String Theory and Gauge Theories
Maldacena, Juan
2009-02-20
We will see how gauge theories, in the limit that the number of colors is large, give string theories. We will discuss some examples of particular gauge theories where the corresponding string theory is known precisely, starting with the case of the maximally supersymmetric theory in four dimensions which corresponds to ten dimensional string theory. We will discuss recent developments in this area.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Golledge, Reginald G.
1996-01-01
Discusses the origin of theories in geography and particularly the development of location theories. Considers the influence of economic theory on agricultural land use, industrial location, and geographic location theories. Explores a set of interrelated activities that show how the marketing process illustrates process theory. (MJP)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schubert, Leo
1973-01-01
Briefly describes two antagonistic learning theories: the Association Theory proposed by Skinner and the Field or Cognitive Theory supported by Piaget. Suggests the need for consistency in theoretical approach in the teaching of science at the college level. (JR)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williams, Jeffrey
1994-01-01
Considers the recent flood of anthologies of literary criticism and theory as exemplifications of the confluence of pedagogical concerns, economics of publishing, and other historical factors. Looks specifically at how these anthologies present theory. Cites problems with their formatting theory and proposes alternative ways of organizing theory…
Harris, Tina
2015-04-29
Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaynes, E. T.; Bretthorst, G. Larry
2003-04-01
Foreword; Preface; Part I. Principles and Elementary Applications: 1. Plausible reasoning; 2. The quantitative rules; 3. Elementary sampling theory; 4. Elementary hypothesis testing; 5. Queer uses for probability theory; 6. Elementary parameter estimation; 7. The central, Gaussian or normal distribution; 8. Sufficiency, ancillarity, and all that; 9. Repetitive experiments, probability and frequency; 10. Physics of 'random experiments'; Part II. Advanced Applications: 11. Discrete prior probabilities, the entropy principle; 12. Ignorance priors and transformation groups; 13. Decision theory: historical background; 14. Simple applications of decision theory; 15. Paradoxes of probability theory; 16. Orthodox methods: historical background; 17. Principles and pathology of orthodox statistics; 18. The Ap distribution and rule of succession; 19. Physical measurements; 20. Model comparison; 21. Outliers and robustness; 22. Introduction to communication theory; References; Appendix A. Other approaches to probability theory; Appendix B. Mathematical formalities and style; Appendix C. Convolutions and cumulants.
Sanfilippo, Antonio P.
2005-12-27
Graph theory is a branch of discrete combinatorial mathematics that studies the properties of graphs. The theory was pioneered by the Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler in the 18th century, commenced its formal development during the second half of the 19th century, and has witnessed substantial growth during the last seventy years, with applications in areas as diverse as engineering, computer science, physics, sociology, chemistry and biology. Graph theory has also had a strong impact in computational linguistics by providing the foundations for the theory of features structures that has emerged as one of the most widely used frameworks for the representation of grammar formalisms.
Dufwenberg, Martin
2011-03-01
Game theory is a toolkit for examining situations where decision makers influence each other. I discuss the nature of game-theoretic analysis, the history of game theory, why game theory is useful for understanding human psychology, and why game theory has played a key role in the recent explosion of interest in the field of behavioral economics. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 167-173 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.119 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solari, Soren; Smith, Andrew; Minnett, Rupert; Hecht-Nielsen, Robert
2008-06-01
Confabulation Theory [Hecht-Nielsen R. Confabulation theory. Springer-Verlag; 2007] is the first comprehensive theory of human and animal cognition. Here, we briefly describe Confabulation Theory and discuss experimental results that suggest the theory is correct. Simply put, Confabulation Theory proposes that thinking is like moving. In humans, the theory postulates that there are roughly 4000 thalamocortical modules, the “muscles of thought”. Each module performs an internal competition ( confabulation) between its symbols, influenced by inputs delivered via learned axonal associations with symbols in other modules. In each module, this competition is controlled, as in an individual muscle, by a single graded (i.e., analog) thought control signal. The final result of this confabulation process is a single active symbol, the expression of which also results in launching of action commands that trigger and control subsequent movements and/or thought processes. Modules are manipulated in groups under coordinated, event-contingent control, in a similar manner to our 700 muscles. Confabulation Theory hypothesizes that the control of thinking is a direct evolutionary outgrowth of the control of movement. Establishing a complete understanding of Confabulation Theory will require launching and sustaining a massive new phalanx of confabulation neuroscience research.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Curtright, Thomas
2002-07-01
New features are described for models with multi-particle area-dependent potentials, in any number of dimensions. The corresponding many-body field theories are investigated for classical configurations. Some explicit solutions are given, and some conjectures are made about chaos in such field theories.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Koschmann, Timothy; Roschelle, Jeremy; Nardi, Bonnie A.
1998-01-01
Includes three articles that discuss activity theory, based on "Context and Consciousness." Topics include human-computer interaction; computer interfaces; hierarchical structuring; mediation; contradictions and development; failure analysis; and designing educational technology. (LRW)
Effective theories of universal theories
Wells, James D.; Zhang, Zhengkang
2016-01-20
It is well-known but sometimes overlooked that constraints on the oblique parameters (most notably S and T parameters) are generally speaking only applicable to a special class of new physics scenarios known as universal theories. The oblique parameters should not be associated with Wilson coefficients in a particular operator basis in the effective field theory (EFT) framework, unless restrictions have been imposed on the EFT so that it describes universal theories. Here, we work out these restrictions, and present a detailed EFT analysis of universal theories. We find that at the dimension-6 level, universal theories are completely characterized by 16more » parameters. They are conveniently chosen to be: 5 oblique parameters that agree with the commonly-adopted ones, 4 anomalous triple-gauge couplings, 3 rescaling factors for the h3, hff, hV V vertices, 3 parameters for hV V vertices absent in the Standard Model, and 1 four-fermion coupling of order yf2. Furthermore, all these parameters are defined in an unambiguous and basis-independent way, allowing for consistent constraints on the universal theories parameter space from precision electroweak and Higgs data.« less
Effective theories of universal theories
Wells, James D.; Zhang, Zhengkang
2016-01-20
It is well-known but sometimes overlooked that constraints on the oblique parameters (most notably S and T parameters) are generally speaking only applicable to a special class of new physics scenarios known as universal theories. The oblique parameters should not be associated with Wilson coefficients in a particular operator basis in the effective field theory (EFT) framework, unless restrictions have been imposed on the EFT so that it describes universal theories. Here, we work out these restrictions, and present a detailed EFT analysis of universal theories. We find that at the dimension-6 level, universal theories are completely characterized by 16 parameters. They are conveniently chosen to be: 5 oblique parameters that agree with the commonly-adopted ones, 4 anomalous triple-gauge couplings, 3 rescaling factors for the h^{3}, hff, hV V vertices, 3 parameters for hV V vertices absent in the Standard Model, and 1 four-fermion coupling of order yf^{2}. Furthermore, all these parameters are defined in an unambiguous and basis-independent way, allowing for consistent constraints on the universal theories parameter space from precision electroweak and Higgs data.
Conference on Operator Theory, Wavelet Theory and Control Theory
1993-09-30
Bourbaki 662 (1985-1986). [9] Meyer, Y., Ondelettes et operateurs I, Hermann editeurs des sciences et des arts, 1990. [10] Natanson, I. P., Theory of...OPERATOR THEORY , WAVELET THEORY & CONTROL THEORY (U)F 6. AUTHOR(S) 2304/ES Professor Xingde Dai F49620-93-1-0180 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...1STRIBUTION IS UNLIMITED UTL 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) The conference on Interaction Between Operator Theory , Wavelet Theory and Control Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sferra, Bobbie A.; Paddock, Susan C.
This booklet describes various theoretical aspects of leadership, including the proper exercise of authority, effective delegation, goal setting, exercise of control, assignment of responsibility, performance evaluation, and group process facilitation. It begins by describing the evolution of general theories of leadership from historic concepts…
Theory Survey or Survey Theory?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dean, Jodi
2010-01-01
Matthew Moore's survey of political theorists in U.S. American colleges and universities is an impressive contribution to political science (Moore 2010). It is the first such survey of political theory as a subfield, the response rate is very high, and the answers to the survey questions provide new information about how political theorists look…
1980-06-25
new experiments at 30 m ( 4 ATA) is appropriate for comparing N2 and He with respect to half times and surfacing ratios. Table 4 demonstrates the...THEORY C4 i t44 4 ’I9 41-*1 ai4 p80 7 10 009 UM"tUBNC*nm N4MDOf 29WS (DT) 6-25-80 The Seventeenth Undersea Medical Society Workshop DECOMPRESSION...Hamilton, Jr., Ph.D. Edward L Beckman, M.D. Hamilton Research Ltd. University of Hawaii 80 Grove Street School of Medicine Tarrytown, New York 10591
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riyopoulos, Spilios
1996-03-01
A guiding center fluid theory is applied to model steady-state, single mode, high-power magnetron operation. A hub of uniform, prescribed density, feeds the current spokes. The spoke charge follows from the continuity equation and the incompressibility of the guiding center flow. Included are the spoke self-fields (DC and AC), obtained by an expansion around the unperturbed (zero-spoke charge) flow in powers of ν/V1, ν, and V1 being the effective charge density and AC amplitude. The spoke current is obtained as a nonlinear function of the detuning from the synchronous (Buneman-Hartree, BH) voltage Vs; the spoke charge is included in the self-consistent definition of Vs. It is shown that there is a DC voltage region of width ‖V-Vs‖˜V1, where the spoke width is constant and the spoke current is simply proportional to the AC voltage. The magnetron characteristic curves are ``flat'' in that range, and are approximated by a linear expansion around Vs. The derived formulas differ from earlier results [J. F. Hull, in Cross Field Microwave Devices, edited by E. Okress (Academic, New York, 1961), pp. 496-527] in (a) there is no current cutoff at synchronism; the tube operates well below as well above the BH voltage; (b) the characteristics are single valued within the synchronous voltage range; (c) the hub top is not treated as virtual cathode; and (d) the hub density is not equal to the Brillouin density; comparisons with tube measurements show the best agreement for hub density near half the Brillouin density. It is also shown that at low space charge and low power the gain curve is symmetric relative to the voltage (frequency) detuning. While symmetry is broken at high-power/high space charge magnetron operation, the BH voltage remains between the current cutoff voltages.
Decidability of formal theories and hyperincursivity theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grappone, Arturo G.
2000-05-01
This paper shows the limits of the Proof Standard Theory (briefly, PST) and gives some ideas of how to build a proof anticipatory theory (briefly, PAT) that has no such limits. Also, this paper considers that Gödel's proof of the undecidability of Principia Mathematica formal theory is not valid for axiomatic theories that use a PAT to build their proofs because the (hyper)incursive functions are self-representable.
Grounded theory, feminist theory, critical theory: toward theoretical triangulation.
Kushner, Kaysi Eastlick; Morrow, Raymond
2003-01-01
Nursing and social science scholars have examined the compatibility between feminist and grounded theory traditions in scientific knowledge generation, concluding that they are complementary, yet not without certain tensions. This line of inquiry is extended to propose a critical feminist grounded theory methodology. The construction of symbolic interactionist, feminist, and critical feminist variants of grounded theory methodology is examined in terms of the presuppositions of each tradition and their interplay as a process of theoretical triangulation.
Foundations for a theory of gravitation theories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thorne, K. S.; Lee, D. L.; Lightman, A. P.
1972-01-01
A foundation is laid for future analyses of gravitation theories. This foundation is applicable to any theory formulated in terms of geometric objects defined on a 4-dimensional spacetime manifold. The foundation consists of (1) a glossary of fundamental concepts; (2) a theorem that delineates the overlap between Lagrangian-based theories and metric theories; (3) a conjecture (due to Schiff) that the Weak Equivalence Principle implies the Einstein Equivalence Principle; and (4) a plausibility argument supporting this conjecture for the special case of relativistic, Lagrangian-based theories.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banks, Tom
2008-09-01
1. Introduction; 2. Quantum theory of free scalar fields; 3. Interacting field theory; 4. Particles of spin one, and gauge invariance; 5. Spin 1/2 particles and Fermi statistics; 6. Massive quantum electrodynamics; 7. Symmetries, Ward identities and Nambu Goldstone bosons; 8. Non-abelian gauge theory; 9. Renormalization and effective field theory; 10. Instantons and solitons; 11. Concluding remarks; Appendices; References; Index.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Apsche, Jack A.
2005-01-01
In his work on the Theory of Modes, Beck (1996) suggested that there were flaws with his cognitive theory. He suggested that though there are shortcomings to his cognitive theory, there were not similar shortcomings to the practice of Cognitive Therapy. The author suggests that if there are shortcomings to cognitive theory the same shortcomings…
Nonrelativistic superstring theories
Kim, Bom Soo
2007-12-15
We construct a supersymmetric version of the critical nonrelativistic bosonic string theory [B. S. Kim, Phys. Rev. D 76, 106007 (2007).] with its manifest global symmetry. We introduce the anticommuting bc conformal field theory (CFT) which is the super partner of the {beta}{gamma} CFT. The conformal weights of the b and c fields are both 1/2. The action of the fermionic sector can be transformed into that of the relativistic superstring theory. We explicitly quantize the theory with manifest SO(8) symmetry and find that the spectrum is similar to that of type IIB superstring theory. There is one notable difference: the fermions are nonchiral. We further consider noncritical generalizations of the supersymmetric theory using the superspace formulation. There is an infinite range of possible string theories similar to the supercritical string theories. We comment on the connection between the critical nonrelativistic string theory and the lightlike linear dilaton theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jovanović, Dejan; Barrett, Clark
The classic method of Nelson and Oppen for combining decision procedures requires the theories to be stably-infinite. Unfortunately, some important theories do not fall into this category (e.g. the theory of bit-vectors). To remedy this problem, previous work introduced the notion of polite theories. Polite theories can be combined with any other theory using an extension of the Nelson-Oppen approach. In this paper we revisit the notion of polite theories, fixing a subtle flaw in the original definition. We give a new combination theorem which specifies the degree to which politeness is preserved when combining polite theories. We also give conditions under which politeness is preserved when instantiating theories by identifying two sorts. These results lead to a more general variant of the theorem for combining multiple polite theories.
Quantum Theory is an Information Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Ariano, Giacomo M.; Perinotti, Paolo
2016-03-01
In this paper we review the general framework of operational probabilistic theories (OPT), along with the six axioms from which quantum theory can be derived. We argue that the OPT framework along with a relaxed version of five of the axioms, define a general information theory. We close the paper with considerations about the role of the observer in an OPT, and the interpretation of the von Neumann postulate and the Schrödinger-cat paradox.
Teaching Theory X and Theory Y in Organizational Communication
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noland, Carey
2014-01-01
The purpose of the activity described here is to integrate McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y into a group application: design a syllabus that embodies either Theory X or Theory Y tenets. Students should be able to differentiate between Theory X and Theory Y, create a syllabus based on Theory X or Theory Y tenets, evaluate the different syllabi…
Identity theory and personality theory: mutual relevance.
Stryker, Sheldon
2007-12-01
Some personality psychologists have found a structural symbolic interactionist frame and identity theory relevant to their work. This frame and theory, developed in sociology, are first reviewed. Emphasized in the review are a multiple identity conception of self, identities as internalized expectations derived from roles embedded in organized networks of social interaction, and a view of social structures as facilitators in bringing people into networks or constraints in keeping them out, subsequently, attention turns to a discussion of the mutual relevance of structural symbolic interactionism/identity theory and personality theory, looking to extensions of the current literature on these topics.
Generalizability Theory and Classical Test Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brennan, Robert L.
2011-01-01
Broadly conceived, reliability involves quantifying the consistencies and inconsistencies in observed scores. Generalizability theory, or G theory, is particularly well suited to addressing such matters in that it enables an investigator to quantify and distinguish the sources of inconsistencies in observed scores that arise, or could arise, over…
Disengagement theory revisited.
Markson, E W
1975-01-01
Cumming and Henry erected the basic frame for a socio-cultural theory of normal aging in their 1961 book, Growing Old. The basic postulates of this theory are reviewed, and the overall structure of the theory briefly examined. Critical data necessary either to accept or reject disengagement theory are not yet available, although useful information has been gathered since the theory first appeared. Part of the difficulty in amassing "proof" or "disproof" is inherent in the intricate and complex nature of the aging process itself. This orienting paper introduced a set of contributtions by other commentators on disengagement theory.
Kheirandish, F.; Amooshahi, M.
2008-11-18
Quantum field theory of a damped vibrating string as the simplest dissipative scalar field theory is investigated by introducing a minimal coupling method. The rate of energy flowing between the system and its environment is obtained.
Interpolation and Approximation Theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kaijser, Sten
1991-01-01
Introduced are the basic ideas of interpolation and approximation theory through a combination of theory and exercises written for extramural education at the university level. Topics treated are spline methods, Lagrange interpolation, trigonometric approximation, Fourier series, and polynomial approximation. (MDH)
Stabilizing bottomless action theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greensite, J.; Halpern, M. B.
1984-08-01
We show how to construct the euclidean quantum theory corresponding to classical actions which are unbounded from below. Our method preserves the classical limit, the large- N limit, and the perturbative expansion of the unstabilized theories.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tollmien, W.
1949-01-01
The theory of characteristics will be presented generally for quasilinear differential equations of the second order in two variables. This is necessary because of the manifold requirements to be demanded from the theory of characteristics.
Covariant Noncommutative Field Theory
Estrada-Jimenez, S.; Garcia-Compean, H.; Obregon, O.; Ramirez, C.
2008-07-02
The covariant approach to noncommutative field and gauge theories is revisited. In the process the formalism is applied to field theories invariant under diffeomorphisms. Local differentiable forms are defined in this context. The lagrangian and hamiltonian formalism is consistently introduced.
Constructor theory of probability
2016-01-01
Unitary quantum theory, having no Born Rule, is non-probabilistic. Hence the notorious problem of reconciling it with the unpredictability and appearance of stochasticity in quantum measurements. Generalizing and improving upon the so-called ‘decision-theoretic approach’, I shall recast that problem in the recently proposed constructor theory of information—where quantum theory is represented as one of a class of superinformation theories, which are local, non-probabilistic theories conforming to certain constructor-theoretic conditions. I prove that the unpredictability of measurement outcomes (to which constructor theory gives an exact meaning) necessarily arises in superinformation theories. Then I explain how the appearance of stochasticity in (finitely many) repeated measurements can arise under superinformation theories. And I establish sufficient conditions for a superinformation theory to inform decisions (made under it) as if it were probabilistic, via a Deutsch–Wallace-type argument—thus defining a class of decision-supporting superinformation theories. This broadens the domain of applicability of that argument to cover constructor-theory compliant theories. In addition, in this version some of the argument's assumptions, previously construed as merely decision-theoretic, follow from physical properties expressed by constructor-theoretic principles. PMID:27616914
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peim, Nick
2009-01-01
This paper seeks to re-examine Yrio Engestrom's activity theory as a technology of knowledge designed to enable positive transformations of specific practices. The paper focuses on a key paper where Engestrom defines the nature and present state of activity theory. Beginning with a brief account of the relations between activity theory and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pais, Alexandre; Valero, Paola
2014-01-01
What is the place of social theory in mathematics education research, and what is it for? This special issue of "Educational Studies in Mathematics" offers insights on what could be the role of some sociological theories in a field that has historically privileged learning theories coming from psychology and mathematics as the main…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rajendran, Gnanathusharan; Mitchell, Peter
2007-01-01
This article considers three theories of autism: The Theory of Mind Deficit, Executive Dysfunction and the Weak Central Coherence accounts. It outlines each along with studies relevant to their emergence, their expansion, their limitations and their possible integration. Furthermore, consideration is given to any implication from the theories in…
Quantum Electrodynamics: Theory
Lincoln, Don
2016-03-30
The Standard Model of particle physics is composed of several theories that are added together. The most precise component theory is the theory of quantum electrodynamics or QED. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains how theoretical QED calculations can be done. This video links to other videos, giving the viewer a deep understanding of the process.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rudner, Lawrence M.
This paper describes and evaluates the use of decision theory as a tool for classifying examinees based on their item response patterns. Decision theory, developed by A. Wald (1947) and now widely used in engineering, agriculture, and computing, provides a simple model for the analysis of categorical data. Measurement decision theory requires only…
Quantum Electrodynamics: Theory
Lincoln, Don
2016-07-12
The Standard Model of particle physics is composed of several theories that are added together. The most precise component theory is the theory of quantum electrodynamics or QED. In this video, Fermilabâs Dr. Don Lincoln explains how theoretical QED calculations can be done. This video links to other videos, giving the viewer a deep understanding of the process.
Constructor theory of probability.
Marletto, Chiara
2016-08-01
Unitary quantum theory, having no Born Rule, is non-probabilistic. Hence the notorious problem of reconciling it with the unpredictability and appearance of stochasticity in quantum measurements. Generalizing and improving upon the so-called 'decision-theoretic approach', I shall recast that problem in the recently proposed constructor theory of information-where quantum theory is represented as one of a class of superinformation theories, which are local, non-probabilistic theories conforming to certain constructor-theoretic conditions. I prove that the unpredictability of measurement outcomes (to which constructor theory gives an exact meaning) necessarily arises in superinformation theories. Then I explain how the appearance of stochasticity in (finitely many) repeated measurements can arise under superinformation theories. And I establish sufficient conditions for a superinformation theory to inform decisions (made under it) as if it were probabilistic, via a Deutsch-Wallace-type argument-thus defining a class of decision-supporting superinformation theories. This broadens the domain of applicability of that argument to cover constructor-theory compliant theories. In addition, in this version some of the argument's assumptions, previously construed as merely decision-theoretic, follow from physical properties expressed by constructor-theoretic principles.
Reflections on Activity Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bakhurst, David
2009-01-01
It is sometimes suggested that activity theory represents the most important legacy of Soviet philosophy and psychology. But what exactly "is" activity theory? The canonical account in the West is given by Engestrom, who identifies three stages in the theory's development: from Vygotsky's insights, through Leontiev's articulation of the…
La theorie autrement (Theory in Another Light).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bertocchini, Paola; Costanzo, Edwige
1985-01-01
Outlines a technique using articles from "Le Francais dans le Monde" to teach reading comprehension and theory simultaneously to teachers of French as a second language. Describes a program in Italy using this approach. (MSE)
Family systems theory, attachment theory, and culture.
Rothbaum, Fred; Rosen, Karen; Ujiie, Tatsuo; Uchida, Nobuko
2002-01-01
Family systems theory and attachment theory have important similarities and complementarities. Here we consider two areas in which the theories converge: (a) in family system theorists' description of an overly close, or "enmeshed," mother-child dyad, which attachment theorists conceptualize as the interaction of children's ambivalent attachment and mothers' preoccupied attachment; (b) in family system theorists' description of the "pursuer-distance cycle" of marital conflict, which attachment theorists conceptualize as the interaction of preoccupied and dismissive partners. We briefly review family systems theory evidence, and more extensively review attachment theory evidence, pertaining to these points of convergence. We also review cross-cultural research, which leads us to conclude that the dynamics described in both theories reflect, in part, Western ways of thinking and Western patterns of relatedness. Evidence from Japan suggests that extremely close ties between mother and child are perceived as adaptive, and are more common, and that children experience less adverse effects from such relationships than do children in the West. Moreover, in Japan there is less emphasis on the importance of the exclusive spousal relationship, and less need for the mother and father to find time alone to rekindle romantic, intimate feelings and to resolve conflicts by openly communicating their differences. Thus, the "maladaptive" pattern frequently cited by Western theorists of an extremely close mother-child relationship, an unromantic, conflictual marriage characterized by little verbal communication and a peripheral, distant father, may function very differently in other cultures. While we believe that both theories will be greatly enriched by their integration, we caution against the application of either theory outside the cultures in which they were developed.
Variational Transition State Theory
Truhlar, Donald G.
2016-09-29
This is the final report on a project involving the development and applications of variational transition state theory. This project involved the development of variational transition state theory for gas-phase reactions, including optimized multidimensional tunneling contributions and the application of this theory to gas-phase reactions with a special emphasis on developing reaction rate theory in directions that are important for applications to combustion. The development of variational transition state theory with optimized multidimensional tunneling as a useful computational tool for combustion kinetics involved eight objectives.
Levy, Florence
2007-11-01
The purpose of the present paper was to review psychological theories of autism, and to integrate these theories with neurobiological findings. Cognitive, theory of mind, language and coherence theories were identified, and briefly reviewed. Psychological theories were found not to account for the rigid/repetitive behaviours universally described in autistic subjects, and underlying neurobiological systems were identified. When the developing brain encounters constrained connectivity, it evolves an abnormal organization, the features of which may be best explained by a developmental failure of neural connectivity, where high local connectivity develops in tandem with low long-range connectivity, resulting in constricted repetitive behaviours.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan; Butler, Ricky W. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The purpose of this task was to provide a mechanism for theory interpretations in a prototype verification system (PVS) so that it is possible to demonstrate the consistency of a theory by exhibiting an interpretation that validates the axioms. The mechanization makes it possible to show that one collection of theories is correctly interpreted by another collection of theories under a user-specified interpretation for the uninterpreted types and constants. A theory instance is generated and imported, while the axiom instances are generated as proof obligations to ensure that the interpretation is valid. Interpretations can be used to show that an implementation is a correct refinement of a specification, that an axiomatically defined specification is consistent, or that a axiomatically defined specification captures its intended models. In addition, the theory parameter mechanism has been extended with a notion of theory as parameter so that a theory instance can be given as an actual parameter to an imported theory. Theory interpretations can thus be used to refine an abstract specification or to demonstrate the consistency of an axiomatic theory. In this report we describe the mechanism in detail. This extension is a part of PVS version 3.0, which will be publicly released in mid-2001.
[Introduction to grounded theory].
Wang, Shou-Yu; Windsor, Carol; Yates, Patsy
2012-02-01
Grounded theory, first developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s, was introduced into nursing education as a distinct research methodology in the 1970s. The theory is grounded in a critique of the dominant contemporary approach to social inquiry, which imposed "enduring" theoretical propositions onto study data. Rather than starting from a set theoretical framework, grounded theory relies on researchers distinguishing meaningful constructs from generated data and then identifying an appropriate theory. Grounded theory is thus particularly useful in investigating complex issues and behaviours not previously addressed and concepts and relationships in particular populations or places that are still undeveloped or weakly connected. Grounded theory data analysis processes include open, axial and selective coding levels. The purpose of this article was to explore the grounded theory research process and provide an initial understanding of this methodology.
Supersymmetry and String Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dine, Michael
2016-01-01
Preface to the first edition; Preface to the second edition; A note on choice of metric; Text website; Part I. Effective Field Theory: The Standard Model, Supersymmetry, Unification: 1. Before the Standard Model; 2. The Standard Model; 3. Phenomenology of the Standard Model; 4. The Standard Model as an effective field theory; 5. Anomalies, instantons and the strong CP problem; 6. Grand unification; 7. Magnetic monopoles and solitons; 8. Technicolor: a first attempt to explain hierarchies; Part II. Supersymmetry: 9. Supersymmetry; 10. A first look at supersymmetry breaking; 11. The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model; 12. Supersymmetric grand unification; 13. Supersymmetric dynamics; 14. Dynamical supersymmetry breaking; 15. Theories with more than four conserved supercharges; 16. More supersymmetric dynamics; 17. An introduction to general relativity; 18. Cosmology; 19. Astroparticle physics and inflation; Part III. String Theory: 20. Introduction; 21. The bosonic string; 22. The superstring; 23. The heterotic string; 24. Effective actions in ten dimensions; 25. Compactification of string theory I. Tori and orbifolds; 26. Compactification of string theory II. Calabi-Yau compactifications; 27. Dynamics of string theory at weak coupling; 28. Beyond weak coupling: non-perturbative string theory; 29. Large and warped extra dimensions; 30. The landscape: a challenge to the naturalness principle; 31. Coda: where are we headed?; Part IV. The Appendices: Appendix A. Two-component spinors; Appendix B. Goldstone's theorem and the pi mesons; Appendix C. Some practice with the path integral in field theory; Appendix D. The beta function in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory; References; Index.
Naylor, Ron
2007-03-01
The aim of Galileo's tidal theory was to show that the tides were produced entirely by the earth's motion and thereby to demonstrate the physical truth of Copernicanism. However, in the Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems Galileo did not explain some of the most significant aspects of the theory completely. As a consequence, the way the theory works has long been disputed. Though there exist a number of interpretations in the literature, the most widely accepted are based on ideas that are not explicitly articulated by Galileo in the Dialogue. This essay attempts to understand the way the theory functions in terms of Galilean physics. It is an interpretation of the theory based solely on Galileo's arguments--and one that reveals it to have had some unrecognized consequences. This interpretation indicates that Galileo's theory would not have worked in the manner he described in the Dialogue.
Children's theories of motivation.
Gurland, Suzanne T; Glowacky, Victoria C
2011-09-01
To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over the long term for appealing activities. Individual difference analyses revealed that some children held operant theories of motivation, in which rewards were central, and others held hybrid theories, in which rewards were key, but some allowance was made for interest to be self-sustaining in the absence of inducements. Children's theories predicted their academic self-regulation. Their theories are discussed relative to an expert theory of motivation.
Automated Lattice Perturbation Theory
Monahan, Christopher
2014-11-01
I review recent developments in automated lattice perturbation theory. Starting with an overview of lattice perturbation theory, I focus on the three automation packages currently "on the market": HiPPy/HPsrc, Pastor and PhySyCAl. I highlight some recent applications of these methods, particularly in B physics. In the final section I briefly discuss the related, but distinct, approach of numerical stochastic perturbation theory.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ostwald, Wolfgang
1988-01-01
A brief summary of the fundamentals of the Linear theory of flotation is given. The theory by no means contradicts the previous Laminar theory or even the thermodynamics (Wark-Siedler), rather it is a refinement of the known Hardy-Langmuir-Harkin conceptions for the case when there are not two phases and phase boundaries, but rather three phases and corresponding phase boundary edges. The appearance of such three-phase boundaries (ore, water, air) is characteristic for modern flotation methods.
Theory Modeling and Simulation
Shlachter, Jack
2012-08-23
Los Alamos has a long history in theory, modeling and simulation. We focus on multidisciplinary teams that tackle complex problems. Theory, modeling and simulation are tools to solve problems just like an NMR spectrometer, a gas chromatograph or an electron microscope. Problems should be used to define the theoretical tools needed and not the other way around. Best results occur when theory and experiments are working together in a team.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Costley, Kevin C.
2006-01-01
University professors teaching pre-service teachers base much of their philosophies on theories. Students often ask "Why do we have theories?" "What is the purpose of theories?" "If we like a theory, do we have to use all of the theory?" The most frequent controversial issue is how to use a particular theory in a practical way. In the quest for…
Between Theory and Observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wepster, Steven
Three great mathematicians dominate the history of lunar theory in the middle of the eighteenth century: Leonhard Euler, Alexis Clairaut, and Jean le Rond d’Alembert. Each of them made a lasting contribution to the theory of celestial mechanics and their results had a broader impact than on lunar theory alone. To name but a few examples, Euler codified the trigonometric functions and pioneered the method of variation of orbital constants; Clairaut solved the arduous problem of the motion of the lunar apogee, thereby dealing a decisive blow to the sceptics of Newton’s law of gravitation; and d’Alembert worked out an accurate theory of precession and nutation.
1976-05-01
A~ —~ on 022 CAMBRIDGE UNIV (ENGLAND) CAVEND ISH LAB —. FIG 20/12 —“1THEORY OF SOLID SURFACES .(U) MAY 76 ~J C INKS ON, P W ANDERSON AF AFOSR...t_ ~ - ~ - ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Grant Number AFOSR 73—2le~9 ~ Theory of Solid Surfaces J.C. INKSON and P.W. ANDERSON Cavendish Laboratory... solid state techniques to the theory of nucleii and neutron stars . On surfaces an important : ew development is described in the theory of catalysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jing-Yuan; Son, Dam Thanh
2017-02-01
We develop an extension of the Landau Fermi liquid theory to systems of interacting fermions with non-trivial Berry curvature. We propose a kinetic equation and a constitutive relation for the electromagnetic current that together encode the linear response of such systems to external electromagnetic perturbations, to leading and next-to-leading orders in the expansion over the frequency and wave number of the perturbations. We analyze the Feynman diagrams in a large class of interacting quantum field theories and show that, after summing up all orders in perturbation theory, the current-current correlator exactly matches with the result obtained from the kinetic theory.
Lincoln, Don
2016-07-12
The Big Bang is the name of the most respected theory of the creation of the universe. Basically, the theory says that the universe was once smaller and denser and has been expending for eons. One common misconception is that the Big Bang theory says something about the instant that set the expansion into motion, however this isnât true. In this video, Fermilabâs Dr. Don Lincoln tells about the Big Bang theory and sketches some speculative ideas about what caused the universe to come into existence.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baird, J. K.
1986-01-01
The Ostwald-ripening theory is deduced and discussed starting from the fundamental principles such as Ising model concept, Mayer cluster expansion, Langer condensation point theory, Ginzburg-Landau free energy, Stillinger cutoff-pair potential, LSW-theory and MLSW-theory. Mathematical intricacies are reduced to an understanding version. Comparison of selected works, from 1949 to 1984, on solution of diffusion equation with and without sink/sources term(s) is presented. Kahlweit's 1980 work and Marqusee-Ross' 1954 work are more emphasized. Odijk and Lekkerkerker's 1985 work on rodlike macromolecules is introduced in order to simulate interested investigators.
Lincoln, Don
2014-09-30
The Big Bang is the name of the most respected theory of the creation of the universe. Basically, the theory says that the universe was once smaller and denser and has been expending for eons. One common misconception is that the Big Bang theory says something about the instant that set the expansion into motion, however this isn’t true. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln tells about the Big Bang theory and sketches some speculative ideas about what caused the universe to come into existence.
A Theory of Imperfection: An Imperfect Theory?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Piel, Ellen R.
1979-01-01
Problems faced by counselor education programs is that of reconciling the split between the traditional academic emphasis on teaching and research and practical experience and personal growth. Contends counselors' failure to recognize the value of theories in counseling may pose some problems for our profession as a whole. (Author)
Trubitsyn, A G
2012-01-01
In attempts to develop a means of life prolongation the humankind has created more than three hundred theories of the aging; each of them offers the original cause of aging. However, none of them has given practical result by now. The majority of the theories have now only historical interest. There are several different theories that are mainly under consideration currently. They are based on reliable, proven evidence: the free radical theory, the protein error theory, the replicative senescence theory, the theory of reparation weakening, the immunological theory, several versions of neuroendocrinal theories, and programmed aging theory. The theory presented here is based on conception that the life as the phenomenon represents many of the interconnected physical and chemical processes propelled by energy of the mitochondrial bioenergetical machine. Gradual degradation of all vital processes is caused by the programmed decrease in level of bioenergetics. This theory unites all existing theories of aging constructed on authentic facts: it is shown, that such fundamental phenomena accompanying aging process as the increase in level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the decrease in the general level of protein synthesis, the limitation of cellular dividing (Haiflick limit), decrease in efficiency of reparation mechanisms are caused by bioenergetics attenuation. Each of these phenomena in turn generates a number of harmful secondary processes. Any of the theories bases on one of these destructive phenomena or their combination. Hence, each of them describes one of sides of process of the aging initially caused by programmed decrease of level of bioenergetics. This united theory gives the chance to understand the nature of aging clock and explains a phenomenon of increase in longevity at the condition of food restriction. Failures of attempts to develop means from aging are explained by that the manipulations with the separate secondary phenomena of attenuation of
Universality and string theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bachlechner, Thomas Christian
The first run at the Large Hadron Collider has deeply challenged conventional notions of naturalness, and CMB polarization experiments are about to open a new window to early universe cosmology. As a compelling candidate for the ultraviolet completion of the standard model, string theory provides a prime opportunity to study both early universe cosmology and particle physics. However, relating low energy observations to ultraviolet physics requires knowledge of the metastable states of string theory through the study of vacua. While it is difficult to directly obtain infrared data from explicit string theory constructions, string theory imposes constraints on low energy physics. The study of ensembles of low energy theories consistent with ultra-violet constraints provides insight on generic features we might expect to occur in string compactifications. In this thesis we present a statistical treatment of vacuum stability and vacuum properties in the context of random supergravity theories motivated by string theory. Early universe cosmology provides another avenue to high energy physics. From the low energy perspective large field inflation is typically considered highly unnatural: the scale relevant for the diameter of flat regions in moduli space is sub-Planckian in regions of perturbative control. To approach this problem, we consider generic Calabi-Yau compactifications of string theory and find that super-Planckian diameters of axion fundamental domains in fact arise generically. We further demonstrate that such super-Planckian flat regions are plausibly consistent with theWeak Gravity Conjecture.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Livens, G. H.
2016-10-01
Preface; 1. The electric field; 2. Dielectric theory; 3. Electric currents; 4. The magnetic field; 5. The dynamics of the magnetic field; 6. Maxwell's electromagnetic theory; 7. Electromagnetic oscillations and waves; 8. The electrodynamics of moving media; Appendix 1. On the mechanism of magnetic induction; Appendix 2. On the mechanism of metallic conduction; Index.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Minter, Robert L.
2011-01-01
This article addresses the myriad of pedagogical and andragogical issues facing university educators in the student learning process. It briefly explores the proliferation of learning theories in an attempt to develop awareness among faculty who teach at the university/college levels that not all theories of learning apply to the adult learner. In…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shor, Mikhael
2003-01-01
States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…
History, Theory, and Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rury, John L.
2011-01-01
In this article, the author discusses the question of theory as it may pertain to the history of education, with particular attention to the United States. Historians, like everyone else, have little choice regarding the use of theory; to one extent or another they must. The question is how much and to what end. The author aims to consider the…
Evaluating Conceptual Metaphor Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gibbs, Raymond W., Jr.
2011-01-01
A major revolution in the study of metaphor occurred 30 years ago with the introduction of "conceptual metaphor theory" (CMT). Unlike previous theories of metaphor and metaphorical meaning, CMT proposed that metaphor is not just an aspect of language, but a fundamental part of human thought. Indeed, most metaphorical language arises from…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maldacena, Juan Martín
D-Branes on Calabi-Yau manifolds / Paul S. Aspinwall -- Lectures on AdS/CFT / Juan M. Maldacena -- Tachyon dynamics in open string theory / Ashoke Sen -- TASI/PITP/ISS lectures on moduli and microphysics / Eva Silverstein -- The duality cascade / Matthew J. Strassler -- Perturbative computations in string field theory / Washington Taylor -- Student seminars -- Student participants -- Lecturers, directors, and local organizing committee.
