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Sample records for knipp-uhlenbeck theory

  1. Effects of internal bremsstrahlung of tritium β-decay and surface roughness in the BIXS method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, L.; An, Z.; Liang, J. H.; Long, X. G.; Peng, S. M.; Zhang, W. G.

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the effects of the internal bremsstrahlung of tritium β-decay, sample surface roughness and tritium content as well on the tritium β-decay induced X-ray spectroscopy (BIXS) for tritium measurements based on Monte Carlo simulations. The Knipp-Uhlenbeck-Bloch theoretical model was adopted for the internal bremsstrahlung. It is found that the contributions of internal bremsstrahlung of tritium β-decays are approximately 30%, 10%, 4% and 2% of the corresponding external bremsstrahlung for C, Ti, Mo and W materials, respectively, and the sample surface roughness may cause an error of several percent in the BIXS method if the surface roughness of a sample is in a reasonable range. Moreover, the effect of tritium content should be taken into account when a sample contains a large amount of tritium, otherwise, the tritium contents measured by the BIXS method will be underestimated, for example, by up to ˜15% for Ti metal.

  2. String Theory and Gauge Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Maldacena, Juan

    2009-02-20

    We will see how gauge theories, in the limit that the number of colors is large, give string theories. We will discuss some examples of particular gauge theories where the corresponding string theory is known precisely, starting with the case of the maximally supersymmetric theory in four dimensions which corresponds to ten dimensional string theory. We will discuss recent developments in this area.

  3. Geographical Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golledge, Reginald G.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the origin of theories in geography and particularly the development of location theories. Considers the influence of economic theory on agricultural land use, industrial location, and geographic location theories. Explores a set of interrelated activities that show how the marketing process illustrates process theory. (MJP)

  4. Packaging Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    Considers the recent flood of anthologies of literary criticism and theory as exemplifications of the confluence of pedagogical concerns, economics of publishing, and other historical factors. Looks specifically at how these anthologies present theory. Cites problems with their formatting theory and proposes alternative ways of organizing theory…

  5. Grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  6. Probability Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaynes, E. T.; Bretthorst, G. Larry

    2003-04-01

    Foreword; Preface; Part I. Principles and Elementary Applications: 1. Plausible reasoning; 2. The quantitative rules; 3. Elementary sampling theory; 4. Elementary hypothesis testing; 5. Queer uses for probability theory; 6. Elementary parameter estimation; 7. The central, Gaussian or normal distribution; 8. Sufficiency, ancillarity, and all that; 9. Repetitive experiments, probability and frequency; 10. Physics of 'random experiments'; Part II. Advanced Applications: 11. Discrete prior probabilities, the entropy principle; 12. Ignorance priors and transformation groups; 13. Decision theory: historical background; 14. Simple applications of decision theory; 15. Paradoxes of probability theory; 16. Orthodox methods: historical background; 17. Principles and pathology of orthodox statistics; 18. The Ap distribution and rule of succession; 19. Physical measurements; 20. Model comparison; 21. Outliers and robustness; 22. Introduction to communication theory; References; Appendix A. Other approaches to probability theory; Appendix B. Mathematical formalities and style; Appendix C. Convolutions and cumulants.

  7. Graph Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2005-12-27

    Graph theory is a branch of discrete combinatorial mathematics that studies the properties of graphs. The theory was pioneered by the Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler in the 18th century, commenced its formal development during the second half of the 19th century, and has witnessed substantial growth during the last seventy years, with applications in areas as diverse as engineering, computer science, physics, sociology, chemistry and biology. Graph theory has also had a strong impact in computational linguistics by providing the foundations for the theory of features structures that has emerged as one of the most widely used frameworks for the representation of grammar formalisms.

  8. Game theory.

    PubMed

    Dufwenberg, Martin

    2011-03-01

    Game theory is a toolkit for examining situations where decision makers influence each other. I discuss the nature of game-theoretic analysis, the history of game theory, why game theory is useful for understanding human psychology, and why game theory has played a key role in the recent explosion of interest in the field of behavioral economics. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 167-173 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.119 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  9. Confabulation Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solari, Soren; Smith, Andrew; Minnett, Rupert; Hecht-Nielsen, Robert

    2008-06-01

    Confabulation Theory [Hecht-Nielsen R. Confabulation theory. Springer-Verlag; 2007] is the first comprehensive theory of human and animal cognition. Here, we briefly describe Confabulation Theory and discuss experimental results that suggest the theory is correct. Simply put, Confabulation Theory proposes that thinking is like moving. In humans, the theory postulates that there are roughly 4000 thalamocortical modules, the “muscles of thought”. Each module performs an internal competition ( confabulation) between its symbols, influenced by inputs delivered via learned axonal associations with symbols in other modules. In each module, this competition is controlled, as in an individual muscle, by a single graded (i.e., analog) thought control signal. The final result of this confabulation process is a single active symbol, the expression of which also results in launching of action commands that trigger and control subsequent movements and/or thought processes. Modules are manipulated in groups under coordinated, event-contingent control, in a similar manner to our 700 muscles. Confabulation Theory hypothesizes that the control of thinking is a direct evolutionary outgrowth of the control of movement. Establishing a complete understanding of Confabulation Theory will require launching and sustaining a massive new phalanx of confabulation neuroscience research.

  10. Effective theories of universal theories

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wells, James D.; Zhang, Zhengkang

    2016-01-20

    It is well-known but sometimes overlooked that constraints on the oblique parameters (most notably S and T parameters) are generally speaking only applicable to a special class of new physics scenarios known as universal theories. The oblique parameters should not be associated with Wilson coefficients in a particular operator basis in the effective field theory (EFT) framework, unless restrictions have been imposed on the EFT so that it describes universal theories. Here, we work out these restrictions, and present a detailed EFT analysis of universal theories. We find that at the dimension-6 level, universal theories are completely characterized by 16more » parameters. They are conveniently chosen to be: 5 oblique parameters that agree with the commonly-adopted ones, 4 anomalous triple-gauge couplings, 3 rescaling factors for the h3, hff, hV V vertices, 3 parameters for hV V vertices absent in the Standard Model, and 1 four-fermion coupling of order yf2. Furthermore, all these parameters are defined in an unambiguous and basis-independent way, allowing for consistent constraints on the universal theories parameter space from precision electroweak and Higgs data.« less

  11. Communication Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penland, Patrick R.

    Three papers are presented which delineate the foundation of theory and principles which underlie the research and instructional approach to communications at the Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Pittsburgh. Cybernetic principles provide the integration, and validation is based in part on a situation-producing…

  12. Electroweak Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschos, E. A.

    2005-01-01

    The electroweak theory unifies two basic forces of nature: the weak force and electromagnetism. This book is a concise introduction to the structure of the electroweak theory and its applications. It describes the structure and properties of field theories with global and local symmetries, leading to the construction of the standard model. It describes the new particles and processes predicted by the theory, and compares them with experimental results. It also covers neutral currents, the properties of W and Z bosons, the properties of quarks and mesons containing heavy quarks, neutrino oscillations, CP-asymmetries in K, D, and B meson decays, and the search for Higgs particles. Each chapter contains problems, stemming from the long teaching experience of the author, to supplement the text. This will be of great interest to graduate students and researchers in elementary particle physics. Password protected solutions are available to lecturers at www.cambridge.org/9780521860987. Each chapter has an introduction highlighting its contents and giving a historical perspective. Chapters are cross-referenced, interrelating concepts and sections of the book. Contains 49 exercises

  13. Leadership Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sferra, Bobbie A.; Paddock, Susan C.

    This booklet describes various theoretical aspects of leadership, including the proper exercise of authority, effective delegation, goal setting, exercise of control, assignment of responsibility, performance evaluation, and group process facilitation. It begins by describing the evolution of general theories of leadership from historic concepts…

  14. Control Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toso, Robert B.

    2000-01-01

    Inspired by William Glasser's Reality Therapy ideas, Control Theory (CT) is a disciplinary approach that stresses people's ability to control only their own behavior, based on internal motivations to satisfy five basic needs. At one North Dakota high school, CT-trained teachers are the program's best recruiters. (MLH)

  15. Theory Survey or Survey Theory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Jodi

    2010-01-01

    Matthew Moore's survey of political theorists in U.S. American colleges and universities is an impressive contribution to political science (Moore 2010). It is the first such survey of political theory as a subfield, the response rate is very high, and the answers to the survey questions provide new information about how political theorists look…

  16. Quantum theory of gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, S.M.

    1984-01-01

    The book of essay entitled Quantum Theory of Gravity, edited by Steven M. Christensen is reviewed. The book contains over thirty papers dealing with the subject of the unification of quantum field theory and general relativity theory. Contributions include discussions of non-Abelian gauge theories, supersymmetry, issues in renormalization and quantization and matters related to the interpretation of theories.

  17. Generating Curriculum Theory Through Grounded Theory Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehrke, Nathalie J.; Parker, Walter C.

    The purpose of this paper is threefold: to describe grounded theory research strategies, to present a summary of several studies in education that have followed this approach, and to explore the potential uses of the grounded theory techniques in curriculum theory generation. The paper is arranged into six parts. In the first and second parts of…

  18. String Theory and M-Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Schwarz, John H.

    String theory is one of the most exciting and challenging areas of modern theoretical physics. This book guides the reader from the basics of string theory to recent developments. It introduces the basics of perturbative string theory, world-sheet supersymmetry, space-time supersymmetry, conformal field theory and the heterotic string, before describing modern developments, including D-branes, string dualities and M-theory. It then covers string geometry and flux compactifications, applications to cosmology and particle physics, black holes in string theory and M-theory, and the microscopic origin of black-hole entropy. It concludes with Matrix theory, the AdS/CFT duality and its generalizations. This book is ideal for graduate students and researchers in modern string theory, and will make an excellent textbook for a one-year course on string theory. It contains over 120 exercises with solutions, and over 200 homework problems with solutions available on a password protected website for lecturers at www.cambridge.org/9780521860697. Comprehensive coverage of topics from basics of string theory to recent developments Ideal textbook for a one-year course in string theory Includes over 100 exercises with solutions Contains over 200 homework problems with solutions available to lecturers on-line

  19. Grounded theory, feminist theory, critical theory: toward theoretical triangulation.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Kaysi Eastlick; Morrow, Raymond

    2003-01-01

    Nursing and social science scholars have examined the compatibility between feminist and grounded theory traditions in scientific knowledge generation, concluding that they are complementary, yet not without certain tensions. This line of inquiry is extended to propose a critical feminist grounded theory methodology. The construction of symbolic interactionist, feminist, and critical feminist variants of grounded theory methodology is examined in terms of the presuppositions of each tradition and their interplay as a process of theoretical triangulation.

  20. Foundations for a theory of gravitation theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, K. S.; Lee, D. L.; Lightman, A. P.

    1972-01-01

    A foundation is laid for future analyses of gravitation theories. This foundation is applicable to any theory formulated in terms of geometric objects defined on a 4-dimensional spacetime manifold. The foundation consists of (1) a glossary of fundamental concepts; (2) a theorem that delineates the overlap between Lagrangian-based theories and metric theories; (3) a conjecture (due to Schiff) that the Weak Equivalence Principle implies the Einstein Equivalence Principle; and (4) a plausibility argument supporting this conjecture for the special case of relativistic, Lagrangian-based theories.

  1. Theories and Modes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apsche, Jack A.

    2005-01-01

    In his work on the Theory of Modes, Beck (1996) suggested that there were flaws with his cognitive theory. He suggested that though there are shortcomings to his cognitive theory, there were not similar shortcomings to the practice of Cognitive Therapy. The author suggests that if there are shortcomings to cognitive theory the same shortcomings…

  2. Quantum Theory is an Information Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ariano, Giacomo M.; Perinotti, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we review the general framework of operational probabilistic theories (OPT), along with the six axioms from which quantum theory can be derived. We argue that the OPT framework along with a relaxed version of five of the axioms, define a general information theory. We close the paper with considerations about the role of the observer in an OPT, and the interpretation of the von Neumann postulate and the Schrödinger-cat paradox.

  3. Teaching Theory X and Theory Y in Organizational Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Carey

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the activity described here is to integrate McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y into a group application: design a syllabus that embodies either Theory X or Theory Y tenets. Students should be able to differentiate between Theory X and Theory Y, create a syllabus based on Theory X or Theory Y tenets, evaluate the different syllabi…

  4. Generalizability Theory and Classical Test Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Broadly conceived, reliability involves quantifying the consistencies and inconsistencies in observed scores. Generalizability theory, or G theory, is particularly well suited to addressing such matters in that it enables an investigator to quantify and distinguish the sources of inconsistencies in observed scores that arise, or could arise, over…

  5. Equivalency Theory and Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Discusses distance education and the need for an accepted theory. Highlights include theories of independent study; theory of industrialization of teaching; theory of interaction and communication; and equivalency theory that is based on local control, personalized instruction, and telecommunications. (LRW)

  6. Disengagement theory revisited.

    PubMed

    Markson, E W

    1975-01-01

    Cumming and Henry erected the basic frame for a socio-cultural theory of normal aging in their 1961 book, Growing Old. The basic postulates of this theory are reviewed, and the overall structure of the theory briefly examined. Critical data necessary either to accept or reject disengagement theory are not yet available, although useful information has been gathered since the theory first appeared. Part of the difficulty in amassing "proof" or "disproof" is inherent in the intricate and complex nature of the aging process itself. This orienting paper introduced a set of contributtions by other commentators on disengagement theory.

  7. Elementary particle theory

    SciTech Connect

    Marciano, W.J.

    1984-12-01

    The present state of the art in elementary particle theory is reviewed. Topics include quantum electrodynamics, weak interactions, electroweak unification, quantum chromodynamics, and grand unified theories. 113 references. (WHK)

  8. Dissipative Field Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kheirandish, F.; Amooshahi, M.

    2008-11-18

    Quantum field theory of a damped vibrating string as the simplest dissipative scalar field theory is investigated by introducing a minimal coupling method. The rate of energy flowing between the system and its environment is obtained.

  9. Covariant Noncommutative Field Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Estrada-Jimenez, S.; Garcia-Compean, H.; Obregon, O.; Ramirez, C.

    2008-07-02

    The covariant approach to noncommutative field and gauge theories is revisited. In the process the formalism is applied to field theories invariant under diffeomorphisms. Local differentiable forms are defined in this context. The lagrangian and hamiltonian formalism is consistently introduced.

  10. Theories of Career Development. A Comparison of the Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osipow, Samuel H.

    These seven theories of career development are examined in previous chapters: (1) Roe's personality theory, (2) Holland's career typology theory, (3) the Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrod, and Herma Theory, (4) psychoanalytic conceptions, (5) Super's developmental self-concept theory, (6) other personality theories, and (7) social systems theories.…

  11. Measurement Decision Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    This paper describes and evaluates the use of decision theory as a tool for classifying examinees based on their item response patterns. Decision theory, developed by A. Wald (1947) and now widely used in engineering, agriculture, and computing, provides a simple model for the analysis of categorical data. Measurement decision theory requires only…

  12. Activity Theory and Ontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peim, Nick

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to re-examine Yrio Engestrom's activity theory as a technology of knowledge designed to enable positive transformations of specific practices. The paper focuses on a key paper where Engestrom defines the nature and present state of activity theory. Beginning with a brief account of the relations between activity theory and…

  13. Reflections on Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhurst, David

    2009-01-01

    It is sometimes suggested that activity theory represents the most important legacy of Soviet philosophy and psychology. But what exactly "is" activity theory? The canonical account in the West is given by Engestrom, who identifies three stages in the theory's development: from Vygotsky's insights, through Leontiev's articulation of the…

  14. Constructor theory of probability

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Unitary quantum theory, having no Born Rule, is non-probabilistic. Hence the notorious problem of reconciling it with the unpredictability and appearance of stochasticity in quantum measurements. Generalizing and improving upon the so-called ‘decision-theoretic approach’, I shall recast that problem in the recently proposed constructor theory of information—where quantum theory is represented as one of a class of superinformation theories, which are local, non-probabilistic theories conforming to certain constructor-theoretic conditions. I prove that the unpredictability of measurement outcomes (to which constructor theory gives an exact meaning) necessarily arises in superinformation theories. Then I explain how the appearance of stochasticity in (finitely many) repeated measurements can arise under superinformation theories. And I establish sufficient conditions for a superinformation theory to inform decisions (made under it) as if it were probabilistic, via a Deutsch–Wallace-type argument—thus defining a class of decision-supporting superinformation theories. This broadens the domain of applicability of that argument to cover constructor-theory compliant theories. In addition, in this version some of the argument's assumptions, previously construed as merely decision-theoretic, follow from physical properties expressed by constructor-theoretic principles.

  15. Constructor theory of probability

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Unitary quantum theory, having no Born Rule, is non-probabilistic. Hence the notorious problem of reconciling it with the unpredictability and appearance of stochasticity in quantum measurements. Generalizing and improving upon the so-called ‘decision-theoretic approach’, I shall recast that problem in the recently proposed constructor theory of information—where quantum theory is represented as one of a class of superinformation theories, which are local, non-probabilistic theories conforming to certain constructor-theoretic conditions. I prove that the unpredictability of measurement outcomes (to which constructor theory gives an exact meaning) necessarily arises in superinformation theories. Then I explain how the appearance of stochasticity in (finitely many) repeated measurements can arise under superinformation theories. And I establish sufficient conditions for a superinformation theory to inform decisions (made under it) as if it were probabilistic, via a Deutsch–Wallace-type argument—thus defining a class of decision-supporting superinformation theories. This broadens the domain of applicability of that argument to cover constructor-theory compliant theories. In addition, in this version some of the argument's assumptions, previously construed as merely decision-theoretic, follow from physical properties expressed by constructor-theoretic principles. PMID:27616914

  16. Frankl's Theory and Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missinne, Leo E.; Wilcox, Victoria

    This paper discusses the life, theories, and therapeutic techniques of psychotherapist, Viktor E. Frankl. A brief biography of Frankl is included discussing the relationship of his early experiences as a physician to his theory of personality. Frankl's theory focusing on man's need for meaning and emphasizing the spiritual dimension in each human…

  17. Whither Social Theory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pais, Alexandre; Valero, Paola

    2014-01-01

    What is the place of social theory in mathematics education research, and what is it for? This special issue of "Educational Studies in Mathematics" offers insights on what could be the role of some sociological theories in a field that has historically privileged learning theories coming from psychology and mathematics as the main…

  18. Quantum Electrodynamics: Theory

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    The Standard Model of particle physics is composed of several theories that are added together. The most precise component theory is the theory of quantum electrodynamics or QED. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains how theoretical QED calculations can be done. This video links to other videos, giving the viewer a deep understanding of the process.

  19. Constructor theory of probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marletto, Chiara

    2016-08-01

    Unitary quantum theory, having no Born Rule, is non-probabilistic. Hence the notorious problem of reconciling it with the unpredictability and appearance of stochasticity in quantum measurements. Generalizing and improving upon the so-called `decision-theoretic approach', I shall recast that problem in the recently proposed constructor theory of information-where quantum theory is represented as one of a class of superinformation theories, which are local, non-probabilistic theories conforming to certain constructor-theoretic conditions. I prove that the unpredictability of measurement outcomes (to which constructor theory gives an exact meaning) necessarily arises in superinformation theories. Then I explain how the appearance of stochasticity in (finitely many) repeated measurements can arise under superinformation theories. And I establish sufficient conditions for a superinformation theory to inform decisions (made under it) as if it were probabilistic, via a Deutsch-Wallace-type argument-thus defining a class of decision-supporting superinformation theories. This broadens the domain of applicability of that argument to cover constructor-theory compliant theories. In addition, in this version some of the argument's assumptions, previously construed as merely decision-theoretic, follow from physical properties expressed by constructor-theoretic principles.

  20. La theorie autrement (Theory in Another Light).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertocchini, Paola; Costanzo, Edwige

    1985-01-01

    Outlines a technique using articles from "Le Francais dans le Monde" to teach reading comprehension and theory simultaneously to teachers of French as a second language. Describes a program in Italy using this approach. (MSE)

  1. Family systems theory, attachment theory, and culture.

    PubMed

    Rothbaum, Fred; Rosen, Karen; Ujiie, Tatsuo; Uchida, Nobuko

    2002-01-01

    Family systems theory and attachment theory have important similarities and complementarities. Here we consider two areas in which the theories converge: (a) in family system theorists' description of an overly close, or "enmeshed," mother-child dyad, which attachment theorists conceptualize as the interaction of children's ambivalent attachment and mothers' preoccupied attachment; (b) in family system theorists' description of the "pursuer-distance cycle" of marital conflict, which attachment theorists conceptualize as the interaction of preoccupied and dismissive partners. We briefly review family systems theory evidence, and more extensively review attachment theory evidence, pertaining to these points of convergence. We also review cross-cultural research, which leads us to conclude that the dynamics described in both theories reflect, in part, Western ways of thinking and Western patterns of relatedness. Evidence from Japan suggests that extremely close ties between mother and child are perceived as adaptive, and are more common, and that children experience less adverse effects from such relationships than do children in the West. Moreover, in Japan there is less emphasis on the importance of the exclusive spousal relationship, and less need for the mother and father to find time alone to rekindle romantic, intimate feelings and to resolve conflicts by openly communicating their differences. Thus, the "maladaptive" pattern frequently cited by Western theorists of an extremely close mother-child relationship, an unromantic, conflictual marriage characterized by little verbal communication and a peripheral, distant father, may function very differently in other cultures. While we believe that both theories will be greatly enriched by their integration, we caution against the application of either theory outside the cultures in which they were developed.

  2. Theory Interpretations in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan; Butler, Ricky W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this task was to provide a mechanism for theory interpretations in a prototype verification system (PVS) so that it is possible to demonstrate the consistency of a theory by exhibiting an interpretation that validates the axioms. The mechanization makes it possible to show that one collection of theories is correctly interpreted by another collection of theories under a user-specified interpretation for the uninterpreted types and constants. A theory instance is generated and imported, while the axiom instances are generated as proof obligations to ensure that the interpretation is valid. Interpretations can be used to show that an implementation is a correct refinement of a specification, that an axiomatically defined specification is consistent, or that a axiomatically defined specification captures its intended models. In addition, the theory parameter mechanism has been extended with a notion of theory as parameter so that a theory instance can be given as an actual parameter to an imported theory. Theory interpretations can thus be used to refine an abstract specification or to demonstrate the consistency of an axiomatic theory. In this report we describe the mechanism in detail. This extension is a part of PVS version 3.0, which will be publicly released in mid-2001.

  3. Rate theories for biologists

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Some of the rate theories that are most useful for modeling biological processes are reviewed. By delving into some of the details and subtleties in the development of the theories, the review will hopefully help the reader gain a more than superficial perspective. Examples are presented to illustrate how rate theories can be used to generate insight at the microscopic level into biomolecular behaviors. Attempt is made to clear up a number of misconceptions in the literature regarding popular rate theories, including the appearance of Planck’s constant in the transition-state theory and the Smoluchowski result as an upper limit for protein-protein and protein-DNA association rate constants. Future work in combining the implementation of rate theories through computer simulations with experimental probes of rate processes, and in modeling effects of intracellular environments so theories can be used for generating rate constants for systems biology studies is particularly exciting. PMID:20691138

  4. [Introduction to grounded theory].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shou-Yu; Windsor, Carol; Yates, Patsy

    2012-02-01

    Grounded theory, first developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s, was introduced into nursing education as a distinct research methodology in the 1970s. The theory is grounded in a critique of the dominant contemporary approach to social inquiry, which imposed "enduring" theoretical propositions onto study data. Rather than starting from a set theoretical framework, grounded theory relies on researchers distinguishing meaningful constructs from generated data and then identifying an appropriate theory. Grounded theory is thus particularly useful in investigating complex issues and behaviours not previously addressed and concepts and relationships in particular populations or places that are still undeveloped or weakly connected. Grounded theory data analysis processes include open, axial and selective coding levels. The purpose of this article was to explore the grounded theory research process and provide an initial understanding of this methodology.

  5. Supersymmetry and String Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dine, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Preface to the first edition; Preface to the second edition; A note on choice of metric; Text website; Part I. Effective Field Theory: The Standard Model, Supersymmetry, Unification: 1. Before the Standard Model; 2. The Standard Model; 3. Phenomenology of the Standard Model; 4. The Standard Model as an effective field theory; 5. Anomalies, instantons and the strong CP problem; 6. Grand unification; 7. Magnetic monopoles and solitons; 8. Technicolor: a first attempt to explain hierarchies; Part II. Supersymmetry: 9. Supersymmetry; 10. A first look at supersymmetry breaking; 11. The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model; 12. Supersymmetric grand unification; 13. Supersymmetric dynamics; 14. Dynamical supersymmetry breaking; 15. Theories with more than four conserved supercharges; 16. More supersymmetric dynamics; 17. An introduction to general relativity; 18. Cosmology; 19. Astroparticle physics and inflation; Part III. String Theory: 20. Introduction; 21. The bosonic string; 22. The superstring; 23. The heterotic string; 24. Effective actions in ten dimensions; 25. Compactification of string theory I. Tori and orbifolds; 26. Compactification of string theory II. Calabi–Yau compactifications; 27. Dynamics of string theory at weak coupling; 28. Beyond weak coupling: non-perturbative string theory; 29. Large and warped extra dimensions; 30. The landscape: a challenge to the naturalness principle; 31. Coda: where are we headed?; Part IV. The Appendices: Appendix A. Two-component spinors; Appendix B. Goldstone's theorem and the pi mesons; Appendix C. Some practice with the path integral in field theory; Appendix D. The beta function in supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory; References; Index.

  6. Children's theories of motivation.

    PubMed

    Gurland, Suzanne T; Glowacky, Victoria C

    2011-09-01

    To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over the long term for appealing activities. Individual difference analyses revealed that some children held operant theories of motivation, in which rewards were central, and others held hybrid theories, in which rewards were key, but some allowance was made for interest to be self-sustaining in the absence of inducements. Children's theories predicted their academic self-regulation. Their theories are discussed relative to an expert theory of motivation.

  7. Galileo's tidal theory.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Ron

    2007-03-01

    The aim of Galileo's tidal theory was to show that the tides were produced entirely by the earth's motion and thereby to demonstrate the physical truth of Copernicanism. However, in the Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems Galileo did not explain some of the most significant aspects of the theory completely. As a consequence, the way the theory works has long been disputed. Though there exist a number of interpretations in the literature, the most widely accepted are based on ideas that are not explicitly articulated by Galileo in the Dialogue. This essay attempts to understand the way the theory functions in terms of Galilean physics. It is an interpretation of the theory based solely on Galileo's arguments--and one that reveals it to have had some unrecognized consequences. This interpretation indicates that Galileo's theory would not have worked in the manner he described in the Dialogue. PMID:17539198

  8. Galileo's tidal theory.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Ron

    2007-03-01

    The aim of Galileo's tidal theory was to show that the tides were produced entirely by the earth's motion and thereby to demonstrate the physical truth of Copernicanism. However, in the Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems Galileo did not explain some of the most significant aspects of the theory completely. As a consequence, the way the theory works has long been disputed. Though there exist a number of interpretations in the literature, the most widely accepted are based on ideas that are not explicitly articulated by Galileo in the Dialogue. This essay attempts to understand the way the theory functions in terms of Galilean physics. It is an interpretation of the theory based solely on Galileo's arguments--and one that reveals it to have had some unrecognized consequences. This interpretation indicates that Galileo's theory would not have worked in the manner he described in the Dialogue.

  9. Domains and Naive Theories

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Susan A.; Noles, Nicholaus S.

    2013-01-01

    Human cognition entails domain-specific cognitive processes that influence memory, attention, categorization, problem-solving, reasoning, and knowledge organization. This review examines domain-specific causal theories, which are of particular interest for permitting an examination of how knowledge structures change over time. We first describe the properties of commonsense theories, and how commonsense theories differ from scientific theories, illustrating with children’s classification of biological and non-biological kinds. We next consider the implications of domain-specificity for broader issues regarding cognitive development and conceptual change. We then examine the extent to which domain-specific theories interact, and how people reconcile competing causal frameworks. Future directions for research include examining how different content domains interact, the nature of theory change, the role of context (including culture, language, and social interaction) in inducing different frameworks, and the neural bases for domain-specific reasoning. PMID:24187603

  10. Children's theories of motivation.

    PubMed

    Gurland, Suzanne T; Glowacky, Victoria C

    2011-09-01

    To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over the long term for appealing activities. Individual difference analyses revealed that some children held operant theories of motivation, in which rewards were central, and others held hybrid theories, in which rewards were key, but some allowance was made for interest to be self-sustaining in the absence of inducements. Children's theories predicted their academic self-regulation. Their theories are discussed relative to an expert theory of motivation. PMID:21513944

  11. Automated Lattice Perturbation Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Monahan, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    I review recent developments in automated lattice perturbation theory. Starting with an overview of lattice perturbation theory, I focus on the three automation packages currently "on the market": HiPPy/HPsrc, Pastor and PhySyCAl. I highlight some recent applications of these methods, particularly in B physics. In the final section I briefly discuss the related, but distinct, approach of numerical stochastic perturbation theory.

  12. Theory Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Shlachter, Jack

    2012-08-23

    Los Alamos has a long history in theory, modeling and simulation. We focus on multidisciplinary teams that tackle complex problems. Theory, modeling and simulation are tools to solve problems just like an NMR spectrometer, a gas chromatograph or an electron microscope. Problems should be used to define the theoretical tools needed and not the other way around. Best results occur when theory and experiments are working together in a team.

  13. Ostwald ripening theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, J. K.

    1986-01-01

    The Ostwald-ripening theory is deduced and discussed starting from the fundamental principles such as Ising model concept, Mayer cluster expansion, Langer condensation point theory, Ginzburg-Landau free energy, Stillinger cutoff-pair potential, LSW-theory and MLSW-theory. Mathematical intricacies are reduced to an understanding version. Comparison of selected works, from 1949 to 1984, on solution of diffusion equation with and without sink/sources term(s) is presented. Kahlweit's 1980 work and Marqusee-Ross' 1954 work are more emphasized. Odijk and Lekkerkerker's 1985 work on rodlike macromolecules is introduced in order to simulate interested investigators.

  14. The Big Bang Theory

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    The Big Bang is the name of the most respected theory of the creation of the universe. Basically, the theory says that the universe was once smaller and denser and has been expending for eons. One common misconception is that the Big Bang theory says something about the instant that set the expansion into motion, however this isn’t true. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln tells about the Big Bang theory and sketches some speculative ideas about what caused the universe to come into existence.

  15. The Big Bang Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-09-30

    The Big Bang is the name of the most respected theory of the creation of the universe. Basically, the theory says that the universe was once smaller and denser and has been expending for eons. One common misconception is that the Big Bang theory says something about the instant that set the expansion into motion, however this isn’t true. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln tells about the Big Bang theory and sketches some speculative ideas about what caused the universe to come into existence.

  16. Between Theory and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wepster, Steven

    Three great mathematicians dominate the history of lunar theory in the middle of the eighteenth century: Leonhard Euler, Alexis Clairaut, and Jean le Rond d’Alembert. Each of them made a lasting contribution to the theory of celestial mechanics and their results had a broader impact than on lunar theory alone. To name but a few examples, Euler codified the trigonometric functions and pioneered the method of variation of orbital constants; Clairaut solved the arduous problem of the motion of the lunar apogee, thereby dealing a decisive blow to the sceptics of Newton’s law of gravitation; and d’Alembert worked out an accurate theory of precession and nutation.

  17. Why Do We Have Theories?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costley, Kevin C.

    2006-01-01

    University professors teaching pre-service teachers base much of their philosophies on theories. Students often ask "Why do we have theories?" "What is the purpose of theories?" "If we like a theory, do we have to use all of the theory?" The most frequent controversial issue is how to use a particular theory in a practical way. In the quest for…

  18. [United theory of aging].

    PubMed

    Trubitsyn, A G

    2012-01-01

    In attempts to develop a means of life prolongation the humankind has created more than three hundred theories of the aging; each of them offers the original cause of aging. However, none of them has given practical result by now. The majority of the theories have now only historical interest. There are several different theories that are mainly under consideration currently. They are based on reliable, proven evidence: the free radical theory, the protein error theory, the replicative senescence theory, the theory of reparation weakening, the immunological theory, several versions of neuroendocrinal theories, and programmed aging theory. The theory presented here is based on conception that the life as the phenomenon represents many of the interconnected physical and chemical processes propelled by energy of the mitochondrial bioenergetical machine. Gradual degradation of all vital processes is caused by the programmed decrease in level of bioenergetics. This theory unites all existing theories of aging constructed on authentic facts: it is shown, that such fundamental phenomena accompanying aging process as the increase in level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the decrease in the general level of protein synthesis, the limitation of cellular dividing (Haiflick limit), decrease in efficiency of reparation mechanisms are caused by bioenergetics attenuation. Each of these phenomena in turn generates a number of harmful secondary processes. Any of the theories bases on one of these destructive phenomena or their combination. Hence, each of them describes one of sides of process of the aging initially caused by programmed decrease of level of bioenergetics. This united theory gives the chance to understand the nature of aging clock and explains a phenomenon of increase in longevity at the condition of food restriction. Failures of attempts to develop means from aging are explained by that the manipulations with the separate secondary phenomena of attenuation of

  19. Theory of thermoelasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iesan, D.

    1980-01-01

    The development of the theory of thermoelasticity, which examines the interactions between the deformation of elastic media and the thermal field, is traced and the fundamental problems of the theory are presented. Results of recent studies on the subject are presented. Emphasis is primarily on media with generalized anisotropy, or isotropy media. Thermomechanical problems and mathematical formulations and resolutions are included.

  20. Education without Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Wilfred

    2006-01-01

    This paper proceeds through four stages. First, it provides an account of the origins and evolution of the concept of educational theory. Second, it uses this historical narrative to show how what we now call "educational theory" is deeply rooted in the foundationalist discourse of late nineteenth and early twentieth century modernity. Third, it…

  1. Put Theory into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Audrey J.; Dunstan, Stephany; Thornton, Courtney; Rockenbach, Alyssa B.; Gayles, Joy G.; Haley, Karen J.

    2013-01-01

    When making decisions that impact student learning, college educators often consider previous experiences, precedent, common sense, and advice from colleagues. But how often do they consider theory? At a recent state-level educators' meeting, the authors of this article asked 50 student affairs educators about the use of theory in their practice.…

  2. Universality and string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachlechner, Thomas Christian

    The first run at the Large Hadron Collider has deeply challenged conventional notions of naturalness, and CMB polarization experiments are about to open a new window to early universe cosmology. As a compelling candidate for the ultraviolet completion of the standard model, string theory provides a prime opportunity to study both early universe cosmology and particle physics. However, relating low energy observations to ultraviolet physics requires knowledge of the metastable states of string theory through the study of vacua. While it is difficult to directly obtain infrared data from explicit string theory constructions, string theory imposes constraints on low energy physics. The study of ensembles of low energy theories consistent with ultra-violet constraints provides insight on generic features we might expect to occur in string compactifications. In this thesis we present a statistical treatment of vacuum stability and vacuum properties in the context of random supergravity theories motivated by string theory. Early universe cosmology provides another avenue to high energy physics. From the low energy perspective large field inflation is typically considered highly unnatural: the scale relevant for the diameter of flat regions in moduli space is sub-Planckian in regions of perturbative control. To approach this problem, we consider generic Calabi-Yau compactifications of string theory and find that super-Planckian diameters of axion fundamental domains in fact arise generically. We further demonstrate that such super-Planckian flat regions are plausibly consistent with theWeak Gravity Conjecture.

  3. Evolution: Theory or Dogma?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, William V.

    In this paper the author examines the question of whether evolution is a theory or a dogma. He refutes the contention that there is a monolithic scientific conspiracy to present evolution as dogma and suggests that his own presentation might be more appropriately entitled "Creationism: Theory or Dogma." (PEB)

  4. History, Theory, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rury, John L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the question of theory as it may pertain to the history of education, with particular attention to the United States. Historians, like everyone else, have little choice regarding the use of theory; to one extent or another they must. The question is how much and to what end. The author aims to consider the…

  5. Reimagining Critical Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rexhepi, Jevdet; Torres, Carlos Alberto

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses Critical Theory, a model of theorizing in the field of the political sociology of education. We argue for a "reimagined" Critical Theory to herald an empowering, liberatory education that fosters curiosity and critical thinking, and a means for successful bottom-up, top-down political engagement. We present arguments at a…

  6. Towards Extended Vantage Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaz, Adam

    2010-01-01

    The applicability of Vantage Theory (VT), a model of (colour) categorization, to linguistic data largely depends on the modifications and adaptations of the model for the purpose. An attempt to do so proposed here, called Extended Vantage Theory (EVT), slightly reformulates the VT conception of vantage by capitalizing on some of the entailments of…

  7. Sexual Murderers' Implicit Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beech, Anthony; Fisher, Dawn; Ward, Tony

    2005-01-01

    Interviews with 28 sexual murderers were subjected to grounded theory analysis. Five implicit theories (ITs) were identified: dangerous world, male sex drive is uncontrollable, entitlement, women as sexual objects, and women as unknowable. These ITs were found to be identical to those identified in the literature as being present in rapists. The…

  8. Greek Atomic Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roller, Duane H. D.

    1981-01-01

    Focusing on history of physics, which began about 600 B.C. with the Ionian Greeks and reaching full development within three centuries, suggests that the creation of the concept of the atom is understandable within the context of Greek physical theory; so is the rejection of the atomic theory by the Greek physicists. (Author/SK)

  9. The Learning Theory Jungle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minter, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the myriad of pedagogical and andragogical issues facing university educators in the student learning process. It briefly explores the proliferation of learning theories in an attempt to develop awareness among faculty who teach at the university/college levels that not all theories of learning apply to the adult learner. In…

  10. Organization Theory as Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Thomas B.

    The theory that organizations are ideological inventions of the human mind is discussed. Organizational science is described as an ideology which is based upon social concepts and experiences. The main justification for organizational theory is that it attempts to answer why we behave as we do in social organizations. Ways in which ideas and…

  11. Game Theory .net.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  12. Theories of Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peller, Lili E.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses several theories of play advanced before the development of psychoanalysis, including the theories of surplus energy, recreation, and practice. Examines the psychoanalytical view advanced by Freud and others, which focuses on the emotional release of play and its role in discovery and learning. (MDM)

  13. Evaluating Conceptual Metaphor Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Raymond W., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    A major revolution in the study of metaphor occurred 30 years ago with the introduction of "conceptual metaphor theory" (CMT). Unlike previous theories of metaphor and metaphorical meaning, CMT proposed that metaphor is not just an aspect of language, but a fundamental part of human thought. Indeed, most metaphorical language arises from…

  14. Student Development as Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Russell R.

    Student development theory has been adopted as the guiding theoretical framework of the student affairs profession. Unfortunately this adoption has largely occurred without a critical analysis of the concept of student development as a gestalt. A case can be made that for the most part the theories of student development are logically coherent in…

  15. Elementary Particle Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Catterall, Simon; Hubisz, Jay; Balachandran, Aiyalam; Schechter, Joe

    2013-01-05

    This final report describes the activities of the high energy theory group at Syracuse University for the period 1 January 2010 through April 30 2013. The research conducted by the group includes lattice gauge theory, non-commutative geometry, phenomenology and mathematical physics.

  16. Test Theory Reconceived.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Robert J.

    Educational test theory consists of statistical and methodological tools to support inferences about examinees' knowledge, skills, and accomplishments. The evolution of test theory has been shaped by the nature of users' inferences which, until recently, have been framed almost exclusively in terms of trait and behavioral psychology. Progress in…

  17. Progress in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldacena, Juan Martín

    D-Branes on Calabi-Yau manifolds / Paul S. Aspinwall -- Lectures on AdS/CFT / Juan M. Maldacena -- Tachyon dynamics in open string theory / Ashoke Sen -- TASI/PITP/ISS lectures on moduli and microphysics / Eva Silverstein -- The duality cascade / Matthew J. Strassler -- Perturbative computations in string field theory / Washington Taylor -- Student seminars -- Student participants -- Lecturers, directors, and local organizing committee.

