivational session to propose a proactive care, based on current recommendations. Visual analogue scale (VAS); functionality (WOMAC scale) and global perception of health by SF-12. Effects were measured in two visits six months apart. A total of 1361 physicians, and 4076 patients participated in the study. No significant differences were observed in the clinical benefit obtained between patients assigned to Group 1 and Group 2. Nevertheless, a significant improvement was observed in the combined population (Groups 1 + 2) in the VAS (p<0.001), WOMAC (p<0.0001) and SF-12v2 (p<0.001) questionnaires in Visit 2 compared to Visit 1. The results indicate that, although this specific intervention carried out on physicians did not provide an additional clinical benefit to patients with knee and/or hip osteoarthritis, an increased awareness of the patient's disease through the use of functionality indexes, as well as the mere fact of being observed, seem to improve patient-reported pain, functionality and HRQoL. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Causes of Aseptic Persistent Pain after Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hong-An; Seon, Jong-Keun; Park, Kyung-Soon; Shin, Young-Joo; Yang, Hong-Yeol

    2017-01-01

    Background Persistent pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is dissatisfying to the patient and frustrating to the surgeon. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the aseptic causes and clinical course of intractable pain following TKA. Methods Of the total 2,534 cases of primary TKA reviewed, 178 cases were classified as having aseptic persistent pain that was not resolved within 1 year after surgery. Except for the cases with periprosthetic fracture (56 knees), 122 cases of aseptic painful TKA were divided into two groups: intra-articular group (83 knees) and extra-articular group (39 knees). Results In the intra-articular group, the main reasons for pain were aseptic loosening (n = 40), polyethylene wear (n = 16), instability (n = 10), recurrent hemarthrosis (n = 5), patellar maltracking (n = 4), tendon ruptures (n = 4), and stiffness (n = 2). In the extraarticular group, 10 knees (25.6%) were found to have nerve entrapment in the spine, 6 knees (15.4%) were found to have hip osteoarthritis or femoral head avascular necrosis. The reasons for persistent knee pain in the remaining 23 knees (59.0%) still remain elusive. Conclusions Persistent pain after TKA originated from pathology of extra-articular origin in a considerable number of cases in this study. Therefore, it is important to perform thorough preoperative evaluations to reduce pain resulting from extra-articular causes. Furthermore, meticulous surgical procedures and optimal alignment are required to reduce pain of intra-articular origin related to implant wear, instability, and patellar maltracking. PMID:28261427

  10. Acupuncture in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Witt, C; Brinkhaus, B; Jena, S; Linde, K; Streng, A; Wagenpfeil, S; Hummelsberger, J; Walther, H U; Melchart, D; Willich, S N

    Acupuncture is widely used by patients with chronic pain although there is little evidence of its effectiveness. We investigated the efficacy of acupuncture compared with minimal acupuncture and with no acupuncture in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Patients with chronic osteoarthritis of the knee (Kellgren grade < or =2) were randomly assigned to acupuncture (n=150), minimal acupuncture (superficial needling at non-acupuncture points; n=76), or a waiting list control (n=74). Specialised physicians, in 28 outpatient centres, administered acupuncture and minimal acupuncture in 12 sessions over 8 weeks. Patients completed standard questionnaires at baseline and after 8 weeks, 26 weeks, and 52 weeks. The primary outcome was the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) index at the end of week 8 (adjusted for baseline score). All main analyses were by intention to treat. 294 patients were enrolled from March 6, 2002, to January 17, 2003; eight patients were lost to follow-up after randomisation, but were included in the final analysis. The mean baseline-adjusted WOMAC index at week 8 was 26.9 (SE 1.4) in the acupuncture group, 35.8 (1.9) in the minimal acupuncture group, and 49.6 (2.0) in the waiting list group (treatment difference acupuncture vs minimal acupuncture -8.8, [95% CI -13.5 to -4.2], p=0.0002; acupuncture vs waiting list -22.7 [-27.5 to -17.9], p<0.0001). After 52 weeks the difference between the acupuncture and minimal acupuncture groups was no longer significant (p=0.08). After 8 weeks of treatment, pain and joint function are improved more with acupuncture than with minimal acupuncture or no acupuncture in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. However, this benefit decreases over time.

  11. Anterior knee pain: an update of physical therapy.

    PubMed

    Werner, Suzanne

    2014-10-01

    Anterior knee pain is one of the most common knee problems in physically active individuals. The reason for anterior knee pain has been suggested to be multifactorial with patella abnormalities or extensor mechanism disorder leading to patellar malalignment during flexion and extension of the knee joint. Some patients complain mostly of non-specific knee pain, while others report patellar instability problems. The patients present with a variety of symptoms and clinical findings, meaning that a thorough clinical examination is the key for optimal treatment. Weakness of the quadriceps muscle, especially during eccentric contractions, is usually present in the majority of anterior knee pain patients. However, irrespective of whether pain or instability is the major problem, hypotrophy and reduced activity of the vastus medialis are often found, which result in an imbalance between vastus medialis and vastus lateralis. This imbalance needs to be corrected before quadriceps exercises are started. The non-operative rehabilitation protocol should be divided into different phases based on the patient's progress. The goal of the first phase is to reduce pain and swelling, improve the balance between vastus medialis and vastus lateralis, restore normal gait, and decrease loading of the patello-femoral joint. The second phase should include improvement of postural control and coordination of the lower extremity, increase of quadriceps strength and when needed hip muscle strength, and restore good knee function. The patient should be encouraged to return to or to start with a suitable regular physical exercise. Therefore, the third phase should include functional exercises. Towards the end of the treatment, single-leg functional tests and functional knee scores should be used for evaluating clinical outcome. A non-operative treatment of patients with anterior knee pain should be tried for at least 3 months before considering other treatment options.

  12. Low Level Laser Therapy for chronic knee joint pain patients

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Takashi; Ebihara, Satoru; Ohkuni, Ikuko; Izukura, Hideaki; Ushigome, Nobuyuki; Ohshiro, Toshio; Musha, Yoshiro; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Kazuaki; Kubota, Ayako

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Chronic knee joint pain is one of the most frequent complaints which is seen in the outpatient clinic in our medical institute. In previous studies we have reported the benefits of low level laser therapy (LLLT) for chronic pain in the shoulder joints, elbow, hand, finger and the lower back. The present study is a report on the effects of LLLT for chronic knee joint pain. Materials and Methods: Over the past 5 years, 35 subjects visited the outpatient clinic with complaints of chronic knee joint pain caused by the knee osteoarthritis-induced degenerative meniscal tear. They received low level laser therapy. A 1000 mW semi-conductor laser device was used to deliver 20.1 J/cm2 per point in continuous wave at 830nm, and four points were irradiated per session (1 treatment) twice a week for 4 weeks. Results: A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to determine the effects of LLLT for the chronic pain and after the end of the treatment regimen a significant improvement was observed (p<0.001). After treatment, no significant differences were observed in the knee joint range of motion. Discussions with the patients revealed that it was important for them to learn how to avoid postures that would cause them knee pain in everyday life in order to have continuous benefits from the treatment. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that 830 nm LLLT was an effective form of treatment for chronic knee pain caused by knee osteoarthritis. Patients were advised to undertake training involving gentle flexion and extension of the knee. PMID:25705083

  13. Total knee replacement plus physical and medical therapy or treatment with physical and medical therapy alone: a randomised controlled trial in patients with knee osteoarthritis (the MEDIC-study).

    PubMed

    Skou, Soren T; Roos, Ewa M; Laursen, Mogens B; Rathleff, Michael S; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Simonsen, Ole H; Rasmussen, Sten

    2012-05-09

    There is a lack of high quality evidence concerning the efficacy of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). According to international evidence-based guidelines, treatment of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) should include patient education, exercise and weight loss. Insoles and pharmacological treatment can be included as supplementary treatments. If the combination of these non-surgical treatment modalities is ineffective, TKA may be indicated. The purpose of this randomised controlled trial is to examine whether TKA provides further improvement in pain, function and quality of life in addition to optimised non-surgical treatment in patients with KOA defined as definite radiographic OA and up to moderate pain. The study will be conducted in The North Denmark Region. 100 participants with radiographic KOA (K-L grade ≥2) and mean pain during the previous week of ≤ 60 mm (0-100, best to worst scale) who are considered eligible for TKA by an orthopaedic surgeon will be included. The treatment will consist of 12 weeks of optimised non-surgical treatment consisting of patient education, exercise, diet, insoles, analgesics and/or NSAIDs. Patients will be randomised to either receiving or not receiving a TKA in addition to the optimised non-surgical treatment. The primary outcome will be the change from baseline to 12 months on the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)(4) defined as the average score for the subscale scores for pain, symptoms, activities of daily living, and quality of life. Secondary outcomes include the five individual KOOS subscale scores, EQ-5D, pain on a 100 mm Visual Analogue Scale, self-efficacy, pain pressure thresholds, and isometric knee flexion and knee extension strength. This is the first randomised controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of TKA as an adjunct treatment to optimised non-surgical treatment in patients with KOA. The results will significantly contribute to evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of patients with

  14. Arthroscopic knee debridement can delay total knee replacement in painful moderate haemophilic arthropathy of the knee in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Merchan, E Carlos; Gomez-Cardero, Primitivo

    2016-09-01

    The role of arthroscopic debridement of the knee in haemophilia is controversial in the literature. The purpose of this study is to describe the results of arthroscopic knee debridement (AKD), with the aim of determining whether it is possible to delay total knee replacement (TKR) for painful moderate haemophilic arthropathy of the knee in adult patients. In a 14-year period (1998-2011), AKD was performed for moderate haemophilic arthropathy of the knee in 27 patients with haemophilia A. Their average age at operation was 28.6 years (range 26-39 years). Indications for surgery were as follows: more than 90° of knee flexion, flexion deformity less than 30°, good axial alignment of the knee, good patellar alignment, and pain above >60 points in a visual analogue scale [0 (no pain) to 100 points]. Secondary haematological prophylaxis and rehabilitation (physiotherapy) was given for at least 3 months after surgery. Follow-up was for an average of 7.5 years (range 2-14 years). We assessed the clinical outcome before surgery and at the time of latest follow-up using the Knee Society pain and function scores, the range of motion, and the radiological score of the World Federation of Haemophilia. Knee Society pain scores improved from 39 preoperatively to 66 postoperatively, and function scores improved from 36 to 52. Range of motion improved on an average from -15° of extension and 90° of flexion before surgery, to -5° of extension and 110° of flexion at the last follow-up. A radiological deterioration of 2.8 points on average was found. There were two (7.4%) postoperative complications (haemarthroses resolved by joint aspiration). One patient (3.7%) required a TKR 12.5 years later. AKD should be considered in painful moderate haemophilic arthropathy of the knee in adult patients to delay TKR.

  15. Anterior knee pain after total knee arthroplasty: does it correlate with patellar blood flow?

    PubMed

    Kohl, Sandro; Evangelopoulos, Dimitrios S; Hartel, Maximilian; Kohlhof, Hendrik; Roeder, Christoph; Eggli, Stefan

    2011-09-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) disturbs patellar blood flow, an unintended accompaniment to TKA that may be a cause of postoperative anterior knee pain. We examine whether disrupted patellar blood flow correlates with anterior knee pain following TKA. In 50 patients (21 men, 29 women) undergoing TKA, we compared patellar blood flow at flexions 0° to 30°, 60°, 90°, and 110° before and after medial parapatellar arthrotomy to pre- and postoperative anterior knee pain scores by means of a laser Doppler flowmeter (LDF) probe. Anterior knee pain was assessed using the pain intensity numeric rating scale (NRS) of 0-10 (0-no, 10-worst pain). Based on the NRS pain values, patients were divided into two main groups: group A (n = 34) with no pain or discomfort (NRS range 0-4) and group B (n = 16) with anterior knee pain (NRS range 5-10). Patients of group B demonstrated a significant decrease in blood flow before arthrotomy at flexions from 0° to 90°, and 110° and from 0° to 60°, 90°, and 110° after arthrotomy. For group A, a significant decrease in blood flow was detected at flexions from 0° to 90°, and 110° before and after arthrotomy. For both groups, medial arthrotomy did not have a statistically significant influence on patellar blood flow (margin of significance P < 0.05). Prior to TKA, 16 of the 50 patients of group B (32%) complained of anterior knee pain (mean NRS 7.1 ± 1.7). At 2-year follow-up, pain significantly decreased (NRS 3.1 ± 2.1) and only 4 of the 16 patients (25%) complained of moderate anterior pain (average NRS 5.7 ± 0.5), while 8 of 16 (50%) patients reported discomfort (mean NRS 3.5 ± 1.8) around the patella. Patients in group A also demonstrated a significant decrease in pain intensity (from NRS 1.5 ± 1.4 preoperatively to NRS 0.4 ± 1.5 at 2-year follow-up). Statistical analysis demonstrated no statistically significant correlation between pre-arthrotomy/post-arthrotomy patellar blood flow and the presence of preoperative and

  16. The influence of pain on knee motion in patients with osteoarthritis undergoing total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Damien; Hanratty, Brian; Thompson, Neville; Beverland, David E

    2009-04-01

    Pain is the predominant symptom of degenerative knee arthritis and the main reason patients undergo total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Variation in patient response to pain has proved difficult to quantify. The effect of removing pain by testing TKA patients' range of motion (ROM) before and after the administration of anesthesia has not previously been analyzed. This study objectively quantifies the effect of eliminating pain on knee joint ROM for a typical group of TKA patients with osteoarthritis. We prospectively recruited 141 patients with osteoarthritis admitted for TKA to assess the inhibitory effect of pain on ROM. Passive maximum flexion, extension, and ROM were measured preoperatively before and after administration of anesthesia (spinal anesthetic followed by femoral and sciatic regional nerve blocks). Following pain abolition, passive maximum flexion increased by an average of 13.4 degrees (SD=11.9 degrees), passive maximum extension improved by an average of 3.0 degrees (SD=4.2 degrees), and passive ROM increased by an average of 16.4 degrees (SD=13.1 degrees). The change in each parameter was statistically significant (P<.0001). Improvements in flexion (P=.01) and ROM (P=.005) were significantly greater in women. Measurements taken before anesthesia reflect knee ROM that the patient will tolerate before pain becomes the limiting factor, while measurements taken after anesthesia is achieved suggest the knee ROM possible once pain is eliminated. Abolition of pain led to significant increases in knee flexion, extension, and ROM, suggesting that pain has a significant inhibitory effect on knee motion.

  17. Myofascial pain in patients waitlisted for total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Richard; Cahill, Catherine M; Wood, Gavin; Hroch, Jennifer; Wilson, Rosemary; Cupido, Tracy; VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knee pain is one of the major sources of pain and disability in developed countries, particularly in aging populations, and is the primary indication for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). OBJECTIVES: To determine the presence of myofascial pain in OA patients waitlisted for TKA and to determine whether their knee pain may be alleviated by trigger point injections. METHODS: Following ethics approval, 25 participants were recruited from the wait list for elective unilateral primary TKA at the study centre. After providing informed consent, all participants were examined for the presence of active trigger points in the muscles surrounding the knee and received trigger point injections of bupivacaine. Assessments and trigger point injections were implemented on the first visit and at subsequent visits on weeks 1, 2, 4 and 8. Outcome measures included the Timed Up and Go test, Brief Pain Inventory, Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire. RESULTS: Myofascial trigger points were identified in all participants. Trigger point injections significantly reduced pain intensity and pain interference, and improved mobility. All participants had trigger points identified in medial muscles, most commonly in the head of the gastrocnemius muscle. An acute reduction in pain and improved functionality was observed immediately following intervention, and persisted over the eight-week course of the investigation. CONCLUSION: All patients had trigger points in the vastus and gastrocnemius muscles, and 92% of patients experienced significant pain relief with trigger point injections at the first visit, indicating that a significant proportion of the OA knee pain was myofascial in origin. Further investigation is warranted to determine the prevalence of myofascial pain and whether treatment delays or prevents TKA. PMID:23061082

  18. Brain imaging of pain sensitization in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Jesus; Martínez-Vilavella, Gerard; Llorente-Onaindia, Jone; Harrison, Ben J; López-Solà, Marina; López-Ruiz, Marina; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; Benito, Pere; Deus, Joan; Monfort, Jordi

    2017-09-01

    A relevant aspect in osteoarthritic pain is neural sensitization. This phenomenon involves augmented responsiveness to painful stimulation and may entail a clinically worse prognosis. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study pain sensitization in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Sixty patients were recruited and pain sensitization was clinically defined on the basis of regional spreading of pain (spreading sensitization) and increased pain response to repeated stimulation (temporal summation). Functional magnetic resonance imaging testing involved assessing brain responses to both pressure and heat stimulation. Thirty-three patients (55%) showed regional pain spreading (simple sensitization) and 19 patients (32%) showed both regional spreading and temporal summation. Sensitized patients were more commonly women. Direct painful pressure stimulation of the joint (articular interline) robustly activated all of the neural elements typically involved in pain perception, but did not differentiate sensitized and nonsensitized patients. Painful pressure stimulation on the anterior tibial surface (sensitized site) evoked greater activation in sensitized patients in regions typically involved in pain and also beyond these regions, extending to the auditory, visual, and ventral sensorimotor cortices. Painful heat stimulation of the volar forearm did not discriminate the sensitization phenomenon. Results confirm the high prevalence of pain sensitization secondary to knee osteoarthritis. Relevantly, the sensitization phenomenon was associated with neural changes extending beyond strict pain-processing regions with enhancement of activity in general sensory, nonnociceptive brain areas. This effect is in contrast to the changes previously identified in primary pain sensitization in fibromyalgia patients presenting with a weakening of the general sensory integration.

  19. Acupuncture for chronic knee pain: a protocol for an updated systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qinhong; Yue, Jinhuan; Sun, Zhongren; Lu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for patients with chronic knee pain. Methods and analysis MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTERAL, CINAHL and four Chinese medical databases will be searched from their inception to present. We will also manually retrieve eligible studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which acupuncture is assessed as the sole treatment or as an adjunct treatment for chronic knee pain will be included. The primary outcome of our analysis is pain measured by the visual analogue scale (VAS), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain subscale or the 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS). The secondary outcomes will include the quality of life, measured by the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and adverse events. Two researchers will conduct the study selection, data extraction and quality assessment independently. Any disagreement will be resolved through discussion with a third reviewer. The Cochrane risk-of-bias criteria and the Standards for Reporting Interventions in Controlled Trials of Acupuncture (STRICTA) checklist will be used to assess the methodological quality of the trials. Dissemination This systematic review will assess the current evidence on acupuncture therapy for chronic knee pain. It uses aggregated published data instead of individual patient data and does not require an ethical board review and approval. The findings will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and disseminated in conference presentations. It will provide the latest analysis of the currently available evidence for acupuncture treating chronic knee pain. Trial registration number CRD42014015514. PMID:26911581

  20. Acupuncture for chronic knee pain: a protocol for an updated systematic review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinhong; Yue, Jinhuan; Sun, Zhongren; Lu, Ying

    2016-02-24

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for patients with chronic knee pain. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTERAL, CINAHL and four Chinese medical databases will be searched from their inception to present. We will also manually retrieve eligible studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which acupuncture is assessed as the sole treatment or as an adjunct treatment for chronic knee pain will be included. The primary outcome of our analysis is pain measured by the visual analogue scale (VAS), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain subscale or the 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS). The secondary outcomes will include the quality of life, measured by the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and adverse events. Two researchers will conduct the study selection, data extraction and quality assessment independently. Any disagreement will be resolved through discussion with a third reviewer. The Cochrane risk-of-bias criteria and the Standards for Reporting Interventions in Controlled Trials of Acupuncture (STRICTA) checklist will be used to assess the methodological quality of the trials. This systematic review will assess the current evidence on acupuncture therapy for chronic knee pain. It uses aggregated published data instead of individual patient data and does not require an ethical board review and approval. The findings will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and disseminated in conference presentations. It will provide the latest analysis of the currently available evidence for acupuncture treating chronic knee pain. CRD42014015514. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Foot orthoses and physiotherapy in the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome: A randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Vicenzino, Bill; Collins, Natalie; Crossley, Kay; Beller, Elaine; Darnell, Ross; McPoil, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background Patellofemoral pain syndrome is a highly prevalent musculoskeletal overuse condition that has a significant impact on participation in daily and physical activities. A recent systematic review highlighted the lack of high quality evidence from randomised controlled trials for the conservative management of patellofemoral pain syndrome. Although foot orthoses are a commonly used intervention for patellofemoral pain syndrome, only two pilot studies with short term follow up have been conducted into their clinical efficacy. Methods/design A randomised single-blinded clinical trial will be conducted to investigate the clinical efficacy and cost effectiveness of foot orthoses in the management of patellofemoral pain syndrome. One hundred and seventy-six participants aged 18–40 with anterior or retropatellar knee pain of non-traumatic origin and at least six weeks duration will be recruited from the greater Brisbane area in Queensland, Australia through print, radio and television advertising. Suitable participants will be randomly allocated to receive either foot orthoses, flat insoles, physiotherapy or a combined intervention of foot orthoses and physiotherapy, and will attend six visits with a physiotherapist over a 6 week period. Outcome will be measured at 6, 12 and 52 weeks using primary outcome measures of usual and worst pain visual analogue scale, patient perceived treatment effect, perceived global effect, the Functional Index Questionnaire, and the Anterior Knee Pain Scale. Secondary outcome measures will include the Lower Extremity Functional Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire, 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Patient-Specific Functional Scale, Physical Activity Level in the Previous Week, pressure pain threshold and physical measures of step and squat tests. Cost-effectiveness analysis will be based on treatment effectiveness against resource usage recorded in treatment logs and self-reported diaries

  2. Half of 12-15-year-olds with knee pain still have pain after one year.

    PubMed

    Rathleff, Camilla Rams; Olesen, Jens Lykkegaard; Roos, Ewa M; Rasmussen, Sten; Rathleff, Michael Skovdal

    2013-11-01

    Adolescent knee pain is considered benign and presumed to disappear without treatment. However, this has never been investigated. The purpose of this study was to 1) compare leisure time sports participation, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and body mass index between adolescents with and without self-reported knee pain, 2) investigate how many adolescents still have knee pain after one year and 3) identify risk factors for one-year persistence of knee pain. The design was a prospective cohort study and a nested case-control study. In September 2011, a total of 768 adolescents between 12-15 years of age from schools in the municipality of Aalborg answered a questionnaire on demographics, sports participation, current pain and HRQoL. After one year, adolescents who reported knee pain at first contact were again contacted by telephone and asked if they experienced knee pain. At first contact, 215 adolescents reported knee pain. Adolescents with knee pain had a significantly higher leisure time sports participation level and a lower HRQoL than adolescents without knee pain. 48.8% (n = 80) still reported knee pain after one year. Female gender, taking part in sports more than twice weekly, lower HRQoL and daily knee pain increased the risk of reporting knee pain after one year. Adolescents with self-reported knee pain participate in more leisure time sports and have a lower HRQoL than adolescents without knee pain. 50% had persistent long-lasting knee pain, and a higher frequency of leisure time sports participation increased the risk of reporting knee pain after one year. Danish Rheumatism Association, The Association of Danish Physiotherapists Research Fund and The Obel Family Foundation. None of the funders have any role in the study other than to provide funding. Ethical approval was obtained from the local ethics committee in the North Denmark Region (N-20110020).

  3. Targeted rehabilitation to improve outcome after total knee replacement (TRIO): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Simpson, A Hamish R W; Hamilton, David F; Beard, David J; Barker, Karen L; Wilton, Timothy; Hutchison, James D; Tuck, Chris; Stoddard, Andrew; Macfarlane, Gary J; Murray, Gordon D

    2014-02-01

    Approximately 20% of patients are not satisfied with the outcome of total knee replacement, great volumes of which are carried out yearly. Physiotherapy is often provided by the NHS to address dysfunction following knee replacement; however the efficacy of this is unknown. Although clinically it is accepted that therapy is useful, provision of physiotherapy to all patients post-operatively does not enhance outcomes at one year. No study has previously assessed the effect of targeting therapy to individuals struggling to recover in the early post-operative phase.The aim of the TRIO study is to determine whether stratifying care by targeting physiotherapy to those individuals performing poorly following knee replacement is effective in improving the one year outcomes. We are also investigating whether the structure of the physiotherapy provision itself influences outcomes. The study is a multi-centre prospective randomised controlled trial (RCT) of patients undergoing primary total knee replacement, with treatment targeted at those deemed most susceptible to gain from it. Use of the national PROMS programme for pre-operative data collection allows us to screen all patients at initial post-operative clinical review, and recruit only those deemed to be recovering slowly.We aim to recruit 440 patients through various NHS orthopaedic centres who will undergo six weeks of physiotherapy. The intervention will be either 'intensive' involving both hospital and home-based functional exercise rehabilitation, or 'standard of care' consisting of home exercises. Patients will be randomised to either group using a web-based system. Both groups will receive pre and post-intervention physiotherapy review. Patients will be followed-up to one year post-operation. The primary outcome measure is the Oxford Knee Score. Secondary outcomes are patient satisfaction, functional ability, pain scores and cost-effectiveness. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN23357609. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  4. Anterior knee pain and cold knees: a possible association in women.

    PubMed

    Selfe, James; Sutton, Chris; Hardaker, Natalie J; Greenhalgh, Sue; Karki, Anne; Dey, Paola

    2010-10-01

    Abnormal reactions to environmental cold have been observed in some patients with Anterior Knee Pain (AKP). The aims of this study were to investigate whether palpation of the knee could classify patients into those with and those without cold knees; whether this classification could be objectively validated using thermal imaging; whether the cold and not cold knee groups varied in response to a cold stress test and in patient-reported measures. Fifty eight patients were recruited; palpation classified them into cold and not cold groups. Twenty-one (36%) patients were classified as having a cold knee by palpation: fourteen (36%) females and seven males (37%). Preliminary analysis suggested gender might be an effect modifier and the number of men was small, therefore the analysis focussed on females. Women with cold knees had a significantly smaller patellar skin fold, lower levels of activity and worse scores on the MFIQ, there also appeared to be an association with a traumatic onset. Women with cold knees were more likely to report cold weather affected their knees and they preferred a hot water bottle compared to an ice-pack on their knee; there was also a trend towards having to wear extra tights/long johns in the winter. This study has helped to define a clinical profile for a group of females with AKP and cold knees. This group appears to demonstrate a mild form of Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy.

  5. Pain sensitivity profiles in patients with advanced knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Frey-Law, Laura A; Bohr, Nicole L; Sluka, Kathleen A; Herr, Keela; Clark, Charles R; Noiseux, Nicolas O; Callaghan, John J; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Rakel, Barbara A

    2016-09-01

    The development of patient profiles to subgroup individuals on a variety of variables has gained attention as a potential means to better inform clinical decision making. Patterns of pain sensitivity response specific to quantitative sensory testing (QST) modality have been demonstrated in healthy subjects. It has not been determined whether these patterns persist in a knee osteoarthritis population. In a sample of 218 participants, 19 QST measures along with pain, psychological factors, self-reported function, and quality of life were assessed before total knee arthroplasty. Component analysis was used to identify commonalities across the 19 QST assessments to produce standardized pain sensitivity factors. Cluster analysis then grouped individuals who exhibited similar patterns of standardized pain sensitivity component scores. The QST resulted in 4 pain sensitivity components: heat, punctate, temporal summation, and pressure. Cluster analysis resulted in 5 pain sensitivity profiles: a "low pressure pain" group, an "average pain" group, and 3 "high pain" sensitivity groups who were sensitive to different modalities (punctate, heat, and temporal summation). Pain and function differed between pain sensitivity profiles, along with sex distribution; however, no differences in osteoarthritis grade, medication use, or psychological traits were found. Residualizing QST data by age and sex resulted in similar components and pain sensitivity profiles. Furthermore, these profiles are surprisingly similar to those reported in healthy populations, which suggests that individual differences in pain sensitivity are a robust finding even in an older population with significant disease.

  6. Nonsurgical Management of Osteoarthritis Knee Pain in the Older Adult.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nora

    2017-02-01

    Symptomatic knee osteoarthritis is a common complaint of many elderly patients in primary care offices. For those unable or unwilling to undergo knee replacement, the primary practitioners' understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the available treatment modalities for pain relief is critical to successful in-office counseling and expectation management. Treatment requires a multimodal approach of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic therapies to achieve a maximal clinical benefit. The focus of this review is on the nonsurgical options for treatment of knee osteoarthritis in patients aged 65 and older.

  7. [Treatment of knee joint pain with superficial needling].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yang-yang; Liao, Jing-ping

    2005-04-01

    To compare therapeutic effects of superficial needling and body acupuncture on knee joint pain. Ninety-six cases of knee joint pain were randomly divided into a treatment group of 48 cases treated with superficial needling, and a control group of 48 cases treated with body acupuncture. The cured rate was 66.7% in the treatment group and 39.6% in the control group with a significant difference between the two groups (P<0.01). The total effective rate was 100.0% in both the two groups. The needed therapeutic times of superficial needling was significantly less than that of the body acupuncture (P< 0.05). Superficial needling has a good therapeutic effect on knee joint pain with a shorter therapeutic course.

  8. Determinants of pain in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Behzad; Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah; Babaei, Mansour

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several factors are associated with the development or exacerbation of pain in knee osteoarthritis (KOA). In this study, we reviewed this context based on relevant studies. Methods: Recent published studies which have addressed the relationship between pain and KOA were summarized. Results: Correlates of the clinical, demographic features, laboratory tests and abnormalities on radiographic as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the knee pain have been discussed. The results indicated that many factors such as synovitis, synovial effusion, obesity, as well as structural lesions determined by MRI or radiographic examination, serum cytokines, inflammatory markers are determinants of pain in KOA. Conclusion: This context requires further investigations for identification of additional factors which initiate pain in asymptomatic KOA PMID:27757198

  9. [Pain following primary total knee replacement: causes, diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    van Geene, Arnoud R; Saris, Daniël B F; Custers, Roel J H

    2015-01-01

    Total knee prosthesis (TKP) placement is a successful treatment for patients with disabling osteoarthritis of the knee. Despite good results, there is a large group of patients who are not satisfied following the procedure. Men, young patients and patients with chronic pain are more often satisfied after TKP placement, as are patients with a higher social status, better mental-health status and lower preoperative pain scores. The diagnostic workup for patients suffering pain after TKP placement is labour intensive, and should be carried out in a systematic manner. Treatment of pain varies per individual, ranging from medication and physiotherapy to revision surgery. There is limited data on how many patients do actually experience pain reduction following treatment.

  10. The association of cartilage volume with knee pain.

    PubMed

    Hunter, D J; March, L; Sambrook, P N

    2003-10-01

    Whilst the characteristic pathologic feature of OA is the loss of hyaline cartilage, prior studies have demonstrated a poor relationship between severity of reported knee pain and degree of radiographic change. The aim of this study was to examine the association between knee symptoms and MRI cartilage volume. A cross-sectional study was performed to assess the association between knee symptoms and MRI cartilage volume in an unselected, community based population. The subjects were 133 postmenopausal females. The subjects had a T2-weighted fat saturated sagittal gradient-echo MRI performed of their right knee. Femoral, tibial and patella cartilage volumes were measured using three-dimensional (3D) Slicer, a software that facilitates semi-automatic segmentation, generation of 3D surface models and quantitative analysis. Qualitative data relating to symptoms, stiffness, pain, physical dysfunction and the quality of life using the WOMAC were recorded. The statistical analyses conducted to determine measures of association between knee pain/symptoms and cartilage volume were correlation, multiple regression and inter-quartile regression. Assessment of the association between patella cartilage volume and the WOMAC domains showed an inverse relationship between patella cartilage volume and pain, function and global score in a model including body mass index, physical activity and leg extensor power (all P=0.01). Inter-quartile regression comparing the lowest 25% with highest 25% patella cartilage volume demonstrated a stronger inverse relationship (P=0.005). This study suggests that alterations in patella volume are associated with pain, function and global scores of the WOMAC. In participants with more knee pain, there was an association with severity of patella cartilage reduction. Other MRI cartilage volume features were not strongly associated with WOMAC sub-scores.

  11. Effects of proprioceptive circuit exercise on knee joint pain and muscle function in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Ju, Sung-Bum; Park, Gi Duck; Kim, Sang-Soo

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] This study applied proprioceptive circuit exercise to patients with degenerative knee osteoarthritis and examined its effects on knee joint muscle function and the level of pain. [Subjects] In this study, 14 patients with knee osteoarthritis in two groups, a proprioceptive circuit exercise group (n = 7) and control group (n = 7), were examined. [Methods] IsoMed 2000 (D&R Ferstl GmbH, Hemau, Germany) was used to assess knee joint muscle function, and a Visual Analog Scale was used to measure pain level. [Results] In the proprioceptive circuit exercise group, knee joint muscle function and pain levels improved significantly, whereas in the control group, no significant improvement was observed. [Conclusion] A proprioceptive circuit exercise may be an effective way to strengthen knee joint muscle function and reduce pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  12. The influence of continuous versus interval walking exercise on knee joint loading and pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Farrokhi, Shawn; Jayabalan, Prakash; Gustafson, Jonathan A; Klatt, Brian A; Sowa, Gwendolyn A; Piva, Sara R

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate whether knee contact force and knee pain are different between continuous and interval walking exercise in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Twenty seven patients with unilateral symptomatic knee OA completed two separate walking exercise sessions on a treadmill at 1.3m/s on two different days: 1) a continuous 45min walking exercise session, and 2) three 15min bouts of walking exercise separated by 1h rest periods for a total of 45min of exercise in an interval format. Estimated knee contact forces using the OpenSim software and knee pain were evaluated at baseline (1st minute of walking) and after every 15min between the continuous and interval walking conditions. A significant increase from baseline was observed in peak knee contact force during the weight-acceptance phase of gait after 30 and 45min of walking, irrespective of the walking exercise condition. Additionally, whereas continuous walking resulted in an increase in knee pain, interval walking did not lead to increased knee pain. Walking exercise durations of 30min or greater may lead to undesirable knee joint loading in patients with knee OA, while performing the same volume of exercise in multiple bouts as opposed to one continuous bout may be beneficial for limiting knee pain. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Anterior opening wedge osteotomy of the proximal tibia for anterior knee pain in idiopathic hyperextension knees

    PubMed Central

    van Raaij, T. M.

    2006-01-01

    We analysed 20 patients with 24 knees affected by idiopathic genu recurvatum who were treated with an anterior opening wedge osteotomy of the proximal tibia because of anterior knee pain. We managed to attain full satisfaction in 83% of the patients with a mean follow-up of 7.4 years. The mean Hospital for Special Surgery score was 90.3 (range 70.5–99.5), and the mean Knee Society score score was 94.6 (70–100) for function and 87.7 (47–100) for pain. The mean Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index score for knee function was 87.5 (42–100), for stiffness 82.8 (25–100) and for pain 87.3 (55–100). Radiographs showed a significant increase in posterior tibial slope of 9.4 deg and a significant decrease of patellar height according to the Blackburne–Peel method of 0.16 postoperatively. No cases of non-union, deep infection or compartment syndrome were seen. No osteoarthritic changes in the lateral or medial knee compartment were found with more than 5 years’ follow-up in 16 patients with 19 affected knees. Three out of the four dissatisfied patients had a patella infera which led to patellofemoral complaints. One patient in the study underwent a secondary superior displacement of the patella with excellent results. We conclude that in a selected group of patients with idiopathic genu recurvatum and anterior knee pain an opening wedge osteotomy of the proximal tibia can be beneficial. PMID:16521014

  14. Superior results with eccentric compared to concentric quadriceps training in patients with jumper's knee: a prospective randomised study

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, P; Alfredson, H

    2005-01-01

    Background: A recent study reported promising clinical results using eccentric quadriceps training on a decline board to treat jumper's knee (patellar tendinosis). Methods: In this prospective study, athletes (mean age 25 years) with jumper's knee were randomised to treatment with either painful eccentric or painful concentric quadriceps training on a decline board. Fifteen exercises were repeated three times, twice daily, 7 days/week, for 12 weeks. All patients ceased sporting activities for the first 6 weeks. Age, height, weight, and duration of symptoms were similar between groups. Visual analogue scales (VAS; patient estimation of pain during exercise) and Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment (VISA) scores, before and after treatment, and patient satisfaction, were used for evaluation. Results: In the eccentric group, for 9/10 tendons patients were satisfied with treatment, VAS decreased from 73 to 23 (p<0.005), and VISA score increased from 41 to 83 (p<0.005). In the concentric group, for 9/9 tendons patients were not satisfied, and there were no significant differences in VAS (from 74 to 68, p<0.34) and VISA score (from 41 to 37, p<0.34). At follow up (mean 32.6 months), patients in the eccentric group were still satisfied and sports active, but all patients in the concentric group had been treated surgically or by sclerosing injections. Conclusions: In conclusion, eccentric, but not concentric, quadriceps training on a decline board, seems to reduce pain in jumper's knee. The study aimed to include 20 patients in each group, but was stopped at the half time control because of poor results achieved in the concentric group. PMID:16244196

  15. Post-operative pain after knee arthroscopy and related factors.

    PubMed

    Drosos, G I; Stavropoulos, N I; Katsis, A; Kesidis, K; Kazakos, K; Verettas, D-A

    2008-06-13

    The aim of this study was to explore the intensity of post-arthroscopy knee pain during the first 24 hours, and to study the influence of pre-operative pain, tourniquet time and amount of surgical trauma on post-arthroscopy pain. In 78 male patients that underwent elective arthroscopic menisectomy or diagnostic arthroscopy of the knee, preoperative and post-operative pain were registered using the Visual Analogue Scale. Variance for repeated measures and for independent observations was analysed. Supplementary analgesia was required for 23% of the patients, more often in the recovery room and between 2 and 8 hours postoperatively. Of all factors analyzed, only time was statistically significant in determining the level of post-operative pain. Supplementary analgesia was required only in patients that underwent operative arthroscopy, and more often in patients with tourniquet time of more than 40 minutes. In conclusions, post-operative time is the most significant factor related to the post-arthroscopy knee pain.

  16. Metallosis Presenting as Knee Pain 26 years after Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Sharareh, Behnam; Phan, Duy L; Goreal, Wamda; Schwarzkopf, Ran

    2015-01-01

    Metallosis occurs when periprosthetic soft tissues, synovium, and/or bone is infiltrated by metallic debris secondary to metal-on-metal wear. This debris can cause a chronic inflammatory reaction leading to joint instability, pain, and swelling, and may cause osteolysis, implant looseningand ultimately implant failure. An 81 year old female, with a history of primary left total knee arthroplasty, presented with a 6 month history of left knee pain, swelling, and limited range of motion following a fall. Radiographs and joint aspiration were performed, with results that showed no evidence of periprosthetic trauma or infection but were suspicious for chronic metallosis. The patient underwent revision total knee replacement of the left knee which revealed extensive necrotic black metal debris throughout the joint space. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of a foreign body reaction consistent with metallosis. This case is a rare example of chronic metallosis presenting 26 years following total knee replacement. Treatment with revision total knee replacement is the consensus management choice to avoid further destruction of the bone and joint capsule that can occur with metal-induced inflammation.

  17. Acupuncture for chronic knee pain: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hinman, Rana S; McCrory, Paul; Pirotta, Marie; Relf, Ian; Forbes, Andrew; Crossley, Kay M; Williamson, Elizabeth; Kyriakides, Mary; Novy, Kitty; Metcalf, Ben R; Harris, Anthony; Reddy, Prasuna; Conaghan, Philip G; Bennell, Kim L

    2014-10-01

    There is debate about benefits of acupuncture for knee pain. To determine the efficacy of laser and needle acupuncture for chronic knee pain. Zelen-design clinical trial (randomization occurred before informed consent), in Victoria, Australia (February 2010-December 2012). Community volunteers (282 patients aged ≥50 years with chronic knee pain) were treated by family physician acupuncturists. No acupuncture (control group, n = 71) and needle (n = 70), laser (n = 71), and sham laser (n = 70) acupuncture. Treatments were delivered for 12 weeks. Participants and acupuncturists were blinded to laser and sham laser acupuncture. Control participants were unaware of the trial. Primary outcomes were average knee pain (numeric rating scale, 0 [no pain] to 10 [worst pain possible]; minimal clinically important difference [MCID], 1.8 units) and physical function (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, 0 [no difficulty] to 68 [extreme difficulty]; MCID, 6 units) at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes included other pain and function measures, quality of life, global change, and 1-year follow-up. Analyses were by intention-to-treat using multiple imputation for missing outcome data. At 12 weeks and 1 year, 26 (9%) and 50 (18%) participants were lost to follow-up, respectively. Analyses showed neither needle nor laser acupuncture significantly improved pain (mean difference; -0.4 units; 95% CI, -1.2 to 0.4, and -0.1; 95% CI, -0.9 to 0.7, respectively) or function (-1.7; 95% CI, -6.1 to 2.6, and 0.5; 95% CI, -3.4 to 4.4, respectively) compared with sham at 12 weeks. Compared with control, needle and laser acupuncture resulted in modest improvements in pain (-1.1; 95% CI, -1.8 to -0.4, and -0.8; 95% CI, -1.5 to -0.1, respectively) at 12 weeks, but not at 1 year. Needle acupuncture resulted in modest improvement in function compared with control at 12 weeks (-3.9; 95% CI, -7.7 to -0.2) but was not significantly different from sham (-1.7; 95% CI

  18. Activity Increase Despite Arthritis (AÏDA): design of a Phase II randomised controlled trial evaluating an active management booklet for hip and knee osteoarthritis [ISRCTN24554946

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Nefyn H; Amoakwa, Elvis; Burton, Kim; Hendry, Maggie; Belcher, John; Lewis, Ruth; Hood, Kerenza; Jones, Jeremy; Bennett, Paul; Edwards, Rhiannon T; Neal, Richard D; Andrew, Glynne; Wilkinson, Clare

    2009-01-01

    Background Hip and knee osteoarthritis is a common cause of pain and disability, which can be improved by exercise interventions. However, regular exercise is uncommon in this group because the low physical activity level in the general population is probably reduced even further by pain related fear of movement. The best method of encouraging increased activity in this patient group is not known. A booklet has been developed for patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis. It focuses on changing disadvantageous beliefs and encouraging increased physical activity. Methods/Design This paper describes the design of a Phase II randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the effectiveness of this new booklet for patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis in influencing illness and treatment beliefs, and to assess the feasibility of conducting a larger definitive RCT in terms of health status and exercise behaviour. A computerised search of four general medical practice patients' record databases will identify patients older than 50 years of age who have consulted with hip or knee pain in the previous twelve months. A random sample of 120 will be invited to participate in the RCT comparing the new booklet with a control booklet, and we expect 100 to return final questionnaires. This trial will assess the feasibility of recruitment and randomisation, the suitability of the control intervention and outcome measurement tools, and will provide an estimate of effect size. Outcomes will include beliefs about hip and knee pain, beliefs about exercise, fear avoidance, level of physical activity, health status and health service costs. They will be measured at baseline, one month and three months. Discussion We discuss the merits of testing effectiveness in a phase II trial, in terms of intermediate outcome measures, whilst testing the processes for a larger definitive trial. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of testing the psychometric properties of the primary outcome

  19. [Effects of acupuncture therapy on low back pain and/or knee pain in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Washio, M; Takasugi, S; Arai, Y

    2001-07-01

    In April 1999, 75 elderly patients (mean age: 79 years old) with low back pain and/or knee pain visited an acupuncture and physical therapy unit in a geriatric hospital. A cross-sectional study was carried out in order to evaluate the effects of acupuncture therapy on low back pain and/or knee pain in elderly patients. Among them, 60 patients answered that their pain diminished following their therapy. The proportion of patients who were treated with acupuncture therapy were higher in these 60 patients than the other 15 patients (55.5% vs. 26.7%, p = 0.05). The result suggests that acupuncture therapy may be able to relieve low back pain and/or knee pain in elderly patients. However, 46% of the patients with acupuncture therapy were also treated with other types of physical therapy. Further studies should be recommended to confirm the effects of acupuncture therapy on low back pain and/or knee pain.

  20. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of outpatient physiotherapy after knee replacement for osteoarthritis: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wylde, Vikki; Artz, Neil; Marques, Elsa; Lenguerrand, Erik; Dixon, Samantha; Beswick, Andrew D; Burston, Amanda; Murray, James; Parwez, Tarique; Blom, Ashley W; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael

    2016-06-13

    Primary total knee replacement is a common operation that is performed to provide pain relief and restore functional ability. Inpatient physiotherapy is routinely provided after surgery to enhance recovery prior to hospital discharge. However, international variation exists in the provision of outpatient physiotherapy after hospital discharge. While evidence indicates that outpatient physiotherapy can improve short-term function, the longer term benefits are unknown. The aim of this randomised controlled trial is to evaluate the long-term clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a 6-week group-based outpatient physiotherapy intervention following knee replacement. Two hundred and fifty-six patients waiting for knee replacement because of osteoarthritis will be recruited from two orthopaedic centres. Participants randomised to the usual-care group (n = 128) will be given a booklet about exercise and referred for physiotherapy if deemed appropriate by the clinical care team. The intervention group (n = 128) will receive the same usual care and additionally be invited to attend a group-based outpatient physiotherapy class starting 6 weeks after surgery. The 1-hour class will be run on a weekly basis over 6 weeks and will involve task-orientated and individualised exercises. The primary outcome will be the Lower Extremity Functional Scale at 12 months post-operative. Secondary outcomes include: quality of life, knee pain and function, depression, anxiety and satisfaction. Data collection will be by questionnaire prior to surgery and 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery and will include a resource-use questionnaire to enable a trial-based economic evaluation. Trial participation and satisfaction with the classes will be evaluated through structured telephone interviews. The primary statistical and economic analyses will be conducted on an intention-to-treat basis with and without imputation of missing data. The primary economic result will estimate the

  1. Relationship of Buckling and Knee Injury to Pain Exacerbation in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Web-Based Case-Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Zobel, Isabelle; Erfani, Tahereh; Bennell, Kim L; Makovey, Joanna; Metcalf, Ben; March, Lyn; Zhang, Yuqing; Eckstein, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most frequent causes of limited mobility and diminished quality of life. Pain is the main symptom that drives individuals with knee OA to seek medical care and a recognized antecedent to disability and eventually joint replacement. Evidence shows that patients with symptomatic OA experience fluctuations in pain severity. Mechanical insults to the knee such as injury and buckling may contribute to pain exacerbation. Objective Our objective was to examine whether knee injury and buckling (giving way) are triggers for exacerbation of pain in persons with symptomatic knee OA. Methods We conducted a case-crossover study, a novel methodology in which participants with symptomatic radiographic knee OA who have had knee pain exacerbations were used as their own control (self-matched design), with all data collected via the Internet. Participants were asked to log-on to the study website and complete an online questionnaire at baseline and then at regular 10-day intervals for 3 months (control periods)—a total of 10 questionnaires. They were also instructed to go to the website and complete pain exacerbation questionnaires when they experienced an isolated incident of knee pain exacerbation (case periods). A pain exacerbation “case” period was defined as an increase of ≥2 compared to baseline. At each contact the pain exacerbation was designated a case period, and at all other regular 10-day contacts (control periods) participants were asked about knee injuries during the previous 7 days and knee buckling during the previous 2 days. The relationship of knee injury and buckling to the risk of pain exacerbation was examined using conditional logistic regression models. Results The analysis included 157 participants (66% women, mean age: 62 years, mean BMI: 29.5 kg/m2). Sustaining a knee injury was associated with experiencing a pain exacerbation (odds ratio [OR] 10.2, 95% CI 5.4, 19.3) compared with no injury. Knee

  2. Exercise therapy, manual therapy, or both, for osteoarthritis of the hip or knee: a factorial randomised controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Non-pharmacological, non-surgical interventions are recommended as the first line of treatment for osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip and knee. There is evidence that exercise therapy is effective for reducing pain and improving function in patients with knee OA, some evidence that exercise therapy is effective for hip OA, and early indications that manual therapy may be efficacious for hip and knee OA. There is little evidence as to which approach is more effective, if benefits endure, or if providing these therapies is cost-effective for the management of this disorder. The MOA Trial (Management of OsteoArthritis) aims to test the effectiveness of two physiotherapy interventions for improving disability and pain in adults with hip or knee OA in New Zealand. Specifically, our primary objectives are to investigate whether: 1. Exercise therapy versus no exercise therapy improves disability at 12 months; 2. Manual physiotherapy versus no manual therapy improves disability at 12 months; 3. Providing physiotherapy programmes in addition to usual care is more cost-effective than usual care alone in the management of osteoarthritis at 24 months. Methods This is a 2 × 2 factorial randomised controlled trial. We plan to recruit 224 participants with hip or knee OA. Eligible participants will be randomly allocated to receive either: (a) a supervised multi-modal exercise therapy programme; (b) an individualised manual therapy programme; (c) both exercise therapy and manual therapy; or, (d) no trial physiotherapy. All participants will continue to receive usual medical care. The outcome assessors, orthopaedic surgeons, general medical practitioners, and statistician will be blind to group allocation until the statistical analysis is completed. The trial is funded by Health Research Council of New Zealand Project Grants (Project numbers 07/199, 07/200). Discussion The MOA Trial will be the first to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of providing

  3. Exercise therapy, manual therapy, or both, for osteoarthritis of the hip or knee: a factorial randomised controlled trial protocol.

    PubMed

    Abbott, J Haxby; Robertson, M Clare; McKenzie, Joanne E; Baxter, G David; Theis, Jean-Claude; Campbell, A John

    2009-02-08

    Non-pharmacological, non-surgical interventions are recommended as the first line of treatment for osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip and knee. There is evidence that exercise therapy is effective for reducing pain and improving function in patients with knee OA, some evidence that exercise therapy is effective for hip OA, and early indications that manual therapy may be efficacious for hip and knee OA. There is little evidence as to which approach is more effective, if benefits endure, or if providing these therapies is cost-effective for the management of this disorder. The MOA Trial (Management of OsteoArthritis) aims to test the effectiveness of two physiotherapy interventions for improving disability and pain in adults with hip or knee OA in New Zealand. Specifically, our primary objectives are to investigate whether:1. Exercise therapy versus no exercise therapy improves disability at 12 months;2. Manual physiotherapy versus no manual therapy improves disability at 12 months;3. Providing physiotherapy programmes in addition to usual care is more cost-effective than usual care alone in the management of osteoarthritis at 24 months. This is a 2 x 2 factorial randomised controlled trial. We plan to recruit 224 participants with hip or knee OA. Eligible participants will be randomly allocated to receive either: (a) a supervised multi-modal exercise therapy programme; (b) an individualised manual therapy programme; (c) both exercise therapy and manual therapy; or, (d) no trial physiotherapy. All participants will continue to receive usual medical care. The outcome assessors, orthopaedic surgeons, general medical practitioners, and statistician will be blind to group allocation until the statistical analysis is completed. The trial is funded by Health Research Council of New Zealand Project Grants (Project numbers 07/199, 07/200). The MOA Trial will be the first to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of providing physiotherapy programmes of this kind

  4. Arthroscopic Scar Resection for the Treatment of Anteromedial Knee Pain after Oxford Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Kohei; Michishita, Kazuhiko; Manabe, Takeshi; Akasaka, Yoshiyuki; Kaminaga, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: It has been reported that the unicompartmental knee arthroplasty has good long-term outcomes for Western and Japanese patients. Alternatively, several reports have described reoperations after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty because of post-operative knee pain and sometimes it is difficult to diagnose the cause of pain. Case Report: We treated a patient with anteromedial knee pain caused by intra-articular scar tissue that contained residual cement fragments on the anterior surface of a femoral implant following Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. After arthroscopic resection of the scar tissue and removal of the 3 mm residual cement covered with the scar tissue, the patient’s post-operative symptoms were considerably alleviated. Conclusion: This is the first report describing a case of painful intra-articular scar tissue following unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. PMID:28164064

  5. Arthroscopic Scar Resection for the Treatment of Anteromedial Knee Pain after Oxford Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Kohei; Michishita, Kazuhiko; Manabe, Takeshi; Akasaka, Yoshiyuki; Kaminaga, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that the unicompartmental knee arthroplasty has good long-term outcomes for Western and Japanese patients. Alternatively, several reports have described reoperations after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty because of post-operative knee pain and sometimes it is difficult to diagnose the cause of pain. We treated a patient with anteromedial knee pain caused by intra-articular scar tissue that contained residual cement fragments on the anterior surface of a femoral implant following Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. After arthroscopic resection of the scar tissue and removal of the 3 mm residual cement covered with the scar tissue, the patient's post-operative symptoms were considerably alleviated. This is the first report describing a case of painful intra-articular scar tissue following unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

  6. Influences on older people’s decision making regarding choice of topical or oral NSAIDs for knee pain: qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the factors that influence older people’s decision making regarding use of topical or oral ibuprofen for their knee pain. Design Qualitative interview study nested within a randomised controlled trial and a patient preference study that compared advice to use oral or topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for knee pain in older people. Setting 11 general practices. Participants 30 people aged ≥50 with knee pain. Results Participants’ decision making was influenced by their perceptions of the associated risk of adverse effects, presence of other illness, nature of their pain, advice received, and practicality. Although participants’ understanding of how the medications worked was sometimes poor their decision making about the use of NSAIDs seemed logical and appropriate. Participants’ model for treatment was to use topical NSAIDs for mild, local, and transient pain and oral NSAIDs for moderate to severe, generalised, and constant pain (in the absence of other more serious illness or risk of adverse effects). Participants showed marked tolerance and normalisation of adverse effects. Conclusion Participants had clear ideas about the appropriate use of oral and topical NSAIDs. Taking such views into account when prescribing may improve adherence, judgment of efficacy, and the doctor-patient relationship. Tolerance and normalisation of adverse effects in these patients indicate that closer monitoring of older people who use NSAIDs might be needed. PMID:18056742

  7. Ultrasonographic scan in knee pain in athletes.

    PubMed Central

    Maffulli, N; Regine, R; Carrillo, F; Minelli, S; Beaconsfield, T

    1992-01-01

    Fifty-two knees were examined using real-time high-definition ultrasonography with a 7.5 MHz probe. The extra-articular structures were easily visualized and diagnosis of patellar tendon lesions and Baker's cysts formulated. While the meniscal cartilages were shown as a homogeneous triangular structure between the femoral condyle and the tibial plateau, no lesions were detected. Deeper intra-articular structures, such as the cruciate ligaments, were not shown by the scan, thus their evaluation was not possible. Given its low cost, wide availability, non-invasiveness and patients' acceptability of the technique, ultrasonography may play an important role in the diagnosis of soft tissue lesions in and around the knee joint. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:1623366

  8. Anterior knee pain in the young athlete: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Kodali, Pradeep; Islam, Andrew; Andrish, Jack

    2011-03-01

    The underlying etiology of anterior knee pain has been extensively studied. Despite many possible causes, often times the diagnosis is elusive. The most common causes in the young athlete are osteosynchondroses, patellar peritendinitis and tendinosis, synovial impingement, malalignment, and patellar instability. Less common causes are osteochondritis dissecans and tumors. It is always important to rule out underlying hip pathology and infections. When a diagnosis cannot be established, the patient is usually labeled as having idiopathic anterior knee pain. A careful history and physical examination can point to the correct diagnosis in the majority of cases. For most of these conditions, treatment is typically nonoperative with surgery reserved for refractory pain for an established diagnosis.