1981-03-31
measured and appear to be comparable to those predicted by the Vlasov-fluid theory of Seylerl and the finite Larmor radius theory of Freidberg and...C.E. Seyler, "Vlasov-Fluid Stability of a Rigidly Rotating Theta Pinch," Phys. Fluids 22, 2324, (1979). 2. J.P. Freidberg , L.D. Pearlstein
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iesan, D.
1980-01-01
The development of the theory of thermoelasticity, which examines the interactions between the deformation of elastic media and the thermal field, is traced and the fundamental problems of the theory are presented. Results of recent studies on the subject are presented. Emphasis is primarily on media with generalized anisotropy, or isotropy media. Thermomechanical problems and mathematical formulations and resolutions are included.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roller, Duane H. D.
1981-01-01
Focusing on history of physics, which began about 600 B.C. with the Ionian Greeks and reaching full development within three centuries, suggests that the creation of the concept of the atom is understandable within the context of Greek physical theory; so is the rejection of the atomic theory by the Greek physicists. (Author/SK)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mislevy, Robert J.
Educational test theory consists of statistical and methodological tools to support inferences about examinees' knowledge, skills, and accomplishments. The evolution of test theory has been shaped by the nature of users' inferences which, until recently, have been framed almost exclusively in terms of trait and behavioral psychology. Progress in…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeh, H. D.
1999-04-01
This is a brief reply to S. Goldstein's article "Quantum theory without observers" in Physics Today. It is pointed out that Bohm's pilot wave theory is successful only because it keeps Schrödinger's (exact) wave mechanics unchanged, while the rest of it is observationally meaningless and solely based on classical prejudice.
French Theory's American Adventures
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cusset, Francois
2008-01-01
In this article, the author discusses how it is simply too late to be still speaking about French theory and its role in the intellectual life of the United States today. It seems to many observers that the gap between real-life politics and theory's guerrillas is much too wide already, after 30 years of academic fever, for the two worlds to even…
Towards Extended Vantage Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Glaz, Adam
2010-01-01
The applicability of Vantage Theory (VT), a model of (colour) categorization, to linguistic data largely depends on the modifications and adaptations of the model for the purpose. An attempt to do so proposed here, called Extended Vantage Theory (EVT), slightly reformulates the VT conception of vantage by capitalizing on some of the entailments of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jaeger, Audrey J.; Dunstan, Stephany; Thornton, Courtney; Rockenbach, Alyssa B.; Gayles, Joy G.; Haley, Karen J.
2013-01-01
When making decisions that impact student learning, college educators often consider previous experiences, precedent, common sense, and advice from colleagues. But how often do they consider theory? At a recent state-level educators' meeting, the authors of this article asked 50 student affairs educators about the use of theory in their practice.…
Catterall, Simon; Hubisz, Jay; Balachandran, Aiyalam; Schechter, Joe
2013-01-05
This final report describes the activities of the high energy theory group at Syracuse University for the period 1 January 2010 through April 30 2013. The research conducted by the group includes lattice gauge theory, non-commutative geometry, phenomenology and mathematical physics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mayer, William V.
In this paper the author examines the question of whether evolution is a theory or a dogma. He refutes the contention that there is a monolithic scientific conspiracy to present evolution as dogma and suggests that his own presentation might be more appropriately entitled "Creationism: Theory or Dogma." (PEB)
Theory and Motivational Psychology.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Atkinson, John W.
Motivational psychology and test theory are compared in this discussion, which focuses on distinguishing the effects of motivation and of ability on test performance and educational achievement. Recent theory in achievement motivation considers the motivational significance of future goals as they affect present activities that are instrumental in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peller, Lili E.
1996-01-01
Discusses several theories of play advanced before the development of psychoanalysis, including the theories of surplus energy, recreation, and practice. Examines the psychoanalytical view advanced by Freud and others, which focuses on the emotional release of play and its role in discovery and learning. (MDM)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rexhepi, Jevdet; Torres, Carlos Alberto
2011-01-01
This paper discusses Critical Theory, a model of theorizing in the field of the political sociology of education. We argue for a "reimagined" Critical Theory to herald an empowering, liberatory education that fosters curiosity and critical thinking, and a means for successful bottom-up, top-down political engagement. We present arguments…
Organization Theory as Ideology.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greenfield, Thomas B.
The theory that organizations are ideological inventions of the human mind is discussed. Organizational science is described as an ideology which is based upon social concepts and experiences. The main justification for organizational theory is that it attempts to answer why we behave as we do in social organizations. Ways in which ideas and…
Administrative Theory in Transition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Griffiths, Daniel E.
This monograph analyzes transition in educational administrative theory. A brief introductory section describes the theoretical movement, the substance and repercussions of Thomas Greenfield's critique of educational administrative theory in 1974, and emerging qualitative approaches. Seven readings, all written by the volume's author, view…
Jackendoff, Ray
2017-03-01
Formal theories of mental representation have receded from the importance they had in the early days of cognitive science. I argue that such theories are crucial in any mental domain, not just for their own sake, but to guide experimental inquiry, as well as to integrate the domain into the mind as a whole. To illustrate the criteria of adequacy for theories of mental representation, I compare two theoretical approaches to language: classical generative grammar (Chomsky, 1965, 1981, 1995) and the parallel architecture (Jackendoff, 1997, 2002). The grounds for comparison include (a) the internal coherence of the theory across phonology, syntax, and semantics; (b) the relation of language to other mental faculties; (c) the relationship between grammar and lexicon; (d) relevance to theories of language processing; and (e) the possibility of languages with little or no syntax.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wagner, Richard P.; Norman, M. L.
2006-12-01
A working example of a Basic SkyNode serving theoretical data will be presented. The data is taken from the Simulated Cluster Archive (a set of simulated galaxy clusters, where each cluster was computed using four different physics models). The Theory SkyNode tables contain columns of both computational and observational interest. Examples will be shown of using this theoretical data for comparison to data taken from observational SkyNodes, and vice versa. The relative ease of setting up the Theory SkyNode is of import, as it represents a clear way to present tabular theory data to the Virtual Observatory. Also, the Theory SkyNode provides a prototype for additional "theory catalogs", which wil be created from other simulations. This work is supported by the University of California Office of the President via UCDRD-LLNL award "Scientific Data Management". Travel funding was provided by the US NVO Summer School.
Introduction to string theory and conformal field theory
Belavin, A. A. Tarnopolsky, G. M.
2010-05-15
A concise survey of noncritical string theory and two-dimensional conformal field theory is presented. A detailed derivation of a conformal anomaly and the definition and general properties of conformal field theory are given. Minimal string theory, which is a special version of the theory, is considered. Expressions for the string susceptibility and gravitational dimensions are derived.
Theory of Multiple Intelligences: Is It a Scientific Theory?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chen, Jie-Qi
2004-01-01
This essay discusses the status of multiple intelligences (MI) theory as a scientific theory by addressing three issues: the empirical evidence Gardner used to establish MI theory, the methodology he employed to validate MI theory, and the purpose or function of MI theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bastin, Ted
2009-07-01
List of participants; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. The function of the colloquium - editorial; 2. The conceptual problem of quantum theory from the experimentalist's point of view O. R. Frisch; Part II. Niels Bohr and Complementarity: The Place of the Classical Language: 3. The Copenhagen interpretation C. F. von Weizsäcker; 4. On Bohr's views concerning the quantum theory D. Bohm; Part III. The Measurement Problem: 5. Quantal observation in statistical interpretation H. J. Groenewold; 6. Macroscopic physics, quantum mechanics and quantum theory of measurement G. M. Prosperi; 7. Comment on the Daneri-Loinger-Prosperi quantum theory of measurement Jeffrey Bub; 8. The phenomenology of observation and explanation in quantum theory J. H. M. Whiteman; 9. Measurement theory and complex systems M. A. Garstens; Part IV. New Directions within Quantum Theory: What does the Quantum Theoretical Formalism Really Tell Us?: 10. On the role of hidden variables in the fundamental structure of physics D. Bohm; 11. Beyond what? Discussion: space-time order within existing quantum theory C. W. Kilmister; 12. Definability and measurability in quantum theory Yakir Aharonov and Aage Petersen; 13. The bootstrap idea and the foundations of quantum theory Geoffrey F. Chew; Part V. A Fresh Start?: 14. Angular momentum: an approach to combinatorial space-time Roger Penrose; 15. A note on discreteness, phase space and cohomology theory B. J. Hiley; 16. Cohomology of observations R. H. Atkin; 17. The origin of half-integral spin in a discrete physical space Ted Bastin; Part VI. Philosophical Papers: 18. The unity of physics C. F. von Weizsäcker; 19. A philosophical obstacle to the rise of new theories in microphysics Mario Bunge; 20. The incompleteness of quantum mechanics or the emperor's missing clothes H. R. Post; 21. How does a particle get from A to B?; Ted Bastin; 22. Informational generalization of entropy in physics Jerome Rothstein; 23. Can life explain quantum mechanics? H. H
Field-theory methods in coagulation theory
Lushnikov, A. A.
2011-08-15
Coagulating systems are systems of chaotically moving particles that collide and coalesce, producing daughter particles of mass equal to the sum of the masses involved in the respective collision event. The present article puts forth basic ideas underlying the application of methods of quantum-field theory to the theory of coagulating systems. Instead of the generally accepted treatment based on the use of a standard kinetic equation that describes the time evolution of concentrations of particles consisting of a preset number of identical objects (monomers in the following), one introduces the probability W(Q, t) to find the system in some state Q at an instant t for a specific rate of transitions between various states. Each state Q is characterized by a set of occupation numbers Q = (n{sub 1}, n{sub 2}, ..., n{sub g}, ...), where n{sub g} is the total number of particles containing precisely g monomers. Thereupon, one introduces the generating functional {Psi} for the probability W(Q, t). The time evolution of {Psi} is described by an equation that is similar to the Schroedinger equation for a one-dimensional Bose field. This equation is solved exactly for transition rates proportional to the product of the masses of colliding particles. It is shown that, within a finite time interval, which is independent of the total mass of the entire system, a giant particle of mass about the mass of the entire system may appear in this system. The particle in question is unobservable in the thermodynamic limit, and this explains the well-known paradox of mass-concentration nonconservation in classical kinetic theory. The theory described in the present article is successfully applied in studying the time evolution of random graphs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Svozil, K.
1995-11-01
Inasmuch as physical theories are formalizable, set theory provides a framework for theoretical physics. Four speculations about the relevance of set theoretical modeling for physics are presented: the role of transcendental set theory (i) in chaos theory, (ii) for paradoxical decompositions of solid three-dimensional objects, (iii) in the theory of effective computability (Church-Turing thesis) related to the possible “solution of supertasks,” and (iv) for weak solutions. Several approaches to set theory and their advantages and disadvatages for physical applications are discussed: Canlorian “naive” (i.e., nonaxiomatic) set theory, contructivism, and operationalism. In the author's opinion, an attitude of “suspended attention” (a term borrowed from psychoanalysis) seems most promising for progress. Physical and set theoretical entities must be operationalized wherever possible. At the same time, physicists should be open to “bizarre” or “mindboggling” new formalisms, which need not be operationalizable or testable at the lime of their creation, but which may successfully lead to novel fields of phenomenology and technology.
Svozil, K.
1995-11-01
Inasmuch as physical theories are formalizable, set theory provides a framework for theoretical physics. Four speculations about the relevance of set theoretical modeling for physics are presented: the role of transcendental set theory (i) in chaos theory, (ii) for paradoxical decompositions of solid three-dimensional objects, (iii) in the theory of effective computability (Church-Turing thesis) related to the possible {open_quotes}solution of supertasks,{close_quotes} and (iv) for weak solutions. Several approaches to set theory and their advantages and disadvantages for physical applications are discussed: Cantorian {open_quotes}naive{close_quotes} (i.e., nonaxiomatic) set theory, contructivism, and operationalism. In the author`s opinion, an attitude, of {open_quotes}suspended attention{close_quotes} (a term borrowed from psychoanalysis) seems most promising for progress. Physical and set theoretical entities must be operationalized wherever possible. At the same time, physicists should be open to {open_quotes}bizarre{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}mindboggling{close_quotes} new formalisms, which need not be operationalizable or testable at the time of their creation, but which may successfully lead to novel fields of phenomenology and technology.
1942-05-04
and progresses through .an explosive. Such a theory must explain how the head of the detonation wave initiates· the reaction (and the detonation ... theory of detonation is based on the assumption that the actual value of 9’ is this lower limit Cf1 ! This is tho so-called hypothesis of’ Chapman and...DEVELOP!i!ENT Progress Report on 11 Theory of Detonation Waves 11 to April 1, 1942 by John von Nounr.n Institute for Adv&nccd Study Princeton
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhang, Zhimin; Tomlinson, John; Martin, Clyde
1994-01-01
In this work, the relationship between splines and the control theory has been analyzed. We show that spline functions can be constructed naturally from the control theory. By establishing a framework based on control theory, we provide a simple and systematic way to construct splines. We have constructed the traditional spline functions including the polynomial splines and the classical exponential spline. We have also discovered some new spline functions such as trigonometric splines and the combination of polynomial, exponential and trigonometric splines. The method proposed in this paper is easy to implement. Some numerical experiments are performed to investigate properties of different spline approximations.
Nonstandard Methods in Lie Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goldbring, Isaac Martin
2009-01-01
In this thesis, we apply model theory to Lie theory and geometric group theory. These applications of model theory come via nonstandard analysis. In Lie theory, we use nonstandard methods to prove two results. First, we give a positive solution to the local form of Hilbert's Fifth Problem, which asks whether every locally euclidean local…
CONSTRUCTION OF EDUCATIONAL THEORY MODELS.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
MACCIA, ELIZABETH S.; AND OTHERS
THIS STUDY DELINEATED MODELS WHICH HAVE POTENTIAL USE IN GENERATING EDUCATIONAL THEORY. A THEORY MODELS METHOD WAS FORMULATED. BY SELECTING AND ORDERING CONCEPTS FROM OTHER DISCIPLINES, THE INVESTIGATORS FORMULATED SEVEN THEORY MODELS. THE FINAL STEP OF DEVISING EDUCATIONAL THEORY FROM THE THEORY MODELS WAS PERFORMED ONLY TO THE EXTENT REQUIRED TO…
Drawing Out Theory: Art and the Teaching of Political Theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Miller, Char R.
2000-01-01
Discusses how to use art in introductory political theory courses. Provides examples of incorporating art to teach political theory, such as examining Machiavelli's "The Prince" and Michelangelo's "David" to understand Florentine (Florence, Italy) political theory. (CMK)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, R. T. (Compiler)
1979-01-01
A collection of papers on modern theoretical aerodynamics is presented. Included are theories of incompressible potential flow and research on the aerodynamic forces on wing and wing sections of aircraft and on airship hulls.
Electromagnetic scattering theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bird, J. F.; Farrell, R. A.
1986-01-01
Electromagnetic scattering theory is discussed with emphasis on the general stochastic variational principle (SVP) and its applications. The stochastic version of the Schwinger-type variational principle is presented, and explicit expressions for its integrals are considered. Results are summarized for scalar wave scattering from a classic rough-surface model and for vector wave scattering from a random dielectric-body model. Also considered are the selection of trial functions and the variational improvement of the Kirchhoff short-wave approximation appropriate to large size-parameters. Other applications of vector field theory discussed include a general vision theory and the analysis of hydromagnetism induced by ocean motion across the geomagnetic field. Levitational force-torque in the magnetic suspension of the disturbance compensation system (DISCOS), now deployed in NOVA satellites, is also analyzed using the developed theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawamoto, Noboru; Kugo, Taichiro
String theories seem to have created a breakthrough in theoretical physics. At long last a unified theory of all the fundamental interactions, including gravity, looks possible. This, according to theorist Stephen Hawking, will mark the end of theoretical physics as we have known it, since we will then have a single consistent theory within which to explain all natural phenomena from elementary particles to galactic superclusters. Strings themselves are extremely tiny entities, smaller than the Planck scale, which form loops whose vibrational harmonics can be used to model all the standard elementary particles. Of course the mathematical complexities of the theory are daunting, and physicists are still at a very early stage in understanding how strings and their theoretical cousins superstrings can be used. This proceedings volume gives an overview of the intense recent work in the field and reports latest developments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferry, James P.; Lo, Darren; Ahearn, Stephen T.; Phillips, Aaron M.
Despite the breadth of modern network theory, it can be difficult to apply its results to the task of uncovering terrorist networks: the most useful network analyses are often low-tech, link-following approaches. In the traditional military domain, detection theory has a long history of finding stealthy targets such as submarines. We demonstrate how the detection theory framework leads to a variety of network analysis questions. Some solutions to these leverage existing theory; others require novel techniques - but in each case the solutions contribute to a principled methodology for solving network detection problems. This endeavor is difficult, and the work here represents only a beginning. However, the required mathematics is interesting, being the synthesis of two fields with little common history.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gunter, Helen M.
2013-01-01
This article reports on a seminar by the Critical Educational Policy and Leadership Research Interest Group in June 2012. The article reports on the papers and our engagement with the need to use theory to develop descriptions and understandings.
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Salam, A.
1956-04-01
Lectures with mathematical analysis are given on Dispersion Theory and Causality and Dispersion Relations for Pion-nucleon Scattering. The appendix includes the S-matrix in terms of Heisenberg Operators. (F. S.)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Werner, Suzanne K.
2003-01-01
Describes a series of activities exploring Leonardo da Vinci's tree theory that are designed to strengthen 8th grade students' data collection and problem solving skills in physical science classes. (KHR)
Friedberg, R; Hohenberg, P C
2014-09-01
Formulations of quantum mechanics (QM) can be characterized as realistic, operationalist, or a combination of the two. In this paper a realistic theory is defined as describing a closed system entirely by means of entities and concepts pertaining to the system. An operationalist theory, on the other hand, requires in addition entities external to the system. A realistic formulation comprises an ontology, the set of (mathematical) entities that describe the system, and assertions, the set of correct statements (predictions) the theory makes about the objects in the ontology. Classical mechanics is the prime example of a realistic physical theory. A straightforward generalization of classical mechanics to QM is hampered by the inconsistency of quantum properties with classical logic, a circumstance that was noted many years ago by Birkhoff and von Neumann. The present realistic formulation of the histories approach originally introduced by Griffiths, which we call 'compatible quantum theory (CQT)', consists of a 'microscopic' part (MIQM), which applies to a closed quantum system of any size, and a 'macroscopic' part (MAQM), which requires the participation of a large (ideally, an infinite) system. The first (MIQM) can be fully formulated based solely on the assumption of a Hilbert space ontology and the noncontextuality of probability values, relying in an essential way on Gleason's theorem and on an application to dynamics due in large part to Nistico. Thus, the present formulation, in contrast to earlier ones, derives the Born probability formulas and the consistency (decoherence) conditions for frameworks. The microscopic theory does not, however, possess a unique corpus of assertions, but rather a multiplicity of contextual truths ('c-truths'), each one associated with a different framework. This circumstance leads us to consider the microscopic theory to be physically indeterminate and therefore incomplete, though logically coherent. The completion of the theory
Predictions from String Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuflik, Eric
String theory is the leading candidate for an underlying theory of nature, as it provides a framework through which to address critical questions left unanswered by the Standard Model and Supersymmetry. A number of predictions of string constructions can be empirically tested at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and dark matter experiments. In this work I aim to make generic predictions of string theory, while combining bottom-up approaches to fill in the gaps in our understanding of string theory to make predictions for current and upcoming experiments. First I study moduli masses and claim that moduli dominated the energy density of the universe prior to big bang nucleosynthesis. We argue that in any string theory with stabilized moduli there will be at least one modulus field whose mass is of order the gravitino mass. Cosmology then generically requires the gravitino mass to be greater than 30 TeV and the early cosmological history of the Universe be non-thermal. We are then led to believe that the best-motivated channel for early LHC discovery is gluino pair-production events decaying into a high multiplicity of third generation quarks. We analyze signals and background at the LHC for 7 TeV center of mass energy for 1 fb -1 integrated luminosity, suggesting a reach for gluinos for masses about 650 GeV. Second, I seek to construct a Grand Unified Theory (GUT) within different branches of string theory. One promising GUT, developed outside of string theory, is Flipped-SU(5), which I show has serious phenomenological difficulties. I demonstrate both that Flipped-SU(5) requires an R-symmetry to solve the mu-problem, and that no R-symmetries exist in F-theory. Thus Flipped-SU(5) cannot serve as a GUT within F-theory. Similarly, I seek to construct a GUT within M-theory. My study is based upon the discrete symmetry proposed by Witten that forbids the mu-term and solves the doublet-triplet splitting problem, but does not address how the symmetry might be broken. I find
Leadership styles and theories.
Giltinane, Charlotte Louise
It is useful for healthcare professionals to be able to identify the leadership styles and theories relevant to their nursing practice. Being adept in recognising these styles enables nurses to develop their skills to become better leaders, as well as improving relationships with colleagues and other leaders, who have previously been challenging to work with. This article explores different leadership styles and theories, and explains how they relate to nursing practice.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murdin, P.
2000-11-01
The theory, developed in the nineteenth century, notably by Rudolf Clausius (1822-88) and James Clerk Maxwell (1831-79), that the properties of a gas (temperature, pressure, etc) could be described in terms of the motions (and kinetic energy) of the molecules comprising the gases. The theory has wide implications in astrophysics. In particular, the perfect gas law, which relates the pressure, vol...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edelman, Alan; Rao, N. Raj
Random matrix theory is now a big subject with applications in many disciplines of science, engineering and finance. This article is a survey specifically oriented towards the needs and interests of a numerical analyst. This survey includes some original material not found anywhere else. We include the important mathematics which is a very modern development, as well as the computational software that is transforming the theory into useful practice.
Ahlén, Olof
2015-12-17
These proceedings from the second Caesar Lattes meeting in Rio de Janeiro 2015 are a brief introduction to how automorphic forms appear in the low energy effective action of maximally supersymmetric string theory. The explicit example of the R{sup 4}-interaction of type IIB string theory in ten dimensions is discussed. Its Fourier expansion is interpreted in terms of perturbative and non-perturbative contributions to the four graviton amplitude.
Reverse engineering quantum field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oeckl, Robert
2012-12-01
An approach to the foundations of quantum theory is advertised that proceeds by "reverse engineering" quantum field theory. As a concrete instance of this approach, the general boundary formulation of quantum theory is outlined.
Theory of hydromagnetic turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Montgomery, D.
1983-01-01
The present state of MHD turbulence theory as a possible solar wind research tool is surveyed. The theory is statistical, and does not make statements about individual events. The ensembles considered typically have individual realizations which differ qualitatively, unlike equilibrium statistical mechanics. Most of the theory deals with highly symmetric situations; most of these symmetries have yet to be tested in the solar wind. The applicability of MHD itself to solar wind parameters is highly questionable; yet it has no competitors, as a potentially comprehensive dynamical description. The purpose of solar wind research require sharper articulation. If they are to understand radial turbulent plasma flows from spheres, laboratory experiments and numerical solution of equations of motion may be cheap alternative to spacecraft. If "real life" information is demanded, multiple spacecraft with variable separation may be necessary to go further. The principal emphasis in the theory so far has been on spectral behavior for spatial covariances in wave number space. There is no respectable theory of these for highly anisotropic situations. A rather slow development of theory acts as a brake on justifiable measurement, at this point.
Theory of heterogeneous viscoelasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schirmacher, Walter; Ruocco, Giancarlo; Mazzone, Valerio
2016-03-01
We review a new theory of viscoelasticity of a glass-forming viscous liquid near and below the glass transition. In our model, we assume that each point in the material has a specific viscosity, which varies randomly in space according to a fluctuating activation free energy. We include a Maxwellian elastic term, and assume that the corresponding shear modulus fluctuates as well with the same distribution as that of the activation barriers. The model is solved in coherent potential approximation, for which a derivation is given. The theory predicts an Arrhenius-type temperature dependence of the viscosity in the vanishing frequency limit, independent of the distribution of the activation barriers. The theory implies that this activation energy is generally different from that of a diffusing particle with the same barrier height distribution. If the distribution of activation barriers is assumed to have the Gaussian form, the finite-frequency version of the theory describes well the typical low-temperature alpha relaxation peak of glasses. Beta relaxation can be included by adding another Gaussian with centre at much lower energies than that is responsible for the alpha relaxation. At high frequencies, our theory reduces to the description of an elastic medium with spatially fluctuating elastic moduli (heterogeneous elasticity theory), which explains the occurrence of the boson peak-related vibrational anomalies of glasses.
Marletto, Chiara
2015-01-01
Neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory explains how the appearance of purposive design in the adaptations of living organisms can have come about without their intentionally being designed. The explanation relies crucially on the possibility of certain physical processes: mainly, gene replication and natural selection. In this paper, I show that for those processes to be possible without the design of biological adaptations being encoded in the laws of physics, those laws must have certain other properties. The theory of what these properties are is not part of evolution theory proper, yet without it the neo-Darwinian theory does not fully achieve its purpose of explaining the appearance of design. To this end, I apply constructor theory's new mode of explanation to express exactly within physics the appearance of design, no-design laws, and the logic of self-reproduction and natural selection. I conclude that self-reproduction, replication and natural selection are possible under no-design laws, the only non-trivial condition being that they allow digital information to be physically instantiated. This has an exact characterization in the constructor theory of information. I also show that under no-design laws an accurate replicator requires the existence of a ‘vehicle’ constituting, together with the replicator, a self-reproducer. PMID:25589566
Marletto, Chiara
2015-03-06
Neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory explains how the appearance of purposive design in the adaptations of living organisms can have come about without their intentionally being designed. The explanation relies crucially on the possibility of certain physical processes: mainly, gene replication and natural selection. In this paper, I show that for those processes to be possible without the design of biological adaptations being encoded in the laws of physics, those laws must have certain other properties. The theory of what these properties are is not part of evolution theory proper, yet without it the neo-Darwinian theory does not fully achieve its purpose of explaining the appearance of design. To this end, I apply constructor theory's new mode of explanation to express exactly within physics the appearance of design, no-design laws, and the logic of self-reproduction and natural selection. I conclude that self-reproduction, replication and natural selection are possible under no-design laws, the only non-trivial condition being that they allow digital information to be physically instantiated. This has an exact characterization in the constructor theory of information. I also show that under no-design laws an accurate replicator requires the existence of a 'vehicle' constituting, together with the replicator, a self-reproducer.
Who Needs Learning Theory Anyway?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zemke, Ron
2002-01-01
Looks at a variety of learning theories: andragogy, behaviorism, cognitivism, conditions of learning, Gestalt, and social learning. Addresses the difficulty of selecting an appropriate theory for training. (JOW)
Relating theories via renormalization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kadanoff, Leo P.
2013-02-01
The renormalization method is specifically aimed at connecting theories describing physical processes at different length scales and thereby connecting different theories in the physical sciences. The renormalization method used today is the outgrowth of 150 years of scientific study of thermal physics and phase transitions. Different phases of matter show qualitatively different behaviors separated by abrupt phase transitions. These qualitative differences seem to be present in experimentally observed condensed-matter systems. However, the "extended singularity theorem" in statistical mechanics shows that sharp changes can only occur in infinitely large systems. Abrupt changes from one phase to another are signaled by fluctuations that show correlation over infinitely long distances, and are measured by correlation functions that show algebraic decay as well as various kinds of singularities and infinities in thermodynamic derivatives and in measured system parameters. Renormalization methods were first developed in field theory to get around difficulties caused by apparent divergences at both small and large scales. However, no renormalization gives a fully satisfactory formulation of field theory. The renormalization (semi-)group theory of phase transitions was put together by Kenneth G. Wilson in 1971 based upon ideas of scaling and universality developed earlier in the context of phase transitions and of couplings dependent upon spatial scale coming from field theory. Correlations among regions with fluctuations in their order underlie renormalization ideas. Wilson's theory is the first approach to phase transitions to agree with the extended singularity theorem. Some of the history of the study of these correlations and singularities is recounted, along with the history of renormalization and related concepts of scaling and universality. Applications, particularly to condensed-matter physics and particle physics, are summarized. This note is partially a
Reinventing Grounded Theory: Some Questions about Theory, Ground and Discovery
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thomas, Gary; James, David
2006-01-01
Grounded theory's popularity persists after three decades of broad-ranging critique. In this article three problematic notions are discussed--"theory," "ground" and "discovery"--which linger in the continuing use and development of grounded theory procedures. It is argued that far from providing the epistemic security promised by grounded theory,…
Generalized teleparallel theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Junior, Ednaldo L. B.; Rodrigues, Manuel E.
2016-07-01
We construct a theory in which the gravitational interaction is described only by torsion, but that generalizes the teleparallel theory still keeping the invariance of local Lorentz transformations in one particular case. We show that our theory falls, in a certain limit of a real parameter, under f(bar{R}) gravity or, in another limit of the same real parameter, under modified f( T) gravity; on interpolating between these two theories it still can fall under several other theories. We explicitly show the equivalence with f(bar{R}) gravity for the cases of a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker flat metric for diagonal tetrads, and a metric with spherical symmetry for diagonal and non-diagonal tetrads. We study four applications, one in the reconstruction of the de Sitter universe cosmological model, for obtaining a static spherically symmetric solution of de Sitter type for a perfect fluid, for evolution of the state parameter ω _{DE}, and for the thermodynamics of the apparent horizon.
Kraepelin and degeneration theory.
Hoff, Paul
2008-06-01
Emil Kraepelin's contribution to the clinical and scientific field of psychiatry is recognized world-wide. In recent years, however, there have been a number of critical remarks on his acceptance of degeneration theory in particular and on his political opinion in general, which was said to have carried "overtones of proto-fascism" by Michael Shepherd [28]. The present paper discusses the theoretical cornerstones of Kraepelinian psychiatry with regard to their relevance for Kraepelin's attitude towards degeneration theory. This theory had gained wide influence not only in scientific, but also in philosophical and political circles in the last decades of the nineteenth century. There is no doubt that Kraepelin, on the one hand, accepted and implemented degeneration theory into the debate on etiology and pathogenesis of mental disorders. On the other hand, it is not appropriate to draw a simple and direct line from early versions of degeneration theory to the crimes of psychiatrists and politicians during the rule of national socialism. What we need, is a differentiated view, since this will be the only scientific one. Much research needs to be done here in the future, and such research will surely have a significant impact not only on the historical field, but also on the continuous debate about psychiatry, neuroscience and neurophilosophy.
Hursthouse, Rosalind
1991-01-01
The sort of ethical theory derived from Aristotle, variously described as virtue ethics, virtue-based ethics, or neo-Aristotelianism, is becoming better known, and is now quite widely recognized as at least a possible rival to deontological and utilitarian theories. With recognition has come criticism, of varying quality. In this article I shall discuss nine separate criticisms that I have frequently encountered, most of which seem to me to betray an inadequate grasp either of the structure of virtue theory or of what would be involved in thinking about a real moral issue in its terms. In the first half I aim particularly to secure an understanding that will reveal that many of these criticisms are simply misplaced, and to articulate what I take to be the major criticism of virtue theory. I reject this criticism, but do not claim that it is necessarily misplaced. In the second half I aim to deepen that understanding and highlight the issues raised by the criticisms by illustrating what the theory looks like when it is applied to a particular issue, in this case, abortion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandt, Bastian B.; Lohmayer, Robert; Wettig, Tilo
2016-11-01
We explore an alternative discretization of continuum SU( N c ) Yang-Mills theory on a Euclidean spacetime lattice, originally introduced by Budzcies and Zirnbauer. In this discretization the self-interactions of the gauge field are induced by a path integral over N b auxiliary boson fields, which are coupled linearly to the gauge field. The main progress compared to earlier approaches is that N b can be as small as N c . In the present paper we (i) extend the proof that the continuum limit of the new discretization reproduces Yang-Mills theory in two dimensions from gauge group U( N c ) to SU( N c ), (ii) derive refined bounds on N b for non-integer values, and (iii) perform a perturbative calculation to match the bare parameter of the induced gauge theory to the standard lattice coupling. In follow-up papers we will present numerical evidence in support of the conjecture that the induced gauge theory reproduces Yang-Mills theory also in three and four dimensions, and explore the possibility to integrate out the gauge fields to arrive at a dual formulation of lattice QCD.
Beyond generalized Proca theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji
2016-09-01
We consider higher-order derivative interactions beyond second-order generalized Proca theories that propagate only the three desired polarizations of a massive vector field besides the two tensor polarizations from gravity. These new interactions follow the similar construction criteria to those arising in the extension of scalar-tensor Horndeski theories to Gleyzes-Langlois-Piazza-Vernizzi (GLPV) theories. On the isotropic cosmological background, we show the existence of a constraint with a vanishing Hamiltonian that removes the would-be Ostrogradski ghost. We study the behavior of linear perturbations on top of the isotropic cosmological background in the presence of a matter perfect fluid and find the same number of propagating degrees of freedom as in generalized Proca theories (two tensor polarizations, two transverse vector modes, and two scalar modes). Moreover, we obtain the conditions for the avoidance of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities of tensor, vector, and scalar perturbations. We observe key differences in the scalar sound speed, which is mixed with the matter sound speed outside the domain of generalized Proca theories.
Relativistic Chiral Kinetic Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stephanov, Mikhail
2016-12-01
This very brief review of the recent progress in chiral kinetic theory is based on the results of Refs. [J.-Y. Chen, D. T. Son, M. A. Stephanov, H.-U. Yee, Y. Yin, Lorentz Invariance in Chiral Kinetic Theory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 (18) (2014) 182302. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.182302; J.-Y. Chen, D. T. Son, M. A. Stephanov, Collisions in Chiral Kinetic Theory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115 (2) (2015) 021601. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.021601; M. A. Stephanov, H.-U. Yee, The no-drag frame for anomalous chiral fluid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 (12) (2016) 122302. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.122302].
Deformations of superconformal theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Córdova, Clay; Dumitrescu, Thomas T.; Intriligator, Kenneth
2016-11-01
We classify possible supersymmetry-preserving relevant, marginal, and irrelevant deformations of unitary superconformal theories in d ≥ 3 dimensions. Our method only relies on symmetries and unitarity. Hence, the results are model independent and do not require a Lagrangian description. Two unifying themes emerge: first, many theories admit deformations that reside in multiplets together with conserved currents. Such deformations can lead to modifications of the supersymmetry algebra by central and non-central charges. Second, many theories with a sufficient amount of supersymmetry do not admit relevant or marginal deformations, and some admit neither. The classification is complicated by the fact that short superconformal multiplets display a rich variety of sporadic phenomena, including supersymmetric deformations that reside in the middle of a multiplet. We illustrate our results with examples in diverse dimensions. In particular, we explain how the classification of irrelevant supersymmetric deformations can be used to derive known and new constraints on moduli-space effective actions.
Mansouri, F.; Suranyi, P; Wijewardhana, L.C.R.
1991-10-01
In the test particle approximation, the scattering amplitude for two-particle scattering in (2+1)-dimensional Chern-Simons-Witten gravity and supergravity was computed and compared to the corresponding metric solutions. The formalism was then extended to the exact gauge theoretic treatment of the two-particle scattering problem and compared to 't Hooft's results from the metric approach. We have studied dynamical symmetry breaking in 2+1 dimensional field theories. We have analyzed strong Extended Technicolor (ETC) models where the ETC coupling is close to a critical value. There are effective scalar fields in each of the theories. We have worked our how such scalar particles can be produced and how they decay. The {phi}{sup 4} field theory was investigated in the Schrodinger representation. The critical behavior was extracted in an arbitrary number of dimensions in second order of a systematic truncation approximation. The correlation exponent agrees with known values within a few percent.
Astronomy and political theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campion, Nicholas
2011-06-01
This paper will argue that astronomical models have long been applied to political theory, from the use of the Sun as a symbol of the emperor in Rome to the application of Copernican theory to the needs of absolute monarchy. We will begin with consideration of astral divination (the use of astronomy to ascertain divine intentions) in the ancient Near East. Particular attention will be paid to the use of Newton's discovery that the universe operates according to a single set of laws in order to support concepts of political quality and eighteenth century Natural Rights theory. We will conclude with consideration of arguments that the discovery of the expanding, multi-galaxy universe, stimulated political uncertainty in the 1930s, and that photographs of the Earth from Apollo spacecraft encouraged concepts of the `global village'.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weisz, Peter; Majumdar, Pushan
2012-03-01
Lattice gauge theory is a formulation of quantum field theory with gauge symmetries on a space-time lattice. This formulation is particularly suitable for describing hadronic phenomena. In this article we review the present status of lattice QCD. We outline some of the computational methods, discuss some phenomenological applications and a variety of non-perturbative topics. The list of references is severely incomplete, the ones we have included are text books or reviews and a few subjectively selected papers. Kronfeld and Quigg (2010) supply a reasonably comprehensive set of QCD references. We apologize for the fact that have not covered many important topics such as QCD at finite density and heavy quark effective theory adequately, and mention some of them only in the last section "In Brief". These topics should be considered in further Scholarpedia articles.
Palenik, Mark C.; Dunlap, Brett I.
2015-07-28
Despite the fundamental importance of electron density in density functional theory, perturbations are still usually dealt with using Hartree-Fock-like orbital equations known as coupled-perturbed Kohn-Sham (CPKS). As an alternative, we develop a perturbation theory that solves for the perturbed density directly, removing the need for CPKS. This replaces CPKS with a true Hohenberg-Kohn density perturbation theory. In CPKS, the perturbed density is found in the basis of products of occupied and virtual orbitals, which becomes ever more over-complete as the size of the orbital basis set increases. In our method, the perturbation to the density is expanded in terms of a series of density basis functions and found directly. It is possible to solve for the density in such a way that it makes the total energy stationary even if the density basis is incomplete.
Theory-Based Stakeholder Evaluation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hansen, Morten Balle; Vedung, Evert
2010-01-01
This article introduces a new approach to program theory evaluation called theory-based stakeholder evaluation or the TSE model for short. Most theory-based approaches are program theory driven and some are stakeholder oriented as well. Practically, all of the latter fuse the program perceptions of the various stakeholder groups into one unitary…
Play: The Reversal Theory Perspective.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kerr, J. H.
The intention of this theoretical paper is to present a reversal theory interpretation of play phenomena. Reversal theory, a developing theory in psychology, concerns the complex relationship between experience and motivation. One of the central charactieristics of the theory is that it attempts to understand why so much of human behavior is…
The Four Forces Airpower Theory
2011-05-19
The Four Forces Airpower Theory A Monograph by MAJOR Brian P. O’Neill United States Air Force School of...Brian P. O’Neill Title of Monograph: The Four Forces Airpower Theory Approved by: __________________________________ Monograph Director Gerald S...Abstract THE FOUR FORCES AIRPOWER THEORY by MAJOR Brian P. O’Neill, USAF, 67 pages. This monograph suggests an airpower theory that
Kachru, Shamit; McAllister, Liam; Sundrum, Raman
2007-04-04
We study sequestering, a prerequisite for flavor-blind supersymmetry breaking in several high-scale mediation mechanisms, in compactifications of type IIB string theory. We find that although sequestering is typically absent in unwarped backgrounds, strongly warped compactifications do readily sequester. The AdS/CFT dual description in terms of conformal sequestering plays an important role in our analysis, and we establish how sequestering works both on the gravity side and on the gauge theory side. We pay special attention to subtle compactification effects that can disrupt sequestering. Our result is a step toward realizing an appealing pattern of soft terms in a KKLT compactification.