  18. What Is Integral Theory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquis, Andre

    2007-01-01

    Integral theory is a way of knowing that helps foster the recognition that disparate aspects of reality--such as biological constitution, cultural worldviews, felt-sense of selfhood, and social systems--are all critically important to any knowledge quest. Integral theory provides an "all quadrants, all levels" (K. Wilber, 2006, p. 26)…

  19. A theory of knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachner, J.

    1984-11-01

    In order to make reliable predictions in any region of human activity, it is necessary to distinguish clearly what is based on experience and what is a construction of intellect. The theory of knowledge developed in the present paper is an attempt to devise a set of axioms that demarcate experience, as the only source of our knowledge of the external world, from the ideas, scientific models, and theories by means of which the scientific predictions are made. After a discussion of the causality in relation to the laws of nature, the axioms of the expounded theory are formulated in the formalism of set theory. The theory is then applied to some problems in physics to demonstrate its usefulness.

  20. Theory and speciation.

    PubMed

    Turelli, M; Barton, N H.; Coyne, J A.

    2001-07-01

    The study of speciation has become one of the most active areas of evolutionary biology, and substantial progress has been made in documenting and understanding phenomena ranging from sympatric speciation and reinforcement to the evolutionary genetics of postzygotic isolation. This progress has been driven largely by empirical results, and most useful theoretical work has concentrated on making sense of empirical patterns. Given the complexity of speciation, mathematical theory is subordinate to verbal theory and generalizations about data. Nevertheless, mathematical theory can provide a useful classification of verbal theories; can help determine the biological plausibility of verbal theories; can determine whether alternative mechanisms of speciation are consistent with empirical patterns; and can occasionally provide predictions that go beyond empirical generalizations. We discuss recent examples of progress in each of these areas.

  1. Algebraic Mean Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dankova, T. S.; Rosensteel, G.

    1998-10-01

    Mean field theory has an unexpected group theoretic mathematical foundation. Instead of representation theory which applies to most group theoretic quantum models, Hartree-Fock and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov have been formulated in terms of coadjoint orbits for the groups U(n) and O(2n). The general theory of mean fields is formulated for an arbitrary Lie algebra L of fermion operators. The moment map provides the correspondence between the Hilbert space of microscopic wave functions and the dual space L^* of densities. The coadjoint orbits of the group in the dual space are phase spaces on which time-dependent mean field theory is equivalent to a classical Hamiltonian dynamical system. Indeed it forms a finite-dimensional Lax system. The mean field theories for the Elliott SU(3) and symplectic Sp(3,R) algebras are constructed explicitly in the coadjoint orbit framework.

  2. Evolutionary game theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, John Maynard

    1986-10-01

    It is often the case that the best thing for an animal or plant to do depends on what other members of the population are doing. In more technical language, the fitnesses of different phenotypes are frequency-dependent. Evolutionary game theory has been developed to analyse such cases. In this paper I aim to do three things. First, I describe the concepts of evolutionary game theory in the context of a simple game, the Hawk-Dove game, and compare them with the concepts of classical game theory originating with Von Neumann and Morgenstern (1953) [1]. Second, I list some of the applications of the theory. Finally, I suggest how the theory can tell us something about the evolution of learning.

  3. Z-theory: chasing m/f theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekrasov, Nikita

    2005-03-01

    We present the evidence for the existence of the topological string analogue of M-theory, which we call Z-theory. The corners of Z-theory moduli space correspond to the Donaldson-Thomas theory, Kodaira-Spencer theory, Gromov-Witten theory, and Donaldson-Witten theory. We discuss the relations of Z-theory with Hitchin's gravities in six and seven dimensions, and make our own proposal, involving spinor generalization of Chern-Simons theory of three-forms. To cite this article: N. Nekrasov, C. R. Physique 6 (2005).

  4. Quantum Theory and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastin, Ted

    2009-07-01

    List of participants; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. The function of the colloquium - editorial; 2. The conceptual problem of quantum theory from the experimentalist's point of view O. R. Frisch; Part II. Niels Bohr and Complementarity: The Place of the Classical Language: 3. The Copenhagen interpretation C. F. von Weizsäcker; 4. On Bohr's views concerning the quantum theory D. Bohm; Part III. The Measurement Problem: 5. Quantal observation in statistical interpretation H. J. Groenewold; 6. Macroscopic physics, quantum mechanics and quantum theory of measurement G. M. Prosperi; 7. Comment on the Daneri-Loinger-Prosperi quantum theory of measurement Jeffrey Bub; 8. The phenomenology of observation and explanation in quantum theory J. H. M. Whiteman; 9. Measurement theory and complex systems M. A. Garstens; Part IV. New Directions within Quantum Theory: What does the Quantum Theoretical Formalism Really Tell Us?: 10. On the role of hidden variables in the fundamental structure of physics D. Bohm; 11. Beyond what? Discussion: space-time order within existing quantum theory C. W. Kilmister; 12. Definability and measurability in quantum theory Yakir Aharonov and Aage Petersen; 13. The bootstrap idea and the foundations of quantum theory Geoffrey F. Chew; Part V. A Fresh Start?: 14. Angular momentum: an approach to combinatorial space-time Roger Penrose; 15. A note on discreteness, phase space and cohomology theory B. J. Hiley; 16. Cohomology of observations R. H. Atkin; 17. The origin of half-integral spin in a discrete physical space Ted Bastin; Part VI. Philosophical Papers: 18. The unity of physics C. F. von Weizsäcker; 19. A philosophical obstacle to the rise of new theories in microphysics Mario Bunge; 20. The incompleteness of quantum mechanics or the emperor's missing clothes H. R. Post; 21. How does a particle get from A to B?; Ted Bastin; 22. Informational generalization of entropy in physics Jerome Rothstein; 23. Can life explain quantum mechanics? H. H

  5. Theory of Multiple Intelligences: Is It a Scientific Theory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jie-Qi

    2004-01-01

    This essay discusses the status of multiple intelligences (MI) theory as a scientific theory by addressing three issues: the empirical evidence Gardner used to establish MI theory, the methodology he employed to validate MI theory, and the purpose or function of MI theory.

  6. Introduction to string theory and conformal field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Belavin, A. A. Tarnopolsky, G. M.

    2010-05-15

    A concise survey of noncritical string theory and two-dimensional conformal field theory is presented. A detailed derivation of a conformal anomaly and the definition and general properties of conformal field theory are given. Minimal string theory, which is a special version of the theory, is considered. Expressions for the string susceptibility and gravitational dimensions are derived.

  7. Theory X and Theory Y in the Organizational Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Thomas J.

    This document defines contrasting assumptions about the labor force--theory X and theory Y--and shows how they apply to the pyramid organizational structure, examines the assumptions of the two theories, and finally, based on a survey and individual interviews, proposes a merger of theories X and Y to produce theory Z. Organizational structures…

  8. String theory as a higher spin theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaberdiel, Matthias R.; Gopakumar, Rajesh

    2016-09-01

    The symmetries of string theory on {AdS}_3× {S}^3× T^4 at the dual of the symmetric product orbifold point are described by a so-called Higher Spin Square (HSS). We show that the massive string spectrum in this background organises itself in terms of representations of this HSS, just as the matter in a conventional higher spin theory does so in terms of representations of the higher spin algebra. In particular, the entire untwisted sector of the orbifold can be viewed as the Fock space built out of the multiparticle states of a single representation of the HSS, the so-called `minimal' representation. The states in the twisted sector can be described in terms of tensor products of a novel family of representations that are somewhat larger than the minimal one.

  9. Set theory and physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svozil, K.

    1995-11-01

    Inasmuch as physical theories are formalizable, set theory provides a framework for theoretical physics. Four speculations about the relevance of set theoretical modeling for physics are presented: the role of transcendental set theory (i) in chaos theory, (ii) for paradoxical decompositions of solid three-dimensional objects, (iii) in the theory of effective computability (Church-Turing thesis) related to the possible “solution of supertasks,” and (iv) for weak solutions. Several approaches to set theory and their advantages and disadvatages for physical applications are discussed: Canlorian “naive” (i.e., nonaxiomatic) set theory, contructivism, and operationalism. In the author's opinion, an attitude of “suspended attention” (a term borrowed from psychoanalysis) seems most promising for progress. Physical and set theoretical entities must be operationalized wherever possible. At the same time, physicists should be open to “bizarre” or “mindboggling” new formalisms, which need not be operationalizable or testable at the lime of their creation, but which may successfully lead to novel fields of phenomenology and technology.

  10. Set theory and physics

    SciTech Connect

    Svozil, K.

    1995-11-01

    Inasmuch as physical theories are formalizable, set theory provides a framework for theoretical physics. Four speculations about the relevance of set theoretical modeling for physics are presented: the role of transcendental set theory (i) in chaos theory, (ii) for paradoxical decompositions of solid three-dimensional objects, (iii) in the theory of effective computability (Church-Turing thesis) related to the possible {open_quotes}solution of supertasks,{close_quotes} and (iv) for weak solutions. Several approaches to set theory and their advantages and disadvantages for physical applications are discussed: Cantorian {open_quotes}naive{close_quotes} (i.e., nonaxiomatic) set theory, contructivism, and operationalism. In the author`s opinion, an attitude, of {open_quotes}suspended attention{close_quotes} (a term borrowed from psychoanalysis) seems most promising for progress. Physical and set theoretical entities must be operationalized wherever possible. At the same time, physicists should be open to {open_quotes}bizarre{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}mindboggling{close_quotes} new formalisms, which need not be operationalizable or testable at the time of their creation, but which may successfully lead to novel fields of phenomenology and technology.

  11. Splines and control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Zhimin; Tomlinson, John; Martin, Clyde

    1994-01-01

    In this work, the relationship between splines and the control theory has been analyzed. We show that spline functions can be constructed naturally from the control theory. By establishing a framework based on control theory, we provide a simple and systematic way to construct splines. We have constructed the traditional spline functions including the polynomial splines and the classical exponential spline. We have also discovered some new spline functions such as trigonometric splines and the combination of polynomial, exponential and trigonometric splines. The method proposed in this paper is easy to implement. Some numerical experiments are performed to investigate properties of different spline approximations.

  12. Neurological theory of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Eggers, A E

    2003-06-01

    Review of the older literature on the relationship between migraine and hypertension, written in the era before either condition could be treated, discloses a high rate of co-morbidity. A neurological theory of essential hypertension is proposed in which the two diseases are brought together into one entity. It is hypothesized that abnormally functioning serotonergic pacemaker cells in the dorsal raphe nucleus, as part of a chronic stress response, inappropriately activate and inhibit parts of the central and autonomic nervous systems, so as to cause the two conditions. This theory builds on a previously published neural theory of migraine.

  13. CONSTRUCTION OF EDUCATIONAL THEORY MODELS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MACCIA, ELIZABETH S.; AND OTHERS

    THIS STUDY DELINEATED MODELS WHICH HAVE POTENTIAL USE IN GENERATING EDUCATIONAL THEORY. A THEORY MODELS METHOD WAS FORMULATED. BY SELECTING AND ORDERING CONCEPTS FROM OTHER DISCIPLINES, THE INVESTIGATORS FORMULATED SEVEN THEORY MODELS. THE FINAL STEP OF DEVISING EDUCATIONAL THEORY FROM THE THEORY MODELS WAS PERFORMED ONLY TO THE EXTENT REQUIRED TO…

  14. Nonstandard Methods in Lie Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldbring, Isaac Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, we apply model theory to Lie theory and geometric group theory. These applications of model theory come via nonstandard analysis. In Lie theory, we use nonstandard methods to prove two results. First, we give a positive solution to the local form of Hilbert's Fifth Problem, which asks whether every locally euclidean local…

  15. Drawing Out Theory: Art and the Teaching of Political Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Char R.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how to use art in introductory political theory courses. Provides examples of incorporating art to teach political theory, such as examining Machiavelli's "The Prince" and Michelangelo's "David" to understand Florentine (Florence, Italy) political theory. (CMK)

  16. Why We "Knead" Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Helen M.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a seminar by the Critical Educational Policy and Leadership Research Interest Group in June 2012. The article reports on the papers and our engagement with the need to use theory to develop descriptions and understandings.

  17. Electromagnetic scattering theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, J. F.; Farrell, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Electromagnetic scattering theory is discussed with emphasis on the general stochastic variational principle (SVP) and its applications. The stochastic version of the Schwinger-type variational principle is presented, and explicit expressions for its integrals are considered. Results are summarized for scalar wave scattering from a classic rough-surface model and for vector wave scattering from a random dielectric-body model. Also considered are the selection of trial functions and the variational improvement of the Kirchhoff short-wave approximation appropriate to large size-parameters. Other applications of vector field theory discussed include a general vision theory and the analysis of hydromagnetism induced by ocean motion across the geomagnetic field. Levitational force-torque in the magnetic suspension of the disturbance compensation system (DISCOS), now deployed in NOVA satellites, is also analyzed using the developed theory.

  18. Lectures on Dispersion Theory

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Salam, A.

    1956-04-01

    Lectures with mathematical analysis are given on Dispersion Theory and Causality and Dispersion Relations for Pion-nucleon Scattering. The appendix includes the S-matrix in terms of Heisenberg Operators. (F. S.)

  19. Classical Aerodynamic Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T. (Compiler)

    1979-01-01

    A collection of papers on modern theoretical aerodynamics is presented. Included are theories of incompressible potential flow and research on the aerodynamic forces on wing and wing sections of aircraft and on airship hulls.

  20. Wormholes in string theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, A. ); Hawking, S.W. )

    1991-12-15

    We discuss the wormhole effective interactions in string theory, thought of as a sum over two-dimensional field theories on different world sheets. The effective interactions are calculated in the dilute wormhole approximation,'' initially by considering the Green's functions on higher-genus Riemann surfaces, and then by calculating the effect of a complete basis of wave functions on scattering amplitudes for a surface with a boundary. The sum over wormholes is equivalent to having a world sheet of trivial topology and summing over different space-time and matter-field backgrounds. To leading order these consist of the massless fluctuations, since the tachyon cancels out when a sum is done over different spin structures going through the wormhole. In this way we recover quantized general relativity as an effective theory, from a sum over field theories on higher-genus Riemann surfaces.

  1. Little M-theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Thaler, Jesse; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2006-09-01

    Using the language of theory space, i.e. moose models, we develop a unified framework for studying composite Higgs models at the LHC. This framework — denoted little M-theory — is conveniently described by a theoretically consistent three-site moose diagram which implements minimal flavor and isospin violation. By taking different limits of the couplings, one can interpolate between simple group-like and minimal moose-like models with and without T-parity. In this way, little M-theory reveals a large model space for composite Higgs theories. We argue that this framework is suitable as a starting point for a comprehensive study of composite Higgs scenarios. The rich collider phenomenology of this framework is briefly discussed.

  2. Leonardo's Tree Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Suzanne K.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a series of activities exploring Leonardo da Vinci's tree theory that are designed to strengthen 8th grade students' data collection and problem solving skills in physical science classes. (KHR)

  3. Compatible quantum theory.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, R; Hohenberg, P C

    2014-09-01

    Formulations of quantum mechanics (QM) can be characterized as realistic, operationalist, or a combination of the two. In this paper a realistic theory is defined as describing a closed system entirely by means of entities and concepts pertaining to the system. An operationalist theory, on the other hand, requires in addition entities external to the system. A realistic formulation comprises an ontology, the set of (mathematical) entities that describe the system, and assertions, the set of correct statements (predictions) the theory makes about the objects in the ontology. Classical mechanics is the prime example of a realistic physical theory. A straightforward generalization of classical mechanics to QM is hampered by the inconsistency of quantum properties with classical logic, a circumstance that was noted many years ago by Birkhoff and von Neumann. The present realistic formulation of the histories approach originally introduced by Griffiths, which we call 'compatible quantum theory (CQT)', consists of a 'microscopic' part (MIQM), which applies to a closed quantum system of any size, and a 'macroscopic' part (MAQM), which requires the participation of a large (ideally, an infinite) system. The first (MIQM) can be fully formulated based solely on the assumption of a Hilbert space ontology and the noncontextuality of probability values, relying in an essential way on Gleason's theorem and on an application to dynamics due in large part to Nistico. Thus, the present formulation, in contrast to earlier ones, derives the Born probability formulas and the consistency (decoherence) conditions for frameworks. The microscopic theory does not, however, possess a unique corpus of assertions, but rather a multiplicity of contextual truths ('c-truths'), each one associated with a different framework. This circumstance leads us to consider the microscopic theory to be physically indeterminate and therefore incomplete, though logically coherent. The completion of the theory

  4. Theory of lifting surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prandtl , L

    1920-01-01

    The general basis of the theory of lifting surfaces is discussed. The problem of the flow of a fluid about a lifting surface of infinite span is examined in terms of the existence of vortexes in the current. A general theory of permanent flow is discussed. Formulas for determining the influence of aspect ratio that may be applied to all wings, whatever their plane form, are given.

  5. Instantons in string theory

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlén, Olof

    2015-12-17

    These proceedings from the second Caesar Lattes meeting in Rio de Janeiro 2015 are a brief introduction to how automorphic forms appear in the low energy effective action of maximally supersymmetric string theory. The explicit example of the R{sup 4}-interaction of type IIB string theory in ten dimensions is discussed. Its Fourier expansion is interpreted in terms of perturbative and non-perturbative contributions to the four graviton amplitude.

  6. Hell of a theory.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Joachim I

    2016-01-01

    The theory of group-selected Big God religions is a master narrative of cultural evolution. The evidence is a positive manifold of correlated assumptions and variables. Although provocative, the theory is overly elastic. Its critical ingredient - belief in Big Gods - is neither necessary nor sufficient to account for in-group prosociality and discipline. Four specific issues illustrate this elasticity. PMID:26948734

  7. Kinetic Theory of Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The theory, developed in the nineteenth century, notably by Rudolf Clausius (1822-88) and James Clerk Maxwell (1831-79), that the properties of a gas (temperature, pressure, etc) could be described in terms of the motions (and kinetic energy) of the molecules comprising the gases. The theory has wide implications in astrophysics. In particular, the perfect gas law, which relates the pressure, vol...

  8. Nodal Diffusion & Transport Theory

    1992-02-19

    DIF3D solves multigroup diffusion theory eigenvalue, adjoint, fixed source, and criticality (concentration, buckling, and dimension search) problems in 1, 2, and 3-space dimensions for orthogonal (rectangular or cylindrical), triangular, and hexagonal geometries. Anisotropic diffusion theory coefficients are permitted. Flux and power density maps by mesh cell and regionwise balance integrals are provided. Although primarily designed for fast reactor problems, upscattering and internal black boundary conditions are also treated.

  9. Leadership and attachment theory.

    PubMed

    Bresnahan, Christopher G; Mitroff, Ian I

    2007-09-01

    Comments on the six articles contained in the special issue of the American Psychologist (January 2007) devoted to leadership, written by W. Bennis; S. J. Zaccaro; V. H. Vroom and A. G. Yago; B. J. Avolio; R. J. Sternberg; and R. J. Hackman and R. Wageman. The current authors opine that the inclusion of attachment theory in the study of leadership could strengthen leadership theories as a whole.

  10. Leadership styles and theories.

    PubMed

    Giltinane, Charlotte Louise

    It is useful for healthcare professionals to be able to identify the leadership styles and theories relevant to their nursing practice. Being adept in recognising these styles enables nurses to develop their skills to become better leaders, as well as improving relationships with colleagues and other leaders, who have previously been challenging to work with. This article explores different leadership styles and theories, and explains how they relate to nursing practice. PMID:23905259

  11. Hell of a theory.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Joachim I

    2016-01-01

    The theory of group-selected Big God religions is a master narrative of cultural evolution. The evidence is a positive manifold of correlated assumptions and variables. Although provocative, the theory is overly elastic. Its critical ingredient - belief in Big Gods - is neither necessary nor sufficient to account for in-group prosociality and discipline. Four specific issues illustrate this elasticity.

  12. Leadership styles and theories.

    PubMed

    Giltinane, Charlotte Louise

    It is useful for healthcare professionals to be able to identify the leadership styles and theories relevant to their nursing practice. Being adept in recognising these styles enables nurses to develop their skills to become better leaders, as well as improving relationships with colleagues and other leaders, who have previously been challenging to work with. This article explores different leadership styles and theories, and explains how they relate to nursing practice.

  13. On complicity theory.

    PubMed

    Kline, A David

    2006-04-01

    The received account of whistleblowing, developed over the last quarter century, is identified with the work of Norman Bowie and Richard DeGeorge. Michael Davis has detailed three anomalies for the received view: the paradoxes of burden, missing harm and failure. In addition, he has proposed an alternative account of whistleblowing, viz., the Complicity Theory. This paper examines the Complicity Theory. The supposed anomalies rest on misunderstandings of the received view or misreadings of model cases of whistleblowing, for example, the Challenger disaster and the Ford Pinto. Nevertheless, the Complicity Theory is important for as in science the contrast with alternative competing accounts often helps us better understand the received view. Several aspects of the received view are reviewed and strengthened through comparison with Complicity Theory, including why whistleblowing needs moral justification. Complicity Theory is also critiqued. The fundamental failure of Complicity Theory is its failure to explain why government and the public encourage and protect whistleblowers despite the possibility of considerable harm to the relevant company in reputation, lost jobs, and lost shareholder value.

  14. Constructor theory of life.

    PubMed

    Marletto, Chiara

    2015-03-01

    Neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory explains how the appearance of purposive design in the adaptations of living organisms can have come about without their intentionally being designed. The explanation relies crucially on the possibility of certain physical processes: mainly, gene replication and natural selection. In this paper, I show that for those processes to be possible without the design of biological adaptations being encoded in the laws of physics, those laws must have certain other properties. The theory of what these properties are is not part of evolution theory proper, yet without it the neo-Darwinian theory does not fully achieve its purpose of explaining the appearance of design. To this end, I apply constructor theory's new mode of explanation to express exactly within physics the appearance of design, no-design laws, and the logic of self-reproduction and natural selection. I conclude that self-reproduction, replication and natural selection are possible under no-design laws, the only non-trivial condition being that they allow digital information to be physically instantiated. This has an exact characterization in the constructor theory of information. I also show that under no-design laws an accurate replicator requires the existence of a 'vehicle' constituting, together with the replicator, a self-reproducer.

  15. Constructor theory of life

    PubMed Central

    Marletto, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory explains how the appearance of purposive design in the adaptations of living organisms can have come about without their intentionally being designed. The explanation relies crucially on the possibility of certain physical processes: mainly, gene replication and natural selection. In this paper, I show that for those processes to be possible without the design of biological adaptations being encoded in the laws of physics, those laws must have certain other properties. The theory of what these properties are is not part of evolution theory proper, yet without it the neo-Darwinian theory does not fully achieve its purpose of explaining the appearance of design. To this end, I apply constructor theory's new mode of explanation to express exactly within physics the appearance of design, no-design laws, and the logic of self-reproduction and natural selection. I conclude that self-reproduction, replication and natural selection are possible under no-design laws, the only non-trivial condition being that they allow digital information to be physically instantiated. This has an exact characterization in the constructor theory of information. I also show that under no-design laws an accurate replicator requires the existence of a ‘vehicle’ constituting, together with the replicator, a self-reproducer. PMID:25589566

  16. Theory of hydromagnetic turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, D.

    1983-01-01

    The present state of MHD turbulence theory as a possible solar wind research tool is surveyed. The theory is statistical, and does not make statements about individual events. The ensembles considered typically have individual realizations which differ qualitatively, unlike equilibrium statistical mechanics. Most of the theory deals with highly symmetric situations; most of these symmetries have yet to be tested in the solar wind. The applicability of MHD itself to solar wind parameters is highly questionable; yet it has no competitors, as a potentially comprehensive dynamical description. The purpose of solar wind research require sharper articulation. If they are to understand radial turbulent plasma flows from spheres, laboratory experiments and numerical solution of equations of motion may be cheap alternative to spacecraft. If "real life" information is demanded, multiple spacecraft with variable separation may be necessary to go further. The principal emphasis in the theory so far has been on spectral behavior for spatial covariances in wave number space. There is no respectable theory of these for highly anisotropic situations. A rather slow development of theory acts as a brake on justifiable measurement, at this point.

  17. Parity in knot theory

    SciTech Connect

    Manturov, Vassily O

    2010-06-29

    In this work we study knot theories with a parity property for crossings: every crossing is declared to be even or odd according to a certain preassigned rule. If this rule satisfies a set of simple axioms related to the Reidemeister moves, then certain simple invariants solving the minimality problem can be defined, and invariant maps on the set of knots can be constructed. The most important example of a knot theory with parity is the theory of virtual knots. Using the parity property arising from Gauss diagrams we show that even a gross simplification of the theory of virtual knots, namely, the theory of free knots, admits simple and highly nontrivial invariants. This gives a solution to a problem of Turaev, who conjectured that all free knots are trivial. In this work we show that free knots are generally not invertible, and provide invariants which detect the invertibility of free knots. The passage to ordinary virtual knots allows us to strengthen known invariants (such as the Kauffman bracket) using parity considerations. We also discuss other examples of knot theories with parity. Bibliography: 27 items.

  18. Topics in string theory

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.

    1988-01-01

    The author discusses several aspects of string theory. First, he calculates the vacuum amplitude of un-oriented open and closed string theory using Polyakov formalism. He argues that the volume of the Mobius Group should be renormalized, and solve a minor paradox. Second, he gives an example of a membrane whose effective action is the generalization of Green-Schwarz covariant superstring action. As a by-product, he shows that is also provides an example of partially broken global supersymmetry. The rest of the dissertation is devoted to the study of string field theory in terms of the renormalization group approach. He emphasizes the pivotal role of the conformal invariance in string theory. He proposes the generalized Wilsonian conformal renormalization group equation of 2-dimensional quantum field theory as the field equation for string field theory following Banks and Martinec. He then finds general solutions to the linearized equation on the flat back-ground and its correspondence to all the physical vertex operators. He also makes detailed study of massless modes and offer some remarks about how gauge invariance arise in this approach. Finally, he solves the full nonlinear equation iteratively in terms of the solutions to the linearized equation and extract the Virasoro-Shapiro amplitudes from them.

  19. Who Needs Learning Theory Anyway?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemke, Ron

    2002-01-01

    Looks at a variety of learning theories: andragogy, behaviorism, cognitivism, conditions of learning, Gestalt, and social learning. Addresses the difficulty of selecting an appropriate theory for training. (JOW)

  20. Relating theories via renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadanoff, Leo P.

    2013-02-01

    The renormalization method is specifically aimed at connecting theories describing physical processes at different length scales and thereby connecting different theories in the physical sciences. The renormalization method used today is the outgrowth of 150 years of scientific study of thermal physics and phase transitions. Different phases of matter show qualitatively different behaviors separated by abrupt phase transitions. These qualitative differences seem to be present in experimentally observed condensed-matter systems. However, the "extended singularity theorem" in statistical mechanics shows that sharp changes can only occur in infinitely large systems. Abrupt changes from one phase to another are signaled by fluctuations that show correlation over infinitely long distances, and are measured by correlation functions that show algebraic decay as well as various kinds of singularities and infinities in thermodynamic derivatives and in measured system parameters. Renormalization methods were first developed in field theory to get around difficulties caused by apparent divergences at both small and large scales. However, no renormalization gives a fully satisfactory formulation of field theory. The renormalization (semi-)group theory of phase transitions was put together by Kenneth G. Wilson in 1971 based upon ideas of scaling and universality developed earlier in the context of phase transitions and of couplings dependent upon spatial scale coming from field theory. Correlations among regions with fluctuations in their order underlie renormalization ideas. Wilson's theory is the first approach to phase transitions to agree with the extended singularity theorem. Some of the history of the study of these correlations and singularities is recounted, along with the history of renormalization and related concepts of scaling and universality. Applications, particularly to condensed-matter physics and particle physics, are summarized. This note is partially a

  1. Generalized teleparallel theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junior, Ednaldo L. B.; Rodrigues, Manuel E.

    2016-07-01

    We construct a theory in which the gravitational interaction is described only by torsion, but that generalizes the teleparallel theory still keeping the invariance of local Lorentz transformations in one particular case. We show that our theory falls, in a certain limit of a real parameter, under f(bar{R}) gravity or, in another limit of the same real parameter, under modified f( T) gravity; on interpolating between these two theories it still can fall under several other theories. We explicitly show the equivalence with f(bar{R}) gravity for the cases of a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker flat metric for diagonal tetrads, and a metric with spherical symmetry for diagonal and non-diagonal tetrads. We study four applications, one in the reconstruction of the de Sitter universe cosmological model, for obtaining a static spherically symmetric solution of de Sitter type for a perfect fluid, for evolution of the state parameter ω _{DE}, and for the thermodynamics of the apparent horizon.

  2. Beyond generalized Proca theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2016-09-01

    We consider higher-order derivative interactions beyond second-order generalized Proca theories that propagate only the three desired polarizations of a massive vector field besides the two tensor polarizations from gravity. These new interactions follow the similar construction criteria to those arising in the extension of scalar-tensor Horndeski theories to Gleyzes-Langlois-Piazza-Vernizzi (GLPV) theories. On the isotropic cosmological background, we show the existence of a constraint with a vanishing Hamiltonian that removes the would-be Ostrogradski ghost. We study the behavior of linear perturbations on top of the isotropic cosmological background in the presence of a matter perfect fluid and find the same number of propagating degrees of freedom as in generalized Proca theories (two tensor polarizations, two transverse vector modes, and two scalar modes). Moreover, we obtain the conditions for the avoidance of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities of tensor, vector, and scalar perturbations. We observe key differences in the scalar sound speed, which is mixed with the matter sound speed outside the domain of generalized Proca theories.

  3. Finite quantum gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modesto, Leonardo; Piva, Marco; Rachwał, Lesław

    2016-07-01

    We explicitly compute the one-loop exact beta function for a nonlocal extension of the standard gauge theory, in particular, Yang-Mills and QED. The theory, made of a weakly nonlocal kinetic term and a local potential of the gauge field, is unitary (ghost-free) and perturbatively super-renormalizable. Moreover, in the action we can always choose the potential (consisting of one "killer operator") to make zero the beta function of the running gauge coupling constant. The outcome is a UV finite theory for any gauge interaction. Our calculations are done in D =4 , but the results can be generalized to even or odd spacetime dimensions. We compute the contribution to the beta function from two different killer operators by using two independent techniques, namely, the Feynman diagrams and the Barvinsky-Vilkovisky traces. By making the theories finite, we are able to solve also the Landau pole problems, in particular, in QED. Without any potential, the beta function of the one-loop super-renormalizable theory shows a universal Landau pole in the running coupling constant in the ultraviolet regime (UV), regardless of the specific higher-derivative structure. However, the dressed propagator shows neither the Landau pole in the UV nor the singularities in the infrared regime (IR).

  4. Physics as Information Theory

    SciTech Connect

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

    2010-10-20

    The experience from Quantum Information of the last twenty years has lead theorists to look at Quantum Theory and the whole of Physics from a different angle. A new information-theoretic paradigm is emerging, long time ago prophesied by John Archibald Wheeler with his popular coinage 'It from bit'. Theoretical groups are now addressing the problem of deriving Quantum Theory from informational principles, and similar lines are investigated in new approaches to Quantum Gravity. In my talk I will review some recent advances on these lines. The general idea synthesizing the new paradigm is that there is only Quantum Theory (without quantization rules): the whole Physics--including space-time and relativity--is emergent from quantum-information processing. And, since Quantum Theory itself is made with purely informational principles, the whole Physics must be reformulated in information-theoretical terms. The review is divided into the following parts: (a) The informational axiomatization of Quantum Theory; (b) How space-time and relativistic covariance emerge from the quantum computation; (c) What is the information-theoretical meaning of inertial mass and Planck constant, and how the quantum field emerges; (d) Observational consequences: mass-dependent refraction index of vacuum. I then conclude with some possible future research lines.

  5. Reinventing Grounded Theory: Some Questions about Theory, Ground and Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Gary; James, David

    2006-01-01

    Grounded theory's popularity persists after three decades of broad-ranging critique. In this article three problematic notions are discussed--"theory," "ground" and "discovery"--which linger in the continuing use and development of grounded theory procedures. It is argued that far from providing the epistemic security promised by grounded theory,…

  6. Reader Theories, Cognitive Theories and Educational Media Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Ann

    This paper is the introduction to an inquiry into the relationship of post-structural reader theories to cognitive theories in the study of educational media. Basic concepts in reader and cognitive theories are defined, including the notions of "meaning" and "learners." Similarities and differences in the theories are described. It is suggested…

  7. Application of Information Integration Theory to Methodology of Theory Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanteau, James

    Information integration theory (IIT) seeks to develop a unified theory of judgment and behavior. This theory provides a conceptual framework that has been applied to a variety of research areas including personality impression formation and decision making. In these applications information integration theory has helped to resolve methodological…

  8. Astronomy and political theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2011-06-01

    This paper will argue that astronomical models have long been applied to political theory, from the use of the Sun as a symbol of the emperor in Rome to the application of Copernican theory to the needs of absolute monarchy. We will begin with consideration of astral divination (the use of astronomy to ascertain divine intentions) in the ancient Near East. Particular attention will be paid to the use of Newton's discovery that the universe operates according to a single set of laws in order to support concepts of political quality and eighteenth century Natural Rights theory. We will conclude with consideration of arguments that the discovery of the expanding, multi-galaxy universe, stimulated political uncertainty in the 1930s, and that photographs of the Earth from Apollo spacecraft encouraged concepts of the `global village'.

  9. Research in particle theory

    SciTech Connect

    Mansouri, F.; Suranyi, P; Wijewardhana, L.C.R.

    1991-10-01

    In the test particle approximation, the scattering amplitude for two-particle scattering in (2+1)-dimensional Chern-Simons-Witten gravity and supergravity was computed and compared to the corresponding metric solutions. The formalism was then extended to the exact gauge theoretic treatment of the two-particle scattering problem and compared to 't Hooft's results from the metric approach. We have studied dynamical symmetry breaking in 2+1 dimensional field theories. We have analyzed strong Extended Technicolor (ETC) models where the ETC coupling is close to a critical value. There are effective scalar fields in each of the theories. We have worked our how such scalar particles can be produced and how they decay. The {phi}{sup 4} field theory was investigated in the Schrodinger representation. The critical behavior was extracted in an arbitrary number of dimensions in second order of a systematic truncation approximation. The correlation exponent agrees with known values within a few percent.

  10. Density perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Palenik, Mark C.; Dunlap, Brett I.

    2015-07-28

    Despite the fundamental importance of electron density in density functional theory, perturbations are still usually dealt with using Hartree-Fock-like orbital equations known as coupled-perturbed Kohn-Sham (CPKS). As an alternative, we develop a perturbation theory that solves for the perturbed density directly, removing the need for CPKS. This replaces CPKS with a true Hohenberg-Kohn density perturbation theory. In CPKS, the perturbed density is found in the basis of products of occupied and virtual orbitals, which becomes ever more over-complete as the size of the orbital basis set increases. In our method, the perturbation to the density is expanded in terms of a series of density basis functions and found directly. It is possible to solve for the density in such a way that it makes the total energy stationary even if the density basis is incomplete.

  11. Popper and nursing theory.

    PubMed

    Allmark, Peter

    2003-04-01

    Science seems to develop by inducing new knowledge from observation. However, it is hard to find a rational justification for induction. Popper offers one attempt to resolve this problem. Nursing theorists have tended to ignore or reject Popper, often on the false belief that he is a logical positivist (and hence hostile to qualitative research). Logical positivism claims that meaningful sentences containing any empirical content should ultimately be reducible to simple, observation statements. Popper refutes positivism by showing that there are no such simple statements. He is not a positivist. For Popper, the scientist begins with problems and puts forward trial solutions. These are subjected to rigorous testing aimed at falsifying them. A new theoretical position is then reached in which the scientist knows either that the trial solutions are false or that they have not yet been falsified. Science is characterized by the fact that it tests its ideas through attempted falsification. Non-science tests its ideas through attempted refutation. Nursing theory is a mixture of science and non-science. Popper's method requires rigorous testing of theory in both realms. As such, some nursing theory should be discarded. Popper's view faces at least two important criticisms. One is that a scientist can always reject an apparent falsification by instead altering some auxiliary hypothesis (e.g. denying the accuracy of the falsifying observation). Popper can deal with this argument by saying that defence of a theory in this way will eventually break down if the theory is false. The second criticism is that Popper's method does ultimately draw upon induction. This criticism is true, but his method can be usefully adapted. An adapted from of Popper's philosophy of science provides a good basis for nursing theory. PMID:14498963

  12. Research in particle theory

    SciTech Connect

    Mansouri, F.; Suranyi, P.; Wijewardhana, L.C.R.

    1992-10-01

    Dynamics of 2+1 dimensional gravity is analyzed by coupling matter to Chern Simons Witten action in two ways and obtaining the exact gravity Hamiltonian for each case. 't Hoot's Hamiltonian is obtained as an approximation. The notion of space-time emerges in the very end as a broken phase of the gauge theory. We have studied the patterns of discrete and continuous symmetry breaking in 2+1 dimensional field theories. We formulate our analysis in terms of effective composite scalar field theories. Point-like sources in the Chern-Simons theory of gravity in 2+1 dimensions are described by their Poincare' charges. We have obtained exact solutions of the constraints of Chern-Simons theory with an arbitrary number of isolated point sources in relative motion. We then showed how the space-time metric is constructed. A reorganized perturbation expansion with a propagator of soft infrared behavior has been used to study the critical behavior of the mass gap. The condition of relativistic covariance fixes the form of the soft propagator. Approximants to the correlation critical exponent were obtained in two loop order for the two and three dimensional theories. We proposed a new model of QED exhibiting two phases and a Majorana mass spectrum of single particle states. The model has a new source of coupling constant renormalization which opposes screening and suggests the model may confine. Assuming that the bound states of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} essentially obey a Majorana spectrum, we obtained a consistent fit of the GSI peaks as well as predicting new peaks and their spin assignments.

  13. Splitting a default theory

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, H.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents mathematical results that can sometimes be used to simplify the task of reasoning about a default theory, by {open_quotes}splitting it into parts.{close_quotes} These so-called Splitting Theorems for default logic are related in spirit to {open_quotes}partial evaluation{close_quotes} in logic programming, in which results obtained from one part of a program are used to simplify the remainder of the program. In this paper we focus primarily on the statement and proof of the Splitting Theorems for default logic. We illustrate the usefulness of the results by applying them to an example default theory for commonsense reasoning about action.

  14. Kinetic theory viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, C. J.; Pringle, J. E.

    2004-07-01

    We show how the viscous evolution of Keplerian accretion discs can be understood in terms of simple kinetic theory. Although standard physics texts give a simple derivation of momentum transfer in a linear shear flow using kinetic theory, many authors, as detailed by Hayashi & Matsuda, have had difficulties applying the same considerations to a circular shear flow. We show here how this may be done, and note that the essential ingredients are to take proper account of, first, isotropy locally in the frame of the fluid and, secondly, the geometry of the mean flow.

  15. The electroweak theory

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Quigg

    2001-08-10

    After a short essay on the current state of particle physics, the author reviews the antecedents of the modern picture of the weak and electromagnetic interactions and then undertakes a brief survey of the SU(2){sub L} {circle_times} U(1){sub Y} electroweak theory. The authors reviews the features of electroweak phenomenology at tree level and beyond, presents an introduction to the Higgs boson and the 1-TeV scale, and examines arguments for enlarging the electroweak theory. The author concludes with a brief look at low-scale gravity.