  9. Iliotibial band syndrome: a common source of knee pain.

    PubMed

    Khaund, Razib; Flynn, Sharon H

    2005-04-15

    Iliotibial band syndrome is a common knee injury. The most common symptom is lateral knee pain caused by inflammation of the distal portion of the iliotibial band. The iliotibial band is a thick band of fascia that crosses the hip joint and extends distally to insert on the patella, tibia, and biceps femoris tendon. In some athletes, repetitive flexion and extension of the knee causes the distal iliotibial band to become irritated and inflamed resulting in diffuse lateral knee pain. Iliotibial band syndrome can cause significant morbidity and lead to cessation of exercise. Although iliotibial band syndrome is easily diagnosed clinically, it can be extremely challenging to treat. Treatment requires active patient participation and compliance with activity modification. Most patients respond to conservative treatment involving stretching of the iliotibial band, strengthening of the gluteus medius, and altering training regimens. Corticosteroid injections should be considered if visible swelling or pain with ambulation persists for more than three days after initiating treatment. A small percentage of patients are refractory to conservative treatment and may require surgical release of the iliotibial band.

  10. Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Associations between Knee Joint Effusion Synovitis and Knee Pain in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Jin, Xingzhong; Han, Weiyu; Cao, Yuelong; Halliday, Andrew; Blizzard, Leigh; Pan, Faming; Antony, Benny; Cicuttini, Flavia; Jones, Graeme; Ding, Changhai

    2016-01-01

    To describe the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between knee regional effusion synovitis and knee pain in older adults. Data from a population-based random sample (n = 880, mean age 62 yrs, 50% women) were used. Baseline knee joint effusion synovitis was graded (0-3) using T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the suprapatellar pouch, central portion, posterior femoral recess, and subpopliteal recess. Effusion synovitis of the whole joint was defined as a score of ≥ 2 in any subregion. Other knee structural (including cartilage, bone marrow, and menisci) lesions were assessed by MRI at baseline. Knee pain was assessed by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index questionnaire at baseline and 2.6 years later. Multivariable analyses were performed after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, and other structural lesions. The prevalence of effusion synovitis was 67%. Suprapatellar pouch effusion synovitis was significantly and independently associated with increased total and nonweight-bearing knee pain in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses (for an increase in total knee pain of ≥ 5, RR 1.26 per grade, 95% CI 1.04-1.52), and increased weight-bearing knee pain in longitudinal analysis only. Effusion synovitis in posterior femoral recess and central portion were independently associated with increases in nonweight-bearing pain (RR 1.63 per grade, 95% CI 1.32-2.01 and RR 1.29 per grade, 95% CI 1.01-1.65, respectively) in longitudinal analyses only. Knee joint effusion synovitis has independent associations with knee pain in older adults. Suprapatellar pouch effusion synovitis is associated with nonweight-bearing and weight-bearing knee pain, while posterior femoral recess and central portion effusion synovitis are only associated with nonweight-bearing pain.

  11. Acupuncture for back pain, knee pain and insomnia in transverse myelitis - a case report.

    PubMed

    Vaghela, Sonia A; Donnellan, Clare P

    2008-09-01

    This case report describes the use of acupuncture for back pain, knee pain and insomnia in a 49 year old woman with a recent diagnosis of transverse myelitis with paraplegia, sensory disturbance, and bladder and bowel dysfunction. She was receiving intensive in-patient multi-disciplinary rehabilitation but was struggling to participate fully due to pain and poor sleep quality. She received a course of acupuncture in addition to standard care and reported substantial benefits including reduction in pain, improved sleep and mood, and reduction in daytime fatigue. Effective symptom control allowed this patient to participate more fully in her rehabilitation programme. Reduction of knee pain and sleep disturbance was maintained until discharge, 15 weeks after the last acupuncture treatment. This case report suggests that acupuncture may be an option to consider for other patients with pain or sleep disturbance that is interfering with their rehabilitation programme.

  12. Total knee replacement plus physical and medical therapy or treatment with physical and medical therapy alone: a randomised controlled trial in patients with knee osteoarthritis (the MEDIC-study)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a lack of high quality evidence concerning the efficacy of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). According to international evidence-based guidelines, treatment of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) should include patient education, exercise and weight loss. Insoles and pharmacological treatment can be included as supplementary treatments. If the combination of these non-surgical treatment modalities is ineffective, TKA may be indicated. The purpose of this randomised controlled trial is to examine whether TKA provides further improvement in pain, function and quality of life in addition to optimised non-surgical treatment in patients with KOA defined as definite radiographic OA and up to moderate pain. Methods/Design The study will be conducted in The North Denmark Region. 100 participants with radiographic KOA (K-L grade ≥2) and mean pain during the previous week of ≤ 60 mm (0–100, best to worst scale) who are considered eligible for TKA by an orthopaedic surgeon will be included. The treatment will consist of 12 weeks of optimised non-surgical treatment consisting of patient education, exercise, diet, insoles, analgesics and/or NSAIDs. Patients will be randomised to either receiving or not receiving a TKA in addition to the optimised non-surgical treatment. The primary outcome will be the change from baseline to 12 months on the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)4 defined as the average score for the subscale scores for pain, symptoms, activities of daily living, and quality of life. Secondary outcomes include the five individual KOOS subscale scores, EQ-5D, pain on a 100 mm Visual Analogue Scale, self-efficacy, pain pressure thresholds, and isometric knee flexion and knee extension strength. Discussion This is the first randomised controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of TKA as an adjunct treatment to optimised non-surgical treatment in patients with KOA. The results will significantly contribute to evidence

  13. Effective chronic low back pain and knee pain treatment with acupuncture in geriatric patients.

    PubMed

    Çevik, Cemal; Anil, Afitap; İşeri, Sevgin Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The most common disease of the older age group in Turkey is degenerative articular disease and pain associated with the disease. Analgesics and physical therapy are preferred treatment for geriatric chronic pain but suffering from multiple medical and nutritional problems in old ages can limit treatment options with analgesics due to an increased risk of adverse effects and drug interactions. We aim to show the effect of acupuncture on back-pain and knee-pain treatment of elderly people. The study includes 34 patients, 24 female and 8 male. The mean age was 69.0417 ± 8.95 years for females and 73.12 ± 8.95.24 years for males. Every two days for a total of 10 sessions acupuncture treatment to Yintang, Ht 7 (Shenmen), LI 4 (Hegu), Ki 3 (Taixi) and Ki 6 were found to significantly reduce pain scores of patients. Mean back pain scores (8.8696 ± 1.546) and mean knee pain scores (9.1304 ± 1.4239) of patients were reduced significantly to 2.1739 ± 1.466 and 1.455 ± 0.7; p< 0.001 respectively after the acupuncture treatment. These are important results as they give rationale to use acupuncture treatment widely in chronic low back pain and knee pain in the geriatric group of patients to reduce the side effects of polypharmacy in elderly.

  14. The psychometric properties of an Arabic numeric pain rating scale for measuring osteoarthritis knee pain.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Iqbal, Zaheen Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    The aims of this study were to translate the numeric rating scale (NRS) into Arabic and to evaluate the test-retest reliability and convergent validity of an Arabic Numeric Pain Rating Scale (ANPRS) for measuring pain in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. The English version of the NRS was translated into Arabic as per the translation process guidelines for patient-rated outcome scales. One hundred twenty-one consecutive patients with OA of the knee who had experienced pain for more than 6 months were asked to report their pain levels on the ANPRS, visual analogue scale (VAS), and verbal rating scale (VRS). A second assessment was performed 48 h after the first to assess test-retest reliability. The test-retest reliability was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,1). The convergent validity was assessed using Spearman rank correlation coefficient. In addition, the minimum detectable change (MDC) and standard error of measurement (SEM) were also assessed. The repeatability of ANPRS was good to excellent (ICC 0.89). The SEM and MDC were 0.71 and 1.96, respectively. Significant correlations were found with the VAS and VRS scores (p <0.01). The Arabic numeric pain rating scale is a valid and reliable scale for measuring pain levels in OA of the knee. Implications for Rehabilitation The Arabic Numeric Pain Rating Scale (ANPRS) is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring pain in osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee, with psychometric properties in agreement with other widely used scales. The ANPRS is well correlated with the VAS and NRS scores in patients with OA of the knee. The ANPRS appears to measure pain intensity similar to the VAS, NRS, and VRS and may provide additional advantages to Arab populations, as Arabic numbers are easily understood by this population.

  15. The effect of complementary therapies on post-operative pain control in ambulatory knee surgery: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Timothy; Downham, Christopher; Barlow, David

    2013-10-01

    Ambulatory knee surgery is a common procedure with over 100,000 knee arthroscopies performed in the U.K. in 2010-2011. Pain after surgery can decrease patient satisfaction, delay discharge, and decrease cost effectiveness. Multi-modal therapies, including complementary therapies, to improve pain control after surgery have been recommended. However, a comprehensive review of the literature regarding the use of complementary therapies to enhance pain control after ambulatory knee surgery is lacking, and this article aims to address this deficit. CINHAL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, AMED and CENTRAL databases were searched. Only Randomised Controlled Trials were included. All eligible papers were quality assessed using the Jadad system, and data was extracted using piloted forms. Two independent reviewers performed each stage of the review. Full details of the study methodology can be found on Prospero, a systematic review register. Five studies satisfied our eligibility criteria: three reporting on acupuncture, one on homeopathy, and one on acupoints. Acupoint pressure was the only study that demonstrated reduced pain compared with placebo. This study was the least methodologically robust. Arnica, although demonstrating a significant reduction in swelling, did not affect post-operative pain. Acupuncture did not affect post-operative pain; however, a reduction in ibuprofen use was demonstrated in two studies. Before recommending complementary therapy for routine use in ambulatory knee surgery, further work is required. Two areas of future research likely to bear fruit are demonstrating robust evidence for the effect of acupoint pressure on post-operative pain, and quantifying the positive effect of homeopathic arnica on post-operative swelling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Combined exercise and transcranial direct current stimulation intervention for knee osteoarthritis: protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-Ju; Bennell, Kim L; Hodges, Paul W; Hinman, Rana S; Liston, Matthew B; Schabrun, Siobhan M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major health problem and a leading cause of disability. The knee joint is commonly affected, resulting in pain and physical dysfunction. Exercise is considered the cornerstone of conservative management, yet meta-analyses indicate, at best, moderate effect sizes. Treatments that bolster the effects of exercise, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), may improve outcomes in knee OA. The aims of this pilot study are to (1) determine the feasibility, safety and perceived patient response to a combined tDCS and exercise intervention in knee OA, and (2) provide data to support a sample size calculation for a fully-powered trial should trends of effectiveness be present. Methods and analysis A pilot randomised, assessor-blind and participant-blind, sham-controlled trial. 20 individuals with knee OA who report a pain score of 40 or more on a 100 mm visual analogue scale on walking, and meet a priori selection criteria will be randomly allocated to receive either: (1) active tDCS plus exercise, or (2) sham tDCS plus exercise. All participants will receive 20 min of either active or sham tDCS immediately prior to 30 min of supervised muscle strengthening exercise twice a week for 8 weeks. Participants in both groups will also complete unsupervised home exercises twice per week. Outcome measures of feasibility, safety, pain, disability and pain system function will be assessed immediately before and after the 8-week intervention. Analyses of feasibility and safety will be performed using descriptive statistics. Statistical analyses will be used to determine trends of effectiveness and will be based on intention-to-treat as well as per protocol. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by the institutional ethics committee (H10184). Written informed consent will be obtained from all participants. The results of this study will be submitted for peer-reviewed publication. Trial registration number ANZCTR

  17. PAIN FOLLOWING TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY – A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Wilson Mello; Migon, Eduardo Zaniol; Zabeu, Jose Luis Amim

    2015-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is known to be a successful procedure. The aging of the population and the growing demand for quality of life have greatly increased the indications for the procedure. Nonetheless, TKA presents some complications that still lack definitive resolution. Pain after TKA is caused by a myriad of reasons that need to be systematically studied in order to reach the correct diagnosis and treatment. History, physical examination, laboratory tests and imaging examinations must all be included in the workup and repeated until a plausible reason has been identified, since if pain is the only indication for TKA revision, the results may be catastrophic. PMID:27022583

  18. Assessment and treatment of knee pain in the child and adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Yen, Yi-Meng

    2014-12-01

    Knee pain in children and adolescents is one of the most prevalent complaints in a pediatric practice, accounting for at least a third of musculoskeletal complaints. Accurate diagnosis requires an understanding of knee anatomy and patterns of knee injuries and skill in physical examination. This review covers the most common causes of knee pain in children and adolescents, including overuse issues, such as Osgood-Schlatter and osteochondritis dissecans, as well as traumatic injuries, including tibial spine fractures and anterior cruciate ligament injuries.

  19. Preoperative widespread pain sensitization and chronic pain after hip and knee replacement: a cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wylde, Vikki; Sayers, Adrian; Lenguerrand, Erik; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael; Pyke, Mark; Beswick, Andrew D.; Dieppe, Paul; Blom, Ashley W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Chronic pain after joint replacement is common, affecting approximately 10% of patients after total hip replacement (THR) and 20% of patients after total knee replacement (TKR). Heightened generalized sensitivity to nociceptive input could be a risk factor for the development of this pain. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether preoperative widespread pain sensitivity was associated with chronic pain after joint replacement. Data were analyzed from 254 patients receiving THR and 239 patients receiving TKR. Pain was assessed preoperatively and at 12 months after surgery using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Pain Scale. Preoperative widespread pain sensitivity was assessed through measurement of pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) at the forearm using an algometer. Statistical analysis was conducted using linear regression and linear mixed models, and adjustments were made for confounding variables. In both the THR and TKR cohort, lower PPTs (heightened widespread pain sensitivity) were significantly associated with higher preoperative pain severity. Lower PPTs were also significantly associated with higher pain severity at 12 months after surgery in the THR cohort. However, PPTs were not associated with the change in pain severity from preoperative to 12 months postoperative in either the TKR or THR cohort. These findings suggest that although preoperative widespread pressure pain sensitivity is associated with pain severity before and after joint replacement, it is not a predictor of the amount of pain relief that patients gain from joint replacement surgery, independent of preoperative pain severity. PMID:25599300

  20. Effect of adductor canal block on medial compartment knee pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Doo-Hyung; Lee, Michael Y.; Kwack, Kyu-Sung; Yoon, Seung-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a common disease in middle-aged and elderly people. Pain is the chief complaint of symptomatic KOA and a leading cause of chronic disability, which is most often found in medial knees. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of pain relief and functional improvement in KOA patients treated with ultrasound-guided adductor canal block (ACB). This is a 3-month retrospective case-controlled comparative study. Two hundred patients with anteromedial knee pain owing to KOA that was unresponsive to 3-month long conservative treatments. Ninety-two patients received ACB with 9 mL of 1% of lidocaine and 1 mL of 10 mg triamcinolone acetonide (ACB group), and 108 continued conservative treatments (control group). The main outcome measure was visual analog scale (VAS) of the average knee pain level for the past one week. Secondary outcomes were the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), the timed up and go test, numbers of analgesic ingestion per day, and opioid consumption per day. During the 3-month follow-up, 86 patients in ACB group and 92 in control group were analyzed. There was no significant difference, with the exception of the duration of symptoms, between the 2 groups in age, sex, body mass index, and Kellgren-Lawrence grade. Repeated-measures analysis of variance and post hoc tests showed improvement of VAS (at month 1), WOMAC (at month 1), and opioid consumption per day (at month 1 and 2) in ACB group. No adverse events were reported. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the efficacy of ACB for patients with KOA. ACB is an effective and safe treatment and can be an option for patients who are either unresponsive or unable to take analgesics. PMID:28328826

  1. Exercise and physical activity in older adults with knee pain: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, Elaine E.; Young, Julie; Hay, Elaine M.; Foster, Nadine E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To describe and explore current exercise and physical activity behaviour in older adults with knee pain in the UK. Methods. A survey was mailed to 2234 adults ≥50 years of age registered with one general practice within the UK to determine the presence and severity of knee pain and levels of physical activity. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 questionnaire responders with knee pain. Results. The questionnaire response rate was 59% (n = 1276) and 611 respondents reported knee pain. Only ∼40% of individuals with knee pain were sufficiently active to meet physical activity recommendations. Interviews revealed individual differences in the type and setting of physical activity completed and some self-monitored their symptoms in response to physical activity in order to guide future behaviour. Conclusion. Innovative interventions that can be adapted to suit individual needs and preferences are required to help older adults with knee pain become more physically active. PMID:25187640

  2. The effect of different types of insoles or shoe modifications on medial loading of the knee in persons with medial knee osteoarthritis: a randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Graham J.; Parkes, Matthew J.; Forsythe, Laura.; Felson, David T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many conservative treatments exist for medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) which aims to reduce the external knee adduction moment (EKAM). The objective of this study was to determine the difference between different shoes and lateral wedge insoles on EKAM, knee adduction angular impulse (KAAI), external knee flexion moment, pain, and comfort when walking in individuals with medial knee OA. Seventy individuals with medial knee OA underwent three‐dimensional walking gait analysis in five conditions (barefoot, control shoe, typical wedge, supported wedge, and mobility shoe) with pain and comfort recorded concurrently. The change in EKAM, KAAI, external knee flexion moment, pain, and comfort were assessed using multiple linear regressions and pairwise comparisons. Compared with the control shoe, lateral wedge insoles and barefoot walking significantly reduced early stance EKAM and KAAI. The mobility shoe showed no effect. A significant reduction in latter stance EKAM was seen in the lateral wedge insoles compared to the other conditions, with only the barefoot condition reducing the external knee flexion moment. However, the mobility shoe showed significant immediate knee pain reduction and improved comfort scores. Different lateral wedge insoles show comparable reductions in medial knee loading and in our study, the mobility shoe did not affect medial loading. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Orthopaedic Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:1646–1654, 2015. PMID:25991385

  3. The effect of different types of insoles or shoe modifications on medial loading of the knee in persons with medial knee osteoarthritis: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard K; Chapman, Graham J; Parkes, Matthew J; Forsythe, Laura; Felson, David T

    2015-11-01

    Many conservative treatments exist for medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) which aims to reduce the external knee adduction moment (EKAM). The objective of this study was to determine the difference between different shoes and lateral wedge insoles on EKAM, knee adduction angular impulse (KAAI), external knee flexion moment, pain, and comfort when walking in individuals with medial knee OA. Seventy individuals with medial knee OA underwent three-dimensional walking gait analysis in five conditions (barefoot, control shoe, typical wedge, supported wedge, and mobility shoe) with pain and comfort recorded concurrently. The change in EKAM, KAAI, external knee flexion moment, pain, and comfort were assessed using multiple linear regressions and pairwise comparisons. Compared with the control shoe, lateral wedge insoles and barefoot walking significantly reduced early stance EKAM and KAAI. The mobility shoe showed no effect. A significant reduction in latter stance EKAM was seen in the lateral wedge insoles compared to the other conditions, with only the barefoot condition reducing the external knee flexion moment. However, the mobility shoe showed significant immediate knee pain reduction and improved comfort scores. Different lateral wedge insoles show comparable reductions in medial knee loading and in our study, the mobility shoe did not affect medial loading.

  4. Persistent post-surgical pain and neuropathic pain after total knee replacement

    PubMed Central

    Drosos, Georgios I; Triantafilidou, Triantafilia; Ververidis, Athanasios; Agelopoulou, Cristina; Vogiatzaki, Theodosia; Kazakos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the prevalence of persistent post-surgical pain (PPSP) and neuropathic pain (NP) after total knee replacement (TKR). METHODS: MEDLINE and Embase databases were searched for articles published until December 2014 in English language. Published articles were included if they referred to pain that lasts at least 3 mo after primary TKR for knee osteoarthritis, and measured pain with pain specific instruments. Studies that referred to pain caused by septic reasons and implant malalignment were excluded. Both prospective and retrospective studies were included and only 14 studies that match the inclusion criteria were selected for this review. RESULTS: The included studies were characterized by the heterogeneity on the scales used to measure pain and pre-operative factors related to PPSP and NP. The reported prevalence of PPSP and NP seems to be relatively high, but it varies among different studies. There is also evidence that the prevalence of post-surgical pain is related to the scale used for pain measurement. The prevalence of PPSP is ranging at 6 mo from 16% to 39% and at 12 mo from 13.1% to 23% and even 38% of the patients. The prevalence of NP at 6 mo post-operatively is ranging from 5.2% to 13%. Pre-operative factors related to the development of PPSP also differ, including emotional functioning, such as depression and pain catastrophizing, number of comorbidities, pain problems elsewhere and operations in knees with early grade of osteoarthritis. CONCLUSION: No firm conclusions can be reached regarding the prevalence of PPSP and NP and the related factors due to the heterogeneity of the studies. PMID:26301182

  5. Cerebral Cortical Thickness in Chronic Pain Due to Knee Osteoarthritis: The Effect of Pain Duration and Pain Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigates associations between cortical thickness and pain duration, and central sensitization as markers of pain progression in painful knee osteoarthritis. Methods Whole brain cortical thickness and pressure pain thresholds were assessed in 70 participants; 40 patients with chronic painful knee osteoarthritis (age = 66.1± 8.5 years, 21 females, mean duration of pain = 8.5 years), and 30 healthy controls (age = 62.7± 7.4, 17 females). Results Cortical thickness negatively correlated with pain duration mainly in fronto-temporal areas outside of classical pain processing areas (p<0.05, age-controlled, FDR corrected). Pain sensitivity was unrelated to cortical thickness. Patients showed lower cortical thickness in the right anterior insula (p<0.001, uncorrected) with no changes surviving multiple test correction. Conclusion With increasing number of years of suffering from chronic arthritis pain we found increasing cortical thinning in extended cerebral cortical regions beyond recognised pain-processing areas. While the mechanisms of cortical thinning remain to be elucidated, we show that pain progression indexed by central sensitization does not play a major role. PMID:27658292

  6. Less anterior knee pain with a routine lateral release in total knee arthroplasty without patellar resurfacing: a prospective, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Zha, Guo-Chun; Sun, Jun-Ying; Dong, Sheng-Jie

    2014-03-01

    Anterior knee pain is a major cause of complaint in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) without patellar resurfacing. The concept of improved patellar tracking and decreased retropatellar contact pressure for lateral retinacular release theoretically suggests that patients with lateral retinacular release in TKA would achieve a lower incidence of anterior knee pain when compared without lateral retinacular release. We sought to determine (1) whether those patients who received a routine lateral retinacular release in TKA would attain lower incidence of anterior knee pain as compared to patients who received TKA without lateral retinacular release and (2) whether lateral retinacular release would increase the lateral retinacular release-related complications. A total of 148 patients who underwent TKA with the use of the Gemini MK II mobile bearing were randomized to receive either routine lateral retinacular release (intervention group) or not (control group). Patients were assessed by the visual analogue scale for anterior knee pain, the Knee Society clinical scoring system of knee score and function score, and patellar score for clinical function. Patients' satisfaction and lateral retinacular release-related complications were also evaluated. The overall incidence of anterior knee pain in the intervention group at 18 months follow-up was 5.6%, while that of the control group was 20.6% (p = 0.009). No statistical difference was detected between the two groups in terms of lateral retinacular release-related complications (n.s.), patients' satisfaction (n.s.), knee score (n.s.), function score (n.s.), and patellar score (n.s.) at 18 months follow-up. The present study suggests that routine lateral retinacular release can reduce anterior knee pain and does not increase lateral retinacular release-related complications, in TKA with the use of the Gemini MK II mobile bearing without patellar resurfacing. Therapeutic, Level I.

  7. Effect of the single-leg, lateral oblique, decline squat exercise on sacroiliac joint pain with knee pain

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of the single-leg, lateral oblique, decline squat exercise on sacroiliac joint pain with knee pain. [Subjects and Methods] A 39-year-old female had severe pain in the right medial buttock and right anterior knee. This study assessed the anterior pelvic tilt angle and pain provocation tests before and after single-leg, lateral oblique, decline squat exercise for 4 weeks. [Results] Following the course of exercise, the anterior pelvic tilt angles were increased, and the visual analog scale pain scores for both the right buttock and right knee were 2/10. [Conclusion] Single-leg, lateral oblique, decline squat exercise may be effective for treating SI joint pain with knee pain in females. PMID:27799721

  8. Knee Pain and Driving Duration: A Secondary Analysis of the Taxi Drivers’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiu-Chiaun; Dennerlein, Jack T.; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Chen, Chiou-Jong; Cheng, Yawen; Chang, Wushou P.; Ryan, Louise M.; Christiani, David C.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We explored a postulated association between daily driving time and knee pain. Methods. We used data from the Taxi Drivers’ Health Study to estimate 1-year prevalence of knee pain as assessed by the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire. Results. Among 1242 drivers, the prevalence of knee pain, stratified by duration of daily driving (≤ 6, > 6 through 8, > 8 through 10, and > 10 hours), was 11%, 17%, 19%, and 22%, respectively. Compared with driving 6 or fewer hours per day, the odds ratio of knee pain prevalence for driving more than 6 hours per day was 2.52 (95% confidence interval = 1.36, 4.65) after we adjusted for socioeconomic, work-related, and personal factors in the multiple logistic regression. Conclusions. The dose-related association between driving duration and knee pain raises concerns about work-related knee joint disorders among professional drivers. PMID:15054008

  9. Predictors of Postoperative Movement and Resting Pain following Total Knee Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Rakel, Barbara A.; Blodgett, Nicole Petsas; Zimmerman, M. Bridget; Logsden-Sackett, Nyla; Clark, Charles; Noiseux, Nicolas; Callaghan, John; Herr, Keela; Geasland, Katharine; Yang, Xiaoyan; Sluka, Kathleen A.

    2012-01-01

    This study determined preoperative predictors of movement and resting pain following total knee replacement (TKR). We hypothesized that younger patients with higher preoperative pain intensity, pain sensitivity, trait anxiety, pain catastrophizing, and depression would be more likely to experience higher postoperative movement pain than older patients with lower scores on these variables prior to surgery and that predictors would be similar for resting pain. Demographics, analgesic intake, anxiety, depression, pain catastrophizing, resting pain, movement pain (i.e., during active knee range of motion), and quantitative sensory tests, were performed pre-operatively on 215 participants scheduled for a unilateral TKR. On postoperative day 2 (POD2), analgesic intake, resting pain, and movement pain were again assessed. Significant predictors of moderate or severe movement pain were higher preoperative movement pain, von Frey pain intensity (VFPI) and heat pain threshold (HPT). People with severe movement pain preoperatively were 20 times more likely to have severe movement pain postoperatively. When the influence of preoperative movement pain was removed, depression became a predictor. Significant predictors of moderate to severe resting pain were higher preoperative resting pain, depression, and younger age. These results suggest that patients with higher preoperative pain and depression are more likely to have higher pain following TKR and younger patients may have higher resting pain. Cutaneous pain sensitivity predicted movement pain but not resting pain, suggesting that mechanisms underlying movement pain are different from resting pain. Aggressive management of preoperative pain, pain sensitivity, and depression prior to surgery may facilitate postoperative recovery. PMID:22840570

  10. Massage reduced severity of pain during labour: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Silva Gallo, Rubneide Barreto; Santana, Licia Santos; Jorge Ferreira, Cristine Homsi; Marcolin, Alessandra Cristina; Polineto, Omero Benedicto; Duarte, Geraldo; Quintana, Silvana Maria

    2013-06-01

    Does massage relieve pain in the active phase of labour? Randomised trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding for some outcomes, and intention-to-treat analysis. 46 women pregnant at ≥ 37 weeks gestation with a single fetus, with spontaneous onset of labour, 4-5cm of cervical dilation, intact ovular membranes, and no use of medication after admission to hospital. Experimental group participants received a 30-min lumbar massage by a physiotherapist during the active phase of labour. A physiotherapist attended control group participants for the same period but only answered questions. Both groups received routine perinatal care. The primary outcome was pain severity measured on a 100mm visual analogue scale. Secondary outcomes included the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire, pain location, and time to analgesic medication use. After labour, a blinded researcher also recorded duration of labour, route of delivery, neonatal outcomes, and the participant's satisfaction with the physiotherapist during labour. At the end of the intervention, pain severity was 52mm (SD 20) in the experimental group and 72mm (SD 15) in control group, which was significantly different with a mean difference of 20mm (95% CI 10 to 31). The groups did not differ significantly on the other pain-related outcome measures. Obstetric outcomes were also similar between the groups except the duration of labour, which was 6.8hr (SD 1.6) in the experimental group and 5.7hr (SD 1.5) in the control group, mean difference 1.1hr (95% CI 0.2 to 2.0). Patients in both groups were satisfied with the care provided by the physiotherapist. Massage reduced the severity of pain in labour, despite not changing its characteristics and location. Copyright © 2013 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  11. Moxibustion versus diclofenac sodium gel for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a study protocol for a double-blinded, double-placebo, randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian-Ying; Luo, Ling; Zhu, Lin-Lin; Yin, Hai-Yan; Wu, Qiaofeng; Peng, Jia-Xi; Zhang, Cheng-Shun; Lv, Peng; Tang, Yong; Yu, Shu-Guang

    2017-04-12

    Knee osteoarthritis is a common form of arthritis in elderly patients that is characterised by pain and functional limitation. Moxibustion has been employed to relieve chronic pain as an alternative therapy for knee osteoarthritis. However, the evidence of its efficacy is equivocal due to the low methodological quality in most clinical studies. Therefore, we are performing a double-blinded, double-placebo, randomised controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of moxibustion in participants with knee osteoarthritis. This is a multicentre, double-blinded, double-placebo, randomised controlled clinical trial. 144 eligible participants with knee osteoarthritis will be randomly assigned to two different groups in a 1:1 ratio. Participants in the moxibustion group will undergo active moxibustion plus placebo gel, whereas participants in the control group will receive diclofenac sodium gel plus placebo moxibustion. Each participant will receive 12 sessions of active/placebo moxibustion at three acupoints (ST35, ST36 and EX-LE4) as well as 2 months of follow-up. Diclofenac sodium gel or placebo gel at a dose of 4 g per knee will be applied three times per day for 4 weeks. The primary outcome measure will be the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score change at the end of the intervention period from baseline. The secondary outcome measures include changes of other subscales (pain, stiffness and function) of WOMAC, visual analogue scale and patient globalassessment. The safety of moxibustion and diclofenac sodium gel will be assessed at every visit. This trial has been approved by the Sichuan Regional Ethics Review Committee (permission number: 2015KL-014). The results of this study are expected to provide clinical evidence on the efficacy of moxibustion for pain relief and physical function improvement in patients with knee osteoarthritis. The findings will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed medical journals and presented at

  12. Preemptive intraarticular tramadol for pain control after arthroscopic knee surgery.

    PubMed

    Tuncer, Bilge; Babacan, Avni; Arslan, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of intraarticular (ia) bupivacaine and tramadol injection and preemptive intraarticular tramadol in providing pain control after arthroscopic knee surgery. Following local research ethics committee approval, 60 patients were assigned in a randomized manner into three groups: Group I received ia 20 ml of 0.25 % bupivacaine at the end of the operation, Group II received ia 20 ml of 0.25 % bupivacaine and 100 mg of tramadol at the end of the operation and Group III received ia 100 mg of tramadol diluted in 20 ml of saline solution 30 minutes before skin inscision and 20 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine at the end of the operation as well. Analgesic duration, total analgesic consumption and postoperative VAS pain scores recorded at rest and with movement were significantly lower and patient satisfaction was significantly higher in Group II and III, compared to Group I. Total analgesic consumption and the number of patients requiring supplementary analgesics were significantly lower in the preemptive tramadol group compared to the postoperative tramadol group. In conclusion, preemptive ia tramadol provided effective and reliable pain control after artroscopic knee surgeries and may be preferred to postoperative administration.

  13. Acupuncture for postoperative pain following total knee arthroplasty: a systematic review protocol.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae-Young; Cho, Jae-Heung; Chung, Seok-hee

    2015-11-18

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a common surgical method in orthopaedics; however, pain management after TKA remains a significant challenge. This review provides a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of acupuncture for postoperative pain after TKA. The following 10 databases will be searched until August 2015: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, AMED, CINAHL, three Chinese databases (the China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, the Chongqing VIP Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database, and Wanfang Database) and five Korean databases (the Korean Medical Database, the Korean Studies Information Service System, the National Discovery for Science Leaders, the Database Periodical Information Academic, and the Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System). All eligible randomised controlled trials related to the use of acupuncture for postoperative pain after TKA will be included. Assessment of risk of bias will be performed with the Cochrane risk-of-bias method. Mean differences or standardised mean differences will be calculated with 95% CIs for continuous data; the risk ratio will be used with 95% CIs for dichotomous data. This systematic review will be presented in a peer-reviewed journal. The result of this review will also be disseminated at a relevant conference presentation. PROSPERO 2015: CRD42015020924. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Peripheral nerve blocks for postoperative pain after major knee surgery.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Chen, Xue-Mei; Ma, Chen-Kai; Wang, Xiang-Rui

    2014-01-01

    Major knee surgery is a common operative procedure to help people with end-stage knee disease or trauma to regain mobility and have improved quality of life. Poorly controlled pain immediately after surgery is still a key issue for this procedure. Peripheral nerve blocks are localized and site-specific analgesic options for major knee surgery. The increasing use of peripheral nerve blocks following major knee surgery requires the synthesis of evidence to evaluate its effectiveness and safety, when compared with systemic, local infiltration, epidural and spinal analgesia. To examine the efficacy and safety of peripheral nerve blocks for postoperative pain control following major knee surgery using methods that permit comparison with systemic, local infiltration, epidural and spinal analgesia. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 1, 2014), MEDLINE and EMBASE, from their inception to February 2014. We identified ongoing studies by searching trial registries, including the metaRegister of controlled trials (mRCT), clinicaltrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). We included participant-blind, randomized controlled trials of adult participants (15 years or older) undergoing major knee surgery, in which peripheral nerve blocks were compared to systemic, local infiltration, epidural and spinal analgesia for postoperative pain relief. Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility and extracted data. We recorded information on participants, methods, interventions, outcomes (pain intensity, additional analgesic consumption, adverse events, knee range of motion, length of hospital stay, hospital costs, and participant satisfaction). We used the 5-point Oxford quality and validity scale to assess methodological quality, as well as criteria outlined in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. We conducted meta-analysis of two or more studies with sufficient data

  15. Efficacy of Direct Injection of Etanercept into Knee Joints for Pain in Moderate and Severe Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Eguchi, Yawara; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Kishida, Shunji; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki; Aoki, Yasuchika; Nakamura, Junichi; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Miyagi, Masayuki; Kamoda, Hiroto; Suzuki, Miyako; Kubota, Gou; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Shiga, Yasuhiro; Abe, Koki; Fujimoto, Kazuki; Kanamoto, Hiroto; Toyone, Tomoaki; Inoue, Gen; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Osteoarthritic (OA) pain is largely considered to be inflammatory pain. However, during the last stage of knee OA, sensory nerve fibers in the knee are shown to be significantly damaged when the subchondral bone junction is destroyed, and this can induce neuropathic pain. Several authors have reported that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) in a knee joint plays a crucial role in pain modulation. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of etanercept, a TNFα inhibitor, for pain in knee OA. Materials and Methods Thirty-nine patients with knee OA and a 2-4 Kellgren-Lawrence grading were evaluated in this prospective study. Patients were divided into two groups; hyaluronic acid (HA) and etanercept injection. All patients received a single injection into the knee. Pain scores were evaluated before and 4 weeks after injection using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and they were compared between the groups. Results Before injection, VAS and WOMAC scores were not significantly different between the groups (p>0.05). Significant pain relief was found in the etanercept group at 1 and 2 weeks by VAS, and at 4 weeks by WOMAC score, compared with the HA group (p<0.05). No adverse events were observed in either group. Conclusion Direct injection of etanercept into OA knee joints was an effective treatment for pain in moderate and severe OA patients. Furthermore, this finding suggests that TNFα is one factor that induces OA pain. PMID:26256983

  16. Painful prosthesis: approaching the patient with persistent pain following total hip and knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Piscitelli, Prisco; Iolascon, Giovanni; Innocenti, Massimo; Civinini, Roberto; Rubinacci, Alessandro; Muratore, Maurizio; D’Arienzo, Michele; Leali, Paolo Tranquilli; Carossino, Anna Maria; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Symptomatic severe osteoarthritis and hip osteoporotic fractures are the main conditions requiring total hip arthroplasty (THA), whereas total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is mainly performed for pain, disability or deformity due to osteoarthritis. After surgery, some patients suffer from “painful prosthesis”, which currently represents a clinical problem. Methods A systematic review of scientific literature has been performed. A panel of experts has examined the issue of persistent pain following total hip or knee arthroplasty, in order to characterize etiopathological mechanisms and define how to cope with this condition. Results Four major categories (non infective, septic, other and idiopathic causes) have been identified as possible origin of persistent pain after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Time to surgery, pain level and function impairment before surgical intervention, mechanical stress following prosthesis implant, osseointegration deficiency, and post-traumatic or allergic inflammatory response are all factors playing an important role in causing persistent pain after joint arthroplasty. Diagnosis of persistent pain should be made in case of post-operative pain (self-reported as VAS ≥3) persisting for at least 4 months after surgery, or new onset of pain (VAS ≥3) after the first 4 months, lasting ≥2 months. Acute pain reported as VAS score ≥7 in patients who underwent TJA should be always immediately investigated. Conclusions The cause of pain needs always to be indentified and removed whenever possible. Implant revision is indicated only when septic or aseptic loosening is diagnosed. Current evidence has shown that peri-and/or post-operative administration of bisphosphonates may have a role in pain management and periprosthetic bone loss prevention. PMID:24133526

  17. Foot orthoses and physiotherapy in the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome: randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Natalie; Crossley, Kay; Beller, Elaine; Darnell, Ross; McPoil, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical efficacy of foot orthoses in the management of patellofemoral pain syndrome with flat inserts or physiotherapy, and to investigate the effectiveness of foot orthoses plus physiotherapy. Design Prospective, single blind, randomised clinical trial. Setting Single centre trial within a community setting in Brisbane, Australia. Participants 179 participants (100 women) aged 18 to 40 years, with a clinical diagnosis of patellofemoral pain syndrome of greater than six weeks’ duration, who had no previous treatment with foot orthoses or physiotherapy in the preceding 12 months. Interventions Six weeks of physiotherapist intervention with off the shelf foot orthoses, flat inserts, multimodal physiotherapy (patellofemoral joint mobilisation, patellar taping, quadriceps muscle retraining, and education), or foot orthoses plus physiotherapy. Main outcome measures Global improvement, severity of usual and worst pain over the preceding week, anterior knee pain scale, and functional index questionnaire measured at 6, 12, and 52 weeks. Results Foot orthoses produced improvement beyond that of flat inserts in the short term, notably at six weeks (relative risk reduction 0.66, 99% confidence interval 0.05 to 1.17; NNT 4 (99% confidence interval 2 to 51). No significant differences were found between foot orthoses and physiotherapy, or between physiotherapy and physiotherapy plus orthoses. All groups showed clinically meaningful improvements in primary outcomes over 52 weeks. Conclusion While foot orthoses are superior to flat inserts according to participants’ overall perception, they are similar to physiotherapy and do not improve outcomes when added to physiotherapy in the short term management of patellofemoral pain. Given the long term improvement observed in all treatment groups, general practitioners may seek to hasten recovery by prescribing prefabricated orthoses. Trial registration Australian Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN

  18. [Pellegrini-Stieda syndrome as a cause of knee pain].

    PubMed

    Santos Sánchez, J A; Ramos Pascua, L R; García Casado, D; Bermúdez López, C

    2012-01-01

    Calcification in the soft tissue next to the medial femoral condyle after a history of trauma around the knee is a recognized radiographic finding-PS (Pellegrini-Stieda) sign. When this is associated with pain and a restricted range of motion it is known as the PS syndrome. We describe two cases of PS syndrome, treated conservatively with rest and physiotherapy, as well as the radiographic and ultrasound findings, and the many theories proposed in attempts to explain the pathogenesis of PS disease.

  19. Evidence of Chinese herbal medicine Duhuo Jisheng decoction for knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenming; Wang, Shangquan; Zhang, Ranxing; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Xinjian; Lin, Yanping; Wei, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Duhuo Jisheng decoction (DJD) is considered beneficial for controlling knee osteoarthritis (KOA)-related symptoms in some Asian countries. This review compiles the evidence from randomised clinical trials and quantifies the effects of DJD on KOA. Designs 7 online databases were investigated up to 12 October 2015. Randomised clinical trials investigating treatment of KOA for which DJD was used either as a monotherapy or in combination with conventional therapy compared to no intervention, placebo or conventional therapy, were included. The outcomes included the evaluation of functional activities, pain and adverse effect. The risk of bias was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. The estimated mean difference (MD) and SMD was within a 95% CI with respect to interstudy heterogeneity. Results 12 studies with 982 participants were identified. The quality presented a high risk of bias. Meta-analysis found that DJD combined with glucosamine (MD 4.20 (1.72 to 6.69); p<0.001) or DJD plus meloxicam and glucosamine (MD 3.48 (1.59 to 5.37); p<0.001) had a more significant effect in improving Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (total WOMAC scores). Also, meta-analysis presented more remarkable pain improvement when DJD plus sodium hyaluronate injection (MD 0.89 (0.26 to 1.53); p=0.006) was used. These studies demonstrated that active treatment of DJD in combination should be practiced for at least 4 weeks. Information on the safety of DJD or comprehensive therapies was insufficient in few studies. Conclusions DJD combined with Western medicine or sodium hyaluronate injection appears to have benefits for KOA. However, the effectiveness and safety of DJD is uncertain because of the limited number of trials and low methodological quality. Therefore, practitioners should be cautious when applying DJD in daily practice. Future clinical trials should be well designed; more research is needed. PMID:26729379

  20. Does the Q - H index show a stronger relationship than the H:Q ratio in regard to knee pain during daily activities in patients with knee osteoarthritis?

    PubMed

    Fujita, Remi; Matsui, Yasumoto; Harada, Atsushi; Takemura, Marie; Kondo, Izumi; Nemoto, Tetsuya; Sakai, Tadahiro; Hiraiwa, Hideki; Ota, Susumu

    2016-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between knee muscle strength and knee pain in activities of daily living, based on consideration of the difference between extension and flexion strength (Q - H) and the hamstring:quadriceps (H:Q) ratio in patients with knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 78 females with knee osteoarthritis, and a total of 133 knees that had not been treated surgically were the targets of this research. The legs were divided according to dominance. Isometric knee extension and flexion muscle strength and knee pain during activities of daily living were measured. The H:Q ratio (flexion/extension muscle strength) and the difference between extension and flexion strength, (extension muscle strength/weight) minus (flexion muscle strength/weight), that is, Q - H, were calculated. The correlation between these indices and the knee pain score during activities of daily living was investigated. [Results] Greater knee pain during activities of daily living was related to lower knee extension muscle strength and Q - H in both the dominant and nondominant legs. Knee flexion muscle strength and the H:Q ratio were not significantly correlated with knee pain during any activities of daily living. [Conclusion] Knee extension muscle strength and Q - H were found to be significantly correlated with knee pain during activities of daily living, whereas the H:Q ratio was not.

  1. Evaluation of patients presenting with knee pain: Part I. History, physical examination, radiographs, and laboratory tests.

    PubMed

    Calmbach, Walter L; Hutchens, Mark

    2003-09-01

    Family physicians frequently encounter patients with knee pain. Accurate diagnosis requires a knowledge of knee anatomy, common pain patterns in knee injuries, and features of frequently encountered causes of knee pain, as well as specific physical examination skills. The history should include characteristics of the patient's pain, mechanical symptoms (locking, popping, giving way), joint effusion (timing, amount, recurrence), and mechanism of injury. The physical examination should include careful inspection of the knee, palpation for point tenderness, assessment of joint effusion, range-of-motion testing, evaluation of ligaments for injury or laxity, and assessment of the menisci. Radiographs should be obtained in patients with isolated patellar tenderness or tenderness at the head of the fibula, inability to bear weight or flex the knee to 90 degrees, or age greater than 55 years.

  2. Knee Pain and a Prior Injury Are Associated With Increased Risk of a New Knee Injury: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Driban, Jeffrey B.; Lo, Grace H.; Eaton, Charles B.; Price, Lori Lyn; Lu, Bing; McAlindon, Timothy E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We explored if knee pain or a history of knee injury was associated with a knee injury in the following 12 months. Methods We conducted longitudinal knee-based analyses among knees in the Osteoarthritis Initiative. We included both knees of all participants who had at least one follow-up visit with complete data. Our first sets of exposures were knee pain (chronic knee symptoms and severity) at baseline, 12-month, 24-month, and 36-month visits. Another exposure was a history of injury, which we defined as a self-reported injury at any time prior to baseline, 12-month, 24-month, or 36-month visits. The outcome was self-reported knee injury during the past year at 12-month, 24-month, 36-month, and 48-month visits. We evaluated the association between ipsilateral and contralateral knee pain or history of injury and a new knee injury within 12 months of the exposure using generalized linear mixed model for repeated binary outcomes. Results A knee with reported chronic knee symptoms or ipsilateral or contralateral history of an injury was more likely to experience a new knee injury in the following 12 months than a knee without chronic knee symptoms (odds ratio [OR]=1.84, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.57, 2.16) or prior injury (prior ipsilateral knee injury OR=1.81, 95% CI=1.56, 2.09; prior contralateral knee injury OR=1.43, 95% CI=1.23, 1.66). Conclusion Knee pain and a history of injury are associated with new knee injuries. It may be beneficial for individuals with knee pain or a history of injury to participate in injury prevention programs. PMID:26034152

  3. Prevention of acute knee injuries in adolescent female football players: cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Atroshi, Isam; Magnusson, Henrik; Wagner, Philippe; Hägglund, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of neuromuscular training in reducing the rate of acute knee injury in adolescent female football players. Design Stratified cluster randomised controlled trial with clubs as the unit of randomisation. Setting 230 Swedish football clubs (121 in the intervention group, 109 in the control group) were followed for one season (2009, seven months). Participants 4564 players aged 12-17 years (2479 in the intervention group, 2085 in the control group) completed the study. Intervention 15 minute neuromuscular warm-up programme (targeting core stability, balance, and proper knee alignment) to be carried out twice a week throughout the season. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was rate of anterior cruciate ligament injury; secondary outcomes were rates of severe knee injury (>4 weeks’ absence) and any acute knee injury. Results Seven players (0.28%) in the intervention group, and 14 (0.67%) in the control group had an anterior cruciate ligament injury. By Cox regression analysis according to intention to treat, a 64% reduction in the rate of anterior cruciate ligament injury was seen in the intervention group (rate ratio 0.36, 95% confidence interval 0.15 to 0.85). The absolute rate difference was −0.07 (95% confidence interval −0.13 to 0.001) per 1000 playing hours in favour of the intervention group. No significant rate reductions were seen for secondary outcomes. Conclusions A neuromuscular warm-up programme significantly reduced the rate of anterior cruciate ligament injury in adolescent female football players. However, the absolute rate difference did not reach statistical significance, possibly owing to the small number of events. Trial registration Clinical trials NCT00894595. PMID:22556050

  4. Hands-on robotic unicompartmental knee replacement: a prospective, randomised controlled study of the acrobot system.

    PubMed

    Cobb, J; Henckel, J; Gomes, P; Harris, S; Jakopec, M; Rodriguez, F; Barrett, A; Davies, B

    2006-02-01

    We performed a prospective, randomised controlled trial of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty comparing the performance of the Acrobot system with conventional surgery. A total of 27 patients (28 knees) awaiting unicompartmental knee arthroplasty were randomly allocated to have the operation performed conventionally or with the assistance of the Acrobot. The primary outcome measurement was the angle of tibiofemoral alignment in the coronal plane, measured by CT. Other secondary parameters were evaluated and are reported. All of the Acrobot group had tibiofemoral alignment in the coronal plane within 2 degrees of the planned position, while only 40% of the conventional group achieved this level of accuracy. While the operations took longer, no adverse effects were noted, and there was a trend towards improvement in performance with increasing accuracy based on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index and American Knee Society scores at six weeks and three months. The Acrobot device allows the surgeon to reproduce a pre-operative plan more reliably than is possible using conventional techniques which may have clinical advantages.

  5. The contemporary management of anterior knee pain and patellofemoral instability.

    PubMed

    Smith, Toby O; McNamara, Iain; Donell, Simon T

    2013-09-01

    In this review the evidence for the management of patients with patellofemoral disorders is presented confined to anterior knee pain and patellar dislocation (excluding patellofemoral arthritis). Patients present along a spectrum of these two problems and are best managed with both problems considered. The key to managing these patients is by improving muscle function, the patient losing weight (if overweight), and judicious use of analgesics if pain is an important feature. Hypermobility syndrome should always be looked for since this is a prognostic indicator for a poor operative outcome. Operations should be reserved for those with correctable anatomical abnormalities that have failed conservative therapy. The current dominant operation is a medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction.

  6. Ultrasound imaging for the rheumatologist XXX. Sonographic assessment of the painful knee.

    PubMed

    Meenagh, G; Filippucci, E; Delle Sedie, A; Iagnocco, A; Scirè, C A; Riente, L; Montecucco, C; Valesini, G; Bombardieri, S; Grassi, W

    2010-01-01

    The knee joint is a frequent focus of attention for rheumatologists when assessing patients presenting to a clinic and may represent underlying intra-articular inflammatory pathology or involvement of the surrounding soft tissues. This study describes the correlation between clinical and ultrasound findings in patients presenting with a variety of rheumatic disorders and knee pain. US imaging provides for a sensitive and detailed identification of different intra- and peri-articular pathology responsible for knee pain.