Balatsky, A.V.; Scalapino, D.; Wilkins, J.; Pines, D.; Bedell, K.; Schrieffer, J.R.; Fisk, Z.
1998-12-01
This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors have obtained a description of symmetry of the order parameter and pairing state in high-Tc superconductors. They developed a theory of ferromagnetic instability of Fermi-liquid. They have conducted an experimental investigation of the intermetallic compounds and Zintl-type compound. They investigated the properties of Cu-0 ladders. They have developed the theory of liftshitz tails in superconductors. They have conducted a number of summer workshops.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jejjala, Vishnumohan
2002-01-01
This Thesis explores aspects of superstring theory on orbifold spaces and applies some of the intuition gleaned from the study of the non-commutative geometry of space-time to understanding the fractional quantum Hall effect. The moduli space of vacua of marginal and relevant deformations of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills gauge theory in four dimensions is interpreted in terms of non-commutative geometry. A formalism for thinking about the algebraic geometry of the moduli space is developed. Within this framework, the representation theory of the algebras studied provides a natural exposition of D-brane fractionation. The non-commutative moduli space of deformations preserving N = 1 supersymmetry is examined in detail through various examples. In string theory, by the AdS/CFT correspondence, deformations of the N = 4 field theory are dual to the near-horizon geometries of D-branes on orbifolds of AdS5 x S 5. The physics of D-branes on the dual AdS backgrounds is explored. Quivers encapsulate the matter content of supersymmetric field theories on the worldvolumes of D-branes at orbifold singularities. New techniques for constructing quivers are presented here. When N is a normal subgroup of a finite group G, the quiver corresponding to fixed points of the orbifold M/G is computed from a G/N action on the quiver corresponding to M/G . These techniques prove useful for constructing non-Abelian quivers and for examining discrete torsion orbifolds. Quivers obtained through our constructions contain interesting low-energy phenomenology. The matter content on a brane at an isolated singularity of the Delta27 orbifold embeds the Standard Model. The symmetries of the quiver require exactly three generations of fields in the particle spectrum. Lepton masses are suppressed relative to quark masses because lepton Yukawa couplings do not appear in the superpotential. Lepton masses are generated through the Kahler potential and are related to the supersymmetry breaking scale. The model
2010-06-24
is typically a non-normal matrix (AA† 6= A†A). For a simple shear flow, we have u = (γ̇y, 0) and A = ( 0 0 γ̇ 0 ) . Since A is nilpotent (A2 = 0), the...dynamo and adopted a random matrix theory approach [13–15]. More recently, tools from large deviation theory and path integration have aided in...of the flow field (∇·u = 0). For turbulent or Lagrangian-chaotic flows, A(t) is a random matrix , having a finite correlation time, which is the
Chris Quigg
2001-08-10
After a short essay on the current state of particle physics, the author reviews the antecedents of the modern picture of the weak and electromagnetic interactions and then undertakes a brief survey of the SU(2){sub L} {circle_times} U(1){sub Y} electroweak theory. The authors reviews the features of electroweak phenomenology at tree level and beyond, presents an introduction to the Higgs boson and the 1-TeV scale, and examines arguments for enlarging the electroweak theory. The author concludes with a brief look at low-scale gravity.
Berry, Ray Alden; Zou, Ling; Zhao, Haihua; Zhang, Hongbin; Peterson, John William; Martineau, Richard Charles; Kadioglu, Samet Yucel; Andrs, David
2016-03-01
This document summarizes the physical models and mathematical formulations used in the RELAP-7 code. In summary, the MOOSE based RELAP-7 code development is an ongoing effort. The MOOSE framework enables rapid development of the RELAP-7 code. The developmental efforts and results demonstrate that the RELAP-7 project is on a path to success. This theory manual documents the main features implemented into the RELAP-7 code. Because the code is an ongoing development effort, this RELAP-7 Theory Manual will evolve with periodic updates to keep it current with the state of the development, implementation, and model additions/revisions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolmatov, Dima; Bastrukov, S.; Lai, P.-Y.; Molodtsova, I.
2014-07-01
A fundamental task of statistical physics is to predict the system's statistical properties and compare them with observable data. We formulate the theory of dipolaron solutions and analyze the screening effects for permanent and field-induced dipolarons. The mathematical treatment of the collective behavior and microscopical morphology of dipolaron solutions are discussed. The presented computations show that the electric field shielding of dipolarons in dielectric nanosolutions is quite different from that of counterionic nano-complexes of Debye-Hückel theory of electrolytes. The limiting case of screening length λ=0 in dipolaron solutions corresponds to Coulomb's law for the potential and field of uniformly charged sphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jejjala, Vishnu; Minic, Djordje; Ng, Y. Jack; Tze, Chia-Hsiung
We propose a string theory of turbulence that explains the Kolmogorov scaling in 3+1 dimensions and the Kraichnan and Kolmogorov scalings in 2+1 dimensions. This string theory of turbulence should be understood in light of the AdS/CFT dictionary. Our argument is crucially based on the use of Migdal's loop variables and the self-consistent solutions of Migdal's loop equations for turbulence. In particular, there is an area law for turbulence in 2+1 dimensions related to the Kraichnan scaling.
Delbruck, C; Raffelhuschen, B
1993-09-01
"The present and expected migration flows in Europe require a detailed analysis of determinants and elements of migration decisions. This survey encompasses a view on classical--labor market and demand side oriented--theories, the more recent human capital approach as well as on migration under asymmetric information. Since these theories so far yield an unsatisfactory basis for description and forecasting of multilateral migration flows, a closer look at empirical methods of migration research is taken. Consequently, a description of possible policy oriented applications of the gravity model and the random utility approach, with their descriptive and normative characteristics, is given." (SUMMARY IN ENG)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gori, Stefania
2017-01-01
The discovery of the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider marks the culmination of a decades-long hunt for the last ingredient of the Standard Model. At the same time, there are still many puzzles in particle physics, foremost the existence of a relatively light Higgs boson, seemingly without any extra weak scale particles that would stabilize the Higgs mass against quantum corrections, and the existence of Dark Matter. This talk will give an overview of the most interesting theories that address these problems and how to test these theories at the LHC.
Lectures on Matrix Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ydri, Badis
The subject of matrix field theory involves matrix models, noncommutative geometry, fuzzy physics and noncommutative field theory and their interplay. In these lectures, a lot of emphasis is placed on the matrix formulation of noncommutative and fuzzy spaces, and on the non-perturbative treatment of the corresponding field theories. In particular, the phase structure of noncommutative $\\phi^4$ theory is treated in great detail, and an introduction to noncommutative gauge theory is given.
When is a theory a theory? A case example.
Alkin, Marvin C
2016-10-15
This discussion comments on the approximately 20years history of writings on the prescriptive theory called Empowerment Evaluation. To do so, involves examining how "Empowerment Evaluation Theory" has been defined at various points of time (particularly 1996 and now in 2015). Defining a theory is different from judging the success of a theory. This latter topic has been addressed elsewhere by Michael Scriven, Michael Patton, and Brad Cousins. I am initially guided by the work of Robin Miller (2010) who has written on the issue of how to judge the success of a theory. In doing so, she provided potential standards for judging the adequacy of theories. My task is not judging the adequacy or success of the Empowerment Evaluation prescriptive theory in practice, but determining how well the theory is delineated. That is, to what extent do the writings qualify as a prescriptive theory.
Attachment Theory and Mindfulness
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Snyder, Rose; Shapiro, Shauna; Treleaven, David
2012-01-01
We initiate a dialog between two central areas in the field of psychology today: attachment theory/research and mindfulness studies. The impact of the early mother-infant relationship on child development has been well established in the literature, with attachment theorists having focused on the correlation between a mother's capacity for…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stewart, Jim; Harte, Victoria; Sambrook, Sally
2011-01-01
Purpose: The aim of the paper is to examine the meaning and value of the notion of theory as a basis for other papers in the special issue which examine facets of theorising HRD. Design/methodology/approach: A small scale and targeted literature review was conducted which focused on writings in the philosophy and sociology of science in order to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shevtsova, Maria
1987-01-01
A case is made for the importance of studying literature as part of the second language instructional program. Literary criticism introduces linguistics, anthropology, metaphysics, psychoanalysis, and other areas and theories and ties them into into the study of language and literature. (CB)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Al Shalabi, M. Fadi; Salmani Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali
2009-01-01
In this paper, it is argued, based on evidence from psychological literature, that there are three major approaches to the study of personality, namely (1) situationism, (2) interactionism, and (3) constructivism. It is also noticed that these approaches have resulted in the emergence of three major types of personality theories: (i) type…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Al Shalabi, M. Fadi; Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani
2009-01-01
In this paper, it is argued, based on evidence from psychological literature, that there are three major approaches to the study of personality, namely (a) situationism, (b) interactionism, and (c) constructivism. It is also noticed that these approached have resulted in the emergence of three major types of personality theories: (1) type…
Variational transition state theory
Truhlar, D.G.
1993-12-01
This research program involves the development of variational transition state theory (VTST) and semiclassical tunneling methods for the calculation of gas-phase reaction rates and selected applications. The applications are selected for their fundamental interest and/or their relevance to combustion.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bacon, Roger Lee
This dissertation dealt with the preparation, designing, teaching, and evaluation of a course in literary theory. The course examined the following areas of literary study: definition, perception, description, explication, interpretation, and evaluation. It is centered on the following theses: (1) in literary pursuits criticism is teaching and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thornberg, Robert
2012-01-01
There is a widespread idea that in grounded theory (GT) research, the researcher has to delay the literature review until the end of the analysis to avoid contamination--a dictum that might turn educational researchers away from GT. Nevertheless, in this article the author (a) problematizes the dictum of delaying a literature review in classic…
Stupakov, G.; /SLAC
2009-06-05
We review recent progress in the following areas of the impedance theory: calculation of impedance of tapers and small angle collimators; optical approximation and parabolic equation for the high-frequency impedance; impedance due to resistive inserts in a perfectly conducting pipe.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Patrick, Amy M.
2010-01-01
This article examines ways in which the fundamentals of both writing studies and sustainability studies overlap and complement each other, ultimately moving toward a theory of writing that not only is sustainable, but that also sustains writing practice across a variety of areas. For example, in order to be sustainable, both writing and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cooper, Wesley
2003-01-01
James's moral theory, primarily as set out in "The Moral Philosopher and the Moral Life" (in his "The Will To Believe" (1897)), is presented here as having a two-level structure, an empirical or historical level where progress toward greater moral inclusiveness is central, and a metaphysical or end-of-history level--James's "kingdom of…
Personality Theory and Psychotherapy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fagan, Joen; And Others
1974-01-01
This group of articles discusses various aspects of Gestalt Therapy including its major contributions, role in psychotherapy, and contributions of Gestalt psychology in general. There is some discussion of the philosophical background of Gestalt therapy along with Gestalt theory of emotion. A case study and an annotated bibliography are included…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marks, Stephen R.
1974-01-01
Durkheim's theory of anomie is traced and argued to be a major development that followed the publication of "Suicide." Recognition of anomie as a macrosociological problem rendered it insoluble by Durkeheim's practical-humanistic orientation. In this connection his remedial proposals -- occupational, political, education, and…
MFIX documentation theory guide
Syamlal, M.; Rogers, W.; O`Brien, T.J.
1993-12-01
This report describes the MFIX (Multiphase Flow with Interphase exchanges) computer model. MFIX is a general-purpose hydrodynamic model that describes chemical reactions and heat transfer in dense or dilute fluid-solids flows, flows typically occurring in energy conversion and chemical processing reactors. MFIX calculations give detailed information on pressure, temperature, composition, and velocity distributions in the reactors. With such information, the engineer can visualize the conditions in the reactor, conduct parametric studies and what-if experiments, and, thereby, assist in the design process. The MFIX model, developed at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), has the following capabilities: mass and momentum balance equations for gas and multiple solids phases; a gas phase and two solids phase energy equations; an arbitrary number of species balance equations for each of the phases; granular stress equations based on kinetic theory and frictional flow theory; a user-defined chemistry subroutine; three-dimensional Cartesian or cylindrical coordinate systems; nonuniform mesh size; impermeable and semi-permeable internal surfaces; user-friendly input data file; multiple, single-precision, binary, direct-access, output files that minimize disk storage and accelerate data retrieval; and extensive error reporting. This report, which is Volume 1 of the code documentation, describes the hydrodynamic theory used in the model: the conservation equations, constitutive relations, and the initial and boundary conditions. The literature on the hydrodynamic theory is briefly surveyed, and the bases for the different parts of the model are highlighted.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gibson, Joan M.; Donigian, Jeremiah
1993-01-01
Notes that theory-based approach to treatment of codependency is missing in fields of chemical dependency and mental health. Presents Bowen family systems therapy as foundation and framework for treatment goals and interventions. Illustrates similarities between characteristics of low levels of differentiation of self and codependency. (Author/NB)
Barnes, Ted {F E }
2010-01-01
In this invited presentation, I review some recent developments in the theory of charmonium that appear likely to be of importance for future experimental studies in this field. The specific areas considered are double charmonium production. LQCD studies of charmonium, recent results for hadron loops, cc{bar} production cross sections at PANDA, charm molecules, and two recent developments, "charmiscelleny".
Barnes, T.
2010-08-05
In this invited presentation I review some recent developments in the theory of charmonium that appear likely to be of importance for future experimental studies in this field. The specific areas considered are double charmonium production, LQCD studies of charmonium, recent results for hadron loops, cc-bar production cross sections at PANDA, charm molecules, and two recent developments, 'charmiscelleny'.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duff, Michael
2011-03-01
Regular readers of Physics World will recall the July 2008 front cover and article on Garrett Lisi's "theory of everything", in which he lays out in a paper on the arXiv preprint server (arXiv:0711.0770).
Apprentice Machine Theory Outline.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational-Technical Schools.
This volume contains outlines for 16 courses in machine theory that are designed for machine tool apprentices. Addressed in the individual course outlines are the following topics: basic concepts; lathes; milling machines; drills, saws, and shapers; heat treatment and metallurgy; grinders; quality control; hydraulics and pneumatics;…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Christensen, Paula, Ed.
This document contains the following papers on theory from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2002 conference: (1) "The Emerging Ecological Contribution of Online Resources and Tools to K-12 Classrooms" (Therese Laferriere, Robert Bracewell, Alain Breuleux); (2) "Pedagogical Ethnotechnography: A Bifocal Lens To…
Applications of kinetic theory
Gidaspow, D.
1992-01-01
The overall objective of this investigation is to develop experimentally verified models for circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustors. This report presents the author's derivation of analytical solutions useful in understanding the operation of a CFB. The report is in a form of a chapter that reviews the kinetic theory applications.
Heeger, David J
2017-02-21
Most models of sensory processing in the brain have a feedforward architecture in which each stage comprises simple linear filtering operations and nonlinearities. Models of this form have been used to explain a wide range of neurophysiological and psychophysical data, and many recent successes in artificial intelligence (with deep convolutional neural nets) are based on this architecture. However, neocortex is not a feedforward architecture. This paper proposes a first step toward an alternative computational framework in which neural activity in each brain area depends on a combination of feedforward drive (bottom-up from the previous processing stage), feedback drive (top-down context from the next stage), and prior drive (expectation). The relative contributions of feedforward drive, feedback drive, and prior drive are controlled by a handful of state parameters, which I hypothesize correspond to neuromodulators and oscillatory activity. In some states, neural responses are dominated by the feedforward drive and the theory is identical to a conventional feedforward model, thereby preserving all of the desirable features of those models. In other states, the theory is a generative model that constructs a sensory representation from an abstract representation, like memory recall. In still other states, the theory combines prior expectation with sensory input, explores different possible perceptual interpretations of ambiguous sensory inputs, and predicts forward in time. The theory, therefore, offers an empirically testable framework for understanding how the cortex accomplishes inference, exploration, and prediction.
Strengthening Practice With Theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Casazza, Martha E.
1998-01-01
Uses case studies of students to outline the theories related to cognitive development and different ways of understanding what knowledge is. Organizes four sets of concepts: (1) the construct of intelligence; (2) different ways of knowing; (3) the nature of constructivism; and (4) the active, strategic process of learning. Contains 19 references.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Braun, Henry I.; Mislevy, Robert
2005-01-01
Many of us have an intuitive understanding of physics that works surprisingly well to guide everyday action, but we would not attempt to send a rocket to the moon with it. Unfortunately, the authors argue, our policy makers are not as cautious when it comes to basing our school accountability system on intuitive test theory. Intuitive physics…
2011-07-01
sciences and philosophies are based on dubious premises or are in fact pseudosciences. Modern military theory was heavily influenced by empiricism and...determinism. Empiricism is described as a logical process based on pursuing knowledge through observation and experiments. One can make sensible
Dittrich, Peter; di Fenizio, Pietro Speroni
2007-05-01
Complex dynamical reaction networks consisting of many components that interact and produce each other are difficult to understand, especially, when new component types may appear and present component types may vanish completely. Inspired by Fontana and Buss (Bull. Math. Biol., 56, 1-64) we outline a theory to deal with such systems. The theory consists of two parts. The first part introduces the concept of a chemical organisation as a closed and self-maintaining set of components. This concept allows to map a complex (reaction) network to the set of organisations, providing a new view on the system's structure. The second part connects dynamics with the set of organisations, which allows to map a movement of the system in state space to a movement in the set of organisations. The relevancy of our theory is underlined by a theorem that says that given a differential equation describing the chemical dynamics of the network, then every stationary state is an instance of an organisation. For demonstration, the theory is applied to a small model of HIV-immune system interaction by Wodarz and Nowak (Proc. Natl. Acad. USA, 96, 14464-14469) and to a large model of the sugar metabolism of E. Coli by Puchalka and Kierzek (Biophys. J., 86, 1357-1372). In both cases organisations where uncovered, which could be related to functions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chiu, Huei-Huang
1989-01-01
A theoretical method is being developed by which the structure of a radiation field can be predicted by a radiation potential theory, similar to a classical potential theory. The introduction of a scalar potential is justified on the grounds that the spectral intensity vector is irrotational. The vector is also solenoidal in the limits of a radiation field in complete radiative equilibrium or in a vacuum. This method provides an exact, elliptic type equation that will upgrade the accuracy and the efficiency of the current CFD programs required for the prediction of radiation and flow fields. A number of interesting results emerge from the present study. First, a steady state radiation field exhibits an optically modulated inverse square law distribution character. Secondly, the unsteady radiation field is structured with two conjugate scalar potentials. Each is governed by a Klein-Gordon equation with a frictional force and a restoring force. This steady potential field structure and the propagation of radiation potentials are consistent with the well known results of classical electromagnetic theory. The extension of the radiation potential theory for spray combustion and hypersonic flow is also recommended.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Spieker, Matthew H.
2016-01-01
Some American high schools include Advanced Placement (AP) Music Theory within their course offerings. Students who pass the AP exam can receive college credit either as a music or humanities credit. An AP class, however, offers music students more than future college credit; it ultimately improves musicianship skills and promotes deeper…
Benchmarking nuclear fission theory
Bertsch, G. F.; Loveland, W.; Nazarewicz, W.; Talou, P.
2015-05-14
We suggest a small set of fission observables to be used as test cases for validation of theoretical calculations. Thus, the purpose is to provide common data to facilitate the comparison of different fission theories and models. The proposed observables are chosen from fission barriers, spontaneous fission lifetimes, fission yield characteristics, and fission isomer excitation energies.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Latimer, Colin J.
1983-01-01
Discusses some lesser known examples of atomic phenomena to illustrate to students that the old quantum theory in its simplest (Bohr) form is not an antiquity but can still make an important contribution to understanding such phenomena. Topics include hydrogenic/non-hydrogenic spectra and atoms in strong electric and magnetic fields. (Author/JN)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pepe, S.; Pepe, W. D.; Strauss, A. M.
1976-01-01
A general theory of orthodontic motion is developed that can be applied to determine the forces necessary to induce a given tooth to move to the predetermined desirable position. It is assumed that the natural (nonorthodontic) forces may be represented by a periodic function and the orthodontic forces may be superimposed upon the natural forces. A simple expression is derived for the applied stress.
Children's Theories of Motivation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gurland, Suzanne T.; Glowacky, Victoria C.
2011-01-01
To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over…
Handicapping Social Exchange Theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mishler, Barbara
The economic theory of social exchange has some serious shortcomings when applied to minorities--especially the disabled. First, it assumes dyads comprise the basic unit where exchange occurs and that rewards and costs must occur at that level. Second, the model standardizes the experience of white, Western European and American males. The model…
Evolutionary Theory under Fire.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lewin, Roger
1980-01-01
Summarizes events of a conference on evolutionary biology in Chicago entitled: "Macroevolution." Reviews the theory of modern synthesis, a term used to explain Darwinism in terms of population biology and genetics. Issues presented at the conference are discussed in detail. (CS)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Langberg, Arnold
1984-01-01
Describes the individualized program of Mountain Open High School which at first coincidentally resembed Maurice Gibbons'"Walkabout" concept and was subsequently more consciously shaped by theory. Students move through three phases culminating in challenging independent projects of practical use. (MJL)
Yoshida, Wako; Dolan, Ray J.; Friston, Karl J.
2008-01-01
This paper introduces a model of ‘theory of mind’, namely, how we represent the intentions and goals of others to optimise our mutual interactions. We draw on ideas from optimum control and game theory to provide a ‘game theory of mind’. First, we consider the representations of goals in terms of value functions that are prescribed by utility or rewards. Critically, the joint value functions and ensuing behaviour are optimised recursively, under the assumption that I represent your value function, your representation of mine, your representation of my representation of yours, and so on ad infinitum. However, if we assume that the degree of recursion is bounded, then players need to estimate the opponent's degree of recursion (i.e., sophistication) to respond optimally. This induces a problem of inferring the opponent's sophistication, given behavioural exchanges. We show it is possible to deduce whether players make inferences about each other and quantify their sophistication on the basis of choices in sequential games. This rests on comparing generative models of choices with, and without, inference. Model comparison is demonstrated using simulated and real data from a ‘stag-hunt’. Finally, we note that exactly the same sophisticated behaviour can be achieved by optimising the utility function itself (through prosocial utility), producing unsophisticated but apparently altruistic agents. This may be relevant ethologically in hierarchal game theory and coevolution. PMID:19112488
1975-01-01
Passage Times with Application to Exciton Trapping on Photosvnthetic Units J. Math, i’hys. 10, 735 (1969) 1970 P. A. Blood, Jr. Approximate...Physics. Rio de Janeiro. S. Okubo. A. Isihara M. Wadati. A. Isihara Theory of Liquid Crystals Molec. Crystlas ( Liquid Crystals 17
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmitz, F. H.; Yu, Y. H.; Boxwell, D. A.
1982-01-01
High speed compressibility noise and vortex interaction noise, which are aerodynamically generated noise sources, were investigated. Noise generating mechanisms were identified. Linear and nonlinear theory were compared and are in agreement with data on amplitude and wave forms. The interaction area between the acoustic planform and blade/vortex interaction lines are examined.
Nonlinear Theory and Breakdown
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Frank
2007-01-01
The main points of recent theoretical and computational studies on boundary-layer transition and turbulence are to be highlighted. The work is based on high Reynolds numbers and attention is drawn to nonlinear interactions, breakdowns and scales. The research focuses in particular on truly nonlinear theories, i.e. those for which the mean-flow profile is completely altered from its original state. There appear to be three such theories dealing with unsteady nonlinear pressure-displacement interactions (I), with vortex/wave interactions (II), and with Euler-scale flows (III). Specific recent findings noted for these three, and in quantitative agreement with experiments, are the following. Nonlinear finite-time break-ups occur in I, leading to sublayer eruption and vortex formation; here the theory agrees with experiments (Nishioka) regarding the first spike. II gives rise to finite-distance blowup of displacement thickness, then interaction and break-up as above; this theory agrees with experiments (Klebanoff, Nishioka) on the formation of three-dimensional streets. III leads to the prediction of turbulent boundary-layer micro-scale, displacement-and stress-sublayer-thicknesses.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hickey, John J.
The current debates about cultural geography fall into three categories: (1) arguments for the convergence of cultural and spatial geography; (2) arguments against current reports of the disappearance of culture as a result of increased cultural divergence; and (3) attempts at the reconstruction of culture theory to conform with generally valid…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mislevy, Robert J.
2014-01-01
Background/Context: This article explains the idea of a neopragmatic postmodernist test theory and offers some thoughts about what changing notions concerning the nature of and meanings assigned to knowledge imply for educational assessment, present and future. Purpose: Advances in the learning sciences--particularly situative and sociocognitive…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Höhn, Philipp Andres; Wever, Christopher S. P.
2017-01-01
We reconstruct the explicit formalism of qubit quantum theory from elementary rules on an observer's information acquisition. Our approach is purely operational: we consider an observer O interrogating a system S with binary questions and define S 's state as O 's "catalog of knowledge" about S . From the rules we derive the state spaces for N elementary systems and show that (a) they coincide with the set of density matrices over an N -qubit Hilbert space C2N; (b) states evolve unitarily under the group PSU (2N) according to the von Neumann evolution equation; and (c) O 's binary questions correspond to projective Pauli operator measurements with outcome probabilities given by the Born rule. As a by-product, this results in a propositional formulation of quantum theory. Aside from offering an informational explanation for the theory's architecture, the reconstruction also unravels previously unnoticed structural insights. We show that, in a derived quadratic information measure, (d) qubits satisfy inequalities which bound the information content in any set of mutually complementary questions to 1 bit; and (e) maximal sets of mutually complementary questions for one and two qubits must carry precisely 1 bit of information in pure states. The latter relations constitute conserved informational charges which define the unitary groups and, together with their conservation conditions, the sets of pure quantum states. These results highlight information as a "charge of quantum theory" and the benefits of this informational approach. This work emphasizes the sufficiency of restricting to an observer's information to reconstruct the theory and completes the quantum reconstruction initiated in a companion paper (P. Höhn, arXiv:1412.8323).
Knot Theory and Topologically Massive Yang-Mills Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yildirim, Tuna; Rodgers, Vincent; Nair, Parameswaran; Carter, Suzanne
2013-04-01
In 2+1 dimensions, we study Yang-Mills(YM) + Chern-Simons(CS) theory also known as topologically massive Yang-Mills(TMYM) theory. Using geometric quantization method we calculate the Wilson Loop expectation values of TMYM theory. At large distances, where only the topological theory survives, we obtain a condition that makes skein relations of knot theory useful to calculate Wilson loop expectation values of TMYM theory. These link invariants may lead to a better understanding of mass gap in 2+1 dimensions.
Non-Relativistic Superstring Theories
Kim, Bom Soo
2007-12-14
We construct a supersymmetric version of the 'critical' non-relativistic bosonic string theory [1] with its manifest global symmetry. We introduce the anticommuting bc CFT which is the super partner of the {beta}{gamma} CFT. The conformal weights of the b and c fields are both 1/2. The action of the fermionic sector can be transformed into that of the relativistic superstring theory. We explicitly quantize the theory with manifest SO(8) symmetry and find that the spectrum is similar to that of Type IIB superstring theory. There is one notable difference: the fermions are non-chiral. We further consider 'noncritical' generalizations of the supersymmetric theory using the superspace formulation. There is an infinite range of possible string theories similar to the supercritical string theories. We comment on the connection between the critical non-relativistic string theory and the lightlike Linear Dilaton theory.
Evolution and literary theory.
Carroll, J
1995-06-01
Presupposing that all knowledge is the study of a unitary order of nature, the author maintains that the study of literature should be included within the larger field of evolutionary theory. He outlines four elementary concepts in evolutionary theory, and he argues that these concepts should regulate our understanding of literature. On the basis of these concepts, he repudiates the antirealist and irrationalist views that, under the aegis of "poststructuralism," have dominated academic literary studies for the past two decades. He examines the linkage between poststructuralism and standard social science, and he speculates about the ideological and disciplinary motives that have hitherto impeded evolutionary study in both the social sciences and the humanities. Finally, he distinguishes literature from science and argues that literary criticism integrates elements of both.
Partition Density Functional Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wasserman, Adam
2012-02-01
Partition Density Functional Theory (PDFT) is a formally exact method for obtaining molecular properties from self-consistent calculations on isolated fragments [1,2]. For a given choice of fragmentation, PDFT outputs the (in principle exact) molecular energy and density, as well as fragment densities that sum to the correct molecular density. I describe our progress understanding the behavior of the fragment energies as a function of fragment occupations, derivative discontinuities, practical implementation, and applications of PDFT to small molecules. I also discuss implications for ground-state Density Functional Theory, such as the promise of PDFT to circumvent the delocalization error of approximate density functionals. [4pt] [1] M.H. Cohen and A. Wasserman, J. Phys. Chem. A, 111, 2229(2007).[0pt] [2] P. Elliott, K. Burke, M.H. Cohen, and A. Wasserman, Phys. Rev. A 82, 024501 (2010).
Walsh, Timothy Francis; Reese, Garth M.; Bhardwaj, Manoj Kumar
2011-11-01
Salinas provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of structural systems. This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Salinas. For a more detailed description of how to use Salinas, we refer the reader to Salinas, User's Notes. Many of the constructs in Salinas are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Salinas are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programmer notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature.
Jones, Dean P.
2015-01-01
Metazoan genomes encode exposure memory systems to enhance survival and reproductive potential by providing mechanisms for an individual to adjust during lifespan to environmental resources and challenges. These systems are inherently redox networks, arising during evolution of complex systems with O2 as a major determinant of bioenergetics, metabolic and structural organization, defense, and reproduction. The network structure decreases flexibility from conception onward due to differentiation and cumulative responses to environment (exposome). The redox theory of aging is that aging is a decline in plasticity of genome–exposome interaction that occurs as a consequence of execution of differentiation and exposure memory systems. This includes compromised mitochondrial and bioenergetic flexibility, impaired food utilization and metabolic homeostasis, decreased barrier and defense capabilities and loss of reproductive fidelity and fecundity. This theory accounts for hallmarks of aging, including failure to maintain oxidative or xenobiotic defenses, mitochondrial integrity, proteostasis, barrier structures, DNA repair, telomeres, immune function, metabolic regulation and regenerative capacity. PMID:25863726
Gelman, Susan A.; Legare, Cristine H.
2013-01-01
Human cognition is characterized by enormous variability and structured by universal psychological constraints. The focus of this chapter is on the development of knowledge acquisition because it provides important insight into how the mind interprets new information and constructs new ways of understanding. We propose that mental content can be productively approached by examining the intuitive causal explanatory “theories” that people construct to explain, interpret, and intervene on the world around them, including theories of mind, of biology, or of physics. A substantial amount of research in cognitive developmental psychology supports the integral role of intuitive theories in human learning and provides evidence that they structure, constrain, and guide the development of human cognition. PMID:23436950
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giudice, Gian F.; McCullough, Matthew
2017-02-01
The clockwork is a mechanism for generating light particles with exponentially suppressed interactions in theories which contain no small parameters at the fundamental level. We develop a general description of the clockwork mechanism valid for scalars, fermions, gauge bosons, and gravitons. This mechanism can be implemented with a discrete set of new fields or, in its continuum version, through an extra spatial dimension. In both cases the clockwork emerges as a useful tool for model-building applications. Notably, the continuum clockwork offers a solution to the Higgs naturalness problem, which turns out to be the same as in linear dilaton duals of Little String Theory. We also elucidate the similarities and differences of the continuum clockwork with large extra dimensions and warped spaces. All clockwork models, in the discrete and continuum, exhibit novel phenomenology with a distinctive spectrum of closely spaced resonances.
2015-01-01
Health is regulated by homeostasis, a property of all living things. Homeostasis maintains equilibrium at set-points using feedback loops for optimum functioning of the organism. Imbalances in homeostasis causing overweight and obesity are evident in more than 1 billion people. In a new theory, homeostatic obesity imbalance is attributed to a hypothesized ‘Circle of Discontent’, a system of feedback loops linking weight gain, body dissatisfaction, negative affect and over-consumption. The Circle of Discontent theory is consistent with an extensive evidence base. A four-armed strategy to halt the obesity epidemic consists of (1) putting a stop to victim-blaming, stigma and discrimination; (2) devalorizing the thin-ideal; (3) reducing consumption of energy-dense, low-nutrient foods and drinks; and (4) improving access to plant-based diets. If fully implemented, interventions designed to restore homeostasis have the potential to halt the obesity epidemic. PMID:28070357
Homeostatic theory of obesity.
Marks, David F
2015-01-01
Health is regulated by homeostasis, a property of all living things. Homeostasis maintains equilibrium at set-points using feedback loops for optimum functioning of the organism. Imbalances in homeostasis causing overweight and obesity are evident in more than 1 billion people. In a new theory, homeostatic obesity imbalance is attributed to a hypothesized 'Circle of Discontent', a system of feedback loops linking weight gain, body dissatisfaction, negative affect and over-consumption. The Circle of Discontent theory is consistent with an extensive evidence base. A four-armed strategy to halt the obesity epidemic consists of (1) putting a stop to victim-blaming, stigma and discrimination; (2) devalorizing the thin-ideal; (3) reducing consumption of energy-dense, low-nutrient foods and drinks; and (4) improving access to plant-based diets. If fully implemented, interventions designed to restore homeostasis have the potential to halt the obesity epidemic.
Panarchy: theory and application
Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Holling, Crawford S.
2014-01-01
The concept of panarchy provides a framework that characterizes complex systems of people and nature as dynamically organized and structured within and across scales of space and time. It has been more than a decade since the introduction of panarchy. Over this period, its invocation in peer-reviewed literature has been steadily increasing, but its use remains primarily descriptive and abstract. Here, we discuss the use of the concept in the literature to date, highlight where the concept may be useful, and discuss limitations to the broader applicability of panarchy theory for research in the ecological and social sciences. Finally, we forward a set of testable hypotheses to evaluate key propositions that follow from panarchy theory.
Fleeson, William; Jayawickreme, Eranda
2014-01-01
Personality researchers should modify models of traits to include mechanisms of differential reaction to situations. Whole Trait Theory does so via five main points. First, the descriptive side of traits should be conceptualized as density distributions of states. Second, it is important to provide an explanatory account of the Big 5 traits. Third, adding an explanatory account to the Big 5 creates two parts to traits, an explanatory part and a descriptive part, and these two parts should be recognized as separate entities that are joined into whole traits. Fourth, Whole Trait Theory proposes that the explanatory side of traits consists of social-cognitive mechanisms. Fifth, social-cognitive mechanisms that produce Big-5 states should be identified. PMID:26097268
[Psychological theories of motivation].
Quoniam, Nolwenn; Bungener, Catherine
2004-03-01
The comprehension of the principles guiding the human actions has always been an important aspect of philosophy. The development of experimental psychology first completely rejected all mental explanations such as will, intentions or motives. Behavior should then only be understood as determined by conditioning and learning. However, different theories denied that human behavior could be considered as purely reactive to the environment and stressed the active role of the organism on the environment. Theories from the humanist psychology and the social psychology described two kinds of motivation. The extrinsic motivation results from external stimuli and the intrinsic motivation from the organism himself. Our behavior is therefore determined by an interaction between our beliefs, expectations, needs and the environment. Actually, the concept of motivation is not well specified. It refers either to a global dynamic structure responsible for action either to a specific tendency toward some specific actions. Anyway, motivation is a concept infered from behavior. Therefore, its evaluation could only be secondary.
Beyond mean field theory: statistical field theory for neural networks
Buice, Michael A; Chow, Carson C
2014-01-01
Mean field theories have been a stalwart for studying the dynamics of networks of coupled neurons. They are convenient because they are relatively simple and possible to analyze. However, classical mean field theory neglects the effects of fluctuations and correlations due to single neuron effects. Here, we consider various possible approaches for going beyond mean field theory and incorporating correlation effects. Statistical field theory methods, in particular the Doi–Peliti–Janssen formalism, are particularly useful in this regard. PMID:25243014
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolpert, David H.
2005-01-01
Probability theory governs the outcome of a game; there is a distribution over mixed strat.'s, not a single "equilibrium". To predict a single mixed strategy must use our loss function (external to the game's players. Provides a quantification of any strategy's rationality. Prove rationality falls as cost of computation rises (for players who have not previously interacted). All extends to games with varying numbers of players.
Elasticity Theory of Composites.
1980-03-01
given by 22 ~ S1 A (4.10) This result was first given by Kneer (1965). The case for which P is the ellipsoid Tfl- <I (4.11) can be reduced to the one...spherical grains and applied the prescription (5.9). Anisotropic polycrystals require a computation. Kneer (1965) studied textured polycrystals, in which...Some questions concerning the theory of phase transformations in solids, Soviet Phys., Solid St. (English trans.) 8, 2163-2168. Kneer , G. (1965
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Callier, Frank M.; Desoer, Charles A.
1991-01-01
The aim of this book is to provide a systematic and rigorous access to the main topics of linear state-space system theory in both the continuous-time case and the discrete-time case; and the I/O description of linear systems. The main thrusts of the work are the analysis of system descriptions and derivations of their properties, LQ-optimal control, state feedback and state estimation, and MIMO unity-feedback systems.
Relativistic Quantum Information Theory
2007-11-20
In S. Kalara and D.V. Nanopou- los, editors, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Black Holes , Membranes, Wormholes and Superstrings, pages...within the gravitational field of a black hole . We outline the general theory of how the entanglement of polarized photons changes under...relativistic Lorentz transformations, and have studied quantum information transmission in the presence of a black hole . A description of the accretion of
Inokuti, Mitio.
1990-01-01
The multifaceted role of theoretical physics in understanding the earliest stages of radiation action is discussed. Scientific topics chosen for the present discourse include photoabsorption, electron collisions, and ionic collisions, and electron transport theory, Connections of atomic and molecular physics with condensed-matter physics are also discussed. The present article includes some historical perspective and an outlook for the future. 114 refs., 3 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zharov, V.
2015-08-01
Time series of the Earth orientation parameters (EOP) were calculated. The ARIADNA software was used to analyze the corrections of the nutation angles. Main feature is un-modeled motion of the CIP in the GCRS that is known as the free core nutation (FCN). In contrast from theory the FCN motion is complex motion. Hypothesis of reason of this complex motion is based on amplitude modulation of the excitation that is connected with the atmospheric tide ψ_1.