  16. Management theory and applications.

    PubMed

    Fallon, L F

    2001-01-01

    Management is critical as an organization pursues its mission. There are many theories of management, but all agree that an effective organizational structure can facilitate the operation of a company. The author describes the typical functional areas found in most organizations (finance, operations, marketing, information systems, legal, and human resources); examines how the organization of tasks and people are inter-linked; and shows that administrators who have a working knowledge of management theory tend to be effective in the performance of their jobs. PMID:11401785

  17. Sequestering in String Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kachru, Shamit; McAllister, Liam; Sundrum, Raman

    2007-04-04

    We study sequestering, a prerequisite for flavor-blind supersymmetry breaking in several high-scale mediation mechanisms, in compactifications of type IIB string theory. We find that although sequestering is typically absent in unwarped backgrounds, strongly warped compactifications do readily sequester. The AdS/CFT dual description in terms of conformal sequestering plays an important role in our analysis, and we establish how sequestering works both on the gravity side and on the gauge theory side. We pay special attention to subtle compactification effects that can disrupt sequestering. Our result is a step toward realizing an appealing pattern of soft terms in a KKLT compactification.

  18. Salinas : theory manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Timothy Francis; Reese, Garth M.; Bhardwaj, Manoj Kumar

    2004-08-01

    This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Salinas. For a more detailed description of how to use Salinas , we refer the reader to Salinas, User's Notes. Many of the constructs in Salinas are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Salinas are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programer-notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature.

  19. Holographic effective field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martucci, Luca; Zaffaroni, Alberto

    2016-06-01

    We derive the four-dimensional low-energy effective field theory governing the moduli space of strongly coupled superconformal quiver gauge theories associated with D3-branes at Calabi-Yau conical singularities in the holographic regime of validity. We use the dual supergravity description provided by warped resolved conical geometries with mobile D3-branes. Information on the baryonic directions of the moduli space is also obtained by using wrapped Euclidean D3-branes. We illustrate our general results by discussing in detail their application to the Klebanov-Witten model.

  20. Many body theory program

    SciTech Connect

    Balatsky, A.V.; Scalapino, D.; Wilkins, J.; Pines, D.; Bedell, K.; Schrieffer, J.R.; Fisk, Z.

    1998-12-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors have obtained a description of symmetry of the order parameter and pairing state in high-Tc superconductors. They developed a theory of ferromagnetic instability of Fermi-liquid. They have conducted an experimental investigation of the intermetallic compounds and Zintl-type compound. They investigated the properties of Cu-0 ladders. They have developed the theory of liftshitz tails in superconductors. They have conducted a number of summer workshops.

  1. Theory-Based Stakeholder Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Vedung, Evert

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a new approach to program theory evaluation called theory-based stakeholder evaluation or the TSE model for short. Most theory-based approaches are program theory driven and some are stakeholder oriented as well. Practically, all of the latter fuse the program perceptions of the various stakeholder groups into one unitary…

  2. A new theory of gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, W.

    1972-01-01

    A new relativistic theory of gravity is presented. This theory agrees with all experiments to date. It is a metric theory, it is Lagrangian-based, and it possesses a preferred frame with conformally-flat space slices. With an appropriate choice of certain adjustable functions and parameters, this theory possesses precisely the same post-Newtonian limit as general relativity.

  3. Theory of Modes and Impulses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apsche, Jack A.

    2005-01-01

    In his work on the Theory of Modes, Beck (1996) suggested that there were flaws with his cognitive theory. He suggested that though there are shortcomings to his cognitive theory, there were not similar shortcomings to the practice of Cognitive Therapy. The author suggests that if there are shortcomings to cognitive theory the same shortcomings…

  4. Edifying Theory: Serving the Good.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manen, Max van

    1982-01-01

    This article, concerning the importance of and need for educational theory, elucidates the etymology of the word "theory," describes the importance of ethnomethodology to educational principles, and views the concerns of epistemology to curriculum theory. The question "What is the good of theory?" is debated in relation to the actual benefit of…

  5. Evolutionary theory and teleology.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, R T

    1984-04-21

    The order within and among living systems can be explained rationally by postulating a process of descent with modification, effected by factors which are extrinsic or intrinsic to the organisms. Because at the time Darwin proposed his theory of evolution there was no concept of intrinsic factors which could evolve, he postulated a process of extrinsic effects--natural selection. Biological order was thus seen as an imposed, rather than an emergent, property. Evolutionary change was seen as being determined by the functional efficiency (adaptedness) of the organism in its environment, rather than by spontaneous changes in intrinsically generated organizing factors. The initial incompleteness of Darwin's explanatory model, and the axiomatization of its postulates in neo-Darwinism, has resulted in a theory of functionalism, rather than structuralism. As such, it introduces an unnecessary teleology which confounds evolutionary studies and reduces the usefulness of the theory. This problem cannot be detected from within the neo-Darwinian paradigm because the different levels of end-directed activity--teleomatic, teleonomic, and teleological--are not recognized. They are, in fact, considered to influence one another. The theory of nonequilibrium evolution avoids these problems by returning to the basic principles of biological order and developing a structuralist explanation of intrinsically generated change. Extrinsic factors may affect the resultant evolutionary pattern, but they are neither necessary nor sufficient for evolution to occur.

  6. Personality Theory and TESOL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Shalabi, M. Fadi; Salmani Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, it is argued, based on evidence from psychological literature, that there are three major approaches to the study of personality, namely (1) situationism, (2) interactionism, and (3) constructivism. It is also noticed that these approaches have resulted in the emergence of three major types of personality theories: (i) type…

  7. Children's Theories of Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurland, Suzanne T.; Glowacky, Victoria C.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over…

  8. ADVANCES IN IMPEDANCE THEORY

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakov, G.; /SLAC

    2009-06-05

    We review recent progress in the following areas of the impedance theory: calculation of impedance of tapers and small angle collimators; optical approximation and parabolic equation for the high-frequency impedance; impedance due to resistive inserts in a perfectly conducting pipe.

  9. Personality Theory and Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Joen; And Others

    1974-01-01

    This group of articles discusses various aspects of Gestalt Therapy including its major contributions, role in psychotherapy, and contributions of Gestalt psychology in general. There is some discussion of the philosophical background of Gestalt therapy along with Gestalt theory of emotion. A case study and an annotated bibliography are included…

  10. Generalizability Theory [Book Review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael

    2003-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive overview of univariate and multivariate generalizability theory, a psychometric model that provides a powerful approach to the analysis of errors of measurement through the use of random-effects and mixed-model analysis of variance. (SLD)

  11. Postmodern Test Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: This article explains the idea of a neopragmatic postmodernist test theory and offers some thoughts about what changing notions concerning the nature of and meanings assigned to knowledge imply for educational assessment, present and future. Purpose: Advances in the learning sciences--particularly situative and sociocognitive…

  12. Intelligence: Theories and Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papanastasiou, Elena C.

    This paper reviews what is known about intelligence and the use of intelligence tests. Environmental and hereditary factors that affect performance on intelligence tests are reviewed, along with various theories that have been proposed about the basis of intelligence. Intelligence tests do not test intelligence per se but make inferences about a…

  13. AP Music Theory Applied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spieker, Matthew H.

    2016-01-01

    Some American high schools include Advanced Placement (AP) Music Theory within their course offerings. Students who pass the AP exam can receive college credit either as a music or humanities credit. An AP class, however, offers music students more than future college credit; it ultimately improves musicianship skills and promotes deeper…

  14. Variational transition state theory

    SciTech Connect

    Truhlar, D.G.

    1993-12-01

    This research program involves the development of variational transition state theory (VTST) and semiclassical tunneling methods for the calculation of gas-phase reaction rates and selected applications. The applications are selected for their fundamental interest and/or their relevance to combustion.

  15. New Theory of Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Johan; Jansson, Johan; Johnson, Claes

    2016-06-01

    We present a new mathematical theory explaining the fluid mechanics of subsonic flight, which is fundamentally different from the existing boundary layer-circulation theory by Prandtl-Kutta-Zhukovsky formed 100 year ago. The new theory is based on our new resolution of d'Alembert's paradox showing that slightly viscous bluff body flow can be viewed as zero-drag/lift potential flow modified by 3d rotational slip separation arising from a specific separation instability of potential flow, into turbulent flow with nonzero drag/lift. For a wing this separation mechanism maintains the large lift of potential flow generated at the leading edge at the price of small drag, resulting in a lift to drag quotient of size 15-20 for a small propeller plane at cruising speed with Reynolds number {Re≈ 107} and a jumbojet at take-off and landing with {Re≈ 108} , which allows flight at affordable power. The new mathematical theory is supported by computed turbulent solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations with a slip boundary condition as a model of observed small skin friction of a turbulent boundary layer always arising for {Re > 106} , in close accordance with experimental observations over the entire range of angle of attacks including stall using a few millions of mesh points for a full wing-body configuration.

  16. Game theory of mind.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Wako; Dolan, Ray J; Friston, Karl J

    2008-12-01

    This paper introduces a model of 'theory of mind', namely, how we represent the intentions and goals of others to optimise our mutual interactions. We draw on ideas from optimum control and game theory to provide a 'game theory of mind'. First, we consider the representations of goals in terms of value functions that are prescribed by utility or rewards. Critically, the joint value functions and ensuing behaviour are optimised recursively, under the assumption that I represent your value function, your representation of mine, your representation of my representation of yours, and so on ad infinitum. However, if we assume that the degree of recursion is bounded, then players need to estimate the opponent's degree of recursion (i.e., sophistication) to respond optimally. This induces a problem of inferring the opponent's sophistication, given behavioural exchanges. We show it is possible to deduce whether players make inferences about each other and quantify their sophistication on the basis of choices in sequential games. This rests on comparing generative models of choices with, and without, inference. Model comparison is demonstrated using simulated and real data from a 'stag-hunt'. Finally, we note that exactly the same sophisticated behaviour can be achieved by optimising the utility function itself (through prosocial utility), producing unsophisticated but apparently altruistic agents. This may be relevant ethologically in hierarchal game theory and coevolution.

  17. Durkheim's Theory of Anomie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Stephen R.

    1974-01-01

    Durkheim's theory of anomie is traced and argued to be a major development that followed the publication of "Suicide." Recognition of anomie as a macrosociological problem rendered it insoluble by Durkeheim's practical-humanistic orientation. In this connection his remedial proposals -- occupational, political, education, and "creation and…

  18. (Mathematics and string theory)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Over the past year our research activities concentrated around: (1) non-commutative differential geometry and its connections with quantum physics and (2) 2-dimensional(super) conformal quantum field theories and related non-linear {sigma}-models. This paper discusses these topics.

  19. Literary Theory: A Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Roger Lee

    This dissertation dealt with the preparation, designing, teaching, and evaluation of a course in literary theory. The course examined the following areas of literary study: definition, perception, description, explication, interpretation, and evaluation. It is centered on the following theses: (1) in literary pursuits criticism is teaching and…

  20. Theory of orthodontic motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepe, S.; Pepe, W. D.; Strauss, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    A general theory of orthodontic motion is developed that can be applied to determine the forces necessary to induce a given tooth to move to the predetermined desirable position. It is assumed that the natural (nonorthodontic) forces may be represented by a periodic function and the orthodontic forces may be superimposed upon the natural forces. A simple expression is derived for the applied stress.

  1. Benchmarking nuclear fission theory

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bertsch, G. F.; Loveland, W.; Nazarewicz, W.; Talou, P.

    2015-05-14

    We suggest a small set of fission observables to be used as test cases for validation of theoretical calculations. Thus, the purpose is to provide common data to facilitate the comparison of different fission theories and models. The proposed observables are chosen from fission barriers, spontaneous fission lifetimes, fission yield characteristics, and fission isomer excitation energies.

  2. Intuitive Test Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Henry I.; Mislevy, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Many of us have an intuitive understanding of physics that works surprisingly well to guide everyday action, but we would not attempt to send a rocket to the moon with it. Unfortunately, the authors argue, our policy makers are not as cautious when it comes to basing our school accountability system on intuitive test theory. Intuitive physics…

  3. Informed Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    There is a widespread idea that in grounded theory (GT) research, the researcher has to delay the literature review until the end of the analysis to avoid contamination--a dictum that might turn educational researchers away from GT. Nevertheless, in this article the author (a) problematizes the dictum of delaying a literature review in classic…

  4. Improved equivalent source theory.

    PubMed

    Umul, Yusuf Z

    2009-08-01

    The equivalent source theorem, which is an important technique in the study of radiation and scattering by apertures, is improved by using the two axioms of the modified theory of physical optics. The method is applied to the problem of radiation of electromagnetic waves by a parallel plate waveguide. The results are investigated numerically.

  5. Quantum theory of friction

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, Stephen M.; Cresser, James D.

    2005-08-15

    We present a Markovian quantum theory of friction. Our approach is based on the idea that collisions between a Brownian particle and single molecules of the surrounding medium constitute, as far as the particle is concerned, instantaneous simultaneous measurements of its position and momentum.

  6. William James's Moral Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Wesley

    2003-01-01

    James's moral theory, primarily as set out in "The Moral Philosopher and the Moral Life" (in his "The Will To Believe" (1897)), is presented here as having a two-level structure, an empirical or historical level where progress toward greater moral inclusiveness is central, and a metaphysical or end-of-history level--James's "kingdom of…

  7. Canonical field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Setthivoine

    2015-11-01

    A new canonical field theory has been developed to help interpret the interaction between plasma flows and magnetic fields. The theory augments the Lagrangian of general dynamical systems to rigourously demonstrate that canonical helicity transport is valid across single particle, kinetic and fluid regimes, on scales ranging from classical to general relativistic. The Lagrangian is augmented with two extra terms that represent the interaction between the motion of matter and electromagnetic fields. The dynamical equations can then be re-formulated as a canonical form of Maxwell's equations or a canonical form of Ohm's law valid across all non-quantum regimes. The field theory rigourously shows that helicity can be preserved in kinetic regimes and not only fluid regimes, that helicity transfer between species governs the formation of flows or magnetic fields, and that helicity changes little compared to total energy only if density gradients are shallow. The theory suggests a possible interpretation of particle energization partitioning during magnetic reconnection as canonical wave interactions. This work is supported by US DOE Grant DE-SC0010340.

  8. Apprentice Machine Theory Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational-Technical Schools.

    This volume contains outlines for 16 courses in machine theory that are designed for machine tool apprentices. Addressed in the individual course outlines are the following topics: basic concepts; lathes; milling machines; drills, saws, and shapers; heat treatment and metallurgy; grinders; quality control; hydraulics and pneumatics;…

  9. Sustaining Writing Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Amy M.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines ways in which the fundamentals of both writing studies and sustainability studies overlap and complement each other, ultimately moving toward a theory of writing that not only is sustainable, but that also sustains writing practice across a variety of areas. For example, in order to be sustainable, both writing and…

  10. Personality Theory and TESOL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Shalabi, M. Fadi; Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, it is argued, based on evidence from psychological literature, that there are three major approaches to the study of personality, namely (a) situationism, (b) interactionism, and (c) constructivism. It is also noticed that these approached have resulted in the emergence of three major types of personality theories: (1) type…

  11. Potential theory of radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Huei-Huang

    1989-01-01

    A theoretical method is being developed by which the structure of a radiation field can be predicted by a radiation potential theory, similar to a classical potential theory. The introduction of a scalar potential is justified on the grounds that the spectral intensity vector is irrotational. The vector is also solenoidal in the limits of a radiation field in complete radiative equilibrium or in a vacuum. This method provides an exact, elliptic type equation that will upgrade the accuracy and the efficiency of the current CFD programs required for the prediction of radiation and flow fields. A number of interesting results emerge from the present study. First, a steady state radiation field exhibits an optically modulated inverse square law distribution character. Secondly, the unsteady radiation field is structured with two conjugate scalar potentials. Each is governed by a Klein-Gordon equation with a frictional force and a restoring force. This steady potential field structure and the propagation of radiation potentials are consistent with the well known results of classical electromagnetic theory. The extension of the radiation potential theory for spray combustion and hypersonic flow is also recommended.

  12. Refiguring Composition through Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch-Biniek, Amy

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, I argue that curricular choices in Composition are overdetermined by the academic labor system and its negative effect on the status of composition theory. Despite the growth of disciplinary knowledge, composition programs are still staffed largely with underpaid and under supported faculty and graduate students, many of whom…

  13. Nonlinear Theory and Breakdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Frank

    2007-01-01

    The main points of recent theoretical and computational studies on boundary-layer transition and turbulence are to be highlighted. The work is based on high Reynolds numbers and attention is drawn to nonlinear interactions, breakdowns and scales. The research focuses in particular on truly nonlinear theories, i.e. those for which the mean-flow profile is completely altered from its original state. There appear to be three such theories dealing with unsteady nonlinear pressure-displacement interactions (I), with vortex/wave interactions (II), and with Euler-scale flows (III). Specific recent findings noted for these three, and in quantitative agreement with experiments, are the following. Nonlinear finite-time break-ups occur in I, leading to sublayer eruption and vortex formation; here the theory agrees with experiments (Nishioka) regarding the first spike. II gives rise to finite-distance blowup of displacement thickness, then interaction and break-up as above; this theory agrees with experiments (Klebanoff, Nishioka) on the formation of three-dimensional streets. III leads to the prediction of turbulent boundary-layer micro-scale, displacement-and stress-sublayer-thicknesses.

  14. What Is Theory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Jim; Harte, Victoria; Sambrook, Sally

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to examine the meaning and value of the notion of theory as a basis for other papers in the special issue which examine facets of theorising HRD. Design/methodology/approach: A small scale and targeted literature review was conducted which focused on writings in the philosophy and sociology of science in order to…

  15. Teaching Bohr Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latimer, Colin J.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses some lesser known examples of atomic phenomena to illustrate to students that the old quantum theory in its simplest (Bohr) form is not an antiquity but can still make an important contribution to understanding such phenomena. Topics include hydrogenic/non-hydrogenic spectra and atoms in strong electric and magnetic fields. (Author/JN)

  16. Game Theory of Mind

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Wako; Dolan, Ray J.; Friston, Karl J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a model of ‘theory of mind’, namely, how we represent the intentions and goals of others to optimise our mutual interactions. We draw on ideas from optimum control and game theory to provide a ‘game theory of mind’. First, we consider the representations of goals in terms of value functions that are prescribed by utility or rewards. Critically, the joint value functions and ensuing behaviour are optimised recursively, under the assumption that I represent your value function, your representation of mine, your representation of my representation of yours, and so on ad infinitum. However, if we assume that the degree of recursion is bounded, then players need to estimate the opponent's degree of recursion (i.e., sophistication) to respond optimally. This induces a problem of inferring the opponent's sophistication, given behavioural exchanges. We show it is possible to deduce whether players make inferences about each other and quantify their sophistication on the basis of choices in sequential games. This rests on comparing generative models of choices with, and without, inference. Model comparison is demonstrated using simulated and real data from a ‘stag-hunt’. Finally, we note that exactly the same sophisticated behaviour can be achieved by optimising the utility function itself (through prosocial utility), producing unsophisticated but apparently altruistic agents. This may be relevant ethologically in hierarchal game theory and coevolution. PMID:19112488

  17. Extended conformal field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taormina, Anne

    1990-08-01

    Some extended conformal field theories are briefly reviewed. They illustrate how non minimal models of the Virasoro algebra (c≥1) can become minimal with respect to a larger algebra. The accent is put on N-extended superconformal algebras, which are relevant in superstring compactification.

  18. Evolutionary Theory under Fire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Roger

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes events of a conference on evolutionary biology in Chicago entitled: "Macroevolution." Reviews the theory of modern synthesis, a term used to explain Darwinism in terms of population biology and genetics. Issues presented at the conference are discussed in detail. (CS)

  19. Colloquium: Topological band theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansil, A.; Lin, Hsin; Das, Tanmoy

    2016-04-01

    The first-principles band theory paradigm has been a key player not only in the process of discovering new classes of topologically interesting materials, but also for identifying salient characteristics of topological states, enabling direct and sharpened confrontation between theory and experiment. This review begins by discussing underpinnings of the topological band theory, which involve a layer of analysis and interpretation for assessing topological properties of band structures beyond the standard band theory construct. Methods for evaluating topological invariants are delineated, including crystals without inversion symmetry and interacting systems. The extent to which theoretically predicted properties and protections of topological states have been verified experimentally is discussed, including work on topological crystalline insulators, disorder and interaction driven topological insulators (TIs), topological superconductors, Weyl semimetal phases, and topological phase transitions. Successful strategies for new materials discovery process are outlined. A comprehensive survey of currently predicted 2D and 3D topological materials is provided. This includes binary, ternary, and quaternary compounds, transition metal and f -electron materials, Weyl and 3D Dirac semimetals, complex oxides, organometallics, skutterudites, and antiperovskites. Also included is the emerging area of 2D atomically thin films beyond graphene of various elements and their alloys, functional thin films, multilayer systems, and ultrathin films of 3D TIs, all of which hold exciting promise of wide-ranging applications. This Colloquium concludes by giving a perspective on research directions where further work will broadly benefit the topological materials field.

  20. From Practice to Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langberg, Arnold

    1984-01-01

    Describes the individualized program of Mountain Open High School which at first coincidentally resembed Maurice Gibbons'"Walkabout" concept and was subsequently more consciously shaped by theory. Students move through three phases culminating in challenging independent projects of practical use. (MJL)

  1. Theory. [SITE 2002 Section].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Paula, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on theory from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2002 conference: (1) "The Emerging Ecological Contribution of Online Resources and Tools to K-12 Classrooms" (Therese Laferriere, Robert Bracewell, Alain Breuleux); (2) "Pedagogical Ethnotechnography: A Bifocal Lens To…

  2. Theories of language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Vetter, H J; Howell, R W

    1971-03-01

    Prior to the advent of generative grammar, theoretical approaches to language development relied heavily upon the concepts ofdifferential reinforcement andimitation. Current studies of linguistic acquisition are largely dominated by the hypothesis that the child constructs his language on the basis of a primitive grammar which gradually evolves into a more complex grammar. This approach presupposes that the investigator does not impose his own grammatical rules on the utterances of the child; that the sound system of the child and the rules he employs to form sentences are to be described in their own terms, independently of the model provided by the adult linguistic community; and that there is a series of steps or stages through which the child passes on his way toward mastery of the adult grammar in his linguistic environment. This paper attempts to trace the development of human vocalization through prelinguistic stages to the development of what can be clearly recognized as language behavior, and then progresses to transitional phases in which the language of the child begins to approximate that of the adult model. In the view of the authors, the most challenging problems which confront theories of linguistic acquisition arise in seeking to account for structure of sound sequences, in the rules that enable the speaker to go from meaning to sound and which enable the listener to go from sound to meaning. The principal area of concern for the investigator, according to the authors, is the discovery of those rules at various stages of the learning process. The paper concludes with a return to the question of what constitutes an adequate theory of language ontogenesis. It is suggested that such a theory will have to be keyed to theories of cognitive development and will have to include and go beyond a theory which accounts for adult language competence and performance, since these represent only the terminal stage of linguistic ontogenesis.

  3. Geometry from Gauge Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Correa, Diego H.; Silva, Guillermo A.

    2008-07-28

    We discuss how geometrical and topological aspects of certain (1/2)-BPS type IIB geometries are captured by their dual operators in N = 4 Super Yang-Mills theory. The type IIB solutions are characterized by arbitrary droplet pictures in a plane and we consider, in particular, axially symmetric droplets. The 1-loop anomalous dimension of the dual gauge theory operators probed with single traces is described by some bosonic lattice Hamiltonians. These Hamiltonians are shown to encode the topology of the droplets. In appropriate BMN limits, the Hamiltonians spectrum reproduces the spectrum of near-BPS string excitations propagating along each of the individual edges of the droplet. We also study semiclassical regimes for the Hamiltonians. For droplets having disconnected constituents, the Hamiltonian admits different complimentary semiclassical descriptions, each one replicating the semiclassical description for closed strings extending in each of the constituents.

  4. Vector theories in cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Esposito-Farese, Gilles; Pitrou, Cyril; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2010-03-15

    This article provides a general study of the Hamiltonian stability and the hyperbolicity of vector field models involving both a general function of the Faraday tensor and its dual, f(F{sup 2},FF-tilde), as well as a Proca potential for the vector field, V(A{sup 2}). In particular it is demonstrated that theories involving only f(F{sup 2}) do not satisfy the hyperbolicity conditions. It is then shown that in this class of models, the cosmological dynamics always dilutes the vector field. In the case of a nonminimal coupling to gravity, it is established that theories involving Rf(A{sup 2}) or Rf(F{sup 2}) are generically pathologic. To finish, we exhibit a model where the vector field is not diluted during the cosmological evolution, because of a nonminimal vector field-curvature coupling which maintains second-order field equations. The relevance of such models for cosmology is discussed.

  5. Redox theory of aging

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Dean P.

    2015-01-01

    Metazoan genomes encode exposure memory systems to enhance survival and reproductive potential by providing mechanisms for an individual to adjust during lifespan to environmental resources and challenges. These systems are inherently redox networks, arising during evolution of complex systems with O2 as a major determinant of bioenergetics, metabolic and structural organization, defense, and reproduction. The network structure decreases flexibility from conception onward due to differentiation and cumulative responses to environment (exposome). The redox theory of aging is that aging is a decline in plasticity of genome–exposome interaction that occurs as a consequence of execution of differentiation and exposure memory systems. This includes compromised mitochondrial and bioenergetic flexibility, impaired food utilization and metabolic homeostasis, decreased barrier and defense capabilities and loss of reproductive fidelity and fecundity. This theory accounts for hallmarks of aging, including failure to maintain oxidative or xenobiotic defenses, mitochondrial integrity, proteostasis, barrier structures, DNA repair, telomeres, immune function, metabolic regulation and regenerative capacity. PMID:25863726

  6. Theory in vivo.

    PubMed

    Duncan, D

    1993-02-01

    Due to a formerly held assumption that psychoanalytic theories operate exclusively in the positivistic manner associated with the natural sciences, current thinking on how they operate specifically or in their own terms is addressing a long-neglected task. In this paper it is suggested that inherent and acquired modes of theorizing interplay when an analyst is working; and that a dialogue involving these two modes which began in Freud's inner life has evolved into our communal conceptual discourse. A series of situationally connected interchanges with a female analysand, over a two-week period, is presented. An attempt is made to demonstrate some theorizing, not 'in vitro'--'in the test-tube' of abstraction, but where most use and discovery of theory happens, 'in vivo'--within the living experience of therapeutic analysis. PMID:8454402

  7. Panarchy: theory and application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Holling, Crawford S.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of panarchy provides a framework that characterizes complex systems of people and nature as dynamically organized and structured within and across scales of space and time. It has been more than a decade since the introduction of panarchy. Over this period, its invocation in peer-reviewed literature has been steadily increasing, but its use remains primarily descriptive and abstract. Here, we discuss the use of the concept in the literature to date, highlight where the concept may be useful, and discuss limitations to the broader applicability of panarchy theory for research in the ecological and social sciences. Finally, we forward a set of testable hypotheses to evaluate key propositions that follow from panarchy theory.

  8. Concepts and folk theories

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Susan A.; Legare, Cristine H.

    2013-01-01

    Human cognition is characterized by enormous variability and structured by universal psychological constraints. The focus of this chapter is on the development of knowledge acquisition because it provides important insight into how the mind interprets new information and constructs new ways of understanding. We propose that mental content can be productively approached by examining the intuitive causal explanatory “theories” that people construct to explain, interpret, and intervene on the world around them, including theories of mind, of biology, or of physics. A substantial amount of research in cognitive developmental psychology supports the integral role of intuitive theories in human learning and provides evidence that they structure, constrain, and guide the development of human cognition. PMID:23436950

  9. Salinas : theory manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Timothy Francis; Reese, Garth M.; Bhardwaj, Manoj Kumar

    2011-11-01

    Salinas provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of structural systems. This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Salinas. For a more detailed description of how to use Salinas, we refer the reader to Salinas, User's Notes. Many of the constructs in Salinas are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Salinas are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programmer notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature.

  10. Degenerate density perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palenik, Mark C.; Dunlap, Brett I.

    2016-09-01

    Fractional occupation numbers can be used in density functional theory to create a symmetric Kohn-Sham potential, resulting in orbitals with degenerate eigenvalues. We develop the corresponding perturbation theory and apply it to a system of Nd degenerate electrons in a harmonic oscillator potential. The order-by-order expansions of both the fractional occupation numbers and unitary transformations within the degenerate subspace are determined by the requirement that a differentiable map exists connecting the initial and perturbed states. Using the X α exchange-correlation (XC) functional, we find an analytic solution for the first-order density and first- through third-order energies as a function of α , with and without a self-interaction correction. The fact that the XC Hessian is not positive definite plays an important role in the behavior of the occupation numbers.

  11. Dielectronic recombination theory

    SciTech Connect

    LaGattuta, K.J.

    1991-12-31

    A theory now in wide use for the calculation of dielectronic recombination cross sections ({sigma}{sup DR}) and rate coefficients ({alpha}{sup DR}) was one introduced originally by Feshbach for nuclear physics applications, and then later adapted for atomic scattering problems by Hahn. In the following, we briefly review this theory in a very general form, which allows one to account for the effects of overlapping and interacting resonances, as well as continuum-continuum coupling. An extension of our notation will then also allow for the inclusion of the effects of direct radiative recombination, along with a treatment of the interference between radiative and dielectronic recombination. Other approaches to the calculation of {sigma}{sup DR} have been described by Fano and by Seaton. We will not consider those theories here. Calculations of {alpha}{sup DR} have progressed considerably over the last 25 years, since the early work of Burgess. Advances in the reliability of theoretical predictions have also been promoted recently b a variety of direct laboratory measurements of {sigma}{sup DR}. While the measurements of {sigma}{sup DR} for {delta}n {ne} 0 excitations have tended to agree very well with calculations, the case of {delta}n = 0 has been much problematic. However, by invoking a mechanism originally proposed by Jacobs, which takes into account the effect of stray electric fields on high Rydberg states (HRS) participating in the DR process, new calculations have improved the agreement between theory and experiment for these cases. Nevertheless, certain discrepancies still remain.

  12. Situational theory of leadership.

    PubMed

    Waller, D J; Smith, S R; Warnock, J T

    1989-11-01

    The situational theory of leadership and the LEAD instruments for determining leadership style are explained, and the application of the situational leadership theory to the process of planning for and implementing organizational change is described. Early studies of leadership style identified two basic leadership styles: the task-oriented autocratic style and the relationship-oriented democratic style. Subsequent research found that most leaders exhibited one of four combinations of task and relationship behaviors. The situational leadership theory holds that the difference between the effectiveness and ineffectiveness of the four leadership styles is the appropriateness of the leader's behavior to the particular situation in which it is used. The task maturity of the individual or group being led must also be accounted for; follower readiness is defined in terms of the capacity to set high but attainable goals, willingness or ability to accept responsibility, and possession of the necessary education or experience for a specific task. A person's leadership style, range, and adaptability can be determined from the LEADSelf and LEADOther questionnaires. By applying the principles of the situational leadership theory and adapting their managerial styles to specific tasks and levels of follower maturity, the authors were successful in implementing 24-hour pharmacokinetic dosing services provided by staff pharmacists with little previous experience in clinical services. The situational leadership model enables a leader to identify a task, set goals, determine the task maturity of the individual or group, select an appropriate leadership style, and modify the style as change occurs. Pharmacy managers can use this model when implementing clinical pharmacy services.

  13. k/not theory.

    PubMed

    Chowdhry, M

    2000-01-01

    SUMMARY This paper discusses the role of the personal experience in the writing process. Using a personal/journal writing style the author charts the journey of a recent play Skin into Rainbows from first draft to production. The author plays with the constructs of writing and juxtapositions these against a form of Knot Theory to measure their value, playing with math and language techniques in a search for truth.

  14. Physics and proof theory

    PubMed Central

    Paleo, Bruno Woltzenlogel

    2012-01-01

    Axiomatization of Physics (and science in general) has many drawbacks that are correctly criticized by opposing philosophical views of science. This paper shows that, by giving formal proofs a more prominent role in the formalization, many of the drawbacks can be solved and many of the opposing views are naturally conciliated. Moreover, this approach allows, by means of proof theory, to open new conceptual bridges between the disciplines of Physics and Computer Science. PMID:24976655

  15. Predictive Game Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2005-01-01

    Probability theory governs the outcome of a game; there is a distribution over mixed strat.'s, not a single "equilibrium". To predict a single mixed strategy must use our loss function (external to the game's players. Provides a quantification of any strategy's rationality. Prove rationality falls as cost of computation rises (for players who have not previously interacted). All extends to games with varying numbers of players.

  16. The Least Particle Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartsock, Robert

    2011-10-01

    The Least Particle Theory states that the universe was cast as a great sea of energy. MaX Planck declared a quantum of energy to be the least value in the universe. We declare the quantum of energy to be the least particle in the universe. Stephen Hawking declared quantum mechanics to be of no value in todays gross mechanics. That's like saying the number 1 has no place in mathematics.

  17. k/not theory.

    PubMed

    Chowdhry, M

    2000-01-01

    SUMMARY This paper discusses the role of the personal experience in the writing process. Using a personal/journal writing style the author charts the journey of a recent play Skin into Rainbows from first draft to production. The author plays with the constructs of writing and juxtapositions these against a form of Knot Theory to measure their value, playing with math and language techniques in a search for truth. PMID:24802683

  18. Fairbairn's Theory of Change.

    PubMed

    Celani, David P

    2016-06-01

    Fairbairn's unique structural theory with its three pairs of selves and objects has proven to be a highly usable and practical model of the human psyche, yet it has remained a minor player in the world of psychoanalysis. There are a number of factors that account for its lack of popularity, foremost among them the timing of the model's introduction to the analytic community. Fairbairn's four successive papers that described his metapsychology (1940, 1941, 1943, and 1944) were published just after Freud's death, when his theory was the dominant model of psychoanalysis. Additionally, Fairbairn's model was incomplete, used unfamiliar terminology, and, in its singularity, forced the analyst to abandon drive theory, the heart of Freud's metapsychology. This paper will examine and update Fairbairn's unique model of change-from the outset of pathology that begins with attachment to bad objects, to their metamorphosis into internal structures and finally to techniques of treatment that reduce their influence on the patients' internal world. The treatment section carefully follows Fairbairn's metapsychology, and focuses first on the analyst becoming a good object in the eyes of the patient, then unearthing bad object memories in a safe and compassionate interpersonal environment, engaging the patient's substructures in a manner that does not intensify preexisting internal templates, and finally aiding the patient in resuming his or her stalled emotional development. This exegesis of Fairbairn original model, along with recent modifications that have been made to it, demonstrates the consistency, clear focus, and utility of this little-known metapsychology. PMID:27248039

  19. Constructor theory of information

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, David; Marletto, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    We propose a theory of information expressed solely in terms of which transformations of physical systems are possible and which are impossible—i.e. in constructor-theoretic terms. It includes conjectured, exact laws of physics expressing the regularities that allow information to be physically instantiated. Although these laws are directly about information, independently of the details of particular physical instantiations, information is not regarded as an a priori mathematical or logical concept, but as something whose nature and properties are determined by the laws of physics alone. This theory solves a problem at the foundations of existing information theory, namely that information and distinguishability are each defined in terms of the other. It also explains the relationship between classical and quantum information, and reveals the single, constructor-theoretic property underlying the most distinctive phenomena associated with the latter, including the lack of in-principle distinguishability of some states, the impossibility of cloning, the existence of pairs of variables that cannot simultaneously have sharp values, the fact that measurement processes can be both deterministic and unpredictable, the irreducible perturbation caused by measurement, and locally inaccessible information (as in entangled systems). PMID:25663803

  20. Studies in clustering theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stell, George

    In recent years the properties of percolation models have been studied intensively. The purpose of our project was to develop a general theory of percolation and clustering between particles of arbitrary size and shape, with arbitrary correlations between them. The goal of such a theory includes the treatment of continuum percolation as well as a novel treatment of lattice percolation. We made substantial progress toward this goal. The quantities basic to a description of clustering, the mean cluster size, mean number of clusters, etc., were developed. Concise formulas were given for the terms in such series, and proved, at least for sufficiently low densities, that the series are absolutely convergent. These series can now be used to construct Pade approximants that will allow one to probe the percolation transition. A scaled-particle theory of percolation was developed which gives analytic approximants for the mean number of clusters in a large class of two and three dimensional percolation models. Although this quantity is essential in many applications, e.g., explaining colligative properties, and interpreting low-angle light-scattering data, no systematic studies of it have been done before this work. Recently carried out detailed computer simulations show that the mean number of clusters is given to high accuracy by several of there approximations. Extensions of this work will allow calculation of the complete cluster size distribution.

  1. The Theories of Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, J; Agostini, L

    1955-01-01

    The theory of turbulence reached its full growth at the end of the 19th century as a result of the work by Boussinesq and Reynolds. It then underwent a long period of stagnation which ended under the impulse given to it by the development of wind tunnels caused by the needs of aviation. Numerous researchers, attempted to put Reynolds' elementary statistical theory into a more precise form. During the war, some isolated scientists - von Weizsacker and Heisenberg in Germany, Kolmogoroff in Russia, Onsager in the U.S.A. - started a program of research. By a system of assumptions which make it possible to approach the structure of turbulence in well-defined limiting conditions quantitatively, they obtained a certain number of laws on the correlations and the spectrum. Since the late reports have improved the mathematical language of turbulence, it was deemed advisable to start with a detailed account of the mathematical methods applicable to turbulence, inspired at first by the work of the French school, above all for the basic principles, then the work of the foreigners, above all for the theory of the spectrum.

  2. Immunology's theories of cognition.

    PubMed

    Tauber, Alfred I

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary immunology has established its fundamental theory as a biological expression of personal identity, wherein the "immune self" is defended by the immune system. Protection of this agent putatively requires a cognitive capacity by which the self and the foreign are perceived and thereby discriminated; from such information, discernment of the environment is achieved and activation of pathways leading to an immune response may be initiated. This so-called cognitive paradigm embeds such functions as "perception," "recognition," "learning," and "memory" to characterize immune processes, but the conceptual character of such functions has meanings that vary with the particular theory adopted. When different formulations of cognition are considered, immunology's conceptual infrastructure shifts: Extensions of conventional psychological understanding of representational cognition based on a subject-object dichotomy support notions of immune agency; alternatively, formulations of perception that dispense with representations and attendant notions of agency reconfigure the predicate epistemology dominating current immune theory. Reviewing immunological literature of the past five decades, these two understandings of perception--representational and non-representational (considered here from ecological, enactivist, and autopoietic perspectives)--offer competing views of immune cognitive functions. These, in turn, provide competing philosophical understandings of immunology's conceptual foundations, which reflect parallel controversies dominating current debates in philosophy of mind and attendant discussions about personal identity.

  3. Fairbairn's Theory of Change.

    PubMed

    Celani, David P

    2016-06-01

    Fairbairn's unique structural theory with its three pairs of selves and objects has proven to be a highly usable and practical model of the human psyche, yet it has remained a minor player in the world of psychoanalysis. There are a number of factors that account for its lack of popularity, foremost among them the timing of the model's introduction to the analytic community. Fairbairn's four successive papers that described his metapsychology (1940, 1941, 1943, and 1944) were published just after Freud's death, when his theory was the dominant model of psychoanalysis. Additionally, Fairbairn's model was incomplete, used unfamiliar terminology, and, in its singularity, forced the analyst to abandon drive theory, the heart of Freud's metapsychology. This paper will examine and update Fairbairn's unique model of change-from the outset of pathology that begins with attachment to bad objects, to their metamorphosis into internal structures and finally to techniques of treatment that reduce their influence on the patients' internal world. The treatment section carefully follows Fairbairn's metapsychology, and focuses first on the analyst becoming a good object in the eyes of the patient, then unearthing bad object memories in a safe and compassionate interpersonal environment, engaging the patient's substructures in a manner that does not intensify preexisting internal templates, and finally aiding the patient in resuming his or her stalled emotional development. This exegesis of Fairbairn original model, along with recent modifications that have been made to it, demonstrates the consistency, clear focus, and utility of this little-known metapsychology.