  7. Clinical, Radiological and Ultrasonographic Findings Related to Knee Pain in Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Keith K. W.; Sit, Regina W. S.; Wu, Ricky W. K.; Ngai, Allen H. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pain is the predominant symptom of knee osteoarthritis (OA) and the main reason of disability. Ultrasound is now one of the new imaging modality in Musculoskeletal medicine and its role in assessing the pain severity in the knee osteoarthritis is evaluated in this study. Objectives (1) To study the correlation between ultrasonographic (US) findings and pain score and (2) whether ultrasonographic findings show a better association of pain level than conventional X-rays in patients suffering from primary knee osteoarthritis. Methods In this multi-center study, 193 patients with primary knee OA were asked to score their average knee pain using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis (WOMAC) questionnaire;patients would then go for a radiological and an US evaluation of their painful knee. Findings from both imaging modalities will be studied with the associated pain score. Results Ultrasound showed that knee effusion has positive correlation with pain score upon walking (r = 0.217) and stair climbing (r = 0.194). Presence of suprapatellar synovitis had higher pain score on sitting (Spearman's Rank correlation  = 0.355). The medial(r = 0.170) and lateral meniscus protrusion (r = 0.201) were associated with pain score upon stair climbing. Conclusions Our study found that both imaging modalities shown some significant association with the aspect of pain; neither one is clearly better but rather complementary to each other. A trend is found in both modalities: walking pain is related to pathologies of the either the lateral or medial tibiofemoral joint(TFJ)while stair climbing pain is related to both tibiofemoral joint pathologies and also to the patellofemoral joint (PFJ) pathology. This suggested that biomechanical derangement is an important aspect in OA knee pain. PMID:24675807

  8. Strain-Counterstrain therapy combined with exercise is not more effective than exercise alone on pain and disability in people with acute low back pain: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Cynan; Souvlis, Tina; Sterling, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Is Strain-Counterstrain treatment combined with exercise therapy more effective than exercise alone in reducing levels of pain and disability in people with acute low back pain? Randomised trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding, and intention-to-treat analysis. 89 (55 female) participants between 18 and 55 years experiencing acute low back pain were randomised to experimental (n = 44) and control (n = 45) groups. Participants attended four treatments in two weeks. The experimental group received Strain-Counterstrain treatment and review of standardised exercises (abdominal bracing, knee to chest, and lumbar rotation). The control group performed the standardised exercises under supervision. Following the intervention period, all participants received exercise progression, manual therapy, and advice. The primary outcome was the modified Oswestry low back pain disability questionnaire, measured at 2 weeks (ie, end of treatment), 6 weeks, and 28 weeks. Secondary outcome measures included the SF-36, visual analogue scale pain ratings, and a 7-point global rating of change. The experimental intervention was not more effective than exercise alone in reducing levels of pain and disability. Mean between-group differences in change from baseline for the Oswestry Disability Index were 0 (95% CI -6 to 7) after treatment, -1 (95% CI -7 to 6) at 6 weeks, and 2 (95% CI -4 to 8) at 28 weeks. Other outcomes did not differ significantly between groups. There is no advantage in providing Strain- Counterstrain treatment to patients with acute low back pain, although further studies could examine whether a subset of these patients can benefit from the treatment. ACTRN 12609000084280. Copyright © 2011 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  9. Acupuncture and chronic joint pain: an effective placebo?

    PubMed

    2013-11-01

    Several randomised trials suggest that acupuncture is more effective than no treatment in patients with painful chronic knee osteoarthritis or chronic low back pain. However, comparisons with sham acupuncture provide no evidence that acupuncture has a specific effect.

  10. Genicular Radiofrequency Ablation for Treatment of Post Total Knee Arthroplasty Posterior Thigh Pain: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, Lauren N; Goree, Johnathan H

    2017-07-10

    We present a case of a 68-year-old woman with 6 months of chronic unilateral posterior thigh pain after a total knee arthroplasty. The patient's pain was refractory to various treatments. After appropriate diagnostic tests, a genicular nerve block and subsequent radiofrequency ablation were performed. These procedures provided substantial pain relief of her thigh pain at 3 months follow-up.

  11. The association between knee joint biomechanics and neuromuscular control and moderate knee osteoarthritis radiographic and pain severity.

    PubMed

    Astephen Wilson, J L; Deluzio, K J; Dunbar, M J; Caldwell, G E; Hubley-Kozey, C L

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the association between biomechanical and neuromuscular factors of clinically diagnosed mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis (OA) with radiographic severity and pain severity separately. Three-dimensional gait analysis and electromyography were performed on a group of 40 participants with clinically diagnosed mild to moderate medial knee OA. Associations between radiographic severity, defined using a visual analog radiographic score, and pain severity, defined with the pain subscale of the WOMAC osteoarthritis index, with knee joint kinematics and kinetics, electromyography patterns of periarticular knee muscles, BMI and gait speed were determined with correlation analyses. Multiple linear regression analyses of radiographic and pain severity were also explored. Statistically significant correlations between radiographic severity and the overall magnitude of the knee adduction moment during stance (r²=21.4%, P=0.003) and the magnitude of the knee flexion angle during the gait cycle (r²=11.4%, P=0.03) were found. Significant correlations between pain and gait speed (r²=28.2%, P<0.0001), the activation patterns of the lateral gastrocnemius (r²=16.6%, P=0.009) and the medial hamstring (r²=10.3%, P=0.04) during gait were found. The combination of the magnitude of the knee adduction moment during stance and BMI explained a significant portion of the variability in radiographic severity (R(2)=27.1%, P<0.0001). No multivariate model explained pain severity better than gait speed alone. This study suggests that some knee joint biomechanical variables are associated with structural knee OA severity measured from radiographs in clinically diagnosed mild to moderate levels of disease, but that pain severity is only reflected in gait speed and neuromuscular activation patterns. A combination of the knee adduction moment and BMI better explained structural knee OA severity than any individual factor alone. Copyright © 2010

  12. A randomised trial into the effect of an isolated hip abductor strengthening programme and a functional motor control programme on knee kinematics and hip muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Kathryn; Hebron, Clair; Williams, Jonathan M

    2015-05-03

    Dynamic knee valgus and internal femoral rotation are proposed to be contributory risk factors for patellofemoral pain and anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Multimodal interventions including hip abductor strengthening or functional motor control programmes have a positive impact of pain, however their effect on knee kinematics and muscle strength is less clear. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of isolated hip abductor strengthening and a functional motor control exercise on knee kinematics and hip abductor strength. This prospective, randomised, repeated measures design included 29 asymptomatic volunteers presenting with increase knee valgus and femoral internal rotation. Participants completed either isolated hip abductor strengthening or a functional motor control exercise for 5 weeks. Knee kinematics were measured using inertial sensors during 2 functional activities and hip abductor strength measured using a load cell during isometric hip abduction. There were no significant differences in dynamic knee valgus and internal rotation following the isolated hip abductor or functional motor control intervention, and no significant differences between the groups for knee angles. Despite this, the actual magnitude of reduction in valgus was 10° and 5° for the functional motor control group and strengthening group respectively. The actual magnitude of reduction in internal rotation was 9° and 18° for the functional motor control group and strengthening group respectively. Therefore there was a tendency towards clinically significant improvements in knee kinematics in both exercise groups. A statistically significant improvement in hip abductor strength was evident for the functional motor control group (27% increase; p = 0.008) and strengthening group (35% increase; p = 0.009) with no significant difference between the groups being identified (p = 0.475). Isolated hip strengthening and functional motor control exercises resulted in

  13. Q-angle in patellofemoral pain: relationship with dynamic knee valgus, hip abductor torque, pain and function☆

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Gabriel Peixoto Leão; Silva, Ana Paula de Moura Campos Carvalho e; França, Fábio Jorge Renovato; Magalhães, Maurício Oliveira; Burke, Thomaz Nogueira; Marques, Amélia Pasqual

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the q-angle and anterior knee pain severity, functional capacity, dynamic knee valgus and hip abductor torque in women with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Methods This study included 22 women with PFPS. The q-angle was assessed using goniometry: the participants were positioned in dorsal decubitus with the knee and hip extended, and the hip and foot in neutral rotation. Anterior knee pain severity was assessed using a visual analog scale, and functional capacity was assessed using the anterior knee pain scale. Dynamic valgus was evaluated using the frontal plane projection angle (FPPA) of the knee, which was recorded using a digital camera during step down, and hip abductor peak torque was recorded using a handheld dynamometer. Results The q-angle did not present any significant correlation with severity of knee pain (r = −0.29; p = 0.19), functional capacity (r = −0.08; p = 0.72), FPPA (r = −0.28; p = 0.19) or isometric peak torque of the abductor muscles (r = −0.21; p = 0.35). Conclusion The q-angle did not present any relationship with pain intensity, functional capacity, FPPA, or hip abductor peak torque in the patients with PFPS. PMID:27069887

  14. Elevated corticospinal excitability in patellar tendinopathy compared with other anterior knee pain or no pain.

    PubMed

    Rio, E; Kidgell, D; Moseley, G L; Cook, J

    2016-09-01

    Anterior knee pain (AKP) is a frequent clinical presentation in jumping athletes and may be aggravated by sustained sitting, stair use, and loading of the quadriceps. Corticospinal activation of the quadriceps in athletes with AKP has not yet been investigated, but is important in guiding efficacious treatment. This cross-sectional study assessed corticospinal excitability (CSE) of the quadriceps in jumping athletes using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Groups consisted of Control (no knee pain); patellar tendinopathy (PT) [localized inferior pole pain on single-leg decline squat (SLDS)]; and other AKP (nonlocalized pain around the patella). SLDS (numerical score of pain 0-10), Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment Patellar tendon (VISA-P), maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), active motor threshold (AMT), CSE, and Mmax were tested. Twenty nine athletes participated; control n = 8, PT n = 11, AKP n = 10. There were no group differences in age (P = 0.23), body mass index (P = 0.16), MVIC (P = 0.38) or weekly activity (P = 0.22). PT had elevated CSE compared with controls and other AKP (P < 0.001), but no differences were detected between AKP and controls (P = 0.47). CSE appears to be greater in PT than controls and other AKP. An improved understanding of the corticospinal responses in different sources of knee pain may direct better treatment approaches. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Knee angular impulse as a predictor of patellofemoral pain in runners.

    PubMed

    Stefanyshyn, Darren J; Stergiou, Pro; Lun, Victor M Y; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Worobets, Jay T

    2006-11-01

    Identification of mechanical factors associated with patellofemoral pain, the most prevalent running injury, is necessary to help in injury prevention, but unfortunately they remain elusive. Runners who develop patellofemoral pain have increased knee joint angular impulse in the frontal plane. Case control study; Level of evidence, 3. A retrospective study compared knee abduction impulses of 20 patellofemoral pain patients with those of 20 asymptomatic patients. A second prospective study quantified knee angular impulses during the stance phase of running of 80 runners at the beginning of the summer running season. Epidemiologic data were then collected, recording the type and severity of injury of these runners during a 6-month running period. The patellofemoral pain patients in the retrospective study had significantly higher (P = .026) knee abduction impulses (17.0 +/- 8.5 Nms) than did the asymptomatic patients (12.5 +/- 5.5 Nms). Six patients developed patellofemoral pain during the prospective study. The prospective data showed that patients who developed patellofemoral pain had significantly higher (P = .042) knee abduction impulses (9.2 +/- 3.7 Nms) than did matched patients who remained uninjured (4.7 +/- 3.5 Nms). The data indicate that increased knee abduction impulses should be deemed risk factors that play a role in the development of patellofemoral pain in runners. Footwear and running style can influence knee angular impulse, and the appropriate manipulation of these variables may play a preventive role for patients who are predisposed to patellofemoral pain.

  16. Towards an understanding of the painful total knee: what is the role of patient biology?

    PubMed

    Preston, Stephen; Petrera, Massimo; Kim, Christopher; Zywiel, Michael G; Gandhi, Rajiv

    2016-12-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains the treatment of choice for end-stage osteoarthritis of the knee. With an aging population, the demand for TKA continues to increase, placing a significant burden on a health care system that must function with limited resources. Although generally accepted as a successful procedure, 15-30 % of patients report persistent pain following TKA. Classically, pain generators have been divided into intra-articular and extra-articular causes. However, there remains a significant subset of patients for whom pain remains unexplained. Recent studies have questioned the role of biology (inflammation) in the persistence of pain following TKA. This article aims to serve as a review of previously identified causes of knee pain following TKA, as well as to explore the potential role of biology as a predictor of pain following knee replacement surgery.

  17. A randomised, controlled trial of circumpatellar electrocautery in total knee replacement without patellar resurfacing: a concise follow-up at a mean of 3.7 years.

    PubMed

    van Jonbergen, H P W; Scholtes, V A B; Poolman, R W

    2014-04-01

    In the absence of patellar resurfacing, we have previously shown that the use of electrocautery around the margin of the patella improved the one-year clinical outcome of total knee replacement (TKR). In this prospective randomised study we compared the mean 3.7 year (1.1 to 4.2) clinical outcomes of 300 TKRs performed with and without electrocautery of the patellar rim: this is an update of a previous report. The overall prevalence of anterior knee pain was 32% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 26 to 39), and 26% (95% CI 18 to 35) in the intervention group compared with 38% (95% CI 29 to 48) in the control group (chi-squared test; p = 0.06). The overall prevalence of anterior knee pain remained unchanged between the one-year and 3.7 year follow-up (chi-squared test; p = 0.12). The mean total Western Ontario McMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Indices and the American Knee Society knee and function scores at 3.7 years' follow-up were similar in the intervention and control groups (repeated measures analysis of variance p = 0.43, p = 0.09 and p = 0.59, respectively). There were no complications. A total of ten patients (intervention group three, control group seven) required secondary patellar resurfacing after the first year. Our study suggests that the improved clinical outcome with electrocautery denervation compared with no electrocautery is not maintained at a mean of 3.7 years' follow-up.

  18. Pain catastrophizing as a risk factor for chronic pain after total knee arthroplasty: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Lindsay C; Ritvo, Sarah E; Ferguson, Meaghan K; Clarke, Hance; Seltzer, Ze’ev; Katz, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Background Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a common and costly surgical procedure. Despite high success rates, many TKA patients develop chronic pain in the months and years following surgery, constituting a public health burden. Pain catastrophizing is a construct that reflects anxious preoccupation with pain, inability to inhibit pain-related fears, amplification of the significance of pain vis-à-vis health implications, and a sense of helplessness regarding pain. Recent research suggests that it may be an important risk factor for untoward TKA outcomes. To clarify this impact, we systematically reviewed the literature to date on pain catastrophizing as a prospective predictor of chronic pain following TKA. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases to identify articles related to pain catastrophizing, TKA, risk models, and chronic pain. We reviewed titles and abstracts to identify original research articles that met our specified inclusion criteria. Included articles were then rated for methodological quality. including methodological quality. Due to heterogeneity in follow-up, analyses, and outcomes reported across studies, a quantitative meta-analysis could not be performed. Results We identified six prospective longitudinal studies with small-to-mid-sized samples that met the inclusion criteria. Despite considerable variability in reported pain outcomes, pain catastrophizing was identified as a significant predictor of chronic pain persisting ≥3 months following TKA in five of the studies assessed. Limitations of studies included lack of large-scale data, absence of standardized pain measurements, inadequate multivariate adjustment, such as failure to control for analgesic use and other relevant covariates, and failure to report non-significant parameter estimates. Conclusion This study provides moderate-level evidence for pain catastrophizing as an independent predictor of chronic pain post-TKA. Directions for future research include

  19. Evaluation of patients presenting with knee pain: Part II. Differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Calmbach, Walter L; Hutchens, Mark

    2003-09-01

    Knee pain is a common presenting complaint with many possible causes. An awareness of certain patterns can help the family physician identify the underlying cause more efficiently. Teenage girls and young women are more likely to have patellar tracking problems such as patellar subluxation and patellofemoral pain syndrome, whereas teenage boys and young men are more likely to have knee extensor mechanism problems such as tibial apophysitis (Osgood-Schlatter lesion) and patellar tendonitis. Referred pain resulting from hip joint pathology, such as slipped capital femoral epiphysis, also may cause knee pain. Active patients are more likely to have acute ligamentous sprains and overuse injuries such as pes anserine bursitis and medial plica syndrome. Trauma may result in acute ligamentous rupture or fracture, leading to acute knee joint swelling and hemarthrosis. Septic arthritis may develop in patients of any age, but crystal-induced inflammatory arthropathy is more likely in adults. Osteoarthritis of the knee joint is common in older adults.

  20. Prevalence of reported knee pain over twelve years in a community-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Soni, A; Kiran, A; Hart, D J; Leyland, K M; Goulston, L; Cooper, C; Javaid, M K; Spector, T D; Arden, N K

    2012-04-01

    To describe the temporal patterns of knee pain in a community-based cohort over 12 years. Data on self-reported knee pain at 4 time points over 12 years were analyzed in participants from the Chingford Women's Study of osteoarthritis (OA) and osteoporosis. Pain status was defined as any pain in the preceding month and pain on most days in the preceding month. This status was used to classify participants according to pain patterns of asymptomatic, persistent, incident, or intermittent pain. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify baseline predictors for each pain pattern. Among the 489 women with complete followup data, the median age at baseline was 52 years (interquartile range [IQR] 48-58 years), the median body mass index (BMI) was 24.39 kg/m(2) (IQR 22.46-27.20), and 11.7% of the women had a Kellgren/Lawrence radiographic OA severity grade of ≥2 in at least one knee. Among subjects reporting any pain in the preceding month versus those reporting pain on most days in the preceding month, 9% versus 2% had persistent pain, 24% versus 16% had incident pain, and 29% versus 18% had intermittent pain. A higher BMI was predictive of persistent pain (odds ratio [OR] 1.14, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.04-1.25) and incident pain (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.02-1.18). The presence of radiographic knee OA was predictive of persistent pain (OR 3.70, 95% CI 1.34-10.28; P = 0.012), and reported knee injury was predictive of both persistent pain (OR 4.13, 95% CI 1.34-12.66; P = 0.013) and intermittent pain (OR 4.25, 95% CI 1.81-9.98; P = 0.001). Significant variability in the temporal fluctuation of self-reported knee pain was seen in this community-based prospective study over a period of 12 years, with few women consistently reporting knee pain at each time point. Distinct baseline predictors for each pain pattern were identified and may explain the observed heterogeneity of self-reported knee pain when pain status is measured at only one time point. Copyright

  1. Effects of a progressive aquatic resistance exercise program on the biochemical composition and morphology of cartilage in women with mild knee osteoarthritis: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Symptoms associated with osteoarthritis of the knee result in decreased function, loss of working capacity and extensive social and medical costs. There is a need to investigate and develop effective interventions to minimise the impact of and even prevent the progression of osteoarthritis. Aquatic exercise has been shown to be effective at reducing the impact of osteoarthritis. The purpose of this article is to describe the rationale, design and intervention of a study investigating the effect of an aquatic resistance exercise intervention on cartilage in postmenopausal women with mild knee osteoarthritis. Methods A minimum of 80 volunteers who meet the inclusion criteria will be recruited from the local population through newspaper advertisements. Following initial assessment volunteers will be randomised into two groups. The intervention group will participate in a progressive aquatic resistance exercise program of 1-hour duration 3 times a week for four months. The control group will be asked to maintain normal care during this period. Primary outcome measure for this study is the biochemical composition of knee cartilage measured using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging; T2 relaxation time and delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques. In addition, knee cartilage morphology as regional cartilage thickness will be studied. Secondary outcomes include measures of body composition and bone traits using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography, pain, function using questionnaires and physical performance tests and quality of life. Measurements will be performed at baseline, after the 4-month intervention period and at one year follow up. Discussion This randomised controlled trial will investigate the effect a progressive aquatic resistance exercise program has on the biochemical composition of cartilage in post-menopausal women with mild knee osteoarthritis. This is the first study to

  2. Effects of a progressive aquatic resistance exercise program on the biochemical composition and morphology of cartilage in women with mild knee osteoarthritis: protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Waller, Benjamin; Munukka, Matti; Multanen, Juhani; Rantalainen, Timo; Pöyhönen, Tapani; Nieminen, Miika T; Kiviranta, Ilkka; Kautiainen, Hannu; Selänne, Harri; Dekker, Joost; Sipilä, Sarianna; Kujala, Urho M; Häkkinen, Arja; Heinonen, Ari

    2013-03-07

    Symptoms associated with osteoarthritis of the knee result in decreased function, loss of working capacity and extensive social and medical costs. There is a need to investigate and develop effective interventions to minimise the impact of and even prevent the progression of osteoarthritis. Aquatic exercise has been shown to be effective at reducing the impact of osteoarthritis. The purpose of this article is to describe the rationale, design and intervention of a study investigating the effect of an aquatic resistance exercise intervention on cartilage in postmenopausal women with mild knee osteoarthritis. A minimum of 80 volunteers who meet the inclusion criteria will be recruited from the local population through newspaper advertisements. Following initial assessment volunteers will be randomised into two groups. The intervention group will participate in a progressive aquatic resistance exercise program of 1-hour duration 3 times a week for four months. The control group will be asked to maintain normal care during this period. Primary outcome measure for this study is the biochemical composition of knee cartilage measured using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging; T2 relaxation time and delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques. In addition, knee cartilage morphology as regional cartilage thickness will be studied. Secondary outcomes include measures of body composition and bone traits using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography, pain, function using questionnaires and physical performance tests and quality of life. Measurements will be performed at baseline, after the 4-month intervention period and at one year follow up. This randomised controlled trial will investigate the effect a progressive aquatic resistance exercise program has on the biochemical composition of cartilage in post-menopausal women with mild knee osteoarthritis. This is the first study to investigate what impact

  3. Efficacy of low-level laser therapy applied at acupuncture points in knee osteoarthritis: a randomised double-blind comparative trial.

    PubMed

    Al Rashoud, A S; Abboud, R J; Wang, W; Wigderowitz, C

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) applied to acupuncture points on the knee joint in combination with exercise and advice in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Randomised, double-blind, comparative clinical trial. Forty-nine patients with knee osteoarthritis were assigned at random into two groups: active laser group (n=26) and placebo laser group (n=23). Using a gallium aluminium arsenide laser device, patients received either active or placebo LLLT at five acupuncture points on the affected knee during nine sessions. Patients were assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Saudi Knee Function Scale (SKFS) at baseline, the fifth treatment session, the last treatment session, 6 weeks post intervention and 6 months post intervention. VAS scores showed a significant improvement in the active laser group compared with the placebo laser group at 6 weeks post intervention [mean difference -1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) of the difference -2.4 to -0.3; P=0.014] and 6 months post intervention (mean difference -1.8, 95% CI of the difference -3.0 to -0.7; P=0.003) using the independent samples test. SKFS scores also showed a significant improvement in the active laser group compared with the placebo laser group at the last treatment session (median difference -15, 95% CI of the difference -27 to -2; P=0.035) and 6 months post intervention (median difference -21, 95% CI of the difference -34 to -7; P=0.006) using the Mann-Whitney U test. The results demonstrate that short-term application of LLLT to specific acupuncture points in association with exercise and advice is effective in reducing pain and improving quality of life in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Joint space narrowing, body mass index, and knee pain: the ROAD study (OAC1839R1).

    PubMed

    Muraki, S; Akune, T; En-Yo, Y; Yoshida, M; Suzuki, T; Yoshida, H; Ishibashi, H; Tokimura, F; Yamamoto, S; Tanaka, S; Nakamura, K; Kawaguchi, H; Oka, H; Yoshimura, N

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to clarify the association of joint space narrowing with knee pain in Japanese men and women using a large-scale population-based cohort of the Research on Osteoarthritis/osteoporosis Against Disability (ROAD) study. This study examined the association between minimum joint space width (mJSW) in the medial compartment and pain at the knee. mJSW was measured in the medial and lateral compartments of the knee using a knee osteoarthritis (OA) computer-aided diagnosis system. From the 3040 participants in the ROAD study, the present study analyzed 2733 participants who completed the radiographic examinations and questionnaires regarding knee pain (975 men and 1758 women; mean age, 69.9 ± 11.2 years). Subjects with lateral knee OA were excluded. After adjustment for age and Body mass index (BMI), medial mJSW, as well as medial mJSW/lateral mJSW, was significantly associated with knee pain. Sex and BMI affected the association of medial mJSW with knee pain. The threshold of medial mJSW was approximately 3 mm in men and 2 mm in women, while that of medial mJSW/lateral mJSW was approximately 60% in both men and women. BMI was found to have a distinct effect on the association of mJSW with pain. The present cross-sectional study using a large-scale population from the ROAD study showed that joint space narrowing had a significant association with knee pain. The thresholds of joint space narrowing for knee pain were also established. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Krill Oil Improves Mild Knee Joint Pain: A Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Minoru; Sakuraba, Keishoku; Sawaki, Keisuke; Sekigawa, Kazuaki

    2016-01-01

    Background Krill oil is an edible oil extracted from krill, a small red-colored crustacean found in the Antarctic Ocean. The administration of krill oil is reported to mitigate inflammation in patients with cardiac disease, rheumatoid arthritis, or osteoarthritis. However, the effect of krill oil on mild knee pain has not yet been determined. Objective To assess the effect of krill oil on mild knee pain. Design A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial of fifty adults (38–85 years old) with mild knee pain attending the Fukushima Orthopedic Clinic (Tochigi, Japan) between September 2014 and March 2015. Interventions Participants were randomized to receive 2 g per day of either krill oil or an identical placebo for 30 days. Outcomes The primary outcome was improvement in subjective symptoms of knee pain as assessed by the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure (JKOM) and Japanese Orthopaedic Association score (JOA). Secondary outcomes included blood and urine biochemical parameters. Results Both the placebo and krill oil groups showed significant improvements in the questions in the JKOM and JOA questionnaires after administration. After the intervention, krill oil group showed more improvements than placebo group in two questions regarding the pain and stiffness in knees in JKOM. Controlling for age, sex, weight, and smoking and drinking habits, krill oil significantly mitigated knee pain in sleeping (P < 0.001), standing (P < 0.001) and the range of motion of both right and left knees (both P = 0.011) compared to placebo. Krill oil administration raised plasma EPA (P = 0.048) and EPA/AA ratio (P = 0.003). Conclusion This study indicates that krill oil administration (2 g/day, 30 days) improved the subjective symptoms of knee pain in adults with mild knee pain. Trial registration UMIN-CTR; ID UMIN000014413 PMID:27701428

  6. A Phase IIIb, Multicentre, Randomised, Parallel-Group, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Study to Investigate the Efficacy and Safety of OROS Hydromorphone in Subjects with Moderate-to-Severe Chronic Pain Induced by Osteoarthritis of the Hip or the Knee

    PubMed Central

    Vojtaššák, Jozef; Vojtaššák, Jozef; Jacobs, Adam; Rynn, Leonie; Waechter, Sandra; Richarz, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Background. Opioid analgesics are included in treatment guidelines for the symptomatic management of osteoarthritis (OA). Starting with a low dose of opioid and slowly titrating to a higher dose may help avoid intolerable side effects. Methods. Subjects aged ≥40 years, with moderate to severe pain induced by OA of the hip or knee not adequately controlled by previous non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or paracetamol treatment, were enrolled. Subjects received OROS hydromorphone 4 mg or placebo once-daily. The dose was titrated every 3-4 days in case of unsatisfactory pain control during the 4-week titration phase. A 12 week maintenance phase followed. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change in “pain on average” measured on the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) scale from baseline to the end of the maintenance phase. Results. 139 subjects received OROS hydromorphone and 149 subjects received placebo. All efficacy endpoints showed similar improvements from baseline to end of study in the 2 groups. The safety results were consistent with the safety profile of OROS hydromorphone. Conclusion.The study did not meet the primary endpoint; although many subjects' pain was not adequately controlled at inclusion, their pain may have improved with continued paracetamol or NSAID treatment. PMID:22110921

  7. A Phase IIIb, Multicentre, Randomised, Parallel-Group, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Study to Investigate the Efficacy and Safety of OROS Hydromorphone in Subjects with Moderate-to-Severe Chronic Pain Induced by Osteoarthritis of the Hip or the Knee.

    PubMed

    Vojtaššák, Jozef; Vojtaššák, Jozef; Jacobs, Adam; Rynn, Leonie; Waechter, Sandra; Richarz, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Background. Opioid analgesics are included in treatment guidelines for the symptomatic management of osteoarthritis (OA). Starting with a low dose of opioid and slowly titrating to a higher dose may help avoid intolerable side effects. Methods. Subjects aged ≥40 years, with moderate to severe pain induced by OA of the hip or knee not adequately controlled by previous non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or paracetamol treatment, were enrolled. Subjects received OROS hydromorphone 4 mg or placebo once-daily. The dose was titrated every 3-4 days in case of unsatisfactory pain control during the 4-week titration phase. A 12 week maintenance phase followed. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change in "pain on average" measured on the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) scale from baseline to the end of the maintenance phase. Results. 139 subjects received OROS hydromorphone and 149 subjects received placebo. All efficacy endpoints showed similar improvements from baseline to end of study in the 2 groups. The safety results were consistent with the safety profile of OROS hydromorphone. Conclusion.The study did not meet the primary endpoint; although many subjects' pain was not adequately controlled at inclusion, their pain may have improved with continued paracetamol or NSAID treatment.

  8. Experimental knee pain impairs submaximal force steadiness in isometric, eccentric, and concentric muscle actions.

    PubMed

    Rice, David A; McNair, Peter J; Lewis, Gwyn N; Mannion, Jamie

    2015-09-12

    Populations with knee joint damage, including arthritis, have noted impairments in the regulation of submaximal muscle force. It is difficult to determine the exact cause of such impairments given the joint pathology and associated neuromuscular adaptations. Experimental pain models that have been used to isolate the effects of pain on muscle force regulation have shown impaired force steadiness during acute pain. However, few studies have examined force regulation during dynamic contractions, and these findings have been inconsistent. The goal of the current study was to examine the effect of experimental knee joint pain on submaximal quadriceps force regulation during isometric and dynamic contractions. The study involved fifteen healthy participants. Participants were seated in an isokinetic dynamometer. Knee extensor force matching tasks were completed in isometric, eccentric, and concentric muscle contraction conditions. The target force was set to 10 % of maximum for each contraction type. Hypertonic saline was then injected into the infrapatella fat pad to generate acute joint pain. The force matching tasks were repeated during pain and once more 5 min after pain had subsided. Hypertonic saline resulted in knee pain with an average peak pain rating of 5.5 ± 2.1 (0-10 scale) that lasted for 18 ± 4 mins. Force steadiness significantly reduced during pain across all three muscle contraction conditions. There was a trend to increased force matching error during pain but this was not significant. Experimental knee pain leads to impaired quadriceps force steadiness during isometric, eccentric, and concentric contractions, providing further evidence that joint pain directly affects motor performance. Given the established relationship between submaximal muscle force steadiness and function, such an effect may be detrimental to the performance of tasks in daily life. In order to restore motor performance in people with painful arthritic conditions of the

  9. Knee Pain during Strength Training Shortly following Fast-Track Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Bandholm, Thomas; Thorborg, Kristian; Lunn, Troels Haxholdt; Kehlet, Henrik; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding

    2014-01-01

    Background Loading and contraction failure (muscular exhaustion) are strength training variables known to influence neural activation of the exercising muscle in healthy subjects, which may help reduce neural inhibition of the quadriceps muscle following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). It is unknown how these exercise variables influence knee pain after TKA. Objective To investigate the effect of loading and contraction failure on knee pain during strength training, shortly following TKA. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Consecutive sample of patients from the Copenhagen area, Denmark, receiving a TKA, between November 2012 and April 2013. Participants Seventeen patients, no more than 3 weeks after their TKA. Main outcome measures: In a randomized order, the patients performed 1 set of 4 standardized knee extensions, using relative loads of 8, 14, and 20 repetition maximum (RM), and ended with 1 single set to contraction failure (14 RM load). The individual loadings (kilograms) were determined during a familiarization session >72 hours prior. The patients rated their knee pain during each repetition, using a numerical rating scale (0–10). Results Two patients were lost to follow up. Knee pain increased with increasing load (20 RM: 3.1±2.0 points, 14 RM: 3.5±1.8 points, 8 RM: 4.3±2.5 points, P = 0.006), and repetitions to contraction failure (10% failure: 3.2±1.9 points, 100% failure: 5.4±1.6 points, P<0.001). Resting knee pain 60 seconds after the final repetition (2.7±2.4 points) was not different from that recorded before strength training (2.7±1.8 points, P = 0.88). Conclusion Both loading and repetitions performed to contraction failure during knee- extension strength-training, increased post-operative knee pain during strength training implemented shortly following TKA. However, only the increase in pain during repetitions to contraction failure exceeded that defined as clinically relevant, and was very short-lived. Trial Registration

  10. Subchondral Bone Marrow Edema Had Greater Effect on Postoperative Pain After Medial Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty Than Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Cale A; Christensen, Christian P; Karthikeyan, Tharun

    2016-02-01

    Although the relationship between pain and bone marrow edema (BME) in the osteoarthritic knee has been established, little is known about the effect of preoperative BME on postoperative outcomes after knee arthroplasty or if the influence of BME on postoperative outcomes differs between medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to compare pain, patient satisfaction, and revision rates between medial UKA and TKA patients with and without magnetic resonance imaging evidence of BME in the proximal tibia. We identified 71 patients (72 knees) from our prospective outcomes database with magnetic resonance images taken before undergoing either medial UKA or TKA and recorded the absence or presence of tibial BME. We then compared preoperative and postoperative Knee Society pain scores, patient satisfaction, and revisions between groups of UKA and TKA patients with or without preoperative tibial BME. Pain scores for UKA patients with BME were worse both before and after surgery, whereas TKA patients with BME demonstrated greater postoperative improvements in pain scores when compared to TKA patients without BME. Similarly, significantly fewer UKA patients with BME were satisfied with their procedure than those without BME (8/11, 73% vs 17/17, 100%; P = .05), but BME did not affect patient satisfaction after TKA. Preoperative BME did not influence TKA outcomes; however, pain scores for UKA patients with BME were worse both before and after surgery and fewer UKA patients with preoperative tibial BME were satisfied with their surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. IS PAIN IN ONE KNEE ASSOCIATED WITH ISOMETRIC MUSCLE STRENGTH IN THE CONTRALATERAL LIMB? - DATA FROM THE OSTEOARTHRITIS INITIATIVE (OAI)

    PubMed Central

    Steidle, E.; Wirth, W.; Glass, N.; Ruhdorfer, A.; Cotofana, S.; Eckstein, F.; Segal, N. A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Knee pain and muscle weakness confer risk for knee osteoarthritis incidence and progression. The purpose of this study was to determine whether unilateral knee pain influences contralateral thigh muscle strength. Design Of 4796 Osteoarthritis Initiative participants, 224 (mean±SD age 63.9±8.9 years) cases could be matched to a control. Cases were defined as having unilateral knee pain (numerical rating scale (NRS)≥4/10; ≥infrequent pain) and one pain-free knee (NRS 0–1; ≤infrequent pain; WOMAC≤1). Controls were defined as having bilaterally pain-free knees (NRS 0–1; ≤infrequent pain; WOMAC≤1). Maximal isometric muscle strength [N] was compared between limbs in participants with unilateral pain (cases), and between pain-free limbs of cases and controls. Results Knee extensor/flexor strength in pain-free limbs of cases was lower than in bilaterally pain-free controls (−5.5%/–8.4%; p=0.043/p=0.022). Within cases, maximum extensor/flexor strength was significantly lower in the painful than in the pain-free limb (−6.4%/4.1%; p<0.0001/p=0.015). Conclusions These results suggest that strength in limbs without knee pain is associated with the pain status of the contralateral knee. The strength difference between unilateral pain-free cases and matched bilateral pain-free controls was similar to that between limbs in persons with unilateral knee pain. Lower strength due to contralateral knee pain might be centrally mediated. PMID:25768069

  12. Is there a causal link between knee loading and knee osteoarthritis progression? A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies and randomised trials

    PubMed Central

    Henriksen, Marius; Creaby, Mark W; Lund, Hans; Juhl, Carsten; Christensen, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Objective We performed a systematic review, meta-analysis and assessed the evidence supporting a causal link between knee joint loading during walking and structural knee osteoarthritis (OA) progression. Design Systematic review, meta-analysis and application of Bradford Hill's considerations on causation. Data sources We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, AMED, CINAHL and SportsDiscus for prospective cohort studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) from 1950 through October 2013. Study eligibility criteria We selected cohort studies and RCTs in which estimates of knee joint loading during walking were used to predict structural knee OA progression assessed by X-ray or MRI. Data analyses Meta-analysis was performed to estimate the combined OR for structural disease progression with higher baseline loading. The likelihood of a causal link between knee joint loading and OA progression was assessed from cohort studies using the Bradford Hill guidelines to derive a 0–4 causation score based on four criteria and examined for confirmation in RCTs. Results Of the 1078 potentially eligible articles, 5 prospective cohort studies were included. The studies included a total of 452 patients relating joint loading to disease progression over 12–72 months. There were very serious limitations associated with the methodological quality of the included studies. The combined OR for disease progression was 1.90 (95% CI 0.85 to 4.25; I2=77%) for each one-unit increment in baseline knee loading. The combined causation score was 0, indicating no causal association between knee loading and knee OA progression. No RCTs were found to confirm or refute the findings from the cohort studies. Conclusions There is very limited and low-quality evidence to support for a causal link between knee joint loading during walking and structural progression of knee OA. Trial registration number CRD42012003253 PMID:25031196

  13. Is there a causal link between knee loading and knee osteoarthritis progression? A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies and randomised trials.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Marius; Creaby, Mark W; Lund, Hans; Juhl, Carsten; Christensen, Robin

    2014-07-15

    We performed a systematic review, meta-analysis and assessed the evidence supporting a causal link between knee joint loading during walking and structural knee osteoarthritis (OA) progression. Systematic review, meta-analysis and application of Bradford Hill's considerations on causation. We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, AMED, CINAHL and SportsDiscus for prospective cohort studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) from 1950 through October 2013. We selected cohort studies and RCTs in which estimates of knee joint loading during walking were used to predict structural knee OA progression assessed by X-ray or MRI. Meta-analysis was performed to estimate the combined OR for structural disease progression with higher baseline loading. The likelihood of a causal link between knee joint loading and OA progression was assessed from cohort studies using the Bradford Hill guidelines to derive a 0-4 causation score based on four criteria and examined for confirmation in RCTs. Of the 1078 potentially eligible articles, 5 prospective cohort studies were included. The studies included a total of 452 patients relating joint loading to disease progression over 12-72 months. There were very serious limitations associated with the methodological quality of the included studies. The combined OR for disease progression was 1.90 (95% CI 0.85 to 4.25; I(2)=77%) for each one-unit increment in baseline knee loading. The combined causation score was 0, indicating no causal association between knee loading and knee OA progression. No RCTs were found to confirm or refute the findings from the cohort studies. There is very limited and low-quality evidence to support for a causal link between knee joint loading during walking and structural progression of knee OA. CRD42012003253. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Experimental pain phenotyping in community-dwelling individuals with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Josue S; Riley, Joseph L; Glover, Toni; Sibille, Kimberly T; Bartley, Emily J; Goodin, Burel R; Bulls, Hailey W; Herbert, Matthew; Addison, Adriana S; Staud, Roland; Redden, David T; Bradley, Laurence A; Fillingim, Roger B; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel

    2016-09-01

    Pain among individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with significant disability in older adults, and recent evidence demonstrates enhanced experimental pain sensitivity. Although previous research showed considerable heterogeneity in the OA clinical pain presentation, less is known regarding the variability in responses to experimental pain. The present study included individuals with knee OA (n = 292) who participated in the Understanding Pain and Limitations in Osteoarthritic Disease study and completed demographic and psychological questionnaires followed by a multimodal quantitative sensory testing (QST) session. Quantitative sensory testing measures were subjected to variable reduction procedures to derive pain sensitivity index scores, which in turn were entered into a cluster analysis. Five clusters were significantly different across all pain sensitivity index variables (P < 0.001) and were characterized by: (1) low pain sensitivity to pressure pain (N = 39); (2) average pain sensitivity across most modalities (N = 88); (3) high temporal summation of punctate pain (N = 38); (4) high cold pain sensitivity (N = 80); and (5) high sensitivity to heat pain and temporal summation of heat pain (N = 41). Clusters differed significantly by race, gender, somatic reactivity, and catastrophizing (P < 0.05). Our findings support the notion that there are distinct subgroups or phenotypes based on experimental pain sensitivity in community-dwelling older adults with knee OA, expanding previous findings of similar cluster characterizations in healthy adults. Future research is needed to further understand the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying pain within these subgroups, which may be of added value in tailoring effective treatments for people with OA.

  15. Intra-articular hyaluronan is without clinical effect in knee osteoarthritis: a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of 337 patients followed for 1 year.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Anette; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Simonsen, Ole; Pfeiffer-Jensen, Mogens; Eriksen, Christian; Bliddal, Henning; Pedersen, Niels Wisbech; Bødtker, Søren; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Snerum, Lennart Ørtoft; Egund, Niels; Frimer-Larsen, Helle

    2010-06-01

    To examine the long-term efficacy and safety of five intra-articular injections with hyaluronan in knee osteoarthritis. A multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled double-blind study of 337 patients fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for knee osteoarthritis (clinical and laboratory) and with a Lequesne algofunctional index score (LFI) of 10 or greater. Patients received a hyaluronan product (sodium hyaluronate; Hyalgan) (n=167) or saline (n=170) intra-articularly weekly for 5 weeks and were followed up to 1 year. Time to recurrence was the primary efficacy parameter. LFI, pain on walking 50 m based on visual analogue scale (VAS pain 50 m), paracetamol consumption, patients' global assessment, Nottingham health profile, joint effusion and number of responders were secondary efficacy parameters. The efficacy parameters were analysed by intention to treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP). All adverse events (AE) were recorded as safety parameters. Time to recurrence showed no significant treatment effect (ITT analysis, p=0.26). Change from baseline in LFI and VAS pain 50 m for the ITT population showed no treatment effect. Paracetamol consumption, patients' global assessment, responder rates and AE displayed no significant difference between treatment groups, analysed by both ITT and PP. Treatment compliance was 95% in the hyaluronan group and 99% in the placebo group. No safety problems were registered. In patients fulfilling the ACR criteria for osteoarthritis of the knee with moderate to severe disease activity (LFI > or = 10), five intra-articular injections of hyaluronan did not improve pain, function, paracetamol consumption or other efficacy parameters 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the treatment.

  16. Existence of a Neuropathic Pain Component in Patients with Osteoarthritis of the Knee

    PubMed Central

    Orita, Sumihisa; Yamashita, Masaomi; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Ito, Toshinori; Shigemura, Tomonori; Nishiyama, Hideki; Konno, Shin; Ohta, Hideyuki; Takaso, Masashi; Inoue, Gen; Eguchi, Yawara; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Kishida, Shunji; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki; Aoki, Yasuchika; Arai, Gen; Miyagi, Masayuki; Kamoda, Hiroto; Suzkuki, Miyako; Nakamura, Junichi; Furuya, Takeo; Kubota, Gou; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Masahiko; Sasho, Takahisa; Nakagawa, Koichi; Toyone, Tomoaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Pain from osteoarthritis (OA) is generally classified as nociceptive (inflammatory). Animal models of knee OA have shown that sensory nerve fibers innervating the knee are significantly damaged with destruction of subchondral bone junction, and induce neuropathic pain (NP). Our objective was to examine NP in the knees of OA patients using painDETECT (an NP questionnaire) and to evaluate the relationship between NP, pain intensity, and stage of OA. Materials and Methods Ninety-two knee OA patients were evaluated in this study. Pain scores using Visual Analogue Scales (VAS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), painDETECT, duration of symptoms, severity of OA using the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) system, and amount of joint fluid were evaluated and compared using a Spearman's correlation coefficient by rank test. Results Our study identified at least 5.4% of our knee OA patients as likely to have NP and 15.2% as possibly having NP. The painDETECT score was significantly correlated with the VAS and WOMAC pain severity. Compared with the painDETECT score, there was a tendency for positive correlation with the KL grade, and tendency for negative correlation with the existence and amount of joint fluid, but these correlations were not significant. Conclusion PainDETECT scores classified 5.4% of pain from knee OA as NP. NP tended to be seen in patients with less joint fluid and increased KL grade, both of which corresponded to late stages of OA. It is important to consider the existence of NP in the treatment of knee OA pain. PMID:22665349

  17. Acupuncture and other physical treatments for the relief of pain due to osteoarthritis of the knee: network meta-analysis☆

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, M.S.; Rice, S.J.C.; Madurasinghe, V.; Slack, R.; Fayter, D.A.; Harden, M.; Sutton, A.J.; MacPherson, H.; Woolacott, N.F.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Objective To compare the effectiveness of acupuncture with other relevant physical treatments for alleviating pain due to knee osteoarthritis. Design Systematic review with network meta-analysis, to allow comparison of treatments within a coherent framework. Comprehensive searches were undertaken up to January 2013 to identify randomised controlled trials in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee, which reported pain. Results Of 156 eligible studies, 114 trials (covering 22 treatments and 9,709 patients) provided data suitable for analysis. Most trials studied short-term effects and many were classed as being of poor quality with high risk of bias, commonly associated with lack of blinding (which was sometimes impossible to achieve). End of treatment results showed that eight interventions: interferential therapy, acupuncture, TENS, pulsed electrical stimulation, balneotherapy, aerobic exercise, sham acupuncture, and muscle-strengthening exercise produced a statistically significant reduction in pain when compared with standard care. In a sensitivity analysis of satisfactory and good quality studies, most studies were of acupuncture (11 trials) or muscle-strengthening exercise (9 trials); both interventions were statistically significantly better than standard care, with acupuncture being statistically significantly better than muscle-strengthening exercise (standardised mean difference: 0.49, 95% credible interval 0.00–0.98). Conclusions As a summary of the current available research, the network meta-analysis results indicate that acupuncture can be considered as one of the more effective physical treatments for alleviating osteoarthritis knee pain in the short-term. However, much of the evidence in this area of research is of poor quality, meaning there is uncertainty about the efficacy of many physical treatments. PMID:23973143

  18. Acupuncture and other physical treatments for the relief of pain due to osteoarthritis of the knee: network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Corbett, M S; Rice, S J C; Madurasinghe, V; Slack, R; Fayter, D A; Harden, M; Sutton, A J; Macpherson, H; Woolacott, N F

    2013-09-01

    To compare the effectiveness of acupuncture with other relevant physical treatments for alleviating pain due to knee osteoarthritis. Systematic review with network meta-analysis, to allow comparison of treatments within a coherent framework. Comprehensive searches were undertaken up to January 2013 to identify randomised controlled trials in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee, which reported pain. Of 156 eligible studies, 114 trials (covering 22 treatments and 9,709 patients) provided data suitable for analysis. Most trials studied short-term effects and many were classed as being of poor quality with high risk of bias, commonly associated with lack of blinding (which was sometimes impossible to achieve). End of treatment results showed that eight interventions: interferential therapy, acupuncture, TENS, pulsed electrical stimulation, balneotherapy, aerobic exercise, sham acupuncture, and muscle-strengthening exercise produced a statistically significant reduction in pain when compared with standard care. In a sensitivity analysis of satisfactory and good quality studies, most studies were of acupuncture (11 trials) or muscle-strengthening exercise (9 trials); both interventions were statistically significantly better than standard care, with acupuncture being statistically significantly better than muscle-strengthening exercise (standardised mean difference: 0.49, 95% credible interval 0.00-0.98). As a summary of the current available research, the network meta-analysis results indicate that acupuncture can be considered as one of the more effective physical treatments for alleviating osteoarthritis knee pain in the short-term. However, much of the evidence in this area of research is of poor quality, meaning there is uncertainty about the efficacy of many physical treatments. Copyright © 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Strength training alone, exercise therapy alone, and exercise therapy with passive manual mobilisation each reduce pain and disability in people with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Mariette J; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Lenssen, Antoine F; Hendriks, Erik J M; de Bie, Rob A

    2011-01-01

    What are the effects of strength training alone, exercise therapy alone, and exercise with additional passive manual mobilisation on pain and function in people with knee osteoarthritis compared to control? What are the effects of these interventions relative to each other? A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Adults with osteoarthritis of the knee. INTERVENTION TYPES: Strength training alone, exercise therapy alone (combination of strength training with active range of motion exercises and aerobic activity), or exercise with additional passive manual mobilisation, versus any non-exercise control. Comparisons between the three interventions were also sought. The primary outcome measures were pain and physical function. 12 trials compared one of the interventions against control. The effect size on pain was 0.38 (95% CI 0.23 to 0.54) for strength training, 0.34 (95% CI 0.19 to 0.49) for exercise, and 0.69 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.96) for exercise plus manual mobilisation. Each intervention also improved physical function significantly. No randomised comparisons of the three interventions were identified. However, meta-regression indicated that exercise plus manual mobilisations improved pain significantly more than exercise alone (p = 0.03). The remaining comparisons between the three interventions for pain and physical function were not significant. Exercise therapy plus manual mobilisation showed a moderate effect size on pain compared to the small effect sizes for strength training or exercise therapy alone. To achieve better pain relief in patients with knee osteoarthritis physiotherapists or manual therapists might consider adding manual mobilisation to optimise supervised active exercise programs. Copyright © 2011 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  20. Pain education to prevent chronic low back pain: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Traeger, Adrian C; Moseley, G Lorimer; Hübscher, Markus; Lee, Hopin; Skinner, Ian W; Nicholas, Michael K; Henschke, Nicholas; Refshauge, Kathryn M; Blyth, Fiona M; Main, Chris J; Hush, Julia M; Pearce, Garry; McAuley, James H

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Low back pain (LBP) is the leading cause of disability worldwide. Of those patients who present to primary care with acute LBP, 40% continue to report symptoms 3 months later and develop chronic LBP. Although it is possible to identify these patients early, effective interventions to improve their outcomes are not available. This double-blind (participant/outcome assessor) randomised controlled trial will investigate the efficacy of a brief educational approach to prevent chronic LBP in ‘at-risk’ individuals. Methods/analysis Participants will be recruited from primary care practices in the Sydney metropolitan area. To be eligible for inclusion participants will be aged 18–75 years, with acute LBP (<4 weeks’ duration) preceded by at least a 1 month pain-free period and at-risk of developing chronic LBP. Potential participants with chronic spinal pain and those with suspected serious spinal pathology will be excluded. Eligible participants who agree to take part will be randomly allocated to receive 2×1 h sessions of pain biology education or 2×1 h sessions of sham education from a specially trained study physiotherapist. The study requires 101 participants per group to detect a 1-point difference in pain intensity 3 months after pain onset. Secondary outcomes include the incidence of chronic LBP, disability, pain intensity, depression, healthcare utilisation, pain attitudes and beliefs, global recovery and recurrence and are measured at 1 week post-intervention, and at 3, 6 and 12 months post LBP onset. Ethics/dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from the University of New South Wales Human Ethics Committee in June 2013 (ref number HC12664). Outcomes will be disseminated through publication in peer-reviewed journals and presentations at international conference meetings. Trial registration number https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?ACTRN=12612001180808 PMID:24889854

  1. Validated Measures of Illness Perception and Behavior in People with Knee Pain and Knee Osteoarthritis: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Clayon B; Wong, Ming-Kin; Gignac, Monique A M; Davis, Aileen M; Chesworth, Bert M

    2017-01-01

    To identify validated measures that capture illness perception and behavior and have been used to assess people who have knee pain/osteoarthritis. A scoping review was performed. Nine electronic databases were searched for records from inception through April 19, 2015. Search terms included illness perception, illness behavior, knee, pain, osteoarthritis, and their related terms. This review included English language publications of primary data on people with knee pain/osteoarthritis who were assessed with validated measures capturing any of 4 components of illness perception and behavior: monitor body, define and interpret symptoms, take remedial action, and utilize sources of help. Seventy-one publications included relevant measures. Two reviewers independently coded and analyzed each relevant measure within the 4 components. Sixteen measures were identified that capture components of illness perception and behavior in the target population. These measures were originally developed to capture constructs that include coping strategies/skills/styles, illness belief, illness perception, self-efficacy, and pain behavior. Coding results indicated that 5, 11, 12, and 5 of these measures included the monitor body, define and interpret symptoms, take remedial action, and utilize sources of help components, respectively. Several validated measures were interpreted as capturing some components, and only 1 measure was interpreted as capturing all of the components of illness perception and behavior in the target population. A measure that comprehensively captures illness perception and behavior could be valuable for informing and evaluating therapy for patients along a continuum of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  2. The effect of patellar taping on squat depth and the perception of pain in people with anterior knee pain.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Amanda M; Harrington, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Patellar taping is a treatment adjunct commonly used in the management of anterior knee pain. The aim of this cross sectional study was to investigate the effects of medial glide patellar taping on sagittal plane lower-limb joint kinematics and knee pain during a unilateral squat in a symptomatic population complaining of anterior knee pain. Ten participants with a history of unilateral or bilateral anterior knee pain were included in the study. Subjects were required to squat on the symptomatic leg under three conditions: placebo tape, patellar tape and no tape. Kinematic data was recorded using the CODA mpx64 motion analysis system and subjects' pain was assessed using the Numerical Rating Scale. Patellar taping resulted in a significantly greater single-legged squat depth compared to placebo tape (p=0.008) and no tape (p=0.001) and a statistically significant reduction in pain during a squat compared to placebo tape (p=0.001) or no tape (p=0.001). Significant differences were not identified for maximum knee flexion in the patella taping compared to the no tape condition. This study may have significant clinical implications as participants reported less pain and alterations in sagittal plane movement following the application of patellar tape.