Paleo, Bruno Woltzenlogel
2012-01-01
Axiomatization of Physics (and science in general) has many drawbacks that are correctly criticized by opposing philosophical views of science. This paper shows that, by giving formal proofs a more prominent role in the formalization, many of the drawbacks can be solved and many of the opposing views are naturally conciliated. Moreover, this approach allows, by means of proof theory, to open new conceptual bridges between the disciplines of Physics and Computer Science. PMID:24976655
Postempiricism and psychological theory.
Bolton, D
1999-12-01
Discusses postempiricism as a view of scientific knowledge and of knowledge in general. It gives a prominent role to theory in relation to experience, experiment, and action and emphasizes the contextual nature of knowledge. The articles by Dishion and Patterson (this issue), Evans (this issue), and Liddle (this issue) are all positioned clearly in this contemporary epistemology. Fonagy's (this issue) analysis of the apparent restriction of psychoanalytic methods of change is discussed.
Nightingale's environmental theory.
Hegge, Margaret
2013-07-01
This author extracts the environmental theory from Florence Nightingale's writings and recorded experiences. As Nightingale's experiences broadened to other cultures and circumstances, she generated an ever-widening commitment to redress unjust social policies imperiling human health. She mobilized collaborators, shaped public awareness, and championed the cause of those suffering as a result of unjust policies. Nightingale challenged nurses to create environments where population health is a realistic expectation.
Operational Shock Complexity Theory
2005-05-26
but lies essentially at the door of the Westerner’s perceived need for order, theory and lack of belief in the concept of fate.25 Finally, complexity...elsewhere and the entire system exhibits properties and behaviors different from the parts.61 The two main types of system are open and closed systems...62 Open systems take on board excess energy to replace that which is lost in order to continue operating and remain alive. Closed systems seek
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartsock, Robert
2011-10-01
The Least Particle Theory states that the universe was cast as a great sea of energy. MaX Planck declared a quantum of energy to be the least value in the universe. We declare the quantum of energy to be the least particle in the universe. Stephen Hawking declared quantum mechanics to be of no value in todays gross mechanics. That's like saying the number 1 has no place in mathematics.
Influence: Theory and Practice
2013-06-01
information, humans have developed cognitive processes to quickly filter decision-making requests according to probable importance. If determined routine...aspects of group social dynamics. To cope with the daily flood of life’s information, humans have developed cognitive processes to quickly filter...1965). Also refer to theories of Cognitive Psychology, specifically the idea of the individual as an information processing system. Ellul and
Astrophysical materials science: Theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ashcroft, N. W.
1984-01-01
A method of structural expansions for use in determining the equation of state of metallic hydrogen (and indeed other metals) up to the 4th order in the perturbation theory was developed. The electrical and thermal transport properties of the planetary interior of Jupiter were calculated. The nature of the interaction between molecules at short range and the importance of multicenter terms in arriving at an adequate description of the thermodynamic functions of condensed molecular hydrogen were also investigated.
Constructor theory of information
Deutsch, David; Marletto, Chiara
2015-01-01
We propose a theory of information expressed solely in terms of which transformations of physical systems are possible and which are impossible—i.e. in constructor-theoretic terms. It includes conjectured, exact laws of physics expressing the regularities that allow information to be physically instantiated. Although these laws are directly about information, independently of the details of particular physical instantiations, information is not regarded as an a priori mathematical or logical concept, but as something whose nature and properties are determined by the laws of physics alone. This theory solves a problem at the foundations of existing information theory, namely that information and distinguishability are each defined in terms of the other. It also explains the relationship between classical and quantum information, and reveals the single, constructor-theoretic property underlying the most distinctive phenomena associated with the latter, including the lack of in-principle distinguishability of some states, the impossibility of cloning, the existence of pairs of variables that cannot simultaneously have sharp values, the fact that measurement processes can be both deterministic and unpredictable, the irreducible perturbation caused by measurement, and locally inaccessible information (as in entangled systems). PMID:25663803
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stell, George
In recent years the properties of percolation models have been studied intensively. The purpose of our project was to develop a general theory of percolation and clustering between particles of arbitrary size and shape, with arbitrary correlations between them. The goal of such a theory includes the treatment of continuum percolation as well as a novel treatment of lattice percolation. We made substantial progress toward this goal. The quantities basic to a description of clustering, the mean cluster size, mean number of clusters, etc., were developed. Concise formulas were given for the terms in such series, and proved, at least for sufficiently low densities, that the series are absolutely convergent. These series can now be used to construct Pade approximants that will allow one to probe the percolation transition. A scaled-particle theory of percolation was developed which gives analytic approximants for the mean number of clusters in a large class of two and three dimensional percolation models. Although this quantity is essential in many applications, e.g., explaining colligative properties, and interpreting low-angle light-scattering data, no systematic studies of it have been done before this work. Recently carried out detailed computer simulations show that the mean number of clusters is given to high accuracy by several of there approximations. Extensions of this work will allow calculation of the complete cluster size distribution.
Celani, David P
2016-06-01
Fairbairn's unique structural theory with its three pairs of selves and objects has proven to be a highly usable and practical model of the human psyche, yet it has remained a minor player in the world of psychoanalysis. There are a number of factors that account for its lack of popularity, foremost among them the timing of the model's introduction to the analytic community. Fairbairn's four successive papers that described his metapsychology (1940, 1941, 1943, and 1944) were published just after Freud's death, when his theory was the dominant model of psychoanalysis. Additionally, Fairbairn's model was incomplete, used unfamiliar terminology, and, in its singularity, forced the analyst to abandon drive theory, the heart of Freud's metapsychology. This paper will examine and update Fairbairn's unique model of change-from the outset of pathology that begins with attachment to bad objects, to their metamorphosis into internal structures and finally to techniques of treatment that reduce their influence on the patients' internal world. The treatment section carefully follows Fairbairn's metapsychology, and focuses first on the analyst becoming a good object in the eyes of the patient, then unearthing bad object memories in a safe and compassionate interpersonal environment, engaging the patient's substructures in a manner that does not intensify preexisting internal templates, and finally aiding the patient in resuming his or her stalled emotional development. This exegesis of Fairbairn original model, along with recent modifications that have been made to it, demonstrates the consistency, clear focus, and utility of this little-known metapsychology.
Probabilistic theories with purification
Chiribella, Giulio; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo
2010-06-15
We investigate general probabilistic theories in which every mixed state has a purification, unique up to reversible channels on the purifying system. We show that the purification principle is equivalent to the existence of a reversible realization of every physical process, that is, to the fact that every physical process can be regarded as arising from a reversible interaction of the system with an environment, which is eventually discarded. From the purification principle we also construct an isomorphism between transformations and bipartite states that possesses all structural properties of the Choi-Jamiolkowski isomorphism in quantum theory. Such an isomorphism allows one to prove most of the basic features of quantum theory, like, e.g., existence of pure bipartite states giving perfect correlations in independent experiments, no information without disturbance, no joint discrimination of all pure states, no cloning, teleportation, no programming, no bit commitment, complementarity between correctable channels and deletion channels, characterization of entanglement-breaking channels as measure-and-prepare channels, and others, without resorting to the mathematical framework of Hilbert spaces.
Digital lattice gauge theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zohar, Erez; Farace, Alessandro; Reznik, Benni; Cirac, J. Ignacio
2017-02-01
We propose a general scheme for a digital construction of lattice gauge theories with dynamical fermions. In this method, the four-body interactions arising in models with 2 +1 dimensions and higher are obtained stroboscopically, through a sequence of two-body interactions with ancillary degrees of freedom. This yields stronger interactions than the ones obtained through perturbative methods, as typically done in previous proposals, and removes an important bottleneck in the road towards experimental realizations. The scheme applies to generic gauge theories with Lie or finite symmetry groups, both Abelian and non-Abelian. As a concrete example, we present the construction of a digital quantum simulator for a Z3 lattice gauge theory with dynamical fermionic matter in 2 +1 dimensions, using ultracold atoms in optical lattices, involving three atomic species, representing the matter, gauge, and auxiliary degrees of freedom, that are separated in three different layers. By moving the ancilla atoms with a proper sequence of steps, we show how we can obtain the desired evolution in a clean, controlled way.
Constructor theory of information.
Deutsch, David; Marletto, Chiara
2015-02-08
We propose a theory of information expressed solely in terms of which transformations of physical systems are possible and which are impossible-i.e. in constructor-theoretic terms. It includes conjectured, exact laws of physics expressing the regularities that allow information to be physically instantiated. Although these laws are directly about information, independently of the details of particular physical instantiations, information is not regarded as an a priori mathematical or logical concept, but as something whose nature and properties are determined by the laws of physics alone. This theory solves a problem at the foundations of existing information theory, namely that information and distinguishability are each defined in terms of the other. It also explains the relationship between classical and quantum information, and reveals the single, constructor-theoretic property underlying the most distinctive phenomena associated with the latter, including the lack of in-principle distinguishability of some states, the impossibility of cloning, the existence of pairs of variables that cannot simultaneously have sharp values, the fact that measurement processes can be both deterministic and unpredictable, the irreducible perturbation caused by measurement, and locally inaccessible information (as in entangled systems).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bass, J; Agostini, L
1955-01-01
The theory of turbulence reached its full growth at the end of the 19th century as a result of the work by Boussinesq and Reynolds. It then underwent a long period of stagnation which ended under the impulse given to it by the development of wind tunnels caused by the needs of aviation. Numerous researchers, attempted to put Reynolds' elementary statistical theory into a more precise form. During the war, some isolated scientists - von Weizsacker and Heisenberg in Germany, Kolmogoroff in Russia, Onsager in the U.S.A. - started a program of research. By a system of assumptions which make it possible to approach the structure of turbulence in well-defined limiting conditions quantitatively, they obtained a certain number of laws on the correlations and the spectrum. Since the late reports have improved the mathematical language of turbulence, it was deemed advisable to start with a detailed account of the mathematical methods applicable to turbulence, inspired at first by the work of the French school, above all for the basic principles, then the work of the foreigners, above all for the theory of the spectrum.
Linear Theory, Dimensional Theory, and the Face-Inversion Effect
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Loftus, Geoffrey R.; Oberg, Martin A.; Dillon, Allyss M.
2004-01-01
We contrast 2 theories within whose context problems are conceptualized and data interpreted. By traditional linear theory, a dependent variable is the sum of main-effect and interaction terms. By dimensional theory, independent variables yield values on internal dimensions that in turn determine performance. We frame our arguments within an…
Schema Theory, Linguistic Theory, and Representations of Reading Comprehension.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Richgels, Donald J.
1982-01-01
Two research areas, schema theory and linguistic theory, are described which have contributed to theories about language comprehension. Models of language comprehension conceptualized by Roger Schank, Carl Frederiksen, and Walter Kintsch are discussed in relation to the research and evaluated for practical use in reading instruction. (Author/PP)
Contrasting Ohlsson's Resubsumption Theory with Chi's Categorical Shift Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chi, Michelene T. H.; Brem, Sarah K.
2009-01-01
Ohlsson's proposal of resubsumption as the dominant process in conceptual, or nonmonotonic, change presents a worthy challenge to more established theories, such as Chi's theory of ontological shift. The two approaches differ primarily in that Ohlsson's theory emphasizes a process of learning in which narrower, more specific concepts are subsumed…
Critical Theory: Implications for School Leadership Theory and Practice.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peca, Kathy
The school leader's behaviors are inspired by theories, and theories are intrinsic to practice. This paper provides an overview of an emerging perspective in educational administration, critical theory. The paper first highlights the philosophies of Immanuel Kant, Fichte, Hegel, Marx, and the Frankfurt School. It then discusses critical theory…
Informal Theory: The Ignored Link in Theory-to-Practice
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Love, Patrick
2012-01-01
Applying theory to practice in student affairs is dominated by the assumption that formal theory is directly applied to practice. Among the problems with this assumption is that many practitioners believe they must choose between their lived experiences and formal theory, and that graduate students are taught that their experience "does not…
FROM BALLOT THEOREMS TO THE THEORY OF QUEUES,
QUEUEING THEORY, DISTRIBUTION THEORY ), (*PROBABILITY, DISTRIBUTION THEORY ), (* DISTRIBUTION THEORY , QUEUEING THEORY), (*STOCHASTIC PROCESSES... DISTRIBUTION THEORY ), SEQUENCES(MATHEMATICS), DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS, INTEGRAL TRANSFORMS, TIME, STATISTICAL FUNCTIONS
Theories for Psychotherapeutic Genetic Counseling: Fuzzy Trace Theory and Cognitive Behavior Theory.
Biesecker, Barbara; Austin, Jehannine; Caleshu, Colleen
2016-11-04
Psychotherapeutic genetic counseling is an increasingly relevant practice description. In this paper we aim to demonstrate how psychotherapeutic genetic counseling can be achieved by using psychological theories to guide one's approach to working with clients. We describe two illustrative examples, fuzzy trace theory and cognitive behavior theory, and apply them to two challenging cases. The theories were partially derived from evidence of beneficial client outcomes using a psychotherapeutic approach to patient care in other settings. We aim to demonstrate how these two specific theories can inform psychotherapeutic genetic counseling practice, and use them as examples of how to take a psychological theory and effectively apply it to genetic counseling.
Theories for Psychotherapeutic Genetic Counseling: Fuzzy Trace Theory and Cognitive Behavior Theory
Austin, Jehannine; Caleshu, Colleen
2016-01-01
Psychotherapeutic genetic counseling is an increasingly relevant practice description. In this paper we aim to demonstrate how psychotherapeutic genetic counseling can be achieved by using psychological theories to guide one’s approach to working with clients. We describe two illustrative examples, fuzzy trace theory and cognitive behavior theory, and apply them to two challenging cases. The theories were partially derived from evidence of beneficial client outcomes using a psychotherapeutic approach to patient care in other settings. We aim to demonstrate how these two specific theories can inform psychotherapeutic genetic counseling practice, and use them as examples of how to take a psychological theory and effectively apply it to genetic counseling. PMID:27812918
Targeting the Teaching of Theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Walton, Charles W.
1981-01-01
Suggests that six target areas in the teaching of theory and musicianship need more attention and emphasis: listening, analysis, music reading, creativity, music writing, and keyboard harmony. Discusses content and sequence in music theory and presents two sample applications. (SJL)
Mexican contributions to Noncommutative Theories
Vergara, J. David; Garcia-Compean, H.
2006-09-25
In this paper we summarize the Mexican contributions to the subject of Noncommutative theories. These contributions span several areas: Quantum Groups, Noncommutative Field Theories, Hopf algebra of renormalization, Deformation Quantization, Noncommutative Gravity, and Noncommutative Quantum Mechanics.
CHALLENGES OF MODERN CONTROL THEORY
The fundamental objective of the new scientific discipline called ’ control theory ’ is that of modifying the behavior of a system subject to various...possible contributions of modern control theory to the biomedical domain are briefly indicated.
Reconsidering Moore's Transactional Distance Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Giossos, Yiannis; Koutsouba, Maria; Lionarakis, Antonis; Skavantzos, Kosmas
2009-01-01
One of the core theories of distance education is Michael Graham Moore's "Theory of Transactional Distance" that provides the broad framework of the pedagogy of distance education and allows the generation of almost infinite number of hypotheses for research. However, the review of the existing studies relating to the theory showed the use of a…
Demonized Learners in Sociocultural Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chen, Joanna
2016-01-01
Within the frameworks of Sociocultural theory, particularly Vygotskian sociocultural theory and ZPD, Lave and Wenger's CoP, and contemporary sociocultural theory, this paper seeks to examine the unfavourable scholarly portrayal of learners and their identities based on learners' behaviours, attitudes, and beliefs about the social element of…
Chaos Theory and Post Modernism
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Snell, Joel
2009-01-01
Chaos theory is often associated with post modernism. However, one may make the point that both terms are misunderstood. The point of this article is to define both terms and indicate their relationship. Description: Chaos theory is associated with a definition of a theory dealing with variables (butterflies) that are not directly related to a…
Coding Issues in Grounded Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moghaddam, Alireza
2006-01-01
This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…
Circuit theory of Andreev conductance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazarov, Yuli V.
1994-09-01
Conductance of small normal metal structures adjacent to a superconductor is determined by coherent Andreev reflection. We show that under certain limitations the conductance can be found by means of an extended circuit theory. The theory deals with two types of elements: tunnel junctions and diffusive conductors and provides the basis for practical calculations. A new device proposed illustrates the advantages of the theory.
Program Theory Evaluation: Logic Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brousselle, Astrid; Champagne, Francois
2011-01-01
Program theory evaluation, which has grown in use over the past 10 years, assesses whether a program is designed in such a way that it can achieve its intended outcomes. This article describes a particular type of program theory evaluation--logic analysis--that allows us to test the plausibility of a program's theory using scientific knowledge.…
Comments on quantum probability theory.
Sloman, Steven
2014-01-01
Quantum probability theory (QP) is the best formal representation available of the most common form of judgment involving attribute comparison (inside judgment). People are capable, however, of judgments that involve proportions over sets of instances (outside judgment). Here, the theory does not do so well. I discuss the theory both in terms of descriptive adequacy and normative appropriateness.
Learning theory and gestalt therapy.
Harper, R; Bauer, R; Kannarkat, J
1976-01-01
This article discusses the theory and operations of Gestalt Therapy from the viewpoint of learning theory. General comparative issues are elaborated as well as the concepts of introjection, retroflextion, confluence, and projection. Principles and techniques of Gestalt Therapy are discussed in terms of learning theory paradigm. Practical implications of the various Gestalt techniques are presented.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pryor, Robert G. L.; Bright, Jim
2003-01-01
Four theoretical streams--contexualism/ecology, systems theory, realism/constructivism, and chaos theory--contributed to a theory of individuals as complex, unique, nonlinear, adaptive chaotic and open systems. Individuals use purposive action to construct careers but can make maladaptive and inappropriate choices. (Contains 42 references.) (SK)
Quantum probability from decision theory?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnum, H.; Caves, C. M.; Finkelstein, J.; Fuchs, C. A.; Schack, R.
2000-05-01
In a recent paper (quant-ph/9906015), Deutsch claims to derive the "probabilistic predictions of quantum theory" from the "non-probabilistic axioms of quantum theory" and the "non-probabilistic part of classical decision theory." We show that his derivation fails because it includes hidden probabilistic assumptions.
Networking Theories by Iterative Unpacking
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Koichu, Boris
2014-01-01
An iterative unpacking strategy consists of sequencing empirically-based theoretical developments so that at each step of theorizing one theory serves as an overarching conceptual framework, in which another theory, either existing or emerging, is embedded in order to elaborate on the chosen element(s) of the overarching theory. The strategy is…
Logarithmic conformal field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gainutdinov, Azat; Ridout, David; Runkel, Ingo
2013-12-01
Conformal field theory (CFT) has proven to be one of the richest and deepest subjects of modern theoretical and mathematical physics research, especially as regards statistical mechanics and string theory. It has also stimulated an enormous amount of activity in mathematics, shaping and building bridges between seemingly disparate fields through the study of vertex operator algebras, a (partial) axiomatisation of a chiral CFT. One can add to this that the successes of CFT, particularly when applied to statistical lattice models, have also served as an inspiration for mathematicians to develop entirely new fields: the Schramm-Loewner evolution and Smirnov's discrete complex analysis being notable examples. When the energy operator fails to be diagonalisable on the quantum state space, the CFT is said to be logarithmic. Consequently, a logarithmic CFT is one whose quantum space of states is constructed from a collection of representations which includes reducible but indecomposable ones. This qualifier arises because of the consequence that certain correlation functions will possess logarithmic singularities, something that contrasts with the familiar case of power law singularities. While such logarithmic singularities and reducible representations were noted by Rozansky and Saleur in their study of the U (1|1) Wess-Zumino-Witten model in 1992, the link between the non-diagonalisability of the energy operator and logarithmic singularities in correlators is usually ascribed to Gurarie's 1993 article (his paper also contains the first usage of the term 'logarithmic conformal field theory'). The class of CFTs that were under control at this time was quite small. In particular, an enormous amount of work from the statistical mechanics and string theory communities had produced a fairly detailed understanding of the (so-called) rational CFTs. However, physicists from both camps were well aware that applications from many diverse fields required significantly more
[From the cell theory to the neuron theory].
Tixier-Vidal, Andrée
2010-01-01
The relationship between the cell theory formulated by Schwann (1839) and by Virchow (1855) on the one hand, and, on the other hand, the neuron theory, as formulated by Waldeyer (1891) and by Cajal (1906), are discussed from a historical point of view. Both of them are the result of technical and conceptuel progress. Both of them had to fight against the dominant dogma before being accepted. The cell theory opposed the school of Bichat, the vitalist philosophy and the positivist philosophy of Auguste Comte. The neuron theory, which is clearly based on the cell theory, was mostly concerned with the mode of interneuronal communication; it opposed the concept of contiguity to Golgi's concept of continuity. At present, the cell theory remains central in every field of Biology. By contrast, the neuron theory, which until the middle of the XXth century opened the study of the nervous system to a necessary reductionnist approach, is no longer central to recent developments of neurosciences.
Erickson, S.A. Jr.
1991-03-20
The purpose of this monograph is to start a theory of deterrence which has the capability of quantitatively answering the question of what is required to deter a nation or alliance from certain acts. Despite the existence of voluminous writing on deterrence, from the beginning of the nuclear age and even before, none of it attempts a theoretical discussion of how to calculate what it takes to deter a country from committing some acts which are objectionable to another country. Many theories of deterrence have already been created. They have exclusively been of two separate forms -- those of the social scientists, which deal with political questions, and how the concept of mass destruction psychological deters the initiation of war; and those of the mathematicians, who model the quantities of one country`s arsenal of strategic systems needed to destroy a certain portion of another country`s. Only the latter is quantitative, but they lack an essential element added to answer the question ``How much is enough?`` In order to use the techniques of operations research on the questions of what type and amount of weapons are adequate for deterrence, the definitions of quantities occurring in the calculations need to be made in quantifiable way. Numbers of weapons have been the only quantified parameter in previous deterrence calculations. Yet weapons alone do not deter. The threat of destruction and damage does. How is that threatenable damage to be measured, and as through defensive system construction, counterforce capability improvement, arms control, or other means, it becomes less when is the threshold for deterrence met and crossed? The calculation of this damage, and the implication of that damage to decision-makers capable of making a war initiation decision, is a complicated process, and it is what constitutes a theory of deterrence. 36 refs.
Quantum Transition State Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waalkens, Holger
2009-03-01
The main idea of Wigner's transition state theory (TST) is to compute reaction rates from the flux through a dividing surface placed between reactants and products. In order not to overestimate the rate the dividing surface needs to have the no- recrossing property, i.e. reactive trajectories cross the dividing surface exactly once, and nonreactive trajectories do not cross it at all. The long standing problem of how to construct such a diving surface for multi-degree-of-freedom systems was solved only recently using ideas from dynamical systems theory. Here a normal form allows for a local decoupling of the classical dynamics which leads to the explicit construction of the phase space structures that govern the reaction dynamics through transition states. The dividing surface is spanned by a normally hyperbolic manifold which is the mathematical manifestation of the transition state as an unstable invariant subsystem of one degree of freedom less than the full system. The mere existence of a quantum version of TST is discussed controversially in the literature. The key isssue is the presence of quantum mechanical tunneling which prohibits the existence of a local theory analogous to the classical case. Various approaches have been devloped to overcome this problem by propagating quantum wavefunctions through the transition state region. These approaches have in common that they are computationally very expensive which seriously limits their applicability. In contrast the approach by Roman Schubert, Stephen Wiggins and myself is local in nature. A quantum normal form allows us to locally decouple the quantum dynamics to any desired order in Planck's constant. This yields not only the location of the scattering and resonance wavefunctions relative to the classical phase space structures, but also leads to very efficient algorithms to compute cumulative reaction probabilities and Gamov-Siegert resonances which are the quantum imprints of the transition state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stanton, John F.
2015-05-01
The interaction between quantum-mechanical theory and spectroscopy is one of the most fertile interfaces in all of science, and has a richly storied history. Of course it was spectroscopy that provided essentially all of the evidence that not all was well (or, perhaps more correctly put, complete) with the world of 19th century classical physics. From the discoveries of the dark lines in the solar spectrum by Fraunhöfer in 1814 to the curiously simple geometric formula discovered seventy years later that described the hydrogen atom spectrum, spectroscopy and spectroscopists have consistently identified the areas of atomic and molecular science that are most in need of hard thinking by theoreticians. The rest of the story, of course, is well-known: spectroscopic results were used to understand and motivate the theory of radioactivity and ultimately the quantum theory, first in its immature form that was roughly contemporaneous with the first World War, and then the Heisenberg-Schrödinger-Dirac version that has withstood the test of time. Since the basic principles of quantum mechanics ware first understood, the subject has been successfully used to understand the patterns found in spectra, and how these relate to molecular structure, symmetry, energy levels, and dynamics. But further understanding required to attain these intellectual achievements has often come only as a result of vital and productive interactions between theoreticians and spectroscopists (of course, many people have strengths in both areas). And indeed, a field that might be termed "theoretical spectroscopy" was cultivated and is now an important part of modern molecular science.
1980-12-01
7 AA096 14S ARI ZONA UNIV TUCSON OPTICA SCIENCES CENTER F/6 20/5 LASER GYRO THE.ORY ESTENS ION(U)7 C So M 0 SCULLY IF33615-79-C-17N4 UNCLASSIIED...GYRO We have been working with scientists at Litton Industries in the development of a Zeeman laser gyro (ZLAG). We have developed a vector laser...Hutchings and V. Sanders are with Litton Industries , Woodland rate measurements with laser gyros (Section II). The remain- Hills, CA 91364. ing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holman, Gordon D.
1989-01-01
The primary purpose of the Theory and Modeling Group meeting was to identify scientists engaged or interested in theoretical work pertinent to the Max '91 program, and to encourage theorists to pursue modeling which is directly relevant to data which can be expected to result from the program. A list of participants and their institutions is presented. Two solar flare paradigms were discussed during the meeting -- the importance of magnetic reconnection in flares and the applicability of numerical simulation results to solar flare studies.
Neutrinos: Theory and Phenomenology
Parke, Stephen
2013-10-22
The theory and phenomenology of neutrinos will be addressed, especially that relating to the observation of neutrino flavor transformations. The current status and implications for future experiments will be discussed with special emphasis on the experiments that will determine the neutrino mass ordering, the dominant flavor content of the neutrino mass eigenstate with the smallest electron neutrino content and the size of CP violation in the neutrino sector. Beyond the neutrino Standard Model, the evidence for and a possible definitive experiment to confirm or refute the existence of light sterile neutrinos will be briefly discussed.
Supersymmetric invariant theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esipova, S. R.; Lavrov, P. M.; Radchenko, O. V.
2014-04-01
We study field models for which a quantum action (i.e. the action appearing in the generating functional of Green functions) is invariant under supersymmetric transformations. We derive the Ward identity which is a direct consequence of this invariance. We consider a change of variables in functional integral connected with supersymmetric transformations when its parameter is replaced by a nilpotent functional of fields. Exact form of the corresponding Jacobian is found. We find restrictions on generators of supersymmetric transformations when a consistent quantum description of given field theories exists.
Cowen, N M
1987-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to extend the theoretical basis for testcross selection theory from models assuming two alleles per locus to a model which is general for number and frequency of alleles. The expectations of genetic variances expressed among and within testcross families is presented for both inbred and population testers. Predicted change due to selection in testcross, non-inbred and selfed population performance with testcross selection are derived. Expected changes in testcross heterosis and inbreeding depression in the population are also derived. Approximate confidence intervals for predicted selection response are developed and appropriate sets of progeny to evaluate in order to estimate parameters of interest are identified.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Litvin, Faydor L.
1989-01-01
Basic mathematical problems on the theory of gearing are covered in this book, such as the necessary and sufficient conditions of envelope existence, relations between principal curvatures and directions for surfaces of mating gears. Also included are singularities of surfaces accompanied by undercutting the process of generation, the phenomena of envelope of lines of contact, and the principles for generation of conjugate surfaces. Special attention is given to the algorithms for computer aided simulation of meshing and tooth contact. This edition was complemented with the results of research recently performed by the author and his doctoral students. The book contains sample problems and also problems for the reader to solve.
Theory of ultracold superstrings
Snoek, Michiel; Vandoren, S.; Stoof, H. T. C.
2006-09-15
The combination of a vortex line in a one-dimensional optical lattice with fermions bound to the vortex core makes up an ultracold superstring. We give a detailed derivation of the way to make this supersymmetric string in the laboratory. In particular, we discuss the presence of a fermionic bound state in the vortex core and the tuning of the laser beams needed to achieve supersymmetry. Moreover, we discuss experimental consequences of supersymmetry and identify the precise supersymmetry in the problem. Finally, we make the mathematical connection with string theory.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsu, C. H.; Lan, C. E.
1984-01-01
A theory is developed for predicting wing rock characteristics. From available data, it can be concluded that wing rock is triggered by flow asymmetries, developed by negative or weakly positive roll damping, and sustained by nonlinear aerodynamic roll damping. A new nonlinear aerodynamic model that includes all essential aerodynamic nonlinearities is developed. The Beecham-Titchener method is applied to obtain approximate analytic solutions for the amplitude and frequency of the limit cycle based on the three degree-of-freedom equations of motion. An iterative scheme is developed to calculate the average aerodynamic derivatives and dynamic characteristics at limit cycle conditions. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results is obtained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashimoto, Koji; Morita, Takeshi
2011-08-01
In generic holographic QCD, we find that baryons are bound to form a nucleus, and that its radius obeys the empirically-known mass-number (A) dependence r∝A1/3 for large A. Our result is robust, since we use only a generic property of D-brane actions in string theory. We also show that nucleons are bound completely in a finite volume. Furthermore, employing a concrete holographic model (derived by Hashimoto, Iizuka, and Yi, describing a multibaryon system in the Sakai-Sugimoto model), the nuclear radius is evaluated as O(1)×A1/3[fm], which is consistent with experiments.
Density matrix perturbation theory.
Niklasson, Anders M N; Challacombe, Matt
2004-05-14
An orbital-free quantum perturbation theory is proposed. It gives the response of the density matrix upon variation of the Hamiltonian by quadratically convergent recursions based on perturbed projections. The technique allows treatment of embedded quantum subsystems with a computational cost scaling linearly with the size of the perturbed region, O(N(pert.)), and as O(1) with the total system size. The method allows efficient high order perturbation expansions, as demonstrated with an example involving a 10th order expansion. Density matrix analogs of Wigner's 2n+1 rule are also presented.
Principles of electromagnetic theory
Kovetz, A.H. )
1990-01-01
This book emphasizes the fundamental understanding of the laws governing the behavior of charge and current carrying bodies. Electromagnetism is presented as a classical theory, based-like mechanics-on principles that are independent of the atomic constitution of matter. This book is unique among electromagnetic texts in its treatment of the precise manner in which electromagnetism is linked to mechanics and thermodynamics. Applications include electrostriction, piezoelectricity, ferromagnetism, superconductivity, thermoelectricity, magnetohydrodynamics, radiation from charged particles, electromagnetic wave propagation and guided waves. There are many worked examples of dynamical and thermal effects of electromagnetic fields, and of effects resulting from the motion of bodies.
Galton, D J
1998-08-01
With the recent developments in the Human Genome Mapping Project and the new technologies that are developing from it there is a renewal of concern about eugenic applications. Francis Galton (b1822, d1911), who developed the subject of eugenics, suggested that the ancient Greeks had contributed very little to social theories of eugenics. In fact the Greeks had a profound interest in methods of supplying their city states with the finest possible progeny. This paper therefore reviews the works of Plato (The Republic and Politics) and Aristotle (The Politics and The Athenian Constitution) which have a direct bearing on eugenic techniques and relates them to methods used in the present century.
Endochronic theory of dynamic viscoplasticity
Lin, H.C.
1983-06-01
This report summarizes the work completed on a project concerned with engineering models in dyanmic plasticity. The concept of the endochronic theory of viscoplasticity and its subsequent improvement are discussed briefly. Applications and extensions of the theory to various dynamic problems are presented. In particular, the strain-rate effect in the improved endochronic theory and its application to wave propagation problems are discussed. Comparing the numerical results with other calculations and experimental data, it appears that endochronic theory provides a promising representation of realistic material behavior. At the same time endochronic theory is often numerically more efficient than other formulations.
Complex higher order derivative theories
Margalli, Carlos A.; Vergara, J. David
2012-08-24
In this work is considered a complex scalar field theory with higher order derivative terms and interactions. A procedure is developed to quantize consistently this system avoiding the presence of negative norm states. In order to achieve this goal the original real scalar high order field theory is extended to a complex space attaching a complex total derivative to the theory. Next, by imposing reality conditions the complex theory is mapped to a pair of interacting real scalar field theories without the presence of higher derivative terms.
Quantum field theory of fluids.
Gripaios, Ben; Sutherland, Dave
2015-02-20
The quantum theory of fields is largely based on studying perturbations around noninteracting, or free, field theories, which correspond to a collection of quantum-mechanical harmonic oscillators. The quantum theory of an ordinary fluid is "freer", in the sense that the noninteracting theory also contains an infinite collection of quantum-mechanical free particles, corresponding to vortex modes. By computing a variety of correlation functions at tree and loop level, we give evidence that a quantum perfect fluid can be consistently formulated as a low-energy, effective field theory. We speculate that the quantum behavior is radically different from both classical fluids and quantum fields.
[Polyvagal theory and emotional trauma].
Leikola, Anssi; Mäkelä, Jukka; Punkanen, Marko
2016-01-01
According to the polyvagal theory, the autonomic nervous system can, in deviation from the conventional theory, be divided in three distinct parts that are in hierarchical relationship with each other. The most-primitive autonomic control results in depression of vital functions, the more evolved one in fighting or escape and the most evolved one in social involvement. Practical application of the polyvagal theory has resulted in positive results above all in the treatment of emotional trauma. in Finland, therapy of complex trauma is founded on the theory of structural dissociation of the personality, which together with the polyvagal theory forms a practical frame of reference for psychotherapeutic work.
Recent developments in superstring theory.
Schwarz, J H
1998-03-17
There have been many remarkable developments in our understanding of superstring theory in the past few years, a period that has been described as "the second superstring revolution." In particular, what once appeared to be five distinct theories are now recognized to be different manifestations of a single (unique) underlying theory. Some of the evidence for this, based on dualities and the appearance of an eleventh dimension, is presented. Also, a specific proposal for the underlying theory, called "Matrix Theory," is described. The presentation is intended primarily for the benefit of nonexperts.
Recent developments in superstring theory
Schwarz, John H.
1998-01-01
There have been many remarkable developments in our understanding of superstring theory in the past few years, a period that has been described as “the second superstring revolution.” In particular, what once appeared to be five distinct theories are now recognized to be different manifestations of a single (unique) underlying theory. Some of the evidence for this, based on dualities and the appearance of an eleventh dimension, is presented. Also, a specific proposal for the underlying theory, called “Matrix Theory,” is described. The presentation is intended primarily for the benefit of nonexperts. PMID:9501161
A Transversely Isotropic Thermoelastic Theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arnold, S. M.
1989-01-01
A continuum theory is presented for representing the thermoelastic behavior of composites that can be idealized as transversely isotropic. This theory is consistent with anisotropic viscoplastic theories being developed presently at NASA Lewis Research Center. A multiaxial statement of the theory is presented, as well as plane stress and plane strain reductions. Experimental determination of the required material parameters and their theoretical constraints are discussed. Simple homogeneously stressed elements are examined to illustrate the effect of fiber orientation on the resulting strain distribution. Finally, the multiaxial stress-strain relations are expressed in matrix form to simplify and accelerate implementation of the theory into structural analysis codes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aharony, Ofer; Komargodski, Zohar; Yankielowicz, Shimon
2016-04-01
We consider Euclidean Conformal Field Theories perturbed by quenched disorder, namely by random fluctuations in their couplings. Such theories are relevant for second-order phase transitions in the presence of impurities or other forms of disorder. Theories with quenched disorder often flow to new fixed points of the renormalization group. We begin with disorder in free field theories. Imry and Ma showed that disordered free fields can only exist for d > 4. For d > 4 we show that disorder leads to new fixed points which are not scale-invariant. We then move on to large- N theories (vector models or gauge theories in the `t Hooft limit). We compute exactly the beta function for the disorder, and the correlation functions of the disordered theory. We generalize the results of Imry and Ma by showing that such disordered theories exist only when disorder couples to operators of dimension Δ > d/4. Sometimes the disordered fixed points are not scale-invariant, and in other cases they have unconventional dependence on the disorder, including non-trivial effects due to irrelevant operators. Holography maps disorder in conformal theories to stochastic differential equations in a higher dimensional space. We use this dictionary to reproduce our field theory results. We also study the leading 1 /N corrections, both by field theory methods and by holography. These corrections are particularly important when disorder scales with the number of degrees of freedom.
Forgetting and remembering alienation theory.
Yuill, Chris
2011-01-01
Alienation theory has acted as the stimulus for a great deal of research and writing in the history of sociology. It has formed the basis of many sociological "classics" focused on the workplace and the experiences of workers, and has also been mobilized to chart wider social malaise and individual troubles. Alienation theory usage has, however, declined significantly since its heyday of the 1960s and 1970s. Here, the reasons why alienation theory was "forgotten" and what can be gained by "remembering" alienation theory are explored. to realize this ambition this article proceeds by (1) briefly visiting differing definitions of alienation theory, before charting its high point, and the various debates and tensions of the time, during the 1960s and 1970s; (2) analysing the reasons why alienation theory fell from grace from the 1980s onwards; (3) elaborating how and why alienation theory is still relevant for sociology and the wider social sciences today.
Relevance theory: pragmatics and cognition.
Wearing, Catherine J
2015-01-01
Relevance Theory is a cognitively oriented theory of pragmatics, i.e., a theory of language use. It builds on the seminal work of H.P. Grice(1) to develop a pragmatic theory which is at once philosophically sensitive and empirically plausible (in both psychological and evolutionary terms). This entry reviews the central commitments and chief contributions of Relevance Theory, including its Gricean commitment to the centrality of intention-reading and inference in communication; the cognitively grounded notion of relevance which provides the mechanism for explaining pragmatic interpretation as an intention-driven, inferential process; and several key applications of the theory (lexical pragmatics, metaphor and irony, procedural meaning). Relevance Theory is an important contribution to our understanding of the pragmatics of communication.