  4. Probabilistic theories with purification

    SciTech Connect

    Chiribella, Giulio; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo

    2010-06-15

    We investigate general probabilistic theories in which every mixed state has a purification, unique up to reversible channels on the purifying system. We show that the purification principle is equivalent to the existence of a reversible realization of every physical process, that is, to the fact that every physical process can be regarded as arising from a reversible interaction of the system with an environment, which is eventually discarded. From the purification principle we also construct an isomorphism between transformations and bipartite states that possesses all structural properties of the Choi-Jamiolkowski isomorphism in quantum theory. Such an isomorphism allows one to prove most of the basic features of quantum theory, like, e.g., existence of pure bipartite states giving perfect correlations in independent experiments, no information without disturbance, no joint discrimination of all pure states, no cloning, teleportation, no programming, no bit commitment, complementarity between correctable channels and deletion channels, characterization of entanglement-breaking channels as measure-and-prepare channels, and others, without resorting to the mathematical framework of Hilbert spaces.

  5. Beyond mean field theory: statistical field theory for neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Buice, Michael A; Chow, Carson C

    2014-01-01

    Mean field theories have been a stalwart for studying the dynamics of networks of coupled neurons. They are convenient because they are relatively simple and possible to analyze. However, classical mean field theory neglects the effects of fluctuations and correlations due to single neuron effects. Here, we consider various possible approaches for going beyond mean field theory and incorporating correlation effects. Statistical field theory methods, in particular the Doi–Peliti–Janssen formalism, are particularly useful in this regard. PMID:25243014

  6. Informal Theory: The Ignored Link in Theory-to-Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Applying theory to practice in student affairs is dominated by the assumption that formal theory is directly applied to practice. Among the problems with this assumption is that many practitioners believe they must choose between their lived experiences and formal theory, and that graduate students are taught that their experience "does not…

  7. Critical Theory: Implications for School Leadership Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peca, Kathy

    The school leader's behaviors are inspired by theories, and theories are intrinsic to practice. This paper provides an overview of an emerging perspective in educational administration, critical theory. The paper first highlights the philosophies of Immanuel Kant, Fichte, Hegel, Marx, and the Frankfurt School. It then discusses critical theory…

  8. Why Generalizability Theory Yields Better Results than Classical Test Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eason, Sandra H.

    Generalizability theory provides a technique for accurately estimating the reliability of measurements. The power of this theory is based on the simultaneous analysis of multiple sources of error variances. Equally important, generalizability theory considers relationships among the sources of measurement error. Just as multivariate inferential…

  9. Linear Theory, Dimensional Theory, and the Face-Inversion Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftus, Geoffrey R.; Oberg, Martin A.; Dillon, Allyss M.

    2004-01-01

    We contrast 2 theories within whose context problems are conceptualized and data interpreted. By traditional linear theory, a dependent variable is the sum of main-effect and interaction terms. By dimensional theory, independent variables yield values on internal dimensions that in turn determine performance. We frame our arguments within an…

  10. Superspace version of BF theories

    SciTech Connect

    Aidaoui, A.; Tahiri, M.

    2012-06-27

    The BF theory is presented in a superspace formalism. This permits us to see that the necessary fields of the quantized theory enlarged with auxiliary fields naturally occur and lead to a BRST-VSUY exact quantum action.

  11. Theories Supporting Transfer of Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamnill, Siriporn; McLean, Gary N.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews theories about factors affecting the transfer of training, including theories on motivation (expectancy, equity, goal setting), training transfer design (identical elements, principle, near and far), and transfer climate (organizational). (Contains 36 references.) (SK)

  12. Thoughts About Theories and Statistics.

    PubMed

    Fawcett, Jacqueline

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this essay is to share my ideas about the connection between theories and statistics. The essay content reflects my concerns about some researchers' and readers' apparent lack of clarity about what constitutes appropriate statistical testing and conclusions about the empirical adequacy of theories. The reciprocal relation between theories and statistics is emphasized and the conclusion is that statistics without direction from theory is no more than a hobby.

  13. Modern Biological Theories of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Kunlin

    2010-01-01

    Despite recent advances in molecular biology and genetics, the mysteries that control human lifespan are yet to be unraveled. Many theories, which fall into two main categories: programmed and error theories, have been proposed to explain the process of aging, but neither of them appears to be fully satisfactory. These theories may interact with each other in a complex way. By understanding and testing the existing and new aging theories, it may be possible to promote successful aging. PMID:21132086

  14. A new theory of gravity.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1973-01-01

    A new relativistic theory of gravity is presented. This theory agrees with all experiments to date. It is a metric theory; it is Lagrangian-based; and it possesses a preferred frame with conformally flat space slices. With an appropriate choice of certain adjustable functions and parameters and of the cosmological model, this theory possesses precisely the same post-Newtonian limit as general relativity.

  15. Logarithmic conformal field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gainutdinov, Azat; Ridout, David; Runkel, Ingo

    2013-12-01

    Conformal field theory (CFT) has proven to be one of the richest and deepest subjects of modern theoretical and mathematical physics research, especially as regards statistical mechanics and string theory. It has also stimulated an enormous amount of activity in mathematics, shaping and building bridges between seemingly disparate fields through the study of vertex operator algebras, a (partial) axiomatisation of a chiral CFT. One can add to this that the successes of CFT, particularly when applied to statistical lattice models, have also served as an inspiration for mathematicians to develop entirely new fields: the Schramm-Loewner evolution and Smirnov's discrete complex analysis being notable examples. When the energy operator fails to be diagonalisable on the quantum state space, the CFT is said to be logarithmic. Consequently, a logarithmic CFT is one whose quantum space of states is constructed from a collection of representations which includes reducible but indecomposable ones. This qualifier arises because of the consequence that certain correlation functions will possess logarithmic singularities, something that contrasts with the familiar case of power law singularities. While such logarithmic singularities and reducible representations were noted by Rozansky and Saleur in their study of the U (1|1) Wess-Zumino-Witten model in 1992, the link between the non-diagonalisability of the energy operator and logarithmic singularities in correlators is usually ascribed to Gurarie's 1993 article (his paper also contains the first usage of the term 'logarithmic conformal field theory'). The class of CFTs that were under control at this time was quite small. In particular, an enormous amount of work from the statistical mechanics and string theory communities had produced a fairly detailed understanding of the (so-called) rational CFTs. However, physicists from both camps were well aware that applications from many diverse fields required significantly more

  16. The Chaos Theory of Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Robert G. L.; Bright, Jim

    2003-01-01

    Four theoretical streams--contexualism/ecology, systems theory, realism/constructivism, and chaos theory--contributed to a theory of individuals as complex, unique, nonlinear, adaptive chaotic and open systems. Individuals use purposive action to construct careers but can make maladaptive and inappropriate choices. (Contains 42 references.) (SK)

  17. A Theory of Memory Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliff, Roger

    1978-01-01

    Cognitive psychology lacks explicit theories that encompass more than a single experimental paradigm. This research presents a theory of memory retrieval that not only applies over a range of paradigms but also deals with experimental data in greater depth and more detail than competing models. The theory provides a rationale for relating…

  18. Goal Theory and Individual Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Peter J.

    The paper provides a review of goal theory as articulated by Edwin Locke. The theory is evaluated in terms of laboratory and field research and its practical usefulnes is explored as a means to improving individual productivity in "real world" organizations Research findings provide support for some goal theory propositions but suggest also the…

  19. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  20. Informational derivation of quantum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiribella, Giulio; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo

    2011-07-01

    We derive quantum theory from purely informational principles. Five elementary axioms—causality, perfect distinguishability, ideal compression, local distinguishability, and pure conditioning—define a broad class of theories of information processing that can be regarded as standard. One postulate—purification—singles out quantum theory within this class.

  1. Theories of the Alcoholic Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, W. Miles

    Several theories of the alcoholic personality have been devised to determine the relationship between the clusters of personality characteristics of alcoholics and their abuse of alcohol. The oldest and probably best known theory is the dependency theory, formulated in the tradition of classical psychoanalysis, which associates the alcoholic's…

  2. Chaos Theory and Post Modernism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Chaos theory is often associated with post modernism. However, one may make the point that both terms are misunderstood. The point of this article is to define both terms and indicate their relationship. Description: Chaos theory is associated with a definition of a theory dealing with variables (butterflies) that are not directly related to a…

  3. Time Machines and Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadley, Mark J.

    2008-09-01

    There is a deep structural link between acausal spacetimes and quantum theory. As a consequence quantum theory may resolve some "paradoxes" of time travel. Conversely, non-time-orientable spacetimes naturally give rise to electric charges and spin half. If an explanation of quantum theory is possible, then general relativity with time travel could it.

  4. Networking Theories by Iterative Unpacking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koichu, Boris

    2014-01-01

    An iterative unpacking strategy consists of sequencing empirically-based theoretical developments so that at each step of theorizing one theory serves as an overarching conceptual framework, in which another theory, either existing or emerging, is embedded in order to elaborate on the chosen element(s) of the overarching theory. The strategy is…

  5. Comments on quantum probability theory.

    PubMed

    Sloman, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Quantum probability theory (QP) is the best formal representation available of the most common form of judgment involving attribute comparison (inside judgment). People are capable, however, of judgments that involve proportions over sets of instances (outside judgment). Here, the theory does not do so well. I discuss the theory both in terms of descriptive adequacy and normative appropriateness.

  6. In Defense of Darwin's Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Bruce G.; Handford, Paul

    1985-01-01

    Examines issues regarding the defensibility and utility of natural selection as a scientific theory, focusing on the process of population change over time. Topics considered include criticisms of Darwinian theory, tautology and the meaning of fitness, the ability of theories to predict and explain, and the sufficiency of natural selection. (DH)

  7. Reconsidering Moore's Transactional Distance Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giossos, Yiannis; Koutsouba, Maria; Lionarakis, Antonis; Skavantzos, Kosmas

    2009-01-01

    One of the core theories of distance education is Michael Graham Moore's "Theory of Transactional Distance" that provides the broad framework of the pedagogy of distance education and allows the generation of almost infinite number of hypotheses for research. However, the review of the existing studies relating to the theory showed the use of a…

  8. Informational derivation of quantum theory

    SciTech Connect

    Chiribella, Giulio; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo

    2011-07-15

    We derive quantum theory from purely informational principles. Five elementary axioms - causality, perfect distinguishability, ideal compression, local distinguishability, and pure conditioning - define a broad class of theories of information processing that can be regarded as standard. One postulate - purification - singles out quantum theory within this class.

  9. Crosslinkage theory of senile cataracts.

    PubMed

    Bellows, J G; Bellows, R T

    1976-02-01

    The theory of crosslinkage as a cause of aging of all living organic tissues has withstood the test of time. Nearly all the past theories of senile cataract formation contain elements involving a potent crosslinking agent. Therefore crosslinkage may now be recognized as the common denominator in past theories of senile cataracts. This paper proposes that crosslinkage is the mechanism for senile cataract formation.

  10. Program Theory Evaluation: Logic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brousselle, Astrid; Champagne, Francois

    2011-01-01

    Program theory evaluation, which has grown in use over the past 10 years, assesses whether a program is designed in such a way that it can achieve its intended outcomes. This article describes a particular type of program theory evaluation--logic analysis--that allows us to test the plausibility of a program's theory using scientific knowledge.…

  11. Knot Theory with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handa, Yuichi; Mattman, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    There are many interesting explorations that can be done in knot theory, the study of mathematical knots. This article offers some knot theory activities that are appropriate for elementary grade children. These activities teach some basic concepts from knot theory as a natural extension of commonly-taught geometric ideas. (Contains 10 figures.)

  12. [From the cell theory to the neuron theory].

    PubMed

    Tixier-Vidal, Andrée

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between the cell theory formulated by Schwann (1839) and by Virchow (1855) on the one hand, and, on the other hand, the neuron theory, as formulated by Waldeyer (1891) and by Cajal (1906), are discussed from a historical point of view. Both of them are the result of technical and conceptuel progress. Both of them had to fight against the dominant dogma before being accepted. The cell theory opposed the school of Bichat, the vitalist philosophy and the positivist philosophy of Auguste Comte. The neuron theory, which is clearly based on the cell theory, was mostly concerned with the mode of interneuronal communication; it opposed the concept of contiguity to Golgi's concept of continuity. At present, the cell theory remains central in every field of Biology. By contrast, the neuron theory, which until the middle of the XXth century opened the study of the nervous system to a necessary reductionnist approach, is no longer central to recent developments of neurosciences.

  13. Sintering Theory and Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, Randall M.

    1996-01-01

    Although sintering is an essential process in the manufacture of ceramics and certain metals, as well as several other industrial operations, until now, no single book has treated both the background theory and the practical application of this complex and often delicate procedure. In Sintering Theory and Practice, leading researcher and materials engineer Randall M. German presents a comprehensive treatment of this subject that will be of great use to manufacturers and scientists alike. This practical guide to sintering considers the fact that while the bonding process improves strength and other engineering properties of the compacted material, inappropriate methods of control may lead to cracking, distortion, and other defects. It provides a working knowledge of sintering, and shows how to avoid problems while accounting for variables such as particle size, maximum temperature, time at that temperature, and other problems that may cause changes in processing. The book describes the fundamental atomic events that govern the transformation from particles to solid, covers all forms of the sintering process, and provides a summary of many actual production cycles. Building from the ground up, it begins with definitions and progresses to measurement techniques, easing the transition, especially for students, into advanced topics such as single-phase solid-state sintering, microstructure changes, the complications of mixed particles, and pressure-assisted sintering. German draws on some six thousand references to provide a coherent and lucid treatment of the subject, making scientific principles and practical applications accessible to both students and professionals. In the process, he also points out and avoids the pitfalls found in various competing theories, concepts, and mathematical disputes within the field. A unique opportunity to discover what sintering is all about--both in theory and in practice What is sintering? We see the end product of this thermal

  14. Logarithmic conformal field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gainutdinov, Azat; Ridout, David; Runkel, Ingo

    2013-12-01

    Conformal field theory (CFT) has proven to be one of the richest and deepest subjects of modern theoretical and mathematical physics research, especially as regards statistical mechanics and string theory. It has also stimulated an enormous amount of activity in mathematics, shaping and building bridges between seemingly disparate fields through the study of vertex operator algebras, a (partial) axiomatisation of a chiral CFT. One can add to this that the successes of CFT, particularly when applied to statistical lattice models, have also served as an inspiration for mathematicians to develop entirely new fields: the Schramm-Loewner evolution and Smirnov's discrete complex analysis being notable examples. When the energy operator fails to be diagonalisable on the quantum state space, the CFT is said to be logarithmic. Consequently, a logarithmic CFT is one whose quantum space of states is constructed from a collection of representations which includes reducible but indecomposable ones. This qualifier arises because of the consequence that certain correlation functions will possess logarithmic singularities, something that contrasts with the familiar case of power law singularities. While such logarithmic singularities and reducible representations were noted by Rozansky and Saleur in their study of the U (1|1) Wess-Zumino-Witten model in 1992, the link between the non-diagonalisability of the energy operator and logarithmic singularities in correlators is usually ascribed to Gurarie's 1993 article (his paper also contains the first usage of the term 'logarithmic conformal field theory'). The class of CFTs that were under control at this time was quite small. In particular, an enormous amount of work from the statistical mechanics and string theory communities had produced a fairly detailed understanding of the (so-called) rational CFTs. However, physicists from both camps were well aware that applications from many diverse fields required significantly more

  15. Cosmic microwave background theory.

    PubMed

    Bond, J R

    1998-01-01

    A long-standing goal of theorists has been to constrain cosmological parameters that define the structure formation theory from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments and large-scale structure (LSS) observations. The status and future promise of this enterprise is described. Current band-powers in -space are consistent with a DeltaT flat in frequency and broadly follow inflation-based expectations. That the levels are approximately (10(-5))2 provides strong support for the gravitational instability theory, while the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) constraints on energy injection rule out cosmic explosions as a dominant source of LSS. Band-powers at 100 suggest that the universe could not have re-ionized too early. To get the LSS of Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)-normalized fluctuations right provides encouraging support that the initial fluctuation spectrum was not far off the scale invariant form that inflation models prefer: e.g., for tilted Lambda cold dark matter sequences of fixed 13-Gyr age (with the Hubble constant H0 marginalized), ns = 1.17 +/- 0.3 for Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) only; 1.15 +/- 0.08 for DMR plus the SK95 experiment; 1.00 +/- 0.04 for DMR plus all smaller angle experiments; 1.00 +/- 0.05 when LSS constraints are included as well. The CMB alone currently gives weak constraints on Lambda and moderate constraints on Omegatot, but theoretical forecasts of future long duration balloon and satellite experiments are shown which predict percent-level accuracy among a large fraction of the 10+ parameters characterizing the cosmic structure formation theory, at least if it is an inflation variant.

  16. A theory of deterrence

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S.A. Jr.

    1991-03-20

    The purpose of this monograph is to start a theory of deterrence which has the capability of quantitatively answering the question of what is required to deter a nation or alliance from certain acts. Despite the existence of voluminous writing on deterrence, from the beginning of the nuclear age and even before, none of it attempts a theoretical discussion of how to calculate what it takes to deter a country from committing some acts which are objectionable to another country. Many theories of deterrence have already been created. They have exclusively been of two separate forms -- those of the social scientists, which deal with political questions, and how the concept of mass destruction psychological deters the initiation of war; and those of the mathematicians, who model the quantities of one country`s arsenal of strategic systems needed to destroy a certain portion of another country`s. Only the latter is quantitative, but they lack an essential element added to answer the question ``How much is enough?`` In order to use the techniques of operations research on the questions of what type and amount of weapons are adequate for deterrence, the definitions of quantities occurring in the calculations need to be made in quantifiable way. Numbers of weapons have been the only quantified parameter in previous deterrence calculations. Yet weapons alone do not deter. The threat of destruction and damage does. How is that threatenable damage to be measured, and as through defensive system construction, counterforce capability improvement, arms control, or other means, it becomes less when is the threshold for deterrence met and crossed? The calculation of this damage, and the implication of that damage to decision-makers capable of making a war initiation decision, is a complicated process, and it is what constitutes a theory of deterrence. 36 refs.

  17. Theory and spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, John F.

    2015-05-01

    The interaction between quantum-mechanical theory and spectroscopy is one of the most fertile interfaces in all of science, and has a richly storied history. Of course it was spectroscopy that provided essentially all of the evidence that not all was well (or, perhaps more correctly put, complete) with the world of 19th century classical physics. From the discoveries of the dark lines in the solar spectrum by Fraunhöfer in 1814 to the curiously simple geometric formula discovered seventy years later that described the hydrogen atom spectrum, spectroscopy and spectroscopists have consistently identified the areas of atomic and molecular science that are most in need of hard thinking by theoreticians. The rest of the story, of course, is well-known: spectroscopic results were used to understand and motivate the theory of radioactivity and ultimately the quantum theory, first in its immature form that was roughly contemporaneous with the first World War, and then the Heisenberg-Schrödinger-Dirac version that has withstood the test of time. Since the basic principles of quantum mechanics ware first understood, the subject has been successfully used to understand the patterns found in spectra, and how these relate to molecular structure, symmetry, energy levels, and dynamics. But further understanding required to attain these intellectual achievements has often come only as a result of vital and productive interactions between theoreticians and spectroscopists (of course, many people have strengths in both areas). And indeed, a field that might be termed "theoretical spectroscopy" was cultivated and is now an important part of modern molecular science.

  18. Modular headache theory.

    PubMed

    Young, W B; Peres, M F; Rozen, T D

    2001-10-01

    Many people experience headaches that do not fulfil the International Headache Society's criteria for a specific headache disorder yet behave biologically like that disorder. Others fulfil criteria for one headache disorder and yet have features of another disorder. To explain these observations, we propose that groups of neurones called modules become activated to produce each symptom of a primary headache disorder, and that each module is linked to other modules that together produce an individual's headache. This theory has implications for the classification, research and treatment of primary and secondary headache patients.

  19. Curved shock theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mölder, S.

    2016-07-01

    Curved shock theory (CST) is introduced, developed and applied to relate pressure gradients, streamline curvatures, vorticity and shock curvatures in flows with planar or axial symmetry. Explicit expressions are given, in an influence coefficient format, that relate post-shock pressure gradient, streamline curvature and vorticity to pre-shock gradients and shock curvature in steady flow. The effect of pre-shock flow divergence/convergence, on vorticity generation, is related to the transverse shock curvature. A novel derivation for the post-shock vorticity is presented that includes the effects of pre-shock flow non-uniformities. CST applicability to unsteady flows is discussed.

  20. Theory of wing rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, C. H.; Lan, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    A theory is developed for predicting wing rock characteristics. From available data, it can be concluded that wing rock is triggered by flow asymmetries, developed by negative or weakly positive roll damping, and sustained by nonlinear aerodynamic roll damping. A new nonlinear aerodynamic model that includes all essential aerodynamic nonlinearities is developed. The Beecham-Titchener method is applied to obtain approximate analytic solutions for the amplitude and frequency of the limit cycle based on the three degree-of-freedom equations of motion. An iterative scheme is developed to calculate the average aerodynamic derivatives and dynamic characteristics at limit cycle conditions. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results is obtained.

  1. Unifying Theories of Confidentiality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael J.; Jacob, Jeremy L.

    This paper presents a framework for reasoning about the security of confidential data within software systems. A novelty is that we use Hoare and He's Unifying Theories of Programming (UTP) to do so and derive advantage from this choice. We identify how information flow between users can be modelled in the UTP and devise conditions for verifying that system designs may not leak secret information to untrusted users. We also investigate how these conditions can be combined with existing notions of refinement to produce refinement relations suitable for deriving secure implementations of systems.

  2. Greek theories on eugenics.

    PubMed

    Galton, D J

    1998-08-01

    With the recent developments in the Human Genome Mapping Project and the new technologies that are developing from it there is a renewal of concern about eugenic applications. Francis Galton (b1822, d1911), who developed the subject of eugenics, suggested that the ancient Greeks had contributed very little to social theories of eugenics. In fact the Greeks had a profound interest in methods of supplying their city states with the finest possible progeny. This paper therefore reviews the works of Plato (The Republic and Politics) and Aristotle (The Politics and The Athenian Constitution) which have a direct bearing on eugenic techniques and relates them to methods used in the present century.

  3. Theory of gearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, Faydor L.

    1989-01-01

    Basic mathematical problems on the theory of gearing are covered in this book, such as the necessary and sufficient conditions of envelope existence, relations between principal curvatures and directions for surfaces of mating gears. Also included are singularities of surfaces accompanied by undercutting the process of generation, the phenomena of envelope of lines of contact, and the principles for generation of conjugate surfaces. Special attention is given to the algorithms for computer aided simulation of meshing and tooth contact. This edition was complemented with the results of research recently performed by the author and his doctoral students. The book contains sample problems and also problems for the reader to solve.

  4. Theory and modeling group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Gordon D.

    1989-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Theory and Modeling Group meeting was to identify scientists engaged or interested in theoretical work pertinent to the Max '91 program, and to encourage theorists to pursue modeling which is directly relevant to data which can be expected to result from the program. A list of participants and their institutions is presented. Two solar flare paradigms were discussed during the meeting -- the importance of magnetic reconnection in flares and the applicability of numerical simulation results to solar flare studies.

  5. Gradient equivalent crystal theory.

    PubMed

    Zypman, F R; Ferrante, J

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents an extension of the formalism of equivalent crystal theory (ECT) by introducing an electron density gradient term so that the total model density becomes a more accurate representation of the real local density. Specifically, we allow for the electron density around a lattice site to have directionality, in addition to an average value, as assumed in ECT. We propose that an atom senses its neighbouring density as a weighted sum-the weights given by the its own electronic probability. As a benchmark, the method is used to compute vacancy migration energy curves of iron. These energies are in good agreement with previously published results. PMID:21690822

  6. Nucleus from string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Koji; Morita, Takeshi

    2011-08-01

    In generic holographic QCD, we find that baryons are bound to form a nucleus, and that its radius obeys the empirically-known mass-number (A) dependence r∝A1/3 for large A. Our result is robust, since we use only a generic property of D-brane actions in string theory. We also show that nucleons are bound completely in a finite volume. Furthermore, employing a concrete holographic model (derived by Hashimoto, Iizuka, and Yi, describing a multibaryon system in the Sakai-Sugimoto model), the nuclear radius is evaluated as O(1)×A1/3[fm], which is consistent with experiments.

  7. Comparison of satellite theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertz, H. G.

    1972-01-01

    The accuracy of five mathematical models in computing a nominal orbit for the Vanguard 2 satellite by using a position velocity vector is considered. Either numerical integration or analytical theories are used in all models as well as the same force model that corresponds to a potential with the zonal harmonics to order four. The amounts of spread in the values of the total energy and the z-component of the angular momentum for a set of times are considered as measures of accuracy.

  8. Neutrinos: Theory and Phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Parke, Stephen

    2013-10-22

    The theory and phenomenology of neutrinos will be addressed, especially that relating to the observation of neutrino flavor transformations. The current status and implications for future experiments will be discussed with special emphasis on the experiments that will determine the neutrino mass ordering, the dominant flavor content of the neutrino mass eigenstate with the smallest electron neutrino content and the size of CP violation in the neutrino sector. Beyond the neutrino Standard Model, the evidence for and a possible definitive experiment to confirm or refute the existence of light sterile neutrinos will be briefly discussed.

  9. Toward an Integrated Theory of Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Joe L.

    Beginning with an extensive overview of theories, this paper proposes an integrative perspective on play. Early theories, which were proposed in the last half of the 19th century, included the surplus energy theory, the recapitulation theory, the instinct-practice theory, and the relaxation theory. More recent theories of play include Freud's and…

  10. [Polyvagal theory and emotional trauma].

    PubMed

    Leikola, Anssi; Mäkelä, Jukka; Punkanen, Marko

    2016-01-01

    According to the polyvagal theory, the autonomic nervous system can, in deviation from the conventional theory, be divided in three distinct parts that are in hierarchical relationship with each other. The most-primitive autonomic control results in depression of vital functions, the more evolved one in fighting or escape and the most evolved one in social involvement. Practical application of the polyvagal theory has resulted in positive results above all in the treatment of emotional trauma. in Finland, therapy of complex trauma is founded on the theory of structural dissociation of the personality, which together with the polyvagal theory forms a practical frame of reference for psychotherapeutic work. PMID:27044181

  11. A Transversely Isotropic Thermoelastic Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, S. M.

    1989-01-01

    A continuum theory is presented for representing the thermoelastic behavior of composites that can be idealized as transversely isotropic. This theory is consistent with anisotropic viscoplastic theories being developed presently at NASA Lewis Research Center. A multiaxial statement of the theory is presented, as well as plane stress and plane strain reductions. Experimental determination of the required material parameters and their theoretical constraints are discussed. Simple homogeneously stressed elements are examined to illustrate the effect of fiber orientation on the resulting strain distribution. Finally, the multiaxial stress-strain relations are expressed in matrix form to simplify and accelerate implementation of the theory into structural analysis codes.

  12. Quantum field theory of fluids.

    PubMed

    Gripaios, Ben; Sutherland, Dave

    2015-02-20

    The quantum theory of fields is largely based on studying perturbations around noninteracting, or free, field theories, which correspond to a collection of quantum-mechanical harmonic oscillators. The quantum theory of an ordinary fluid is "freer", in the sense that the noninteracting theory also contains an infinite collection of quantum-mechanical free particles, corresponding to vortex modes. By computing a variety of correlation functions at tree and loop level, we give evidence that a quantum perfect fluid can be consistently formulated as a low-energy, effective field theory. We speculate that the quantum behavior is radically different from both classical fluids and quantum fields.

  13. Recent developments in superstring theory

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, John H.

    1998-01-01

    There have been many remarkable developments in our understanding of superstring theory in the past few years, a period that has been described as “the second superstring revolution.” In particular, what once appeared to be five distinct theories are now recognized to be different manifestations of a single (unique) underlying theory. Some of the evidence for this, based on dualities and the appearance of an eleventh dimension, is presented. Also, a specific proposal for the underlying theory, called “Matrix Theory,” is described. The presentation is intended primarily for the benefit of nonexperts. PMID:9501161

  14. Recent developments in superstring theory.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, J H

    1998-03-17

    There have been many remarkable developments in our understanding of superstring theory in the past few years, a period that has been described as "the second superstring revolution." In particular, what once appeared to be five distinct theories are now recognized to be different manifestations of a single (unique) underlying theory. Some of the evidence for this, based on dualities and the appearance of an eleventh dimension, is presented. Also, a specific proposal for the underlying theory, called "Matrix Theory," is described. The presentation is intended primarily for the benefit of nonexperts.

  15. Foundations of Satisfiability Modulo Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinelli, Cesare

    Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT) studies methods for checking the (un)- satisfiability of first-order formulas with respect to a given logical theory T . Distinguishing features of SMT, as opposed to traditional theorem proving, are that the background theory T need not be finitely or even first-order axiomatizable, and that specialized inference methods are used for each theory of interest. By being theory-specific and restricting their language to certain classes of formulas (such as, typically but not exclusively, quantifier-free formulas), these methods can be implemented into solvers that are more efficient in practice than general-purpose theorem provers.

  16. Endochronic theory of dynamic viscoplasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, H.C.

    1983-06-01

    This report summarizes the work completed on a project concerned with engineering models in dyanmic plasticity. The concept of the endochronic theory of viscoplasticity and its subsequent improvement are discussed briefly. Applications and extensions of the theory to various dynamic problems are presented. In particular, the strain-rate effect in the improved endochronic theory and its application to wave propagation problems are discussed. Comparing the numerical results with other calculations and experimental data, it appears that endochronic theory provides a promising representation of realistic material behavior. At the same time endochronic theory is often numerically more efficient than other formulations.

  17. Nuclear Theory - Nuclear Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svenne, J. P.; Canton, L.; Kozier, K. S.

    2008-01-01

    The results from modern nuclear theory are accurate and reliable enough to be used for practical applications, in particular for scattering that involves few-nucleon systems of importance to nuclear power. Using well-established nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions that fit well the NN scattering data, and the AGS form of the three-body theory, we have performed precise calculations of low-energy neutron-deuteron (n+d) scattering. We show that three-nucleon force effects that have impact on the low-energy vector analyzing powers have no practical effects on the angular distribution of the n+d cross-section. There appear to be problems for this scattering in the evaluated nuclear data file (ENDF) libraries, at the incident neutron energies less than 3.2 MeV. Supporting experimental data in this energy region are rather old (>25 years), sparse and often inconsistent. Our three-body results at low energies, 50 keV to 10.0 MeV, are compared to the ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL (Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library) -3.3 evaluated angular distributions. The impact of these results on the calculated reactivity for various critical systems involving heavy water is shown.

  18. Deadman theory revisited12.

    PubMed

    Itoi, Eiji; Nagamoto, Hideaki; Sano, Hirotaka; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Kawakami, Jun

    2016-08-12

    The deadman theory is composed of two angles: θ1 and θ2, and it is recommended that both be less than or equal to 45°. Based on this theory, surgeons insert the anchor at 45°. However, the biomechanical studies show controversial data. We reviewed the original article and the biomechanical studies in the literature. We further performed three additional studies: 1) a finite element analysis to calculate the pullout strength of thread-less anchors inserted at 45°, 90°, and 135° to the polyurethane foam; 2) the same pullout test using thread-less anchors and the polyurethane foam; and 3) the same pullout test using metal threaded suture anchors and the simulated cortical bone. From the review and the additional studies, we came to the following explanations for the controversy: #1, the trigonometric calculation is not always applicable because of bone deformation; #2, insertion angle of 45° is the best for a thread-less anchor, but not for a threaded anchor; #3, θ1⩽45° is true, but it is not equivalent to inserting an anchor at 45°. In conclusion, insertion angle of 45° is the strongest for a thread-less anchor, but 90° is the strongest for a threaded anchor. The pullout strength depends on the inclination of the anchor, friction of the anchor-bone interface, and quality of the bone. PMID:27567773

  19. Aspects of Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salam, Abdus; Wigner, E. P.

    2010-03-01

    Preface; List of contributors; Bibliography of P. A. M. Dirac; 1. Dirac in Cambridge R. J. Eden and J. C. Polkinghorne; 2. Travels with Dirac in the Rockies J. H. Van Vleck; 3. 'The golden age of theoretical physics': P. A. M. Dirac's scientific work from 1924 to 1933 Jagdish Mehra; 4. Foundation of quantum field theory Res Jost; 5. The early history of the theory of electron: 1897-1947 A. Pais; 6. The Dirac equation A. S. Wightman; 7. Fermi-Dirac statistics Rudolph Peierls; 8. Indefinite metric in state space W. Heisenberg; 9. On bras and kets J. M. Jauch; 10. The Poisson bracket C. Lanczos; 11. La 'fonction' et les noyaux L. Schwartz; 12. On the Dirac magnetic poles Edoardo Amadli and Nicola Cabibbo; 13. The fundamental constants and their time variation Freeman J. Dyson; 14. On the time-energy uncertainty relation Eugene P. Wigner; 15. The path-integral quantisation of gravity Abdus Salam and J. Strathdee; Index; Plates.

  20. [Psychological theories of motivation].

    PubMed

    Quoniam, Nolwenn; Bungener, Catherine

    2004-03-01

    The comprehension of the principles guiding the human actions has always been an important aspect of philosophy. The development of experimental psychology first completely rejected all mental explanations such as will, intentions or motives. Behavior should then only be understood as determined by conditioning and learning. However, different theories denied that human behavior could be considered as purely reactive to the environment and stressed the active role of the organism on the environment. Theories from the humanist psychology and the social psychology described two kinds of motivation. The extrinsic motivation results from external stimuli and the intrinsic motivation from the organism himself. Our behavior is therefore determined by an interaction between our beliefs, expectations, needs and the environment. Actually, the concept of motivation is not well specified. It refers either to a global dynamic structure responsible for action either to a specific tendency toward some specific actions. Anyway, motivation is a concept infered from behavior. Therefore, its evaluation could only be secondary. PMID:15683964

  1. Consistent Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2001-11-01

    Quantum mechanics is one of the most fundamental yet difficult subjects in physics. Nonrelativistic quantum theory is presented here in a clear and systematic fashion, integrating Born's probabilistic interpretation with Schrödinger dynamics. Basic quantum principles are illustrated with simple examples requiring no mathematics beyond linear algebra and elementary probability theory. The quantum measurement process is consistently analyzed using fundamental quantum principles without referring to measurement. These same principles are used to resolve several of the paradoxes that have long perplexed physicists, including the double slit and Schrödinger's cat. The consistent histories formalism used here was first introduced by the author, and extended by M. Gell-Mann, J. Hartle and R. Omnès. Essential for researchers yet accessible to advanced undergraduate students in physics, chemistry, mathematics, and computer science, this book is supplementary to standard textbooks. It will also be of interest to physicists and philosophers working on the foundations of quantum mechanics. Comprehensive account Written by one of the main figures in the field Paperback edition of successful work on philosophy of quantum mechanics

  2. Disorder in large- N theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharony, Ofer; Komargodski, Zohar; Yankielowicz, Shimon

    2016-04-01

    We consider Euclidean Conformal Field Theories perturbed by quenched disorder, namely by random fluctuations in their couplings. Such theories are relevant for second-order phase transitions in the presence of impurities or other forms of disorder. Theories with quenched disorder often flow to new fixed points of the renormalization group. We begin with disorder in free field theories. Imry and Ma showed that disordered free fields can only exist for d > 4. For d > 4 we show that disorder leads to new fixed points which are not scale-invariant. We then move on to large- N theories (vector models or gauge theories in the `t Hooft limit). We compute exactly the beta function for the disorder, and the correlation functions of the disordered theory. We generalize the results of Imry and Ma by showing that such disordered theories exist only when disorder couples to operators of dimension Δ > d/4. Sometimes the disordered fixed points are not scale-invariant, and in other cases they have unconventional dependence on the disorder, including non-trivial effects due to irrelevant operators. Holography maps disorder in conformal theories to stochastic differential equations in a higher dimensional space. We use this dictionary to reproduce our field theory results. We also study the leading 1 /N corrections, both by field theory methods and by holography. These corrections are particularly important when disorder scales with the number of degrees of freedom.

  3. Observer Localization in Multiverse Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutter, Marcus

    2011-11-01

    The progression of theories suggested for our world, from ego- to geo- to helio-centric models to universe and multiverse theories and beyond, shows one tendency: The size of the described worlds increases, with humans being expelled from their center to ever more remote and random locations. If pushed too far, a potential theory of everything (TOE) is actually more a theories of nothing (TON). Indeed such theories have already been developed. I show that including observer localization into such theories is necessary and su_cient to avoid this problem. I develop a quantitative recipe to identify TOEs and distinguish them from TONs and theories in-between. This precisely shows what the problem is with some recently suggested universal TOEs.

  4. Forgetting and remembering alienation theory.

    PubMed

    Yuill, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Alienation theory has acted as the stimulus for a great deal of research and writing in the history of sociology. It has formed the basis of many sociological "classics" focused on the workplace and the experiences of workers, and has also been mobilized to chart wider social malaise and individual troubles. Alienation theory usage has, however, declined significantly since its heyday of the 1960s and 1970s. Here, the reasons why alienation theory was "forgotten" and what can be gained by "remembering" alienation theory are explored. to realize this ambition this article proceeds by (1) briefly visiting differing definitions of alienation theory, before charting its high point, and the various debates and tensions of the time, during the 1960s and 1970s; (2) analysing the reasons why alienation theory fell from grace from the 1980s onwards; (3) elaborating how and why alienation theory is still relevant for sociology and the wider social sciences today.

  5. Forgetting and remembering alienation theory.

    PubMed

    Yuill, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Alienation theory has acted as the stimulus for a great deal of research and writing in the history of sociology. It has formed the basis of many sociological "classics" focused on the workplace and the experiences of workers, and has also been mobilized to chart wider social malaise and individual troubles. Alienation theory usage has, however, declined significantly since its heyday of the 1960s and 1970s. Here, the reasons why alienation theory was "forgotten" and what can be gained by "remembering" alienation theory are explored. to realize this ambition this article proceeds by (1) briefly visiting differing definitions of alienation theory, before charting its high point, and the various debates and tensions of the time, during the 1960s and 1970s; (2) analysing the reasons why alienation theory fell from grace from the 1980s onwards; (3) elaborating how and why alienation theory is still relevant for sociology and the wider social sciences today. PMID:21809508

  6. Relevance theory: pragmatics and cognition.

    PubMed

    Wearing, Catherine J

    2015-01-01

    Relevance Theory is a cognitively oriented theory of pragmatics, i.e., a theory of language use. It builds on the seminal work of H.P. Grice(1) to develop a pragmatic theory which is at once philosophically sensitive and empirically plausible (in both psychological and evolutionary terms). This entry reviews the central commitments and chief contributions of Relevance Theory, including its Gricean commitment to the centrality of intention-reading and inference in communication; the cognitively grounded notion of relevance which provides the mechanism for explaining pragmatic interpretation as an intention-driven, inferential process; and several key applications of the theory (lexical pragmatics, metaphor and irony, procedural meaning). Relevance Theory is an important contribution to our understanding of the pragmatics of communication.