  3. Radiofrequency treatment relieves chronic knee osteoarthritis pain: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo-Jong; Hwang, Seung-Jun; Song, Jun-Gol; Leem, Jeong-Gil; Kang, Yong-Up; Park, Pyong-Hwan; Shin, Jin-Woo

    2011-03-01

    Chronic osteoarthritis (OA) pain of the knee is often not effectively managed with current non-pharmacological or pharmacological treatments. Radiofrequency (RF) neurotomy is a therapeutic alternative for chronic pain. We investigated whether RF neurotomy applied to articular nerve branches (genicular nerves) was effective in relieving chronic OA knee joint pain. The study involved 38 elderly patients with (a) severe knee OA pain lasting more than 3 months, (b) positive response to a diagnostic genicular nerve block and (c) no response to conservative treatments. Patients were randomly assigned to receive percutaneous RF genicular neurotomy under fluoroscopic guidance (RF group; n=19) or the same procedure without effective neurotomy (control group; n=19). Visual analogue scale (VAS), Oxford knee scores, and global perceived effect on a 7-point scale were measured at baseline and at 1, 4, and 12weeks post-procedure. VAS scores showed that the RF group had less knee joint pain at 4 (p<0.001) and 12 (p<0.001) weeks compared with the control group. Oxford knee scores showed similar findings (p<0.001). In the RF group, 10/17 (59%), 11/17 (65%) and 10/17 (59%) achieved at least 50% knee pain relief at 1, 4, and 12 weeks, respectively. No patient reported a post-procedure adverse event during the follow-up period. RF neurotomy of genicular nerves leads to significant pain reduction and functional improvement in a subset of elderly chronic knee OA pain, and thus may be an effective treatment in such cases. Further trials with larger sample size and longer follow-up are warranted. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pseudogout at the knee joint will frequently occur after hip fracture and lead to the knee pain in the early postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Harato, Kengo; Yoshida, Hiroki

    2015-01-14

    Symptomatic knee joint effusion is frequently observed after hip fracture, which may lead to postoperative knee pain during rehabilitation after hip fracture surgery. However, unfortunately, very little has been reported on this phenomenon in the literature. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between symptomatic knee effusion and postoperative knee pain and to clarify the reason of the effusion accompanied by hip fracture. A total of 100 patients over 65 years of age with an acute hip fracture after fall were prospectively followed up. Knee effusion was assessed on admission and at the operating room before the surgery. If knee effusion was observed at the time of the surgery, synovial fluid was collected into syringes to investigate the cause of the effusion using a compensated polarized light microscope. Furthermore, for each patient, we evaluated age, sex, radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA), type of the fracture, laterality, severity of the fracture, and postoperative knee pain during rehabilitation. These factors were compared between patients with and without knee effusion at the time of the surgery. As a statistical analysis, we used Mann-Whitney U-test for patients' age and categorical variables were analyzed by chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. A total of 30 patients presented symptomatic knee effusion at the time of the surgery. In patients with knee effusion, numbers of intertrochanteric fracture, radiographic knee OA, and postoperative knee pain were significantly large compared to those without effusion. In terms of synovial fluid analysis, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals were observed in 80% of patients with knee effusion. From our study, approximately 63% of patients with knee effusion at the time of the surgery had postoperative knee pain. In addition, this effusion was basically related to pseudogout.

  5. Muscle power is an independent determinant of pain and quality of life in knee osteoarthritis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined the relationships between leg muscle strength, power, and perceived disease severity in subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) in order to determine whether dynamic leg extensor muscle power would be associated with pain and quality of life in knee OA. METHODS: Baseli...

  6. Lower Limbs Function and Pain Relationships after Unilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tali, Maie; Maaroos, Jaak

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate gait characteristics, lower limbs joint function, and pain relationships associated with knee osteoarthritis of female patients before and 3 months after total knee arthroplasty at an outpatient clinic rehabilitation department. Gait parameters were registered, the active range of lower extremity joints was…

  7. Lower Limbs Function and Pain Relationships after Unilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tali, Maie; Maaroos, Jaak

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate gait characteristics, lower limbs joint function, and pain relationships associated with knee osteoarthritis of female patients before and 3 months after total knee arthroplasty at an outpatient clinic rehabilitation department. Gait parameters were registered, the active range of lower extremity joints was…

  8. Efficacy and safety of strontium ranelate in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: results of a double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Reginster, Jean-Yves; Badurski, Janusz; Bellamy, Nicholas; Bensen, William; Chapurlat, Roland; Chevalier, Xavier; Christiansen, Claus; Genant, Harry; Navarro, Federico; Nasonov, Evgeny; Sambrook, Philip N; Spector, Timothy D; Cooper, Cyrus

    2013-01-01

    Background Strontium ranelate is currently used for osteoporosis. The international, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled Strontium ranelate Efficacy in Knee OsteoarthrItis triAl evaluated its effect on radiological progression of knee osteoarthritis. Methods Patients with knee osteoarthritis (Kellgren and Lawrence grade 2 or 3, and joint space width (JSW) 2.5–5 mm) were randomly allocated to strontium ranelate 1 g/day (n=558), 2 g/day (n=566) or placebo (n=559). The primary endpoint was radiographical change in JSW (medial tibiofemoral compartment) over 3 years versus placebo. Secondary endpoints included radiological progression, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score, and knee pain. The trial is registered (ISRCTN41323372). Results The intention-to-treat population included 1371 patients. Treatment with strontium ranelate was associated with smaller degradations in JSW than placebo (1 g/day: −0.23 (SD 0.56) mm; 2 g/day: −0.27 (SD 0.63) mm; placebo: −0.37 (SD 0.59) mm); treatment-placebo differences were 0.14 (SE 0.04), 95% CI 0.05 to 0.23, p<0.001 for 1 g/day and 0.10 (SE 0.04), 95% CI 0.02 to 0.19, p=0.018 for 2 g/day. Fewer radiological progressors were observed with strontium ranelate (p<0.001 and p=0.012 for 1 and 2 g/day). There were greater reductions in total WOMAC score (p=0.045), pain subscore (p=0.028), physical function subscore (p=0.099) and knee pain (p=0.065) with strontium ranelate 2 g/day. Strontium ranelate was well tolerated. Conclusions Treatment with strontium ranelate 1 and 2 g/day is associated with a significant effect on structure in patients with knee osteoarthritis, and a beneficial effect on symptoms for strontium ranelate 2 g/day. PMID:23117245

  9. Addition of telephone coaching to a physiotherapist-delivered physical activity program in people with knee osteoarthritis: A randomised controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common and costly chronic musculoskeletal conditions world-wide and is associated with substantial pain and disability. Many people with knee OA also experience co-morbidities that further add to the OA burden. Uptake of and adherence to physical activity recommendations is suboptimal in this patient population, leading to poorer OA outcomes and greater impact of associated co-morbidities. This pragmatic randomised controlled trial will investigate the clinical- and cost-effectiveness of adding telephone coaching to a physiotherapist-delivered physical activity intervention for people with knee OA. Methods/Design 168 people with clinically diagnosed knee OA will be recruited from the community in metropolitan and regional areas and randomly allocated to physiotherapy only, or physiotherapy plus nurse-delivered telephone coaching. Physiotherapy involves five treatment sessions over 6 months, incorporating a home exercise program of 4–6 exercises (targeting knee extensor and hip abductor strength) and advice to increase daily physical activity. Telephone coaching comprises 6–12 telephone calls over 6 months by health practitioners trained in applying the Health Change Australia (HCA) Model of Health Change to provide behaviour change support. The telephone coaching intervention aims to maximise adherence to the physiotherapy program, as well as facilitate increased levels of participation in general physical activity. The primary outcomes are pain measured by an 11-point numeric rating scale and self-reported physical function measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index subscale after 6 months. Secondary outcomes include physical activity levels, quality-of-life, and potential moderators and mediators of outcomes including self-efficacy, pain coping and depression. Relative cost-effectiveness will be determined from health service usage and outcome data. Follow

  10. Unusual Presentation of Anterior Knee Pain in Elite Female Athletes: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinning; Williams, Phillip; Curry, Emily J.; Hannafin, Jo A.

    2016-01-01

    Two elite female athletes presented with anterior knee pain with range of motion and reproducible tenderness to palpation. Diagnostic arthroscopy was performed in both cases resulting in excision of a nodular pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) in the first patient and scar tissue in the second patient. Correct diagnosis of anterior knee pain in the elite female athlete can present a challenge to clinicians. Although patellofe-moral pain is the most common diagnosis, other uncommon causes include PVNS and residual scar formation in patients with a history of surgery or trauma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images are helpful in confirming the diagnosis, however, in a subset of patients, the physician must rely on clinical suspicion and physical exam to make the proper diagnosis. Given the possibility of a false negative MRI images, patients with persistent anterior knee pain with a history of knee surgeries and focal tenderness reproducible on physical exam may benefit from a diagnostic arthroscopy. PMID:27114812

  11. Future directions in painful knee osteoarthritis: harnessing complexity in a heterogeneous population.

    PubMed

    Kittelson, Andrew J; George, Steven Z; Maluf, Katrina S; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer E

    2014-03-01

    This perspective article proposes a conceptual model for the pain experience for individuals diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Pain in knee OA is likely a heterogeneous, multifactorial phenomenon that involves not only the OA disease process but also elements specific to patient psychology and pain neurophysiology. The relevant contributions to the pain experience for any individual patient remain difficult, if not impossible, to definitively determine, and the rationale for many clinical treatment decisions arises primarily from a mechanistic understanding of OA pathophysiology. The Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) recently identified "phenotyping" of OA pain as a research priority to "better target pain therapies to individual patients." This perspective article proposes that contributions from 3 domains--knee pathology, psychological distress, and pain neurophysiology--should be considered equally important in future efforts to understand pain phenotypes in knee OA. Ultimately, characterization of pain phenotypes may aid in the understanding of the pain experience and the development of interventions specific to pain for individual patients.

  12. Relationship between joint gap difference and range of motion in total knee arthroplasty: a prospective randomised study between different platforms.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Hiroshi; Hatayama, Kazuhisa; Shimizu, Masaki; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Takagishi, Kenji

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the range of motion (ROM) of the knee before and four years after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with a mobile or fixed type of platform and to prospectively evaluate whether there was a difference in ligament balance between the platform types. The subjects were 68 patients involving 76 joints. The mobile type was used in 31 joints and fixed type in 45 joints by employing a prospective randomised method. The passive maximum ROM was measured using a goniometer before and four years after surgery. Also, the intraoperative knee ligament balance was measured. The postoperative extension ROM was significantly improved after TKA using a mobile bearing type compared with that employing a fixed bearing type. In TKA using the former, the intraoperative gap difference was not related to the postoperative flexion angle of the knee. However, they were related in TKA using a fixed bearing type, with a positive correlation regarding the flexion gap.

  13. Imaging pain relief in osteoarthritis (IPRO): protocol of a double-blind randomised controlled mechanistic study assessing pain relief and prediction of duloxetine treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Reckziegel, Diane; Bailey, Helen; Cottam, William J; Tench, Christopher R; Mahajan, Ravi P; Walsh, David A; Knaggs, Roger D; Auer, Dorothee P

    2017-06-26

    Osteoarthritis (OA) pain is a major cause of long-term disability and chronic pain in the adult population. One in five patients does not receive satisfactory pain relief, which reflects the complexity of chronic pain and the current lack of understanding of mechanisms of chronic pain. Recently, duloxetine has demonstrated clinically relevant pain relief, but only in half of treated patients with OA. Here, the aim is to investigate the neural mechanisms of pain relief and neural signatures that may predict treatment response to duloxetine in chronic knee OA pain. This is an ongoing single-centre randomised placebo-controlled mechanistic study (2:1 (placebo) allocation), using a multimodal neuroimaging approach, together with psychophysiological (quantitative sensory testing), genetics and questionnaire assessments. Eighty-one subjects with chronic knee OA pain are planned to power for between-group comparisons (placebo, duloxetine responder and duloxetine non-responder). Participants have a baseline assessment and, following 6 weeks of duloxetine (30 mg for 2 weeks, then 60 mg for 4 weeks), a follow-up evaluation. Brain imaging is performed at 3T with blood-oxygen-level dependent functional MRI at rest and during pin-prick nociceptive stimulation for main outcome assessment; arterial spin labelling and structural imaging (T1-weighted) for secondary outcome assessment. Questionnaires evaluate pain, negative affect, quality of sleep and cognition. The study has been approved by the East Midlands, Nottingham and is being carried out under the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki (64th, 2013) and Good Clinical Practice standards. Results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and at scientific conferences. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02208778).This work was supported by Arthritis Research UK (Grant 18769). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights

  14. Postoperative pain treatment after total knee arthroplasty: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Wetterslev, Mik; Hansen, Signe Elisa; Hansen, Morten Sejer; Mathiesen, Ole; Dahl, Jørgen B.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this systematic review was to document efficacy, safety and quality of evidence of analgesic interventions after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods This PRISMA-compliant and PROSPERO-registered review includes all-language randomized controlled trials of medication-based analgesic interventions after TKA. Bias was evaluated according to Cochrane methodology. Outcomes were opioid consumption (primary), pain scores at rest and during mobilization, adverse events, and length of stay. Interventions investigated in three or more trials were meta-analysed. Outcomes were evaluated using forest plots, Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE), L’Abbe Plots and trial sequential analysis. Results The included 113 trials, investigating 37 different analgesic interventions, were characterized by unclear/high risk of bias, low assay sensitivity and considerable differences in pain assessment tools, basic analgesic regimens, and reporting of adverse events. In meta-analyses single and continuous femoral nerve block (FNB), intrathecal morphine, local infiltration analgesia, intraarticular injection of local anaesthetics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and gabapentinoids demonstrated significant analgesic effects. The 24-hour morphine-sparing effects ranged from 4.2 mg (CI: 1.3, 7.2; intraarticular local anaesthetics), to 16.6 mg (CI: 11.2, 22; single FNB). Pain relieving effects at rest at 6 hours ranged from 4 mm (CI: -10, 2; gabapentinoids), to 19 mm (CI: 8, 31; single FNB), and at 24 hours from 3 mm (CI: -2, 8; gabapentinoids), to 16 mm (CI: 8, 23; continuous FNB). GRADE-rated quality of evidence was generally low. Conclusion A low quality of evidence, small sample sizes and heterogeneity of trial designs prohibit designation of an optimal procedure-specific analgesic regimen after TKA. PMID:28273133

  15. Comparison of pain perception between open and minimally invasive surgery in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Biagio; Vitale, Elsa; Esposito, Antonio; Colella, Antonio; Cassano, Maria; Notarnicola, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) was a well-established procedure that had shown excellent long-term results in terms of reduced pain and increased mobility. Pain was one of the most important outcome measures that contributed to patient dissatisfaction after TKA. After a computerized search of the Medline and Embase databases, we considered articles from January 1st, 1997 to October 31st, 2009 that underlined the impact on patient pain perception of either standard open total knee arthroplasty or minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty. We included articles that used the visual analog scale (VAS), Western Ontario and McMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Knee Score, Hospital for Special Surgery Score (HSS), Oxford Knee Score (OKS) as postoperative pain indicators, and we included studies with a minimum follow-up period of two months. We excluded studies that monitored only functional postoperative knee activities. It was shown that TKA with the open technique was a better treatment for knees with a positive effect on pain and function than the minimally invasive technique. PMID:21042568

  16. Knee and hip radiographic osteoarthritis features: differences on pain, function and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Duarte; Severo, Milton; Santos, Rui A; Barros, Henrique; Branco, Jaime; Lucas, Raquel; Costa, Lúcia; Ramos, Elisabete

    2016-06-01

    The association between radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) and symptoms is inconsistent and variable according to each joint. The purpose of this study is to understand the relation between radiographic OA features, pain, function and quality of life, in knee and hip joints. A cross-sectional study was performed using information from EPIPorto cohort. Data was obtained by interview using a structured questionnaire on social, demographic, behavioural and clinical data. Pain was assessed using a pain frequency score (regarding ever having knee pain, pain in the last year, in the last 6 months and in the last month). Quality of life was evaluated with Short Form 36 (SF-36) and function disability with the Lequesne knee and hip indexes. Radiographic knees and hips were classified using the Kellgren-Lawrence score (KL 0-4). Linear regression and proportional odds ratios estimated the association between radiographic features, pain, function and quality of life. In our study, symptomatic OA (KL ≥ 2 plus joint pain) was 26.0 % in knee and 7.0 % hip joints. In knee, the increase on radiographic score increased the odds to have a higher pain frequency score [1.58 (95 % CI = 1.27, 1.97)] and was associated [adjusted β (95 % CI)] with worst general health [-3.05 (-5.00, -1.09)], physical function [-4.92 (-7.03, -2.80)], role-physical [-4.10 (-8.08, -0.11)], bodily pain [-2.96 (-5.45, -0.48)] and limitations in activities of daily living [0.48 (0.08, 0.89)]. Regarding hip, no significant associations were found between the severity of radiographic lesions and these measures. Radiographic lesions in knee were associated with higher complaints, as far as pain and functional limitations are concerned, compared with hip.

  17. Rest Pain and Movement‐Evoked Pain as Unique Constructs in Hip and Knee Replacements

    PubMed Central

    Wylde, Vikki; Lenguerrand, Erik; Beswick, Andrew D.; Gooberman‐Hill, Rachael; Pyke, Mark; Dieppe, Paul; Blom, Ashley W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is limited information about the extent to which the association between preoperative and chronic postoperative pain is mediated via pain‐on‐movement or pain‐at‐rest. We explored these associations in patients undergoing total hip replacement (THR) and total knee replacement (TKR). Methods A total of 322 and 316 patients receiving THR and TKR, respectively, were recruited into a single‐center UK cohort (Arthroplasty Pain Experience) study. Preoperative, acute postoperative, and 12‐month pain severity was measured using self‐reported pain instruments. The association between preoperative/acute pain and chronic postoperative pain was investigated using structural equation modeling (SEM). Results Patients with high levels of preoperative pain were more likely to report chronic pain after THR (β = 0.195, P = 0.02) and TKR (β = 0.749, P < 0.0001). Acute postoperative pain‐on‐movement was not associated with chronic pain after TKR or THR after adjusting for preoperative pain; however, acute pain‐at‐rest was associated with chronic pain after THR (β = 0.20, P < 0.0002) but not TKR after adjusting for preoperative pain. Analysis of pain‐at‐rest and pain‐on‐movement highlighted differences between THR and TKR patients. Chronic pain‐at‐rest after THR was weakly associated with pain‐at‐rest during the preoperative (β = 0.11, P = 0.068) and acute postoperative period (β = 0.21, P < 0.0001). In contrast, chronic pain‐on‐movement after TKR was strongly associated with the severity of pain‐on‐movement during the preoperative period (β = 0.51, P = 0.001). Conclusion SEM illustrated the different patterns of association between measures of pain over time in patients undergoing THR and TKR for osteoarthritis. These findings highlight the importance of future work that explores the mechanisms underlying pain‐on‐movement and pain‐at‐rest. PMID:26212349

  18. Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: medial pain and functional outcome in the medium term

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In our experience results of the Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement have not been as good as had been expected. A common post operative complaint is of persistent medial knee discomfort, it is not clear why this phenomenon occurs and we have attempted to address this in our study. Methods 48 patients were retrospectively identified at a mean of 4.5 years (range = 3 to 6 years) following consecutive Oxford medial Unicompartmental Knee arthroplasties for varus anteromedial osteoarthritis. The mean age at implantation was 67 years (range 57-86). Of these 48 patients, 4 had died, 4 had undergone revision of their unicompartmental knee replacements and 2 had been lost to follow up leaving 38 patients with 40 replaced knees available for analysis using the 'new Oxford Knee Score' questionnaire. During assessment patients were asked specifically whether or not they still experienced medial knee discomfort or pain. Results The mean 'Oxford score' was only 32.7 (range = 16 to 48) and 22 of the 40 knees were uncomfortable or painful medially. The accuracy of component positioning was recorded, using standard post operative xrays, by summing the angulation or displacement of each component in two planes from the ideal position (according to the 'Oxford knee system radiographic criteria'). No correlation was demonstrated between the radiographic scores and the 'Oxford scores', or with the presence or absence of medial knee discomfort or pain. Conclusion In our hands the functional outcome following Oxford Unicompartmental knee replacement was variable, with a high incidence of medial knee discomfort which did not correlate with the postoperative radiographic scores, pre-op arthritis and positioning of the prosthesis. PMID:21981987

  19. Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: medial pain and functional outcome in the medium term.

    PubMed

    Edmondson, Mark C; Isaac, David; Wijeratna, Malin; Brink, Sean; Gibb, Paul; Skinner, Paul

    2011-10-10

    In our experience results of the Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement have not been as good as had been expected. A common post operative complaint is of persistent medial knee discomfort, it is not clear why this phenomenon occurs and we have attempted to address this in our study. 48 patients were retrospectively identified at a mean of 4.5 years (range = 3 to 6 years) following consecutive Oxford medial Unicompartmental Knee arthroplasties for varus anteromedial osteoarthritis. The mean age at implantation was 67 years (range 57-86). Of these 48 patients, 4 had died, 4 had undergone revision of their unicompartmental knee replacements and 2 had been lost to follow up leaving 38 patients with 40 replaced knees available for analysis using the 'new Oxford Knee Score' questionnaire. During assessment patients were asked specifically whether or not they still experienced medial knee discomfort or pain. The mean 'Oxford score' was only 32.7 (range = 16 to 48) and 22 of the 40 knees were uncomfortable or painful medially.The accuracy of component positioning was recorded, using standard post operative xrays, by summing the angulation or displacement of each component in two planes from the ideal position (according to the 'Oxford knee system radiographic criteria'). No correlation was demonstrated between the radiographic scores and the 'Oxford scores', or with the presence or absence of medial knee discomfort or pain. In our hands the functional outcome following Oxford Unicompartmental knee replacement was variable, with a high incidence of medial knee discomfort which did not correlate with the postoperative radiographic scores, pre-op arthritis and positioning of the prosthesis.

  20. Patella position is not a determinant for anterior knee pain 10 years after balanced gap total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    van Houten, Albert H; Heesterbeek, Petra J C; Wymenga, Ate B

    2016-08-01

    Incidence of anterior knee pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is reported to be between 4 and 49 %. The incidence of AKP at long-term follow-up and possible determinants after cruciate cruciate-retaining TKA were investigated. A 10-year follow-up of a cohort of 55 patients (63 TKAs), who received the balanSys™ cruciate-retaining total knee system (Mathys Ltd, Bettlach, Switzerland) between 1999 and 2002, was performed. Patients had undergone the balanced gap technique, with either a fixed bearing or an AP-glide bearing. Standardised diagnostic questions regarding AKP were collected and categorised into two groups: those with and without AKP. The lateral patellar tilt, patellar displacement measurement and modified Insall-Salvati ratio were used for patella position evaluation on skyline radiographs. The Knee Society Score (KSS), the Knee Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and Numerical Rating Scales (NRS) for pain and satisfaction were obtained at follow-up. Sixteen patients in the study population experienced AKP. Incidence of AKP (fixed bearing 13/44; AP-glide bearing baring 3/17) was not dependent on type of insert (n.s.). There were no statistical differences in patella position and tibiofemoral contact point between the AKP group and the no AKP group (n.s.). KSS, KOOS, NRS-pain and NRS-satisfaction were significantly lower for the patients with AKP (all p < 0.05). Twenty-six percentage of the patients experienced AKP 10 years after balanced gap TKA. Postoperative patella positioning was not found to be a determinant for anterior knee pain after TKA. However, patellar displacement does not seem completely favourable. Moreover, type of bearing was not found a determinant for AKP at long-term follow-up. Lower quality prospective cohort study (<80 % follow-up, patients enrolled at different time points in disease), Level II.

  1. The Association of Obesity with Walking Independent of Knee Pain: The Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study

    PubMed Central

    White, Daniel K.; Neogi, Tuhina; Zhang, Yuqing; Felson, David; LaValley, Michael; Niu, Jingbo; Nevitt, Michael; Lewis, Cora E.; Torner, James; Douglas Gross, K.

    2012-01-01

    Practice guidelines recommend addressing obesity for people with knee OA, however, the association of obesity with walking independent of pain is not known. We investigated this association within the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study, a cohort of older adults who have or are at high risk of knee OA. Subjects wore a StepWatch to record steps taken over 7 days. We measured knee pain from a visual analogue scale and obesity by BMI. We examined the association of obesity with walking using linear regression adjusting for pain and covariates. Of 1788 subjects, the mean steps/day taken was 8872.9 ± 3543.4. Subjects with a BMI ≥35 took 3355 fewer steps per day independent of knee pain compared with those with a BMI ≤25 (95% CI −3899, −2811). BMI accounted for 9.7% of the variability of walking while knee pain accounted for 2.9%. BMI was associated with walking independent of knee pain. PMID:22645666

  2. Exercise and physical activity in older adults with knee pain: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Holden, Melanie A; Nicholls, Elaine E; Young, Julie; Hay, Elaine M; Foster, Nadine E

    2015-03-01

    To describe and explore current exercise and physical activity behaviour in older adults with knee pain in the UK. A survey was mailed to 2234 adults ≥50 years of age registered with one general practice within the UK to determine the presence and severity of knee pain and levels of physical activity. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 questionnaire responders with knee pain. The questionnaire response rate was 59% (n = 1276) and 611 respondents reported knee pain. Only ∼40% of individuals with knee pain were sufficiently active to meet physical activity recommendations. Interviews revealed individual differences in the type and setting of physical activity completed and some self-monitored their symptoms in response to physical activity in order to guide future behaviour. Innovative interventions that can be adapted to suit individual needs and preferences are required to help older adults with knee pain become more physically active. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology.

  3. Increased joint loads during walking--a consequence of pain relief in knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Marius; Simonsen, Erik B; Alkjaer, Tine; Lund, Hans; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Bliddal, Henning

    2006-12-01

    Joint pain is a primary symptom in knee osteoarthritis (OA), but the effect of pain and pain relief on the knee joint mechanics of walking is not clear. In this study, the effects of local knee joint analgesia on knee joint loads during walking were studied in a group of knee osteoarthritis patients. A group of healthy subjects was included as a reference group. The joint loads were calculated from standard gait analysis data obtained with standardised walking speed (4 km/h). The gait analyses were performed before and after pain relief by intra-articular injections of 10 mL lidocaine (1%). Pre-injection measurements revealed lower joint loads in the OA group compared to the reference group. Following injections pain during walking decreased significantly and the joint loads increased in the OA group during the late single support phase to a level comparable to the reference group. Although the patients walked with less compressive knee joint forces compared to the reference group, the effects of pain relief may accelerate the degenerative changes.

  4. Multimodal infiltration of local anaesthetic in total knee arthroplasty; is posterior capsular infiltration worth the risk? a prospective, double-blind, randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pinsornsak, P; Nangnual, S; Boontanapibul, K

    2017-04-01

    Multimodal infiltration of local anaesthetic provides effective control of pain in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). There is little information about the added benefits of posterior capsular infiltration (PCI) using different combinations of local anaesthetic agents. Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of the control of pain using multimodal infiltration with and without infiltration of the posterior capsule of the knee. In a double-blind, randomised controlled trial of patients scheduled for unilateral primary TKA, 86 were assigned to be treated with multimodal infiltration with (Group I) or without (Group II) PCI. Routine associated analgesia included the use of bupivacaine, morphine, ketorolac and epinephrine. All patients had spinal anaesthesia and patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) post-operatively. A visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain and the use of morphine were recorded 24 hours post-operatively. Side effects of the infiltration, blood loss, and length of stay in hospital were recorded. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in relation to: VAS pain scores in the first 24 hours post-operatively (p = 0.693), the use of morphine in the PCA (p = 0.647), blood loss (p = 0.625), and length of stay (p = 0.17). There were no neurovascular complications in either group. The multimodal infiltration of local anaesthetic with infiltration of the posterior capsule did not provide significant added analgesic benefits or reduce the use of morphine after TKA. Multimodal infiltration is a satisfactory technique for the management of pain in these patients without the attendant risks of PCI. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017; 99-B:483-8. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  5. Functional performance of mobile versus fixed bearing total knee prostheses: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, W C H; Christen, B; Wymenga, A B; Schuster, A; van der Schaaf, D B; ten Ham, A; Wehrli, U

    2012-08-01

    The primary goal of this study was to assess the difference in active flexion between patients with a mobile versus a fixed bearing, cruciate retaining, and total knee arthroplasty. The study was designed as a randomised controlled multi-centre trial. Participants were assigned to interventions by using block-stratified, random allocation. Outcome parameters were active flexion, passive flexion, and Knee Society Score (KSS). Outcome parameters were assessed preoperatively and at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively by an independent nurse. Ninety-two patients from one centre were included, 46 in each group. Active flexion was comparable for the two groups, 99.9° for the mobile bearing group and 101° for the fixed bearing group with a baseline controlled difference of 1.0 (95% CI -3.9 to 5.8, n.s.). The Clinical KSS was comparable between the two bearing groups (Mobile 90.0 vs. fixed 92.4, n.s.). The functional KSS showed a difference that was attributable to the stair climbing subscore, which showed a difference in favour of the fixed bearing design between preoperative and 3 months (7.3 point difference; 95% CI 2.3-12.5; P = 0.005) as well as 12 months (4.8 point difference; 95% CI 0.1-9.6; P = 0.045). There were no short-term differences in active flexion between fixed bearing and mobile bearing total knee arthroplasty. I.

  6. High Prevalence of Neuropathic Pain Features in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Oteo-Álvaro, Ángel; Ruiz-Ibán, Miguel A; Miguens, Xoan; Stern, Andrés; Villoria, Jesús; Sánchez-Magro, Isabel

    2015-09-01

    The present epidemiological research evaluated the prevalence of neuropathic pain characteristics in patients with painful knee osteoarthritis (OA) and the plausibility that such neuropathic features were specific of OA. Outpatients with chronic pain associated with knee OA who attended orthopedic surgery or rehabilitation clinics were systematically screened for neuropathic pain with the Douleur Neuropathique in 4 questions (DN4) questionnaire. Data from medical files and those obtained during a single structured clinical interview were correlated with the DN4 scores. Information on potential confounders of neuropathic-like qualities of knee pain was collected to evaluate as much as possible only the symptoms attributable to OA. Of 2,776 patients recruited, 2,167 patients provided valid data from 2,992 knees. The DN4 was scored positively (≥ 4) in 1,125 patients (51.9%) and 1,459 knees (48.8%). When patients with potential confounders were excluded, the respective prevalences were 33.3% and 29.4%. Patients who scored positively in the DN4 had more severe pain, greater structural damage, and more potential confounders of neuropathic pain. Three potential confounders conveyed much of the variability explained by regression analyses. However, latent class analyses revealed that the concourse of other factors is required to explain the neuropathic pain qualities. A relevant proportion of patients with chronic pain associated with knee OA featured neuropathic pain qualities that were not explained by other conditions. The present research has provided reasonable epidemiological grounds to attempt their definite diagnosis and classification. © 2014 World Institute of Pain.

  7. Randomised controlled trial of referral to a telephone-based weight management and healthy lifestyle programme for patients with knee osteoarthritis who are overweight or obese: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Kate M; Wiggers, John; Williams, Amanda; Campbell, Elizabeth; Yoong, Serene; Robson, Emma K; McAuley, James; Haskins, Robin; Kamper, Steven J; Williams, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide and is associated with significant pain and disability. Clinical practice guidelines consistently recommend weight management as a core aspect of care for overweight and obese patients with knee OA; however, provision of such care is suboptimal. Telephone-based interventions offer a novel approach to delivery of weight management care in these patients. The aim of the proposed study is to assess the effectiveness of referral to a telephone-based weight management and healthy lifestyle programme, previously shown to be effective in changing weight, in improving knee pain intensity in overweight or obese patients with knee OA, compared to usual care. Methods and analysis A parallel, randomised controlled trial will be undertaken. Patients with OA of the knee who are waiting for an outpatient orthopaedic consultation at a tertiary referral public hospital within New South Wales, Australia, will be allocated to either an intervention or a control group (1:1 ratio). After baseline data collection, patients in the intervention group will receive a 6-month telephone-based intervention, and patients in the control group will continue with usual care. Surveys will be conducted at baseline, 6 and 26 weeks post-randomisation. The study requires 60 participants per group to detect a two-point difference in pain intensity (primary outcome) 26 weeks after baseline. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the Hunter New England Health Human Research Ethics Committee (13/12/11/5.18) and the University of Newcastle Human Research Ethics Committee (H-2015-0043). The results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and at scientific conferences. Trial registration number ACTRN12615000490572, Pre-results. PMID:26940110

  8. Medial abrasion syndrome: a neglected cause of knee pain in middle and old age.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Shaw-Ruey; Lee, Ching-Chih; Hsu, Chia-Chen

    2015-04-01

    Knee pain is a prevailing health problem of middle and old age. Medial plica-related medial abrasion syndrome (MAS), although a well-known cause of knee pain in younger individuals, has rarely been investigated in older individuals. This prospective study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and clinical manifestations of this syndrome as a cause of knee pain in middle and old age. The outcomes of arthroscopic treatment for this syndrome were also evaluated.A total of 232 knees of 169 patients >40 years of age (41-82, median: 63 years old) suffering from chronic knee pain were analyzed. The clinical diagnosis, predisposing factors, presenting symptoms, and physical signs were investigated. The sensitivity and specificity of each parameter of the clinical presentation for the diagnosis of MAS were evaluated after confirmation by arthroscopy. For patients with MAS, the roentgenographic and arthroscopic manifestations were investigated, and arthroscopic medial release (AMR) was performed. The outcomes were evaluated by the changes in the pain domain of the Knee Society scoring system and by patient satisfaction. The prevalence of medial plica was 95%, and osteoarthritis (OA) was the most common clinical diagnosis. Symptoms of pain and crepitus in motion and local tenderness during physical examination were the most sensitive parameters for the diagnosis. A history of a single knee injury combined with local tenderness and a palpable band found during physical examination were the most specific parameters for the diagnosis. The majority of patients suffering from this syndrome were successfully treated using AMR, yielding a satisfaction rate of 85.5% after a minimum of 3 years.MAS is a common cause of knee pain in middle and old age and can be effectively treated by AMR. Its concomitance with OA warrants further investigation.

  9. Calcific tendinitis of biceps femoris: an unusual site and cause for lateral knee pain.

    PubMed

    Chan, Warwick; Chase, Helen Emily; Cahir, John G; Walton, Neil Patrick

    2016-07-29

    A 37-year-old man presented to the acute knee and sports medicine clinic with atraumatic lateral knee pain. He had point tenderness over the lateral aspect of his knee which had not settled with anti-inflammatory medications. Imaging revealed a large opaque lesion lateral to the knee and although there was no clear mechanism, injury to the posterolateral corner was considered. An MRI subsequently revealed a rare case of calcific tendinitis to the biceps femoris tendon insertion. This condition was self-limiting and did not require interventions such as steroid injections. This is the first reported case of calcific tendinitis of biceps femoris as a cause of acute knee pain. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  10. A randomised clinical trial of the efficacy of drop squats or leg extension/leg curl exercises to treat clinically diagnosed jumper's knee in athletes: pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Cannell, L; Taunton, J; Clement, D; Smith, C; Khan, K

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To compare the therapeutic effect of two different exercise protocols in athletes with jumper's knee. Methods—Randomised clinical trial comparing a 12 week programme of either drop squat exercises or leg extension/leg curl exercises. Measurement was performed at baseline and after six and 12 weeks. Primary outcome measures were pain (visual analogue scale 1–10) and return to sport. Secondary outcome measures included quadriceps and hamstring moment of force using a Cybex II isokinetic dynamometer at 30°/second. Differences in pain response between the drop squat and leg extension/curl treatment groups were assessed by 2 (group) x 3 (time) analysis of variance. Two by two contingency tables were used to test differences in rates of return to sport. Analysis of variance (2 (injured versus non-injured leg) x 2 (group) x 3 (time)) was also used to determine differences for secondary outcome measures. Results—Over the 12 week intervention, pain diminished by 2.3 points (36%) in the leg extension/curl group and 3.2 points (57%) in the squat group. There was a significant main effect of both exercise protocols on pain (p<0.01) with no interaction effect. Nine of 10 subjects in the drop squat group returned to sporting activity by 12 weeks, but five of those subjects still had low level pain. Six of nine of the leg extension/curl group returned to sporting activity by 12 weeks and four patients had low level pain. There was no significant difference between groups in numbers returning to sporting activity. There were no differences in the change in quadriceps or hamstring muscle moment of force between groups. Conclusions—Progressive drop squats and leg extension/curl exercises can reduce the pain of jumper's knee in a 12 week period and permit a high proportion of patients to return to sport. Not all patients, however, return to sport by that time. Key Words: knee; patellar tendon; tendinopathy; tendinosis; eccentric strengthening; strength training

  11. Peri-articular injections of local anaesthesia can replace patient-controlled analgesia after total knee arthroplasty: a randomised controlled study.

    PubMed

    Song, Moo-Ho; Kim, Bu-Hwan; Ahn, Seong-Jun; Yoo, Seong-Ho; Kang, Suk-Woong; Kim, Yeong-Joon; Kim, Dong-Hwan

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in peri-articular injections (PAI) to control post-operative pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Previous studies have evaluated the effect of PAI using multimodal analgaesic protocols, but the concomitant use of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) may has masked the genuine effects of PAI. We investigated the efficacy of PAI compared with PCA and determined whether conventional PCA can be effectively replaced with PAI after TKA. Eighty patients undergoing unilateral TKA were randomised into two groups. The PCA group consisted of patients who used PCA after surgery, while the PAI group included patients who did not use PCA post-operatively but were given PAI during surgery. We measured changes in visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, straight leg raising (SLR), range of motion (ROM) and consumption of antiemetics or analgaesics. Pain levels in the PAI group were significantly lower than in the PCA group during two weeks post-operatively (p < 0.05).; functional recovery in the SLR test showed no difference between groups (p > 0.05).; mean ROM showed no difference; (p > 0.05) and there was no difference in the number of patients who needed additional analgaesics. However, antiemetic use was significantly lower for the PAI group (p < 0.05). PAI offered improved pain control and minimal side effects compared with PCA. Thus, PAI can replace conventional PCA for controlling post-operative pain after TKA.

  12. Influence of nail prominence and insertion point on anterior knee pain after tibial intramedullary nailing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Yu; Lin, Kai-Cheng; Yang, Shan-Wei; Tarng, Yih-Wen; Hsu, Chien-Jen; Renn, Jenn-Huei

    2014-03-01

    Chronic anterior knee pain is the most common complication after tibial nail insertion. Its etiology remains unknown, and multifactorial sources have been suggested. The authors believe that nail prominence and the insertion point of the nail are important in the development of anterior knee pain. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the roles of the insertion point and nail prominence in anterior knee pain after tibial intramedullary nailing using a transtendinous approach and a common nail type. A total of 108 patients with tibial shaft fractures underwent reamed intramedullary nailing using a transtendinous approach between 2006 and 2009. Mean follow-up was 26.8±5.0 months. A visual analog scale (0-100) was used to estimate anterior knee pain severity while patients performed 7 activities retrospectively. Radiographic assessments, including nail prominence and insertion point, were performed. Sixty (55.6%) patients experienced knee pain (group P) and 48 (44.4%) did not (group N). Significant differences were not found between the groups with respect to demographics, nail diameters, or fracture classifications. Less superior and more anterior nail prominences in radiographic assessments were significantly associated with anterior knee pain. When the insertion point was over the bottom half of the anterior cortex, the influence of anterior nail prominence was more obvious. Nail removal resulted in diminished pain during the 7 assessed activities. Nail insertion should be over the bottom half of the anterior cortex, with minimal anterior nail prominence. If anterior knee pain occurs, removal of the nail should be considered.

  13. Hypnosis for reduction of background pain and pain anxiety in men with burns: A blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Jafarizadeh, Hossein; Lotfi, Mojgan; Ajoudani, Fardin; Kiani, Arezou; Alinejad, Vahid

    2017-08-08

    'Background pain' and 'pain anxiety' are among the numerous problems of patients with burns. Non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions have been used to reduce background pain and pain anxiety. This study compared the effectiveness of hypnosis and 'neutral hypnosis' (as a placebo in the control group) in decreasing the background burn pain and pain anxiety of adult male survivors with burns. This is a blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled study. Sixty men with burns were included in the minimisation method (30 individuals in the intervention group and 30 individuals in the control group). Four hypnotherapy sessions were performed every other day for each participant in the intervention group. Four neutral hypnosis sessions were performed every other day in the control group. Burn pain and pain anxiety of the patients in both groups were measured at the end of the second and fourth sessions. Repeated measures ANOVA was used for data analysis. There was no significant difference between the groups in the reduction in background pain intensity. There was a significant reduction in background pain quality and pain anxiety in the intervention group during the four hypnosis sessions. After two hypnotherapy sessions, a significant reduction was observed in the level of background pain quality and pain anxiety of participants. Hypnosis is effective in reducing background pain quality and pain anxiety of men with burns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. [The effects of hand acupuncture therapy on pain, ROM, ADL and depression among elders with low back pain and knee joint pain].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-Hyang

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of hand acupuncture therapy on pain, ROM, ADL, and depression among older people with low back pain and knee joint pain. The research was a quasi-experimental design using a non-equivalent control group pre-post test. The participants were 40 patients, 18 in the experimental group and 22 in the control group. A pretest and 2 posttest were conducted to measure the main variables. For the experimental group, hand acupuncture therapy, consisting of hand acupuncture and press-pellets based on corresponding points, was given. There were statistically significant differences in pain, ROM in knee joint, and ADL in the experimental group but not in depression compared to the control group over two different times. The hand acupuncture therapy was effective for low back pain, knee joint pain, ROM in knee joint and ADL among the elders in this study. Therefore, the hand acupuncture therapy can be utilized in the field of geriatric nursing as a nursing intervention for older people with low back pain and knee joint pain.

  15. Anterior knee pain following total knee replacement correlates with the OARSI score of the cartilage of the patella.

    PubMed

    Metsna, Vahur; Vorobjov, Sigrid; Lepik, Katrin; Märtson, Aare

    2014-08-01

    Attempts to relate patellar cartilage involvement to anterior knee pain (AKP) have yielded conflicting results. We determined whether the condition of the cartilage of the patella at the time of knee replacement, as assessed by the OARSI score, correlates with postsurgical AKP. We prospectively studied 100 patients undergoing knee arthroplasty. At surgery, we photographed and biopsied the articular surface of the patella, leaving the patella unresurfaced. Following determination of the microscopic grade of the patellar cartilage lesion and the stage by analyzing the intraoperative photographs, we calculated the OARSI score. We interviewed the patients 1 year after knee arthroplasty using the HSS patella score for diagnosis of AKP. 57 of 95 patients examined had AKP. The average OARSI score of painless patients was 13 (6-20) and that of patients with AKP was 15 (6-20) (p = 0.04). Patients with OARSI scores of 13-24 had 50% higher risk of AKP (prevalence ratio = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0-2.3) than patients with OARSI scores of 0-12. The depth and extent of the cartilage lesion of the knee-cap should be considered when deciding between the various options for treatment of the patella during knee replacement.

  16. Alpine Skiing With total knee ArthroPlasty (ASWAP): physical activity, knee function, pain, exertion, and well-being.

    PubMed

    Würth, S; Finkenzeller, T; Pötzelsberger, B; Müller, E; Amesberger, G

    2015-08-01

    This study focused on the psychological and quality of life aspects of resuming alpine skiing practice after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in elderly skilled skiers. Two data pools were used in order to analyze psychological states: (a) at the beginning, at the end, and 8 weeks after a 12-week skiing intervention; and (b) concerning diurnal variations of states (i.e., skiing days compared with everyday life during intervention and retention phase). In particular, effects of skiing on amount of physical activity and perceived exertion, perceived pain and knee function, and subjective well-being were analyzed using a control group design. Results reveal that the skiing intervention substantially increases the amount of physical activity by the intervention group (122.30 ± 32.38 min/day), compared with the control group (75.14 ± 21.27 min/day) [F (2, 32) = 8.22, P < 0.01, η(2)  = 0.34)]. Additionally, the analyses of psychological states demonstrated that skiing goes along with enhanced well-being and no significant impact on perceived pain, exertion or knee function. In sum, alpine skiing can be recommended for older persons with TKA with respect to well-being, perceived pain and knee function, and perceived exertion.

  17. Knee Pain and Low Back Pain Additively Disturb Sleep in the General Population: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Nagahama Study

    PubMed Central

    Murase, Kimihiko; Tabara, Yasuharu; Ito, Hiromu; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Setoh, Kazuya; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Muro, Shigeo; Kadotani, Hiroshi; Kosugi, Shinji; Sekine, Akihiro; Yamada, Ryo; Nakayama, Takeo; Mishima, Michiaki; Matsuda, Shuichi; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Chin, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Association of knee and low back pain with sleep disturbance is poorly understood. We aimed to clarify the independent and combined effects of these orthopedic symptoms on sleep in a large-scale general population. Methods Cross-sectional data about sleep and knee/low back pain were collected for 9,611 community residents (53±14 years old) by a structured questionnaire. Sleep duration less than 6 h/d was defined as short sleep. Sleep quality and the presence of knee and low back pain were evaluated by dichotomous questions. Subjects who complained about knee or low back pains were graded by tertiles of a numerical response scale (NRS) score and a Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (RDQ) score respectively. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to determine the correlates of short sleep duration and poor sleep quality. Results Frequency of participants who complained of the orthopedic symptoms was as follows; knee pain, 29.0%; low back pain, 42.0% and both knee and low back pain 17.6%. Both knee and low back pain were significantly and independently associated with short sleep duration (knee pain: odds ratio (OR) = 1.19, p<0.01; low back pain: OR = 1.13, p = 0.01) and poor sleep quality (knee pain: OR = 1.22, p<0.01; low back pain; OR = 1.57, p<0.01). The group in the highest tertile of the NRS or RDQ score had the highest risk for short sleep duration and poor sleep quality except for the relationship between the highest tertile of the RDQ score and short sleep duration.(the highest tertile of the NRS: OR for short sleep duration = 1.31, p<0.01; OR for poor sleep quality = 1.47, p<0.01; the highest tertile of the RDQ: OR for short sleep duration = 1.11, p = 0.12; OR for poor sleep quality = 1.81, p<0.01) Further, coincident knee and low back pain raised the odds ratios for short sleep duration (either of knee or low back pain: OR = 1.10, p = 0.06; both knee and low back pain: OR = 1.40, p<0.01) and poor sleep quality (either of knee or

  18. Pain education to prevent chronic low back pain: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Traeger, Adrian C; Moseley, G Lorimer; Hübscher, Markus; Lee, Hopin; Skinner, Ian W; Nicholas, Michael K; Henschke, Nicholas; Refshauge, Kathryn M; Blyth, Fiona M; Main, Chris J; Hush, Julia M; Pearce, Garry; McAuley, James H

    2014-06-02

    Low back pain (LBP) is the leading cause of disability worldwide. Of those patients who present to primary care with acute LBP, 40% continue to report symptoms 3 months later and develop chronic LBP. Although it is possible to identify these patients early, effective interventions to improve their outcomes are not available. This double-blind (participant/outcome assessor) randomised controlled trial will investigate the efficacy of a brief educational approach to prevent chronic LBP in 'at-risk' individuals. Participants will be recruited from primary care practices in the Sydney metropolitan area. To be eligible for inclusion participants will be aged 18-75 years, with acute LBP (<4 weeks' duration) preceded by at least a 1 month pain-free period and at-risk of developing chronic LBP. Potential participants with chronic spinal pain and those with suspected serious spinal pathology will be excluded. Eligible participants who agree to take part will be randomly allocated to receive 2×1 h sessions of pain biology education or 2×1 h sessions of sham education from a specially trained study physiotherapist. The study requires 101 participants per group to detect a 1-point difference in pain intensity 3 months after pain onset. Secondary outcomes include the incidence of chronic LBP, disability, pain intensity, depression, healthcare utilisation, pain attitudes and beliefs, global recovery and recurrence and are measured at 1 week post-intervention, and at 3, 6 and 12 months post LBP onset. Ethical approval was obtained from the University of New South Wales Human Ethics Committee in June 2013 (ref number HC12664). Outcomes will be disseminated through publication in peer-reviewed journals and presentations at international conference meetings. https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?ACTRN=12612001180808. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go

  19. Influence of a knee brace intervention on perceived pain and patellofemoral loading in recreational athletes.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Jonathan K; Selfe, James; Taylor, Paul J; Shore, Hannah F; Richards, Jim D

    2016-08-01

    The current investigation aimed to investigate the effects of an intervention using knee bracing on pain symptoms and patellofemoral loading in male and female recreational athletes. Twenty participants (11 males & 9 females) with patellofemoral pain were provided with a knee brace which they wore for a period of 2weeks. Lower extremity kinematics and patellofemoral loading were obtained during three sport specific tasks, jog, cut and single leg hop. In addition their self-reported knee pain scores were examined using the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score. Data were collected before and after wearing the knee brace for 2weeks. Significant reductions were found in the run and cut movements for peak patellofemoral force/pressure and in all movements for the peak knee abduction moment when wearing the brace. Significant improvements were also shown for Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score subscale symptoms (pre: male=70.27, female=73.22 & post: male=85.64, female=82.44), pain (pre: male=72.36, female=78.89 & post: male=85.73, female=84.20), sport (pre: male=60.18, female=59.33 & post: male=80.91, female=79.11), function and daily living (pre: male=82.18, female=86.00 & post: male=88.91, female=90.00) and quality of life (pre: male=51.27, female=54.89 & post: male=69.36, female=66.89). Male and female recreational athletes who suffer from patellofemoral pain can be advised to utilise knee bracing as a conservative method to reduce pain symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Preoperative pain mechanisms assessed by cuff algometry are associated with chronic postoperative pain relief after total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Kristian Kjær; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Simonsen, Ole; Laursen, Mogens Berg; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2016-07-01

    Chronic postoperative pain after total knee replacement (TKR) in knee osteoarthritis (KOA) implies clinical challenges. Widespread hyperalgesia, facilitated temporal summation of pain (TSP), and impaired conditioned pain modulation (CPM) have been found in painful KOA. This exploratory study investigated postoperative pain relief 12 months after TKR in 4 subgroups of patients preoperatively profiled by mechanistic quantitative sensory testing. In 103 patients with KOA, pressure pain detection threshold (PDT) and tolerance thresholds (PTT) were assessed at the lower leg using cuff algometry. Temporal summation of pain was measured as an increase in pain intensity scores during 10 repeated (2 seconds intervals) painful cuff stimuli. Conditioned pain modulation was calculated as the relative increase in PDT during painful conditioning stimulation. The grand averages of TSP and CPM were calculated and values below or above were used for subgrouping: facilitated TSP/impaired CPM (group A, N = 16), facilitated TSP/normal CPM (group B, N = 15), normal TSP/impaired CPM (group C, N = 44), and normal TSP/normal CPM (group D, N = 28). Clinical VAS pain intensity scores were collected before and 12 months after TKR surgery and the pain relief calculated. Less pain relief was found in group A (52.0% ± 14.0% pain relief) than in group B (81.1% ± 3.5%, P = 0.023) and group C (79.6% ± 4.4%, P = 0.007), but not group D (69.4% ± 7.9%, P = 0.087). Low preoperative PDT was associated with a less postoperative pain relief (R = -0.222, P = 0.034), whereas TSP or CPM alone showed no associations with postoperative pain relief. This explorative study indicated that patients with osteoarthritis with facilitated TSP together with impaired CPM are more vulnerable to experience less pain relief after TKR.