Observer Localization in Multiverse Theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hutter, Marcus
2011-11-01
The progression of theories suggested for our world, from ego- to geo- to helio-centric models to universe and multiverse theories and beyond, shows one tendency: The size of the described worlds increases, with humans being expelled from their center to ever more remote and random locations. If pushed too far, a potential theory of everything (TOE) is actually more a theories of nothing (TON). Indeed such theories have already been developed. I show that including observer localization into such theories is necessary and su_cient to avoid this problem. I develop a quantitative recipe to identify TOEs and distinguish them from TONs and theories in-between. This precisely shows what the problem is with some recently suggested universal TOEs.
[Shedding light on chaos theory].
Chou, Shieu-Ming
2004-06-01
Gleick (1987) said that only three twentieth century scientific theories would be important enough to continue be of use in the twenty-first century: The Theory of Relativity, Quantum Theory, and Chaos Theory. Chaos Theory has become a craze which is being used to forge a new scientific system. It has also been extensively applied in a variety of professions. The purpose of this article is to introduce chaos theory and its nursing applications. Chaos is a sign of regular order. This is to say that chaos theory emphasizes the intrinsic potential for regular order within disordered phenomena. It is to be hoped that this article will inspire more nursing scientists to apply this concept to clinical, research, or administrative fields in our profession.
6D Superconformal Theory as the Theory of Everything
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smilga, A. V.
2006-06-01
We argue that the fundamental Theory of Everything is a conventional field theory defined in the flat multidimensional bulk. Our Universe should be obtained as a 3-brane classical solution in this theory. The renormalizability of the fundamental theory implies that it involves higher derivatives (HD). It should be supersymmetric (otherwise one cannot get rid of the huge induced cosmological term) and probably conformal (otherwise one can hardly cope with the problem of ghosts). We present arguments that in conformal HD theories the ghosts (which are inherent for HD theories) might be not so malignant. In particular, we present a nontrivial QM HD model where ghosts are absent and the spectrum has a well defined ground state. The requirement of superconformal invariance restricts the dimension of the bulk to be D ≤ 6. We suggest that the TOE lives in six dimensions and enjoys the maximum {N} = (2, 0) superconformal symmetry. Unfortunately, no renormalizable field theory with this symmetry is presently known. We construct and discuss an {N} = (1, 0) 6D supersymmetric gauge theory with four derivatives in the action. This theory involves a dimensionless coupling constant and is renormalizable. At the tree level, the theory enjoys conformal symmetry, but the latter is broken by quantum anomaly. The sign of the β function corresponds to the Landau zero situation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Griffiths, Robert B.
2001-11-01
Quantum mechanics is one of the most fundamental yet difficult subjects in physics. Nonrelativistic quantum theory is presented here in a clear and systematic fashion, integrating Born's probabilistic interpretation with Schrödinger dynamics. Basic quantum principles are illustrated with simple examples requiring no mathematics beyond linear algebra and elementary probability theory. The quantum measurement process is consistently analyzed using fundamental quantum principles without referring to measurement. These same principles are used to resolve several of the paradoxes that have long perplexed physicists, including the double slit and Schrödinger's cat. The consistent histories formalism used here was first introduced by the author, and extended by M. Gell-Mann, J. Hartle and R. Omnès. Essential for researchers yet accessible to advanced undergraduate students in physics, chemistry, mathematics, and computer science, this book is supplementary to standard textbooks. It will also be of interest to physicists and philosophers working on the foundations of quantum mechanics. Comprehensive account Written by one of the main figures in the field Paperback edition of successful work on philosophy of quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raju, C. K.
2012-10-01
We propose a Lorentz-covariant theory of gravity, and explain its theoretical origins in the problem of time in Newtonian physics. In this retarded gravitation theory (RGT), the gravitational force depends upon both retarded position and velocity, and the equations of motion are time-asymmetric retarded functional differential equations. We explicitly solve these equations, under simplifying assumptions, for various NASA spacecraft. This shows that the differences from Newtonian gravity, though tiny within the solar system, are just appropriate to explain the flyby anomaly as a ν/c effect due to earth's rotation. The differences can, however, be large in the case of a spiral galaxy, and we show that the combined velocity drag from a large number of co-rotating stars enormously speeds up a test particle. Thus, the non-Newtonian behaviour of rotation curves in a spiral galaxy may be explained as being due to velocity drag rather than dark matter. RGT can also be tested in the laboratory. It necessitates a reappraisal of current laboratory methods of determining the Newtonian gravitational constant G. Since RGT makes no speculative assumptions, its refutation would have serious implications across physics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salam, Abdus; Wigner, E. P.
2010-03-01
Preface; List of contributors; Bibliography of P. A. M. Dirac; 1. Dirac in Cambridge R. J. Eden and J. C. Polkinghorne; 2. Travels with Dirac in the Rockies J. H. Van Vleck; 3. 'The golden age of theoretical physics': P. A. M. Dirac's scientific work from 1924 to 1933 Jagdish Mehra; 4. Foundation of quantum field theory Res Jost; 5. The early history of the theory of electron: 1897-1947 A. Pais; 6. The Dirac equation A. S. Wightman; 7. Fermi-Dirac statistics Rudolph Peierls; 8. Indefinite metric in state space W. Heisenberg; 9. On bras and kets J. M. Jauch; 10. The Poisson bracket C. Lanczos; 11. La 'fonction' et les noyaux L. Schwartz; 12. On the Dirac magnetic poles Edoardo Amadli and Nicola Cabibbo; 13. The fundamental constants and their time variation Freeman J. Dyson; 14. On the time-energy uncertainty relation Eugene P. Wigner; 15. The path-integral quantisation of gravity Abdus Salam and J. Strathdee; Index; Plates.
Changing theories of change: strategic shifting in implicit theory endorsement.
Leith, Scott A; Ward, Cindy L P; Giacomin, Miranda; Landau, Enoch S; Ehrlinger, Joyce; Wilson, Anne E
2014-10-01
People differ in their implicit theories about the malleability of characteristics such as intelligence and personality. These relatively chronic theories can be experimentally altered, and can be affected by parent or teacher feedback. Little is known about whether people might selectively shift their implicit beliefs in response to salient situational goals. We predicted that, when motivated to reach a desired conclusion, people might subtly shift their implicit theories of change and stability to garner supporting evidence for their desired position. Any motivated context in which a particular lay theory would help people to reach a preferred directional conclusion could elicit shifts in theory endorsement. We examine a variety of motivated situational contexts across 7 studies, finding that people's theories of change shifted in line with goals to protect self and liked others and to cast aspersions on disliked others. Studies 1-3 demonstrate how people regulate their implicit theories to manage self-view by more strongly endorsing an incremental theory after threatening performance feedback or memories of failure. Studies 4-6 revealed that people regulate the implicit theories they hold about favored and reviled political candidates, endorsing an incremental theory to forgive preferred candidates for past gaffes but leaning toward an entity theory to ensure past failings "stick" to opponents. Finally, in Study 7, people who were most threatened by a previously convicted child sex offender (i.e., parents reading about the offender moving to their neighborhood) gravitated most to the entity view that others do not change. Although chronic implicit theories are undoubtedly meaningful, this research reveals a previously unexplored source of fluidity by highlighting the active role people play in managing their implicit theories in response to goals.
Raby, S.; Walker, T.; Babu, K.S.; Baer, H.; Balantekin, A.B.; Barger, V.; Berezhiani, Z.; de Gouvea, A.; Dermisek, R.; Dolgov, A.; Fileviez Perez, P.; Gabadadze, G.; Gal, A.; Gondolo, P.; Haxton, W.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kayser, B.; Kearns, E.; Kopeliovich, B.; Lande, K.; Marfatia, D.; /Kansas U. /Maryland U. /Northeastern U. /UC, Berkeley /LBL, Berkeley /Minnesota U. /SLAC /UC, Santa Cruz /SUNY, Stony Brook /Oklahoma State U. /Iowa State U. /Carnegie Mellon U.
2011-11-14
The scientific case for a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory [DUSEL] located at the Homestake mine in Lead, South Dakota is exceptional. The site of this future laboratory already claims a discovery for the detection of solar neutrinos, leading to a Nobel Prize for Ray Davis. Moreover this work provided the first step to our present understanding of solar neutrino oscillations and a chink in the armor of the Standard Model of particle physics. We now know, from several experiments located in deep underground experimental laboratories around the world, that neutrinos have mass and even more importantly this mass appears to fit into the framework of theories which unify all the known forces of nature, i.e. the strong, weak, electromagnetic and gravitational. Similarly, DUSEL can forge forward in the discovery of new realms of nature, housing six fundamental experiments that will test the frontiers of our knowledge: (1) Searching for nucleon decay (the decay of protons and neutrons predicted by grand unified theories of nature); (2) Searching for neutrino oscillations and CP violation by detecting neutrinos produced at a neutrino source (possibly located at Brookhaven National Laboratory and/or Fermi National Laboratory); (3) Searching for astrophysical neutrinos originating from the sun, from cosmic rays hitting the upper atmosphere or from other astrophysical sources, such a supernovae; (4) Searching for dark matter particles (the type of matter which does not interact electromagnetically, yet provides 24% of the mass of the Universe); (5) Looking for the rare process known as neutrino-less double beta decay which is predicted by most theories of neutrino mass and allows two neutrons in a nucleus to spontaneously change into two protons and two electrons; and (6) Searching for the rare process of neutron- anti-neutron oscillations, which would establish violation of baryon number symmetry. A large megaton water Cherenkov detector for neutrinos and
F-theory and 2d (0, 2) theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura; Weigand, Timo
2016-05-01
F-theory compactified on singular, elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau five-folds gives rise to two-dimensional gauge theories preserving N = (0 , 2) supersymmetry. In this paper we initiate the study of such compactifications and determine the dictionary between the geometric data of the elliptic fibration and the 2d gauge theory such as the matter content in terms of (0 , 2) superfields and their supersymmetric couplings. We study this setup both from a gauge-theoretic point of view, in terms of the partially twisted 7-brane theory, and provide a global geometric description based on the structure of the elliptic fibration and its singularities. Global consistency conditions are determined and checked against the dual M-theory compactification to one dimension. This includes a discussion of gauge anomalies, the structure of the Green-Schwarz terms and the Chern-Simons couplings in the dual M-theory supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Furthermore, by interpreting the resulting 2d (0 , 2) theories as heterotic worldsheet theories, we propose a correspondence between the geometric data of elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau five-folds and the target space of a heterotic gauged linear sigma-model (GLSM). In particular the correspondence between the Landau-Ginsburg and sigma-model phase of a 2d (0 , 2) GLSM is realized via different T-branes or gluing data in F-theory.
Applying Lakatos' Theory to the Theory of Mathematical Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nunokawa, Kazuhiko
1996-01-01
The relation between Lakatos' theory and issues in mathematics education, especially mathematical problem solving, is investigated by examining Lakatos' methodology of a scientific research program. (AIM)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suhov, Y.
We begin with the definition of information gained by knowing that an event A has occurred: iota (A) = -log_2 {{P}}(A). (A dual point of view is also useful (although more evasive), where iota (A) is the amount of information needed to specify event A.) Here and below {{P}} stands for the underlying probability distribution. So the rarer an event A, the more information we gain if we know it has occurred. (More broadly, the rarer an event A, the more impact it will have. For example, the unlikely event that occurred in 1938 when fishermen caught a coelacanth - a prehistoric fish believed to be extinct - required a significant change to beliefs about evolution and biology. On the other hand, the likely event of catching a herring or a tuna would hardly imply any change in theories.)
Semistrict higher gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jurčo, Branislav; Sämann, Christian; Wolf, Martin
2015-04-01
We develop semistrict higher gauge theory from first principles. In particular, we describe the differential Deligne cohomology underlying semistrict principal 2-bundles with connective structures. Principal 2-bundles are obtained in terms of weak 2-functors from the Čech groupoid to weak Lie 2-groups. As is demonstrated, some of these Lie 2-groups can be differentiated to semistrict Lie 2-algebras by a method due to Ševera. We further derive the full description of connective structures on semistrict principal 2-bundles including the non-linear gauge transformations. As an application, we use a twistor construction to derive superconformal constraint equations in six dimensions for a non-Abelian tensor multiplet taking values in a semistrict Lie 2-algebra.
Galton, D J
1998-01-01
With the recent developments in the Human Genome Mapping Project and the new technologies that are developing from it there is a renewal of concern about eugenic applications. Francis Galton (b1822, d1911), who developed the subject of eugenics, suggested that the ancient Greeks had contributed very little to social theories of eugenics. In fact the Greeks had a profound interest in methods of supplying their city states with the finest possible progeny. This paper therefore reviews the works of Plato (The Republic and Politics) and Aristotle (The Politics and The Athenian Constitution) which have a direct bearing on eugenic techniques and relates them to methods used in the present century. PMID:9752630
Generalized scale invariant theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Padilla, Antonio; Stefanyszyn, David; Tsoukalas, Minas
2014-03-01
We present the most general actions of a single scalar field and two scalar fields coupled to gravity, consistent with second-order field equations in four dimensions, possessing local scale invariance. We apply two different methods to arrive at our results. One method, Ricci gauging, was known to the literature and we find this to produce the same result for the case of one scalar field as a more efficient method presented here. However, we also find our more efficient method to be much more general when we consider two scalar fields. Locally scale invariant actions are also presented for theories with more than two scalar fields coupled to gravity and we explain how one could construct the most general actions for any number of scalar fields. Our generalized scale invariant actions have obvious applications to early Universe cosmology and include, for example, the Bezrukov-Shaposhnikov action as a subset.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boccaletti, Dino; Pucacco, Giuseppe
This textbook treats Celestial Mechanics as well as Stellar Dynamics from the common point of view of orbit theory making use of the concepts and techniques from modern geometric mechanics. It starts with elementary Newtonian Mechanics and ends with the dynamics of chaotic motions. The book is meant for students in astronomy and physics alike. Prerequisite is a physicist's knowledge of calculus and differential geometry. Volume 1 begins with classical mechanics and a thorough treatment of the 2-body problem, including regularization, followed by an introduction to the N-body problem with particular attention given to the virial theorem. Then the authors discuss all important non-perturbative aspects of the 3-body problem. A final chapter deals with integrability of Hamilton-Jacobi-systems.
Limmer, David T.; Chandler, David
2014-01-01
We derive a phase diagram for amorphous solids and liquid supercooled water and explain why the amorphous solids of water exist in several different forms. Application of large-deviation theory allows us to prepare such phases in computer simulations. Along with nonequilibrium transitions between the ergodic liquid and two distinct amorphous solids, we establish coexistence between these two amorphous solids. The phase diagram we predict includes a nonequilibrium triple point where two amorphous phases and the liquid coexist. Whereas the amorphous solids are long-lived and slowly aging glasses, their melting can lead quickly to the formation of crystalline ice. Further, melting of the higher density amorphous solid at low pressures takes place in steps, transitioning to the lower-density glass before accessing a nonequilibrium liquid from which ice coarsens. PMID:24858957
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsu, C.-H.; Lan, C. E.
1985-01-01
Wing rock is one type of lateral-directional instabilities at high angles of attack. To predict wing rock characteristics and to design airplanes to avoid wing rock, parameters affecting wing rock characteristics must be known. A new nonlinear aerodynamic model is developed to investigate the main aerodynamic nonlinearities causing wing rock. In the present theory, the Beecham-Titchener asymptotic method is used to derive expressions for the limit-cycle amplitude and frequency of wing rock from nonlinear flight dynamics equations. The resulting expressions are capable of explaining the existence of wing rock for all types of aircraft. Wing rock is developed by negative or weakly positive roll damping, and sustained by nonlinear aerodynamic roll damping. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results is obtained.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chudnovsky, A.
1984-01-01
A damage parameter is introduced in addition to conventional parameters of continuum mechanics and consider a crack surrounded by an array of microdefects within the continuum mechanics framework. A system consisting of the main crack and surrounding damage is called crack layer (CL). Crack layer propagation is an irreversible process. The general framework of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes are employed to identify the driving forces (causes) and to derive the constitutive equation of CL propagation, that is, the relationship between the rates of the crack growth and damage dissemination from one side and the conjugated thermodynamic forces from another. The proposed law of CL propagation is in good agreement with the experimental data on fatigue CL propagation in various materials. The theory also elaborates material toughness characterization.
Kelly, Cynthia W
2008-01-01
This article introduces commitment to health as a middle-range. Commitment to health (CTH) is derived from Prochaska and DiClemente's (1983) Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change. CTH theory is designed to predict the likelihood of behavior change between the action and maintenance stages of change. Commitment is defined as a freely chosen internal resolve to perform health behaviors, even when encumbered or inconvenienced by difficulties. Health is defined as the optimal level of well-being. Commitment is an independent continuous variable, but it can be categorized into three time-oriented categories: (1) low-level, (2) middle-level, and (3) high-level commitment. The higher the level of commitment, the more likely the individual will adopt long-term behavior change. This article presents the definitions, assumptions, and relational statements of CTH.
Svrcek, Peter; Witten, Edward; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study
2006-06-09
In the context of string theory, axions appear to provide the most plausible solution of the strong CP problem. However, as has been known for a long time, in many string-based models, the axion coupling parameter Fa is several orders of magnitude higher than the standard cosmological bounds. We re-examine this problem in a variety of models, showing that Fa is close to the GUT scale or above in many models that have GUT-like phenomenology, as well as some that do not. On the other hand, in some models with Standard Model gauge fields supported on vanishing cycles, it is possible for Fa to be well below the GUT scale.
Cuzinatto, R.R. . E-mail: rodrigo@ift.unesp.br; Melo, C.A.M. de . E-mail: cassius.anderson@gmail.com; Pompeia, P.J. . E-mail: pompeia@ift.unesp.br
2007-05-15
A gauge theory of second order in the derivatives of the auxiliary field is constructed following Utiyama's program. A novel field strength G = {partial_derivative}F + fAF arises besides the one of the first order treatment, F = {partial_derivative}A - {partial_derivative}A + fAA. The associated conserved current is obtained. It has a new feature: topological terms are determined from local invariance requirements. Podolsky Generalized Eletrodynamics is derived as a particular case in which the Lagrangian of the gauge field is L {sub P} {proportional_to} G {sup 2}. In this application the photon mass is estimated. The SU (N) infrared regime is analysed by means of Alekseev-Arbuzov-Baikov's Lagrangian.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kylafis, Nikolaos D.
The theory of astronomical masers is reviewed. As with laboratory masers, masing occurs when a transition between two energy levels of a molecule exhibits inverted populations. In order to present the basic concepts about masers, an idealized two-level system is used. The exact energy level structure is taken into account later on when the pumping of specific molecules is discussed. Unlike laboratory masers, where the radiation must be bounced between two mirrors to accumulate gain, the propagation of radiation in astronomical masers is a lot simpler. This is because astronomical masers are single-pass and broadband. Thus, the main theoretical effort has concentrated on inventing efficient mechanisms that produce population inversion. Specific pumping mechanisms for the three molecules (H2O, SiO and OH) that exhibit strong masing are presented and their ability to explain the observations is discussed.
Effective string theory revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubovsky, Sergei; Flauger, Raphael; Gorbenko, Victor
2012-09-01
We revisit the effective field theory of long relativistic strings such as confining flux tubes in QCD. We derive the Polchinski-Strominger interaction by a calculation in static gauge. This interaction implies that a non-critical string which initially oscillates in one direction gets excited in orthogonal directions as well. In static gauge no additional term in the effective action is needed to obtain this effect. It results from a one-loop calculation using the Nambu-Goto action. Non-linearly realized Lorentz symmetry is manifest at all stages in dimensional regularization. We also explain that independent of the number of dimensions non-covariant counterterms have to be added to the action in the commonly used zeta-function regularization.
Tribology theory versus experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ferrante, John
1987-01-01
Tribology, the study of friction and wear of materials, has achieved a new interest because of the need for energy conservation. Fundamental understanding of this field is very complex and requires a knowledge of solid-state physics, material science, chemistry, and mechanical engineering. This paper is meant to be didactic in nature and outlines some of the considerations needed for a tribology research program. The approach is first to present a simple model, a field emission tip in contact with a flat surface, in order to elucidate important considerations, such as contact area, mechanical deformations, and interfacial bonding. Then examples from illustrative experiments are presented. Finally, the current status of physical theories concerning interfacial bonding are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maxfield, Travis; Robbins, Daniel; Sethi, Savdeep
2016-11-01
Studying a quantum field theory involves a choice of space-time manifold and a choice of background for any global symmetries of the theory. We argue that many more choices are possible when specifying the background. In the context of branes in string theory, the additional data corresponds to a choice of supergravity tensor fluxes. We propose the existence of a landscape of field theory backgrounds, characterized by the space-time metric, global symmetry background and a choice of tensor fluxes. As evidence for this landscape, we study the supersymmetric six-dimensional (2, 0) theory compactified to two dimensions. Different choices of metric and flux give rise to distinct two-dimensional theories, which can preserve differing amounts of supersymmetry.
Extended vector-tensor theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kimura, Rampei; Naruko, Atsushi; Yoshida, Daisuke
2017-01-01
Recently, several extensions of massive vector theory in curved space-time have been proposed in many literatures. In this paper, we consider the most general vector-tensor theories that contain up to two derivatives with respect to metric and vector field. By imposing a degeneracy condition of the Lagrangian in the context of ADM decomposition of space-time to eliminate an unwanted mode, we construct a new class of massive vector theories where five degrees of freedom can propagate, corresponding to three for massive vector modes and two for massless tensor modes. We find that the generalized Proca and the beyond generalized Proca theories up to the quartic Lagrangian, which should be included in this formulation, are degenerate theories even in curved space-time. Finally, introducing new metric and vector field transformations, we investigate the properties of thus obtained theories under such transformations.
Exploring gravitational theories beyond Horndeski
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gleyzes, Jérôme; Langlois, David; Piazza, Federico; Vernizzi, Filippo
2015-02-01
We have recently proposed a new class of gravitational scalar-tensor theories free from Ostrogradski instabilities, in ref. [1]. As they generalize Horndeski theories, or "generalized" galileons, we call them G3. These theories possess a simple formulation when the time hypersurfaces are chosen to coincide with the uniform scalar field hypersurfaces. We confirm that they contain only three propagating degrees of freedom by presenting the details of the Hamiltonian formulation. We examine the coupling between these theories and matter. Moreover, we investigate how they transform under a disformal redefinition of the metric. Remarkably, these theories are preserved by disformal transformations that depend on the scalar field gradient, which also allow to map subfamilies of G3 into Horndeski theories.
Gauge Theories of Vector Particles
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Glashow, S. L.; Gell-Mann, M.
1961-04-24
The possibility of generalizing the Yang-Mills trick is examined. Thus we seek theories of vector bosons invariant under continuous groups of coordinate-dependent linear transformations. All such theories may be expressed as superpositions of certain "simple" theories; we show that each "simple theory is associated with a simple Lie algebra. We may introduce mass terms for the vector bosons at the price of destroying the gauge-invariance for coordinate-dependent gauge functions. The theories corresponding to three particular simple Lie algebras - those which admit precisely two commuting quantum numbers - are examined in some detail as examples. One of them might play a role in the physics of the strong interactions if there is an underlying super-symmetry, transcending charge independence, that is badly broken. The intermediate vector boson theory of weak interactions is discussed also. The so-called "schizon" model cannot be made to conform to the requirements of partial gauge-invariance.
A succession of theories: purging redundancy from disturbance theory.
Pulsford, Stephanie A; Lindenmayer, David B; Driscoll, Don A
2016-02-01
The topics of succession and post-disturbance ecosystem recovery have a long and convoluted history. There is extensive redundancy within this body of theory, which has resulted in confusion, and the links among theories have not been adequately drawn. This review aims to distil the unique ideas from the array of theory related to ecosystem change in response to disturbance. This will help to reduce redundancy, and improve communication and understanding between researchers. We first outline the broad range of concepts that have developed over the past century to describe community change in response to disturbance. The body of work spans overlapping succession concepts presented by Clements in 1916, Egler in 1954, and Connell and Slatyer in 1977. Other theories describing community change include state and transition models, biological legacy theory, and the application of functional traits to predict responses to disturbance. Second, we identify areas of overlap of these theories, in addition to highlighting the conceptual and taxonomic limitations of each. In aligning each of these theories with one another, the limited scope and relative inflexibility of some theories becomes apparent, and redundancy becomes explicit. We identify a set of unique concepts to describe the range of mechanisms driving ecosystem responses to disturbance. We present a schematic model of our proposed synthesis which brings together the range of unique mechanisms that were identified in our review. The model describes five main mechanisms of transition away from a post-disturbance community: (i) pulse events with rapid state shifts; (ii) stochastic community drift; (iii) facilitation; (iv) competition; and (v) the influence of the initial composition of a post-disturbance community. In addition, stabilising processes such as biological legacies, inhibition or continuing disturbance may prevent a transition between community types. Integrating these six mechanisms with the functional
Invariants from classical field theory
Diaz, Rafael; Leal, Lorenzo
2008-06-15
We introduce a method that generates invariant functions from perturbative classical field theories depending on external parameters. By applying our methods to several field theories such as Abelian BF, Chern-Simons, and two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory, we obtain, respectively, the linking number for embedded submanifolds in compact varieties, the Gauss' and the second Milnor's invariant for links in S{sup 3}, and invariants under area-preserving diffeomorphisms for configurations of immersed planar curves.
Sullivan, J J
1983-01-01
Ouchi's Theory Z prescribes how employees should be motivated for increased productivity. Based on the theoretical work of Emile Durkheim, it views the modern large corporation as a communal alternative to the shortcomings of other institutions in industrial mass society. Ouchi's assertion that Japan is the industrial society in which Theory Z has flourished received limited support from research findings. Moreover, Ouchi's grounding of the theory in humanistic management seem unwarranted.
Gravitational scalar-tensor theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naruko, Atsushi; Yoshida, Daisuke; Mukohyama, Shinji
2016-05-01
We consider a new form of gravity theories in which the action is written in terms of the Ricci scalar and its first and second derivatives. Despite the higher derivative nature of the action, the theory is ghost-free under an appropriate choice of the functional form of the Lagrangian. This model possesses 2 + 2 physical degrees of freedom, namely 2 scalar degrees and 2 tensor degrees. We exhaust all such theories with the Lagrangian of the form f(R,{({{\
Advancement of Latent Trait Theory.
1988-02-01
latent trait theory further, and include more varieties of situations. I [51 Investigation of ways of bridging across mathematical psychology and...five years on various topics in Latent Trait Theory, including more general topics such as the method of moments as the least squares solution for...response theory." The address described as (3) in the above list was a one hour special lecture overviewing latent trait models. There were more than two
Game Theory, Decision Theory, and Social Choice Theory in the Context of a New Theory of Equity
1978-12-01
singular deficiency in moral theory. Additionally, both Nozick (1974) and Wolff (1977) have criticized the Rawlsian and the utilitarian theories for...neglecting the question of contribution. 3. The distinction between manna and nonmanna environments was apparently introduced by Robert Nozick (1974, Chapter...Econometrica. Nozick , Robert, 1974, Anarchy, State and Utopia, New York: Basic Books. Rawls, John, 1971, A Theory of Justice, Cambridge: The Bellknap
Renormalization constants from string theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
di Vecchia, P.; Magnea, L.; Lerda, A.; Russo, R.; Marotta, R.
The authors review some recent results on the calculation of renormalization constants in Yang-Mills theory using open bosonic strings. The technology of string amplitudes, supplemented with an appropriate continuation off the mass shell, can be used to compute the ultraviolet divergences of dimensionally regularized gauge theories. The results show that the infinite tension limit of string amplitudes corresponds to the background field method in field theory.
Non-equilibrium price theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helbing, Dirk; Kern, Daniel
2000-11-01
We propose two theories for the formation of stock prices under the condition that the number of available stocks is fixed. Both theories consider the balance equations for cash and several kinds of stocks. They also take into account interest rates, dividends, and transaction costs. The proposed theories have the advantage that they do not require iterative procedures to determine the price, which would be inefficient for simulations with many agents.
Theories of Motivation--Borrowing the Best.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Terpstra, David E.
1979-01-01
Five theories of motivation are discussed: Maslow's Need Hierarchy, Herzberg's dual-factor or motivation-hygiene theory, goal setting or task motivation, expectancy/valence-theory (also known as instrumentality theory, valence-instrumentality-expectancy theory, or expectancy theory), and reinforcement. (JH)
Algebraic orbifold conformal field theories
Xu, Feng
2000-01-01
The unitary rational orbifold conformal field theories in the algebraic quantum field theory and subfactor theory framework are formulated. Under general conditions, it is shown that the orbifold of a given unitary rational conformal field theory generates a unitary modular category. Many new unitary modular categories are obtained. It is also shown that the irreducible representations of orbifolds of rank one lattice vertex operator algebras give rise to unitary modular categories and determine the corresponding modular matrices, which has been conjectured for some time. PMID:11106383
Toward a Unified Consciousness Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Richard H.
1977-01-01
The beginning of a holistic theory that can treat paranormal phenomena as normal human development is presented. Implications for counseling, counselor education, and counselor supervision are discussed. (Author)
Brain Physiology: Research and Theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Esler, William K.
1982-01-01
Indicates how research about the physiology and chemistry of the brain verifies the educational applications of Piaget's theory. Discusses maturation, experience, social transmission, and equilibration. (Author/DC)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martini, Luiz Cesar
2014-04-01
This article results from Introducing the Dimensional Continuous Space-Time Theory that was published in reference 1. The Dimensional Continuous Space-Time Theory shows a series of facts relative to matter, energy, space and concludes that empty space is inelastic, absolutely stationary, motionless, perpetual, without possibility of deformation neither can it be destroyed or created. A elementary cell of empty space or a certain amount of empty space can be occupied by any quantity of energy or matter without any alteration or deformation. As a consequence of these properties and being a integral part of the theory, the principles of Relativity Theory must be changed to become simple and intuitive.
Nonstationary statistical theory for multipactor
Anza, S.; Vicente, C.; Gil, J.
2010-06-15
This work presents a new and general approach to the real dynamics of the multipactor process: the nonstationary statistical multipactor theory. The nonstationary theory removes the stationarity assumption of the classical theory and, as a consequence, it is able to adequately model electron exponential growth as well as absorption processes, above and below the multipactor breakdown level. In addition, it considers both double-surface and single-surface interactions constituting a full framework for nonresonant polyphase multipactor analysis. This work formulates the new theory and validates it with numerical and experimental results with excellent agreement.
Integrating Practice-to-Theory and Theory-to-Practice
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, R. Burke; Stefurak, Tres
2012-01-01
In "Towards a systemic theory of gifted education", Ziegler and Phillipson offer a useful critique of current research and the current paradigm in gifted education. They provide an interesting and useful merging of systems theory with their actiotope model, and using this paradigm they suggest many fruitful areas for future research. However, the…
Introduction to conformal field theory and string theory
Dixon, L.J.
1989-12-01
These lectures are meant to provide a brief introduction to conformal field theory (CFT) and string theory for those with no prior exposure to the subjects. There are many excellent reviews already available, and most of these go in to much more detail than I will be able to here. 52 refs., 11 figs.
Theories and theorizers: a contextual approach to theories of cognition.
Barutta, Joaquín; Cornejo, Carlos; Ibáñez, Agustín
2011-06-01
An undisputable characteristic of cognitive science is its enormous diversity of theories. Not surprisingly, these often belong to different paradigms that focus on different processes and levels of analysis. A related problem is that researchers of cognition frequently seem to ascribe to incompatible approaches to research, creating a Tower of Babel of cognitive knowledge. This text presents a pragmatic model of meta-theoretical analysis, a theory conceived of to examine other theories, which allows cognitive theories to be described, integrated and compared. After a brief introduction to meta-theoretical analysis in cognitive science, the dynamic and structural components of a theory are described. The analysis of conceptual mappings between components and explanation strategies is also described, as well as the processes of intra-theory generalization and inter-theory comparison. The various components of the meta-theoretical model are presented with examples of different cognitive theories, mainly focusing on two current approaches to research: The dynamical approach to cognition and the computer metaphor of mind. Finally, two potential counter arguments to the model are presented and discussed.
The Theory Forum: Teaching Social Theory through Interactive Practice
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Osnowitz, Debra; Jenkins, Kathleen E.
2014-01-01
Common concerns in required theory courses are student disengagement when encountering difficult texts and hesitation to engage in theorizing. To address these challenges, we have developed an interactive exercise, which we call the theory forum. Students work in groups to develop questions from the perspective(s) of one or more theorists, and…
Motivated Action Theory: A Formal Theory of Causal Reasoning.
1991-12-01
approaches to temporal reasoning, and their shortcomings, in light of this analysis. We propose a new system for causal reasoning, motivated action theory , which...builds upon causation as a crucial preference criterion. Motivated action theory solves the traditional problems of both forward and backward
Double Exponential Relativity Theory Coupled Theoretically with Quantum Theory?
Montero Garcia, Jose de la Luz; Novoa Blanco, Jesus Francisco
2007-04-28
Here the problem of special relativity is analyzed into the context of a new theoretical formulation: the Double Exponential Theory of Special Relativity with respect to which the current Special or Restricted Theory of Relativity (STR) turns to be a particular case only.
Acquisition by Processing Theory: A Theory of Everything?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carroll, Susanne E.
2004-01-01
Truscott and Sharwood Smith (henceforth T&SS) propose a novel theory of language acquisition, "Acquisition by Processing Theory" (APT), designed to account for both first and second language acquisition, monolingual and bilingual speech perception and parsing, and speech production. This is a tall order. Like any theoretically ambitious…
The Lorentz Theory of Electrons and Einstein's Theory of Relativity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goldberg, Stanley
1969-01-01
Traces the development of Lorentz's theory of electrons as applied to the problem of the electrodynamics of moving bodies. Presents evidence that the principle of relativity did not play an important role in Lorentz's theory, and that though Lorentz eventually acknowledged Einstein's work, he was unwilling to completely embrace the Einstein…
Relevance Theory, Action Theory and Second Language Communication Strategies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Foster-Cohen, Susan H.
2004-01-01
The discussion in this article offers a comparison between Relevance Theory as an account of human communication and Herbert Clark's (1996) sociocognitive Action Theory approach. It is argued that the differences are fundamental and impact analysis of all kinds of naturally occurring communicative data, including that produced by non-native…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
vanden-Eijnden, E.
The dynamical behavior of many systems arising in physics, chemistry, biology, etc. is dominated by rare but important transition events between long lived states. For over 70 years, transition state theory (TST) has provided the main theoretical framework for the description of these events [17,33,34]. Yet, while TST and evolutions thereof based on the reactive flux formalism [1, 5] (see also [30,31]) give an accurate estimate of the transition rate of a reaction, at least in principle, the theory tells very little in terms of the mechanism of this reaction. Recent advances, such as transition path sampling (TPS) of Bolhuis, Chandler, Dellago, and Geissler [3, 7] or the action method of Elber [15, 16], may seem to go beyond TST in that respect: these techniques allow indeed to sample the ensemble of reactive trajectories, i.e. the trajectories by which the reaction occurs. And yet, the reactive trajectories may again be rather uninformative about the mechanism of the reaction. This may sound paradoxical at first: what more than actual reactive trajectories could one need to understand a reaction? The problem, however, is that the reactive trajectories by themselves give only a very indirect information about the statistical properties of these trajectories. This is similar to why statistical mechanics is not simply a footnote in books about classical mechanics. What is the probability density that a trajectory be at a given location in state-space conditional on it being reactive? What is the probability current of these reactive trajectories? What is their rate of appearance? These are the questions of interest and they are not easy to answer directly from the ensemble of reactive trajectories. The right framework to tackle these questions also goes beyond standard equilibrium statistical mechanics because of the nontrivial bias that the very definition of the reactive trajectories imply - they must be involved in a reaction. The aim of this chapter is to
Shafi, Qaisar; Barr, Steven; Gaisser, Thomas; Stanev, Todor
2015-03-31
1. Executive Summary (April 1, 2012 - March 31, 2015) Title: Particle Theory, Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology Qaisar Shafi University of Delaware (Principal Investigator) Stephen M. Barr, University of Delaware (Co-Principal Investigator) Thomas K. Gaisser, University of Delaware (Co-Principal Investigator) Todor Stanev, University of Delaware (Co-Principal Investigator) The proposed research was carried out at the Bartol Research included Professors Qaisar Shafi Stephen Barr, Thomas K. Gaisser, and Todor Stanev, two postdoctoral fellows (Ilia Gogoladze and Liucheng Wang), and several graduate students. Five students of Qaisar Shafi completed their PhD during the period August 2011 - August 2014. Measures of the group’s high caliber performance during the 2012-2015 funding cycle included pub- lications in excellent refereed journals, contributions to working groups as well as white papers, and conference activities, which together provide an exceptional record of both individual performance as well as overall strength. Another important indicator of success is the outstanding quality of the past and current cohort of graduate students. The PhD students under our supervision regularly win the top departmental and university awards, and their publications records show excellence both in terms of quality and quantity. The topics covered under this grant cover the frontline research areas in today’s High Energy Theory & Phenomenology. For Professors Shafi and Barr they include LHC related topics including supersymmetry, collider physics, fl vor physics, dark matter physics, Higgs boson and seesaw physics, grand unifi and neutrino physics. The LHC two years ago discovered the Standard Model Higgs boson, thereby at least partially unlocking the secrets behind electroweak symmetry breaking. We remain optimistic that new and exciting physics will be found at LHC 14, which explain our focus on physics beyond the Standard Model. Professors Shafi continued his
Quantum Field Theory, Revised Edition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandl, F.; Shaw, G.
1994-01-01
Quantum Field Theory Revised Edition F. Mandl and G. Shaw, Department of Theoretical Physics, The Schuster Laboratory, The University, Manchester, UK When this book first appeared in 1984, only a handful of W± and Z° bosons had been observed and the experimental investigation of high energy electro-weak interactions was in its infancy. Nowadays, W± bosons and especially Z° bosons can be produced by the thousand and the study of their properties is a precise science. We have revised the text of the later chapters to incorporate these developments and discuss their implications. We have also taken this opportunity to update the references throughout and to make some improvements in the treatment of dimen-sional regularization. Finally, we have corrected some minor errors and are grateful to various people for pointing these out. This book is designed as a short and simple introduction to quantum field theory for students beginning research in theoretical and experimental physics. The three main objectives are to explain the basic physics and formalism of quantum field theory, to make the reader fully proficient in theory calculations using Feynman diagrams, and to introduce the reader to gauge theories, which play such a central role in elementary particle physics. The theory is applied to quantum electrodynamics (QED), where quantum field theory had its early triumphs, and to weak interactions where the standard electro-weak theory has had many impressive successes. The treatment is based on the canonical quantization method, because readers will be familiar with this, because it brings out lucidly the connection between invariance and conservation laws, and because it leads directly to the Feynman diagram techniques which are so important in many branches of physics. In order to help inexperienced research students grasp the meaning of the theory and learn to handle it confidently, the mathematical formalism is developed from first principles, its physical
Useful theories make predictions.