  7. Changing theories of change: strategic shifting in implicit theory endorsement.

    PubMed

    Leith, Scott A; Ward, Cindy L P; Giacomin, Miranda; Landau, Enoch S; Ehrlinger, Joyce; Wilson, Anne E

    2014-10-01

    People differ in their implicit theories about the malleability of characteristics such as intelligence and personality. These relatively chronic theories can be experimentally altered, and can be affected by parent or teacher feedback. Little is known about whether people might selectively shift their implicit beliefs in response to salient situational goals. We predicted that, when motivated to reach a desired conclusion, people might subtly shift their implicit theories of change and stability to garner supporting evidence for their desired position. Any motivated context in which a particular lay theory would help people to reach a preferred directional conclusion could elicit shifts in theory endorsement. We examine a variety of motivated situational contexts across 7 studies, finding that people's theories of change shifted in line with goals to protect self and liked others and to cast aspersions on disliked others. Studies 1-3 demonstrate how people regulate their implicit theories to manage self-view by more strongly endorsing an incremental theory after threatening performance feedback or memories of failure. Studies 4-6 revealed that people regulate the implicit theories they hold about favored and reviled political candidates, endorsing an incremental theory to forgive preferred candidates for past gaffes but leaning toward an entity theory to ensure past failings "stick" to opponents. Finally, in Study 7, people who were most threatened by a previously convicted child sex offender (i.e., parents reading about the offender moving to their neighborhood) gravitated most to the entity view that others do not change. Although chronic implicit theories are undoubtedly meaningful, this research reveals a previously unexplored source of fluidity by highlighting the active role people play in managing their implicit theories in response to goals. PMID:25222649

  8. Changing theories of change: strategic shifting in implicit theory endorsement.

    PubMed

    Leith, Scott A; Ward, Cindy L P; Giacomin, Miranda; Landau, Enoch S; Ehrlinger, Joyce; Wilson, Anne E

    2014-10-01

    People differ in their implicit theories about the malleability of characteristics such as intelligence and personality. These relatively chronic theories can be experimentally altered, and can be affected by parent or teacher feedback. Little is known about whether people might selectively shift their implicit beliefs in response to salient situational goals. We predicted that, when motivated to reach a desired conclusion, people might subtly shift their implicit theories of change and stability to garner supporting evidence for their desired position. Any motivated context in which a particular lay theory would help people to reach a preferred directional conclusion could elicit shifts in theory endorsement. We examine a variety of motivated situational contexts across 7 studies, finding that people's theories of change shifted in line with goals to protect self and liked others and to cast aspersions on disliked others. Studies 1-3 demonstrate how people regulate their implicit theories to manage self-view by more strongly endorsing an incremental theory after threatening performance feedback or memories of failure. Studies 4-6 revealed that people regulate the implicit theories they hold about favored and reviled political candidates, endorsing an incremental theory to forgive preferred candidates for past gaffes but leaning toward an entity theory to ensure past failings "stick" to opponents. Finally, in Study 7, people who were most threatened by a previously convicted child sex offender (i.e., parents reading about the offender moving to their neighborhood) gravitated most to the entity view that others do not change. Although chronic implicit theories are undoubtedly meaningful, this research reveals a previously unexplored source of fluidity by highlighting the active role people play in managing their implicit theories in response to goals.

  9. DUSEL Theory White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Raby, S.; Walker, T.; Babu, K.S.; Baer, H.; Balantekin, A.B.; Barger, V.; Berezhiani, Z.; de Gouvea, A.; Dermisek, R.; Dolgov, A.; Fileviez Perez, P.; Gabadadze, G.; Gal, A.; Gondolo, P.; Haxton, W.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kayser, B.; Kearns, E.; Kopeliovich, B.; Lande, K.; Marfatia, D.; /Kansas U. /Maryland U. /Northeastern U. /UC, Berkeley /LBL, Berkeley /Minnesota U. /SLAC /UC, Santa Cruz /SUNY, Stony Brook /Oklahoma State U. /Iowa State U. /Carnegie Mellon U.

    2011-11-14

    The scientific case for a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory [DUSEL] located at the Homestake mine in Lead, South Dakota is exceptional. The site of this future laboratory already claims a discovery for the detection of solar neutrinos, leading to a Nobel Prize for Ray Davis. Moreover this work provided the first step to our present understanding of solar neutrino oscillations and a chink in the armor of the Standard Model of particle physics. We now know, from several experiments located in deep underground experimental laboratories around the world, that neutrinos have mass and even more importantly this mass appears to fit into the framework of theories which unify all the known forces of nature, i.e. the strong, weak, electromagnetic and gravitational. Similarly, DUSEL can forge forward in the discovery of new realms of nature, housing six fundamental experiments that will test the frontiers of our knowledge: (1) Searching for nucleon decay (the decay of protons and neutrons predicted by grand unified theories of nature); (2) Searching for neutrino oscillations and CP violation by detecting neutrinos produced at a neutrino source (possibly located at Brookhaven National Laboratory and/or Fermi National Laboratory); (3) Searching for astrophysical neutrinos originating from the sun, from cosmic rays hitting the upper atmosphere or from other astrophysical sources, such a supernovae; (4) Searching for dark matter particles (the type of matter which does not interact electromagnetically, yet provides 24% of the mass of the Universe); (5) Looking for the rare process known as neutrino-less double beta decay which is predicted by most theories of neutrino mass and allows two neutrons in a nucleus to spontaneously change into two protons and two electrons; and (6) Searching for the rare process of neutron- anti-neutron oscillations, which would establish violation of baryon number symmetry. A large megaton water Cherenkov detector for neutrinos and

  10. Topics in Double Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Seung Ki

    The existence of momentum and winding modes of closed string on a torus leads to a natural idea that the field theoretical approach of string theory should involve winding type coordinates as well as the usual space-time coordinates. Recently developed double field theory is motivated from this idea and it implements T-duality manifestly by doubling the coordinates. In this thesis we will mainly focus on the double field theory formulation of different string theories in its low energy limit: bosonic, heterotic, type II and its massive extensions, and N = 1 supergravity theory. In chapter 2 of the thesis we study the equivalence of different formulations of double field theory. There are three different formulations of double field theory: background field E formulation, generalized metric H formulation, and frame field EAM formulation. Starting from the frame field formalism and choosing an appropriate gauge, the equivalence of the three formulations of bosonic theory are explicitly verified. In chapter 3 we construct the double field theory formulation of heterotic strings. The global symmetry enlarges to O( D, D + n) for heterotic strings and the enlarged generalized metric features this symmetry. The structural form of bosonic theory can directly be applied to the heterotic theory with the enlarged generalized metric. In chapter 4 we develop a unified framework of double field theory for type II theories. The Ramond-Ramond potentials fit into spinor representations of the duality group O( D, D) and the theory displays Spin+( D, D) symmetry with its self-duality relation. For a specific form of RR 1-form the theory reduces to the massive deformation of type IIA theory due to Romans. In chapter 5 we formulate the N = 1 supersymmetric extension of double field theory including the coupling to n abelian vector multiplets. This theory features a local O(1, 9 + n) x O(1, 9) tangent space symmetry under which the fermions transform. (Copies available exclusively from

  11. An Integrated Higgs Force Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colella, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    An Integrated Higgs force theory (IHFT) was based on 2 key requirement amplifications: a matter particle/Higgs force was one and inseparable; a matter particle/Higgs force bidirectionally condensed/evaporated from/to super force. These were basis of 5 theories: particle creation, baryogenesis, superpartner/quark decays, spontaneous symmetry breaking, and stellar black holes. Our universe's 129 matter/force particles contained 64 supersymmetric Higgs particles; 9 transient matter particles/Higgs forces decayed to 8 permanent matter particles/Higgs forces; mass was given to a matter particle by its Higgs force and gravitons; and sum of 8 Higgs force energies of 8 permanent matter particles was dark energy. An IHFT's essence is the intimate physical relationships between 8 theories. These theories are independent because physicists in one theory worked independently of physicists in the other seven. An IHFT's premise is without sacrificing their integrities, 8 independent existing theories are replaced by 8 interrelated amplified theories. Requirement amplifications provide interfaces between the 8 theories. Intimate relationships between 8 theories including the above 5 and string, Higgs forces, and Super Universe are described. The sorting category selected was F. PARTICLES AND FIELDS (e.g., F1 Higgs Physics, F10 Alternative Beyond the Standard Model Physics, F11 Dark Sector Theories and Searches, and F12 Particle Cosmology).

  12. Tribology theory versus experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, John

    1987-01-01

    Tribology, the study of friction and wear of materials, has achieved a new interest because of the need for energy conservation. Fundamental understanding of this field is very complex and requires a knowledge of solid-state physics, material science, chemistry, and mechanical engineering. This paper is meant to be didactic in nature and outlines some of the considerations needed for a tribology research program. The approach is first to present a simple model, a field emission tip in contact with a flat surface, in order to elucidate important considerations, such as contact area, mechanical deformations, and interfacial bonding. Then examples from illustrative experiments are presented. Finally, the current status of physical theories concerning interfacial bonding are presented.

  13. "Reinforcement" in behavior theory.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, W N

    1978-01-01

    In its Pavlovian context, "reinforcement" was actually a descriptive term for the functional relation between an unconditional and a conditional stimulus. When it was adopted into operant conditioning, "reinforcement" became the central concept and the key operation, but with new qualifications, new referents, and new expectations. Some behavior theorists believed that "reinforcers" comprise a special and limited class of stimuli or events, and they speculated about what the essential "nature of reinforcement" might be. It is now known that any stimulus can serve a reinforcing function, with due recognition of such parameters as subject species characteristics, stimulus intensity, sensory modality, and schedule of application. This paper comments on these developments from the standpoint of reflex behavior theory.

  14. "Reinforcement" in behavior theory.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, W N

    1995-01-01

    In its Pavlovian context, "reinforcement" was actually a descriptive term for the functional relation between an unconditional and a conditional stimulus. When it was adopted into operant conditioning, "reinforcement" became the central concept and the key operation, but with new qualifications, new referents, and new expectations. Some behavior theorists believed that "reinforcers" comprise a special and limited class of stimuli or events, and they speculated about what the essential "nature of reinforcement" might be. It is now known that any stimulus can serve a reinforcing function, with due recognition of such parameters as subject species characteristics, stimulus intensity, sensory modality, and schedule of application. This paper comments on these developments from the stand-point of reflex behavior theory.

  15. Vulvodynia. Theory and management.

    PubMed

    Ridley, C M

    1998-10-01

    Vulvodynia, defined as vulval pain, soreness or burning as opposed to itching or pruritus, is a common and important problem. Although not a sexually transmitted disease, it often presents to physicians working in that field. The main groups of vulvodynia are those where the symptoms are the consequence of an active dermatosis or infection, and those where it is not attributable to such conditions. In the latter group, the patients fall into two main categories: those of dysesthetic vulvidynia, with constant unprovoked pain, and vulval vestibulitis, with pain provoked by attempted vaginal entry. The recent realization that dysesthetic vulvodynia and vulval vestibulitis may be regarded as pain syndromes is proving a fruitful concept as regards both theory and management of these troublesome conditions.

  16. Crack layer theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chudnovsky, A.

    1984-01-01

    A damage parameter is introduced in addition to conventional parameters of continuum mechanics and consider a crack surrounded by an array of microdefects within the continuum mechanics framework. A system consisting of the main crack and surrounding damage is called crack layer (CL). Crack layer propagation is an irreversible process. The general framework of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes are employed to identify the driving forces (causes) and to derive the constitutive equation of CL propagation, that is, the relationship between the rates of the crack growth and damage dissemination from one side and the conjugated thermodynamic forces from another. The proposed law of CL propagation is in good agreement with the experimental data on fatigue CL propagation in various materials. The theory also elaborates material toughness characterization.

  17. Commitment to health theory.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Cynthia W

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces commitment to health as a middle-range. Commitment to health (CTH) is derived from Prochaska and DiClemente's (1983) Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change. CTH theory is designed to predict the likelihood of behavior change between the action and maintenance stages of change. Commitment is defined as a freely chosen internal resolve to perform health behaviors, even when encumbered or inconvenienced by difficulties. Health is defined as the optimal level of well-being. Commitment is an independent continuous variable, but it can be categorized into three time-oriented categories: (1) low-level, (2) middle-level, and (3) high-level commitment. The higher the level of commitment, the more likely the individual will adopt long-term behavior change. This article presents the definitions, assumptions, and relational statements of CTH.

  18. Theory of wing rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, C.-H.; Lan, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    Wing rock is one type of lateral-directional instabilities at high angles of attack. To predict wing rock characteristics and to design airplanes to avoid wing rock, parameters affecting wing rock characteristics must be known. A new nonlinear aerodynamic model is developed to investigate the main aerodynamic nonlinearities causing wing rock. In the present theory, the Beecham-Titchener asymptotic method is used to derive expressions for the limit-cycle amplitude and frequency of wing rock from nonlinear flight dynamics equations. The resulting expressions are capable of explaining the existence of wing rock for all types of aircraft. Wing rock is developed by negative or weakly positive roll damping, and sustained by nonlinear aerodynamic roll damping. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results is obtained.

  19. Classical Information Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhov, Y.

    We begin with the definition of information gained by knowing that an event A has occurred: iota (A) = -log_2 {{P}}(A). (A dual point of view is also useful (although more evasive), where iota (A) is the amount of information needed to specify event A.) Here and below {{P}} stands for the underlying probability distribution. So the rarer an event A, the more information we gain if we know it has occurred. (More broadly, the rarer an event A, the more impact it will have. For example, the unlikely event that occurred in 1938 when fishermen caught a coelacanth - a prehistoric fish believed to be extinct - required a significant change to beliefs about evolution and biology. On the other hand, the likely event of catching a herring or a tuna would hardly imply any change in theories.)

  20. Axions in String Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Svrcek, Peter; Witten, Edward; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study

    2006-06-09

    In the context of string theory, axions appear to provide the most plausible solution of the strong CP problem. However, as has been known for a long time, in many string-based models, the axion coupling parameter Fa is several orders of magnitude higher than the standard cosmological bounds. We re-examine this problem in a variety of models, showing that Fa is close to the GUT scale or above in many models that have GUT-like phenomenology, as well as some that do not. On the other hand, in some models with Standard Model gauge fields supported on vanishing cycles, it is possible for Fa to be well below the GUT scale.

  1. Chinese implicit leadership theory.

    PubMed

    Ling, W; Chia, R C; Fang, L

    2000-12-01

    In a 1st attempt to identify an implicit theory of leadership among Chinese people, the authors developed the Chinese Implicit Leadership Scale (CILS) in Study 1. In Study 2, they administered the CILS to 622 Chinese participants from 5 occupation groups, to explore differences in perceptions of leadership. Factor analysis yielded 4 factors of leadership: Personal Morality, Goal Efficiency, Interpersonal Competence, and Versatility. Social groups differing in age, gender, education level, and occupation rated these factors. Results showed no significant gender differences, and the underlying cause for social group differences was education level. All groups gave the highest ratings to Interpersonal Competence, reflecting the enormous importance of this factor, which is consistent with Chinese collectivist values.

  2. Greek theories on eugenics.

    PubMed Central

    Galton, D J

    1998-01-01

    With the recent developments in the Human Genome Mapping Project and the new technologies that are developing from it there is a renewal of concern about eugenic applications. Francis Galton (b1822, d1911), who developed the subject of eugenics, suggested that the ancient Greeks had contributed very little to social theories of eugenics. In fact the Greeks had a profound interest in methods of supplying their city states with the finest possible progeny. This paper therefore reviews the works of Plato (The Republic and Politics) and Aristotle (The Politics and The Athenian Constitution) which have a direct bearing on eugenic techniques and relates them to methods used in the present century. PMID:9752630

  3. Theory of edge detection.

    PubMed

    Marr, D; Hildreth, E

    1980-02-29

    A theory of edge detection is presented. The analysis proceeds in two parts. (1) Intensity changes, which occur in a natural image over a wide range of scales, are detected separately at different scales. An appropriate filter for this purpose at a given scale is found to be the second derivative of a Gaussian, and it is shown that, provided some simple conditions are satisfied, these primary filters need not be orientation-dependent. Thus, intensity changes at a given scale are best detected by finding the zero values of delta 2G(x,y)*I(x,y) for image I, where G(x,y) is a two-dimensional Gaussian distribution and delta 2 is the Laplacian. The intensity changes thus discovered in each of the channels are then represented by oriented primitives called zero-crossing segments, and evidence is given that this representation is complete. (2) Intensity changes in images arise from surface discontinuities or from reflectance or illumination boundaries, and these all have the property that they are spatially. Because of this, the zero-crossing segments from the different channels are not independent, and rules are deduced for combining them into a description of the image. This description is called the raw primal sketch. The theory explains several basic psychophysical findings, and the operation of forming oriented zero-crossing segments from the output of centre-surround delta 2G filters acting on the image forms the basis for a physiological model of simple cells (see Marr & Ullman 1979).

  4. Partition density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafziger, Jonathan

    Partition density functional theory (PDFT) is a method for dividing a molecular electronic structure calculation into fragment calculations. The molecular density and energy corresponding to Kohn Sham density-functional theory (KS-DFT) may be exactly recovered from these fragments. Each fragment acts as an isolated system except for the influence of a global one-body 'partition' potential which deforms the fragment densities. In this work, the developments of PDFT are put into the context of other fragment-based density functional methods. We developed three numerical implementations of PDFT: One within the NWChem computational chemistry package using basis sets, and the other two developed from scratch using real-space grids. It is shown that all three of these programs can exactly reproduce a KS-DFT calculation via fragment calculations. The first of our in-house codes handles non-interacting electrons in arbitrary one-dimensional potentials with any number of fragments. This code is used to explore how the exact partition potential changes for different partitionings of the same system and also to study features which determine which systems yield non-integer PDFT occupations and which systems are locked into integer PDFT occupations. The second in-house code, CADMium, performs real-space calculations of diatomic molecules. Features of the exact partition potential are studied for a variety of cases and an analytical formula determining singularities in the partition potential is derived. We introduce an approximation for the non-additive kinetic energy and show how this quantity can be computed exactly. Finally a PDFT functional is developed to address the issues of static correlation and delocalization errors in approximations within DFT. The functional is applied to the dissociation of H2 + and H2.

  5. F-theory and 2d (0, 2) theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura; Weigand, Timo

    2016-05-01

    F-theory compactified on singular, elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau five-folds gives rise to two-dimensional gauge theories preserving N = (0 , 2) supersymmetry. In this paper we initiate the study of such compactifications and determine the dictionary between the geometric data of the elliptic fibration and the 2d gauge theory such as the matter content in terms of (0 , 2) superfields and their supersymmetric couplings. We study this setup both from a gauge-theoretic point of view, in terms of the partially twisted 7-brane theory, and provide a global geometric description based on the structure of the elliptic fibration and its singularities. Global consistency conditions are determined and checked against the dual M-theory compactification to one dimension. This includes a discussion of gauge anomalies, the structure of the Green-Schwarz terms and the Chern-Simons couplings in the dual M-theory supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Furthermore, by interpreting the resulting 2d (0 , 2) theories as heterotic worldsheet theories, we propose a correspondence between the geometric data of elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau five-folds and the target space of a heterotic gauged linear sigma-model (GLSM). In particular the correspondence between the Landau-Ginsburg and sigma-model phase of a 2d (0 , 2) GLSM is realized via different T-branes or gluing data in F-theory.

  6. Conformal field theories from deformations of theories with Wn symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaro, Juan Pablo; Giribet, Gaston; Ranjbar, Arash

    2016-10-01

    We construct a set of nonrational conformal field theories that consist of deformations of Toda field theory for s l (n ). In addition to preserving conformal invariance, the theories may still exhibit a remnant infinite-dimensional affine symmetry. The case n =3 is used to illustrate this phenomenon, together with further deformations that yield enhanced Kac-Moody symmetry algebras. For generic n we compute N -point correlation functions on the Riemann sphere and show that these can be expressed in terms of s l (n ) Toda field theory ((N -2 )n +2 ) -point correlation functions.

  7. Exploring gravitational theories beyond Horndeski

    SciTech Connect

    Gleyzes, Jérôme; Vernizzi, Filippo; Langlois, David; Piazza, Federico E-mail: langlois@apc.univ-partis7.fr E-mail: filippo.vernizzi@cea.fr

    2015-02-01

    We have recently proposed a new class of gravitational scalar-tensor theories free from Ostrogradski instabilities, in ref. [1]. As they generalize Horndeski theories, or ''generalized'' galileons, we call them G{sup 3}. These theories possess a simple formulation when the time hypersurfaces are chosen to coincide with the uniform scalar field hypersurfaces. We confirm that they contain only three propagating degrees of freedom by presenting the details of the Hamiltonian formulation. We examine the coupling between these theories and matter. Moreover, we investigate how they transform under a disformal redefinition of the metric. Remarkably, these theories are preserved by disformal transformations that depend on the scalar field gradient, which also allow to map subfamilies of G{sup 3} into Horndeski theories.

  8. Exploring gravitational theories beyond Horndeski

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleyzes, Jérôme; Langlois, David; Piazza, Federico; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2015-02-01

    We have recently proposed a new class of gravitational scalar-tensor theories free from Ostrogradski instabilities, in ref. [1]. As they generalize Horndeski theories, or "generalized" galileons, we call them G3. These theories possess a simple formulation when the time hypersurfaces are chosen to coincide with the uniform scalar field hypersurfaces. We confirm that they contain only three propagating degrees of freedom by presenting the details of the Hamiltonian formulation. We examine the coupling between these theories and matter. Moreover, we investigate how they transform under a disformal redefinition of the metric. Remarkably, these theories are preserved by disformal transformations that depend on the scalar field gradient, which also allow to map subfamilies of G3 into Horndeski theories.

  9. Learning theory and intrapsychic conflict.

    PubMed

    Gillett, E

    1996-08-01

    This paper is one in a series (Gillett, 1990, 1994) attempting to explore the implications of modern ideas about learning for psychoanalytic theories of treatment and pathogenesis. The key concept is that of learned expectations, which establishes links with Freud's 1926 theory of neurotic anxiety as caused by the expectation of danger. The new understanding of classical Pavlovian conditioning entails changes in the basic theory of intrapsychic conflict described in previous papers (1990, 1994). The relationship of learning theory to Freud's 1926 theory of intrapsychic conflict has received insufficient attention in the psychoanalytic literature because of insufficient familiarity with the repudiation of behaviourism by psychologists in favour of a representational theory of the mind.

  10. Gauge Theories of Vector Particles

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Glashow, S. L.; Gell-Mann, M.

    1961-04-24

    The possibility of generalizing the Yang-Mills trick is examined. Thus we seek theories of vector bosons invariant under continuous groups of coordinate-dependent linear transformations. All such theories may be expressed as superpositions of certain "simple" theories; we show that each "simple theory is associated with a simple Lie algebra. We may introduce mass terms for the vector bosons at the price of destroying the gauge-invariance for coordinate-dependent gauge functions. The theories corresponding to three particular simple Lie algebras - those which admit precisely two commuting quantum numbers - are examined in some detail as examples. One of them might play a role in the physics of the strong interactions if there is an underlying super-symmetry, transcending charge independence, that is badly broken. The intermediate vector boson theory of weak interactions is discussed also. The so-called "schizon" model cannot be made to conform to the requirements of partial gauge-invariance.

  11. A succession of theories: purging redundancy from disturbance theory.

    PubMed

    Pulsford, Stephanie A; Lindenmayer, David B; Driscoll, Don A

    2016-02-01

    The topics of succession and post-disturbance ecosystem recovery have a long and convoluted history. There is extensive redundancy within this body of theory, which has resulted in confusion, and the links among theories have not been adequately drawn. This review aims to distil the unique ideas from the array of theory related to ecosystem change in response to disturbance. This will help to reduce redundancy, and improve communication and understanding between researchers. We first outline the broad range of concepts that have developed over the past century to describe community change in response to disturbance. The body of work spans overlapping succession concepts presented by Clements in 1916, Egler in 1954, and Connell and Slatyer in 1977. Other theories describing community change include state and transition models, biological legacy theory, and the application of functional traits to predict responses to disturbance. Second, we identify areas of overlap of these theories, in addition to highlighting the conceptual and taxonomic limitations of each. In aligning each of these theories with one another, the limited scope and relative inflexibility of some theories becomes apparent, and redundancy becomes explicit. We identify a set of unique concepts to describe the range of mechanisms driving ecosystem responses to disturbance. We present a schematic model of our proposed synthesis which brings together the range of unique mechanisms that were identified in our review. The model describes five main mechanisms of transition away from a post-disturbance community: (i) pulse events with rapid state shifts; (ii) stochastic community drift; (iii) facilitation; (iv) competition; and (v) the influence of the initial composition of a post-disturbance community. In addition, stabilising processes such as biological legacies, inhibition or continuing disturbance may prevent a transition between community types. Integrating these six mechanisms with the functional

  12. Selected topics in gauge theories

    SciTech Connect

    Beg, M.A.G.; Hernandez Galeana, A.

    1986-06-20

    Developments in gauge field theory in the past fourteen years are discussed. The canonical description of electroweak and strong interactions is described including the role played by QCD and QFD. The Salam-Weinberg theory of electroweak interactions is reviewed with emphasis on Higgs mass and renormalization group analysis. Implications of hyper-color theories are discussed. Composite models of quarks and leptons are considered including hyperfermions as part of a subquark multiplet. (AIP)

  13. Invariants from classical field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, Rafael; Leal, Lorenzo

    2008-06-15

    We introduce a method that generates invariant functions from perturbative classical field theories depending on external parameters. By applying our methods to several field theories such as Abelian BF, Chern-Simons, and two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory, we obtain, respectively, the linking number for embedded submanifolds in compact varieties, the Gauss' and the second Milnor's invariant for links in S{sup 3}, and invariants under area-preserving diffeomorphisms for configurations of immersed planar curves.

  14. Hard amplitudes in gauge theories

    SciTech Connect

    Parke, S.J.

    1991-03-01

    In this lecture series 1 presents recent developments in perturbation theory methods for gauge theories for processes with many partons. These techniques and results are useful in the calculation of cross sections for processes with many final state partons which have applications in the study of multi-jet phenomena in high-energy colliders. The results illuminate many important and interesting properties of non-abelian gauge theories. 30 refs., 9 figs.

  15. A critique of Theory Z.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, J J

    1983-01-01

    Ouchi's Theory Z prescribes how employees should be motivated for increased productivity. Based on the theoretical work of Emile Durkheim, it views the modern large corporation as a communal alternative to the shortcomings of other institutions in industrial mass society. Ouchi's assertion that Japan is the industrial society in which Theory Z has flourished received limited support from research findings. Moreover, Ouchi's grounding of the theory in humanistic management seem unwarranted.

  16. Brain Physiology: Research and Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esler, William K.

    1982-01-01

    Indicates how research about the physiology and chemistry of the brain verifies the educational applications of Piaget's theory. Discusses maturation, experience, social transmission, and equilibration. (Author/DC)

  17. New View of Relativity Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, Luiz Cesar

    2014-04-01

    This article results from Introducing the Dimensional Continuous Space-Time Theory that was published in reference 1. The Dimensional Continuous Space-Time Theory shows a series of facts relative to matter, energy, space and concludes that empty space is inelastic, absolutely stationary, motionless, perpetual, without possibility of deformation neither can it be destroyed or created. A elementary cell of empty space or a certain amount of empty space can be occupied by any quantity of energy or matter without any alteration or deformation. As a consequence of these properties and being a integral part of the theory, the principles of Relativity Theory must be changed to become simple and intuitive.

  18. Nonstationary statistical theory for multipactor

    SciTech Connect

    Anza, S.; Vicente, C.; Gil, J.

    2010-06-15

    This work presents a new and general approach to the real dynamics of the multipactor process: the nonstationary statistical multipactor theory. The nonstationary theory removes the stationarity assumption of the classical theory and, as a consequence, it is able to adequately model electron exponential growth as well as absorption processes, above and below the multipactor breakdown level. In addition, it considers both double-surface and single-surface interactions constituting a full framework for nonresonant polyphase multipactor analysis. This work formulates the new theory and validates it with numerical and experimental results with excellent agreement.

  19. Anatomy of a gauge theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kreimer, Dirk . E-mail: kreimer@ihes.fr

    2006-12-15

    We exhibit the role of Hochschild cohomology in quantum field theory with particular emphasis on gauge theory and Dyson-Schwinger equations, the quantum equations of motion. These equations emerge from Hopf- and Lie algebra theory and free quantum field theory only. In the course of our analysis, we exhibit an intimate relation between the Slavnov-Taylor identities for the couplings and the existence of Hopf sub-algebras defined on the sum of all graphs at a given loop order, surpassing the need to work on single diagrams.

  20. What's wrong with relativity theory?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Meggie

    2014-03-01

    Relativity theory is the most successful theory in modern physics but insofar we have not be able to reconcile relativity theory and quantum physics. Through reevaluation results in literature we found hints leading to a new understanding of the basics of quantum physics. By reinterpretation quantum physic we have successfully conduced a photon-photon collision experiment which gives us support on our reinterpretation of quantum physics which in turn suggested relativity theory is in-complete and fell into a paradoxical trap. This helps us a new understanding of mass and gravity.

  1. Canonical density matrix perturbation theory.

    PubMed

    Niklasson, Anders M N; Cawkwell, M J; Rubensson, Emanuel H; Rudberg, Elias

    2015-12-01

    Density matrix perturbation theory [Niklasson and Challacombe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 193001 (2004)] is generalized to canonical (NVT) free-energy ensembles in tight-binding, Hartree-Fock, or Kohn-Sham density-functional theory. The canonical density matrix perturbation theory can be used to calculate temperature-dependent response properties from the coupled perturbed self-consistent field equations as in density-functional perturbation theory. The method is well suited to take advantage of sparse matrix algebra to achieve linear scaling complexity in the computational cost as a function of system size for sufficiently large nonmetallic materials and metals at high temperatures. PMID:26764847

  2. Introduction to Statistical Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brézin, Edouard

    2010-07-01

    1. A few well-known basic results; 2. Introduction: order parameters, broken symmetries; 3. Examples of physical situations modelled by the Ising model; 4. A few results about the Ising model; 5. High temperature and low temperature expansions; 6. Some geometric problems related to phase transitions; 7. Phenomenological description of the critical behaviour; 8. Mean field theory; 9. Beyond mean field theory; 10. Introduction to the renormalization group; 11. Renormalization group for the φ4 theory; 12. Renormalized theory; 13. Goldstone modes; 14. Large n; Index.

  3. Toward a Unified Consciousness Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Richard H.

    1977-01-01

    The beginning of a holistic theory that can treat paranormal phenomena as normal human development is presented. Implications for counseling, counselor education, and counselor supervision are discussed. (Author)

  4. Canonical density matrix perturbation theory.

    PubMed

    Niklasson, Anders M N; Cawkwell, M J; Rubensson, Emanuel H; Rudberg, Elias

    2015-12-01

    Density matrix perturbation theory [Niklasson and Challacombe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 193001 (2004)] is generalized to canonical (NVT) free-energy ensembles in tight-binding, Hartree-Fock, or Kohn-Sham density-functional theory. The canonical density matrix perturbation theory can be used to calculate temperature-dependent response properties from the coupled perturbed self-consistent field equations as in density-functional perturbation theory. The method is well suited to take advantage of sparse matrix algebra to achieve linear scaling complexity in the computational cost as a function of system size for sufficiently large nonmetallic materials and metals at high temperatures.

  5. Inflation from asymptotically safe theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund; Sannino, Francesco; Svendsen, Ole

    2015-05-01

    We investigate models in which inflation is driven by an ultraviolet safe and interacting scalar sector stemming from a new class of nonsupersymmetric gauge field theories. These new theories, different from generic scalar models, are well defined to arbitrary short distances because of the existence of a controllable ultraviolet interacting fixed point. The scalar couplings at the ultraviolet fixed point and their overall running are predicted by the geometric structure of the underlying theory. We analyze the minimal and nonminimal coupling to gravity of these theories and the consequences for inflation. In the minimal coupling case the theory requires large nonperturbative quantum corrections to the quantum potential for the theory to agree with the data, while in the nonminimal coupling case the perturbative regime in the couplings of the theory is preferred. Requiring the theory to reproduce the observed amplitude of density perturbations constrains the geometric data of the theory such as the number of colors and flavors for generic values of the nonminimal coupling.

  6. Theories of Motivation--Borrowing the Best.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terpstra, David E.

    1979-01-01

    Five theories of motivation are discussed: Maslow's Need Hierarchy, Herzberg's dual-factor or motivation-hygiene theory, goal setting or task motivation, expectancy/valence-theory (also known as instrumentality theory, valence-instrumentality-expectancy theory, or expectancy theory), and reinforcement. (JH)

  7. Management Theories and Broadcasting: A Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, J. Robert; Hindmarsh, Wayne A.

    Today's contemporary management and motivation theories, as applied to the business of broadcasting, are the focus of the first section of this paper. It deals with the kinds and reactions of employees in broadcasting stations in relation to 11 motivational theories: (1) Theories X and Y, (2) Immaturity-Maturity Theory, (3) V Theory, (4) Z Theory,…

  8. Theories of Serial Flow in Intergenerational Transfers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheal, David J.

    1988-01-01

    Presents and compares underlying assumptions of these theories as they might expand understanding of intergenerational transfers: social exchange theory, kin selection theory of altruism, human capital theory, social constructivist theory, and rational transfers theory. Recommends comparative studies to gain insight into strengths and weaknesses…

  9. Particle Theory & Cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Shafi, Qaisar; Barr, Steven; Gaisser, Thomas; Stanev, Todor

    2015-03-31

    1. Executive Summary (April 1, 2012 - March 31, 2015) Title: Particle Theory, Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology Qaisar Shafi University of Delaware (Principal Investigator) Stephen M. Barr, University of Delaware (Co-Principal Investigator) Thomas K. Gaisser, University of Delaware (Co-Principal Investigator) Todor Stanev, University of Delaware (Co-Principal Investigator) The proposed research was carried out at the Bartol Research included Professors Qaisar Shafi Stephen Barr, Thomas K. Gaisser, and Todor Stanev, two postdoctoral fellows (Ilia Gogoladze and Liucheng Wang), and several graduate students. Five students of Qaisar Shafi completed their PhD during the period August 2011 - August 2014. Measures of the group’s high caliber performance during the 2012-2015 funding cycle included pub- lications in excellent refereed journals, contributions to working groups as well as white papers, and conference activities, which together provide an exceptional record of both individual performance as well as overall strength. Another important indicator of success is the outstanding quality of the past and current cohort of graduate students. The PhD students under our supervision regularly win the top departmental and university awards, and their publications records show excellence both in terms of quality and quantity. The topics covered under this grant cover the frontline research areas in today’s High Energy Theory & Phenomenology. For Professors Shafi and Barr they include LHC related topics including supersymmetry, collider physics, fl vor physics, dark matter physics, Higgs boson and seesaw physics, grand unifi and neutrino physics. The LHC two years ago discovered the Standard Model Higgs boson, thereby at least partially unlocking the secrets behind electroweak symmetry breaking. We remain optimistic that new and exciting physics will be found at LHC 14, which explain our focus on physics beyond the Standard Model. Professors Shafi continued his

  10. Double Exponential Relativity Theory Coupled Theoretically with Quantum Theory?

    SciTech Connect

    Montero Garcia, Jose de la Luz; Novoa Blanco, Jesus Francisco

    2007-04-28

    Here the problem of special relativity is analyzed into the context of a new theoretical formulation: the Double Exponential Theory of Special Relativity with respect to which the current Special or Restricted Theory of Relativity (STR) turns to be a particular case only.

  11. Acquisition by Processing Theory: A Theory of Everything?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Susanne E.

    2004-01-01

    Truscott and Sharwood Smith (henceforth T&SS) propose a novel theory of language acquisition, "Acquisition by Processing Theory" (APT), designed to account for both first and second language acquisition, monolingual and bilingual speech perception and parsing, and speech production. This is a tall order. Like any theoretically ambitious…

  12. Integrating Practice-to-Theory and Theory-to-Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. Burke; Stefurak, Tres

    2012-01-01

    In "Towards a systemic theory of gifted education", Ziegler and Phillipson offer a useful critique of current research and the current paradigm in gifted education. They provide an interesting and useful merging of systems theory with their actiotope model, and using this paradigm they suggest many fruitful areas for future research. However, the…

  13. The Lorentz Theory of Electrons and Einstein's Theory of Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Stanley

    1969-01-01

    Traces the development of Lorentz's theory of electrons as applied to the problem of the electrodynamics of moving bodies. Presents evidence that the principle of relativity did not play an important role in Lorentz's theory, and that though Lorentz eventually acknowledged Einstein's work, he was unwilling to completely embrace the Einstein…

  14. The Theory Forum: Teaching Social Theory through Interactive Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osnowitz, Debra; Jenkins, Kathleen E.

    2014-01-01

    Common concerns in required theory courses are student disengagement when encountering difficult texts and hesitation to engage in theorizing. To address these challenges, we have developed an interactive exercise, which we call the theory forum. Students work in groups to develop questions from the perspective(s) of one or more theorists, and…

  15. Introduction to conformal field theory and string theory

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, L.J.

    1989-12-01

    These lectures are meant to provide a brief introduction to conformal field theory (CFT) and string theory for those with no prior exposure to the subjects. There are many excellent reviews already available, and most of these go in to much more detail than I will be able to here. 52 refs., 11 figs.

  16. An Educational Theory Based on Game Theory. Preliminary Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Laura Hill

    Game theory may be a fruitful basis for educational theory. After describing games and related concepts like "utility," the author sets up examples of how games may be used as a basis for selecting teaching strategies. For instance, a teacher may decide to change many aspects of his teaching style, rather than just one at a time, if there is a…

  17. Theory of gaseous detonations.

    PubMed

    Clavin, Paul

    2004-09-01

    The objective of the present paper is to review some developments that have occurred in detonation theory over the last ten years. They concern nonlinear dynamics of detonation fronts, namely patterns of pulsating and/or cellular fronts, selection of the cell size, dynamical self-quenching, direct (blast) or spontaneous initiation, and transition from deflagration to detonation. These phenomena are all well documented by experiments since the sixties but remained unexplained until recently. In the first part of the paper, the patterns of cellular detonations are described by an asymptotic solution to nonlinear hyperbolic equations (reactive Euler equations) in the form of unsteady (sometime chaotic) and multidimensional traveling-waves. In the second part, turning points of quasi-steady solutions are shown to correspond to critical conditions of fully unsteady problems, either for (direct or spontaneous) initiation or for spontaneous failure (self-quenching). Physical insights are tentatively presented rather than technical aspects. The challenge is to identify the physical mechanisms with their relevant parameters, and more specifically to explain how the length-scales involved in detonation dynamics are larger by two order of magnitude (at least) than the length-scale involved in the steady planar traveling-wave solution (detonation thickness). PMID:15446993

  18. Paleoanthropology and evolutionary theory.

    PubMed

    Tattersall, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Paleoanthropologists of the first half of the twentieth century were little concerned either with evolutionary theory or with the technicalities and broader implications of zoological nomenclature. In consequence, the paleoanthropological literature of the period consisted largely of a series of descriptions accompanied by authoritative pronouncements, together with a huge excess of hominid genera and species. Given the intellectual flimsiness of the resulting paleoanthropological framework, it is hardly surprising that in 1950 the ornithologist Ernst Mayr met little resistance when he urged the new postwar generation of paleoanthropologists to accept not only the elegant reductionism of the Evolutionary Synthesis but a vast oversimplification of hominid phylogenetic history and nomenclature. Indeed, the impact of Mayr's onslaught was so great that even when developments in evolutionary biology during the last quarter of the century brought other paleontologists to the realization that much more has been involved in evolutionary histories than the simple action of natural selection within gradually transforming lineages, paleoanthropologists proved highly reluctant to follow. Even today, paleoanthropologists are struggling to reconcile an intuitive realization that the burgeoning hominid fossil record harbors a substantial diversity of species (bringing hominid evolutionary patterns into line with that of other successful mammalian families), with the desire to cram a huge variety of morphologies into an unrealistically minimalist systematic framework. As long as this theoretical ambivalence persists, our perception of events in hominid phylogeny will continue to be distorted.

  19. Chain entanglements. I. Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fixman, Marshall

    1988-09-01

    A model of concentrated polymer solution dynamics is described. The forces in a linear generalized Langevin equation for the motion of a probe chain are derived on the assumption that all relaxation of the forces is due to motion of the surrounding matrix. Vicinal chain displacements are classified as viscoelastic deformation, reptation, and minor residual fluctuations. The latter provide a torsional relaxation of the primitive path that minimizes the significance of transverse forces on the probe chain. All displacements of vicinal segments are assumed proportional to the forces that they exert on the probe chain. In response to an external force, the displacement of the probe chain relative to a laboratory frame is increased by viscoelastic deformation of the matrix, but reptative diffusion relative to the deforming matrix is slowed down. The net effect on translational diffusion is negligible if the probe and vicinal chains have the same chain length N, but the friction constant for reptative motion is increased by a factor N1-xs. xs=1/2 if Gaussian conformational statistics applies during the disengagement process, while xs =0.6 if excluded volume statistics applies. The translational friction constant is βp ˜N2, as in reptation theory, but the viscosity is η˜N4-xs . The persistence of entanglements during the translational diffusion of the probe chain across many radii of gyration is rationalized pictorially in terms of correlated reptative motion of the probe and vicinal chains.