  1. Prevalence of neuropathic pain in knee or hip osteoarthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    French, Helen P; Smart, Keith M; Doyle, Frank

    2017-08-01

    Discordance between radiographic and pain severity in osteoarthritis (OA) has led researchers to investigate other pain mechanisms, including neuropathic pain. Accurate identification of any neuropathic pain in hip or knee OA is important for appropriate management, but neuropathic pain prevalence is unknown. We aimed to obtain an overall prevalence estimate by systematically reviewing and meta-analysing the prevalence of neuropathic pain in people with hip or knee OA. Observational studies which measured neuropathic pain in people aged 18 years and older with hip or knee OA were considered for inclusion. Electronic databases were searched up to February 2016. Two reviewers independently identified eligible studies and assessed methodological quality. Prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using random effects meta-analytic techniques. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Study samples were from general population, hospital and community settings and all used self-report questionnaires to determine neuropathic pain. The overall prevalence estimate was 23% (95% CI: 10-39%), with considerable heterogeneity (I(2) = 97.9%, p < 0.001). This estimate was largely unchanged with subgroup analyses based on index joint, questionnaire type, setting and consideration of other potential causes of neuropathic pain. However, the estimate for two studies that excluded other potential causes of neuropathic pain was substantially higher (32%, 95% CI: 29-35%). Neuropathic pain prevalence in people with knee or hip OA is considerable at 23%, and may be higher after other potential causes of neuropathic pain are excluded. Concerns regarding the validity of neuropathic pain questionnaires, selection bias, methodological quality and study heterogeneity suggest caution with interpretation of these findings. Prevalence studies using standardised criteria for neuropathic pain are required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterizing Pain Flares from the Perspective of Individuals with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Susan; Lyden, Angela; Kratz, Anna; Fritz, Heather; Williams, David A.; Clauw, Daniel J.; Gammaitoni, Arnold R.; Phillips, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although pain in knee osteoarthritis (OA) commonly affects activity engagement, the daily pain experience has not been fully-characterized. Specifically, the nature and impact of pain flares is not well-understood. This study characterized pain flares, defined by participants with knee OA; pain flare occurrence and experience were measured over 7 days. Methods This was a multiple methods study; qualitative methods were dominant. Data were collected during the baseline portion of a randomized controlled trial. Participants met criteria for knee OA and had moderate to severe pain. They completed questionnaires and a 7-day home monitoring period that captured momentary symptom reports simultaneously with physical activity via accelerometry (N = 45). Participants also provided individual definitions of pain flare which were used throughout the home monitoring period to indicate whether a pain flare occurred. Results Pain flares were described most often by quality (often sharp), followed by timing (seconds-minutes), and by antecedents and consequences. When asked if their definition of a flare agreed with a supplied definition, 49% of the sample reported only “somewhat”, “a little” or “not at all”. Using individual definitions, 78% experienced at least one daily pain flare over the home monitoring period; 24% had a flare on over 50% of the monitored days. Conclusions Pain flares were common, fleeting, and often experienced in the context of activity engagement. Participants’ views on what constitutes a pain flare differ from commonly accepted definitions. Pain flares are an understudied aspect of the knee OA pain experience and require further characterization. PMID:25580697

  3. The minimal effective dose of cis-9-cetylmyristoleate (CMO) in persons presenting with knee joint pain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Chul; Jin, Hyun Seung; Joo, Young; Kim, Yong Chul; Moon, Jee Youn

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Nutraceuticals containing cis-9-cetylmyristoleate (CMO) are used to improve knee pain despite the lack of placebo-controlled studies in humans. The aim of the study was to explore the minimal effective dose of CMO for relieving knee joint pain. Methods: Twenty-eight subjects with mild degree arthritic knee joint pain were randomized into 4 groups; groups A, B, and C that contained 100%, 80%, and 62.4% of fatty acid component with 12.5% of CMO, and control group D (starch 100%). The pain intensity, functional disability, and the Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) were assessed for a 12-week ingestion period. Results: Compared to group D (n = 6), there were significant differences in pain score in group A (n = 7, P = 0.005) and group C (n = 7, P = 0.012), but not significant in group B (n = 6, P = 0.180). Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis (WOMAC) score decreased significantly in groups A and C. The PGIC was positive in the majority (>50%) in groups A, B, and C, whereas negative in 83.3% in group D (control). Conclusion: CMO is effective in alleviating knee pain in persons with mild degree arthritis of the knee joint, at an effective dose of 62.4%. PMID:28248869

  4. Potential role of age, sex, body mass index and pain to identify patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Duarte; Severo, Milton; Ramos, Elisabete; Branco, Jaime; Santos, Rui A; Costa, Lúcia; Lucas, Raquel; Barros, Henrique

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the potential role of age, sex, body mass index (BMI), radiographic features and pain in knee osteoarthritis (OA) case ascertainment. A cross-sectional study was performed using information from the EPIPorto cohort; social, demographic, behavioral and clinical data was obtained. Pain was assessed using a pain frequency score (regarding ever having knee pain, pain in the last year, in the last 6 months and in the last month). Knee radiographs were classified using the Kellgren-Lawrence scale (0-4). Path analysis was used to assess the plausibility of the causal assumptions and a classification tree to identify characteristics that could improve the identification of patients with radiographic OA. Higher age and higher BMI were associated with higher radiographic score, but sex had no statistical association. Females, higher age, higher BMI and higher radiographic score were statistically associated with higher pain scores. For both genders, the classification tree estimated age as the first variable to identify individuals with knee radiographic features. In females older than 56 years, pain frequency score is the second discriminator characteristic, followed by age (> 65 years) and (BMI > 30 kg/m(2) ). Higher pain frequency and BMI > 29 kg/m(2) were relevant for identifying OA in men with ages between 43.5 and 55.5 years. Age, BMI and pain frequency are independently associated with radiographic OA and the use of information on these characteristics can improve the identification of patients with knee OA. Beyond age, pain complaints are particularly relevant but the level of pain is different by sex. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. The correlation between pes planus and anterior knee or intermittent low back pain.

    PubMed

    Kosashvili, Yona; Fridman, Tali; Backstein, David; Safir, Oleg; Bar Ziv, Yaron

    2008-09-01

    Anterior knee pain and intermittent low back pain are among the most common orthopedic complaints of adolescents. However, little is known about pes planus and its relative risk for these symptoms. The goal of the study was to track the prevalence of pes planus in adolescents, and examine its associated risk to anterior knee pain and intermittent low back pain, respectively. A retrospective study of 97,279 military recruits presenting to recruitment centers was conducted. Pes planus was graded by an orthopedist as mild, moderate or severe according to the flattening of the plantar arch and its rigidity to standing on one's toes. Anterior knee pain was diagnosed when symptoms were attributed to the patellofemoral joint. Intermittent low back pain was diagnosed when there was pain but neither abnormal clinical nor radiographic findings. Pes planus was present in 15,698 (16%) individuals. 11,549 (74%), 3,341 (21%) and 808 (5%) were diagnosed as having mild, moderate and severe pes planus, respectively. The prevalence of intermittent low back pain was 5% in both the control and mild pes planus groups, while it was 10% in the moderate and severe pes planus groups (p < 0.0001). The prevalence of anterior knee pain was 4% in both the control and mild pes planus groups, while it was 7% in the moderate and severe pes planus groups (p < 0.0001). Moderate and severe pes planus was associated with nearly double the rate of anterior knee pain and intermittent low back pain, while mild pes planus was associated with no higher rate for these problems. Prophylactic measures may be helpful only in those adolescents with moderate and severe pes planus.

  6. Disrupted Sleep is Associated with Altered Pain Processing by Sex and Ethnicity in Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Megan E.; Goodin, Burel R.; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; King, Chris; Glover, Toni L.; Bulls, Hailey W.; Herbert, Matthew; Sibille, Kimberly T.; Bartley, Emily J.; Fessler, Barri J.; Sotolongo, Adriana; Staud, Roland; Redden, David; Fillingim, Roger B.; Bradley, Laurence A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies indicate that improving sleep decreases reported pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), but it is unclear if this association extends to experimentally-induced pain responses. A community-based sample of 88 African-American and 52 non-Hispanic white adults (45-76y) with knee OA completed the Insomnia Severity Index and the arousal subscale of the Sleep Hygiene and Practices Scale. Participants underwent quantitative sensory testing including measures of pain sensitivity and facilitation at the knee, and pain inhibition. Outcomes were analyzed with multiple Tobit, hierarchical regression models, with adjustment for relevant covariates. Ethnicity and sex by sleep interactions were also entered into the models. After covariate adjustment, main associations were not observed. However, sex interacted with insomnia severity to predict greater temporal summation of heat and punctate pressure pain among women and lower heat temporal summation among men. Men and women who engaged in frequent arousal-associated sleep behaviors demonstrated higher and lower heat temporal summation, respectively. Non-Hispanic whites with greater insomnia severity displayed lower pressure pain thresholds and pain inhibition. Our findings are the first to demonstrate that disrupted sleep is associated with altered pain processing differentially by sex and ethnicity/race among people with knee OA. PMID:25725172

  7. Effects of off-axis elliptical training on reducing pain and improving knee function in individuals with patellofemoral pain

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Liang-Ching; Lee, Song Joo; Yang, Aaron J.; Ren, Yupeng; Press, Joel M.; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether an off-axis elliptical training program reduces pain and improves knee function in individuals with patellofemoral pain (PFP). Design Controlled laboratory study, pre-test-post-test. Setting University rehabilitation center. Participants Twelve adult subjects with PFP. Interventions Subjects with PFP completed an exercise program consisting of 18 sessions of lower extremity off-axis training using a custom-made elliptical trainer that allows frontal-plane sliding and transverse-plane pivoting of the footplates. Main Outcome Measures Changes in knee pain and function post-training and 6 weeks following training were evaluated using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores. Lower extremity off-axis control was assessed by pivoting and sliding instability, calculated as the root mean square (RMS) of the footplate pivoting angle and sliding distance during elliptical exercise. Subjects’ single-leg hop distance and proprioception in detecting lower extremity pivoting motion were also evaluated. Results Subjects reported significantly greater KOOS and IKDC scores (increased by 12–18 points) and hop distance (increased by 0.2 m) following training. A significant decrease in the pivoting and sliding RMS was also observed following training. Additionally, subjects with PFP demonstrated improved pivoting proprioception when tested under a minimum-weight-bearing position. Conclusions An off-axis elliptical training program was effective in enhancing lower extremity neuromuscular control on the frontal and transverse planes, reducing pain and improving knee function in persons with PFP. PMID:25591131

  8. The effect of vitamin D status on pain, lower limb strength and knee function during balance recovery in people with knee osteoarthritis: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Levinger, Pazit; Begg, Rezaul; Sanders, Kerrie M; Nagano, Hanatsu; Downie, Calum; Petersen, Aaron; Hayes, Alan; Cicuttini, Flavia

    2017-09-23

    The association between vitamin D and muscle function associated with balance recovery and falls in people with knee osteoarthritis is unclear. Those with vitamin D insufficiency demonstrated poorer knee function during balance recovery, greater pain and locomotor dysfunction. Vitamin D insufficiency may have an adverse effect on muscle power function. Low vitamin D status in people with knee osteoarthritis (OA) is often reported to be associated with increased pain and locomotor dysfunction. However, despite the growing evidence of the effect of vitamin D on the pathogenesis of knee OA, its role remains conflicting. Importantly, muscle function is important for knee joint health; however, the association between vitamin D levels and muscle function associated with balance recovery and falls is unclear. This study investigated the effect of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH) D) on pain, quadriceps strength, lower limb muscle mass and knee power function during balance recovery in people with knee OA. Twenty-four participants with clinical symptoms of knee OA (68.6 ± 6.2 years) participated in the study. Serum levels of 25 (OH) D were assessed and participants were classified as follows: vitamin D insufficiency ≤ 50 nmol/L and vitamin D sufficiency > 50 nmol/L. The groups were compared on knee function during balance recovery tasks, lower limb strength and muscle mass as well as perceived pain and function. Seven patients (29.1%) were classified as vitamin D-insufficient. Vitamin D insufficiency was associated with reduced knee muscle function during the balance recovery task, increased pain (Western Ontario and McMasters University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) subscore), dysfunction (WOMAC subscore) and total WOMAC score (p < 0.05). People with knee OA with vitamin D insufficiency demonstrated poorer knee function during balance recovery, greater pain and locomotor dysfunction. Vitamin D insufficiency may have an adverse effect on muscle power

  9. HYADD 4 versus methylprednisolone acetate in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a single-centre single blind prospective randomised controlled clinical study with 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Bisicchia, Salvatore; Bernardi, Gabriele; Tudisco, Cosimo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical results and the quality of life in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis randomised to either a new HA (HYADD 4) or corticosteroid (CS). A separate rationale was to evaluate the safety profile of HYADD 4. All the patients presenting for unilateral symptomatic primary knee osteoarthritis were prospectively randomly assigned to receive 2 injections of either HYADD 4 or CS, and were evaluated before the injections and at 6, 12, 26 and 52 weeks. Primary end point was WOMAC score at 26 weeks; secondary end points were WOMAC score, VAS for pain, and SF-36 score at any time point. There were 53 females and 22 males in the HYADD 4 group (mean age 71.5±10.6 years), and 50 females and 25 males in the CS group (mean age 68.6±9.9 years). The observed sided effects were mild and their incidence was similar in the two groups. Patients in the HYADD 4 group reported significantly better WOMAC scores at 26 weeks. The patients improved in all considered outcomes after the injections, with a peak of therapeutic effect between 6 and 12 weeks. Patients in the HYADD 4 group obtained significantly better scores than the CS group up to 26 weeks. At the 1-year follow-up no statistically significant differences between treatments were detected. HYADD 4 did not have significantly higher side effects when compared to CS injections and provided better short-term (but not long-term) control of symptoms in patients with mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis. Patients with less pain and dysfunction at baseline may be the best candidates for HYADD 4 injections.

  10. Individual magnetic resonance imaging and radiographic features of knee osteoarthritis in subjects with unilateral knee pain: the health, aging, and body composition study.

    PubMed

    Javaid, M K; Kiran, A; Guermazi, A; Kwoh, C K; Zaim, S; Carbone, L; Harris, T; McCulloch, C E; Arden, N K; Lane, N E; Felson, D; Nevitt, M

    2012-10-01

    Strong associations between radiographic features of knee osteoarthritis (OA) and pain have been demonstrated in persons with unilateral knee symptoms. This study was undertaken to compare radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of knee OA and assess their ability to discriminate between painful and nonpainful knees in persons with unilateral symptoms. The study population included 283 individuals ages 70-79 years with unilateral knee pain who were enrolled in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study, a study of weight-related diseases and mobility. Radiographs of both knees were read for Kellgren/Lawrence (K/L) grade and individual radiographic features, and 1.5T MRIs were assessed using the Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score. The association between structural features and pain was assessed using a within-person case-control design and conditional logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was then used to test the discriminatory performance of structural features. In conditional logistic analyses, knee pain was significantly associated with both radiographic features (any joint space narrowing grade ≥ 1) (odds ratio 3.20 [95% confidence interval 1.79-5.71]) and MRI features (any cartilage defect scored ≥ 2) (odds ratio 3.67 [95% confidence interval 1.49-9.04]). However, in most subjects, MRI revealed osteophytes and cartilage and bone marrow lesions in both knees, and using ROC analysis, no individual structural feature discriminated well between painful and nonpainful knees. The best-performing MRI feature (synovitis/effusion) was not significantly more informative than K/L grade ≥ 2 (P = 0.42). In persons with unilateral knee pain, MRI and radiographic features were associated with knee pain, confirming that structural abnormalities in the knee have an important role in the etiology of pain. However, no single MRI or radiographic finding performed well in discriminating between painful and

  11. Can multivariate models based on MOAKS predict OA knee pain? Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna-Gómez, Carlos D.; Zanella-Calzada, Laura A.; Galván-Tejada, Jorge I.; Galván-Tejada, Carlos E.; Celaya-Padilla, José M.

    2017-03-01

    Osteoarthritis is the most common rheumatic disease in the world. Knee pain is the most disabling symptom in the disease, the prediction of pain is one of the targets in preventive medicine, this can be applied to new therapies or treatments. Using the magnetic resonance imaging and the grading scales, a multivariate model based on genetic algorithms is presented. Using a predictive model can be useful to associate minor structure changes in the joint with the future knee pain. Results suggest that multivariate models can be predictive with future knee chronic pain. All models; T0, T1 and T2, were statistically significant, all p values were < 0.05 and all AUC > 0.60.

  12. Strength, balance, and the modifying effects of obesity and knee pain: results from the Observational Arthritis Study in Seniors (oasis).

    PubMed

    Jadelis, K; Miller, M E; Ettinger, W H; Messier, S P

    2001-07-01

    To examine the relationship between muscular strength and dynamic balance in a sample of older adults with knee pain and to determine the role that obesity and severity of knee pain play in the ability to maintain balance. Cross-sectional study designed to examine the association between strength and balance in a cohort of older adults with chronic knee pain. A university health and exercise science center. A cohort of 480 adults age 65 and older with knee pain. Force platform dynamic balance measure of the center of pressure excursion during a forward and subsequent backward lean. Isokinetic strength measures of concentric and eccentric knee flexion and extension and concentric ankle plantar flexion and dorsiflexion. Body mass index (BMI) and a knee pain scale were used to measure obesity and knee pain, respectively. A regression model was developed to investigate the relationship between dynamic balance and muscular strength while controlling for gender, BMI, radiographic severity, knee pain, and foot length. Knee strength alone explained 18.4% of the variability in dynamic balance. The addition of knee pain, BMI, radiographic severity, gender, and foot length explained an additional 6.7%. When the knee-ankle interaction, ankle strength, and knee strength--pain interaction variables were added to the regression model, 28.9% of the variability in dynamic balance was explained. Strength appears to play a significant role in maintaining balance in an older, osteoarthritic population. We found that mean knee strength accounted for approximately 19% of the variability in dynamic balance. Hence, greater knee strength was associated with better dynamic balance. The best dynamic balance performances occurred in participants that had a combination of strong knees and strong ankles. However, knee osteoarthritic patients with weak knee strength could still maintain high levels of dynamic balance by having strong ankle strength. Moreover, we have shown that obesity is

  13. Pain management in the elderly: transdermal fentanyl for the treatment of pain caused by osteoarthritis of the knee and hip.

    PubMed

    Mordarski, Sylwester

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the utility of transdermal fentanyl (transdermal fentanyl, TDF) for the treatment of pain due to osteoarthritis (osteoarthritis, OA) of the knee and hip, which was not adequately controlled by nonopioid analgesics or weak opioids. WOMAC is a reliable, valid, and responsive multidimensional, self-administrated outcome measure designed specifically to evaluate patients with OA of the knee or hip. TDF significantly increased pain control and improved functioning and quality of life. Metoclopramide appeared to be of limited value in preventing nausea and vomiting.

  14. A comparison of Kneipp hydrotherapy with conventional physiotherapy in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip or knee: protocol of a prospective randomised controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Schencking, Martin; Otto, Adriane; Deutsch, Tobias; Sandholzer, Hagen

    2009-08-19

    The increasing age of the population, especially in the western world, means that the prevalence of osteoarthritis is also increasing, with corresponding socioeconomic consequences. Although there is no curative intervention at present, in accordance with US and European guidelines, pharmacotherapeutic and non-pharmacological approaches aim at pain control and the reduction of functional restriction.It has been established that hydrotherapy for osteoarthritis of the hip or knee joint using serial cold and warm water stimulation not only improves the range of movement but also reduces pain significantly and increases quality of life over a period of up to three months. Weight reduction is important for patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. In addition, conventional physiotherapy and exercise therapy have both been shown, at a high level of evidence, to be cost-effective and to have long-term benefits for pain relief, movement in the affected joint, and patient quality of life. The study design consists of a prospective randomised controlled three-armed clinical trial, which will be carried out at a specialist clinic for integrative medicine, to investigate the clinical effects of hydrotherapy on osteoarthritis of the knee or hip joint, in comparison with conventional physiotherapy.One hundred and eighty patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis of hip or knee will be randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups: hydrotherapy, physiotherapy, and both physiotherapy and hydrotherapy of the affected joint. In the first group, patients will receive Kneipp hydrotherapy daily, with water applied in the form of alternate cold and warm thigh affusions (alternating cold and warm water stimulation is particularly relevant to the knee and hip regions).Patients in the second group will receive physiotherapy of the hip or knee joint three times a week. Patients in the physiotherapy-hydrotherapy combination group will receive both joint-specific physiotherapy

  15. A comparison of Kneipp hydrotherapy with conventional physiotherapy in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip or knee: protocol of a prospective randomised controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Schencking, Martin; Otto, Adriane; Deutsch, Tobias; Sandholzer, Hagen

    2009-01-01

    Background The increasing age of the population, especially in the western world, means that the prevalence of osteoarthritis is also increasing, with corresponding socioeconomic consequences. Although there is no curative intervention at present, in accordance with US and European guidelines, pharmacotherapeutic and non-pharmacological approaches aim at pain control and the reduction of functional restriction. It has been established that hydrotherapy for osteoarthritis of the hip or knee joint using serial cold and warm water stimulation not only improves the range of movement but also reduces pain significantly and increases quality of life over a period of up to three months. Weight reduction is important for patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. In addition, conventional physiotherapy and exercise therapy have both been shown, at a high level of evidence, to be cost-effective and to have long-term benefits for pain relief, movement in the affected joint, and patient quality of life. Methods/design The study design consists of a prospective randomised controlled three-armed clinical trial, which will be carried out at a specialist clinic for integrative medicine, to investigate the clinical effects of hydrotherapy on osteoarthritis of the knee or hip joint, in comparison with conventional physiotherapy. One hundred and eighty patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis of hip or knee will be randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups: hydrotherapy, physiotherapy, and both physiotherapy and hydrotherapy of the affected joint. In the first group, patients will receive Kneipp hydrotherapy daily, with water applied in the form of alternate cold and warm thigh affusions (alternating cold and warm water stimulation is particularly relevant to the knee and hip regions). Patients in the second group will receive physiotherapy of the hip or knee joint three times a week. Patients in the physiotherapy-hydrotherapy combination group will receive both

  16. The association of body-mass index and depressed mood with knee pain and activity limitations in knee osteoarthritis: results from the Amsterdam osteoarthritis cohort

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Body-mass index (BMI) and depressed mood are both positively associated with pain and activity limitations in knee osteoarthritis (OA), and are interrelated. The aims of the present study were: 1) to assess whether BMI and depressed mood are independently associated with knee pain and activity limitations; and 2) to compare the relative contributions of BMI and depressed mood to knee pain and activity limitations. Methods A cross-sectional study in 294 patients with clinical knee OA. Regression analyses were performed with knee pain or activity limitations (self-reported and performance-based) as dependent variables, and BMI and depressed mood as independent variables. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, marital status, education level, radiographic OA and comorbidity. Dominance analyses were performed to examine the relative contributions of BMI and depressed mood to knee pain and activity limitations. Results BMI and depressed mood were positively and independently associated with knee pain and activity limitations. BMI and depressed mood explained small parts (3.0% and 2.3%, respectively) of variance in knee pain. BMI explained a substantial part of variance in both self-reported (9.8%) and performance-based (20.4%) activity limitations, while depressed mood explained a small part of variance (3.1% in self-reported and 2.6% in performance-based activity limitations). Conclusions In patients with knee OA both BMI and depressed mood seem to be independently associated with knee pain and activity limitations. The contribution of BMI to activity limitations is most substantial, thereby offering a relevant target for interventions. PMID:24131757

  17. Intra-articular steroid injections for painful knees. Systematic review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Godwin, Marshall; Dawes, Martin

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Do intra-articular steroid injections relieve the pain of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee? DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Cochrane, and Internet databases were searched for randomized controlled trials. STUDY SELECTION: Five randomized controlled trials involving 312 patients were found. SYNTHESIS: One week after injection, treated patients were less likely to have continuing pain and had significantly lower scores on a visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain. Three to 4 weeks after injection, treated patients still had significantly less pain, but their VAS scores were no longer significantly lower than scores in the control group. Six to 8 weeks after injection, neither pain reduction nor VAS scores were significantly different between groups. CONCLUSION: Intra-articular corticosteroid injection results in clinically and statistically significant reduction in osteoarthritic knee pain 1 week after injection. The beneficial effect could last for 3 to 4 weeks, but is unlikely to continue beyond that. PMID:15000335

  18. Acute pain Factors predictive of post-operative pain and opioid requirement in multimodal analgesia following knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Thomazeau, J; Rouquette, A; Martinez, V; Rabuel, C; Prince, N; Laplanche, J L; Nizard, R; Bergmann, J F; Perrot, S; Lloret-Linares, C

    2016-05-01

    Despite the development of multimodal analgesia for postoperative pain management, opioids are still required for effective pain relief after knee arthroplasty. We aimed to identify the determinants of post-operative pain intensity and post-operative opioid requirement in this context. In this observational prospective study, we recorded patient characteristics, pre-operative pain intensity, anxiety and depression levels, sensitivity and pain thresholds in response to an electrical stimulus, and mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Multivariate linear regression models were used to identify predictors of post-operative pain at rest and opioid requirement. We included 109 patients. Pre-operative pain at rest (p = 0.047), anxiety level (p = 0.001) and neuropathic pain symptoms (p = 0.030) were independently and positively associated with mean post-operative pain intensity adjusted for mean post-operative morphine equivalent dose (MED). Mean post-operative pain intensity at rest was lower (p = 0.006) in patients receiving celecoxib and pregabalin in the post-operative period, with all other variables constant. Mean post-operative MED over 5 days was low, but highly variable (78.2 ± 32.1 mg, from 9.9 to 170 mg). Following adjustment for mean post-operative pain intensity, it was independently negatively correlated with age (p = 0.004), and positively correlated with associated paracetamol treatment (p = 0.031). No genetic effect was detected in our sample. Our findings suggest that clinicians could use the pre-operative pain profile, in terms of anxiety levels, neuropathic pain symptoms, and chronic pre-operative pain intensity, to improve the efficacy of pain management after knee surgery. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  19. A randomised controlled trial of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different knee prostheses: the Knee Arthroplasty Trial (KAT).

    PubMed

    Murray, David W; MacLennan, Graeme S; Breeman, Suzanne; Dakin, Helen A; Johnston, Linda; Campbell, Marion K; Gray, Alastair M; Fiddian, Nick; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Morris, Richard W; Grant, Adrian M

    2014-03-01

    In the late 1990s, new developments in knee replacement were identified as a priority for research within the NHS. The newer forms of arthroplasty were more expensive and information was needed on their safety and cost-effectiveness. The Knee Arthroplasty Trial examined the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of four aspects of knee replacement surgery: patellar resurfacing, mobile bearings, all-polyethylene tibial components and unicompartmental replacement. This study comprised a partial factorial, pragmatic, multicentre randomised controlled trial with a trial-based cost-utility analysis which was conducted from the perspective of the NHS and the patients treated. Allocation was computer generated in a 1 : 1 ratio using a central system, stratified by eligible comparisons and surgeon, minimised by participant age, gender and site of disease. Surgeons were not blinded to allocated procedures. Participants were unblinded if they requested to know the prosthesis they received. The setting for the trial was UK secondary care. Patients were eligible for inclusion if a decision had been made for them to have primary knee replacement surgery. Patients were recruited to comparisons for which the surgeon was in equipoise about which type of operation was most suitable. Patients were randomised to receive a knee replacement with the following: patellar resurfacing or no patellar resurfacing irrespective of the design of the prosthesis used; a mobile bearing between the tibial and femoral components or a bearing fixed to the tibial component; a tibial component made of either only high-density polyethylene ('all polyethylene') or a polyethylene bearing fixed to a metal backing plate with attached stem; or unicompartmental or total knee replacement. The primary outcome was the Oxford Knee Score (OKS). Other outcomes were Short Form 12; EuroQol 5D; intraoperative and postoperative complications; additional surgery; cost; and cost-effectiveness. Patients were

  20. Demographic and psychosocial predictors of acute perioperative pain for total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Maya L; Tripp, Dean A; Harrison, Mark H; Sullivan, Michael; Carson, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As the North American population ages, the prevalence of knee osteoarthritis and the surgical interventions (ie, total knee arthroplasty [TKA]) aimed at correcting pain and disability will also rise proportionally. Therefore, efforts to better understand the factors associated with surgical outcomes are warranted. To date, no studies have examined the impact of psychosocial factors on acute postoperative TKA pain. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to examine the associations among catastrophizing, negative mood, demographics and acute postoperative pain following TKA. Ancillary analyses examined the association of preoperative psychological variables with postoperative pain. METHODS: Patients completed questionnaire packages 2 h before their surgery and on three consecutive postoperative days while in the hospital. The questionnaire packages included the Short Form –McGill Pain Questionnaire, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale and the Shortened Version of Profile of Mood States. The Mini-Mental State Examination was also administered. Demographic data were extracted from patients’ medical charts. RESULTS: Associations among catastrophizing, negative mood and pain were established. Regressions showed that younger age predicted greater preoperative and postoperative day 1 pain; catastrophizing predicted preoperative and postoperative day 2 pain; and negative mood predicted postoperative day 3 pain. Catastrophizing and negative mood were highly correlated at several assessment points. Preoperative variables did not predict postoperative pain. CONCLUSION: These results have postoperative pain management implications. Heightened attention to psychosocial variables, such as postoperative catastrophizing and negative mood, may be useful in identifying patients at risk for greater postoperative pain. PMID:17717610

  1. The Effect of the Mulligan Knee Taping Technique on Patellofemoral Pain and Lower Limb Biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Anne; Hopper, Diana; Hall, Toby; Wild, Catherine Y

    2016-05-01

    Patellofemoral pain (PFP) affects 25% of the general population, occurring 2 times more often in females compared with males. Taping is a valuable component of the management plan for altering lower limb biomechanics and providing pain relief; however, the effects of alternative taping techniques, such as Mulligan knee taping, appear yet to be researched. To determine whether the Mulligan knee taping technique altered levels of perceived knee pain and lower limb biomechanics during a single-legged squat (SLSq) in adult females with PFP. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 20 female patients with PFP, aged 18 to 35 years, participated in this study. Participants performed 3 to 5 SLSq on their most symptomatic limb during a taped (Mulligan knee taping technique) and nontaped (control) condition. During the eccentric phase of the SLSq, the 3-dimensional kinematics (250 Hz) of the knee and hip and the ground-reaction forces (1000 Hz) and muscle activation patterns (1000 Hz) of the gluteus medius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis oblique were measured. Participants' perceived maximum knee pain was also recorded after the completion of each squat. Between-condition differences were found for hip kinematics and gluteus medius activation but not for kinetics or vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis muscle activity (timing and activation). Compared with the nontaped condition, the Mulligan knee taping technique significantly (P = .001) reduced perceived pain during the SLSq (mean ± SD: 2.29 ± 1.79 and 1.29 ± 1.28, respectively). In the taped condition compared with the control, the onset timing of the gluteus medius occurred significantly earlier (120.6 ± 113.0 and 156.6 ± 91.6 ms, respectively; P = .023) and peak hip internal rotation was significantly reduced (6.38° ± 7.31° and 8.34° ± 7.92°, respectively; P = .002). The Mulligan knee taping technique successfully reduced knee pain in participants with PFP. This is the first study to establish a

  2. The Role of Botulinum Toxin Type A in the Clinical Management of Refractory Anterior Knee Pain

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Barbara J.; Silbert, Benjamin I.; Silbert, Peter L.; Singer, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    Anterior knee pain is a highly prevalent condition affecting largely young to middle aged adults. Symptoms can recur in more than two thirds of cases, often resulting in activity limitation and reduced participation in employment and recreational pursuits. Persistent anterior knee pain is difficult to treat and many individuals eventually consider a surgical intervention. Evidence for long term benefit of most conservative treatments or surgical approaches is currently lacking. Injection of Botulinum toxin type A to the distal region of vastus lateralis muscle causes a short term functional “denervation” which moderates the influence of vastus lateralis muscle on the knee extensor mechanism and increases the relative contribution of the vastus medialis muscle. Initial data suggest that, compared with other interventions for anterior knee pain, Botulinum toxin type A injection, in combination with an active exercise programme, can lead to sustained relief of symptoms, reduced health care utilisation and increased activity participation. The procedure is less invasive than surgical intervention, relatively easy to perform, and is time- and cost-effective. Further studies, including larger randomized placebo-controlled trials, are required to confirm the effectiveness of Botulinum toxin type A injection for anterior knee pain and to elaborate the possible mechanisms underpinning pain and symptom relief. PMID:26308056

  3. The Role of Botulinum Toxin Type A in the Clinical Management of Refractory Anterior Knee Pain.

    PubMed

    Singer, Barbara J; Silbert, Benjamin I; Silbert, Peter L; Singer, Kevin P

    2015-08-25

    Anterior knee pain is a highly prevalent condition affecting largely young to middle aged adults. Symptoms can recur in more than two thirds of cases, often resulting in activity limitation and reduced participation in employment and recreational pursuits. Persistent anterior knee pain is difficult to treat and many individuals eventually consider a surgical intervention. Evidence for long term benefit of most conservative treatments or surgical approaches is currently lacking. Injection of Botulinum toxin type A to the distal region of vastus lateralis muscle causes a short term functional "denervation" which moderates the influence of vastus lateralis muscle on the knee extensor mechanism and increases the relative contribution of the vastus medialis muscle. Initial data suggest that, compared with other interventions for anterior knee pain, Botulinum toxin type A injection, in combination with an active exercise programme, can lead to sustained relief of symptoms, reduced health care utilisation and increased activity participation. The procedure is less invasive than surgical intervention, relatively easy to perform, and is time- and cost-effective. Further studies, including larger randomized placebo-controlled trials, are required to confirm the effectiveness of Botulinum toxin type A injection for anterior knee pain and to elaborate the possible mechanisms underpinning pain and symptom relief.

  4. Neurodynamic responses to the femoral slump test in patients with anterior knee pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pei-Ling; Shih, Yi-Fen; Chen, Wen-Yin; Ma, Hsiao-Li

    2014-05-01

    Matched-control, cross-sectional study. The purpose of this study was to compare the responses to the femoral slump test (FST), including the change in hip range of motion and level of discomfort, between subjects with and without anterior knee pain. Anterior knee pain syndrome is a common problem among adults. The FST is the neurodynamic test used to assess the mechanosensitivity of the femoral component of the nervous system. However, as of yet, there is no literature discussing the use of the FST in patients with anterior knee pain. Thirty patients with anterior knee pain and 30 control participants, matched by gender, age, and dominant leg, were recruited. The subjects received the FST, during which the hip extension angle and the location and intensity of pain/discomfort were recorded. Reproduction of symptoms that were alleviated by neck extension was interpreted as a positive test. Differences in hip extension angle and pain intensity between groups were examined using a 2-way, repeated-measures analysis of variance and a Kruskal-Wallis analysis. The level of significance was set at α = .05. Subjects with anterior knee pain had a smaller hip extension angle than that of controls (-3.6° ± 5.3° versus 0.6° ± 6.1°; mean difference, 4.2°; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24°, 7.15°; P = .006). Eight patients with anterior knee pain showed a positive FST, and those with a positive FST had a smaller hip extension angle (-5.7° ± 4.5°) than that of controls (mean difference, 6.3°; 95% CI: 0.8°, 11.8°; P = .007). There was no difference in the hip extension angle between the positive and negative FST groups (mean difference, 2.9°; 95% CI: -8.5°, 2.0°) or between the negative FST and control groups (mean difference, 3.4°; 95% CI: -0.4°, 7.3°). Results of this study suggest that altered mechanosensitivity of the femoral nerve occurred in the patients with anterior knee pain who presented with a positive FST. The role of increased mechanosensitivity

  5. Effect of adductor canal block on medial compartment knee pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis: Retrospective comparative study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doo-Hyung; Lee, Michael Y; Kwack, Kyu-Sung; Yoon, Seung-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a common disease in middle-aged and elderly people. Pain is the chief complaint of symptomatic KOA and a leading cause of chronic disability, which is most often found in medial knees. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of pain relief and functional improvement in KOA patients treated with ultrasound-guided adductor canal block (ACB).This is a 3-month retrospective case-controlled comparative study. Two hundred patients with anteromedial knee pain owing to KOA that was unresponsive to 3-month long conservative treatments. Ninety-two patients received ACB with 9 mL of 1% of lidocaine and 1 mL of 10 mg triamcinolone acetonide (ACB group), and 108 continued conservative treatments (control group). The main outcome measure was visual analog scale (VAS) of the average knee pain level for the past one week. Secondary outcomes were the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), the timed up and go test, numbers of analgesic ingestion per day, and opioid consumption per day.During the 3-month follow-up, 86 patients in ACB group and 92 in control group were analyzed. There was no significant difference, with the exception of the duration of symptoms, between the 2 groups in age, sex, body mass index, and Kellgren-Lawrence grade. Repeated-measures analysis of variance and post hoc tests showed improvement of VAS (at month 1), WOMAC (at month 1), and opioid consumption per day (at month 1 and 2) in ACB group. No adverse events were reported.To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the efficacy of ACB for patients with KOA. ACB is an effective and safe treatment and can be an option for patients who are either unresponsive or unable to take analgesics.

  6. MR-guided focused ultrasound for the novel and innovative management of osteoarthritic knee pain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe knee pain associated with osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common and troublesome symptoms in the elderly. Recently, local bone denervation by MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) has been demonstrated as a promising tool for pain palliation of bone metastases. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel treatment for knee OA using MRgFUS, and to validate its safety and efficacy. Methods Eight patients with medial knee pain and eligible for total knee arthroplasty were included. MR-guided focused sonication treatments were applied to bone surface just below the rim osteophyte of medial tibia plateau with real-time monitoring of the temperature in the target sites. The pain intensity during walking was assessed on a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS) before and after treatment. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were also evaluated over several test sites adjacent to the sonication area and control sites one month after treatment. Results Six patients (75%) showed immediate pain alleviation after treatment, and four of them demonstrated long-lasting effect at 6-month follow up (mean VAS reduction; 72.6%). In responders, PPTs in medial knee were significantly increased after treatment (Median; pre- 358 kpa vs post- 534 kpa, p?pain management of knee OA. Trial registration Trial Registration: UMIN000010193 PMID:24034866

  7. Demonstration of Lesions Produced by Cooled Radiofrequency Neurotomy for Chronic Osteoarthritic Knee Pain: A Case Presentation.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Michael E; Gutierrez, Genaro; Desai, Mehul J

    2017-03-01

    This case presentation demonstrates radiographic evidence of lesions created following cooled radiofrequency (cRF) neurotomy of the knee. A 67-year-old man presented with chronic left knee osteoarthritis, pain, and disability. After a failed trial of conservative treatments, the patient underwent diagnostic genicular nerve blocks and subsequent cRF neurotomy of the left knee. Shortly after cRF, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the left knee was performed. On MRI, lesions created by cRF ablation were identified. The images presented in this case offer a visual explanation for the success of cRF in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. V. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Managing Knee Osteoarthritis: The Effects of Body Weight Supported Physical Activity on Joint Pain, Function, and Thigh Muscle Strength.

    PubMed

    Peeler, Jason; Christian, Mathew; Cooper, Juliette; Leiter, Jeffrey; MacDonald, Peter

    2015-11-01

    To determine the effect of a 12-week lower body positive pressure (LBPP)-supported low-load treadmill walking program on knee joint pain, function, and thigh muscle strength in overweight patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Prospective, observational, repeated measures investigation. Community-based, multidisciplinary sports medicine clinic. Thirty-one patients aged between 55 and 75 years, with a body mass index ≥25 kg/m and mild-to-moderate knee OA. Twelve-week LBPP-supported low-load treadmill walking regimen. Acute knee joint pain (visual analog scale) during full weight bearing treadmill walking, chronic knee pain, and joint function [Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) questionnaire] during normal activities of daily living, and thigh muscle strength (isokinetic testing). Appropriate methods of statistical analysis were used to compare data from baseline and follow-up evaluation. Participants reported significant improvements in knee joint pain and function and demonstrated significant increases in thigh muscle strength about the degenerative knee. Participants also experienced significant reductions in acute knee pain during full weight bearing treadmill walking and required dramatically less LBPP support to walk pain free on the treadmill. Data suggest that an LBPP-supported low-load exercise regimen can be used to significantly diminish knee pain, enhance joint function, and increase thigh muscle strength, while safely promoting pain-free walking exercise in overweight patients with knee OA. These findings have important implications for the development of nonoperative treatment strategies that can be used in the management of joint symptoms associated with progressive knee OA in at-risk patient populations. This research suggests that LBPP-supported low-load walking is a safe user-friendly mode of exercise that can be successfully used in the management of day-to-day joint symptoms associated with knee OA, helping to improve the

  9. Hydrotherapy improves pain and function in older women with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dias, João Marcos; Cisneros, Lígia; Dias, Rosângela; Fritsch, Carolina; Gomes, Wellington; Pereira, Leani; Santos, Mary Luci; Ferreira, Paulo Henrique

    2017-07-05

    Currently, there is poor evidence of the effect of hydrotherapy alone on patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis. The study aimed to assess the impact of hydrotherapy on pain, function, and muscle function in older women with knee osteoarthritis. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of hydrotherapy in women with knee osteoarthritis. Seventy-three women aged 65 and older were randomized to hydrotherapy (n=36) or a control group (n=37). The hydrotherapy group received the intervention program in a heated pool (twice per week for six weeks) and an educational protocol while the control group received an educational protocol only. Primary outcomes (before and post-treatment) were pain intensity (0-100) and function (0-100), assessed with the WOMAC questionnaire. Secondary outcomes (before and post-treatment) were knee extensor and knee flexor muscle performance (strength, power, and endurance), assessed by an isokinetic dynamometer. The magnitude of change between the groups for the outcomes was calculated using linear regression models adjusted by baseline outcome values. The hydrotherapy group had better outcomes for pain (adjusted mean difference=11 points, 95% CI: 3-18) and function (adjusted mean difference=12 points, 95% CI: 5-18). Patients receiving hydrotherapy had better performance for knee flexor and extensor strength, knee flexor power, and knee extensor endurance. Older women with knee osteoarthritis are likely to have benefits from a course of hydrotherapy exercises. Registry of clinical trials (Trial number RBR-8F57KR) - http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/rg/RBR-8f57kr/. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Effectiveness of multimodal pain management protocol in total knee arthroplasty patients.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Cynthia; Gunta, Kathleen; Mitchell, Kimberly; Bobay, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Numerous methods for postoperative pain management after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are reported. Multimodal pain management approaches, including peripheral nerve blocks and systemic analgesia, have been shown to decrease patient pain, increase patient satisfaction with pain control, decrease length of stay (LOS), and improve patient outcomes. To compare patient outcomes (pain scores, LOS, postoperative nausea and vomiting, and movement) between 66 TKA patients of a single orthopaedic surgeon in 2010 who received a multimodal approach to 45 historical (control) patients in 2009 who did not receive a multimodal pain management protocol. Patients who were treated with the multimodal pain protocol had significantly lower pain scores in the immediate postoperative period, less postoperative nausea and vomiting day of surgery, and a decrease in LOS by half a day despite increased buckling and increased level of assistance with ambulation. The multimodal pain approach improved patient outcomes in TKA patients.

  11. Temporal summation of pain as a prospective predictor of clinical pain severity in adults aged 45 years and above with knee osteoarthritis: ethnic differences

    PubMed Central

    Goodin, Burel R.; Bulls, Hailey W.; Herbert, Matthew S.; Schmidt, Jessica; King, Christopher D.; Glover, Toni L.; Sotolongo, Adriana; Sibille, Kimberly T.; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Staud, Roland; Fessler, Barri J.; Redden, David T.; Bradley, Laurence A.; Fillingim, Roger B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Enhanced pain facilitation is reportedly an important contributor to the clinical pain experiences of individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Ethnic differences in the prevalence and severity of knee OA in addition to associated pain are also well documented. Temporal summation (TS) of pain is a widely applicable quantitative sensory testing method that invokes neural mechanisms related to pain facilitatory processes. This study tested whether TS of pain, an index of pain facilitation, differentially predicts the clinical pain experiences of African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites with symptomatic knee OA. Methods A total of 225 study participants underwent assessment of TS of mechanical and heat pain stimuli applied to their most symptomatic knee and their ipsilateral hand (mechanical) or forearm (heat). Using telephone-based surveys, participants subsequently reported their average and worst clinical pain severity across four consecutive weeks following assessment of TS. Results In predicting future clinical pain, ethnicity interacted with TS of mechanical pain (but not heat pain), such that TS of mechanical pain at the knee significantly predicted greater clinical ratings of average (b = .02, p = .016) and worst (b = .02, p = .044) clinical pain for non-Hispanic Whites but not African Americans (p’s > .30). Conclusions These results reveal the importance of considering ethnicity when examining pain facilitation and the clinical pain of individuals with symptomatic knee OA. The results of this study are discussed in terms of ethnic differences in the predictors of clinical pain experiences among African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites with knee OA. PMID:24804882

  12. [Fear and preoperative anxiety behaviour and pain intensity perceived after knee arthroscopy].

    PubMed

    Anguita-Palacios, M Carmen; Talayero-San-Miguel, Marta; Herrero-Cereceda, Salomé; Martín-Cadenas, Mar; Pardo-Cuevas, Pilar; Gil-Martínez, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term (24hours) association between postoperative pain and preoperative psychological variables (anxiety, pain catastrophizing and kinesiophobia) in a sample of knee arthroscopy ambulatory surgery. Observational cross-sectional study, conducted with 40 adult subjects who underwent knee arthroscopy in the surgical area of Cantoblanco Hospital (Hospital Universitario La Paz) in Madrid. The fear-avoidance beliefs and anxiety were assessed using validated questionnaires of pain catastrophizing, kinesiophobia and anxiety. Pre and post-surgical pain and perceived disability were evaluated by the Verbal Numeric Scale. Mean age of the sample (22 men and 18 women) was 52.85±14.21 without significant differences between gender. No statistically significant data for the association between variables of kinesiofobia, anxiety and pain catastrophizing and the intensity of perceived pain by the postoperative knee arthroscopy patient were found. Length of surgery in our study has a correlation with the immediate post-surgical pain (r=0.468; P=.002) and there is a relationship between age and pain intensity at 24hours (r=-0.329; P=.038), and between age and perceived disability (r=-0.314; P=.049). An association between catastrophizing and kinesiophobia scales (r=0.337; P=.033) is obtained likewise. In conclusion, preoperative fear-avoidance beliefs like pain anxiety or pain catastrophizing and kinesiophobia were not associated with acute postoperative pain in our study. Analyses of secondary pain related outcomes, however, indicated that reduced time of surgery may contribute to enhance clinical postoperative pain. If confirmed and replicated in larger samples, this may potentially enable clinicians to improve postoperative pain management in future patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Two cases of chronic knee pain caused by unusual injuries to the popliteus tendon.

    PubMed

    Davalos, Eric A; Barank, David; Varma, Rajeev K

    2016-01-01

    Injuries to the popliteus tendon are less frequent than injuries to the menisci or ligamentous structures of the knee. When they do occur, injuries to the popliteus tendon tend to be the result of trauma and associated with injuries to other components of the knee. The most commonly seen injuries include tears at the musculotendinous junction and avulsion tears at the lateral femoral condyle insertion site. This report presents two unusual injuries of the popliteus tendon in patients with chronic knee pain: an isolated split tear of the tendon and a subluxed tendon residing within the lateral joint space.

  14. Two cases of chronic knee pain caused by unusual injuries to the popliteus tendon

    PubMed Central

    DAVALOS, ERIC A.; BARANK, DAVID; VARMA, RAJEEV K.

    2016-01-01

    Injuries to the popliteus tendon are less frequent than injuries to the menisci or ligamentous structures of the knee. When they do occur, injuries to the popliteus tendon tend to be the result of trauma and associated with injuries to other components of the knee. The most commonly seen injuries include tears at the musculotendinous junction and avulsion tears at the lateral femoral condyle insertion site. This report presents two unusual injuries of the popliteus tendon in patients with chronic knee pain: an isolated split tear of the tendon and a subluxed tendon residing within the lateral joint space. PMID:27386449

  15. Ultrasound-Guided Genicular Nerve Pulsed Radiofrequency Treatment For Painful Knee Osteoarthritis: A Preliminary Report.

    PubMed

    Kesikburun, Serdar; Yaşar, Evren; Uran, Ayça; Adigüzel, Emre; Yilmaz, Bilge

    2016-07-01

    Genicular nerve ablation with radiofrequency (RF) has recently emerged as a promising treatment in the management of osteoarthritis related knee pain. To date, genicular nerve injections have been performed under fluoroscopic guidance. To evaluate the effect of ultrasound-guided genicular nerve pulsed RF treatment on chronic knee pain and function in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Single-arm prospective study. University hospital and rehabilitation center in Turkey. A review was made of 29 patients with medial knee osteoarthritis who had undergone genicular nerve block in the previous 6 months. Patients with at least 50% reduction in the visual analog scale (VAS) score after genicular nerve block and with no on-going pain relief were selected for the study. Ultrasound-guided genicular nerve pulsed RF was applied to 15 knees of 9 patients. Pain and knee function were assessed with 100-mm VAS and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) index throughout 3 months. A significant reduction in VAS scores was detected over time after the pulsed RF procedure (f: 69.24, P < 0.01). There was a significant improvement in the WOMAC scores (f: 539.68 , P < 0.01). The small number of participants, the lack of a control group, and short follow-up period were limitations of the study. Genicular nerve pulsed RF treatment has been found to be safe and beneficial in osteoarthritis related knee pain. Further studies with a larger population and randomized controlled study design are warranted to confirm the positive findings of this preliminary report.

  16. Association of radiographic osteoarthritis, pain on passive movement and knee range of motion: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hilfiker, Roger; Jüni, Peter; Nüesch, Eveline; Dieppe, Paul A; Reichenbach, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Knee pain is associated with radiographic knee osteoarthritis, but the relationships between physical examination, pain and radiographic features are unclear. To examine whether deficits in knee extension or flexion were associated with radiographic severity and pain during clinical examination in persons with knee pain or radiographic features of osteoarthritis. Cross-sectional data of the Somerset and Avon Survey of Health (SASH) cohort study. Participants with knee pain or radiographic features of osteoarthritis were included. We assessed the range of passive knee flexion and extension, pain on movement and Kellgren and Lawrence (K/L) grades. Odds ratios were calculated for the association between range of motion and pain as well as radiographic severity. Of 1117 participants with a clinical assessment, 805 participants and 1530 knees had complete data and were used for this analysis. Pain and radiographic changes were associated with limited range of motion. In knees with pain on passive movement, extension and flexion were reduced per one grade of K/L by -1.4° (95% CI -2.2 to -0.5) and -1.6° (95% CI -2.8 to -0.4), while in knees without pain the reduction was -0.3° (95% CI -0.6 to -0.1) (extension) and -1.1° (-1.8 to -0.3) (flexion). The interaction of pain with K/L was significant (p = 0.021) for extension but not for flexion (p = 0.333). Pain during passive movement, which may be an indicator of reversible soft-tissue changes, e.g., reversible through physical therapy, is independently associated with reduced flexion and extension of the knee. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Validity of summing painful joint sites to assess joint-pain comorbidity in hip or knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Siemons, Liseth; ten Klooster, Peter M; van de Laar, Mart A F J; van den Ende, Cornelia H M; Hoogeboom, Thomas J

    2013-08-09

    Previous studies in patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) have advocated the relevance of assessing the number of painful joint sites, other than the primary affected joint, in both research and clinical practice. However, it is unclear whether joint-pain comorbidities can simply be summed up. A total of 401 patients with hip or knee OA completed questionnaires on demographic variables and joint-pain comorbidities. Rasch analysis was performed to evaluate whether a sum score of joint-pain comorbidities can be calculated. Self-reported joint-pain comorbidities showed a good fit to the Rasch model and were not biased by gender, age, disease duration, BMI, or patient group. As a group, joint-pain comorbidities covered a reasonable range of severity levels, although the sum score had rather low reliability levels suggesting it cannot discriminate well among patients. Joint-pain comorbidities, in other than the primary affected joints, can be summed into a joint pain comorbidity score. Nevertheless, its use is discouraged for individual decision making purposes since its lacks discriminative power in patients with minimal or extreme joint pain.