Howes, Andrew
2012-01-01
Stephen and Van Orden (this issue) propose that there is a complex system approach to cognitive science, and collectively the authors of the papers presented in this issue believe that this approach provides the means to drive a revolution in the science of the mind. Unfortunately, however illuminating, this explanation is absent and hyperbole is all too extensive. In contrast, I argue (1) that dynamic systems theory is not new to cognitive science and does not provide a basis for a revolution, (2) it is not necessary to reject cognitive science in order to explain the constraints imposed by the body and the environment, (3) it is not necessary, as Silberstein and Chemero (this issue) appear to do, to reject cognitive science in order to explain consciousness, and (4) our understanding of pragmatics is not advanced by Gibbs and Van Orden's (this issue) "self-organized criticality".? Any debate about the future of cognitive science could usefully focus on predictive adequacy. Unfortunately, this is not the approach taken by the authors of this issue.
Superstatistics: Theory and Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beck, C.
2015-12-01
Many driven nonequilibrium systems are described by a superposition of several dynamics on various time scales. If time scales are clearly separated then the formalism of superstatistics can be applied, leading effectively to a more general statistical mechanics relevant for complex systems. In these types of systems there is often dynamical behavior that is characterized by spatio-temporal fluctuations of an intensive parameter β. This parameter may be for example the inverse temperature, or an effective friction constant, or the amplitude of Gaussian white noise, or the energy dissipation in turbulent flows, or simply a local variance parameter extracted from a measured signal. A nonhomogenoeus spatially extended system with fluctuations in β on a large time scale, larger than the local relaxation time, leads to a superstatistical description, by averaging local Boltzmann factors using a suitable weight function f(β). Kappa distributions in space plasma physics are one example which naturally follows out of this formalism, but there are many applications in other areas as well. In this talk I will sketch the basic theory underlying the superstatistical approach and then describe a couple of recent applications.
Theory of epithelial elasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krajnc, Matej; Ziherl, Primož
2015-11-01
We propose an elastic theory of epithelial monolayers based on a two-dimensional discrete model of dropletlike cells characterized by differential surface tensions of their apical, basal, and lateral sides. We show that the effective tissue bending modulus depends on the apicobasal differential tension and changes sign at the transition from the flat to the fold morphology. We discuss three mechanisms that stabilize the finite-wavelength fold structures: Physical constraint on cell geometry, hard-core interaction between non-neighboring cells, and bending elasticity of the basement membrane. We show that the thickness of the monolayer changes along the waveform and thus needs to be considered as a variable rather than a parameter. Next we show that the coupling between the curvature and the thickness is governed by the apicobasal polarity and that the amplitude of thickness modulation along the waveform is proportional to the apicobasal differential tension. This suggests that intracellular stresses can be measured indirectly by observing easily measurable morphometric parameters. We also study the mechanics of three-dimensional structures with cylindrical symmetry.
Chain entanglements. I. Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fixman, Marshall
1988-09-01
A model of concentrated polymer solution dynamics is described. The forces in a linear generalized Langevin equation for the motion of a probe chain are derived on the assumption that all relaxation of the forces is due to motion of the surrounding matrix. Vicinal chain displacements are classified as viscoelastic deformation, reptation, and minor residual fluctuations. The latter provide a torsional relaxation of the primitive path that minimizes the significance of transverse forces on the probe chain. All displacements of vicinal segments are assumed proportional to the forces that they exert on the probe chain. In response to an external force, the displacement of the probe chain relative to a laboratory frame is increased by viscoelastic deformation of the matrix, but reptative diffusion relative to the deforming matrix is slowed down. The net effect on translational diffusion is negligible if the probe and vicinal chains have the same chain length N, but the friction constant for reptative motion is increased by a factor N1-xs. xs=1/2 if Gaussian conformational statistics applies during the disengagement process, while xs =0.6 if excluded volume statistics applies. The translational friction constant is βp ˜N2, as in reptation theory, but the viscosity is η˜N4-xs . The persistence of entanglements during the translational diffusion of the probe chain across many radii of gyration is rationalized pictorially in terms of correlated reptative motion of the probe and vicinal chains.
Microlesions - Theory and reality
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Worgul, Basil V.; Koniarek, Jan P.; Krebs, Wolf
1989-01-01
Efforts to assess radiation risk in space have been complicated by the considerable unknowns regarding the biological effects of the heavy ion component (HZE particles) of the cosmic rays. The attention has focused primarily on the assignation of a quality factor (Q) which would take into account the greater effectiveness of heavy ions vis-a-vis other forms of ionizing radiation. If, however, as the so-called 'microlesion theory' allows, the passage of HZE particles through living tissue produces unique biological damage, the traditional use of Q becomes meaningless. Therefore, it is critical to determine if microlesions, in fact, do exist. While the concept does not necessarily require detectable morphological damage, 'tunnel-lesions' or holes in ocular tissues have been cited as evidence of microlesions. These data, however, are open to reinterpretation. Ongoing light, scanning and transmission electron microscopic studies of the corneas, lenses and retinas of rat eyes exposed to 450 MeV/amu Fe-56 ions thus far have not revealed tunnel-lesion damage. The morphological effects of the heavy ions have been found to be qualitatively similar to the changes following other kinds of ionizing radiation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koens, Lyndon; Lauga, Eric
2016-01-01
Ribbons are long narrow strips possessing three distinct material length scales (thickness, width, and length) which allow them to produce unique shapes unobtainable by wires or filaments. For example, when a ribbon has half a twist and is bent into a circle it produces a Möbius strip. Significant effort has gone into determining the structural shapes of ribbons but less is know about their behavior in viscous fluids. In this paper, we determine, asymptotically, the leading-order hydrodynamic behavior of a slender ribbon in Stokes flows. The derivation, reminiscent of slender-body theory for filaments, assumes that the length of the ribbon is much larger than its width, which itself is much larger than its thickness. The final result is an integral equation for the force density on a mathematical ruled surface, termed as the ribbon plane, located inside the ribbon. A numerical implementation of our derivation shows good agreement with the known hydrodynamics of long flat ellipsoids and successfully captures the swimming behavior of artificial microscopic swimmers recently explored experimentally. We also study the asymptotic behavior of a ribbon bent into a helix, that of a twisted ellipsoid, and we investigate how accurately the hydrodynamics of a ribbon can be effectively captured by that of a slender filament. Our asymptotic results provide the fundamental framework necessary to predict the behavior of slender ribbons at low Reynolds numbers in a variety of biological and engineering problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koens, Lyndon; Lauga, Eric
2015-11-01
Ribbons are long narrow strips possessing three distinct material length scales (thickness, width, and length) which allow them to produce unique shapes unobtainable by wires or filaments. Significant effort has gone into determining the structural shapes of ribbons but less is know about their behavior in viscous fluids. Here we determine asymptotically the leading-order hydrodynamic behavior of a slender ribbon in Stokes flows. The derivation, reminiscent of slender-body theory for filaments, assumes that the length of the ribbon is much larger than its width, which itself is much larger than its thickness. The final result is an integral equation for the force density on a mathematical surface located inside the ribbon. Our derivation agrees very well with the known hydrodynamics of long flat ellipsoids, and successfully captures the swimming behavior of artificial microscopic swimmers recently explored experimentally. Our asymptotic results provide the fundamental framework necessary to predict the behavior of slender ribbons at low Reynolds numbers in a variety of biological and engineering problems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomas, John H.; Weiss, Nigel O.
1992-01-01
This review covers the present state of our theoretical understanding of the physics of sunspots, along with the principal observational results that need to be explained. The topics covered range from the detailed structure of an individual sunspot to the broad connection between sunspots and the global solar magnetic field and the solar cycle. Our aim is to give a critical discussion of the theoretical ideas and models without presenting mathematical details. After outlining the historical development of the basic concepts associated with the magnetohydrodynamic theory of sunspots, we discuss recent treatments of their properties and structure, placing special emphasis on developments that have occurred within the last ten years. There have been remarkable improvements in the theoretical modelling of sunspots, led by new ideas and by more elaborate and realistic numerical simulations. At the same time, new observations have raised new theoretical questions or caused old ones to be reconsidered. In particular, measurements of oscillations in and around sunspots have opened up the new field of sunspot seismology, while recent high-resolution observations have forced us to rethink the structure of a sunspot penumbra.
Not Available
1990-01-01
The overall objective of the research supported by this contract is to further our understanding of the basic building blocks of matter as well as the role fundamental interactions play in cosmology and astrophysics. Astrophysical data, such as from high energy cosmic rays and large scale structure of the universe, are employed to constrain particle physics theories. Particle collisions at Tevatron and higher (SSC) energies are also under investigation. During the past year a systematic reanalysis of the correlation between solar activity and the solar neutrino flux was undertaken. The conclusion seems to be that the Homestake experimental data show a correlation at a significant level, supporting the hypothesis that the neutrino possesses a magnetic moment. A separate, but related, theoretical investigation of electromagnetic properties of elementary particles has led to the discovery of a class of models in which the neutrino is endowed with an appreciable magnetic moment while its remains small. Altogether members of the group have been co-authors of 28 papers during the grant year on topics ranging from fermion masses to the role of ultra-high energy hadronic interactions in cosmic ray physics.
Paleoanthropology and evolutionary theory.
Tattersall, Ian
2012-01-01
Paleoanthropologists of the first half of the twentieth century were little concerned either with evolutionary theory or with the technicalities and broader implications of zoological nomenclature. In consequence, the paleoanthropological literature of the period consisted largely of a series of descriptions accompanied by authoritative pronouncements, together with a huge excess of hominid genera and species. Given the intellectual flimsiness of the resulting paleoanthropological framework, it is hardly surprising that in 1950 the ornithologist Ernst Mayr met little resistance when he urged the new postwar generation of paleoanthropologists to accept not only the elegant reductionism of the Evolutionary Synthesis but a vast oversimplification of hominid phylogenetic history and nomenclature. Indeed, the impact of Mayr's onslaught was so great that even when developments in evolutionary biology during the last quarter of the century brought other paleontologists to the realization that much more has been involved in evolutionary histories than the simple action of natural selection within gradually transforming lineages, paleoanthropologists proved highly reluctant to follow. Even today, paleoanthropologists are struggling to reconcile an intuitive realization that the burgeoning hominid fossil record harbors a substantial diversity of species (bringing hominid evolutionary patterns into line with that of other successful mammalian families), with the desire to cram a huge variety of morphologies into an unrealistically minimalist systematic framework. As long as this theoretical ambivalence persists, our perception of events in hominid phylogeny will continue to be distorted.
Probability state modeling theory.
Bagwell, C Bruce; Hunsberger, Benjamin C; Herbert, Donald J; Munson, Mark E; Hill, Beth L; Bray, Chris M; Preffer, Frederic I
2015-07-01
As the technology of cytometry matures, there is mounting pressure to address two major issues with data analyses. The first issue is to develop new analysis methods for high-dimensional data that can directly reveal and quantify important characteristics associated with complex cellular biology. The other issue is to replace subjective and inaccurate gating with automated methods that objectively define subpopulations and account for population overlap due to measurement uncertainty. Probability state modeling (PSM) is a technique that addresses both of these issues. The theory and important algorithms associated with PSM are presented along with simple examples and general strategies for autonomous analyses. PSM is leveraged to better understand B-cell ontogeny in bone marrow in a companion Cytometry Part B manuscript. Three short relevant videos are available in the online supporting information for both of these papers. PSM avoids the dimensionality barrier normally associated with high-dimensionality modeling by using broadened quantile functions instead of frequency functions to represent the modulation of cellular epitopes as cells differentiate. Since modeling programs ultimately minimize or maximize one or more objective functions, they are particularly amenable to automation and, therefore, represent a viable alternative to subjective and inaccurate gating approaches.
[Chronotherapy and relativity theory].
Polishchuk, N A
2008-01-01
The course of time itself in alive organisms is treated from positions of the special theory of the relativity created by A. Einstein in 1905 and added by the Nobel winners H.A.Lorentsem, M. Plankom, M. fon Laue. These achievements of fundamental physics have been put in a basis of special medical technology "Resonant chronophytotherapy" (SMT RCPT) which is applied in practice of treatment of chronic diseases for 27 years. Grass tinctures in various dosages are used in SMT RCPT, which patients take once a day during precisely designated time. Parameters "dosage-time" daily vary. SMT RCPT have been conducted in treatment of epilepsy bronchial asthma, rheumatism, sclerodermia, hypertension, chronic glomerulonephritis, vegeto-vascular dystonia, female sterility, circular alopecia, vitiligo, eczema, psoriasis, onychomycosis. SMT RCPT does have adverse events, has no contra-indications to its use, directed, first of all, on elimination of nonspecific signs of a disease, reduces dependence and complications of the use of chemical synthetic preparations. SMT RCPT can be combined with any kind of specific treatment. Internet-variant of SMT RCPT has been developed. Chronomedicine is priority tendency in industrialized countries of the world--the USA, the Great Britain, Germany, France, Russia, China, Japan and appears on lead positions among alternative methods of treatment, both traditional, and non-traditional.
Wallace
2000-09-01
The current status of the theory of stress fluctuations is marked by two circumstances: no currently available formulas are valid for a metallic system, and a series of contradictory formulas remains unresolved. Here we derive formulas for shear- and isotropic-stress energy fluctuations, in the primary statistical mechanics ensembles. These formulas are valid for a classical monatomic system representing a metal or nonmetal, in cubic crystal, amorphous solid, or liquid phases. Current contradictions in fluctuation formulas are resolved through the following observations. First, the expansion of a dynamical variable A in terms of the fluctuations explicit in a given ensemble distribution, for example deltaA=adeltaN+bdeltaH in the grand canonical ensemble, is correct if and only if deltaA is a function only of deltaN and deltaH. The common use of this expansion has produced incorrect fluctuation formulas. Second, the thermodynamic fluctuations of Landau and Lifshitz do not correspond to statistical mechanics fluctuations, and the two types of fluctuations have essentially different values.
Not Available
1981-10-01
(1) We recommend the establishment of an experimental test facility, appropriately instrumented, dedicated to research on theoretical modeling concepts. Validation of models for the various flow regimes, and establishment of the limitations or concepts used in the construction of models, are sorely needed areas of research. There exists no mechanism currently for funding of such research on a systematic basis. Such a facility would provide information fundamental to progress in the physics of turbulent multi-phase flow, which would also have impact on the understanding of coal utilization processes; (2) combustion research appears to have special institutional barriers to information exchange because it is an established, commercial ongoing effort, with heavy reliance on empirical data for proprietary configurations; (3) for both gasification and combustion reactors, current models appear to handle adequately some, perhaps even most, gross aspects of the reactors such as overall efficiency and major chemical output constituents. However, new and more stringent requirements concerning NOX, SOX and POX (small paticulate) production require greater understanding of process details and spatial inhomogenities, hence refinement of current models to include some greater detail is necessary; (4) further progress in the theory of single-phase turbulent flow would benefit our understanding of both combustors and gasifiers; and (5) another area in which theoretical development would be extremely useful is multi-phase flow.
Theory of cascade refrigeration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quack, Hans H.
2012-06-01
The maximum difference between the warm and cold temperature of a refrigeration cycle is limited by properties of the refrigerant and/or losses associated with the transport of the refrigerant. For larger temperature differences, one has to arrange several refrigeration cycles "above" each other, each cycle spanning a certain temperature difference. This approach is called cascade refrigeration and has played an important role in the history of cryogenics. For a theory of cascade refrigeration it is helpful to define a general one-stage non-reversible refrigeration step and to visualize it within the temperature-entropy diagram. Then one can combine several one-stage cycles to a cascade. There exist two types of cascades: "Full" cascades, where all entropy gains of a lower stage are transferred to the next higher temperature stage, and "partial" cascades, where each single cycle goes up to ambient temperature, where a part of the entropy gain is removed, and only the rest of the entropy gain is transferred to the next higher temperature stage. In cryogenic refrigeration "partial" cascades are generally more efficient than "full" cascades.
Diagnostic of Horndeski theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perenon, Louis; Marinoni, Christian; Piazza, Federico
2017-01-01
We study the effects of Horndeski models of dark energy on the observables of the large-scale structure in the late time universe. A novel classification into Late dark energy, Early dark energy and Early modified gravity scenarios is proposed, according to whether such models predict deviations from the standard paradigm persistent at early time in the matter domination epoch. We discuss the physical imprints left by each specific class of models on the effective Newton constant μ, the gravitational slip parameter η, the light deflection parameter Σ and the growth function fσ8 and demonstrate that a convenient way to dress a complete portrait of the viability of the Horndeski accelerating mechanism is via two, redshift-dependent, diagnostics: the μ(z) ‑ Σ(z) and the fσ8(z) ‑ Σ(z) planes. If future, model-independent, measurements point to either Σ ‑ 1 < 0 at redshift zero or μ ‑ 1 < 0 with Σ ‑ 1 > 0 at high redshifts or μ ‑ 1 > 0 with Σ ‑ 1 < 0 at high redshifts, Horndeski theories are effectively ruled out. If fσ8 is measured to be larger than expected in a ΛCDM model at z > 1.5 then Early dark energy models are definitely ruled out. On the opposite case, Late dark energy models are rejected by data if Σ < 1, while, if Σ > 1, only Early modifications of gravity provide a viable framework to interpret data.
Dimensional comparison theory.
Möller, Jens; Marsh, Herb W
2013-07-01
Although social comparison (Festinger, 1954) and temporal comparison (Albert, 1977) theories are well established, dimensional comparison is a largely neglected yet influential process in self-evaluation. Dimensional comparison entails a single individual comparing his or her ability in a (target) domain with his or her ability in a standard domain (e.g., "How good am I in math compared with English?"). This article reviews empirical findings from introspective, path-analytic, and experimental studies on dimensional comparisons, categorized into 3 groups according to whether they address the "why," "with what," or "with what effect" question. As the corresponding research shows, dimensional comparisons are made in everyday life situations. They impact on domain-specific self-evaluations of abilities in both domains: Dimensional comparisons reduce self-concept in the worse off domain and increase self-concept in the better off domain. The motivational basis for dimensional comparisons, their integration with recent social cognitive approaches, and the interdependence of dimensional, temporal, and social comparisons are discussed.
Computational quantum field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grobe, Rainer
2006-05-01
I will give an overview on recent attempts to solve the time-dependent Dirac equation for the electron-positron field operator. These numerical solutions permit a first temporally and spatially resolved insight into the mechanisms of how an electron-positron pair can be created from vacuum in a very strong force field. This approach has helped to illuminate a wide range of controversial questions. Some of these questions arise for complicated physical situations such as how an electron scatters off a supercritical potential barrier (Klein paradox). This requires the application of quantum field theory to study the combined effect of the pair-production due to the supercriticality of the potential together with the scattering at the barrier involving the Pauli-principle. Other phenomena include Schr"odinger's Zitterbewegung and the localization problem for a relativistic particle. This work has been supported by the NSF and Research Corporation. P. Krekora, K. Cooley, Q. Su and R. Grobe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 070403 (2005). P. Krekora, Q. Su and R. Grobe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 043004 (2004). P. Krekora, Q. Su and R. Grobe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 040406 (2004).
Avramova, Maria N.; Salko, Robert K.
2016-05-25
Coolant-Boiling in Rod Arrays|Two Fluids (COBRA-TF) is a thermal/ hydraulic (T/H) simulation code designed for light water reactor (LWR) vessel analysis. It uses a two-fluid, three-field (i.e. fluid film, fluid drops, and vapor) modeling approach. Both sub-channel and 3D Cartesian forms of 9 conservation equations are available for LWR modeling. The code was originally developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory in 1980 and had been used and modified by several institutions over the last few decades. COBRA-TF also found use at the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) by the Reactor Dynamics and Fuel Management Group (RDFMG) and has been improved, updated, and subsequently re-branded as CTF. As part of the improvement process, it was necessary to generate sufficient documentation for the open-source code which had lacked such material upon being adopted by RDFMG. This document serves mainly as a theory manual for CTF, detailing the many two-phase heat transfer, drag, and important accident scenario models contained in the code as well as the numerical solution process utilized. Coding of the models is also discussed, all with consideration for updates that have been made when transitioning from COBRA-TF to CTF. Further documentation outside of this manual is also available at RDFMG which focus on code input deck generation and source code global variable and module listings.
THEORY IN RELIGION AND AGING: AN OVERVIEW
Levin, Jeff; Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph
2011-01-01
This paper provides an overview of theory in religion, aging, and health. It offers both a primer on theory and a roadmap for researchers. Four “tenses” of theory are described—distinct ways that theory comes into play in this field: grand theory, mid-range theory, use of theoretical models, and positing of constructs which mediate or moderate putative religious effects. Examples are given of both explicit and implicit uses of theory. Sources of theory for this field are then identified, emphasizing perspectives of sociologists and psychologists, and discussion is given to limitations of theory. Finally, reflections are offered as to why theory matters. PMID:20087662
Evaluation Theory, Models, and Applications
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stufflebeam, Daniel L.; Shinkfield, Anthony J.
2007-01-01
"Evaluation Theory, Models, and Applications" is designed for evaluators and students who need to develop a commanding knowledge of the evaluation field: its history, theory and standards, models and approaches, procedures, and inclusion of personnel as well as program evaluation. This important book shows how to choose from a growing…
The Fragmentation of Literary Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Howard, Jennifer
2005-01-01
Syllabi from some 20 colleges and universities were reviewed with prominent English and literature departments and a discussion was held with a number of professors who teach literary theory. It is suggested that devolution and fragmentation of theory might be a survival strategy, an adaptation to the new realties of academic institutions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scheff, Thomas J.
This paper proposes and tests a theory of catharsis of repressed emotion. The key concept in this theory is the balance of attention, a concept that is shown to be equivalent to aesthetic distance. Laughter and other emotional releases occur when one's attention is equally divided between a distressful past event and the safe present. In the…
Critical Social Theory: A Portrait
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Torres, Carlos A.
2012-01-01
The term Critical Social Theory is employed in this article following the tradition of the Frankfurt School, and particularly the work of Herbert Marcuse and his interpretation of the political and social philosophy of Hegel and Marx. Discussing the contribution of G.W.F. Hegel to social theory Marcuse argued that: "Hegel's system brings to a…
Reading Hertz's Own Dipole Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anicin, B. A.
2008-01-01
It is well known that the discoverer of radio waves, Heinrich Hertz, was the first man to apply Maxwell's electrodynamic theory to a problem in radio wave propagation. In this paper, we scrutinize his near-field lines of force using computers and his theory. In one of his four figures, a feature was found which was not to be obtained by…
Implicit Theories of Peer Relationships
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rudolph, Karen D.
2010-01-01
This research investigated the role of children's implicit theories of peer relationships in their psychological, emotional, and behavioral adjustment. Participants included 206 children (110 girls; 96 boys; M age = 10.13 years, SD = 1.16) who reported on their implicit theories of peer relationships, social goal orientation, need for approval,…
Holland's Theory and Career Assessment.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reardon, Robert C.; Lenz, Janet G.
1999-01-01
Career assessment activities in the Self-Directed Search and constructs in Holland's theory increase understanding of an individual's personal career theory (PCT). The PCT provides information about a person's readiness for career decision making and the types of career interventions that might be effective. (Author/SK)
Antecedents of the Theory Movement.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Culbertson, Jack A.
1981-01-01
Traces the conceptual roots of the theory movement in educational administration, highlighting the ideas of Auguste Comte and the logical positivists. Explains how core concepts that shaped the theory movement were diffused into educational administration and sets forth implications for future study. (Author/WD)
Functional theories of thermoelectric phenomena
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eich, F. G.; Di Ventra, M.; Vignale, G.
2017-02-01
We review the progress that has been recently made in the application of time-dependent density functional theory to thermoelectric phenomena. As the field is very young, we emphasize open problems and fundamental issues. We begin by introducing the formal structure of thermal density functional theory, a density functional theory with two basic variables—the density and the energy density—and two conjugate fields—the ordinary scalar potential and Luttinger’s thermomechanical potential. The static version of this theory is contrasted with the familiar finite-temperature density functional theory, in which only the density is a variable. We then proceed to constructing the full time-dependent non equilibrium theory, including the practically important Kohn-Sham equations that go with it. The theory is shown to recover standard results of the Landauer theory for thermal transport in the steady state, while showing greater flexibility by allowing a description of fast thermal response, temperature oscillations and related phenomena. Several results are presented here for the first time, i.e. the proof of invertibility of the thermal response function in the linear regime, the full expression of the thermal currents in the presence of Luttinger’s thermomechanical potential, an explicit prescription for the evaluation of the Kohn-Sham potentials in the adiabatic local density approximation, a detailed discussion of the leading dissipative corrections to the adiabatic local density approximation and the thermal corrections to the resistivity that follow from it.
Lunar Ephemeris: Delaunay's Theory Revisited.
Deprit, A; Henrard, J; Rom, A
1970-06-26
Delaunay's reduced Hamiltonian of the main problem in lunar theory is checked against a new analytical theory based on Lie transforms. It is found to be correct up to order 9 with the exception of one error in addition at order 7.
Field theory and particle physics
Eboli, O.J.P.; Gomes, M.; Santoro, A.
1990-01-01
This book contains the proceedings of the topics covered during the fifth Jorge Andre Swieca Summer School. The first part of the book collects the material devoted to quantum field theory. There were four courses on methods in Field Theory; H. O. Girotti lectured on constrained dynamics, R. Jackiw on the Schrodinger representation in Field Theory, S.-Y. Pi on the application of this representation to quantum fields in a Robertson-Walker spacetime, and L. Vinet on Berry Connections. There were three courses on Conformal Field Theory: I. Todorov focused on the problem of construction and classification of conformal field theories. Lattice models, two-dimensional S matrices and conformal field theory were looked from the unifying perspective of the Yang-Baxter algebras in the lectures given by M. Karowski. Parasupersymmetric quantum mechanics was discussed in the lectures by L. Vinet. Besides those courses, there was an introduction to string field theory given by G. Horowitz. There were also three seminars: F. Schaposnik reported on recent applications of topological methods in field theory, P. Gerbert gave a seminar on three dimensional gravity and V. Kurak talked on two dimensional parafermionic models. The second part of this proceedings is devoted to phenomenology. There were three courses on Particle Physics: Dan Green lectured on collider physics, E. Predrazzi on strong interactions and G. Cohen-Tanoudji on the use of strings in strong interactions.
The Theory of Conceptual Fields
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vergnaud, Gerard
2009-01-01
The theory of conceptual fields is a developmental theory. It has two aims: (1) to describe and analyse the progressive complexity, on a long- and medium-term basis, of the mathematical competences that students develop inside and outside school, and (2) to establish better connections between the operational form of knowledge, which consists in…
A Relational Theory of Working
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blustein, David L.
2011-01-01
Building on diverse influences from critical perspectives in vocational psychology and the relational movement in contemporary psychological discourse, this article introduces the relational theory of working. Attending to the full array of people who work and who want to work, the relational theory conceptualizes working as an inherently…
Foundations of Distinctive Feature Theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baltaxe, Christiane A. M.
This treatise on the theoretical and historical foundations of distinctive feature theory traces the evolution of the distinctive features concept in the context of related notions current in linguistic theory, discusses the evolution of individual distinctive features, and criticizes certain acoustic and perceptual correlates attributed to these…
Organizational Learning Theory in Schools
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fauske, Janice R.; Raybould, Rebecca
2005-01-01
Purpose: The paper's purposes are to establish organizational learning theory as evolving from the theoretical and empirical study of organizations and to build grounded theory explaining organizational learning in schools. Design/methodology/approach: Implementation of instructional technology as a process of organizational learning was explored…
Postmodernism: An Overview of Theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cary, Richard
This paper describes postmodern theory as a paradigm composed of concepts and ideas. It does not describe postmodern theory as if it were developed logically from a simple premise, because it was not, nor can the postmodern paradigm be described in neat, concise terms. The paper presents a review and explication of postmodernism's theoretical…
Attachment Theory: Retrospect and Prospect.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bretherton, Inge
1985-01-01
Provides overview of attachment theory as parented by John Bowlby in "Attachment and Loss". Uses two major concepts from this work to interpret refinements and elaborations of attachment theory attibuted to Mary Ainsworth. Considers how recent insights into development of socioemotional understanding and development of event…
An Integrative Theory of Leadership.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wofford, J. C.
1982-01-01
Presents a macro, integrative theory of leadership. Emphasizes the role of the leader in assessing the deficiencies in the follower's abilities, motivation, role perception or environmental conditions and in taking action to alleviate deficiencies. Determinants of leader behavior and environmental influence are also central to the theory. (Author)
Theory of nuclear magnetic relaxation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcconnell, J.
1983-01-01
A theory of nuclear magnetic interaction is based on the study of the stochastic rotation operator. The theory is applied explicitly to relaxation by anisotropic chemical shift and to spin-rotational interactions. It is applicable also to dipole-dipole and quadrupole interactions.
Confinement and lattice gauge theory
Creutz, M
1980-06-01
The motivation for formulating gauge theories on a lattice to study non-perturbative phenomena is reviewed, and recent progress supporting the compatibility of asymptotic freedom and quark confinement in the standard SU(3) Yang-Mills theory of the strong interaction is discussed.
The Interpersonal Theory of Suicide
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Witte, Tracy K.; Cukrowicz, Kelly C.; Braithwaite, Scott R.; Selby, Edward A.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.
2010-01-01
Suicidal behavior is a major problem worldwide and, at the same time, has received relatively little empirical attention. This relative lack of empirical attention may be due in part to a relative absence of theory development regarding suicidal behavior. The current article presents the interpersonal theory of suicidal behavior. We propose that…
Curriculum Theory and Multicultural Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gay, Geneva
Some of the conceptual connections between general curriculum theory and multicultural education are traced, guided by the concept model of education and curriculum theory developed by George Beauchamp. The major premise is that multicultural education is consistent with, and actually a continuation of, some trends that have long-standing…
Stasis Theory and Paleontology Discourse
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Northcut, Kathryn M.
2007-01-01
Stasis theory is a powerful tool for rhetorical analysis, recently under fresh consideration by rhetorical theorists (e.g. Gross) and scholars who identify its utility in the writing classroom (e.g. Carroll). In this study, the author applies stasis theory to a paleontological argument involving a controversial fossil, "Protoavis texensis."…
Perspectives on global change theory
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Global changes in ecological drivers, such as CO2 concentrations, climate, and nitrogen deposition, are increasingly recognized as key to understanding contemporary ecosystem dynamics, but a coherent theory of global change has not yet been developed. We outline the characteristics of a theory of gl...
Instructional Theory for Teaching Statistics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Atwood, Jan R.; Dinham, Sarah M.
Metatheoretical analysis of Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Verbal Learning and Gagne's Theory of Instruction using the Dickoff and James paradigm produced two instructional systems for basic statistics. The systems were tested with a pretest-posttest control group design utilizing students enrolled in an introductory-level graduate statistics…
Basics of QCD perturbation theory
Soper, D.E.
1997-06-01
This is an introduction to the use of QCD perturbation theory, emphasizing generic features of the theory that enable one to separate short-time and long-time effects. The author also covers some important classes of applications: electron-positron annihilation to hadrons, deeply inelastic scattering, and hard processes in hadron-hadron collisions. 31 refs., 38 figs.
Feminist Film Theory and Criticism.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mayne, Judith
1985-01-01
Discusses Laura Mulvey's 1975 essay, "Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema," and the ideas about feminist film theory and psychoanalysis as a critical tool which it raises. Suggests contradiction is the central issue in feminist film theory. Explores definitions of women's cinema. (SA)
Theory of Test Translation Error
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Backhoff, Eduardo; Contreras-Nino, Luis Angel
2009-01-01
In this article, we present a theory of test translation whose intent is to provide the conceptual foundation for effective, systematic work in the process of test translation and test translation review. According to the theory, translation error is multidimensional; it is not simply the consequence of defective translation but an inevitable fact…
Kants Theorie der Sonne: Physikgeschichte
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobi, Manfred
2005-01-01
Im Rahmen seiner Kosmogonie entwickelte der junge Immanuel Kant eine Theorie der Sonne. Sie ist ein einzigartiges Zeugnis seiner intuitiven Vorstellungskraft und beweist auch die Leistungsfähigkeit der damaligen, vorwiegend von Newton geprägten Weltsicht. Entstehung, Aufbau und Dynamik der Sonne werden in Kants Theorie ebenso erklärt wie etwa das Phänomen der Sonnenflecken.
Organizational Theory and Leadership Navigation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brazer, S. David; Kruse, Sharon D.; Conley, Sharon
2014-01-01
Teaching organizational theory in a way that bridges to leadership practice is vital to preparing deft educational leaders who understand the organizational behavior of schools and districts. Organizational theory guides understanding of the complexities of schools and districts and can be a basis for collaborative and effective decision making.…
Children's Working Theories: Invoking Disequilibrium
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lovatt, Daniel; Hedges, Helen
2015-01-01
One of the outcomes of the New Zealand early childhood curriculum, "Te Whariki", is "working theories". Prior research on this concept has primarily utilised sociocultural theoretical underpinnings and neglected Piagetian constructivist theories. This paper explores ways the Piagetian concepts of equilibrium and disequilibrium…
Some Ideas About Number Theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barnett, I. A.
The material in this booklet is designed for non-professional mathematicians who have an interest in the theory of numbers. The author presents some elementary results of number theory without involving detailed proofs. Much of the material has direct application for secondary school mathematics teachers. A brief account of the nature of number…
COMMUNICATION THEORY - A WHITEHEADIAN BASIS,
An attempt is made to determine the adequacy of Whitehead’s metaphysical scheme in interpreting a recent theory of human communication . The theory...is offered by a trio of psychologists who arrive at their insights of human behavior via the study of human communication . (Author)
Neoclassical Theory and Its Applications
Shaing, Ker-Chung
2015-11-20
The grant entitled Neoclassical Theory and Its Applications started on January 15 2001 and ended on April 14 2015. The main goal of the project is to develop neoclassical theory to understand tokamak physics, and employ it to model current experimental observations and future thermonuclear fusion reactors. The PI had published more than 50 papers in refereed journals during the funding period.
Prospect Theory and Coercive Bargaining
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Butler, Christopher K.
2007-01-01
Despite many applications of prospect theory's concepts to explain political and strategic phenomena, formal analyses of strategic problems using prospect theory are rare. Using Fearon's model of bargaining, Tversky and Kahneman's value function, and an existing probability weighting function, I construct a model that demonstrates the differences…
Structure of a viscoplastic theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Freed, Alan D.
1988-01-01
The general structure of a viscoplastic theory is developed from physical and thermodynamical considerations. The flow equation is of classical form. The dynamic recovery approach is shown to be superior to the hardening function approach for incorporating nonlinear strain hardening into the material response through the evolutionary equation for back stress. A novel approach for introducing isotropic strain hardening into the theory is presented, which results in a useful simplification. In particular, the limiting stress for the kinematic saturation of state (not the drag stress) is the chosen scalar-valued state variable. The resulting simplification is that there is no coupling between dynamic and thermal recovery terms in each evolutionary equation. The derived theory of viscoplasticity has the structure of a two-surface plasticity theory when the response is plasticlike, and the structure of a Bailey-Orowan creep theory when the response is creeplike.
Geometric scalar theory of gravity
Novello, M.; Bittencourt, E.; Goulart, E.; Salim, J.M.; Toniato, J.D.; Moschella, U. E-mail: eduhsb@cbpf.br E-mail: egoulart@cbpf.br E-mail: toniato@cbpf.br
2013-06-01
We present a geometric scalar theory of gravity. Our proposal will be described using the ''background field method'' introduced by Gupta, Feynman, Deser and others as a field theory formulation of general relativity. We analyze previous criticisms against scalar gravity and show how the present proposal avoids these difficulties. This concerns not only the theoretical complaints but also those related to observations. In particular, we show that the widespread belief of the conjecture that the source of scalar gravity must be the trace of the energy-momentum tensor — which is one of the main difficulties to couple gravity with electromagnetic phenomenon in previous models — does not apply to our geometric scalar theory. From the very beginning this is not a special relativistic scalar gravity. The adjective ''geometric'' pinpoints its similarity with general relativity: this is a metric theory of gravity. Some consequences of this new scalar theory are explored.
Media Effects: Theory and Research.
Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen; Walther, Joseph B
2016-01-01
This review analyzes trends and commonalities among prominent theories of media effects. On the basis of exemplary meta-analyses of media effects and bibliometric studies of well-cited theories, we identify and discuss five features of media effects theories as well as their empirical support. Each of these features specifies the conditions under which media may produce effects on certain types of individuals. Our review ends with a discussion of media effects in newer media environments. This includes theories of computer-mediated communication, the development of which appears to share a similar pattern of reformulation from unidirectional, receiver-oriented views, to theories that recognize the transactional nature of communication. We conclude by outlining challenges and promising avenues for future research.
Unified theory of effective interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takayanagi, Kazuo
2016-09-01
We present a unified description of effective interaction theories in both algebraic and graphic representations. In our previous work, we have presented the Rayleigh-Schrödinger and Bloch perturbation theories in a unified fashion by introducing the main frame expansion of the effective interaction. In this work, we start also from the main frame expansion, and present various nonperturbative theories in a coherent manner, which include generalizations of the Brandow, Brillouin-Wigner, and Bloch-Horowitz theories on the formal side, and the extended Krenciglowa-Kuo and the extended Lee-Suzuki methods on the practical side. We thus establish a coherent and comprehensive description of both perturbative and nonperturbative theories on the basis of the main frame expansion.
Optimality theory in phonological acquisition.
Barlow, J A; Gierut, J A
1999-12-01
This tutorial presents an introduction to the contemporary linguistic framework known as optimality theory (OT). The basic assumptions of this constraint-based theory as a general model of grammar are first outlined, with formal notation being defined and illustrated. Concepts unique to the theory, including "emergence of the unmarked," are also described. OT is then examined more specifically within the context of phonological acquisition. The theory is applied in descriptions of children's common error patterns, observed inter- and intrachild variation, and productive change over time. The particular error patterns of fronting, stopping, final-consonant deletion, and cluster simplification are considered from an OT perspective. The discussion concludes with potential clinical applications and extensions of the theory to the diagnosis and treatment of children with functional phonological disorders.