  20. The theory of sunspots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, John H.; Weiss, Nigel O.

    1992-01-01

    This review covers the present state of our theoretical understanding of the physics of sunspots, along with the principal observational results that need to be explained. The topics covered range from the detailed structure of an individual sunspot to the broad connection between sunspots and the global solar magnetic field and the solar cycle. Our aim is to give a critical discussion of the theoretical ideas and models without presenting mathematical details. After outlining the historical development of the basic concepts associated with the magnetohydrodynamic theory of sunspots, we discuss recent treatments of their properties and structure, placing special emphasis on developments that have occurred within the last ten years. There have been remarkable improvements in the theoretical modelling of sunspots, led by new ideas and by more elaborate and realistic numerical simulations. At the same time, new observations have raised new theoretical questions or caused old ones to be reconsidered. In particular, measurements of oscillations in and around sunspots have opened up the new field of sunspot seismology, while recent high-resolution observations have forced us to rethink the structure of a sunspot penumbra.

  1. Microlesions - Theory and reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worgul, Basil V.; Koniarek, Jan P.; Krebs, Wolf

    1989-01-01

    Efforts to assess radiation risk in space have been complicated by the considerable unknowns regarding the biological effects of the heavy ion component (HZE particles) of the cosmic rays. The attention has focused primarily on the assignation of a quality factor (Q) which would take into account the greater effectiveness of heavy ions vis-a-vis other forms of ionizing radiation. If, however, as the so-called 'microlesion theory' allows, the passage of HZE particles through living tissue produces unique biological damage, the traditional use of Q becomes meaningless. Therefore, it is critical to determine if microlesions, in fact, do exist. While the concept does not necessarily require detectable morphological damage, 'tunnel-lesions' or holes in ocular tissues have been cited as evidence of microlesions. These data, however, are open to reinterpretation. Ongoing light, scanning and transmission electron microscopic studies of the corneas, lenses and retinas of rat eyes exposed to 450 MeV/amu Fe-56 ions thus far have not revealed tunnel-lesion damage. The morphological effects of the heavy ions have been found to be qualitatively similar to the changes following other kinds of ionizing radiation.

  2. Theory of gaseous detonations.

    PubMed

    Clavin, Paul

    2004-09-01

    The objective of the present paper is to review some developments that have occurred in detonation theory over the last ten years. They concern nonlinear dynamics of detonation fronts, namely patterns of pulsating and/or cellular fronts, selection of the cell size, dynamical self-quenching, direct (blast) or spontaneous initiation, and transition from deflagration to detonation. These phenomena are all well documented by experiments since the sixties but remained unexplained until recently. In the first part of the paper, the patterns of cellular detonations are described by an asymptotic solution to nonlinear hyperbolic equations (reactive Euler equations) in the form of unsteady (sometime chaotic) and multidimensional traveling-waves. In the second part, turning points of quasi-steady solutions are shown to correspond to critical conditions of fully unsteady problems, either for (direct or spontaneous) initiation or for spontaneous failure (self-quenching). Physical insights are tentatively presented rather than technical aspects. The challenge is to identify the physical mechanisms with their relevant parameters, and more specifically to explain how the length-scales involved in detonation dynamics are larger by two order of magnitude (at least) than the length-scale involved in the steady planar traveling-wave solution (detonation thickness).

  3. [Chronotherapy and relativity theory].

    PubMed

    Polishchuk, N A

    2008-01-01

    The course of time itself in alive organisms is treated from positions of the special theory of the relativity created by A. Einstein in 1905 and added by the Nobel winners H.A.Lorentsem, M. Plankom, M. fon Laue. These achievements of fundamental physics have been put in a basis of special medical technology "Resonant chronophytotherapy" (SMT RCPT) which is applied in practice of treatment of chronic diseases for 27 years. Grass tinctures in various dosages are used in SMT RCPT, which patients take once a day during precisely designated time. Parameters "dosage-time" daily vary. SMT RCPT have been conducted in treatment of epilepsy bronchial asthma, rheumatism, sclerodermia, hypertension, chronic glomerulonephritis, vegeto-vascular dystonia, female sterility, circular alopecia, vitiligo, eczema, psoriasis, onychomycosis. SMT RCPT does have adverse events, has no contra-indications to its use, directed, first of all, on elimination of nonspecific signs of a disease, reduces dependence and complications of the use of chemical synthetic preparations. SMT RCPT can be combined with any kind of specific treatment. Internet-variant of SMT RCPT has been developed. Chronomedicine is priority tendency in industrialized countries of the world--the USA, the Great Britain, Germany, France, Russia, China, Japan and appears on lead positions among alternative methods of treatment, both traditional, and non-traditional. PMID:19145832

  4. New Pulsar Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebede, Legesse

    2015-08-01

    Standard pulsar theory is based on fields that are conserved from progenitor stars. This has limited the scope of pulsar astronomy to a kind of study very much confined to a limited type of pulsars, so called field pulsars. The large majority of pulsars are technically eliminated from statistical studies because they are either too massive, or are of very high magnetic field with no mechanism yet known which forces them to decay to very low frequency rotators in a matter of a few thousands of years. This is one distinct property of these highly magnetized pulsars. The current presentation focuses on a new source for the generation of pulsar fields namely spinning separated surface charges and it shows that pulsar fields are strictly mass dependent. Massive neutron stars are strongly magnetized ( ≥ 1018 G) and less massive ones are weakly magnetized (1011 - 1013 G). This work therefore dismisses the current belief that there have to be two classes of pulsars (field pulsars and anomalous pulsars). It leads to a decay law that provides results that are consistent with observations from these two so called distinct classes of pulsars. This work also suggests that pulsar fields should be infinitely multi-polar which helps to successfully addresses the longtime issues of pulse shape and promises that the current problem of pulsar radiation could be solvable..

  5. [Chronotherapy and relativity theory].

    PubMed

    Polishchuk, N A

    2008-01-01

    The course of time itself in alive organisms is treated from positions of the special theory of the relativity created by A. Einstein in 1905 and added by the Nobel winners H.A.Lorentsem, M. Plankom, M. fon Laue. These achievements of fundamental physics have been put in a basis of special medical technology "Resonant chronophytotherapy" (SMT RCPT) which is applied in practice of treatment of chronic diseases for 27 years. Grass tinctures in various dosages are used in SMT RCPT, which patients take once a day during precisely designated time. Parameters "dosage-time" daily vary. SMT RCPT have been conducted in treatment of epilepsy bronchial asthma, rheumatism, sclerodermia, hypertension, chronic glomerulonephritis, vegeto-vascular dystonia, female sterility, circular alopecia, vitiligo, eczema, psoriasis, onychomycosis. SMT RCPT does have adverse events, has no contra-indications to its use, directed, first of all, on elimination of nonspecific signs of a disease, reduces dependence and complications of the use of chemical synthetic preparations. SMT RCPT can be combined with any kind of specific treatment. Internet-variant of SMT RCPT has been developed. Chronomedicine is priority tendency in industrialized countries of the world--the USA, the Great Britain, Germany, France, Russia, China, Japan and appears on lead positions among alternative methods of treatment, both traditional, and non-traditional.

  6. Normative population theory.

    PubMed

    Cowen, T

    1989-01-01

    This article finds utilitarian and contractarian approaches to solving the problem of optimal population unacceptable. The principles of utility refer to the best population as the one which contains the greatest sum of utility or the one with the highest average utility. Yet Parfits's repugnant conclusion states that these can imply a very large population at a very low standard of living. Cowen's Methuselah's Paradox says that for any possible happy and meaningful life, we can imagine another, much longer life which demonstrates the absurdity of the utility principles. Lewis argues for a conception of well being based upon choices over whole irreducible states of affairs, i.e., an ordinal concept of value. The contractarian approach assumes that we would rationally choose what type of life we were to live if the choice were made without anyone knowing his particular standing in the world--the veil of ignorance. This requires the individuals to choose on the basis of self interest, but gives too much weight to the individuals actually being born. The most promising population theory appears to be the ideal participant method. Simply stated the optimal population is what an individual would prefer if he had to sequentially live out each life in his choice. Further, this method may be able to reduce the difficulties with evaluating alternate populations to the common problem of aggregating disparate preferences.

  7. General theory of evolution.

    PubMed

    Csányi, V

    1980-01-01

    The biological, neural, cultural and technical evolutions and their phenomena have been explored, and on the basis of our findings the formation of a general theory of evolution has been undertaken. In each of the systems studied, the presence of structural building units, excitable structures and an energy-flow going through the system can be observed. Under the organizing effect of this energy-flow, the spontaneous generation of the replicative information begins and the structures of the system establish functional relations with each other. It can be demonstrated that the evolution of structures has a replicative character. The evolution goes through a phase of non-identical replication, and reaches the phase of identical replication. The parts of the system become separated, that is, compartments develop within it. The replicative information becomes compartmentalized and it converges. As a consequence of the convergence, the compartments compose new structural units which is tantamount to the development of new evolutional levels. The direction of evolution is determined by the growth of replicative information, and this process is concluded when the total system becomes one replicative unit. In the last part of the paper a few of the basic principles of evolution concerning matter, energy and information are drawn up.

  8. Modeling and flow theory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    (1) We recommend the establishment of an experimental test facility, appropriately instrumented, dedicated to research on theoretical modeling concepts. Validation of models for the various flow regimes, and establishment of the limitations or concepts used in the construction of models, are sorely needed areas of research. There exists no mechanism currently for funding of such research on a systematic basis. Such a facility would provide information fundamental to progress in the physics of turbulent multi-phase flow, which would also have impact on the understanding of coal utilization processes; (2) combustion research appears to have special institutional barriers to information exchange because it is an established, commercial ongoing effort, with heavy reliance on empirical data for proprietary configurations; (3) for both gasification and combustion reactors, current models appear to handle adequately some, perhaps even most, gross aspects of the reactors such as overall efficiency and major chemical output constituents. However, new and more stringent requirements concerning NOX, SOX and POX (small paticulate) production require greater understanding of process details and spatial inhomogenities, hence refinement of current models to include some greater detail is necessary; (4) further progress in the theory of single-phase turbulent flow would benefit our understanding of both combustors and gasifiers; and (5) another area in which theoretical development would be extremely useful is multi-phase flow.

  9. Superstatistics: Theory and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, C.

    2015-12-01

    Many driven nonequilibrium systems are described by a superposition of several dynamics on various time scales. If time scales are clearly separated then the formalism of superstatistics can be applied, leading effectively to a more general statistical mechanics relevant for complex systems. In these types of systems there is often dynamical behavior that is characterized by spatio-temporal fluctuations of an intensive parameter β. This parameter may be for example the inverse temperature, or an effective friction constant, or the amplitude of Gaussian white noise, or the energy dissipation in turbulent flows, or simply a local variance parameter extracted from a measured signal. A nonhomogenoeus spatially extended system with fluctuations in β on a large time scale, larger than the local relaxation time, leads to a superstatistical description, by averaging local Boltzmann factors using a suitable weight function f(β). Kappa distributions in space plasma physics are one example which naturally follows out of this formalism, but there are many applications in other areas as well. In this talk I will sketch the basic theory underlying the superstatistical approach and then describe a couple of recent applications.

  10. Toroidal spiral field theory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, V. B.

    1996-09-01

    A toroidal spiral field is introduced that propagates around all the objects in the universe. The nature of this field can be either gravitational or electrostatic or magnetic, and it governs the motion of the objects as well as the forces that act upon them. The topology of the toroidal spiral field is obtained when the Bertrami vortex comprised of two helical fluxes of opposite vorticity is curved into a circle. The main parameter that defines the geometry of the toroidal spiral field is the inversion radius of a sphere at which the toroidal fluxes of opposite vorticity meet. The inversion sphere is the border surface at which the matter converts into anti-matter, and at which the law of physics are inverted. The theory covers the problem of two objects orbiting each other with possible sizes ranging from an elementary particle to a black hole and to a galaxy. The equations obtained define the radii of the stationary quantum orbits which can be applied to a structure of the hydrogen atom, including its nucleus, as well as to a structure of a planetary system and a black hole. They also establish the relativistic relationships for the gravitational and inertial masses as well as for the electrical charge which are quite different than those proposed by Lorentz.

  11. THEORY IN RELIGION AND AGING: AN OVERVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Jeff; Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of theory in religion, aging, and health. It offers both a primer on theory and a roadmap for researchers. Four “tenses” of theory are described—distinct ways that theory comes into play in this field: grand theory, mid-range theory, use of theoretical models, and positing of constructs which mediate or moderate putative religious effects. Examples are given of both explicit and implicit uses of theory. Sources of theory for this field are then identified, emphasizing perspectives of sociologists and psychologists, and discussion is given to limitations of theory. Finally, reflections are offered as to why theory matters. PMID:20087662

  12. Implicit Theories of Peer Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated the role of children's implicit theories of peer relationships in their psychological, emotional, and behavioral adjustment. Participants included 206 children (110 girls; 96 boys; M age = 10.13 years, SD = 1.16) who reported on their implicit theories of peer relationships, social goal orientation, need for approval,…

  13. Critical Social Theory: A Portrait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    The term Critical Social Theory is employed in this article following the tradition of the Frankfurt School, and particularly the work of Herbert Marcuse and his interpretation of the political and social philosophy of Hegel and Marx. Discussing the contribution of G.W.F. Hegel to social theory Marcuse argued that: "Hegel's system brings to a…

  14. Theory of nuclear magnetic relaxation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconnell, J.

    1983-01-01

    A theory of nuclear magnetic interaction is based on the study of the stochastic rotation operator. The theory is applied explicitly to relaxation by anisotropic chemical shift and to spin-rotational interactions. It is applicable also to dipole-dipole and quadrupole interactions.

  15. Prospect Theory and Coercive Bargaining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Christopher K.

    2007-01-01

    Despite many applications of prospect theory's concepts to explain political and strategic phenomena, formal analyses of strategic problems using prospect theory are rare. Using Fearon's model of bargaining, Tversky and Kahneman's value function, and an existing probability weighting function, I construct a model that demonstrates the differences…

  16. Holland's Theory and Career Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Robert C.; Lenz, Janet G.

    1999-01-01

    Career assessment activities in the Self-Directed Search and constructs in Holland's theory increase understanding of an individual's personal career theory (PCT). The PCT provides information about a person's readiness for career decision making and the types of career interventions that might be effective. (Author/SK)

  17. A Relational Theory of Working

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blustein, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Building on diverse influences from critical perspectives in vocational psychology and the relational movement in contemporary psychological discourse, this article introduces the relational theory of working. Attending to the full array of people who work and who want to work, the relational theory conceptualizes working as an inherently…

  18. Teachers' Theories in Grammar Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Simon

    1999-01-01

    Considers how research into researchers' theories in English language teaching (ELT) can enhance our understanding of instruction and provide the basis of effective teacher-development work. The nature of teachers' theories is illustrated with examples from classroom research on grammar teaching. Discusses a study conducted with five…

  19. Organizational Learning Theory in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fauske, Janice R.; Raybould, Rebecca

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The paper's purposes are to establish organizational learning theory as evolving from the theoretical and empirical study of organizations and to build grounded theory explaining organizational learning in schools. Design/methodology/approach: Implementation of instructional technology as a process of organizational learning was explored…

  20. Stasis Theory and Paleontology Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northcut, Kathryn M.

    2007-01-01

    Stasis theory is a powerful tool for rhetorical analysis, recently under fresh consideration by rhetorical theorists (e.g. Gross) and scholars who identify its utility in the writing classroom (e.g. Carroll). In this study, the author applies stasis theory to a paleontological argument involving a controversial fossil, "Protoavis texensis."…

  1. Neoclassical Theory and Its Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shaing, Ker-Chung

    2015-11-20

    The grant entitled Neoclassical Theory and Its Applications started on January 15 2001 and ended on April 14 2015. The main goal of the project is to develop neoclassical theory to understand tokamak physics, and employ it to model current experimental observations and future thermonuclear fusion reactors. The PI had published more than 50 papers in refereed journals during the funding period.

  2. Agent-Based Literacy Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEneaney, John E.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this theoretical essay is to explore the limits of traditional conceptualizations of reader and text and to propose a more general theory based on the concept of a literacy agent. The proposed theoretical perspective subsumes concepts from traditional theory and aims to account for literacy online. The agent-based literacy theory…

  3. Testing a Theory of Laughter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheff, Thomas J.

    This paper proposes and tests a theory of catharsis of repressed emotion. The key concept in this theory is the balance of attention, a concept that is shown to be equivalent to aesthetic distance. Laughter and other emotional releases occur when one's attention is equally divided between a distressful past event and the safe present. In the…

  4. The Theory of Conceptual Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergnaud, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    The theory of conceptual fields is a developmental theory. It has two aims: (1) to describe and analyse the progressive complexity, on a long- and medium-term basis, of the mathematical competences that students develop inside and outside school, and (2) to establish better connections between the operational form of knowledge, which consists in…

  5. Theory and Pragmatics in Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nold, Ellen W.

    This discussion delineates five criteria for judging the usefulness of linguistic and psycholinguistic theories. To be of value, a theory must suggest ways of teaching and evaluating language use, it must account both for the meaning of sentences in context and for meaning generated by the relationship between sentences in text, it must allow for…

  6. Basics of QCD perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Soper, D.E.

    1997-06-01

    This is an introduction to the use of QCD perturbation theory, emphasizing generic features of the theory that enable one to separate short-time and long-time effects. The author also covers some important classes of applications: electron-positron annihilation to hadrons, deeply inelastic scattering, and hard processes in hadron-hadron collisions. 31 refs., 38 figs.

  7. Reading Hertz's Own Dipole Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anicin, B. A.

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that the discoverer of radio waves, Heinrich Hertz, was the first man to apply Maxwell's electrodynamic theory to a problem in radio wave propagation. In this paper, we scrutinize his near-field lines of force using computers and his theory. In one of his four figures, a feature was found which was not to be obtained by…

  8. Organizational Theory and Leadership Navigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazer, S. David; Kruse, Sharon D.; Conley, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Teaching organizational theory in a way that bridges to leadership practice is vital to preparing deft educational leaders who understand the organizational behavior of schools and districts. Organizational theory guides understanding of the complexities of schools and districts and can be a basis for collaborative and effective decision making.…

  9. Theory of Test Translation Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Backhoff, Eduardo; Contreras-Nino, Luis Angel

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we present a theory of test translation whose intent is to provide the conceptual foundation for effective, systematic work in the process of test translation and test translation review. According to the theory, translation error is multidimensional; it is not simply the consequence of defective translation but an inevitable fact…

  10. The Theory of International Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuchelli, Lisa

    Noting that the theory of international development is a paradigm, a model by which researchers guide their studies, this paper reviews various concepts of international development theory and proposes a research study that would examine mass media use in Georgia, one of the new republics born out of the death of the Soviet Union. The paper begins…

  11. Kants Theorie der Sonne: Physikgeschichte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, Manfred

    2005-01-01

    Im Rahmen seiner Kosmogonie entwickelte der junge Immanuel Kant eine Theorie der Sonne. Sie ist ein einzigartiges Zeugnis seiner intuitiven Vorstellungskraft und beweist auch die Leistungsfähigkeit der damaligen, vorwiegend von Newton geprägten Weltsicht. Entstehung, Aufbau und Dynamik der Sonne werden in Kants Theorie ebenso erklärt wie etwa das Phänomen der Sonnenflecken.

  12. Identity from classical invariant theory

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    A simple derivation is given of a well-known relation involving the so-called Cayley Operator of classical invariant theory. The proof is induction-free and independent of Capelli's identity; it makes use only of a known-theorem in the theory of determinants and some elementary combinatorics.

  13. Foundations of Distinctive Feature Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltaxe, Christiane A. M.

    This treatise on the theoretical and historical foundations of distinctive feature theory traces the evolution of the distinctive features concept in the context of related notions current in linguistic theory, discusses the evolution of individual distinctive features, and criticizes certain acoustic and perceptual correlates attributed to these…

  14. Attachment Theory: Retrospect and Prospect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretherton, Inge

    1985-01-01

    Provides overview of attachment theory as parented by John Bowlby in "Attachment and Loss". Uses two major concepts from this work to interpret refinements and elaborations of attachment theory attibuted to Mary Ainsworth. Considers how recent insights into development of socioemotional understanding and development of event representation can be…

  15. The Interpersonal Theory of Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Witte, Tracy K.; Cukrowicz, Kelly C.; Braithwaite, Scott R.; Selby, Edward A.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is a major problem worldwide and, at the same time, has received relatively little empirical attention. This relative lack of empirical attention may be due in part to a relative absence of theory development regarding suicidal behavior. The current article presents the interpersonal theory of suicidal behavior. We propose that…

  16. Comparative Theories of Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Hollis W.; And Others

    This symposium report contains various statements of the theory of change and societal growth and maintenance viewed from the perspectives of major social disciplines. Comparative theories in these areas can provide guidelines for predicting, planning, and carrying out social development programs. The theme of the symposium was the problem of…

  17. Antecedents of the Theory Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Jack A.

    1981-01-01

    Traces the conceptual roots of the theory movement in educational administration, highlighting the ideas of Auguste Comte and the logical positivists. Explains how core concepts that shaped the theory movement were diffused into educational administration and sets forth implications for future study. (Author/WD)

  18. Evaluation Theory, Models, and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stufflebeam, Daniel L.; Shinkfield, Anthony J.

    2007-01-01

    "Evaluation Theory, Models, and Applications" is designed for evaluators and students who need to develop a commanding knowledge of the evaluation field: its history, theory and standards, models and approaches, procedures, and inclusion of personnel as well as program evaluation. This important book shows how to choose from a growing array of…

  19. Information Theory in Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckschlager, Karel; Stepanek, Vladimir

    1982-01-01

    Discusses information theory in analytical practice. Topics include information quantities; ways of obtaining formulas for the amount of information in structural, qualitative, and trace analyses; and information measures in comparing and optimizing analytical methods and procedures. Includes tables outlining applications of information theory to…

  20. Children's Working Theories: Invoking Disequilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovatt, Daniel; Hedges, Helen

    2015-01-01

    One of the outcomes of the New Zealand early childhood curriculum, "Te Whariki", is "working theories". Prior research on this concept has primarily utilised sociocultural theoretical underpinnings and neglected Piagetian constructivist theories. This paper explores ways the Piagetian concepts of equilibrium and disequilibrium…

  1. Supergravity Theory from Ten Dimensions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romans, Larry James

    1985-12-01

    This work is concerned with the study of several ten-dimensional field theories intimately associated with superstring theories, and possibilities for obtaining realistic four-dimensional theories from them. Three chapters follow the N = 2b supergravity from ten to five, then to four dimensions. First of all, compactifications to five dimensions on various manifolds are studied. Then the entire mass spectrum for the compactification on S('5) is derived using techniques of harmonic analysis on spheres. A particular set of modes corresponds to a gauged maximal supergravity theory in five dimensions; this theory, with Yang-Mills group SO(6), is constructed in detail. By a process similar to analytic continuation, noncompact versions of this theory are also obtained, gauging all the semisimple real forms of SO(6). One particular form, with gauge group SO*(6) (DBLTURN) SU(3,1), compactifies to flat four-dimensional spacetime and offers attractive phenomenological possibilities. The final chapter is concerned with candidates for effective low-energy theories for N = 1 superstrings with gauge group SO(32) or E(,8) x E(,8). These effective theories contain curvature squared terms, and require unusual gravitational interactions to cancel anomalies. The field equations are derived and found to admit compactifications to flat four dimensional spacetime, with the possibility of accommodating many phenomenological considerations.

  2. Theory "W": The Corporate Warrior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, David J., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Describes power structure of corporations functioning under Theory W in which single leaders, in partnership with trusted followers, achieve corporate success. Basis of this industrial structure is attributed to social and developmental structures of prehistoric man and city states. Dimensions of W, X, Y, and Z theories are discussed. (MBR)

  3. Theory Z: Panacea or Placebo?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waagen, Christopher L.

    William Ouchi's Theory Z, a theory that focuses on the identification of both management and labor with the company's goals, emphasizes communication structures and styles. Ringi is a Japanese procedure for decision making in which all levels of management participate. In Ringi, a manager's task is to communicate. In quality control (Q-C) circles,…

  4. Constraints on galaxy formation theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalay, A. S.

    1986-01-01

    The present theories of galaxy formation are reviewed. The relation between peculiar velocities, temperature fluctuations of the microwave background and the correlation function of galaxies point to the possibility that galaxies do not form uniformly everywhere. The velocity data provide strong constraints on the theories even in the case when light does not follow mass of the universe.

  5. Geometer energy unified field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Susana; Rivera, Anacleto

    GEOMETER - ENERGY UNIFIED FIELD THEORY Author: Anacleto Rivera Nivón Co-author: Susana Rivera Cabrera This work is an attempt to find the relationship between the Electromagnetic Field and the Gravitational Field. Despite it is based on the existence of Strings of Energy, it is not the same kind of strings that appears on other theories like Superstring Theory, Branas Theory, M - Theory, or any other related string theories. Here, the Strings are concentrated energy lines that vibrates, and experiences shrinking and elongations, absorbing and yielding on each contraction and expansion all that is found in the Universe: matter and antimatter, waves and energy in all manifestations. In contrast to superstring theory, which strings are on the range of the Length of Planck, these Strings can be on the cosmological size, and can contain many galaxies, or clusters, or groups of galaxies; but also they can reach as small sizes as subatomic levels. Besides, and contrary to what it is stated in some other string theories that need the existence of ten or more dimensions, the present proposal sustains in only four particular dimensions. It has been developed a mathematical support that will try to help to improve the understanding of the phenomena that take place at the Universe.

  6. Dyons in topological field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temple-Raston, M.

    1991-10-01

    We examine a class of topological field theories defined by Lagrangians that under certain conditions can be written as the sum of two characteristic numbers or winding numbers. Therefore, the action or the energy is a topological invariant and stable under perturbations. The sufficient conditions required for stability take the form of first-order field equations, analogous to the self-duality and Bogomol'nyi equations in Yang-Mills(-Higgs) theory. Solutions to the first-order equations automatically satisfy the full field equations. We show the existence of nontrivial, nonsingular, minimum energy spherically symmetric dyon solutions and that they are stable. We also discuss evidence for a dual field theory to Yang-Mills-Higgs in topological field theory. The existence of dual field theories and electric monopoles is predicted by Montonen and Olive.

  7. Geometric scalar theory of gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Novello, M.; Bittencourt, E.; Goulart, E.; Salim, J.M.; Toniato, J.D.; Moschella, U. E-mail: eduhsb@cbpf.br E-mail: egoulart@cbpf.br E-mail: toniato@cbpf.br

    2013-06-01

    We present a geometric scalar theory of gravity. Our proposal will be described using the ''background field method'' introduced by Gupta, Feynman, Deser and others as a field theory formulation of general relativity. We analyze previous criticisms against scalar gravity and show how the present proposal avoids these difficulties. This concerns not only the theoretical complaints but also those related to observations. In particular, we show that the widespread belief of the conjecture that the source of scalar gravity must be the trace of the energy-momentum tensor — which is one of the main difficulties to couple gravity with electromagnetic phenomenon in previous models — does not apply to our geometric scalar theory. From the very beginning this is not a special relativistic scalar gravity. The adjective ''geometric'' pinpoints its similarity with general relativity: this is a metric theory of gravity. Some consequences of this new scalar theory are explored.

  8. Media Effects: Theory and Research.

    PubMed

    Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen; Walther, Joseph B

    2016-01-01

    This review analyzes trends and commonalities among prominent theories of media effects. On the basis of exemplary meta-analyses of media effects and bibliometric studies of well-cited theories, we identify and discuss five features of media effects theories as well as their empirical support. Each of these features specifies the conditions under which media may produce effects on certain types of individuals. Our review ends with a discussion of media effects in newer media environments. This includes theories of computer-mediated communication, the development of which appears to share a similar pattern of reformulation from unidirectional, receiver-oriented views, to theories that recognize the transactional nature of communication. We conclude by outlining challenges and promising avenues for future research. PMID:26331344

  9. Media Effects: Theory and Research.

    PubMed

    Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen; Walther, Joseph B

    2016-01-01

    This review analyzes trends and commonalities among prominent theories of media effects. On the basis of exemplary meta-analyses of media effects and bibliometric studies of well-cited theories, we identify and discuss five features of media effects theories as well as their empirical support. Each of these features specifies the conditions under which media may produce effects on certain types of individuals. Our review ends with a discussion of media effects in newer media environments. This includes theories of computer-mediated communication, the development of which appears to share a similar pattern of reformulation from unidirectional, receiver-oriented views, to theories that recognize the transactional nature of communication. We conclude by outlining challenges and promising avenues for future research.

  10. Structure of a viscoplastic theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.

    1988-01-01

    The general structure of a viscoplastic theory is developed from physical and thermodynamical considerations. The flow equation is of classical form. The dynamic recovery approach is shown to be superior to the hardening function approach for incorporating nonlinear strain hardening into the material response through the evolutionary equation for back stress. A novel approach for introducing isotropic strain hardening into the theory is presented, which results in a useful simplification. In particular, the limiting stress for the kinematic saturation of state (not the drag stress) is the chosen scalar-valued state variable. The resulting simplification is that there is no coupling between dynamic and thermal recovery terms in each evolutionary equation. The derived theory of viscoplasticity has the structure of a two-surface plasticity theory when the response is plasticlike, and the structure of a Bailey-Orowan creep theory when the response is creeplike.

  11. Optimality theory in phonological acquisition.

    PubMed

    Barlow, J A; Gierut, J A

    1999-12-01

    This tutorial presents an introduction to the contemporary linguistic framework known as optimality theory (OT). The basic assumptions of this constraint-based theory as a general model of grammar are first outlined, with formal notation being defined and illustrated. Concepts unique to the theory, including "emergence of the unmarked," are also described. OT is then examined more specifically within the context of phonological acquisition. The theory is applied in descriptions of children's common error patterns, observed inter- and intrachild variation, and productive change over time. The particular error patterns of fronting, stopping, final-consonant deletion, and cluster simplification are considered from an OT perspective. The discussion concludes with potential clinical applications and extensions of the theory to the diagnosis and treatment of children with functional phonological disorders.

  12. Galilean Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagchi, Arjun; Basu, Rudranil; Kakkar, Ashish; Mehra, Aditya

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the symmetry structure of the non-relativistic limit of Yang-Mills theories. Generalising previous results in the Galilean limit of electrodynamics, we discover that for Yang-Mills theories there are a variety of limits inside the Galilean regime. We first explicitly work with the SU(2) theory and then generalise to SU( N) for all N, systematising our notation and analysis. We discover that the whole family of limits lead to different sectors of Galilean Yang-Mills theories and the equations of motion in each sector exhibit hitherto undiscovered infinite dimensional symmetries, viz. infinite Galilean Conformal symmetries in D = 4. These provide the first examples of interacting Galilean Conformal Field Theories (GCFTs) in D > 2.

  13. Unified theory of effective interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayanagi, Kazuo

    2016-09-01

    We present a unified description of effective interaction theories in both algebraic and graphic representations. In our previous work, we have presented the Rayleigh-Schrödinger and Bloch perturbation theories in a unified fashion by introducing the main frame expansion of the effective interaction. In this work, we start also from the main frame expansion, and present various nonperturbative theories in a coherent manner, which include generalizations of the Brandow, Brillouin-Wigner, and Bloch-Horowitz theories on the formal side, and the extended Krenciglowa-Kuo and the extended Lee-Suzuki methods on the practical side. We thus establish a coherent and comprehensive description of both perturbative and nonperturbative theories on the basis of the main frame expansion.

  14. Social theory and medicine.

    PubMed

    Waitzkin, H; Waterman, B

    1976-01-01

    Three sociolgists-Talcott Parson, Eliot Freidson, and Mechanic-have explained medical phneomena within a broader theoretical framework. Although all three have made significant contributions, their conclusions remain incomplete on the theoretical level and seldom have been helpful for workers concerned with ongoing problems of health care. Our purpose here is to summarize some of the strengths and weakness of each theoretical position. Parsons has elucidated the sick role as a deviant role in society, the function of physicians as agents of social control, and the normative patterns governing the doctor-patient relationship. The principal problems in Parsons' analysis center on an uncritical acceptance of physicians' social control functions, his inattention tot the ways in which physicians' behavior may inhibit change in society, and overoptimism about the medical profession's ability to regulate itself and to prevent the exploitation of patients. Viewing medical phenomena within a broader theory of the professions in general, Freidson has formulated w wide ranging critique of the medical profession and professional dominance. On the other hand, Freidson's work neglects the full political implications of bringing professional autonomy under control. Mechanic's coceptual approach emphasizes the social psychologic factors, rather than the institutional conditions, which are involved in the genesis of illness behavior. Mechanic also overlooks the ways in which illness behavior, by permitting a controllable from of deviance, fosters institutional stability. In conclusion, we present a breif overview of a theoretical framework whose general orientation is that of Marixian analysis. Several themes recur in this framework: illness as a source of exploitation, the sick role as a conservative mechanism fostering social stability, stratification in medicine, and the imperialsm of large medical institutions and health-related industries. PMID:939617

  15. Theory of Collective Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2003-01-01

    In this chapter an analysis of the behavior of an arbitrary (perhaps massive) collective of computational processes in terms of an associated "world" utility function is presented We concentrate on the situation where each process in the collective can be viewed as though it were striving to maximize its own private utility function. For such situations the central design issue is how to initialize/update the collective's structure, and in particular the private utility functions, so as to induce the overall collective to behave in a way that has large values of the world utility. Traditional "team game" approaches to this problem simply set each private utility function equal to the world utility function. The "Collective Intelligence" (COIN) framework is a semi-formal set of heuristics that recently have been used to construct private utility. functions that in many experiments have resulted in world utility values up to orders of magnitude superior to that ensuing from use of the team game utility. In this paper we introduce a formal mathematics for analyzing and designing collectives. We also use this mathematics to suggest new private utilities that should outperform the COIN heuristics in certain kinds of domains. In accompanying work we use that mathematics to explain previous experimental results concerning the superiority of COIN heuristics. In that accompanying work we also use the mathematics to make numerical predictions, some of which we then test. In this way these two papers establish the study of collectives as a proper science, involving theory, explanation of old experiments, prediction concerning new experiments, and engineering insights.

  16. Coleridge's "theory of life".

    PubMed

    Smith, C U

    1999-01-01

    Coleridge has been seen by some not so much as a poet spoiled by philosophy, but as a philosopher who was also a poet. It could be argued that his major endeavor was an attempt to save the life sciences form the mechanistic interpretation which he saw as the outcome of Lockean "mechanico-corpuscularian" philosophy. This contribution describes that endeavour. It shows its connection to the social circumstances of the time. It discusses its relationship to the poetic sensibility of the "Lake poets" and to the German thought which Coleridge absorbed during and after his sojourn in Gottingen in 1798-99. It describes the nature of his "Theory of Life" as seen not only from the posthumous publication itself, but also from the numerous hints and struggles recorded in his voluminous notebooks, letters and lecture notes. It is concluded that, although never adequately assembled, it forms the only serious attempt to construct a profound alternative to the ultimately mechanistic biology of Charles Darwin and the psysiologists of the second half of the century. As such it strongly influenced the young Richard Owen and, as is well known, was eventually overwhelmed by the Darwin-Huxley synthesis of the 1860s. Nevertheless, insofar as Coleridge's concept of life ultimately derived from his ambition to find a way of healing the Cartesian divide, we may wonder whether the recent upsurge in consciousness studies may cause us to look again at his panentheistic ideas and, discarding the obsolete and fanciful metaphysics, recast them into a more acceptable form.

  17. [From the cell theory to the neuron theory].

    PubMed

    Tixier-Vidal, Andrée

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between the cell theory formulated by Schwann (1839) and by Virchow (1855) on the one hand, and, on the other hand, the neuron theory, as formulated by Waldeyer (1891) and by Cajal (1906), are discussed from a historical point of view. Both of them are the result of technical and conceptuel progress. Both of them had to fight against the dominant dogma before being accepted. The cell theory opposed the school of Bichat, the vitalist philosophy and the positivist philosophy of Auguste Comte. The neuron theory, which is clearly based on the cell theory, was mostly concerned with the mode of interneuronal communication; it opposed the concept of contiguity to Golgi's concept of continuity. At present, the cell theory remains central in every field of Biology. By contrast, the neuron theory, which until the middle of the XXth century opened the study of the nervous system to a necessary reductionnist approach, is no longer central to recent developments of neurosciences. PMID:21215242

  18. A Computational Theory of Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossberg, Axel G.

    2003-04-01

    A metatheory is developed which characterizes the relationship between a modelled system, which complies with some ``basic theory'', and a model, which does not, and yet reproduces important aspects of the modelled system. A model is represented by an (in a certain sense, s.b.) optimal algorithm which generates data that describe the model's state or evolution complying with a ``reduced theory''. Theories are represented by classes of (in a similar sense, s.b.) optimal algorithms that test if their input data comply with the theory. The metatheory does not prescribe the formalisms (data structure, language) to be used for the description of states or evolutions. Transitions to other formalisms and loss of accuracy, common to theory reduction, are explicitly accounted for. The basic assumption of the theory is that resources such as the code length (~ programming time) and the computation time for modelling and testing are costly, but the relative cost of each recourse is unknown. Thus, if there is an algorithm a for which there is no other algorithm b solving the same problem but using less of each recourse, then a is considered optimal. For tests (theories), the set X of wrongly admitted inputs is treated as another resource. It is assumed that X1 is cheaper than X2 when X1 ⊂ X2 (X1 ≠ X2). Depending on the problem, the algorithmic complexity of a reduced theory can be smaller or larger than that of the basic theory. The theory might help to distinguish actual properties of complex systems from mere mental constructs. An application to complex spatio-temporal patterns is discussed.

  19. Noncommutative Geometry in M-Theory and Conformal Field Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Morariu, Bogdan

    1999-05-01

    In the first part of the thesis I will investigate in the Matrix theory framework, the subgroup of dualities of the Discrete Light Cone Quantization of M-theory compactified on tori, which corresponds to T-duality in the auxiliary Type II string theory. After a review of matrix theory compactification leading to noncommutative supersymmetric Yang-Mills gauge theory, I will present solutions for the fundamental and adjoint sections on a two-dimensional twisted quantum torus and generalize to three-dimensional twisted quantum tori. After showing how M-theory T-duality is realized in supersymmetric Yang-Mills gauge theories on dual noncommutative tori I will relate this to the mathematical concept of Morita equivalence of C*-algebras. As a further generalization, I consider arbitrary Ramond-Ramond backgrounds. I will also discuss the spectrum of the toroidally compactified Matrix theory corresponding to quantized electric fluxes on two and three tori. In the second part of the thesis I will present an application to conformal field theory involving quantum groups, another important example of a noncommutative space. First, I will give an introduction to Poisson-Lie groups and arrive at quantum groups using the Feynman path integral. I will quantize the symplectic leaves of the Poisson-Lie group SU(2)*. In this way we obtain the unitary representations of U{sub q}(SU(2)). I discuss the X-structure of SU(2)* and give a detailed description of its leaves using various parametrizations. Then, I will introduce a new reality structure on the Heisenberg double of Fun{sub q} (SL(N,C)) for q phase, which can be interpreted as the quantum phase space of a particle on the q-deformed mass-hyperboloid. I also present evidence that the above real form describes zero modes of certain non-compact WZNW-models.

  20. Transition operators in electromagnetic-wave diffraction theory - General theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, G. E.