  18. Pain management protocols, peri-operative pain and patient satisfaction after total knee replacement: a multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Chang, C B; Cho, W S

    2012-11-01

    In a prospective multicentre study we investigated variations in pain management used by knee arthroplasty surgeons in order to compare the differences in pain levels among patients undergoing total knee replacements (TKR), and to compare the effectiveness of pain management protocols. The protocols, peri-operative levels of pain and patient satisfaction were investigated in 424 patients who underwent TKR in 14 hospitals. The protocols were highly variable and peri-operative pain levels varied substantially, particularly during the first two post-operative days. Differences in levels of pain were greatest during the night after TKR, when visual analogue scores ranged from 16.9 to 94.3 points. Of the methods of managing pain, the combined use of peri-articular infiltration and nerve blocks provided better pain relief than other methods during the first two post-operative days. Patients managed with peri-articular injection plus nerve block, and epidural analgesia were more likely to have higher satisfaction at two weeks after TKR. This study highlights the need to establish a consistent pain management strategy after TKR.

  19. Influence of meteorological elements on balance control and pain in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peultier, Laetitia; Lion, Alexis; Chary-Valckenaere, Isabelle; Loeuille, Damien; Zhang, Zheng; Rat, Anne-Christine; Gueguen, René; Paysant, Jean; Perrin, Philippe P.

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to determine if pain and balance control are related to meteorological modifications in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). One hundred and thirteen patients with knee OA (mean age = 65 ± 9 years old, 78 women) participated in this study. Static posturography was performed, sway area covered and sway path traveled by the center of foot pressure being recorded under six standing postural conditions that combine three visual situations (eyes open, eyes closed, vision altered) with two platform situations (firm and foam supports). Knee pain score was assessed using a visual analog scale. Balance control and pain measurements recorded in the morning were correlated with the meteorological data. Morning and daily values for temperature, precipitation, sunshine, height of rain in 1 h, wind speed, humidity, and atmospheric pressure were obtained from the nearest data collecting weather station. The relationship between postural control, pain, and weather variations were assessed for each patient on a given day with multiple linear regressions. A decrease of postural stability was observed when atmospheric pressure and maximum humidity decreased in the morning ( p < 0.05) and when atmospheric pressure decreased within a day ( p < 0.05). Patient's knee pain was more enhanced when it is warmer in the morning ( p < 0.05) and when it is wetter and warmer within a day ( p < 0.05). The relationship between weather, pain, and postural control can help patients and health professionals to better manage daily activities.

  20. Five-year results of a randomised controlled trial comparing mobile and fixed bearings in total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Breeman, S; Campbell, M K; Dakin, H; Fiddian, N; Fitzpatrick, R; Grant, A; Gray, A; Johnston, L; MacLennan, G S; Morris, R W; Murray, D W

    2013-04-01

    There is conflicting evidence about the merits of mobile bearings in total knee replacement, partly because most randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have not been adequately powered. We report the results of a multicentre RCT of mobile versus fixed bearings. This was part of the knee arthroplasty trial (KAT), where 539 patients were randomly allocated to mobile or fixed bearings and analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. The primary outcome measure was the Oxford Knee Score (OKS) plus secondary measures including Short Form-12, EuroQol EQ-5D, costs, cost-effectiveness and need for further surgery. There was no significant difference between the groups pre-operatively: mean OKS was 17.18 (sd 7.60) in the mobile-bearing group and 16.49 (sd 7.40) in the fixed-bearing group. At five years mean OKS was 33.19 (sd 16.68) and 33.65 (sd 9.68), respectively. There was no significant difference between trial groups in OKS at five years (-1.12 (95% confidence interval -2.77 to 0.52) or any of the other outcome measures. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the proportion of patients with knee-related re-operations or in total costs. In this appropriately powered RCT, over the first five years after total knee replacement functional outcomes, re-operation rates and healthcare costs appear to be the same irrespective of whether a mobile or fixed bearing is used.

  1. Cam Femoroacetabular Impingement as a Possible Explanation of Recalcitrant Anterior Knee Pain

    PubMed Central

    Sanchis-Alfonso, Vicente; Tey, Marc; Monllau, Joan Carles

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a patient with chronic anterior knee pain (AKP) recalcitrant to conservative treatment who returned to our office for severe hip pain secondary to Cam femoroacetabular impingement (Cam FAI) at 10 months after the onset of knee pain. This case highlights the fact that the main problem is not in the patella but in the hip in some patients with AKP. We hypothesize that there is an external femoral rotation in order to avoid the impingement and therefore the hip pain in patients with Cam FAI. This functional femoral rotation could provoke a patellofemoral imbalance that may be, in theory, responsible for patellofemoral pain in this particular patient. In our case, Cam FAI resolution was related to the resolution of AKP. PMID:27247817

  2. Determination of Pain Phenotypes in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Latent Class Analysis Using Data From the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    PubMed

    Kittelson, Andrew J; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer E; Schmiege, Sarah J

    2016-05-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a broadly applied diagnosis that may describe multiple subtypes of pain. The purpose of this study was to identify phenotypes of knee OA, using measures from the following pain-related domains: 1) knee OA pathology, 2) psychological distress, and 3) altered pain neurophysiology. Data were selected from a total of 3,494 participants at visit 6 of the Osteoarthritis Initiative study. Latent class analysis was applied to the following variables: radiographic OA severity, quadriceps strength, body mass index, the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Coping Strategies Questionnaire-Catastrophizing subscale, number of bodily pain sites, and knee joint tenderness at 4 sites. The resulting classes were compared on the following demographic and clinical factors: age, sex, pain severity, disability, walking speed, and use of arthritis-related health care. A 4-class model was identified. Class 1 (4% of the study population) had higher CCI scores. Class 2 (24%) had higher knee joint sensitivity. Class 3 (10%) had greater psychological distress. Class 4 (62%) had lesser radiographic OA, little psychological involvement, greater strength, and less pain sensitivity. Additionally, class 1 was the oldest, on average. Class 4 was the youngest, had the lowest disability, and least pain. Class 3 had the worst disability and most pain. Four distinct pain phenotypes of knee OA were identified. Psychological factors, comorbidity status, and joint sensitivity appear to be important in defining phenotypes of knee OA-related pain. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  3. Joint awareness after total knee arthroplasty is affected by pain and quadriceps strength.

    PubMed

    Hiyama, Y; Wada, O; Nakakita, S; Mizuno, K

    2016-06-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of patient-reported outcomes to provide a more patient-centered view on treatment. Forgetting the artificial joint can be regarded as the goal in joint arthroplasty. The goals of the study were to describe changes in joint awareness in the artificial joint after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), and to determine which factors among pain, knee range of motion (ROM), quadriceps strength, and functional ability affect joint awareness after TKA. Patients undergoing TKA demonstrate changes in joint awareness and joint awareness is associated with pain, knee ROM, quadriceps strength, and functional ability. This prospective cohort study comprised 63 individuals undergoing TKA, evaluated at 1, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Outcomes included joint awareness assessed using the Forgotten Joint Score (FJS), pain score, knee ROM, quadriceps strength, and functional ability. Fifty-eight individuals completed all postoperative assessments. All measures except for knee extension ROM improved from 1 to 6 months. However, there were no differences in any measures from 6 to 12 months. FJS was affected most greatly by pain at 1 month and by quadriceps strength at 6 and 12 months. Patients following TKA demonstrate improvements in joint awareness and function within 6 months after surgery, but reach a plateau from 6 to 12 months. Quadriceps strength could contribute to this plateau of joint awareness. Prospective cohort study, IV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. [Effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment of pain from osteoarthritis of the knee].

    PubMed

    Ferrández Infante, A; García Olmos, L; González Gamarra, A; Meis Meis, M J; Sánchez Rodríguez, B M

    2002-12-01

    To determine the effectiveness of acupuncture in controlling pain from arthritis of the knee. Systematic review. MedLine, the Cochrane Library. Of the 9 studies located, only 4 met the inclusion criteria. All were controlled, randomized clinical trials that studied the effect of acupuncture only in the knee joint. Primary outcome variables were intensity of pain, overall measure (general improvement, proportion of patients who recovered, subjective improvement in symptoms) and functional status. As secondary outcome measures we used objective physiological measures (range of knee movement, muscle strength, time needed to walk a certain distance, time needed to climb a certain number of stairs), general health status, and other information such as medication needed and side effects. There was moderately strong evidence that acupuncture was more effective in treating knee joint pain than no treatment. The difference can be explained by its marked placebo effect. There is currently insufficient evidence to recommend acupuncture as a treatment for pain from osteoarthritis of the knee. Additional, better designed studies are needed to determine the actual role of acupuncture in this disease.

  5. Muscle power is an independent determinant of pain and quality of life in knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Kieran F.; Price, Lori Lyn; Harvey, William F.; Driban, Jeffrey B.; Hau, Cynthia; Fielding, Roger A.; Wang, Chenchen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined the relationships between lower extremity muscle strength, power and perceived disease severity in participants with knee osteoarthritis (OA). We hypothesized that dynamic leg extensor muscle power would be associated with pain and quality of life in knee OA. Methods We used baseline data from a randomized controlled trial in 190 participants with knee OA (age: 60.2 ± 10.4 yrs; BMI: 32.7 ± 7.2 kg/m2). Knee pain was measured using the Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index and health-related quality of life using the Short Form 36 (SF-36). One-repetition maximum (1RM) strength was assessed using the bilateral leg press and peak muscle power was measured during 5 maximum voluntary velocity repetitions at 40% and 70% of 1RM. Results In univariate analysis, greater muscle power was significantly associated with pain (r = -0.17, P < 0.02). It was also significantly and positively associated with SF-36 physical component scores (PCS) (r = 0.16, P < 0.05). After adjusting for multiple covariates, muscle power was a significant independent predictor of pain (P ≤ 0.05) and PCS (P ≤ 0.04). However, strength was not an independent determinant of pain or quality of life (P ≥ 0.06). Conclusions Muscle power is an independent determinant of pain and quality of life in knee OA. Compared to strength, muscle power may be a more clinically important measure of muscle function within this population. New trials to systematically examine the impact of muscle power training interventions on disease severity in knee OA are particularly warranted. PMID:26315282

  6. Clinical descriptors for the recognition of central sensitization pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Lluch, Enrique; Nijs, Jo; Courtney, Carol A; Rebbeck, Trudy; Wylde, Vikki; Baert, Isabel; Wideman, Timothy H; Howells, Nick; Skou, Søren T

    2017-08-02

    Despite growing awareness of the contribution of central pain mechanisms to knee osteoarthritis pain in a subgroup of patients, routine evaluation of central sensitization is yet to be incorporated into clinical practice. The objective of this perspective is to design a set of clinical descriptors for the recognition of central sensitization in patients with knee osteoarthritis that can be implemented in clinical practice. A narrative review of original research papers was conducted by nine clinicians and researchers from seven different countries to reach agreement on clinically relevant descriptors. It is proposed that identification of a dominance of central sensitization pain is based on descriptors derived from the subjective assessment and the physical examination. In the former, clinicians are recommended to inquire about intensity and duration of pain and its association with structural joint changes, pain distribution, behavior of knee pain, presence of neuropathic-like or centrally mediated symptoms and responsiveness to previous treatment. The latter includes assessment of response to clinical test, mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia, hypoesthesia and reduced vibration sense. This article describes a set of clinically relevant descriptors that might indicate the presence of central sensitization in patients with knee osteoarthritis in clinical practice. Although based on research data, the descriptors proposed in this review require experimental testing in future studies. Implications for Rehabilitation Laboratory evaluation of central sensitization for people with knee osteoarthritis is yet to be incorporated into clinical practice. A set of clinical indicators for the recognition of central sensitization in patients with knee osteoarthritis is proposed. Although based on research data, the clinical indicators proposed require further experimental testing of psychometric properties.

  7. Muscle Power Is an Independent Determinant of Pain and Quality of Life in Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Reid, Kieran F; Price, Lori Lyn; Harvey, William F; Driban, Jeffrey B; Hau, Cynthia; Fielding, Roger A; Wang, Chenchen

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the relationships between leg muscle strength, power, and perceived disease severity in subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) in order to determine whether dynamic leg extensor muscle power would be associated with pain and quality of life in knee OA. Baseline data on 190 subjects with knee OA (mean ± SD age 60.2 ± 10.4 years, body mass index 32.7 ± 7.2 kg/m(2) ) were obtained from a randomized controlled trial. Knee pain was measured using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, and health-related quality of life was assessed using the Short Form 36 (SF-36). One-repetition maximum (1RM) strength was assessed using the bilateral leg press, and peak muscle power was measured during 5 maximum voluntary velocity repetitions at 40% and 70% of 1RM. In univariate analysis, greater muscle power was significantly associated with pain (r = -0.17, P < 0.02) and also significantly and positively associated with SF-36 physical component summary (PCS) scores (r = 0.16, P < 0.05). After adjustment for multiple covariates, muscle power was a significant independent predictor of pain (P ≤ 0.05) and PCS scores (P ≤ 0.04). However, muscle strength was not an independent determinant of pain or quality of life (P ≥ 0.06). Muscle power is an independent determinant of pain and quality of life in knee OA. Compared to strength, muscle power may be a more clinically important measure of muscle function within this population. New trials to systematically examine the impact of muscle power training interventions on disease severity in knee OA are particularly warranted. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.

  8. Prognosis of Pain and Physical Functioning in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    de Rooij, Mariëtte; van der Leeden, Marike; Heymans, Martijn W; Holla, Jasmijn F M; Häkkinen, Arja; Lems, Willem F; Roorda, Leo D; Veenhof, Cindy; Sanchez-Ramirez, Diana C; de Vet, Henrica C W; Dekker, Joost

    2016-04-01

    To systematically summarize the literature on the course of pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), prognostic factors that predict deterioration of pain, the course of physical functioning, and prognostic factors that predict deterioration of physical functioning in persons with knee OA. A search was conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, Psych-INFO, and SPORTDiscus up to January 2014. A meta-analysis and a qualitative data synthesis were performed. Of the 58 studies included, 39 were of high quality. High heterogeneity across studies (I(2)  >90%) and within study populations (reflected by large SDs of change scores) was found. Therefore, the course of pain and physical functioning was interpreted to be indistinct. We found strong evidence for a number of prognostic factors predicting deterioration in pain (e.g., higher knee pain at baseline, bilateral knee symptoms, and depressive symptoms). We also found strong evidence for a number of prognostic factors predicting deterioration in physical functioning (e.g., worsening in radiographic OA, worsening of knee pain, lower knee extension muscle strength, lower walking speed, and higher comorbidity count). Because of high heterogeneity across studies and within study populations, no conclusions can be drawn with regard to the course of pain and physical functioning. These findings support current research efforts to define subgroups or phenotypes within knee OA populations. Strong evidence was found for knee characteristics, clinical factors, and psychosocial factors as prognostics of deterioration of pain and physical functioning. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  9. Moxibustion Treatment for Knee Osteoarthritis: A Multi-Centre, Non-Blinded, Randomised Controlled Trial on the Effectiveness and Safety of the Moxibustion Treatment versus Usual Care in Knee Osteoarthritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jung Won; Lee, MinHee; Kang, Kyung-Won; Kim, Jung Eun; Kim, Joo-Hee; Lee, Seunghoon; Shin, Mi-Suk; Jung, So-Young; Kim, Ae-Ran; Park, Hyo-Ju; Jung, Hee-Jung; Song, Ho Sueb; Kim, Hyeong Jun; Choi, Jin-Bong; Hong, Kwon Eui; Choi, Sun-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study tested the effectiveness of moxibustion on pain and function in chronic knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and evaluated safety. Methods A multi-centre, non-blinded, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial compared moxibustion with usual care (UC) in KOA. 212 South Korean patients aged 40–70 were recruited from 2011–12, stratified by mild (Kellgren/Lawrence scale grades 0/1) and moderate-severe KOA (grades 2/3/4), and randomly allocated to moxibustion or UC for four weeks. Moxibustion involved burning mugwort devices over acupuncture and Ashi points in affected knee(s). UC was allowed. Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Questionnaire (K-WOMAC), Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36v2), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), physical performance test, pain numeric rating scale (NRS) and adverse events were evaluated at 5 and 13 weeks. K-WOMAC global score at 5 weeks was the primary outcome. Results 102 patients (73 mild, 29 moderate-severe) were allocated to moxibustion, 110 (77 mild, 33 moderate-severe) to UC. K-WOMAC global score (moxibustion 25.42+/−SD 19.26, UC 33.60+/−17.91, p<0.01, effect size  = 0.0477), NRS (moxibustion 44.77+/−22.73, UC 56.23+/−17.71, p<0.01, effect size  = 0.0073) and timed-stand test (moxibustion 24.79+/−9.76, UC 25.24+/−8.84, p = 0.0486, effect size  = 0.0021) were improved by moxibustion at 5 weeks. The primary outcome improved for mild but not moderate-severe KOA. At 13 weeks, moxibustion significantly improved the K-WOMAC global score and NRS. Moxibustion improved SF-36 physical component summary (p = 0.0299), bodily pain (p = 0.0003), physical functioning (p = 0.0025) and social functioning (p = 0.0418) at 5 weeks, with no difference in mental component summary at 5 and 13 weeks. BDI showed no difference (p = 0.34) at 5 weeks. After 1158 moxibustion treatments, 121 adverse events included first (n = 6) and second degree (n = 113) burns, pruritus and

  10. Ethnic differences in the prevalence of knee pain among adults of a community in a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Beh, Hooi Chin; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Teng, Cheong Lieng; Hanafi, Nik Sherina; Choo, Wan Yuen

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of knee pain among 3 major ethnic groups in Malaysia. By identifying high-risk groups, preventive measures can be targeted at these populations. Design and setting A cross-sectional survey was carried out in rural and urban areas in a state in Malaysia. Secondary schools were randomly selected and used as sampling units. Participants Adults aged ≥18 years old were invited to answer a self-administered questionnaire on pain experienced over the previous 6 months. Out of 9300 questionnaires distributed, 5206 were returned and 150 participants who did not fall into the 3 ethnic groups were excluded, yielding a total of 5056 questionnaires for analysis. 58.2% (n=2926) were women. 50% (n=2512) were Malays, 41.4% (n=2079) were Chinese and 8.6% (n=434) were Indians. Results 21.1% (n=1069) had knee pain during the previous 6 months. More Indians (31.8%) experienced knee pain compared with Malays (24.3%) and Chinese (15%) (p<0.001). The odds of Indian women reporting knee pain was twofold higher compared with Malay women. There was a rising trend in the prevalence of knee pain with increasing age (p<0.001). The association between age and knee pain appeared to be stronger in women than men. 68.1% of Indians used analgesia for knee pain while 75.4% of Malays and 52.1% of Chinese did so (p<0.001). The most common analgesic used for knee pain across all groups was topical medicated oil (43.7%). Conclusions The prevalence of knee pain in adults was more common in Indian women and older women age groups and Chinese men had the lowest prevalence of knee pain. Further studies should investigate the reasons for these differences. PMID:27909033

  11. Efficacy and safety of epicutaneous ketoprofen in Transfersome (IDEA‐033) versus oral celecoxib and placebo in osteoarthritis of the knee: multicentre randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Rother, Matthias; Lavins, Bernard J; Kneer, Werner; Lehnhardt, Klaus; Seidel, Egbert J; Mazgareanu, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare epicutaneous ketoprofen in Transfersome (ultra‐deformable vesicles, IDEA‐033) versus oral celecoxib and placebo for relief of signs and symptoms in knee osteoarthritis. Methods This was a multicentre, randomised, double‐blind, controlled trial; 397 patients with knee osteoarthritis participated and 324 completed the trial. They were randomly assigned 110 mg epicutaneous ketoprofen in 4.8 g Transfersome plus oral placebo (n = 138), 100 mg oral celecoxib plus placebo gel (n = 132), or both placebo formulations (n = 127) twice daily for 6 weeks. Primary efficacy outcome measures were the changes from baseline to end of the study on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index pain subscale, physical function subscale and patient global assessment (PGA) of response. Results The mean WOMAC pain subscale scores in the intent to treat population were reduced by 18.2 (95% confidence interval −22.1 to −14.3), 20.3 (−24.3 to −16.2) and 9.9 (−13.9 to −5.8) in the IDEA‐033, celecoxib and placebo groups, respectively, and the physical function subscale score by 14.6 (−18.1 to −11.0), 16.6 (−20.2 to −13.0) and 10.2 (−13.8 to −6.6), respectively. The mean PGA of response scores were 1.8 (1.6 to 2.1), 1.7 (1.5 to 1.9) and 1.3 (1.1 to 1.5), respectively. The differences in change between IDEA‐033 and placebo were statistically significant for pain subscale (p<0.01) and PGA of response (p<0.01). Gastrointestinal adverse events for IDEA‐033 were similar to placebo. Conclusion IDEA‐033 is superior to placebo and comparable with celecoxib in relieving pain associated with an acute flare of knee osteoarthritis. PMID:17363401

  12. Bilateral Knee Pain Associated with Bone Infarction in a Patient with Behcet's Disease.

    PubMed

    Oktayoglu, Pelin; Cevik, Figen; Tahtasiz, Mehmet; Em, Serda; Bozkurt, Mehtap; Kapukaya, Ahmet; Nas, Kemal

    2012-01-01

    We describe a 31-years-old female patient with severe pain in both knees who had been diagnosed as Behcet's disease (BD) for 12 years. She had had a history of complications due to BD including superior vena cava thrombosis, pulmonary thromboembolism, uveitis, and erythema nodosum and has reported the administration of corticosteroid therapy irregularly. After radiologic evaluation, she has been diagnosed with bone infarction of both left and right knee with the existance of lupus anticoagulants (LA) positivity. Severe joint pain without the evidence of arthritis must alert the clinician to the possibility of bone necrosis of the extremity, although those may rarely occur bilateral in BD.

  13. Safety of intra-articular hyaluronates for pain associated with osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    Hammesfahr, J F Rick; Knopf, Alan B; Stitik, Todd

    2003-06-01

    Sodium hyaluronate (Hyalgan, and Supartz) and hylan G-F 20 (Synvisc) are hyaluronans (HA) injected intra-articularly for pain relief in osteoarthritis of the knee. Each product has demonstrated a very favorable safety profile in clinical trials and practice. The most common adverse event associated with their use is mild injection site pain and swelling. Rare incidences of pseudogout and anaphylactoid reactions have been reported to be associated with their use. Occasionally, pseudosepsis, also known as a severe acute inflammatory reaction (SAIR) syndrome, has been reported to be associated with these products. Clinical and postmarketing data indicate that HA therapy is a safe treatment for osteoarthritis of the knee.

  14. Reliability of assessing end-feel and pain and resistance sequence in subjects with painful shoulders and knees.

    PubMed

    Hayes, K W; Petersen, C M

    2001-08-01

    Descriptive. Examine the intrarater and interrater reliability of end-feel and pain/resistance sequence for patients with painful shoulders and knees. Clinicians make diagnostic and intervention decisions based on end-feel and pain/resistance sequence, but few studies have examined agreement within and between physical therapists when assessing subjects with pathology. Subjects with unilateral knee pain (18 men and 22 women with a mean age of 31.8 +/- 9.5 years) or shoulder pain (21 men and 25 women with a mean age of 34.3 +/- 12.9 years) were examined twice. Two physical therapists used standardized positions to evaluate 2 knee motions and 5 shoulder motions. Evaluators did not interview subjects and were blinded to previous test results. Evaluators applied overpressure and noted the end-feel while subjects identified the moment their pain was reproduced. Following testing, subjects rated their pain intensity. Analyses included: percentage of agreement; kappa, weighted kappa, and maximum kappa coefficients; and confidence intervals. Analyses were repeated for subjects whose pain intensity during testing did not change between examinations. Intrarater kappa coefficients varied from 0.65 to 1.00 for end-feel, and intrarater weighted kappa coefficients varied from 0.59 to 0.87 for pain/resistance sequence. Most coefficients remained stable or improved for the unchanged subjects. Interrater kappa coefficients for end-feel and weighted kappa coefficients for pain/resistance sequence varied from -0.01 to 0.70. End-feel kappa coefficients remained low for the unchanged subjects, but pain/resistance sequence weighted kappa coefficients improved. Unbalanced distribution affected many coefficients, producing low coefficients even when the percentage of agreement was high. The appropriate use of end-feel and pain/resistance sequence data requires reliable data gathering, especially when patients are managed by more than one physical therapist. Intrarater reliability of end

  15. Constraint choice in revision knee arthroplasty: study protocol of a randomised controlled trial assessing the effect of level of constraint on postoperative outcome

    PubMed Central

    Hommel, Hagen; Wilke, Kai; Kunze, Daniel; Hommel, Peggy

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The proper management of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients with severe deformities regarding the preferable prosthetic design and the required amount of constraint is a controversial subject. In the absence of any high-level clinical evidence, we designed a randomised clinical trial to investigate if rotating hinged (RTH) and constrained condylar knee (CCK) designs yield similar outcomes. Methods and analysis This study is a multicentre, randomised clinical trial including two groups of 85 patients. Patients will be randomised to a CCK knee design group or an RTH knee design group. Patients will be followed for 2 years. The study will be designed as an equivalence trial. The primary study outcome will be the postoperative functional outcome as measured by the self-administered Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score. Secondary outcomes will be postoperative joint awareness during various activities of daily living as measured by the Forgotten Joint Score-12, the Knee Society Score, along with the incidence and location of radiolucent lines using the Knee Society TKA radiographic evaluation system. Ethics and dissemination This study is approved by the ethics committee of the Landesärztekammer Brandenburg ((S 10(a)/2013) from 27.08.2013, amended on 25.04.2016) and will be conducted according to the principles of the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki and the ISO14155:2011. Trial registration number DRKS00010539. PMID:28348182

  16. Implant survival, knee function, and pain relief after TKA: are there differences between men and women?

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Mary I

    2011-07-01

    As efforts continue to improve the results of TKA, the potential influence of sex and gender on long-term survival of implants, knee function, pain relief, and patient satisfaction remains relevant, particularly given the increased incidence of osteoarthritis of the knee in women and reports that women derive equal benefit from TKA. This article reviews the literature pertinent to the question of whether long-term survival, knee function, pain relief, and patient satisfaction after TKA differ between men and women. Large clinical series (> 1000 patients) published in the last 10 years were identified in PubMed and reviewed. Men may be at higher risk of revision surgery than women. Sex/gender has been consistently shown to impact both function and pain relief both before and after TKA. Although women achieve at least the same degree of functional improvement as men, women have worse preoperative physical function and do not reach the same final level of physical function as men. Likewise women may have similar or even greater improvement in pain after arthroplasty than men but still have final pain scores that are less favorable. Further research is required to understand the sex and gender differences contributing to implant survival, physical function, and pain relief after TKA. Strategies need to be developed to identify any patient who is at higher risk of implant failure, suboptimal postoperative function, and incomplete pain relief.

  17. A preliminary fMRI study of analgesic treatment in chronic back pain and knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Baliki, Marwan N; Geha, Paul Y; Jabakhanji, Rami; Harden, Norm; Schnitzer, Thomas J; Apkarian, A Vania

    2008-01-01

    The effects of an analgesic treatment (lidocaine patches) on brain activity in chronic low back pain (CBP) and in knee osteoarthritis (OA) were investigated using serial fMRI (contrasting fMRI between before and after two weeks of treatment). Prior to treatment brain activity was distinct between the two groups: CBP spontaneous pain was associated mainly with activity in medial prefrontal cortex, while OA painful mechanical knee stimulation was associated with bilateral activity in the thalamus, secondary somatosensory, insular, and cingulate cortices, and unilateral activity in the putamen and amygdala. After 5% lidocaine patches were applied to the painful body part for two weeks, CBP patients exhibited a significant decrease in clinical pain measures, while in OA clinical questionnaire based outcomes showed no treatment effect but stimulus evoked pain showed a borderline decrease. The lidocaine treatment resulted in significantly decreased brain activity in both patient groups with distinct brain regions responding in each group, and sub-regions within these areas were correlated with pain ratings specifically for each group (medial prefrontal cortex in CBP and thalamus in OA). We conclude that the two chronic pain conditions involve distinct brain regions, with OA pain engaging many brain regions commonly observed in acute pain. Moreover, lidocaine patch treatment modulates distinct brain circuitry in each condition, yet in OA we observe divergent results with fMRI and with questionnaire based instruments. PMID:18950528

  18. A preliminary fMRI study of analgesic treatment in chronic back pain and knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Baliki, Marwan N; Geha, Paul Y; Jabakhanji, Rami; Harden, Norm; Schnitzer, Thomas J; Apkarian, A Vania

    2008-10-25

    The effects of an analgesic treatment (lidocaine patches) on brain activity in chronic low back pain (CBP) and in knee osteoarthritis (OA) were investigated using serial fMRI (contrasting fMRI between before and after two weeks of treatment). Prior to treatment brain activity was distinct between the two groups: CBP spontaneous pain was associated mainly with activity in medial prefrontal cortex, while OA painful mechanical knee stimulation was associated with bilateral activity in the thalamus, secondary somatosensory, insular, and cingulate cortices, and unilateral activity in the putamen and amygdala. After 5% lidocaine patches were applied to the painful body part for two weeks, CBP patients exhibited a significant decrease in clinical pain measures, while in OA clinical questionnaire based outcomes showed no treatment effect but stimulus evoked pain showed a borderline decrease. The lidocaine treatment resulted in significantly decreased brain activity in both patient groups with distinct brain regions responding in each group, and sub-regions within these areas were correlated with pain ratings specifically for each group (medial prefrontal cortex in CBP and thalamus in OA). We conclude that the two chronic pain conditions involve distinct brain regions, with OA pain engaging many brain regions commonly observed in acute pain. Moreover, lidocaine patch treatment modulates distinct brain circuitry in each condition, yet in OA we observe divergent results with fMRI and with questionnaire based instruments.

  19. Knee arthritis pain is reduced and range of motion is increased following moderate pressure massage therapy.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Gonzalez, Gladys; Funk, C G

    2015-11-01

    The literature on massage therapy effects on knee pain suggests that pain was reduced based on self-report, but little is known about range of motion (ROM) effects. Medical School staff and faculty who had knee arthritis pain were randomly assigned to a moderate pressure massage therapy or a waitlist control group (24 per group). Self-reports included the WOMAC (pain, stiffness and function) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. ROM and ROM-related pain were assessed before and after the last sessions. The massage group showed an immediate post-massage increase in ROM and a decrease in ROM-associated pain. On the last versus the first day of the study, the massage group showed greater increases in ROM and decreases in ROM-related pain as well as less self-reported pain and sleep disturbances than the waitlist control group. These data highlight the effectiveness of moderate pressure massage therapy for increasing ROM and lessening ROM-related pain and long-term pain and sleep disturbances. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of Low Level of Continuous Heat as an Adjunct to Physical Therapy Improves Knee Pain Recovery and the Compliance for Home Exercise in Patients With Chronic Knee Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Petrofsky, Jerrold S; Laymon, Michael S; Alshammari, Faris S; Lee, Haneul

    2016-11-01

    Petrofsky, JS, Laymon, MS, Alshammari, FS, and Lee, H. Use of low level of continuous heat as an adjunct to physical therapy improves knee pain recovery and the compliance for home exercise in patients with chronic knee pain: a randomized controlled trial. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3107-3115, 2016-This study examined if the use of low level continuous heat (LLCH) wraps at home between physical therapy sessions at a clinic resulted in better therapy outcomes in patients with chronic knee pain. Fifty individuals with chronic nonspecific knee pain was randomly allocated to 2 groups: the LLCH group and the placebo group. All subjects underwent 1 hour of conventional physical therapy twice per week for 2 weeks at the outpatient clinic and they were asked to accomplish 1 hour of therapeutic exercise at home each day between sessions. The LLCH group applied LLCH knee wraps for 6 hours at home before home exercise while placebo group took a placebo ibuprofen. (This was done since placebo heat is impossible to use since subjects would notice that the wraps were cold) Before, during, and after intervention, pain intensity, active range of motion of the knee (AROM), knee strength, and home exercise compliance were measured. The LLCH group showed pain attenuation after 2 weeks of therapy sessions (p ≤ 0.05). AROM and strength of the knee significantly improved over time compared to the placebo group. Home exercise compliance was significantly higher in the LLCH group than placebo group (p ≤ 0.05). These results indicated that the use of LLCH as an adjunct to conventional physical therapy for chronic knee pain significantly improved pain attenuation and recovery of strength and movement in patients with chronic knee pain.

  1. Analgesic drug consumption increases after knee arthroplasty: a pharmacoepidemiological study investigating postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Fuzier, Régis; Serres, Isabelle; Bourrel, Robert; Palmaro, Aurore; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse

    2014-07-01

    Knee arthroplasty remains the gold standard in the treatment of severe osteoarthritis. Chronic postoperative pain has been reported with a prevalence ranging from 15% to 47%. The aim of this study was to compare analgesic drug consumption before and after surgery as an indicator of pain after knee surgery. A pharmacoepidemiological method comparing analgesics and antineuropathic issues 1 year before and 1 year after surgery was used. All patients who underwent knee arthroplasty in the Midi-Pyrenees region (2.5 million inhabitants) were identified through the Health Insurance System Database. Increase of drug issues (all analgesics, antineuropathic drugs, strong opioids) was calculated and compared between several periods surrounding the surgery (12 months, 2 months, and 10 months before and after the knee arthroplasty). A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with chronic postoperative pain. The study included 1939 patients. An increase in analgesic, antineuropathic, and opioid drug consumption was observed the year after the surgery in 47.3%, 8.6%, and 5.6% of patients, respectively. Multivariate analysis found a significant association between type of surgery (total knee vs unicompartmental arthroplasty) and analgesic consumption 1 year after surgery, and between preoperative pain and psychiatric vulnerability and increase in neuropathic drug dispensing. Conversely, older age was considered as a protective factor. This study revealed that an increase in the issue of different analgesic drugs is present in half of patients 1 year after knee arthroplasty. Several associated factors of drug consumption (preoperative pain, type of surgery, and psychiatric disorder) were identified.

  2. Efficacy of Myofascial Trigger Point Dry Needling in the Prevention of Pain after Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mayoral, Orlando; Salvat, Isabel; Martín, María Teresa; Martín, Stella; Santiago, Jesús; Cotarelo, José; Rodríguez, Constantino

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the dry needling of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) is superior to placebo in the prevention of pain after total knee arthroplasty. Forty subjects were randomised to a true dry needling group (T) or to a sham group (S). All were examined for MTrPs by an experienced physical therapist 4–5 hours before surgery. Immediately following anesthesiology and before surgery started, subjects in the T group were dry needled in all previously diagnosed MTrPs, while the S group received no treatment in their MTrPs. Subjects were blinded to group allocation as well as the examiner in presurgical and follow-up examinations performed 1, 3, and 6 months after arthroplasty. Subjects in the T group had less pain after intervention, with statistically significant differences in the variation rate of the visual analogue scale (VAS) measurements 1 month after intervention and in the need for immediate postsurgery analgesics. Differences were not significant at 3- and 6-month follow-up examinations. In conclusion, a single dry needling treatment of MTrP under anaesthesia reduced pain in the first month after knee arthroplasty, when pain was the most severe. Results show a superiority of dry needling versus placebo. An interesting novel placebo methodology for dry needling, with a real blinding procedure, is presented. PMID:23606888

  3. Efficacy of myofascial trigger point dry needling in the prevention of pain after total knee arthroplasty: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mayoral, Orlando; Salvat, Isabel; Martín, María Teresa; Martín, Stella; Santiago, Jesús; Cotarelo, José; Rodríguez, Constantino

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the dry needling of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) is superior to placebo in the prevention of pain after total knee arthroplasty. Forty subjects were randomised to a true dry needling group (T) or to a sham group (S). All were examined for MTrPs by an experienced physical therapist 4-5 hours before surgery. Immediately following anesthesiology and before surgery started, subjects in the T group were dry needled in all previously diagnosed MTrPs, while the S group received no treatment in their MTrPs. Subjects were blinded to group allocation as well as the examiner in presurgical and follow-up examinations performed 1, 3, and 6 months after arthroplasty. Subjects in the T group had less pain after intervention, with statistically significant differences in the variation rate of the visual analogue scale (VAS) measurements 1 month after intervention and in the need for immediate postsurgery analgesics. Differences were not significant at 3- and 6-month follow-up examinations. In conclusion, a single dry needling treatment of MTrP under anaesthesia reduced pain in the first month after knee arthroplasty, when pain was the most severe. Results show a superiority of dry needling versus placebo. An interesting novel placebo methodology for dry needling, with a real blinding procedure, is presented.

  4. Pain biology education and exercise classes compared to pain biology education alone for individuals with chronic low back pain: a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Cormac G; Gray, Heather G; Newton, Mary; Granat, Malcolm H

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this single-blind pilot RCT was to investigate the effect of pain biology education and group exercise classes compared to pain biology education alone for individuals with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Participants with CLBP were randomised to a pain biology education and group exercise classes group (EDEX) [n = 20] or a pain biology education only group (ED) [n = 18]. The primary outcome was pain (0-100 numerical rating scale), and self-reported function assessed using the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, measured at pre-intervention, post-intervention and three month follow up. Secondary outcome measures were pain self-efficacy, pain related fear, physical performance testing and free-living activity monitoring. Using a linear mixed model analysis, there was a statistically significant interaction effect between time and intervention for both pain (F[2,49] = 3.975, p < 0.05) and pain self-efficacy (F[2,51] = 4.011, p < 0.05) with more favourable results for the ED group. The effects levelled off at the three month follow up point. In the short term, pain biology education alone was more effective for pain and pain self-efficacy than a combination of pain biology education and group exercise classes. This pilot study highlights the need to investigate the combined effects of different interventions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The pain in primary osteoarthritis of the knee. Its causes and treatment by osteotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Helal, B.

    1965-01-01

    1. Some results of a clinical investigation of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee are described. 2. The different varieties of pain which occur in osteoarthritis are detailed. 3. A sub-group of patients with primary osteoarthritis of the knee is described. In this group "venous" pain predominated; the venographic appearances are typical, and in a large proportion of cases the veins outside the bone are manifestly abnormal. 4. It is suggested that venous congestion within the bone results from extra-osseus vein disturbances, and leads to congestive bone pain and to progressive joint degeneration. 5. The mechanism by which osteotomy produces relief of pain is analysed and discussed. 6. A simple procedure which reproduces some of the benefits of osteotomy is described. Images Fig. 1 p174-b p175-a Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4A Fig. 4B Fig. 4C Fig. 5 PMID:5293938

  6. Modifiable lifestyle factors are associated with lower pain levels in adults with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Connelly, A Erin; Tucker, Amy J; Kott, Laima S; Wright, Amanda J; Duncan, Alison M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With no cure or effective treatments for osteoarthritis (OA), the need to identify modifiable factors to decrease pain and increase physical function is well recognized. OBJECTIVE: To examine factors that characterize OA patients at different levels of pain, and to investigate the relationships among these factors and pain. METHODS: Details of OA characteristics and lifestyle factors were collected from interviews with healthy adults with knee OA (n=197). The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index was used to assess pain. Factors were summarized across three pain score categories, and χ2 and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to examine differences. Multiple linear regression analysis using a stepwise selection procedure was used to examine associations between lifestyle factors and pain. RESULTS: Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that pain was significantly higher with the use of OA medications and higher body mass index category, and significantly lower with the use of supplements and meeting physical activity guidelines (≥150 min/week). Stiffness and physical function scores, bilateral knee OA, body mass index category and OA medication use were significantly higher with increasing pain, whereas self-reported health, servings of fruit, supplement use and meeting physical activity guidelines significantly lower. No significant differences across pain categories were found for sex, age, number of diseases, duration of OA, ever smoked, alcoholic drinks/week, over-the-counter pain medication use, OA supplement use, physical therapy use, servings of vegetables or minutes walked/week. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy weight maintenance, exercise for at least 150 min/week and appropriate use of medications and supplements represent important modifiable factors related to lower knee OA pain. PMID:26125195

  7. Postoperative pain management after total knee arthroplasty in elderly patients: treatment options.

    PubMed

    McCartney, Colin J L; Nelligan, Kathleen

    2014-02-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a common surgical procedure in the elderly and is associated with severe pain after surgery and a high incidence of chronic pain. Several factors are associated with severe acute pain after surgery, including psychological factors and severe preoperative pain. Good acute pain control can be provided with multimodal analgesia, including regional anesthesia techniques. Studies have demonstrated that poor acute pain control after TKA is strongly associated with development of chronic pain, and this emphasizes the importance of attention to good acute pain control after TKA. Pain after discharge from hospital after TKA is currently poorly managed, and this is an area where increased resources need to be focused to improve early pain control. This is particularly as patients are often discharged home within 4-5 days after surgery. Chronic pain after TKA in the elderly can be managed with both pharmacological and non-pharmacological techniques. After excluding treatable causes of pain, the simplest approach is with the use of acetaminophen combined with a short course of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Careful titration of opioid analgesics can also be helpful with other adjuvants such as the antidepressants or antiepileptic medications used especially for patients with neuropathic pain. Topical agents may provide benefit and are associated with fewer systemic side effects than oral administration. Complementary or psychological therapies may be beneficial for those patients who have failed other options or have depression associated with chronic pain.

  8. Single-dose intra-articular bupivacaine plus morphine after knee arthroscopic surgery: a meta-analysis of randomised placebo-controlled studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi-lun; Zeng, Chao; Xie, Dong-xing; Yang, Ye; Wei, Jie; Yang, Tuo; Li, Hui; Lei, Guang-hua

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of single-dose intra-articular bupivacaine plus morphine after knee arthroscopic surgery. Design Meta-analysis. Data sources and study eligibility criteria A comprehensive literature search, using Medline (1966–2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Embase databases, was conducted to identify randomised placebo-controlled trials that used a combination of single-dose intra-articular bupivacaine and morphine for postoperative pain relief. Results 12 articles were included in this meta-analysis. The mean visual analogue scale (VAS) scores of the bupivacaine plus morphine group were significantly lower than those of the placebo group (weighted mean difference (WMD) −1.75; 95% CI −2.16 to −1.33; p<0.001). The VAS scores at the last follow-up time point (last VAS scores) of the bupivacaine plus morphine group were also significantly lower than those of the placebo group (WMD −1.46; 95% CI −1.63 to −1.29; p<0.001). The number of patients requiring supplementary analgesia was also significantly reduced (RR 0.60; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.93; p=0.02), while there was no significant difference in the time to first analgesic request (WMD 3.46; 95% CI −1.81 to 8.72; p=0.20) or short-term side effects (RR 1.67; 95% CI 0.65 to 4.26; p=0.29). Conclusions The administration of single-dose intra-articular bupivacaine plus morphine after knee arthroscopic surgery is effective for pain relief, and its short-term side effects remain similar to saline placebo. PMID:26078306

  9. Preoperative Pain, Symptoms, and Psychological Factors related to Higher Acute Pain Trajectories during Hospitalization for Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Maren Falch; Miaskowski, Christine; Rustøen, Tone; Rosseland, Leiv Arne; Paul, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Unrelieved postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a significant problem. This longitudinal study investigated how preoperative pain intensity, as well as a comprehensive list of preoperative and perioperative factors, influenced the severity of acute average and worst pain after TKA. Methods Prior to surgery, 203 patients completed a demographic questionnaire, Lee Fatigue Scale, Fatigue Severity Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire. Brief Pain Inventory was completed prior to surgery as well as through postoperative days (POD) 0 to 4. Clinical data were extracted from medical records. Results Several factors were associated with higher levels of preoperative and postoperative pain. Lower preoperative average and worst pain intensity scores were associated with increases in average and worst postoperative pain from POD1 to POD4. A higher number of comorbidities, higher C-reactive protein values, and higher pain interference with function were associated with higher preoperative levels of average pain. Older age, higher fatigue levels, and higher scores on identity and emotional responses to osteoarthritis (OA) were associated with higher preoperative levels of worst pain. Lower perceived consequences of OA were associated with higher pain from POD1 to POD4. Males and patients with lower preoperative scores for average pain had higher worst pain following surgery. Discussion Patients at higher risk for more severe postoperative pain can be identified through an assessment of pain and other risk factors identified in this study. Future research needs to test the efficacy of interventions that modify patients’ perceptions of living with OA and pain intensity before surgery on short and long term postoperative outcomes. PMID:27583551

  10. Anserina Bursitis—A Treatable Cause of Knee Pain in Patients with Degenerative Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Brookler, Morton I.; Mongan, Edward S.

    1973-01-01

    The anserina bursa is located on the medial surface of the tibia deep to the tendons of the sartorius, gracilis, and semimembranosus muscles and superficial to the insertion of the tibial collateral ligament. Knee pain, a palpable swelling of the bursa, and tenderness over the medial anterior aspect of the tibia just below the knee are the hallmarks of anserina bursitis. In a three-year period, 24 patients with anserina bursitis were seen in a rheumatology clinic. All but one were women, 18 were obese, and only four were under 50 years old. Knee x-ray studies showed degenerative arthritis in 20 of the 24 patients. In ten, varus knee deformities were present, while three had valgus deformities. Ultrasound or local steroid injections gave dramatic relief in all but one patient. PMID:4731586

  11. Painful knees and hearing-loss: a rare presentation of meningococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Kahlmann, Vivienne; Alves, Celina; Coleman, Johannes; Korswagen, Lindy-Anne

    2016-06-29

    A 49-year-old woman with a medical history of rheumatoid arthritis presented to the emergency room, with high fever and painful knees. In addition, she had had a mild headache for several days and some hearing loss over several months. We saw an ill patient with arthritis of both knees, from which purulent fluid was aspirated. Antibiotics were started for septic arthritis of both knees and her condition improved rapidly. However, the headache persisted and the hearing loss worsened. At the time, meningitis was suspected. Initial knee aspiration culture was positive for Neisseria meningitidis PCR of the cerebrospinal fluid sample also was positive for N. meningitidis The patient was finally diagnosed with bilateral septic gonarthritis secondary to a bacterial meningitis caused by N. meningitidis. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  12. The relationship between psychosocial variables and pain reporting in osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    Creamer, P; Hochberg, M C

    1998-02-01

    Psychosocial factors may explain some of the variation in pain reporting among individuals with knee OA. This has important potential implications for management; indeed, several studies (reviewed in ref. 56) have demonstrated that interventions may reduce knee pain without apparent halting or reversing of structural damage. Such interventions have included the simple provision of support by monthly telephone calls (57), self-management programs (58), and cognitive-behavioral approaches designed to teach patients ways of coping with their pain (59). These programs are even more effective if the spouse is involved (60). It should be noted that there may be a large placebo effect in these interventions, and the degree to which patients are responding simply to an interest being taken in them and their problems is unclear; at least one study has shown that formal cognitive-behavioral therapy is no better than didactic education at improving pain and function in knee OA (though both are beneficial) (61). Many studies examining the role of psychosocial factors have suffered from poor design; many, for example, fail to control for radiographic severity. Future studies should define how pain is identified (dichotomous, ever/never/current, severity), differentiate community and hospital subjects, and separate patients by type and location of OA. Studies should also control for other factors potentially associated with pain: obesity, comorbidity, muscle weakness, and aerobic fitness. Prospective studies would allow clarification of the cause and effect relationship between anxiety, depression, and pain, both in the community and in patients who have elected to seek medical help. In this way, we may increase our understanding of the complex interaction between mood, social factors, and pain reporting in knee OA and, thus, improve the effectiveness, already equivalent to many pharmacologic interventions, of treatments designed to address psychosocial factors.

  13. Bipartite patella causing knee pain in young adults: a report of 5 cases.

    PubMed

    Vaishya, Raju; Chopra, Surender; Vijay, Vipul; Vaish, Abhishek

    2015-04-01

    We report on 5 patients who underwent arthroscopic excision or open reduction and internal fixation for bipartite patella. All patients presented with refractory anterior knee pain. The diagnosis of bipartite patella was made using radiography, and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomographic arthrography. All 5 patients achieved complete resolution of symptoms after surgery, and remained pain-free after a mean followup period of 13 months.

  14. Localised application of vibration improves passive knee extension in women with apparent reduced hamstring extensibility: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiary, Amir Hoshang; Fatemi, Elham; Khalili, Mohammad Amozade; Ghorbani, Raheb

    2011-01-01

    Does the localised application of vibration over the hamstrings improve hamstring extensibility? Randomised controlled trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis, and assessor blinding. 30 non-athletic females (aged 18-22 yrs) with limited hamstring extensibility bilaterally. The experimental group received 3 sessions of localised application of vibration per week for 8 weeks. At each session, 3 sets of vibration were applied over the left and right hamstring muscles. The control group continued their usual daily activities. Both groups were asked to perform no specific exercises during the 8-week intervention period. Hamstring muscle extensibility was measured bilaterally at baseline and at the end of the 8-week intervention period by measuring passive knee extension in supine with 90 deg of hip flexion. At baseline, the mean lack of knee extension was 27 deg (SD 9) in the experimental group and 24 deg (SD 8) in the control group. At 8 weeks, this had changed to 13 deg (SD 5) in the experimental group and 23 deg (SD 9) in the control group. This was a significant treatment effect: mean between-group difference of 13 deg (95% CI 11 to 16). An 8-week regimen of localised application of vibration over the hamstring muscles significantly reduces knee extension lack in women with reduced range on the passive knee extension test. Copyright © 2011 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  15. Patient participation in postoperative care activities in patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery: Multimedia Intervention for Managing patient Experience (MIME). Study protocol for a cluster randomised crossover trial.

    PubMed

    McDonall, Jo; de Steiger, Richard; Reynolds, John; Redley, Bernice; Livingston, Patricia; Botti, Mari

    2016-07-18

    Patient participation is an important indicator of quality care. Currently, there is little evidence to support the belief that participation in care is possible for patients during the acute postoperative period. Previous work indicates that there is very little opportunity for patients to participate in care in the acute context. Patients require both capability, in terms of having the required knowledge and understanding of how they can be involved in their care, and the opportunity, facilitated by clinicians, to engage in their acute postoperative care. This cluster randomised crossover trial aims to test whether a multimedia intervention improves patient participation in the acute postoperative context, as determined by pain intensity and recovery outcomes. A total of 240 patients admitted for primary total knee replacement surgery will be invited to participate in a cluster randomised, crossover trial and concurrent process evaluation in at least two wards at a major non-profit private hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Patients admitted to the intervention ward will receive the multimedia intervention daily from Day 1 to Day 5 (or day of discharge, if prior). The intervention will be delivered by nurses via an iPad™, comprising information on the goals of care for each day following surgery. Patients admitted to the control ward will receive usual care as determined by care pathways currently in use across the organization. The primary endpoint is the "worst pain experienced in the past 24 h" on Day 3 following TKR surgery. Pain intensity will be measured using the numerical rating scale. Secondary outcomes are interference of pain on activities of daily living, length of stay in hospital, function and pain following TKR surgery, overall satisfaction with hospitalisation, postoperative complications and hospital readmission. The results of this study will contribute to our understanding of the effectiveness of interventions that provide knowledge and

  16. Neural and psychosocial contributions to sex differences in knee osteoarthritic pain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    People with osteoarthritis (OA) can have significant pain that interferes with function and quality of life. Women with knee OA have greater pain and greater reductions in function and quality of life than men. In many cases, OA pain is directly related to sensitization and activation of nociceptors in the injured joint and correlates with the degree of joint effusion and synovial thickening. In some patients, however, the pain does not match the degree of injury and continues after removal of the nociceptors with a total joint replacement. Growth of new nociceptors, activation of nociceptors in the subchondral bone exposed after cartilage degradation, and nociceptors innervating synovium sensitized by inflammatory mediators could all augment the peripheral input to the central nervous system and result in pain. Enhanced central excitability and reduced central inhibition could lead to prolonged and enhanced pain that does not directly match the degree of injury. Psychosocial variables can influence pain and contribute to pain variability. This review explores the neural and psychosocial factors that contribute to knee OA pain with an emphasis on differences between the sexes and gaps in knowledge. PMID:23244577

  17. Knee Bursitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... make a diagnosis of knee bursitis during a physical exam. Your doctor will inspect your knee by: Comparing the condition of both knees, particularly if only one is painful Gently pressing on different areas of your knee to detect warmth, swelling and the source of pain Carefully moving ...