Noncommutative Geometry in M-Theory and Conformal Field Theory
Morariu, Bogdan
1999-05-01
In the first part of the thesis I will investigate in the Matrix theory framework, the subgroup of dualities of the Discrete Light Cone Quantization of M-theory compactified on tori, which corresponds to T-duality in the auxiliary Type II string theory. After a review of matrix theory compactification leading to noncommutative supersymmetric Yang-Mills gauge theory, I will present solutions for the fundamental and adjoint sections on a two-dimensional twisted quantum torus and generalize to three-dimensional twisted quantum tori. After showing how M-theory T-duality is realized in supersymmetric Yang-Mills gauge theories on dual noncommutative tori I will relate this to the mathematical concept of Morita equivalence of C*-algebras. As a further generalization, I consider arbitrary Ramond-Ramond backgrounds. I will also discuss the spectrum of the toroidally compactified Matrix theory corresponding to quantized electric fluxes on two and three tori. In the second part of the thesis I will present an application to conformal field theory involving quantum groups, another important example of a noncommutative space. First, I will give an introduction to Poisson-Lie groups and arrive at quantum groups using the Feynman path integral. I will quantize the symplectic leaves of the Poisson-Lie group SU(2)*. In this way we obtain the unitary representations of U_{q}(SU(2)). I discuss the X-structure of SU(2)* and give a detailed description of its leaves using various parametrizations. Then, I will introduce a new reality structure on the Heisenberg double of Fun_{q} (SL(N,C)) for q phase, which can be interpreted as the quantum phase space of a particle on the q-deformed mass-hyperboloid. I also present evidence that the above real form describes zero modes of certain non-compact WZNW-models.
Theory of Collective Intelligence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolpert, David H.
2003-01-01
In this chapter an analysis of the behavior of an arbitrary (perhaps massive) collective of computational processes in terms of an associated "world" utility function is presented We concentrate on the situation where each process in the collective can be viewed as though it were striving to maximize its own private utility function. For such situations the central design issue is how to initialize/update the collective's structure, and in particular the private utility functions, so as to induce the overall collective to behave in a way that has large values of the world utility. Traditional "team game" approaches to this problem simply set each private utility function equal to the world utility function. The "Collective Intelligence" (COIN) framework is a semi-formal set of heuristics that recently have been used to construct private utility. functions that in many experiments have resulted in world utility values up to orders of magnitude superior to that ensuing from use of the team game utility. In this paper we introduce a formal mathematics for analyzing and designing collectives. We also use this mathematics to suggest new private utilities that should outperform the COIN heuristics in certain kinds of domains. In accompanying work we use that mathematics to explain previous experimental results concerning the superiority of COIN heuristics. In that accompanying work we also use the mathematics to make numerical predictions, some of which we then test. In this way these two papers establish the study of collectives as a proper science, involving theory, explanation of old experiments, prediction concerning new experiments, and engineering insights.
Waitzkin, H; Waterman, B
1976-01-01
Three sociolgists-Talcott Parson, Eliot Freidson, and Mechanic-have explained medical phneomena within a broader theoretical framework. Although all three have made significant contributions, their conclusions remain incomplete on the theoretical level and seldom have been helpful for workers concerned with ongoing problems of health care. Our purpose here is to summarize some of the strengths and weakness of each theoretical position. Parsons has elucidated the sick role as a deviant role in society, the function of physicians as agents of social control, and the normative patterns governing the doctor-patient relationship. The principal problems in Parsons' analysis center on an uncritical acceptance of physicians' social control functions, his inattention tot the ways in which physicians' behavior may inhibit change in society, and overoptimism about the medical profession's ability to regulate itself and to prevent the exploitation of patients. Viewing medical phenomena within a broader theory of the professions in general, Freidson has formulated w wide ranging critique of the medical profession and professional dominance. On the other hand, Freidson's work neglects the full political implications of bringing professional autonomy under control. Mechanic's coceptual approach emphasizes the social psychologic factors, rather than the institutional conditions, which are involved in the genesis of illness behavior. Mechanic also overlooks the ways in which illness behavior, by permitting a controllable from of deviance, fosters institutional stability. In conclusion, we present a breif overview of a theoretical framework whose general orientation is that of Marixian analysis. Several themes recur in this framework: illness as a source of exploitation, the sick role as a conservative mechanism fostering social stability, stratification in medicine, and the imperialsm of large medical institutions and health-related industries.
Transition operators in electromagnetic-wave diffraction theory - General theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hahne, G. E.
1992-01-01
A formal theory is developed for the scattering of time-harmonic electromagnetic waves from impenetrable immobile obstacles with given linear, homogeneous, and generally nonlocal boundary conditions of Leontovich (impedance) type for the wave of the obstacle's surface. The theory is modeled on the complete Green's function and the transition (T) operator in time-independent formal scattering theory of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. An expression for the differential scattering cross section for plane electromagnetic waves is derived in terms of certain matrix elements of the T operator for the obstacle.
Propensity, Probability, and Quantum Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ballentine, Leslie E.
2016-08-01
Quantum mechanics and probability theory share one peculiarity. Both have well established mathematical formalisms, yet both are subject to controversy about the meaning and interpretation of their basic concepts. Since probability plays a fundamental role in QM, the conceptual problems of one theory can affect the other. We first classify the interpretations of probability into three major classes: (a) inferential probability, (b) ensemble probability, and (c) propensity. Class (a) is the basis of inductive logic; (b) deals with the frequencies of events in repeatable experiments; (c) describes a form of causality that is weaker than determinism. An important, but neglected, paper by P. Humphreys demonstrated that propensity must differ mathematically, as well as conceptually, from probability, but he did not develop a theory of propensity. Such a theory is developed in this paper. Propensity theory shares many, but not all, of the axioms of probability theory. As a consequence, propensity supports the Law of Large Numbers from probability theory, but does not support Bayes theorem. Although there are particular problems within QM to which any of the classes of probability may be applied, it is argued that the intrinsic quantum probabilities (calculated from a state vector or density matrix) are most naturally interpreted as quantum propensities. This does not alter the familiar statistical interpretation of QM. But the interpretation of quantum states as representing knowledge is untenable. Examples show that a density matrix fails to represent knowledge.
Spacetime in modern physical theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klatt, Carrie
In this thesis we examine the relationship between the gravitational field and spacetime in three modern physical theories: general relativity, the field theoretic approach, and geometrodynamics. Our analysis is based on two questions: first, is gravity best understood as a field in a spacetime background or is the gravitational field indistinguishable from spacetime? Here we compare the field theoretic approach to gravity presented by Feynman and Weinberg, where spacetime is at first taken to be a flat background, to general relativity, where we find that the equivalence principle in conjunction with the geodesic hypothesis allows us to consider the gravitational field as being indistinguishable from curved spacetime. Second, what does it mean to say that spacetime (or alternatively, matter) has a privileged status in a theory? That is, is it sensible to say that one object in a theory, such as spacetime, can be derived from another object in the theory, for example, matter? Here we compare general relativity, where matter and spacetime are considered to be primary notions in the theory, to Wheeler's geometrodynamics, where all objects in the universe, including matter, charge and electromagnetism, are to be explained as manifestations of curved spacetime. By considering these issues, it is hoped that we will be able to contribute to the analysis of similar topics in theories of quantum gravity such as string theory.
The Impact of Lamarck's Theory of Evolution Before Darwin's Theory.
Galera, Andrés
2017-02-01
This paper analyzes the impact that Lamarckian evolutionary theory had in the scientific community during the period between the advent of Zoological Philosophy and the publication Origin of Species. During these 50 years Lamarck's model was a well known theory and it was discussed by the scientific community as a hypothesis to explain the changing nature of the fossil record throughout the history of Earth. Lamarck's transmutation theory established the foundation of an evolutionary model introducing a new way to research in nature. Darwin's selectionist theory was proposed in 1859 to explain the origin of species within this epistemological process. In this context, Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology and Auguste Comte's Cours de Philosophie Positive appear as two major works for the dissemination of Lamarck's evolutionary ideology after the death of the French naturalist in 1829.
A general theory of linear cosmological perturbations: bimetric theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lagos, Macarena; Ferreira, Pedro G.
2017-01-01
We implement the method developed in [1] to construct the most general parametrised action for linear cosmological perturbations of bimetric theories of gravity. Specifically, we consider perturbations around a homogeneous and isotropic background, and identify the complete form of the action invariant under diffeomorphism transformations, as well as the number of free parameters characterising this cosmological class of theories. We discuss, in detail, the case without derivative interactions, and compare our results with those found in massive bigravity.
Complex geometry and string theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morozov, A. Y.; Perelomov, A. M.
1990-06-01
The analytic properties of string theory are reviewed. It is demonstrated that the theory of strings is connected with contemporary fields of complex geometry. A massless classical point-like particle which moves in Minkowski space of D dimensions is considered. The formulation used to develop string theory is based on the Polyakov approach. In order to find the quantum scattering amplitude in the Polyakov approach, the functional integral over all Riemannian surfaces is calculated. The simplest case of the amplitude of vacuum-vacuum transitions Z of a closed string is considered. The description of linear bundles in the divisor terms is given.
On supersymmetric Lifshitz field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chapman, Shira; Oz, Yaron; Raviv-Moshe, Avia
2015-10-01
We consider field theories that exhibit a supersymmetric Lifshitz scaling with two real supercharges. The theories can be formulated in the language of stochastic quan-tization. We construct the free field supersymmetry algebra with rotation singlet fermions for an even dynamical exponent z = 2 k in an arbitrary dimension. We analyze the classical and quantum z = 2 supersymmetric interactions in 2 + 1 and 3 + 1 spacetime dimensions and reveal a supersymmetry preserving quantum diagrammatic cancellation. Stochastic quantization indicates that Lifshitz scale invariance is broken in the (3 + 1)-dimensional quantum theory.
Topology theory on rough sets.
Wu, QingE; Wang, Tuo; Huang, YongXuan; Li, JiSheng
2008-02-01
For further studying the theories and applications of rough sets (RS), this paper proposes a new theory on RS, which mainly includes topological space, topological properties, homeomorphism, and its properties on RS by some new definitions and theorems given. The relationship between partition and countable open covering is discussed, and some applications based on the topological rough space and its topological properties are introduced. Moreover, some perspectives for future research are given. Throughout this paper, the advancements of the new theory on RS and topological algebra not only represent an important theoretical value but also exhibit significant applications of RS and topology.
Phase transition in Liouville theory
Johnston, D. )
1989-11-15
We suggest that the vortices arising in a Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in Liouville theory correspond to transitions between different genera, producing the plumber's nightmare'' and other phases that have been predicted in fluid membrane theory from energetic considerations. This transition has previously been invoked by Cates to explain the degeneration of numerical simulations of Gaussian random surfaces into branched polymers. The difficulty in quantizing Liouville theory for {ital d}{gt}1 is conjectured to be due to our insistence on working at a fixed genus.
Phase transition in Liouville theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnston, D.
1989-11-01
We suggest that the vortices arising in a Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in Liouville theory correspond to transitions between different genera, producing the ``plumber's nightmare'' and other phases that have been predicted in fluid membrane theory from energetic considerations. This transition has previously been invoked by Cates to explain the degeneration of numerical simulations of Gaussian random surfaces into branched polymers. The difficulty in quantizing Liouville theory for d>1 is conjectured to be due to our insistence on working at a fixed genus.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weinberg, Steven
1996-08-01
In this second volume of The Quantum Theory of Fields, available for the first time in paperback, Nobel Laureate Steven Weinberg continues his masterly expoistion of quantum theory. Volume 2 provides an up-to-date and self-contained account of the methods of quantum field theory, and how they have led to an understanding of the weak, strong, and electromagnetic interactions of the elementary particles. The presentation of modern mathematical methods is throughout interwoven with accounts of the problems of elementary particle physics and condensed matter physics to which they have been applied. Exercises are included at the end of each chapter.
A Developmental Test of Mertonian Anomie Theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Menard, Scott
1995-01-01
Carefully reviewed Merton's writings on anomie theory to construct a more complete and rigorous test of the theory for respondents in early, middle, and late adolescence. Concluded that misspecified models of strain theory have underestimated the predictive power of strain theory in general and of anomie theory in particular. (JBJ)
String duality and novel theories without gravity
Kachru, Shamit
1998-01-15
We describe some of the novel 6d quantum field theories which have been discovered in studies of string duality. The role these theories (and their 4d descendants) may play in alleviating the vacuum degeneracy problem in string theory is reviewed. The DLCQ of these field theories is presented as one concrete way of formulating them, independent of string theory.
Gestalt Therapy and General System Theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Whitner, Phillip A.
While General Systems Theory (GST) concepts appear to be applicable in explaining some of the phenomena that occur in a Gestalt Therapy group, research is needed to support this assumption. General Systems Theory may not be a group theory per se. Instead, GST may be a theory about groups. A meta-theory exists where its value and usefulness is…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Apperly, Ian A.
2008-01-01
The debate between Simulation-Theory (ST) and Theory-Theory (TT) provides the dominant theoretical framework for research on "theory of mind" (ToM). Behavioural research has failed to provide clear methods for discriminating between these theories, but a number of recent studies have claimed that neuroimaging methods do allow key predictions of ST…
Moral Exemplars in Theory and Practice
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zagzebski, Linda
2013-01-01
In this article I outline an original form of ethical theory that I call exemplarist virtue theory. The theory is intended to serve the philosophical purposes of a comprehensive moral theory, but it is also intended to serve the practical purpose of moral education by structuring the theory around a motivating emotion--the emotion of admiration.…
Valence-Bond Theory and Chemical Structure.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Klein, Douglas J.; Trinajstic, Nenad
1990-01-01
Discussed is the importance of valence bond theory on the quantum-mechanical theory of chemical structure and the nature of the chemical bond. Described briefly are early VB theory, development of VB theory, modern versions, solid-state applications, models, treatment in textbooks, and flaws in criticisms of valence bond theory. (KR)
Understanding conformal field theory through parafermions and Chern Simons theory
Hotes, S.A.
1992-11-19
Conformal field theories comprise a vast class of exactly solvable two dimensional quantum field theories. Conformal theories with an enlarged symmetry group, the current algebra symmetry, axe a key ingredient to possible string compactification models. The following work explores a Lagrangian approach to these theories. In the first part of this thesis, a large class of conformal theories, the so-called coset models, are derived semi-classically from a gauged version Of the Wess-Zumino-Witten functional. A non-local field transformation to the parafermionic field description is employed in the quantization procedure. Classically, these parafermionic fields satisfy non-trivial Poisson brackets, providing insight into the fractional spin nature of the conformal theory. The W-algebra symmetry is shown to appear naturally in this approach. In the second part of this thesis, the connection between the fusion algebra structure of Wess-Zumino-Witten models and the quantization of the Chern-Simons action on the torus is made explicit. The modular properties of the conformal model are also derived in this context, giving a natural demonstration of the Verlinde conjecture. The effects of background gauge fields and monopoles are also discussed.
Nonequilibrium statistical field theory for classical particles: Basic kinetic theory.
Viermann, Celia; Fabis, Felix; Kozlikin, Elena; Lilow, Robert; Bartelmann, Matthias
2015-06-01
Recently Mazenko and Das and Mazenko [Phys. Rev. E 81, 061102 (2010); J. Stat. Phys. 149, 643 (2012); J. Stat. Phys. 152, 159 (2013); Phys. Rev. E 83, 041125 (2011)] introduced a nonequilibrium field-theoretical approach to describe the statistical properties of a classical particle ensemble starting from the microscopic equations of motion of each individual particle. We use this theory to investigate the transition from those microscopic degrees of freedom to the evolution equations of the macroscopic observables of the ensemble. For the free theory, we recover the continuity and Jeans equations of a collisionless gas. For a theory containing two-particle interactions in a canonical perturbation series, we find the macroscopic evolution equations to be described by the Born-Bogoliubov-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon hierarchy with a truncation criterion depending on the order in perturbation theory. This establishes a direct link between the classical and the field-theoretical approaches to kinetic theory that might serve as a starting point to investigate kinetic theory beyond the classical limits.
Religion, evolution, and mental health: attachment theory and ETAS theory.
Flannelly, Kevin J; Galek, Kathleen
2010-09-01
This article reviews the historical origins of Attachment Theory and Evolutionary Threat Assessment Systems Theory (ETAS Theory), their evolutionary basis and their application in research on religion and mental health. Attachment Theory has been most commonly applied to religion and mental health in research on God as an attachment figure, which has shown that secure attachment to God is positively associated with psychological well-being. Its broader application to religion and mental health is comprehensively discussed by Kirkpatrick (2005). ETAS Theory explains why certain religious beliefs--including beliefs about God and life-after-death--should have an adverse association, an advantageous association, or no association at all with mental health. Moreover, it makes specific predictions to this effect, which have been confirmed, in part. The authors advocate the application of ETAS Theory in research on religion and mental health because it explains how religious and other beliefs related to the dangerousness of the world can directly affect psychiatric symptoms through their affects on specific brain structures.
Remainder Wheels and Group Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brenton, Lawrence
2008-01-01
Why should prospective elementary and high school teachers study group theory in college? This paper examines applications of abstract algebra to the familiar algorithm for converting fractions to repeating decimals, revealing ideas of surprising substance beneath an innocent facade.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ni, Wei-Tou
2016-09-01
A nonmetric theory of gravity is presented, which agrees with all experiments to date. It possesses a Lagrangian-based nonmetric (i.e. nonminimum) coupling between electromagnetism and gravity which has complete continuous-coordinate-transformation symmetry but violates parity and time-reversal-invariance. The theory predicts the universality of free fall for test bodies, i.e. it obeys the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP). But due to the nonmetrical coupling between electromagnetism and gravity, it violates the Einstein Equivalence Principle (EEP). Hence, this theory disproves the conjecture due to Schiff which states that any gravitation theory that obeys the WEP must also, unavoidably, obey the EEP. Further examination of the empirical status implications of the EEP is therefore urged.
Nonlocal and quasilocal field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomboulis, E. T.
2015-12-01
We investigate nonlocal field theories, a subject that has attracted some renewed interest in connection with nonlocal gravity models. We study, in particular, scalar theories of interacting delocalized fields, the delocalization being specified by nonlocal integral kernels. We distinguish between strictly nonlocal and quasilocal (compact support) kernels and impose conditions on them to insure UV finiteness and unitarity of amplitudes. We study the classical initial value problem for the partial integro-differential equations of motion in detail. We give rigorous proofs of the existence but accompanying loss of uniqueness of solutions due to the presence of future, as well as past, "delays," a manifestation of acausality. In the quantum theory we derive a generalization of the Bogoliubov causality condition equation for amplitudes, which explicitly exhibits the corrections due to nonlocality. One finds that, remarkably, for quasilocal kernels all acausal effects are confined within the compact support regions. We briefly discuss the extension to other types of fields and prospects of such theories.
Wavelet theory and its applications
Faber, V.; Bradley, JJ.; Brislawn, C.; Dougherty, R.; Hawrylycz, M.
1996-07-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We investigated the theory of wavelet transforms and their relation to Laboratory applications. The investigators have had considerable success in the past applying wavelet techniques to the numerical solution of optimal control problems for distributed- parameter systems, nonlinear signal estimation, and compression of digital imagery and multidimensional data. Wavelet theory involves ideas from the fields of harmonic analysis, numerical linear algebra, digital signal processing, approximation theory, and numerical analysis, and the new computational tools arising from wavelet theory are proving to be ideal for many Laboratory applications. 10 refs.
Gallagher, Shaun
2013-01-01
I argue for a pattern theory of self as a useful way to organize an interdisciplinary approach to discussions of what constitutes a self. According to the pattern theory, a self is constituted by a number of characteristic features or aspects that may include minimal embodied, minimal experiential, affective, intersubjective, psychological/cognitive, narrative, extended, and situated aspects. A pattern theory of self helps to clarify various interpretations of self as compatible or commensurable instead of thinking them in opposition, and it helps to show how various aspects of self may be related across certain dimensions. I also suggest that a pattern theory of self can help to adjudicate (or at least map the differences) between the idea that the self correlates to self-referential processing in the cortical midline structures of the brain and other narrower or wider conceptions of self. PMID:23914173
Noncommutative potential theory: A survey
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cipriani, Fabio
2016-07-01
The aim of these notes is to provide an introduction to Noncommutative Potential Theory as given at I.N.D.A.M.-C.N.R.S. ;Noncommutative Geometry and Applications; Lectures, Villa Mondragone-Frascati June 2014.
Thermal effects in dislocation theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Langer, J. S.
2016-12-01
The mechanical behaviors of polycrystalline solids are determined by the interplay between phenomena governed by two different thermodynamic temperatures: the configurational effective temperature that controls the density of dislocations, and the ordinary kinetic-vibrational temperature that controls activated depinning mechanisms and thus deformation rates. This paper contains a review of the effective-temperature theory and its relation to conventional dislocation theories. It includes a simple illustration of how these two thermal effects can combine to produce a predictive theory of spatial heterogeneities such as shear-banding instabilities. Its main message is a plea that conventional dislocation theories be reformulated in a thermodynamically consistent way so that the vast array of observed behaviors can be understood systematically.
Spontaneous emission and absorber theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pegg, David T.
1997-01-01
One of the long term interests of George Series was the construction of a theory of spontaneous emission which does not involve field quantisation. His approach was written in terms of atomic operators only and he drew a parallel with the Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory of radiation. By making a particular extra postulate, he was able to obtain the correct spontaneous emission rate and the Lamb shift reasonably simply and directly. An examination of his approach indicates that this postulate is physically reasonable and the need for it arises because quantisation in his theory occurs after the response of the absorber has been accounted for by means of the radiative reaction field. We review briefly an alternative absorber theory approach to spontaneous emission based on the direct action between the emitting atom and a quantised absorber, and outline some applications to more recent effects of interest in quantum optics.
Elementary Concepts of Quantum Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Warren, J. W.
1974-01-01
Discusses the importance and difficulties of teaching basic quantum theory. Presents a discussion of wave-particle duality, indeterminacy, the nature of a quantized state of a system, and the exclusion principle. (MLH)
Integrating Educational Theory and History
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, James P.
1977-01-01
Recommends that history teachers incorporate educational theory into their courses. Describes and evaluates a history course at Brooklyn College constructed around Benjamin Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive educational objectives. (Author/DB)
[Mentalization and theory of mind].
Wyl, Agnes
2014-01-01
Both concepts, mentalization and the theory of mind, describe metacognitive processes. Mentalization mainly concerns the reflection of affective mental states. In contrast, theory of mind focuses on epistemic states such as beliefs, intentions and persuasions. Gender differences have proved to be relevant for both, the development of mentalization and the theory of mind. However, there are few studies and findings are inconsistent. In an own study, we investigated the relationship between early competences in metacognition (tested in a false-belief-task second order) and narrative skills of kindergarten children. Results show that children who had successfully passed the theory of mind test tended to face conflicts more directly in the stories. In consequence, these children showed less narrative avoidance. However, differences were only found in girls and not in boys. The precise understanding of developmental differences in metacognition between girls and boys may be an important aspect with regards to improving mentalization based therapy of children.
Mortality plateaus and directionality theory.
Demetrius, L
2001-10-07
Recent large scale studies of senescence in animals and humans have revealed mortality rates that levelled off at advanced ages. These empirical findings are now known to be inconsistent with evolutionary theories of senescence based on the Malthusian parameter as a measure of fitness. This article analyses the incidence of mortality plateaus in terms of directionality theory, a new class of models based on evolutionary entropy as a measure of fitness. We show that the intensity of selection, in the context of directionality theory, is a convex function of age, and we invoke this property to predict that in populations evolving under bounded growth constraints, evolutionarily stable mortality patterns will be described by rates which abate with age at extreme ages. The explanatory power of directionality theory, in contrast with the limitations of the Malthusian model, accords with the claim that evolutionary entropy, rather than the Malthusian parameter, constitutes the operationally valid measure of Darwinian fitness.
Spin chains and string theory.
Kruczenski, Martin
2004-10-15
Recently, an important test of the anti de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence has been done using rotating strings with two angular momenta. We show that such a test can be described more generally as the agreement between two actions: one a low energy description of a spin chain appearing in the field theory side, and the other a limit of the string action in AdS5xS5. This gives a map between the mean value of the spin in the boundary theory and the position of the string in the bulk, and shows how a string action can emerge from a gauge theory in the large-N limit.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gould, Stephen Jay
1981-01-01
This essay by a Harvard evolutionist presents viewpoints concerning the creationists' arguments against evolutionary biology. Semantics regarding "facts" and "theory" of evolution are examined, examples are cited of creationist argument, and arguments for evolution are presented. (CS)
Information: theory, brain, and behavior.
Jensen, Greg; Ward, Ryan D; Balsam, Peter D
2013-11-01
In the 65 years since its formal specification, information theory has become an established statistical paradigm, providing powerful tools for quantifying probabilistic relationships. Behavior analysis has begun to adopt these tools as a novel means of measuring the interrelations between behavior, stimuli, and contingent outcomes. This approach holds great promise for making more precise determinations about the causes of behavior and the forms in which conditioning may be encoded by organisms. In addition to providing an introduction to the basics of information theory, we review some of the ways that information theory has informed the studies of Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and behavioral neuroscience. In addition to enriching each of these empirical domains, information theory has the potential to act as a common statistical framework by which results from different domains may be integrated, compared, and ultimately unified.
Generalized Brans-Dicke theories
De Felice, Antonio; Tsujikawa, Shinji E-mail: shinji@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp
2010-07-01
In Brans-Dicke theory a non-linear self interaction of a scalar field φ allows a possibility of realizing the late-time cosmic acceleration, while recovering the General Relativistic behavior at early cosmological epochs. We extend this to more general modified gravitational theories in which a de Sitter solution for dark energy exists without using a field potential. We derive a condition for the stability of the de Sitter point and study the background cosmological dynamics of such theories. We also restrict the allowed region of model parameters from the demand for the avoidance of ghosts and instabilities. A peculiar evolution of the field propagation speed allows us to distinguish those theories from the ΛCDM model.
INFORMATION: THEORY, BRAIN, AND BEHAVIOR
Jensen, Greg; Ward, Ryan D.; Balsam, Peter D.
2016-01-01
In the 65 years since its formal specification, information theory has become an established statistical paradigm, providing powerful tools for quantifying probabilistic relationships. Behavior analysis has begun to adopt these tools as a novel means of measuring the interrelations between behavior, stimuli, and contingent outcomes. This approach holds great promise for making more precise determinations about the causes of behavior and the forms in which conditioning may be encoded by organisms. In addition to providing an introduction to the basics of information theory, we review some of the ways that information theory has informed the studies of Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and behavioral neuroscience. In addition to enriching each of these empirical domains, information theory has the potential to act as a common statistical framework by which results from different domains may be integrated, compared, and ultimately unified. PMID:24122456
A MICROMORPHIC APPROACH TO DISLOCATION THEORY AND ITS RELATION TO SEVERAL EXISTING THEORIES.
Two separate continuum dislocation theories are presented; one dealing with static incompatible, micropolar dislocations and disclinations, as...of the micromorphic theory. First both micromorphic and micropolar theories of elastic solids are summarized, and then the theories of Kroner, Fox
Noncommutative topological theories of gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García-Compeán, H.; Obregón, O.; Ramírez, C.; Sabido, M.
2003-08-01
The possibility of noncommutative topological gravity arising in the same manner as Yang-Mills theory is explored. We use the Seiberg-Witten map to construct such a theory based on a SL(2,C) complex connection, from which the Euler characteristic and the signature invariant are obtained. Finally, we speculate on the description of noncommutative gravitational instantons, as well as noncommutative local gravitational anomalies.
Blackbody Theory for Hyperbolic Materials.
Biehs, Svend-Age; Lang, Slawa; Petrov, Alexander Yu; Eich, Manfred; Ben-Abdallah, Philippe
2015-10-23
The blackbody theory is revisited in the case of thermal electromagnetic fields inside uniaxial anisotropic media in thermal equilibrium with a heat bath. When these media are hyperbolic, we show that the spectral energy density of these fields radically differs from that predicted by Planck's blackbody theory and that the maximum of the spectral energy density determined by Wien's law is redshifted. Finally, we derive the Stefan-Boltzmann law for hyperbolic media which becomes a quadratic function of the heat bath temperature.
Staggered chiral random matrix theory
Osborn, James C.
2011-02-01
We present a random matrix theory for the staggered lattice QCD Dirac operator. The staggered random matrix theory is equivalent to the zero-momentum limit of the staggered chiral Lagrangian and includes all taste breaking terms at their leading order. This is an extension of previous work which only included some of the taste breaking terms. We will also present some results for the taste breaking contributions to the partition function and the Dirac eigenvalues.
Toward a theory of Steganography
2004-07-01
Toward a theory of Steganography Nicholas J. Hopper CMU-CS-04-157 July 2004 School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA...DATE JUL 2004 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2004 to 00-00-2004 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Toward a theory of Steganography 5a. CONTRACT...THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Keywords: Steganography , Cryptography, Provable Security
Lectures on Crystal Field Theory
1982-11-01
used to calculate the electric dipole transition probabilities using the theory of Judd (1962) and Ofelt (1962)o As of 1970, all these objectives had...metry higher than C1 or C•. (4) The calculation of transltion probabilities, Zeeman splitting factors, Judd - Ofelt intensity parameters, branching ratios...INTERACTIONS ..................................... 37 4.1 Phenomenological Theory of Crystal Fields ................ 37 4.1.1 Matrix Elements of H in J States
Vantage Theory and Linguistic Relativity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Allan, Keith
2010-01-01
Rob MacLaury's Vantage Theory, VT, models the way in which a cognizer constructs, recalls, uses, and modifies a category in terms of point of view or vantage. Alongside of VT, there is place for the kind of semantic specification found in the lexicon. VT2 [Allan, Keith, 2002. "Vantage theory, VT2, and number." "Language Sciences" 24(5-6), 679-703…
Statistical Theory of Breakup Reactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertulani, Carlos A.; Descouvemont, Pierre; Hussein, Mahir S.
2014-04-01
We propose an alternative for Coupled-Channels calculations with looselybound exotic nuclei(CDCC), based on the the Random Matrix Model of the statistical theory of nuclear reactions. The coupled channels equations are divided into two sets. The first set, described by the CDCC, and the other set treated with RMT. The resulting theory is a Statistical CDCC (CDCCs), able in principle to take into account many pseudo channels.
Effective theories and thresholds in particle physics
Gaillard, M.K.
1991-06-07
The role of effective theories in probing a more fundamental underlying theory and in indicating new physics thresholds is discussed, with examples from the standard model and more speculative applications to superstring theory. 38 refs.
Alternative Forms of Fit in Contingency Theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Drazin, Robert; Van de Ven, Andrew H.
1985-01-01
This paper examines the selection, interaction, and systems approaches to fit in structural contingency theory. The concepts of fit evaluated may be applied not only to structural contingency theory but to contingency theories in general. (MD)
Concerning interpretations of activity theory.
Mironenko, Irina A
2013-09-01
Activity theory (AT) is the most recognised part of Russian psychology outside Russia. However the general view of AT in international science is rather unilateral, lacking substantial aspects and areas necessary for proper understanding. This article is aimed at expanding the image of AT dominant in the mainstream which reduces the AT trend to A.N. Leontiev's theory. This reduction impoverishes the creative potentialities of the trend, and decreases the ability of AT to contribute to international science. We aim to reveal that AT is not limited to Leontiev's approach, to explain which ideas of the founders of AT, S.L. Rubinstein and L.S. Vygotsky, were pursued and which were rejected by A.N. Leontiev, and to assess another important contribution to the AT trend - the theory of B.G. Ananiev, where the ideas of AT's founders were developed which were not succeeded by A.N. Leontiev. Historical causes and consequences of the general reduction of the image of AT in the mainstream to Leontiev's theory are considered: why the discrepancies between views of Rubinstein, Vygotsky and Leontiev were hardly ever discussed in public and why other theories contemporary to Leontiev's theory were never given account appropriate to their value in Russia and remain almost unknown abroad.
Lay theories of heroin addiction.
Furnham, A; Thomson, L
1996-07-01
This study examined the structure and determinants of lay people's implicit theories of heroin addiction. A questionnaire was derived from interviews with lay people about their beliefs and theories of heroin addiction and academic literature on the subject. One hundred and forty-four subjects completed the questionnaire, in which they rated 105 statements about the causes, correlates and cures of heroin addiction. The three parts of the questionnaire were individually factor analyzed and a clear, interpretable factor structure emerged for each. The factors seemed similar to explicit academic theories, but the exception was beliefs about cure, which did not show overall support for the most clinically used models. When the three factor analyses were combined into a single 'higher-order' factor analysis four factors emerged, labelled moralistic, psychosocial, sociocultural and drug treatment, which reflect more or less coherent views on the nature of heroin addiction. Subjects' political beliefs was the greatest (demographic and attitudinal) determinant of lay beliefs in these factors, with experience of addiction, addicts, drugs and age also highly correlated. Vote was the main determinant and best predictor of the four 'higher-order' structured lay theories: right-wing voters emphasizing moralistic and individualistic theory and left-wing voters supporting the psychological and societal ideas. Implications for policy and interventions to addicts of these lay theories are considered.
The sociology of superstring theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dick, Brian Douglas
This dissertation carefully tracks the historical origins of superstring theory in high energy particle physics, its subsequent decline under the guise of the "dual model" in the mid-1970s, and its reemergence in the mid-1980s in what came to be known as the "first superstring revolution." I then explore the scientific controversy that emerged after the first superstring revolution due to superstring theory's lack of contact with experiment, and the set of institutional pressures felt by string theorists that they refer to as the "sociology" of superstring theory. I employ and develop the concept of "scientific legitimacy" to organize the historical analysis of superstring theory and the subsequent scientific controversy. My study emphasizes the interpretive flexibility of theory selection, the role of scientific judgment in the acceptance of scientific knowledge, and the ways in which boundary work operates in scientific controversies. A careful analysis of the empirical case of superstring theory indicates some of the limitations associated with the ways in which the closure of scientific controversies has traditionally been conceptualized by social researchers. To help overcome these difficulties, I propose a four-fold typology that I refer to as the "epistemic space of rejected science."
Fornace, Mark E; Lee, Joonho; Miyamoto, Kaito; Manby, Frederick R; Miller, Thomas F
2015-02-10
We introduce embedded mean-field theory (EMFT), an approach that flexibly allows for the embedding of one mean-field theory in another without the need to specify or fix the number of particles in each subsystem. EMFT is simple, is well-defined without recourse to parameters, and inherits the simple gradient theory of the parent mean-field theories. In this paper, we report extensive benchmarking of EMFT for the case where the subsystems are treated using different levels of Kohn-Sham theory, using PBE or B3LYP/6-31G* in the high-level subsystem and LDA/STO-3G in the low-level subsystem; we also investigate different levels of density fitting in the two subsystems. Over a wide range of chemical problems, we find EMFT to perform accurately and stably, smoothly converging to the high-level of theory as the active subsystem becomes larger. In most cases, the performance is at least as good as that of ONIOM, but the advantages of EMFT are highlighted by examples that involve partitions across multiple bonds or through aromatic systems and by examples that involve more complicated electronic structure. EMFT is simple and parameter free, and based on the tests provided here, it offers an appealing new approach to a multiscale electronic structure.
The Nonlinear Field Space Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mielczarek, Jakub; Trześniewski, Tomasz
2016-08-01
In recent years the idea that not only the configuration space of particles, i.e. spacetime, but also the corresponding momentum space may have nontrivial geometry has attracted significant attention, especially in the context of quantum gravity. The aim of this letter is to extend this concept to the domain of field theories, by introducing field spaces (i.e. phase spaces of field values) that are not affine spaces. After discussing the motivation and general aspects of our approach we present a detailed analysis of the prototype (quantum) Nonlinear Field Space Theory of a scalar field on the Minkowski background. We show that the nonlinear structure of a field space leads to numerous interesting predictions, including: non-locality, generalization of the uncertainty relations, algebra deformations, constraining of the maximal occupation number, shifting of the vacuum energy and renormalization of the charge and speed of propagation of field excitations. Furthermore, a compact field space is a natural way to implement the "Principle of finiteness" of physical theories, which once motivated the Born-Infeld theory. Thus the presented framework has a variety of potential applications in the theories of fundamental interactions (e.g. quantum gravity), as well as in condensed matter physics (e.g. continuous spin chains), and can shed new light on the issue of divergences in quantum field theories.
Bohmian mechanics and quantum field theory.
Dürr, Detlef; Goldstein, Sheldon; Tumulka, Roderich; Zanghì, Nino
2004-08-27
We discuss a recently proposed extension of Bohmian mechanics to quantum field theory. For more or less any regularized quantum field theory there is a corresponding theory of particle motion, which, in particular, ascribes trajectories to the electrons or whatever sort of particles the quantum field theory is about. Corresponding to the nonconservation of the particle number operator in the quantum field theory, the theory describes explicit creation and annihilation events: the world lines for the particles can begin and end.
Charting the landscape of supercritical string theory.
Hellerman, Simeon; Swanson, Ian
2007-10-26
Special solutions of string theory in supercritical dimensions can interpolate in time between theories with different numbers of spacetime dimensions and different amounts of world sheet supersymmetry. These solutions connect supercritical string theories to the more familiar string duality web in ten dimensions and provide a precise link between supersymmetric and purely bosonic string theories. Dimension quenching and c duality appear to be natural concepts in string theory, giving rise to large networks of interconnected theories.
Quantum theory of measurements as quantum decision theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.
2015-03-01
Theory of quantum measurements is often classified as decision theory. An event in decision theory corresponds to the measurement of an observable. This analogy looks clear for operationally testable simple events. However, the situation is essentially more complicated in the case of composite events. The most difficult point is the relation between decisions under uncertainty and measurements under uncertainty. We suggest a unified language for describing the processes of quantum decision making and quantum measurements. The notion of quantum measurements under uncertainty is introduced. We show that the correct mathematical foundation for the theory of measurements under uncertainty, as well as for quantum decision theory dealing with uncertain events, requires the use of positive operator-valued measure that is a generalization of projection-valued measure. The latter is appropriate for operationally testable events, while the former is necessary for characterizing operationally uncertain events. In both decision making and quantum measurements, one has to distinguish composite nonentangled events from composite entangled events. Quantum probability can be essentially different from classical probability only for entangled events. The necessary condition for the appearance of an interference term in the quantum probability is the occurrence of entangled prospects and the existence of an entangled strategic state of a decision maker or of an entangled statistical state of a measuring device.
In defence of the right shift theory.
Annett, M
1996-02-01
The right shift (RS) theory of a gene for left-cerebral dominance which increases the probability of right-handedness is outlined, together with two proposed alternatives, the 1985a genetic theory of McManus and the 1993 developmental instability theory of Yeo and Gangestad. Similarities and differences among the three theories are reviewed. Both of the genetic theories can predict the distribution of handedness in families and in twins more efficiently than the developmental instability theory, and the RS theory better than the McManus theory.
Optical Abelian lattice gauge theories
Tagliacozzo, L.; Celi, A.; Zamora, A.; Lewenstein, M.