    1992-01-01

    A formal theory is developed for the scattering of time-harmonic electromagnetic waves from impenetrable immobile obstacles with given linear, homogeneous, and generally nonlocal boundary conditions of Leontovich (impedance) type for the wave of the obstacle's surface. The theory is modeled on the complete Green's function and the transition (T) operator in time-independent formal scattering theory of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. An expression for the differential scattering cross section for plane electromagnetic waves is derived in terms of certain matrix elements of the T operator for the obstacle.

  1. Theories of musculoskeletal injury causation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S

    2001-01-15

    Based on the scientific evidence in published literature about precipitation of musculoskeletal injuries in the workplace, four theories have been proposed to explain these afflictions. Central to all theories is the presupposition that all occupational musculoskeletal injuries are biomechanical in nature. Disruption of mechanical order of a biological system is dependent on the individual components and their mechanical properties. These common denominators will be causally affected by the individual's genetic endowment, morphological characteristics and psychosocial makeup, and by the occupational biomechanical hazards. This phenomenon is explained by the Multivariate Interaction Theory. Differential Fatigue Theory accounts for unbalanced and asymmetric occupational activities creating differential fatigue and thereby a kinetic and kinematic imbalance resulting in injury precipitation. Cumulative Load Theory suggests a threshold range of load and repetition product beyond which injury precipitates, as all material substances have a finite life. Finally, Overexertion Theory claims that exertion exceeding the tolerance limit precipitates occupational musculoskeletal injury. It is also suggested that while these theories may explain the immediate mechanism of precipitation of injuries, they all operate simultaneously and interact to modulate injuries to varying degrees in different cases.

  2. Corners in M-theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sati, Hisham

    2011-06-01

    M-theory can be defined on closed manifolds as well as on manifolds with boundary. As an extension, we show that manifolds with corners appear naturally in M-theory. We illustrate this with four situations: the lift to bounding 12 dimensions of M-theory on anti-de Sitter spaces, ten-dimensional heterotic string theory in relation to 12 dimensions, and the two M-branes within M-theory in the presence of a boundary. The M2-brane is taken with (or as) a boundary and the worldvolume of the M5-brane is viewed as a tubular neighborhood. We then concentrate on the (variant) of the heterotic theory as a corner and explore analytical and geometric consequences. In particular, we formulate and study the phase of the partition function in this setting and identify the corrections due to the corner(s). The analysis involves considering M-theory on disconnected manifolds and makes use of the extension of the Atiyah-Patodi-Singer index theorem to manifolds with corners and the b-calculus of Melrose.

  3. Propensity, Probability, and Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballentine, Leslie E.

    2016-08-01

    Quantum mechanics and probability theory share one peculiarity. Both have well established mathematical formalisms, yet both are subject to controversy about the meaning and interpretation of their basic concepts. Since probability plays a fundamental role in QM, the conceptual problems of one theory can affect the other. We first classify the interpretations of probability into three major classes: (a) inferential probability, (b) ensemble probability, and (c) propensity. Class (a) is the basis of inductive logic; (b) deals with the frequencies of events in repeatable experiments; (c) describes a form of causality that is weaker than determinism. An important, but neglected, paper by P. Humphreys demonstrated that propensity must differ mathematically, as well as conceptually, from probability, but he did not develop a theory of propensity. Such a theory is developed in this paper. Propensity theory shares many, but not all, of the axioms of probability theory. As a consequence, propensity supports the Law of Large Numbers from probability theory, but does not support Bayes theorem. Although there are particular problems within QM to which any of the classes of probability may be applied, it is argued that the intrinsic quantum probabilities (calculated from a state vector or density matrix) are most naturally interpreted as quantum propensities. This does not alter the familiar statistical interpretation of QM. But the interpretation of quantum states as representing knowledge is untenable. Examples show that a density matrix fails to represent knowledge.

  4. Theory of Optimal Human Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Albert Loongtak

    1990-01-01

    This thesis presents optimal theories for punching and running. The first is a theory of the optimal karate punch in terms of the duration and the speed of the punch. This theory is solved and compared with experimental data. The theory incorporates the force vs velocity equation (Hill's eq.) and Wilkie's equation for elbow flexation in determining the optimal punch. The time T and the final speed of the punch are dependent on a few physiological parameters for arm muscles. The theoretical punch agrees fairly well with our experiments and other independent experiments. Second, a theory of optimal running is presented, solved and compared with world track records. The theory is similar to Keller's theory for running (1973) except that the power consumed by a runner is assumed to be proportional to the runner's speed v, P = Hv, whereas Keller took P = constant. There are differential equations for velocity and energy, two initial conditions and two constraint inequalities, involving a total of four free parameters. Optimal control techniques are used to solve this problem and minimize the running time T given the race distance D. The resultant predicted times T agree well with the records and the parameter values are consistent with independent physiological measurements.

  5. Machines for lattice gauge theory

    SciTech Connect

    Mackenzie, P.B.

    1989-05-01

    The most promising approach to the solution of the theory of strong interactions is large scale numerical simulation using the techniques of lattice gauge theory. At the present time, computing requirements for convincing calculations of the properties of hadrons exceed the capabilities of even the most powerful commercial supercomputers. This has led to the development of massively parallel computers dedicated to lattice gauge theory. This talk will discuss the computing requirements behind these machines, and general features of the components and architectures of the half dozen major projects now in existence. 20 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Non-supersymmetric string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinec, Emil J.; Robbins, Daniel; Sethi, Savdeep

    2011-10-01

    A class of non-supersymmetric string backgrounds can be constructed using twists that involve space-time fermion parity. We propose a non-perturbative definition of string theory in these backgrounds via gauge theories with supersymmetry softly broken by twisted boundary conditions. The perturbative string spectrum is reproduced, and qualitative effects of the interactions are discussed. Along the way, we find an interesting mechanism for inflation. The end state of closed string tachyon condensation is a highly excited state in the gauge theory which, in all likelihood, does not have a geometric interpretation.

  7. Methods of Contemporary Gauge Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makeenko, Yuri

    2002-08-01

    Preface; Part I. Path Integrals: 1. Operator calculus; 2. Second quantization; 3. Quantum anomalies from path integral; 4. Instantons in quantum mechanics; Part II. Lattice Gauge Theories: 5. Observables in gauge theories; 6. Gauge fields on a lattice; 7. Lattice methods; 8. Fermions on a lattice; 9. Finite temperatures; Part III. 1/N Expansion: 10. O(N) vector models; 11. Multicolor QCD; 12. QCD in loop space; 13. Matrix models; Part IV. Reduced Models: 14. Eguchi-Kawai model; 15. Twisted reduced models; 16. Non-commutative gauge theories.

  8. Methods of Contemporary Gauge Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makeenko, Yuri

    2005-11-01

    Preface; Part I. Path Integrals: 1. Operator calculus; 2. Second quantization; 3. Quantum anomalies from path integral; 4. Instantons in quantum mechanics; Part II. Lattice Gauge Theories: 5. Observables in gauge theories; 6. Gauge fields on a lattice; 7. Lattice methods; 8. Fermions on a lattice; 9. Finite temperatures; Part III. 1/N Expansion: 10. O(N) vector models; 11. Multicolor QCD; 12. QCD in loop space; 13. Matrix models; Part IV. Reduced Models: 14. Eguchi-Kawai model; 15. Twisted reduced models; 16. Non-commutative gauge theories.

  9. Erroneous theories of sex determination.

    PubMed Central

    Mittwoch, U

    1985-01-01

    Throughout the major part of history, theories of sex determination had to be formulated in the absence of knowledge of ova and spermatozoa. The most persistent theory postulated that males are associated with the right parental side and females with the left side. At the end of the 19th century, sex was thought to be determined by nutrition. Recent findings regarding bilateral asymmetry in human hermaphrodites and of temperature dependent sex determination in reptiles may restore a small degree of credibility to certain theories predating the discovery of sex chromosomes. Images PMID:3892005

  10. Understanding conformal field theory through parafermions and Chern Simons theory

    SciTech Connect

    Hotes, S.A.

    1992-11-19

    Conformal field theories comprise a vast class of exactly solvable two dimensional quantum field theories. Conformal theories with an enlarged symmetry group, the current algebra symmetry, axe a key ingredient to possible string compactification models. The following work explores a Lagrangian approach to these theories. In the first part of this thesis, a large class of conformal theories, the so-called coset models, are derived semi-classically from a gauged version Of the Wess-Zumino-Witten functional. A non-local field transformation to the parafermionic field description is employed in the quantization procedure. Classically, these parafermionic fields satisfy non-trivial Poisson brackets, providing insight into the fractional spin nature of the conformal theory. The W-algebra symmetry is shown to appear naturally in this approach. In the second part of this thesis, the connection between the fusion algebra structure of Wess-Zumino-Witten models and the quantization of the Chern-Simons action on the torus is made explicit. The modular properties of the conformal model are also derived in this context, giving a natural demonstration of the Verlinde conjecture. The effects of background gauge fields and monopoles are also discussed.

  11. Nonequilibrium statistical field theory for classical particles: Basic kinetic theory.

    PubMed

    Viermann, Celia; Fabis, Felix; Kozlikin, Elena; Lilow, Robert; Bartelmann, Matthias

    2015-06-01

    Recently Mazenko and Das and Mazenko [Phys. Rev. E 81, 061102 (2010); J. Stat. Phys. 149, 643 (2012); J. Stat. Phys. 152, 159 (2013); Phys. Rev. E 83, 041125 (2011)] introduced a nonequilibrium field-theoretical approach to describe the statistical properties of a classical particle ensemble starting from the microscopic equations of motion of each individual particle. We use this theory to investigate the transition from those microscopic degrees of freedom to the evolution equations of the macroscopic observables of the ensemble. For the free theory, we recover the continuity and Jeans equations of a collisionless gas. For a theory containing two-particle interactions in a canonical perturbation series, we find the macroscopic evolution equations to be described by the Born-Bogoliubov-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon hierarchy with a truncation criterion depending on the order in perturbation theory. This establishes a direct link between the classical and the field-theoretical approaches to kinetic theory that might serve as a starting point to investigate kinetic theory beyond the classical limits.

  12. Gestalt Therapy and General System Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitner, Phillip A.

    While General Systems Theory (GST) concepts appear to be applicable in explaining some of the phenomena that occur in a Gestalt Therapy group, research is needed to support this assumption. General Systems Theory may not be a group theory per se. Instead, GST may be a theory about groups. A meta-theory exists where its value and usefulness is…

  13. A Developmental Test of Mertonian Anomie Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Carefully reviewed Merton's writings on anomie theory to construct a more complete and rigorous test of the theory for respondents in early, middle, and late adolescence. Concluded that misspecified models of strain theory have underestimated the predictive power of strain theory in general and of anomie theory in particular. (JBJ)

  14. Valence-Bond Theory and Chemical Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Douglas J.; Trinajstic, Nenad

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the importance of valence bond theory on the quantum-mechanical theory of chemical structure and the nature of the chemical bond. Described briefly are early VB theory, development of VB theory, modern versions, solid-state applications, models, treatment in textbooks, and flaws in criticisms of valence bond theory. (KR)

  15. Moral Exemplars in Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zagzebski, Linda

    2013-01-01

    In this article I outline an original form of ethical theory that I call exemplarist virtue theory. The theory is intended to serve the philosophical purposes of a comprehensive moral theory, but it is also intended to serve the practical purpose of moral education by structuring the theory around a motivating emotion--the emotion of admiration.…

  16. Beyond Simulation-Theory and Theory-Theory: Why Social Cognitive Neuroscience Should Use Its Own Concepts to Study "Theory of Mind"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apperly, Ian A.

    2008-01-01

    The debate between Simulation-Theory (ST) and Theory-Theory (TT) provides the dominant theoretical framework for research on "theory of mind" (ToM). Behavioural research has failed to provide clear methods for discriminating between these theories, but a number of recent studies have claimed that neuroimaging methods do allow key predictions of ST…

  17. [Mentalization and theory of mind].

    PubMed

    Wyl, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    Both concepts, mentalization and the theory of mind, describe metacognitive processes. Mentalization mainly concerns the reflection of affective mental states. In contrast, theory of mind focuses on epistemic states such as beliefs, intentions and persuasions. Gender differences have proved to be relevant for both, the development of mentalization and the theory of mind. However, there are few studies and findings are inconsistent. In an own study, we investigated the relationship between early competences in metacognition (tested in a false-belief-task second order) and narrative skills of kindergarten children. Results show that children who had successfully passed the theory of mind test tended to face conflicts more directly in the stories. In consequence, these children showed less narrative avoidance. However, differences were only found in girls and not in boys. The precise understanding of developmental differences in metacognition between girls and boys may be an important aspect with regards to improving mentalization based therapy of children.

  18. Nonlocal and quasilocal field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomboulis, E. T.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate nonlocal field theories, a subject that has attracted some renewed interest in connection with nonlocal gravity models. We study, in particular, scalar theories of interacting delocalized fields, the delocalization being specified by nonlocal integral kernels. We distinguish between strictly nonlocal and quasilocal (compact support) kernels and impose conditions on them to insure UV finiteness and unitarity of amplitudes. We study the classical initial value problem for the partial integro-differential equations of motion in detail. We give rigorous proofs of the existence but accompanying loss of uniqueness of solutions due to the presence of future, as well as past, "delays," a manifestation of acausality. In the quantum theory we derive a generalization of the Bogoliubov causality condition equation for amplitudes, which explicitly exhibits the corrections due to nonlocality. One finds that, remarkably, for quasilocal kernels all acausal effects are confined within the compact support regions. We briefly discuss the extension to other types of fields and prospects of such theories.

  19. A Pattern Theory of Self

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Shaun

    2013-01-01

    I argue for a pattern theory of self as a useful way to organize an interdisciplinary approach to discussions of what constitutes a self. According to the pattern theory, a self is constituted by a number of characteristic features or aspects that may include minimal embodied, minimal experiential, affective, intersubjective, psychological/cognitive, narrative, extended, and situated aspects. A pattern theory of self helps to clarify various interpretations of self as compatible or commensurable instead of thinking them in opposition, and it helps to show how various aspects of self may be related across certain dimensions. I also suggest that a pattern theory of self can help to adjudicate (or at least map the differences) between the idea that the self correlates to self-referential processing in the cortical midline structures of the brain and other narrower or wider conceptions of self. PMID:23914173

  20. Generalized Heisenberg theory of turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uberoi, M. S.; Narain, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    Solutions of the generalized theory are obtained which are consistent with the previous work on energy transfer measurements. They also agree with the measurements of turbulent energy spectrum for wave numbers in the universal equilibrium range.

  1. Engagement with an old theory.

    PubMed

    Cumming, E

    1975-01-01

    The co-author of Disengagement Theory restates the central propositions, suggests new studies that might test its usefulness, and examines some of the controversy that has been generated over the years either by the theory itself or the context in which it was set forth. The four key propositions focus upon decreasing life space with advancing age, the individual's own anticipation and participation in this process, a change in style of interaction, and the momentum of the disengagement process once it has begun. Although some useful research has been done, the theory remains poorly operationalized and largely untested. A measure of life space variety is proposed, and attention also directed to neuro-physiological findings. Several misunderstandings and misapplications of Disengagement Theory are discussed, including the erroneous idea that disengaged people necessarily are either higher or lower in morale than others, and the unenlightening controversy over "activity versus disengagement."

  2. Evolution as Fact and Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Stephen Jay

    1981-01-01

    This essay by a Harvard evolutionist presents viewpoints concerning the creationists' arguments against evolutionary biology. Semantics regarding "facts" and "theory" of evolution are examined, examples are cited of creationist argument, and arguments for evolution are presented. (CS)

  3. Critical Theory in Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardt, Hanno

    1986-01-01

    Reviews two books by Martin Jay on the intellectual history of Western Marxism and critical theory "in exile" that detail the complex foundations of an ideological critique of culture and society and evaluates their meaning for communications scholarship. (JD)

  4. Second-Order Algebraic Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiore, Marcelo; Mahmoud, Ola

    Fiore and Hur [10] recently introduced a conservative extension of universal algebra and equational logic from first to second order. Second-order universal algebra and second-order equational logic respectively provide a model theory and a formal deductive system for languages with variable binding and parameterised metavariables. This work completes the foundations of the subject from the viewpoint of categorical algebra. Specifically, the paper introduces the notion of second-order algebraic theory and develops its basic theory. Two categorical equivalences are established: at the syntactic level, that of second-order equational presentations and second-order algebraic theories; at the semantic level, that of second-order algebras and second-order functorial models. Our development includes a mathematical definition of syntactic translation between second-order equational presentations. This gives the first formalisation of notions such as encodings and transforms in the context of languages with variable binding.

  5. Spin chains and string theory.

    PubMed

    Kruczenski, Martin

    2004-10-15

    Recently, an important test of the anti de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence has been done using rotating strings with two angular momenta. We show that such a test can be described more generally as the agreement between two actions: one a low energy description of a spin chain appearing in the field theory side, and the other a limit of the string action in AdS5xS5. This gives a map between the mean value of the spin in the boundary theory and the position of the string in the bulk, and shows how a string action can emerge from a gauge theory in the large-N limit.

  6. Wavelet theory and its applications

    SciTech Connect

    Faber, V.; Bradley, JJ.; Brislawn, C.; Dougherty, R.; Hawrylycz, M.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We investigated the theory of wavelet transforms and their relation to Laboratory applications. The investigators have had considerable success in the past applying wavelet techniques to the numerical solution of optimal control problems for distributed- parameter systems, nonlinear signal estimation, and compression of digital imagery and multidimensional data. Wavelet theory involves ideas from the fields of harmonic analysis, numerical linear algebra, digital signal processing, approximation theory, and numerical analysis, and the new computational tools arising from wavelet theory are proving to be ideal for many Laboratory applications. 10 refs.

  7. Elementary Concepts of Quantum Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the importance and difficulties of teaching basic quantum theory. Presents a discussion of wave-particle duality, indeterminacy, the nature of a quantized state of a system, and the exclusion principle. (MLH)

  8. Generalized Brans-Dicke theories

    SciTech Connect

    De Felice, Antonio; Tsujikawa, Shinji E-mail: shinji@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp

    2010-07-01

    In Brans-Dicke theory a non-linear self interaction of a scalar field φ allows a possibility of realizing the late-time cosmic acceleration, while recovering the General Relativistic behavior at early cosmological epochs. We extend this to more general modified gravitational theories in which a de Sitter solution for dark energy exists without using a field potential. We derive a condition for the stability of the de Sitter point and study the background cosmological dynamics of such theories. We also restrict the allowed region of model parameters from the demand for the avoidance of ghosts and instabilities. A peculiar evolution of the field propagation speed allows us to distinguish those theories from the ΛCDM model.

  9. Remainder Wheels and Group Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenton, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    Why should prospective elementary and high school teachers study group theory in college? This paper examines applications of abstract algebra to the familiar algorithm for converting fractions to repeating decimals, revealing ideas of surprising substance beneath an innocent facade.

  10. Information: theory, brain, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Greg; Ward, Ryan D; Balsam, Peter D

    2013-11-01

    In the 65 years since its formal specification, information theory has become an established statistical paradigm, providing powerful tools for quantifying probabilistic relationships. Behavior analysis has begun to adopt these tools as a novel means of measuring the interrelations between behavior, stimuli, and contingent outcomes. This approach holds great promise for making more precise determinations about the causes of behavior and the forms in which conditioning may be encoded by organisms. In addition to providing an introduction to the basics of information theory, we review some of the ways that information theory has informed the studies of Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and behavioral neuroscience. In addition to enriching each of these empirical domains, information theory has the potential to act as a common statistical framework by which results from different domains may be integrated, compared, and ultimately unified. PMID:24122456

  11. Information: theory, brain, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Greg; Ward, Ryan D; Balsam, Peter D

    2013-11-01

    In the 65 years since its formal specification, information theory has become an established statistical paradigm, providing powerful tools for quantifying probabilistic relationships. Behavior analysis has begun to adopt these tools as a novel means of measuring the interrelations between behavior, stimuli, and contingent outcomes. This approach holds great promise for making more precise determinations about the causes of behavior and the forms in which conditioning may be encoded by organisms. In addition to providing an introduction to the basics of information theory, we review some of the ways that information theory has informed the studies of Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and behavioral neuroscience. In addition to enriching each of these empirical domains, information theory has the potential to act as a common statistical framework by which results from different domains may be integrated, compared, and ultimately unified.

  12. Noncommutative potential theory: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipriani, Fabio

    2016-07-01

    The aim of these notes is to provide an introduction to Noncommutative Potential Theory as given at I.N.D.A.M.-C.N.R.S. "Noncommutative Geometry and Applications" Lectures, Villa Mondragone-Frascati June 2014.

  13. [Mentalization and theory of mind].

    PubMed

    Wyl, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    Both concepts, mentalization and the theory of mind, describe metacognitive processes. Mentalization mainly concerns the reflection of affective mental states. In contrast, theory of mind focuses on epistemic states such as beliefs, intentions and persuasions. Gender differences have proved to be relevant for both, the development of mentalization and the theory of mind. However, there are few studies and findings are inconsistent. In an own study, we investigated the relationship between early competences in metacognition (tested in a false-belief-task second order) and narrative skills of kindergarten children. Results show that children who had successfully passed the theory of mind test tended to face conflicts more directly in the stories. In consequence, these children showed less narrative avoidance. However, differences were only found in girls and not in boys. The precise understanding of developmental differences in metacognition between girls and boys may be an important aspect with regards to improving mentalization based therapy of children. PMID:25478752

  14. Matrix Theory of Small Oscillations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavda, L. K.

    1978-01-01

    A complete matrix formulation of the theory of small oscillations is presented. Simple analytic solutions involving matrix functions are found which clearly exhibit the transients, the damping factors, the Breit-Wigner form for resonances, etc. (BB)

  15. Ergodic theory, randomness, and "chaos".

    PubMed

    Ornstein, D S

    1989-01-13

    Ergodic theory is the theory of the long-term statistical behavior of dynamical systems. The baker's transformation is an object of ergodic theory that provides a paradigm for the possibility of deterministic chaos. It can now be shown that this connection is more than an analogy and that at some level of abstraction a large number of systems governed by Newton's laws are the same as the baker's transformation. Going to this level of abstraction helps to organize the possible kinds of random behavior. The theory also gives new concrete results. For example, one can show that the same process could be produced by a mechanism governed by Newton's laws or by a mechanism governed by coin tossing. It also gives a statistical analog of structural stability.

  16. Vantage Theory and Linguistic Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Rob MacLaury's Vantage Theory, VT, models the way in which a cognizer constructs, recalls, uses, and modifies a category in terms of point of view or vantage. Alongside of VT, there is place for the kind of semantic specification found in the lexicon. VT2 [Allan, Keith, 2002. "Vantage theory, VT2, and number." "Language Sciences" 24(5-6), 679-703…

  17. Recent work on airfoil theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prandtl, L

    1940-01-01

    The basic ideas of a new method for treating the problem of the airfoil are presented, and a review is given of the problems thus far computed for incompressible and supersonic flows. Test results are reported for the airfoil of circular plan form and the results are shown to agree well with the theory. As a supplement, a theory based on the older methods is presented for the rectangular of small aspect ratio.

  18. The theory of macromolecular networks.

    PubMed

    Edwards, S F

    1986-01-01

    Network theory has evolved from the simplest rubber materials and is just entering the biological area. The existing theories are studied and the modifications required for biological applications are reviewed. The issues involved are: the balance between entropy and internal energy, the rigidity and flexibility of molecules, the stability of the networks, the origin of the intermolecular forces and the entanglement problems of swelling and precipitation.

  19. Staggered chiral random matrix theory

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, James C.

    2011-02-01

    We present a random matrix theory for the staggered lattice QCD Dirac operator. The staggered random matrix theory is equivalent to the zero-momentum limit of the staggered chiral Lagrangian and includes all taste breaking terms at their leading order. This is an extension of previous work which only included some of the taste breaking terms. We will also present some results for the taste breaking contributions to the partition function and the Dirac eigenvalues.

  20. On Restructurable Control System Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athans, M.

    1983-01-01

    The state of stochastic system and control theory as it impacts restructurable control issues is addressed. The multivariable characteristics of the control problem are addressed. The failure detection/identification problem is discussed as a multi-hypothesis testing problem. Control strategy reconfiguration, static multivariable controls, static failure hypothesis testing, dynamic multivariable controls, fault-tolerant control theory, dynamic hypothesis testing, generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) methods, and adaptive control are discussed.

  1. Concerning interpretations of activity theory.

    PubMed

    Mironenko, Irina A

    2013-09-01

    Activity theory (AT) is the most recognised part of Russian psychology outside Russia. However the general view of AT in international science is rather unilateral, lacking substantial aspects and areas necessary for proper understanding. This article is aimed at expanding the image of AT dominant in the mainstream which reduces the AT trend to A.N. Leontiev's theory. This reduction impoverishes the creative potentialities of the trend, and decreases the ability of AT to contribute to international science. We aim to reveal that AT is not limited to Leontiev's approach, to explain which ideas of the founders of AT, S.L. Rubinstein and L.S. Vygotsky, were pursued and which were rejected by A.N. Leontiev, and to assess another important contribution to the AT trend - the theory of B.G. Ananiev, where the ideas of AT's founders were developed which were not succeeded by A.N. Leontiev. Historical causes and consequences of the general reduction of the image of AT in the mainstream to Leontiev's theory are considered: why the discrepancies between views of Rubinstein, Vygotsky and Leontiev were hardly ever discussed in public and why other theories contemporary to Leontiev's theory were never given account appropriate to their value in Russia and remain almost unknown abroad. PMID:23512520

  2. New theory of uterovaginal embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Makiyan, Zograb

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The explanation of uterine and vaginal embryogenesis in humans still poses many controversies, because it is difficult to assess early stages of an embryo. The literature review revealed many disagreements in Mullerian theory, inciting some authors to propose new embryological hypotheses. In the original Mullerian theory: the paramesonephral ducts form the Fallopian tubes, uterus and vagina; the mesonephral ducts regress in female embryos. Aims: The aim of this article is to investigate the development of Mullerian ducts in humans, using comparative analysis of fundamental embryological theory and various utero-vaginal anomalies. Material and methods: Between 1998 and 2015, 434 patients with various uterovaginal malformations had been operated on at the Scientific Centre of Obstetrics Gynaecology and Perynatology in Moscow. The anatomies of the uterovaginal malformations in these patients were diagnosed with ultrasound and MRI and then verified during surgical correction by laparoscopy. Results: A systematic comparison of uterovaginal malformations to those in the literature has allowed us to formulate a new theory of embryonic morphogenesis. The new theory is significantly different: ovary, ovarian ligamentum proprium, and ligamentum teres uteri derive from gonadal ridges; Fallopian tubes and vagina completely develop from mesonephral ducts. The uterus develops in the area of intersection between the mesonephral ducts with gonadal ridges by the fusion of the two. Conclusions: The new theory may to induce future embryological studies. The hypothetic possibility that the ovary and endometrium derive from the gonadal ridges could be the key to understanding the enigmatic aetiologies of extragenital and ovarian endometriosis. PMID:26900909

  3. Concerning interpretations of activity theory.

    PubMed

    Mironenko, Irina A

    2013-09-01

    Activity theory (AT) is the most recognised part of Russian psychology outside Russia. However the general view of AT in international science is rather unilateral, lacking substantial aspects and areas necessary for proper understanding. This article is aimed at expanding the image of AT dominant in the mainstream which reduces the AT trend to A.N. Leontiev's theory. This reduction impoverishes the creative potentialities of the trend, and decreases the ability of AT to contribute to international science. We aim to reveal that AT is not limited to Leontiev's approach, to explain which ideas of the founders of AT, S.L. Rubinstein and L.S. Vygotsky, were pursued and which were rejected by A.N. Leontiev, and to assess another important contribution to the AT trend - the theory of B.G. Ananiev, where the ideas of AT's founders were developed which were not succeeded by A.N. Leontiev. Historical causes and consequences of the general reduction of the image of AT in the mainstream to Leontiev's theory are considered: why the discrepancies between views of Rubinstein, Vygotsky and Leontiev were hardly ever discussed in public and why other theories contemporary to Leontiev's theory were never given account appropriate to their value in Russia and remain almost unknown abroad.

  4. Embedded mean-field theory.

    PubMed

    Fornace, Mark E; Lee, Joonho; Miyamoto, Kaito; Manby, Frederick R; Miller, Thomas F

    2015-02-10

    We introduce embedded mean-field theory (EMFT), an approach that flexibly allows for the embedding of one mean-field theory in another without the need to specify or fix the number of particles in each subsystem. EMFT is simple, is well-defined without recourse to parameters, and inherits the simple gradient theory of the parent mean-field theories. In this paper, we report extensive benchmarking of EMFT for the case where the subsystems are treated using different levels of Kohn-Sham theory, using PBE or B3LYP/6-31G* in the high-level subsystem and LDA/STO-3G in the low-level subsystem; we also investigate different levels of density fitting in the two subsystems. Over a wide range of chemical problems, we find EMFT to perform accurately and stably, smoothly converging to the high-level of theory as the active subsystem becomes larger. In most cases, the performance is at least as good as that of ONIOM, but the advantages of EMFT are highlighted by examples that involve partitions across multiple bonds or through aromatic systems and by examples that involve more complicated electronic structure. EMFT is simple and parameter free, and based on the tests provided here, it offers an appealing new approach to a multiscale electronic structure.

  5. Learning a theory of causality.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Noah D; Ullman, Tomer D; Tenenbaum, Joshua B

    2011-01-01

    The very early appearance of abstract knowledge is often taken as evidence for innateness. We explore the relative learning speeds of abstract and specific knowledge within a Bayesian framework and the role for innate structure. We focus on knowledge about causality, seen as a domain-general intuitive theory, and ask whether this knowledge can be learned from co-occurrence of events. We begin by phrasing the causal Bayes nets theory of causality and a range of alternatives in a logical language for relational theories. This allows us to explore simultaneous inductive learning of an abstract theory of causality and a causal model for each of several causal systems. We find that the correct theory of causality can be learned relatively quickly, often becoming available before specific causal theories have been learned--an effect we term the blessing of abstraction. We then explore the effect of providing a variety of auxiliary evidence and find that a collection of simple perceptual input analyzers can help to bootstrap abstract knowledge. Together, these results suggest that the most efficient route to causal knowledge may be to build in not an abstract notion of causality but a powerful inductive learning mechanism and a variety of perceptual supports. While these results are purely computational, they have implications for cognitive development, which we explore in the conclusion.

  6. Resummation in hot field theories

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Jens O. . E-mail: jensoa@nordita.dk; Strickland, Michael . E-mail: mike@hep.itp.tuwien.ac.at

    2005-06-01

    There has been significant progress in our understanding of finite-temperature field theory over the past decade. In this paper, we review the progress in perturbative thermal field theory focusing on thermodynamic quantities. We first discuss the breakdown of naive perturbation theory at finite temperature and the need for an effective expansion that resums an infinite class of diagrams in the perturbative expansion. This effective expansion which is due to Braaten and Pisarski, can be used to systematically calculate various static and dynamical quantities as a weak-coupling expansion in powers of g. However, it turns out that the weak-coupling expansion for thermodynamic quantities are useless unless the coupling constant is very small. We critically discuss various ways of reorganizing the perturbative series for thermal field theories in order to improve its convergence. These include screened perturbation theory (SPT), hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory, the {phi}-derivable approach, dimensionally reduced (DR) SPT, and the DR {phi}-derivable approach.

  7. String theory on the edge

    SciTech Connect

    Thorlacius, L.

    1989-01-01

    Open string vacuum configurations are described in terms of a one-dimensional field theory on the worldsheet boundary. The one-dimensional path integral has direct physical interpretation as a source term for closed string fields. This means that the vacuum divergences (Mobius infinities) of the path integral must be renormalized correctly. The author shows that reparametrization invariance Ward identities, apart from specifying the equations of motion of spacetime background gauge fields, also serve to fix the renormalization scheme of the vacuum divergences. He argues that vacuum configurations of open strings correspond to Caldeira-Leggett models of dissipative quantum mechanics (DQM) evaluated at a delocalization critical point. This connection reveals that critical DQM will manifest reparametrization invariance (inherited from the conformal invariance of string theory) rather than just scale invariance. This connection should open up new ways of constructing analytic and approximate solutions of open string theory (in particular, topological solitons such as monopoles and instantons). Type I superstring theory gives rise to a supersymmetric boundary field theory. Bose-Fermi cancellation eliminates vacuum divergences but the one-loop beta function remains the same as in the bosonic theory. Reparametrization invariance Ward identities dictate a boundary state normalization which yields consistent string-loop corrections to spacetime equations of motion, in both the periodic and anti-periodic fermion sectors.

  8. The Nonlinear Field Space Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielczarek, Jakub; Trześniewski, Tomasz

    2016-08-01

    In recent years the idea that not only the configuration space of particles, i.e. spacetime, but also the corresponding momentum space may have nontrivial geometry has attracted significant attention, especially in the context of quantum gravity. The aim of this letter is to extend this concept to the domain of field theories, by introducing field spaces (i.e. phase spaces of field values) that are not affine spaces. After discussing the motivation and general aspects of our approach we present a detailed analysis of the prototype (quantum) Nonlinear Field Space Theory of a scalar field on the Minkowski background. We show that the nonlinear structure of a field space leads to numerous interesting predictions, including: non-locality, generalization of the uncertainty relations, algebra deformations, constraining of the maximal occupation number, shifting of the vacuum energy and renormalization of the charge and speed of propagation of field excitations. Furthermore, a compact field space is a natural way to implement the "Principle of finiteness" of physical theories, which once motivated the Born-Infeld theory. Thus the presented framework has a variety of potential applications in the theories of fundamental interactions (e.g. quantum gravity), as well as in condensed matter physics (e.g. continuous spin chains), and can shed new light on the issue of divergences in quantum field theories.

  9. Creating Theory: Moving Tutors to the Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinitz, Sue; Kiedaisch, Jean

    2003-01-01

    Presents three tutors' contributions to writing center theory. Shows how writing center theory can be enriched by including tutor voices and perspectives. Discusses the importance of including tutors in the construction of writing center theory. (SG)

  10. Alternative Forms of Fit in Contingency Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drazin, Robert; Van de Ven, Andrew H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the selection, interaction, and systems approaches to fit in structural contingency theory. The concepts of fit evaluated may be applied not only to structural contingency theory but to contingency theories in general. (MD)

  11. Effective theories and thresholds in particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1991-06-07

    The role of effective theories in probing a more fundamental underlying theory and in indicating new physics thresholds is discussed, with examples from the standard model and more speculative applications to superstring theory. 38 refs.

  12. Charting the landscape of supercritical string theory.

    PubMed

    Hellerman, Simeon; Swanson, Ian

    2007-10-26

    Special solutions of string theory in supercritical dimensions can interpolate in time between theories with different numbers of spacetime dimensions and different amounts of world sheet supersymmetry. These solutions connect supercritical string theories to the more familiar string duality web in ten dimensions and provide a precise link between supersymmetric and purely bosonic string theories. Dimension quenching and c duality appear to be natural concepts in string theory, giving rise to large networks of interconnected theories.

  13. Bohmian mechanics and quantum field theory.

    PubMed

    Dürr, Detlef; Goldstein, Sheldon; Tumulka, Roderich; Zanghì, Nino

    2004-08-27

    We discuss a recently proposed extension of Bohmian mechanics to quantum field theory. For more or less any regularized quantum field theory there is a corresponding theory of particle motion, which, in particular, ascribes trajectories to the electrons or whatever sort of particles the quantum field theory is about. Corresponding to the nonconservation of the particle number operator in the quantum field theory, the theory describes explicit creation and annihilation events: the world lines for the particles can begin and end.

  14. Quantum theory of measurements as quantum decision theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.

    2015-03-01

    Theory of quantum measurements is often classified as decision theory. An event in decision theory corresponds to the measurement of an observable. This analogy looks clear for operationally testable simple events. However, the situation is essentially more complicated in the case of composite events. The most difficult point is the relation between decisions under uncertainty and measurements under uncertainty. We suggest a unified language for describing the processes of quantum decision making and quantum measurements. The notion of quantum measurements under uncertainty is introduced. We show that the correct mathematical foundation for the theory of measurements under uncertainty, as well as for quantum decision theory dealing with uncertain events, requires the use of positive operator-valued measure that is a generalization of projection-valued measure. The latter is appropriate for operationally testable events, while the former is necessary for characterizing operationally uncertain events. In both decision making and quantum measurements, one has to distinguish composite nonentangled events from composite entangled events. Quantum probability can be essentially different from classical probability only for entangled events. The necessary condition for the appearance of an interference term in the quantum probability is the occurrence of entangled prospects and the existence of an entangled strategic state of a decision maker or of an entangled statistical state of a measuring device.

  15. [Consanguinity between meridian theory and Bianque's pulse theory].

    PubMed

    Huang, Longxiang

    2015-05-01

    The integral meridian theory is composed of five parts, including meridian course, syndrome, diagnostic method, treating principle and treatment, and the core of it is meridian syndrome. It has been proved by multiple evidences that the meridian syndrome induced by the pathological change in meridian and the death syndrome of pulse penetrating or attaching to the syndrome are all originated from Bianque' s facial color and pulse diagnosis. And regarding the pulse syndrome,there are many different interpretations based on the theory of yin-yang in four seasons before the Han Dynasty. The emerging of Biaoben diagnostic method in Bianque's pulse method and its extensive clinical application promote a new theoretic interpretation the connection of meridians interpreting pulse syndrome directly. Besides, along with the new development of blood-pulse theory of Bianque's medicine, the revolution on meridian theory is aroused as well its theoretical paradigm turning from "tree" type to "ring" type. In other words, Bianque's medicine not only gives birth to meridian theory, but also decides its final development. PMID:26255535

  16. Default knowledge, time pressure, and the theory-theory of concepts.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    I raise two issues for Machery's discussion and interpretation of the theory-theory. First, I raise an objection against Machery's claim that theory-theorists take theories to be default bodies of knowledge. Second, I argue that theory-theorists' experimental results do not support Machery's contention that default bodies of knowledge include theories used in their own proprietary kind of categorization process.

  17. Optical Abelian lattice gauge theories

    SciTech Connect

    Tagliacozzo, L.; Celi, A.; Zamora, A.; Lewenstein, M.

    2013-03-15

    We discuss a general framework for the realization of a family of Abelian lattice gauge theories, i.e., link models or gauge magnets, in optical lattices. We analyze the properties of these models that make them suitable for quantum simulations. Within this class, we study in detail the phases of a U(1)-invariant lattice gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions, originally proposed by P. Orland. By using exact diagonalization, we extract the low-energy states for small lattices, up to 4 Multiplication-Sign 4. We confirm that the model has two phases, with the confined entangled one characterized by strings wrapping around the whole lattice. We explain how to study larger lattices by using either tensor network techniques or digital quantum simulations with Rydberg atoms loaded in optical lattices, where we discuss in detail a protocol for the preparation of the ground-state. We propose two key experimental tests that can be used as smoking gun of the proper implementation of a gauge theory in optical lattices. These tests consist in verifying the absence of spontaneous (gauge) symmetry breaking of the ground-state and the presence of charge confinement. We also comment on the relation between standard compact U(1) lattice gauge theory and the model considered in this paper. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the quantum simulation of dynamical gauge theories in optical lattices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We focus on digital simulation of abelian lattice gauge theory. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We rediscover and discuss the puzzling phase diagram of gauge magnets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We detail the protocol for time evolution and ground-state preparation in any phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We provide two experimental tests to validate gauge theory quantum simulators.

  18. Multipactor theory for multicarrier signals

    SciTech Connect

    Anza, S.; Vicente, C.; Gil, J.; Raboso, D.; Boria, V. E.

    2011-03-15

    This work presents a new theory of multipactor under multicarrier signals for parallel-plate geometries, assuming a homogeneous electric field and one-dimensional electron motion. It is the generalization of the nonstationary multipactor theory for single-carrier signals [S. Anza et al.,Phys. Plasmas 17, 062110 (2010)]. It is valid for multicarrier signals with an arbitrary number of carriers with different amplitude, arbitrary frequency, and phase conditions and for any material coating. This new theory is able to model the real dynamics of the electrons during the multipactor discharge for both single and double surface interactions. Among other parameters of the discharge, it calculates the evolution in time of the charge growth, electron absorption, and creation rates as well as the instantaneous secondary emission yield and order. An extensive set of numerical tests with particle-in-cell software has been carried out in order to validate the theory under many different conditions. This theoretical development constitutes the first multipactor theory which completely characterizes the multipactor discharge for arbitrary multicarrier signals, setting the first step for further investigations in the field.