  18. A randomised, double-blind, controlled trial comparing two intra-articular hyaluronic acid preparations differing by their molecular weight in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Berenbaum, Francis; Grifka, Joachim; Cazzaniga, Sara; D'Amato, Massimo; Giacovelli, Giampaolo; Chevalier, Xavier; Rannou, Francois; Rovati, Lucio C; Maheu, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare the effects of an intermediate molecular weight (MW) intra-articular hyaluronic acid (HA) with a low MW product on knee osteoarthritis (OA) symptoms. Methods Patients with symptomatic knee OA were enrolled inarandomised, controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, non-inferiority trial with the possibility to shift to superiority. Patients were randomised to GO-ON(MW 800–1500 kD, 25 mg/2.5 ml) or Hyalgan(MW 500–730 kD, 20 mg/2 ml) injected at 3-weekly intervals. The primary outcome was 6-month change in the WOMAC pain subscale (0–100 mm). Sample size was calculated on a non-inferiority margin of 9 mm, lower than the minimum perceptible clinical improvement. Secondary endpoints included OARSI-OMERACT responder rates Results The intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) populations consisted of 217 and 209 patients and 171 and 172 patients in the GO-ON and Hyalgan groups, respectively. ITT WOMAC pain of 47.5±1.0(SE) and 48.8±1.0 mm decreased by 22.9±1.4 mm with GO-ON and 18.4±1.5 mm with Hyalgan after 6 months. The primary analysis was conducted in the PP population followed by the ITT population.Mean (95% CI) differences in WOMAC pain change were 5.2 (0.9 to 9.6)mm and 4.5 (0.5 to 8.5)mm, respectively,favouring GO-ON, satisfying the claim for non-inferiority (lower limit>−9 mm) and for statistical superiority (95% CI all>0, p=0.021). Ahigher proportion of OARSI/OMERACT responders was observed with GO-ONthan with Hyalgan (73.3% vs58.4%, p=0.001). Both preparations were well tolerated. Conclusions Treatment with 3-weekly injections of intermediate MW HA may be superior to low MW HA on knee OA symptoms over 6 months, with similar safety. PMID:22294639

  19. A randomised, double-blind, controlled trial comparing two intra-articular hyaluronic acid preparations differing by their molecular weight in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Berenbaum, Francis; Grifka, Joachim; Cazzaniga, Sara; D'Amato, Massimo; Giacovelli, Giampaolo; Chevalier, Xavier; Rannou, Francois; Rovati, Lucio C; Maheu, Emmanuel

    2012-09-01

    To compare the effects of an intermediate molecular weight (MW) intra-articular hyaluronic acid (HA) with a low MW product on knee osteoarthritis (OA) symptoms. Patients with symptomatic knee OA were enrolled inarandomised, controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, non-inferiority trial with the possibility to shift to superiority. Patients were randomised to GO-ON(MW 800-1500 kD, 25 mg/2.5 ml) or Hyalgan(MW 500-730 kD, 20 mg/2 ml) injected at 3-weekly intervals. The primary outcome was 6-month change in the WOMAC pain subscale (0-100 mm). Sample size was calculated on a non-inferiority margin of 9 mm, lower than the minimum perceptible clinical improvement. Secondary endpoints included OARSI-OMERACT responder rates The intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) populations consisted of 217 and 209 patients and 171 and 172 patients in the GO-ON and Hyalgan groups, respectively. ITT WOMAC pain of 47.5±1.0(SE) and 48.8±1.0 mm decreased by 22.9±1.4 mm with GO-ON and 18.4±1.5 mm with Hyalgan after 6 months. The primary analysis was conducted in the PP population followed by the ITT population.Mean (95% CI) differences in WOMAC pain change were 5.2 (0.9 to 9.6)mm and 4.5 (0.5 to 8.5)mm, respectively,favouring GO-ON, satisfying the claim for non-inferiority (lower limit>-9 mm) and for statistical superiority (95% CI all>0, p=0.021). Ahigher proportion of OARSI/OMERACT responders was observed with GO-ONthan with Hyalgan (73.3% vs58.4%, p=0.001). Both preparations were well tolerated. Treatment with 3-weekly injections of intermediate MW HA may be superior to low MW HA on knee OA symptoms over 6 months, with similar safety.

  20. Does the Q − H index show a stronger relationship than the H:Q ratio in regard to knee pain during daily activities in patients with knee osteoarthritis?

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Remi; Matsui, Yasumoto; Harada, Atsushi; Takemura, Marie; Kondo, Izumi; Nemoto, Tetsuya; Sakai, Tadahiro; Hiraiwa, Hideki; Ota, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between knee muscle strength and knee pain in activities of daily living, based on consideration of the difference between extension and flexion strength (Q − H) and the hamstring:quadriceps (H:Q) ratio in patients with knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 78 females with knee osteoarthritis, and a total of 133 knees that had not been treated surgically were the targets of this research. The legs were divided according to dominance. Isometric knee extension and flexion muscle strength and knee pain during activities of daily living were measured. The H:Q ratio (flexion/extension muscle strength) and the difference between extension and flexion strength, (extension muscle strength/weight) minus (flexion muscle strength/weight), that is, Q − H, were calculated. The correlation between these indices and the knee pain score during activities of daily living was investigated. [Results] Greater knee pain during activities of daily living was related to lower knee extension muscle strength and Q − H in both the dominant and nondominant legs. Knee flexion muscle strength and the H:Q ratio were not significantly correlated with knee pain during any activities of daily living. [Conclusion] Knee extension muscle strength and Q − H were found to be significantly correlated with knee pain during activities of daily living, whereas the H:Q ratio was not. PMID:28174444

  1. Efficacy and safety of hyaluronan treatment in combination therapy with home exercise for knee osteoarthritis pain.

    PubMed

    Stitik, Todd P; Blacksin, Marcia F; Stiskal, Doreen M; Kim, Jong H; Foye, Patrick M; Schoenherr, Lisa; Choi, Eun-Seok; Chen, Boqing; Saunders, Howard J; Nadler, Scott F

    2007-02-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of intra-articular injections of sodium hyaluronate combined with a home exercise program (HEP) in the management of pain associated with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Single-blinded, parallel-design, 1-year clinical study with sequential enrollment. University-based outpatient physiatric practice. Sixty patients (18 men, 42 women; age, > or =50 y) with moderate-to-severe pain associated with OA of the knee. (1) Five weekly intra-articular hyaluronate injections (5-HYL); (2) 3 weekly intra-articular hyaluronate injections (3-HYL); or (3) a combination of an HEP with 3 weekly intra-articular hyaluronate injections (3-HYL+HEP). The primary outcome measure was a 100-mm visual analog scale for pain after a 50-foot walk (15.24 m). Secondary measures included the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index subscales. The 3-HYL+HEP group had significantly faster onset of pain relief compared with the 3-HYL (P<.01) and 5-HYL groups (P=.01). All groups showed a mean symptomatic improvement from baseline (reduction in baseline pain at 3 mo was 59%, 49%, and 48% for the 3-HYL+HEP, 3-HYL, and 5-HYL groups, respectively) that was clinically and statistically significant. There were no between-group differences in the incidence or nature of adverse events. The combined use of hyaluronate injections with HEP should be considered for management of moderate-to-severe pain in patients with knee OA.

  2. Fatigue in knee and hip osteoarthritis: the role of pain and physical function.

    PubMed

    Snijders, Gijs F; van den Ende, Cornelia H M; Fransen, Jaap; van Riel, Piet L C M; Stukstette, Mirelle J P M; Defoort, Koen C; Arts-Sanders, Marianne A; van den Hoogen, Frank H J; den Broeder, Alfons A

    2011-10-01

    It is suggested that serious levels of fatigue are present in nearly half of patients with OA. However, it is unclear which dimensions of fatigue are involved, if fatigue is related to pain and physical function, and if fatigue is influenced by therapy. The aims of this study were to measure levels of different dimensions of fatigue before and after evidenced-based conservative treatment and to investigate the association between fatigue and pain and physical function in patients with knee or hip OA. In this observational cohort study, levels of different dimensions of fatigue were measured in knee and/or hip OA patients before and after 12 weeks of conservative treatment. Cross-sectional and longitudinal relations between (change in) fatigue dimensions and (change in) pain or physical function were studied using association models, controlling for predefined possible confounders. A total of 231 patients was included, with 47% experiencing severe fatigue. A small decrease in levels of fatigue was seen after standardized treatment. The level of fatigue severity was cross-sectionally and longitudinally associated with physical function, whereas the level of physical fatigue was cross-sectionally and longitudinally associated with pain and physical function. No confounders were identified. Important levels of fatigue are common in knee and hip OA patients. After evidence-based tailored conservative treatment targeted to improve pain and physical function, a small decrease in fatigue levels was found. Reduction in levels of different fatigue dimensions were related to the change in physical function and pain.

  3. Self-reported knee pain and disability among healthy individuals: reference data and factors associated with the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and KOOS-Child.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, J N; McKay, M J; Simic, M; Hiller, C E; Moloney, N; Nightingale, E J; Burns, J

    2017-08-01

    To develop normative reference data for the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and KOOS-Child, as well as investigate socio-demographic, psychological and physical factors associated with knee pain and disability among healthy adults. The KOOS or KOOS-Child (each containing five subscales) was administered to participants aged 8-101 years within the 1000 Norms Project, an observational study of 1000 self-reported healthy individuals. Self-efficacy, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), lower limb alignment, knee frontal plane projection angle (FPPA), knee range of motion (ROM), knee and hip strength, six-minute walk, 30-second chair stand and timed up and down stairs tests were collected. KOOS data were dichotomised using established cut-off scores and logistic regression analyses were conducted for each subscale. Socio-demographic characteristics were similar to the Australian population. Normative reference data were generated for children (8-17 years) and adults (18-101 years). Female adults were up to twice as likely to report knee pain, symptoms and sport/recreation (Sport/Rec) limitations compared to males (P < .05). Older age, lower self-efficacy, greater BMI, varus lower limb alignment, lower knee flexion ROM and lower hip external rotation (ER) strength were independently associated with knee pain and disability among adults. Age- and gender-stratified reference data for the KOOS and KOOS-Child have been developed to guide interpretation of results in practice and research for individuals with knee disorders. Psychological and physical factors are linked with self-reported knee pain/disability among adults, and longitudinal studies to investigate causation are required. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of local anaesthetic wound infiltration on chronic pain after lower limb joint replacement: a protocol for a double-blind randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wylde, Vikki; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael; Horwood, Jeremy; Beswick, Andrew; Noble, Sian; Brookes, Sara; Smith, Alison J; Pyke, Mark; Dieppe, Paul; Blom, Ashley W

    2011-02-26

    For the majority of patients with osteoarthritis (OA), joint replacement is a successful intervention for relieving chronic joint pain. However, between 10-30% of patients continue to experience chronic pain after joint replacement. Evidence suggests that a risk factor for chronic pain after joint replacement is the severity of acute post-operative pain. The aim of this randomised controlled trial (RCT) is to determine if intra-operative local anaesthetic wound infiltration additional to a standard anaesthesia regimen can reduce the severity of joint pain at 12-months after total knee replacement (TKR) and total hip replacement (THR) for OA. 300 TKR patients and 300 THR patients are being recruited into this single-centre double-blind RCT. Participants are recruited before surgery and randomised to either the standard care group or the intervention group. Participants and outcome assessors are blind to treatment allocation throughout the study. The intervention consists of an intra-operative local anaesthetic wound infiltration, consisting of 60 mls of 0.25% bupivacaine with 1 in 200,000 adrenaline. Participants are assessed on the first 5 days post-operative, and then at 3-months, 6-months and 12-months. The primary outcome is the WOMAC Pain Scale, a validated measure of joint pain at 12-months. Secondary outcomes include pain severity during the in-patient stay, post-operative nausea and vomiting, satisfaction with pain relief, length of hospital stay, joint pain and disability, pain sensitivity, complications and cost-effectiveness. A nested qualitative study within the RCT will examine the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention for both patients and healthcare professionals. Large-scale RCTs assessing the effectiveness of a surgical intervention are uncommon, particularly in orthopaedics. The results from this trial will inform evidence-based recommendations for both short-term and long-term pain management after lower limb joint replacement. If a

  5. Efficacy and safety of paracetamol for spinal pain and osteoarthritis: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised placebo controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Chris G; Ferreira, Paulo H; Pinheiro, Marina B; Lin, Chung-Wei Christine; Day, Richard O; McLachlan, Andrew J; Ferreira, Manuela L

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of paracetamol (acetaminophen) in the management of spinal pain and osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, Embase, AMED, CINAHL, Web of Science, LILACS, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from inception to December 2014. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised controlled trials comparing the efficacy and safety of paracetamol with placebo for spinal pain (neck or low back pain) and osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. Data extraction Two independent reviewers extracted data on pain, disability, and quality of life. Secondary outcomes were adverse effects, patient adherence, and use of rescue medication. Pain and disability scores were converted to a scale of 0 (no pain or disability) to 100 (worst possible pain or disability). We calculated weighted mean differences or risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals using a random effects model. The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool was used for assessing risk of bias, and the GRADE approach was used to evaluate the quality of evidence and summarise conclusions. Results 12 reports (13 randomised trials) were included. There was “high quality” evidence that paracetamol is ineffective for reducing pain intensity (weighted mean difference −0.5, 95% confidence interval −2.9 to 1.9) and disability (0.4, −1.7 to 2.5) or improving quality of life (0.4, −0.9 to 1.7) in the short term in people with low back pain. For hip or knee osteoarthritis there was “high quality” evidence that paracetamol provides a significant, although not clinically important, effect on pain (−3.7, −5.5 to −1.9) and disability (−2.9, −4.9 to −0.9) in the short term. The number of patients reporting any adverse event (risk ratio 1.0, 95% confidence interval 0.9 to 1.1), any serious adverse event (1.2, 0.7 to 2.1), or withdrawn from the study because of

  6. Efficacy and safety of paracetamol for spinal pain and osteoarthritis: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised placebo controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Machado, Gustavo C; Maher, Chris G; Ferreira, Paulo H; Pinheiro, Marina B; Lin, Chung-Wei Christine; Day, Richard O; McLachlan, Andrew J; Ferreira, Manuela L

    2015-03-31

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of paracetamol (acetaminophen) in the management of spinal pain and osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Medline, Embase, AMED, CINAHL, Web of Science, LILACS, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from inception to December 2014. Randomised controlled trials comparing the efficacy and safety of paracetamol with placebo for spinal pain (neck or low back pain) and osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. Two independent reviewers extracted data on pain, disability, and quality of life. Secondary outcomes were adverse effects, patient adherence, and use of rescue medication. Pain and disability scores were converted to a scale of 0 (no pain or disability) to 100 (worst possible pain or disability). We calculated weighted mean differences or risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals using a random effects model. The Cochrane Collaboration's tool was used for assessing risk of bias, and the GRADE approach was used to evaluate the quality of evidence and summarise conclusions. 12 reports (13 randomised trials) were included. There was "high quality" evidence that paracetamol is ineffective for reducing pain intensity (weighted mean difference -0.5, 95% confidence interval -2.9 to 1.9) and disability (0.4, -1.7 to 2.5) or improving quality of life (0.4, -0.9 to 1.7) in the short term in people with low back pain. For hip or knee osteoarthritis there was "high quality" evidence that paracetamol provides a significant, although not clinically important, effect on pain (-3.7, -5.5 to -1.9) and disability (-2.9, -4.9 to -0.9) in the short term. The number of patients reporting any adverse event (risk ratio 1.0, 95% confidence interval 0.9 to 1.1), any serious adverse event (1.2, 0.7 to 2.1), or withdrawn from the study because of adverse events (1.2, 0.9 to 1.5) was similar in the paracetamol and placebo groups. Patient adherence to treatment (1.0, 0.9 to 1

  7. Methylprednisolone reduces pain and decreases knee swelling in the first 24 h after fast-track unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Rytter, Søren; Stilling, Maiken; Munk, Stig; Hansen, Torben Bæk

    2017-01-01

    Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) results in less operative trauma and faster patient recovery than after a conventional total knee arthroplasty. Despite an increased focus on multimodal analgesic strategies, there is still a substantial level of patient-reported pain in the early postsurgical period after UKA. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of a single preoperative dose of systemic methylprednisolone on postsurgical pain after fast-track UKA. Seventy-two patients in two consecutive series undergoing unilateral UKA were included in a prospective cohort study. The patients (n = 35) in the treatment group received a single preoperative dose of systemic methylprednisolone 125 mg, whereas the control group (n = 37) did not. Outcome measures were postsurgical pain at rest and during walking, consumption of opioids for pain rescue, knee swelling and knee range of motion, and complications. In the first 24 h after surgery, the treatment group had less pain at rest (p < 0.001) and during walking (p < 0.001) and less consumption of opioids (p = 0.01) in comparison with the control group. Furthermore, the treatment group had 2.2 cm less knee swelling (p = 0.02) in the first post-operative day, and better knee extension (p = 0.004), whereas knee flexion was similar (n.s.) between groups. No serious complications were associated with the treatment. Addition of a single preoperative dose of 125 mg systemic methylprednisolone to a multimodal analgesic regime significantly reduced postsurgical pain and opioid consumption and decreased knee swelling in the first 24 h after fast-track UKA. Therapeutic study, Level II.

  8. Acute aquatic treadmill exercise improves gait and pain in people with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Roper, Jaimie A; Bressel, Eadric; Tillman, Mark D

    2013-03-01

    To examine the acute effects of aquatic and land treadmill exercise on gait kinematics as well as the level of disease-specific and movement-related pain for individuals with osteoarthritis. Quasi-experimental crossover design. Biomechanics laboratory. Participants (N=14; age, 43-64y) diagnosed with osteoarthritis at the knee (n=12), osteoarthritis at the knee and ankle (n=1), or osteoarthritis at the knee and hip (n=1). Participants performed 3 exercise sessions separated by at least 24 hours in 1 week for each mode of exercise (aquatic treadmill and land treadmill). Gait kinematics and pain were measured before and after each intervention. The angular velocity gain score during stance for left knee extension was improved by 38% after aquatic treadmill exercise (P=.004). Similarly, during swing, the gain scores for angular velocity were also greater for left knee internal rotation and extension by 65% and 20%, respectively (P=.004, P=.008, respectively). During stance, the joint angle gain score for left hip flexion was 7.23% greater after land exercise (P=.007). During swing, the angular velocity gain score for right hip extension was significantly greater for aquatic exercise by 28% (P=.01). Only the joint angle gain score for left ankle abduction during stance was significantly higher after land exercise (4.72%, P=.003). No other joint angle gain scores for either stance or swing were significantly different for either condition (P=.06-.96). Perceived pain was 100% greater after land than aquatic treadmill exercise (P=.02). Step rate and step length were not different between conditions (P=.31-.92). An acute training period on an aquatic treadmill positively influenced joint angular velocity and arthritis-related joint pain. Acute aquatic treadmill exercise may be useful as a conservative treatment to improve angular speed of the lower-extremity joints and pain related to osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published

  9. Diagnosis and Management of Extra-articular Causes of Pain After Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Manning, Blaine T; Lewis, Natasha; Tzeng, Tony H; Saleh, Jamal K; Potty, Anish G R; Dennis, Douglas A; Mihalko, William M; Goodman, Stuart B; Saleh, Khaled J

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative pain, which has been attributed to poor outcomes after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), remains problematic for many patients. Although the source of TKA pain can often be delineated, establishing a precise diagnosis can be challenging. It is often classified as intra-articular or extra-articular pain, depending on etiology. After intra-articular causes, such as instability, aseptic loosening, infection, or osteolysis, have been ruled out, extra-articular sources of pain should be considered. Physical examination of the other joints may reveal sources of localized knee pain, including diseases of the spine, hip, foot, and ankle. Additional extra-articular pathologies that have potential to instigate pain after TKA include vascular pathologies, tendinitis, bursitis, and iliotibial band friction syndrome. Patients with medical comorbidities, such as metabolic bone disease and psychological illness, may also experience prolonged postoperative pain. By better understanding the diagnosis and treatment options for extra-articular causes of pain after TKA, orthopaedic surgeons may better treat patients with this potentially debilitating complication.

  10. Preoperative pain location is a poor predictor of outcome after Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty at 1 and 5 years.

    PubMed

    Liddle, A D; Pandit, H; Jenkins, C; Price, A J; Dodd, C A F; Gill, H S; Murray, D W

    2013-11-01

    Indications for unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) vary between units. Some authors have suggested, and many surgeons believe, that medial UKA should only be performed in patients who localise their pain to the medial joint line. This is despite research showing a poor correlation between patient-reported location of pain and radiological or operative findings in osteoarthritis. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of patient-reported preoperative pain location and functional outcome of UKA at 1 and 5 years. Preoperative pain location data were collected for 406 knees (380 patients) undergoing Oxford medial UKA. Oxford Knee Score, American Knee Society Scores and Tegner activity scale were recorded preoperatively and at follow-up; 272/406 (67 %) had pure medial pain, 25/406 (6 %) had pure anterior knee pain, and 109/406 (27 %) had mixed or generalised pain. None had pure lateral pain. The primary outcome interval is 1 year; 132/406 patients had attained 5 years by the time of analysis, and their 5-year data are presented. At 1 and 5 years, each group had improved significantly by each measure [mean ΔOKS 15.6 (SD 8.9) at year 1, 16.3 (9.3) at year 5]. There was no difference between the groups, nor between patients with and without anterior knee pain or isolated medial pain. No correlation is demonstrated between preoperative pain location and outcome. We conclude that localised medial pain should not be a prerequisite to UKA and that it may be performed in patients with generalised or anterior knee pain.

  11. Influence of a user-adaptive prosthetic knee on quality of life, balance confidence, and measures of mobility: a randomised cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Prinsen, Erik C; Nederhand, Marc J; Olsman, Jeroen; Rietman, Johan S

    2015-06-01

    To study the influence of a transition from a non-microprocessor controlled to the Rheo Knee(®) II on quality of life, balance confidence and measures of mobility. Randomised crossover trial. Research department of a rehabilitation centre. Persons with a transfemoral amputation or knee disarticulation (n=10). Participants were assessed with their own non-microprocessor controlled knee and with the Rheo Knee(®) II. The low-profile Vari-Flex with EVO foot was installed in both knee conditions, followed by eight weeks of acclimatisation. The order in which knees were tested was randomised. Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire with addendum, Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale, Timed "up & go" test, Timed up and down stairs test, Hill Assessment Index, Stairs Assessment Index, Standardized Walking Obstacle Course and One Leg Balance test. Significant higher scores were found for the Rheo Knee(®) II on the Residual Limb Health subscale of the Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire when compared to the non-microprocessor controlled prosthetic knee (median [interquartile range] resp. 86.67 [62.21-93.08] and 68.71 [46.15-94.83]; P=0.047) In addition, participants needed significantly more steps to complete an obstacle course when walking with the Rheo Knee(®) II compared to the non-microprocessor controlled prosthetic knee (median [interquartile range] resp. 23.50 [19.92-26.25] and 22.17 [19.50-25.75]; P=0.041). On other outcome measures, no significant differences were found. Transition towards the Rheo Knee(®) II had little effect on the studied outcome measures. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. The RESOLVE Trial for people with chronic low back pain: protocol for a randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bagg, Matthew K; Hübscher, Markus; Rabey, Martin; Wand, Benedict M; O'Hagan, Edel; Moseley, G Lorimer; Stanton, Tasha R; Maher, Chris G; Goodall, Stephen; Saing, Sopany; O'Connell, Neil E; Luomajoki, Hannu; McAuley, James H

    2017-01-01

    Low back pain is the leading worldwide cause of disability, and results in significant personal hardship. Most available treatments, when tested in high-quality randomised, controlled trials, achieve only modest improvements in pain, at best. Recently, treatments that target central nervous system function have been developed and tested in small studies. Combining treatments that target central nervous system function with traditional treatments directed towards functioning of the back is a promising approach that has yet to be tested in adequately powered, prospectively registered, clinical trials. The RESOLVE trial will be the first high-quality assessment of two treatment programs that combine central nervous system-directed and traditional interventions in order to improve chronic low back pain. To compare the effectiveness of two treatment programs that combine central nervous system-directed and traditional interventions at reducing pain intensity at 18 weeks post randomisation in a randomised clinical trial of people with chronic low back pain. Two-group, randomised, clinical trial with blinding of participants and assessors. Two hundred and seventy-five participants with chronic low back pain that has persisted longer than 3 months and no specific spinal pathology will be recruited from the community and primary care in Sydney, Australia. Both of the interventions contain treatments that target central nervous system function combined with treatments directed towards functioning of the back. Adherence to the intervention will be monitored using an individual treatment diary and adverse events recorded through passive capture. Participants are informed prior to providing informed consent that some of the treatments are not active. Blinding is maintained by not disclosing any further information. Complete disclosure of the contents of the intervention has been made with the UNSW HREC (HC15357) and an embargoed project registration has been made on the Open

  13. Effect of ear acupressure on acute postpartum perineal pain: a randomised controlled study.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Winny Sc; Li, William Wh

    2014-04-01

    To explore the effect of ear acupressure in relieving perineal pain in women during the first 48 hours after delivery. Perineal pain is a common problem during postpartum, and different treatment modalities have been used for relief. Ear acupressure has been reported to have possible benefit on relieving acute postpartum perineal pain. This study was designed as a prospective, randomised controlled trial. Chinese women with a singleton vertex foetus at the gestation of 37 weeks or above were recruited. One hundred and twenty six and 130 women were randomised into the intervention and control groups, respectively. Women in the intervention group received application of tapes and seeds on four designated acupressure points on both ears, while women in the control group received tapes on four irrelevant points. Both groups were instructed to stimulate the points in a similar fashion. Pain perception was assessed by the Verbal Descriptive Pain Scale and the Visual Analogue Scale, and the consumption of analgesics was also reviewed. No significant difference in perineal pain perception between the groups was observed in Verbal Descriptive Pain Scale. Although the mean Visual Analogue Scale and the accumulative mean consumption of paracetamol were generally lower in the intervention group, statistical significance was not reached. There is no evidence so far to conclude that ear acupressure can effectively relieve perineal pain based on the statistical results. Further research is suggested to explore whether the effectiveness of pain relief is affected by the frequency and duration of acupressure point stimulation. Training of midwives to perform this intervention is easy to achieve, but further evidence is required to prove its effectiveness. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Fabella Syndrome as an Uncommon Cause of Posterolateral Knee Pain after Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Eriko; Yanai, Takaji; Kohyama, Sho; Kanamori, Akihiro; Yamazaki, Masashi; Tanaka, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    The fabella is a sesamoid bone that is located in the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle and has been identified on magnetic resonance imaging in 31% of Japanese people. In the present case, a 65-year-old woman experienced posterolateral knee pain, accompanied by a clicking “sound” during active knee flexion, after undergoing total knee arthroplasty for knee osteoarthritis. Eight months of conservative therapy failed to produce an improvement, with progressive osteoarthritic change of the fabella identified on plain radiography. Based on this evidence, a diagnosis of fabella syndrome was made and the patient underwent a fabellectomy. Fabellectomy provided immediate resolution of posterolateral knee pain and the clicking sound with knee flexion, with the patient remaining symptom-free 18 months after fabellectomy and with no limitations in knee function. Fabellectomy eliminated symptoms in all of five case reports that have been previously published and is regarded as an effective first choice for treating fabella syndrome after total knee arthroplasty. PMID:27418991

  15. Cryotherapy decreases synovial Doppler activity and pain in knee arthritis: A randomized-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Guillot, Xavier; Tordi, Nicolas; Prati, Clément; Verhoeven, Frank; Pazart, Lionel; Wendling, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    To measure and compare the effects of 2 local cryotherapy techniques on synovial power Doppler activity (primary outcome) and pain in non-septic knee arthritis without any concurrent treatment. 30 patients were randomized (ice: 30min, n=15 or cold CO2: 2min, n=15 both applied twice at 8h interval). Contralateral non-treated arthritic knees were used as paired controls (n=11 and n=10 respectively). The PDUS semi-quantitative score (0-3) and pain visual analogic scale were evaluated before/after each cold application, 2min, 2h, 24h after the first application. PDUS scores were checked in double-blind by 2 ultrasonographists. The inter-class effect size of local cryotherapy on the power Doppler score remained significant the day after treatment in local cryotherapy-treated compared to contralateral non-treated knees (Global difference: -1 [95% confidence interval: -1.23; -0.77]; ice: -0.73 [-1.06; -0.4]; CO2: -0.7 [-1.18; -0.22]). Both techniques significantly and to the same extent reduced the power Doppler score and pain visual analogic scale at all evaluation times and globally throughout the 24 hour-study period. No dropout nor adverse event was reported. In multivariate analysis, the Power Doppler score decrease was associated with pain decrease, while pain decrease was associated with the female sex and ice technique. Local ice and cold CO2 applied twice equally reduced synovial Power Doppler activity and pain over 24h in knee arthritis. These effects remained significant the day after treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02573298. Copyright © 2016 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of dexmedetomidine on postoperative pain in knee arthroscopic surgery; a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Mohammad; Tabari, Masoomeh; Faz, Reza Farhadi; Makhmalbaf, Hadi; Salehi, Maryam; Moosavitekye, Seyed Mostafa

    2014-03-01

    Various drugs are administered intra-articularly to provide postoperative analgesia after arthroscopic knee surgery. The purpose of this study was to assess the analgesic effects of intra-articular injection of a dexmedetomidine following knee arthroscopy. Forty six patients scheduled for arthroscopic knee surgery under general anaesthesia, were randomly devided into two groups. Intervention group received 1µg/kg dexmedetomidine (D) and isotonic saline. Control group received 25ml isotonic saline (P). Analgesic effects were evaluated by measuring pain intensity (VAS scores) and duration of analgesia. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, sex and weight. The mean of post-operation pain severity in 1, 3, 6,12, and 24 h was significantly lower in the intervention group (D) in comparison with the control group (P). the mean of the total dose of tramadol consumption was significantly lower in the intervention group in comparison with the control group (P<0.001). Intra-articular injection of dexmedetomidine at the end of arthroscopic knee surgery, alleviates the patients' pain, reducing the postoperative need for narcotics as analgesics, and increase the first analgesic request after operation.

  17. Effect of Dexmedetomidine on Postoperative Pain in Knee Arthroscopic Surgery; a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Alipour, Mohammad; Tabari, Masoomeh; faz, Reza Farhadi; Makhmalbaf, Hadi; Salehi, Maryam; Moosavitekye, Seyed Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Various drugs are administered intra-articularly to provide postoperative analgesia after arthroscopic knee surgery. The purpose of this study was to assess the analgesic effects of intra-articular injection of a dexmedetomidine following knee arthroscopy. Methods: Forty six patients scheduled for arthroscopic knee surgery under general anaesthesia, were randomly devided into two groups. Intervention group received 1µg/kg dexmedetomidine (D) and isotonic saline. Control group received 25ml isotonic saline (P). Analgesic effects were evaluated by measuring pain intensity (VAS scores) and duration of analgesia. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, sex and weight. The mean of post-operation pain severity in 1, 3, 6,12, and 24 h was significantly lower in the intervention group (D) in comparison with the control group (P). the mean of the total dose of tramadol consumption was significantly lower in the intervention group in comparison with the control group (P<0.001). Conclusions: Intra-articular injection of dexmedetomidine at the end of arthroscopic knee surgery, alleviates the patients’ pain, reducing the postoperative need for narcotics as analgesics, and increase the first analgesic request after operation. PMID:25207314

  18. The utility of plain radiographs in the initial evaluation of knee pain amongst sports medicine patients.

    PubMed

    Alaia, Michael J; Khatib, Omar; Shah, Mehul; A Bosco, Joseph; M Jazrawi, Laith; Strauss, Eric J

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate whether screening radiographs as part of the initial workup of knee pain impacts clinical decision-making in a sports medicine practice. A questionnaire was completed by the attending orthopaedic surgeon following the initial office visit for 499 consecutive patients presenting to the sports medicine centre with a chief complaint of knee pain. The questionnaire documented patient age, duration of symptoms, location of knee pain, associated mechanical symptoms, history of trauma within the past 2 weeks, positive findings on plain radiographs, whether magnetic resonance imaging was ordered, and whether plain radiographs impacted the management decisions for the patient. Patients were excluded if they had prior X-rays, history of malignancy, ongoing pregnancy, constitutional symptoms as well as those patients with prior knee surgery or intra-articular infections. Statistical analyses were then performed to determine which factors were more likely do correspond with diagnostic radiographs. Overall, initial screening radiographs did not change management in 72 % of the patients assessed in the office. The mean age of patients in whom radiographs did change management was 57.9 years compared to 37.1 years in those patients where plain radiograph did not change management (p < 0.0001). Plain radiographs had no impact on clinical management in 97.3 % of patients younger than 40. In patients whom radiographs did change management, radiographs were more likely to influence management if patients were over age forty, had pain for over 6 months, had medial or diffuse pain, or had mechanical symptoms. A basic cost analysis revealed that the cost of a clinically useful radiographic series in a patient under 40 years of age was $7,600, in contrast to $413 for a useful series in patients above the age of 40. Data from the current study support the hypothesis that for the younger patient population, routine radiographic imaging as a screening tool may be of

  19. The Effects of Acupuncture on Chronic Knee Pain Due to Osteoarthritis: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xianfeng; Huang, Kangmao; Zhu, Guiqi; Huang, Zhaobo; Qin, An; Fan, Shunwu

    2016-09-21

    Acupuncture reportedly relieves chronic knee pain and improves physical function in patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis, but the duration of these effects is controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the temporal effects of acupuncture on chronic knee pain due to knee osteoarthritis by means of a meta-analysis. The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched for studies published through March 2015. Ten randomized controlled trials of acupuncture compared with sham acupuncture, usual care, or no intervention for chronic knee pain in patients with clinically diagnosed or radiographically confirmed knee osteoarthritis were included. All of the studies were available in English. Weighted mean differences (WMDs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs), publication bias, and heterogeneity were calculated. The acupuncture groups showed superior pain improvement (p < 0.001; WMD = -1.24 [95% CI, -1.92 to -0.56]; I(2) > 50%) and physical function (p < 0.001; WMD = 4.61 [95% CI, 2.24 to 6.97]; I(2) > 50%) in the short term (up to 13 weeks). The acupuncture groups showed superior physical function (p = 0.016; WMD = 2.73 [95% CI, 0.51 to 4.94]; I(2) > 50%) but not superior pain improvement (p = 0.199; WMD = -0.55 [95% CI, -1.39 to 0.29]; I(2) > 50%) in the long term (up to 26 weeks). Subgroup analysis revealed that the acupuncture groups tended to have better outcomes compared with the controls. Significant publication bias was not detected (p > 0.05), but the heterogeneity of the studies was substantial. This meta-analysis demonstrates that acupuncture can improve short and long-term physical function, but it appears to provide only short-term pain relief in patients with chronic knee pain due to osteoarthritis. Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. Copyright © 2016 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  20. Cruciate Retaining Versus Cruciate Stabilising Total Knee Arthroplasty – A Prospective Randomised Kinematic Study

    PubMed Central

    Godwin, T L; Bayan, A

    2016-01-01

    Objective: While there is a large body of research in regards to cruciate retaining(CR) and cruciate sacrificing total condylar knee replacement, the literature is spars in regards to highly conforming polyetheylene such as the triatholon cruciate stabilising tibial insert (CS).The aim was to determine whether there is a difference in the range of motion, kinematics as well as the functional outcome for Triathlon CS and CR TKJR. Methods: A single hospital consecutive series of one surgeon between 2011 and 2013 were enrolled. Kinematic data recorded prospectively at the time of surgery utilizing imageless navigation included preoperative and post-replacement extension, gravity flexion, passive flexion and rotation. Intraoperative femoral and tibial cuts and definitive implants were also recorded. Statistically analysis performed to compare CS and CR TKJR range of motion, deformity correction, and rotation pre and post-operatively. Oxford functional scores were obtained at the final follow up. 124 patients were randomised to 71 CS and 53 CR TKJR. The demographics were comparable between the two groups. Results: No significant difference was found between the groups’ preoperative range of motion. The net gain in extension for the CS group was 5.65 degrees (4.14-7.17) and for CR 5.64 degrees (4.24-7.04, p=0.99) with no significant difference shown. Post-operative gravity flexion significantly increased in CS TKJR with 129.01 degrees (127.37130.66) compared with 126.35 degrees (124.39-128.30, p =0.04) for CR. A weak positive correlation was shown between the size of distal femoral cut and post-operative extension for both CS and CR TKJR. A weak positive correlation was also shown for the difference between the intraoperative cuts (tibial and femoral) and the size of the implants used, in relation to post-operative extension. Post-operative oxford scores at average of 3.4 year follow up comparable between groups. Conclusion: The kinematics of CS and CR TKJR are

  1. The effectiveness of acupuncture on pain and mobility in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Maa, Suh-Hwa; Sun, Mao-Feng; Wu, Chi-Chuan

    2008-06-01

    Acupuncture has been repeatedly reported to relieve pain associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. As the vast majority of information on the effectiveness of acupuncture on this condition is based on data collected in Western countries, little is known about patients with osteoarthritis of the knee in Asian countries. In this pilot clinical study, acupuncture was incorporated into the standard care for adult patients with osteoarthritis of the knee to determine its contribution to pain relief and improved mobility. In a prospective, non-randomized controlled study, patients with osteoarthritis of the knee were separated into two groups. The first (the experimental group; n = 12) was scheduled for up to 8 sessions of acupuncture in addition to standard care, while the second (the control group; n = 12) received standard care only. Measurements using the six-minute walking distance test, pain visual analogue scale, and osteoarthritis of the knee outcome measurement were taken at baseline and after 4 weeks. Both study and control groups showed significant improvement with respect to time effects in terms of six-minute walking distance, pain visual analogue scale, pain domain and mobility domain scores determined by the osteoarthritis of the knee outcome measurement (p < .01), after adjusting for covariables. However, improvements measured in the study group did not differ significantly from those in the control group. Patients with osteoarthritis of the knee seemed to experience clinical improvements in six-minute walking distance, pain relief and mobility when their standard care was supplemented with acupuncture.

  2. Knee osteoarthritis related pain: a narrative review of diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Alshami, Ali M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis is a common progressive joint disease, involving not only the joint lining but also cartilage, ligaments, and bone. For the last ten years, majority of published review articles were not specific to osteoarthritis of the knee, and strength of evidence and clinical guidelines were not appropriately summarized. Objectives To appraise the literature by summarizing the findings of current evidence and clinical guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of knee osteoarthritis pain. Methodology English journal articles that focused on knee osteoarthritis related pain were searched via PubMed (1 January 2002 – 26 August 2012) and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) databases, using the terms ‘knee’, ‘osteoarthritis’ and ‘pain’. In addition, reference lists from identified articles and related book chapters were included as comprehensive overviews. Results For knee osteoarthritis, the highest diagnostic accuracy can be achieved by presence of pain and five or more clinical or laboratory criteria plus osteophytes. Some inconsistencies in the recommendations and findings were found between the clinical guidelines and systematic reviews. Generally, paracetamol, oral and topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioids, corticosteroid injections and physical therapy techniques, such as therapeutic exercises, joint manual therapy and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, can help reduce pain and improve function. Patient education programs and weight reduction for overweight patients are important to be considered. Conclusions Some inconsistencies in the recommendations and findings were found between the clinical guidelines and systematic reviews. However, it is likely that a combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments is most effective in treating patients with knee osteoarthritis. PMID:24899883

  3. Effect of pain reduction on postural sway, proprioception, and quadriceps strength in subjects with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, B; Doherty, S; Mockett, S; Doherty, M

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether alleviation of knee pain influences quadriceps function, proprioceptive acuity, and postural stability in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: A crossover, within-subject, double blind study design involving 68 subjects with painful knee OA. Each subject received an intra-articular injection into one or both knees (both if symptomatic) of either 5 ml 0.5% bupivacaine or 5 ml 0.9% saline. Two weeks later they received an injection of the alternative agent. Subjects and observer were unaware of the order of injection, which was randomly assigned. Knee pain (100 mm visual analogue scale), static postural sway, knee proprioceptive acuity, maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), and percentage activation of the quadriceps were assessed immediately before and one hour after each injection. Results: Significant pain reduction was achieved one hour post-bupivacaine (mean difference as a percentage change 56.85, 95% CI 31.01 to 73.65; p<0.001) and post-saline (mean difference as a percentage change 41.94, 95% CI 11.57 to 76.66; p< 0.001), with no significant difference between the two. Both MVC and activation increased significantly post-bupivacaine (mean percentage differences 18.83, 95% CI -31.79 to -0.26, and -11.90, 95% CI -39.53 to 2.97, respectively; both p<0.001) and post-saline (mean percentage differences -7.64, 95% CI -21.96 to 4.73, and -10.71, 95% CI -25.19 to 2.60 respectively; both p<0.001). Proprioception worsened after bupivacaine (mean percentage difference -28.15%, 95% CI -83.47 to 19.74; p=0.009), but there was no effect on postural sway; saline injection had no effects. There was no order effect, and comparison of median percentage changes showed no significant differences between injections for change in MVC, activation, proprioception, or sway. Conclusion: Reduction in knee pain through either peripheral (local anaesthetic) or central (placebo) mechanisms resulted in increased MVC. This increase, however, did

  4. A multicentre, pragmatic, parallel group, randomised controlled trial to compare the clinical and cost-effectiveness of three physiotherapy-led exercise interventions for knee osteoarthritis in older adults: the BEEP trial protocol (ISRCTN: 93634563)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise is consistently recommended for older adults with knee pain related to osteoarthritis. However, the effects from exercise are typically small and short-term, likely linked to insufficient individualisation of the exercise programme and limited attention to supporting exercise adherence over time. The BEEP randomised trial aims to improve patients’ short and long-term outcomes from exercise. It will test the overall effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of two physiotherapy-led exercise interventions (Individually Tailored Exercise and Targeted Exercise Adherence) to improve the individual tailoring of, and adherence to exercise, compared with usual physiotherapy care. Methods/design Based on the learning from a pilot study (ISRCTN 23294263), the BEEP trial is a multi-centre, pragmatic, parallel group, individually randomised controlled trial, with embedded longitudinal qualitative interviews. 500 adults in primary care, aged 45 years and over with knee pain will be randomised to 1 of 3 treatment groups delivered by fully trained physiotherapists in up to 6 NHS services. These are: Usual Physiotherapy Care (control group consisting of up to 4 treatment sessions of advice and exercise), Individually Tailored Exercise (an individualised, supervised and progressed lower-limb exercise programme) or Targeted Exercise Adherence (supporting patients to adhere to exercise and to engage in general physical activity over the longer-term). The primary outcomes are pain and function as measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis index. A comprehensive range of secondary outcomes are also included. Outcomes are measured at 3, 6 (primary outcome time-point), 9, 18 and 36 months. Data on adverse events will also be collected. Semi-structured, qualitative interviews with a subsample of 30 participants (10 from each treatment group) will be undertaken at two time-points (end of treatment and 12 to 18 months later) and analysed thematically

  5. A multicentre, pragmatic, parallel group, randomised controlled trial to compare the clinical and cost-effectiveness of three physiotherapy-led exercise interventions for knee osteoarthritis in older adults: the BEEP trial protocol (ISRCTN: 93634563).

    PubMed

    Foster, Nadine E; Healey, Emma L; Holden, Melanie A; Nicholls, Elaine; Whitehurst, David Gt; Jowett, Susan; Jinks, Clare; Roddy, Edward; Hay, Elaine M

    2014-07-27

    Exercise is consistently recommended for older adults with knee pain related to osteoarthritis. However, the effects from exercise are typically small and short-term, likely linked to insufficient individualisation of the exercise programme and limited attention to supporting exercise adherence over time. The BEEP randomised trial aims to improve patients' short and long-term outcomes from exercise. It will test the overall effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of two physiotherapy-led exercise interventions (Individually Tailored Exercise and Targeted Exercise Adherence) to improve the individual tailoring of, and adherence to exercise, compared with usual physiotherapy care. Based on the learning from a pilot study (ISRCTN 23294263), the BEEP trial is a multi-centre, pragmatic, parallel group, individually randomised controlled trial, with embedded longitudinal qualitative interviews. 500 adults in primary care, aged 45 years and over with knee pain will be randomised to 1 of 3 treatment groups delivered by fully trained physiotherapists in up to 6 NHS services. These are: Usual Physiotherapy Care (control group consisting of up to 4 treatment sessions of advice and exercise), Individually Tailored Exercise (an individualised, supervised and progressed lower-limb exercise programme) or Targeted Exercise Adherence (supporting patients to adhere to exercise and to engage in general physical activity over the longer-term). The primary outcomes are pain and function as measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis index. A comprehensive range of secondary outcomes are also included. Outcomes are measured at 3, 6 (primary outcome time-point), 9, 18 and 36 months. Data on adverse events will also be collected. Semi-structured, qualitative interviews with a subsample of 30 participants (10 from each treatment group) will be undertaken at two time-points (end of treatment and 12 to 18 months later) and analysed thematically. This trial will contribute to the

  6. Short-term outcome after computer-assisted versus conventional total knee arthroplasty: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wei Ting; Chin, Pak Lin; Lo, Ngai Nung; Yeo, Seng Jin

    2015-04-01

    To compare the short-term functional outcome after computer-assisted total knee arthroplasty (TKA) versus conventional TKA. 23 men and 67 women aged 48 to 80 years were randomised to undergo (1) conventional TKA using an intramedullary guide, (2) conventional TKA using an extramedullary guide, or (3) computer-assisted TKA. Two senior surgeons performed all the TKAs using the same TKA system and the standard anteromedial arthrotomy with eversion of the patella. Patients were assessed by physiotherapists before and 6 months and 2 years after TKA using the Short Form-36 Health Survey, Oxford Knee Score, and Knee Society Score. Of the 90 patients, 67 and 70 were assessed at 6 months and 2 years after TKA, respectively. No patient developed deep infection or required revision surgery. Functional outcomes of the 3 groups did not differ significantly at the corresponding follow-ups. Significant improvement in the functional outcome was not shown in patients treated with computer-assisted TKA, compared with conventional TKA. Thus, computer-assisted TKA has limited additional short-term benefits. Further studies with longer follow-up are required to examine the benefits of computer-assisted TKA.

  7. Liposomal bupivacaine versus traditional periarticular injection for pain control after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Bagsby, Deren T; Ireland, Phillip H; Meneghini, R Michael

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare a novel liposomal bupivacaine to traditional peri-articular injection (PAI) in a multi-modal pain protocol for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A retrospective cohort study compared 85 consecutive patients undergoing TKA with a traditional PAI of ropivacaine, epinephrine and morphine to 65 patients with a liposomal bupivacaine PAI. After the initial 24h, inpatient self-reported pain scores were higher in the liposomal bupivacaine group compared to the traditional PAI group (P = 0.04) and a smaller percentage (16.9%) of patients in the liposomal bupivacaine group rated their pain as "mild" compared to the traditional group (47.6%). Liposomal bupivacaine PAI provided inferior pain control compared to the less expensive traditional PAI in a multi-modal pain control program in patients undergoing TKA.

  8. Do the Effects of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on Knee Osteoarthritis Pain and Function Last?

    PubMed

    Cherian, Jeffrey Jai; Harrison, Paige E; Benjamin, Samantha A; Bhave, Anil; Harwin, Steven F; Mont, Michael A

    2016-08-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) has been shown to decrease pain associated with knee osteoarthritis, which potentially leads to better function, improved quality of life, and postpones the need for surgical intervention. The purpose of this study was to perform a 1-year follow-up of a previous prospective group of patients with knee osteoarthritis, randomized to TENS or standard of care, who were asked to rate their changes in: (1) patient pain perception; (2) subjective medication use; (3) subjective functional abilities; (4) quality of life; (5) device use; and (6) conversion to TKA. A population of 70 patients were randomized to receive either a TENS device or a standard conservative therapy regimen. Patients were evaluated based on various subjective outcomes at minimum 1-year (mean, 19 months) follow-up. The TENS cohort had lower visual analog pain scores compared with the matching cohort. Subjective functional outcomes, as well as functional and activity scores, were also greater in the TENS cohort. Patients in TENS cohort showed significant improvements in their subjective and functional outcomes as compared with their initial status, while the control group did not show significant change. A majority of the TENS patients were able to reduce the amount of pain medications. Additionally, a large portion of the patients assigned to the TENS group continue to use the device, after completion of the trial. This study demonstrated the benefit of TENS for improving subjective outcomes in patients with pain due to knee osteoarthritis, compared with standard conservative treatments. The results of the study suggest that TENS is a safe and effective adjunct as part of the spectrum of current nonoperative treatment methods for knee osteoarthritis.

  9. Effect of alkalinisation of lignocaine for propofol injection pain: a prospective, randomised, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Ozgul, U; Begec, Z; Erdogan, M A; Aydogan, M S; Sanli, M; Colak, C

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether pretreatment with alkalinised lignocaine reduced the incidence and severity of pain during propofol injection. This prospective, randomised, double-blind study included 300 adult, American Society of Anesthesiologists physcial status I to II patients undergoing elective surgery. Patients were randomly allocated to one of three groups: Group L received 0.05 ml/kg of 1% lignocaine (5 ml normal saline + 5 ml 2% lignocaine), Group A received 0.05 ml/kg alkalinised lignocaine (5 ml 2% lignocaine + 1 ml 8.4% NaHCO3 + 4 ml normal saline), and Group S, the control group, was given the same amount of normal saline (NaCl 0.9%). All drugs were given as a bolus over 20 seconds before propofol administration. A blinded researcher assessed the patient's pain level using a four-point scale. The pain score [median (range)] and the incidence of pain in Group A (6%) was significantly lower than in groups L (41%) and S (88%, P <0.001). In addition, the pain score and the incidence of pain were found to be significantly different between Group L and Group S (P <0.001). The incidence of moderate and severe pain were greater in Group S when compared with groups A and L (P <0.001). Intravenous pretreatment with alkalinised lignocaine appears to be effective in reducing the pain during propofol injection.

  10. Persistent pain after total knee or hip arthroplasty: differential study of prevalence, nature, and impact

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Patrícia R; McIntyre, Teresa; Ferrero, Ramón; Araújo-Soares, Vera; Almeida, Armando

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the incidence, nature, and impact of persistent post-surgical pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) and investigates differences between these procedures, with the focus on potential presurgical and post-surgical issues that could be related to the distinct persistent post-surgical pain outcomes between these two groups. A consecutive sample of 92 patients was assessed prospectively 24 hours before, 48 hours, and 4–6 months after surgery. The data show that TKA patients had a higher likelihood of developing persistent post-surgical pain, of reporting higher pain levels, and of using more neuropathic descriptors when classifying their pain. In addition, TKA patients more often reported interference from pain on functional domains, including general activity, walking ability, and normal work. Demographic factors, like gender and age, along with presurgical clinical factors like disease onset, existence of medical comorbidities, and other pain problems, may have contributed to these differences, whereas baseline psychologic factors and functionality levels did not seem to exert an influence. Heightened acute post-surgical pain experience among TKA patients could also be related to distinct outcomes for persistent post-surgical pain. Future prospective studies should therefore collect TKA and THA samples wherein patients are homogeneous for demographic and presurgical clinical issues. Overall, these findings contribute to a small but growing body of literature documenting persistent post-surgical pain after major arthroplasty, conducted in different countries and across different health care settings. PMID:24072977

  11. Dissecting the contribution of knee joint NGF to spinal nociceptive sensitization in a model of OA pain in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Sagar, D.R.; Nwosu, L.; Walsh, D.A.; Chapman, V.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective Although analgesic approaches targeting nerve growth factor (NGF) for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) pain remain of clinical interest, neurophysiological mechanisms by which NGF contribute to OA pain remain unclear. We investigated the impact of local elevation of knee joint NGF on knee joint, vs remote (hindpaw), evoked responses of spinal neurones in a rodent model of OA pain. Design In vivo spinal electrophysiology was carried out in anaesthetised rats with established pain behaviour and joint pathology following intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA), vs injection of saline. Neuronal responses to knee joint extension and flexion, mechanical punctate stimulation of the peripheral receptive fields over the knee and at a remote site (ipsilateral hind paw) were studied before, and following, intra-articular injection of NGF (10 μg/50 μl) or saline. Results MIA-injected rats exhibited significant local (knee joint) and remote (lowered hindpaw withdrawal thresholds) changes in pain behaviour, and joint pathology. Intra-articular injection of NGF significantly (P < 0.05) increased knee extension-evoked firing of spinal neurones and the size of the peripheral receptive fields of spinal neurones (100% increase) over the knee joint in MIA rats, compared to controls. Intra-articular NGF injection did not significantly alter responses of spinal neurones following noxious stimulation of the ipsilateral hind paw in MIA-injected rats. Conclusion The facilitatory effects of intra-articular injection of NGF on spinal neurones receiving input from the knee joint provide a mechanistic basis for NGF mediated augmentation of OA knee pain, however additional mechanisms may contribute to the spread of pain to remote sites. PMID:25623624

  12. Dissecting the contribution of knee joint NGF to spinal nociceptive sensitization in a model of OA pain in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sagar, D R; Nwosu, L; Walsh, D A; Chapman, V

    2015-06-01

    Although analgesic approaches targeting nerve growth factor (NGF) for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) pain remain of clinical interest, neurophysiological mechanisms by which NGF contribute to OA pain remain unclear. We investigated the impact of local elevation of knee joint NGF on knee joint, vs remote (hindpaw), evoked responses of spinal neurones in a rodent model of OA pain. In vivo spinal electrophysiology was carried out in anaesthetised rats with established pain behaviour and joint pathology following intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA), vs injection of saline. Neuronal responses to knee joint extension and flexion, mechanical punctate stimulation of the peripheral receptive fields over the knee and at a remote site (ipsilateral hind paw) were studied before, and following, intra-articular injection of NGF (10 μg/50 μl) or saline. MIA-injected rats exhibited significant local (knee joint) and remote (lowered hindpaw withdrawal thresholds) changes in pain behaviour, and joint pathology. Intra-articular injection of NGF significantly (P < 0.05) increased knee extension-evoked firing of spinal neurones and the size of the peripheral receptive fields of spinal neurones (100% increase) over the knee joint in MIA rats, compared to controls. Intra-articular NGF injection did not significantly alter responses of spinal neurones following noxious stimulation of the ipsilateral hind paw in MIA-injected rats. The facilitatory effects of intra-articular injection of NGF on spinal neurones receiving input from the knee joint provide a mechanistic basis for NGF mediated augmentation of OA knee pain, however additional mechanisms may contribute to the spread of pain to remote sites. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Individuals with incident accelerated knee osteoarthritis have greater pain than those with common knee osteoarthritis progression: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    PubMed

    Driban, Jeffrey B; Price, Lori Lyn; Eaton, Charles B; Lu, Bing; Lo, Grace H; Lapane, Kate L; McAlindon, Timothy E

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated whether accelerated knee osteoarthritis (AKOA) was associated with greater pain and other outcomes and if outcomes varied over time differently among those with incident AKOA or common knee osteoarthritis (KOA), which we defined as a gradual onset of disease. We conducted longitudinal analyses among participants in the Osteoarthritis Initiative who had no radiographic KOA at baseline (Kellgren-Lawrence [KL] <2). Participants were considered AKOA if ≥1 knees progressed to KL grade ≥3 and common KOA if ≥1 knees increased in radiographic scoring within 48 months. We defined the index visit as the study visit when they met the AKOA or common KOA criteria. Our observation period included up to 3 years before and after the index visit. Our primary outcome was WOMAC pain converted to an ordinal scale: none (pain score = 0/1 out of 20), mild (pain score = 2/3), and moderate-severe pain (pain score >3). We explored 11 other secondary outcome measures. We performed an ordinal logistic regression or linear models with generalized estimating equations. The predictors were group (AKOA or common KOA), time (seven visits), and a group-by-time interaction. Overall, individuals with AKOA (n = 54) had greater pain, functional disability, and global rating scale as well as slower chair-stand and walking pace compared with those with common KOA (n = 187). There was no significant interaction between group and time for knee pain; however, there was for chair-stand pace and global rating scale. In conclusion, AKOA may be a painful and disabling phenotype that warrants more attention by clinicians and researchers.