2013-03-15
We discuss a general framework for the realization of a family of Abelian lattice gauge theories, i.e., link models or gauge magnets, in optical lattices. We analyze the properties of these models that make them suitable for quantum simulations. Within this class, we study in detail the phases of a U(1)-invariant lattice gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions, originally proposed by P. Orland. By using exact diagonalization, we extract the low-energy states for small lattices, up to 4 Multiplication-Sign 4. We confirm that the model has two phases, with the confined entangled one characterized by strings wrapping around the whole lattice. We explain how to study larger lattices by using either tensor network techniques or digital quantum simulations with Rydberg atoms loaded in optical lattices, where we discuss in detail a protocol for the preparation of the ground-state. We propose two key experimental tests that can be used as smoking gun of the proper implementation of a gauge theory in optical lattices. These tests consist in verifying the absence of spontaneous (gauge) symmetry breaking of the ground-state and the presence of charge confinement. We also comment on the relation between standard compact U(1) lattice gauge theory and the model considered in this paper. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the quantum simulation of dynamical gauge theories in optical lattices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We focus on digital simulation of abelian lattice gauge theory. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We rediscover and discuss the puzzling phase diagram of gauge magnets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We detail the protocol for time evolution and ground-state preparation in any phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We provide two experimental tests to validate gauge theory quantum simulators.
Analyzing Test-Taking Behavior: Decision Theory Meets Psychometric Theory.
Budescu, David V; Bo, Yuanchao
2015-12-01
We investigate the implications of penalizing incorrect answers to multiple-choice tests, from the perspective of both test-takers and test-makers. To do so, we use a model that combines a well-known item response theory model with prospect theory (Kahneman and Tversky, Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk, Econometrica 47:263-91, 1979). Our results reveal that when test-takers are fully informed of the scoring rule, the use of any penalty has detrimental effects for both test-takers (they are always penalized in excess, particularly those who are risk averse and loss averse) and test-makers (the bias of the estimated scores, as well as the variance and skewness of their distribution, increase as a function of the severity of the penalty).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karkheck, John; Stell, George
1981-08-01
A kinetic mean-field theory for the evolution of the one-particle distribution function is derived from maximizing the entropy. For a potential with a hard-sphere core plus tail, the resulting theory treats the hard-core part as in the revised Enskog theory. The tail, weighted by the hard-sphere pair distribution function, appears linearly in a mean-field term. The kinetic equation is accompanied by an entropy functional for which an H theorem was proven earlier. The revised Enskog theory is obtained by setting the potential tail to zero, the Vlasov equation is obtained by setting the hard-sphere diameter to zero, and an equation of the Enskog-Vlasov type is obtained by effecting the Kac limit on the potential tail. At equilibrium, the theory yields a radial distribution function that is given by the hard-sphere reference system and thus furnishes through the internal energy a thermodynamic description which is exact to first order in inverse temperature. A second natural route to thermodynamics (from the momentum flux which yields an approximate equation of state) gives somewhat different results; both routes coincide and become exact in the Kac limit. Our theory furnishes a conceptual basis for the association in the heuristically based modified Enskog theory (MET) of the contact value of the radial distribution function with the ''thermal pressure'' since this association follows from our theory (using either route to thermodynamics) and moreover becomes exact in the Kac limit. Our transport theory is readily extended to the general case of a soft repulsive core, e.g., as exhibited by the Lennard-Jones potential, via by-now-standard statistical-mechanical methods involving an effective hard-core potential, thus providing a self-contained statistical-mechanical basis for application to such potentials that is lacking in the standard versions of the MET. We obtain very good agreement with experiment for the thermal conductivity and shear viscosity of several
Endosymbiotic theories for eukaryote origin
Martin, William F.; Garg, Sriram; Zimorski, Verena
2015-01-01
For over 100 years, endosymbiotic theories have figured in thoughts about the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. More than 20 different versions of endosymbiotic theory have been presented in the literature to explain the origin of eukaryotes and their mitochondria. Very few of those models account for eukaryotic anaerobes. The role of energy and the energetic constraints that prokaryotic cell organization placed on evolutionary innovation in cell history has recently come to bear on endosymbiotic theory. Only cells that possessed mitochondria had the bioenergetic means to attain eukaryotic cell complexity, which is why there are no true intermediates in the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition. Current versions of endosymbiotic theory have it that the host was an archaeon (an archaebacterium), not a eukaryote. Hence the evolutionary history and biology of archaea increasingly comes to bear on eukaryotic origins, more than ever before. Here, we have compiled a survey of endosymbiotic theories for the origin of eukaryotes and mitochondria, and for the origin of the eukaryotic nucleus, summarizing the essentials of each and contrasting some of their predictions to the observations. A new aspect of endosymbiosis in eukaryote evolution comes into focus from these considerations: the host for the origin of plastids was a facultative anaerobe. PMID:26323761
Biological atomism and cell theory.
Nicholson, Daniel J
2010-09-01
Biological atomism postulates that all life is composed of elementary and indivisible vital units. The activity of a living organism is thus conceived as the result of the activities and interactions of its elementary constituents, each of which individually already exhibits all the attributes proper to life. This paper surveys some of the key episodes in the history of biological atomism, and situates cell theory within this tradition. The atomistic foundations of cell theory are subsequently dissected and discussed, together with the theory's conceptual development and eventual consolidation. This paper then examines the major criticisms that have been waged against cell theory, and argues that these too can be interpreted through the prism of biological atomism as attempts to relocate the true biological atom away from the cell to a level of organization above or below it. Overall, biological atomism provides a useful perspective through which to examine the history and philosophy of cell theory, and it also opens up a new way of thinking about the epistemic decomposition of living organisms that significantly departs from the physicochemical reductionism of mechanistic biology.
Introduction to lattice gauge theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, R.
The lattice formulation of Quantum Field Theory (QFT) can be exploited in many ways. We can derive the lattice Feynman rules and carry out weak coupling perturbation expansions. The lattice then serves as a manifestly gauge invariant regularization scheme, albeit one that is more complicated than standard continuum schemes. Strong coupling expansions: these give us useful qualitative information, but unfortunately no hard numbers. The lattice theory is amenable to numerical simulations by which one calculates the long distance properties of a strongly interacting theory from first principles. The observables are measured as a function of the bare coupling g and a gauge invariant cut-off approx. = 1/alpha, where alpha is the lattice spacing. The continuum (physical) behavior is recovered in the limit alpha yields 0, at which point the lattice artifacts go to zero. This is the more powerful use of lattice formulation, so in these lectures the author focuses on setting up the theory for the purpose of numerical simulations to get hard numbers. The numerical techniques used in Lattice Gauge Theories have their roots in statistical mechanics, so it is important to develop an intuition for the interconnection between quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics.
Endosymbiotic theories for eukaryote origin.
Martin, William F; Garg, Sriram; Zimorski, Verena
2015-09-26
For over 100 years, endosymbiotic theories have figured in thoughts about the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. More than 20 different versions of endosymbiotic theory have been presented in the literature to explain the origin of eukaryotes and their mitochondria. Very few of those models account for eukaryotic anaerobes. The role of energy and the energetic constraints that prokaryotic cell organization placed on evolutionary innovation in cell history has recently come to bear on endosymbiotic theory. Only cells that possessed mitochondria had the bioenergetic means to attain eukaryotic cell complexity, which is why there are no true intermediates in the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition. Current versions of endosymbiotic theory have it that the host was an archaeon (an archaebacterium), not a eukaryote. Hence the evolutionary history and biology of archaea increasingly comes to bear on eukaryotic origins, more than ever before. Here, we have compiled a survey of endosymbiotic theories for the origin of eukaryotes and mitochondria, and for the origin of the eukaryotic nucleus, summarizing the essentials of each and contrasting some of their predictions to the observations. A new aspect of endosymbiosis in eukaryote evolution comes into focus from these considerations: the host for the origin of plastids was a facultative anaerobe.
Some directions in ecological theory.
Kendall, Bruce E
2015-12-01
The role of theory within ecology has changed dramatically in recent decades. Once primarily a source of qualitative conceptual framing, ecological theories and models are now often used to develop quantitative explanations of empirical patterns and to project future dynamics of specific ecological systems. In this essay, I recount my own experience of this transformation, in which accelerating computing power and the widespread incorporation of stochastic processes into ecological theory combined to create some novel integration of mathematical and statistical models. This stronger integration drives theory towards incorporating more biological realism, and I explore ways in which we can grapple with that realism to generate new general theoretical insights. This enhanced realism, in turn, may lead to frameworks for projecting ecological responses to anthropogenic change, which is, arguably, the central challenge for 21st-century ecology. In an era of big data and synthesis, ecologists are increasingly seeking to infer causality from observational data; but conventional biometry provides few tools for this project. This is a realm where theorists can and should play an important role, and I close by pointing towards some analytical and philosophical approaches developed in our sister discipline of economics that address this very problem. While I make no grand prognostications about the likely discoveries of ecological theory over the coming century, you will find in this essay a scattering of more or less far-fetched ideas that I, at least, think are interesting and (possibly) fruitful directions for our field.
Unification of quantum information theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abeyesinghe, Anura
We present the unification of many previously disparate results in noisy quantum Shannon theory and the unification of all of noiseless quantum Shannon theory. More specifically we deal here with bipartite, unidirectional, and memoryless quantum Shannon theory. We find all the optimal protocols and quantify the relationship between the resources used, both for the one-shot and for the ensemble case, for what is arguably the most fundamental task in quantum information theory: sharing entangled states between a sender and a receiver. We find that all of these protocols are derived from our one-shot superdense coding protocol and relate nicely to each other. We then move on to noisy quantum information theory and give a simple, direct proof of the "mother" protocol, or rather her generalization to the Fully Quantum Slepian-Wolf protocol (FQSW). FQSW simultaneously accomplishes two goals: quantum communication-assisted entanglement distillation, and state transfer from the sender to the receiver. As a result, in addition to her other "children," the mother protocol generates the state merging primitive of Horodecki, Oppenheim, and Winter as well as a new class of distributed compression protocols for correlated quantum sources, which are optimal for sources described by separable density operators. Moreover, the mother protocol described here is easily transformed into the so-called "father" protocol, demonstrating that the division of single-sender/single-receiver protocols into two families was unnecessary: all protocols in the family are children of the mother.
Multipactor theory for multicarrier signals
Anza, S.; Vicente, C.; Gil, J.; Raboso, D.; Boria, V. E.
2011-03-15
This work presents a new theory of multipactor under multicarrier signals for parallel-plate geometries, assuming a homogeneous electric field and one-dimensional electron motion. It is the generalization of the nonstationary multipactor theory for single-carrier signals [S. Anza et al.,Phys. Plasmas 17, 062110 (2010)]. It is valid for multicarrier signals with an arbitrary number of carriers with different amplitude, arbitrary frequency, and phase conditions and for any material coating. This new theory is able to model the real dynamics of the electrons during the multipactor discharge for both single and double surface interactions. Among other parameters of the discharge, it calculates the evolution in time of the charge growth, electron absorption, and creation rates as well as the instantaneous secondary emission yield and order. An extensive set of numerical tests with particle-in-cell software has been carried out in order to validate the theory under many different conditions. This theoretical development constitutes the first multipactor theory which completely characterizes the multipactor discharge for arbitrary multicarrier signals, setting the first step for further investigations in the field.
Equivalent crystal theory of alloys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bozzolo, Guillermo; Ferrante, John
1991-01-01
Equivalent Crystal Theory (ECT) is a new, semi-empirical approach to calculating the energetics of a solid with defects. The theory has successfully reproduced surface energies in metals and semiconductors. The theory of binary alloys to date, both with first-principles and semi-empirical models, has not been very successful in predicting the energetics of alloys. This procedure is used to predict the heats of formation, cohesive energy, and lattice parameter of binary alloys of Cu, Ni, Al, Ag, Au, Pd, and Pt as functions of composition. The procedure accurately reproduces the heats of formation versus composition curves for a variety of binary alloys. The results are then compared with other approaches such as the embedded atom and lattice parameters of alloys from pure metal properties more accurately than Vegard's law is presented.
Climate change and game theory.
Wood, Peter John
2011-02-01
This paper examines the problem of achieving global cooperation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Contributions to this problem are reviewed from noncooperative game theory, cooperative game theory, and implementation theory. We examine the solutions to games where players have a continuous choice about how much to pollute, as well as games where players make decisions about treaty participation. The implications of linking cooperation on climate change with cooperation on other issues, such as trade, are also examined. Cooperative and noncooperative approaches to coalition formation are investigated in order to examine the behavior of coalitions cooperating on climate change. One way to achieve cooperation is to design a game, known as a mechanism, whose equilibrium corresponds to an optimal outcome. This paper examines some mechanisms that are based on conditional commitments, and their policy implications. These mechanisms could make cooperation on climate change mitigation more likely.
Boltzmann, Darwin and Directionality theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demetrius, Lloyd A.
2013-09-01
Boltzmann’s statistical thermodynamics is a mathematical theory which relates the macroscopic properties of aggregates of interacting molecules with the laws of their interaction. The theory is based on the concept thermodynamic entropy, a statistical measure of the extent to which energy is spread throughout macroscopic matter. Macroscopic evolution of material aggregates is quantitatively explained in terms of the principle: Thermodynamic entropy increases as the composition of the aggregate changes under molecular collision. Darwin’s theory of evolution is a qualitative theory of the origin of species and the adaptation of populations to their environment. A central concept in the theory is fitness, a qualitative measure of the capacity of an organism to contribute to the ancestry of future generations. Macroscopic evolution of populations of living organisms can be qualitatively explained in terms of a neo-Darwinian principle: Fitness increases as the composition of the population changes under variation and natural selection. Directionality theory is a quantitative model of the Darwinian argument of evolution by variation and selection. This mathematical theory is based on the concept evolutionary entropy, a statistical measure which describes the rate at which an organism appropriates energy from the environment and reinvests this energy into survivorship and reproduction. According to directionality theory, microevolutionary dynamics, that is evolution by mutation and natural selection, can be quantitatively explained in terms of a directionality principle: Evolutionary entropy increases when the resources are diverse and of constant abundance; but decreases when the resource is singular and of variable abundance. This report reviews the analytical and empirical support for directionality theory, and invokes the microevolutionary dynamics of variation and selection to delineate the principles which govern macroevolutionary dynamics of speciation and
Muddles, bewilderment, and practice theory.
de Shazer, S
1991-12-01
"Useful distinctions in conceptual schemes lead to explanatory or descriptive metaphors that have a clear form. Muddles, on the other hand, are created when useful distinctions that could be drawn are not[,] or when an unnecessary distinction is drawn" (5, p. 71; italics omitted), or when when a useful distinction is minimized or blurred. The field of family therapy (particularly its theories), as a whole, has various muddles of each kind. The purpose of this essay is to describe some of these muddles (in the field and its theories) and to suggest that the distinctions (a) between descriptions of doing therapy that exclude the therapist and descriptions of doing therapy that include the therapist (1, 5-9, 11), (b) between explanation and description, and (c) between ideology and grounded theory, are useful, and that in de-radicalizing and minimizing these distinctions, these differences creates mayhem and muddle--a veritable fog of non-clarity.
The origins of vibration theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dimarogonas, A. D.
1990-07-01
The Ionian School of natural philosophy introduced the scientific method of dealing with natural phenomena and the rigorous proofs for abstract propositions. Vibration theory was initiated by the Pythagoreans in the fifth century BC, in association with the theory of music and the theory of acoustics. They observed the natural frequency of vibrating systems and proved that it is a system property and that it does not depend on the excitation. Pythagoreans determined the fundamental natural frequencies of several simple systems, such as vibrating strings, pipes, vessels and circular plates. Aristoteles and the Peripatetic School founded mechanics and developed a fundamental understanding of statics and dynamics. In Alexandrian times there were substantial engineering developments in the field of vibration. The pendulum as a vibration, and probably time, measuring device was known in antiquity, and was further developed by the end of the first millennium AD.
On lattice chiral gauge theories
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maiani, L.; Rossi, G. C.; Testa, M.
1991-01-01
The Smit-Swift-Aoki formulation of a lattice chiral gauge theory is presented. In this formulation the Wilson and other non invariant terms in the action are made gauge invariant by the coupling with a nonlinear auxilary scalar field, omega. It is shown that omega decouples from the physical states only if appropriate parameters are tuned so as to satisfy a set of BRST identities. In addition, explicit ghost fields are necessary to ensure decoupling. These theories can give rise to the correct continuum limit. Similar considerations apply to schemes with mirror fermions. Simpler cases with a global chiral symmetry are discussed and it is shown that the theory becomes free at decoupling. Recent numerical simulations agree with those considerations.
Loop Variables in String Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sathiapalan, B.
The loop variable approach is a proposal for a gauge-invariant generalization of the sigma-model renormalization group method of obtaining equations of motion in string theory. The basic guiding principle is space-time gauge invariance rather than world sheet properties. In essence it is a version of Wilson's exact renormalization group equation for the world sheet theory. It involves all the massive modes and is defined with a finite world sheet cutoff, which allows one to go off the mass-shell. On shell the tree amplitudes of string theory are reproduced. The equations are gauge-invariant off shell also. This paper is a self-contained discussion of the loop variable approach as well as its connection with the Wilsonian RG.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcruer, D. T.; Clement, W. F.; Allen, R. W.
1981-01-01
Human errors tend to be treated in terms of clinical and anecdotal descriptions, from which remedial measures are difficult to derive. Correction of the sources of human error requires an attempt to reconstruct underlying and contributing causes of error from the circumstantial causes cited in official investigative reports. A comprehensive analytical theory of the cause-effect relationships governing propagation of human error is indispensable to a reconstruction of the underlying and contributing causes. A validated analytical theory of the input-output behavior of human operators involving manual control, communication, supervisory, and monitoring tasks which are relevant to aviation, maritime, automotive, and process control operations is highlighted. This theory of behavior, both appropriate and inappropriate, provides an insightful basis for investigating, classifying, and quantifying the needed cause-effect relationships governing propagation of human error.
Oestreicher, Christian
2007-01-01
Whether every effect can be precisely linked to a given cause or to a list of causes has been a matter of debate for centuries, particularly during the 17th century when astronomers became capable of predicting the trajectories of planets. Recent mathematical models applied to physics have included the idea that given phenomena cannot be predicted precisely although they can be predicted to some extent in line with the chaos theory Concepts such as deterministic models, sensitivity to initial conditions, strange attractors, and fractal dimensions are inherent to the development of this theory, A few situations involving normal or abnormal endogenous rhythms in biology have been analyzed following the principles of chaos theory This is particularly the case with cardiac arrhythmias, but less so with biological clocks and circadian rhythms. PMID:17969865
Nuclear Force from String Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashimoto, Koji
2010-04-01
Recent "technology" called holography, or gauge/string duality (AdS/CFT correspondence) found in string theory, makes it possible to compute various quantities of strongly coupled gauge theories. This technology was applied to QCD, and it was found that it describes surprisingly well important properties of low energy QCD, the hadron physics. We apply it further to nuclear physics. In this talk, I review a part of the developments of the holographic QCD, and show a computation of nuclear force at short distance, derived using the holographic QCD, which was done in collaboration with T. Sakai and S. Sugimoto [K. Hashimoto, T. Sakai, and S. Sugimoto, "Holographic Baryons: Static Properties and Form Factors from Gauge/String Duality," Prog. Theor. Phys. 120 (2008) 1093-1137, arXiv:0806.3122 [hep-th]; K. Hashimoto, T. Sakai, and S. Sugimoto, "Nuclear Force from String Theory," arXiv:0901.4449 [hep-th
Knowledge-Directed Theory Revision
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, Kamal; Leung, Kevin; Konik, Tolga; Choi, Dongkyu; Shapiro, Dan
Using domain knowledge to speed up learning is widely accepted but theory revision of such knowledge continues to use general syntactic operators. Using such operators for theory revision of teleoreactive logic programs is especially expensive in which proof of a top-level goal involves playing a game. In such contexts, one should have the option to complement general theory revision with domain-specific knowledge. Using American football as an example, we use Icarus' multi-agent teleoreactive logic programming ability to encode a coach agent whose concepts correspond to faults recognized in execution of the play and whose skills correspond to making repairs in the goals of the player agents. Our results show effective learning using as few as twenty examples. We also show that structural changes made by such revision can produce performance gains that cannot be matched by doing only numeric optimization.
Oestreicher, Christian
2007-01-01
Whether every effect can be precisely linked to a given cause or to a list of causes has been a matter of debate for centuries, particularly during the 17th century, when astronomers became capable of predicting the trajectories of planets. Recent mathematical models applied to physics have included the idea that given phenomena cannot be predicted precisely, although they can be predicted to some extent, in line with the chaos theory. Concepts such as deterministic models, sensitivity to initial conditions, strange attractors, and fractal dimensions are inherent to the development of this theory A few situations involving normal or abnormal endogenous rhythms in biology have been analyzed following the principles of chaos theory. This is particularly the case with cardiac arrhythmias, but less so with biological clocks and circadian rhythms.
Generalized SU(2) Proca theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allys, Erwan; Peter, Patrick; Rodríguez, Yeinzon
2016-10-01
Following previous works on generalized Abelian Proca theory, also called vector Galileon, we investigate the massive extension of an SU(2) gauge theory, i.e., the generalized SU(2) Proca model, which could be dubbed non-Abelian vector Galileon. This particular symmetry group permits fruitful applications in cosmology such as inflation driven by gauge fields. Our approach consists in building, in an exhaustive way, all the Lagrangians containing up to six contracted Lorentz indices. For this purpose, and after identifying by group theoretical considerations all the independent Lagrangians which can be written at these orders, we consider the only linear combinations propagating 3 degrees of freedom and having healthy dynamics for their longitudinal mode, i.e., whose pure Stückelberg contribution turns into the SU(2) multi-Galileon dynamics. Finally, and after having considered the curved space-time expansion of these Lagrangians, we discuss the form of the theory at all subsequent orders.
Double field theory inspired cosmology
Wu, Houwen; Yang, Haitang E-mail: hyanga@scu.edu.cn
2014-07-01
Double field theory proposes a generalized spacetime action possessing manifest T-duality on the level of component fields. We calculate the cosmological solutions of double field theory with vanishing Kalb-Ramond field. It turns out that double field theory provides a more consistent way to construct cosmological solutions than the standard string cosmology. We construct solutions for vanishing and non-vanishing symmetry preserving dilaton potentials. The solutions assemble the pre- and post-big bang evolutions in one single line element. Our results show a smooth evolution from an anisotropic early stage to an isotropic phase without any special initial conditions in contrast to previous models. In addition, we demonstrate that the contraction of the dual space automatically leads to both an inflation phase and a decelerated expansion of the ordinary space during different evolution stages.
Communication theory and multicellular biology.
Mian, I S; Rose, C
2011-04-01
In this Perspective, we propose that communication theory--a field of mathematics concerned with the problems of signal transmission, reception and processing--provides a new quantitative lens for investigating multicellular biology, ancient and modern. What underpins the cohesive organisation and collective behaviour of multicellular ecosystems such as microbial colonies and communities (microbiomes) and multicellular organisms such as plants and animals, whether built of simple tissue layers (sponges) or of complex differentiated cells arranged in tissues and organs (members of the 35 or so phyla of the subkingdom Metazoa)? How do mammalian tissues and organs develop, maintain their architecture, become subverted in disease, and decline with age? How did single-celled organisms coalesce to produce many-celled forms that evolved and diversified into the varied multicellular organisms in existence today? Some answers can be found in the blueprints or recipes encoded in (epi)genomes, yet others lie in the generic physical properties of biological matter such as the ability of cell aggregates to attain a certain complexity in size, shape, and pattern. We suggest that Lasswell's maxim "Who says what to whom in what channel with what effect" provides a foundation for understanding not only the emergence and evolution of multicellularity, but also the assembly and sculpting of multicellular ecosystems and many-celled structures, whether of natural or human-engineered origin. We explore how the abstraction of communication theory as an organising principle for multicellular biology could be realised. We highlight the inherent ability of communication theory to be blind to molecular and/or genetic mechanisms. We describe selected applications that analyse the physics of communication and use energy efficiency as a central tenet. Whilst communication theory has and could contribute to understanding a myriad of problems in biology, investigations of multicellular biology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adhikari, S. K.; de Llano, M.; Sevilla, F. J.; Solís, M. A.; Valencia, J. J.
2007-03-01
We contrast four distinct versions of the BCS-Bose statistical crossover theory according to the form assumed for the electron-number equation that accompanies the BCS gap equation. The four versions correspond to explicitly accounting for two-hole-(2h) as well as two-electron-(2e) Cooper pairs (CPs), or both in equal proportions, or only either kind. This follows from a recent generalization of the Bose-Einstein condensation (GBEC) statistical theory that includes not boson-boson interactions but rather 2e- and also (without loss of generality) 2h-CPs interacting with unpaired electrons and holes in a single-band model that is easily converted into a two-band model. The GBEC theory is essentially an extension of the Friedberg-Lee 1989 BEC theory of superconductors that excludes 2h-CPs. It can thus recover, when the numbers of 2h- and 2e-CPs in both BE-condensed and non-condensed states are separately equal, the BCS gap equation for all temperatures and couplings as well as the zero-temperature BCS (rigorous-upper-bound) condensation energy for all couplings. But ignoring either 2h- or 2e-CPs it can do neither. In particular, only half the BCS condensation energy is obtained in the two crossover versions ignoring either kind of CPs. We show how critical temperatures Tc from the original BCS-Bose crossover theory in 2D require unphysically large couplings for the Cooper/BCS model interaction to differ significantly from the Tcs of ordinary BCS theory (where the number equation is substituted by the assumption that the chemical potential equals the Fermi energy).
Experimental Tests of Nucleation Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dea, Jack Yuen
1982-03-01
In recent years there has been controversy surrounding experimental nucleation data that did not conform to classical nucleation theory. More recent data, however, suggest good agreement between theory and experiment. At the Desert Research Institute (DRI), it was decided to perform sensitive tests of nucleation in soluble aerosol particles using newly developed instruments and techniques. Very steady aerosol generation was accomplished with a newly developed atomizer; very high monodispersity in the sample aerosol was achieved using two electrical mobility analyzers in series; and, very fine control over the supersaturation was achieved using a newly developed CFD (Continuous Flow Diffusion) cloud chamber built for NASA for use in zero -gravity situations. The results of a series of experiments indicated that the supersaturation needs to be about 15% greater than predicted by theory. However, a mass correction, taking into account the shape of the salt particles produced data that are in excellent agreement with theory. Moreover, the relative hygroscopicity of several soluble substances and the slopes of the Kohler curves obtained agreed very well with theory. The results mean that the hygroscopicity of various substances can be rated using the Kohler curves. Calculations have been done to determine the hygroscopicity of a number of sulfate compounds. The results of these calculations indicate that under restricted conditions (aerosol diameters < 0.1 (mu)m and aerosol particles composed of either one soluble compound or one soluble compound plus an insoluble component), it is possible to distinguish apart most of the sulfate species using either the DFC cloud chamber or an instantaneous version of the CFD cloud chamber. These results point to a possible application of nucleation theory to aerosol species differentiation in the atmosphere.
A Theory for Educational Research: Socialisation Theory and Symbolic Interaction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Potts, Anthony
2015-01-01
This article develops a theory of socialisation based on the Chicago School of symbolic interactionism but infused with new and important insights offered by contemporary scholars and their writings on roles and relationships in the twenty first century and life in the informational, network and global world. While still rooted in the seminal…
Living Theory: Principles and Practices for Teaching Social Theory Ethnographically
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Herring, Chris; Rosaldo, Manuel; Seim, Josh; Shestakofsky, Benjamin
2016-01-01
This article details the principles and practices animating an "ethnographic" method of teaching social theory. As opposed to the traditional "survey" approach that aims to introduce students to the historical breadth of social thought, the primary objective of teaching ethnographically is to cultivate students as participant…
Queer Theory in Education. Studies in Curriculum Theory Series.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pinar, William F., Ed.
This collection of papers discusses homophobia in the field of education and challenges established practices and theories. Chapters are: (1) "Constructing Knowledge: Educational Research and Gay and Lesbian Studies" (W. G. Tierney, P. Dilley); (2) "A Generational and Theoretical Analysis of Culture and Male (Homo)sexuality" (J. T. Sears); (3)…
The Theory of Practice and the Practice of Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McIntyre, Michael L.; Murphy, Steven A.
2016-01-01
As academics who interact with senior and mid-level business managers on a regular basis, both informally and as consultants, the authors often note that ideas of theory and practice are not well developed among people outside of academia. It is posited that this deficit offers the prospect of less than optimal approaches to matters such as…
Econophysics: from Game Theory and Information Theory to Quantum Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jimenez, Edward; Moya, Douglas
2005-03-01
Rationality is the universal invariant among human behavior, universe physical laws and ordered and complex biological systems. Econophysics isboth the use of physical concepts in Finance and Economics, and the use of Information Economics in Physics. In special, we will show that it is possible to obtain the Quantum Mechanics principles using Information and Game Theory.
Theory and Practice of Teaching for Transfer.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Butterfield, Earl C.; Nelson, Gregory D.
1989-01-01
Discusses theories of the transfer of teaching based on the theory of common elements and the cognitive theory of elements and mechanisms. Highlights include inferential reasoning; mental models; memory and comprehension; and future directions, including theory development, metrics of transfer distance, psychological and educational research, and…
Theory Matters: Representation and Experimentation in Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edwards, Richard
2012-01-01
This article provides a material enactment of educational theory to explore how we might do educational theory differently by defamiliarising the familiar. Theory is often assumed to be abstract, located solely in the realm of ideas and separate from practice. However, this view of theory emerges from a set of ontological and epistemological…
From operator algebras to superconformal field theory
Kawahigashi, Yasuyuki
2010-01-15
We survey operator algebraic approach to (super)conformal field theory. We discuss representation theory, classification results, full and boundary conformal field theories, relations to supervertex operator algebras and Moonshine, connections to subfactor theory of Jones, and certain aspects of noncommutative geometry of Connes.
Deweyan Inquiry: From Education Theory to Practice
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnston, James Scott
2009-01-01
This book presents John Dewey's theory of inquiry and applies it to various areas of the primary, middle, and secondary school curricula. "Deweyan Inquiry" brings Dewey's theory of inquiry together with educational theory and practice. James Scott Johnston uses Dewey's late masterpiece "Logic: The Theory of Inquiry" as a guide and looks at inquiry…
Enhancing Theory Courses with Racially Inclusive Research.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bramlett-Solomon, Sharon; Liebler, Carol M.
1999-01-01
Offers a blueprint that instructors of mass media theory courses can adopt to expose students to racially inclusive research in order to encourage students to explore and employ relevant theories when probing media and race questions. Offers examples of inclusive media research, examining six prominent theories: selective-perception theory,…
An Affect Control Theory of Technology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shank, Daniel B.
2010-01-01
Affect control theory is a theory of interaction that takes into account cultural meanings. Affect control research has previously considered interaction with technology, but there remains a lack of theorizing about inclusion of technology within the theory. This paper lays a foundation for an affect control theory of technology by addressing key…
Physical Theory of the Immune System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deem, Michael
2012-10-01
I will discuss to theories of the immune system and describe a theory of the immune response to vaccines. I will illustrate this theory by application to design of the annual influenza vaccine. I will use this theory to explain limitations in the vaccine for dengue fever and to suggest a transport-inspired amelioration of these limitations.
Theory Building. Symposium 21. [AHRD Conference, 2001].
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
2001
This symposium on theory building consists of three presentations. "A Multilevel Theory of Organizational Performance: Seeing the Forest and the Trees" (Susan Reynolds Fisher) presents the process used to develop this theory and analyzes emergent insights. It discusses how the theory succeeds in mapping relationships across aspects and…
String Theory: Big Problem for Small Size
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sahoo, S.
2009-01-01
String theory is the most promising candidate theory for a unified description of all the fundamental forces that exist in nature. It provides a mathematical framework that combines quantum theory with Einstein's general theory of relativity. The typical size of a string is of the order of 10[superscript -33] cm, called the Planck length. But due…
Evaluation Theory Tree Re-Examined
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Christie, Christina A.; Alkin, Marvin C.
2008-01-01
When examining various evaluation prescriptive theories comparatively, we find it helpful to have a framework showing how they are related that highlights features that distinguish theoretical perspectives, thus a "theory" about theories. The evaluation theory tree that we presented in Alkin's recent book, "Evaluation Roots"…
Creativity Theories and Related Teachers' Beliefs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Saracho, Olivia
2012-01-01
Creativity theories have been investigated in relation to explicit or implicit theories, which have dominated the field. The flourishing attention about creativity motivated many researchers to examine implicit and explicit theories to understand creativity in their studies. Explicit theories are those formulated by psychologists or other social…
Theories of class and new = 1 SCFTs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McGrane, James; Wecht, Brian
2015-06-01
We describe an infinite two-parameter subfamily of theories of class where dialing one of the parameters interpolates between Gaiotto's T N theory and a theory of N 2 free hypermultiplets. After using the reduced superconformal index to study the operator content, we use these theories to construct new = 1 SCFTs and then examine the flows between them.
Critical Social Theory: Core Tenets, Inherent Issues
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Freeman, Melissa; Vasconcelos, Erika Franca S.
2010-01-01
This chapter outlines the core tenets of critical social theory and describes inherent issues facing evaluators conducting critical theory evaluation. Using critical pedagogy as an example, the authors describe the issues facing evaluators by developing four of the subtheories that comprise a critical social theory: (a) a theory of false…
Reflections on "A Pragmatic Theory of Rhetoric."
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crusius, Timothy W.
1990-01-01
Explores Walter H. Beale's "A Pragmatic Theory of Rhetoric," and places it in relation to other theories. Discusses Beale's semiotic theory of written discourse, its contribution, and relates Beale's aims to the rhetorical theories of James Kinnevey and James Britton. (SR)
Duality symmetries and G+++ theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riccioni, Fabio; Steele, Duncan; West, Peter
2008-02-01
We show that the nonlinear realizations of all the very extended algebras G+++, except the B and C series which we do not consider, contain fields corresponding to all possible duality symmetries of the on-shell degrees of freedom of these theories. This result also holds for G+++2 and we argue that the nonlinear realization of this algebra accounts precisely for the form fields present in the corresponding supersymmetric theory. We also find a simple necessary condition for the roots to belong to a G+++ algebra.
Renormalization of Lorentz violating theories
Anselmi, Damiano; Halat, Milenko
2007-12-15
We classify the unitary, renormalizable, Lorentz violating quantum field theories of interacting scalars and fermions, obtained improving the behavior of Feynman diagrams by means of higher space derivatives. Higher time derivatives are not generated by renormalization. Renormalizability is ensured by a ''weighted power-counting'' criterion. The theories contain a dimensionful parameter {lambda}{sub L}, yet a set of models are classically invariant under a weighted scale transformation, which is anomalous at the quantum level. Formulas for the weighted trace anomaly are derived. The renormalization-group properties are studied.
A general waveguide circuit theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marks, Roger B.; Williams, Dylan F.
1992-10-01
This work generalizes and extends the classical circuit theory of electromagnetic waveguides. Unlike the conventional theory, the present formulation applies to all waveguides composed of linear, isotropic material, even those involving lossy conductors and hybrid mode fields, in a fully rigorous way. Special attention is given to distinguishing the traveling waves, constructed with respect to a well-defined characteristic impedance, from a set of pseudo-waves, defined with respect to an arbitrary reference impedance. Matrices characterizing a linear circuit are defined, and relationships among them, some newly discovered, are derived. New ramifications of reciprocity are developed. Measurement of various network parameters is given extensive treatment.
Geometry, topology, and string theory
Varadarajan, Uday
2003-01-01
A variety of scenarios are considered which shed light upon the uses and limitations of classical geometric and topological notions in string theory. The primary focus is on situations in which D-brane or string probes of a given classical space-time see the geometry quite differently than one might naively expect. In particular, situations in which extra dimensions, non-commutative geometries as well as other non-local structures emerge are explored in detail. Further, a preliminary exploration of such issues in Lorentzian space-times with non-trivial causal structures within string theory is initiated.
Random matrix theory within superstatistics.
Abul-Magd, A Y
2005-12-01
We propose a generalization of the random matrix theory following the basic prescription of the recently suggested concept of superstatistics. Spectral characteristics of systems with mixed regular-chaotic dynamics are expressed as weighted averages of the corresponding quantities in the standard theory assuming that the mean level spacing itself is a stochastic variable. We illustrate the method by calculating the level density, the nearest-neighbor-spacing distributions, and the two-level correlation functions for systems in transition from order to chaos. The calculated spacing distribution fits the resonance statistics of random binary networks obtained in a recent numerical experiment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2010-04-01
After a few months of physics videos, amateur science sites and educational games, the website we are highlighting in this month's column is a straightforward blog. Just A Theory was started in 2008 by freelance science journalist Jacob Aron while he was studying for a Master's degree in science communication at Imperial College London. The blog's title, Aron explains, reflects a popular misconception that scientific theories are "dreamed up by mad scientists in laboratories somewhere" rather than well-crafted explanations based on observations and experiments. To combat this impression, the site aims to highlight good and bad science coverage in the mainstream media, and to provide original commentary on current scientific events.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcruer, D. T.; Clement, W. F.; Allen, R. W.
1980-01-01
Human error, a significant contributing factor in a very high proportion of civil transport, general aviation, and rotorcraft accidents is investigated. Correction of the sources of human error requires that one attempt to reconstruct underlying and contributing causes of error from the circumstantial causes cited in official investigative reports. A validated analytical theory of the input-output behavior of human operators involving manual control, communication, supervisory, and monitoring tasks which are relevant to aviation operations is presented. This theory of behavior, both appropriate and inappropriate, provides an insightful basis for investigating, classifying, and quantifying the needed cause-effect relationships governing propagation of human error.
Theory on instability and transition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Frank T.
1990-01-01
The fundamental fluid dynamics governing instability and transition to turbulence in boundary layers are considered, and attention is focused on the key aspects of nonlinear dynamics central to the transition process and to turbulent boundary-layer phenomena. Emphasis is placed on truly nonlinear theories, in which the boundary layer mean-flow profile is completely altered from its original form. Nonlinear TS transitions, Euler-stage interactions, and vortex/wave interactions are discussed, and compressible boundary layers are analyzed. Connections with experiments and computations are outlined, along with overall trends including the extension of the nonlinear theory and the advancement in the compressible and other flow regimes.
Gauge theories, tessellations & Riemann surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Yang-Hui; van Loon, Mark
2014-06-01
We study and classify regular and semi-regular tessellations of Riemann surfaces of various genera and investigate their corresponding supersymmetric gauge theories. These tessellations are generalizations of brane tilings, or bipartite graphs on the torus as well as the Platonic and Archimedean solids on the sphere. On higher genus they give rise to intricate patterns. Special attention will be paid to the master space and the moduli space of vacua of the gauge theory and to how their geometry is determined by the tessellations.