  19. Endosymbiotic theories for eukaryote origin.

    PubMed

    Martin, William F; Garg, Sriram; Zimorski, Verena

    2015-09-26

    For over 100 years, endosymbiotic theories have figured in thoughts about the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. More than 20 different versions of endosymbiotic theory have been presented in the literature to explain the origin of eukaryotes and their mitochondria. Very few of those models account for eukaryotic anaerobes. The role of energy and the energetic constraints that prokaryotic cell organization placed on evolutionary innovation in cell history has recently come to bear on endosymbiotic theory. Only cells that possessed mitochondria had the bioenergetic means to attain eukaryotic cell complexity, which is why there are no true intermediates in the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition. Current versions of endosymbiotic theory have it that the host was an archaeon (an archaebacterium), not a eukaryote. Hence the evolutionary history and biology of archaea increasingly comes to bear on eukaryotic origins, more than ever before. Here, we have compiled a survey of endosymbiotic theories for the origin of eukaryotes and mitochondria, and for the origin of the eukaryotic nucleus, summarizing the essentials of each and contrasting some of their predictions to the observations. A new aspect of endosymbiosis in eukaryote evolution comes into focus from these considerations: the host for the origin of plastids was a facultative anaerobe.

  20. Some directions in ecological theory.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Bruce E

    2015-12-01

    The role of theory within ecology has changed dramatically in recent decades. Once primarily a source of qualitative conceptual framing, ecological theories and models are now often used to develop quantitative explanations of empirical patterns and to project future dynamics of specific ecological systems. In this essay, I recount my own experience of this transformation, in which accelerating computing power and the widespread incorporation of stochastic processes into ecological theory combined to create some novel integration of mathematical and statistical models. This stronger integration drives theory towards incorporating more biological realism, and I explore ways in which we can grapple with that realism to generate new general theoretical insights. This enhanced realism, in turn, may lead to frameworks for projecting ecological responses to anthropogenic change, which is, arguably, the central challenge for 21st-century ecology. In an era of big data and synthesis, ecologists are increasingly seeking to infer causality from observational data; but conventional biometry provides few tools for this project. This is a realm where theorists can and should play an important role, and I close by pointing towards some analytical and philosophical approaches developed in our sister discipline of economics that address this very problem. While I make no grand prognostications about the likely discoveries of ecological theory over the coming century, you will find in this essay a scattering of more or less far-fetched ideas that I, at least, think are interesting and (possibly) fruitful directions for our field.

  1. Lectures of Fermi liquid theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bedell, K.S.

    1993-07-01

    The Fermi liquid theory was first introduced by Landau in 1956 to provide a theoretical basis for the properties of strongly correlated Fermi systems. This theory has proven to be crucial for our understanding of a broad range of materials. These include liquid {sup 3}He, {sup 3}He-{sup 4}He mixtures, simple metals, heavy-fermions, and nuclear matter to name a few. In the high temperature superconductors questions have been raised regarding the applicability of Fermi liquid theory to the normal state behavior of these materials. I will not address this issue in these lectures. My focus will be to summarize the foundations of this theory and to explore the consequences. These lectures are in part a summary of the excellent review article by Baym and Pethick and the books by Pines and Nozieres and Baym and Pethick. They include as well a summary of some articles that I have authored and co-authored. In the main body of the lectures I will not make any additional references to the books or articles. In the absence of reading the original materials, my lectures should provide the essentials of a mini-course in Fermi liquid theory.

  2. Lectures of Fermi liquid theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bedell, K.S.

    1993-01-01

    The Fermi liquid theory was first introduced by Landau in 1956 to provide a theoretical basis for the properties of strongly correlated Fermi systems. This theory has proven to be crucial for our understanding of a broad range of materials. These include liquid [sup 3]He, [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He mixtures, simple metals, heavy-fermions, and nuclear matter to name a few. In the high temperature superconductors questions have been raised regarding the applicability of Fermi liquid theory to the normal state behavior of these materials. I will not address this issue in these lectures. My focus will be to summarize the foundations of this theory and to explore the consequences. These lectures are in part a summary of the excellent review article by Baym and Pethick and the books by Pines and Nozieres and Baym and Pethick. They include as well a summary of some articles that I have authored and co-authored. In the main body of the lectures I will not make any additional references to the books or articles. In the absence of reading the original materials, my lectures should provide the essentials of a mini-course in Fermi liquid theory.

  3. Some directions in ecological theory.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Bruce E

    2015-12-01

    The role of theory within ecology has changed dramatically in recent decades. Once primarily a source of qualitative conceptual framing, ecological theories and models are now often used to develop quantitative explanations of empirical patterns and to project future dynamics of specific ecological systems. In this essay, I recount my own experience of this transformation, in which accelerating computing power and the widespread incorporation of stochastic processes into ecological theory combined to create some novel integration of mathematical and statistical models. This stronger integration drives theory towards incorporating more biological realism, and I explore ways in which we can grapple with that realism to generate new general theoretical insights. This enhanced realism, in turn, may lead to frameworks for projecting ecological responses to anthropogenic change, which is, arguably, the central challenge for 21st-century ecology. In an era of big data and synthesis, ecologists are increasingly seeking to infer causality from observational data; but conventional biometry provides few tools for this project. This is a realm where theorists can and should play an important role, and I close by pointing towards some analytical and philosophical approaches developed in our sister discipline of economics that address this very problem. While I make no grand prognostications about the likely discoveries of ecological theory over the coming century, you will find in this essay a scattering of more or less far-fetched ideas that I, at least, think are interesting and (possibly) fruitful directions for our field. PMID:26909419

  4. AeroDyn Theory Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, P. J.; Hansen, A. C.

    2005-01-01

    AeroDyn is a set of routines used in conjunction with an aeroelastic simulation code to predict the aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbines. These subroutines provide several different models whose theoretical bases are described in this manual. AeroDyn contains two models for calculating the effect of wind turbine wakes: the blade element momentum theory and the generalized dynamic-wake theory. Blade element momentum theory is the classical standard used by many wind turbine designers and generalized dynamic wake theory is a more recent model useful for modeling skewed and unsteady wake dynamics. When using the blade element momentum theory, various corrections are available for the user, such as incorporating the aerodynamic effects of tip losses, hub losses, and skewed wakes. With the generalized dynamic wake, all of these effects are automatically included. Both of these methods are used to calculate the axial induced velocities from the wake in the rotor plane. The user also has the option of calculating the rotational induced velocity. In addition, AeroDyn contains an important model for dynamic stall based on the semi-empirical Beddoes-Leishman model. This model is particularly important for yawed wind turbines. Another aerodynamic model in AeroDyn is a tower shadow model based on potential flow around a cylinder and an expanding wake. Finally, AeroDyn has the ability to read several different formats of wind input, including single-point hub-height wind files or multiple-point turbulent winds.

  5. Endosymbiotic theories for eukaryote origin

    PubMed Central

    Martin, William F.; Garg, Sriram; Zimorski, Verena

    2015-01-01

    For over 100 years, endosymbiotic theories have figured in thoughts about the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. More than 20 different versions of endosymbiotic theory have been presented in the literature to explain the origin of eukaryotes and their mitochondria. Very few of those models account for eukaryotic anaerobes. The role of energy and the energetic constraints that prokaryotic cell organization placed on evolutionary innovation in cell history has recently come to bear on endosymbiotic theory. Only cells that possessed mitochondria had the bioenergetic means to attain eukaryotic cell complexity, which is why there are no true intermediates in the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition. Current versions of endosymbiotic theory have it that the host was an archaeon (an archaebacterium), not a eukaryote. Hence the evolutionary history and biology of archaea increasingly comes to bear on eukaryotic origins, more than ever before. Here, we have compiled a survey of endosymbiotic theories for the origin of eukaryotes and mitochondria, and for the origin of the eukaryotic nucleus, summarizing the essentials of each and contrasting some of their predictions to the observations. A new aspect of endosymbiosis in eukaryote evolution comes into focus from these considerations: the host for the origin of plastids was a facultative anaerobe. PMID:26323761

  6. Why tight-binding theory?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Walter A.

    2002-12-01

    In the context of computational physics other methods are more accurate, but tight-binding theory allows very direct physical interpretation and is simple enough to allow much more realistic treatments beyond the local density approximation. We address several important questions of this last category: How does the gap enhancement from Coulomb correlations vary from material to material? Should the enhanced gap be used for calculating the dielectric constant? For calculating the effective mass in k-dot-p theory? How valid is the scissors approximation? How does one line up bands at an interface? How should we match the envelope function at interfaces in effective-mass theory? Why can the resulting quantum-well states seem to violate the uncertainty principle? How should f-shell electrons be treated when they are intermediate between band-like and core-like? The answers to all of these questions are given and discussed.

  7. A history of chaos theory.

    PubMed

    Oestreicher, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Whether every effect can be precisely linked to a given cause or to a list of causes has been a matter of debate for centuries, particularly during the 17th century, when astronomers became capable of predicting the trajectories of planets. Recent mathematical models applied to physics have included the idea that given phenomena cannot be predicted precisely, although they can be predicted to some extent, in line with the chaos theory. Concepts such as deterministic models, sensitivity to initial conditions, strange attractors, and fractal dimensions are inherent to the development of this theory A few situations involving normal or abnormal endogenous rhythms in biology have been analyzed following the principles of chaos theory. This is particularly the case with cardiac arrhythmias, but less so with biological clocks and circadian rhythms. PMID:17969865

  8. The "response" in behavior theory.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, W N

    1976-01-01

    The term "response" is a basic one in behavior theory, particularly reflex theory, but its definition is not clear. The origin of the term in the common vocabulary has affected its later extensions in the analysis of behavior. Some contemporary theorists accept the existence of two "types" of response, coordinating one with the Pavlovian conditioning procedure, the other with the operant conditioning procedure of the so-called "contingent" variety. Reservations are expressed here about such distinctions between response classes and conditioning paradigms, emphasizing the difficulties that arise from certain conventions and inadequacies in current definitions and conceptions of "response". The critical nature of the problem for behavior theory is illustrated once again by the recent laboratory finding that a familiar and accepted conditional reflex, that of the "conditioned cardiac CR," can be fractionated into "parts" and is therefore perhaps no longer to be treated as a single unitary "response".

  9. Theory of microwave remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, L.; Kong, J. A.; Shin, R. T.

    1985-01-01

    Active and passive microwave remote sensing of earth terrains is studied. Electromagnetic wave scattering and emission from stratified media and rough surfaces are considered with particular application to the remote sensing of soil moisture. Radiative transfer theory for both the random and discrete scatterer models is examined. Vector radiative transfer equations for nonspherical particles are developed for both active and passive remote sensing. Single and multiple scattering solutions are illustrated with applications to remote sensing problems. Analytical wave theory using the Dyson and Bethe-Salpeter equations is employed to treat scattering by random media. The backscattering enhancement effects, strong permittivity fluctuation theory, and modified radiative transfer equations are addressed. The electromagnetic wave scattering from a dense distribution of discrete scatterers is studied. The effective propagation constants and backscattering coefficients are calculated and illustrated for dense media.

  10. Game theory and water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madani, Kaveh

    2010-02-01

    SummaryManaging water resources systems usually involves conflicts. Behaviors of stakeholders, who might be willing to contribute to improvements and reach a win-win situation, sometimes result in worse conditions for all parties. Game theory can identify and interpret the behaviors of parties to water resource problems and describe how interactions of different parties who give priority to their own objectives, rather than system's objective, result in a system's evolution. Outcomes predicted by game theory often differ from results suggested by optimization methods which assume all parties are willing to act towards the best system-wide outcome. This study reviews applicability of game theory to water resources management and conflict resolution through a series of non-cooperative water resource games. The paper illustrates the dynamic structure of water resource problems and the importance of considering the game's evolution path while studying such problems.

  11. Double field theory inspired cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Houwen; Yang, Haitang E-mail: hyanga@scu.edu.cn

    2014-07-01

    Double field theory proposes a generalized spacetime action possessing manifest T-duality on the level of component fields. We calculate the cosmological solutions of double field theory with vanishing Kalb-Ramond field. It turns out that double field theory provides a more consistent way to construct cosmological solutions than the standard string cosmology. We construct solutions for vanishing and non-vanishing symmetry preserving dilaton potentials. The solutions assemble the pre- and post-big bang evolutions in one single line element. Our results show a smooth evolution from an anisotropic early stage to an isotropic phase without any special initial conditions in contrast to previous models. In addition, we demonstrate that the contraction of the dual space automatically leads to both an inflation phase and a decelerated expansion of the ordinary space during different evolution stages.

  12. Solving higher curvature gravity theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Sumanta; SenGupta, Soumitra

    2016-10-01

    Solving field equations in the context of higher curvature gravity theories is a formidable task. However, in many situations, e.g., in the context of f( R) theories, the higher curvature gravity action can be written as an Einstein-Hilbert action plus a scalar field action. We show that not only the action but the field equations derived from the action are also equivalent, provided the spacetime is regular. We also demonstrate that such an equivalence continues to hold even when the gravitational field equations are projected on a lower-dimensional hypersurface. We have further addressed explicit examples in which the solutions for Einstein-Hilbert and a scalar field system lead to solutions of the equivalent higher curvature theory. The same, but on the lower-dimensional hypersurface, has been illustrated in the reverse order as well. We conclude with a brief discussion on this technique of solving higher curvature field equations.

  13. The origins of vibration theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimarogonas, A. D.

    1990-07-01

    The Ionian School of natural philosophy introduced the scientific method of dealing with natural phenomena and the rigorous proofs for abstract propositions. Vibration theory was initiated by the Pythagoreans in the fifth century BC, in association with the theory of music and the theory of acoustics. They observed the natural frequency of vibrating systems and proved that it is a system property and that it does not depend on the excitation. Pythagoreans determined the fundamental natural frequencies of several simple systems, such as vibrating strings, pipes, vessels and circular plates. Aristoteles and the Peripatetic School founded mechanics and developed a fundamental understanding of statics and dynamics. In Alexandrian times there were substantial engineering developments in the field of vibration. The pendulum as a vibration, and probably time, measuring device was known in antiquity, and was further developed by the end of the first millennium AD.

  14. Boltzmann, Darwin and Directionality theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demetrius, Lloyd A.

    2013-09-01

    Boltzmann’s statistical thermodynamics is a mathematical theory which relates the macroscopic properties of aggregates of interacting molecules with the laws of their interaction. The theory is based on the concept thermodynamic entropy, a statistical measure of the extent to which energy is spread throughout macroscopic matter. Macroscopic evolution of material aggregates is quantitatively explained in terms of the principle: Thermodynamic entropy increases as the composition of the aggregate changes under molecular collision. Darwin’s theory of evolution is a qualitative theory of the origin of species and the adaptation of populations to their environment. A central concept in the theory is fitness, a qualitative measure of the capacity of an organism to contribute to the ancestry of future generations. Macroscopic evolution of populations of living organisms can be qualitatively explained in terms of a neo-Darwinian principle: Fitness increases as the composition of the population changes under variation and natural selection. Directionality theory is a quantitative model of the Darwinian argument of evolution by variation and selection. This mathematical theory is based on the concept evolutionary entropy, a statistical measure which describes the rate at which an organism appropriates energy from the environment and reinvests this energy into survivorship and reproduction. According to directionality theory, microevolutionary dynamics, that is evolution by mutation and natural selection, can be quantitatively explained in terms of a directionality principle: Evolutionary entropy increases when the resources are diverse and of constant abundance; but decreases when the resource is singular and of variable abundance. This report reviews the analytical and empirical support for directionality theory, and invokes the microevolutionary dynamics of variation and selection to delineate the principles which govern macroevolutionary dynamics of speciation and

  15. Climate change and game theory.

    PubMed

    Wood, Peter John

    2011-02-01

    This paper examines the problem of achieving global cooperation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Contributions to this problem are reviewed from noncooperative game theory, cooperative game theory, and implementation theory. We examine the solutions to games where players have a continuous choice about how much to pollute, as well as games where players make decisions about treaty participation. The implications of linking cooperation on climate change with cooperation on other issues, such as trade, are also examined. Cooperative and noncooperative approaches to coalition formation are investigated in order to examine the behavior of coalitions cooperating on climate change. One way to achieve cooperation is to design a game, known as a mechanism, whose equilibrium corresponds to an optimal outcome. This paper examines some mechanisms that are based on conditional commitments, and their policy implications. These mechanisms could make cooperation on climate change mitigation more likely.

  16. On lattice chiral gauge theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiani, L.; Rossi, G. C.; Testa, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Smit-Swift-Aoki formulation of a lattice chiral gauge theory is presented. In this formulation the Wilson and other non invariant terms in the action are made gauge invariant by the coupling with a nonlinear auxilary scalar field, omega. It is shown that omega decouples from the physical states only if appropriate parameters are tuned so as to satisfy a set of BRST identities. In addition, explicit ghost fields are necessary to ensure decoupling. These theories can give rise to the correct continuum limit. Similar considerations apply to schemes with mirror fermions. Simpler cases with a global chiral symmetry are discussed and it is shown that the theory becomes free at decoupling. Recent numerical simulations agree with those considerations.

  17. A history of chaos theory

    PubMed Central

    Oestreicher, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Whether every effect can be precisely linked to a given cause or to a list of causes has been a matter of debate for centuries, particularly during the 17th century when astronomers became capable of predicting the trajectories of planets. Recent mathematical models applied to physics have included the idea that given phenomena cannot be predicted precisely although they can be predicted to some extent in line with the chaos theory Concepts such as deterministic models, sensitivity to initial conditions, strange attractors, and fractal dimensions are inherent to the development of this theory, A few situations involving normal or abnormal endogenous rhythms in biology have been analyzed following the principles of chaos theory This is particularly the case with cardiac arrhythmias, but less so with biological clocks and circadian rhythms. PMID:17969865

  18. A theory of human error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcruer, D. T.; Clement, W. F.; Allen, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Human errors tend to be treated in terms of clinical and anecdotal descriptions, from which remedial measures are difficult to derive. Correction of the sources of human error requires an attempt to reconstruct underlying and contributing causes of error from the circumstantial causes cited in official investigative reports. A comprehensive analytical theory of the cause-effect relationships governing propagation of human error is indispensable to a reconstruction of the underlying and contributing causes. A validated analytical theory of the input-output behavior of human operators involving manual control, communication, supervisory, and monitoring tasks which are relevant to aviation, maritime, automotive, and process control operations is highlighted. This theory of behavior, both appropriate and inappropriate, provides an insightful basis for investigating, classifying, and quantifying the needed cause-effect relationships governing propagation of human error.

  19. Equivalent crystal theory of alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Ferrante, John

    1991-01-01

    Equivalent Crystal Theory (ECT) is a new, semi-empirical approach to calculating the energetics of a solid with defects. The theory has successfully reproduced surface energies in metals and semiconductors. The theory of binary alloys to date, both with first-principles and semi-empirical models, has not been very successful in predicting the energetics of alloys. This procedure is used to predict the heats of formation, cohesive energy, and lattice parameter of binary alloys of Cu, Ni, Al, Ag, Au, Pd, and Pt as functions of composition. The procedure accurately reproduces the heats of formation versus composition curves for a variety of binary alloys. The results are then compared with other approaches such as the embedded atom and lattice parameters of alloys from pure metal properties more accurately than Vegard's law is presented.

  20. Nuclear Force from String Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Koji

    2010-04-01

    Recent "technology" called holography, or gauge/string duality (AdS/CFT correspondence) found in string theory, makes it possible to compute various quantities of strongly coupled gauge theories. This technology was applied to QCD, and it was found that it describes surprisingly well important properties of low energy QCD, the hadron physics. We apply it further to nuclear physics. In this talk, I review a part of the developments of the holographic QCD, and show a computation of nuclear force at short distance, derived using the holographic QCD, which was done in collaboration with T. Sakai and S. Sugimoto [K. Hashimoto, T. Sakai, and S. Sugimoto, "Holographic Baryons: Static Properties and Form Factors from Gauge/String Duality," Prog. Theor. Phys. 120 (2008) 1093-1137, arXiv:0806.3122 [hep-th]; K. Hashimoto, T. Sakai, and S. Sugimoto, "Nuclear Force from String Theory," arXiv:0901.4449 [hep-th

  1. The Psychology of Working Theory.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Ryan D; Blustein, David L; Diemer, Matthew A; Autin, Kelsey L

    2016-03-01

    In the current article, we build on research from vocational psychology, multicultural psychology, intersectionality, and the sociology of work to construct an empirically testable Psychology of Working Theory (PWT). Our central aim is to explain the work experiences of all individuals, but particularly people near or in poverty, people who face discrimination and marginalization in their lives, and people facing challenging work-based transitions for which contextual factors are often the primary drivers of the ability to secure decent work. The concept of decent work is defined and positioned as the central variable within the theory. A series of propositions is offered concerning (a) contextual predictors of securing decent work, (b) psychological and economic mediators and moderators of these relations, and (c) outcomes of securing decent work. Recommendations are suggested for researchers seeking to use the theory and practical implications are offered concerning counseling, advocacy, and public policy. PMID:26937788

  2. Communication theory and multicellular biology.

    PubMed

    Mian, I S; Rose, C

    2011-04-01

    In this Perspective, we propose that communication theory--a field of mathematics concerned with the problems of signal transmission, reception and processing--provides a new quantitative lens for investigating multicellular biology, ancient and modern. What underpins the cohesive organisation and collective behaviour of multicellular ecosystems such as microbial colonies and communities (microbiomes) and multicellular organisms such as plants and animals, whether built of simple tissue layers (sponges) or of complex differentiated cells arranged in tissues and organs (members of the 35 or so phyla of the subkingdom Metazoa)? How do mammalian tissues and organs develop, maintain their architecture, become subverted in disease, and decline with age? How did single-celled organisms coalesce to produce many-celled forms that evolved and diversified into the varied multicellular organisms in existence today? Some answers can be found in the blueprints or recipes encoded in (epi)genomes, yet others lie in the generic physical properties of biological matter such as the ability of cell aggregates to attain a certain complexity in size, shape, and pattern. We suggest that Lasswell's maxim "Who says what to whom in what channel with what effect" provides a foundation for understanding not only the emergence and evolution of multicellularity, but also the assembly and sculpting of multicellular ecosystems and many-celled structures, whether of natural or human-engineered origin. We explore how the abstraction of communication theory as an organising principle for multicellular biology could be realised. We highlight the inherent ability of communication theory to be blind to molecular and/or genetic mechanisms. We describe selected applications that analyse the physics of communication and use energy efficiency as a central tenet. Whilst communication theory has and could contribute to understanding a myriad of problems in biology, investigations of multicellular biology

  3. Queer Theory in Education. Studies in Curriculum Theory Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinar, William F., Ed.

    This collection of papers discusses homophobia in the field of education and challenges established practices and theories. Chapters are: (1) "Constructing Knowledge: Educational Research and Gay and Lesbian Studies" (W. G. Tierney, P. Dilley); (2) "A Generational and Theoretical Analysis of Culture and Male (Homo)sexuality" (J. T. Sears); (3)…

  4. A Theory for Educational Research: Socialisation Theory and Symbolic Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    This article develops a theory of socialisation based on the Chicago School of symbolic interactionism but infused with new and important insights offered by contemporary scholars and their writings on roles and relationships in the twenty first century and life in the informational, network and global world. While still rooted in the seminal…

  5. A Look at Transition from Sociohistorical Theory to Sociocultural Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguz, Ayse

    2007-01-01

    We do not just live in a social world; the social world is already within us determining how we think. At a general level, Vygotsky's sociohistorical theory has its roots in this perspective that emphasized the importance of cultural-historical context in which learning takes place and how that context has impact on what is learned. Later on,…

  6. The Theory of Practice and the Practice of Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Michael L.; Murphy, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    As academics who interact with senior and mid-level business managers on a regular basis, both informally and as consultants, the authors often note that ideas of theory and practice are not well developed among people outside of academia. It is posited that this deficit offers the prospect of less than optimal approaches to matters such as…

  7. Living Theory: Principles and Practices for Teaching Social Theory Ethnographically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Chris; Rosaldo, Manuel; Seim, Josh; Shestakofsky, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This article details the principles and practices animating an "ethnographic" method of teaching social theory. As opposed to the traditional "survey" approach that aims to introduce students to the historical breadth of social thought, the primary objective of teaching ethnographically is to cultivate students as participant…

  8. Io. [theories concerning volcanic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. V.; Soderblom, L. A.

    1983-01-01

    A report on the continuing investigation of Io is presented. Gravitational resonance is discussed as the cause of Io's volcanism, and the volcanic activity is explained in terms of sulfur chemistry. Theories concerning the reasons for the two main types of volcanic eruptions on Io are advanced and correlated with geographical features of the satellite. The sulfur and silicate models of the calderas are presented, citing the strengths and weaknesses of each. Problems of the gravitational resonance theory of Io's heat source are then described. Finally, observations of Io planned for the Galileo mission are summarized.

  9. Web life: Just A Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-04-01

    After a few months of physics videos, amateur science sites and educational games, the website we are highlighting in this month's column is a straightforward blog. Just A Theory was started in 2008 by freelance science journalist Jacob Aron while he was studying for a Master's degree in science communication at Imperial College London. The blog's title, Aron explains, reflects a popular misconception that scientific theories are "dreamed up by mad scientists in laboratories somewhere" rather than well-crafted explanations based on observations and experiments. To combat this impression, the site aims to highlight good and bad science coverage in the mainstream media, and to provide original commentary on current scientific events.

  10. Semiclassical theory of coupled lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Shakir, S.A.; Chow, W.W.

    1984-06-01

    A semiclassical theory is developed for a coupled-resonator phased laser array. This theory, which is based on an expansion of the laser field in terms of the composite-resonator modes, is valid for all values of coupling and for any number of lasers in the array. The derivation of the composite resonator modes is presented. We found that an expansion of the laser field in terms of these modes leads to laser-amplitude and -frequency-determining equations that have a similar form to those of a multimode single-resonator laser.

  11. Projector Method: theory and examples

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    The Projector Method technique for numerically analyzing lattice gauge theories was developed to take advantage of certain simplifying features of gauge theory models. Starting from a very general notion of what the Projector Method is, the techniques are applied to several model problems. After these examples have traced the development of the actual algorithm from the general principles of the Projector Method, a direct comparison between the Projector and the Euclidean Monte Carlo is made, followed by a discussion of the application to Periodic Quantum Electrodynamics in two and three spatial dimensions. Some methods for improving the efficiency of the Projector in various circumstances are outlined. 10 refs., 7 figs. (LEW)

  12. Perturbation theory in thermosphere dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Volland, H.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that density and pressure throughout the thermosphere can be adequately described in a logarithmic expansion that provides a sound basis for the application of perturbation theory. This expansion eliminates most of the important nonlinearities associated with density variations. On the basis of this expansion, the validity of perturbation theory can be extended to cover a large variety of atmospheric conditions in which the relative temperature amplitude is less than 0.5 and wind velocities are significantly less than the speed of sound.

  13. Geometry, topology, and string theory

    SciTech Connect

    Varadarajan, Uday

    2003-07-10

    A variety of scenarios are considered which shed light upon the uses and limitations of classical geometric and topological notions in string theory. The primary focus is on situations in which D-brane or string probes of a given classical space-time see the geometry quite differently than one might naively expect. In particular, situations in which extra dimensions, non-commutative geometries as well as other non-local structures emerge are explored in detail. Further, a preliminary exploration of such issues in Lorentzian space-times with non-trivial causal structures within string theory is initiated.

  14. Kinetic theory and ergodic properties

    PubMed Central

    Prigogine, I.; Grecos, A. P.; George, Cl.

    1976-01-01

    It is often assumed that the justification of kinetic theory lies in ergodic theory. From the properties of the collision operator, which plays a basic role in our kinetic description of dynamical systems, we show that this is not the case. We deduce that the asymptotic behavior of a class of states and observables is determined by the collisional invariants, independently of the ergodicity of the system. The relation between our conclusion and the stability concepts for classical Hamiltonian systems, introduced by Moser and others, is briefly indicated. PMID:16592325

  15. Continuum limit of quenched theories

    SciTech Connect

    Holdom, B.

    1989-02-27

    We study chiral-symmetry breaking in quenched gauge theories with ultraviolet cutoff ..lambda.., to all orders in the gauge coupling. For large ..lambda../kappa, where kappa is the chiral-symmetry-breaking scale, we derive ..lambda../kappaproportionalexp(const/ ..sqrt..(..cap alpha..-..cap alpha../sub c/) as ..cap alpha --> cap alpha../sub c/+. This is a gauge-invariant, universal consequence of quenched theories. But we argue that this relation does not define a ..beta.. function. We also obtain an explicit expression for the self-energy ..sigma..(p) which applies over most of the range kappa

  16. A theory of human error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcruer, D. T.; Clement, W. F.; Allen, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Human error, a significant contributing factor in a very high proportion of civil transport, general aviation, and rotorcraft accidents is investigated. Correction of the sources of human error requires that one attempt to reconstruct underlying and contributing causes of error from the circumstantial causes cited in official investigative reports. A validated analytical theory of the input-output behavior of human operators involving manual control, communication, supervisory, and monitoring tasks which are relevant to aviation operations is presented. This theory of behavior, both appropriate and inappropriate, provides an insightful basis for investigating, classifying, and quantifying the needed cause-effect relationships governing propagation of human error.

  17. Some Theories of Person/Environment Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, W. Bruce

    1975-01-01

    This article is a review of five selected theories of person/environment interaction. The five theoretical viewpoints reviewed are Barker's theory of behavior settings, the subculture approach, Holland's theory of personality types and model environments, Stern's need X press=culture theory, and Pervin's transactional approach. (Author)

  18. The Future of Piaget's Theory in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Frank B.

    This paper assesses the utility of Piagetian theory for educational practice. Educational practice cannot be formally deduced from psychological theory, but may be theory-compatible if the theory does not specifically forbid the practice. Piaget's genetic epistemology has provided a theoretical justification for longstanding educational…

  19. On the Status of Critical Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Kai

    1992-01-01

    Describes the nature and distinctiveness of critical theory and discusses it according to the viewpoints of Raymond Geuss and Jurgen Habermas. The logical status of a Habermasian critical theory is examined, defended from some traditional criticisms, and contrasted with both historical versions of critical theory and purely scientific theories.…

  20. Evolutionary theories of aging and longevity.

    PubMed

    Gavrilov, Leonid A; Gavrilova, Natalia S

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide students and researchers entering the field of aging studies with an introduction to the evolutionary theories of aging, as well as to orient them in the abundant modern scientific literature on evolutionary gerontology. The following three major evolutionary theories of aging are discussed: 1) the theory of programmed death suggested by August Weismann, 2) the mutation accumulation theory of aging suggested by Peter Medawar, and 3) the antagonistic pleiotropy theory of aging suggested by George Williams. We also discuss a special case of the antagonistic pleiotropy theory, the disposable soma theory developed by Tom Kirkwood and Robin Holliday. The theories are compared with each other as well as with recent experimental findings. At present the most viable evolutionary theories are the mutation accumulation theory and the antagonistic pleiotropy theory; these theories are not mutually exclusive, and they both may become a part of a future unifying theory of aging. Evolutionary theories of aging are useful because they open new opportunities for further research by suggesting testable predictions, but they have also been harmful in the past when they were used to impose limitations on aging studies. At this time, the evolutionary theories of aging are not ultimate completed theories, but rather a set of ideas that themselves require further elaboration and validation. This theoretical review article is written for a wide readership. PMID:12806021

  1. Implications of Learning Theory for Economic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, David Alan

    The author states that learning theory is useful for economic educators because it enables them to develop instructional theory for economic education. The paper is arranged into five parts. Part 1 focuses on the historical learning theory perspective of economics education. Part 2 defines instructional theory, states its relationship to learning…

  2. Enhancing Theory Courses with Racially Inclusive Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramlett-Solomon, Sharon; Liebler, Carol M.

    1999-01-01

    Offers a blueprint that instructors of mass media theory courses can adopt to expose students to racially inclusive research in order to encourage students to explore and employ relevant theories when probing media and race questions. Offers examples of inclusive media research, examining six prominent theories: selective-perception theory,…

  3. Creativity Theories and Related Teachers' Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracho, Olivia

    2012-01-01

    Creativity theories have been investigated in relation to explicit or implicit theories, which have dominated the field. The flourishing attention about creativity motivated many researchers to examine implicit and explicit theories to understand creativity in their studies. Explicit theories are those formulated by psychologists or other social…

  4. Critical Social Theory: Core Tenets, Inherent Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Melissa; Vasconcelos, Erika Franca S.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter outlines the core tenets of critical social theory and describes inherent issues facing evaluators conducting critical theory evaluation. Using critical pedagogy as an example, the authors describe the issues facing evaluators by developing four of the subtheories that comprise a critical social theory: (a) a theory of false…

  5. Theory Matters: Representation and Experimentation in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a material enactment of educational theory to explore how we might do educational theory differently by defamiliarising the familiar. Theory is often assumed to be abstract, located solely in the realm of ideas and separate from practice. However, this view of theory emerges from a set of ontological and epistemological…

  6. Evaluation Theory Tree Re-Examined

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Christina A.; Alkin, Marvin C.

    2008-01-01

    When examining various evaluation prescriptive theories comparatively, we find it helpful to have a framework showing how they are related that highlights features that distinguish theoretical perspectives, thus a "theory" about theories. The evaluation theory tree that we presented in Alkin's recent book, "Evaluation Roots" [Eisner, E. (2004).…

  7. The Foundations of Einstein's Theory of Gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freundlich, Erwin; Brose, Translated by Henry L.; Einstein, Preface by Albert; Turner, Introduction by H. H.

    2011-06-01

    Introduction; 1. The special theory of relativity as a stepping-stone to the general theory of relativity; 2. Two fundamental postulates in the mathematical formulation of physical laws; 3. Concerning the fulfilment of the two postulates; 4. The difficulties in the principles of classical mechanics; 5. Einstein's theory of gravitation; 6. The verification of the new theory by actual experience; Appendix; Index.

  8. String Theory: Big Problem for Small Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahoo, S.

    2009-01-01

    String theory is the most promising candidate theory for a unified description of all the fundamental forces that exist in nature. It provides a mathematical framework that combines quantum theory with Einstein's general theory of relativity. The typical size of a string is of the order of 10[superscript -33] cm, called the Planck length. But due…

  9. An Affect Control Theory of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Daniel B.

    2010-01-01

    Affect control theory is a theory of interaction that takes into account cultural meanings. Affect control research has previously considered interaction with technology, but there remains a lack of theorizing about inclusion of technology within the theory. This paper lays a foundation for an affect control theory of technology by addressing key…

  10. Physical Theory of the Immune System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deem, Michael

    2012-10-01

    I will discuss to theories of the immune system and describe a theory of the immune response to vaccines. I will illustrate this theory by application to design of the annual influenza vaccine. I will use this theory to explain limitations in the vaccine for dengue fever and to suggest a transport-inspired amelioration of these limitations.

  11. Chern-Simons theory on supermanifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassi, Pietro Antonio; Maccaferri, Carlo

    2016-09-01

    We consider quantum field theories on supermanifolds using integral forms. The latter are used to define a geometric theory of integration and they are essential for a consistent action principle. The construction relies on Picture Changing Operators, analogous to the one introduced in String Theory. As an application, we construct a geometric action principle for N = 1 D = 3 super-Chern-Simons theory.

  12. Theories of class and new = 1 SCFTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrane, James; Wecht, Brian

    2015-06-01

    We describe an infinite two-parameter subfamily of theories of class where dialing one of the parameters interpolates between Gaiotto's T N theory and a theory of N 2 free hypermultiplets. After using the reduced superconformal index to study the operator content, we use these theories to construct new = 1 SCFTs and then examine the flows between them.

  13. TOWARDS A THEORY OF THE EDUCATIONAL FIRM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SIEGEL, BARRY N.

    THIS PAPER DEVELOPS AN ECONOMIC THEORY OF INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION (IHE) FROM WHICH IT MIGHT BE POSSIBLE TO EXTRACT A THEORY OF ENROLLMENT SUPPLY. SUCH A THEORY MUST DIFFER RADICALLY FROM THE THEORY OF THE BUSINESS FIRM BECAUSE OF TWO KEY ASSUMPTIONS WHICH CANNOT BE MADE ABOUT THE IHE--PROFIT MAXIMIZATION AND A PRODUCTION FUNCTION WHICH…

  14. Sociocultural Theory and the Mediated Learning Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozulin, Alex

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the two theories that have contributed most to the development of the mediational approach to learning, Vygotskian sociocultural theory and Feuerstein's theory of Mediated Learning Experience. Both theories emphasize the importance of sociocultural forces in shaping a child's development and learning, and have generated a number of…

  15. Children's Theories and the Drive to Explain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwitzgebel, Eric

    Debate has been growing in developmental psychology over how much the cognitive development of children is like theory change in science. Useful debate on this topic requires a clear understanding of what it would be for a child to have a theory. I argue that existing accounts of theories within philosophy of science and developmental psychology either are less precise than is ideal for the task or cannot capture everyday theorizing of the sort that children, if they theorize, must do. I then propose an account of theories that ties theories and explanation very closely together, treating theories primarily as products of a drive to explain. I clarify some of the positions people have taken regarding the theory theory of development, and I conclude by proposing that psychologists interested in the ''theory theory'' look for patterns of affect and arousal in development that would accompany the existence of a drive to explain.

  16. The danger theory: 20 years later.

    PubMed

    Pradeu, Thomas; Cooper, Edwin L

    2012-01-01

    The self-non-self theory has dominated immunology since the 1950s. In the 1990s, Matzinger and her colleagues suggested a new, competing theory, called the "danger theory." This theory has provoked mixed acclaim: enthusiasm and criticism. Here we assess the danger theory vis-à-vis recent experimental data on innate immunity, transplantation, cancers and tolerance to foreign entities, and try to elucidate more clearly whether danger is well defined.

  17. The danger theory: 20 years later

    PubMed Central

    Pradeu, Thomas; Cooper, Edwin L.

    2012-01-01

    The self–non-self theory has dominated immunology since the 1950s. In the 1990s, Matzinger and her colleagues suggested a new, competing theory, called the “danger theory.” This theory has provoked mixed acclaim: enthusiasm and criticism. Here we assess the danger theory vis-à-vis recent experimental data on innate immunity, transplantation, cancers and tolerance to foreign entities, and try to elucidate more clearly whether danger is well defined. PMID:23060876

  18. Haag's theorem in noncommutative quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Antipin, K. V.; Mnatsakanova, M. N.; Vernov, Yu. S.

    2013-08-15

    Haag's theorem was extended to the general case of noncommutative quantum field theory when time does not commute with spatial variables. It was proven that if S matrix is equal to unity in one of two theories related by unitary transformation, then the corresponding one in the other theory is equal to unity as well. In fact, this result is valid in any SO(1, 1)-invariant quantum field theory, an important example of which is noncommutative quantum field theory.

  19. Topics in low-dimensional field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Crescimanno, M.J.

    1991-04-30

    Conformal field theory is a natural tool for understanding two- dimensional critical systems. This work presents results in the lagrangian approach to conformal field theory. The first sections are chiefly about a particular class of field theories called coset constructions and the last part is an exposition of the connection between two-dimensional conformal theory and a three-dimensional gauge theory whose lagrangian is the Chern-Simons density.

  20. The Particle Theory of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widick, Paul R.

    1969-01-01

    Described are activities that are designed to help elementary children understand the possibility of the particle theory of matter. Children work with beads, marbles, B-B shot and sand; by mixing these materials and others they are led to see that it is highly possible for the existence of particles which are not visible. (BR)