  14. The effect of neural mobilisation on cervico-brachial pain: design of a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Basson, Cato A; Stewart, Aimee; Mudzi, Witness

    2014-12-10

    Neck pain is a common musculoskeletal complaint and is often associated with shoulder or arm pain. There is a paucity of information on effective treatment for neck and arm pain, such as radiculopathy or cervico-brachial pain. Guidelines recommend neck mobilisation/ manipulation, exercises and advice as the treatment for neck pain, and neck and arm pain. There are a few studies that have used neural mobilisation as the treatment for cervico-brachial pain. Although results seem promising the studies have small sample sizes that make it difficult to draw definite conclusions. A randomised controlled trial will be used to establish the effect of neural mobilisation on the pain, function and quality of life of patients with cervico-brachial pain. Patients will be recruited in four physiotherapy private practices and randomly assigned to usual care or usual care plus neural mobilisation. In clinical practice neural mobilisations is commonly used for cervico-brachial pain. Although study outcomes seem promising, most studies have small participant numbers. Targeting the neural structures as part of the management plan for a subgroup of patients with nerve mechano-sensitivity seems feasible. Patients with neuropathic pain and psychosocial risk factors such as catastrophising, respond poorly to treatment. Although a recent study found these patients less likely to respond to neural mobilisation, the current study will be able to assess whether neural mobilisation has any added benefit compared to usual care. The study will contribute to the knowledge base of treatment of patients with cervico-brachial pain. The findings of the study will be published in an appropriate journal. PACTR201303000500157.

  15. The effect of jaw relaxation on pain anxiety during burn dressings: randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi Fakhar, Fahimeh; Rafii, Forough; Jamshidi Orak, Roohangiz

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this randomised clinical trial (RCT) was to determine the effect of jaw relaxation on pain anxiety related to dressing changes in burn injuries. Patients hospitalised with burns experience high levels of anticipatory anxiety during dressing changes, which cannot be completely managed by anxiolytic drugs. Nurses as members of the burn care team contribute to pain management by using relaxation techniques as one of the most frequently used approaches to pain anxiety management. However, there is not enough information about the effects of these techniques on pain anxiety of patients with burns. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of jaw relaxation on pain anxiety related to dressing changes in burn injuries. It was a randomised clinical trial with a control group. A total of 100 patients hospitalised in Shahid Motahari Burn Centre affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences were recruited by convenience sampling and were randomly assigned to either experimental or control groups using minimisation. With institutional approval and written consent, the experimental group practiced jaw relaxation for 20 min before entering the dressing room. Data were collected by the Burn Specific Pain Anxiety Scale (BSPAS) during July-December 2009 and analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS)-PC (17). An independent t-test showed no significant difference between mean pain anxiety scores in the experimental and control group before intervention (p=0.787). A dependent t-test showed significantly less pain anxiety after intervention (before dressing) in the experimental group (p<0.05). Moreover, the independent t-test showed that the post-dressing pain anxiety of the experimental group was less than the control group (p<0.05). However, the dependent t-test showed no significant difference between before and after dressing pain anxiety (after intervention) in the experimental group (p=0.303). Nurses can independently

  16. Low-tech rehabilitation of bilateral patellofemoral knee pain in a runner: a case study.

    PubMed

    Stefanick, Gary F

    2004-12-01

    Patellofemoral pain is a common ailment within both the running and general populations. Many of the structures of the anterior knee that comprise the patellofemoral joint can be the source of chronic pain and inflammation that is associated with this condition. Much of the evidence in the literature points to a delay in activation of the vastus medialis oblique muscle as compared to the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis weakness, and ultimately faulty patellar tracking as the chief causative factors in the development of patellofemoral pain. This is a single case study of a 51-year-old recreational runner with an 18-month history of bilateral patellofemoral knee pain. Treatment included the use of low-tech in office rehabilitation strategies known to affect those causative factors responsible for patellofemoral pain. Evidence based treatment modalities were utilized in combination, which included patellar mobilization, spinal manipulation, proprioceptive and strength training, and semi-rigid orthotic use, to effect vastus medialis oblique vs. vastus lateralis activation, vastus medialis strength, and patellar movement. The patient responded very well to a 12 week course of treatment and resumed recreational running with minimal to no pain at the six month, one and two year follow-ups.

  17. Traditional Chinese Medications for Knee Osteoarthritis Pain: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Zhan, Hongsheng; Marszalek, Jolanta; Chung, Mei; Lin, Xun; Zhang, Min; Pang, Jian; Wang, Chenchen

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medication (TCM) has analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). We conducted the first systematic review of the best quantitative and qualitative evidence currently available in order to evaluate the effectiveness of TCM in relieving pain in knee OA. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using three English and four Chinese biomedical databases from their inception through March 1, 2015. We included randomized controlled trials of TCM for knee OA with intervention durations of at least two weeks. The effects of TCM on pain and other clinical symptoms were measured with the visual analog scale (VAS) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). The total effectiveness rate, which was used to assess overall pain, physical performance and wellness, was also measured. Two researchers independently extracted data on study design, population characteristics, duration, intervention, outcomes, risk of bias, and primary results. We performed a random-effects meta-analysis when appropriate. We also explored factors that could explain the heterogeneity by conducting subgroup and meta-regression analyses. Twenty-three studies, totaling 2362 subjects, met the eligibility criteria. Treatments were formulated with an average of 8 Chinese herbs and were prescribed based on the traditional Chinese diagnostic method of syndrome differentiation. The mean treatment duration was seven weeks, with oral administration occurring one to three times a day. Compared with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and intra-articular hyaluronate injections, 18 of the studies showed significantly improved VAS pain scores (Mean Difference [MD] [Formula: see text] 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18 to 0.94; [Formula: see text]), six of the studies showed significantly improved WOMAC pain subscale scores (MD [Formula: see text] 2.23; 95% CI, 0.56 to 3.91; [Formula: see text]), and 16 of the trials

  18. Clinical, nociceptive and psychological profiling to predict acute pain after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Luna, I E; Kehlet, H; Petersen, M A; Aasvang, E K

    2017-07-01

    Pre-operative identification of high-pain responders for acute pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) could lead to targeted analgesic trials and individualized analgesic strategies to improve recovery and potentially reduce the risk of persistent post-surgical pain. The aim of this study was to use simple clinical tests and questionnaires to identify predictive nociceptive and psychological factors for acute post-TKA pain. Sixty consecutive TKA patients were included in a prospective descriptive study of pain during a 5-m walk-test 24 h post-operatively as the primary outcome. Predictive variables collected prior to surgery included demographics, nociceptive testing (pressure pain threshold (PPT), cold pressor tolerance, electrical pain threshold and tolerance) and psychological profile (pain catastrophizing scale (PCS) and hospital anxiety and depression scale). The prediction of acute post-TKA pain was assessed by univariate analysis, logistic regressions and ROC curves. Reduced PPT on the arm and increased PCS were predictive variables for moderate/severe post-TKA pain 24 h after surgery (P = 0.007 and P = 0.026, respectively, R-squared 0.21) in the logistic regression model. Odds ratios were 0.67 for a 50 kPa increased PPT and 1.36 for a 5 point increase in PCS. A predictive model with cut-off values of PPT ≤ 245 kPa and PCS≥ 8 point had a sensitivity of 71.4 and a specificity of 62.5. Pre-operative widespread pressure pain hypersensitivity and pain catastrophizing are predictive of moderate severe post-TKA pain. If validated in a larger population, the clinically applicable tests should be considered in future interventions aiming to minimize post-operative pain in high-risk patients. © 2017 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effectiveness of physiotherapy exercise after knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Karen L; Dewey, Michael; Sackley, Catherine M

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of physiotherapy exercise after elective primary total knee arthroplasty in patients with osteoarthritis. Design Systematic review. Data sources Database searches: AMED, CINAHL, Embase, King's Fund, Medline, Cochrane library (Cochrane reviews, Cochrane central register of controlled trials, DARE), PEDro, Department of Health national research register. Hand searches: Physiotherapy, Physical Therapy, Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (Britain) Conference Proceedings. Review methods Randomised controlled trials were reviewed if they included a physiotherapy exercise intervention compared with usual or standard physiotherapy care, or compared two types of exercise physiotherapy interventions meeting the review criteria, after discharge from hospital after elective primary total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis. Outcome measures Functional activities of daily living, walking, quality of life, muscle strength, and range of motion in the knee joint. Trial quality was extensively evaluated. Narrative synthesis plus meta-analyses with fixed effect models, weighted mean differences, standardised effect sizes, and tests for heterogeneity. Results Six trials were identified, five of which were suitable for inclusion in meta-analyses. There was a small to moderate standardised effect size (0.33, 95% confidence interval 0.07 to 0.58) in favour of functional exercise for function three to four months postoperatively. There were also small to moderate weighted mean differences of 2.9 (0.61 to 5.2) for range of joint motion and 1.66 (−1 to 4.3) for quality of life in favour of functional exercise three to four months postoperatively. Benefits of treatment were no longer evident at one year. Conclusions Interventions including physiotherapy functional exercises after discharge result in short term benefit after elective primary total knee arthroplasty. Effect sizes are small to moderate, with no long term benefit. PMID:17884861

  20. Effectiveness of physiotherapy exercise after knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Minns Lowe, Catherine J; Barker, Karen L; Dewey, Michael; Sackley, Catherine M

    2007-10-20

    To evaluate the effectiveness of physiotherapy exercise after elective primary total knee arthroplasty in patients with osteoarthritis. Systematic review. Database searches: AMED, CINAHL, Embase, King's Fund, Medline, Cochrane library (Cochrane reviews, Cochrane central register of controlled trials, DARE), PEDro, Department of Health national research register. Hand searches: Physiotherapy, Physical Therapy, Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (Britain) Conference Proceedings. Review methods Randomised controlled trials were reviewed if they included a physiotherapy exercise intervention compared with usual or standard physiotherapy care, or compared two types of exercise physiotherapy interventions meeting the review criteria, after discharge from hospital after elective primary total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis. Functional activities of daily living, walking, quality of life, muscle strength, and range of motion in the knee joint. Trial quality was extensively evaluated. Narrative synthesis plus meta-analyses with fixed effect models, weighted mean differences, standardised effect sizes, and tests for heterogeneity. Six trials were identified, five of which were suitable for inclusion in meta-analyses. There was a small to moderate standardised effect size (0.33, 95% confidence interval 0.07 to 0.58) in favour of functional exercise for function three to four months postoperatively. There were also small to moderate weighted mean differences of 2.9 (0.61 to 5.2) for range of joint motion and 1.66 (-1 to 4.3) for quality of life in favour of functional exercise three to four months postoperatively. Benefits of treatment were no longer evident at one year. Interventions including physiotherapy functional exercises after discharge result in short term benefit after elective primary total knee arthroplasty. Effect sizes are small to moderate, with no long term benefit.

  1. Lingual sucrose reduces the pain response to nasogastric tube insertion: a randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    McCullough, S; Halton, T; Mowbray, D; Macfarlane, P I

    2008-03-01

    To determine whether lingual sucrose modifies the pain response to nasogastric tube insertion in preterm infants. Randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial. Special care baby unit. 20 stable preterm infants who required nasogastric tube insertion for feeding, randomised on 51 occasions. Lingual 24% sucrose or water placebo (0.5-2 ml varying with body weight) administered 2 min before nasogastric tube insertion. Heart rate, oxygen saturation (SaO2), Neonatal Facial Coding Score and presence or absence of cry. Infants who received sucrose demonstrated a significantly lower Neonatal Facial Coding Score during nasogastric tube passage compared with the placebo group (median 1 (range 0-4) vs 3 (0-4), p = 0.004). There was a trend for sucrose-treated infants to have little change in heart rate during nasogastric tube passage compared with the placebo group (mean (SD) -0.73 (23) vs +11 (17), p = 0.055). Mean SaO2 did not change significantly. Pain response measurements quickly returned to baseline after nasogastric tube insertion. Adverse effects, such as apnoea or oxygen desaturation, were few and occurred equally in each group. Nasogastric tube insertion induces a pain response comparable with previously reported responses to heel lance in neonates. Single-dose lingual 24% sucrose is effective in reducing the behavioural and physiological pain response to nasogastric tube insertion in preterm infants and it appears to be safe.

  2. Proximal tibiofibular subluxation relationship to lateral knee pain: a review of proximal tibiofibular joint pathologies.

    PubMed

    Semonian, R H; Denlinger, P M; Duggan, R J

    1995-05-01

    Proximal tibiofibular subluxation is the symptomatic hypermobility of the proximal tibiofibular joint. Pain along the lateral aspect of the knee must be carefully evaluated as the anatomy and biomechanics of this region are very complex. Anatomical variants of the proximal tibiofibular joint may be key to understanding the pathomechanics and, thus, treatment of this joint. The "horizontal" proximal tibiofibular joint has a higher degree of mobility, while the "oblique" joint is relatively immobile to rotational forces on the fibula. Increased fibular external rotation will result in injury to the anterior capsule and ligaments of the proximal tibiofibular joint causing common complaints of "popping" and lateral knee pain. Treatment of proximal tibiofibular subluxation will involve modifications of a patient's activity level and training programs, utilization of a supportive strap, lower leg strengthening, and modifications in the lower kinetic chain biomechanics.

  3. Participants' Understanding of Informed Consent in a Randomized Controlled Trial for Chronic Knee Pain.

    PubMed

    Guillemin, Marilys; Barnard, Emma; Walker, Hannah; Bennell, Kim; Hinman, Rana; Gillam, Lynn

    2015-12-01

    This study explored participants' experiences of randomized controlled trial (RCT) participation to examine their understanding of the trial design and whether their consent was indeed informed. A nested qualitative interview study was conducted with 38 participants from a sample of 282 who participated in a complex RCT evaluating the effectiveness of laser compared with needle acupuncture for chronic knee pain. Overall participants had a good understanding of the RCT, and concepts such as randomization and placebo. Their experiences of being in the trial were largely positive, even if they did not experience any knee pain improvement. Their responses to unblinding at the end of the study were accepting. Participants had a good functional understanding of the RCT, sufficient for valid informed consent. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Interventions to increase adherence to therapeutic exercise in older adults with low back pain and/or hip/knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nicolson, Philippa J A; Bennell, Kim L; Dobson, Fiona L; Van Ginckel, Ans; Holden, Melanie A; Hinman, Rana S

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate whether interventions aimed at increasing adherence to therapeutic exercise increase adherence greater than a contextually equivalent control among older adults with chronic low back pain and/or hip/knee osteoarthritis. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Five databases (MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, SportDISCUS (EBSCO), Embase (Ovid) and Cochrane Library) were searched until 1 August 2016. Randomised controlled trials that isolated the effects of interventions aiming to improve adherence to therapeutic exercise among adults ≥45 years of age with chronic low back pain and/or hip/knee osteoarthritis were included. Of 3899 studies identified, nine studies (1045 participants) were eligible. Four studies, evaluating strategies that aimed to increase motivation or using behavioural graded exercise, reported significantly better exercise adherence (d=0.26-1.23). In contrast, behavioural counselling, action coping plans and/or audio/video exercise cues did not improve adherence significantly. Meta-analysis using a random effects model with the two studies evaluating booster sessions with a physiotherapist for people with osteoarthritis revealed a small to medium significant pooled effect in favour of booster sessions (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.39, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.72, z=2.26, p=0.02, I(2)=35%). Meta-analysis provides moderate-quality evidence that booster sessions with a physiotherapist assisted people with hip/knee osteoarthritis to better adhere to therapeutic exercise. Individual high-quality trials supported the use of motivational strategies in people with chronic low back pain and behavioural graded exercise in people with osteoarthritis to improve adherence to exercise. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Biofeedback relaxation for pain associated with continuous passive motion in Taiwanese patients after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tsae-Jyy; Chang, Ching-Fen; Lou, Meei-Fang; Ao, Man-Kuan; Liu, Chiung-Chen; Liang, Shu-Yuan; Wu, Shu-Fang Vivienne; Tung, Heng-Hsing

    2015-02-01

    Effective pain management is crucial for patient recovery after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Biofeedback therapy, which encourages relaxation and helps alleviate various conditions associated with stress, may help to decrease postoperative pain in patients undergoing TKA. A quasi- experimental design was used to investigate the efficacy of a biofeedback relaxation intervention in reducing pain associated with postoperative continuous passive motion (CPM) therapy. Sixty-six patients admitted to a general hospital in Taiwan for TKA were recruited and randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention group received biofeedback training twice daily for 5 days, concurrent with CPM therapy, whereas the control group did not receive the biofeedback intervention. Pain was measured using a numeric rating scale before and after each CPM therapy session on postoperative days 1 through 5. The CPM-elicited pain score was calculated by subtracting the pre-CPM pain score from the post-CPM pain score. Results of repeated-measures analysis of variance showed intervention group reported significantly less pain caused by CPM than did the control group (f = 29.70, p < 0.001). The study results provide preliminary support for biofeedback relaxation, a non-invasive and non-pharmacological intervention, as a complementary treatment option for pain management in this population.

  6. [Knee-related Pain Problems during Pregnancy Correlate with an Increase in Body Weight. Results of a Prospective Study].

    PubMed

    Spahn, G; Lesser, A; Hofmann, G O; Schiele, R

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of knee pain or the intensification of knee-related problems during pregnancy. We hypothesised that the occurrence of knee problems correlates with an increase in body weight during pregnancy. A total of 326 women (30(th)-40(th) week of pregnancy) were involved in this study. At onset of the pregnancy, the patients were 29.4 [95% CI 28.8-29.9] years of age. We asked all patients retrospectively about their anthropometric data at the beginning of pregnancy. All patients provided information about former knee problems, knee problems occurring after onset of pregnancy or any increase in these problems. These knee patients were re-evaluated 6 weeks after childbirth. At follow-up, the patients were asked about their knee problems and about their body weight. At the beginning of pregnancy, the mean body weight was 68.0 kg (95% CI 64.4-69.6; range 41-117). The mean BMI of all patients was 24.5 kg/m² (25% CI 23.9-25.0; range 17.0-26.0). The absolute body weight increased by 13.8 kg (95% CI 13.2-1.5; range 3-38). A total of 24 patients (7.4%) reported new knee problems during pregnancy. 2 patients reported an increase in knee-related problems during pregnancy (0.6%). The incidence of knee-related problems (new cases and increase of problems n=26) was 26/326 or 7.6/100 pregnancies. In patients without knee problems, the pregnancy-related increase in the BMI (ΔBMI) was 4.8 kg/m² (95% CI 4.6-5.1, range 1.1-14.1). In cases with incident knee problems, the ΔBMI was 5.9 kg/m² (95% CI 4.9-6.9, range 2.1-11.8). The increase in body weight (Δbody weight) in patients without knee problems was 13.5 kg (95% CI 12.9-14.2, range 3-38). Patients with incident knee pain experienced a Δbody weight of 16.8 kg (95% CI 13.9-19.4, range 6-35). The differences in ΔBMI and Δbody weight were significant (p=0.009). A Δbody weight >20 kg was a significant risk factor for pregnancy-related knee pain significant risk factor pregnancy

  7. Randomized, double blinded comparative trial of intradermal injections of lignocaine versus N-saline around the knee to relieve pain in patients awaiting total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Loughnan, Terence Edward; Taverner, Murray G; Webb, Ashley

    2009-05-01

    We report a randomized, double-blinded comparative study assessing the efficacy of local anesthetic with N-saline intradermal blocks around the knee to reduce pain and improve patient satisfaction while waiting for a total knee joint replacement. Patients were offered involvement in this study while on the hospital waiting list for a knee replacement. Eligible patients, after completing a prestudy assessment, received an average of 6.3 (range: 1 to 10) intradermal injections of 0.5 mL either saline or 1% lignocaine injections into tender points around the knee. Patients were assessed at 2 hours and 1 week after the injections. Pain was assessed using 0 to 100 visual analog pain scale. Global perceived effect (satisfaction) was measured on a 7-point Likert scale. Thirty-two of 34 patients attended at 1-week assessment, 24 (75%) felt that they were improved, and 8 (25%) considered they were unchanged or worse. In both the saline and lignocaine groups, 12 of 16 patients felt that they had improved. N-saline proved as effective as lignocaine in reducing knee pain when injected intradermally. Seventy-five percent of patients were improved at 1 week.

  8. Multivariate Radiological-Based Models for the Prediction of Future Knee Pain: Data from the OAI

    PubMed Central

    Galván-Tejada, Jorge I.; Celaya-Padilla, José M.; Treviño, Victor; Tamez-Peña, José G.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the potential of X-ray based multivariate prognostic models to predict the onset of chronic knee pain is presented. Using X-rays quantitative image assessments of joint-space-width (JSW) and paired semiquantitative central X-ray scores from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI), a case-control study is presented. The pain assessments of the right knee at the baseline and the 60-month visits were used to screen for case/control subjects. Scores were analyzed at the time of pain incidence (T-0), the year prior incidence (T-1), and two years before pain incidence (T-2). Multivariate models were created by a cross validated elastic-net regularized generalized linear models feature selection tool. Univariate differences between cases and controls were reported by AUC, C-statistics, and ODDs ratios. Univariate analysis indicated that the medial osteophytes were significantly more prevalent in cases than controls: C-stat 0.62, 0.62, and 0.61, at T-0, T-1, and T-2, respectively. The multivariate JSW models significantly predicted pain: AUC = 0.695, 0.623, and 0.620, at T-0, T-1, and T-2, respectively. Semiquantitative multivariate models predicted paint with C-stat = 0.671, 0.648, and 0.645 at T-0, T-1, and T-2, respectively. Multivariate models derived from plain X-ray radiography assessments may be used to predict subjects that are at risk of developing knee pain. PMID:26504490

  9. Acupuncture for pain relief after total knee arthroplasty: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Chieh; Yang, Chien-Chung; Hu, Chih-Chien; Shih, Hsin-Nung; Chang, Yu-Han; Hsieh, Pang-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of acupuncture in relieving acute postoperative pain is still controversial. This patient-evaluator blinded and sham auricular acupuncture (AA)-controlled study tested whether acupuncture is effective in controlling acute postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty. Patients were randomly assigned to receive true acupuncture (knee, scalp, and AA) or sham AA. All procedures were conducted under general anesthesia, and the AA needles were retained in situ for 3 days. Postoperative pain was managed with intravenous fentanyl using a patient-controlled analgesia pump. The amount of postoperative fentanyl required, the time to the first fentanyl request, pain intensity on a 100-mm visual analog scale, incidence of analgesia-related adverse effects, and success of patients' blinding were recorded. This study comprised 60 patients (30 in the study group and 30 in the control group). The fentanyl requirement via patient-controlled analgesia in the study group was lower [mean (SD), 620.7 (258.2) vs 868.6 (319.3) μg; P = 0.002). The time to first request for fentanyl was longer in the study group. Pain intensity on a 100-mm visual analog scale was lower in the study group in the first 24 hours after the operation. The incidence of analgesia-related adverse effects of nausea and vomiting was lower in the study group. The success of blinding was not significantly different between the 2 groups (P = 0.731). The data obtained from this clinical trial demonstrate the potential advantages of using acupuncture for postoperative pain control after total knee arthroplasty.

  10. Does patella resurfacing really matter? Pain and function in 972 patients after primary total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Espehaug, Birgitte; Havelin, Leif Ivar; Vollset, Stein Emil; Furnes, Ove

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Resurfacing of the patella during primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is often recommended based on higher revision rates in non-resurfaced knees. As many of these revisions are insertions of a patella component due to pain, and since only patients with a non-resurfaced patella have the option of secondary resurfacing, we do not really know whether these patients have more pain and poorer function. The main purpose of the present paper was therefore to assess pain and function at least 2 years after surgery for unrevised primary non-resurfaced and resurfaced TKA, and secondary among prosthesis brands. Methods Information needed to calculate subscales from the knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) was collected in a questionnaire given to 972 osteoarthritis patients with intact primary TKAs that had been reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register. Pain and satisfaction on visual analog scales and improvement in EQ-5D index score ΔEQ-5D) were also used as outcomes. Outcomes were measured on a scale from 0 to 100 units (worst to best). To estimate differences in mean scores, we used multiple linear regression with adjustment for possible confounders. Results We did not observe any differences between resurfacing and non-resurfacing in any outcome, with estimated differences of ≤ 1.4 units and p-values of > 0.4. There was, however, a tendency of better results for the NexGen implant as compared to the reference brand AGC for symptoms (difference = 4.9, p = 0.05), pain (VAS) (difference = 8.3, p = 0.004), and satisfaction (VAS) (difference = 7.9, p = 0.02). However, none of these differences reached the stated level of minimal perceptible clinical difference. Interpretation Resurfacing of the patella has no clinical effect on pain and function after TKA. Differences between the brands investigated were small and they were assumed to be of minor importance. PMID:20158405

  11. Estimating the probability of radiographic osteoarthritis in the older patient with knee pain.

    PubMed

    Peat, George; Thomas, Elaine; Duncan, Rachel; Wood, Laurence; Wilkie, Ross; Hill, Jonathan; Hay, Elaine M; Croft, Peter

    2007-06-15

    To determine whether clinical information can practically rule in or rule out the presence of radiographic osteoarthritis in older adults with knee pain. We conducted a cross-sectional diagnostic study involving 695 adults ages >/=50 years reporting knee pain within the last year identified by postal survey and attending a research clinic. Potential indicators of radiographic osteoarthritis were gathered by self-complete questionnaires, clinical interview, and physical examination. Participants underwent plain radiography (posteroanterior, skyline, and lateral views). Radiographic osteoarthritis was defined as the presence of definite osteophytes in at least 1 joint compartment of the index knee. Independent predictors of radiographic osteoarthritis were age, sex, body mass index, absence of whole leg pain, traumatic onset, difficulty descending stairs, palpable effusion, fixed-flexion deformity, restricted-flexion range of motion, and crepitus. Using this model, 245 participants had a predicted probability >/=80% (practical rule in), of whom 231 (94%) actually had radiographic osteoarthritis (specificity 93%). Twenty-one participants had a predicted probability <20% (practical rule out), of whom only 2 (10%) had radiographic osteoarthritis (sensitivity 99.6%). The predicted probability of radiographic osteoarthritis for the remaining 429 participants fell into an intermediate category (20-79%). Simple clinical information can be used to estimate the probability of radiographic osteoarthritis in individual patients. However, for the majority of community-dwelling older adults with knee pain this method enables the presence of radiographic osteoarthritis to be neither confidently ruled in nor ruled out. Prospective validation and updating of these findings in an independent sample is required.

  12. Obesity Influences Transitional States of Disability in Older Adults With Knee Pain

    PubMed Central

    Rejeski, W. Jack; Ip, Edward H.; Marsh, Anthony P.; Zhang, Qiang; Miller, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study employed relatively new statistical methods to understand how many states are needed to describe disability in older adults with knee pain, describe the relative probability of transitioning between states over time, and examine whether obesity influences the probability of transitioning between states. Design Prospective epidemiologic study of older adults with knee pain. Setting Community. Participants The participants, 245 women and 235 men, were 65 years or older, had chronic knee pain on most days, and had difficulty with at least 1 mobility-related activity caused by knee pain. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure The primary instrument, the Pepper Assessment Tool for Disability, evaluated self-reported difficulty with mobility, basic activities of daily living (ADLs), and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). Results The Hidden Markov Model yielded 6 states reflecting changes in mobility, ADLs, and IADLs. There is evidence that loss in more demanding mobility-related activities such as stair climbing is an early sign for the onset of disability and that functional deficits in the lower extremities are critical to the early loss of ADLs. Overall the trend is for older adults to experience greater progression than regression and for obesity to be important in understanding severe states of disability. Conclusions These data provide a strong rationale for characterizing disability on a continuum and underscore the fluid nature of disability in older adults. As expected, lower-extremity function plays a key role in the disablement process; obesity is also particularly relevant to understanding severe states of disability. PMID:18996238

  13. Erdheim–Chester disease and knee pain in a dialysis patient

    PubMed Central

    Rademacher, Sibylle; Anagnostopoulos, Joannis; Luft, Friedrich C.; Kettritz, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Erdheim–Chester disease is a rare inflammatory condition characterized by a non-Langerhans histiocytic infiltration, involving the skeleton, nervous system, viscera, retroperitoneum and elsewhere. The aetiology is unknown. Positron emission tomography shows areas of involvement. We managed a dialysis patient with knee pain; a bone marrow specimen showed typical CD68 positive, but CD1a negative cells. We initiated interferon-α therapy although other options remain open. In our patient, the simultaneous presence of secondary hyperparathyroidism with tumorous calcifications provided an interesting additional differential diagnostic possibility regarding skeletal pain. PMID:25852919

  14. Tactile acuity training for patients with chronic low back pain: a pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic pain can disrupt the cortical representation of a painful body part. This disruption may play a role in maintaining the individual’s pain. Tactile acuity training has been used to normalise cortical representation and reduce pain in certain pain conditions. However, there is little evidence for the effectiveness of this intervention for chronic low back pain (CLBP). The primary aim of this study was to inform the development of a fully powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) by providing preliminary data on the effect of tactile acuity training on pain and function in individuals with CLBP. The secondary aim was to obtain qualitative feedback about the intervention. Methods In this mixed-methods pilot RCT 15 individuals were randomised to either an intervention (tactile acuity training) or a placebo group (sham tactile acuity training). All participants received 3 sessions of acuity training (intervention or sham) from a physiotherapist and were requested to undertake daily acuity home training facilitated by an informal carer (friend/relative). All participants also received usual care physiotherapy. The primary outcome measures were pain (0-100visual analogue scale (VAS)) and function (Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ)). Participants and their informal carers were invited to a focus group to provide feedback on the intervention. Results The placebo group improved by the greatest magnitude for both outcome measures, but there was no statistically significant difference (Mean difference (95%CI), p-value) between groups for change in pain (25.6 (-0.7 to 51.9), p = 0.056) or function (2.2 (-1.6 to 6.0), p = 0.237). Comparing the number of individuals achieving a minimally clinically significant improvement, the placebo group had better outcomes for pain with all participants achieving ≥30% improvement compared to only a third of the intervention group (6/6 vs. 3/9, p = 0.036). Qualitatively, participants reported that

  15. Effectiveness of High Intensity Laser Therapy for Reduction of Pain in Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Osteoarthritis is the most common type of arthritis. It is the main cause of chronic musculoskeletal pain and disability among the elderly population. Aim. This is a pilot, randomized clinical study about the effect of high intensity laser therapy in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee (OA of the knee). Material and Method. 72 patients (aged between 39 and 83 years) with (clinically and radiographically proved) OA of the knee were included in the study. They were randomized in two groups: therapeutic (test) one (n = 37, 65,11 ± 1,40 (mean ± SD) years old; patients were treated with HILT) and control group (n = 35, 64,71 ± 1,98; patients receive sham laser). Both groups had seven sessions of treatment. VAS and dolorimetry were used for assessment of pain before and after the therapy. Pedobarometric analysis (static and dynamic) was used to assess comparatively the contact surface area and maximum pressure under the heel. Results. Pain levels measured by VAS and dolorimetry decreased significantly in the therapeutic group after seven days of treatment (p< 0,001). Conclusion. The results after seven days of treatment show more intensive and cumulative effect after the application of high intensity laser therapy in comparison to sham laser. This is the reason why HILT can be a method of choice in the treatment of gonarthrosis. PMID:28096711

  16. Blockade of intra-articular adrenergic receptors increases analgesic demands for pain relief after knee surgery.

    PubMed

    Kager, Ingo; Mousa, Shaaban A; Sieper, Joachim; Stein, Christoph; Pipam, W; Likar, Rudolf

    2011-10-01

    Activation of opioid receptors on peripheral sensory nerve terminals by opioid peptides that are produced and released from immune cells can result in inhibition of inflammatory pain. This study tests the hypothesis that postoperative pain is attenuated endogenously through a local sympathetic neurotransmitter-activated release of opioids in patients undergoing knee surgery. We examined the expression of opioid peptides and adrenergic receptors in cells infiltrating inflamed synovial tissue and we hypothesized that intra-articular (i.a.) administration of the adrenergic receptor antagonist labetalol will increase postoperative analgesic consumption and/or pain intensity in these patients. In a double-blind, randomized manner, 75 patients undergoing therapeutic knee arthroscopy received i.a. placebo (20 ml saline) or labetalol (2.5 or 5 mg in 20 ml saline) at the end of surgery. Postoperative pain intensity was assessed by visual analog and verbal rating scales at rest and on exertion, and by the consumption of morphine via patient-controlled analgesia. Synovial biopsies were taken during the operation for double-immunofluorescence confocal microscopy studies. Alpha(1)- and beta(2)-adrenergic receptors were co-expressed in opioid peptide-containing cells. No significant difference was seen in pain scores, but patients receiving 2.5 mg labetalol requested significantly higher amounts of morphine. These findings are consistent with the notion that surgical stress induces sympathetically activated release of endogenous opioids from inflammatory cells and subsequent analgesia via activation of peripheral opioid receptors.

  17. [Influence of intraoperative noise protection on postoperative pain: demonstrated exemplified by total knee arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Keshmiri, A; Wolf, T; Wiech, O; Benditz, A; Grifka, J; Springorum, H

    2014-02-01

    It is known that implied memory of intraoperative noise influences postoperative pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different intraoperative noise protection methods during total knee arthroplasty on postoperative pain scores. A total of 83 patients were included in this prospectively designed, double-blind trial and underwent total knee arthroplasty with psoas compartment and sciatic nerve regional anesthesia and additionally propofol sedation. After randomization patients were assigned either to the noise protection group, the music group or the control group. Postoperative pain scores (VAS) were evaluated in each group. In the three different time intervals evaluated there were no significant differences between the groups. Also the pain maxima for each postoperative day showed no significant difference but there was a slight trend to the advantage of the music group. Even though there were no significant effects of music or noise protection on postoperative pain scores, it can be concluded, as has been done by many other authors that music should be used in the perioperative setting for general patient comfort.

  18. Nail position has an influence on anterior knee pain after tibial intramedullary nailing.

    PubMed

    Darabos, Nikica; Bajs, Ivana Dovzak; Rutić, Zeljko; Darabos, Anela; Poljak, Damir; Dobsa, Jasminka

    2011-09-01

    Our aim was to determine the possible relationship between anterior knee pain (AKP) and nail position marked as a distance from tip of nail to tibial plateau (NP) and to the tuberositas tibiae (NT). Nail position has an influence on anterior knee pain after tibial intramedullary nailing. We evaluated postoperative outcome results of 50 patients in the last 3 years with healed fractures initially treated with intramedullary (IM) reamed nails with 2 or 3 interlocking screws on both parts of the nail and with the use of medial paratendinous incision for nail entry portal. Patients marked a point on the visual analog scale (VAS) that corresponded to the level of postoperative AKP felt. Two groups of patients were formed on the basis of AKP (pain level was neglected): groups A and B, with and without pain, respectively. The difference between the two groups concerning NP measurements was statistically significant (p < 0.05), but not concerning NT measurements at the p < 0.05 level. Patients were classified by pain with high accuracy (98%) according to a classification tree. Symptoms of AKP did not appear if the tip of the nail position was more than 6.0 mm from the NP and more than 2.6 mm from the NT. However, for better evaluation of these results it will be necessary to examine a larger number of postoperative patients with AKP.

  19. SECOT-GEDOS consensus on pre-surgical pain management in knee and hip arthrosis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Ibán, M A; Maculé, F; Torner, P; Gil Garay, E; Oteo-Álvaro, A; López Millán, J M; Díaz Heredia, J; Loza, E

    2015-01-01

    To develop recommendations, based on best evidence and experience, on pain management in patients undertaking total knee or hip replacement. Nominal group methodology was followed. A group of experts was selected (5 orthopedics, 1 anesthesiologist), who defined the scope, users, topics, preliminary recommendations, and 3 systematic reviews: efficacy and safety of pre-surgical analgesia regarding to post-surgical pain, efficacy and safety of pre-emptive analgesia and pre-operative factors of post-operative pain. The level of evidence and grade of recommendation was established using the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine, and the level of agreement with the Delphi technique (2 rounds). The Delphi was extended to 39 orthopedics and anesthesiologists. The whole document was reviewed by all the experts. A total of 21 recommendations were produced. They include specific pharmacological treatment, as well as the evaluation and monitoring of patients on this treatment, and post-operative pre-emptive treatment. Agreement above 70% was reached in 19 recommendations. In patients undergoing total knee or hip replacement, a proper evaluation, follow-up, pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of predictors of poor surgical outcomes should be performed, especially those related to pre-operative pain. This can improve post-operative pain and surgery outcomes. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Physical performance and movement-evoked pain profiles in community-dwelling individuals at risk for knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Cardoso, Josue; Riley, Joseph L; Goodin, Burel; King, Christopher D; Petrov, Megan; Bartley, Emily J; Sibille, Kimberly T; Glover, Toni L; Herbert, Matthew S; Bulls, Hailey W; Addison, Adriana; Staud, Roland; Redden, David; Bradley, Laurence A; Fillingim, Roger B

    2017-08-24

    Knee pain associated with osteoarthritis is a significant contributor to decreased physical function. Recent evidence supports the inter-individual heterogeneity associated with knee pain presentation, but whether there is similar heterogeneity in physical performance among these individuals has not been previously examined. The aim of the present study was to characterize the variability in physical performance profiles and the pain evoked by their performance (i.e., movement-evoked pain). In a secondary analysis of the community-based study Understanding Pain and Limitations in Osteoarthritic Disease (UPLOAD), individuals (n=270) completed functional, pain, psychological, and somatosensory assessments. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to derive physical function profiles that were subsequently compared across several clinical, psychological and experimental pain measures. Our results support the hypothesis that among persons with knee OA pain, three different physical performance profiles exist with varying degrees of movement-evoked pain. Even as all three groups experienced moderate to severe levels of spontaneous knee pain, those individuals with the most severe movement-evoked pain and lowest physical functional performance also had the least favorable psychological characteristics along with increased mechanical pain sensitivity and temporal summation. Our findings support the need for the assessment and consideration of movement-evoked pain during physical performance tasks as these have the potential to increase the value of functional and pain assessments clinically. The identification of the mechanisms driving pain burden within homogeneous groups of individuals will ultimately allow for targeted implementation of treatments consistent with a biopsychosocial model of pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Robot-assisted total knee arthroplasty accurately restores the joint line and mechanical axis. A prospective randomised study.

    PubMed

    Liow, Ming Han Lincoln; Xia, Zhan; Wong, Merng Koon; Tay, Keng Jin; Yeo, Seng Jin; Chin, Pak Lin

    2014-12-01

    Robot-assisted Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) improves the accuracy and precision of component implantation and mechanical axis (MA) alignment. Joint-line restoration in robot-assisted TKA is not widely described and joint-line deviation of>5mm results in mid-flexion instability and poor outcomes. We prospectively randomised 60 patients into two groups: 31 patients (robot-assisted), 29 patients (conventional). No MA outliers (>±3° from neutral) or notching was noted in the robot-assisted group as compared with 19.4% (P=0.049) and 10.3% (P=0.238) respectively in the conventional group. The robot-assisted group had 3.23% joint-line outliers (>5mm) as compared to 20.6% in the conventional group (P=0.049). Robot-assisted TKA produces similar short-term clinical outcomes when compared to conventional methods with reduction of MA alignment and joint-line deviation outliers.

  2. Sacroiliac joint pain: Prospective, randomised, experimental and comparative study of thermal radiofrequency with sacroiliac joint block.

    PubMed

    Cánovas Martínez, L; Orduña Valls, J; Paramés Mosquera, E; Lamelas Rodríguez, L; Rojas Gil, S; Domínguez García, M

    2016-05-01

    To compare the analgesic effects between the blockade and bipolar thermal radiofrequency in the treatment of sacroiliac joint pain. Prospective, randomised and experimental study conducted on 60 patients selected in the two hospitals over a period of nine months, who had intense sacroiliac joint pain (Visual Analogue Scale [VAS]>6) that lasted more than 3 months. Patients were randomised into three groups (n=20): Group A (two intra-articular sacroiliac injections of local anaesthetic/corticosteroid guided by ultrasound in 7 days). Group B: conventional bipolar radiofrequency "palisade". Target points were the lateral branch nerves of S1, S2, and S3, distance needles 1cm. Group C: modified bipolar radiofrequency "palisade" (needle distance >1cm). Patients were evaluated at one month, three months, and one year. Demographic data, VAS reduction, and side effects of the techniques were assessed. One month after the treatment, pain reduction was >50% in the three groups P<.001. Three and 12 months after the technique, the patients of the group A did not have a significant reduction in pain. At 3 months, almost 50% patients of the group B referred to improvement of the pain (P=.03), and <25% at 12 months, and those results were statistically significant (P=.01) compared to the baseline. Group C showed an improvement of 50% at 3 and 12 months (P<.001). All patients completed the study. Bipolar radiofrequency "palisade", especially when the distance between the needles was increased, was more effective and lasted longer, compared to join block and steroids, in relieving pain sacroiliac joint. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Self-hypnosis for coping with labour pain: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Werner, A; Uldbjerg, N; Zachariae, R; Rosen, G; Nohr, E A

    2013-02-01

    To estimate the use of epidural analgesia and experienced pain during childbirth after a short antenatal training course in self-hypnosis to ease childbirth. Randomised, controlled, single-blinded trial using a three-arm design. Aarhus University Hospital Skejby in Denmark during the period July 2009 until August 2011. A total of 1222 healthy nulliparous women. Use of epidural analgesia and self-reported pain during delivery was compared in three groups: a hypnosis group receiving three 1-hour lessons in self-hypnosis with additional audiorecordings to ease childbirth, a relaxation group receiving three 1-hour lessons in various relaxation methods and mindfulness with audiorecordings for additional training, and a usual care group receiving ordinary antenatal care only. Use of epidural analgesia. Secondary outcomes included self-reported pain. There were no between-group differences in use of epidural analgesia-31.2% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 27.1-35.3) in the hypnosis group, 29.8% (95% CI 25.7-33.8) in the relaxation group and 30.0% (95% CI 24.0-36.0) in the control group. No statistically significant differences between the three groups were observed for any of the self-reported pain measures. In this large randomised controlled trial of a brief course in self-hypnosis to ease childbirth, no differences in use of epidural analgesia or pain experience were found across study groups. Before turning down self-hypnosis as a method for pain relief, further studies are warranted with focus on specific subgroups. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  4. Pain and pain-related interference in adults with lower-limb amputation: comparison of knee-disarticulation, transtibial, and transfemoral surgical sites.

    PubMed

    Behr, James; Friedly, Janna; Molton, Ivan; Morgenroth, David; Jensen, Mark P; Smith, Douglas G

    2009-01-01

    Pain and pain-related interference with physical function have not been thoroughly studied in individuals who have undergone knee-disarticulation amputations. The principal aim of this study was to determine whether individuals with knee-disarticulation amputations have worse pain and pain-related interference with physical function than do individuals with transtibial or transfemoral amputations. We analyzed cross-sectional survey data provided by 42 adults with lower-limb amputations. These individuals consisted of 14 adults reporting knee-disarticulation amputation in one limb and best-matched cases (14 reporting transfemoral amputation and 14 reporting transtibial amputation) from a larger cross-sectional sample of 472 individuals. Participants were rigorously matched based on time since amputation, reason for amputation, age, sex, diabetes diagnosis, and pain before amputation. Continuous outcome variables were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. Categorical outcomes were analyzed by Pearson chi-square statistic. Given the relatively small sample size and power concerns, mean differences were also described by estimated effect size (Cohen's d). Of the 42 participants, 83% were male. They ranged in age from 36 to 85 (median = 55.1, standard deviation = 11.0). Most amputations were of traumatic origin (74%), and participants were on average 12.4 years from their amputations at the time of the survey. Individuals with transtibial amputation reported significantly more prosthesis use than did individuals with knee-disarticulation amputation. Amputation levels did not significantly differ in phantom limb pain, residual limb pain, back pain, and pain-related interference with physical function. Estimates of effect size, however, indicated that participants with knee-disarticulation amputation reported less phantom limb pain, phantom limb pain-related interference with physical function, residual limb pain, residual limb pain-related interference with physical

  5. Pain and pain-related interference in adults with lower-limb amputation: Comparison of knee-disarticulation, transtibial, and transfemoral surgical sites

    PubMed Central

    Behr, James; Friedly, Janna; Molton, Ivan; Morgenroth, David; Jensen, Mark P.; Smith, Douglas G.

    2011-01-01

    Pain and pain-related interference with physical function have not been thoroughly studied in individuals who have undergone knee-disarticulation amputations. The principal aim of this study was to determine whether individuals with knee-disarticulation amputations have worse pain and pain-related interference with physical function than do individuals with transtibial or transfemoral amputations. We analyzed cross-sectional survey data provided by 42 adults with lower-limb amputations. These individuals consisted of 14 adults reporting knee-disarticulation amputation in one limb and best-matched cases (14 reporting transfemoral amputation and 14 reporting transtibial amputation) from a larger cross-sectional sample of 472 individuals. Participants were rigorously matched based on time since amputation, reason for amputation, age, sex, diabetes diagnosis, and pain before amputation. Continuous outcome variables were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. Categorical outcomes were analyzed by Pearson chi-square statistic. Given the relatively small sample size and power concerns, mean differences were also described by estimated effect size (Cohen’s d). Of the 42 participants, 83% were male. They ranged in age from 36 to 85 (median = 55.1, standard deviation = 11.0). Most amputations were of traumatic origin (74%), and participants were on average 12.4 years from their amputations at the time of the survey. Individuals with transtibial amputation reported significantly more prosthesis use than did individuals with knee-disarticulation amputation. Amputation levels did not significantly differ in phantom limb pain, residual limb pain, back pain, and pain-related interference with physical function. Estimates of effect size, however, indicated that participants with knee-disarticulation amputation reported less phantom limb pain, phantom limb pain-related interference with physical function, residual limb pain, residual limb pain-related interference with

  6. Systematic review of enriched enrolment, randomised withdrawal trial designs in chronic pain: a new framework for design and reporting.

    PubMed

    Moore, R Andrew; Wiffen, Philip J; Eccleston, Christopher; Derry, Sheena; Baron, Ralf; Bell, Rae F; Furlan, Andrea D; Gilron, Ian; Haroutounian, Simon; Katz, Nathaniel P; Lipman, Arthur G; Morley, Stephen; Peloso, Paul M; Quessy, Steve N; Seers, Kate; Strassels, Scott A; Straube, Sebastian

    2015-08-01

    Enriched enrolment, randomised withdrawal (EERW) pain trials select, before randomisation, patients who respond by demonstrating a predetermined degree of pain relief and acceptance of adverse events. There is uncertainty over the value of this design. We report a systematic review of EERW trials in chronic noncancer pain together with a critical appraisal of methods and potential biases in the methods used and recommendations for the design and reporting of future EERW trials. Electronic and other searches found 25 EERW trials published between 1995 and June 2014, involving 5669 patients in a randomised withdrawal phase comparing drug with placebo; 13 (median, 107 patients) had a randomised withdrawal phase of 6 weeks or less, and 12 (median, 334) lasted 12 to 26 weeks. Risks of bias included short duration, inadequate outcome definition, incomplete outcome data reporting, small size, and inadequate dose tapering on randomisation to placebo. Active treatment was usually better than placebo (22/25 trials). This review reduces the uncertainty around the value of EERW trials in pain. If properly designed, conducted, and reported, they are feasible and useful for making decisions about pain therapies. Shorter, small studies can be explanatory; longer, larger studies can inform practice. Current evidence is inadequate for valid comparisons in outcome between EERW and classical trials, although no gross differences were found. This systematic review provides a framework for assessing potential biases and the value of the EERW trials, and for the design of future studies by making recommendations for the conduct and reporting of EERW trials.

  7. Knee Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your knee joint is made up of bone, cartilage, ligaments and fluid. Muscles and tendons help the knee joint move. When any of these structures is hurt or diseased, you have knee problems. Knee problems can cause pain and difficulty ...

  8. Changes in knee biomechanics after a hip-abductor strengthening protocol for runners with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ferber, Reed; Kendall, Karen D; Farr, Lindsay

    2011-01-01

    Very few authors have investigated the relationship between hip-abductor muscle strength and frontal-plane knee mechanics during running. To investigate this relationship using a 3-week hip-abductor muscle-strengthening program to identify changes in strength, pain, and biomechanics in runners with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Cohort study. University-based clinical research laboratory. Fifteen individuals (5 men, 10 women) with PFPS and 10 individuals without PFPS (4 men, 6 women) participated. The patients with PFPS completed a 3-week hip-abductor strengthening protocol; control participants did not. The dependent variables of interest were maximal isometric hip-abductor muscle strength, 2-dimensional peak knee genu valgum angle, and stride-to-stride knee-joint variability. All measures were recorded at baseline and 3 weeks later. Between-groups differences were compared using repeated-measures analyses of variance. At baseline, the PFPS group exhibited reduced strength, no difference in peak genu valgum angle, and increased stride-to-stride knee-joint variability compared with the control group. After the 3-week protocol, the PFPS group demonstrated increased strength, less pain, no change in peak genu valgum angle, and reduced stride-to-stride knee-joint variability compared with baseline. A 3-week hip-abductor muscle-strengthening protocol was effective in increasing muscle strength and decreasing pain and stride-to-stride knee-joint variability in individuals with PFPS. However, concomitant changes in peak knee genu valgum angle were not observed.

  9. Evidence for a central mode of action for etoricoxib (COX-2 inhibitor) in patients with painful knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Egsgaard, Line Lindhardt; Petersen, Kristian Kjær

    2016-08-01

    The COX-2 inhibitor etoricoxib modulates the peripheral and central nociceptive mechanisms in animals. This interaction has not been studied in patients with pain. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-way crossover, 4-week treatment study investigated the pain mechanisms modulated by etoricoxib in patients with